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Foreword by

Amale Andraos

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— Therme Vals

Peter Zumthor

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— Musikerhaus

Raimund Abraham

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— Zollverein

SANAA / Kazuyo Sejima

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— APAP Open School

LOT-EK

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— Kunsthaus Graz

Peter Cook

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— Guangzhou Opera

Zaha Hadid

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— High Line 23

Neil M. Denari

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— Samitaur Tower

Eric Owen Moss

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— Torre Cube

Carme Pinós

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— Cooper Union

Morphosis

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— The Broad

Diller S

Renfro

a.S — Sliced Porosity Block

Steven Holl

b.L — Light Pavilion

Lebbeus Woods & Christoph a. Kumpusch

de tail — kultur

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The detail has fallen into a cyclical misunderstanding within the conceptual and technical spectrum known as architecture. Detail Kultur is here to settle this mistake through an investigative matrix of case studies, scaled drawings, interviews, and

If buildings had DNA: Case Studies of Mutations

THE COMPLEX BEHAVIOR

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OF COLLECTIVE DETAIL

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analytical texts, claiming yet again the fundamental importance of the detail.

10 LENSES, 12+1 PROJECTS

Christoph a. Kumpusch

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de  tail — kultur If buildings had DNA: 

THE COMPLEX BEHAVIOR OF COLLECTIVE DETAIL

Case Studies of Mutations

10 LENSES, 12+1 PROJECTS

Christoph a. Kumpusch


CONTENTS DETAIL KULTUR If Buildings had DNA: Case Studies of Mutations Matrix

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Key

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Interview with Peter Cook

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6. ROOFLINES AND HORIZON

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INTRODUCTION: The Complex Behavior of Collective Detail

The Sixth Façade LENS EDITORIALS

Edge and Attic

Roof Membrane

1. CORNER

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Drain and Seal

Floor to Wall

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Wall to Ceiling

Interview with Thom Mayne

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7. MERGE AND SUBMERGE

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Wall to Wall Interview with Zaha Hadid

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Corner to Corner

Figure – Ground

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Foundation Interview with Peter Zumthor

2. OPENINGS AND CLOSINGS

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Perforation

Fusion

Penetration

Interview with Kazuyo Sejima

8. LINES IN SPACE

Porosity

Primary Structure/Secondary Structure

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3. JOINTS AND DISCREPANCIES

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Fugue

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Columns, Beams, Ribs, and Knots Patterns

Links, Bond, and Contact

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Tie and Knot Interview with Eric Owen Moss

Interview with Charles Renfro

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9. MATERIAL

935

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Collage, Disparate and Hybrid Materials

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Composites and Components

Fineness and Roughness

4. THRESHOLDS, TRANSFORMATIONS, AND TRANSITIONS

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Frames and Spatial Structures Interview with Neil M. Denari

Interview with Lebbeus Woods

803

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Saturation

Attachment

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Base – Basement

Interview with Steven Holl 447

954 955

Railings and Barriers Ramps, Stairs, and Steps

10. SUSTAINABLE DETAIL

Interview with Carme Pinós

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5. CHASSIS GEOMETRY

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I = P x A x T Interview with Giuseppe Lignano and Ada Tolla

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Surface and Skin Cladding, Curtain Wall, and Façade

INDEX

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Mass, Volume, and Body

MATERIAL INDEX

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Subdivisions and Polygonalizations

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Modification, Modulation, and Mutation

BIOGRAPHIES

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Muskerhaus

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Joints & Discrepancies

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p.586

p.447

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p.296 Corner

Openings & Closings

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Etymology /ɛtɪˈmɒlədʒɪ/ Forms [ME with Latin termination ethimolegia], ME–15 ethimologie, ethymologie, ethymology(e, (ME ethimilogie), 15–16 ætymologie, etimologie, etymologie, etymology(e, 15– etymology. Etymology < Old French ethimologie, modern French etymologie, < Latin etymologia , < Greek ἐτυμολογία , < ἐτυμολόγ-ος : see etymologe v.a. To make the best or most of; to develop to the utmost. a.

The process of tracing out and describing the elements of a word with their modifications of form and sense.

b.

With explanation drawn from the Greek derivation. (Cf. Latin veriloquium, by which Cicero renders the Greek word.)

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An instance of this process; an account of the formation and radical signification of a word.

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The facts relating to the formation or derivation (of a word). (In 16–17th c. occur confused expressions such as ‘the etymology comes from,’ ‘to derive the etymology from’.)

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That branch of linguistic science which is concerned with determining the origin of words.

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That part of grammar which treats of individual words, the parts of speech separately, their formation and inflections.

TEXT BOX :

etymology:

photo / cross reference:

caption:

quotation:

“In Parametricism all elements of architecture become parametrically malleable. This allows them to be adaptive to each other as well as adaptive to contextual conditions. Instead of repetition Parametricism promotes iteration and differentiation. Instead of mere juxtaposition Parametricism promotes correlation. Every action calls forth a reaction. In this way deformation encodes information. All this has contributed to Parametricism’s great achievement: the intensification of relations both within the building and between the building and its context. This intensification of relations is architecture’s answer to society’s increased complexity and increased demand for communication.” –Patrik Schumacher [13]

footnotes and citations: page number:

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THE COMPLEX BEHAVIOR OF COLLECTIVE DETAIL Detail /dɪˈteɪl/ /ˈdiːteɪl/

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Etymology: < French détail (12th cent. in Hatzfeld & Darmesteter) the action of detailing, the result of this action, retail, < stem of détailler : see DETAILv.1 Apparently first adopted in the phrase in detail , French en détail , opposed to en gros in the gross, wholesale. Sense 5 represents the French détail du service , distribuer l’ordre en détail , Feuquieres, a1711.

b.

d.

The dealing with matters item by item; detailed treatment; attention to particulars. Esp. in phrase in (the) detail , item by item; part by part; minutely; circumstantially. So to go into detail , i.e. to deal with or treat a thing in its individual particulars. A minute or circumstantial account; a detailed narrative or description of particulars.c. An item, a particular (of an account, a process, etc.); a minute or subordinate portion of any (esp. a large or complex) whole. A minute or subordinate part of a

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building, sculpture, or painting, as distinct from the larger portions or the general conception.

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Kultur, n. /kʊlˈtʊə(r)/ Forms: Also Kultur. Etymology: German, < Latin cultūra , or French culture CULTURE n. a.

Civilization as conceived by the Germans; esp. used in a derogatory sense during the 1914–18 and 1939–45 wars, as involving notions of racial and cultural arrogance, militarism, and imperialism.

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Introduction “Le bon Dieu est dans le detail.” – Gustave Flaubert, 1821-1880 The above quote is held as the precedent for a more widely known set of quotations about the status of the detail. Most famously, in the field of architecture, Mies van der Rohe’s quote, “God is in the details,” is attributed to FlaubertB as well as the work of Aby Warburg,C who often used the phrase. Then there’s another phrase, which is equal but opposite: “The devil is in the details.” Both statements are charged with a qualitative designation. How is it that details invoke such a response? In this context, perhaps it is the case that details prompt judgment; therefore, God and the Devil have come to symbolize the qualitative acknowledgement of the detail’s status in the life of buildings and in the work of an architect. This paradox seems to be practiced in architectural education, if not in practice, where two sorts of architects emerge from the academic institution, those who are focused in either the technical or conceptual fields of the profession.

S A Faust \ by F.W. Murnau \ 1926 B Gustave Flaubert (1821- 1880) was a French writer who is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary (1857), and for his scrupulous devotion to his art and style. C Abraham Moritz Warburg (1866-1929) was a German art historian and cultural theorist who founded a private Library for Cultural Studies, the Kulturwissenschaftliche Bibliothek Warburg, later Warburg Institute. A Kyser, Hans, F. W. Murnau, Gösta Ekman, Emil Jannings, Camilla Horn, Frieda Richard, William Dieterle, et al. 2009. Faust eine deutsche Volkssage. New York, N.Y.: Kino International.

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What does one mean by this? Many students, if not practitioners, feel obliged to be defined or identified as one or the other. In a common parlance, we would understand that the technical is in some sort of service to the conceptual and/or the generation of details flows from ideas rather than the other way around. This project “Historically, detailing has been viewed as less means to dispel this myth—or bifurcation— creative than the earlier conceptual design stage, but current thinking is beginning to realise that and reunite the two types around a new idea as material and technical choices become ever for the detail. It is certainly not the case that more complicated, this view is no longer tenable. Particularly when added to the performance details are in service to a creative idea. Details, requirements once completed structure, the detail with their particular sovereignty, are creative design stage is where the success or failure of a conceptual design is determined.” [1] ideas and creativity can be built on a ground of details. This dualism, within the technical and conceptual nature of the detail, is not only a false distinction, but in fact, appears unsustainable and destructive to the practice of architecture. I am very fond of the phrase “grassroots”—or “from the bottom up”—and it is in this way that I began to look at details in my own career; a project emerging from details is a more robust project than a project that merely sponsors details or requires them. In the organization of this book, I tried to focus on those projects that have inspired me from the bottom up. If we can understand that details don’t have a defined scope, a remit, or merely a part to play in the creative process, then one can understand them as multi-scalar and multi-focal. A detail can be understood on many different scales depending on your point of view and the detail might in fact be the entire creative continuum that wraps a project, rather than a mere phase of it.

1 Norman, Wienand and J. M. Zunde. 2008. Materials, Specification and Detailing: Foundations of Building Design. (Abingdon [England]: Taylor & Francis, 2008), 30. 2 Peter Noever and MAK, “MAK Radikal 006 Raimund Abraham”, Produced by ZONE, Vienna, 2010.

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If God is in the details and if the Devil is in the details, we have to understand that the stakes seem quite high already and the evaluation of a detail as good (God-like) or bad (Devil-like) speaks to the truth of building. A good detail might weather a storm, might last generations, or might be put to other uses. A bad detail might fail, might be awkward to translate, or might be too wed to the vicissitudes of style. I would very much like to offer the agnostic view that the detail is neither godly nor devilish, but an intrinsic, indissoluble part of what it means to be an architect. Using this agnostic point of view, the project will analyze a set of critical examples and offer across those examples a new framework of reference, a framework that permeates the detailed construction of this book.

“Each detail reflects the total integrity of the building.” –Raimund Abraham [2]

The “project” is both about content and its organization. So, a dissertation about details can’t help but also internally consist of a set of details itself. The standard use of text, references, figures, and indexes are capable of new uses as if it were, in a sense, a building. With the pages to come, you’ll find an unorthodox organization that needs explanation here. To preface that, I would only say that its unorthodoxy is not about novelty, but it is in service to the topic. By acknowledging this, it must be said that the organizational strategy of this dissertation 10


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has uncovered revelations in regard to the detail. The content and the structure, if you will, are in a dynamic loop.

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For dissecting the selected projects, Lenses, or short editorials, are used as a tool—like a scalpel or magnifying glass—dissecting the selected projects, beginning with the project as a whole and then concentrating on its various parts within a specifically developed matrix. The significance of this structure and organization is to develop a thesis that ascertains that certain conditions of the built environment can be combined to create and construct the “perfect”, or perhaps “ultimate”, building. A building in this particular sense should be viewed as something intrinsically incomplete through reading its details and, yet, understood as the materialization of an idea, the completion of which occurs through the physical materialization of construction. In a way, one would argue that the best way to understand and compare the general world of architecture and the built environment is through the focal point of the detail, the artifact of both ideas and construction. Lens: /lɛnz/ Forms: Pl. lenses; also 17 lens, lens’s, and in Latin form lentes. Etymology: < Latin lens lentil, from the similarity in form. a.

A piece of glass, or other transparent substance, with two curved surfaces, or one plane and one curved surface, serving to cause regular convergence or divergence of the rays of light passing through it. Now sometimes applied to analogous contrivances for producing similar effects on radiations other than those of light, as in acoustic lens, electric lens.

In a more focused sense, it becomes a type of occupying of an idea, but also an occupying of a building in specific terms. Through a detailed, bottom up investigation of the smallest to the largest possible parts of all 13 case studies, all of which are built, Detail Kultur will allow one to fully understand each featured building. This is not to say that the analyzed parts are either intentionally, or otherwise, conceptual or technical focal points, but that the details are capable of explaining the inner, and eventually the overarching organization of each building, which will be the purpose of each Lens.

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Frontispiece to the Vedute di Roma with the Statue of Minerva \ by Giovanni Battista Piranesi \ 1748

For specific levels of sharpness refer to the Matrix on page 04.

This should not be mistaken for a document that explains—nor does it claim that it wants to explain—13 projects, but it wants to highlight specific moments in those projects. It highlights the projects not through elevating them, but through parsing their own logic into a much larger conversation. Each project is compared to one another through an encyclopedia of details, which will allow one to go into the system—the very “substance” of each project—and look at up to 13 different types of corners, 13 different ways of handling a discrepancy, 13 types of chassis geometries and so on. With that said, each project may not always be addressed by all 10 Lenses. This is where the sharpness of each Lens comes in. Certain projects will be seen within only certain Lenses with a specific sharpness. The problematic found within each detail is investigated through four levels of intense scrutiny, in the form of sub-lenses. The term, Lens, is applied to the project through a systematic organization that suggests a comparison with seeing, photography, imagery, and, in a larger sense,

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S/L D Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, and Luigi Ficacci, Giovanni Battista Pirannesi: the complete etchings (Köln: Taschen, 2000).


the possibility or encouragement of reproduction. Much like an analogue photograph is unique in its very own sense, though one is capable of reproducing this same image over and over with different qualities, the digital reproduction of a detail is the encouragement of this book, though not solely for one to reproduce, but to rethink each detail in question. There is also an infinite way to compare each reproduction. The point of departure of this investigation is the development of each Lens and how they are applied to details through different intensities in each constructed project. I also want to keep in mind the end result of this accumulation of details—the building—which is more than the sum of its parts or the sum of its details. In terms of executing research, I looked at the buildings not only their “as built” condition, but sought to develop a way of looking at the projects with X-Ray vision, where one gets the whole picture of the building through the smallest of its parts. Each building is viewed within the context of itself. Lens, therefore, is an explicit choice of term within this project. As an example, one could imagine their self in an optometrist’s office, sitting in the chair. The 13 projects are on the wall and before you are a combination of Lenses, clicking through each, 10 in all, but in their combinations many more besides. Within each Lens, 2, 3, 4, 5, maybe even 6 different combinations might be tried and the view through those Lenses to the wall of 13 projects may shift radically. Some things will register sharply and others will be repressed only to find new aspects of each coming to the foreground with the click of the next Lens. This is as it should be, it is by design and the term, Lens, is more than merely metaphorical.

This type of investigation does not allow one to analyze, critique, and deem a building, in its overall Gestalt, as a total failure. It requires precision and the possibility of redeeming a project through its individual details; arguing for the importance of such details as the preeminent condition of the built environment. Looking at the 13 projects, I have developed 10 Lenses that are applied with different focuses and levels of sharpness. These 10 Lenses set the conditions for the matrix of the project investigations. They are broken down into a variety of different categories that are found within the buildings and within construction. The Lenses are: 1. Corner, 2. Openings and Closings, 3. Joints and Discrepancies, 4. Thresholds, Transformations, and Transitions, 5. Chassis Geometry, 6. Rooflines and Horizon, 7. Merge and Submerge, 8. Lines in Space, 9. Materials, and 10. Sustainable Detail.

“Detailing is based on a permutation of choosing the requisite technology allied to the choice of appropriate materials. The source of this information is therefore of paramount importance in successful detailing.” [3]

3 Norman, Wienand and J. M. Zunde. 2008. Materials, Specification and Detailing: Foundations of Building Design. (Abingdon [England]: Taylor & Francis, 2008), 31.

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The aim of this encyclopedic ambition then gets used like Wikipedia or the Oxford English Dictionary, where you look up a particular site condition—a site in this context being a detail—which allows you to reference it back to the building. There are separate parts to the book that will not be considered isolated sections per se, but will be viewed as more of a knot of the project idea and explained as a constructed idea through project documentation. The body of the book is the encyclopedia of details and the text referencing the details through historic precedents external to the case studies. These precedents are profile footprints, allowing one to understand different examples throughout history, which are chosen in relevance to the Lens being discussed and not necessarily the 13 projects being dissected. For example, the text will look at how a corner repeats itself throughout history or what threshold means in a particular context. How important is the scale of a detail? How large does a detail become until one can possibly inhabit it?

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De Ciencias Naturales \ by Juan Gatti

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With the notion that the detail is an index to a building, one starts to develop more categories dealing with scale. The detail in its smallest component creates an index for the building and in its largest configuration creates an index for the site. One of the Lenses in that context is “Merge and Submerge,” which looks at tectonics, the use of base and basement, and its historical reference to Brancusi—how a sculpture refers to its particular site (the base) and what a building takes as its site. Is the site the base for a particular building? This also raises questions and requires further investigation into multiple subthemes as a set of smaller editorials, or sub-lenses4, e.g. foundation and figure-ground.

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In terms of its organization, the book is composed of 10 different Lenses applied to 13 projects, rather than 13 hierarchically presented projects. You will see many corners in a row to show the conditions of this detail— from a small corner to its largest configuration. This directly relates to the matrix organization of the book, which trades a singular project’s logic for multiple possible readings and approaches to understanding a building by observing its intrinsic values latent within its details.

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I chose these particular projects to show a cross-section of what has happened within architecture in the last 15 years. I am not looking for a certain style or to break down an architectural ambition, but to look at the projects as a family; family in this context meaning that we look at public, semi-public, and private buildings taking on different programmatic responsibilities. The projects vary from a house for musicians to a bathhouse to an educational institution facility to a museum to an opera house, as well as the investigation of a project containing a mini-city. The 13th case study is the Light Pavilion— currently under construction within Steven Holl’s Sliced Porosity Block and creating a new typology of architecture within a revised typological invention of the public building.

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sub-lenses in this thesis are highly specific, concentrated investigations within the overarching topics (lenses).

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E Copyright by Juan Gatti, “Juan Gatti: The Natural Sciences”, http://www.designboom.com/ weblog/cat/10/view/18738/juangatti-the-natural-sciences.html, www.designboom.com (accessed January 5, 2012).

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The importance of these Lenses and their different degrees of sharpness is how they create and refine the language and syntax of an encyclopedia of details. That language allows us to look up the progeny of this language. That particular encyclopedia has the intention to be used by anyone who wants to look at such “trivial” conditions as the corner or discrepancy. It will be a guide for anyone who is interested in how a building or a project starts and how it ends in the vertical and horizontal and at the architectural and urban scale. F

Many of the Lenses interrelate and intertwine, creating a system of crossreferencing within the matrix. For example, Corner can be thought of as being within the family of Thresholds, Transformations, and Transitions. Looking at buildings in this manner opens up so many possibilities to cross-reference details and their relevance to specific projects. This creates a flexible and diversifying approach to improving the built environment from the smallest components outward. This is why the project is titled Detail Kultur: If Buildings had DNA, A Case Study of Mutations. Those mutations are intended to allow one to see something as precise as the corner and how that particular “In view of all this it is crucial to recognize the element could be applied and reapplied through, role of drawing as the embodiment of architectural ideas. In a manner of speaking, particularly in this case, 13 projects. This method will after Durand, the drawing is the architecture, show how something as “simple” as a corner is a privileged vehicle for expressing architectural intentions: intentions that are poetic in a fabricated from the smallest, essential parts. profound traditional sense, as poesis, as symbol This investigation creates an index that reframes making. Such architectural drawings may assume the character of poetic images generated by a and takes seriously the complex act metaphor, by a program that embodies an underof constructing. standing of dwelling, like John Hejduk's projects

Histoire Naturelle \ by Georges-Louis de Buffon \ 1969

for Venice. Or they may criticize architectural ideas and the abstract elements of architecture (e.g., plans, sections, elevations, or projections). This is the point of Daniel Libeskind's Micromegas. The perception of such theoretical projects as self-referential can only occur if the reality of architecture past and present is assumed to be the banal reductionism and pragmatic materialism that I have criticized.” [5]

It is certainly the case that this project requires graphics, but the graphics cannot be understood as “illustrations” or “figures”. An illustration implies that the graphic is restating something stated in the text or that the graphic is secondary to the theme of the text. In this project, however, this hierarchy is not present. The drawings are equally weighted to the text and they do different tasks than the text. In a certain regard, there are 2 discourses at hand, running parallel, and cross-referencing each other. In many cases the text serves the drawing rather than the other way around, as would normally be the convention.

5 Alberto Perez-Gomez, “Architecture as Drawing,” Journal of Architectural Education 36, (no. 2 (Winter 1982), 6. F Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc. 1969. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière Avec la Description du Cabinet du Roi. Paris: De l'Imprimerie Royale.

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In many cases, I am often—in text—speaking to the drawing, speaking around and in the drawing, and the drawing is sponsoring our observation. In a construction document set, details come after the larger plans, elevations, and sections as if they are secondary. This traditional arrangement will not take place in the following book. Indeed, the details arrive first, not just in sequence, but in my conception of how one puts together a building, derives a language through these details, and builds upon that language through a set of buildings.

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Which brings forward another term, or metaphor, used in this investigation: DNA. In its etymology, DNA runs in two different directions. I would like to highlight here that the use of the term DNA within the context of Detail Kultur is certainly claiming the same meaning as DNA within the biological sense. And within the overall definition of DNA, I want to highlight four essential properties: grooves, base pairing, sense/antisense, and supercoiling.

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Grooves, in a biological sense are defined as twin helical strands that form the backbone of DNA. Another double helix may be found by tracing the spaces or grooves between the strands6. This is important because it shows that the Gestalt of a project comes from the sum of its parts; meaning, we look at the greatest possible details, which is what Detail Kultur is claiming to offer, and provide the means, or a machine, for the creation of a “super project”. This does not mean though that one would look at 13 projects with the ability to develop the “megacorner” detail through all the corner details present within this book, or scan for the best possible way to deal with stairs and come up with a megadetail7 for a stair. This project proposes that one could create a chain of commands—or details—, which leads to the most promising project.

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In a way, it is an antithesis to the assumption which led me to understanding what base pairing means. In a DNA double helix, each type of nucleobase8 on one strand normally interacts with just one type of nucleobase on the other strand. This is called complementary base pairing. This arrangement of two nucleotides binding together across the double helix is called a base pairing9.

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The megadetail applies to all of the details analyzed in the book. The megadetail is an amalgamation of the elements analyzed within the 13 projects.

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This is interesting because, as per its definition, they can be broken and rejoined relatively easily. I think of this as the second rule within the book. Each Lens could be understood as an array, as a multiplication, as an additive process, with details being taken out of context. This is exactly what drives them to rejoin the larger picture and not only within its own context, but also through a comparative action within other projects. This lead to the definition of sense/antisense: A DNA sequence is called "sense" if its sequence is the same as that of a messenger RNA copy that is translated into protein. The sequence on the opposite strand is called the "antisense" sequence. Both sense and antisense sequences can exist on different parts of the same strand of DNA10. This means the same details are compared in order to come up with the same details which then prove nothing else other than the differences between those details. And DNA supercoiling is the process of DNA twisting like a rope around itself. This sense pushes for different levels of sharpness applied through different Lenses. There are sometimes tighter twists on certain Lenses and looser ones on others to the extent that certain Lenses are not applied to every project.

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B 6 Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary. (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 404. 8 Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary. (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 940. 9 Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary. (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 106. 10 Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary. (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 52.

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Within the frame of chemical/architectural “Genomic DNA is tightly and orderly packed in modifications, genes and genomes it is the process called DNA condensation to fit the small available volumes of the cell.” [11] paramount to keep one consistent point of view not only within the shifting programs or typologies of each project, but also through scale. 11 This book will shift them to the degree of 0, meaning not at all. All of the projects are comparable in scale. G

A DNA ladder is a solution of DNA molecules of different lengths used in agarose gel electrop-horesis. It is applied to an agarose gel as a reference to estimate the size of unknown DNA molecules. In addition it can be used to approximate the mass of a band by comparison to a special mass ladder.

In the drawings, the scale is taken seriously so that one can judge graphic to graphic or drawing to drawing in relative dimension; everything has been calculated in this regard. “In the design of a detail, the concern is not only In a broader sense, we should treat this with a single object by itself, but also with the last term of our subtitle, “mutations,” as a collective concentration that is generated by the relationship it negotiates among the parts. It is generative device intrinsically important for instrumental in the direction and definition of an architect’s office, where details, bespoke meaning and character in the final resolution of the whole. I have found that the placing of the details, something original, is hard won detail at the original moment of design not only and is usually born though a very special challenges the norms of architectural production, but encourages possibilities of innovation and requirement of a specific project. But once this invention. This project was a unique opportunity detail is established or achieved, it becomes to form joints and connections at many levels of the architectural process: between two materials a hallmark of that office and a part of an in a connection, but also between groups of arsenal the architect then deploys throughout people with differing ideas and perspectives. It became a common language through which a coltheir projects. They might tweak each detail laborative bridge could be constructed, allowing according to the new materials, site conditions, for an objective exchange of opinions. The detail became the mediator in the building of an idea.” or scales each project might warrant. In this [12] way, one can find, in fact, a given detail evolving or mutating throughout the life of a practice. And one can locate a detail and trace carefully its genesis back to the work of a given firm.

If one is attentive to the notion of mutation and details as DNA, it opens a whole world of reading a practice through the frame of details and also acknowledges that details are not generated as signs of the individual architect, but they are necessarily individual because they answer specific tasks. An architecture office invests a lot in details in proportion to a larger broadband of work, effort, and expense. This effort is done strategically and begins just like the radical coiling discussed above, where details supplement each other, occasionally combine, or, like a mutation, occasionally split to sponsor new details. Which, in that sense, also leads to a completely new list of details.

G YueMei Zhang and Bhagu Bhavini, "BMC Neuroscience" (Spring 2005), 13. 11 Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary. (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 569.12 Anthony Viscardi, “The Detail as the Mediator: Notes from a ‘Joint" Venture between Architecture and Early Education.”(Journal of Architectural Education 51, no. 4, May 1998), 251.

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Details, in their smallest and most material sense are not just the built manifestation of materials held together, connected, changed or transformed, or whenever directionality changes, different material types connect, or are reused, but also are themselves a completely different set of materiality. Details are also composites; where, functionality, materiality, and functions are thrown into the pot of architecture, cooked together, and reappear as what can be called the built or inhabited project: architecture in its largest sense.

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This dissertation does not claim a qualitative difference, but a comparative difference. The comparison comes from a variety of different intellectual frames and strips away the tiresome visual imagery that has engrossed the current epoch of architecture. For example, the surrounding—“where are these projects?”—is something you don’t easily recognize while looking at a detail. That isolation then becomes an index that allows one to understand the scale or context from the part to the whole—in this case the building being the whole site and the project with which it is related. These details can also become an indicator of a project’s cultural surroundings. Particular cases of this occur in Zaha Hadid’s Opera house, Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals, and in Steven Holl’s Sliced Porosity Block; projects which folded in on themselves through their details. Through the frame of this book, one might now be able to thoroughly investigate SANAA’s Zollverein and ask whether it was only possible within Germany. How then did Raimund Abraham bring his architectural beliefs from the Austrian Cultural Forum in New York to the Musikerhaus in Hombroich, Germany? Did the heaviness of the Swiss mountain stay within Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals details or is there another influence reflected within the details of the project that broadens, or perhaps deepens, the project to a larger cultural scale? The Light Pavilion shows details that are relatively urban continuing at a different scale throughout the project and the very smallest part of its building.

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This book also claims the detail in its conceptual mutation in a very real sense through light, sound, and materials, as well as the notion of sustainability—which is not always a physical detail one can point out. The sustainable also allows one to apply a Lens within the notions of biodiversity and clean energy. In its larger sense, sustainability is a green building scan that claims the economy and ecology of the environment and allows one to analyze the built environment and make them more sustainable. A very “high tech” mode of sustainability can be applied within a very low-tech mode of execution, like in Steven Holl’s deep well and micro-urbanism studies.

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An analog computer is a form of computer that uses the continuouslychangeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved. In contrast, digital computers represent varying quantities incrementally, as their numerical values change.

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Apple’s iPhone 4S, Integrated software and hardware changes support the introduction of new user interface and functions by Apple, including the voice recognizing and talking assistant called Siri, personal computer independence, cloudsourced data (iCloud) and an improved camera system. A selection of the device's functions may be voicecontrolled.

The index is seen as a part of that particular detail, which, reciprocally, claims that the detail is also the index of a building. In that sense, the building can also be seen as an index of its surroundings and context. Is the building detail a unit for the building or is the building —in its parts—an index of those details? Or are the buildings indexes for their cities and therefore can the detail, within in its smallest component, read urbanistically? You can only see certain qualities of a building’s detail through their materialized value, either through construction or through the process of thinking about how these elements function in situ.

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H “Analogue Computers”, http:// basicislamiclearning.blogspot. com/2011/09/analog-computers. html (accessed January 5, 2012). I Copyright Apple, Inc. http://www. apple.com/iphone/ (accessed January 5, 2012).

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Zealous, adj.

b.

of persons. Const.

Zealously, adv.

Pronunciation: /ˈzɛləs/

c.

Of passions, actions, etc.

Pronunciation: /ˈzɛləslɪ/

Forms: Also 15–16 zelous.

zealously, adv.

Forms: Also 15–16 zel-, (16 selusslie).

Etymology: < medieval Latin zēlōsus (compare Italian zeloso , Portuguese zeloso , Spanish celoso ), < zēlus ZEAL n. : see -OUS suffix.

Pronunciation: /ˈzɛləslɪ/

Etymology: < ZEALOUS adj. + -LY suffix2.

a.

a.

In a zealous manner; with zeal or passionate ardour; with enthusiastic eagerness.

b.

In the way of religious zeal or devotion.

Full of or incited by zeal; characterized by zeal or passionate ardour; fervently devoted to the promotion of some person or cause; intensely earnest; actively enthusiastic.

Forms: Also 15–16 zel-, (16 selusslie). Etymology: < ZEALOUS adj. + -LY suffix2.

a. In a zealous manner; with zeal or passionate ardour; with enthusiastic eagerness. b. In the way of religious zeal or devotion.

Apologia Finally, I would like to address this term, “antithesis,” which in this context is not meant to be revolutionary, but merely useful. A thesis— a dissertation—is not a novel. It does not require linear thought or linear time. It does not require a beginning, middle, and an end, where all is made well. This project is not holistic; it is purposefully fragmentary. Its strength lies in this notion of fragment and cross-reference. Therefore, this project has no set conclusion.

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Which, hopefully, causes a blockage of logic—a confusion within its own details. Looking at some of the greatest projects and most refined or rough details in very recent history offers an encyclopedia, where, one could falsely look up the best possible projects to the extent that one would be able to reconstruct a “megadetail.” In truth, this really aims Detail drawing for for a lack of total clarity or disavows one to reuse certain details, while Castello del Agua Giulia providing the opportunity to refuse developing others. Therefore, the book \ by Giovanni Battista Piranesi \ 1748 encourages either standstill or takeoff for a new progeny of details. For as much as there is a chaos and confusion present in the matrix, there is equal opportunity for new revelation, ongoing mutation, and “There is often an indirect aesthetic requirement open-ended experimentation. In a novel, this often happens on detail design, however, in that certain details will be required to perform both technically and at the end where the threads of the narrative are brought aesthetically. Exposed technical details are an extogether. In this project, the revelation is here, there, and ample but more significantly are exposed surface finishes such as walls, floors and ceilings. Here, everywhere—it does not wait until the end. Some novels the choice of materials has a major aesthetic facnot only seek a revelation, but a moral to the story. This tor that must feed into the project development stages. At the detail design stage, practicality returns us to the original question of the dichotomy. As becomes of prime importance with questions stated above, if this is an agnostic project, it does not such as 'will installation practices damage the surface?' or 'will we need new methods to provide seek a moral to the story, but yet there is something still the required quality of finish?'” [13] profoundly at stake. 13 Norman, Wienand and J. M. Zunde. 2008. Materials, Specification and Detailing: Foundations of Building Design. (Abingdon [England]: Taylor & Francis, 2008), 37. J Piranesi, Giovanni Battista, and Luigi Ficacci, Giovanni Battista Piranesi: The Complete Etchings. (Köln: Taschen, 2000).

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The stakes are high because this is rescuing the discipline of architecture in a certain regard. It’s claiming a mode of working that has been siphoned off to engineering firms that are now becoming equally if not better-regarded and famous as architecture firms. This trend, as interesting as it is, is at the expense of architecture; therefore, a certain zealousness on my part may be permitted. 18


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1 Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling Wall to Wall Corner to Corner 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Corners

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Therme Vals

1.1 Floor to Wall

Musikerhaus

1.2 Wall to Ceiling

Zollverein

1.3 Wall to Wall

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1.4 Corner to Corner

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Kunsthaus Graz Guangzhou Opera 160

High Line 23 Samitaur Tower Torre Cube Cooper Union The Broad Sliced Porosity Block

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Corner /ˈkɔːnə(r)/

b.

A salient or projecting angle.

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Forms ME querner, quarner(e, ME cornere, cornyer(e, ME cornare, korner, 15 cornar, ME– corner.

c.

An angular extremity at the junction of the sides or edges of anything; an angular projection, as a point of land running out into the sea.

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d.

A retreating hollow angle.

e.

The comparatively small space included between sides or edges at their meeting-place; esp. between the sides of a room or building.

Etymology Middle English corner , < Anglo-Norman corner = Old French cornier (masculine), corniere , cornere feminine < late Latin type*cornārium , plural *cornāria , < cornū horn: in medieval Latin cornerium , corneria . a.

The meeting-place of converging sides or edges (e.g. of the walls of a building, the sides of a box), forming an angular extremity or projection

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01. Corner The theme of the corner is so basic to our understanding of the detail that it seems appropriate to begin with it. A corner might be defined as a joint, or the meeting of two planes, two objects, or two materials. In the mythic order of architecture, Laugier’s Primitive HutB imagines a temple in the wilderness composed only of corners without infill plane, it is a small structure with corners near the ground, where the tree meets the earth and, corners in the sky, where the tree meets a rough pediment and provides shelter. I begin with the corner following a tradition of mythic origin. The corner has unintended or excessive qualifications, if it’s the meeting of things it is also the meeting of people: one kisses1 someone on the corner of the mouth or one touches someone gently at the corner of their elbow. It is a place of architectural and human intercourse. The corner is a destination; one never meets one’s friend halfway up a street. A destination is always a crossroads where corner functions as a sign of compromise between two vectors.

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The corner detail of frontispiece of Essai sur l'Architecture \ by Charles-DominiqueJoseph Eisen \ 1755

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A Anish Kapoor, Peter Noever, and Vito Acconci, Anish Kapoor: Shooting Into the Corner. (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2009), 130-131. B

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There are other human interactions that are equally spatial. For example, in boxing each individual stands at the opposite end of the ringC and rests between rounds as the contestants’ supporters get them ready for the next round. This is where they hide out and prepare as a point of departure. One thinks of the four corners of the earth equating geography to the architectural space of a room.

“However long or short, however socially constrained or erotically desiring, a kiss is the coming together of two similar but not identical surfaces, surfaces that soften, flex, and deform when in contact. A performance of temporary singularities, a union of bedazzling convergence and identification during which separation is inconceivable yet inevitable.” [1]

Muhammad Ali

Business dinners in China are clearly hierarchically organized, where your position in society decides where you are seated. The seat furthest away from the entrance and closest to the corner is given to the highest socially situated person. Also, in terms of management, the difference between the executive corner office and the inner field of cubicles brings into question the hierarchy between the center and the periphery. In this case, the first thing that comes into our mind is the Panopticon. As a management strategy where one is in full control of the entire spectrum. The corner is also formed by the intersection of one and the same or different parts. An example of this is when a material changes in directionality or when different materials meet and are joined; the detail becomes not just important, but relevant. A corner can be sharp and very defined; it can also be smooth, round, and endless.

Floor /flɔə(r)/ Forms OE flór, ME flor, ME–16 flore, flour(e, ME–15, 18 dial. flur(e, 15 Sc. fluire, (15 floyyre), 15–16 floar(e, 15–17 flower, 16 floore, 16–floor. Etymology Old English flór strong masculine and feminine, corresponds to Middle Dutch, modern Dutch vloer , Middle High German vluor masculine and feminine (modern German flur feminine field, plain, masculine floor), Old Norse flór floor of a cowstall < Germanic *floru-s < pre-Germanic *plāru-sor *plōru-s . Compare Old Irish lár , Welsh llawr of same meaning < pre-Celtic *plār- .

1 Sylvia Lavin, Kissing Architecture (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2011), 5. C Ifeanyi Ibegbunam, “Photos: The Metamorphosis of Muhammad Ali”, http://thenetng. com/2012/01/18/photos-themetamorphosis-of-muhammad-ali/ (accessed January 20, 2012).

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a.

The layer of boards, brick, stone, etc. in an apartment, on which people tread; the under surface of the interior of a room.

b.

The framework or structure of joists, etc. supporting the flooring of a room.

In regard to this corner condition, there is already what one might call “architectural baggage,” where the meeting of floor and wall is usually a problem—a substantial one in architecture. Most often it is treated as a cover up; a world where a skirting board or a base molding is a means to ameliorate or solve the issue of bringing together two planes. It is as if a true floor and wall corner is somehow taboo, or technologically unfeasible, and needs this dressing or ornament to sustain the detail. 26


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When the skirting board is removed, as in the case of High Modernism, it presents a myriad of challenges not only for the architect but also for the plasterer and the craftsman, the ones responsible for building the corner. Here we have two trades coming together, a situation which cannot be dismissed even in the contemporary environment. Those two trades come together and need some zone of negotiation, which usually is solved by covering it up. When we’re looking at examples throughout this lens, the corner conditions are often treated this way, but occasionally this notion of cover up is subverted or revealed so that it highlights this special problem.

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The space of the floor meeting the wall is curious in terms of use. It is a seldom-used space in terms of foot traffic and often at times an area rug or change in materiality offset perhaps half a meter from the wall, demarcating a zone between differences of use. The center of the space, where the corner condition is not present, is popular, but where the difficult condition—where the floor meets the wall—is less tread. This gives rise to a whole world of decorative motifs that play with the idea of corner as a kind of picture frame on the floor or an edging on the wall can be celebrated as a surface because indeed it has an aura of misuse about it.

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Wall /wɔːl/ Forms OE weall, weal, wall, ME–16 wal, walle, ME–16 wale, ME–15 Sc. vall, 15 Sc. Val (e, (ME whalle,) 15 waule, ( wawle), 17–18 Sc. wa’, ME–wall.

a.

A rampart of earth, stone, or other material constructed for defensive purposes. [= Latin vallum.]In Old English frequently used with the meaning ‘a natural rampart, hill, cliff’: see Bosworth–Toller.

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Etymology Old English wall (West Saxon weall ), corresponding to Old Frisian wal , Old Saxon wal(l , (Middle) Low German, (Middle) Dutch wal , Middle High German wal from Middle Low German (modern German wall ), a Saxon and Anglo-Frisian adoption of Latin vallum . The Swedish vall, Danish val , are from Low German.

b.

Each of the sides and vertical divisions of a building.

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c.

An enclosing structure built round a garden, field, yard, or other property; also, each of the portions between the angles of such an enclosure.

There are many instances of the blurring of this line. If we speak about corner, we always recognize a line: a breakage or turn of surface or directionality. There is a large difference in the square footage—the net versus the gross—as far as usage is concerned. There is a large set of precedents that deal with this corner type in a very particular way: Kiesler’s Endless HouseD and Ben van Berkel’s Möbius House, Zaha Hadid’s Vitra Fire Station (which deals with the Floor to Wall in a different way), and Neil Denari who reads the corner often as a graphic element that is often projected inwards and outwards, and the way the Downtown Athletic Club brings urbanity into the building, just to name a few. Even though the term, floor, is mostly assigned to the interior

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Endless House study model \ by Frederick Kiesler \ New York, New York \ 1959

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S/L D Frederick Kiesler, Dieter Bogner, Peter Noever, and Frederick Kiesler, Frederick J. Kiesler: Endless Space. (Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz, 2001), 68.


Ceiling /ˈsiːlɪŋ/

a.

Forms ME celyng, (15 seling, siling, syling), 15–16 seeling, 16 ceeling, 16–17 siel(e)ing, 15– cieling, 16– ceiling.

The meeting-place of converging sides or edges (e.g. of the walls of a building, the sides of a box), forming an angular extremity or projection

b.

A salient or projecting angle.

Etymology: < CEIL v. + -ING suffix1

c.

An angular extremity at the junction of the sides or edges of anything; an angular projection, as a point of land running out into the sea.

d.

A retreating hollow angle.

e.

The comparatively small space included between sides or edges at their meeting-place; esp. between the sides of a room or building.

space of a building, it has the same validity on the exterior when dealing with urban space, where the façade, street, and sidewalk meet at the building’s edge. A different yet equal set of rules comes into play. There is an obsession with erasing the corner condition through a continuation of a surface. There are those architects that obsess over the continuous floorto-wall-to-ceiling approach, where all of the corners become round and continue from the wall space to the floor and to the ceiling, to those who question the materiality of the continuous corner, which either enhances or differentiates the particular’s project approach. The question of paint or color also comes into effect here, even in terms of inhabitability. A floor is a horizontal space, something to walk on, versus a wall that is itself not easily inhabitable.

“Designing from the outside in, as well as from the inside out, creates necessary tensions, which help make architecture. Since the inside is different from the outside, the wall – the point of change - becomes an architectural event. Architecture occurs at the meeting of interior and exterior forces of use and space. These interior and environmental forces are both general and particular, generic and circumstantial.” [2]

There is a difference to point out when discussing the interior corner versus the exterior corner. There is a particular importance in making this distinction because if one looks at the corner at the wall, or in this case between the floor and wall, we start to recognize a ground condition. This grounding condition is all the more important in recognizing scale in the urban condition, where, in the case of Midtown Manhattan, there is more vertical façade wall space than there is traversable ground space. So when we speak about public space, it’s not so clear if we only speak about the city as streets and walkable surfaces without also speaking about the facades as the canyon walls rising in all cardinal directions on a street corner within the urban condition.

2 Robert Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1977), 88.

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Picturing the wall to floor corner in this context, there is a Hollywood image from every crime drama, every movie about urban violence where the villain, having been extinguished with his back to the wall, slowly slides down until the moment where the ground meets the wall. This movement always leaves a trace of blood on the wall, as if to reside at 28


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that jointure, is to mark the location of collapse. The people who occupy those spaces in an urban environment are often the homeless, the desperate smokers, the people who shelter from the rest of the street— this corner is a kind of last province that is symbolically loaded.

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So what does that mean for Wall to Ceiling and Wall to Wall? Are these conditions just continuations of Floor to Wall in concept? And what happens when corners start to meet the corner to corner condition? I want to emphasize the term “condition” here, because a corner in this particular sense becomes a typology. It’s not that the material change needs to be answered with a detail or a corner, but that it often requires a new kind of material—the hybrid detail—or the composite of material functionality.

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There is a radically different approach when designing and constructing the wall to ceiling corner versus floor to wall corner. In an interior sense, it is inaccessible because it dominates the view. It seems to be where the crown molding, or some other kind of sign is offered, often identifies the room’s idiom or style. It’s where, throughout history, Renaissance and Baroque architects spent a lot of time. To negotiate the wall to ceiling seems a much different job than wall to floor. One has a bit more freedom in scope. One also has a different sense of program: high visual participation and nearly zero physical participation. It has the freedom to do other things.

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A floor to wall condition is easier to inhabit than a wall to ceiling condition. That’s particularly interesting within the Baroque. There are a variety of interesting examples, especially Karlskirche in Vienna—one of the most amazing examples in that context. Once this was all done under the dome, an enormous amount of weight has been redistributed, at the same moment the painters came in and filled the space with clouds, angels and paintings in The corner detail solution, for instance, fulfills also the requirements set forth by the building order to make the motion, weight, and energy geometry by adapting the construction to various angled conditions. This is achieved by introducing clearly visible that had earlier been visually metal segments of equal radius and different removed. The questions of “How do I make length to bridge different geometrical corner conditions. [3] things visible or invisible? How are surfaces recognizable or non-recognizable? And how do I make spaces inhabitable physically or psychologically?” are not necessarily questions about the distribution of massing and a recognition of geometry, but the distribution of emphasis. Now, looking at both the wall and ceiling corner combined, for a while there was a mania for the continuous surface project. Here, the continuous plane project is one where we would have a building dominated by section and by the notion of the floor turning to wall turning to ceiling and so on. Then the issue is whether it should be a filleted or rounded corner condition or a straight line. There are many projects you could categorize in this sense which take on the question of the corner, blurring the floor, wall, and ceiling.

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S/L 3 Marc M. Angelil, “Construction Deconstructed: A Relative Reading of Architectural Technology,” in Journal of Architectural Education 40, No. 3 (Spring, 1987), 26.


E Cyclorama \ An infinity cyclorama (found particularly in television and in film stills studios) is a cyclorama which curves smoothly at the bottom to meet the studio floor, so that with careful lighting and the corner-less joint, the illusion that the studio floor continues to infinity can be achieved. Cycloramas also refer to photography curving backdrops which are white to create no background, or green-screen to create a masking backdrop.

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Contemporary Arts Center \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Cincinnati, OH, USA \ 2003

E Courtesy of Tom Crane Photography F Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, February 04, 2005.

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If we then turn to the Wall-to-Wall corner, it brings with it a certain psychological baggage since it is also a place of punishment. Whether one faces into the wall or out from the wall, it will read very differently. The notion of a wallflower, someone who is not asked to dance, but lives also at this space of the room, is also pejorative. There is something about these interior conditions that seems to be emotionally charged, so the detailing of these things carries a certain emotive weight as well as an aesthetic one. To be situated in the corner looking out is often a privileged position; if you go into a restaurant and ask for a corner table, you might be lucky to have it if you have special status. From that vantage point, you see everyone, but no one sees your back. At the wall to wall corner, you have three choices open to you as a formmaker, if not an architect: one is to equate the two and allow the corner to show itself as is; another is to evacuate the corner, dematerialize it, somehow excavate the corner to show the condition—think of the window details in Frank Lloyd Wright’s—; or, thirdly, one permits the corner to bulge, to wrinkle, to reveal itself as something structurally significant or compositionally important, where you get some cluster of pilasters or extra mass to announce a corner to the interior. Likewise you have the Renaissance or Baroque struggle with how you establish an interior order at the corner. Do you diminish the pilaster to something like a tiny slice? Or do you double the pilaster and show it as a wide piece, almost a double corner? The Laurentian LibraryH is another example of this struggle to establish the corner. You’ll see in the case studies that they move in these three different directions and there is something profound about excavating in that it causes a need for structural issues to be resolved. Other issues erupt when the corner is permitted to double up, or to wrinkle, or to become extra. Still more issues take place when the corner is allowed to be simply a corner, which is actually the most rare amongst the case studies. We are given a visual dilemma, where we may not read the corner but instead read it as a continuous wall that has lost its way. This last condition, Corner to Corner, talks about three-dimensional space where x, y, and z come together. It is really a corner to corner to corner condition. There are several interesting bank projects by Neil Denari, where under the limitations of the site and scope of work, he brings the outside to the inside of the building. This sub-lens brings up the notion of elasticism in architecture; the question(s) being, “How elastic is too elastic? When does structural ‘glue’ actually become structural or stay flexible?” This is not only our first approach comprehending the differences between the corner or the detail of a corner, but also the sameness within corner details while looking through different scales within each particular situation. It is a curious moment within a building, where the corner becomes the meeting of two walls at the level of the floor and where one has a 30


Generally speaking, a corner speaks about how things change or begin— changing or beginning in terms of how a building meets the ground. That’s the first urban moment in this project because it creates a break in materiality and the reality of the context. It can also be seen as the introduction of a different material, both in terms of site and the ground. That first corner immediately becomes interrupted by an opening, closing or fenestration, which creates another set of corners and changes of direction and energy. There is this constant carving into a volume or surface of a building, looking for and creating a void in the context of a larger mass. This carving compromises the direction or condition of a surface, which then unfolds or recesses a corner. The importance of the corner detail in Neil Denari’s HL23J begins where the floor and ceiling meet the outer envelope in the form of a single line. Generally, horizontal floor plates read in a section drawing as a double set of lines that meet the façade at a 90o angle. In this instance, by moving the structure towards the interior space, Denari reduced the lines to one single field. This movement does something relatively remarkable. A corner generally happens through a change of materiality or directionality, but in this detail, he manages to create continuity by recessing the structure. We generally think of breakage, an interruption of a surface—or of the surface’s directionality—when looking at corner conditions. In regard to continuity, there are 3m high façade panels—a large dimension within the 14-story residential building—assembled to reduce the breaking up of each facade plane and allow for a sense of continuation. By graphically representing the structure on the façade, it is immediately preserved by keeping it visible. This project cross-references with OMA’s Seattle Public library, where the lines in space and the polygonalization of the structure relate in different ways to its urban context (Seattle). By making the structure visible for 3

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minimal level of privacy. Even in a prison cell, one might turn and have a sense of privacy at this juncture. It’s an intimate condition, these planes at the level of the floor. When it is inverted at the level of the ceiling, it becomes architecturally a moment of high drama. Is it celebrated? Is it diminished? Is it repressed? It’s often the case that you can tell the grade of craftsmanship precisely at this moment, where you find out if the moldings are cut precisely at 45 degrees and how they were joined. This is a tell-tale sign that might make one presume the overall craftsmanship of the entire space, which in that condition is the most difficult to discern in a craft tradition. It will normally prove or disprove the high level of finish of the project. It carries the weight of a sign of quality—visually and materially. It should also be added that there is an acoustic quality to corners, where secrets can be shared but then also overheard, depending on the dynamics of the ceiling, whispering corners, for example. This condition is prevalent in the Musikerhaus, Therme Vals, and the Guangzhou Opera House projects, where acoustics become a very important part of the scenario.

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Downtown Athletic Club \ by Starret and van Vleck \ New York, NY, USA \ 1930

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Laurentian Library \ by Michaelangelo \ Florence, Italy \ 1571

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stories—which is more than a direct imprint of what forces are in play or where one floor turns the corner within the façade—Denari immediately introduces a new shift in scale. It simultaneously compresses the building into a more graspable scale while relating it to its urban context—New York City’s Chelsea district—as a 14-story tower sitting next to and reaching over the High Line Park—which becomes its site. Through a strategy of making the structure turn the corner, it allows for flexibility within its spatial organization. The structure is moved towards the façade, the cores are positioned towards the inside, and you have a relatively free reign on a “Mies was apparently ill at ease with the slophorizontal level. piness of concrete in his mature work, and even balked at the use of hollow steel sections for his columns, presumably because they could not be 'exposed' in their entirety. For the National Gallery complex, steel fabrications are used to accommodate the same stress distribution that much smaller hollow sections could have contained. The equilateral cruciform plan of the columns can be read as a 1-metre hollow square section with its corners cut away, and with substantial cross webbing installed to compensate for their omission. This is an extreme, almost irrational mannerism disguised as a minimal absolute.” [4]

How is a corner formed? What does it mean to turn a corner? What is a “free” corner? These investigations create a shift in the spatial aspects of the corner. This also begins a discussion on corners within different typologies: the free plan vs. the Raumplan. It might be interesting to look at the Raumplan as an introduction of a different corner on a surface level and not on a façade level: the 90o turn which would be the floor level.

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Neue Nationalgalerie \ by Mies van der Rohe \ Berlin, Germany \ 1968

4 Jonathan Adams, Columns. (London: Academy Editions, 1998), 30. I Peter Carter, Mies van der Rohe at Work (New York: Praeger., 1974), 185.

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Looking at the corner detail where the façade meets the floor, there are moments when the glass panels turn the corner when the building is viewed from the east to the west. In elevation, the glass turns the corner almost like the chassis of a car: you don’t only see out of the windshield in front of you, but you have the opportunity and ability to look to the left and right. The detail used here allows for a completely different unfolding of view than if the space were enveloped in a typical condition. This is a relatively different type of detail in terms of how it relates to its context and in framing specific views. This brings up the question of how fluid can a corner be? Does a corner always read as being architecturally sharp? The question of how to draw a corner with a round surface condition creates a difficult situation. The corner would not show up visually in an elevation, but it certainly would show up spatially. A reference to this particular situation would be Zaha Hadid’s Opera House in Guangzhou, where the corners are dealt with in very different manner than the corners in HL23. When does a corner become architecturally mechanic? When does it introduce a mechanical condition through the process of introducing a round corner? Is a corner in HL23’s case something where material leaves its layer or does it happen whenever directionality changes? Corners, besides being structural, are also lines in space that begin to define the limits of a building. Technically speaking, corners are limits. Another question that is interesting in this context is “What happens 32


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when material changes?” “What happens when it changes not just from the exterior to the interior, but also in its materiality or physical properties?” Whenever different materials meet to form a corner, that corner also forms a fugue as well as a joint.

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In the projects dissected within this thesis, there is the question of whether the corner is actually limited by the properties of the material or if it is a controlled condition that forms a line or multiple lines in space —a purely visual sense of corner. Are there moments within HL23’s drawings that show the intentionality of the corner? In the case of HL23, the corners are planned. Neil Denari’s obsession with the corner is prevalent within this project. Throughout this project, Denari claims to answer how materials and changes in direction can be addressed in the corner condition. His projects—specifically, his bank projects in Japan— are primary examples of the exterior conditions becoming and informing the interior. The urban façade is pulled inside and becomes an interior ceiling. If you look at a corner, you think about breakage or something that defines a certain limit. What Denari is able to do in his projects is to make that limit inhabitable. It is not only interesting how the limit of a corner is developed, but how a corner can be almost made flat. In relation to a fluid, turned, or subtle corner, when does a corner become flat? Can a corner always happen in 3-dimensions? Not entirely. Looking at the North and South facades of HL23, they immediately communicate that condition despite their flatness.

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Looking at the east façade panels, the steel panels with the subtle buckling and specifically designed deformations or “dents” connect to lines in space that are pressed in positive and negative reliefs. They register through the material and flatten out through the memory effect of the material. They also essentially leave the trace of a line within that particular level. Depending upon what scale you view the building, this forms a corner: the corner appears in a flat surface. Looking at the detail of this particular element, the corner, is it just an ornament? What else does it or can it do? I think we would also have to think about how a corner acts as a joint between the facades. The corner has to change and transform to connect these specific geometries and perform as a joint. How does this function? When does the corner become a joint? This fits into the notion of “turning the corner.” So far we have spoken about how the façade turns the corner as well as the visibility of this turn, it is also important to reinvestigate this turn as it becomes or functions as a joint. Does a corner always need to read? Are corners born out of discrepancies in the case of windows or openings and closing? How do you want the window or window frame to register in terms of scale within a façade and/or its cladding? Looking at SANAA’s Zollverein building as an example, which had thousands of apertures in the façade of their competition entry in order to create a sense of transparency throughout

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J HL23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2010

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the entire building. In the built project, this was reduced and possibly compromised to 134 windows of 3 different sizes. What does that mean in terms of transparency? This brings up the question of “in which level does the window sit?” SANAA’s window detail is recessed but still sits within the plane of the outer façade to create a continuous surface. This immediately removes the offset of the façade penetration and every window frame reads as its own offset plane, which is completely eliminated in HL23. At the same time, a different type of scale is introduced in HL23 by the graphic representation printed on the glass and that graphic turns the corner to what becomes inhabitable: the physical detail, the corner. In terms of HL23’s corner condition, there are instances when a corner— or multiple corners--responds to the building’s context, whether it is the High Line, Chelsea as a neighborhood, or NYC at large. It starts with the façade and the notion of bringing the exterior inside of the building and to also bend it inwards to provide room for the High Line to slip by—which is more of an expression of accommodation that a necessity due to a 15 foot setback. The building also moves and bends back in a relatively smooth and continuous way, which deemphasizes the corner condition of the façade, not just in a vertical setting, but in the horizontal as well. It is not the corner that builds up the plan as much as it is a modification of the plan within its sectional condition, bending it inwards and incorporating movement through the x, y, and z-axis. There is the notion that the facade operates in 2 dimensions and yet with the additional moves and bends, or added third dimension, it requires a corner detail. This transition to the third dimension through a continuous surface requires a new set of terminology, and in this case, the “mega corner.” The mega corner begins when the entire building is not only formed or deformed, but created through a corner condition, not in a strategic sense, but in a very straightforward, architectural sense. Simply restated, the building is defined morphologically by its corners above any other formal consideration. K

100 11th Ave \ by Jean Nouvel \ IAC Building \ by Frank O. Gehry \ New York, NY, USA

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Doppelgänger, n. an apparition or double of a living person.

K Image by Christoph a. Kumpusch, November 12, 2011. 6 Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 410.

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Another term that implies a continuity of surfaces implicated in the corner is the “economy of a surface”—what are a surface’s restrictions or restraints? When does this become a surface? When does it stay within the mode of being a graphic? The space is thus, like a Doppelgänger6, imprinted both onto the structure and also onto the corner detail itself. A very specific corner condition within HL23 is its setback against the High Line. Looking at the east façade, this setback produces mass in its most linear condition. It also reveals an incredible depth to the mega corner. The graphic of continuity—the increasing or stretching of the surface condition—informs the corner on the exterior surface, which then immediately translates to the interior surface not only in a graphic gesture, but as a spatial fact. The façade bends backwards and creates the same impression on the inside, just in its negative form. You immediately read how the surface turns the corner. 34


Smoothness within the part-to-whole relationship becomes prevalent at certain moments and starts to smooth out the corner condition. The corner thus becomes an integral part of the surface. There are many corners that were staged to become integral parts of surfaces, but this is where Boolean operations are introduced into the analysis. The north façade of HL23 is relatively clear cut and reveals a variety of building’s conditions, i.e. the thickness of material, the thickness of structure, and also the depth of space. Denari deals with this in a completely different way in the east façade, where the one surface of the building is pushed back. This move forms a cut in the surface of the façade; creating along the edge of this bend an activated corner, and within this very particular context, a mega corner. That idea requires a new order of details, one reason why many different instances of this corner condition will be analyzed through an atlas of floor plans, facades, and mega panels. The north façade is an additional condition where the depth of space and the thickness of materials are revealed in a different way than in the chassis of the south façade’s corner envelope. Shifting in scale, another NMDA project that references the mega corner is the 317 LafayetteN project on the corner of Broadway and Houston streets in New York City. Unbuilt, the project deals with a particularly small site developed as an extrusion an adjacent building’s profile. Becoming a 3D palimpsest, where its east and west corners meet the ground, the corners are pulled toward the interior, creating a backdrop on the east corner and providing room for the subway station on the west corner. This allows for the floor plan to spread out once you are above the 2nd floor. It also acts as a mediated billboard, which plays a large role in keeping the media façade as part of the overall architectural façade. The two mega corners provide the entrances to the building and to the subway station.

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There is also a graphic sensibility to the north façade in that it informs us of what’s happening spatially within the building: it reads like a section cut. There are many corners, which are formed by the façade, where the High Line enters the building’s envelope and the graphic becomes the mega corner through a set of Boolean operations. The Boolean operations create specific geometries where the void is literally withdrawn or carved into the figure of the building. This allows one to subtract and reconfigure the key corner points in a very specific manner. This starts to allow for a coalescing of lenses. The corner relates to the surface condition, which relates to openings and closings and also to discrepancies. Each panel within the overall façade surface is drawn through 2 inch joint lines, creating an overall smoothness from part-to-whole in the east façade. This relational smoothness is also prevalent in the south façade, where the building folds back. In a way, one could analyze the entire building in a single reading, if it were possible to remove the material transitions, as a continuous surface—a single surface project/structure—, which would house all of the programs and architectural necessities.

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Corner detail of Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China

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Construction detail of Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2010

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317 Lafayette \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA

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S/L L Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects. M Image courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects. N Image courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects.


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Zaha Hadid, Zaha Hadid Architects (interviewed by Christoph a. Kumpusch, London, UK, February 10, 2012) CHRISTOPH a. KUMPUSCH: To what degree do you accept, if at all, a standard

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detail in your projects, a door for example? ZAHA HADID: There is an inherent intimacy in our detailing to ensure a building’s integrity - with many details becoming progressively refined or standardised.

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However, mass production or standardisation can, to some extent, dilute this level of designed intimacy or aesthetics. It is at this point where we feel compelled to address this through design or innovation.



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 CaK Carving, collision and overlap are moves present in all your projects. Do these formal operations translate from the city and building scale into the

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scale of the details also? ZH Indeed, they are carried through all scales. This repertoire is evident in our

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installation and exhibition designs – in addition to some of our furniture A

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Ice Storm, MAK, Vienna, Austria

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Do you think of a corner detail as something fluid or sharp?

ZH This is not universal. Our decision to adopt either a sharp or fluid corner is

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dependent on the users relationship with that object or space. For example, a sharp corner in a wall can bring a sense of division, whereas a curved 1

seamlessness

Without a seam; of a garment, woven without a seam.

Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 1223.

corner suggests a degree of spatial continuity and seamlessness1.

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This is an example of how a detail can become a part of the overall architectural idea in a very precise way. This creates a counter position of its part-to-whole smoothness and makes us look at the overall building in its very specific parts and its discontinuities, not just in the surface of the building itself, but in the details as well. These corners deal with a relatively “invisible” condition of how to penetrate a surface and what the external conditions are able to create. You have a box. You extrude the profile from the building behind. You pull the two corners in. And, finally, the surface serves as a reference for the first 2 floors. There are also a variety of lenses applied to Zaha Hadid’s Guangzhou Opera House. Looking at this case study, the corner is a particularly important element of study for the fluid and emerged geometric conglomeration of form prevalent in this project. Looking at the image of the exterior, there is an immediate recognition of the surface, the main element that triangulates the body of the chassis, which enlarges and displays its cross-bracing. This brings up the above mentioned mega corner versus a similar detail, where the surface triangulation meets itself almost as if it were folded. How is this detail constructed or viewed within the Guangzhou Opera House and how does it allow for certain geometries to form? The mega corner involves two rubrics or dimensions: scale and the repetition of elements. The megacorner is not necessarily detailed by the form or the shape that emerges from its particular size or scale of detailing, but through the repetition and quantity of corners within the project that use a smaller module to build up a larger corner. Looking at the Opera House, there are corners that sit within the surface. Almost in an ornamental fashion, they are drawn or brought into reality through the structure that forms each corners. Forming a line, each corner becomes a folded linear condition and lets all surfaces—the facades and the roof—meet at one point, creating a corner at a larger scale. On the interior, the concert hall is developed as a large carved out corner condition. The project’s corner conditions, with consideration for openings, closings, and penetrations through each surface, permit three lenses to coalesce in varying degrees of intensity. What role does sequence play in the mega corner? In terms of this lens, one very clear moment is the corner carved into the void space between the two performance halls. With public spaces, void spaces, and all of the performance spaces carved out of a larger volume, the two volumes corners become a main spatial sequence and a main creator of public space. This act ruptures spaces in a way that does not necessarily address an enclosed space. These voids act more as interstitial spaces than programmatically specific spaces. Hadid creates this condition by using structural forces to inform the tectonic system of one volume pushing against the other, where the details imply and indicate this particular move. The guiding corner detail applied throughout the 37 /

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There is a specific joint that connects 7 corners within one point to create a structural knot. Through its fabrication, this intersection of multiple corners replaces the mega corner for the “mega knot.” Within the surface of the exterior, all of the corners read as smooth or rounded corners, but the interior corners become clear cuts and transform into lines in space when they leave the planar surface. The triangulation of panels is not flat but has a curved surface, which leads to the development of another detail that has to physically connect this system to the building. Lines in space carve into the surface and become a vast, inhabitable mullion with the same linearity—in a parallel line—, forming a recess and double linearity for linking lighting, signage, security systems, etc. into one surface. The surfaces in this instance don’t meet as a corner or by intersection, but meet by running parallel to each other, creating a visual illusion of one surface being wrapped by the other as opposed to being cut off or intersected by the other. This visual invention is powerful for the spatial result and the notion of liquidity. Both elements seem to continue after this interaction occurs. The soundproofing and insulation panels follow the same measuring system as the geometric system of the overall triangulated surface structure. One very smooth element—the one that comes from the performance space into the public space—is where the refined plaster façade surface treatment meets its structural and geometric counterparts. Following all the way down from the primary structure through the secondary structure to the soundproofing and insulation panels, the multiplicity of these different scalar systems follows the same logic of the detailed joints and continues from the ceiling to the wall into the surface. This compares well to the system of HL23, where the outside façade is pulled into the interior even though the lines fulfill structural responsibilities while also acting as incredibly vivid graphic elements. In the case of Guangzhou Opera House, a complete rethinking of elements was triggered, where corners became smooth and spheres developed corners. Landscape turns into the building and the building formally returns to landscape. The void left by sound, as well as the act of carving, was as much at play in the building’s design strategy as it was in the building’s detail. Hadid’s use of modularity creates a comparative cross-reference with Louis Kahn & Frank Gehry. Kahn insisted you need to respect the brick and ask the brick what it wants to be as a structural element, where Gehry tells the brick what to do. Zaha Hadid’s work with the brick is constructed the way it needs to look—a guiding principle of fluidity. In the case of Guangzhou, the planes become their own landscape as well as their own detail. The attention to scale and detail is interesting because it begins to deal with the one-onone relationship of details.

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project—with certain modifications- is broken here as a special condition.

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Within Therme Vals, there is a precise amount of control over the material and geometry. This includes using light as if it were a building material. This sacred use also relies upon the program of the building, the “ritual” use of cleaning. The water creates a “second floor”—the wallto-corner relationship is doubled, one time it is stone-to-stone and the second time it is water-to-stone. You don’t sense this in a geometric way, but in images in which the water is removed, the space reads completely differently. The architecture is produced within the small connection and smallest elements—details—on local and enlarged scales. Even if it doesn’t have the geometric dynamism of some of the other projects, it is spectacularly based on the details. The atmosphere is created through materials and these, in turn, are handled with expert details. The interior-exterior relationship is almost like a cave. The stone is interesting because, unlike the stone in the other projects, it is attached through a very specific connection. The material layers include what’s visible versus what is behind the stone. In the Guangzhou Opera House, the stone is the thinnest layer—almost like a layer of plaster—where in Therme Vals it is a heavy constructed element. The similarity would be how it is attached to a structural system—it is attached to reinforced concrete—but not as a visible attachment of layering, but as the moment where a corner meets the wall.

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Walt Disney Concert Hall \ by Frank O. Gehry \ Los Angeles, CA, USA

What effect does the scale of the Sliced Porosity Block have on its details? Are the details merely scaled up or down or are they very specific to their location within the project? The details aren’t necessarily programmatically specific but they are scaled specifically for structural stability, which then informs how far structural and material boundaries can be pushed. There are several details that appear in a variety of different scales, while attending to different responsibilities, are adjusted to their particular function. An obvious example is the corner. The act of slicing the mass creates many different corners, which allow for the injection of the urban site. There is a difference between the slice and the cut. A lot of the details only become necessary through the act of slicing. In the south and east entrances, the slices are informed by strict city building codes dealing with natural light, making it necessary to build such high density within the Block. Even though the Block itself becomes an urban situation, it would not have been built with such a density without letting the cuts inform and create the public plaza. These act as more than just cuts building masses, but allow the light to become a building material, which then cuts through the built environment and materialize space. The typology develops its corners through the process of carving and developing the sculpted mass through the infiltration of the city. The vertical program is similar to the Downtown Athletic Club in New York City through horizontality similar to that of Raymond Hood’s Unit Building. This project also has a precedent in Rockefeller Center with

O Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch

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its sunken plaza similar to the three terraced plazas within the Sliced Porosity Block’s micro urban retail and café section. Through the fragmentation of the massing, the corner is logically geometric as a consequence. The carved sequences and slices provide a condensed public space concentrated within the project as well as an accelerated airflow. On the programmatic side, the redistribution of different programs contributes to its hybridity. The urban corner, or “turning the corner,” is an enlarged geometric move on a building scale, but also an architectural move within its detail condition. The windows here are glass from floor to ceiling with the door for each apartment located in an opening right above and behind the structural diagonal. Another example of hybridity—typology and programming— can be found in this image where the cross bracing is brought into the façade, meets in a corner, and then dissolves into the overall context of the façade. The sky bridges allow horizontal circulation and contribute to the overall sequence. The skywalks introduce a visual framing and provide a roof and additional lines in space.

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The excavated corner of the Seagram Building \ by Mies van der Rohe \ New York, NY, USA \ 1958

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Every slice and entrance that informs the urban corner within the building typology is intentional and also introduced for zoning purposes to provide natural lighting. Random sculpting does not take place here, instead, the slicing is set up through a rather abstract notion of material: light, which has its most visible impact on the tangible materials within the project, steel and concrete.

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The corner is the most prevalent detail throughout the Sliced Porosity Block. Looking at the image where the bridge connects between two towers, the corner becomes the knot within its structure. This element is not only necessary in the structural integrity of the building, but is also executed in order to create circulation.

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This detail sets up the corner within the corner that then becomes the knot and the knot becomes inhabitable. In this way, the project refers to the mega corner found within Hadid’s Guangzhou Opera House, but one mega corner in this case is the inhabitable knot. This programmatically links back to the structural detail—it also becomes a social condenser. Wherever there is a bridge meeting a building, it starts to mix the private with the semi-private with the public and allows for cross-circulation between these spheres of inhabitation. This condition also allows for cross ventilation and for changes in climate zones. How do we measure a detail? There are instances when a “detail” like the bridge/knot starts to become inhabitable despite the fact they are rarely thought of as having that scale or capability. Within the Sliced Porosity Block, you can inhabit the entire scale of the project. This is what turns a building, or even a landscape, into an inhabitable interface. The building is no longer a singular agent, but a participant within its own domain and surroundings. This is a powerful example of the building detail becoming

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Corner detail of Sliced Porosity Block \ by Steven Holl Architects \ Chengdhu, China

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the urban detail through the creation of an entrance that was consciously designed in order to provide gateways to the mini-city. These gates become urban retail spaces throughout the project while also providing openings and closings. R Residential-Park Alt-Erlaa \ by Harry Glück \ Vienna, Austria

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Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA \ 2011

Window detail of Canova Plaster Museum \ by Carlo Scarpa \ Treviso, Italy \ 1957

The typology of the Sliced Porosity Block is a “double hybrid”. The slices act as double openings and closings since they allow for the inhabitation of the plazas as well as the buildings themselves. When do you enter the block itself and when do you enter the towers? Can you delineate between the types of entrances outside of their retail function? There is a notion of being outside while still being inside the project itself. It is important that we mention the fuzzy edges in this context. Fuzzy edges also blur the definition of zones. It is not so clear where the project starts and the city ends or vice versa, because in its very own way, the Block acts as its own city. Harry Glück has a project called Alt ErlaaR, which fits within this context as a housing machine. Is the blurriness of the edge a corner detail or is it a wall detail? When does the wall start and become a spatial zone? When does the edge of a zone become a wall? Within the Sliced Porosity Block, taking an extreme urban detail and condition—the street corner—it is turned into an architectural detail at an urban scale. Every time someone enters the Block, the city is pulled in with them. The edges, the corners, the terraces, the public spaces, flora and fauna, as well as the porous slices, are all generators for urban sequences. The slices do not just inform entrances, the driving generator of the slice provides “breathing room.” This allows for light and airflow throughout the building and also contributes to the building’s LEED status. As an urban detail, the slice creates sequences within the project through their arrangement and sets up light “cones” that are reintroduced into the public space. The project also provides for elevated gardens within the city, with some zones of higher porosity and capable of moving people through the building. There are also pavilions—the Light Pavilion being a prime example of this as it is embedded into the site almost as an enclave within the tower. Corners can be incredibly complex and work at scales normally not conceived as details. But corners, after all, are a morphological condition rather than a pure detail. Corners implicate details.

R Harry Glück, “Architect Dr. Harry Glück,” http://www. architekt-glueck.at/Projekte/ AltErlaa.php?ID=88 (accessed June 6, 2012) S Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch T Sergio Los, Carlo Scarpa, and Klaus Frah, Carlo Scarpa. (Köln: B. Taschen, 1993), 36.

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Insomuch as architects can take the corner to its far-reaching limits, in terms of sculpting mass, pushing typology and scale, it may be useful to conclude with these small and certain corners of Carlo ScarpaT. In his application, the corners are expressed by their inversion – they fold into the space rather than conclude it. His corners do not gather shadows, but emanate light. It is a homily to the question of corners and their potential in terms of both morphology and detail.

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IN SITU CONCRETE VALSER QUARTZITE

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Therme Vals \ by Peter Zumthor \ Vals, Switzerland \ 1993-1996

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AROMATHERAPY BUILDING SERVICES AND THERAPEUTIC FACILITIES

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GRAVEL 10-20CM GEOCOMPOSITE 2CM

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STEEL ANGLE FEED LINE HEATED GLASS

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LAMINATED SAFETY GLASS SPIRAL SPRING FOR ABSORBTION OF COMPONENT MOVEMENT DOUBLE GLAZING HEATED SKYLIGHT

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Therme Vals \ by Peter Zumthor \ Vals, Switzerland \ 1993-1996

G

H

S INTERIOR

INTERIOR

T BLACK PIGMENTED CONCRETE 18CM

BATHS VALSER QUARTZITE IN SITU CONCRETE

C

RELAXATION ROOM

MORTAR

B

S/L V Schittich, Christian: Stone - a Building Material for the Next Century, Detail, 1999, 6.

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-V.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


GRAVEL 10-20CM GEOCOMPOSITE 2CM

THERMAL INSULATION 14CM

EXTERIOR

HUMUS

INTERIOR

GRASS

WATERPROOFING FLUID FOIL 3CM LIQUID APPLIED CONCRETE 48 - 38CM

47 /

48


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

W

Therme Vals \ by Peter Zumthor \ Vals, Switzerland \ 1993-1996

G

H

S INTERIOR

INTERIOR

T BATHS

DRESSING ROOM

C

IN SITU CONCRETE

MORTAR VALSER QUARTZITE

B

S/L W Wessely, Heide: "I build on my experience of the world..." - an interview with Peter Zumthor, Detail, December 31, 2001, 1.

SECTION DETAIL â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1-1.2-V.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


49 /

50


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

V

INJECTION CHANNEL CONCRETE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM

M WALKWAY BATHS

BLOSSOM BATHS VALS STONE

'RIVALCOL' SEALANT

SILICONE SEALANT WATERPROOFING FLUID FOIL 3CM LIQUID APPLIED

MORTAR

Z

IN SITU CONCRETE

INTERIOR

INTERIOR LARGE-SIZED VALSER QUARTZITE

LARGE-SIZED VALS STONE

A

MORTAR

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

WALKWAY CURE & THERAPY

AROMATHERAPY WATER PROOFED CONCRETE INSULATION EXPANSION JOINT

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-V.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


6.3

0 5

25

IN SITU CONCRETE STONE 10.5 - 12.5 x VARIED x 3.1 CM 6.3

5 7. 3

25

75

4.7

CORNER STONE 50 x 25 x 6.3 CM

18

5 2. 6

4.7

18

D E IZ RS E OV

3.1 10.5-12.5

51 /

in cm

52


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

IN SITU CONCRETE

A

STONE 10.5 - 12.5 x VARIED x 3.1 CM

K SUPPORT ROOM

G CORNER STONE 50 x 25 x 6.3 CM

INTERIOR

INTERIOR

H

S

T

C WALKWAY BATHS

B

X

Therme Vals \ by Peter Zumthor \ Vals, Switzerland \ 1993-1996

X Schittich, Christian: Stone - a Building Material for the Next Century, Detail, 1999, 6.

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.3-V.05

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


BLACK PIGMENTED CONCRETE 18CM IN SITU CONCRETE 6.3

SRONE 10.5 - 12.5 x VARIED x 3.1 CM

0 5

25

6.3

5 7. 3

CORNER STONE 50 x 25 x 6.3 CM

25

75

4.7

18

5 2. 6

4.7

18

D E IZ RS E OV

3.1 10.5-12.5

53 /

in cm

54


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

BLACK PIGMENTED CONCRETE 18CM

M

IN SITU CONCRETE SRONE 10.5 - 12.5 x VARIED x 3.1 CM

Z

THERMAL INSULATION 14CM

A RELAXATION ROOM

EXTERIOR

CORNER STONE 50 x 25 x 6.3 CM

INTERIOR

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.3-V.06

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


Y

Musikerhaus \ by Raimund Abraham \ Hombroich, Germany \ 2013

Y Courtesy of Estate of Raimund Abraham Architects.

55 /

56


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

LIVING ROOM

M

DOUBLE GLAZING WOOD THRESHOLD

Z

FIXED WINDOW FRAME INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

EXPANSION JOINT

POURED CONCRETE FINISHED FLOOR WITH UNDERFLOOR HEATING

FLASHING

120MM INSULATION

A

K

G

BEARING PLATE

H

WOOD CLADDING COMPOSITE INSULATION VAPOR BARRIER

S

FLASHING WOOD FRAME

T CONCRETE BEAM SEAL TAPE

C SEAL OPERABLE WOOD DOOR FRAME

B

BEDROOM

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-M.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


57 /

58


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

BEDROOM

M

OPERABLE WOOD DOOR FRAME

Z

WOOD THRESHOLD

EXPANSION JOINT

DOUBLE GLAZING WOOD FRAME

POURED CONCRETE FINISHED FLOOR WITH UNDERFLOOR HEATING

A

120MM INSULATION

K

G

BEARING PLATE

H

WOOD CLADDING COMPOSITE INSULATION

S

VAPOR BARRIER

T SEALANT

FLASHING WOOD FRAME

C

B RECORDING STUDIO LARCH 18MM PLYWOOD

S/L

WOOD BLOCKING FIXED DOUBLE GLAZING

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-M.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


Z

Musikerhaus \ by Raimund Abraham \ Hombroich, Germany \ 2013

Z Courtesy of Estate of Raimund Abraham Architects.

59 /

60


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

V

25MM PLASTER

M

SILICON EXTERIOR

+1 (0)

WOOD BASE BOARD

INTERIOR

Z

EXPANSION JOINT

BEDROOM

A

POURED CONCRETE FINISHED FLOOR WITH UNDERFLOOR HEATING 120MM INSULATION

K

G

H INSULATION VAPOR BARRIER

S

RECORDING STUDIO

T

C

CONCRETE BEAM

B 1CM GAP

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

S/L PLASTER BOARD MASONRY

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-M.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


61 /

62


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z CAMP

POURED CONCRETE FINISHED FLOOR

A

120MM INSULATION

UNDERFLOOR HEATING

K

G

H

S BEDROOM AIR VENT

T CONCRETE BEAM

C

1CM GAP WOOD CLADDING COMPOSITE 25MM PLASTER

VAPOR BARRIER

B

INSULATION

S/L

MASONRY

INTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-M.04

EXTERIOR

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


63 /

64


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z INTERIOR

INTERIOR

MUSIC LIBRARY

A

EXPANSION JOINT POURED CONCRETE FINISHED FLOOR

K UNDERFLOOR HEATING

G

H

INSULATION

S

VAPOR BARRIER

T PLASTER BOARD VAPOR BARRIER

C

INSULATION

LARCH 18MM PLYWOOD WOOD BLOCKING

RECORDING STUDIO

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-M.05

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


LARCH 18MM PLYWOOD VAPOR BARRIER

INSULATION

65 /

66


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

S

LARCH 18MM PLYWOOD

T

WOOD BLOCKING

C

WOOD FRAMED WINDOW

B

MUSIC ROOM

FLASHING

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-M.06

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


A1

Zollverein School \ by Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa \ Essen, Germany \ 2013

A1 Thomas Mayer_archive, Zollverein, http://thomasmayerarchive.de/ details.php?image_id=92121&ses sionid=4339caa2629c5441b9b9 648e6692f775&l=english (accesed on October 15, 2011).

REINFORCMENT BASKET HEATIING & COOLING SYSTEM

BUBBLE DECK SLAB

67 /

68


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z DOUBLE GLAZING PRE-COMPRESSED SEALING STRIP CLASSROOM

COVER ANGLE

ALUMINUM PROFILE MINERAL ROCKWOOL SILICON SEALANT

A

PARAPET DRAIN

K "ACTIVE" INSULATION

G RAISED FLOOR SYSTEM FLOOR RAISER

H

REINFORCEMENT

S

T

C

B

CLASSROOM

S/L

DOUBLE-SIDED FAIR FACED CONCRETE

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-Z.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


REINFORCMENT BASKET HEATIING & COOLING SYSTEM

BUBBLE DECK SLAB

69 /

70


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

REINFORCEMENT HOSE FOR "ACTIVE" INSULATION

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

M

Z

CLASSROOM

A

CARPET

RAISED FLOOR SYSTEM

K

FLOOR RAISER

G

H

S

T

C

B

CLASSROOM

S/L

DOUBLE-SIDED FAIR FACED CONCRETE

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-Z.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


71 /

72


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

V

INTERIOR

HALL/OFFICE

THERMAL INSULATION

M

EXTERIOR

Z

PATIO

FIXED DOUBLE GLAZING

A

ALUMINUM DOOR

RAISED FLOOR SYSTEM

K

DRAIN CONCRETE STONES

G

H

S

T

C

B

BUBBLE DECK SLAB

S/L

CONCRETE SLAB CLASSROOM HEATIING AND COOLING SYSTEM

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-Z.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


73 /

74


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K DOUBLE-SIDED FAIR FACED CONCRETE

B1

Zollverein School \ by Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa \ Essen, Germany

G

H "ACTIVE" INSULATION REINFORCEMENT

S SILICON SEALANT ALUMINUM PROFILE

T INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

DOUBLE GLAZING

C

CLASSROOM

B

S/L B1 Thomas Mayer_archive, Zollverein, http://thomasmayerarchive.de/details.php?image_ id=92130&l=english

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-Z.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


75 /

76


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

REINFORCEMENT

"ACTIVE" INSULATION

DOUBLE-SIDED FAIR FACED CONCRETE

T INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

C

HALLWAY

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-Z.05

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


77 /

78


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

DOUBLE-SIDED FAIR FACED CONCRETE

G

"ACTIVE" INSULATION

H

REINFORCEMENT

S

SILICON SEALANT ALUMINUM PROFILE

T INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

DOUBLE GLAZING

C

CLASSROOM

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-Z.06

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


C1

APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

C1 Courtesy of LOT-EK.

79 /

80


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A STEEL TUBE 60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

K

G AIR SPACE

CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL

H

PLYWOOD CEILING VAPOR BARRIER PLASTER BOARD

100MM MTL STUD CEILING FRAMING

S

T

INSULATION

C AIR SPACE

B GALLERY

INTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-A.01

scale 1:10

0

EXTERIOR

S/L

30 cm


81 /

82


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A STEEL TUBE

K 60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION OPERABLE WINDOW

G

PAINTED BENT STEEL CHANNEL

H

S

100MM MTL STUD CEILING FRAMING

T

PLYWOOD

GLAZING

C

B GALLERY

INTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-A.02

scale 1:10

0

EXTERIOR

S/L

30 cm


D1

APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

D1 Courtesy of LOT-EK.

83 /

84


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

V

MECH/ STORAGE INTERIOR

M EXTERIOR

Z

PLASTER BOARD

A

VAPOR BARRIER CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL AIR SPACE

INSULATION

K

G

H VAPOR BARRIER WATERPROOFING PLYWOOD FLOOR

S

100MM BATT INSULATION

T

C

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-A.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


CENTER TRUSS

CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL 60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

GALLERY PLASTER BOARD VAPOR BARRIER VISIBLE HORIZONTAL TRUSS MEMBER

EXTERIOR

E1

INTERIOR

EXHIBITION

APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

E1 Courtesy of LOT-EK.

85 /

86


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

VERTICAL TRUSS MEMBER

M

VAPOR BARRIER PLASTER BOARD

Z

60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

INTERIOR

A

K

EXTERIOR

G

H

CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL VISIBLE HORIZONT. TRUSS MEMBER

S

GLAZING

T

C

B EXHIBITION

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-A.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


F1

APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

F1 Courtesy of LOT-EK.

87 /

88


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V GLAZING VISIBLE HORIZONTAL TRUSS MEMBER

M

Z

A

K

CONTAINER CORNER

G

H

EXTERIOR

S

INTERIOR

T

FIXED GLAZING

EXHIBITION

STUDIO

VAPOR BARRIER PLASTER BOARD

scale 1:10

0

B

S/L

60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-A.05

C

30 cm


VERTICAL TRUSS MEMBER

PLASTER BOARD VAPOR BARRIER 60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION 75MM MTL STUD AT 40 CM

PROFILED STEEL SHEETING

OFFICE

CENTER TRUSS

INTERIOR

89 /

EXTERIOR

90


9

8

INTERIOR

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

INTERIOR

M

Z

CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL

A

FIXED GLAZING

K

G

STUDIO

H

VAPOR BARRIER 60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

S

PROFILED STEEL SHEETING

T PLASTER BOARD

C

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-A.05

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


2MM EPDM WATER-PROOFING 2MM GMS BACK PANEL DECKING

SCENERY ASSEMBLY

SUSPENDED CEILING/ INTERIOR PANELS

DRAIN INTERIOR

91 /

PRIMARY STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE

92


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

M

25MM STONE PANEL

Z 50MM POLYURETHANE INSULATION 2MM EPDM WATER-PROOFING

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L EXTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-G.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


G1

Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010 G1 Photo by Christian Richters, courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.

93 /

94


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V CURTAIN FACADE LAMINATED IGU

M

Z

ALUMINUM CAPPING STEEL MULLION

A

CAP

LIGHT

K

G

H

S

T

C

B PRIMARY STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE

S/L

FOYER

INTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-G.02

scale 1:10

0

EXTERIOR

30 cm


ENTRANCE/ LOBBY PRIMARY STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE

25MM STONE PANEL

BACK PANEL SUPPORT

SECONDARY STRUCTURE PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK 2MM EPDM WATER-PROOFING 50MM POLYURETHANE INSULATION 2MM GMS BACK PANEL DECKING

95 /

96 INTERIOR

EXTERIOR


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

G1 Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

S

T

C

B

S/L G1 Photo by Christian Richters, courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.

SECTION DETAIL â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1-1.2-G.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


SUSPENDED CEILING 50MM FIBERGLASS ABSORPTION LAYER FIBERGLASS MATTING SHEET - WHITE

25MM GLASS REINFORCED GYPSUM

H1 Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China H1 Photo by Christian Richters, courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.

97 /

98


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S LIGHT

OPERA REHEARSAL HALL

T

12MM GLASS REINFORCED GYPSUM 11MM FIBERGLASS

C

50MM FIBERGLASS ABSORPTION LAYER

B

BRACKET

S/L

INTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-G.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


I1 Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China I1 Photo by Christian Richters, courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.

99 /

100


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

MIRROR ON RIGID SUBSTRATE

V

M HAND RAIL

Z

A

K

INTERIOR OPERA REHEARSAL HALL

G

WOOD CARVED BASE BOARD

H WOOD FLOOR INTERIOR FINISH

S

FLOOR SYSTEM

T

C

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-G.05

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


J1 Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China

J1 Photo by Hufton and Crow, courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.

101 /

102


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.4 Corner Corner to Corner

+1 (0)

V

M L - BRACKET 75 x 75 x 5 MM

Z

PREFABRICATED 40MM GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED GYPSUM PANELS

A

K

G

H

S WELDED LANGLES 63 x 63 x 4 MM L - BRACKET 75 x 75 x 5 MM

T

C

B

CONCRETE BALCONY STRUCTURE

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-G.06

L - BRACKET 75 x 75 x 5 MM

scale 1:10

S/L

0

30 cm


FOYER

SUSPENDED CEILING/ INTERIOR PANELS

COVER ATTACHED TO PRIMARY STRUCTURE

INTERIOR

DRAIN PIPE

103 /

104


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.4

+1 (0)

Corner Corner to Corner

25MM STONE PANEL PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

V

M

Z

A

2MM EPDM WATER-PROOFING

K

G

H

S

PRIMARY STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE

T

SECONDARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

2MM GMS BACK PANEL DECKING

C

50MM POLYURETHANE INSULATION

B

EXTERIOR

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.4-G.07

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


K1

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2008-2011

K1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects.

105 /

106


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

INTERIOR

LIVING ROOM

COLUMN

M

EXTERIOR

CLADDING ZONE PERIMETER HEATING

Z

FIRE STOP

LASER CUT STEEL PLATE

ALUMINUM ANGEL

FLOOR OUTLET

A

CLOSURE PLATE

FINISHED FLOOR

K

G

H

SMOKE SEAL

S

SPREADER BEAM HALF ANCHOR CHANNEL

T

BEAM FIREPROOFING

KNEE ROLL

JUNCTION BOX

C

SPRINKLER SHADE BOX LIVING ROOM ROLL SHADE

B

S/L 1/2" REVEAL

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-H.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


107 /

108


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

INTERIOR

LIVING ROOM

M

EXTERIOR

COLUMN RUNTAL PERIMETER HEATING

Z

FIRE STOP

LASER CUT STEEL PLATE

ALUMINUM ANGLE

FLOOR OUTLET

A

CLOSURE PLATE

FINISHED FLOOR

K

G

H

SMOKE SEAL

S

SPREADER BEAM HALF ANCHOR CHANNEL

T

BEAM FIREPROOFING

C

DINING ROOM

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-H.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


109 /

110


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V LATERAL CONNECTION COMPRESSIBLE FOAM INSULAION SPRAY FOAM INSULATION

INTERIOR

M

EXTERIOR

KITCHEN

PROTECTION MEMBRANE

BASE

WATERPROOFING ALL PENETRATIONS TAPED FLOOR

3.5" INSULATION

ACOUSTIC UNDERLAYMENT

SUPPORT BRACKET METAL FINISHING WITH WEEP HOLES FLAT ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS HANGER PROFILE

Z

A

K

G BACKER ROD & SEALANT CUSTOM EXTRUSION

H

MEGAPANEL SUPPORT FIRE STOP

S

SMOKE SEAL

SLAB EDGE

T

C BEAM

FIREPROOFING

B

LIVING ROOM

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-H.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


L1

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2008-2011

L1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects.

111 /

112


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6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V FACADE ACCESS ANCHOR

BEDROOM

INTERIOR

M

EXTERIOR

SLAB STUD CONNECTION BASE

1 5/8" STEEL FRAMING SLIP JOINT CONNECTION 4" STEEL FRAMING

EMBEDDED METAL PLATE

Z

A

FLOOR ACOUSTIC UNDERLAYMENT

GWB SHIMMED PANEL 'T' EXTRUSION LATERAL CONNECTION COMPRESSIBLE FOAM INSULATION SPRAY FOAM INSULATION

K

G

SUPPORT BRACKET ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

H

HANGER PROFILE PROTECTION MEMBRANE

S SMOKE SEAL FIRE STOP

T

3.5" INSULATION 2' BATT INSULATION WATERPROOFING

C

LIVING ROOM

B

POUR STOP

M1 High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2008-2011

FIREPROOFING

BEAM

M1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects.

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-H.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


113 /

114


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3

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1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

WATERPROOFING PROTECTION MEMBRANE 3.5" INSULATION FLASHING BACKER ROD & AIR + WATER SEALANT FLASHING BASE RECEIVER RECREATIONAL AREA

M

TERRACE FASTENDED TERMINATION BAR 3" RIGID INSULATION

Z

S/S BEAD BLASTED BASE BLOCKING AS REQUIRED WATERPROOFING 1 5/8" STEEL FRAMING

INTERIOR

A

EXTERIOR

4" STEEL FRAMING SPLIT JOINT CONNECTION

K

GWB

G

NONCOMPRESSABLE SHIM

BASE

H FLOOR CONCRETE TOPPING

ACOUSTIC UNDERLAYMENT

S

T

BEAM

C

FIREPROOFING

B

BEAM FIREPROOFING GROUT RETAIL AREA

S/L POUR STOP

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-H.05

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


LIVING/DINING ROOM

WATERPROOFING

ACCESS PANEL

1/2" SUBSTRATE

INTERIOR

END TRIM CLOSURE PLATE

L-BRACKETS SUPPORT ATTACHED TO COLUMN

WET SEAL INSULATION

EXTERIOR

L-BRACKETS SUPPORT ATTACHED TO COLUMN

METL-SPAN BENT PIECE BACKER ROD & SEALANT

115 /

116


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4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

LIVING/DINING ROOM INTERIOR

COLUMN

BEAM BELLOW

EXTERIOR

SPREADER BEAM ABOVE

A

STAINLESS STEEL CLOSURE PLATE

SLAB EDGE

RUNTAL PERIMETER HEATER

K

GLASS PLATE RUNTAL END CAP

G

H BACKER ROD & SEALANT MULLION

CLOSURE PLATE

S

T

C GLASS PLATE

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-H.06

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


BEAM INTUMESCENT PAINT FIRE PROTECTION

4" STEEL STUD

5/8" GWB PLASTER BOARD

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

2.5" STUD 3.5" INSULATION ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS PROTECTION MEMBRANE

HWR/S

BUTYL TAPE

RUNTAL RADIATOR

BACKER ROD & SEALANT EXTENSION TO CW-1 FRAMING

STEEL MULLION

BREAK FORMED METAL 3.5" INSULATION

BEDROOM

(MC-2)

117 /

118


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4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z SLAB EDGE COLUMN FIREPROOFING

A CLOSURE PLATE ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS INTERMITTEN BENT STEEL PLATE

K

ALUMINUM ANGEL

CLOSURE PLATE

G

CLOSURE PLATE ALUMINUM EXTRUSION WITH ADJUSTABLE TRIM ATTACHED

H

SEALANT BACKER ROD & SEALANT 1/2" REVEAL MULLION

5/8" GWB

S

INTERIOR

RECREATIONAL AREA

EXTERIOR

GLASS PLATE

T

C

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-H.07

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


N1 High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2008-2011 N1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects.

119 /

120


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5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

A

K

G

H BACKER ROD & SEALANT

MULLION

S

LIVING/DINING ROOM

T

C GLASS PLATE

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-H.08

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


EXTERIOR INTERIOR BATHROOM

SOLID STEEL MULLION

END CAP

ACCESS PANEL

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

MC-2 WITH FULLY SEALED AND INSULATED BACK-UP PANELS

FIRE PROOFING

SOLID STEEL MULLION

121 /

GROUNT SOLID

122


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5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

1/4" ALUMINUM FASCIA PLATE EXTENTS 1/4" BEYOND BUILDING LINE ALIGN WITH HORIZONTAL JOINTS OF ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

SEALANT

K

G

BUILDING LINE BUTYL TAPE AT ALL WATERPROOFING PENETRATIONS

H

S

T

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

C

B WATERPROOFING

4" STUD

3.5" INSULATION

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-H.09

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


INTERIOR

EXTERIOR BUILDING LINE

BEDROOM

ALINED WITH HORIZONTAL JOINTS OD MC-1 SYSTEM

BUILDING LINE SEALANT

SEALANT BUTYL TAPE ATL ALL WATERPROOFING PENETRATIONS

SLAB EDGE

GWB

123 /

124


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6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

1/4" FASCIA GEOMETRY LINES EXTERIOR

K 1/4" FASCIA GEOMETRY LINES

G INTERIOR

BUILDING LINE ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

H

ELECTRIC HEATER

S

SLAB EDGE

T WATERPROOFING

4" STUD

C

LIVING ROOM

B 3.5" INSULATION

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-H.10

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


LINE OF CONCRETE BELOW

STL MULLION SS BEAD BLASTED

BACKER ROD & SEALANT RETAIL DOOR

125 /

126


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7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K RETAIL AREA

G

4"METAL STUDS PROPERTY LINE

INSULATION

EIFS

EXTERIOR

SS DOOR FRAME

H

S

INTERIOR

8" CMU WATERPROOFING

T

2 LAYERS OF 5/8" DENSE GLASS WATERPROOFING

C

BACKER ROD & SEALANT

STEEL ANGLE ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

3" INSULATION

B

75MM MC-2 SYSTEM ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-H.11

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


O1

Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA \ 2006-2010

O1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, January 16, 2012, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

127 /

128


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z VIEWING PLATFORM

A 1/4" CHECKER PLATE GALVANIZED

1.5" ACRYLIC MULLION INTERMEDIATE ACRYLIC CLIPS

METAL DECK EXTERIOR

0.472" THICK SCREEN

K

G BUILT UP SCREEN SILL DETAIL

EXTERIOR

INTERLOCK

MC18X - STEEL CHANNEL MULLION SILL

H

S

W12X - I BEAM

T VERTICAL SLOTS

C SCREEN HEAD DETAIL VIEWING PLATFORM

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-S.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


P1

Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA \ 2006-2010

P1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, January 16, 2012, Los Angeles, CA, USA

129 /

130


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

MC6X - STEEL CHANNEL

A

K

G

H

S

T

W12X - I BEAM

C

VERTICAL SLOTS MC18X - STEEL CHANNEL

B VIEWING PLATFORM

EXTERIOR

1.5" ACRYLIC MULLION

EXTERIOR

0.472" THICK SCREEN

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-S.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


Q1

Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA \ 2006-2010

Q1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, January 16, 2012, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

131 /

132


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

WELD

Z

VIEWING PLATFORM

A STEEL COLUMN ASSEMBLY W12X - I BEAM MC18X - STEEL CHANNEL

METAL DECK UNIT

K

EXTERIOR

1/4" CHECKER PLATE GALVANIZED

G R1

EXTERIOR

Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA \ 2006-2010

H

S

T

W12X - I BEAM

C S1

VIEWING PLATFORM

Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA \ 2006-2010

R1, S1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, January 16, 2012, Los Angeles, USA.

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-S.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

B

S/L


120MM HOLLOW-FLOOR SYSTEM

OFFICE

CONCRETE SLAB

T1

Torre Cube \ by Estudio Carme Pin贸s \ Guadalajara, Mexico \ 2005

T1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, May 2005, Guadalajara, Mexico.

133 /

134


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

GUIDE TRACK AND ROLLERS FOR SLIDING SCREEN

+1 (0)

V

48.3/5.54 MM TUBULAR STEEL BRACING

M

Z

6MM FLOAT GLASS

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

A ALUMINUM WINDOW FRAME

K

STEEL CHANNEL

38/38/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE

200/270/6 MM STEEL ANCHOR PLATE STEEL GRATING MAINTENANCE/ SERVICE WALKWAY

G

H

50.8/50.8/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE

S

T 28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP

CAST-IN-PLACE DRIP EDGE

C

B

STEEL BRACKET WITH 5MM WEB AND 10MM FLANGE 102.9MM STEEL TUBE

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-T.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


135 /

136


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

GUIDE TRACK AND ROLLERS FOR SLIDING SCREEN 28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP

V

M

Z

6MMFLOAT GLASS 120MM HOLLOW-FLOOR SYSTEM INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

ALUMINUM WINDOW FRAME

OFFICE

A

EXTERIOR

K

48.3/5.54 MM TUBULAR STEEL BRACING STEEL GRATING MAINTENANCE/ SERVICE WALKWAY

CONCRETE SLAB

U1

POST TENSION CABLE END

Torre Cube \ by Estudio Carme Pinós \ Guadalajara, Mexico \ 2005

G

H

50.8/50.8/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE 28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP STEEL BRACKET WITH 5MM WEB AND 10MM FLANGE

S

T

C

B

EDGE BEAM

S/L 102.9MM STEEL TUBE SUSPENDED CEILING

U1 Courtesy of Estudio Carme Pinós

OFFICE

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-T.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


120MM HOLLOW-FLOOR SYSTEM

INTERIOR OFFICE

EXTERIOR

FIXED 6MM FLOAT GLASS VERTICAL STEEL TUBE

CONCRETE SLAB

STEEL CHANNEL WOOD CLADDING

CONCRETE SLAB REINFORCEMENT ALUMINUM PROFILE

SUSPENDED CEILING

6MM FLOAT GLASS

OFFICE

137 /

138


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6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

120MM HOLLOW-FLOOR SYSTEM

A

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

OFFICE

FIXED 6MM FLOAT GLASS GLAZING

K

CONCRETE SLAB

G STEEL CHANNEL BOLT

H

S

T

C CONCRETE SLAB 6MM FLOAT GLASS

B

S/L

OFFICE

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-T.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


V1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA 2006-2009

V1 Courtesy of Morphosis.

139 /

140


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7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

M SANDERAL PANEL FACTORY FINISHED PANEL

Z

CLASS ROOM/OFFICE ALUMINUM PROFILE

3CM CRUSHED STONE AND RESIN FLOORING WITH POLISHED FINISH

WEATHER SEALANT SLAB EDGE FLASHING

REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB

A

K

G

ANCHOR PLATE

GALVANIZED STEEL OUTRIGGER MOTORIZED SUN SHADING SYSTEM

CONCRETE STRUCTURE

H

S

CONCRETE ANCHOR

T

SLAB EDGE FLASHING 1" INSULATION

C

WATERPROOFING WEATHER SEALANT

DRIP EDGE

RIBBON WINDOW DOUBLE GLAZING

SUSPENDED CEILING

CLASS ROOM/OFFICE

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-C.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

B

S/L


W1 Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009 W1 Youtube, 41 Cooper Square: Time-Lapse Construction, http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=vrPS8chBeFU (accessed on October 22, 2011).

141 /

142


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7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

M SANDERAL PANEL

Z

FACTORY FINISHED PANEL CLASS ROOM/OFFICE

3CM CRUSHED STONE AND RESIN FLOORING WITH POLISHED FINISH

A

ALUMINUM PROFILE CONCRETE ANCHOR

WEATHER SEALANT SLAB EDGE FLASHING

REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB

K X1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

G

ADJUSTABLE X1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, ALUMINUM April 8, 2012, New York, NY, USA. EXTRUSION FOR PANEL SUPPORT

H

WATERPROOFING SLAB EDGE FLASHING

S

T

MOTORIZED SUN SHADING SYSTEM

WEATHER SEALANT

PERFORATED STAINLESS STEEL PANELS WITH INTEGRAL FRAME

C

PANEL FRAME

CONCRETE STRUCTURE

B

SUSPENDED CEILING

S/L PIVOT POINT FOR PANELS OPERABLE PERFORATED STAINLESS STEEL PANELS WITH INTEGRAL FRAME

CLASS ROOM/OFFICE

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-C.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


Y1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

Y1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, April 8, 2012, New York, NY, USA.

143 /

144


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

FIRE PROTECTION

Z

HALLWAY

ATRIUM 3" VERTICAL PIPE WELDED TO HORIZONTAL PIPE SUPPORT

DRY WALL CONCRETE SLAB

A

K 3" HORIZONTAL PIPE GFRG MESH

G

H

S ATRIUM STRUCTURAL SUPPORT DRY WALL

T

LAMP

C

B

S/L SUSPENDED CEILING HALLWAY

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-C.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


145 /

146


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

CONFERENCE ROOM

Z

SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD CONCRETE TOPPING SLAB BENT STEEL PLATE

A INTERIOR

STEEL CLEAT AT PANEL JOINTS

EXTERIOR

GLAZING

K

PAINTED STEEL GLAZING SHOE

CONCRETE ANCHOR

SETTING BLOCK

G SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD LONG LEG J-CAST BEAD

H

EXTERIOR PLASTER WALL SYSTEM

S

T

STEEL PLATE GUSSET PLATE

C

STEEL CHANNEL RECEPTOR STEEL GLAZING CHANNEL GLAZING SEALANT

ANCHOR PLATE STRUCTURAL CONCRETE SLAB

B

STEEL CLEAT BOLT CONNECTION

S/L INTERIOR PLASTER CEILLING

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-B.01

AIR/VAPOR BARRIER GEOMETRY ACCORDING TO 3D-MODEL

EDGE ANGLE

scale 1:20 1:10

0

30 cm


147 /

148


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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

A

GALLERY

SHOE PLATE CONCRETE TOPPING SLAB

CONCRETE ANCHOR

K

AIR FLOOR

GLAZING PAINTED STEEL GLAZING SHOE

GROUT BED

G BOLT AS REQ.

H SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD

S

CONCRETE ANCHOR

FRAME

T

STEEL PLATE SUSPENSION

C

METAL KICKERS

CONFERENCE ROOM

B

GEOMETRY ACCORDING TO 3D-MODEL AIR/VAPOR BARRIER INSULATION

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-B.02

scale 1:20 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


CONCRETE TOPPING SLAB STRUCTURAL CONCRETE SLAB

149 /

150


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

Corner Floor to Wall

1 1 1.1

+1 (0)

GLAZING

GA-4

V

SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD PTD WOOD SILL MULTIPURPOSE ROOM SEALANT

M

Z INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

A

INTERIOR FINISH BASE

K

CONCRETE ANCHOR

G

AIR/VAPOR BARRIER EXTERIOR PLASTER WALL SYSTEM

H

INSULATION

S

T

STEEL PLATE GUSSET PLATE

C

STEEL CHANNEL RECEPTOR STEELCHANNEL

STEEL CLEAT AT PANEL JOINTS

GLAZING SEALANT

B

STEEL CLEAT BOLT CONNECTION

S/L INTERIOR PLASTER CEILLING

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-B.03

EDGE ANGLE

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


151 /

152


METAL FRAMING

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.2 Corner Wall to Ceiling STRUCTURAL CONCRETE SLAB

+1 (0)

V

M

LIGHT GAUGE METAL FRAMING

Z

A ACRYLIC PLASTER FINISH COAT

K

INTERIOR PLASTER CEILLING

G

STAIR A

H

S

T

C

B

METAL FRAMING AS REQUIRED

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.2-B.04

scale 1:10

0

S/L

30 cm


Z1

The Broad \ by Diller Scofidio + Renfro \ Los Angeles, CA, USA

153 /

154


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 Corner Floor to Wall

+1 (0)

BRACKET

V

M FIBERGLASS MESH

Z

GYPSUM BOARD SHEATHING

A

SEALANT ACRYLIC MODIFIED FINISH COAT

K INTERIOR LOBBY

G A2

METAL KICKERS SUSPENDED CEILING/WALL SYSTEM AND FRAMING

The Broad \ by Diller Scofidio + Renfro \ Los Angeles, CA, USA

ACRYLIC PLASTER FINISH COAT METAL EDGE TRIM RUBBER BASE WITH STIFFENERS

H

S

T

C CLOSURE ANGLE

B

S/L

Z1, A2 Courtesy of Diller Scofidio + Renfro

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-B.05

scale 1:250 1:10

0

30 cm


155 /

156


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

FRC ASSEMBLY

M

COLD FORMED METAL FRAMING

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T CONCRETE COLUMN FRC ASSEMBLY SEMI-RIGID INSULATION

C

INFILL WALL ASSEMBLY

B STAIRCASE

S/L INTERIOR

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-B.06

EXTERIOR

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


SEMI-RIGID INSULATION

INFILL WALL ASSEMBLY

157 /

158


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.3 Corner Wall to Wall

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S CONCRETE COLUMN SUPPORT STEEL COLD FORMED METAL FRAMING INFILL WALL ASSEMBLY

T INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

C

B STAIRCASE FRC ASSEMBLY SEMI-RIGID INSULATION

PLAN DETAIL — 1-1.3-B.07

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


159 /

160


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

BRIGHT EXPOSED CONCRETE ALUMINUM SHEET CAP

OFFICE

M

INTERIOR FINISH BRIGHT EXPOSED CONCRETE

Z

BASE

FINISHED FLOOR

A

K

G

H

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

S

INTERIOR FINISH STRUCTURAL CONCRETE BEAM OPERABLE WINDOW

T

C

OFFICE CAST-IN-PLACE DRIP EDGE 4.5" INSULATION

BRIGHT EXPOSED CONCRETE

VAPOR BARRIER

S/L

INTERIOR FINISH

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-S/L.01

B

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


B2

Sliced Porosity Block \ by Steven Holl Architects \ Chengdu, China

B2 Courtesy of Steven Holl Architects.

161 /

162


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

INTERIOR FINISH

BRIGHT EXPOSED CONCRETE ALUMINUM SHEET CAP

OFFICE

BRIGHT EXPOSED CONCRETE

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S STRUCTURAL CONCRETE BEAM

T

FIXED WINDOW

VAPOR BARRIER

C

4.5" INSULATION

CAST-IN-PLACE DRIP EDGE

B

OFFICE BRIGHT EXPOSED CONCRETE SUSPENDED CEILING INTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-S/L.02

EXTERIOR

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


C2 Sliced Porosity Block \ by Steven Holl Architects \ Chengdu, China

C2 Courtesy of Steven Holl Architects.

163 /

164


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 1 1.1 1.2 Corner Floor to Wall Wall to Ceiling

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

OFFICE LAMINATED IGU GLASS

IGU SPACER BAR SETTING BLOCK WEATHER SEALANT

A

STRUCTURAL SEALANT CURTAIN WALL STACK JOINT SYSTEM ANCHORED TO TOP OF CONCRETE SLAB

K

G

THERMAL INSULATION

H

ALUMINUM SPANDREL PANEL

S

T MONO GLASS

C

B IGU GLASS

OFFICE

S/L INTERIOR

SECTION DETAIL — 1-1.1-1.2-S/L.03

scale 1:10

0

EXTERIOR

30 cm


165 /

166


9

8

7

6

5

4

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Forms see OPEN v. and -ING suffix1; also Sc. pre-17 opnyng, pre-17 oppning, 18 openeen (Shetland). Etymology Cognate with or formed similarly to Middle Dutch openinge (Dutch opening ), Middle Low German öpeninge , oppeninge , Old High German offanunga , offenunga (Middle High German offenunge , German Öffnung ) < the Germanic base of OPEN v. + the Germanic base of -ING suffix1. In Old English the prefixed form geopenung is also attested. a.

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open or not closed or shut.

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The action of making open; an instance of this.

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The action of beginning, starting, setting in action, or inaugurating; a beginning, a start, an inauguration; the part, act, words, etc., with which something opens; the initial steps or stage in a course of action.

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A vacant space between portions of solid matter; a gap, hole, or passage; an aperture.

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An aperture in a building; a door or gateway.

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Close /kləʊs/

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Forms ME–15 clos, ME– close. Also ME cloos, ME cloyse, clooce, ME–16 closse, 18 dial. clos, pl. closen, Sc.15 cloce, 15–16 clois(s, 17–closs.

Etymology < CLOSE v.

Etymology < French clos < Latin clausum closed place, enclosure. Pronunciation and spelling as in the adj. a.

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The action of CLOSE v., in various senses; shutting; enclosing; drawing together; ending, etc. An enclosed place, an enclosure.

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An enclosed place, an enclosure.

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02. Openings and Closings

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This Lens will begin by addressing the normative definitions associated with the terms “opening” and “closing” and present their usage in an architectural setting.

One can travel throughout Europe looking at the great cathedrals and oftentimes, almost exclusively, one enters and exits these places through a secondary door in the main façade. Occasionally, one might enter the right hand door and exit through the left and vice versa, but never the central door. The central door is regarded as momentous, used only on High Holy Days and is otherwise kept closed. One wonders about that emphasis and tradition and how loaded opening/closing is in architectural terms.

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“The place as such is also influenced by the direction; it is 'stretched' towards the outside, at the same time as the outside penetrates the border, creating an area of transition. This area is related to an opening which may be given various forms to express the degree of continuity in existential space.” [1]

More prosaically, one thinks of façade elevations, fenestrations, the cycles and duration of a day, and how these openings connect the interior conditions to the exterior. A house, for example, and the opening of

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B A Gordon Matta-Clark and Elisabeth Sussman. Gordon Matta Clark: You Are the Measure. (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 2007), 208. 1 Christian Norberg-Schulz, Existence, Space & Architecture (New York: Praeger, 1971), 25.

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The entrance to Comme des Garçons store \ New York, NY, USA

shutters or the closing of blinds is telltale sign of the time of day or the level of privacy desired on the interior. It is also a medium of exchange; it’s through these places—the door, the threshold—where neighbors meet, are greeted, and are filtered. Openings and closings often delineate the notion of what is public versus what is private. To arrive at this lens, one acknowledges that it is pregnant with meaning and precedent. The details that surround the notion of this lens are details that have a life tectonically, but also abide to the rules of broader contexts and metrics. Beginning with the topic of the door, one can imagine where the opening, the closing, and the interstitial space between the two are celebrated in art. For example, the opening of the sepulchre and the grand tradition of painting such a scene, where the door rolls open help to reveal an absence. The revelation of this opening of the tomb cannot be subtracted from the architecture’s role in symbolism; it is something that holds in both closing and opening and registers them simultaneously with a magnitude of power.

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Turning the Place Over \ by Richard Wilson \ Liverpool Biennal \ 2007

The greatest gift you can give a child is, of course, not a toy but the box that the toy comes in and the bigger the box the better. When the box itself becomes inhabitable, it pinpoints the moment when all children become architects. The negotiation of the box as shelter speaks directly about opening and closing. Where do you cut a window? Where do you cut a door? Do you let the flap swing in or out? Do you create shutters or do you create doors?

“Whether it’s an iPod Mini or a Macbook Pro, Apple customers know the feeling of opening up the well-crafted box and finding the product nestled in an inviting fashion. “Steve and I spend a lot of on the packaging,” said Ive. “I love the process of unpacking something. You design a ritual of unpacking to the product feel special. Packaging can be theater, it can create a story.” [2]

B Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, February 19, 2012. 2 Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), 347. C “Turning the Place Over by Richard Wilson,” http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=DBXwA0gcBm4 (accessed on June 4, 2012).

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What does the window, as an opening, reveal or conceal? What does it shade? How does a building or space use openings and closings to negotiate its commercial life? It is very important to know when your favorite store opens and closes. It is always a disappointment to come to a museum on a Monday and find it closed for the day. There is something profound about the locked door that you do not expect to be locked.

When these criteria are established, all sorts of rules of the game start flooding in: who can come in, who can go out, who can see in, who can see out, and how you privilege the occupation of this space. Something as simple as this represses the materiality of the thing, but talks to the phenomenological3 characteristics of opening and closing. What happens in the moment when material becomes “dematerialized” or transparent to the degree that it is not so clear where an opening starts and a closing begins? When do things become visually inhabitable or open enough to give one a visual clue to the program of a space through this detail? An opening also presents an entrance or change of a certain stage. You leave one state and enter the next by passing through a doorway and over a threshold. An opening is also the beginning of something: a process, an allegation, the opening dance, the opening of one’s body during surgery, 180


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the opening of a state’s Parliament, etc. This opening act goes hand in hand with the modernist definition of the entrance, where it is clear how you enter and exit a building through an architectural element and not through an austere, anonymous hole punched into a box. An opening is an inauguration. Another interesting hurdle that one encounters when constructing a project is “The Sausage Problem” or how to design a building’s beginning and end. If one looks at a blob form, how can one enter a blob or single surface project? If it has an opening, how can one close it? Can one cut? Can it merge? Can it attach? What are the strategies one can use? The only way one can gauge the thickness of a wall, the sturdiness of a house, or have a sense of the enclosure is by performing an architectural autopsy, where these elements are violated in order to acknowledge its depth. When it becomes exceptionally thin, there is a kind of thrill as it might suggest another system undertaking the structure that we cannot see. For example, an amazingly thin façade would demand the presence of an internal column grid.

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In these definitions I will highlight terms that are significant in how this particular lens is employed within the case studies. In a traditional sense, architectural openings talk about a trabeated system, or the post and lintel. By looking out the window, the openings of the 19th or 20th century façades were celebrated by a lintel, which gets a level of architectural care and signification by one’s reading the facade. One can express the load bearing ability of the wall at the moment of the opening, where, through the absence of the wall’s materiality, we can begin to talk about the wall’s materiality. The door functions in similar terms, where one can freely ask, “When does a window become a door or vice versa?” What was the Modernist ribbon window condition fighting and when and where does the lintel disappear in that trajectory? Villa Savoye immediately comes to mind when discussing openings and closings or the raising of the building on pilotis, which then provides an additional opening and canopy. Frank Lloyd Wright often seemed to struggle with this notion of openings and closings4. While caring a great deal about the question and articulation of opening and closing the façade in terms of the window condition, he seemed radically flexible to the same condition with the door. The two might seem, in certain environments, opposed conditions as the window is a viewing frame which appears to privilege the occupant and the door is something that might even privilege the guest. Wright’s hiding or repressing the door speaks about larger issues he was making within his architecture. An element like the door can give a profound reading of a given practice or precedent.

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Chiat/Day Building \ by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen \ Venice, CA, USA The entrance to the parking garage is between the lenses of the binoculars. The 75,000-square-foot (7,000 m2) building was delayed for a few years after hazardous materials were found on the building site, requiring removal. TBWA\Chiat\Day is no longer a tenant in the building, having moved to another area of Los Angeles known as Mar Vista. Phenomenology, n. the science of phenomena as distinct from that of the nature of being; an approach that concentrates on the study of consciousness and the objects of direct experience.

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D Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, June 8, 2003. 3 Christine A. Lindberg,The Oxford College Dictionary (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 1028. E Anthanasius Kircher, Large Portable Camera Obscura, 1646. Etching, University of San Diego, California.

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Perforation /ˌpəːfəˈreɪʃn/ Forms lME perforacion, lME perforacioun, 15– perforation. Etymology Middle French, French perforation state of being pierced (1398 in medical context; also in Middle French as perforacion (second half of the 15th cent.)), action of piercing (15th cent. in medical context) and its etymon classical Latin perforātiōn- , perforātiō action of boring or drilling, in post-classical Latin also hole made by boring, especially in medical context, with reference to holes made by a physician through bone, and to holes made by disease (5th cent.) < perforāt-

, past participial stem of perforāre PERFORATE v. + -iō -ION suffix1. Compare Old Occitan perforacio (c1350; Occitanperforacion ), Catalan perforació (15th cent.), Spanish perforación (15th cent., rare before the 19th cent.), Italian perforazione (c1350). a.

A hole made by boring, punching, or piercing; (in later use) esp. each of a row of small holes punched in a sheet of paper, etc., so that a part may be torn off easily. Also: an aperture passing through or into something; a passage, shaft, or tunnel.

When looking at the sub-lenses, there are subtle differences involved within their delineation. This space between is developed through a series of questions dealing with the notions of porosity, penetration, and perforation. At what scale does perforation, many small windows, become porosity? When do the windows become so numerous and small that they now simply read as pores? What details are constructed to create a saturation of openings? How does one occupy these conditions?

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Travida Offices \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Culver City, CA, USA \ 1998

“But Shingle Style planning did not call into question the basic concept of the room. The four walls, joined at the corners, and the uniform floor and ceiling remained; the room continued to be a box. What had changed was the degree of openness between the rooms and this was achieved by increasing the size of the door (the hinged door gave way to a sliding door, or might be eliminated altogether) until it approached the size of the wall itself. The specific organization and use of the room was not affected. What one gained was a sense of spaciousness while looking from room to room. What one lost was a sense of privacy.” [4]

F Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, October 13, 2003. 4 H. Allen Brooks, “Frank Lloyd Wright and the Destruction of the Box” in the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Mar., 1979), 7.

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Perforation comes out of a different tradition: industrial filtering and screening. Doors and windows, on the other hand, come out of a Classical architectural condition. Both conditions dwell in this lens. To some degree, scale is the deciding factor. Why is an opening measuring one inch wide in diameter treated so differently in this regard? The other side of that discussion is when does the mere absence of a certain gauge infer an opening? The Roman Baker’s TombG represents something in everyday life, where one would bake bread in these ancient ovens. But it also becomes architecturalized in the space of a tomb and is presented as something regular. It acts simultaneously as a field of openings and apertures and reads as a window, or as a field of perforations. In their multiplicity and their alignment, they more or less resemble a perforated surface. They are framed like a window and they exist within a Classical tradition.

Within the sub-lenses of Perforation, Penetration, Saturation, and Porosity, Penetration seems the odd man out and should especially be explained. Is it a glorified joint or is it letting one thing pass through another? Does the aperture receive the penetration as a structural organization or as something else? Does penetration refer to something purely visual? 182


as penetraçion ), Italian penetrazione (c1350).

Forms lME penetracioun, 15– penetration. Etymology < Middle French, French pénétration (1374 in sense ‘act of penetrating’, 1654 in sense ‘discernment’; also in Middle French as penetracion(c1377)) and its etymon classical Latin penetrātiōn- , penetrātiō action of piercing (2nd cent. in Apuleius), in post-classical Latin also action of understanding (4th or 5th cent. in Augustine) < penetrāt- , past participial stem of penetrāre PENETRATE v. + -iō -ION suffix1. Compare Old Occitanpenetratio (c1350; Occitan penetracion ), Spanish penetración (14th cent.

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Power of penetrating something, as a measurable quantity or quality.

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SANAA’s Zollverein is the prime example of penetration. Another example would be the “needle” in the Kunsthaus Graz, what is commonly called “the piercing”, where an additional meeting space becomes an attachment and where the attachment meets and penetrates through the bubble. The entrance staircase in LOT-EK’s APAP is another case in which the lenses overlap and a threshold condition visually leaks. Porosity, or void fraction, is a measure of the void. It’s equal to empty. Space is a material and is read as a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume; between 0 to 1, or 0% and 100%. The term is used in multiple fields including pharmaceutics, ceramics, metallurgy, materials, manufacturing, earth sciences, and construction.

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South façade of the Tomb of the Baker Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces \ Rome, Italy \ 50-20 BC

Porosity in its most architectural sense does not only mean the absence of material intensity, but also the intensification of material. A porous program is more inclusive than exclusive, even as the term itself suggests. If a façade is porous, the material “The openings participate in the system instead suggests that light and air is captured and of being relatively accidental perforations. As brought into the building rather than kept out. the bounding surfaces are independent of the supporting members, the size and the form of the When the density of the façade is intensified spaces may be treated with great freedom. This and the material or detail becomes nonfreedom also comprises the height and the covering of the building. Trusses and frames of steel, porous, it blocks light and air and begins to or shells, corrugated slabs, and rib-constructions perform as a firm plane. With porosity, there is in reinforced concrete permit the covering of areas of a previously unknown size.” [5] a visual quality or weight as well. An element that is porous appears light; one imagines it is physically light. When we look at a cross section of a bird bone, one sees that it is a porous structure and we understand that this porosity is present for a reason. A porous plane suggests lightness. Whether it truly is or is not, it has this association. The notion of lightness as a value might be drawn from Gottfried Semper’s attitude that walls originally were composed of textiles. If we think of Semper’s hutI in Tahiti, as opposed to Laugier’s classical version of the primitive hut, one observes a surface as textile and therefore porous and woven. This presents a different sensibility than

G Image and original data provided by SCALA, Florence/ ART RESOURCE, N.Y. 5 Christian Norberg-Schulz, Intentions in Architecture (Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1966), 164.

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Kazuyo Sejima, SANAA (interviewed by Christoph a. Kumpusch, Tokyo, Japan, December 20, 2011) CHRISTOPH a. KUMPUSCH: 全体的なデザインに 熱ピットの水を加熱技術として 組み込むのはどの程度難し かったですか?このクリーンエネルギー導入技術は他 の建築物向けにデザインされたのでしょうか。それともこのプロジェクト独 自の ものでしたか。 このシステムは、ドイツのトランスソラー社がこの建物のために 独自に考案したものです。 How difficult was it to incorporate thermal pit water as a heating technique into the overall design? Is this technique—or the introduction of clean energy—something you have designed into other buildings or was this a specific incident for this detail? KAZUYO SEJIMA: 敷地は世界遺産である炭鉱跡地で、巨大な地下空間を保護する ために深くから地下水がくみ上げられて川に放水されていました。この水温は地 熱に よって一年を通じて適温であったため、これを断熱に使うというアイデアが 生まれました。このことによって、内外装がコンクリート打ち放しの単 一レイヤ ーとすることができました。技術的な工夫については、添付のトランスソラー社 のテキストを参照してください。 This system was specifically designed for this structure by Transsolar, a German climate engineering firm. The site is one of the world heritage sites for coal mines, so in order to maintain the large open space underneath, the water was being pumped from deep below the site and drained into the river. Due to geothermal2 heat, this water was at the right temperature throughout the year. So we had the idea to use that water as an insulator. Because of this resource, using only a single layer of

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geothermal

Relating to or resulting from the internal heat of the earth; (of a locality or region) having hot springs, geysers, fumaroles, etc., heated by underlying magma. 2. Of energy, power, etc., for human use: derived from the internal heat of the earth's crust. Also: relating to or engaged in the generation of such energy, power, etc. 3. A geothermal feature heated by underlying magma, such as a hot spring, geyser, or fumarole.

Christine A. Lindberg, The Oxford College Dictionary (New York: Spark Pub., 2007), 571.

exposed concrete as the inner and outer layer became possible. CaK

35メートル x 35メートル x 34メートルのキューブ は、ツォルフェライ ン炭鉱の次元(寸法)を反映しています。この数値基準は、何か特定の建 築物スケールや比率にも使用されていますか?

 The cube, which measures 35 meters by 35 meters and is 34 meters high, reflects the dimension of the Zollverein mine. Does this equation or numerical reference continue to the scale or proportion of any specific building detail? KS

建物の大きさは特定の建築物スケールや比率を参照したわけではありませ  ん。 敷地周辺に は、炭鉱のためにつくられた巨大な建物が並んでおり、

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大きくする一方で、模型のスタディを通じて、周囲に威圧的 にならない ようにヴォリュームを抑制し、セットバック距離など配置について検討し ました。

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コンペティションのエントリーでは、コンクリート構造の透明性を確保す  るため、 数千もの異な るサイズの開口がありましたが、最終的には3サ

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Thousands of apertures of different sizes aiming to achieve transparency

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要求されたプログラムに対して大きなヴォリュームを提案したため、コス 

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ト的理由から構造はコンペ後早い 段階から鉄筋コンクリート造に決まり ました。外壁は耐力壁で、断熱材や仕上げ材がなく、この規模の建物にし


ては薄いとはいえ、300mm あります。模型でファサードのスタディーするうち に、この壁に小さな窓を無数にあけてもそれほど明るくならず、視線的にも開放 的な空間に はならないということに気がつき、徐々に窓を大きくしていきまし た。最終的に窓の大きさは、ヒューマンスケールの小 窓のような大きさか ら、 人間の身長を超える大きさまでの4種類ありま す。内部は基本的にワンルームで すが、プログラムのレイアウトスタディーとデイライトシ ミュレーションを同時 に行い、自然光にあふ れた明るい場所やコンピュータ作業に適したちょっと暗め の場所など、窓の配置を通じてワンルー ムでありながらも多様な空間を作ろうと 考えました。 We submitted a volume that was large in comparison to the requested program. Due to cost reasons, at an early stage right after the competition submission, we decided to use reinforced concrete. The outer wall is a load-bearing wall, and there is no heat insulator or finishing material. So even though the wall is thin in relation to the scale of the building, it is still at least 300 mm thick. As we were making façade models, we realized that even in the line of sight, these small apertures were not making the space lighter and were not helping in creating a space that had an open feel. Therefore, we gradually started to make the windows bigger and bigger. Ultimately, we made four sizes of windows, which vary from a size that would be considered a relatively small window on a human scale, all the way to a size that’s larger than a person. Even though it is one large room, we conducted program-layout studies and daylight simulations at the same time in order to create different types of spaces based on window placement, from naturally lit open spaces, to slightly darker spaces suited for computer related activities.

Translation by Yurika Sugimoto, December 28, 2011

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“In recent years, perforated and cut surfaces have become staples of contemporary architecture, largely due to the popularity and availability of Computer Numeric Controlled flat-cutting devices such as laser-, plasma-, and water-jet cutters, among others. In most cases, these devices are capable of quickly producing profile cuts and perforations in a range of sheet-stock materials, from acrylic and plywood, to glass and stainless steel, as well as pre-cast materials such as concrete. Given the relative simplicity of flat-cutting processes, many architects are today introducing custom figures and patterns to surfaces and other architectural assemblies which might otherwise be treated through an additive process or replaced with off-the-shelf products. For instance, at the elemental scale, perforations and profile cuts are often applied to the design of architectural grilles and screens, where the newly porous nature of the surface can be assigned to particular environmental functions, such as the control of light, air, and sound absorption. In these cases, the coordination of cuts and holes tends to be driven by performance demands, with aperture sizes and locations determined in response to a specific set of quantitative parameters.” [6]

the Baker’s Tomb or other pierced planes where the notion of a weaving or woven surface is validated through this kind of alternative mythic origin of architecture. A free plan, after Le Corbusier, would permit this materiality acting as an external plane. A brise-soleil or a breeze blocking façade celebrates porosity as an indication of fair weather and a nice climate. It would seem to recommend that the house or the building is in communion with the environment. Porosity is an affirmation of our participation in the real world just as a window or door might be.

Porosity is a spectrum that operates between complete transparency and blocked visibility, generating the phenomena of being able to see and enter a building. It is in this instance that an opening is not necessarily just an opening. It speaks about physical exchange and, potentially, also an environmental exchange. Looking at the Sliced Porosity Block, where the slices create openings, porosity suggests programmatic openings , a clear interchange between the inside and the outside, and the role the windows play in this regard.

Porous /ˈpɔːrəs/ , /ˈpɔrəs/ Forms ME porus, ME–15 porouse, ME– porous, 15 porrus. Etymology < Middle French poreux (c1280 in Old French; French poreux ) and its etymon post-classical Latin porosus (from c1120 in British sources) < porus PORE n.1 + classical Latin -ōsus -OUS suffix. Compare Catalan porós (c1300), Spanish poroso (c1250), Italian poroso (1298). a.

Full of pores; containing minute interstices through which water, air, etc., may pass.

b.

Not retentive or secure, esp. admitting the passage of people, information, etc.

Porosity, n. Pronunciation: Brit. /pɔːˈrɒsᵻti/ , U.S. / pəˈrɑsədi/ , /poʊˈrɑsədi/ Forms: ME porrosite, ME 16 porosite, 15 porositye, 15 porrositie, 15–16 porositie,

16– porosity. Etymology: < Middle French porosité , porrosité quality or state of being porous, porous part or structure (1314 in Old French; French porositéquality or state of being porous) and its etymon post-classical Latin porositas quality or state of being porous (from c1200 in British sources), porous part or structure (1363 in Chauliac; compare quot. ?a1425 at sense 2) < porosus POROUS adj. + classical Latin -tās (see -TY suffix1; compare -ITY suffix). Compare Catalan porositat (1491), Spanish porosidad (a1450 as porosidat ), Italian porosità (mid 14th cent.). a. The quality or state of being porous; porous consistency. Also: the degree to which a substance is porous. b. A porous part or structure; an interstice, a pore; pores collectively. Usu. in pl.

6 Ben Pell, The Articulate Surface: Ornament and Technology in Contemporary Architecture (Basel: Birkhäuser, 2010), 47.

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There is always this castigation of the lace curtain as old-fashioned, but the reason they were so popular, particularly in a townhouse, was that the lace curtain permitted a certain ability to spy and not be spied upon and to modulate the light. It is a surface that is visually closed all day yet still is open to the light. So the lace curtain becomes a skin that permits surveillance. This is often quite useful in an urban setting, it is useful to have someone spying out and at the same time it is perhaps healthy or safer that the inhabitants are not spied in upon. Something as simple as lace is a prime example of porosity.

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Exterior of Storefront for Art and Architecture \ by Steven Holl and Vito Acconci \ New York, NY, USA \ 1993

In this regard, Morphosis’s Cooper Union creates an ambivalence between the surface, wall, enclosure, and structural system. The curtain wall means to suggest that, stated again at a CHRISTOPH a. KUMPUSCH: In your opinion, at bigger scale, the actual folds of that surface what scale does perforation become porosity? Is it a sliding scale or tipping point between? create voids that enter the building. It is as STEVEN HOLL: Perforation becomes porosity at if this notion of porosity is both a surface the scale of people moving through the openings. and volumetric condition, a big robust move Urban porosity is very important for a pedestrian oriented place. The ease of movement in all where different layers clearly have separate directions depends on opening up the solid mass responsibilities from the outer layer into the of buildings in all directions. I think there are eleven different porous openings into the central interior. The skin provides shading. Light and spaces of the project. Urban porosity is also a air are let in. The breaking of the metal grid to key to the plan of Linked Hybrid in Beijing and our horizontal skyscraper in Shenzhen. [7] the glass right behind it become responsible for how the thermal enclosure is legible throughout the west facing façade. If we picture a piece of fabric or a piece of clothing, at what point can the porosity of the fabric, if it is permitted to be enlarged, violate the privacy of the body? How wide can the weave get before it is considered unsuitable and when does the weave go so wide that it no longer counts as clothing anymore? At what point would it be improper to show someone on television when the porosity exceeds a certain threshold? In an architectural sense, when the wall is 50% void, what does this trigger and what does it require of other systems rushing in to permit this from taking place? If we think of a turn-of-the-century wall, nominally the fenestration will not exceed 20% of the façade, even on a street elevation where it matters to capitalize on the number of windows and views one might construct. We can think about this in terms of proportionality, where porosity must be the moment when the number or the simple surface area hits a certain tipping point relative to the plane of the wall. Thinking about fabric and how tightly or loosely it might be woven in order to establish the wearer’s or viewer’s privacy is not so different from the breaking of the mesh screen in the Cooper Union building. What are the metrics for determining if saturation is constructed within a building? Saturation differs from porosity because saturation is the act of accumulation and the additive process of overlaping. In a material sense, it can be brought back to different ways and degrees of interchange. It differs vastly from perforation because it does not go from one step to

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Indian Hut Trinidad Great Exhibition \ by Gottfreid Semper \ Vienna, Austria \ 1851

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Saturate /ˈsætjʊəreɪt/

Saturation /sætjʊəˈreɪʃən/

Etymology < Latin saturāt- , participial stem of saturāre , < satur full, satiated, cognate with satis enough.

Etymology < late Latin saturātiōn-em , n. of action < Latin saturāre to SATURATE v. Compare French saturation

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To satisfy, satiate. Obs.

a.

The action, or an act, of penetrating, piercing, or passing into or through something.

b.

Power of penetrating something, as a measurable quantity or quality.

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Interior of Arab World Institute \ by Ateliers Jean Nouvel \ Paris, France \ 1987

Interior of Wittgenstein Haus \ by Paul Engelman and Ludwig Wittgenstein \ Vienna, Austria \ 1925

J Conway Lloyd Morgan, Jean Nouvel: The Elements of Architecture (New York, NY: Universe Pub., 1998) 102. K Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, April 19, 2005.

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a.

The action of saturating; the condition of being saturated.

b.

Designating an activity intended to achieve the complete saturation of its object; orig.

the next largest in scale—from a small opening to a larger opening— but from a small opening to a tighter diameter. Looking at the physical chemistry definition of saturation, it is the point where a solution can no longer dissolve a substance. There is a tipping point moment of excess, or a stoppage. The moment the accumulation of material becomes just excessive, this is saturation. This helps one imagine where and when the skin of a building might fail if it received any more cuts or if the material is pushed to some extreme. And within Openings and Closings, that is the logic. To what degree can we talk about saturation as a condition of light and other effects onto a façade that pays attention to aperture? The Arab World InstituteJ by Jean Nouvel is brilliant in that respect, as it took something that was almost a contentious cultural element and celebrated it as something formal, mechanistic, and all about affect, material, light, and shadow. On the exterior, it appears from a distance as a large-scale concrete block project. Upon closer inspection, you see the grid, the hierarchy of parts, and the layers which contain centimeters of difference. The façade begins to look similar to a carpet and begins to suggest other associations one might make in terms of its pattern. If this is a Semperian trajectory, it becomes something else through its mechanics. Suddenly the “carpeted” wall, the hut, the weave, is alive and reacting to external environmental conditions, at least when the façade is turned on—that’s the dream—it’s a façade that is as reactive as a Venus fly trap or a plant reacting to the sun. Within the case studies, Neil Denari’s window detail in HL23 allows for a scaleless reading of the façade, which permits the project to transcend its urban context. Considering this project’s unique urban position, this may go against certain typologically specifications for a residential tower, which is generally considered to be private—but it becomes a public/ urban project through its opening and closings. When one looks at the building’s facade, there is an immediate recognition of the structure in a graphic sense as it resides within the glass panels. The printed “structure” on the façade creates a Doppelgänger identity, which mirrors and compresses the structure from the interior outward to increase its visibility. Due to the nature of its 3-meter glass panels, there is consideration for sunlight and shading, which cancels out the building’s 190


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actual structural legibility whenever a resident closes their shades. This shading immediately removes the offset of the façade penetration, positioning every window frame as its own likeness.

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This graphic representation begins to allow for a coalescing of lenses again: the corners of HL23 relate to the surface condition which relates to its openings and closings. In a way, this is a spatial self-analysis within the building, where if one could possibly smooth out the part-towhole relationship and remove the material transitions, it would create a continuous surface, a single surface building. This in turn would house the programs and architectural necessities, which would allow for the greatest amount of space and would remove the discrepancies and discontinuities incorporated within the openings and closings of the project. Observing the Boolean operations and graphics within HL23, a surface condition with similar properties is found in the Lamborghini AnkonianL. Although it is obviously smaller in scale than HL23, it operates with similar formal conditions and deals with the very particular problematics of openings, closings, discrepancies, visibility, and how it is all held together—the part-to-whole smoothness.

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In the case of Zaha Hadid Architects’ Opera House in Guangzhou, the openings and closings, along with the façade penetrations, are a condition developed from the surface quality of the exterior’s materiality. This materiality informs a comparative relationship between the exterior condition and the interior skin, which shows almost no errors or subdivisions but still performs in a particular geometric way. The inside and outside skins have one thing in common, which is adhering to a very specific formal or compositional strategy. The two systems are materially refined in different ways to create their varied degrees of applied fineness and roughness.

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Akonian Concept Car \ by Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. \ Sant'Agata Bolognese,Italy

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Torre Cube \ by Estudio Carme Pinos \ Guadalajara, Mexico \ 2004

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As previously stated, openings and closings suggest the penetration of surfaces in the most basic sense and allow inhabitants to move from one stage of the project to another. They allow one to change from one climate into another. The introduction of an interstitial space, being a special condition, is located between these surface conditions. There are instances in the Guangzhou Opera House when the visual inhabitation— the depth of space—goes beyond the normal spatial configuration of an entry into a building. An overall notion of smoothness becomes visible within the openings and closings of the facade and the imprint and saturation of the public circulation spaces from within the volumes toward the exterior as well as the façade’s doors. The smaller moments of perforation within the façade allow for entrances into the building and increase in scale to become moments of openings and closings that indicate the program within the Opera House.

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L “Lamborghini Akonian Concept”, http://www.fubiz.net/2009/12/19/ lamborghini-ankonian-concept/ (accessed on January 17, 2012). M Image by Christoph a. Kumpusch, May 11, 2005.

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Detail of Kunsthaus Graz opening \ by Peter Cook and Colin Fournier \ Graz, Austria \ 2003

Looking at the main entrance of the Opera House, one can detect six different instances of openings and closings: (1) the circulatory space that is carved out of a larger volume and creates an opening within the interior space; (2) the larger void—the body of the building that is carved out and the envelope with its variety of thicknesses; (3) the skylight and the structural systems that create the skylight—primary structural elements that hold up the secondary structural elements which then hold up the climate façade, or glazing in this case, which provides light; (4) the condition where the glass is replaced and the primary structure appears to be in the same plane as the secondary structure while holding the soundproofing panels in place and also divided into its own triangulated paneling systems; (5) the primary structure and the translation of its forces to the ground, ending in a triangular column which continues the lines in space from the primary into the secondary structural line; and, (6) the completely closed opening which acts as in a similar fashion as a closing but is not operable. Openings within this project also appear when the interior staircases open up at each landing and frame the view in the same fashion a skylight would while remaining an interior condition and only relating to the interior atmosphere. The staircase frames itself and becomes a powerful tool in providing a notion of self-reference within the building. The void within the interior of the main entrance hall also sets up a frame for and spatial sequences within the building.

Within Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals, inhabitants touch and physically interact with material surfaces with their naked skin. They walk STEVEN HOLL: Light for me is a building matebarefoot and touch many surfaces while in the rial. I present our Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art project as being built out of blocks of light. The water. The surface condition, and its fabrication, mysterious tangle of lines of light in the Light becomes more humane and sensual while Pavilion provides an inner experience as well as an outer experience crucial to the central place projects like the APAP Open School are more of the Chengdu project. Instead of blocks of light, about the visual connectivity of the project and these lines of light in space have an almost magnetic levitation. The forces extend through the big less about the tactile nature of the details. This volume of the space framed by the entire block. also is an aspect of the different programmatic In this way, the very large scale urban place has a detail scale in lines of light. [8] focus and typological difference between the two projects, while both interact in a similar fashion in bringing light in or keeping it out. In this case, it takes advantage of reflectivity and how light and sound are absorbed within the surfaces. There is a metaphysical dimension to Therme Vals and the details create that dimension. N Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch,

CHRISTOPH a. KUMPUSCH: Looking at the Light Pavilion, nested in its vertical site, do you consider Light being a detail to be specified?

December 28, 2003 8 Interviewed by Christoph a. Kumpusch, New York, NY, USA, November 21, 2011.

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The precisely engineered surface in SANAA’s Zollverein curates the way light hits particular programmatic elements as well as controls climate conditions within the building. It also creates program zones—or Stimmungen—through the management of light, while at the same time it creates climate pockets. One can look at the façade configuration of Kunsthaus Graz in terms of how it filters and reflects light through 192


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modularity and a system of variously dimensioned panels and media facades (the digital) and compare it to the World Arab Institute (the mechanical).

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Within Steven Holl’s Sliced Porosity Block, the attention paid to how light shapes the program and building is ubiquitous throughout the project. There was a great deal of research conducted on how light shapes not just the façade, but the body of the block as a whole. The operations used in this process are prevalent within all of the sub-lenses. The porous detail is not found only in the façade, but through the ability of certain materials deployed in the project to reflect light and to absorb sound.

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There is precision throughout the details, no matter their scale, and special attention is paid to the many responsibilities of the details whether they are urban, spatial or programmatic. The Sliced Porosity block takes the large block form, divides it into separate towers and pushes those divisions to the outer edges of the site to create a massive public plaza, an exterior space that is positioned and functions as an interior condition. The act of space making is made possible in this case through the specific details that use light as a means to determine the project’s morphology and degrees of porosity. All of the porous elements are thus activated.

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Tollhouses of Paris \ by Claude Nicolas Ledoux \ Paris, France \ 1789

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Construction images of History Pavilion within Sliced Porosity Block \ by Steven Holl Architects \ Chengdu, China \ 2012

The act of slicing and carving spaces and forms out of the private and injecting access into the public allows for access to the HistoryP and LightQ Pavilions within the complex. Facing into the public space without the need to enter the plaza, these public spaces are nested within the façade. The space of the Porosity Block is located within the carved out spaces of assembled building blocks. This interiority is not secluded from the city but inserted into the plaza to provide a certain level of shelter and sense of local community through the use of gateways throughout the blocks. This building is a hybrid project that provides offices, apartments, retail, hotel, and retail spaces that have private and semi-public programmatic implications. There is a notion of being outside while still being inside the project itself. The “fuzzy edges” allow for the definition of zones. It is not so clear where the project starts and the city ends or vice versa. The Block acts as its own city in miniature. Within this case study, an opening or a closing is not always an interruption of the façade, but can be identified as a building element within its own construction. We generally consider openings and closings to be subtractions of materiality—a double façade, a single façade, the barrier—but it is always a subtraction. The signage of the Sliced Porosity Block takes this in a different direction, where it becomes an addition. The Sliced Porosity Block deals with this in a different condition than the Cooper Union building. At Cooper Union, the signage is not an attachment. The window becomes an attachment in order to provide

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Construction images of the Light Pavilion within Sliced Porosity Block \ by Lebbeus Woods and Christoph a. Kumpusch \ Chengdu, China \ 2012

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O Emil Kaufman, Three Revolutionary Architects: Boullée, Ledoux, and Lequeu, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society,1952). P Image courtesy of Steven Holl Architects Q Image courtesy of Steven Holl Architects

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porosity within the façade while not interrupting or subtracting from it. This can compare to the Caltrans building by Morphosis, where the light is used as an attachment within the materiality whereas the usage of light within the Sliced Porosity Block and its effects on its urban presence are conveyed through material absence. R

The Gates \ by Jean Claude and Christo \ New York, NY, USA \ 2005

Openings and closings delineate a differentiation between the skin and the body, the façade of the building. This interruption of continuity may be structural or geometrical within its own surface condition. When these facades are interrupted—where porosity takes on a larger scale—it becomes possible for light, air, and views to interplay. These different scale shifts within the perforation and penetrations allow for an interaction between the interior and exterior. In the case studies that bundle with this lens, details vary widely as some are wed to windows and others to porous skins, yet others allow for conditions to occur between each. Details always get particular attention with apertures. Details permit this wide scope. Openings and closings brings so many of these conditions together.

R Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, February 8, 2005

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EXTERIOR

T

C

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 2-2.1-M.06

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


217 /

218


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M WOOD CLADDING COMPOSITE

Z

FLASHING WOOD FRAME

A

JAMB

K

G DOUBLE GLAZING

INTERIOR

H

EXTERIOR VAPOR BARRIER WOOD INTERIOR FINISH

S RECORDING STUDIO

T

C WINDOW FRAME SEALANT

B FLASHING WOOD CLADDING COMPOSITE

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-M.07

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


A1

Musikerhaus \ by Raimund Abraham \ Hombroich, Germany

A1 Courtesy of Estate of Raimund Abraham Architects.

219 /

220


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.2

Openings & Closings Penetration

2

1

+1 (0)

V

WOOD CLADDING COMPOSITE

FLASHING

M

WOOD FRAME

OPERABLE WOOD DOOR FRAME

Z

A

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

K

G

H

FIXED WOOD CONNECTION

S

HANDLE

T

C LIVING ROOM

WALKWAY

B WOOD FRAME

FLASHING

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.2-M.08

scale 1:10

0

S/L

30 cm


B1 Musikerhaus \ by Raimund Abraham \ Hombroich, Germany

SEALANT WOOD FRAME

WOOD CLADDING COMPOSITE

OPERABLE WOOD DOOR FRAME

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

DOUBLE GLAZING

B1 Courtesy of Estate of Raimund Abraham Architects.

221 /

222


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.2

Openings & Closings Penetration

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G LIVING ROOM

WOOD MULLION

H

FIXED WOOD WINDOW FRAME

S

T

C WALKWAY

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 2-2.2-M.09

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


C1

D1,

E1

F1

G1

Zollverein School \ by Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa \ Essen, Germany

C1, D1, E1, F1, G1 Thomas Mayer_archive, Zollverein, http:// thomasmayerarchive.de/categories. php?cat_id=694&l=english (accessed on October 15, 2011).

223 /

224


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

ALUMINUM WINDOW FRAME DOUBLE-SIDED FAIR FACED CONCRETE

V

M

"ACTIVE" INSULATION

MINERAL ROCKWOOL PRE-COMPRESSED SEALING STRIP

Z

A

K

G INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

H

S

T

DOUBLE GLAZING

CLASSROOM

C

PRE-COMPRESSED SEALING STRIP COVER ANGLE

B

MINERAL ROCKWOOL SILICON SEALANT

DRAIN

RAISED FLOOR SYSTEM

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-Z.01

S/L

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


DOUBLE-SIDED FAIR FACED CONCRETE "ACTIVE" INSULATION

CLASSROOM

EXTERIOR

DOUBLE GLAZING

INTERIOR

SILICON SEALANT ALUMINUM PROFILE MINERAL ROCKWOOL

PRE-COMPRESSED SEALING STRIP

225 /

226


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2-2.1-Z.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


ENTRANCE

STEEL PROFILE PLASTER BOARD

VAPOR BARRIER 60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL NEIGHBORING CONTAINERS

GALLERY

227 /

228


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

2

1

+1 (0)

Openings & Closings Perforation

GLAZING

WINDOW FRAME

V

STEEL PROFILE

M

Z

A

R

EX

T

E

R

IO

R

K

IN

T

E

R IO

G

H

S

T

C

NEIGHBORING CONTAINERS

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 2-2.1-A.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


H1

APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

H1 Courtesy of LOT-EK.

229 /

230


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z EX TE IN

OR RI TE

A

OR RI

K

GLAZING

G CONTAINER FRONT EDGE

H

S STAIR

T STEEL PROFILE

C CROSS TRUSS CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL PLYWOOD

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-A.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


I1

APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

I1 Courtesy of LOT-EK.

231 /

232


CROSS TRUSS

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.2

Openings & Closings Penetration

2

1 PLYWOOD

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

A

K

FLAT BAR STAYER

G

CABLE ROPE

H

DECK

S

T

C CROSS TRUSS

B

STUDIO CONTINIOUS BEAM GALVANIZED STEEL GRATING

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.2-A.03

scale 1:10

S/L

0

30 cm


J1

APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

J1 Courtesy of LOT-EK.

233 /

234


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

3" STEEL PIPE

H

INTERIOR

WELD CONTAINER CORRUGATED STEEL WALL

S

EXTERIOR

T 75MM MTL STUD AT 40CM

C

INSULATION PLASTER BOARD ROUND REMOVABLE GLASS COVER

B

STUDIO

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-A.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


K1

Kunsthaus Graz \ by Spacelab \ Graz, Austria \ 2003

K1

Photo by Chistoph a. Kumpusch, Dezember 23, 2011.

235 /

236


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.3

Openings & Closings Saturation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

AXONOMETRIC â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2-2.3-K.01

scale -


K1

Kunsthaus Graz \ by Spacelab \ Graz, Austria \ 2003

K1

http://realities-united.de/#P ROJECT,69,3,I686_46de/#P ROJECT,69,3,I686_46 (accessed on June 2, 2012).

237 /

238


scale -

Openings & Closings Perforation

2.1

2

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L


2MM EPDM WATER-PROOFING

50MM POLYURETHANE INSULATION 2MM GMS BACK PANEL DECKING

DRAIN

SUSPENDED CEILING/ INTERIOR PANELS

239 /

240


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

V 25MM STONE PANEL

M

PROFILE

Z

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

A

K

G

H

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

S

T

LIGHT

C

PRIMARY STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE

B

PERFORMER'S LOUNGE

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-G.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


L1

Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

L1 Photo by Christian Richters, courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.

241 /

242


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

PERFORMER'S LOUNGE

INTERIOR

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

G

PROFILE

H

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR PANELS

25MM STONE PANEL

SECONDARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

S

T

LIGHT

C

PRIMARY STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE

B

S/L 2MM EPDM WATER-PROOFING 50MM POLYURETHANE INSULATION 2MM GMS BACK PANEL DECKING

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-G.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK 25MM STONE PANEL

DRAIN

SUSPENDED CEILING/ INTERIOR PANELS

243 /

244


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1 PROFILE

+1 (0)

V

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

M

Z

A

K REFRESHMENTS AREA

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR PANELS

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

G

PROFILE

H

25MM STONE PANEL

SECONDARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

PRIMARY STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

S

T

C

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-G.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


STEEL ANGLE ROLL SHADE

CUSTOM SHAPED ROLL SHADE

CLOSURE

PROTECTION MEMBRANE WATERPROOFING TAPE AT ALL PENETRATIONS

GUIDE CABLE

3.5" INSULATION

BEDROOM

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

STEEL ANGLE WOOD SILL LEVELING TRACK

'Z' REVEAL

4" STEEL FRAMING 1 5/8" STEEL FRAMING

GWB

1/4" ALUMINUM TRIM

HANGER PROFILE FACIA BEYOND

245 /

246


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

ROLL SHADE CUSTOM SHAPED ROLL SHADE CLOSURE

Z

3.5" INSULATION PROTECTION MEMBRANE

A

WATERPROOFING TAPE ALL PENETRATIONS

K

STEEL ANGLE

BEDROOM

INTERIOR

G

EXTERIOR

H

GLAZING FIXED EXTRUDED ALUMINUM FRAME

S

STEEL ANGLE

WOOD SILL

T

'Z' REVEAL

C 4" STEEL FRAMING 1 5/8" STEEL FRAMING

B

EXTERIOR ALUMINUM TRIM GWB

S/L

FACIA BEYOND HANGER PROFILE

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-H.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


M1 High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2008-2011 M1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects

247 /

248


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A BEDROOM

K

GWB

1 5/8" STEEL FRAMING

G

4" STEEL FRAMING

H

EXTERIOR

S

INTERIOR

T DOUBLE GLAZING OPERABLE WINDOW FRAME

C

1/4" ALUMINUM TRIM

STEEL ANGEL

B

3.5" INSULATION PROTECTION MEMBRANE ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

PLAN DETAIL — 2-2.1-H.02

scale 1:10

S/L

0

30 cm


N1

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2008-2011

N1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects

249 /

250


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.2

Openings & Closings Penetration

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z BEAM

FIREPROOFING

A

SUSPENDED CEILING FIXED GLAZING

COLUMN

K

G INTERIOR

OPERABLE WINDOW FRAME

EXTERIOR

OPENABLE GLAZING

H

STRUCTURAL SEALANT

S LIVING/DINING ROOM

VERTICAL MULLION

T

STEEL MULLION

C

SEALANT

FINISHED FLOOR

B

ATTACHMENT

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.2-H.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


O1

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2008-2011

COLUMN MULLION

LIVING/DINING ROOM

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

OPERABLE WINDOW PROFILE OPERABLE WINDOW STRUCTURAL SEALANT

SEALANT

O1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects

251 /

252


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.2

Openings & Closings Penetration

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

EXTERIOR

S

INTERIOR

T

C

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 2-2.2-H.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


253 /

254


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.3

Openings & Closings Penetration

2

1

+1 (0)

CEILING STEEL ANGEL WELDET TO BEAM

V

3 1/2" STEEL STUD

LIGHT FIXTURE BACKER ROD & SEALANT

M

WATERPROOFING FLASHING

Z SINGLE BALANCED DOOR

A

K

G T.O.ELEVATOR 176'-1

1/2"

T.O. ELEVATOR 175'-9

1/2"

T.O.BULK HEAD ROOF & SCREEN 156' - 6"

MECH. FLOOR T.O. SLAB 156' - 6"

H

T.O. PARAPET 148' - 6" T.O. ROOF 145' - 0"

13TH FLOOR 131' - 2"

S

12TH FLOOR 119' - 7"

RETAIL AREA

INTERIOR

11TH FLOOR

EXTERIOR

108' - 7"

10TH FLOOR 97' - 7"

T

9TH FLOOR 86' - 7"

8TH FLOOR 75' - 6"

7TH FLOOR 64' - 7"

SINGLE BALANCED DOOR

C

6TH FLOOR 53' - 7"

5TH FLOOR 42' - 7"

4TH FLOOR 31' - 7"

B

3TH FLOOR 21' - 7"

T.O. RETAIL ROOF 14' - 0" 2ND FLOOR 11' - 7"

FINISH FLOOR

1ST FLOOR

CONCRETE TOPPING WATERPROOFING EXPANSION JOINT

2%

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.3-H.05

scale 1:10

SIDEWALK

0

30 cm

0' - 0"

S/L


255 /

256


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

CEILING STEEL ANGEL WELDED TO BEAM

V

3 1/2" STEEL STUD

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S RETAIL AREA

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

T DOUBLE GLAZING BEAD BLASTED COVERS

C

2" RIGID INSULATION

NYLON GRAVITY SHIMS

STONE ANCHOR BITUTHENE MEMBRANE CONCRETE BASE

B

GROUT SOIL

SEAL ALL FASTENERS

CONCRETE CURB

S/L

FINISH FLOOR STRUCTURAL SLAB

EXPANSION JOINT

2%

SIDEWALK

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-H.06

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


P1

Torre Cube \ by Estudio Carme Pin贸s \ Guadalajara, Mexico \ 2005

P1 Courtesy of Estudio Carme Pin贸s

257 /

258


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V GUIDE TRACK AND ROLLERS FOR SLIDING SCREEN

M

28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP

Z

A

SLIDING SCREEN FRAME GUIDE TRACK SLIDING SCREEN

K

G

H

S INTERIOR

RETAIL AREA

EXTERIOR

T 38/38/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE

C 6MM FLOAT GLASS

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-S.01

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


B

259 /

260


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.4

Openings & Closings Porosity

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

B

A

C

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

A

UNFOLDED ELEVATION — 2-2.1-T.01

C

scale 1:200

0

6m


261 /

262


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.4

Openings & Closings Porosity

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

ELEVATION â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2-2.1-T.01

scale 1:20

0

60 cm


263 /

264


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

PERFORATED STAINLESS STEEL PANELS WITH INTEGRAL FRAME

PIVOT POINT FOR PANELS

V

M

MOTORIZED SUN SHADING SYSTEM

WATERPROOFING SLAB EDGE FLASHING OPERABLE PERFORATED STAINLESS STEEL PANEL

RIBBON WINDOW DOUBLE GLAZING

Z

A

K CLASS ROOM/OFFICE

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

G

H

SANDERAL PANEL

S

FACTORY FINISHED PANEL

SECONDARY STRUCTURE

FIXED PERFORATED STAINLESS STEEL PANEL SLAB EDGE FLASHING 3CM CRUSHED STONE AND RESIN FLOORING WITH POLISHED FINISH REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-C.01

T

C

B

S/L

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


265 /

266


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.4

Openings & Closings Porosity

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

ELEVATION â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2-2.1-C.02

scale 1:20

0

60 cm


6' 11-1/4"

6 % OPEN AREA

48 % OPEN AREA

267 /

268 2' 7"


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.4

Openings & Closings Porosity

2

1

+1 (0)

V PIVOT POINT FOR PANELS

M

Z

A

K Q1

G

H

S

T OPERABLE PERFORATED STAINLESS STEEL PANELS WITH INTEGRAL FRAME

C

B

OPERABLE FRAME PIVOT POINT FOR PANELS

R1

BOLT

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

Q1 Courtesy of Morphosis. R1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, April 8, 2012, New York, NY, USA.

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.4-C.02

scale 1:10

0

30 cm

S/L


S1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

S1 Courtesy of Morphosis.

269 /

270


scale -

Openings & Closings Perforation

2.1

2

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L


INTERIOR FRC ASSEMBLY GLAZING ATTACHMENT POINTS TO GLASS

PAINTED STEEL CONNECTION

INTERIOR FRC ASSEMBLY

271 /

272


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

LONG LEG DRIP SCREED CONTINIOUS STAINLESS STEEL PLATE COMPRESSIBLE FOAM SEALER

STEEL ANGLE BRACKET

BOLD CONNECTION

Z

A

PAINTED STEEL GLAZING SHOE SUSPENDED CEILING

K

SLOTTED HOLE CONNECTION

G CONFERENCE ROOM

GLAZING

CONCRETE TOPPING SLAB

INTERIOR

H

EXTERIOR

STEEL CLEAT AT PANEL JOINTS SEALANT CONCRETE ANCHOR

PAINTED STEEL GLAZING SHOE

S

FRAME

T

C

B

S/L EXTERIOR PLASTER WALL SYSTEM

BENT STEEL PLATE SEALANT LONG LEG J-CAST BEAD

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE SLAB

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-B.01

scale 1:50 1:10

0

30 cm


ANCHOR PLATE INTERIOR FINISH

BOLT

CONFERENCE ROOM

PAINTED STEEL ANGLE STRUCTURAL SILICONE

INSULATION

AIR/VAPOR BARRIER EXTERIOR PLASTER WALL SYSTEM

273 /

GLAZING

SEALANT

274


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

INTERIOR

T1

The Broad \ by Diller Scofidio + Renfro \ Los Angeles, CA, USA

S

EXTERIOR

T

C

B

S/L T1 YouTube, The Broad Art Foundation Fly-Through Animation, http://www.youtube. com/watch?v=FaSFazqJIes (accessed on March 15, 2012).

PLAN DETAIL â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 2-2.1-B.02

scale 1:10 1:50

0

30 cm


SUSPENDED CEILING

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

CONFERENCE ROOM GLAZING EXTRUDED ALUMINUM PROFILE 'T' EXPANSION ANCHOR

SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD FLASHING

PTD WOOD SILL INTERIOR FINISH

PLASTER WALL SYSTEM SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD

275 /

FRAME

276


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A SUSPENDED CEILING

K

MOTORIZED SOLAR SHADE

G METAL 'T' EXPANSION ANCHOR

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

H CONFERENCE ROOM

GLAZING EXTRUDED ALUMINUM PROFILE

S

'T' EXPANSION ANCHOR

SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD

T

C PTD WOOD SILL INTERIOR FINISH

B

S/L EXTERIOR PLASTER WALL SYSTEM AIR/VAPOR BARRIER

SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD

SECTION DETAIL — 2-2.1-B.03

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


INTERIOR FINISH SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD

CONFERENCE ROOM

INSULATION SEALANT W/ BACKER ROD ALUMINUM PROFILE

INTERIOR FINISH ALUMINUM END CAP EXTRUDED ALUMINUM PROFILE

AIR/VAPOR BARRIER EXTERIOR PLASTER WALL SYSTEM CAP

277 /

278


9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Perforation

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

INTERIOR

S

EXTERIOR

T

C

SEALANT

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 2-2.1-B.04

scale 1:10

0

30 cm


U1 The Broad \ by Diller Scofidio + Renfro \ Los Angeles, CA, USA

U1 Art Knowledge News, "The Broad" Coming To L.A., http:// www.artknowledgenews.com/ the_broad_coming_to_la.html (accessed on March 8, 2012).

279 /

280


POLYISOCYANURATE INSULATION

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2 2.1

Openings & Closings Saturation

2

1 FULLY ADHERED PVC ROOF MEMBRANE 1/4" UNDERLAYMNET

+1 (0)

V EXTERIOR ROLLER SHADE HOUSING

CONSTUCTION STEEL TUBE

M

SPRAY FOAM INSUL. GFRG SHELL

Z SEALANT

BLACKOUT SHADE SIDE TRACK GLAZING

COLD FORMED MTL FRAMING W/ BATT INSUL. 5/8" GYP SHEATHING

A

K

G INTERIOR

GALLERY

EXTERIOR

H WET SEAL GA-7 ALUMINUM FRAME

S

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Forms ME–16 ioynt, ME–15 ioynte, iointe, ( ioynct(e, ME geynt(t)e, iuynt, iunte, ionte, yonte, yuncte, 15 yont, 15–16 ioinct, ioint, 15–17 joynt, 16 jonct, 17 Sc. junt), 16– joint.

The place or part at which two things or parts are joined or fitted together; a junction.

b.

An arrangement, structure, or mechanism in an animal body, whereby two bones (or corresponding parts of an

c.

d.

Discrepance /dɪskrɪpəns/ Etymology < Old French discrepance (Godefroy), < Latin discrepāntia discordance, dissimilarity, < discrepāre not to harmonize, to differ: seeDISCREPANT adj. and n.

Exhibiting difference, dissimilarity or want of harmony; different, discordant, inharmonious, inconsistent. Const.

b.

Apart or separate in space.

c.

That wherein or whereby two component members or elements of an artificial.

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One of the parts or sections by the longitudinal union of which a body is made up.

Forms Also 15 discripant, discrepante.

a.

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That wherein or whereby two component members or elements of an artificial structure or mechanism are joined or fitted together, either so as to be rigidly fixed (as e.g. bricks, stones, pieces of timber, rails, lengths of pipe, etc.), or so that one can move upon the other while still remaining connected with it (as in a hinge, pivot, swivel).

Discrepant /dɪskrɪpənt/

Etymology < Latin discrepānt-em , present participle of discrepāre to differ, lit. to sound discordantly, < DIS- prefix 1a + crepāre to make a noise, creak.

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invertebrate animal) are fitted together, either rigidly, or (esp.) so as to move upon one another; an articulation.

Etymology < Old French joint and jointe , n. use of joint , -te ( < Latin junctum , juncta ), past participle of joindre to join. a.

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a. The fact of being discrepant; want of agreement or harmony; disagreement, difference. b.

Distinction, difference.

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“We must not say every mistake is a foolish one.” –Marcus Tullius Cicero1 C

When one is considering joints and discrepancies, ultimately (and immediately) the investigation leads to the question of the mistake, intentional or unintentional. Discrepancies are oftentimes viewed as unwelcome aspects of the design process or built environment. This lens highlights the “test to fail” approach taken by architects in a variety of scales, projects, and intensities. Joints and discrepancies are investigated with a different approach in order to show their similarities. The word joint is rooted in the Latin word iunctura meaning “joining, as in junction.” Within human anatomy, the joint is defined as “the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to provide movement, mechanical support, and are classified structurally

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A The Prints of Louise Bourgeois (Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1994), 161-162. 1 De Divinatione II., 22, 79. In Thomas Benfield Harbottle, Dictionary of Quotations (classical) (3rd Ed., 1906), 169.

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A plywood trompe-l’oeil along 1st Avenue \ New York, New York

“In the design of a detail, the concern is not only with a single object by itself, but also with the collective concentration that is generated by the relationship it negotiates among the parts. It is instrumental in the direction and definition of meaning and character in the final resolution of the whole. I have found that the placing of the detail at the original moment of design not only challenges the norms of architectural production, but encourages possibilities of innovation and invention. This project was a unique opportunity to form joints and connections at many levels of the architectural process: between two materials in a connection, but also between groups of people with differing ideas and perspectives. It became a common language through which a collaborative bridge could be constructed, allowing for an objective exchange of opinions. The detail became the mediator in the building of an idea." [3] “It remains undisputed that the body occupies a key position in Western culture. For, to be precise, “the body” is comprised of a multitude of bodies and concepts of bodies which are all available in modern society for the purpose of forming identity: a veritable assortment of all body types which guide the strategies of body formations and its masquerades. At the same time, this perfecting process repeatedly entails a mystification of the body. Complex rules of codification determine the choice and arrangement of body markings and signs; it is only a certain label and it legibility, the meaning of label, which in the end signalize identity, the affiliation with certain social groups and the respective practices of body modeling.” [4]

2 William C. Shiel and Melissa Conrad Stöppler, Webster's New World Medical Dictionary. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley Pub., 2008), 228. 3 Anthony Viscardi, “The Detail as the Mediator: Notes from a "Joint" Venture between Architecture and Early Education.” Journal of Architectural Education 51, no. 4 (May 1998), 251. 4 Gabriele Branstetter, ReMembering the Body. Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz, 2000), 14-15. B Photo courtesy of Ryan Joseph Simons. 5 Greg Lynn, Animate Form. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 10. 6 James Joyce, Ulysses (New York: Vintage Books, 1990).

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and functionally.”2 The joint is formed by the articulation of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage. This is not so different from its function in architecture, other than that the architectural joint is static rather than dynamic. Both bodies4, the human and architectural, share the notion that joints work across various media. These joints are grouped according to their motion: ball and socket joint, hinge joint, condyloid joint—which permits all forms of angular movement except for actual rotation—pivot joint, gliding joint, and the saddle joint. Circumduction, which is composed around the head of a structure, describes a series of circles with a hole forming a cone and allows for rotation around a central axis without moving from this axis. In the architectural sense, these notions are similar to a joint being introduced where elements meet or certain continuity is desired. The joint can be controlled or uncontrolled, intended or unintended. It manifests itself through a readable condition or line. Some joints, in structural engineering and architecture, share the same nomenclature as in the field of bridge building. This is not only prevalent with inhabitable bridges throughout history, but also construction methodologies applied across these fields, much like the ones used in OMA’s CCTV Tower in Beijing.

Throughout the detail analysis, with the notion of joints and discrepancies in mind, a strategy is laid out with attention paid to James Joyce’s thoughts on the matter of mistakes. This approach to the built environment delineates the difference between error and mistake. Joyce’s makes a clear distinction between mistake and error, where the mistake is involuntary while the error is a deliberate transgression or conscious “Likewise, the forms of a dynamic, all conceived architecture may be shaped in association with departure from the right path. The idea of virtual motion and force, but again, this does not mandate that the architecture change its shape. erring in this sense has been an important point Actual movement often involves a mechanical of departure in making art since the Romantics. paradigm of multiple discrete positions, whereas Within this context, one can reference Arthur Schopenhauer who said, “to have original and extraordinary and perhaps even immortal ideas one has but to isolate oneself from the world for a few minutes to completely let the most commonplace happenings appear to be new and unfamiliar and in this way reveal their

virtual movement allows form to occupy a multiplicity of possible positions continuously with the same form.” [5]

“A man of genius makes no mistakes; his errors are volitional and are the portals of discovery.” – James Joyce [6]

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true essence.” In Rimbaud’s Metaphysica, these ideas were adapted by the Surrealists which lead to the glorification of the unconscious. This technique was expanded through the dérive in the case of the Situationists, systematically erring the recovery of lost essences.7

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In keeping with the theme of Cicero and Joyce, one can witness this creativity or accessible failure across several zones. Three archetypal examples of this phenomenon have emerged to show how mistakes can often lead to a fortuitous discovery in Michaelangelo’s David, Charles Goodyear’s discovery of rubber, and Leonardo da Vinci’s frescoes. An example from sculpture, which highlights its mistakes, is Amanati’s cutting of a mass of marble in an unorthodox and destructive manner that caused the block to be deemed unusable for its original intent. This unusable mass was then used to sculpt Michaelangelo’s DavidC. In this particular case, one’s mistake led to the well-known masterpiece of another.

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A C David \ by Michelangelo \ Florence, Itlay \ 1504 \ Carrara Marble

The rate of failure, as well as the development of solutions, was stated in Richard Feynman’s acceptance speech for the Nobel Prize in 1965, in which he proclaimed: “To develop working ideas efficiently, I try to fail as fast as I can.”8 “Behind even the most incoherent architecture lies the coherence of building systems. The relaThere are a variety of historic failures that led tionship between the formal motives and these systems may range from radical incoherence at to inventions. The invention of rubber that the volumetric level rendered in a flexible system did not stick to a surface was discovered by such as platform framing to an intermediate level, as, for example, in the Gehry House, where Charles Goodyear in 1830 through a systematic collage at the overall level of organization is calculation mistake made during an experiment modulated by the systems of construction.” [9] with India rubber. Rubber, in its many forms, has an incredible amount of applications across the spectrum of materials used within architecture.

CHRISTOPH a. KUMPUSCH: Do you see the details used in the Kunsthaus Graz as a series of invented, necessary systems or do you see them as key to the project? PETER COOK: In essence, I have often said of it that it is NOT A HIGH-TECH BUILDING but (jokingly) a 'crap-tech' building. Referring to the way in which Helmuth Richter detailed his housing in southern Vienna or Rem Koolhaas his early Kunsthalle in Rotterdam, or some of the buildings of Japanese architects such as Ito and Hasegawa. In all of these, simple mild steel sections are simply connected, tricky corners are not overlaid with neoprene and cover conditions but often left rough and open. Even the 'skin' of the curved body of the Kunsthaus does not attempt to join everything up, the rain passes through the open seams and the actual weather tight condition is of course the steel casing of the steel framed and insulated carcass. [10]

A miscalculation in one field can lead to an unintended idea of innovation in another entirely, and otherwise disconnected, field. Sometimes innovations are simply caused by failure. Joints, as a mechanism, can be project specific. Joints and discrepancies are part of every building’s reality and take up a certain amount of development in each project. Joints function within the architectural domain at the continuation of different materials, where different spatial and structural responsibilities lie, and often when changing directions.

As far as discrepancies are concerned, when can one decide when it is classified as such? When is the discrepancy specifically designed? Do they only arise during the construction phase or are they planned for and handled by the architect at an early stage of production?

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7 Kari Juhani Jormakka, “Why to Make Mistakes, Portals to Discovery” in Wonderland: Platform for Architecture; in collaboration with A10 (Vienna: Wonderland Assoc., 2006), 27-32. 8 Richard P. Feynman “The Development of the Space-Time View of Quantum Electrodynamics”, Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1965. 9 Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto, Atlas of Novel Tectonics (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006), 58. C Robert Coughlan, The World of Michelangelo, 1475-1564, (New York, Time Inc., 1966), 84. 10 Peter Cook, interviewed by Christoph a. Kumpusch, London, UK, February 10, 2012.

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Link /lɪŋk/ Forms OE hlinc, ME lynk, ME pl. linx, 15 lynck, 15– link. See also LINCH n.1 Etymology Old English hlinc , possibly a derivative, with k suffix, of the root hlin- to LEAN v.1 a. Rising ground; a ridge or bank.

Etymology < Old Norse *hlenk-r (Icelandic hlekk-r , Old Swedish lænker , modern Swedish länk , Danish lænke ) < Old Germanic type *hlaŋkio-z ; cognate with Old English hlęncan plural, armour, Old High German lancha FLANK n.1, loins, bend of the body (Middle High German lanke ), whence

Forms: ME pl. lynx, ME–15 lynk(e, ME–16 linke, 15 lenk, lyncke, 15–16 linck(e, 15– link.

Middle High German gelenke (collective) flexible parts of the body, modern German gelenk articulation, joint, link.

a.

One of the series of rings or loops which form a chain. †Also, formerly, pl. chains, fetters.

Cohere, v. /kəʊˈhɪə(r)/

b.

A connecting part, whether in material or immaterial sense; a thing (occas. a person) serving to establish or maintain a connection; a member of a series or succession; a means of connexion or communication

Link /lɪŋk/

Forms: Also 16–17 cohære. Etymology: < Latin cohær-ēre to cleave together, < co- together + hærēre to stick, cleave. a. To cleave or stick together; esp. said of the constituent parts of a material substance. b. Said of the substance, mass, or body whose parts so stick together. c. To be congruous in substance, tenor, or general effect; to be consistent. coherent, adj. /kəʊˈhɪərənt/ Forms: Also 17 cohær-. Etymology: <  French cohérent , < Latin cohærēnt-em , present participle of cohærēre to COHERE v. a.

That sticks or clings firmly together; esp. united by the force of cohesion. Const. to, with. Said of a substance, material, or mass, as well as of separate parts, atoms, etc.

incoherence, n. /ɪnkəʊˈhɪərəns/

Etymology: < IN- prefix3 + COHERENCE n.; compare Italian incoherenza (Florio, 1611), French incohérence (18th cent. in Hatzfeld & Darmesteter). a.

The fact, condition, or quality of being incoherent.

b.

Want of cohesion.

c.

Want of connection; incompatibility, incongruity of subjects or matters.

d.

Want of coherence or connection in thought or language; incongruity, inconsistency; want of logical or rational consistency or congruity.

A discrepancy is often a feature with a known quantity. In architecture, a common discrepancy, the fugue, is the distance or gap between two building elements. The gap within those building parts is caused by a variety of conditions within the construction of a building, mainly due to size and transportation limitations with materials. The fugue can take on different positions within buildings in terms of its rigidity or flexibility. Joints and fugues can be rigid, filled-in elements much like mortar.

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Tie /taɪ/

c.

Forms α. OE téag, tég, tǽg, ME teȝ, teiȝ, ME tey, 15 Sc. (pl.) teis, (ME, 18 dial. tee). β. ME–18 tye, 16 ty, (pl. tigges, tighes), 15– tie.

Archit., etc. A beam or rod used to ‘tie’ or bind together two parts of a building or other structure by counteracting a tensile strain which tends to draw them apart.

d.

Something that ties or binds in a figurative or abstract sense.

e.

Something that makes fast or secures; a security; something figured as a band or knot with which things are tied. rare.

Etymology Old English teáh , téag (feminine), Anglian tǽg , later tég = Old Norse taug (feminine), rope < Old Germanic *taug-ā , -o strong feminine, < second grade of the verb-stem teuh- : tauh- : tuh : see TEE v.1 The β-forms are assimilated to, or formed from, TIE v. a.

That with which anything is tied; a cord, band, or the like, used for fastening something; a knot, noose, or ligature; a natural formation of this kind, a ligament (quot. 1659 at β. ); esp. an ornamental knot or bow of ribbon, etc.

b.

Something that connects or unites two or more things in some way; a link. (See also 8.)

In the architectural sense in which the format of materiality—the extensions, compressions, and contractions of materials—is dependent upon climate change and other known quantities. An architect knows when they need to design an expansion joint and at what length it needs to be in order to function. These known quantities are aligned with the material and connective limits, both of which are important factors in the assembly process and how building construction is controlled as an overall process. The musical fugue comes in three sections: the exposition, the development, and the recapitulation, which contains the return of the subject. In architecture, this means certain material extensions accumulate as an office works through the design and building processes. Fugues can be intentionally emphasized in a building, as is the case with shadow joints, where a joint, fugue, or gap is highlighted and amplified by the production of its own shadow. This is an architectural metaphor where one abstracts in order to sharpen an element. The gap, the distance between the elements, becomes visible versus a concealed joint which is used to hide material, details, or fabrication imperfections. Zaha Hadid’s Vitra Fire Station contains expansion joints that move all the way from the roof through the building and continues its trajectory into the glass panels, the window mullions, the concrete joints, and eventually moves into the public space. The continuation of a single line throughout the building distinguishes the barrier between joints and discrepancies in this case.

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Las Arboledas \ by Luis Barragan \ Mexico City, Mexico \ 1961

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The Salk Institute \ by Louis Kahn \ La Jolla, California \ 1963

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Beijing National Stadium \ Herzog & de Meuron \ Beijing, China \ 2008

D Paul Rispa, Luis Barragán: The Complete Works (New York, NY : Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), 172. E Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, La Jolla, CA, October 16, 2008. F Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch.

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G Knots \ by M.C. Escher

Within this lens, one must also discuss coherence and incoherence. Coherence is the continuation of a logic which is not always proven through its conclusion in a coherent structure. One example would be Herzog & de Meuron’s Beijing National stadium, where the structure appears to be unintelligible and arbitrary, but are actually following a very coherent and strict set of rules in order to balance between the structural responsibility and the overall aesthetic. Incoherence is understood as something that lacks clarity and organization. It is not only bound to the material condition or details within a building, but often at times relates to the spatial organization of a building.

Knot /nɒt/ Forms OE cnotta, ME cnot, ME cnotte, ME–16 knotte, ME–17 knott, ME– knot. Etymology Old English cnotta = Dutch knot , Low German knütte , Middle German knotte , Middle High German knotze knob, knot, etc. < Old Germanic *knutton- , (whence KNIT v.); compare Old High German chnodo , chnoto (Middle High German knode , knote , German knoten ) < Old Germanic*knóþon- , knoðón- , with variation of consonant due to difference of stress. Old Norse had knútr knot, knob, knúta knuckle-bone (Swedish knut Danish knude knot), which may be connected with the above forms, but the difference in vowel makes difficulties. The relationship (if any) of Old Norse knǫttr ( < *knattu-z ) ball, and Latin nōdus (perhaps for gnōdus ) knot, is also obscure. a.

An intertwining or complication of the parts of one or more ropes, cords, or strips of anything flexible enough, made for the purpose of fastening them together or to another object, or to prevent slipping, and secured by being drawn tight; a tie in a rope, necktie, etc.; also, a tangle accidentally drawn tight.

b.

A design or figure formed of crossing lines; an intricate flourish of the pen.

c.

A central thickened meeting-point of lines, nerves, etc.;

d.

The central or main point of something intricate, involved, or difficult.

Knot /nɒt/ Etymology: < KNOT n.1 a.

trans. To tie in a knot; to form a knot or knots in; to do up, fasten, or secure with a knot.

b.

To form a knot or knots; to be or become tied or twisted into a knot.

c.

To make or form by this art

d.

To combine or unite firmly or intricately; to associate intimately; to entangle, complicate.

e.

To unite or gather together in a knot; to assemble, congregate; to form a compact mass, to concrete.

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Discrepancies created during the construction process of Guangzhou Opera House.

G M. C. Escher, M.C. Escher: 1898-1972, The Graphic Work (Berlin: B. Taschen, 1990), 39. 11 David Constantine, Faust: the Second Part of the Tragedy (London: Penguin, 2009), xxxi H Photo by Beijia Gu.

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“Nothing is, except in relation to something else. We are what we are in a continuous intercourse and struggle with what we are not.”11 When one speaks about joints, there is a hierarchy between the material limitation and the articulation of the joint. There is no quality placed on each entity. Which element then does the most work as a detail? If one must

“The process of optimization describes the synthetic search for this best state within a model, whether of a biological system or architectural or structural system, usually under a set of restrictions, implied or expressed. These restrictions or conditions, the way that the optimal goal has been defined, and the nature of the model will all determine the outcome. In other words, no matter how deterministic the procedure or algorithm of optimization may be, the optimal state is always relative to the details of the system in which it is sought. The most materially economical structure may be nudged towards an architectural form that is favoured for other reasons through judicious changes to the overall structural context of loads and constraints within which the model is optimized.” [12]

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Etymology < French continuité (16th cent.), < Latin continuitāt-em , < continu-us : see -ITY suffix.

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essence or idea; connectedness, coherence, unbrokenness. d.

A continuous or connected whole; a continuous or unbroken course or series. (Of material or immaterial things.)

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The state or quality of being continuous.

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Of material things: The state or quality of being uninterrupted in extent or substance, of having no interstices or breaks; uninterrupted connection of parts; connectedness, unbrokenness.

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Of immaterial things, actions, processes, etc.: The state or quality of being uninterrupted in sequence or succession, or in

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separate the two, which one would be considered more important to the task? This line of questioning is similar to the analogue of the chain: “a chain is only as strong as its weakest link.” If one speaks about joints as a means of Fuzzy, adj. connectivity, all of the elements become equal Pronunciation: /ˈfʌzɪ/ players and equally “responsible.” Etymology: < fuzz n.1 + -y suffix1. Compare

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Discrepancies created during the construction process Therme Vals

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fozy adj.

a. b. c. d.

Revisiting the notion of mistakes as a catalyst for discovery, one must consider the form of Frayed into loose fibres; covered with a knot. What is compelling with the figure fuzz; fluffy, downy. of the knot and the first question that comes Blurred, indistinct. to mind regarding knots is “where does it begin Of thought, etc.: imprecisely defined; and where does it end?” The knot appears in confused, vague. Also of persons: inexact in thought or expression. a variety of scales from anchor plates on the façade and sockets that hold on façade panels at Kunsthaus Graz to the plazas located within the Sliced Porosity Block. On an urban scale, the most significant type of knot is the labyrinth.

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Not firm or sound in substance; spongy.

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Detail of façade panel connections in Kunsthaus Graz

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When analyzing a systemic approach to joining materials, one must consider to what extent geometry plays in the joining of materials. A circle, for example, is a closed system while a line allows for attachment and joining through its logic. One must also ask “well, why do we have joints?” the short answer would be “it’s an aspiration to create continuity.” You have a joint in order to join material or prevent discontinuity (in order to create a false sense of continuity). This false continuity is needed or we would end up with a ubiquitous modularity within architecture. Continuity per se is oftentimes a necessity even though these systems can be constructed to seem continuous while being made out of discontinuous elements. This is a conceit found in Kunsthaus Graz as well as Guangzhou Opera House’sH seemingly fluid triangulated form; continuity through discontinuity.

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B I Sigrid Hauser and Peter Zumthor, Peter Zumthor Therme Vals (Zurich: Scheidegger & Spiess, 2007). J Brent Richards, New Glass Architecture (New Haven, CT : Yale University Press, 2006) 223. 12 Jane Burry and Mark Burry, The New Mathematics of Architecture. (London: Thames & Hudson, 2010), 118.

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The art of making errors versus making mistakes goes hand in hand with having ideas without making mistakes. There is an immense amount of difficulty in mastering such an aspiration. If one speaks about discrepancies, the mistake is often the main part of that conversation. The aim of highlighting errors is not to avoid them, but to find the latent potential of these mistakes. Sometimes imperfections provide for new typologies of a detail. Steven Holl’s research on the “fuzzy edge”, through its spatial openness, takes something that is suggestive of imprecision and imperfection and allows a new entry point into the typology through making a case for a particular mistake’s functionality. Optimize /ˈɒptᵻmʌɪz/

Optimization /ˌɑptəməˈzeɪʃ(ə)n/

Forms 18– optimise, 18– optimize.

Forms 18– optimization, 19– optimisation.

Etymology < classical Latin optimus best (see OPTIMUM n.) + -IZE suffix. In sense 2 after OPTIMISM n., OPTIMIST n.

Etymology < OPTIMIZE v. + -ATION suffix. rare before mid 20th cent.

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To make the best or most of; to develop to the utmost.

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To render optimal, to make as good as possible; to make the best or most effective use of.

“In Parametricism all elements of architecture become parametrically malleable. This allows them to be adaptive to each other as well as adaptive to contextual conditions. Instead of repetition Parametricism promotes iteration and differentiation. Instead of mere juxtaposition Parametricism promotes correlation. Every action calls forth a reaction. In this way deformation encodes information. All this has contributed to Parametricism’s great achievement: the intensification of relations both within the building and between the building and its context. This intensification of relations is architecture’s answer to society’s increased complexity and increased demand for communication.” [13]

13 Patrik Schumacher, interviewed by Loreto Flores in Revista de Arquitectura, Numero 23, Arquitectura Escrita (Fall 2011).

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a.

The action or process of making the best of something; (also) the action or process of rendering optimal; the state or condition of being optimal.

This newly discovered functionality means that the mistakes are not errors, but a defiance of what is considered to be the norm. This allows for new design strategies to occur. These new systems, in terms of their details, can be considered hybrid solutions. Within building standards, the act of invention is problematic, with tight building regulations suggesting—or driving—uniformity rather than individuality. These norms can hinder and restrict and start to become straitjackets for individuality. On the other hand, limitations and restriction can also enable extreme innovation.

Mistakes can write their own rules and begin to generate their own norms. Frank Gehry’s residenceK in Santa Monica, CA uses cheap indoor, industrial materials as outdoor, urban façade materials, expanding the architect’s exterior material palette. This had to do with Gehry’s rewriting of parameters and norms and using seemingly limited circumstances as a point of departure. Broken rules became the new regulations. The details of those rules did not result from restrictions, but were born from that 310


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catalyst. These results go beyond the norm and are often unknown until tested within known quantities, entering the domain of detail postparametricism.13

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ZAHA HADID: There is an inherent intimacy in our detailing to ensure a building’s integrity - with many details becoming progressively refined or standardised. However, mass production or standardisation can, to some extent, dilute this level of designed intimacy or aesthetics. It is at this point where we feel compelled to address this through design or innovation. [15]

There are instances when a mistake becomes the new accepted norm as well as a new standard. An example of this mistake as progressive thinking is the Finlandia Hall by Alvar Aalto. Thin plates of marble were used as an exterior cladding material, but due to the harsh Scandinavian climate, the thin plates of the Carrara marble began to bend and curve in an uncontrolled way. Critics gave special attention to the building as another instance of Aalto’s use of sensitive materials rather than recognizing it as a grave error and technical mistake.

In the case of the accidental discovery or solution, the invention of the sleekest, smallest, sharpest, yet most visible detail implies the desire for the new or pushing for the technologically innovative. The most invisible joint pushes the boundaries of the possible, something that Boris Groys defines as “a problem that boils down to the process of revelation.” This follows the rules of expectations and allows us to classify errors in a different way. Then, as he puts it, “this is the discovery of making a mistake about which things are errors.” 14 These errors are discovered as their very own particular innovation. When investigating HL23, Denari had to decide whether or not to introduce a mechanical condition in the process of generating a round corner. In HL23’s case, is a corner something where material leaves its layer or does it happen whenever directionality changes? Whenever different materials meet it forms a corner, but that corner also forms a fugue as well as a joint. It forces one to deal with discrepancies and brings up the physical, environmental, and ecological constraints that must be dealt with while constructing details.

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Gehry Residence \ by Frank O. Gehry \ Santa Monica, CA, USA \ 1978

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When investigating Zaha Hadid’s Guangzhou Opera House, there is a focus on the façade of the project. Even though one looks at large steel beams, they are treated like bones, sometimes becoming more visible on the surface while softer and more fluid along the membrane—leaving an imprint on the inside. The standardization of details is an interesting discussion point within this project as there are very few standard details. It does not necessarily accept global standards, but produces its own internal and universal set of standard details. This makes its details both relatively comparative and generic through their multiplication throughout the project. The steel beams connect to the crossbeams. On a detail level, a very conventional

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B K Mildred S. Friedman and Frank O. Gehry, Frank Gehry: The Houses (New York: Rizzoli, 2009), 83. 14 Boris Groys, Über das Neue: Versuch einer Kulturökonomie (München: C. Hanser, 1992). 15 Zaha Hadid, Zaha Hadid Architects (interviewed by Christoph a. Kumpusch, London, UK, February 10, 2012).

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fastener/bracket and joint detail is used in order to also hold the glazing in place. What makes it unique is how the geometry meets these details, how those details become activated within the overall geometry of the project. The detail in that case is not enabling the project, but the project takes advantage of the details available.

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Detail depicting the structure and printed sign of the façade \ High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA \ 2011

Throughout the entire project, a triangulation pattern is used in the cladding with an applied fineness. One can see how discrepancies are dealt with—or not dealt with, in this case. Certain limitations with triangulation that occur when creating a smooth and continuous surface throughout the project—moments of imperfection—cross-references with the ambitions and limitations of Buckminster Fuller’s own geometric configurations. The element of the mistake—or discrepancy—allows the cladding to “fill in,” but does not allow for the surface to become multidirectional. Upon further investigation, the exterior condition’s relationship to the interior skin and the surface quality of the exterior’s materiality, and the discrepancies thus created, reveal almost no errors or subdivisions. One thing all these elements have in common is following a formal condition—not just condition, but obsession. They are refined in different manners. The construction of the interior performance space can be compared to boat building, where it is built up in an almost exclusively manual act, sanded down, repainted, sanded down, repainted, creating a hyper-casted surface condition. This is opposed to the exterior, which reveals a mechanical act of construction. The previously mentioned mega-corner requires a specifically designed joint that is able to connect seven corners within one point, performing as the structural knot. The soundproofing and insulation panels follow the same metrics as the geometric system of the overall triangulated surface and structure. A few planes could have been filled by just one panel, but are instead divided by the same geometric patterning of the structural system. The multiplicity of these different scalar systems follows the same logic throughout the project, from the primary structure through the secondary structure to the soundproofing and insulation panels and from the detailed joints and fugues to the ceiling, the wall, and into the surface. The pull of the exterior façade into the interior of HL23 through lines fulfill structural responsibilities while simultaneously play a vividly graphic role.

L Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, New York, NY, USA, November 24, 2011

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The visibility and the multiple incidents of the fugue merging into one other on the exterior surfaces and continuing through each scalar system invokes the question of how a modular system changes from a smaller ordering system into a larger one. In this case, the tiles are designed to a particular scale and repeat themselves geometrically and architecturally through the structure, the cladding, and all the way to “the paint.” 312


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In terms of the façade, how can details anticipate the fugue when different materials and different surface directions meet? This is a problem that would not arise if these elements were developed as composites. There would be no need to integrate structure as well as material. In other words, it could be one material, a skin that takes on structural responsibilities. The problem arises when the stone tiles connect to the primary structure, sitting on top of the insulation in order to create a heat barrier. This is evident where the glazing and stone façade join. In this case, the insulation is curved and sits directly onto the primary structure. On top of the insulation sits the fastening panel for the stone façade. Each fastener connects with a multi-directional detail and holds each triangulated stone plate in place. The façade is lifted to allow air to circulate through the skin and the water barrier surface sits right below it, but in front of the primary structure, in order to create and enforce a division between the exterior and interior.

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The way of creating both an opening and a penetration within the façade brings us back to the creation of discrepancies. This is a clear representation of how the exterior surfaces meet each other and show what level they are set within. The transitional elements are dealt with in a straightforward manner in which two surfaces simply intersect and become closings within themselves.

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With Peter Zumthor’s Therme Vals, to a large extent, the craftsmanship informs the material and how the stone was broken or cut and generated the stones textures by the saw blades used in its fabrication. That same detail and texture continues into details like fugues and joints, which take on a similar approach in how Zumthor’s office organizes material discrepancies. They sometimes appear natural and are controlled when they appear as details. Another important detail is the surface configuration in this project— almost as important as the interior conditions—and can be compared to Neil Denari’s treatment of exterior conditions informing interior conditionsL. From the mullions of the windows to the primary structure to the surface division to the dilatation joints on the exterior and back up, the continuity and discontinuity of ordering systems from one scale to the next as well the density of lines of discrepancy in space increase and burnish continuity. Those lines are lines of roughness, defining an incredible smoothness—the wireframe of the overall surface geometry—and are necessary for managing surface discrepancies, dilatation joints, and the expansion and compression of material through atmospheric changes.

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Eric Owen Moss, Eric Owen Moss Architects (interviewed by Christoph a. Kumpusch, Los Angeles, CA, January 4, 2012) CHRISTOPH a. KUMPUSCH: For this project, I am asking 3 questions for each building being analyzed, as far as details are concerned. ERIC OWEN MOSS: There is a basic discussion, which I think has to do with conceptually how you think a building could be: in a spatial sense, a strategic sense, or in a conceptual way, which precedes a conclusion of what it should be made out of. It’s funny, I just gave a lecture for Jencks at the RIBA and I showed something very old, where we made a shape which was nominally a curvilinear surface. We had an

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Travida Office

idea of what it should be. The next step was actually coming back and making the

Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, Culver City, CA, January 2, 2012

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The Umbrella

Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, Culver City, CA, October 13, 2003

curvilinear surface out of blocks. If you look at the little building sticking out of the wall down there [the Travida office projectB], which is a thousand blocks, everyone the same, every one cut differently. This was in the era when the office was transitioning: pre-computer, computer, post-computer (which is a different discussion). We had to figure out how to fabricate it and how to scaffold the thing, and how to make it beyond what we knew how to draw. I think what’s happening now for your generation is the things that we were doing originally, we were going beyond our capacity to know whether we could fabricate it or engineer it or price it or construct it. There are a number of projects we’ve done, for instance, when we bent the glass [for the UmbrellaC, Culver City] and people said “You can’t draw it. You can’t fabricate it. It’ll break and they’ll sue you.” All of those things happened. For the Tennis Channel, we made a roof and we sprayed on fiberglass. Again, we got “You can’t do it. It will break. It will stretch.” and so on. So it seems to me that there was a time, and I think it may have passed, because now you can punch up a Rhino menu and it essentially says “You can do this, this, this, or this. Pick a card,” in a way. I think part of what we’re still interested in, as anachronistic as it may be, is to see what we don’t know and might be able to surmise and hypothesize, and then see what it takes to actually implement it. Now there’s also a gap—what I’m saying is that period is over because the pro forma for bending, twisting, and folding, when those decisions where extraordinary or rare, is different now because every student sits down at Sci-ARC and can immediately do all of those things and finds those things plausible.

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CaK

Do you see details used in your projects as a series of invented, necessary systems, or do you see them as key to the project? Z

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There’s another discussion that’s interesting that has to do with whether you understand the project as a prospect—a hypothesis—or whether part of the equation of architecture is ultimately what you make it out of and how what

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you make it out of feeds back into how you make it. So there’s a question about how you can bend it, fold it, microwave it. You can do anything to it. In which case, in a certain way, it’s starting to matter less what it’s made out

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of because paradoxically, in a way—this is, of course, a caricature—you can do anything with anything. When you make something round as an initial hypothesis—I remember we made the first model for the Trivida building out

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of a lemon rind, which is nominally curvilinear and the next step is to make it out of orthogonal pieces, you already complicate the thinking because the curve is not a curve but something that it asymptotic to a curve because it is

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made from rectilinear pieces. CaK

What role, if any, did the context play within the design of this building? Are there specific details that correlate or interact with these incidents?

EOM

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As a way of thinking about architecture, which somehow associates a conceptual strategy with a materiality, which then feeds back into the concep-

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tual strategy and modifies it. So if I do this [balls up a piece of paper] and then somebody in Kanas City, or Guangzhou, or Chenzen, or Krakow, or Barcelona will say “Okay, we’ll make that.” There’s another question about

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the tension between an idea and limitations of the material. There’s something about being able to make a material say “We can do this with glass” or “we can do this with steel”. There’s also something to what you can’t do

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with a material. In other words, if it’s a curve let’s make a curve or you say it’s a curve, let’s make it out of orthogonal pieces, there’s a difference. I’m interested in that intersection of what it is as an idea and how that idea is modified or compromised by limitations of the material. It doesn’t invert or reverse, but requires you to adjust the original strategy. So, if somebody

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makes a wiggly wall—which used to be hard, but is now much easier—and then says “we can melt it, freeze it, plasma cut it… we can do whatever we want to do. It’s carbon fiber, it’s bamboo, it’s adobe…” But it is interesting to deal with the limitations of what the material can be and how that feeds back into the strategy. Because what that really means is that you’re not saying it has to look like this. You’re saying it looks like this until it looks like something else. So the conception of the building related to the material and ultimately your subject, which is detail, is an evolving subject. It’s not just to ratify what I draw on a napkin in Lufthansa, but it might start there and continues to move. It’s no longer “whatever I draw, they can now make” but it’s now “whatever I draw has the possibility—we know we can make it—but how is it adjusted as a function of the technical processes; which is not to turn it over to the engineer. I think there’s a lot of “turn it over to the engineer” going on, so Cecil is great or the ARUP London acoustic guy is great, but that’s still part of the responsibility and the obligation of architecture. I think it’s important to raise a subject—and you’re raising the subject long after Futagawa. We still deal with Futagawa’s kids, but they’re different. That makes an issue out of the process of assembly, not only fetishizing detail, but how the process of assembly and detailing feeds back into the conception of the building. A round surface, which is ultimately round in joints, because every big thing is made of smaller things, is different from a round surface which is, in the end, not round but an aspiration to round, but can’t quite make it. I’m interested in that, the kind of tension between possibilities rather than just ratifying a single-minded or simple-minded idea. CaK

To what degree do you accept, if at all, a standard detail in your projects, a door for example?

EOM I think that when we make the things that we make, and I think we get into difficulties still, we’re not opening up the file and printing out the last seven building and replicating them. For instance, if you look at the details of the acrylic, how it’s laminated, the stiffeners of the acrylic, it’s true that 315 /

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because everyone is different and we can say “we made everything differ-

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ent”—it’s very easy now to make everything different, it’s almost as easy as making everything the same. It was more interesting when nothing could be different and then you came along and made something extraordinary.

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 To be fair, when we made the roof for the Tennis Channel buildingD, it’s made out of big sticks and little sticks. We had a Rhino model, sent it to Vancouver, the fabricator made it, and to put it together all you had to do D

Tennis Channel

was be able to count: put stick #1 here, #2 here, and so on. As a strategy,

Photo by Tom Bonner. Courtesy of Eric Owen Moss Architects.

there’s so many small things—for instance, if you walk across a bridge, you can see the metal deck, the concrete, and the edge of the deck, It’s loaded

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with those kind of issues, which in some ways belong to an advocacy which is probably 100 years old in the sense that there’s a love of the process, the material process, and what’s involved in assembling. Not only assem-

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bling in a conventional way or using materials in a way everybody recognizes, but the discovery process which is the same as Lebbeus Woods making a drawing in Sarajevo and something is hanging off of a wall and you’ve

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never quite seen something like that and you think differently about a city, that the pieces used to implement that idea also obligate you to think about how a building could be made. And if you took it to another level,

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it could suggest that almost everything, as a form or theory, in life—never mind architecture—could be other than it is. T

I have a little boy and we went to a Lakers game the other night. We were just sitting there looking at stuff and you walk in and it’s Delta and McDonald’s—everything is an advertisement, every surface is an advertisement.

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It’s awful. So I was saying to Miller “You have to remember we’re looking at our world—more your world, in a way—and it could be other than it is. It could be other than it is. Architecture could be more than it is. It looks like

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this, but it doesn’t have to.” And this is also a values system about commerce and labels and brands which most people look at as “okay, this is my world”, but there’s another way to look at it and say “Well maybe, but I don’t necessarily sign up” Or “If I sign up, I sign up in a critical way.” And I think architecture can address that issue and the assembly of architec-

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ture can address that issue: what things are, what they are in a physiological way, and how they’re put together. In a general sense, this is what we do. Sometimes, the roof leaks, the glass cracks, the fiberglass expands from the roof to the wall and you have to be able to deal with that. In the end, it’s actually interesting. If BMW, the little thing on the ring, the roof leaked and they’re were lawyers involved. If the roof leaks in BMW, you’re in jail. This is another fascinating subject: as projects get bigger and more corporate, you have to be very careful that the image of radical architecture is superficial. It’s not really radical anymore. Not only because it is to some extent a replication of an idea, but because it’s the safe way to do it and if you experiment too much, you run the risk of getting fired or getting into other problems. There ought to be a tension between continuing to move the discussion and an obligation to deliver a roof that better not leak as opposed to the argument that if it leaks you’re in trouble and if it doesn’t leak, you’re in a different kind of trouble. This is always when the projects start to get bigger and you go to a meeting and there are 17 guys and they all look like they just came from Brooks Brothers. This is an important pressure and accepting or acquiescing to those pressures isn’t necessar-

3 Parametricism “The term Parametricism was first used by the author [Patrik Shumacher] during the 2008 Venice Architecture Biennale. Its purpose is to name and highlight the contemporary convergence within avant-garde architecture.” (Patrick Schumacher. The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture, Vol. I (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), 35.)

ily a sign of maturity, although it’s represented in that way. So, the inquiry included within the level you’re working at really has to keep going. I think this is really our point of view. CaK

One of the problems I think right now with my generation is, if you speak about Parametricism3 and all that is involved with it, you immediately speak about constraints. You look at things that you possibly cannot do rather than the things you can do and work within a certain framework.

EOM I think one would consider that a maturing of the process so the experimental stage ends and is followed by the delivery stage which is a kind of mastery of the experiments, so the roof doesn’t leak anymore. The word parametric in a general sense, as I understand it, simply has to do with the interrelationship of parts and how one part obligates another, but there are a lot of ways to obligate pieces as congenial where everything works and 317 /

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fits, as adversarial, and as a process of continuing to think about the inter-

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what rules—technical rules, assembly rules, temperature rules, cost rules, client preferences—are being used in what’s obligating you? I think why in tension, if you look at that as an adventure or the conclusion is less known,

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it cracking, you curve it, you thicken it, you tone it, whatever you do—that process of rethinking, as soon as someone tells you “it doesn’t work in a certain way” and begin to think of how to make it work I a new way, it

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almost inevitably becomes the question of “if you can do it in a technical way and in a theoretical way, what do you have to pay for?” I think the problem with that discussion is that instead of an experiment, it became a

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ratification of a rule system. A ratification of a rule system doesn’t make it investigatory, it means it’s a confirmation of something a priori as opposed to an investigation of something where the parameters are not known.

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Parametrics doesn’t mean the parameters are known. In a broader sense, it might mean the very parameters you’re dealing with are subject to a discussion. And if you look at it in an investigatory way, the parameters go-

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ing out of the project might be different than the parameters going in. In a theoretical way, you might ever agree with that. B

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LARGE-SIZED VALSER QUARTZITE

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EXTERIOR

M 2.5%

INTERIOR

Z 30MM DOUBLE GLAZING

A INSULATION

K STEEL TUBE

WELD

G

BOLT

H

S VAPOR BARRIER CELLULAR LIGHTWEIGHT MORTAR

T

C PERFORMANCE SPACE

B

REINFORCED CONCRETE

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-M.03

S/L

scale 1:5

0

15 cm


331 /

332


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3 3.2

CAMP

Joints & Discrepancies Links, Bond & Contact

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

CONCETE BEAM

BEDROOM

S

T

1CM GAP

25MM PLASTER

C

MASONRY

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.2-M.04

scale 1:5

0

15 cm


5CM X 5CM STEEL TUBE

BOLT

WOOD FRAME

BOLT

6MM X 50MM X 90MM STAINLESS STEEL T - PROFILE STEEL PIPE D = 20MM

333 /

334


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V

M

Z

A

BOLT

K T - PROFILE

G LARCH HORIZONTAL WOOD LOUVER

H

S N Musikerhaus \ by Raimund Abraham \ Hombroich, Germany

T N Courtesy of Estate of Raimund Abraham Architects.

C

B

WOOD FRAME LARCH

SCREW

S/L 6MM X 50MM X 90MM STAINLESS STEEL T - PROFILE 5CM X 5CM STEEL TUBE

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.3-M.05

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


STUDIO

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

PLYWOOD VAPOR BARRIER

CONTAINER STEEL CORRUGATED CEILING

STEEL PROFILE

BOTTOM CHORD OF CENTER TRUSS

COLUMN

335 /

336


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3

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+1 (0)

V

M STEEL PROFILE TOP CHORD OF CENTER TRUSS

Z

A

EXTERIOR

CONTAINER STEEL CORRUGATED ROOF

K

60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

G

O, P, Q APAP Open School \ by LOT-EK \ Anyang, South Korea \ 2010

H

S

O, P, Q Courtesy of LOT-EK.

60MM FOIL BACK BATT INSULATION

INTERIOR

T

C

PLYWOOD

B STUDIO

DIAGONAL CROSS BRACING

S/L

VERTICAL TRUSS MEMBER

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.2-3.3-A.01

scale 1:5

0

15 cm


STEEL BEAM PRIMARY STRUCTURE ELECTRO CABLE STAINLESS STEEL SUPPORT BAR

CAP ATTACHMENT POINT ROTATABLE TILTABLE ADJUSTABLE

METAL MESH

COOLING SYSTEM AIR SPACE

337 /

338


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Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V STEEL SHEET PANEL WITH ROCK WOOL INSULATION

M

WOOL INSULATION ACRYL GLASS

CELLULAR GLASS INSULATION

BIX MEDIA LAMPS

SEALING SHEET - GLUED BITUMINOUS LAYER

Z

ACRYL GLASS FASTENING POINT

BRACKET WELDED ON SPHERE TWISTABLE & ADJUSTABLE

A

K

SPRINKLER NOZZLES

G

H

S

T

C

SPRINKLER CANAL

B

STAINLESS STEEL SUPPORT BAR

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 3-3.3-K.1

scale 1:5

0

15 cm


R

Kunsthaus Graz \ by Spacelab \ Graz, Austria \ 2004

R http://transform-mag.com/ps/ friendly-alien#id=1875 (accessed on June 6, 2012).

339 /

340


scale -

Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3.3

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5

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+1 (0)

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M

Z

A

K

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S/L


S

Kunsthaus Graz \ by Spacelab \ Graz, Austria \ 2004

S Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, December 28, 2011

341 /

342


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3

2

1

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M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

AXONOMETRIC — 3-3.1-K.2

scale 1:5

0

15 cm


T Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

U

Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

T, U Photo by Beijia Gu, December 23, 2011, Guangzhou, China

343 /

344


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Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

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1

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V

CAP SILICON CAULK

M

INTERIOR

BACKER ROD & SEALANT

EXTERIOR

ALUMINUM COVER EXTRUSION

Z

A

STEEL MULLION

K

G

H

S

T

C LAMINATED IGU GLASS

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-G.01

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


INTERIOR

345 /

EXTERIOR

346


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3 3 3.1 3.3 Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

2

1

+1 (0)

V

LAMINATED IGU GLASS SILICON CAULK CAP

M BACKER ROD & SEALANT INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

SELF TAPPING SCREW ALUMINUM COVER EXTRUSION

Z

A

STEEL MULLION

K

G

H

S V Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

T

C W Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

B

S/L

V, W Photo by Beijia Gu, December 23, 2011, Guangzhou, China

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-G.02

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


INTERIOR

EPDM ASSEMBLY SUPPORT MODULE OF PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK

SECONDARY FRAMEWORK (RHS 120 x 10 x 6 MM) BACK PANEL SUPPORTS 110 x 110 x 8 MM

2MM EPDM WATERPROOFING

50MM POLYURETHA INSULATION

2MM GMS BACK PA DECKING

X Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

Y Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China \ 2003-2010

X, Y Courtesy of Zaha Hadid Architects.

347 /

348


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3 3.1 3.3

Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

EXTERIOR

PRIMARY CLADDING FRAMEWORK (100 x 80 x 5 MM)

V

M16 SCREW ASSEMBLY BRACING UNIT

M

Z

Z Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China M6 PROPERTY STONE SCREW BOLT

A

K

25MM STONE PANEL

G SUPPORTING ANGLE

ANE M8 S/S SCREW BOLT

ANEL

H A1 Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China

S

T

B1

Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China

Z Photo by Beijia Gu, December 23, 2011, Guangzhou China. A1 World Architecture News, Guangzhou Opera House, http:// www.worldarchitecturenews.com/ index.php?fuseaction=w anappln. B1 Art Social Pages, Design & Architecture: As Zaha Hadid’s Guangzhou Opera House, http:// artsocialpages.com/2011/07/12/ (accessed on April 5, 2012).

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-G.03

scale 1:2

0

6 cm

C

B

S/L


C1 Guangzhou Opera House \ by Zaha Hadid Architects \ Guangzhou, China

C1 Photo by Beijia Gu, December 23, 2011, Guangzhou, China

349 /

350


scale -

Joints & Discrepancies Fugue

3.1

3

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8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

+1 (0)

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Z

A

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H

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T

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B

S/L


LIVING ROOM

351 /

352


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Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

M STRUCTURAL SILICONE CASSETTE CLAMP ALUMINUM ANGLE IGU GLASS

Z

SETTING TAB

CASSETTE CUSTOM ALUMINUM EXTRUSION BACKER ROD & SEALANT

A

K

WORK POINT

G

H STAINLESS STEEL SCREWS CONTINUOUS FILLET WELDS

S

T PIN WITH WELD WASHER CLIP SPRING LOADED STEEL PLATE AND SCREWS AT 3 LOCATIONS

C

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-H.01

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


D1

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA

D1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects.

353 /

354


scale -

Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3.3

3

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L


SILICON SEALANT FACTORY APPLIED CLIP - SPRING LOADED STEEL PLATE AT 3 LOCATIONS TAB WELDED STEEL PLATE SS SCREWS CABLE CHASE CLOSER - ALUMINUM ANGEL CHASSETTE CLAMP SPLIT MULLION BACKER ROD & SEALANT

E1

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

SILICON SEALANT

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

WARM EDGE SPACER SILICON SEALANT CASETTE CUSTOM ALUMINUM EXTRUSION

E1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, November 26, 2011, New York, NY, USA

355 /

356


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Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

SILICON SEALANT FACTORY APPLIED

Z

MULLION SS SCREWS

A

CABLE CHASE

SILICON SEALANT FACTORY APPLIED INTERIOR

K

EXTERIOR

G

H

TAB - WELDET STEEL PLATE

S SILICON SEALANT & BACKER ROD

WORK POINT

T

C

B

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-H.02

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


SILICON SEALANT & BACKER ROD

FIXED EXTRUDED ALUMINUM FRAME FASTEMED TO STEEL MULLION

SPLIT MULLION THERMAL BREAK

SILICON SEALANT & BACKER ROD OPERABLE WINDOW FRAME

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

CASETTE CUSTOM ALUMINUM EXTRUSION

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

SILICON SEALANT & BACKER ROD

FIXED EXTRUDED ALUMINUM FRAME FASTEMED TO STEEL MULLION

SPLIT MULLION OPERABLE WINDOW FRAME

SILICON SEALANT & BACKER ROD STRUCTURAL SEALANT

EXTERIOR

INTERIOR

CASETTE CUSTOM ALUMINUM EXTRUSION

ALUMINUM SPACER GLAZING

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

357 /

358


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Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z STRUCTURAL SEALANT LAMINATED IGU GLASS

A

K

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

OPERABLE WINDOW FRAME

G

H THERMAL BREAK FIXED EXTRUDED ALUMINUM FRAME FASTEMED TO STEEL MULLION

S

T

C LAMINATED IGU GLASS

B

S/L

LINE OF MULLION

L SHAPED MULLION

PLAN/SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-H.03

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


LINE OF MULLION

MECHANICAL CAPTURE

LAMINATED IGU GLASS STRUCTURAL SEALANT

F1

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA

INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

LAMINATED IGU GLASS MECHANICAL CAPTURE MECHANICAL CAPTURE

FIXED EXTRUDED ALUMINUM FRAME FASTENED TO STEEL MULLION

L SHAPED STEEL MULLION F1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, November 26, 2011, New York, NY, USA G1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects THERMAL BREAK

359 /

360


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Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

LAMINATED IGU GLASS

K

G G1 INTERIOR

EXTERIOR

High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA

H

THERMAL BREAK OPERABLE WINDOW FRAME

S FIXED EXTRUDED ALUMINUM FRAME FASTENED TO STEEL MULLION

T

C

B

S/L

LINE OF MULLION L SHAPED STEEL MULLION

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-H.04

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


1 5/8 " STEEL FRAMING

4" STEEL FRAMING INTERIOR FINISH GWB

BEDROOM

INTERIOR

2 x GWB LINE OF MULLION

361 /

362


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Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M GLAZING THERMAL BREAK

Z

OPERABLE WINDOW PROFILE FIXED WINDOW PROFILE

A 1/4" ALUMINUM TRIM

K

G

H ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

S

T

STEEL ANGLE

BOLT

C

PROTECTION MEMBRANE 3.5" INSULATION

B EXTERIOR

S/L

PLAN DETAIL — 3-3.2-H.05

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


H1 High Line 23 \ by Neil M. Denari Architects \ New York, NY, USA H1 Courtesy of Neil M. Denari Architects

363 /

364


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Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

ALUMINUM CLADDING PANELS

HANGER PROFILE

A

K

SUPPORT BRACKET

G BOLT

H

S

T

C

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.2-H.06

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


365 /

366


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Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

1.5" ACRYLIC MULLION

V

STAIR NOSING BEARING PAD

M STRUCTURAL SILICONE SCREW CONNECTION INTERMEDIATE ACRYLIC CLIPS

Z

0.47" THICK SCREEN

A

K 1.5" ACRYLIC MULLION

G

STRUCTURAL SILICONE SCREW CONNECTION INTERMEDIATE ACRYLIC CLIPS

H

0.47" THICK SCREEN

S 1.5" ACRYLIC MULLION

T

STRUCTURAL SILICONE INTERMEDIATE ACRYLIC CLIPS

C 0.47" THICK SCREEN

I1, J1, K1 Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA

I1, J1, K1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, January 16, 2012, Los Angeles, USA

PLAN DETAIL — 3-3.3-S.01

scale 1:50 2:1

0

1.5 cm

B

S/L


367 /

368


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4

3 3.2

EXPOSED CONCRETE TEMPORARY EDGE FORM DURING POORING

Joints & Discrepancies Links, Bond & Contact Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

ADDITIONAL EDGE REINFORCEMEN

V

M

Z METAL DECK GALVANIZED EXPOSED

HILTI FASTENER

A

BUTTON PUNCH

K

TEMPORARY EDGE DURING POURING OF SLAB

G ANCHOR REMOVED PORTION OF METAL DECK

H CONTINIOUS HANGER WELDED TO STEEL PLATE

HILTI FASTENER

S

T CONTINIOUS HANGER WELDED TO STEEL PLATE

C

1/2" STEEL PLATE COLUMN ASSEMBLY

B

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.2-3.3-S.02

scale 1:10

0

6 cm


WT WELDED TO W12X - I BEAM

BOLT

EXTEND 1/4" STEEL CHECKER PLATE

W12X - I BEAM

WT WELDED TO W12X - I BEAM 1/4" STEEL CHECKER PLATE CHECKER PLATE

L1, M1, N1, O1 Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Los Angeles, CA, USA

W12X - I BEAM

L1, M1, N1, O1 Courtesy of Eric Owen Moss Architects.

369 /

370


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4

3 3.2

Joints & Discrepancies Links, Bond & Contact Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

W12 - I BEAM DRAG STRUT

K WELD 1/4" STEEL PLATE TO COLUMN ASSEMBLY STIFFENER PLATE

G

LINE OF WEB BEYOND

H

CHECKER PLATE JOINT - WELD

S

T P1

W12X

Samitaur Tower \ by Eric Owen Moss Architects \ Culver City, CA, USA \ 2006-2010

C

B

- I BEAM

BOLT

S/L

1/4" x 2 WIDE STEEL PLATE KICKERS 1/4" STEEL CHECKER PLATE CHECKER PLATE

P1 Courtesy of Eric Owen Moss Architects

W12X - I BEAM

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.2-3.3-S.03

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


Q1

Torre Cube \ by Estudio Carme Pin贸s \ Guadalajara, Mexico \ 2005

Q1 Luis Bozzo Estructuras, CarmeLosas postensadas Pin贸s, http://www.luisbozzo.com/pagina.asp? 0=4&1=100062&2=3824&3=8739 (accessed on February 25, 2012).

371 /

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Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

WELDED CONNECTION

Z

A

K

G

POST-TENSIONED CABLE END

H

REINFORCEMENT

S

STEEL BRACKET WITH 5MM WEB AND 10MM FLANGE EDGE I - BEAM

T

C

R1

Torre Cube \ by Estudio Carme Pinós \ Guadalajara, Mexico \ 2005

B

S/L R1 Courtesy of Estudio Carme Pinós

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.2-T.01

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


GUIDE TRACK

GUIDE TRACK ROLLERS FOR SLIDING SCREEN

FLAT BAR SCREEN FRAME

28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP

373 /

374


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Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3.3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

STEEL GRID MAINTENANCE/ SERVICE WALKWAY

M

Z

A

K 28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP 50.8/50.8/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE

G

H

102.9MM STEEL TUBE

S

T FLAT BAR 50.8/50.8/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE

C

BOLT

STEEL BRACKET WITH 5MM WEB AND 10MM FLANGE

B

S/L 48.3/5.54 MM TUBULAR STEEL BRACING

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.2-T.02

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


48.3/5.54 MM TUBULAR STEEL BRACING

WELDED CONNECTION

SCREW DISTANCE SPACER 28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP

50.8/50.8/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE

50.8/50.8/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE

38/38/4.8 MM STEEL ANGLE 28/60 MM HEAT-TREATED PINE STRIP ON SLIDING SCREEN

375 /

376


PLAN DETAIL â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 3-3.2-3.3-T.03

scale 1:2

0

6 cm

Joints & Discrepancies Links, Bond & Contact Attachment

3.3

3.2

3

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

Z

A

K

G

H

S

T

C

B

S/L


HALLWAY 3CM CRUSHED STONE AND RESIN FLOORING WITH POLISHED FINISH

REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB

1 1/2" PAINTED STEEL TUBE CABLE NET GUARDRAIL INFILL

PAINTED STEEL TAB WELDED TO POST AND STEEL CONTINUOUS M12 STEEL BEAM

ATRIUM

ATRIUM STRUCTURAL SUPPORT

377 /

378 PLASTER BOARD


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Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3

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V

M

GFRG MESH

L

3" VERTICAL PIPE

Z

3"HORIZONTAL PIPE

A

K

G HALF GFRG PANEL

H

S

T

S1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

C

B

S/L S1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, April 8, 2012, New York, NY, USA

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.3-C.01

scale 1:5

0

15 cm


3" x 3" STEEL TUBE, PAINTED 1/4" RESIN PANEL ATTACHED TO ANGLE FRAME WITH EXPOSED FASTENERS

STEEL PLATE OUT-RIGGER ATTACHED TO STRUCTURE

STEEL ANGLE

3" x 3" STEEL TUBE STRUCTURE

1/4" RESIN PANEL ATTACHED TO ANGLE FRAME WITH EXPOSED FASTENERS

1 1/2" STAINLESS STEEL HANDRAIL ATTACHED TO STRUCTURE

LIGHT

379 /

380


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Joints & Discrepancies Fugue Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

1/4" RESIN PANEL

M

Z

LIGHTING STEEL PLATE OUT-RIGGER ATTACHED TO STRUCTURE

A

EXPOSED FASTENERS

K

3" x 3" STEEL TUBE, PAINTED

G

H ATTACHMENT TO STRUCTURE HANDRAIL

S

T

STEEL ANGLE

C

B

T1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA 2006-2009

T1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, April 8, 2012, New York, NY, USA

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.1-3.3-C.02

scale 1:2

0

6 cm

S/L


GALVANIZED GRATING

ADJUSTABLE PAINTED ALUMINUM EXTRUSION

STEEL ANGLE GALVINIZED STEEL TUBE CONTINUOUS STEEL SUPPORT

BOLTING

WELDING

GALVANIZED STEEL OUTRIGGER

381 /

382


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Joints & Discrepancies Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V STEEL ANGLE

M

Z

A

PERFORATED STAINLESS STEEL PANELS WITH INTEGRAL FRAME BRACKET

K

G

H U1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

S

T

C

B

S/L U1 Photo by Christoph a. Kumpusch, April 8, 2012, New York, NY, USA

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.3-C.03

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


383 /

384


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4

3 3.2

Joints & Discrepancies Links, Bond & Contact Attachment

3

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

SLAB EDGE FLASHING ALUMINUM PROFILE

Z WEATHER SEALANT WATERPROOFING

A

ANCHOR PLATE

K

G

H CONCRETE ANCHOR

S

T

C

B

GALVANIZED STEEL OUTRIGGER 1" INSULATION

S/L

SECTION DETAIL — 3-3.3-C.04

scale 1:2

0

6 cm


V1

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

V1 Flickr, Cooper Union Academic Building, http:// www.flickr.com/photos/ parkeranderson/2713977903 (accessed on December 11, 2011).

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386


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3 3 3.2

Joints & Discrepancies Links, Bond & Contact Attachment

2

1

+1 (0)

V

M

SANDERAL PANEL ALUMINUM PROFILE WEATHER SEALANT

Z

A WATERPROOFING SLAB EDGE FLASHING

K

ANCHOR PLATE

G

CONCRETE ANCHOR

H

S W1

GALVANIZED STEEL OUTRIGGER

Cooper Union \ by Morphosis \ New York, NY, USA \ 2006-2009

T

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S/L W1 Flickr, Cooper Union Academic Building, http:// www.flickr.com/photos/ parkeranderson/2713977903 (accessed on December 11, 2011).

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X1 Sliced Porosity Block \ by Steven Holl Architects \ Chengdu, China

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Lebbeus Woods and Christoph a. Kumpusch (interviewed by Christoph a. Kumpusch, New York, NY, January 14 2012) LEBBEUS WOODS: What I was saying about the Light Pavilion is the fact that you can walk up and through the pavilion is really the crucial thing. This is not just something you look at from a distance, but it’s something you inhabit and walk through. Now, why do you walk through it? What purpose does that serve? That’s really up to you. You’re not someone who is following a program, it’s not set out to say “this is a work space” or “this is a living space.” We don’t know what kind of space it is, but we know that it is a space that we can inhabit. We know that because we can go into it, we can go up and through and experience it and that’s what is really critical about it. It’s not just a visual object, it is a place that we can live in. Those stairs and platforms are enabling people to inhabit the space. CHRISTOPH a. KUMPUSCH: It’s also interesting, since we spoke about the EarthwaveE earlier, how it sets a further point about the Pavilion developed from System Wien4, you spoke about the field and field conditions and inhabitable

E

Earthwave

vectors, which was the first time, as Peter Cook said, it became an “inhabitable

A model of the Earthwave, made for the Biennale of Architecture and Art of the Mediterranean (BaaM) in Reggio Calabria, Italy in the summer of 2009. The design was to prevent the destruction of a building in the event of an earthquake.

Photo by Adam Orlinski

drawing”. It was a drawing… LW

Yes, everyone saw System Wien as an inhabitable 3D drawing…

CaK And the Earthwave was different because it was the first time your drawings were read in a very parametric way. They became very controllable and materialized and the line was not necessarily a line anymore, but a 3-dimensional field. And correct me if I’m wrong, but it was something that one could not only view, but actually walk through, much like the Light Pavilion. And all of a sudden, there is space with the Light Pavilion. LW I think the real question that these projects—the Earthwave and the Light Pavilion—raise about the idea of living in space and how we live in space is, on the one hand, challenged by these two projects. In other words, we’re challenging any conventional idea of how you want to live. On the

4

System Wien Commissioned by the Museum for Applied Art (MAK) in Vienna, in 2005, System Wien made the energies through the city visible.

other hand, these projects offer some suggestions. So if we live in a space created by light, which I contend is the space of the Light Pavilion, where light actually shapes the space—the structural elements that hold the light producing elements are also creating a set of boundaries—a set of limits— 435 /

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from the limits of solid matter. Now, we move into the ephemerality of light

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and we move into a space that is created by this ephemerality, this constantly changing quality of light. The Earthwave is not illuminated— light is dealt with in a conventional way: sunlight, moonlight, overcast

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conditions, etc. are falling upon the elements. Nevertheless, the questions is raised “How do you inhabit this space?” My whole life I’ve always asked the question “Do we live our lives according to the spaces given? Or do we

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inhabit our lives and the world by spaces we don’t know how to inhabit or spaces we’ve never seen before?” K

You can imagine yourself a traveler, passing through a foreign country where you don’t know the language or customs. You don’t know how they sleep at night or who they sleep with and you don’t know how they live.

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So, you have to imagine and invent these situations. I love the idea of inventing because that is what all of us do every day anyway, but we do it within the conventions given, as a kind of, shall we say, help. We know the

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conventions: we wake up at a certain hour, we eat breakfast at a certain hour, we go to work at a certain hour, we come home at a certain hour, we have our dinner at a certain hour… that more or less constructs how we

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live. But what if we take away those limitations or boundaries and provide a new set of boundaries? How would we live with them? That seems like a marvelous and adventurous challenge to our imagination and our ability to

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adapt, but also to live autonomously so that we each can chose to live the way we imagine. That’s what these projects are after for me. C

CaK

In terms of the Light Pavilion’s site, which is something that speaks about field conditions or vectors as energies, which is always an essential part of your work, what I found particularly interesting in the Light Pavilion is what

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one could call it’s “site condition” which is nested within a vertical site versus a project that relates to the ground in the usual way. One could say the façade becomes its ground, but the ground, which I think makes this project unique, is part of a larger building, Steven Holl’s Sliced Porosity Block. It’s not located within a city, per se, but a larger building with multiple programs.

S/L


LW I spoke with Steven about this project yesterday. He had this idea of porosity. So the Sliced Porosity Block is mixed use, they have residential, offices, hotels, a shopping center, and some cultural pavilions. His thought was that within the large scale structure, there would be this “microurbanism” as he called it. These other buildings would grow within his building. These pavilions—a conventional term—are new kinds of buildings that are growing within the known program that he is enabling with his major project. I find the idea of buildings within buildings

F

fascinating. That’s what he set out to achieve and I think that’s what you and I worked towards with one additional factor, which is that this building

Earthwave under construction

Photo by Adam Orlinski

within a building should be something different or more challenging than the original building which is the Raffles City. We wanted to provide a space that no one knew how to inhabit. We provide some stairs and some very concrete boundaries, but what it’s good for, what it does, what its function is, has to be invented. An event can’t be assumed. CaK

I like when you used the word “conventional” earlier. Yes, we provided stairs, barriers, railings, spaces to hide behind or in front of, but what I like about the term “conventional,” in that context, is we did use all—not just some, but all—of the details and elements from the surrounding building. So it brings the entire site of Raffles City—the site of microurbanism— into the condensed environment of the Light Pavilion, which, in its most specific sense, uses light as a material. Because we cannot just build with light, we use the light as something that sets boundaries and in order to set those boundaries we use materials such as glass, polyester, stainless steel, and so on. All of the details—the railings, the barriers, the stairs—are used in the same way within the thousands and thousands of square meters of housing, hotel, and commercial spaces and are extended into a very

G

Earthwave under construction

Photo by Adam Orlinski

particular space with a very not particular use.

I found “conventional” interesting in that matter especially since we spoke about parametric design and the EARTHWAVE earlier in a time when it’s

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just as easy to make everything different just as easily as we can make

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everything the same: the ways we build and certain software allow us to handle forms, shapes, spaces, and intentions very easily and it doesn’t make much of a difference anymore. It’s relatively radical to, and correct

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me if I’m wrong, say “this pavilion is not going to be a sculpture or something temporary.” It’s going to use what we have available and we had a set of details available within the context of our site, which was Steven

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Holl’s Sliced Porosity Block. LW Look at this whole idea of “Occupy”: Occupy Wall Street, Occupy Museum,

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Occupy this town, that town, this place. It’s very interesting conceptually. Once you take over a park with a group of occupiers, you change the idea 5 

Zuccotti Park Formerly known as Liberty Park Plaza Park, Zuccotti Park became the main encampment for the Occupy Wall St. movement on Sept. 17, 2011. The park is a Privately Owned Public space, which is part of “the 1961 Zoning Resolution inaugurated the incentive zoning program in New York City. The program encouraged private developers to provide spaces for the public within or outside their buildings by allowing them greater density in certain high-density districts. Since its inception, the program has produced more than 3.5 million square feet of public space in exchange for additional building area or other considerations such as relief from certain height and setback restrictions.” (New York City Dept. of Public Planning, http://www. nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/priv/ mndist1.shtml (accessed on January 25, 2012).

of how you inhabit the space. Suddenly, the space becomes charged

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politically, economically, socially, and you create a whole new idea of what that space is—in the case of Occupy Wall Street, it’s Zuccotti Park5 in lower Manhattan. The original intention of this space by the architects,

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planners, and builders is suddenly transformed into a new idea of living in a space: suddenly you have tents, you have a group of people coming in to sleep over night, to hold meetings, to hold readings, you have a library, and

S

a new way of living within Zuccotti Park is created. That’s very real. That’s very present. Our project, in the same sense, is about occupying what we would call

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“conventional space,” but transforming the way we might inhabit it. In our case, the idea of using light as a structural element, as boundaries, strongly provokes the idea of invention: of inventing the way to be in the

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space. I think that is very much our goal. CaK

This is an incredible point. I had a list of questions written out before

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we started talking, and the one which you answered was “Noticing the shift from the public sector to the private sector in architecture, does the building detail become an index of expression of the private, an internal ornament, or something else?” This is interesting because you answered this within the context of the Light Pavilion, but if one looks at the notion

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of buildings at large, I think it’s a very clear cut scenario, where programs that used to be conspicuously public—the museum, the opera house, etc.—have become incredibly private. Yes, a museum can be visited by the public, but it has a private client and you cannot enter and exit as you wish without flashing your credit card.

What makes the Raffles City project different is, that it is becoming a knot of urban desire, architectural desire, and programmatic desire and provides a city for itself being open to the city surrounding it. The Light Pavilion doesn’t provide anything similar to this, but it provides the possibility of occupation. When the project started, it really started with this idea of “the knot”. First it was a technology knot and then there were several iterations, where it built on that idea of interlinking.

LW Yes. It still is a knot. The knot, in this case, is several strands woven together and, conceptually it has to do with how they are woven together and what is their purpose. In a sense, we’ve already dismissed the idea that the purpose is to make a conventional idea of sculpture because we provided stairs and walking surfaces within the space. Then the question becomes “What is the purpose of this space you can move through? Why is it there?” Well, you can say it’s there because these parts of the project can be inhabited spontaneously in different ways. That is really up to the people who go into the pavilion. This could become a shelter for the homeless, this could become a place that can be occupied by radicals, this could be a place where tourists go to get a nice view of the city—the possibilities are wide open and that’s what we wanted to provide. There is no program given on how to move through the space or why they are there. I think we need more spaces in cities and we need more spaces like that in the buildings that we are building, but it’s hard to get them built. In this case, my client was an architect who is sympathetic. Steven Holl was sympathetic and he convinced his client, CapitalLand Development, to build such a space that didn’t have a program so people have to invent the reason they want to be there. So we were lucky we had a client that supported that openness. It’s going to be built. 439 /

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As you know, the book—in its largest sense—is about detail and how one carries an idea of not just creating something that looks almost like it, but really pushes the idea of designing a space that occupies a vertical site or

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a tourist destination into something as precise as it is in your thoughts and ideas. I’m trying to speak about the work you have been doing all of your life. I remember several conversations where you said the Light Pavilion has

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to be perfect because you’re not going to start building at this point in your life if something is going to be compromised. K

LW  I would rather make a drawing that would hold up on its own terms than build something that was compromised to satisfy some other terms. G

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If I look at something generic or a “signature detail” that many of our colleagues design, there are many details, many ways of designing, many details that immediately identify the author of a project with the ways

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its built, good or bad. So looking at this generic or signature possibility of a detail or materiality in a comparable way the drawings and thinking processes you go through, is there a sense of authorship you identify with,

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LW Well, I don’t want to limit it to the Light Pavilion. I think one aspect of materiality and details that I have thought a great deal about over the years and through many projects has been the idea of the transformation

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the order of a material begins to break down and decay and you have the deterioration of materials. These steps are extremely important. S/L

I have always been interested in Frank Lloyd Wright’s work because he always took into account the aging of materials. He never designed


something to be a shiny new thing that would be opened and that was the end of the story. He always considered what the materials would look like in the next 10, 20, 30 years. So he used stone, some concrete, concrete block, very little steel, but he always took into account how his buildings would look 100 years from now. I think that’s been an important lesson for me. How will the materials we use look as they get older? I’m extremely interested in that. Now with the Light Pavilion, we don’t know because this is a new set of materials. We’re using glass, polyurethane plastic sheeting and tubes, and LED lighting and not much metal. How will these materials age? This is very important. This is a kind of experimental project in the sense that we don’t really know how these will age, but they will. I think how they will age is extremely important question because it has to do with that fact that we age, we transform, the materiality of our bodies transforms, so therefore we need to see the building as a kind of metaphor of the transformation of materiality that applies across the whole spectrum of life. In this case, I can’t say how it’s going to age because we are operating experimentally, particularly with new materials that aren’t so common in most buildings: synthetic materials and light plastics. It’s a gamble and an experiment and that’s why it’s called “experimental architecture”. CaK

And, it’s also a way out because in a way, it doesn’t need to be permanent. In this case, aging is a good thing.

LW That’s right. Nothing is permanent. During our conversation yesterday, Steven Holl reminded me that Louis Sullivan, on his deathbed, was told they were going to tear down his buildings in 20-30 years and replied that the only thing that will survive will be the ideas. Sullivan, an architect of the 19th century, was saying materiality is doomed. It’s going to grow so old that people will tear it down, but something will survive. Maybe it’s a little like the soul—something special about that building you design and build will survive beyond the decay of the materials. And what is that? The idea. People will remember the idea even after they have forgotten how the materials framed the idea.

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Detail Kultur_Christoph a. Kumpusch_EN_Part 01  
Detail Kultur_Christoph a. Kumpusch_EN_Part 01