Persuasion Tactics of Staging ; Case Studies

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PERSUASION TACTICS OF STAGING A CASE- STUDY COMPANION


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Persuasion Tactics of Staging;

A Case-study Companion

Aleksandra Marjanovic Master Thesis in Integrated Design 2016 Supervisors: Dr.Prof. Uta Brandes Dr.Prof. Oliver Baron

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Getting the Most out of the Case-Studies This book is meant to be a companion to main thesis discussion -on the left hand side of this binding- which explores classical rhetorical theory as a possible framework for designing and analysing communication in space. The following 9 different cases have been chosen as good instances of staging on which to try out the framework for analysis. 3 of the cases- are museums in the traditional sense, 3 of them are commercial spaces and 3 are innovative models that diverge from this taxonomy. In order to get the most out of these case studies, I recommend reading the theoretical essays in the thesis book that accompanies this one. Although the best way to get the most out of both is to read them simultaneously. When case studies are mentioned in the text of theoretical essay, the case study name along with this designated number can be found in the left and right hand margins of the thesis book!

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ETHOS: LOGOS:

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It could be said that any of the ‘ornaments’

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of speech, since(the theyfurniture, are meant to elements thesetpedestals) the is mood, rather than createwith additional purely functional, little thought

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insince it’s stylistic value. eitherplaced category most of the staging elements (the furniture, the pedestals) is purely functional, with little thought placed in it’s stylistic value.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS:

It could be said that any of the ‘ornaments’ of staging in this museum

create additional meaning. Still,

The mind map created is a linear journey Here the narrative type is that of fable- the through the hall like building, where the path historical narratives are told though artefact this museum speaks, which might be it’s loops back to the entrance. It gets slightly and text, and the visitor simply reads these weakest point. Many (although not all) of more problematic on the second floor, where from a distance. There lies a great potential the artefacts it houses are the ‘real deal’there appear to be ‘islands’ of information in staging the narrative of a city a story original pieces of armour or furniture from that the visitor can read, regardless of or text, since it brings the visitor into, or the baroque period, and therefore that it order. This mix between journey and island at least closer to, the action. This could holds a certain natural authenticity. This typology could work, but in the case of be considered in a future redesign of the is certainly true, but it doesn’t help the the Koelnisches Stadmuseum only causes staging. argument much since visitors go to the city confusion. museum to learn and understand the (hi) story of the city better, and not to see ‘real’ artefacts that a-priori don’t mean much if we don’t understand the story behind them. In some cases, more strategically placed copies might do just as well, if not better.

PATHOS:

A C CO ASE M -S PA T NI UD ON Y

meantORNATENESS: to set the mood, rather than STYLE/

PE TA RSU OFCTICASIO S N ST AG IN G

This staged argument is neither well articulated, nor legible, nor is their a meaningful atmosphere that prevails it. It pays little attention to what exactly it is trying to say (stasis, arrangement ) and even less on how it is trying to say this (placement, style). Therefore it ranks poorly on all four rhetorical modes.

and descriptive, but in order to enhance any of these modes, much

more CLARITY though needs to be put into the STYLE/ staging.

This staged argument is neither well articulated, nor legible, nor is their a meaningful atmosphere that prevails it. It pays little attention to what exactly it is trying to say (stasis, arrangement ) and even less on how it is trying to say this (placement, style). Therefore it ranks poorly STYLE/ CORRECTNESS: on all four rhetorical modes.

Since it presents itself as a traditional Since it it’s presents itself asthat a traditional city museum, safe to assume the aim the Kolnisches Stadtmuseum cityofmuseum, it’s safe to assume wasthat to educate, both and the aim ofcity thedwellers Kolnisches tourists, about the history area. It’sboth Stadtmuseum wasoftothe educate, primary might have evaluative, city aim dwellers and been tourists, about the but it succeeds only to a certain extent. To history of the area.narrative It’s primary this same extent it is also and aim might but have beentoevaluative, descriptive, in order enhance anybut of it onlymore to athough certain extent. thesesucceeds modes, much needs to To be put intosame the staging. this extent it is also narrative

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RHETORICAL MODE: RHETORICAL MODE:

LOCATION: COLOGNE, GERMANY COLOGNE, GERMANY LOCATION:

CASE NAME: KOELNISCHES STADTMUSEUM (COLOGNE CITY MUSEUM) KOELNISCHES STADTMUSEUM (COLOGNE CITY MUSEUM) CASE 1 NAME:

narrative

evaluative

argumentative

descriptive

A

B

Please keep in mind that these analyses are of a qualitative rather than quantitative nature, and that much of the author’s opinion has gone into what you are about to read. Since the rhetorical framework is meant to be a guide- and not as a rule book- for assisting in the design of staged spaces, professional opinion and experience is a necessary element of the analysis.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

RHETORICAL DIAGRAMS INTRODUCTION

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1.KÖLNISCHES STADTMUSEUM

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2.STARBUCKS

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3.HOLISTER

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4.MUSEUM OF BROKEN RELATIONSHIPS

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5.STADTMUSEUM DÜSSELDORF

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6.KOLUMBA

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7.IKEA

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8.JÜDISCHES MUSEUM BERLIN

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9.OLYMPUS PHOTOGRAPHY PLAYGROUND

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RHETORICAL DIAGRAMS SUMMARY

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4/3/5 CHECKLIST

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Rhetorical Diagrams These diagrams can be found on the corners of the each case study that follows. They are a visual representation of three of the key relational criteria by which rhetorical text can be understood and differentiated. They are used here to evaluate and understand different staged spaces. These are: the four modes, the levels of style and the stasis matrix. In the back of this book to Thewhich Rhetorical Staging Case discussion studies you will find a comparison study aofcompanion these diagrams allows for further on the relation between rhetoric and staging.

Rhetorical Diagrams

THE 4 MODES

DESCRIPTIVE- atmosphere of staged space is key EVALUATIVE- clear communication of particular information is key NARRATIVE- linear progression of narrative nature is key ARGUMENTATIVE- agreeable and appealing nature of staging is key

argumentative

narrative

This example is highly narrative and somewhat evaluative in nature. In this type of space, ‘pathos’ would be the key appeal, driving the way the content is communicated

descriptive

evaluative

LEVELS OF STYLE

PLAIN- No particular style is prominent MID-PLAIN -Some sign of stylistic cohesion present MIDDLE -Subtle yet effective use of style MIDDLE-GRAND- highly stylistic, yet still allows content to dominate GRAND- the style is the content driver, and key rhetorical element

plain

STASIS MATRIX

mid-plain

middle

mid-grand

grand

The staging in this example is not particularly focused on style. It’s considered, but only as a secondary concern.

level of abstraction of stasis ( key argument ) GENERAL- subject matter is highly abstract vs. SPECIFIC- subject matter is level of instrumentality THEORETICAL - not directly instrumental vs. PRACTICAL - directly instrumental

general

theoretical

practical

specific 9

The stasis in this example is reached on an argument that has narrowly focused topic. The argument on the other hand, is less of a ‘call-to-action/arms’ and more of a theoretical overview.


1

CASE NAME: KÖLNISCHES STADTMUSEUM (COLOGNE CITY MUSEUM) LOCATION: COLOGNE, GERMANY

narrative

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: Since it presents itself as a traditional city museum, it’s safe to assume that the aim of the Kölnisches Stadtmuseum was to educate, both city dwellers and tourists, about the history of the area. Its primary aim might have been evaluative, but it succeeds only to a certain extent. To this same extent it is also narrative and descriptive, but in order to enhance any of these modes, much more thought needs to be put into the staging.

STYLE/ CLARITY This staged argument is neither well articulated, nor legible, nor is there a meaningful atmosphere that prevails it. It pays little attention to what exactly it is trying to say (stasis, arrangement ) and even less on how it is trying to say this (placement, style). Therefore, it ranks poorly on all four rhetorical modes.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: It could be said that any of the ‘ornaments’ of staging in this museum are figures of speech, since they are meant to set the mood, rather than create additional meaning. Still, it’s difficult to place them in either category since most of the staging elements (the furniture, the pedestals) are purely functional, with little thought placed in its stylistic value.

1/4

argumentative

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B A

LOGOS:

PATHOS:

ETHOS:

The mind map created is a linear journey through the hall-like building, where the path loops back to the entrance. It gets slightly more problematic on the second floor, where there appear to be ‘islands’ of information that the visitor can read, regardless of order. This mix between journey and island typology could work, but in the case of the Koelnisches Stadmuseum only causes confusion.

Here the narrative type is that of fable- the historical narratives are told though artefact and text, and the visitor simply reads these from a distance. There lies a great potential in staging the narrative of a city, a story, or text, since it brings the visitor into, or at least closer to, the action. This could be considered in a future redesign of the staging.

It’s difficult to say with what sort of authority this museum speaks, which might be its weakest point. Many (although not all) of the artefacts it houses are the ‘real deal’original pieces of armour or furniture from the baroque period, and therefore it holds a certain natural authenticity. This is certainly true, but it doesn’t help the argument much since visitors go to the city museum to learn and understand the (hi)story of the city better, and not to see ‘real’ artefacts that a-priori don’t mean much if we don’t understand the story behind them. In some cases, more strategically placed copies might do just as well, if not better.

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plain

plain

mid-plain

middle

mid-grand

grand

STYLE/LEVEL: The Koelnisches Stadtmuseum is STYLE/LEVEL: ranked lowest on the levels of style scale, and it’s not hard to understand The Koelnisches Stadtmuseum is ranked why. Very thought wasscale, put and lowestlittle on the levels of style it’s overall not hard to understand Very little into the style of the why. staging thought waslighting put into the overall style ofno the elements, and plays almost staging elements, and lighting plays almost strategic role. no strategic role.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: The spatial characteristics, rather than the staging elements, are what is predominant in this museum. The light hardwood of the floors on the top floors, the large pillars that allow for a good number of windows on the first floor, along with the rhythmic repetition of the cealing beams are something that could becharacteristics, further exploited in rather the staging. The The spatial building is a nice one after all! than the staging elements, are what

STYLE/CORRECTNESS:

is predominant in this museum. The light hardwood of the floors on the top floors, the large pillars that allow for a good number of windows on the first floor, along with the rhythmic repetition of the cealing beams are something that could be further exploited in the staging. The building is a nice one after all!

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mid-plain

middle

mid-grand

grand


general

theoretical

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practical

specific

INVENTION:

ARRANGEMENT:

The topic being argued is rather clear: the historical narrative of the city of Cologne. On the official print material of the museum, the story of the ‘development’ of Cologne is mentioned, but it’s unclear as to how that is directly argued in space. You can read more on this critique and stasis in general in the invention chapter in the thesis booklet titled ‘ Persuasion Tactics of Staging’.

The content is placed in a way so that the visitor walks through different historical eras’ reverse-chronologically on the first floor, and then through different topics on the second floor. This arrangement is confusing since it doesn’t stick to one key concept, but rather mixes two without a clear reason, or clear significance.

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CASE NAME: STARBUCKS CAFE, FRIESENPLATZ LOCATION: COLOGNE, GERMANY

narrative

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: Starbucks manages to sell mediocre coffee at a premium price for a distinct reason, and that is because it sells atmosphere along with its coffee.The allure of the coffee shop interior is a big part of what the brand sells. Because of that, Starbucks ranks highly on both the argumentative and descriptive rhetorical modes. The space works hard in order to emphasize the appeal of the coffee, while at the same time creating an ambiance of comfort that recalls a ‘third-home’-like space.

STYLE/ CLARITY: Starbucks is successful on an international level, and it’s not the price, or the particularly high quality of these product that gave it this reputation, but more the magnetism of the brand which is manifested primarily in the staging. Starbucks interiors are distinctive, and -like it or not- they penetrate to an inner feeling of comfort and satisfaction.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: There are many ornaments that Starbucks is distinctly known for, such as the coffee themed paintings on the walls, or the charming graphics that accompany the offer of that season or month. But Starbucks also communicates through its choice of furniture and light fixtures. Seeing as how the ‘home/work place-like’ atmosphere is one of the things being sold, these ornaments can be understood as figures of thought, even though they would otherwise be figures of speech.

1/4

argumentative

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LOGOS:

PATHOS:

The spaces starbucks occupies are often small to medium size first floor vendor spaces with a large, glazed front. The tables and couches inside are placed closer to the walls in a grid like fashion. This makes it easier to circulate through the tight areas. As a mental map, the shops may seem more like ‘oceans’ than grids, but a quick thoughtful survey of the area will make it apparent that there is a strict gridded arrangement to the seating.

In the narrative that unfolds, from buying the coffee to enjoying it and leaving, the visitor is the main character of this narrative. This makes the narrative concept that of a story model.

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ETHOS:

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It’s difficult to pinpoint exactly where the ethos, the authority of Starbucks, comes from. We could argue it’s from the coffee that they market as ‘real and raw’, hence it would have a natural authority- but this is not its key selling point. We could also say it has original authority- it’s different than all other coffee shops (although that would be inaccurate). Perhaps it’s most correct to say that Starbucks possesses an influential authority- its ethos comes from the strength of the brand that seems to symbolise a lot more than coffee to most people. It goes as far as to represent a western lifestyle, leisure, and contemporary urbanity.


plain 22

STYLE/LEVEL:

The staging Starbucks does pays plain mid-plain middle mid-grand attention to style, or at leat to certain aspects of style, such as colour and pattern. Although its not uncommon o see elements that don’t quite seem STYLE/LEVEL: o belong to the whole set-up, enough o cause doubt in the consistency The staging Starbucks does pays attention to style, or at shops least to are certain aspects of of their style (some more style, such as colour andinpattern. Still, it’s tyle concerned than others not uncommon to see elements that don’t ess inhabited This is why belongplaces.) to the whole set-up, enough to Starbuckscause ranks middle doubt in thestyle. consistency of their style

grand

(some shops are more style-concerned than others in less inhabited places.) This is why Starbucks ranks middle style.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS:

Material, light and color are important, as cream and dark hues dominate among wood and leather. Lots of attention is paid to control different ypes of lighting- from diffuse wall ghting to spot lighting above the ables, and a sort of lighting ‘crown’ or chandelier’ above the area where the isitor receives his/her coffee. Only muddled and pastel tones are usedoften blacks, greens and browns, in order to enhance the sense of ‘nature’ and ‘calm’. Music and smell also play STYLE/CORRECTNESS: a huge role at coffeeshops because hey greatly effect the perception of atmosphere. Something moreare staging Material, light, and color important, as cream and dark hues dominate ndeavours should consider takingamong advantagewood of! and leather. Lots of attention is paid to control different types of lighting- from

1/3 2/3

diffuse wall lighting to spot lighting above the tables, and a sort of lighting ‘crown’ or ‘chandelier’ above the area where the visitor receives his/her coffee. Only muddled and pastel tones are used- often blacks, greens, and browns, in order to enhance the sense of ‘nature’ and ‘calm’. Music and smell also play a huge role at coffeeshops because they greatly effect the perception of atmosphere. Something more staging endeavours should consider taking advantage of!

3/4

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mid-plain

middle

mid-grand

grand


general

theoretical

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practical

specific

INVENTION:

ARRANGEMENT:

As in most staging for commercial and gastronomical purposes, the arguments are of a practical nature: it’s about buying your coffee and enjoying the time while you are there. No great effort should be waisted on further contemplating the content. The stasis question is a specific one: ‘‘what type of coffee do I want to drink now? And should I drink it here or take it to go?’’

There is a type of cause-and-effect arrangement in the coffee shop since it pulls the visitor directly to the start of their journey at the bar. Further down the journey, the visitor seats himself and as a result of having bought the coffee, can now enjoy the fruit of his earlier activity. The bar is always at the front and centre of the the shop.

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3

CASE NAME: HOLLISTER CO., RHEIN CENTER

narrative

LOCATION: COLOGNE, GERMANY

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: Hollister, an American company founded in Ohio in 2000, created its own fictional history around being a Pacific merchant shop founded in 1922 in Southern California. This is a narrative it tires to enforce mainly though its highly narrative staging techniques, which resonate strongly with teenagers woldwide. Because of this, Hollister can primarily be seen to fit the narrative,argumentative, and the descriptive mode of rhetoric.

STYLE/ CLARITY: Through its almost aggressively dramatic staging of California beach culture, the lucidity of the ‘origin’ narrative it’s attempting to portray is more than clear. This also helps create a distinct ambient that the store is known for.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: Most of the ornaments in the stores are figures of thought- they clearly want to signify back to the ‘origin narrative’ of the store. From the American flag, to the surfboards behind the counter, each and every decorative element in the store screams Cali fun & sun.

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argumentative

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argumentative

THE 4 MODES

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narrative

descriptive

evaluative

LOGOS: LOGOS:

You can reach any part of the store from the central areaofwhere thefrom You can reach any part the store register butwhere the visitor journey the centralis, area the register is, but the visitor starts atwhere the entrance, starts at journey the entrance, the where hugeprojecting screen projecting live huge the screen live footage footage of the beach is. And though of the beach is. And eveneven though the the encouragedmovement movement through encouraged throughthe the store loops back to the beginning, much store loops back to the beginning, like in Ikea, the visitors- dazzled by the much like inofIkea, theinvisitorsconcentration content one area,dazzled often by the of content in read the concentration space as maze-like, rather than area, often read the space as aone pinwheel-like structure. Only the more maze visitors like, rather than find a pinwheel versed can easily their way around. like structure. Only the more versed visitors can easily find their way around.

PATHOS: Hollister uses a text like model for it’s narrative. The narrative told is one of the California beach origins, and the space is the medium for telling that story. But the visitor is not necessary a part of that. The visitor may, if he or she wishes, to buy into that story with a new pair of jeans or a T, but while PATHOS: they are there, they are simply invited guests- voyeurs in a way- and do not Hollister a text model for its narrative. directlyuses participate in creating the The narrative told is one of the California narrative. beach origins, and the space is the medium for telling that story. But the visitor is not necessary a part of that. The visitor may, if he or she wishes, to buy into that story with a new pair of jeans or a T-shirt, but while they are there, they are simply invited ETHOS: guests- voyeurs in a way- and do not directly participate in creating the narrative.

It’s more than clear that this store gains is authentic appeal through referentially. By referencing the American beach lifestyle, it appeals to those who endorse the leisurely yet highly western values that this type of lifestyle presupposes.

ETHOS:

It’s more than clear that this store gains its authentic appeal through referentially. By referencing the American beach lifestyle, it appeals to those who endorse the leisurely, yet highly western, values that this type of lifestyle presupposes.

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plain

plain

mid-plain

STYLE/LEVEL:

middle

mid-grand

grand

Hollister pays a great amount of attention to style. And although it STYLE/LEVEL: is novel in it’s en-mass attempt to replicate artefacts from California Hollister pays a great amount of attention beaches, it misses the attention to style. And although it is novel to in its attempt to replicate artefacts from detail en-mass that would be necessary if it California beaches, it missesus theof attention to wanted to sincerely convince detail that would be necessary if it wanted it’s loyalty and interest in the beach to sincerely convince us of its loyalty and culture. In the is currently interest in manner the beachitculture. In the manner doing of so,itsitstaging, is clear that the key it is clear that themode key mode of rhetoric in fact argumentative, and the of rhetoric is inisfact argumentative, ethos it stands behindbehind referential. and the ethos it stands referential.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: With prevalent dark colours, traditional patterns, and heavy wooden furniture, the colourful clothing that fill the racks are what stands out. This is additionally helped by the cinematic spotlights that populate the ceiling. Wood is used extensively. The floors are covered in dark painted wood, while the walls are lined with profiled dark wooden shelving. Due to its very dramatic lighting, It’s hard to see anything other than the articles of clothing in focus.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: With prevalent dark colours, traditional patterns, and heavy wooden furniture, the colourful clothing is what stands out. This is additionally helped by the cinematic spotlights that populate the ceiling. Wood is used extensively. The floors are covered in dark painted wood, while the walls are lined with profiled dark wooden shelving. Due to its very dramatic lighting, It’s hard to see anything other than the articles of clothing in focus.

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Being a clearly commercial entity, it’s not surprising that Hollister is found in the lower right hand

Being a clearly commercial entity, it’s not surprising that Hollister is found in the lower corner of the stasis matrix. right hand corner of the stasis matrix.

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The arrangement is such that the whole

The arrangement is such that the left side of the store mimics the right side whole leftbeing sidefor of females, the store of it- one themimics other forthe right side of itone being for males. There very few distinctivefemales, features the for males. There very few thatother discriminate the two. In between is the cash register. distinctive features that discriminate the two. In between is the cash register.


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CASE NAME:

MUSEUM OF BROKEN RELATIONSHIPS

LOCATION: ZAGREB, CROATIA

narrative

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: The Museum of Broken Relationships is not an ordinary museum- it crowdsources stories along with artefacts that serve as representatives of those narratives, and uses those as the primary content to be exhibited. Because of the nature of its content, and its primary aim at getting the visitor emotionally engaged with the content, it ranks as highly narrative, somewhat argumentative, descriptive, and evaluative on the circle of rhetorical modes.

STYLE/ CORRECTNESS: This experiment in narrative staging owes its lucidity to the well-articulated text, and the highly-simplified manner of exhibiting a single item along with a short paragraph of text in a white, stripped-down room. The objects and the written stories they represent resonate in such a clear space.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: Most of staging done is purely functional. The staging elements are there to be as neutral as possible in order to eliminate any sort of ‘noise’ that might take away from experiencing the vivid narratives and their accompanying objects. Therefore, it can be said that, although not very ornate, those ornaments used fall under ‘figures of speech’.

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LOGOS: The Museum of Broken Relationships uses a very simple, linear path to guide the visitor from the entrance, through the particular exhibition spaces, and back to the beginning again. Still, the individual content is scattered among the spaces in such a way that doesn’t give a sense of a particular order or process. In the mind’s eye, this type of staged space would be of the ‘ocean’ type.

PATHOS: The MoBR is narrative staging that takes its cue from the fable. The story being told is the one that is narrated by the content- the story world is restricted to being ‘inside’ of the text. Its only ambassador is the object that stands lone on its pedestal.

ETHOS: What is immediately clear with the MoBR is that it is a very emotionally-charged space, and that it gets this charge not from the placement of objects or the carefully designed style of what is being staged, but by the force of the authentic- and in a sense raw- objects and stories collected from people who really went through these ordeals. In that sense, the MoBR has a very natural sort of authenticity to it.

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is clear that some thought has STYLE/LEVEL: een put into the stylistic elements of taging, but since they are not what It is clear that some thought has been put ives the staging its strength, into the stylistic elementsthere of staging, but as no need for it to since they arebe notparticularly what gives the staging strength, there was no need esigned. its It achieves a middle levelfor it to be particularly designed. It achieves f style, creating a distinct feeling ofa middle level of style, creating a distinct feeling of larity andclarity ‘aura’ around the objects. and ‘aura’ around the objects.

TYLE/CORRECTNESS:

his was achieved mainly through ifferent types of diffuse lighting that ighlight the objects on the podiums. n some cases, it is simply the natural ght coming from the windows utside that illuminates the objects, ut since the building is old and has hick walls with smaller windows, ven this sort of light is diffuse. All odiums and walls are a simple white, llowing for a ‘blank’ canvas on which o arrange the narratives.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: This was achieved mainly through different types of diffuse lighting that highlights the objects on the podiums. In some cases, it is simply the natural light coming from the windows outside that illuminates the objects, but since the building is old and has thick walls with smaller windows, even this sort of light is diffuse. All podiums and walls are a simple white, allowing for a ‘blank’ canvas on which to arrange the narratives.

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The topic of the Museum of Broken Relationships is just that: heartbreak, in all possible means and ways. Regardless of where and when, we all go through heartbreak at a certain point in our lives, and that makes this a museum of the human condition. The narratives are food for thought, and they allow us to first feel, and then later ponder on what we’ve read. This makes the MoBR stand in the general and theoretical quarter of the stasis matrix.

There appears to be no particular structure based on which the content is arranged. On further inspection, it can seem that stories with a similar thread might be clustered together, but then again that could be just the mind doing what it does best: seeing patterns in things that don’t necessarily have them. Because of this we can say that ‘place’ is the arranging principle.

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CASE NAME: STADTMUSEUM DÜSSELDORF

narrative

LOCATION: DÜSSELDORF, GERMANY

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: Being placed very similarly on the mode wheel as the Kölnisches Stadtmusem, the city museum in Düsseldorf can be said to have a stronger narrative rhetoric. This is mainly due to its linear path that requires visitors to take a strict, chronological route through the museum.

STYLE/ CLARITY: It can be said that the historical narrative is clearly articulated, although not with much ingenuity or distinctiveness. Nevertheless, a historical progression can be followed, and for those curious enough, some facts about this city might be retained by the end of the visit.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: All of the few ornate staging elements are figures of speech; none of them allude to additional meaning.

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LOGOS: In the Düsseldorf Stadtmuseum, much like the one in Köln, the visitor is meant to see a map of the historical ‘journey’ he’s been through in linear progression. The problem with this musem, unlike the one in Köln, is that the exhibition space is a large spanning building with many successive rooms that, at some moments, feel more like a labyrinth than anything else. Reducing the number of rooms used in order to enforce a clear journey, or rethinking the way the space and narrative is suppose to be experienced (see chapter on arrangement in thesis book ) would be a 2 possible options.

PATHOS: This is fable type staging of narrative in its clearest form. The visitor ‘reads’ the text that accompanies the artefacts made to bring the visitor closer to the history of the city. He/she doesn’t seem to be able to take part or interact with this history in any way, which must be rethought since the visitor is inevitably part of the city in that moment.

ETHOS: Natural authenticity is where the arguments in this museum draw their strength from. The portraits of Napoleon and the prehistoric tools arranged on the table are real artefacts. The question now is: is that really what the visitor wants to see when coming to experience the history of the museum? Could a more strategically placed copy of a more relevant artefact be more persuasive?

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STYLE/LEVEL: STYLE/LEVEL: The Stadtmuseum Düsseldorf doesn’t appear to have many staging The Stadtmuseum Düsseldorf doesn’t elements, but the ones it does have but appear to have many staging elements, are consistent andhave tidy.areNeither tooand the ones it does consistent tidy. Neither too obtrusive, pleasant, nor particularly obtrusive, nor particularly it pleasant, it canthought be said that thought was can be said that was put into put into the staging style. Still arrangement the staging style, although more in remains the key communicative feature, regards to lighting and arrangement rather than the stylistic elements, such as thanthe in the staging elements, such as furniture. furniture.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: The exhibition system, made of dark painted metal and glass, works well with the sparsely and carefully arranged rooms. Only natural daylight is used, but in a strategic way so as to highlight the main textual narrative of each space which is printed on semi-opaque white textile. Overall, the rhythm that is enforced is that of the rooms which tend to resemble each other in size and shape.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: The exhibition system, made of dark painted metal and glass, works well with the sparsely and carefully arranged rooms. Only natural daylight is used, but in a strategic way so as to highlight the main textual narrative of each space which is printed on semi-opaque white textile. Overall, the rhythm that is enforced is that of the rooms which tend to resemble each other in size and shape.

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Being of a historical thematic nature, it’s clear that most city museums would fall under the category of theoretical and specific in the stasis matrix. As designers we can ask ourselves: is there an opportunity to change our perspective on the stasis questions of city museums and pose them in a more abstract manner? Perhaps relate them to the development of history in general or the progress of the citizen lifestyle?

The contents of this museum are strictly structured around a chronological progression (disregarding a minor number of rooms). This way, the change through time that is meant to be felt is made clearer, although the relationship between different periods of time, which is sharply delineated by the rooms, could be another weak spot to be worked on.

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STYLE/LEVEL: Reaching the highest levels of STYLE/LEVEL: descriptive rhetoric means also Reaching highestlevels levels of reaching the the highest ofdescriptive style, means also reachingcarefully the highest sincerhetoric it is primarily through levels of style, since it is primarily through styled staging that atmosphere is carefully styled staging that atmosphere is achieved. The Kolumba achieved. The Kolumba cannot cannot bebe denied denied this.this.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: The materials are dense with the idea of wealth- both spiritual and literal. Gold, leather and full cherry wood prevail. The stone floors don’t meet the walls directly, there are groves that make the walls seems like they are growing out of the floor, that they have deeper roots. The large windows that look out towards the city and the cathedral of Cologne are less like windows and more like large paintings themselves, having no cut or partition in the fenestration. Heavy mass and a brownish, gold-like colour prevail.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: The materials are dense with the idea of wealth- both spiritual and literal. Gold, leather and full cherry wood prevail. The stone floors don’t meet the walls directly, there are groves that make the walls seems like they are growing out of the floor, that they have deeper roots. The large windows that look out towards the city and the cathedral of Cologne are less like windows and more like large paintings themselves, having no cut or partition in the fenestration. Heavy mass and a brownish, gold-like colour prevail.

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Although a museum of the Archdiocese in Cologne, the Kolumba is primarily a contemporary art museum which might seem like contradictory topics at first. Still, the museum manages to be greatly successful and highly visited. This is because the argument it works with is more general than the topic of the christian religion as a historical or narrative entity, or even contemporary art as an aesthetic object. It takes both of these as premises for a more general argument of dignity, adoration, and the sublime.

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The artistic content doesn’t seem to be placed in any particular order. The spatial presence of art pieces is what defines the arrangement of content.


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CASE NAME: IKEA MÖBEL & EINRICHTUNGSHAUS -AM BUTZWEILERHOF LOCATION: COLOGNE, GERMANY

narrative

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: The IKEA brand can thanks its stark international success at least partially to its innovative and highly persuasive staging efforts. But the IKEA showrooms can’t be categorised into a purely argumentative rhetorical mode. In its parts ,and as a whole, it is also highly descriptive, as well as narrative. IKEA takes you on a journey to the wonderful potentials of your daily life, exuberant with an atmosphere that is both positive and trendy.

STYLE/ CLARITY: The style of IKEA staging, with all it’s painstakingly arranged details, is one massive display of the power of style. The showrooms themselves are each a distinct display of what a good design concept can do. The IKEA warehouse and showroom, including the entrance, play-area and restaurant draw the audience further into the argument as an articulated whole.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: Practically everything in sight in ikea is on sale. Almost all elements of staging are simultaneously the content of staging. Therefore, everything has a double layer of being a ‘showpiece’ as well as a ‘consumer item’. This makes the content of ikea some of the most popular ‘figures of thought’ to be commercially showcased.

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THE 4 MODES narrative

descriptive

evaluative

LOGOS: LOGOS:

PATHOS: PATHOS:

It’ssecret no secret thatIKEA theshowrooms IKEA It’s no that the are showrooms arranged inobliged a way so arranged in a wayare so that you are thatby you areand obliged pass by each to pass each every to one of them, evenand if you’re for even a lightblub to everyonly onelooking of them, if you’re replace one thats in your onlythe looking for abroken lightblub to study. replace Thisthe labyrinth like set-up one thats brokenenforces in yourthe study. ideaThis of getting lost in both time enforces and space,the labyrinth like set-up encouraging the visitor through the idea of getting losttoindrift both time and built rooms as if through the narrative of space, encouraging the visitor to drift their own possible futures, unsure of what through the built rooms as if through is up next but pleased to be able to spend the narrative of their own possible more time in this reverie nonetheless.

Thenarrative narrative that at base the base The that is atisthe of theof the showrooms IKEA showrooms is athe storyIKEA is a storystorythe of story of the visitors future.the By the visitors own future. own By allowing visitor to stroll thestroll ‘plot’ through as a allowing thethrough visitor to characteracts within story the ‘plot’ one as awho characteronethe who acts spaceencourages consumption through withinitthe story spaceit encourages immersion. In thethrough end, we immersion. buy into the In consumption story, allowwe it’ continuation attaining the end, buy into theby story, allowthe artefact that presents a piece of that illusory it’s continuation by attaining the future lifestyle.

futures, unsure of what is up next but pleased to be able to spend more time in this reverie none the less.

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artefact that presents a piece of that illusory future lifestyle.

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The powerofof the Thetrue true persuasive persuasive power the content in content in IKEA fact IKEA comes fromcomes the factfrom that the it references that it references something else- a even something else: a bedroom, a kitchen, a garden. This reference is a made so well bedroom, a kitchen, even garden. that reference we as visitors are inclined to that imagine This is made so well themselves in these types ofto spaces on we as visitors are inclined imagine a day-to-day basis. types Somewhat like a ourselves in these of spaces life-size in a museum, the power on a day diorama to day basis. Somewhat of authenticity in the IKEA stores lies in like a life-size diorama in a museum, their power to connect visitors to a different the power of authenticity in the IKEA space (our own homes), and even a different stores liesfuture). in their power to connect time (the our thoughts to a different space (our own homes), and even a different time (the future).


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STYLE/LEVEL: IKEA was given the highest style ranking since style is the essence STYLE/LEVEL: of what is being sold in this space. IKEA waseach givenlight the highest style ranking Each corner, placement, is theisessence of what is being coloursince and style pattern thought through sold in this space. Each corner, each light to in detail. The profitability of such placement, colour, and pattern is thought attention to detail comes from theoffact through in detail. The profitability such that itattention can be widely as fact a that to detail distributed comes from the business without making many it canmodel be widely distributed as a business model without making many customised customised local changes. local changes.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: With the individual showrooms, the rhythm balance and harmony of form, line, texture, pattern and colour and what dominate the space. Each of the mock rooms have been clearly styled by a talented designer, to be exported and showcased all over the world. Within the warehouse, the rhythm, yet subtle variety of forms and arrangements make for a compelling journey through the store.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: With the individual showrooms, the rhythm balance and harmony of form, line, texture, pattern, and colour are what dominate the space. Each of the mock rooms have been clearly styled by a talented designer, to be exported and showcased all over the world. Within the warehouse-like space, the rhythm and subtle variety of forms make for a compelling journey through the store.

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Everyshelf shelf, every light fixture notperceptibility only adds to perceptibility of lifestyle, a ‘normal, Every and light fixture add to the of the a ‘normal’ and ‘happy’ and happy’ it’s up for lifestyle embodied, all of it isfurnishings, up for sale! Ikeaadoesn’t sell home furnishings, sale! Ikea doesn’t just sell home it sells style, andjust even more - a LIFEstyle that isitboth affordable and and appealing. sells a style, even more - a LIFEstyle that is both affordable and appealing.

The contentwithin within showrooms is The content thethe showrooms is clearly clearly by topic living - bedroom, arrangedarranged by topic: bedroom, room , kitchen, work, kitchen, spaces, and kids. Looking living room work spaces, at thekids. warehouse holistically as a staged and Looking at the warehouse space, the different steps ofspace, the rhetorical holistically as a staged the are presented as in a textbook example. different steps of the rhetorical are Read the section on arrangement in the presented as in a textbook example. thesis accompaniment of this book entitled Read the section on arrangement in ‘ Persuasion tactics of Staging’ for a more the thesis accompaniment of this detailed account. book entitled ‘ Persuasion tactics of Staging’ for a more detailed account.

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CASE NAME: JÜDISCHES MUSEUM BERLIN

narrative

LOCATION: BERLIN, GERMANY

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: Both highly narrative and descriptive, this museum uses incredibly strong spatial imagery to emotionally engage us in a historical account, as well as make us aware of the prevalent mood and atmosphere which accompanies it. One of the reasons why the Jüdisches Museum Berlin is such a successful piece of staging is because it links these two- its narrative and descriptive purpose, but in a way that is not blatantly obvious. Sharp edges and narrow shafts of light can evoke many feelings- connecting them to moving narratives of the holocaust superimposes the effect.

STYLE/ CLARITY: There is almost a palpable quality to the style in the Jüdisches Museum Berlin, mainly due to the fact that the architecture - a stunning piece in itself- was designed with the content it was to host in mind. This means that Daniel Liebeskind moulded the architecture and its unique features, such as the diagonal fenestration ‘cuts’, with the underlying thought of creating a space that would amplify the terror and loneliness felt by Jews.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: Since the architecture was designed with the content in mind, ‘figures of thought’ are prevalent in the elements such as the towers the ‘Garden of Eden’ and in the choice of material itself. What should be noted is that the museum is vast, and on the upper floors, where jewish culture and tradition is exhibited, much of the ‘figures of thought’ are substituted for ‘figures of speech’ in order to enable clarity for evaluative and educational content.

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A

LOGOS:

PATHOS:

Being such a vast building, it comes as no surprise that a mental map of the whole space would be a combination of different types. There is a clearly delineated path, so it is a journey, but at the same time, the sub ground level offers several spaces for exploration in the model of the pinwheel.

The staging of the narrative at the Jüdisches Museum Berlin utilizes the model of a text. This means that the visitor is not a direct actor in the narrative, but is nevertheless immersed in the space that houses it. Although interactive in many parts, this museum still places the visitor outside of the story. The audience is meant to ‘gaze’ and ‘learn’ about Jewish history and life which is invitingly represented, but understood as fairly foreign to the visitor.

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The power of this museum lies in both its originality and its exceptional authenticity. It is one of a kind, to be sure. And everything inside is set up with exceptional care and thought. Because of this, it moves away from being an archive of things, as other holocaust museums tend to be, and captures the thoughts and emotions of visitors through its bold use of architecture to communicate the importance of the tragedy.


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STYLE/LEVEL: This museum earns the marks of the highestSTYLE/LEVEL: level of style. This is because the prevalent style - dramatic, dark This museum earns the marks of the and heavy - islevel prevalent both space the highest of style. in This is because and content. Something like dark thatand is heavy prevalent style - dramatic, - is prevalent in the botharchitecture space and content. only possible when is Something like that is onlyinpossible conceived with the content mind. when the architecture is conceived with the content in mind.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: jagged Shapes, heavy mass and sharp lines are the key elements in the style of the Judisches Museum. Light is another important element, as well as material, mainly concrete and full wood in order to emphasise the feeling of heaviness. Colours are kept to a minimum- black is often employed in juxtaposition with white on the walls and floor. This creates a dramatic setting which, along with dramatic ‘tunnel’ lighting in some of the towers, creates a true feeling of a stage.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS:

Jagged Shapes, heavy mass, and sharp lines are the key elements in the style of the Jüdisches Museum. Light is another important element, as well as material, mainly concrete and full wood in order to emphasize the feeling of heaviness. Colours are kept to a minimum- black is often employed in juxtaposition with white on the walls and floor. This creates a dramatic setting which, along with dramatic ‘tunnel’ lighting in some of the towers, creates a true feeling of a stage.

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The Jewish museum is designated to one topic and one topic only- that of the horrors of the holocaust. This is the clean and clear argument that comes across in the underground hallways and towers. Still, this is only true if we disregard the area that educates on jewish everyday life and culture on the upper floors. Here the staging is different, which is understandable since the argument is also quite different. But this then begs the question if the architect should have considered how many arguments would be staged within the building and wether to build adequate, or flexible enough spaces, for more than one.

Due to the complexity of the subject matter, the arrangement differs on the sub-ground level, where premises of the same argument are scattered throughout the space following the architecture. On the upper floors, form follows content and islands are formed based on topics such as jewish holidays, hebrew script, and religious attire.

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CASE NAME:

OLYMPUS PHOTOGRAPHY PLAYGROUND

LOCATION: COLOGNE, GERMANY

narrative

descriptive

evaluative

RHETORICAL MODE: What is particularly interesting about this case is the way that it blends a commercial agenda with a cultural one. The Olympus Photography Playground was essentially a moving art exhibition with interactive installations specifically created for this event. Visitors would be provided with Olympus cameras to try out during their stay, and would be given the photos they took in the form of an SD card at the end of the visit when they returned the cameras. Although clearly a marketing campaign, this setup is also highly descriptive, as the venue and arrangement emphasise a certain atmosphere.

STYLE/ CLARITY: The venue and arrangement are ment to be part of a ‘sub-culture’, post-industrial atmosphere now deemed in vogue. It’s done undeniably well, and queues for getting into the complex were long.

STYLE/ ORNATENESS: Most of what was brought into the space were the installations themselves. Little else was present other than the informative boards that were to guide visitors in exploring the camera features. Ornaments therefore, overlapping with the content could be considered figures of thought rather than figures of speech.

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B A

The O.F.P. is a textbook example of the ‘ocean’ typology, where each of the installations floats as an island in the relatively vast and open space of the old industrial hall. Visitors ‘swim’ from one island to another without a predefined order. What defines the user journey most perhaps, is which queue for the installations is shortest!

PATHOS: The visitor is encouraged to participate and create his/her own narrative, while using the camera and interacting with the installations. The installations themselves are unresponsive and uninteresting without the dynamic that the visitor brings to them. This is one of the factors that makes this exhibition particularly successful- its narrative as an all-encompassing story, with the visitor as the actor. The pictures he takes and later receives as a gift serve as a memento, an artefact that highlights the narrative nature of the event.

ETHOS: The authority that this particular exhibition has is twofold- it’s original in the sense that the interaction it enables is novellending out high-end cameras to visitors is a new concept. But it’s relation to art and culture also gives it an influential authority it otherwise would not have if it merely lent out cameras and told visitors to take pictures of whatever they chose. 73

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STYLE/LEVEL: The attention to style theOlympus Olympus The attention to style ofofthe Photography Playground is clear in the Photography Playground is clear in visual imagery, in the aesthetic of the the visual imagery, in the aesthetic art installations, but most evidently in of thethe artchosen installations, but venue- the old,most yet, recently renovated that houses evidently in theindustrial chosenhall venuethe many ‘indie’ cultural events throughout old yetdifferent recently renovated industrial the year. Attention to style reaches hall that houses many different ‘indie’ mid-grand, without going to full-blown cultural events the year. details grand sincethroughout attention to the smallest Attention reaches mid-grand, is notto ofstyle great importance. It is a temporary exhibition all.blown grand without going after to full since attention to the smallest details is not of great importance- it is a temporary exhibition after all.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: Light, colour and pattern are what predominate in the art installations that create the aesthetic foreground of the exhibit. This comes as no surprise since it is precisely these elements that create the strongest effects on camera.

STYLE/CORRECTNESS: Light, colour, and pattern are what predominate in the art installations that create the aesthetic foreground of the exhibit. This comes as no surprise since it is precisely these elements that create the strongest effects on camera.

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In the stasis matrix, the O.F.P. precariously stands between a general and a theoretical point of stasis: Although this is controversial since some of the visitors interviewed saw it as a traditional marketing move wrapped in new clothing. Because it uses artistic means to communicate, and the medium being at least part of the message, ‘buy the product’ is not the only way it can be interpreted. Its interactive/commercial nature places it among the practical stasis questions.

The arrangement in this case seems to be in no particular order. The main criteria being the size of each installation and where it would work best in relation to existing daylighting conditions.

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Rhetorical Diagrams

a companion to The Rhetorical Staging Case studies

TRADITIONAL MUSEUMS

1.Kölnisches Stadtmuseum

5.Stadmuseum Düsseldorf

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argumentative

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argumentative

THE 4 MODES

8.Jüdisches Museum Berlin

COMMERCIAL ENTITIES

7.Ikea

2.Starbucks

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THE 4 MODES

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3.Hollister

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NEW EXHIBITION MODELS

4.Museum of Broken

6.Kolumba

9.Olympus Photography


specific

specific

specific

80

NEW EXHIBITION MODELS

4.Museum of Broken Relationships

6.Kolumba

argumentative

argumentative

THE 4 MODES

narrative

descriptive

narrative

plain

mid-plain

middle

mid-grand

grand

plain

mid-plain

general

STASIS MATRIX

theoretical

argumentative

descriptive

narrative

evaluative

evaluative

LEVELS OF STYLE

9.Olympus Photography Playground

middle

evaluative

mid-grand

grand

plain

mid-plain

general

practical

theoretical

specific

81

middle

mid-grand

grand

general

practical

specific

descriptive

theoretical

practical

specific


82

Checklist TRADITIONAL

The main topics to keep an eye on while designing with the rhetorical framework in mind

TRADITIONAL

TRADITIONAL

TRADITIONAL

THE 4 MODES

LOGOS

PATHOS

ETHOS B

The Journey The Ocean

THE 3 APPEALS

The City

A

A

Fable

Natural

B C

Original

B A

C

Story

Exceptional

The Grid

Referential

The Labyrinth

Text

Influential

The Pinwheel The Island

INVENTION

Conjetural Definitional Qualitative Translative

THE 5 CANONS

ARRANGMENT

STYLE

Topic

Lucidity / articulateness

Time

Legibility/ precision

Place

Penetrability / distinctiveness

Cause/Effect

Certainty / perceptibility

Problem/ Cause/Solution

Correctness Clarity

Exordium Narratio Partitio

Evidence Propriety Ornateness

Confirmatio Peroratio

Figures of Speech Figures of Thought

83

MEMORY & DELIVERY


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