ORIGAMI

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THE WORLD OF

折 紙

TOMORROW & YESTERDAY




Copyright © 2017 Alexandra Berrin All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage

and retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by reviewers, who may quote brief passage in a review. Printed and bound in Sweden First printing November 2019

Published by Alexandra Berrin Täbyvägen 344C, 18753 TÄBY Editing by Alexandra Berrin Front Cover Design by Alexandra Berrin Photographs by Alexandra Berrin unless otherwise credited Book Design by Alexandra Berrin




C O N T E N T Chapter 1 — Types of Origami.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Chapter 2 — Modern Origami. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Chapter 3 — Experimental Origami Artists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Chapter 4 — History of Origami. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Chapter 5 — The Legend of 1000 Cranes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66





TYPES OF ORIGAMI Origami (from ori meaning “folding”, and kami meaning “paper” (kami changes to gami due to rendaku)) is the art of paper folding, which is often associated with Japanese culture. In modern usage, the word “origami” is used as an inclusive term for all folding practices, regardless of their culture of origin. The goal is to transform a flat square sheet of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques. Modern origami practitioners generally discourage the use of cuts, glue, or markings on the paper. Origami folders often use the Japanese word kirigami to refer to designs which use cuts, although cutting is more characteristic of Chinese paper folding. If you are interested in learning more about the art of paper folding, the first thing to remember is that there are actually several different types of origami. Slight alterations in the materials or techniques that are used can open up many interesting possibilities for a skilled folder. Origami has expanded and evolved beyond birds and boats. There are now many types of origami. In a recent, informal survey, origami enthusiasts have come up with over “80” different types of origami. There are different ways to categorize paper folding. John Smith’s Evolution of Origami sorts origami chronologically: Classical, Neo Classical, Modern, and Hyper-Modern. But David Mitchell’s way of organizing the different types shows a family tree of origami design styles.



C HAPTER 1 — T YPES OF ORIGAMI

MODULAR ORIGAMI Modular origami, sometimes called unit origami, is origami that is made by connecting two or more identically folded units. Sometimes the units are held together by the tension of the folding process, but glue or tape may be used to reinforce the joints if needed. The kusudama, or Japanese medicine ball, is a type of modular origami. A kusudama is a paper model that is made by sewing or gluing multiple units together to make a larger spherical shape. Typically, the units are flowers that are made from multiple sheets of square paper. Golden venture folding, also known as 3D origami, is another type of modular origami. This origami is made by folding paper into triangular shapes and then joining the shapes to form a 3D sculpture.

Left: Unfolded origami paper, Alexandra Berrin Right: Modular Origami Ball, Artist Unknown

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C HAPTER 1 — T YPES OF ORIGAMI

WET FOLDING Wet folding is origami that is done using paper that has been moistened before it is folded. This technique results in origami with a softer, textured look. Many paper folding enthusiasts say wet folding can be considered a cross between origami and sculpture because much of the look of the model comes from the handmanipulation of the paper after the basic folds have been completed. Wet folding was pioneered by legendary origami artist Akira Yoshizawa.

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Wet-folded origami bull, Akira Yoshizawa


C HAPTER 1 — T YPES OF ORIGAMI

お金

MONEY ORIGAMI Money origami is similar to traditional paper folding, but involves using currency instead of origami paper. It is often called dollar origami or dollar bill origami, but the models can be folded from bills of any denomination if you are looking for a creative way to give a cash gift.

Money origami Koi fish, Won Park

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C HAPTER 1 — T YPES OF ORIGAMI

GOLDEN VENTURE FOLDING Golden Venture Folding, also known as Chinese Paper Folding or 3D origami, is a type of modular origami. Models are made by folding hundreds of small triangles from different colors of paper and interlocking them together. The wedges of paper grip each other to minimize the need for adhesive, although a small amount of glue is sometimes used. The name Golden Venture Folding comes from an incident that sparked a fierce debate over immigration practices in the United States. In 1993, a group of 286 Chinese men and women tried to enter the US illegally on a large cargo ship known as Golden Venture. There was a struggle on the ship and 10 people drowned in their escape attempt.

Golden Venture Origami Swan, Jacek Halicki

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When the survivors reached the US, they were taken into custody by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and detained while they applied for the right of asylum. Many ended up being detained for several years while their cases were processed. To help pass the time during their incarceration, they began making elaborate paper sculptures that were sold at charity fundraisers and given as gifts to the people who were working to help the refugees gain their freedom. The models created by the Golden Venture refugees were shown in a 2001 exhibit titled “Fly to Freedom: The Art of the Golden Venture Refugees.” This traveling exhibit was organized by the Museum of Chinese in the Americas in New York City.


C HAPTER 1 — T YPES OF ORIGAMI

Kirigami Pop-up, Guy Petzall

KIRIGAMI Kirigami is similar to origami in that it is a form of paper art. The major difference is that in origami, you fold paper whereas in kirigami, you fold and cut paper. In the United States, the term “kirigami” was coined by Florence Temko. She used the word kirigami in the title of her book, Kirigami, the Creative Art of Papercutting, 1962. The book was so successful that the word kirigami was accepted as the name for the art of paper cutting. In Japan, the word kirigami had been in use for a long time because “kiru” means to cut, and “gami” means paper. So, kirigami meant to cut paper.

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MODERN ORIGAMI Modern origami was started in the 20th century and breaks off from the impersonal form of traditional origami. Unlike a tradition passed on through the generations anonymously, modern origami is a style that recognizes its artists and gives them credit for new designs. The folding sequences of modern origami are called “models” and are “designed” by “origami creators.” Uchiyama Koko is known as the father of modern origami as well as the first to patent his origami models. Today many people believe that origami models should be copyrighted, giving credit to those who have intellect in folding sequences. Modern origami designers and folders prefer models which have not only good final shapes but also good sequences. There is great importance in reproducibility of the model where folders should be able to recreate the original design the artist intended.


C HAPTER 2 — MODERN ORIGAMI

Not only is the design and sequence a key element but also the diagrams that represent them. They embody the design itself and should show the entire sequence. A similar kind of representation is found in Japanese classic origami but not each sequence is described in its entirety. Modern origami emphasizes reproducing shapes of objects under a certain rule. The most common rule is to fold one sheet of square paper without cutting or gluing. Another rule is that origami models should be folded with origami paper. A model made of more than one sheet of paper is regarded as good when it is made of sheets in the same size and can be assembled without glue. An international origami circle was established in the 50s and 60s by artists and folders such as Yoshizawa Akira, Takahama Toshie, Honda Isao, Robert Harbin, Gershon Legman, Lillian Oppenheimer, Samuel Randlett, and Vicente Solórzano-Sagredo. These origami experts have advanced the popularity of origami through their community. They also founded national and local organizations and published the models of designers from Japan, Europe, and the Americas in Japanese and English. Oppenheimer came up with a proposal that made “origami” a universal word. Harbin and Randlett adopted Yoshizawa’s notation of diagrams which became the international standard.

Right: Geometric paper art, Matthew Shlian

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“OVER ALL, I WANT

YOU TO DISCOVER THE JOY OF CREATION BY YOUR OWN HAND... THE POSSIBILITY OF CREATION FROM PAPER IS INFINITE.” — AKIRA YOSHIZAWA


Crane and Cherry tree origami, Akira Yoshizawa


C HAPTER 2 — MODERN ORIGAMI Pop-up Kirigami, Popupology

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C HAPTER 2 — MODERN ORIGAMI

Complex origami models normally require thin, strong paper or tissue foil for successful folding; these lightweight materials allow for more layers before the model becomes impractically thick. Modern origami has broken free from the traditional linear construction techniques of the past, and models are now frequently wet-folded or constructed from materials other than paper and foil. A new generation of origami creators has experimented with crinkling techniques and smooth-flowing designs used in creating realistic masks, animals, and other traditionally artistic themes. Joseph Albers, the father of modern color theory and minimalistic art, taught origami and paper folding in the 1920s and 1930s. His methods, which involved sheets of round paper that were folded into spirals and curved shapes, have influenced modern Japanese origami artists like Kunihiko Kasahara. Friedrich Fröbel, founder of the kindergartens, recognized paper binding, weaving, folding, and cutting as teaching aids for child development during the early 1800s.

The work of Akira Yoshizawa of Japan, a prolific creator of origami designs and writer of books on origami, inspired a modern renaissance of the craft. He invented the process and techniques of wet-folding and created an initial set of symbols, the standard Yoshizawa-Randlett system (later improved on by Robert Harbin and Samuel Randlett) for writing down origami instructions. His work was promoted through the studies of Gershon Legman, published in the seminal books of Robert Harbin, ‘Paper Magic and Secrets of the Origami Masters’, which introduced the wide world of paper folding to the West in the mid 1960s. Modern origami has attracted a worldwide following, with ever more intricate designs and new techniques such as 'wet-folding' the practice of dampening the paper somewhat during folding to allow the finished product to hold shape better, and variations such as modular origami (also known as unit origami), where many origami units are assembled to form a decorative whole.

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現 代 の 折 り 紙

Above & Left: Paper sculpture, Andrea Russo

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EXPERIMENTAL ORIGAMI ARTIST As we look toward the artists who are pioneering the art today, a constant thread is that many have backgrounds in mathematics and science. How does origami relate to math? In reality, paper folding is often used to solve mathematic equations and devise geometric constructions. Origami artists are constantly looking to develop new crease patterns and different shapes from a square piece of paper. These patterns and models are fiercely protected by artists, with lawsuits not uncommon for copyright infringement.


C HAPTER 3 — EXPERIMENTAL ORIGAMI ARTIS TS

SIPHO MABONA Sipho Mabona started his adventures in origami as many of us did — by folding a paper airplane. In 2000 after having folded planes for fifteen years Mabona ran out of paper airplane designs to fold and turned to origami hoping it would enable him to come up with original designs. Since then Sipho has designed origami for the award winning Asics corporate movie “Origami in the Pursuit of Perfection”and has exhibited his work in galleries and museums around the globe. Sipho Mabona’s origami covers a great range of different styles from very intricate representational designs to abstract geometrical shapes. He currently resides in Zürich, Switzerland. Since that time, the Swiss and South African artist has become a leader in the field. Whether sculpting life-sized animals or using money to create installations that speak on social issues, Mabona produces thought-provoking work. Life-size origami elephant, Sipho Mabona

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Above & Left: Money Origami Cricket installation, Sipho Mabona

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ROBERT J. LANG Robert J. Lang left his job as a laser physicist to pursue his 30-year origami hobby. Today he is one of the most esteemed artists in the field, using mathematics to develop innovative models. He’s used his knowledge to collaborate with scientists and engineers, using his understanding of folding techniques in airbag software, medical devices, and telescope optics. Denim Origami sculpture, Robert J. Lang

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Paper sculpture, Robert J. Lang

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GORAN KONJEVOD Croatian mathematician and computer scientist Goran Konjevod has produced delicate folded sculptures since pursuing origami as art in 2005. Abstract shapes formed from irregular patterns, his layered work relies on natural tension found in the paper. He tries to restrict himsels to working with single uncut sheets of paper or other foldable material (such as copper), and for the most part use very simple “pureland” folds. Normally, this last restriction would imply that the resulting forms are flat. However, according to Goran, a real sheet of paper is always three-dimensional — even when unfolded — and its thickness brings about a much more obvious three-dimensionality when multiple layers are present.

Pleat tessellation, Goran Konjevod

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Top: Copper pleat tessellation, Goran Konjevod Bottom: Pleat tessellation, Goran Konjevod

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“GEOMETRY ALONE IS NOT ENOUGH TO PORTRAY HUMAN DESIRES, EXPRESSIONS, ASPIRATIONS, JOYS. WE NEED MORE.” — AKIRA YOSHIZAWA



C HAPTER 3 — EXPERIMENTAL ORIGAMI ARTIS TS

ERIK AND MARTIN DEMAINE Erik Demaine, a professor at MIT, works with his artist father Martin Demaine on lush, curving folded paper sculptures. Collectively, their work is known as Curved-Crease Sculpture. They manipulate flat paper into swirling forms that “feel alive.” With his work at MIT, Erik Demaine explores origami applications in architecture, robotics, and molecular biology.

Above & Right: Curved-Crease Sculpture, Erik & Martin Demaine

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書 道


C HAPTER 4 — EXPERIMENTAL ORIGAMI ARTIS TS

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C HAPTER 3 — EXPERIMENTAL ORIGAMI ARTIS TS

HOANG TIEN QUYET Hoang Tien Quyet carries on Akira Yoshizawa’s wet folding technique with his art. The Vietnamese artist focuses on sculpted animals, made all the more realistic through the detailed folding that the origami technique allows for. Quyet is a member of the Vietnam Origami Group along with Giang Dinh, who first introduced him to the wet fold method.

Wet-folded origami body, Hoang Tien Quyet

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Top: Wet-folded origami rhino, Hoang Tien Quyet Bottom: Wet-folded origami tiger face, Hoang Tien Quyet

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GIANG DINH Vietnamese artist Giang Dinh‘s origami is known for its clean, crisp lines and delicate forms. His soft folds move like waves, curving to create spectacular shapes. By primarily using white paper, Dinh allows viewers to take in his tranquil origami sculptures.

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Origami sculpture, Giang Dinh

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BYRIAH LOPER Paper artist Byriah Loper is relatively young compared to his peers, at just 21. His interlocking, geometric origami takes influence from masters like Tom Hull. In between college classes, Loper creates original origami designs and patterns, most of which are formed from interlocking geometric shapes.

Above: Interlocking modular origami, Byriah Loper Right: Paper sculpture, Byriah Loper

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HISTORY OF ORIGAMI For centuries, cultures have come up with creative ways to artistically approach, adopt, and adapt the paper craft. While many of these practices, including Korean Hanji, can be individually traced to specific countries of origin, most — including papier–mâché, a French-sounding craft that was actually conceived in ancient China — boast colorful histories that span cultures, countries, and even continents. One popular practice that has left a particularly extensive paper trail across the globe is origami, the art of paper folding. The “invention” of folding paper probably followed soon after the invention of paper itself. Paper was first invented and popularized in China, and many Chinese speculate that origami originated from Chinese paper folding. The earliest known traditions of Japanese paper folding were of ceremonial origin, such as the Japanese noshi (white paper folded with a strip of dried abalone or meat, attached to gifts and considered a token of good fortune), first recorded during the Muromachi period (1392–1573). Origami was initially used only for religious purposes due to the high cost of paper. When new production techniques made paper cheaper and more available, origami became popular as a form of entertainment and traditional paper figures such as the crane were developed; during this period, the first two origami books were published.



C HAPTER 4 — HIS TORY OF ORIGAMI

Though most closely tied to Japan, origami also has roots in China and Europe. Paper was first invented in China around 105 A.D., and was brought to Japan by monks in the sixth century. Handmade paper was a luxury item only available to a few, and paper folding in ancient Japan was strictly for ceremonial purposes, often religious in nature. By the Edo period (1603–1868), paper folding in Japan had become recreational as well as ceremonial, often featuring multiple cuts and folds. It came to be regarded as a new form of art that was enabled by the advent of paper both mass-produced and more affordable. Written instructions for paper folding first appeared in 1797, with Akisato Rito’s ‘Sembazuru Orikata’, or “thousand crane folding.” In 1845, Adachi Kazuyuki published a more comprehensive compilation of paper folding with Kayaragusa; by the late 1800s, the term for paper folding had morphed from orikata (“folded shapes”) to origami.

Left: Origata tehon, Artist unknown, Edo Period (1615–1868)

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“FOLD THE MODELS, THEN TEACH THEM TO OTHERS. IF YOU CAN LEARN THIS FORM OF COMMUNICATION, YOU WILL BE BLESSED WITH A SATISFACTION THAT NO OTHER ART FORM CAN GIVE.” — YAMAGUCHI MAKOTO


C HAPTER 4 — HIS TORY OF ORIGAMI

JAPAN Paper was introduced to Japan in the 6th century. During this time, the practice of paper-folding emerged as a ceremonial Shinto ritual. It was not until Japan’s Edo Period (1603–1868) that origami would also be viewed as a leisurely activity and art form. Like Japanese woodblock prints — an art form that also saw popularity during this time — origami works often featured flowers, birds, and other nature-based motifs. These subjects are also prevalent in contemporary origami, which remains true to the traditional Japanese practice in all ways but one: originally, the practice allowed artists to strategically cut the sheets of paper. Today, however, true origami is sculpted entirely through folds — an attribute the Japanese adopted from Europe. The Japanese word “origami” itself is a compound of two smaller Japanese words: oru, meaning fold, and kami, meaning paper. It is only recently that all forms of paper folding were grouped under the word origami. Before that, paper folding for play was known by a variety of names, including orikata, “orisue, orimono, tatamigami and tsutsumi (a kind of gift wrapping used for formal occasions). It is not clear when the word “origami” came into use; it has been suggested that the word was adopted in the kindergartens because the written characters were easier for young children to write. Another theory is that the word “origami” was a direct translation of the German word Papierfalten, brought into Japan with the Kindergarten Movement around 1880.

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C HAPTER 4 — HIS TORY OF ORIGAMI

Excerpt from Akisato Rito’s ‘Sembazuru Orikata’, 1797

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Left: Japanese girl making origami crane, Japan, 1900 Above: Origami Crane, Trevor Hall


C HAPTER 4 — HIS TORY OF ORIGAMI Patchwork origami, Friedrich Fröbel

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C HAPTER 4 — HIS TORY OF ORIGAMI

EUROPE Europe also has a tradition of paper folding that dates back to the twelfth century or before, when the Moors brought a tradition of mathematically based folding to Spain. The Spanish further developed paper folding into an artistic practice called papiroflexia or pajarita. In Europe, paper-folding is also thought to have evolved from napkin-folding, a practice popularized in the 17th century. Much like Japanese origami, napkinfolding featured different methods and techniques that resulted in an array of abstract and figurative forms. Eventually, this interest in folding moved beyond napkins at dinner parties and made its way into schools — namely, in Friedrich Fröbel‘s groundbreaking curriculum. As the founder of kindergartens, Fröbel incorporated several hands-on activities into his “play and activity” institutes, including paper-folding. This familiarized children with origami, and eventually enabled the art form to flourish across the continent.

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THE LEGEND OF 1000 CRANES One of the most famous origami designs is the Japanese crane. The crane is auspicious in Japanese culture; legend says that anyone who folds one thousand paper cranes will have their heart’s desire come true. Many Japanese prepare a garland of one thousand paper cranes for their recovery.


C H A P T E R 5 — T H E L E G E N D O F 10 0 0 C R A N E S

SADAKO SASAKI A famous story has turned the origami crane into a symbol of peace. In 1955, a twelve-year-old Japanese girl named Sadako Sasaki, who had been exposed to the radiation of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima as an infant, was dying of leukemia. She decided to fold one thousand cranes in hopes of becoming cured. When she realized that she would not survive, she wished instead for world peace and an end to suffering. Sadako folded more than 1,300 cranes before her death and was buried with a wreath of one thousand cranes to honor her dream. While her effort could not extend her life, it moved her friends to make a granite statue of Sadako in the Hiroshima Peace Park: a young girl standing with her hand outstretched, a paper crane flying from her fingertips. The tale of Sadako has been dramatized in many books and movies. In one version, Sadako wrote a haiku that translates into English as: “I shall write peace upon your wings, and you shall fly around the world so that children will no longer have to die this way.”

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C H A P T E R 5 — T H E L E G E N D O F 10 0 0 C R A N E S

Sadako pictured with her father, July 18, 1955. Photo: Yuji Sasaki

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Origami cranes, Artist Unknown


“I SHALL WRITE PEACE UPON YOUR WINGS, AND YOU SHALL FLY AROUND THE WORLD SO THAT CHILDREN WILL NO LONGER HAVE TO DIE THIS WAY.” — SADAKO SASAKI



折り鶴

Left & Above: Origami cranes, Artist Unknown


Akisato Rito. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Adachi Kazuyuki. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Byriah Loper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Classical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Chinese Paper Folding.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,14 Curved-Crease Sculpture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 David Mitchell.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Erik Demaine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Edo Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Florence Temko.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Friedrich Frรถbel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,59 Golden Venture Folding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,14 Gershon Legman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Goran Konjevad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Giang Dinh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40,42 Hyper-Modern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Honda Isao. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Hoang Tien Quyet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Hanji. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Hiroshima.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 John Smith. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


Joseph Albers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Byriah Loper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Kirigami. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,15 Kusudama. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Kunihiko Kasahara. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Kayaragusa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Lillian Oppenheimer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Modern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Modular Origami. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Money Origami. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Martin Demaine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Muromachi Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Neo-Classical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Noshi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Orisue.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Orimono. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Papier-MâchÊ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Papierfalten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Papiroflexia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Pajarita.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Robert Harbin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,25


Robert J. Lang.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Samuel Randlett. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,25 Sipho Mabona. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Sembazuru Orikata. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Shinto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Senbazuru. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Sadako Sasaki. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64,65,69 Takahama Toshie. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Tom Hull. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Tatamigani. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Tsutsumigani. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Uchiyama Koko. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Vicente Solรณrzano. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Vietnam Origami Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Wet Folding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Yoshizawa Akira.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,20,22,25,38,40 Yoshizawa-Randlett System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Yamaguchi Makoto. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53





Origami (from ori meaning “folding”, and kami meaning “paper” (kami changes to gami due to rendaku)) is the art of paper folding, which is often associated with Japanese culture. In modern usage, the word “origami” is used as an inclusive term for all folding practices, regardless of their culture of origin. The goal is to transform a flat square sheet of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques. In this book, you will dive into the history of origami and how experimental artists are taking the artform into the future.