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the railway business magazine

Year VIII ■ No. 3.9. (99) ■ 2013

Railway PRO

EU and the US launch negotiations on the free trade agreement European cities focus on implementing metro extension projects Greece sells Trainose

Mass Transportation

Журнал железнодорожный бизнес

Croatia’s passenger transport operator prepares for liberalisation Interview with Dražen Ratković, CEO of HŽ Putnički prijevoz Хорватский оператор пассажирского транспорта готовится к открытию рынка Интервью с Генеральным Директором Железнодорожной Компании- HŽ Putnički, Дразеном Ратковичем


editor’s note 1

R

ailway passenger transport, next to local and regional public transport on the European continent, is the perfect expression of the intrusion of politics in the economic and social life of an activity field. Almost with no exception, the railway sector is governed by the principle of compensations/subsidies as economic operators launch massive lobby campaigns to convince the authorities to increase the level of granted funds. As in the European Union the autumn will mark the resumption of talks around the Fourth Railway Package, the method of accessing public funds is one of the key elements of the fight for and against the amendments to Regulation 1370/2007. Hiding behind the curtain of “public needs”, calling out loud the intention of providing mobility to passengers, traditional railway operators seek new and new arguments to postpone the market opening and to organize tenders for the attribution of mandatory public service obligations. The big problem of the operators: the free market access of investors. One of the excessive concerns of traditional operators is to maintain to status quo in

the attribution of routes and in evaluating necessary compensations. The introduction of new services, based on the principle of free market access is seen as a threat to the railway fundament itself and to the provision of passenger mobility. To protect their current modus vivendi without being too concerned about identifying solutions that would optimise their activity, the employees of the large operators are presenting to the society the fright of destroying quality and safety as new operators are preparing to be granted free market access. But if we take a look at the situation in the aviation industry, we see that technologies do advance in an area with free competition and the level of services becomes the “gauge” of the entire railway passenger transport industry, while passengers benefit from the constant extension of provided routes. The second problem: the introduction of the mandatory tendering of public services obligations. The current overlap between the role of public authority and economic player leads to the adoption of protective measures with long-term results in weakening the capacity of accurately evaluating the

necessary of services and their fair price and gradually lessening the strength of economic operators and wearing down the quality of services. Already some West-European politicians are open in criticising the system of railway market liberalisation while nostalgically evoking the need of nationalisation or integration into a gigantic company. Based on these facts, the autumn of 2013 will probably be crucial in the progress of the discussions on the Fourth Railway Package, as there are many blocking attempts. We have to notice that in the railway sector as well the great initiatives of setting up alternative operators have been made around innovating services, even with high-speed trains. At the same time, there are European countries which invoke the lack of public funds and reduce constantly and in disguise the level of mandatory public services thus condemning European citizens to immobility.

Distorted realities Issue published with the support of Romanian Railway Industry Association & Club Feroviar – The Railway Business Club Журнал издаётся при поддержке Асоциации Железнодорожной Промышленности и Club Feroviar – ЖД Клуб Деловых Людей

Искажённая осведомлённость Железнодорожный пассажирский транспорт, на ряду с региональным и местным общественным транспортом, является, на Европейском континенте, совершенным выражением политического вторжения в экономическую и социальную деятельность определенных сферах. Почти без исключения, железнодорожная отрасль управляется принципами компенсации или субсидии, так как экономические операторы проводят широкие лобби-операции для убеждения властей восполнить предоставленные суммы. В рамках Европейского Союза, осень отметит начало новой серии обсуждений связанных с будущем Железнодорожным Пакетом но.4, в этом контексте, этапы доступа к общественным фондам играя ключевую роль в борьбе за и против поправок Регламента 1370/2007. Скрываясь за вуалью „общественных потребностей”, заявляя желание обеспечить мобильность жителям, традициональные железнодорожные операторы ищут новые аргументы для отсрочки открытия рынков и организации тендерных торгов для присвоения контрактов по необходимым публичным услугам. Главная проблема операторах: свободный доступ на рынок для инвесторов. Одна из важных проблем

для традициональных операторов состоит в продолжении обеспечения статуса-кво в рамках системы назначения трассы и оценивания необходимых компенсаций. Внедрение новых услуг на основе принципа свободного доступа на рынок, представляется как угроза для основы железнодорожной сферы и для обеспечения мобильности жителей. Для защиты нынешнего временного соглашения и для того чтобы сильно не волноваться за нахождение решений для оптимизации деятельности, работники крупных операторов представляют обществу страх разрушения качества и степени надёжности в контексте свободного доступа для определённых новых операторов. Но, если взглянуть на ситуацию в которой находится авиационная промышленность, можно заметить что в зонах свободной конкуренции, технология продвигается, на уровне услуг становится общим эталоном в рамках промышленности пассажирского транспорта, постоянное расширение маршрутов действуя в пользу пассажиров. Вторая проблема: внедрение обязательства организовывать тендеры для контрактов принудительных публичных услуг. Взаимосвязь между ролью государственного органа и экономического арбитра приводит к

принятию предохранительных мер, а в результате их долгосрочного применения снижается способность оптимального оценивания необходимого объёма услуг и стоимостей, факт который приводит к постепенному ослаблению деятельности экономических операторов и снижению качества услуг. Уже некоторые западноевропейские политики открыто критикуют систему либерализации железнодорожного рынка, выказывая с ностальгией надобность национализации или, интеграции в гигантскую компанию. В данном контексте, осень 2013 вероятно станет решающей в отношении прогресса обсуждений на тему Железнодорожного Пакета но.4, имея в виду что существуют множество попыток блокировать его применения. Надо подчеркнуть, что в данном контексте в железнодорожной сфере, масштабные инициативы создания альтернативных операторов, были основаны на внедрении новаторских услуг – даже при пуске в эксплуатацию скоростных поездов. Более того, некоторые европейские страны непрерывно и замаскировано снижают уровень императивных публичных услуг, на основе отсутствия публичных фондов, таким образом лишая европейских граждан подвижности. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


2 cOntent MARKET DEVELOPMENT

РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА

24 26

Can long-distance journeys be attractive? Могут ли долгосрочные путешествия стать привлекательными?

The European interregional long-distance transport segment is prioritized as the European policy has to be focused on territorial cohesion, domestic market and connectivity of community regions. На европейском уровне, транспортный сегмент межрегиональных дальних расстояний является главным элементом, учитывая что европейская политика должна концентрироваться на территориальное сотрудничество, на единый рынок и когезию в рамках Европейского сообщества.

the railway business magazine

Railway PRO

ISSN - 1841 - 4672

Editor’s note

MARKET DEVELOPMENT

1

20 Railhuc project: Railway Hub Cities and the TEN-T Network

Distorted realities

POLICIES & STRATEGIES Publisher: Editura de Transport & Logistică S.R.L. 30, Virgiliu Street, Sector 1 Bucharest, postal code: 010881 Tel.:+4 021 224 43 85; +4 021 224 43 87 Mobile: +40 721 723 724 Fax: +4 021 224 43 86 E-mail: editors@railwaypro.com Web-site: www.railwaypro.com Editors: Elena Ilie elena.ilie@railwaypro.com Pamela Luică pamela.luica@railwaypro.com Production and photo editor: Petru Mureşan Department of translations: Alina Vuţulicu Paula Bădescu Veronica Lupan Graphic design: Petru Mureşan Layout and DTP: Petru Mureşan petru.muresan@railwaypro.com Photo: Radu Drăgan Marketing Manager: Cristina Trifon cristina.trifon@railwaypro.com Advertising Enquiries: advertise@railwaypro.com www. railwaypro.com/advertise

18 “Full Service Model”, a passenger-dedicated project 22 Rio+20: banks to finance sustainable transport projects by USD 175 Billion 35 The US lays the future

24 Can long-distance journeys be attractive? 43 Efficient railway infrastructure attracts economic development 44 Marmaray, a step closer to inauguration 52 Integrated urban mobility

of the high-speed transport network

plans support the use of alternative public transport

46 Greece sells Trainose

LEX

48 Poland: Passenger railway 32 EU and the US launch

transport in figures

Leaders

negotiations on the free trade agreement

ЛИДЕРЫ

Croatia’s passenger transport operator prepares for liberalisation Interview with Dražen Ratković, CEO of HŽ Putnički prijevoz Хорватский оператор пассажирского транспорта готовится к открытию рынка Интервью с Генеральным Директором Железнодорожной Компании- HŽ Putnički, Дразеном Ратковичем

Croatia’s accession to the European Union is a challenge for all the economic segments and the policies that have been and are still adopted by the authorities. Transportation is one of the most important economic sectors for Europe and, therefore, for Croatia, due to its economic effects and benefits. In this context, the European legislation began to be implemented in the area in 2005 and a new package of laws became effective this year, with the accession of Croatia to the EU. Вступление Хорватии в Евросоюз является провокацией для главных экономических и политических сферах, в которых власти оперируют и принимают решения. В данном контексте, применение европейского законодательства в железнодорожной сфере дебютировало в 2005 году (когда Хорватия вступила в Евросоюз), когда новый законодательный пакет вступил в действия.

metropolitan

31 USA: Modernisation of public transport focuses on the construction of light rail systems 33 European cities focus on implementing metro extension projects

Products&technologies 52 Integrated urban mobility 37 Fourth Railway Package: plans support the use of the technical pillar is important 56 Modernization of alternative public transport for the competitiveness of the passenger trains and European railway market Restructuring of CFM, sustained MARKET DEVELOPMENT by EBRD 40 Mandatory tendering 16 Asia’s global awareness of public service obligations Statistics increases despite small needs a considerable economic growth “transition period” 54 Railway Statistics

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013


cOntent 3 Редакционная статья

1 Искажённая осведомлённость ПОЛИТИКА И СТРАТЕГИЯ

18 „Full Service Model” – Проект разработан для пассажиров

52 Планы интегрированной РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА городской мобильности поддерживают поочерёдный 52 Планы интегрированной выбор общественного городской мобильности транспорта поддерживают поочерёдный выбор общественного транспорта РАЗВИТИЕ РЫНКА 16 Несмотря на то, что экономика не отмечает значительного роста, Азия достигла важную позицию на глобальном уровне

22 Рио+20: Банки намерены финансировать 175 миллиардов доллоров для 20 Проект RAI LHUC проектов долговременного города, железнодорожные транспорта центры и сеть TEN-T

31 США: Модернизация публичного транспорта сосредотачивается на производство системы легкорельсового транспорта

33 Города Европы интенсивно разрабатывают метрополитенские 32 Евросоюз и США начали строительные проекты переговоры по соглашению о свободной торговле продуктов и технологий

закон

37 Железнодорожный Пакет законов но. IV: Технический пилон 24 Могут ли долгосрочные является существенным для 35 США намечивают конкурентоспособности будущею высокоскоростную путешествия стать железнодорожного привлекательными? сеть европейского рынка 46 Греция приватизирует 43 Эффективаная железнодорожную компанию железнодорожная Trainose инфраструктура ведёт к экономическому развитию 48 Польша: железнодорожный 44 Тоннель Мармарай – на пассажирский транспорт в шаг ближе к инаугурации цифрах

метрополиТАН

40 Обязанность организововать тендерные торги для контрактов публичных услуг должна испытать долгосрочный “транзитный период”

56 Модернизация пассажирских поездов и реструктуризация Молдавской Железнодорожной Компании (CFM) поддержены Европейским Банком Реконструкции и Развития (EBRD) СТАТИСТИКА

62

железнодорожная статистика

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


news 5

Kazakhstan: At the end of August, Kazakhstan’s railway container operator Kaztransservice opened two centres of transport services (CTS) in Astana. The centres are responsible with the organisation of container transportation in order to increase sales and with the organisation of container transport to match the increasing demands. The functions of the CTS are: providing services on organization of container transportations, payment of complex service on organization of container transportations (railway tariff, additional fees, etc.). Also CTS renders to the clients the reference service on all questions connected with the organization, conditions of transportations and acting tariffs. In order to increase the quality of transport services, KTS opened a free information line. In 2013-2014 the company plans to open CTS branches in the large cities of Kazakhstan, to optimize production processes and organise container transportations taking into account the requirements of clients.

Tikhvin-Transvagonmash agreement on repair centres Russia: Tikhvin Car-Building Plant (TVSZ) signed a long-term cooperation agreement with Transvagonmash. Under the agreement the parties would establish a service centre network for TVSZ freight cars equipped with Barber bogies. At the present time, 16 TVSZ service centres are in operation.

Belarus to buy or build terminal at one of Latvian ports international: In the near future, Belarus could decide on building or buying a bulk or general cargo terminal in Latvia, Belarusian Ambassador to Latvia Aleksander Gerasimenko. The volume of goods and services produced in Belarus increases each year, which has an effect on the country’s exports. Therefore Belarus is interested in purchasing infrastructure objects for the purpose of transshipment of its goods, especially oil products. However, such a purchase is expensive. It must be economically-justified and guarantee cargo flows, explains the ambassador. Belarus is currently considering six different options in Riga and Ventspils. In a couple of months, it will become clear whether it is worth buying or renting a terminal or constructing a new one. “I would prefer con-

New EU funds for railway projects Austria: The European Union has agreed to spend EUR 134 Million for the Austrian projects in the TEN-T network. Among the projects selected to receive European financing there is the Brenner Tunnel that will benefit from EUR 106 Million, the ring railway for the freight transport from St. Pölten, to benefit from EUR 25.5 Million and the development of a new bridge on the Koralm line, between Graz and Klagenfurt, which will receive EUR 1.5 Million.

Attraction of freight flows from Kazakhstan and China, important for Latvia

RFF could change the track access charge calculation method

photo: www.rff.fr

cargo transportation is dominated by cargo from Russia which amounts to more than 65% of the company’s total cargo volume. In June, Latvijas Dzelzcels Group’s LDz Cargo logistika signed a cooperation agreement with Kazakhstan’s Kedentransservis paving the way for Latvijas Dzelzcels on the Chinese market. Kazakhstan’s role in Asia is “very important”. NATO transports its cargo through Kazakhstan to Afghanistan. Latvijas Dzelzcels hopes by cooperating with Kazakhstan Railways to be able to attract cargo from China, points out Magonis. Amendments of the Government Decision on railway interoperability

(Latvijas Dzelzcels) plans to intensify work on increasing cargo transportation volumes between Kazakhstan and Latvia, as well as attracting cargo from China. This was agreed upon by Latvijas Dzelzcels President Ugis Magonis and Kazakhstan Temir Joly President Askar Mamin. Kazakhstan Railways has been an excellent cooperation partner for Latvijas Dzelzcels for many years. At the moment, the company’s

Romania: During the reunion of 27 August, the Romanian Government adopted the Decision on the amendment of the Government Decision no. 877/2010 on railway interoperability. The decision adopted by the Government meets the European Commission’s requirements on the transposition of Directive 2008/57/ EC on the interoperability of the railway system in the Community. Previously, the European Commission had considered as non-compliant the transpo-

В мире: Беларусь намеревается начать строительные работы или купить грузовую станцию в Латвии. Казахстан: Казахстанский транспортный оператор контейнеровКазтранссервис, открыл в Астане два центра транспортных услуг. Россия: Производитель вагонов Тихвин (ТВСЗ) подписал договор о долгосрочном сотрудничестве с Трансвагонмаш. Австрия: Евросоюз согласился обеспечить сумму 134 милн Евро для австрийских проектов в рамках сети TEN-T. Румыния: 2-го сентября 2013 в штабе Министерства Транспорта был подписан контракт купли-продажи 51% пакета

общественного капитала железнодорожной грузоперевозочной компании CFR Marfă. В мире: Французская национальная железнодорожная компания рассчитывает на множество возможностей изменения налогов по железнодорожной инфраструктуры для высокоскоростных поездов. В мире: Китайские власти рассматривают шаги для основания первой местной железнодорожной компании которая не будет входить в Китайскую Железнодорожную Корпорацию. Румыния: Правительство Румынии принило предложение о изменении Решения но.877/2010 по интероперабельности железнодорожной сети.

International: Latvian Railways

International: RFF, the French railway infrastructure manager, is currently considering several possibilities of changing the track access charges for highspeed trains, as the government demands. SNCF’s profit dropped over the last period of time because of the track access charge increase by 7.5% per year over the past five years. RFF considers changing the track access charge according to the number of passengers carried by each trains or according to the revenues for each train.

struction of a new terminal in accordance with our regulations and requirements, but this will be decided by a special commission set up by the Belarusian government,” says Gerasimenko. The project will most likely be carried out by a joint Belarusian-Latvian venture. The controlling interest will belong to Belarus which can guarantee two million tonnes of oil products per year.

photo: www.portofventspils.lv

New centres for container transport

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


6 news

RZD to complete rehabilitation of 9 sections of the Baikal-Amur and Transsib in 2013 Russia: This year, Russian Railways plans to increase the speed of cargo trains on five sections of the Trans-Siberian Mainline (the Transsib) and four sections of the Baikal-Amur Mainline (the BAM). For this objective, the company has initiated infrastructure rehabilitation works on 9 railway sections. East-Siberian Railways will replace the existing tracks with welded rails whose share will increase to 41% of the length of main tracks. 345 km

romania: On 2 September 2013, Grup Feroviar Român signed the purchase agreement for the 51% stake in the social capital of the national rail freight transport operator CFR Marfă at the head office of the Romanian Ministry of Transport. “Until now, the Romanian State, through the Ministry of Transport and the Romanian Government, has observed all its commitments and legal procedures, and the sale of CFR Marfă has been completed in time. The next important stages in the finalization of the procedure include the payment of the stake by the buyer and the actual transfer of this stake”, the Ministry informs in a press release. On 20 June 2013, the Romanian Ministry of Transport announced that Grup Feroviar

of line will be laid on the sections of the Transsib and the Baikal-Amur. In addition, the railway company plans to reconstruct 319 kilometres of tracks, the capital repair of 130 kilometres and the “medium” repair of 179 kilometres of tracks. Total investment in track repair will amount to RUB 6.8 Billion (around USD 205 Million). At the beginning of the year, Russian authorities announced that around EUR 6.5 Billion would be invested by 2017 in the modernisation of the Baikal-Amur (BAM) and Transsiberian railways. Makedonski Zeleznici Transport calls tender for six passenger trains

photo: en.wikipedia.org

Baikal-Amur Mainline in green Trans-Siberian line in red

Хорватия: Европейская Комиссия одобрила инвестиционные планы Хорватии в связи с политикой сближения. Македония: Национальный железнодорожный оператор объявил тендер для закупки четырёх моторных вагонов дизель-поезда и двух моторных вагонов электропоезда. Болгария: Министр Транспорта, Данаил Папазов, заключил контракт по проведению ремонтных работ и модернизации Центрального Вокзала Софии. www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

Ministry of Transport signs CFR Marfă sale contract

Român won the tender on the acquisition of CFR Marfă, at a cost of EUR 400 Million of which EUR 202 Million the actual cost of the acquisition and EUR 200 Million, the sum necessary for the transfer of shares, plus EUR 1.5 Million environment investments. The starting price of the tender was of EUR 180 Million.

photo: Club Feroviar

sition Romania made of some provisions included in Article 21, Article 23 and Article 25 of Directive 58/2007 referring to the validity in Romania of the authorization for placing in service of a railway vehicle issued by a member state of the European Union, as well as the reference that should be done to the provisions included in Directive 2008/57/EC and Directive 2004/49/EC. Article 31, paragraph (5) is amended as follows: “An authorisation issued in Romania is valid in all the other member states of the European Union, while an authorisation issued by a member state of the European Union is valid in Romania as well, without affecting the dispositions of Article 23 and 25 on additional authorisations”, states the normative act adopted by the Government. Article 25, paragraph (1) is amended as follows: “In the case of the vehicles whose placing in service has been authorised by a member state of the European Union in conformity with Article 21 paragraph (12) or Article 24 of Directive 2008/57/EC, the Romanian Railway Safety Authority can decide, compliant to the present article, if additional authorisation for placing in service are necessary in Romania”.

Contract signed for the modernisation of Sofia Central Station Bulgaria: Bulgarian Transport Minister Danail Papazov has signed the contract for the repair of the Central Railway Station in Bulgaria’s capital Sofia. The repair, which is expected to be finished before the end 2015, will be carried out by a consortium comprising 3 companies that offered to work for BGN 56 Million (EUR 28.6 Million) + VAT. The project, which includes the development of 11,000 square metres of commercial buildings and of a traffic coordination centre, and implementation of renewable sources of energy, will have to be completed by the end of 2015.

FYR Macedonia: Macedonian railway operator Makedonski Zeleznici Transport (MZT) called a tender for the supply of four diesel passenger multiple units and two electric multiple passenger units, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) said on Tuesday. Tendering for contracts that will be financed with the proceeds of a EBRD loan is open to firms from any country, the international lender said in a statement. The tender will be implemented in two stages. Bids in the fist stage should be sent by October 16. Second stage tenders must be accompanied by a tender security of 1.0 million euro (USD1.3 Million) and must be delivered by December 11.

International: The majority of questions concerning passing of Ukrainian goods to the Russian Federation by the railway will be settled in the nearest future. This agreement was reached between First Vice Prime Minister of Russia Igor Shuvalov and head of Federal Customs Service of Russia Andrey Belyaninov. Previous results of negotiations on customs clearance of cargos on crossing the Ukrainian-Russian border were considered at a meeting, presided by Prime Minister of Ukraine Mykola Azarov.

В мире: Главные проблемы железнодорожной грузоперевозки из Украины в Россию, будут решены в ближайшее время. Греция: Греческий фонд приватизации объявил что выставит на продажу ремонтную компанию ROSCO. Россия: В этом году, компания Трансконтейнер намерена приобрести 800 вагонов-платформ для перевозки контейнеров. Узбекистан: Национальная железнодорожная компания Узбекистана

завершила проект по созданию ремонтного подразделения для подвижного состава. В мире: На фоне открытия части железнодорожной магистрали связывающей Туркменистан с Казахстаном, объём перевозок значительно повысился. Болгария: В рамках многолетнего бюджета на 2014-2020, европейское финансирование для Болгарии в научную, инновационную и деловую сферу, вырастет на 350 млн Евро, в убыток инфраструктурного бюджета.

Russia and Ukraine to solve cross-border transport problems


news 7

Greece: Greece’s privatization fund says it is selling the country’s train maintenance company. The fund said it is seeking buyers for 100% of ROSCO, a former rail subsidiary. No pricing details were provided.

TransContainer buys 800 wagons in 2013 Russia: This year, TransContainer is going to purchase 800 flat wagons for high-capacity containers for the total sum of RUB 1.5 Billion (USD 46 Million). The company has announced a tender to buy 80-foot flat wagons. There are two lots, 400 railcars in each. The flat cars must be new and suitable for operating on railways with 1520mm wide gauge in the CIS, the Baltic States, and Georgia. The wagons have to have a maximum freight carrying capacity of over 69 tonnes and the design speed have to be120 km/h. Bid opening will take place on September 9. The results will be announced on September 19.

Uzbekistan completes the modernization of a rolling stock plant Uzbekistan: Uzbekistan Railways has completed the implementation of the project on the development of a rolling stock repair unit, the organization of car construction and reconstruction at the Casting and Mechanical Plant, a management source in the company told the press. According to the source, the project, worth USD 120.18 Million, includes the reconstruction of the foundry for steel production, cast iron and non-ferrous castings with an output of 25,000 tonnes annually, work on developing the repair base of rolling stock and organisation of car-building. The Railways allocated USD 71.38 Million and the Fund for Reconstruction and Development of Uzbekistan granted USD 48.8 Million for the project. The plant will be able to manufacture up to 1200 freight wagons, 950 containers, and overhaul and modernise up to 1500 freight wagons.

Turkmenistan-Kazakhstan railway traffic increases significantly International: The total volume of transit traffic has significantly increased due to the launch of the Turkmen-Kazakh railway section. Intensity of the transit flow has increased eight times after the launch of the Turkmen-Kazakh section of the North-South railway corridor. The section was put in service in May and ensures a cost-efficient traffic between Europe, Asia and Middle East. At the mo-

Россия: РЖД намерены увеличить скорость перемещения для поездов на пяти частях Транссибирской магистрали и на четырёх частях Байкал-Амурской магистрали. В мире: Стоимости конструкции высокоскоростной магистрали HS2 возможно превысят 80 миллиардов Лир (93.7 миллиардов Евро). В мире: Россия вновь открыла межграничный железнодорожный пункт пропуска Махалино, связывающий

ment, works are being carried out on the Bereket-Etrek line section for the development of Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran line. Terminals will be built in 6 stations: Dyaneat, Dovletyar, Bugdayli, Balgui, Madav and Akjadele. The total length of the railway, which runs from Kazakh steppes via the Karakum desert to the mountainous Gulistan province in the north of Iran, is 900 kilometres, 700 kilometres of which runs through the Turkmen territory. The large-scale North-South railway project has been implemented since 2007 after the signing of a high-level trilateral agreement between Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran. EU infrastructure funds, cut in the 2014-2020 programming period Bulgaria: The allocation of EU funds for Bulgaria for business, science and innovation will increase by EUR 350 Million at the expense of infrastructure in the 2014-2020 programming period. Funds for the operational programmes dedicated to infrastructure (Transport, Regional Development and Environment) will be reduced by around EUR 800 Million, the total cost of funds amounting to EUR 3.65 Billion. According to the local press, “if financing within the Connecting Europe Facility is included, the total amount will increase to EUR 4 Billion”. This week, the Bulgarian Government approved the project of the EC Partnership Agreement for the next programming period (2014-2020). Under the agreement, the financing for the new programme “Innovation and Competitiveness” will be increased by EUR 50 Million. The document will be submitted to the European Commission for technical consultations and EC will deliver an answer in October. The Partnership Agreement will be approved by EC at the beginning of 2014.

Great Britain: HS2 investments to exceed expectations by far International: Construction costs

of the HS2 high-speed line could exceed GBP 80 Billion (EUR 93.7 Billion), almost double the current estimated cost of GBP 42.6 Billion (EUR 49.9 Million), according to a report from the Institute of

станцию Камышовая с китайским городом Хуньчунь. В мире: Deutsche Bahn не будет больше зарегистрирована на фондовой бирже в ближайшее время, объявил немецкий Министр Транспорта, Петер Рамзауэр. В мире: Уральвагонзавод оформит производство грузовых вагонов в Анголе, объявил Михаил Якунин, глава Департамента дочерних компаний банка ВТБ.

Economic Affairs. The lobbying by local councils for additional infrastructure and design changes will increase the cost. Route changes and others measures to appease the public and local councils could increase costs by GBP 30 Billion (EUR 35.2 Million). Bids invited for Polish regional trains Poland: Two Polish operators have invited bids for contracts worth a total of Zlotys 451m (USD 142m) to supply new regional trains. Masovian Railways (KM) has issued an invitation to tender for two electric locomotives and 22 double-deck coaches, including two driving trailers. The contract includes maintenance and staff training, and the deadline for submission of offers is August 29. Bids will be scored 70% on price, 15% on the delivery date, 10% on reliability, and 5% on technical parameters. The total value of the contract is expected to be Zlotys 270m. Lower Silesian Railways (KD) announced a tender on August 2 for a contract worth around Zlotys 181m to supply six three-car and five four-car emus for regional services. The order is being co-financed through the European Union’s Regional Operational Programme for Lower Silesia and the Operational Programme for Infrastructure and the Environment. The closing date for bids is September 12.

photo: en.wikipedia.org

Authorities sell ROSCO

China prepares first local railway company International: Chinese authorities are working to the establishment of the first local railway company that would not be part of China Railway Corporation. Southern Sichuan Railway Company will play an important role in coordinating the railway construction works in southern Sichuan. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


8 news

Germany postpones DB sale plans

photo: Deutsche Bahn

International: Deutsche Bahn will no longer be listed on the stock exchange in the near future, declared Minister of Transport Peter Ramsauer in an interview for “Der Spiegel”. The listing will not be made not even partially until 2017. The minister also said that they would prioritize the investment of the dividends the company obtained in improving the railway infrastructure.

Russia reopens railway crossing from Maritime Territory to China International: Russia has reopened the

Makhalino railway border crossing, which connects the Kamyshovaya station with the Chinese city of Hunchun, Jilin Province. Before the opening of Makhalino there was only a small border crossing on the motorway between Kraskino and Hunchun, a popular destination with Russian tourists and shuttle traders. In the 1990s a private investor, OAO Zolotoye Zveno, built a railway crossing on this stretch of the Russian-Chinese border, which remained operational in 2000-2004. But the privately owned railway line kept running into trouble with the Russian Ministry of Communications, which refused to issue the necessary export licenses, and with the Border Service. As a result, the company was forced to close the railway crossing and went bankrupt in 2010. The railway branch was then bought by the Russian Railways, and the project was given www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

of 160km/h and a capacity of at least 800 seated passengers. Slovenske Zeleznice turns to H1 net profit of EUR 7 Million Slovenia: Slovenian state-owned railway company Slovenske Zeleznice turned to net profit of EUR 7 Million euro in the first half of 2013 from a net loss of EUR 7.3 Million a year ago.Slovenske Zeleznice posted EUR 4.26 Million in operating profit through June, state-run news agency STA reported.

a second lease of life, only this time around as a state-owned venture. The reopening of the railway branch to China was made possible after the Far Eastern Railways (a subsidiary of Russian Railways) completed a track repair project. Uralvagonzavod to manufacture cars in Angola International: Uralvagonzavod expects to launch freight car production in Angola, the Kommersant quotes Mikhail Yakunin, Head – VTB Department of Subsidiaries. Uralvagonzavod Director for Government Relations Yury Lyzhin told the Kommersant that the freight car production may be commissioned in 2016 – 2017 as Angola finalizes its railway network modernization. The total investments are estimated at USD 100 Million (EUR 75 Million). Uralvagonzavod also expects to attract a local partner to establish a joint venture. At phase 1 the JV will produce 1500 – 2000 freight cars per year, mostly gondola cars.

Hessen Railways to buy EMUs

Government to suspend Tbilisi railway bypass project Georgia: The Georgian government plans to suspend the construction of rail bypass in Tbilisi for as long as there is no a final decision on a plan to move the railway from the centre of Tbilisi, Georgia’s Minister of Economy and vice-Premier George Kvirikashvili told journalists. The project which began to be implemented in 2010, envisages moving the railway from the centre of Tbilisi to its southern area. It is planned that a new railway will pass at a 10 kilometres distance from the current line. According to the project, over 70 hectares of land will be freed in the city centre for urban development projects. “The final decision hasn’t been officially made. We believe that we will suspend this project for a certain period and if a better decision is made, we will return to it,” Kvirikashvili said.This decision caused severe criticism by the initiator of the project, the mayor of Tbilisi, Giorgi Ugulava. According to him, the interest of the whole capital is sacrificed for the interest of one company. “The implementation of a rail bypass project would pave the way for the urban development of Tbilisi. I want to ask the government to come to the negotiation table and discuss the situation when on one side of the scale there is the city and its interests and on the other, the interests of one company,” Ugulava noted.

International: German operator Hessen Railways has launched a tender for 20-30 electric multiple-units for the Main-Neckar-Ried network. Should HLB be successful in winning the train operating contract, it will need to introduce the trains into service with the start of the new timetable in December 2017. The trains must have a maximum speed

Словения: Железнодорожная компания Slovenske Zeleznice представила отчёт о чистой прибыли в 7 млн Евро для первой половины этого года. Польша: Железнодорожная компания города Масовия объявила тендер для двух электрических локомотивов и 22 этажных железнодорожных вагонов. В мире: Немецкий железнодорожный

photo: www.railway.ge

Croatia: The European Commission said it approved Croatia’s investment plan for EUR 449.4 Million of European Union cohesion policy funds, which aims to accelerate economic growth and create jobs. The funds were allocated to Croatia upon its accession to the EU on July 1. The National Strategic Reference Framework prepared by the Croatian authorities outlines three strategic goals - strengthening economic competitiveness, establishing optimal economic conditions for job creation and employability, and achieving balanced regional development. As much as EUR 228.4 Million from the European Regional Development Fund will be invested in business support for small and medium sized enterprises, re-

search and innovation, along with more basic infrastructures, such as railway and waterways.

photo: HZ Infrastruktura

Croatia to receive EUR 450 Million EU funds

оператор города Гессен пустил в ход тендер для 20-30 электросекций предназначенных для сети Майн-Неккар-Рид. Грузия: Правительство намерено задержать строительные работы железнодорожного обходного пути в Тбилиси на основании отсутствия окончательного решения в связи с планом перемещения железной дороге с центра города.


10 news Georgian Railway aiming to grow national economy

russia: Russian President Vladimir Putin has proposed extending the highspeed railroad between Moscow and Kazan, which will be completed in 2018, to the Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk. “The launch of the Moscow–Kazan line is the first step. It may become a pilot segment of a future route which will link the central regions of the Volga with the Urals. We may need to think about whether or not it is economically feasible, but the railway might be extended to Krasnoyarsk,” Putin said.

International: The National Railways has set out its plans for future development, saying that it aims ‘to become one of the companies promoting growth of the national economy.’ The national railway said a close relationship with freight shippers is a priority. Freight income in the Q1 2013-14 was up 13% on the same period last year, and GR expects liquid freight to increase by 870000 tonnes and dry freight by 200000 tonnes this year. More efficient use is being made of crews, and average train loads, speeds and energy efficiency are increasing.

Construction of Plovdiv – Burgas rail line stalls Bulgaria: The implementation of the project for the construction of the rail line connecting the Bulgarian cities of Plovdiv and Burgas by end-2015 has become uncertain due to a revoked tender for the selection of a contractor for five traction substations. Milcho Lambrev, CEO of the state-owned National Railway Infrastructure Company (NRIC), vowed that the decision of the Commission for Protection of Competition (KZK) would be appealed before the Supreme Administrative Court (VAS). He emphasized that there was too little time left to hold a new public procurement procedure, adding that the substations for which no contracts had been signed by end-2013 would have to be built with money from the state budget. The project is worth nearly BGN 478 M, of which the EU funding is over BGN 343 M.

Turkey’s Kardemir unit contracts Germany’s Schuler for wagon wheels project International: Turkish iron and steel producer Kardemir Karabuk Demir Celik Sanayi ve Ticaret said its unit Kardokmak has contracted Germany’s Schuler Group for a project for the production of locomotives and wagon wheels. The project envisages the production of 200,000 wheels annually, Kardemir said in a statement filed with Borsa Istanbul without elaborating. Schuler provides metalworking equipment for different industries including the automotive, appliances, railway, aerospace, defense, large pipes sectors.

Suburban trains to be launched in Baku

Ukrzaliznytsia to grant discounts of up to 50% on transportation of transit freight

Azerbaijan: Movement of trains to the settlements of Azerbaijan’s capital Baku will be resumed. The project is included

Ukraine: The state railway

photo: www.uz.gov.ua

administration (Ukrzaliznytsia) has been authorized to grant discounts of up to 50% on transportation of transit freight through Ukraine. The relevant provision is contained in the Ministry of Infrastructure’s order that amended the procedure for setting coefficients to CIS countries’ base railway tariffs for transportation of international freight and transportation of transit freight. According to experts with the Ministry of Infrastructure, implementation of

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

the order will ensure favorable tariff conditions for preservation of the existing and attraction of new transit freight through Ukraine.

Россия: Президент Владимир Путин предложил продлить конструкцию будущей высокоскоростной магистрали Москва- Казань до Красноярска (Сибирь). Конструкция железнодорожной магистрали МоскваКазань должна завершится в 2018 году. Болгария: Завершение проекта железнодорожной линии ПловдивБургас к концу 2015 года, оказалось под вопросом на фоне аннулирования одной торговой процедуры для пяти тяговых станций. Украина: Украинская железнодорожная компания Укрзализныця, получила приказ полномочия от Министерства Инфраструктуры по предоставлению скидок для железнодорожных грузоперевозок на территории Украины. Грузия: Грузинская Железнодорожная Компания объявила

Negotiations with Azerbaijan aim to establish through tariffs for cotton, wheat, coal and NATO traffic from Afghanistan, which GR expects would help to grow traffic.

photo: www.railway.ge

Russia could extend Moscow–Kazan railroad to Krasnoyarsk

in proposals on the implementation of sustainable transport in the framework of the Greater Baku Regional Development Plan, said Head of International Relations and Information Department of the State Committee for Urban Planning and Architecture Jahangir Gojayev. These trains, whose traffic was suspended a few years ago, will operate within Baku and its surrounding settlements. The Greater Baku Regional Development Plan also envisions the introduction of new types of public transport such as light rail, skytrains, metrobuses, etc. According to preliminary estimates, the average cost of the Greater Baku Regional Development Plan may reach 4-5 billion manats (up to over $6.3 billion). Brazil postpones bidding on high-speed rail project Brazil: The government announced another postponement of the bidding on a high-speed rail project linking the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. The decision to delay the submission of bids - which had been set for this week - by “at least a year” was made after talking with the countries with consortia interested in

своё желание стать одной из компаний стимулирующих национальную экономику, факт который требует предоставления приоритета отношениям с транспортными операторами по грузоперевозкам. В мире: Примерно через год, поезда проходящие по железной дороге связывающей город Пловдив с българско-турецкой границой смогут набирать скорость 160 км/ч, по утверждению министра Транспорта, Данаил Папазов, который недавно проинспектировал ход строительных работ для железнодорожной магистрали Димитровград- Харманли. В мире: Турецкий производитель стали Kardemir Karabuk Demir Celik Sanayi ve Ticaret, обявил что филиал Kardokmak заключил контракт с Schuler Group (Германия) по производству колёс для вагонов и локомотивов.


news 11

Trains running between Plovdiv and Bulgarian-Turkish border to reach 160 km/h in 2014

photo: wikimedia.org

International: In about one year, trains travelling between the city of Plovdiv and the Bulgarian-Turkish border will be able to run at 160km/h, according to Transport Minister, Danail Papazov, who recently inspected the launch of construction works at the Dimitrovgrad – Harmanli railway section. He informed that the railway section connecting the cities of Plovdiv and Dimitrovgrad had been completed, as well as the railway section connecting the city of Svilengrad to the Bulgarian-Turkish border, and added that the railway links were to be upgraded by the summer of 2014. “Railway projects are no less important than road infrastructure projects, which is why the emphasis of the “Transport” operational program in the next programming period is mainly on this type of transport,” he added. Papazov made clear that the main goal was to equip Bulgaria with fully upgraded railway lines on the route DragomanSofia-Plovdiv-Svilengrad, thereby allowing trains running between Bulgaria’s borders with Serbia and Turkey to reach a speed of 160 km/h. Bulgaria’s Transport Minister also informed that the activities for the overall rehabilitation of the PlovdivBurgas rail line would be conducted parallel to that.

Vietnam plans major rail upgrade Vietnam: The Ministry of Transport has released a draft blueprint for the development of railway infrastructure, comprising three main elements – upgrading the existing railway lines, the development of a new double-track broad gauge line connecting Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, and two express railway sections designed to handle high-speed trains. Vietnam is on the verge of unveiling

Tunnel construction through Georgian-Turkish border to be launched International: The construction of a tunnel through the Georgian-Turkish border will begin as part of the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway project in the near future, Chairman of “Azerbaijan Railways” company Arif Asgarov’s article said. “The equipment and machinery were deli-

plans for a major upgrade of the country’s rail network. And local newspaper Vietweek reported Vietnam’s deputy transport minister, Nguyen Ngoc Dong, as saying that the country would gather public opinion before moving ahead with the proposal. “The plan is being finalised before the ministry publicises it and polls public opinions,” Dong was quoted saying. Currently, the 1,730km train journey between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City

vered for the construction of the tunnel, designed to connect Georgia and Turkey,” he said. “The construction work is planned to be launched in the near future.” Landslide affected areas were revealed during construction. So, the tunnel route has been changed. “Earlier, the project entailed the laying of a 1.2 kilometer tunnel,” he added. “Its length was increased to 2.07 kilometers.”

currently takes between approximately 30 hours, along a single-track gauge railway line developed more than 100 years ago during the French colonial era. Amur-Yakutsk Mainline set to open by end of 2013 Russia: An 809 kilometre railway line between Amur and Yakutsk could be open by the end of the year, according to contractors Transstroy. Construction of the Berkakit-Tommot-Yakutsk section of the Amur-Yakutsk Mainline (AYAM) is nearing an end following the completion of the line’s eastern terminus station, Nizhny Bestyakh. Once opened up to passenger traffic, the AYAM will link Tynda in the western Amur Oblast region and the city of Yakutsk in Russia’s far east Sakha Republic. The line, which has been under construction for over 30 years, will also connect to the Baikal-Amur Mainline and the Trans-Siberian railway.

Israel’s National Infrastructure Committee approves electrification plans

photo: vietnam-railway.com

competing for the contract, the president of the state agency in charge of the process said. France was ready to participate in the bidding, but Spain had asked for “more time” and Germany had sought a delay of more than a year, said EPL chief Bernardo Figueiredo at a press conference.

Азербайджан: Столица Азербайджана, Баку, принила решение вновь ввести в эксплуатацию поезда обеспечивающие связь с пригородом. Проект входит в ряд предложений связанных с осуществлением программы долговременного транспорта в рамках Плана Регионального Развития метрополитена Баку. Бразилия: Правительство объявило новую отсрочку тендера проекта для высокоскоростной железнодорожной магистрали, связывающей города Рио-ДеЖанейро и Сан-Паулу. В мире: Строительные работы для железнодорожного тоннеля между границами Грузии и Турции будут скоро окончены, являясь частью проекта Баку-

Israel: The national rail network in Israel is to be electrified following a decision by the National Infrastructure Committee, in August. The aim is to improve passenger comfort and significantly reduce pollution, as well as increasing train service reliability and accuracy, according to the Israeli Transportation Minister, Israel Katz, who Тбилиси-Карс, объявил председатель национальной железнодорожной компании Азербайджана, Ариф Асгаров. В мире: Штат полуострова Индокитай намерен представить важные планы для оптимизации железнодорожной связи. Министр Транспорта предоставил СМИ доклад в связи с планом развития железнодорожной инфраструктуры. Россия: Один участок пути длинной в 809 км между Амуром и Якутском вероятно будет инаугурирован до конца года, объявила российская строительная компания Трансстрой. Строительные работы сектора БеркакитТоммот- Якутск, часть магистрали АмурЯкутск, завершаются. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


12 news Turkmenistan to build new Caspian Sea port International: The new international port to the Caspian Sea will become an important transport link on the EuropeAsia axis. The period of construction of the new international sea port is 48 months. 7 companies have participated in the tender for the construction of the port. Gap Insaat,

The project of the line linking Giurgiuleşti to Cahul was also completed; works consisted in the construction of a 52-km section which required EUR 16.9 Million. The line provides connection between Giurgiuleşti railway station and the Danube Corridor VII. Starting with 2014, the authorities will launch passenger transport services on the route CahulGiurgiulești-Galaţi.

a Turkish company, was selected general contractor of the project. The project of a new International Sea Port in Turkmenbashi provides for the construction of ferry, passenger and container terminals. The complex will include a common loading terminal, bulk cargo terminal, as well as the plant for construction and repair of ships. The transport infrastructure will include roads (2.2 km) and railways (5.3 km).

China continues railway investments

initiated the “Nativei Yisrael” Project. Nativei Yisrael will see the country connected by rail from Negev to Galilee and Kiryat Shmona to Eilat. Tenders for the electrification of 420km of planned and existing lines, the construction of supporting transformer stations and an electrical control system are expected to be released early in 2014. Seven proposals were submitted during the pre-qualification period.

photo: wikimedia.org

Azerbaijan: The National Railways company will receive the 26 carriages refurbished in Ukraine and Russia, the company spokesman Nadir Azmammadov announced. 10 of the 26 carriages were sent to Ukraine for maintenance work and 16 were sent to Russia. “The carriages are expected to be back by the end the year,” Azmammadov said. Azerbaijan, which lacks rail carriage repair technology, has earlier sent 50 carriages to Ukraine for refurbishment. 35 of them have already been delivered and 15 are to arrive by the end of August. According to the plan for the modernization of the rolling stock fleet, Azerbaijan could launch a tender for the acquisition of 100 new carriages, 50 locomotives for freight transport and 12 locomotives for passenger transport.

Republic of Moldova puts in service the first European gauge railway section Moldova: The first European gauge railway section in the Republic of Moldova connecting the port of Giurgiuleşti to Galaţi (Romania) was put in service. www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

photo: Club Feroviar

Azerbaijan upgrades rolling stock fleet

“The resumption of traffic on this route has been expected for a long time by the economic agents who used to pay a lot of money because they had to carry their freight on alternative routes. I will supervise the implementation of all our plans”, declared Minister of Transport Vasile Botnari. According to the declarations of the minister, by the end of the year, CFM plans to launch daily passenger transport services between Giurgiuleşti and Galaţi. Азербайджан: Национальная железнодорожная компания получит 26 вагонов отремонтированных в России и Украине. Из 26 вагонов, 10 были отправлены в Украину для проведения технического обслуживания, а 16 были отправлены в Россию. В мире: Туркменистан намерен начать строительные работы для нового порта Каспийского море. Новый международный порт станет важной транспортной связью Евро-Азиатской оси; строительные работы проекта рассчитаны на 48 месяцев. Израиль: Власти планируют электрифицировать железнодорожную сеть, в соответствии с решением Национального Комитета по Инфраструктуре. Цель проекта состоит в оптимизации комфорта пассажиров, надёжности и безопасности, а также в

International: According to the latest statistics published by the Chinese Ministry of Railways, China’s fixed asset investments in the railway sector rose 16% year on year to CNY 261.7 Billion (EUR 32.4 Billion) in the first seven months of this year. Investment in railway infrastructure amounted to CNY 229.4 Billion (EUR 28.4 Billion) in the first seven months. Meanwhile, the investment for the purchase of railway vehicles totalled CNY 25.5 Billion (EUR 3.2 Billion). The country plans to allocate CNY 650 Billion (EUR 80.4 Billion) for fixed asset investments in the railway sector this year, including CNY 520 Billion (EUR 64.4 Billion) in railway infrastructure construction.

Russia will have to replace part of its passenger coaches Russia: Russia has to replace over 40% of the rolling stock used for transit traffic in the next seven years, said Maxim Schneider, Head – RZD Transit Corporate Management Center. A thousand of EMU cars will be written off in 2013 – 2015. Further 4000 – in 2016 – 2020. Out of the thousand passenger coaches 250 – that means, 25% – will have to be replaced in the next two years, he added.

чувствительном снижении загрязнения окружающей среды. В мире: Европейский инвестиционный банк предоставляет 200 млн. евро для Турецких государственных железных дорог для высокоскоростных линии АнкараСтамбул. Республика Молдова: Первый железнодорожный участок с европейской колеей связывающий порт Джурджулешть с городом Галац (Румыния) был запущен в эксплуатацию. В мире: Согласно последним данным статистики опубликованным китайским Министерством Железных Дорог, китайские капиталовложения в железнодорожную сферу выросли на 16% на протяжении первых семи месяцев этого года.


14 news

turkey: Istanbul’s massive Marmaray Metro Project finally conducted its first test run on August 2013, with Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan praising Istanbul’s latest mode of transportation while attending the test drive ceremony before boarding the train at Kazlıçeşme. “Istanbul can’t respond to needs anymore. Our transportation limitations are severe. Then we take different precautions. We will have to make things in different parts of Istanbul, perhaps go down another level – maybe two, three levels. Istanbul cannot handle 15 million people anymore. We need these precautions,” the prime minister said. Two different lines of speed trains will soon be joined into the Marmaray route, rounding up to a massive 63 kilometers transpor-

New Kiev Metro trains unveiled Ukraine: Kiev Metro has shown off two new trains currently being prepared to enter service on the city’s network. The two five-car sets have been built by Russian rolling stock manufacturer Vagonmash and financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). EBRD approved a loan of 39.6 million euros in 2007 to allow the operators of Kiev Metro to modernize the network’s vehicle fleet. Officials visited the Obolon depot on August 12 to see the new vehicles and answer questions from local media.

Sofia’s third metro line to cost EUR 720 mln Bulgaria: Around 280 000 people in Sofia use the most convenient, environmentally-friendly and fast means of transportation, the Sofia subway, according to Sofia Mayor Yordanka Fandakova. Fandakova presented, on August 6, the project for the third metro-diameter of the Sofia subway. Fandakova informed that the project was worth around BGN 1.4 B, the total length of the subway line was 16.5km, with 19 subway stations, 10 of them underground and 9 overground. Fandakova, as cited by Tema daily, suggested that the opening of the third metro-diameter was expected to reduce harmful gas emissions by 110 000 tonnes a year by 2020, while traffic was to drop by 35% and traffic accidents by 25%.

Bombardier wins order from Waterloo International: Bombardier Transportation announced it has signed an agreement with the Regional Municipality of Waterloo to supply 14 Bombardier Flexity Freedom light rail vehicles (LRV) for its ION rapid transit service in the cities www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

tation course through the city. The total cost with the combined projects will reach 9 billion Turkish Liras. Previously being imported from abroad, the trains sets are now being manufactured at Turkish factories in Eskisekir and Adapazari, Erdogan underscored, “We are also working hard to put Eskisehir-Istanbul high-speed train line into application on October 29 too. So, you will take the train from here --Istanbul-and reach Ankara in 3 - 3.5 hours.”

photo: www.hurriyetdailynews.com

Istanbul’s metro project Marmaray makes first test run under the Bosphorus

of Kitchener and Waterloo. The contract is valued at around CAD 66 Million (EUR 47 Million). The low-floor vehicles with five coaches and a capacity of 280 passengers will be delivered in the second half of 2016. The contract includes an option for 14 additional vehicles. Construction of new section in Green Line of Baku Metro starts Azerbaijan: Baku Metro started work on

construction of the “Khatai-Hazi Aslanov-2” section of the Green line, Baku Metro reported. The line will be constructed by French Buiq and Ukrainian Interbudmontaj companies through mediation of industrialconstruction and investment corporation Akkord. Baku Metro is currently 34.6 kilometers long with 23 stations and the Green and Red lines. The number of subway lines is planned to be increased from two to five, the length up to 119 kilometers, and the number of stations up to 76 by 2030. Baku Metro is implementing a 20-year program for the development of the subway system. Under the program, two subway stations will be commissioned in May 2014 and about six stations are expected to be built by 2016. Currently, eight stations and two train depots are under construction. Турция: В августе были проведены первые проверочные работы в рамках проекта тоннеля Мармарай, проходящего под Босфором Украина: Киевский Метрополитен представил фотографии новых поездов метро которые будут введены в эксплуатацию в сети украинской столицы Болгария: Мэр Софии Йорданка Фандыкова, представила проект 3-й магистрали метрополитена В мире: Компания Bombardier Transportation заключила договор с администрацией города Ватерлоо по доставке 14 легкорельсовых вагонов Азербайджан: Бакметрополитен начал строительные работы железнодорожного участка Хатаи-Ази Асланов-2, часть Зелёной линии.

Reconstruction of the central Baku subway station “28 May” is to be completed by the year-end.Another, Avtovagzal station is planned to be commissioned in 2014. It will be the first of the 12 subway stations of the planned “Purple” line, which starts from the international bus terminal complex and ends at the Garachukhur district.The stations will be designed for seven carriages, and will have a special glass barrier along the path to separate the moving trains from the platform. This will allow ensuring pilotless movement of trains in the future. Stadler delivers additional trams for Tramlink International: British operator London Tramlink has ordered four additional Variobahn trams from Stadler Pankow. The trams represent an option included in the contract previously signed with Stadler. They will be manufactured in Stadler’s plants in Berlin and will be put in service in 2015. The bi-directional low-floor trams have five coaches and a capacity of 72 passengers on seats and 134 standing. The maximum speed of these trams is 80 km/h. The rolling stock is equipped with air-conditioning. The first six Variobahn trams were put in service on the network exploited by Tramlink in the spring of 2012.

RATP and Transdev begin exploitation of Shenyang tram International: RATP and Transdev have announced the commissioning of line 1, 2 and 5 of the tram in Shenyang (China). Line 1 has 18.7 km, line 2 has 15 km and line 5 has 21.1 km. Line 3 is 15.1 km long and will be commissioned soon. It is estimated that lines 1, 2, 3 and 5, with a total number of 65 stations, will carry more than 150,000 passengers per day. Another line, no. 6, is in construction and studies are elaborated for line 4. In April, RATP Dev and Transdev won the contract for the exploitation and maintenance of the tram network for a company which is 51% owned by the municipality and 49% owned by the two companies. The 3-year contract will generate a turnover estimated at over EUR 41 Million. Румыния: В начале 2015 года будет построена структура станций и тоннелей участка метро Рыул Доамней- Эроилор 2, включая депо и станцию Валья Яломицей, принадлежащей метрополитеновской Магистрали но.5 В мире: Транспортное руководство немецкого города Брауншвейг оформила выбор трёх дополнительных низкопольных трамваев Tramino произведенных компанией Solaris. В мире: Компания Tramlink заказала четыре дополнительных трамваев Variobahn произведенных компанией Stadler Pankow. В мире: Парижский Транспортный Оператор RATP и группа Transdev объявили пуск в эксплуатацию первой, второй и пятой трамвайной линии города Шэньян (Китай).


news 15 Metrovagonmash to provide maintenance for Moscow Metro

Metrorex to put in service the Râul Doamnei - Eroilor 2 line section in 2016

photo: wikipedia.org

Russia: Metrovagonmash signed a contract with Moscow Metro for its metro car maintenance. This 30-year contract is signed for the 248 81-760/761 cars. The total amount of the contract is RUB 15.5 Billion (EUR 350.6 Million)

Riyadh awards contract to Parsons, Egis Rail and Systra International: Riyadh Development

Authority awarded the consortium including Parsons, Egis Rail and Systra to supervise construction of the metro network in Riyadh. The contract, worth EUR 425 Million, includes project management and the supervision of construction works for lines 1,2 and 3, of the six lines that will be representing the network in the end. The consortium will approve the studies, will supervise and coordinate construction works and will approve the tests

romania: According to the Bucharest metro company, Metrorex, the structure of stations and tunnels will be completed in 2015 on the Râul Doamnei - Eroilor 2 line section, including the depot and Valea Ialomiţei station part of the Metro Line 5 “Drumul Taberei - Pantelimon”. The rolling track assembly works will come next, and then automation works and finishing. The deadline for the commissioning of the Râul Doamnei - Eroilor 2 line section is the beginning of 2016. Works at 10 metro stations are carried out at the moment, the most advanced station in terms of execution being Academia Militară where the two boring machines will be launched. The station is 75% completed. Basic works performed at the moment

carried out before the commissioning of lines. The first sections of the metro network will be put in service by 2018. Braunschweig extends Solaris tram order International: Braunschweig Transport has used an option for three additional Tramino low-floor trams manufactured by Solaris (Poland). The 36-m long trams have four coaches and will run on the city’s 1100mm gauge

are the casting of the partition walls at the first level of the surface and final preparations or the launch of TBMs. Orizont and Sergiu Celibidache stations are 40% completed, Favorit and Valea Ialomiţei Depot stations are 50% completed. The superior ceiling of Tudor Vladimirescu station is completed and excavation to the next level was launched. The sum allocated for 2013 has been so far estimated at RON 250,000 Thousand (EUR 56.3 Million). Compared to this amount initially allocated, the latest budget rectification has added RON 250,000 to the funds allocated to Line 5 project. For 2014, the estimations of the sums, in the limits imposed through the framework letter of the Ministry of Public Finances, are worth around RON 300,000 Thousand (EUR 67.6 Million). The project is financed through non-reimbursable structural funds within the Sectoral Operational Programme – Transport. network. The trams can accommodate 77 passengers on seats and 124 standing. The option was included in the initial contract for 15 trams signed in May 2012. Россия: Метровагонмаш заключила контракт с Московским Метрополитеном на техническое обслуживание вагонов. В мире: Авторитет по вопросам Развития столицы Эр-Рияд предоставил консорциуму Parsons, Egis Rail и Systra контракт по эксплуатационному надзору строительных работ метрополитеновской сети.

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


result of underdeveloped road networks, mixed traffic, 55 kilometers of railway per th limited availability of traffic engineering expertise, of land area (Table 5.4). Growth rate of GDP (% per year) 16 Market development governance issues, and rapid increases in motorcycles Subregion/Economy 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 džƉĂŶƐŝŽŶŽĨŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJĂŶĚĞůĞ and the rest of the vehicle fleet. Moreover, road deaths Central Asia 6.8 6.8 5.6 5.5 6.0 0.1 Azerbaijan 5.0 2.2 3.1 4.8 ƐƉƵƌƌĞĚ ŚƵŐĞ ĚĞŵĂŶĚ ĨŽƌ are concentrated among poorer household, which have 16 Asian Development Outlook 20137.5 Kazakhstan 7.3 5.0 5.2 5.6 in fewer resources to draw onEast in Asia times of emergency or8.2 electricity 9.8 6.5 7.1 the PRC 7.1 rose b 9.3 China, People’s Rep. of 10.4 7.8 8.2 8.0 kilowatt hours between 200 income loss. The ADB plan16Hong quoted estimatesOutlook that the Kong, Development China 6.8 1.4 3.5 3.8 Asian 20134.9 Growth rate per6.3 year) Korea, Rep. of of GDP (%from 2.0 2.8 3.7 ] the [there by Pamela Luică production exceeds cost to developing member economies road3.7 4.1 Taipei,China 10.8 1.3 3.5 3.9 Subregion/Economy 2010 gross 2011 ŶŝŶĞ 2012 2013 2014ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ďŝŐŐĞƐƚ ƌĞŐŝŽŶĂů accidents in 2007 was about 2% of their total 6.0 South Asia 8.5 5.0 5.7 6.2 Central AsiaDevelopment Outlook 6.8 6.8 5.6 5.5 6.0 6.7 Bangladesh 6.1 6.3 5.7 16 Asian 2013 boosted output by 257 domestic product, or $96 countries billion each year. Growth rate of GDP (%from per year) In 2013, the Asian developing slowly recover of last2.2 year’spower economic 0.1 Azerbaijan 5.0the slowdown 3.1 4.8 6.2 India 9.3 5.0 6.0 6.5 growth, while domestic growth and regional trade focus will accelerate growth from 6.1% in 2012 to 6.6% 7.5 Kazakhstan 7.3 5.0 5.2 5.6 3.0 Pakistan 3.1 3.7some other 3.6 3.5 as in economies, i Asian 2013 Subregion/Economy 2010 2011 report 2012 2014 in 2013 and to 6.7% in 2014, shows16 the AsianDevelopment DevelopmentOutlook Outlook 2013 published2013 by the Asian 8.2 Sri Lanka 8.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 8.2 East Asia 9.8 6.5 7.1 7.1 Development Bank (ADB). Measures including Southeast saferPeople’s Central Asiaroad construction, 6.8 6.8 5.6 5.5 6.0 9.3 China, Rep. of 10.4 7.8 8.2 8.0 4.7 Asia 7.9 5.5 5.4 5.7 Growth rate of GDP (% per5.0 year) 0.1 Azerbaijan 2.2 3.1 4.8 4.9 Hong Kong, China 6.8 1.4 3.5 3.8 6.5 Indonesia 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.6 better protection for pedestrians, stricter enforcement 7.5 Kazakhstan 7.3 5.0 5.2 5.6 3.7 Korea, Rep. of 6.3 2.0 2.8 3.7 5.1 Malaysia 7.2 5.6 5.3 5.5 Subregion/Economy 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 produc Figure 5.6 Top 10 electricity Growth rate of GDP (% per year) 4.1 8.2 Taipei,China 10.8 1.3 3.5 3.9 3.9 Eastroad Asia 9.8 6.5 7.1 7.1 of he traffic regulations, and safety education Philippines 7.6 6.6 6.0 5.9 Growth rate of GDP (% per year) increase will have effects in Chi- Central Asia 9.3 6.8 6.8 5.6 5.5 6.0 5.2 China, People’s Rep. of 10.4 7.8 8.2 8.0 Singapore 14.8 1.3 2.6 3.7 6.0 South Asia 8.5 5.0 5.7 6.2 from 7.8% (inreduce 2012) to 8.2%road (in Subregion/Economy 2012 2013 2014 can na sharply deaths. Nearly 2010 half the2011 4.9 Azerbaijan 5.0 2.2 3.1 4.8 0.1 Hong Kong, China 6.8 1.44,500 3.5 3.8 Thailand 7.8 6.4 4.9 5.0 2014), influenced by strong con- Bangladesh 6.7 6.1 6.3 5.7 6.0 7.5 3.7 Kazakhstan 7.3 5.9 Korea, Rep. of 6.3 2.0 2.8 3.7 Viet Nam 6.8 5.0 5.2 5.6 Central Asia 6.8 6.8 5.6 5.5 6.0 sumption and investments.with Also, India will have India reduced fatalities 9.3 5.04,000 6.0 6.5 32 economies data per6.2 4.1 10.8 1.3 3.5 3.9 0.1 record a growth from 1% to 5% (in 2012) to Taipei,China Azerbaijan 5.0 2.2 3.1 4.8 8.2 3.0 EastPacific Asia 9.8 6.5 7.1 7.1 Pakistan 3.1 3.7 3.6 3.5 8.3 The 5.5 7.3 5.2 5.5 6% (in 2013) and 6.5% (2014), but since South South 7.5 Kazakhstan 7.3 5.0 5.2 5.6 100,000 population 2000, often For6.0 9.3 8.2 China, People’s Rep. of sharply. 10.4 7.83,500 8.2 8.0 Sri Lanka 8.0 6.4 6.8 7.2 Asia 8.5 5.0 5.7 6.2 1.9 Fiji 0.1 2.5 2.0 2.3 Asia should create a favourable investment Bangladesh 4.9 Hong Kong, China 6.8 1.4 3.5 3.8 6.7 11.1 6.1 6.3 5.7 6.0 Papua NewAsia Guinea 7.4 9.2 5.5 8.2 East Asia 9.8 6.5 7.1 7.1 4.7 Southeast 7.9 5.5 5.4 5.7 environment if it three targets to sustain a high Korea, 3,000 example, economies—the Republic of Korea; 3.7 Rep. of 6.3 2.0 2.8 3.7 6.2 India 9.3 5.0 6.0 6.5 9.3 China, People’s Rep. of 10.4 7.8 8.2 8.0 6.5 Indonesia 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.6 growth rate. Developing Asia 9.2 6.1 6.6 6.7 7.3 4.1 10.8 1.3 3.5 3.9 3.0 Pakistan 3.1 3.7 3.6 3.5 Hong Kong, China 6.8 1.42,500 3.5 3.8 5.1 However, although the developed econo- Taipei,China Taipei,China; and Thailand—lowered their fatality Malaysia 7.2 rates4.9 5.6 5.3 5.5 Source: „Asian Development Outlook 2013”, ©8.0 2013 Asian Development Bank 8.2 Sri Lanka 6.4 6.8 7.2 3.7 Rep. of 6.3 2.0 2.8 3.7 mies have met the expectations so far, ac- Korea, 3.9 6.0 Philippines 7.6 6.6 6.0 5.9 South Asia 8.5 5.0 5.7 6.2 Notes: Developing Asia refers to 44 developing member countries of the Asian Development Bank 2,000 by at least 40% between 2000 and 2010. 4.1 cording to the latest estimation of ADB productivity (typically agriculture) into 4.7 growth problems: conTaipei,China 10.8 1.3 3.5 3.9 5.2 6.7also brings5.5 Singapore Asia 14.8 1.3 2.6 3.7 Bangladesh 6.1 6.3 5.7 the region 6.0 Southeast 7.9 5.4 5.7

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South Asiacongestion. comprises 6.2Viet ZĂŝů 2013; ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐ ŝŶPhilippines, ƚŚƌĞĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ India 9.3 Thailand, 5.0 6.0 Afghanistan, 6.5 8.3 The Pacific 5.5 7.3 5.2 5.5 Outlook thus, growthĂƌĞ in theĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞĚ region is need to manufacture newSingapore, products, to enterand high level of traffic 5.2 Singapore 14.8 1.3 2.6 3.7 Bangladesh, Bhutan, theup Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri5.5 Lanka. Central Asia comprises 3.0 Pakistan 3.1 3.7 3.6 3.5 4.7 1.9 Regarding expected to rise from 0.3% to 6.3% in 2013 new markets,Asia and toIndia, move the railway transport, the networks Southeast 7.9 5.4 5.7 Fiji 0.1 develop2.5 2.0 2.3 500 Turkmenistan, 0.1 ŝŶ ƐŝĂ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞ WĂĐŝĨŝĐͶƚŚĞ WZ͕ /ŶĚŝĂ͕ ĂŶĚ :ĂƉĂŶ Thailand 7.8 6.4 4.9 5.0 Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and 8.2 Sri Lanka 8.0 6.4 6.8 7.2and and to 6.4% in 2014. For China, the first half ment Developments in6.2 agriculture 11.1 in three economies of Asia 6.5are focused6.2 Indonesia 6.4 6.6 Papualadder. New Guinea 7.4 9.2 5.5 6.0 5.9 Viet Nam 6.8 5.0 5.2 5.6 (continued the Asia’s next page) of the year was marked by a fall and estima- will be keyonfor future; another pri- 4.7 the Pacific-China, India5.3 and Japan. “China 5.1 Malaysia 7.2 5.6 5.5 0 Southeast Asia 7.9 5.5 5.4 5.7 (Figure 5.5). The invested railways, Developing Asia 9.2 6.1 6.6 6.7 tions stood at 7.7% for 2013 and atPRC 7.5% for ority is the heavily importance ofinproduction and 8.3 invested in the railway system 7.3 3.9massively 6.2 Philippines 7.6 6.6 6.0 5.9 The Pacific 5.5 7.3 5.2 5.5 6.5 Indonesia 6.2 6.4 6.6 2014. Also, growthits in Eastern Asiarail is downindustrialisation should be essential so that 5.2 and extended the network by 24.1% in Singapore 14.8 1.3 2.6 3.7 1.9 extending total route by 24.1% between 1990 Fiji 0.1 2.5 2.0 2.3 5.1 Malaysia 7.2 5.6 5.3 5.5 exgraded from 7.1% in 2013 to 6.7% in 2014. an economy could reach a high level of re1990-2011. At the same time, Thailand 0.1 Notes: Developing Asia refers to 44 developing member countries of the Asian Development Bank Thailand 7.8 6.4 4.9 5.0 11.1 Papua New Guinea 7.4 9.2 5.5 3.9tended the6.6 Philippines 7.6 6.0 5.9 Within 2011. the recentTaipei,China publication (Augustexpanded venues”, the ADB report network bythe 14.7%. India,6.0 with and Brunei an says. unclassified member. East Asia comprises and its rail system by 5.9 Viet Nam Darussalam, 6.8 regional 5.0 5.2People’s Republic 5.6 5.2 Singapore 14.8 1.3 2.6 3.7 2013) “Key Indicators for Asia and the Pa- Developing Although in Asia 2012, growth the second network, expanded 9.2 in 6.1largest 6.6 of China; Hong Kong,economic China; the Republic ofthe Korea; Mongolia; and Taipei,China. Southeast Asia6.7 its 7.3 0.1infrastructure Thailand 7.8 6.4 byDemocratic 4.9Republic,inMalaysia, 5.0 cific 2013”, ADB underlines some of the region wasBrunei belowDarussalam, expectations, worldwide 2.6%. However, several 8.3 The Pacific 5.5 7.3 5.2 5.5 comprises Cambodia, Indonesia, the Lao People’s 5.9 Viet Namtheawareness. 5.0 5.2 5.6 priorities to consider in the continuous Asia gained Asia and6.8 Pacificand countries, suchAsia as Japan, Kazakhstan, Paki1.9Viet Fiji 0.1the 2.5 2.0 2.3 Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Nam. South comprises Afghanistan, Notes: Developing Asiahalf refers 44 developing member of the Asian Development Bank transformation of Asia. “Developing Asia represent more than thetoMaldives, global populastancountries andSri Vietnam, rail networks declined. 11.1 Papua New Guinea 7.4 9.2 5.5 6.0 Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Nepal, Pakistan, and Lanka. Central Asia comprises 8.3 The Pacific 5.5 7.3 5.2 5.5 and Brunei Darussalam, an unclassified regional member. East the People’s Republic needs to make a significant leap tion, over one thirdGeorgia, ofin the world GDP (asKyrgyz Japan hasAsia thecomprises largest railway density esti-2000 Figurequalitative 5.5 Percentage of railHong networks Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and 1.9 of China; Kong, China; the Republic of Korea; Mongolia; and Taipei,China. Southeast Asia Fiji 0.1 2.5 2.0 2.3 in structural transformation and to focus regards the purchasing power) and 2011 55 km/1000 square6.7km”, Developing Asia 9.2 one third 7.3mated in kWh 6.1= at 6.6 kilowatt-hour. andofthe year (continued onGuinea the next page) Cambodia, 11.1the comprises Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, theADB Lao People’s New 9.2 Democratic 5.5Republic, Malaysia, 6.0 on transferring labour fromAsia sectors lowPacific, ofPapua the latest world exports. However,7.4 importance report informs. Source: World Development Indicators Online (Wo Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam. South Asia comprises Afghanistan,

Notes: Developing refers toMaldives, 449.2 developing of theCentral Asian 6.6 Development Bank Developing AsiaAsia 6.7 7.3 countries Percentage of rail networks in Asia and theBhutan, Pacific, latest year Bangladesh, India, the Nepal,member Pakistan, and Sri6.1 Lanka. Asia comprises

Indonesia 2 Korea, Rep. of 2 Uzbekistan 2 Thailand 2 Pakistan 4 Australia 4

and Brunei Darussalam, an unclassified regional member. East Asia comprises the People’s Republic Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and

Others of China; Hong Kong, China; the Republic of Korea; Mongolia; and Taipei,China. Southeast Asia (continued on the next Notes: Developing Asiapage) refers to 44 developing member countries ofна the то, Asianчто Development Bank Несмотря экономика 10 comprises Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam, an unclassified regional member. East Asia comprises the People’s Republic неNam. отмечает Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet South Asiaзначительного comprises Afghanistan, of China; Hong Kong, China; the Republic of Korea; Mongolia; and Taipei,China. Southeast Asia роста, Азия важную Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.достигла Central Asia comprises comprises Brunei Darussalam, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, China, Cambodia, People's Indonesia, the Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyzпозицию Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and глобальном Rep. of Thailand, and Viet Nam. Southна Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Asia comprises Afghanistan, (continued onBhutan, the nextIndia, page)the30 уровне Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Central Asia comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and На текущий год, азиатские (continued on the next page)

Kazakhstan 6 Japan 9 Source: „Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2013”, © Asian Development Bank

Source: Table 5.4.

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

India 29

WĞƌ ĐĂƉŝƚĂ ĞůĞĐƚƌŝĐŝƚLJ ĐŽŶƐƵ ϮϬϬй ŝŶ ϭϭ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ ďĞ (Figure 5.7). Consumption развивающиеся cтраны приходят в норму economies such as the Re после экономического торможения зарегистрированного в прошлом году, outstrip for lower-incom внутренний рост иthose сосредоточение на региональную торговлю способствуя that the latter will continue to ускорению общего роста. Несмотря на то, что году экономический inв 2012 demand. Largeростprice incre региона являлся ниже ожиданий, Азия достигла важную позицию на глобальном ĞŶƚƌĂůĂŶĚtĞƐƚƐŝĂŶĞĐŽŶŽ уровне. per capita consumption since


18 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

“Full Service Model”, a passenger-dedicated project

ROBAROMETER 388

“Railway competition”

[ by Pamela Luică ]

YS OF BUYING TICKETS

cussed railway offers, we now address the ways rail passengers can buy

Europe has set several primordial objectives in its policies which determine the revitalisation of railway transport and now tries to answer to challenges by launching many modernisation and extension projects purchase options before turning to the question of buying tickets for rail next to the ones on the optimisation of passenger transport services. In the past years, the improvement at involve of multiple rail operators. the passenger railway transport services has had a particular importance for the EU, but also for the organisations and companies involved in the activity of this sector, aiming at the provision of a safe, efficient and easy-to-access transport, and the main goal has been to contribute to the increase of the market share of railway transport, in relation with the other modes of transport. In fact, the efficiency and the quality More ways buyingservices ticketswill influence the choice of passengers. In the passenger railway sector, EU intends ofof transport to triple the high-speed network length by 2050, which means a significant increase in the number of st two-thirds of Europeans would like more ways of buying tickets passengers. considering how far Europeans would like rail market competition to result in

such as online, via smartphones or on board –

A

ccording to statistical data, pas- by contrast, 17% don’t want more methods, senger railway traffic is increasing, mentions the Eurobarometer “Rail Comthe introduction to attract this achapter that it almost two-thirds (65%) of Europeans but to larger number, is petition”, published in September 2012. more ways of buying tickets (e.g. online, via smartphones, or board) necessary to implement projects that an- Under these circumstances,on at the level 29 of. swer mobility needs. The fact that for the each state, the analyses indicate that the cally, 23% would like this very much and 42% quite a lot. passengers, the travel time, the comfort highest rate is identified in the Czech Reand the rapid ticketing systems, as well as public (82%), Greece (77%) and Slovenia 17% do much want more ways to are buy tickets, and(with 8% not at all. Another thenot availability of information supply and Slovakia the same rate: 75%). theanswer most important features in know. the choice By contrast, the lowest rate is registered in pondents that they don’t of the transport mode, are not just sup- Portugal (51%) and Romania (54%). In positions anymore, but observations, as the elaboration of the survey, respondents indicated in the surveys of the European have been questioned about the imporUnion. As regards the ticketing methods, tance of the opportunity of buying tickets 65% of the Europeans expect the imple- and benefiting from information through mentation of more ticketing methods (e.g. one single point; this criterion matters for online, via smartphones or on board), and 75% of respondents. To what extent do you wish that more competition lead to the following effects?

More ways of buying tickets (e.g. online, via smartphones, or onboard)

Base: Total number of respondents (n=25591) Source: European Commission - Special Eurobarometer 388 - RAIL COMPETITION

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013



Likewise, the opportunity to buy tickets and get information covering a whole journey through one single point matters to 75% of the respondents. In order to improve the information related to journeys from departure to destination and to facilitate the choice of the adequate train and of intermodal journeys, as well as ticketing, the managers of the European railway companies agreed on launching a common project entitled “Full Service Model”. It will allow the provision of several options and information for passengers by using cutting-edge technologies in the field. The project will be implemented with the ticketing services associations: ETTSA (European Technology and Travel Services Association), ECTAA (European Travel Agents’ and Tour Operators’ Associations) and GEBTA (Guild of European Business Travel Agents). “This agreement is a powerful signal given to European passengers. The railways are ready to embrace innovative technologies in order to enhance further their services. It also shows that European railway undertakings are proactively meeting the needs of their passengers and are ready to collaborate, going beyond regulatory constraints”, declared the CEO of SNCB Marc Descheemaecker. The main goal of the project is to reinforce business partnerships by making it easier to display accurate and transparent data about available railway products, whilst respecting the commercial freedom about distribution channels and partners. The project will concentrate the specifications of functional requirements for an efficient IT infrastructure capable of improving the interoperability degree.


herefore these respondents are not included in the calculation of the percentages

Where rail journeys use different ral operators, does it matter or not to you to be able to buy tickets and get information which covers the whole journey through a single point, compared to these being provided by the different rail operators separately?

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FUTURE

THE OF

MOBILITY Base: Total number of respondents, excluding those who answered that it is not relevant for them (n=23988)

SPECIAL EUROBAROMETER 388

“Railway competition”

Source: European Commission - Special Eurobarometer 388 - RAIL COMPETITION

tal number of respondents, excluding those who answered that it is not relevant for them (n=23988)

Subsequently, the passengers will have a free and fast access to

III. DESIRABILITY OF THE EFFECTS OF RAILWAY the information related to railway services throughMARKET a diversity

COMPETITION of distribution channels. The project will be initiated this autumn and will last until the end of 2014. CER will offer assistance in the implementation of the project. “With this decision, the chapter European Passenger CEOsEuropeans’ took a major commitment. The first of this report presented current use of trains inThis the EU, endeavour, executedtheir jointly with the ticket vendors will of whileexciting the second chapter discussed expectations regarding the impact   competition in the improvements railway market. The present focus on how much bring steep to the way chapter rail andwillintermodal jourWhereEuropeans rail journeys rail operators, does it matter or not low-cost to you tooffers, be able to buy tickets hopeuse thatdifferent competition might have a number of effects: neys are distributed”, declared CER Executive Director Libor formation which covers whole journey singleRespondents point, compared to these being provided premium offers, and the more versatile ways through of buying atickets. were asked to Lochman. erent rail operators separately? what extent they wished that more competition would lead to these effects26.

To what extent do you wish that more competition lead to the following effects... ?

92

Base: Total number of respondents (n=25591) Source: European Commission - Special Eurobarometer 388 - RAIL COMPETITION Base: Total number of respondents (n=25591)

Seven in ten (70%) Europeans wish for a low cost or ‘no frills’ rail service similar to that provided by some airlines, whereas over one in five (21%) do not. Another 9%

„Full Service Model” – Проект разработан для пассажиров Almost two-thirds (65%) of Europeans hope for more ways of buying tickets (e.g. have no opinion on this subject.

online, via smartphones, or on board); while a quarter (25%) do not. A further 10%

Для пассажиров, время пребывания в пути, конфорт и оптимальные системы покупки билетов, являются самыми Over four in ten характеристиками (43%) Europeans would like a premium offer услугwhichэто would be more важными для выбора транспортных expensive but подразумевания, would include additional services films, newspapers, не просто а реальные факты, так(meals, как показывают etc.). социологические However, more respondents (47%) doв рамках not want such premium offers. A further опросы проведены Европейского Союза. 10% have no оптимизации opinion on thisинформаций topic. Для о проездах с точки отправления до пункта назначения, и для облегчения выбора подходящего поезда и использования интермодального перемещения, а также для оптимизации системы покупки билетов, руководители европейских железнодорожных компаний выразили своё согласие в связи с осуществлением общего проекта названным „Full Service Model”.   of respondents answer that they don’t know.

26

QC9

To what extent do you wish that more competition lead to the following effects…,?

80

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20 Market development

Railhuc project: Railway Hub Cities and the TEN-T Network Central Europe cities are the “first/last legs“of transnational transport chains. These chains consist of local, regional and transnational transport systems. On the one hand high speed connections among rail hubs in Central Europe are being upgraded, especially on TEN-T networks and along the main intercity lines. On the other hand nevertheless rail and in general public transport bound feeder lines need to be upgraded, strengthened and better organized. In order to enhance rail transport by improving the feeding functions on rail of major hub cities and their respective regions 11 partners from 7 countries cooperate in the RAILHUC project which is implemented through the Central Europe programme and co-financed by ERDF.

T

his project aims to improve Central Europe’s interconnectivity by an intermodal integration of rail hubs at 3 different levels into the TEN-T system, into regional and local transport rail and non rail systems. Of course, each hub city has its own local characteristics in terms of size, traffic, catchment area, spatial and network structure and last but not least on development and integration level. Nevertheless the local partners who are mostly local authorities, railway service provider companies, regional associations are strongly committed to increase the usage of rail. In order to achieve this aim several work steps have been elaborated to get a clear picture about the current situation and the needs of each hubs. Firstly with the involvement of several sub-contractors who worked under the supervision of Project Partner No. 7 KTI Institute for Transport Sciences (Hu) data collection has started

for mapping the “As is” situation together with the preliminary identifications of the bottlenecks. From the beginning of the project all of the interested local authorities, transport providers, civil associations were involved. At the same time 5 site visits were held in conjunction with the project meetings where examples of local good practice were presented. Later on further good practise from all around Europe has been sought and a catalogue of Good Practice was arranged. The Project Partners had to examine the option for adopt the collected Good Practices. Based on their answers several clusters were identified. After collecting the models and concepts of hub integration into TEN-T regional and local transport systems (action 3.1) the second part (action 3.2) “Mapping and simulations on present flows” has started. Hence, on the basis of modelling and simulation methodologies prepared by KTI an independent modelling work was carried out by

each hub for their specifications. As it was mentioned before there were quite big differences between the hubs in many different aspects. In addition the general aim of increasing the share public transport, especially rail transport at these hub cities assumed different interventions due to local organisational and financial options. The future intervention design is also ongoing as a part of the next work package of the Railhuc project, however in this article we are focusing on the modelling activities carried out by each hub about the present services and infrastructure positioning. It is important to note that all the hubs are located on at least one TEN-T corridor which assumes the importance of modelling for the feeder traffic. On the other hand due to the fact that the current demand for long-distance especially international journey on most of the hubs is significantly lower than on local and suburban traffic the focus was hold on options of the improvement of the feeder traffic.

There have been several different works carried out at the hub cities that can be summarised briefly: In Emilia Romagna Region (Reggio Emilia hub) • Passenger traffic in Reggio Emilia railway station has been investigated by a specific traffic survey. • The survey was carried out in October 2012, on an overall sample made up of 443 passengers interviewed on 24 trains. • The survey sample was casually chosen from the totality of passengers waiting to get on trains at Reggio Emilia railway station. • Journey time, gender, nationality, travel purposes, travel frequency, origin-destination were asked • In a previous european project (MMOVE ) specific mobility assessment has been done and synergies were obtained with the use some results for evaluating the potential future demand

In South Moravian Region (Brno hub) • Qualitative analysis has been carried out which depicted the railway infrastructure in Brno Metropolitan area. • Later on infrastructural bottlenecks and opportunities for the network and services development have been identified based on results of railway experts discussions. • Data of customer satisfaction with regional public transport have been obtained in a survey that revealed needed service improvements. • For the purpose of quantitative assessment of possible interventions surveys of passenger amount in regional trains and interregional trains have been carried out. In the Vysocina Region (Jihlava hub) Comprehensive modelling activity has been done with the involvement of an external expert company.

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013


Market development 21 • Regional 4-step multimodal traffic model of passenger transport of the Vysocina Region has been constructing since 15th November 2012. • The model is based on 755 traffic zones and involves all railways and roads and variations of services according to timetable (all train and bus links) • 2 modelling times allow to model morning rush hours and 24-h average transport demand • Travelers are distinguished according to their trip purposes – commuting to work, schools, leisure trips, other trips Central German Metropolitan Region (Hubs of Dresden, Leipzig, Erfurt, Halle) No new survey has been done, but extensive modelling activity took part in the whole region for local, regional and partially international level. • No specific flow data / data of present passenger demand in rail services are available. • Alternativ approach was adopted and commuter data (all-trip O/D matrix) were evaluated. • Operation times of all hubs last 20 hrs per day at the minimum and regular frequencies on all rail lines and local public transport services. • Lack of highly synchronised regular interval timetables increases total travel time for passengers at all transfer hubs, especially in the wider metropolitan area. • Competitive travel time (compared to car) on long distance trips only on O/D links integrating HSR sections. Lack of competitive travel time especially on all transnational links (will be improved for Nuremberg/ Munich links as of 2017)

Slovakia (Bratislava and Zilina hubs) Detailed analysis with the available databases and timetable structure around the two hub cities (Bratislava and Zilina) was carried out. The analysis aims at: • Points of transfer: represented by the so-called catchment centres • Proposed plan of lines: change the algorithm for generating the line routine for comfort of passengers • Time scheduling of services: to create a table of proportional numbers of passengers in each hour of the day for each municipality. Veneto Region (Venice hub) The survey focuses on the usage of Venezia-Mestre station on a typical weekday by acquiring pieces of information on: • Amount of riders entering and leaving the station; • Trip related data about riders’ arrival modes at the station, trip origin, alighting station, purpose for travelling; • The survey was performed on Tuesday 19th of February 2013 through pedestrians counting at the points of access and interviews of riders boarding the trains. Slovenia (Ljubljana hub) Detailed analysis with the available databases and timetable structure around Ljubljana hub was carried out. Different future development plans were assessed within the framework of Railhuc project.

Despite the relative good service level (frequency and quality of the trains), the following weaknesses were identified in the capital city of Slovenia: At Győr hub on the basis of existing databases a new • different micro locations for rail and bus stations model was built for the local and regional transport (even when in the same settlement usually there is some network with the following work steps: walking distance between) • Input data • no official P+R location connecting rail network • Model zones • no integrated ticket • Network model • major urban bus junction (Bavarski dvor) and main • Demand model railway station in Ljubljana are 400 meters apart (source: • Calculation of network impedances Google Maps) • Assignment results • little coordination between suburban/regional bus • Traffic poles, network parameters & bottleneck transport and rail (small feeder role of bus transport) To conclude the positioning activities port network with bus backbones leading ting interventions for their future scenarios carried out at the different hubs several to the main intermodal stations of the re- in order to sign priority agreements with different actions were identified according gion (Vysocina (CZ), Western Transdanu- the local stakeholders for ensuring the usthe local needs and possibilities. Gener- bia, Hu). In the ongoing further work steps age of the outputs of the Railhuc project in ally speaking the Western European hubs the Project Partners will model the best fit- the everyday decision making. are close (Central German Metropolitan Region) or already having connection to the high-speed network (Reggio Emilia), but on the other hand the Czech and SloПроект RAILHUC - города, железнодорожные центры и vakian hubs just started to prepare for the сеть TEN-T implementation of high speed network while the Slovenian & Hungarian hubs just Города центральной Европы являются жизненно важными в рамках трансplanning it on a longer term. On local level национальной транспортной цепочки, которая включает в себя местные, региональные the different motorisation rates of the hub и транс-национальные транспортные системы. С одной стороны, высокоскоростные cities are also different, but not as much as железнодорожные связи между транспортными узлами центральной Европы являются in the case of the train services. This means модернизированными, в особенности в рамках сети TEN-T и вдоль главных междугородных that the share of public transport is lower in линиях. Но, с другой стороны, железнодорожный транспорт и, в целом, общественный most cases both in commuting and feeder транспорт должен быть в свою очередь модернизирован, консолидирован и хорошо traffic for the long-distance train services организован. C целью улучшения качества железнодорожного транстпорта при which are not always a viable option at the оптимизации роли городов, которые являются главными узлами железнодорожного moment for travelling between the hubs. In транспорта, 11 партнёров из семи стран заключили сотрудничество в рамках проекта some specific cases the rural accessibility Railhuс, осуществлен в центральной Европе и получивший софинансирование от problem was identified and suggested to be Европейского Регионального Фонда Развития -ERDF. resolved with an integrated regional transWestern Transdanubia Region (Győr hub)

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


22 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Rio+20: banks to finance sustainable transport projects by USD 175 Billion [ by Pamela Luică ]

Economic development, social inclusion and environment protection measures are key elements of a healthy society, all of which rely on sustainable transport systems. The implementation of Voluntary Commitments on Sustainable Transport announced during the United Nations conference, Rio+20, is included in a report presented at the end of June during the High-Level Dialogue on Implementing Rio+20 Decisions.

A

t the moment, the negative externalities in the transport sector are estimated at 6-10% of the GDP and subsidies for the fuels supporting the motorization process is of USD 300-900 Billion. Also, road accidents are responsible for 1.23 million deaths every year and the economic costs of these accidents are estimated at USD 2.24 Billion, representing 3% of the global GDP (5% in the countries with small revenues). Another negative estimate of the transport sector refers to gas emissions whose volume is expected to increase by 70% until 2050 (from 2010) To further enrich the details of each initiative, stakemaking transport the source ofresources emissions holders were able to specify details of with most rapid growth. These glum perthat were devoted to the announced deliverables. Four types of can resources are available the registry spectives be reduced by in operating a upon registration: (in US$), Staff/Technical radical changeFinancing in transport and by createxpertise, In-kind contribution, and otherdevelop(free text ing a favourable access “through choice). ing the transport and the services which canvariety be carried out ofbydeliverables avoiding the useless The of the type and resourcmotorised journeysvaries while intelligently uses devoted to delivery from project to project. deliverables, its resources, are to ingAlland planningincluding the spaces dedicated publicly through the SD in Action Registry. traffic available and logistics; shifting people and Table 4 – Top 10 Commitments chart Top

freight traffic to the efficient and sustainable transport modes and improving the efficiency and the environment performance of the transport system by optimising vehicles, networks and management technologies”, points out the “Creating Universal Access to Safe, Clean and Affordable Transport”, a report on the Contribution of Sustainable Transport to the Implementation of Rio+20, presented in June, the main author of the document being SLoCaT (Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport). All elements of the Avoid-Shift-Improve approach have As of date, a total of US$636,982 million (more than been and can for deliver inUS$ 636tested billion) at hasscale been announced the impleclusive access. These solutions will have mentation of these voluntary initiatives. It is worth noting that there are a combining few larger single commitmultiple benefits an improvements up reductions for the major proportion of this mentthat in make access, in congestion, amount. improvement in road safety, cleaner air and a4 and reduced to dangerous Table table 5contribution show the distribution of the top climate change. 10 commitments in terms of announced monetary The implementation of the Voluntary value. Commitments on Sustainable Transport, announced during the United Nations’

10 Commitments chart

Commitment to Sustainable Transport: Commitment by the Asian Development Bank, together with seven other multilateral development, to provide more than USD 175 billion of loans and grants for transport in developing countries over the next decade.

Source: Voluntary Commitments & Partnerships for Sustainable Development

conference on sustainable development “Rio+20”, a year after their launch, has represented the foundation of the report, according to which, in the past year, several organisations have prepared to meet their commitments. Thus, the voluntary commitments launched within Rio+20 include activities such as knowledge management, capacity development, political dialogue and extension of financing. 8 large development banks committed last year to invest USD 175 Billion in the financing of sustainable transport projects over the next decade. “While financing investments in sustainable transport can be challenging, we have a model in the Rio+20 conference, which saw an unprecedented level of voluntary commitments. The eight largest multilateral development banks jointly committed to invest USD 175 Billion over the next ten years in more sustainable transport in developing countries. I commend their initiative”, declared UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon during the meeting in June (Berlin). Next to the Rio+20 commitments, the SLoCaT Partnership has facilitated 6 additional commitments, which “ will make it possible for the transport community and other development partners to better observe and track how the sector develops and what the impact of policies and measures will be on the sustainability of the transport sector at the global, national or local level”, says Michael Replogle, Managing Director for Policy and Founder of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. In 2012, more than USD 17 Billion of the funds to be allocated in the next 10 years were approved for projects in order to support the transport sector in developing countries. Moreover, the Working Group for Sustainable Transport was created

Commitment to Sustainable Transport www.railwaypro.com | September 2013 Commitment by the Asian Development Bank, together with seven other multilateral development, to provide more than USD 175 billion of loans and grants for transport in developing countries over the next


(2010 = 100). (Source: ITF/OECD) Note: High = high GDP growth and high car ownership rates, Low = low GDP growth and lower car ownership rates

Much of the growth in passenger transport in the decades to come will be in the cities of the developing countries. IEA estimates project up to a tenfold increase in urban passenger kilometers travelled in countries like India and China. This has clear Expected private urban motorized transport implications in terms of air pollution, road safety, congestion and climate change. (inaround passenger kilometers) around 3.3 Gt: having declined to year-2000 levels during the global recession, they have remained broadly flat since. Market saturation in some countries and increasing efficiency and emissions standards appear to be curtailing emissions growth. Non-OECD transport CO2 emissions have increased by more than 60% since 2000, reaching 2.5 Gt in 2011, with increased vehicle ownership being a key driver. Emissions in China and India have both grown strongly but, collectively, their emissions from transport are still less than half those of the United States (IEA, 2013).

The growth in CO2 emissions from transport has been faster than economic growth; CO2 emissions from road transport grew at an annual rate of 10% in the period 2002– 2010 vs. 9% annual growth in Gross Domestic Product. (Clean Air Asia. 2012). Emissions from transport are projected to rise 70% by 2050 from 2010 in a businessas-usual scenario making it the fastest growing source of GHGs. Nearly all of this growth will take place in emerging and developing economies and can be attributed to a growth in both Source: OECD/IEA 2013 passenger and freight transport and an increase in the kilometers Figure 5.on Expected private urban motorized transport (in passenger kilometers). travelled a per vehicle basis. Business-as-usual (Source: OECD/IEA 2013) growth in GHG emissions by sector 2010 – 2050

4

Creating Universal Access to Safe, Clean and Affordable Transport – Status Report

POLICIES & STRATEGIES

23

in turn, reduce the environmental impact at both global and local level. One of the Rio+20 commitments is UITP’s PTx2 strategy aimed to double the market share of public transport by 2025. “Access and connectivity at affordable prices is the basis of urban life for all. At the same time, only public transport can enable a massive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from the sector at the same time reducing the amount of public space used for transportation”, declared Gunnar Heipp – the chair of UITP’s Sustainable Development Commission . Already half the world’s population lives in urban areas (3.5 billions), and 60% of the people will be living in cities by 2030. According to estimates, 95% of urban extension over the next decades will be in developing countries. Therefore, the development of a sustainable transport sysNew Sustainable Transport Paradigm tem becomes crucial. Inclusive Access through Avoid-ShiftRio+20 comes two decades after the Improve original project (Earth Summit) and To realize a transformative change in the transport sector and create more inclusive access transport policy will need to shift fromof building to move cars or trucks to marks the reassertion theroadsgovernments’ building transport systems that move people and goods. There is growing agreement commitment (of and June 2012) thethree impleamong transport policy specialists planners on the needon to deploy interlinked strategies to realize inclusive access to jobs, goods and services. The development of mentation projects transport infrastructure of and services need to bewhich guided by thedetermine Avoid-Shift-Improve approach. This calls for: (a) Avoiding for unnecessary motorized trips the development of thea need green and sustainthrough smarter land use and logistics planning; (b) Shifting the transport of goods and persons to the most efficient mode ; and (c) Improving the and able economy. Rio+20 negotiationsefficiency focus environmental performance of transport systems by improved vehicle, fuel, and on importance transport in atheworld networkthe operations and managementoftechnologies. To enable successful implementation of the Avoid-Shift-Improve approach and it will be highly desirable to of urban internalize externaldevelopment. costs’ in the pricing of transport. 2

Sustainable Transport Paradigm

Source: IEA

Figure 8. Business-as-usual growth in GHG emissions by sector 2010 – 2050. which included the banks and which will being at the core of these targets. “Without (Source IEA)

Inclusive

report on the progress of the Voluntary the Rio+20 commitments on sustainable Access for All Commitments by thebeen end ofincreasing 2013. transport it would more difficult Recently there has attention for the role be thatmuch small particulates The SLoCaT partnership and can a large forclimate transport to become an integral associated also with air pollution have on change. From the climate and side, Avoid Shift Improve partcarbon of the community which acts in theMatter) important of theto post-2015 goal frameblack (which is part of Particulate is now part believed be the second most segment climate dealing forcer. with theAintensification work”, declared Cornie shows Huizenga, Joint important recent four year scientific assessment that black Avoid the need Shift to more Improve fuel Figure 13. Goal of the Decade of Action for Road Safety J. Guria) and of sustainable transport struggling to impact Convener of the (Source: SLoCaT to travel efficient and vehicle carbon emissions have are a much larger on climate change Partnership than previously transport technologies promote the integration of the sustainable principal author of the agent report.(UNEP, WMO thought making black carbon second most important climate modes transport according to2, the post-2015 orderlifegrowth tospan meet inthe post-2015 targets 2012). In contrast to CO black carbon hascarbon aInshort the atmosphere and Source: Creating Universal Access to Safe, Clean and Affordable Putting Transport on a low path Figure 9. Sustainable Transport Paradigm Transport, A Status Report on the Contribution of Sustainable target (“Post-2015 Development frombenefits. the economic, social and environmenthus emissions reductions will have Agendirect climate to the Implementation of Rio+20, June The Avoid-Shift-Improve approach has universal applicability and is2013 equally relevant for Cheaper Business da, elaboratedthan by a High-Level Panel as of Usual tal point of view, it is vital to accelerate the Transport the developed and the developing world. However, in the case of the developed world most countries deal with a mature vehicle fleet and the emphasis in infrastructure Although there are still scientific uncertainties about black carbon, as some parts of Eminent Persons, set up by UN Secretary growth of transport infrastructure and ser- planning is likely to be more on replacing or maintaining existing infrastructure rather black carbon have a cooling iswhich not the case for 2-degree diesel creating new infrastructure. This is likely to result in a greater emphasis on General) andalso the Technology construction of a effect, glo- this vices support andvehicles social The IEA Energy Perspectives 2012 includes 6, 4economic and climatethan “Improve” measures. In the developing world where there is a large need for additional emissions. Diesel black carbon emissions have a relative large share of warming bal institutional framework permit theachieving development and the improvement ofblack life and new transport infrastructure and services and where urbanization is proceeding scenarios (IEA 2012a). Fortotransport, the 2-degree scenario requires strong most rapidly, there is likely to be greater opportunity for “Avoid” and “Shift” measures. carbon parts and thus are recommended a first area ofmajor intervention reducing construction of avehicle sustainable transport. and as quality. The existing and future infrastrucРио+20: Банки намерены uptake of new technologies fuels, but also shifts infor future travelHowever “Improve” measures are still important as well to counter the impacts of rapid motor vehicle fleet growth in the developing world. The Post-2015 Development ture, jointly with theinservices supplied black carbon emissions. growth. Applying Avoid and ShiftAgenda based policies cuts growth car travel up toand 2050. финансировать 175 sets 5 targets that would undergo those to bemodes supplied, have to deliver effiIncreasing growth in mass transitsignifiand non-motorized significantly overanbaseline миллиардов доллоров для cant changes, sustainable development cient, reliable and fair transport that would, the In the case of persons this is usually mass public transport, walking or cycling and in the case of freight levels, in conjunction with better planning and infrastructure investments to reduce 2

length of somereductions trips will also CO2 Climate emissions worldwide. Emission byreduce sector passenger in support transport of a 2 Degree Scenario

Creating Universal Access to Safe, Clean and Affordable Transport – Status Report

Sectors 60

Additional emissions 6DS

50

Other transformation 7%

40

Buildings 12%

Gt CO2

Creating Universal Access to Safe, Clean and Affordable Transport – Status Report 30

Transport 21%

20

Industry 18%

10

Power generation 42%

0

2009 Source: IEA 2012

2020

2030

2040

2050

Figure 14. Emission reductions by sector in support of a 2 Degree Climate Scenario (Source: IEA 2012a)

проектов долговременного транспорта 9

to increase the share of rail or water transport

8

Экономическое развитие, социальная интеграция и меры связанные с защитой окружающей среды, принятые в рамках проектов долговременного развития, являются важнейшими социальными элементами, основанными на системах долговременного транспорта. Осуществление Волонтёрских Обязательств в рамках проекта Долговременного Транспорта- Rio+20назначенного при Конференции Организации Объединённых Наций, заключается в докладе, представленный в конце месяца июня в рамках Диалога на Высшем Уровне об осуществлении решений Rio+20. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


24 Market development

Can long-distance journeys be attractive? [ by Elena Ilie ]

The European interregional long-distance transport segment is prioritized as the European policy has to be focused on territorial cohesion, domestic market and connectivity of community regions. Therefore, when it comes to building passenger transport coaches, the railway industry stresses the development of new concepts that will focus the attention of the passenger customer towards railway transport.

R

ecent Eurostat data show that in can provide additional opportunities for eting system is not an objective per se: it seven European Union member the railway safety as well as a competitive is rather a means of making multimodal states long-distance transport rep- advantage. transport more attractive for users and of resents approximately 20% of the total pasBy providing innovating solutions for the promoting more efficient use of existing insenger/km segment. interior design (flexible plans for class I and frastructure and services. To maximize the potential of high-speed II seats and efficient plans for the conversion Only limited statistics are available as relong-distance railway transport, transport of sleeping coach seats into regular coach gards the long-distance intermodal travels operators need innovative equipments that seats), the performance and competitive- and there is no common definition across meet new requirements for interoperabi- ness of long-distance railway transport will Europe of long-distance trips. This makes it lity, economy, reliability, energy efficiency be improved compared to short-distance difficult to provide a precise overview of the “Railway co SPECIAL EUROBAROMETER 388 and the ability to ride both dedicated and air transport. main characteristics and size of the long conventional tracks. A more flexible use of rolling stock on1.2. long Userdistance travel market. frequency of suburban trains New interior design concepts are needed distances can generate significant improveNevertheless, it can be said with absoto be able to use passenger coaches in a ments in terms of efficiency thus leading- Four to inlute certainty have that at long-distance integrated ten Europeans least once used a suburban train – more flexible way and to make sure that this a most cost-efficient and more competitive ticketing system remains a limited phenoRespondents were asked also how often they travel by suburban trains . Only a flexibility does not interfere with the attrac- railway passenger transport. menon, restricted to certain niche markets. respondents are regular users (7%), more specifically: daily or almost daily (3 tiveness of vehicles in different market segIn terms of innovating concepts, the indusHowever, stakeholders suggest that, even several times a week (3%), or once a week (2%). Others travel by suburban tr ments. The purpose of innovative comfort try has offered more and more attractive tick- several though it may be (5%) difficult to estimate, the(13%). Size occasionally: times a month or several times a year concepts for railway vehicles eting solutions so as to make long-distance potential such a market does exist and proportions ofcompetition” respondents for seldom or never use suburban trains: once a year or SPECIAL EUROBAROMETER 388is to improve “Railway or never (59%). the competitiveness of railway long-dis- railway traffic more attractive and (15%), a viable may grow in the longer term.  tance transport as compared to short-dis- competitor to short-distance air transport. How often do you travel by ... in (our tance air transport. Currently, there are new However, a major disadvantage consists of country)? A majority (71%), however, may be considered as non-rail passengers: they never opportunities for a holistic approach of the the integrated ticketing system for longSuburban trains cars designed for specific systems. Theorde-onlydistance services which use national or regional trains (45%) once apassenger year ortransport less (26%). sign of coaches in railway transport meets is still a complex issue, as shown by a study several important functions, including the elaborated in 2012 by the European ParliaIn the remainder of this report, this distinction between regular, occasional and nonaesthetic, comfort and energy-efficiency ment, the Department of Internal Affairs. users offunctions. nationalThe or materials regionaltraditionally trains willused be included in theencounters socio-demographic Its feasibility a number of le-analyses in the construction of coaches are also segislative, technical and competition-related whenever applicable, i.e. when the total sample is being discussed. lected wisely in order to have a positive an- hurdles resulting from the differences beswer to fire standard tests and considering tween the many transport environments the results of these tests, new approaches that have to be combined. Integrated tick7

How often do you travel by ... in (our country)? National or regional trains (this excludes suburban trains) Base: Total number of respondents (n=25591)

Могут ли долгосрочные путешествия стать Country-by-country analysis shows that over half the respondents have trave at least once byпривлекательными? a suburban train in the Netherlands (72%), Germany (59%),

the Nordic countries Denmark (66%), Sweden (59%) and Finland (52%). The low proportions are observed in Bulgaria (10%) and Luxembourg (11%). На европейском уровне, транспортный

сегмент межрегиональных дальних расстояний является главным элементом, учитывая что европейская week, and once a week) are in Denmark (13%: 5%, 5% and 3% respectiv политика должна концентрироваться Germany (12%: 5%, 5%, 2%) and Spain (12%: 3%, 5%, 4%). The low на территориальное сотрудничество, percentages of regular users are observed in Lithuania and Bulgaria (both 1%). на единый рынок и когезию в рамках Европейского сообщества. На этом основании, когда речь идёт о производстве пассажирских вагонов, данная отрасль промышленности ставит   7 разработку концепций QC1.1 How often doакцент you travelна by suburban trains inновых (OUR COUNTRY)? которые смогут сосредоточить внимание пассажиров на железнодорожный 15 транспорт.

Taking into account the frequency of use, the highest percentages of regular use

suburban trains (that is at least once a week: daily or almost daily, several tim

Source: European Commission

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013




ELECTROPUTERE VFU SA

member of GRAMPET GROUP Calea Bucureşti, 80, C9, etaj 3, Craiova 200440, România Tel.: +40740900549 Tel./fax: +40251/439053 E-mail: office@electroputerevfu.ro

Tradition and Innovation

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26 leaders

Croatia’s accession to the European Union is a challenge for all the economic segments and the policies that have been and are still adopted by the authorities. Transportation is one of the most important economic sectors for Europe and, therefore, for Croatia, due to its economic effects and benefits. In this context, the European legislation began to be implemented in the area in 2005 and a new package of laws became effective this year, with the accession of Croatia to the EU. Therefore, the country’s accession grants free access to infrastructure to freight operators, under the same conditions, but in the railway passenger transport market competition will become possible as of 2017. The national railway passenger transport operator, HŽ Putnički prijevoz, has to align the new measures and regulations as soon as possible in order to integrate in the single railway market. Being the only operator in the domestic transport market by 2017, HŽ Putnički prijevoz plans to implement projects to grow transport services so as to develop a sustainable financial system. www.railwaypro.com | September 2013


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Croatia’s passenger transport operator prepares for liberalisation Interview with Dražen Ratković, CEO of HŽ Putnički prijevoz

[ by Pamela Luică ]

The company plans to buy new trains, to upgrade the passenger information system, to modernise the existing charging system and to apply modern solutions aimed at facilitating the acquisition of tickets and the integration of the entire ticketing system. After implementing all the projects set in the strategy, HŽ Putnički prijevoz will be ready for liberalisation. To find out more about the implications and the challenges imposed by Croatia’s accession to the EU railway system, as well as about the projects for the modernisation of the passenger transport services and the need to allocate investments to the projects for the modernisation of the railway sector, we have asked Mr. Dražen Ratković, CEO of HŽ Putnički prijevoz to give us an interview.

RailwayPRO: As Croatia is the new EU Member State, what can you tell us about the implementation of the European legislation (on railway transport) within Croatia’s railway legislation? Dražen Ratković: The implementation of the European legislation on railway transport started in 2003, upon adoption of the Railway Act. The application of the Railway Act began on 1 January, 2005. Upon Croatia´s entry into the EU, a new Railway Act came into force. Upon adoption of the new Railway Act, the implementation of the European legislation continued. Upon Croatia´s accession to the EU (Croatia became a full member of the EU), a rail transport revitalization and the organization thereof started, based on free market competition principles, which are a prerequisite to integrating that market segment into a single EU market. The

purpose of the new Act is to govern that market according to entirely new rules and regulations on division of business entities on that market resp. railway operators, infrastructure managers as well as autonomous regulatory body, which ensures the pari passu market competition for all operators. RailwayPRO: What can you tell us about the current situation of the railway passenger transport in Croatia compared to the European legislation on the liberalisation of the sector and how does HŽ Passenger Transport implement the EU liberalisation policies? Dražen Ratković: Croatia´s entry into the EU provided a free access for foreign freight operators to national rail infrastructure under the same conditions. HŽ Putnički prijevoz can get competi-

We believe we have an opportunity to interlink Croatia and other European countries in a single European market ... Dražen Ratković tion in 2017. Free market implies the positioning of market leaders, bigger competition, a potential decrease in the prices of the services. It is necessary to accommodate the demands of the market more rapidly. Given that rail systems in developed countries are more developed in terms of technique and technology, a state aid (based on investments in rail infrastructure and transport capacities) is required in the next period. Simultaneously, through forthcoming liberalization of rail transport market we are facing a strong competition from road operators and lower fares in air transportation, offered by low-budget airline companies, we are not able to compete with in terms of travel time. We should win over customers, who can orient toward new operators, and meet their demands, which are getting higher and higher, and respect customers´ rights and at the same time financially compensate for service not provided or inadequate service. RailwayPRO: As new EU Member State, Croatia, as well as the other member states, has to contribute to the es- > September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


28 leaders > tablishment of the single European rail-

way market. What are the main elements considered by the authorities and by HŽ Passenger Transport? Dražen Ratković: In July 2013, a new Railway Act entered into force, which systematically and integrally governs the rail system in Croatia in order to comply with EU legislation and the conditions that prevail in competitive rail service market of the EU. By virtue of the new Railway Act, a Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2012/34/EU of 21 January, 2012 on the establishment of a single European rail sector is implemented into the legal order of the Republic of Croatia. Likewise, decrees of the European Parliament and Council are implemented into the new Railway Act. The relationships between infrastructure manager and rail carriers are defined more explicitly, providing more details – through arrangement and adoption of timetable as well as through contractual relationships with the objective of an approach to rail infrastructure based on non-discrimination. Similarly, a possibility is defined for the first time for legal entities, other than rail carriers, to lease lines belonging to railway infrastructure, which ultimately will provide for an increase in traffic volume. A control in terms of approach to rail carriers is being introduced in terminals, seaports and river ports. Carriers and infrastructure manager commit to conducting a business in compliance with market principles. A principle of freedom in providing services is applied. A method of charging for the services through basic and extra packages is defined for infrastructure manager. By the Railway Act mentioned, a legal basis opens up for further improvement of market regulatory authorities in rail transport. Based on these new circumstances and the adoption of EU legislation, HŽ Putnički prijevoz has to work rapidly on the alignment of application of new business rules and regulations in order to be integrated into a single rail sector.

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

RailwayPRO: What does the opening of the railway transport market mean for HŽ Passenger Transport and what are the effects generated by this process? What are the challenges you face in opening the market and increasing competitiveness compared to the new entrants? Dražen Ratković: Rail market liberalization entails many challenges for HŽ Putnički prijevoz, particularly due to the fact that investments in fleet modernization and upgrading the level of service in the last 20 years were insufficient. Thus we are falling behind developed countries in that sector. Given that HŽ Putnički prijevoz will be a single operator in domestic transport in the Republic of Croatia by the end of 2017, the forthcoming period is to be deployed for the purpose of modernization in order to provide a quality service to the customers and in order to restore a financially sustainable system. We are already working on it. In mid2012, we prepared a Restructuring Plan for a medium-term period. We prepared a series of strategic plans. By implementing them, HŽ Putnički prijevoz will be prepared for market liberalization. It concerns plans such as purchase of new trains, modernization of existing distribution channels for ticketing in domestic and international transport and implementation of up-to-date distribution channels, decrease in the number of employees, along with upgrading productivity as well as more rational fleet management by implementing total fleet management. It is also worth noting that the entire modernization in passenger transport is to be accompanied by modernization of Croatian lines as well in order to reduce travel time in local and long-distance transport. Thus rail transport would become faster and more competitive.

more competitive and every national market meets the challenge of new entrants? Dražen Ratković: Croatia´s entry into the EU represents both a challenge for HŽ Putnički prijevoz as well as an obligation to conform to new market environment, where HŽ Putnički prijevoz is not the only rail operator, but a transport market is open to all interested rail carriers. HŽ Putnički prijevoz is now more committed than ever to aligning its services to the needs of the customers and to rationalize business operations by costcutting - in an effort to realize maximum revenue resp. profit. If we should fulfil all the parameters given in the Restructuring Plan, we believe HŽ Putnički prijevoz will be prepared to handle the competition under conditions of interoperability and market liberalization. For a number of years, we have been collaborating with foreign rail operators in order to provide passengers with good interlinking through trains between Croatia and other European countries. Croatia is also nowadays in terms of trains linked with Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Slovenia, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. We believe we have an opportunity to interlink Croatia and other European countries in a single European market. It is of great importance because Croatia is a tourism-oriented country and that there is a growing interest of citizens from other countries in visiting our country from year to year. Likewise, just as foreign operators will be able to operate trains in domestic transport in Croatia, we will also be able to compete for transport in other countries by modernized and refurbished train fleet. Thus we regard a single European rail system as a great opportunity for HŽ Putnički prijevoz as well.

RailwayPRO: How do you see the integration of the Croatian railway traffic within the European railway system, especially since transport services become

RailwayPRO: What are the elements your company is focused on to establish an efficient service and to launch new projects to encourage railway traffic and the level of competitiveness? Dražen Ratković: HŽ Putnički prijevoz plans a number of activities oriented towards upgrading the quality of service in the next period. We are planning to modernize fleet by purchasing new transport capacities, characterized by a high level of comfort, modern heating and air-conditioning system for passenger area, information system for passengers, area for transportation of persons with reduced mobility as well as many other features with the objective of upgrading the quality level of services provided and reducing travel time. We are also working on a project on integrated ticketing system, which involves implementation of stable vending machines, ticketing via Internet and smart phones, mobile terminals by means of which train conductors will be sell tickets on the train, implementa- >


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> tion of prepaid smart card, by means of

which passengers will be able to purchase services, including monthly and annual tickets as well as many other activities, which will provide for a more accessible and better transportation service. The entire catering service, providing refreshment on longer routes, should become viable this year. Likewise, the plans for the introduction of wireless Internet at the railway stations, stops and on trains are currently being elaborated. Loyalty programmes are being developed, by means thereof regular customers would be awarded and customers´ database would be created. The initiative regarding children´s program by setting up children´s clubs in major railway stations and long-distance trains is being considered. Investment in employees, who will be prepared to identify changes and to respond to them either by slight or fundamental organizational changes, by expanding the range of services provided, or by modifying the existing services in accordance with the demands of the market, is of vital importance. RailwayPRO: What are the methods used to increase the attractiveness of railway passenger transport? Dražen Ratković: Although the share of road transport – in relation to rail transport – has been continuously increasing in the last years, HŽ Putnički prijevoz intends to keep the existing customers as well as attract the new ones. In 2012, 27.7 million passengers were carried. We are all aware of the fact that travelling by train is a unique experience. However, if that journey lasts much longer than, e.g. journey by bus, car or plane, it is necessary to offer a variety of special offers enabling the customers to decide in favour of a journey by train. Hence, HŽ Putnički prijevoz offers a variety of special offers for young people, families and retired persons. Likewise, young people up to 20 years are offered 70% off on regular one-way and return fares tickets for journeys by train between Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia and Austria. Since Croatia´s mainland boasts many spas – public baths, we are interlinked with them as well. The spa visitors are offered transportation at more favourable price. Each year, dozens of special excursion trains run, by means of which passengers can visit diverse traditional cultural events. The youngest ones can take a train ride on special Christmas and Easter trains - with special program and gifts provided. We aim to attract new passengers with extra season domestic and international trains as well, which run towards tourist destinations. Those trains run from June to September. We also offer a journey in couchette coaches at a reasonable price as well as car transportation in car-carrying coaches free of charge. Throughout the en-

tire year, particularly during the summer, we offer discounts for journeys to different concerts such as Terraneo, the famous festival, which takes place in Šibenik in the summer. We aim to continuously expand the range of our services in order to satisfy our passengers. RailwayPRO: This year, HŽ Passenger Transport launched bids to procure rolling stock. What can you tell us about the stage of this project? Are there programme (drafted or submitted to approval) for improving transport services/purchasing rolling stock/or other projects that could be included in the EU multi-annual budget for 2014-2020? Dražen Ratković: HŽ Putnički prijevoz is planning to purchase 32 electric and 12 diesel and electric multiple-unit sets. The planned purchase value amounts to HRK 1.6 billion. We intend to sign an agreement on the building of trains with the company Končar Električna vozila in the last quarter of 2013. Technical features are as follows: lowfloor trains, operation in both directions, possibility to operate three compositions merged into one train, speed up to 160 km/h (electric multiple-unit sets) or 120

km/h (diesel and electric multiple-unit sets), air-conditioning, broad entrance door, increased number of seats, information system, possibilities of transportation for disabled persons and bicycles, smoother journey and less noise. The trains should be put into operation during the years 2014, 2015 and 2016. The trains will be running on all routes in Croatia. One of the main strategic objectives of HŽ Putnički prijevoz, defined in the Restructuring Plan as well, is the orientation towards providing services resp. successive abandonment of conventional trains due to higher energy costs, maintenance costs, shunting cost, costs of technical inspection of coaches and employees´ costs. Fleet is over 30 years old on average. Due to the lack of investments in procurement of new fleet in the last years, HŽ Putnički prijevoz is facing an unequal market competition and the impossibility to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in transport sector. Thus an investment in procurement of new transport capacities is an essential prerequisite for successful business of the company. The plan is to continue with the procurement of new fleet after 2016. Currently, we are analyzing the possibility to apply for September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


30 leaders EU funds for this new train contingent. As far as EU funds are concerned, HŽ Putnički prijevoz is involved in RAIL4SEE project. The purpose of the project is to create explicit guidelines in terms of how to increase the inflow of passengers in multimodal public transport of major railway hubs in South-East Europe and how to strengthen them and interlink them further. This means that for each mentioned hub, including Zagreb hub, the concepts will be created through the project, which will clearly show how to improve public transport that will „feed“ hub with passengers and how to interlink it even further by rail with other hubs. 28 partners participate in this project, that is, local administrations, scientific institutions and associations from Italy, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Greece, Slovenia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Croatia. The implementation started in July 2012. The project is intended to last for 30 months. The total value of the project amounts to EUR 4.5 million. The value of the part of the project referring to HŽ Putnički prijevoz amounts to approx. EUR 250.000, of which EUR 212.500 will be irretrievably co-financed through the instrument for Pre-Accession assistance (IPA). RailwayPRO: A performing railway transport depends on the quality of the infrastructure; if no investments are made in the quality of the infrastructure, the number of passengers will reduce constantly and the market share of road transport will increase. What can you tell us about the condition of the Croatian railway infrastructure? To what extent does HŽ Passenger Transport involve to determine the authorities to prioritize railway financing? Dražen Ratković: In the last 20 years, there were slight investments in rail infrastructure. This resulted in low train speeds. The average speed of passenger trains in 2012 was 48.3 km/h. The journey between cities 250km away from each other lasts for 5 hours. Many passengers do not have that much time to spend on a journey. Therefore, they often decide in favour of faster modes of transport. Out of 2,722km lines in Croatia, almost 1,500km of lines requires refurbishment as soon as possible. In order for HŽ Putnički prijevoz to achieve its strategic targets, travel time up to 50km distance should last for 50 minutes, up to 100km 90 minutes, up to 200km 150 minutes, whereas the distance of 400km should be covered by train in 240 minutes. HŽ Infrastruktura, the company managing rail infrastructure in the Republic of Croatia, intensified the projects on the refurbishment of lines. During the year 2013, HŽ Infrastruktura intends to invest HRK 2.1 billion. Priority lines intended for refurbishment are those located on corridor routes, that is, Corridor V B, linking Rijeka with Hungary and www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

Corridor X, which runs from Slovenian to Serbian border via Croatia, that is, from Savski Marof station via Zagreb Glavni kolodvor to Tovarnik station. The refurbishment of corridor routes is mainly cofinanced by EU funds. Apart from corridor routes, a number of local lines are to be refurbished as well as new routes built, e.g. to Zagreb and Split airports and the town of Samobor. RailwayPRO: How do Croatian authorities support railway passenger transport and what is the level of implication of the political class in encouraging railway traffic to the detriment of roads? Dražen Ratković: The development of road transport resp. building of motorways and state roads has been a priority for Croatian governments for years. This is one of the reasons why the quality of rail transport constantly decreased. During the year 2012, the Croatian government has set refurbishment and advancement in rail transport as one of the priorities. In 2012, a Commission for Railway was founded, the only commission in the Republic of Croatia that Prime Minister is the chairman of. There are steps forward present. However, they are very slowly carried out in a complex system such as railway. All Croatian railway companies (HŽ Putnički prijevoz, HŽ Infrastruktura and HŽ Cargo) prepared the Restructuring Plan in 2012, adopted by the Supervisory Board and Minister of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure. Strategic objectives until 2016 are specified in those plans. The achievement of those objectives would considerably improve and boost the Croatian railway system. The Commission for Railway is also acquainted with those objectives. The railway companies have a political support in the achievement thereof. As far as HŽ Putnički prijevoz is concerned, one of the activities of HŽ Putnički prijevoz, a state-owned company, is providing services of public interest, in which the difference between revenue and cost is partly compensated from the state budget. Those compensations exclusively refer to domestic transport, whereas international transport is entirely based on market principles. Likewise, the Croatian government issued state guarantees to railway companies for loan indebtedness for different investments, severance pay to employees as well as current liquidity. Within Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure, a group was founded dealing with the development of integrated passenger transport. Integrated passenger transport is a passenger transport with various modes of transport, with the objective of higher level of integration, that is, interlink of various elements such as joint terminals, uniform tickets and harmonized timetables. Such integration entails a benefit for carriers, local self-govern-

ments and inhabitants in the long run. The involvement of many institutions, carriers and associations guarantees a better transport system planning. The integration of passenger transport was also identified by the European Union, that we are a proud member of. This is one of the objectives we have to aim at in order for the transport system of the Republic of Croatia to be more efficient. It is precisely the railway that should be the backbone of the development of transport system in passenger and freight transport.

Хорватский оператор пассажирского транспорта готовится к открытию рынка Вступление Хорватии в Евросоюз является провокацией для главных экономических и политических сферах, в которых власти оперируют и принимают решения. В данном контексте, применение европейского законодательства в железнодорожной сфере дебютировало в 2005 году (когда Хорватия вступила в Евросоюз), когда новый законодательный пакет вступил в действия. Национальный оператор пассажирского транспорта- HŽ Putnički prijevoz, должен скорее приспособится к новым мерам и регламентам для интеграции в рамках единого железнодорожного рынка, осуществляя проекты модернизации. Для более детальной документации в связи с условиями и провокациями железнодорожной сферы, связанными с вступлением Хорватии в Евросоюз, мы провели интервью с Генеральным Директором национальной железнодорожной компании- HŽ Putnički prijevoz, Дразеном Ратковичем.


Metropolitan 31

USA: Modernisation of public transport focuses on the construction of light rail systems

[ by Elena Ilie ]

Urban transport, underground or light rail systems gain more and more ground at global level, when we speak either about new projects in the European states, in the CIS states, in Brazil, North Africa (Algeria and Morocco) or about the ones leading in the field of investments such as new systems which are at present in an advanced construction phase in China (the Beijing Government announced last year its intention to develop 25 new underground systems), Saudi Arabia (Haramain project) or Turkey (Marmaray project).

T

he fast rhythm of construction of new underground transport projects, especially in the states with developed economies, increases their number in the world to 190 such transport systems, according to an analysis conducted by The Economist. It is clear that a solid reason underlying the execution of such ambitious projects was the one of the firm commitment of many national governments and the complex financing programmes carried out by them after the “economic recession” moment. Despite all these, the United States of America is not on the list of countries with new underground projects, the last of this type inaugurated being the one in Washington D.C., in 2001. In exchange, in the last decade, most of the American cities, with a relatively high population, such as Houston, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego, Dallas, Denver, Minneapolis, Seattle or Portland have expressed more interest in the development of light rail transport systems than in new investments in underground transport systems.

Is the underground losing ground against the light rail transport system? However, after many years when new underground projects have been cancelled or adjourned (most of them because of the lack of necessary funds, caused by the economic recession), this year Washington Metro initiated the construction of the new line, Silver Line, which will connect Airport Dulles - the greatest international air hub of the region to the suburbs in Northern Virginia and, by extension, to the rest of the underground system. The first phase of the project, a section with a length of approximately 20 kilometres, is expected to be completed at the end of this year, the total costs reaching USD 5.6 Billion (EUR 4.2 Billion). In San Francisco, works started for the project called “Central Subway Project” which is in fact a tunnel of approximately 3 kilometres linking one of the light rail lines of the city to BART, the underground system in the region. Through this project, a significant extension is added in Silicon Valley, expected

Phoenix Light Rail

to be operational in 2015. Works will cost USD 1.7 Billion (EUR 1.28 Billion). What is also important to mention is the current project for the second underground line in New York, the works in progress aiming at an extension of 3 kilometres crossing in the underground the eastern part of Manhattan. Initial plans aimed at the construction of a line with a length of approximately 14 kilometres which should cross two thirds of the length of Manhattan Island, but no funds were granted for this purpose. Only the above mentioned short section of this project reaches the fabulous amount of USD 4.5 Billion (EUR 3.4 Billion). The transport systems, both the light rail system and the underground one, are extremely important for easing a very challenged urban traffic which is a large fuel consumer, but in the public opinion, the balance seems to go in favour of the construction of underground lines (although much more expensive) rather than in light rail systems.

Photo: http://farm4.staticflickr.com

США: Модернизация публичного транспорта сосредотачивается на производство системы легкорельсового транспорта Быстрый ритм конструкции новых подземных транспортных проектов, особенно в экономическо-развитых штатах, способствует их росту на глобальном уровне, достигая 190 транспортных систем такого вида, согласно анализу, проведенному журналом The Economist. Всё же, США не находятся в списке стран разрабатывающих новые метрополитенские проекты, имея в виду что последний проект такого типа был официально открытый в 2001 году в Вашингтоне. Более того, в последний десяток лет, большинство американских городов с довольно большим населением проявили свой интерес в особенности для разработки системы легкорельсового транспорта, в сравнении с инвестициями в метрополитенские системы. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


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leX

EU and the US launch negotiations on the free trade agreement

[ by Elena Ilie ]

At the middle of June, the EU Council gave the green light to the European Commission to initiate formal bilateral trade negotiations with the United States of America. Endorsing the idea of bilateral talks, Member States set out the objectives the Commission should follow in the negotiations on behalf of the EU. Thus, negotiations between the European Union and the US were launched at the beginning of July. According to the European Commissioner for Trade, Karel De Gucht, a final agreement could be made at the end of 2014.

T

he aim is to increase trade and investment between the EU and the US by unleashing the untapped potential of a truly transatlantic market place. The agreement is expected to create jobs and growth by delivering better access to the US market, achieving greater regulatory compatibility between the EU and the US, and paving the way for setting global standards. If such an ambitious agreement were achieved, it is expected that every year an average European household would gain an extra EUR 545 and our economy would be boosted by 0.5% to up to 1% of GDP, or EUR 119 Billion annually, and that of the US by EUR 95 Billion, once fully implemented. In more concrete terms, the goal will be to eliminate duties and other restrictions for trade in goods. Freeing up commercial services, providing the highest possible protection, certainty and level playing field for European investors in the US, and increasing access to American public pro-

curement markets are also objectives. Removing unnecessary regulatory constraints on trade is a key issue for the EU, as are obtaining stronger protection of European Geographical Indications, facilitating customs formalities and addressing competition rules. “The benefits for the EU and the US would not be at the expense of the rest of the world. On the contrary, liberalising trade between the EU and the US is expected to have a positive impact on global trade and income, potentially increasing GDP in the rest of the world by almost EUR 100 Billion. Some of the reductions achieved in the cost of doing trade will also benefit other partners because the EU and the US will be able to work together towards better trade rules and less regulatory divergence between them in the future”, the European Commission states. The negotiating directives set out in very broad terms the topics and the objectives to be achieved in the negotiations. There are essentially three main elements in the man-

EU-United States “trade in goods” statistics

EU-United States “trade in services” statistics

date: market access, regulatory convergence and trade rules addressing shared global challenges. An economic study published by the Commission shows that EU exports to the US would go up by 28%, equivalent to an additional EUR 187 Billion worth of exports of EU goods and services. EU and US trade with the rest of the world would also increase by over EUR 33 Billion. Overall, the extra bilateral trade between the two blocs, together with their increased trade with other partners, would represent a rise of 6% in total EU exports and of 8% in US exports. This would mean an additional EUR 220 Billion and EUR 240 Billion worth of sales of goods and services for EU and US based producers, respectively. “Each one of us has a major stake in the success of the other. We don’t have to grow only economically, we also have to implement structural reforms”, said the American President Barack Obama in June during a visit to Berlin. Both sides should open their services sectors at least as much as they have done in other trade agreements to date. At the same time, both sides will seek to open their services markets in new sectors, such as in the transport sector. The EU also wants to make sure that European professional qualifications can be recognised on the other side of Atlantic and that EU companies and their subsidiaries will be able to operate in the US under the same conditions as American domestic companies.

Евросоюз и США начали переговоры по соглашению о свободной торговле

Foreign direct investment

Source: ec.europa.eu

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

В середине июня месяца, Европейский Совет дал разрешение Европейской Комиссии для начала коммерческих формальных двусторонних переговоров с США. Поддерживая инициативы двусторонних переговоров, страны Евросоюза намечают цели, которые должны быть рассмотрены Комиccией в процессе переговоров представляющих интересы Евросоюза. Таким образом, переговоры между Евросоюзом и США были пущены в ход в начале июня месяца. По словам комиссара по торговле Евросоюза, Карел де Гухт, решающее согласие можно ожидать к концу 2014 г.


Metropolitan 33

European cities focus on implementing 2.0 2.3 .0 metro extension projects

TRANSPORT O R T E X P R E S S E D I N TO N N E � K I LO M E T R E S

A

TRANSPORT TPERFORMANCE R A N S P O R T OF PASSENGER TRANSPORT EXPRESSED IN PASSENGER�KILOMETRES

2.3Luică .1 ] [ by Pamela

EU-27 Performance by Mode for problems Passenger Transport - 1995-2010 European cities are constantly confronted with caused by daily traffic, the common challenge

TRANSPORT: of allFREIGHT urban areas consisting in increasing mobility while reducing congestion, the number of accidents and thousand mio tkm triggers costs ofbillion pollution. Congestion over EUR 100 Billion/year or around 1% of EU’s annual GDP. passenger-kilometres

PASSENGER CARS

4 000

tion compared to 6 metro drivers. These costs are structurally recurrent day by day 3 500 so that local remuneration conditions have to be considered. Under these circumstances, European cities are developing a series of projects for the development and modernisation of3 000 the suburban transport network fi-

nanced by the authorities and the financial institutions. One of the cities which prove the efficiency and necessity of the metro system is Vienna (Austria). The metro is the most used urban transport mode with a growth in the number of passengers from 811 mil-

EU-27 Performance by Mode for Passenger Transport -1995-2010 AIR

500 BUS & COACH

400

RAILWAY 300

200

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

SEA 1999

0 1998

TRAM & METRO

1997

100

2010

POWERED 2�WHEELERS

1996

C

4 500

1995

INLAND ATERWAYS PIPELINES TOTAL 515.8 852.8 4 161.6 534.4 877.6 4 844.2 518.5 904.0 4 983.2 520.0 900.1 5 072.2 520.6 904.9 5 203.8 528.2 901.8 5 342.5 526.2 842.8 5 367.9 504.7 841.1 5 451.8 506.7 855.8 5 524.7 475.8 861.7 5 524.9 the most efities have to identify 496.1 875.4method5 701.5 ficient to answer to mobility demands and to the challenges 476.4 886.9 5 779.2 posed by the urban transport 486.0generally 848.7 5 929.4 this context, in the elaboration 5 866.0 472.3system. In814.2 of transport strategies, the authorities include projects which help create a sustainable, efficient and rapid transport system % PERtoYEAR that would answer every city’s mobility INLAND needs. The studies of specialized organiATERWAYS PIPELINES zations and of theTOTAL institutions in charge -4.1prove the -0.2 1.6the necessity importance and and developing 0.4of building 1.8 1.3 a public rail -6.1transport system 0.7 capable to 0.0meet mobility 4.3demands, but 1.6also compliant 3.2 to environ-4.0mental policies. 1.3 1.4 The construction and extension of the 2.0metro system -4.3is the answer 2.6 to problems -2.8such as congestion, -4.1 -1.1 environment, eco0.7nomic and social 0.6 development, 3.1 attraction -0.3of investments -0.8 and convincing 2.1 the com-1.5munity to choose -0.5 public transport. 1.3 The public transport system is every day more complex and decision factors have to elaborate%specific analyses that would include all the required aspects, from deINLAND mand to investments and traffic estimates. ATERWAYS PIPELINES In choosing the construction of a particu12.4lar mode of 20.5 transport, the most obvious 11.0characteristics 18.1 refer to the capacity-invest10.4ment costs18.1 report. Generally, the metro 10.3systems can17.7 exceed the capacity of surface 10.0transport modes. 17.4 However, necessary inare massive, but the metro can 9.9vestments 16.9 long-run benefits for all 9.8deliver significant, 15.7 9.3three targeted 15.4segments: economic, social and environmental. Urban rail transport is 9.2considered15.5 the best choice because high 8.6investment15.6 costs can be returned dur8.7ing its life-cycle 15.4 as the effective report of 8.2carried passengers/driver 15.3 helps maintain low level of operating costs. 8.2a relatively14.3 8.1For example, 13.990 bus drivers are needed to carry 10,000 passengers/hour and direc-

Source: EU Transport in Figures, Statistical pocketbook 2012, European Union

45

ur ce: U.S . D e p a r t ment o f Transpo rta ti o n

S o u rc e : ta b l e s 2 . 3 . 4 , 2 . 3 . 5 , 2 . 3 . 6 , 2 . 3 . 7 , e s t i ma t e s

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


metro systems. 34 Metropolitan

Figureto1:875 Cities with automated lines,onas of 2011. lion passengers million passengers an citymetro which focuses developing public from 2009 to 2011. Although it is one of transport through the metro projects, the the most efficient and well-developed most important of which is the construcnetworks in Europe, the authorities don’t tion of line 4 that will link the north-east plan to stop expanding the metro network to the south-west of the city. in the next years: the extension of line U2 Apart from this project, the authorities (Aspernstrasse – Seestadt stations) is due plan to build a new metro line (L5), but its by the end of the year, and the extension development is still in plan. This line will of line U1 will be completed in 2017. New be developed along the Danube River, unprojects are in plan on the long-term, such dercrossing the Margareta Island and then as the construction of a new line U5, El- connected to the network of underground terleinplatz – Rathaus, connected to U2, lines that go south and north. as well as a new section on the southern branch of line U2, the existing section beAlthough still confronted with economic ing transferred to the future U5. problems, Greece is also planning to expand underground transport in Athens to In Eastern Europe, Sofia, the capital complete its current 3-line network. Plans of Bulgaria, is the most active city in the include the construction of a new line and implementation and allocation of invest- the extension of the existing lines. This ments in projects for the development of year, Athens put in service the extension the metro network. The ambition of the to the west of line 2 by two new stations, authorities is to build an underground net- and other 4 stations are planned to be built work that would cover 70% of the capital’s on the same line. surface. Currently, the metro company, Attiko There are already plans for the construc- Metro, prepares the studies for the contion of a line to link the Airport to the struction of the new line (line 4) which Business Park district and existing lines will be 33km long (29 stations). The line will be developed. The general transport will be U-shaped and will serve the most scheme underlines the development of the populated areas of the capital. The future network which should include three lines line will include the extensions of lines 2 with a total length of 57 km (54 stations). and 3 and a central section made of 8 staOnce completed, these lines are expected tions. The project requires investments to increase the number of passengers to of EUR 3.3 Billion. The first phase of the 550 million/day (over 45% of the public project includes the construction of 9 statransport share). tions and the cost of works amounts to Long-term plans include the extensions over EUR 1 Billion. of each line to the suburbs. Even if we talk about long-term projects, we have to menIn Poland, Lodz initiated a complex railtion that this year the transport company way project in 2012 to serve the city and launched tenders for the construction of the adjacent areas. The project includes line extensions to be finalized in 2015. the improvement of the transport infrastructure, the organisation of a railway Budapest (Hungary) is another Europe- ring and the construction of a metro line

to serve the central part of the city, thus fully integrating railway traffic to trams and other transport modes focused in the centre of Lodz. The development of public rail transport in Warsaw (programme for 2015) relies on 8 programmes which also include the continuation of the metro system development and the acquisition of rolling stock. The development programme also includes the construction of lines 2 and 3. “Construction works to the central section of the second metro line include 7 stations, 6 ventilation rooms, 2 tunnels with a total length of 9 km and a technical connection to the first metro line. The central section of the second line will be inaugurated in the autumn of 2014”, declared in an interview for our magazine Jerzy Lejk, CEO of Warsaw Metro. The authorities in Prague (Czech Republic) are also planning to expand the metro lines. One of the most recent projects is the extension of line A from Dejvická to Motol station. This extension would be put in service in 2014. The funds necessary to this project amount to CZK 18.7 Billion (EUR 718 Million). By 2015, the local administration allocated a budget of CZK 10.7 Billion (EUR 411 Billion) and the rest is EU contribution. The project includes the construction of 12.9 km and will be divided in three phases: the first phase will see the construction of 6 km of line, the second of 4.3 km of line and the last phase, the rest. Apart from this project, the authorities could build another line to connect the city centre to the south by building 7 stations for which works could be initiated in 2015.

Figure 2: Geographic distribution of automated lines, as of 2011 Indicative Financial Allocation per Sector (euro million)

Middle East 13%

North America 13%

South America 2%

Asia 39%

Города Европы интенсивно разрабатывают метрополитенские строительные проекты В европейских городах, транспортный затор приводит к расходам выше 100 миллиардов евро в год, около 1% годового ВНП Евросоюза. Города должны установить наиболее эффективные альтернативы для решения вопроса обеспечения мобильности и удаления главных провокаций в сфере общественного транспорта. Исследования организаций и органов оперирующих в данной области, доказывают значительность и необходимость разработки железнодорожной системы общественного транспорта, которая сможет обеспечить мобильность, а также соответствовать политическим мерам по защите окружающей среды.

Apples and pea

The indicated data corres

Europe 33% Source: International Association of Public Transport (UITP) – Observatory of Automated Metros

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

9 UTO - Only metro lines

considered (GoA4 acco

9 Public

transport ser discarded (airport serv


Policies & Strategies

35

The US lays the future of the high-speed transport network [ by Pamela Luică ]

The fact that transport is the backbone of economy is well-known to American authorities according to which, the US could not compete in a global economy unless they massively invest in the transport infrastructure, especially in the regions which link the large metropolises. Congestion, price and fuel volumes used for road transport and the negative environmental effects generated by polluting traffic are the main factors which determine the authorities to focus on establishing a new transport system-the development of a high-speed railway transport network. This transport mode is not new in the US, but the need for investments in this type of infrastructure becomes vital.

A

ccording to the new report on the future high-speed line network, launched at the Conference of Mayors in the US, (HSR Report Released by US Conference of Mayors-the Economic Impacts of High Speed Rail, elaborated by the Economic Development Research Group), 4 cities - Los Angeles, Chicago, Orlando and Albany (New York), have been selected to represent the metropolitan areas of impact in the construction of high-speed lines. In all these cities, the introduction of railway high-speed transport services will create new jobs, will develop the business environment and will add value to the regional GDP. “By 2035, high-speed transport can bring annual investments of USD 255 Million in the Orlando Region, USD 360 Million in the Los Angeles Region , USD 50 Million in Chicago and over USD

100 Million in Albany”, the report shows. For the Los Angeles metropolitan area with 12.9 million residents, the construction of 500 miles of new lines (804 km) is proposed in the first phase. According to the High-Speed Railway Transport Authority in California, 56 trains/day will be put in service to connect the north to the south. The traffic volume is expected to reach 120 thousand passengers/day by 2025. Phase two includes additional lines The Authority also anticipateshigh-speed operating HSR trains per day between Union between 15 Merced and Sacramento and Station and Anaheim. Travel time will be 20 minutes at anSan average Diego speed of Union Station and and other 110 mph. Two proposed intermediate stopsinclude are anticipated at Norwalk/Santa Fe cities. Plans the establishment of a Springs or Fullerton. business sector that will generate revenues 2 of the planned system will of USD 7.6Phase Billion/year, while the regional include additional HSR lines between Merced and Sacramento between GDP will bring USD 4.3andBillion. Across the Union Station and San Diego. The Authority anticipates operating 46 trains are expectregion, 12.3 million passengers per day between Union Station and San ed to use these services Diego, with a travel time by of one2035. hour and

Figure 1. Proposed HSR Intercity Passenger Routes Serving Los Angeles

20 minutes. This section of the system will swing east through the Inland Empire, with numerous stops under consideration, including Ontario Airport.

Sacramento

Stockton Modesto

San Francisco SFO Airport

Merced

Redwood City/Palo Alto San Jose

Gilroy

Fresno Visalia/Tulare/Hanford

MINNESOTA

Minneapolis-St. Paul

WISCONSIN

MICHIGAN Pontiac Madison

Milwaukee Kalamazoo

Detroit

CHICAGO

Cleveland

IOWA Toledo

ILLINOIS Ft. Wayne Normal Springfield

OHIO

Lafayette Champaign

Indianapolis

Decatur

Cincinnati INDIANA

MISSOURI St. Louis

Funded 110 mph HSR System Proposed 220 mph HSR System

Chicago is located in the centre of the US economic region, with a population of 2.8 million and a metropolitan area with 9.5 million residents. High-speed railways are already in plan for construction and federal funds have already been allocated: 1.St. Louis, 2.Milwaukee, Madison, Minneapolis and 3.Detroit; the long-term strategy includes Indianapolis and Cincinnati, Des Moines and Omaha and Cleveland. With the construction of the Minneapolis - St. Louis line, the regional GDP could record increases of USD 3.6 Billion per year. In Orlando, the first phase of Florida’s high-speed system consists in the development of a line which links Orlando to Tampa. The line is expected to be put in service in 2015. For this project, the state has received a financial stimulus of USD 1.25 Billion to support the payment of a USD 3.5 Billion contract for the construction of 86 miles of infrastructure (138 km). Phase 2 consists in the delivery of services from Orlando to Miami (230 miles or 370 km) for which two options are considered. The investments amount to USD 8 Billion.

16

Bakersfield

Palmdale Sylmar City of Industry

Burbank

Ontario Airport

LOS ANGELES

UC Riverside

Norwalk HSR Alignments Altamont Railroad Project Potential Stations

Anaheim Irvine

Murrieta Escondido University City San Diego

Source: usmayors.org

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


36 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Tallahassee

Jacksonville

Gainesville Ocala

Phase 2 - Tampa to Orlando

Daytona Beach

Phase 2 Option 1 (I-95: Orlando to Miami) Phase 2 Option 2 (Turnpike: Orlando to Miami)

Orlando Disney

Proposed Routes

Airport Cocoa/Port Canaveral

Tampa

Possible Stations

Lakeland St. Petersburg Bradenton

Fort Pierce

Sarasota

Ft. Myers Naples

West Palm Beach

Fort Lauderdale Miami

Albany (capital of New York) is the home city of 94,000 people, while the entire region has over 850,000 residents. Current plans on launching high-speed services include the introduction of 26 to 32 trains between the city and New York per day. In the final phase, the number of trains will increase to 44 per day. According to the scenario, 2.3 million passengers will be carried every day at speeds of 220 km/h.

According to the US High-Speed Railway Transport Association, the authorities plan to build a railway network of 17 thousand miles by 2030 (around 27.5 thousand km) whose construction will be divided in 4 phases. The most crowded corridors are known as “megaregions” and have been studied by the Association for Regional Planning, according to which 10 megaregions which form the backbone of the

development of the high-speed transport strategy are being considered. “Our plans call for a national system of HSR Express lines connecting cities and states into an integrated system. The strategy sets high standards for interoperable state-of-the-art dedicated track, advanced control systems, elegant multi-modal train stations, and top-of-the-line 220 km/h trains connecting major cities together. Our plans call for a support network of 110 km/h trains connecting smaller cities and towns together with the high speed system. The new system will provide regional and local railway transport connection within a single network and will include regional and commuters services, as well as the metro, tram and light metro systems”, says the association for HS transport. In 2009, American President Barack Obama launched the new vision on the development of high-speed transport, according to which 85% of the Americans will have access to these transport services. The “Recovery Act” stipulated the allocation of USD 8 Billion and an annual allocation of USD 1 Billion for the development of infrastructure projects.

Source: www.whitehouse.gov

Pensacola

Source: www.ushsr.com

Montreal

Rochester ALBANY Buffalo

Syracuse Poughkeepsie

Springfield New York City

Source: HZ Infrastrucktura

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

Boston

США намечивают будущею высокоскоростную сеть В соответствии с новым докладом о будущей высокоскоростной сети, разработанным в рамках Конференции мэров США (“Экономическое воздействие высокоскоростной железнодорожной сети”- доклад разработан Исследовательской Группой Экономического Развития), 4 города: Лос-Анджелес, Чикаго, Орландо, Албани (Нью Йорк), были отобраны в качестве главных городских территориях соответствующих конструкции высокоскоростных сетей.


leX

37

Fourth Railway Package: the technical pillar is important for the competitiveness of the European railway market [ by Elena Ilie ]

The relatively poor performance of the rail in the past ten years reflects a low level of efficiency and quality of rail services compared to other transport modes. According to the latest available studies, this situation can be attributed to the presence of several obstacles which hamper market access and expansion of service providers, hindering thereby the internal market for rail services. In this context, the main objective of the Fourth Railway Package consists in improving the quality and efficiency of railway transport services by removing the still-existing barriers, thus encouraging the performance of the railway sector and consequently, competitiveness and economic growth. These barriers can be grouped into four categories, technical, administrative, institutional and legislative barriers.

“

A second set of problems which prevent the rail market from developing its full potential are issues relating to the governance of infrastructure managers. Since infrastructure managers are natural monopolies, they do not always react to the needs of the market and its users, thus hindering the performance of the sector as a whole. In a number of Member States infrastructure managers are unable to fulfil their tasks, since their functions are separated between different bodies. Moreover, the current legal framework has not led to improved cross-border cooperation among infrastructure managers,� the Commission points out.

of institutional organisation of the railway evolution plan has to exist for the increase market, to the approach of legislative bar- of ERA’s competences and clear responsiriers regarding the access to the domestic bilities for a single certificate for safety and passenger transport market, as well as to authorisation of vehicles. the initiatives that refer to the role of the The three basic pillars of the Fourth European Railway Agency (ERA), intero- Railway Package clearly stipulate the esperability and safety. tablishment of consequent authorisation The current situation proves to be difficult procedures for interoperability and railway for the railway sector and for the competi- safety (known as the Technical Pillar), the tiveness of the railways as transport mode. liberalisation of the domestic passenger Authorisation and certification procedures market and the establishment of better are expensive and time-consuming. The structures and authorities for infrastrucentire process of authorisation of vehicles ture managers. in Europe can last more than two years and The lack of standardisation, the existence can thus block assets worth EUR 1.2 Billion of a highly specialized rolling stock fleet, which wait to be authorised and cannot be the resulted investment costs, as well as the put in service. Authorisation and certifica- costs of entering and leaving the railway The four above-mentioned obstacles tion procedures have to be simplified as transport market, are major problems for are approached through the initiatives in- fast as possible and the European Railway the single transport market. Authorisation cluded in the legislative proposals of the Agency (ERA) has to gradually become a procedures are long and difficult and safety Fourth Railway Package. Thus, the legisla- one-stop shop for authorisation and certi- certification fees are expensive. But if the Chart 1. Number of NSA directlyfication. involved in interoperability issues by State, tive proposals refer to the actualstaff method In order to meet this objective, an Member domestic passenger transport market is in equivalent fullNumber time employees* of NSA staff directly involved in interoperability issues by Member State, in equivalent full time employees

180 162

160

end 2010

140 120 100 80 60

58 45 25 5

5

4

2

2

5

8

UK

4

10

SK FI

5

22 7

SI

1

15

PT RO

1

12

PL

3

7

NO AT

6

13

BE BG CZ DK DE EE EL ES FR IE IT LV LT

0

9

LU HU NL

20

SE

40

Source: European Railway Agency - Biennial Report 2011

* The figures have been approximated since full-time staff also have tasks other than interoperability and2013 in some NSAs September | www.railwaypro.com there are also part-time employees.


38

leX Chart 5. Number as of of 21/12/2010 21/12/2010 Numberofofopen openpoints pointsbybyTSI TSI(year (yearofofentry entryinto intoforce forceof of the the TSI), TSI), as

45 40 35 Mobility and Safety in Railway Tunnels - were applicable for CR passenger carriages, locomotives and trainsets. 30 25 In 2009, the NSAs issued 307 authorisations for passenger 20 carriages, of which about a third were under the TSI regime (TSIs NOI+PRM+SRT). All of them were granted in 15 Hungary (see Chart 14). The other four NSAs which declared 10 authorisations for passenger carriages in 2009 – Bulgaria, 5 Ireland, Slovakia and Finland – issued them exclusively under the national regime. 0

2006 end 2008 These authorisations were issued by the NSAs Germany end 2010 (53), Hungary (23), Lithuania (2) and France (2). Three of these are with derogations which is about 4%. The NSAs Czech Republic, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Finland and the UK issued authorisations for CR trainsets under their national regimes only.

Authorised vehicles When interpreting the data for the HS rolling stock and CR freight wagons subsystems it is important to note that authorised greater HS INF CR INF HS ENE CR ENE HS RST CR WAG CRthe actual HS CCS*number CR CCS*of vehicles PRM HS OPE CR may OPE be TAP The proportiondraft of the authorisations than the number of authorisations issued. This is because draftissued for locomotives LOC&PAS draft under the TSI regime (TSIs NOI and SRT) is again a third draft in some cases one authorisation is issued for a series of Source:of European Railway Agency - Biennial Report the total number (653) of2011 locomotive authorisations vehicles (see Chart 13 and Table 4). *With the 2011 amendment CR TSI CCS and HS TSI CCS will merge into one TSI; it was at the draft stage at the end of 2010 in 2009. These were grantedsignifiby the NSAs (185), Pillar. liament will make possible the adoption of liberalised, opened to competition, aboutHungary the Technical Source: European Agency, this technical pillar as of fastauthorised as possible. Railcant measures beRailway necessary to2010 achieve the Community of European RailPortugalwill (11), Slovenia (10) and FranceThus, (1). Only four of The NSAs did not provide data on the number interoperability. One of these measures is way and Infrastructure Companies (CER) way transport operators and the railway 212 authorisations forRailway locomotives the Association TSI regime of HS the three authorisations granted have demanded the reformation transforming the European Au- under and the thetrainsets Europeancovered Rail byindustry the authorisation process and safety certhorityare so that could become the iscentral Industry (UNIFE) expressed their inof2009. withit derogations that fewer than 2%. The NSAs have under the TSI regime body for standardisation and interoperabi- support for the Technical Pillar of the tification since 2010. Both demands have Slovakia, Finland lity. Bulgaria, Spain, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Fourth Railway Package and appreciate the been broadly discussed over the past three and the UK issued authorisations for locomotives The number of freight wagons authorised under the years with European institutions and mem- 31 The Technical Pillar of the Fourth Rail- intense effortsunder of the European Parliament ber states. After years of detailed and comway Package was brought to discussion and of the Council to improve it. Consetheir national regimes only. TSI regime in 2009 doubled in comparison with 2008. for the first time on 29 May by the MEPs quently, the two associations encourage prehensive debates, CER and UNIFE ask In principles absolute agreed terms, over 6 300 freight wagons the European Parliament and were the Council during the reunion of the Committee for the Council to assign the act derogations. without delay. Transport the 20% European Parliament forthrough the Interoperability Directive to 4%towith Moreofthan of authorisations CR trainsets were authorised, around In concrete terms, CER and UNIFE sup(TRAN). They discussed the safety and in- the Directive on Railway Safety. Based on grantedofunder the railways, TSI regime (TSIs NOI, PRM). teroperability European as well whatSRT has and already been achieved, the railway port the approach which underlines the as the reforming of several legislative texts sector demands the European institutions fact that ERA should issue the authoriand enhancing the role of the European to adopt the technical pillar before the Eu- sation for a rail vehicle, according to the one-stop shop attributions; but, since the Railway Agency. ropean elections in 2014. Shortly after the debates and the exchange The two associations have expressed their Agency will be the decision-maker, it will of opinions between the MEPs, “the Euro- hope that the European Parliament will be supported by national railway safety aupean voices” of the railway companies and continue to observe the adopted calendar thorities. Moreover, both associations beChart oftheir authoris ations and for that placing in serviceoffor RST, byPartype of vehicle, under TSI regimeof a vehicle in lieve that the authorisation industry have14. alsoNumber expressed opinion the members theCR European (NOI, PRM, SRT), 2009 . Number of authoris ations for placing in service for CR RST, by type of vehicle, under TSI regime •

200 185

180

CR Passenger carriages CR Locomotive CR Trainset

160 140 120 100

98

80 60

53

40 23 11

Source: 2010 European Railway Agency questionnaire to NSAs (23 NSAs responded)

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

UK

SE

FI

SK

RO

PT

PL

AT

NO

NL

HU

LU

LT

LV

IT

IE

FR

ES

EL

EE

DE

Source: European Railway Agency - Biennial Report 2011

10

32

12

DK

BG

BE

0

CZ

2

SI

20


leX

Europe has to indicate “the scope”. The European rail sector is in urgent need of the technical pillar in order to remain competitive in and for Europe – as transport mode and sustainable industry. “The discussions about the Technical Pillar are now heading into the right direction and need to be accelerated”, commented CER Executive Director Libor Lochman. “The sector has long been calling for what the European Commission has proposed in the Technical Pillar”, believes UNIFE Director General Philippe Citroën. The technical pillar of the Fourth Railway Package is a fundamental landmark in setting the Single European Railway Area and has to be universally implemented by all parties. The rapid implementation of the technical pillar is a “green light” to the European railway sector and to the establishment of the Single European Railway Area. The International Union of Wagon Keepers (UIP), the European Passenger Train and Traction Operating Lessors Association (EPTTOLA) and the International Association of Public Transport (UITP) wish to confirm their strong support for the Technical Pillar of the Fourth Railway Package and stress the importance and ur-

gency for reaching an agreement between the European Council and the European Parliament. UIP Secretary General Gilles Peterhans stated: “If we want one day to see a competitive rail freight market at European level, the streamlining of administrative procedures, the setting of clear roles and responsibilities and the removing of superfluous national regulation are the priorities we all need to care about at hand.” EPTTOLA President Tim Gilbert com-

39

mented: “The proposals in the technical pillar, along with the detail recommendations for simplifying and speeding up authorisations, are essential for the industry”. “The regional and suburban rail operators of UITP support the enactment of the technical pillar with an emphasis on a clear and undisputable exclusion from under the scope of the legislation of the functionally separated local, suburban and regional passenger railway lines”, concluded UITP Secretary General Alain Flausch.

Железнодорожный Пакет законов но. IV: Технический пилон является существенным для конкурентоспособности железнодорожного европейского рынка Эксплуатационные показатели железнодорожного транспорта были достаточно низкими в последний период, факт который отражает низкий уровень эффективности и качества железнодорожных услуг в сравнении с иными транспортными услугами. Как показывают последние исследования, данная ситуация является результатом присутствия множественных препятствий состоящих в затруднении доступа на рынок новых операторов, и также, в затруднении процесса расширения круга обслуживающих работников, снижая оперативность внутреннего рынка железнодорожных услуг. Барьеры такого типа могут быть расположены в четыре категории- технические, административные, институциональные и законодательные.

International Association of Public Transport

EUROPEAN CONFERENCE: Opening the European domestic rail passenger market to competition – what impact on regional, suburban and urban passenger transport?

19-20 November 2013, Strasbourg, France

www.uitp.org/strasbourg2013

Organiser:

Pub Strasbourg 210x140.indd 1

6/09/13 13:58


40

leX

Mandatory tendering of public service obligations needs a considerable “transition period”

[ by Elena Ilie ]

In the last decade, three legislative railway packages have aimed at opening up national markets and making railways more competitive and interoperable at EU level. Regulation 1370/2007 on public passenger transport services by rail and by road, published in December 2007, set out a framework for awarding public service contracts and compensating for public service obligations but not a common approach to awarding contracts for rail passenger transport. Despite the new EU legislation, the modal share of rail in intra-EU transport has remained modest.

S

pecialists and railway market players believe that, in the present juridical framework, the performances of railway passenger transport services are insufficient as regards the quality of services and the operating efficiency. 54% of the respondents to the Eurobarometer poll in 2012 were not satisfied by their national and regional railway systems. In the Consumer Markets Scoreboard 2011, the general level of satisfaction of train passengers was of 6.7/10, a lot less than the level of most consumer goods and services. Consumers gave railway services a weaker score than to all the other transport modes and ranked them 27th of 30 services markets, shows the recitals submitted by the European Commission on the amendment of several provisions of Regulation 1370/2007 which refer to the market

opening for domestic passenger railway transport services. There are a number of obstacles to improving railway companies’ quality of service and operational efficiency. These relate first of all to access to the market for domestic passenger services and the lack of competitive pressure. In many Member States this market is closed to competition, which not only limits growth, but creates disparities between those Member States that have opened their markets and those that have not. Different national approaches to opening of the market for domestic passenger transport services by rail prevent the emergence of a genuine Internal Market for rail passenger services. The main objective of the European Union’s transport policy is to establish an internal market for transport contributing

ssengers: one goal, and same

s r, d s e e s e s. e a of y ll

ll

Figure 1 Percentage of state compensation cost minus ticket Percentage of state compensationof of total total cost sales minus ticket sales EU15 average CEE average 100%

99%

96%

97%

94%

94%

90% 79%

80% 70%

71%

75%

73%

71%

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2005

2006

Source: CER

Source: CER members

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

2007

2008

2009

to a high degree of competitiveness and the harmonious, balanced and sustainable development of economic activities. The 2011 Transport White Paper stated that rail should account for the majority of mediumdistance passenger transport by 2050. This modal shift would contribute to the 20 % reduction of greenhouse gas emissions provided for in the Europe 2020 Agenda for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The White Paper concluded that no major change in transport would be possible without the support of an adequate rail infrastructure and a smarter approach to using it. The European railway transport systems and networks are still different and most of them operate according to distinct particularities and specifications adapted to national needs. Their harmonisation based on a common denominator is not simple to achieve and perhaps it will not be simple over the next decade either. Maybe that is why the first three railway packages have not managed to shape a common area for the railway transport activity in Europe. Debates on the topic, especially those referring to the rights of railway passengers, liberalisation, interoperability, infrastructure investments, and the modal shift of freight or the mutual acceptance of rolling stock have been troublesome, yet a common denominator, an algorithm valid across Europe, could not be established. The European Commission, with the support of interested parties, tries to solve in practice the problem of European transport system harmonisation by proposing a number of 6 legislative projects, those composing the already well-known Fourth Railway Package. The Commission believes that this legislative package will complete the process. One of these legislative proposals refers to the amendment of Regulation 1370/2007. Based on these facts, the draft proposal,


launched by the Commission at the begin- PRR means that the approach must be at a ning of the year, set as general objective the high-level although taking national differimprovement of the quality of railway pas- ences and the exemptions allowed by EU senger transport services and the stimula- Member States into account. The CIT and tion of their operational effectiveness, thus CER are convinced of the value of interincreasing the competitiveness and the at- preting and applying the Rail PRR across tractiveness of railways compared to other the European Union in the most uniform transport modes and developing the Single way possible”, Cesare Brand, CIT General European Railway Area. Secretary, pointed out. This proposal encompasses common rules Figure 1 Percentage of state compensation of total cost on the award of public service contracts for Future procedures forminus the ticket sales passenger transport by rail, together with attribution of public service accompanying measures to increase the suc- obligations should be fully cess of competitive tendering procedures. transparent EU15 average

ssengers: one goal, and same

s , d s e e s e . e a f y l

l e

g s g r

e . g s f

e ) , e d o s o d

CEE average

More dialogue between railways and99% The mandatory tendering of public service 100% 96% national enforcement bodies obligations 97% starting with 2019, 94% will allow a 94% as proposed smoother implementation of the Regulaby the European Commission, has raised 90% tion (EC) 1371/2007 on rail passengers’ serious problems and has generated many 79% 80% and obligations. At a workshop orgarights debates among the railway passenger trans75% 73% 71% 71% nised by the Community of European Rail- port operators and railway associations. 70% way and Infrastructure Companies (CER) There have been and there are still doubts, and the International Rail Transport Com- if not fears, from both sides on this proposal 60% mittee (CIT) on 10 May in Brussels, more included in the Fourth Railway Package. 50%80 experts from railway undertakings, than The majority of the parties involved have national enforcement bodies, European in- expressed their concern about this potential 40% stitutions, and other transport stakeholders legislative measure. The European Commisoutlined their experience with the regula- sion has conducted a large-scale European 30% tion. The discussions clearly underlined the poll, among the passengers and the railway 20% importance of a better dialogue between transport operators, railway associations, stakeholders when implementing the Euro- infrastructure managers, transport minis10% pean regulation. tries, safety authorities or other ministries 0% offering a common discussion plat“By and representative bodies. 2005 2006 2008 2009 form for railways and national enforcement 2007Regarding compulsory competitive tenbodies, we want to contribute to the qua- dering, 45% of respondents favoured fleSource: members lity of CER the services offered to rail passengers. xible options akin to those of the negotiThat is why we also decided to continue of- ated procedure for public procurement and fering all respective actors a useful forum transitional periods for gradually putting to exchange ideas and at the same time an all public service contracts out to tender opportunity to network and make contacts (80% of respondents). The majority of reacross borders. In a year from now, we will spondents (60%) agreed that the creation be happy to gather again all stakeholders of rolling stock leasing companies would to a second workshop on rail passengers’ help to improve access to rolling stock and rights”, Libor Lochman, CER Executive Di- a large majority (75%) called for full access rector, stated. to technical information to be provided by “The 2 European dimensioncharges to the Rail the infrastructure manager. Figure Infrastructure for typical intercity passenger trains

(€/train-km)Infrastructure charges for typical intercity passenger trains (€/train-km)

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

NO HR DK SF SE PL CZ PT SP NL EE SK SI FR UK AT HU RO IT CH BG LV DE LT BE

Source: CER

Source: OECD/ITF 2008


42

leX

“CER is concerned about the mandatory tendering of Public Service Obligation as being the only applicable award mechanism. We do not believe that open tendering will by all circumstances deliver better results than direct award or in-house provision. We call upon Member States to be pragmatic and to allow enough flexibility when it comes to Public Service Obligation. This is particularly needed in the case of smaller Member States where the cost linked to the tendering can overcome the benefits it is deemed to generate. The compulsory tendering certainly implies new prospects arising. Those who will dare to look ahead and abroad will find new business opportunities and might easily and rapidly become efficient and successful bidders. On the other hand it implies the risk of losing Public Service Obligation contracts and this can create very complicated issues both for staff and at financial

level. The right balance should therefore be found and it should be up to competent authorities to make the choice of the appropriate award mechanism. This is what I personally hope for all railway companies and for our customers. As a tax-payer and a citizen, we all deserve the most economic approach”, declared Libor Lochman as part of a poll launched by Railway PRO in March when we wished to find out the opinion of the associations that represent the European railway sector. “To facilitate the preparation of tenders, and hence enhance competition competent authorities need to ensure that, whilst protecting business secrets, all public service operators interested in making such a submission receive certain information on the transport services and infrastructure covered by the public service contract. The principle of reciprocity is an important means of counteracting distortion

of competition; this principle should apply not only to Member States, but also to companies from third countries that wish to participate in procurement procedures within the Union”, states a report initiated by Mathieu Grosch, member of the Committee on Transport and Tourism. Thus, the European rapporteur proposed several amendments to the initial text proposed by the European Commission for the amendment of Regulation 1370/2007 on the attribution of public service obligations. “Preparing railway undertakings for competitive tendering for public service contracts requires some extra time to allow effective and sustainable internal restructuring of companies to which such contracts were directly awarded in the past. They should therefore already take action to phase-in this tendering procedure, although it is not until 2029 (and not 2019 as provided by the original text introduced by the European Commission, in January, when the Fourth Railway Package was adopted) that all public service contracts in the field of public rail passenger transport have to be awarded in accordance with the procurement procedures laid down in this Regulation”, stipulate the proposals submitted in July. Adjustments to complex systems such as rail passenger services need sufficient time in order to be carried out successfully. For that reason, the time limits proposed by the Commission – 2019 and, for expiry of existing contracts, until 2022 – seem too short.

Photo: © SBB CFF FFS

Обязанность организововать тендерные торги для контрактов публичных услуг должна испытать долгосрочный “транзитный период”

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

В последние десять лет существовали три железнодорожных пакетов законов цель которых выражалась в открытии национальных рынках и улучшении конкурентоспособности и интероперабельности в железнодорожной сфере Европейского Союза. Регламент 1370/2007 по публичным железнодорожным и автотранспортным услугам, опубликован в декабре 2007 г установил правовой режим для присуждения контрактов публичных услуг и для компенсации обязанностей публичных услуг, но не предоставил единый подход к вопросу присуждения контрактов железнодорожного пассажирского транспорта. Несмотря на новые законодательства Европейского Союза, железнодорожная сфера занимает среднюю степень важности в рамках европейского транспорта.


Market development 43

Efficient railway infrastructure attracts economic development [ by Elena Ilie ]

In order to create cross-border and transnational partnerships in fields of strategic importance, to improve territorial, economic and social integration and to support cohesion, stability and competitiveness in the region, in the programming period 2007-2013, the European Union financed the Joint Operational Programme Romania – Ukraine – Republic of Moldova. The three countries will benefit from financial support within the same programme in 2014-2020 as well. and represents the foundation of the economy, but in the region included in the Programme, transport of any kind is not an advantage for economic development and interoperability. The railway network is confronted with a lack of resources for capital investments. Although part of the network is electrified and used by upgraded trains, in some areas of the programme they require investments in the railway lines and in the modernisation of trains. However, costs for the modernisation of railway infrastructure would be too high to be covered by this programme so that a series of small-scale optimisation measures could be encouraged to facilitate crossborder traffic. Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova are important partners for the European Union and its neighbouring policy and are also included in the programmes of the Eastern Partnership. Moreover, the three countries, Romania, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova are the important pillars of railway freight transport in the Eurasian platform and are included in the Wider Black Sea Area (WBSA). At the same time, we must underline the fact that

these three countries are crossed by two important pan-European corridors, Corridor IX and Corridor VII – the Danube, as well as by TRACECA corridors. Based on these facts, the development of railway infrastructure at the borders of the three countries becomes inevitable. That is why they should join efforts in elaborating programmes for the improvement of railway infrastructure. Moreover, the border regions of Romania, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova can play a significant role within TEN-T. A developed cross-border infrastructure is necessary to reach this objective. Adriana Nicula, representative of the Joint Operational Programme Romania – Ukraine – Republic of Moldova, present at the Moldovan Railway Summit 2013, highlighted the importance of developing joint railway projects in the three countries included in the programme, saying that “no application for funds has been submitted by the three countries for the improvement of railway border traffic. However, this should not prevent the submission of applications for funds in the programming period 20142020”.

Эффективаная железнодорожная инфраструктура ведёт к экономическому развитию

Photo: Club Feroviar

T

he Joint Operational Programme is aimed at supporting the projects which favour economic and social development, environment protection, preparation for emergency situations, investments in transport and energy infrastructure. Projects have to have crossborder character and to be developed in partnership by organisations on both sides of the frontier. In order to become eligible, at least one Romanian partner and one Ukrainian/Moldovan partner have to participate in the projects. The scope of the Programme includes regions of the three neighbouring countries, namely Botoşani, Galaţi, Iaşi, Suceava, Tulcea and Vaslui districts in Romania, Odessa and Cernăuţi oblasts in Ukraine and the entire territory of the Republic of Moldova. The Joint Operational Programme is aimed at implementing important projects for the improvement of the infrastructure in the region by modernising transport and energy networks, key aspects for a competitive economy and for ensuring the appropriate interconnection between the three participating countries. Transportation is extremely important

Для создания межгосударственного партнёрства в стратегических сферах, для улучшения процесса территориальной, экономической и социальной интеграции и для поддержке политики сближения, стабильности и конкурентоспособности в регионе, Европейский Союз финансировал, в периоде 2007 – 2013, Программу Общей Операционной Деятельности Румыния- УкраинаРеспублика Молдова. Эти три государства будут продолжать пользоватся финансовой поддержкой в рамках названной программы на протяжении периода 2014 - 2020. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


44 Market development

Marmaray, a step closer to inauguration [ by Elena Ilie ]

T

wo different high-speed railways will provide connection to the Marmaray Tunnel, so the city will have an additional 63 km of rail lines. The total cost of these projects that connect the two railway lines to the Marmaray Tunnel amounts to TRY 9 Billion (EUR 3.5 Billion). Moreover, Baku-Tbilisi-Kars route will be connected to Marmaray Tunnel allowing direct transport from Azerbaijan to Europe, said Binali Yildirim, Turkey’s Minister of Transport, who joined Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ErdoÄ&#x;an at the first official tests for the Marmaray Tunnel. The project on the tunnel under the Bosporus Strait, part of Marmaray, is considered the project of the century and has

a major importance due to its direct railway connection between Europe and Asia. The project will include the construction of a 1.3km completely submerged tunnel of a total 13.6 km of tunnel. The existing railway line between Halkali, on the European side and Gebze, on the Asia side, will be fully upgraded and the number of lines will be increased to three. Two lines of this route, covering a total of 76 km, will provide urban transport services and other lines will be used by high-speed trains. The city of Istanbul, just like many other big cities, is suffocated by intense traffic and pollution, and the few transport systems to deal with such a high transport demand (around 12 million people travel

Photo: www.uskudar.bel.tr

Delayed for a long period of time, due to very important archaeological discoveries, today construction works at the Marmaray project are progressing rapidly. According to the estimates of the Turkish Minister of Transport Binali Yildirim, the opening of the tunnel under the Bosporus Strait is scheduled for the beginning of 2014. The first tests of the Marmaray rail project, which crosses the Bosporus Strait providing a rail connection between Europe and Asia, were conducted on 4 August.

daily in and through Istanbul) are also an impediment. But Marmaray Project is about to solve part of the traffic problems in the city on the bank of Bosporus. It will reduce car dependency, the consumption

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Market development 45

of energy from own resources, and will limit the import of fuels. It is estimated that the travel time between Istanbul and Ankara will be reduced by up to 3 hours. The project is financed by the Japanese Bank for International Cooperation ( JBIC) – USD 950 Million and the European Investment Bank (EIB) – EUR 650 Billion. The estimates of the Turkish Ministry of Transport show that 1.5 million citizens will use the Marmaray Tunnel in their daily journeys in 2015 and their number will increase up to 1.7 million by 2025. Turkey plans to “capture” railway traffic in the south of the Eurasian Platform “1,086 km of new line were built from 2004 to 2012 and 3,434 km of new line are currently in construction. Apart from these projects, Eskişehir-İstanbul section of the high-speed line Ankara-İstanbul will be commissioned on 30 September 2013 together with the Marmaray Project that will link Europe to Asia. Works on Ankara-Sivas high-speed line are also underway. Other projects underway are the high-speed lines Ankara-Bursa and Ankara-İzmir. We also have other works underway, such as the rehabilitation of conventional lines and the improvement of the geometrical standard of these lines through maintenance and through the

Fabrication of Tube Tunnel Elements Fabrication of Tube Tunnel Elements ment Ministry’s approval and was awaiting a last green light from the Council of Ministers, could be launched in two-three months. Through complex investments and railway transport development projects, Turkey seeks not only to boost the national economy (which has recorded remarkable growth over the past four decades ranking 16th in the world and 6th in Europe), but also to get closer to the European Union, a union that the neighbouring country wishes to access. Source: Republic of Turkey - Ministry of transportation

modernisation of the rolling stock fleet”, declared Süleyman Karaman, the General Manager of TCDD in an interview for the February issue of Railway Pro. Turkey is currently renewing its rail transportation system within the framework of a new development plan. Transport Minister Binali Yıldırım announced that at least 2,500 kilometres of highspeed rail line would be built in the next five years to connect 14 different cities. Moreover, Turkish Railways announced the intention to organise “a record tender of TRY 6 Billion (EUR 2.3 Billion) in a bid to buy new trains”, according to the declarations of TCDD General Manager Süleyman Karaman. He also said that the tender, which had passed the Develop-

Тоннель Мармарай – на шаг ближе к инаугурации Строительные работы для тоннеля Мармарай, которые были отсрочены на довольно длительный период на основании важных археологических открытий, в настоящее время быстро прогрессируют. Согласно оценки Министра Транспорта Турции –Бинали Йылдырым, официальное открытие тоннеля проходящего под Босфором программированное к концу октября. Недавно, 4-го августа, были проведены первые проверки в рамках проекта тоннеля Мармарай- проходящего под Босфором и обеспечивающий железнодорожную связь между Европой и Азией.

Jean-Pierre Loubinoux, Director General – UIC Speech from the previous edition of Railway Days

The International Union of Railways participates to the development of railway transport and of freight-dedicated international corridors. Railway transport connects countries, but also continents and cohesion is given by the number of railway projects, such as infrastructure modernization, building new lines, modernization of railway equipments, new rolling stock or research in the field. Recent studies of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have shown that the necessary investments in transport by 2030 amount to USD 11.3 Billion, 44% of which would be directed to railway transport (USD 5 Trillion). European freight corridors, the new transport network in Brazil, the Russian projects, and the network in Central Asia or in the Basin of Mekong River, all these projects will revive railway transport. All indicators show that, despite the economic recession, by 2015, cargo transport could increase by 18%, while passenger transport by 80%. By 2020-2040, over two billion people will move to the city, so it will be necessary to find mobility solutions for urban and suburban routes and rail transport plays an important role here. Railways are every day more involved in urban development and from the point of view of investments it is very important that the accent will fall on intercity, suburban and high-speed trains. All intra-European corridors, those linking Europe to Asia and Middle East, need improvement, because they boost interoperability. I’m glad that we can now talk about the Black Sea transport links. UIC has discussed the matter with the Organisation of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). Turkey will soon inaugurate the section Baku – Tbilisi – Kars, which is a plus for the link between the two continents and which will definitely increase the share of railway transport. At present, the key word is interoperability, also between continents, not only between European countries. Also, another key factor for cohesion is solving technical and administrative problems. Cohesion has to be at the core of the railway development policy. Security and safety are also important. UIC is thus interested in studies of the development projects elaborated by other profile associations, such as OSJD. However, the railway transport sector is currently fragmented and market players are facing problems in observing administrative separation principles. Therefore, railway transport needs an improved harmonisation of technical and administrative rules both in Europe and Asia which will facilitate and ease cross-border operations. There are several efficient solutions for this, among which satellite tracking systems, development of new international hubs, the mapping of the network, new data bases or the development of each data base of the authorities, a better standardisation of specific regulations in Europe, Asia and the 1520 Area, development of new transport corridors and new integration and charging systems. Most new transport corridors between Europe and Middle East from East to West and North to South, also the new corridors linking Europe and Africa, as well as the key role of the Mediterranean hubs, all these, next to the major corridors which cross Europe (IV,V,IX and X) are key elements for development and territorial cohesion. Organisers:

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CITY ON THE MOVE

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com

Railway PRO


46 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Greece sells Trainose [ by Pamela Luică ]

The authorities have launched the international tender process on the 100% sale of Trainose, the Greek railway passenger transport operator. The tender will be carried out in two phases, the first one including the expression of interest and the second one the submission of the financial offers by the shortlisted investors. The launch of the tender has awakened the interest of many companies which now want to enter the Greek railway sector.

E

ven though the economic situation in Greece is still troubled and demands the application of policies and projects that would help the country recover and the sale of state companies represents an important economic process, the acquisition of shares in the Greek companies is an essential step for other companies that want to extend and consolidate their position in the European market. This is also the case of the national railway operator, Trainose, for which in June the Hellenic Republic Assets Development Fund (HRADF) launched the tender on the sale of a 100% stake in the company. Trainose provides railway passenger and freight transport services, is responsible for the development, organization and exploitation of regional, urban, suburban and international railway transport services, but also supplies bus or combined transport services (for the freight and passenger segment), as well as logistics services. Any company or consortium interested in the privatization of the company will have to prove that, as corporate entity, the annual average of its consolidated capital in the past three years has exceeded EUR 100 Million and, as private capital company, the sum of assets over the past years has exceeded EUR 200 Million. In the case of Income statement

a consortium, the financial capacity criteria have to be met by each member of the joint-venture. From 2007 to 2009, Trainose has recorded an operating deficit of EUR 240 Million, but, as of 2010, the company has applied a recovery and restructuring plan consisting in the application of a new tariff policy, the implementation of a management scheme for intercity transport and the amendment of the freight transport expenditure system that would promote block train services. For the freight transport segment, the company has established a strategy for the development of connections between the railway network and ports (Piraeus, Alexandroupolis), logistics and industrial centres (Cosco terminal, the development of facilities for Thessaloniki container terminal) and the conclusion of direct contracts with the large industrial companies. To improve the infrastructure and transport services, Greece could initiate the electrification of Athens-Tithorea line, the modernisation of Thessaloniki switchyard and the utilisation of Thriassion intermodal freight centre. Moreover, in the first quarter of the year, the EU will allocate EUR 1 Million via the TEN-T so that the studies necessary to the development of the Athens-Thessaloniki railway will be completed.

Russia, France and China, interested to buy the shares If the projects are implemented, in the next 10 years Greece could become an important supplier of transport services in South-East Europe by providing viable transport offers in the logistics chain to Central Europe, the Balkans and Far East. As Greece plans to become an important point on the map of transport, the interest in the acquisition of Trainose becomes higher and higher. To that end, RZD could create a consortium with SNCF to participate in the tender for Trainose. The consortium could also include other companies from Greece. During a visit to Greece, RZD President Vladimir Putin said that “several details

2009

2010

2011

2012 (Q1)

Turnover

98.710.404

102.691.916

84.636.087

19.837.798

Sales expenses

290.191.640

264.303.457

155.911.221

30.741.185

-191.481.236

-161.611.541

-71.275.134

-10.903.966

-194%

-157.4%

-84.2%

-55%

-231.523.981

-187.509.839

-33.531.818

97.579

-234.5%

-182.6%

-39.6%

Total earnings (profit/ loss) Total profit margin EBIT %margin EBIT Source: TRAINOSE

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013


Policies & Strategies

made by Yakunin, if it didn’t receive public financing, RZD would have to set-up a consortium with a foreign partnership to buy the assets put to sale in Greece. The funds used by RZD for the acquisition of Greek companies will mainly come from loans. According to data, the starting price is EUR 100 Million for Thessaloniki Port, EUR 30 Million for Trainose and EUR 10 Million for Rosco. The Greek press says that companies from France, China, Italy and Germany are interested to buy Trainose. China could participate through naval operator COSCO which announced it would make an offer if the Piraeus Port Authority agreed to reduce the tariffs applied for the use of docks. COSCO plans to participate in the tender for Trainose as the two companies are developing transport partnerships in the Port of Piraeus and, according to the press, the Chinese are interested in the acquisition of the main railway on the

north-south axis. Another company which seems to be interested to buy Traionse is Grampet Group-GFR from Romania, a company which in July won the tender for the privatization of HZ Cargo (Croatia) and bought a 75% stake in the Croatian operator. Also, in June, the Romanian operator was selected the winner of CFR Marfă’s sale process (Romania) for EUR 202 Million for the acquisition of a 51% stake. Trainose was established in 2005 as subsidiary of OSE and in 2008 was transferred to the Greek central authorities. The operator delivers railway passenger and freight transport services, organizes, develops and exploits urban, suburban, regional and international services. The trains of the company cover a network of over 1,500km and carry an annual 15 million passengers and 4.5 million tonnes of freight.

Греция приватизирует железнодорожную компанию Trainose

Photo: trainose.gr

have been establishment about the participation in the Trainose sale process and there are companies from Western Europe that are interested to collaborate in the tender for Trainose”. Also, Kopelouzos Group (Greek energy and natural gas company) has proposed a form of partnership to the Russian company to elaborate a participation offer in the privatisation of Trainose. Kopelouzos is active in Russia through Prometheus Gas Company in which it holds a 50% stake. Prometheus Gas is a JV with Gazprom. “We have a permanent collaboration with RZD”, declared a representative of Kopelouzos. However, RZD has not yet answer to the proposal made by Kopelouzos Group. Participating in the Trainose sale is not the first choice for RZD, as in June Yakunin asked President Vladimir Putin to support the company in the privatisation of Thessaloniki Port. According to the declarations

47

Власти пустили в ход процесс международного тендера по продаже 100% акций греческой железнодорожной компании Traionse. Процесс торгов пройдёт в двух фазах: первая намерена определить выражение интереса, в то время как вторая включает в себя предоставление финансовых предложений инвесторами, прошедшими предварительный отбор. Тендер привлёк внимание многих компаний которые имеют желание вовлечься в греческий железнодорожный сектор. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


48 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Poland: Passenger railway transport in figures [ by Pamela Luică ]

Poland is the most important railway market in Eastern Europe both in the freight and in the passenger railway transport sector, and in the past years, especially through European funds, it has carried out a series of important projects for the railway sector. In 2009, the national railway market recovered much more dynamically than estimated, while many European markets faced the effects of the economic crisis. The annual volume of all products and services in the Polish railway sector amounted to (in the period 20102012) EUR 2.4 Billion and is estimated to register annual increases of 2.7%, reaching 2.9 Billion by 2016, as shows a study elaborated by SCI Verkehr GmbH (“The Polish Railway Market”). Although the passenger transport sector experienced decreases, due to investments in the transport infrastructure and modernisation of the rolling stock fleet, the number of passengers will constantly increase in the next years.

A

ccording to the Development Strategy 2030, published at the beginning of the year, the most important challenge in the passenger transport sector is the modernisation of the rolling stock fleet and the purchase of new coaches, projects which will contribute to the increase of the number of passengers. In the period 2003-2010, the number of carried passengers reached 260-290 million, and with the market opening (in 2007) the new operators competed successfully with PKP. Therefore, the market structure has changed since 2010, including two companies of PKP Group, seven local companies, and two companies held by DB, Arriva RP Sp. z o.o. (part of Arriva

Railway rolling stock needs the following types of investment programs • rising the number of DC traction units (EZT) to accommodate trains traveling at speeds up to 160 km/h and satisfy passengers’ expectations; • increasing the number of electric passenger locomotives running at 140/160 km/h; • increasing the number of well equipped electric traction measures to operate trains running at 200 km/h, including multisystem measures;

Group, held by DB). For the consolidation and modernisation of the transport system, the main indicators for the actions to be implemented are determined by the dimension and structure of future demand of the passenger and freight transport. Therefore, the passenger traffic will generally register significant increases in the international traffic sector;

Forecasted global demand for passenger transportation in all modes of transport in Poland by 2030 (Polish and foreign operators) Million persons

Maximum variant

Years

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

Railway

261

268

279

345

484

Aviation

20

27

28

35

45

Maritime transport

1.5

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.1

Individual motorization

24843

28198

31146

33405

34556

Billion paskm

Maximum variant

Years

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

Railway

17.9

18.0

18.9

25.9

39.5

Aviation

40.7

56.3

60.4

75.1

97.9

Maritime transport

0.50

0.54

0.58

0.62

0.67

Individual motorization

279.7

324.6

365.8

399.3

419.4

Source: TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY BY 2020 (with perspective by 2030), MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT, CONSTRUCTION AND MARITIME ECONOMY, Poland, January, 2013.

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

compared to the figures in 2010, it will increase by 27-35% until 2020 and by 5886%% in 2030, and national long-distance services are estimated to increase by 2028% until 2020 and by 40-57% until 2030. As regards the modes of transport, the railway sector will only increase by 3-5% (in 2010-2020) and, for 2030, after the execution of the projects for improvement of the services quality and the execution of a high-standard railway system, the increase will be considerable: 100-120%. Compared to air traffic, the potential opening of the central airport (CPL) could affect the increase of air traffic, but the final decision will depend on factors such as the implementation of the high-speed line project (“Y” line), transport demands, the economic situation etc. According to the most recent study elaborated by the Polish Office of Rail Transportation (“Polish railway market in 2011”), 2011 was the first year of increase (of the past three ones) of the performance of the passenger railway transport, the operators transporting 264.5 million passengers, 1% more than in 2010, and the traffic registered an increase of 1.4%. The regional transport increased by 1.4%, and the international one by 11%.


7,5 2004 to the preceding 2005 2006biggest In 2011, similar year, the share in the market in terms of number of passengers

/Source:to Prepared by UTK on thecompanies, basis of EC data/ belonged the local-authority including

the activity was held by 35 railway undertakings, inclu2007 2009 2011 – nearly share 2010 ofgauge the remaining Rail in Tri-City] ding 132008 licences held5%. by The the narrow railway under-

Policies & Strategies railway undertakings did not exceed 1%, Office including SKM takings. From the beginning of the of Rail Trans-

49

[Fast (UTK) Urbanestablishment, Rail in Warsaw] the -0.95%, WKD [Warsaw Warszawa portation President of UTK has

– 0.63%, ArrivatoRP – 0.48%, Koleje Commuter Przewozy Regionalne [Regional Transport company] 41.5% grantedRailway] 40 licences authorising perform the– passenger Transport performance in the railway the countries in 2004 2011 Transport performance in passenger the passenger railwaytransport transport ininthe EUEU countries in 2004 – 2011 [Silesian Railway] – 0.3%, and Koleje Dolnośląskie (decrease by 2.1% comparing to the year 2010) and Koleje Śląskie transport services. The timeline between the beginning Mazowieckie [Mazovian Railway] 20.6% (growth by around

[Lower Railway] 0.17%. of Silesian the second half –of 2003 and the end of February 2004

0.3%). The average distance of the passenger journey in

The of theperiod, PKP group companies was theshare transition when the legal (including status allowed

the transport performed by the local-authority compa-

the timetable operating railwayto undertakings PKP Intercithe railway undertakings perform transport on the

nies amounted to 47.8 km (by 1,4 km more than in the

ty and PKPof SKM in Tri-City),granted in terms pkm amounted to basis concessions byofthe minister competent

year 2010). The share of the PKP Intercity company in

50.5% to by 2010 1.2%). by PKP group for(comparing transport or thegrowth licence by granted the Office of

terms of number of transported passengers amounted to

railway made by the 87.7above million passengerRail undertakings Transportation. Taking into account, the

13.8%, towards 14.1% in 2010. The share of the local-

kilometres less in the year 2010 performing (around 1%the fall).transnumber of than railway undertakings

authority companies which started their activity in 2011,

Considerable increase of the Intercity company’s port services in 2003 was PKP higher from the number of

including Koleje Śląskie [Silesian Railway] and Koleje Wiel-

shareauthorised in 2009 was caused by the transformation process railway undertakings acting on the basis of

kopolskie [Greater Poland Railway] was insignificant and

of the company the licence. Przewozy Regionalne [Regional Transport

amounted analogously to 0.68% (1.8 million passengers)

company] into the local-authority company and transfer-

Source:Number Prepared by UTK the basis of EC data , „Polish railway market in 2011”, Polish Office of Rail Transportation, Analysis Unit in the Department of Regulation of Railway Market on ofonlicenced railway undertakings authorised to perform transport and actually acting

and 0.34% (566 thousand passengers). Measuring with the the railway market the 2003-2011 /Source: Prepared by UTKinon theyears basis of EC data/ indicator of Number transportofperformance, the undertakings largest share licenced railway

ring the sector of interregional transport. The share in

the market transport performance of the PKP Intercity authorised to of perform transport and actually acting

on45.5% the railway marketcompany in the years 2003-2011 increased from the level of 22% to nearly 55%. belonged to the PKP Intercity company – (decrease by 1.3%) and Przewozy Regionalne [Regional Transport

It needs to be underlined that since 2009, the PKP Interci-

company] – 36.5% (increase by 0.3%). The share of the

ty company’s share has been considerably decreasing. In

remaining companies in the transport performance is

the year 2010 by 7.7% and in 2011 by 1.3% in relation to

considerable

the preceding year.

lower,

including

Koleje

Mazowieckie

13

[Mazovian Railway] – 10.3% and PKP SKM [PKP Fast Urban The railway undertakings share in the market according to the number of passengers in 2011

Source: Prepared by UTK on the basis of EC data , „Polish railway market in 2011”, Polish Office of Rail Transportation, Analysis Unit in the Department of Regulation of Railway Market

Rolling/Source: stock Prepared purchase, solution for by UTK/ quality increase

transport system. The railway competitiveness must increase compared to the other modes of transports, in terms of safety and comfort. This goal will be reached through The quality of services provided by railthe investment programmes, organisaway companies has improved as operators tional and technological changes, and the have become aware of the need to allocate change of programmes will create opporinvestments in the rolling stock. The funtunities for the provision of competitive damental problems of passengers refer services”, the document stipulates. to comfort conditions and adequate serIn the next years, intercity services and vices, and to the fact that the rolling stock /Source: Prepared by UTK/ those provided in the crowded areas will The railway undertakings share in the market according to The railway undertakings share in the market according to the transportregister the most dynamic development: the transport performance in 2011 intercity, due to the capacity of connection performance in 2011 to the most important cities 36 of Poland, Koleje Wielkopolskie PKP S zybka Kolej and railway transport services in crowded A rriva RP / DB Koleje Dolnośląskie (Greater Poland M iejska w Trójmieśc ie Railway) S c henker (PKP Fast Urban Rail in (Lower S ilesian spaces will become important, especially 0,48% 0,09% Railway) Tri-c ity) PKP Interc ity due to the congestion of road traffic. The 0,17% 4,97% 45,52% Koleje Ś ląskie (S ilesian competitiveness optimisation will be enKoleje M azowiec kie Railway) (M azovian Railway) 0,30% sured by integration with the other modes 10,34% of transport, and rolling stock will be purUsedomer Bäderbahn chased to answer mobility needs. GmbH “As regards intercity services, upgraded 0,004% or new trains will be put into service in others the period 2015-2020. The trains will be 0,01% able to run on modernised lines at 200 km/h. Subsequently, locomotives capable to reach these speeds will be purchased. narrow gauge railway 0,03% The selection of the new rolling stock will S zybka Kolej M iejska reflect the needs of different 21 subsystems, Przewozy Regionalne Warszawska Kolej w Warszawie (Fast (Regional Transport Dojazdowa (Warsaw Urban Rail in Warsaw) the modern vehicles fulfilling several rec ompany) Commuter Railway) 0,95% 36,53% 0,63% /Source: Prepared by UTK/ quirements: the locomotives will have to be adapted to the speed limits defined by Source: Prepared by UTK on the basis of EC data , „Polish railway market in 2011”, the individual sections of the modernised Polish Office of Rail Transportation, Analysis Unit in the Department of Regulation of Railway Market is worn and transport operators reduced repair, modernisation and maintenance expenses. Under these circumstances, the development strategy underlines the importance of granting the support by subsidies, for the rolling stock modernisation and purchase. “In the next period, the strategic challenge aims at consolidating the role of the railway transport within an integrated

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


narrow railway undertakings inland gauge waterways 1,64 1,65 launched 1,80 around 1,4012.8

1,44 dual transport. 1,55 1,49

1,79

1,67

1,40

1,52

thousand paths of a total length of 100 thousand kilome-

Tourist transport sector in the holiday period has /Source: Prepared by UTK on the basis of CSO [Central Statistical Office] data/

POLICIES & STRATEGIES 50 tres. The average distance travelled by a passenger in this

a dominant influence on the increase of the transport

type of transport amounted to 10.9 kilometre in 2011.

performance, but only in July and August which specifies

Dynamics of the numberresults of passengers particularthat modes of transport in 2002-2011 (2001=0%) While analyzing the transport in particularin months making use of the railway as the transport mode

Dynamics of the number of passengers in particular modes of transport in 2002-2011

of a year, the attention should be paid to characteristic

while traveling for winter holidays is insignificant. The

changes 100 % in the number of passengers in winter and holi-

characteristics of the volume of transport performance in 88,91% 80,27% 80% Number of passengers in particular months of 2010 and 2011

car air transport

rail inland waterways

2010

2011

24 155

34,95%

thousand passengers

24 000 40% 23 000 20%

23 366

15,77% 6,72%

22 401

-10,17% -11,79% -14,72% 21 500 -12,98% -18,37% -22,46%

-14,97% 20 737

20 000

22 411

22 290

-8,44% 21 098

-8,45% 21 741 21 000 -9,31% -20%

-5,31%

21 420

-16,38% 21 213

-20,96%

21 933

-8,98%

19 000

January

200 2

February

March

200 3

200 4

April

May

200 5

June

21 111

-16,09% 21 572

20 752 -20,08%

July

200 6

21 999

-11,88%

200 7

August

200 8

23 104

2,08%

-7,21%

21 -14,50% 837

-31,81%

September

21 256

-14,66% -21,04%

-26,04%

-40% -60%

23 245

9,41%

22 050

23 279 39,70%

26,60%

17,69%

9,65%

21 950

22 000 0,67%

0%

58,99%

55,09%

25 000 60%

-20,37%

20 452

-36,61% -40,49%

October

200 9

November December

201 0

201 1

Source: Prepared by UTK on the basis of EC data , „Polish railway market in 2011”, Polish Office of Rail Transportation, Analysis Unit in the Department of Regulation of Railway Market

/Source: Prepared by UTK/ /Source: Prepared by UTK on the basis of CSO [Central Statistical Office] data/

15

Transport performance in particular months of 2010 and 2011

Transport performance in particular months of 2010 and 2011

2 000 000

thousand passenger-kilometres

2010

2011

1 814 937

1 800 000

1 797 232 1 745 859

1 623 541 1 548 123

1 600 000

1 400 000

1 391 882

1 370 798

1 325 708

1 323 200 1 200 000

1 821 341

January

1 391 466

1 445 880

1 549 991 1 581 083

1 447 432

1 462 925

1 471 562 1 510 838

1 475 627

1 443 186

1 449 233

1 390 414 1 380 926

1 324 002

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November December

/Source: Prepared byofUTK/ Source: Prepared by UTK on the basis EC data , „Polish railway market in 2011”, Polish Office of Rail Transportation, Analysis Unit in the Department of Regulation of Railway Market

Photo: wikimedia.org

network, and carriages will have to comply with all types of passenger and technological needs”. The projects of modernisation and purchase of new vehicles will be financed from the operators’ own funds and from public funds.

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

Poland and the EU In 2011, across the EU, the railways carried 8.448 billion passengers, 0.3% more than in the previous year, and the traffic reached 405 billion passenger/km after a 0.25% increase. The number of passengers increased by 11.2% only in 2004-2005, and, despite the fact that in 2009 the traffic decreased, in the next two years the transport increased again (until 2011 the number of passengers increased by 1.7%). As regards the number of licences, in 2010, approximately 500 companies were authorised to perform passenger transport in EU, an increase from 2009. In Poland, 34 licenses were issued (34 entities in 2011). In Europe, only Germany and Great Britain had a higher number of entities authorised to provide railway passenger transport services (Germany320, UK-44). The transport increase in Poland has oscillated, just like in France and Hungary. Germany ranks first among the states with the highest indicator of the number of passengers, and, together with France and

18

Great Britain, they represent 60% of the Europe’s market share, while Poland holds 3.13%.

Польша: железнодорожный пассажирский транспорт в цифрах Польша является самым важным железнодорожным рынком восточной Европы с точки зрения грузоперевозок и пассажирского транспорта. В последние годы, в частности с помощью европейского финансирования, Польша осуществляет серию важных проектов в железнодорожном секторе. Для консолидации и модернизации транспортной системы, главные показатели для будущих действий определяются в зависимости от структуры и объёма будущих потребностей в области грузоперевозок и пассажирского транспорта.


52 POLICIES & STRATEGIES

Integrated urban mobility plans support the use of alternative public transport

[ by Elena Ilie ]

Urban mobility of the Romania of today is minimal and, if we compared it to that in other small or large cities in the European Union, is almost non-existent. We are not doing very well at urban, suburban mobility and national mobility is not an advantage either; moreover, we cannot yet talk about integrated urban mobility. In the past 10-15 years, only large cities have carried out urban development or urban mobility development programmes, most of them being implemented with limited funds and European support.

either. More interest in implementing them is all we need.

Photo: Club Feroviar

Most of the citizens of the EU live in cities and 85% of the Gross Domestic Product of the European Union is generated by cities. The sustainable urban mobility, that allows passengers and goods to move without congesting traffic and while protecting the environment, is very important in the development of a city and of the economy. We don’t have to reach very far for effective solutions. We can choose an efficient management of transport and mobility, the development of park & ride spaces and bicycle lanes, an improved distribution of goods and performing logistics services, restricting access in specific areas of the city, informing the citizens about alternative transport modes and, most of all, replacing individual vehicles with public transport, walking or cycling. Since not so many sustainable urban mobility projects have been initiated in the programming period 2007-2013 and the attrac-

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

Timişoara

Photo: RATT

B

ut “integrated urban mobility projects” have only recently entered the common vocabulary of local administrations so the adoption of such projects is recent. However, there are many examples of cities that have managed to have integrated urban mobility. Integrated urban mobility refers not only to the fluidisation of traffic, but since urban traffic in Romania is a serious problem, finding the best solution to reduce traffic should definitely be the first choice in the strategy on elaborating sustainable mobility plans. Romanian cities have not been built to face a massive and suffocating traffic, which is exactly the case nowadays. Moreover, the extensions and the overpasses do nothing but increase road traffic, instead of reducing the number of cars. On the contrary, supporting public transport, its effectiveness and promoting alternative public transport are the solutions for easing traffic and boosting the integrated urban mobility. Integrated urban mobility solutions are not difficult and are not unreachable objectives

tion of available EU funds has been slow, we hope to see more concrete initiatives in the next financing period 2014-2020. The Romanian Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration, through the bodies subordinated to them, especially the Management Authority for the Regional Operational Programme, proposes the development of sustainable urban mobility plans for the seven growth poles (Braşov, Cluj - Napoca, Constanţa, Craiova, Iaşi, Ploieşti and Timişoara) and the capital Bucharest. The elaboration of these plans has been agreed upon as priority by the ministry and the European Commission and their implementation would become the framework of the urban transport projects that would be financed through the Regional Operating Programme (ROP) in 2014-2020, with the support of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). “In 2013, we expect the finalization of reference terms, with Jaspers assistance, for the elaboration of integrated mobility plans. In 2013-2014, the consultants will develop the mobility plans whose results will be absorbed by the community. Then, the projects will be implemented”, declared Cezar Grozavu, Public Manager Project Management Unit – Managing Authority for the Regional Operational Programme – Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration (MDTR), during the Forum for Sustainable


Policies & Strategies

53

Photo: Club Feroviar

Iaşi

Mobility and Urban Development” organised by Club Metropolitan and the Association for Metropolitan Mobility (AMM) on 20-21 March in Sibiu. The next reunion of the Forum for Sustainable Mobility and Urban Development will be held on 9 October in Bucharest. The specific objectives of shaping integrated mobility plans for these growth poles and their suburban areas focus on the harmonisation of urban and territorial development by developing the transport infrastructure, especially public transport in conformity with mobility and transport needs. Also, it is necessary to create an institutional and legal framework to efficiently manage the transport system of each growth pole. Moreover, the authorities plan to elaborate an action plan compliant to both the growth pole and the urban agglomeration, a plan that would refer to the correlated implementation of short-term efficient measures – by 2015 – and on medium-term – by 2020. It is also worth mentioning the provision according to which the authorities seek to correlate the existing and planned investments into an infrastructure system that would serve the entire urban agglomeration specific to each growth pole and the capital, Bucharest. It is expected that each growth pole and Bucharest would have a Board which will include all interested parties for each agglomeration. The Board will develop and monitor

the application of an action plan 2014-2020 on the sustainable mobility in the area of the growth pole and of Bucharest, plan that would seek to encourage the intermodality of public transport, cycling or walking, thus discouraging the individual use of cars, especially on short distances. The policies and measures defined in a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan have to address to all transport modes in the entire urban agglomeration, including public and private, passenger and freight, monitored or non-monitored transport. According to the plans announced by the ministry, the authorities seek to support municipalities in elaborating investment strategies and in supporting the preparation of a portfolio of projects, especially in urban transport. Thus, a Masterplan for Mobility will be prepared for the seven growth poles, including Bucharest, the elaboration of a strategy on the financing and management of urban public transport (including the preparation of public service obligations and of the business plans for public transport operators), as well as an expertise for increasing the strategic planning capacity and the economic impact for growth poles. A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan is a method of approaching more efficiently the transport-related problems in urban areas. Starting from the practices and the regulations of Member States, its basic features have to focus on and to implement a participative approach, a plea for sustainability, an

integrated approach, a clear vision, appropriate objectives and targets and a review of the costs and benefits of transport. The European cities which implemented such sustainable mobility plans include Koprivnica (Croatia), Budapest, Odense (Denmark), Paris, Lille, Timişoara, Cluj – Napoca, Oradea, Cambridge, London, Gent, Porto, Brno, Toulouse, Zagreb, Eindhoven, Aachen, Erfurt, Zaragoza, Turku, Helsinki, Örebro, Nottingham, Sheffield, Parma, these being only few of an impressing list.

Планы интегрированной городской мобильности поддерживают поочерёдный выбор общественного транспорта В Румынии, в данный период, городская мобильность является минимальной и, в сравнении с другими городами Евросоюза, она почти отсутствует. Городская, метрополитенская и общенациональная транспортная мобильность не находится на высшем уровне; более того, пока невозможно говорить о интегрированной городской мобильности. В последние 1015 лет только крупные города осуществили несколько программ городского развития или городской мобильности, большинство из них имея в распоряжении скромные финансовые средства, а также, при своеобразной поддержке Евросоюза. September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com


2.

User frequency of suburban trains

54 statistics

Four in ten Europeans have at least once used a suburban train –

ndents were asked also how often they travel by suburban trains7. Only a few

Over half of Europeans (55%) use national or regional trains: at least weekly (6%), several times a month (4%), several

dents are regular users (7%), more once specifically: dailyOver or almost (3%), SPECIAL 388 never done so (45%). Slightly over “Railway competition” times a year (19%), or at most a year (26%). four in daily tenEUROBAROMETER Europeans have four in

 (7%), several l times aten week (3%), or once a suburban week (2%). Others travel by suburban trains Europeans (41%) use trains: at least weekly times a month (5%), several times a year (13%), or at

most once a year (15%).(5%) Almost in ten Europeans have never done so (59%). onally: several times a month orsix several times a year (13%). Sizeable

tions of respondents seldom or never use suburban trains: once a year or less

1.User frequency of suburban trains

, or never (59%).

Four in ten Europeans have at least once used a suburban train

SPECIAL EUROBAROMETER 388

“Railway comp

 3. IMPROVEMENTS THAT MAY ENCOURAGE EUROPEANS TO TRAVEL BY TRAIN - Over four in ten Europeans who seldom or never use national or regional trains would be encouraged to do so if prices were lower

Having established that many Europeans have little or no experience of national or

regional rail travel (71% of the total sample), we asked these respondents what

would(n=25591) make them more likely to travel by train9. Interviewees were presented with Base: Total number of respondents

Base: Total number of respondents (n=25591) six options and they could give multiple answers. Respondents were asked also how often they travel by suburban trains. Only a few respondents are regular users (7%), more specifically: daily or almost daily (3%), several times a week (3%), or once a week (2%). Others travel by suburban trains occasionally: several ry-by-country analysis shows thattimes overa year half (13%). the respondents have travelled times a month (5%) or several Sizeable proportions of respondents seldom or never use suburban trains: once a or less (15%), or never (59%). Country-by-country shows that over t once byyear a suburban train in the Netherlands (72%), analysis Germany (59%), andhalf the respondents have travelled at least once by a suburban train in the Netherlands (72%), Germany (59%), and the Nordic countries rdic countries Denmark (66%), Sweden (59%) and Finland (52%). The lowest Denmark (66%), Sweden (59%) and Finland (52%). The lowest proportions are observed in Bulgaria (10%) and Luxembourg (11%).

tions are observed in Bulgaria (10%) and Luxembourg (11%).

2. Improvements that may encourage

europeans to travel train into account the frequency of by use, the highest percentages of regular users of

an trains (that is at in least a week: daily or almost daily, several times a Over four ten once Europeans who seldom or never and once week) are in Denmark 5%, 5% and 3% respectively), usea national or regional trains(13%: would be encouraged

to do so if5%, prices wereand lower ny (12%: 5%, 2%) Spain (12%: 3%, 5%, 4%). The lowest

tages of regular users are observed in Lithuania and Bulgaria (both 1%).

17





How often do you travel by suburban trains in (OUR COUNTRY)?

15



Lower prices (43%) clearly stands out as the most frequently cited way to increase the use of national or regional trains. This is followed at some distance by better network with more routes/stations (20%), faster journeys (17%), more reliable services (16%), more comfortable and cleaner trains (16%), and more frequent services (14%). A small minority mention other reasons spontaneously (5%). Notably, a sizeable minority spontaneously say that nothing would make them more Lower prices (43%) clearly stands out as the most frequently cited way to increase likely to travel by train (28%). Another 5% could not form an opinion on this matter. Country-by-country analysis shows that lower prices are mentioned most frequently as ause way to the use national or regionalThis trainsisin followed every singleat some distance by better the ofincrease national or of regional trains. Member State, with the exception of Luxembourg. The highest percentages are in France (55%), the Czech Republic (51%), and Greece network with more(12%), routes/stations (20%), faster journeys (17%), more reliable (49%); conversely, the lowest proportions are in Luxembourg Portugal (26%) and the Netherlands (27%). services (16%), more comfortable and cleaner trains (16%), and more frequent

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

services (14%). A small minority mention other reasons spontaneously (5%).


statistics

55

3. OVERALL SATISFACTION WITH CURRENT NATIONAL AND REGIONAL RAIL SYSTEMS Almost half of Europeans are satisfied with their national or regional rail system

SPECIAL EUROBAROMETER 388

competition” Base: Total number of“Railway respondents (n=25591)



All respondents were asked to what extent they are satisfied with their national and regional rail system. Almost half are satisfied with it: very satisfied (6%) or fairly satisfied (40%). However, over one-third is not satisfied: not very satisfied (25%) or not at all satisfied In eight Member States, on more dissatisfied than analysis satisfied.reveals These that the majority of re(11%). Almost one-fifth could not form an opinion thisinterviewees matter (18%).were Country-by-country include Italy dissatisfied), Romania (60%), Bulgaria (58%),railand Greece spondents in 12 of the 25 Member States(61% surveyed are satisfied with their national or regional system. These include the northern (52%). interviewees in Lithuania and Estonia (31%) most European likely to countries Austria European countries Finland (67%),Finally, Sweden (60%), Denmark (64%)(38%) and Latvia (51%) and the are western Country-by-country reveals that(57%), the and majority of respondents (66%), the Netherlands (64%), Luxembourg (62%), Spain (all 59%), Belgium the UK (55%). In eight Mem-in 12 of t answer they don’t know. Ireland, France andanalysis ber States, more interviewees were dissatisfied than satisfied. These include Italy dissatisfied), (60%), Bulgaria (58%), rail syste 25 Member States surveyed are(61% satisfied withRomania their national or regional and Greece (52%). Finally, interviewees in Lithuania (38%) and Estonia (31%) are most likely to answer they don’t know. These include the northern European countries Finland (67%), Sweden (60%

Denmark (64%) and Latvia (51%) and the western European countries Aust

(66%), the Netherlands (64%), Luxembourg (62%), Ireland, France and Spain ( 59%), Belgium (57%), and the UK (55%).

 10

QC4 Overall, how satisfied are you with the national and regional rail system in (OUR COUNTRY)?

28

Base: Total number of respondents (n=25591)

Source: Special Eurobarometer 388, RAIL COMPETITION Report * *This survey was conducted by TNS Opinion & Social at the request of the Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport (DG MOVE). It was coordinated by the Directorate-General for Communication. It is the result of the special Eurobarometer 388 (Wave EB77.2) conducted in March 2012 (Publication: September 2012) and involving 25,591 interviews in 25 Member States.

September 2013 | www.railwaypro.com

29




56 Products & Technologies

Modernization of passenger trains and Restructuring of CFM, sustained by EBRD

[ by Pamela Luică ]

For the next period, Moldovan Railways (CFM) plans to modernize passenger and freight transport in order to achieve transport service quality growth, the project aiming to modernize the rolling stock fleet through investment attraction. Besides, in the next period, the authorities and the company intend to implement the restructuring program. In order to optimize the worn rolling stock, CFM plans to modernize 15 Diesel multiple units (each having four coaches) until 2014, valuing EUR 35 Million. 5 Diesel multiple units will be modernized by the end of the year. Along with this project, 18-20 shunting locomotives will be modernized through investments of EUR 25 Million.

F

or the modernization of coaches, Vehicles Units Number of vehicles that exNew vehicles that were put EBRD could offer the government ceeded the amortisation term in operation during the year a credit used by CFM. The rolling Diesel 139 134 0 stock rehabilitation and usage period extenlocomotives sion project has a total value of EUR 31.5 Diesel multiple units 21 18 3 Million, EBRD intending to allocate EUR 25 Million during this year. Passenger wagons 399 4 0 “By the end of the year, the European Bank Freight wagons 7433 4850 0 for Reconstruction and Development could Source: Moldovan Railways - CFM offer Moldovan Railways (CFM) a credit of EUR 25 Million for worn rolling stock fleet energy efficiency, will contribute to the com- timize the expenses and create new developrehabilitation and repairs. The project’s total pany’s restructuring process, providing long- ment opportunities. After the restructuring value is EUR 31.5 Million”, mentioned Ele- term sustainable development”, mentioned process will be completed- according to the na Gordeeva, coordinator at the European Gordeeva. structure of similar European enterprises, Bank for Reconstruction and Development The company’s rolling stock fleet mo- each unit will have responsibility on certain (EBRD). dernization project and the restructuring domains, being concentrated specifically on The project aims to rehabilitate over 10 plan represent priority projects for the au- the sector’s development. “This will provide trains, each having four coaches, to optimize thorities during the next years. “CFM has a the possibility to develop service quality of management in energy efficiency benefits; modernization and restructuring plan, the within CFM . The railway sector needs imthe credit will also provide financing for the institution making efforts to attract invest- mense investments in rolling stock and infraimplementation of CFM’s restructuring ac- ments for rolling stock fleet and infrastruc- structure. We are at an advanced stage of distion plan. ture modernization”, declared Vasile Botnari, cussions with several international partners, According to latest data (for 2013) the roll- the Minister of Transport, in August. needing their support for implementing ing stock fleet used for passenger transport For this purpose, CFM will be restructured important investment projects in this field”, comprises 399 trains. in three commercial units in charge of infra- declared Vasile Botnari. ÎNTREPRINDEREA DE STAT “CALEA FERATĂ DIN MOLDOVA” “The project will optimize the passenger structure and and freight transport PUBLIC ENTERPRISE “THE RAILWAY OF passenger MOLDOVA” transport services provided by CFM, the services. “The internal separation aims to op-

Mărfuri transportate, milioane tone Călători transportați, milioane persoane

3400

13

3200 3000

12

2800

11

2600

10

2400

9

2200

8

2000 1800

7

1600

6

1400

5

1200

4

1000 800

3

600

2

400

1

200

0

Модернизация пассажирских поездов и реструктуризация Молдавской Железнодорожной Компании (CFM) поддержены Европейским Банком Реконструкции и Развития (EBRD)

3600

14

Parcursul mărfurilor, milioane tone-km Parcursul călătorilor, milioane călători-km

TRAFICUL FEROVIAR DE MĂRFURI ŞI DE CĂLĂTORI FREIGHT AND PASSENGER TRAFFIC BY RAIL

15

0

2002

Source: CFM

2003

2004

2005

2006

Mărfuri transportate, mil.tone Traficul de marfă, mil.tone-km

www.railwaypro.com | September 2013

2007 ani

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Călători transportaţi, mil.persoane Traficul de călători, mil.călători-km

6

Молдавская Железнодорожная Компания (CFM) планирует в следующем периоде модернизацию пассажирского и грузового транспортного сектора для улучшения качества транспортных услуг, проект, цель которого является модернизация наличного прокатного материала при привлечении инвестиций. Также, в следующий период государственные органы и компания намерены осуществить программу реструктуризации.


Paşcani

Address : Str. Gării nr. 18, cod 705200, Paşcani, jud. Iaşi - România Phone : +40-232-71.83.00 Fax : +40-232-76.51.40 E-mail : office@electroputerevfu.ro

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