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Adaptation guidance

for flooding risk mitigation in Minsk, Belarus anastasiya andrukovich


Adaptation guidance

for flooding risk mitigation in Minsk, Belarus anastasiya andrukovich


ADAPTATION GUIDANCE FOR FLOODING RISK MITIGATION IN MINSK, BELARUS

Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree:

Master of Science Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning HafenCity University Hamburg

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Author:

Anastasiya Andrukovich (№ 6047517)

Supervisors:

Professor Wolfgang Dickhaut (HafenCity University) Doctor Vera Sysoyeva (Belarusian National Technical University)

Date of submission:

11 February, 2019


Declaration of authorship Hereby I declare that I have written this thesis with the title ÂŤAdaptation guidance for flooding risk mitigation in Minsk, BelarusÂť without any help from others and without the use of documents and aids other than those cited according to established academic citation rules. The thesis is submitted in the fulfillment of the requirement for the Master of Science degree in Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning to the HafenCity University, Hamburg. Place and Date

Signature

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Aknowledgement The present master thesis is dedicated to my lovely Minsk as well as to my friends and colleagues who have the same passion for the city. First of all, I would like to thank my supervisors Professor Wolfgang Dickhaut and Doctor Vera Sysoyeva for the professional expertise, help, and support throughout the whole working process. I am grateful to the team of Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl in Hamburg in particular Jeremy Anterola and Constantin Möller. For one year of work, I observed valuable practical experience and had the luck to participate in diverse sustainable development projects all over the world. I would also like to express my thanks to the experts who participated in the evaluation of stakeholder register and provide essential feedback. Thank you Anna Salivon, lizaveta Chepikova, Alina Gromyko, Dzmitry Bibikau, Natalia Nemkova, Anton Žakovič, Pavel Nishchanka, Nikita Potapenko, Olga Dolinina. Furthermore, I would like to thank the chief architect of Design and Research Utility Unitary Enterprise Minskgrado Alexander Akentev for consultation concerning the research flow, the piece of advice, and data. I am grateful to Lubov Hertman, the head of the department in the Central Research Institute for Complex Use of Water Resources, for the consent to be interviewed and the provided material regarding legislative framework and water management in Belarus and Minsk. I want to say special thanks to my friends from REAP generation 8th for inspiration, international spirit, knowledge environment, and touching moments. This time of study together is a turning point for all of us. Thank you Mariya Todorova, Noriko Kakue, and Comfort Mosha for constructive discussions and energy. Finally, I am grateful to The Nordic Council of Ministers for being selected for ESSYB scholarship and the chance to get my master degree in Germany.

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Abstract Flooding is an acknowledged problem for the city of Minsk. The relevance of the issue becomes more acute under the effect of climate change. The projections expect temperature rise affecting precipitation pattern and causing more frequent and hazardous cloudbursts. In this context, the dense urban environment with lack of permeable surfaces and inefficient centralized drainage system, cannot cope with heavy rainfall events. Besides, cloudbursts cause physical, ecological, and economic losses. Thus, the city requires a holistic adaptation plan in order to face current problems and resist future challenges. The present master thesis appeals to the adaptation deficit and aims to elaborate directions and solutions able to fill these gaps. Based on global experience regarding the raised issue, the goal of the research is a transformation scenario and prototypes considering Belarusian specifics. The analysis of the best practices provides the input material for the toolbox with measures which not only mitigate flooding risk but also enhance the ecological, social, economic, and aesthetic values of the urban environment. These measures are united under the general concept Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). WSUD implies a comprehensive approach providing cooperation between water management, infrastructure planning, urban design, landscape, architecture. Integrated solutions address the challenges and opportunities of dealing with water in an urban context. Based on the toolbox, the transformation scenario for the focus area in Minsk demonstrates the relevance and efficiency of the obtained WSUD measures. Besides, recommendations regarding legislative framework and stakeholders management refer to the mechanisms of WSUD implementation in the local context. Apart from the research objectives, the presented master thesis introduces and promotes the new concept of WSUD for the urban development practice in Belarus and Minsk in particular.

Keywords Urban challenges, climate change, adaptation, adaptation deficit, blue-green infrastructure, flooding, stormwater management, urban runoff, Water Sensitive Urban Design, best practices examples, knowledge environment.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 10 1.1 URBAN FLOODING RISK AND ADAPTATION DEFICIT IN MINSK, BELARUS 1.2 STATE OF ART 1.3 WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN FOR THE PREVENTION OF URBAN FLOODING RISK 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION AND OBJECTIVES

10 11 13 14

CHAPTER 2. RESEARCH FLOW AND METHODOLOGY

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2.1 THE STRUCTURE AND RESEARCH FLOW OF THE MASTER THESIS 2.2 RESEARCH METHODS AND DATA COLLECTION 2.2.1 Precipitation 2.2.2 Legislative framework 2.2.3 Stakeholders 2.2.4 Conceptual design process 2.2.5 Identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats 2.2.6 Communication with stakeholders and experts

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CHAPTER 3. STATUS QUO 3.1 GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE 3.2 URBAN WATER CYCLE 3.2.1 Flowing waters 3.2.2 Water supply 3.2.3 Wastewater 3.2.4 Stormwater 3.2.5 Summary regarding urban water cycle in the city of Minsk 3.3 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK 3.3.1 International agreements 3.3.2 National strategies and programs 3.3.3 City guidelines 3.3.4 Building codes, regulations, and standards 3.3.5 Challenges regarding legislative framework 3.4 STAKEHOLDERS 3.5 CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER 4. TOOLBOX GUIDANCE FOR THE CITY TRANSFORMATION 4.1 THE PURPOSE AND IDEA OF THE TOOLBOX 4.2 PROFILES OF WSUD MEASURES GREEN ROOF GREEN FACADE VEGETATIVE COVER RAINGARDEN SWALE / BIOSWALE / SHALLOW INFILTRATION BASIN INFILTRATION TRENCHE / PERCOLATION TRENCH STORMWATER TREE URBAN WETLAND / CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

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24 24 28 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 33 35 38

40 40 40 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49


RETENTION POND / WET POND DETENTION POND / DRY POND URBAN WATER CANAL STORMWATER MEDIAN CLOUDBURST ROAD CURB CUTS / STORMWATER CURB WATER FLOW PATH PERVIOUS PAVEMENT STORMWATER or VEGETATED CURB EXTENSION MULTIFUNCTIONAL PUBLIC SPACES TREE PIT RAINWATER STORAGE TANK / ATTENUATION STORAGE TANK GROSS POLLUTANT TRAPS 4.3 GENERAL VISION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.3.1 Complementarity principle 4.3.2 Recommendations for the legislative framework improvement 4.3.3 Recommendations for the stakeholders management

CHAPTER 5. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: TOOLBOX IMPLEMENTATION FOR THE FOCUS AREA 5.1 FOCUS AREA AND CRITERIA OF ITS SELECTION 5.2 DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES 5.3 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK 5.4 PROCESSING OF THE FIELD RESEARCH MATERIALS AND MAPPING 5.4.1 Identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the focus area 5.4.2 Creation of analytical maps for the focus area 5.5 TOOLBOX IMPLEMENTATION 5.5.1 Transformation program or scenario for the entire study area 5.5.2 Design proposals: transformation prototypes 5.5.2.1 Defining sub-catchment areas 5.5.2.2 Determination of targets for the sub-catchment area 2 5.5.2.3 Program for the sub-catchment area 5.5.2.4 Estimation of the applied program and WSUD measures 5.5.2.5 Prototypes design

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION: SUMMARIZING THE RESULTS 6.1 ANSWERS TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB-QUESTIONS 6.2 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS REGARDING PROPOSED TRANSFORMATION PROGRAM AND PROTOTYPES 6.3 OUTLOOK 6.4 REMARKS

50 51 52 53 53 54 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 62 62 62 64

66 66 68 71 72 72 76 82 82 88 88 91 92 96 98

112 112 113 114 114

REFERENCES 116 LIST OF FIGURES 122 LIST OF TABLES 125 GLOSSARY 126 ABBREVIATIONS 127 APPENDIX 128

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INTRODUCTION 1.1 URBAN FLOODING RISK AND ADAPTATION DEFICIT IN MINSK, BELARUS Stormwater management is a crucial issue for Minsk. The certain areas of the city suffer from flooding on a regular basis. What is more, the projected climate change with temperature rise is expected to affect the precipitation pattern causing more frequent and hazardous cloudbursts. Furthermore, in this context dense urban environment with lack of permeable surfaces and inefficient centralized drainage system cannot cope with heavy rainfall events. As a result, severe damages to urban infrastructure and property bring not only economic losses, and ecological collapses but also endanger human safety. Despite the acknowledgment of the problem, there are neither holistic strategies established by the city nor collaborative efforts to cope with the issue comprehensively. While the cities of water knowledge such as Rotterdam, Copenhagen, Singapore, Melbourne demonstrate the best practice examples and promote Water Sensitive Urban Design, Minsk experiences the adaptation deficit being incapable of facing the current urban threats including flooding risk. The traditional approach to stormwater management implies the direct runoff discharge to the sewer. There are two most significant issues related to the inflexibility of the system. First, the sewerage capacity is limited. As soon as the inflow exceeds the volume the sewerage designed for the flooding occurs. Litter and sediment accumulated in the collectors reduce the performance and cause clogging. Secondly, water is a valuable resource. Its shortage becomes more and more palpable under the influence of climate change. Attentive and careful attitude to resources has to become a leading principle in urban development. WSUD is the cooperation between water management, infrastructure planning, urban design, landscape, and architecture providing integrated solutions that address the challenges and opportunities of dealing with water in the urban context. Apart from the direct benefits, WSUD contributes to the creation of vibrant and attractive surroundings as well as encourages social interaction. WSUD makes water visible in the city and transform the urban landscape into liveable and joyful experiences for its inhabitants.

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The connection between the sustainable rainwater drainage and the overall city resilience is missing in Belarusian urban development practice. The WSUD measures are not taken into consideration by experts and authorities as an efficient solution for water management in the urban context which brings additional values and benefits such as microclimate improvement, enrichment of biodiversity, and creation of vibrant public spaces. Approval of the Paris Climate Agreement and The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development obligates countries to develop the policy instruments for the achievement of the goals and targets stressed in the international agreements. The National climate action plan and the National Strategy for Sustainable Development in the Republic of Belarus until 2030 are expected to create the necessary framework on the national level. However, the building codes, regulations, and standards which determine the architecture and urban planning practice do not enforce sustainable development approaches and principles. For example, the creation of a sufficient amount of parking lots has a high priority. The typical situation is that a new open car park for 100 or more places occupies a former green area without providing the substitutional stormwater drainage system. In this context, the impermeable surfaces prevent the natural water infiltration, the heat island effect raises, and people are deprived of public space. Lack of awareness about disadvantages of car orientated planning, the importance of green areas and permeable surfaces, as well as limited knowledge regarding climate change and its effects are common not only among ordinary citizens but also among professionals and city authorities. The adaptation deficit is also connected with the monopoly of the state institutions and enterprises. Thus, customers, designers, executors, controlling and regulatory authorities are the players of an isolated system. The established practices of design do not encourage the integration of innovative solutions based on best practices, engagement of civil society, the involvement of alternative opinion, and experts from outside of the system. Also, proper

communication and collaboration between stakeholders are absent. For example, the drainage planning and landscape design do not act in conjunction. It is a lost opportunity not only for effective stormwater management but also for the creation of aesthetic environment able to cope with urban challenges. Last but not least, lack of transparency in the decision making and the limited access to data hide the corruption and inefficient schemes and do not allow inhabitants to influence the process. The inhabitants do not implement their right to the city because they do not know that they have it. On a more positive note, Minsk already has prerequisites for the integration of the WSUD measures. First of all, the city has a well-developed blue-green infrastructure based on the diameter and two semi-rings with surface water bodies, parks, and wetlands. Second, NGOs such as The Green Network, The Minsk Urban Platform tackle the issue of green development, public engagement, awareness, and knowledge exchange. Finally, the public officials open the discussion about sustainability, improvement of the city ecology, preservation and extension of the blue-green infrastructure. Hence, it is the time for the introduction and promotion of WSUD approaches and the establishment of a bridge between disciplines, fields, and stakeholders. In conclusion, an integrated approach to design and planning is a vital precondition towards a resilient city where resource efficiency, environmental protection, and the high quality of life go hand in hand. The best practices present not only technical solutions and design ideas but also share the experience in policy instruments for its implementation and coordination by the involved parties. The present master thesis attempts to find the answer to the question: How to mitigate the flooding risk while enhancing the ecological, social, economic, and aesthetic values of the urban environment in Minsk, Belarus? The completed research will also serve as an introduction of WSUD concept to Belarusian audience.


1.2 STATE OF ART Consequences of climate change can be already observed around the globe. Temperature increase influences the precipitation pattern and hydrological regime as well. For example, there are more intense rainfalls in some periods and less in others, higher and lower river discharges accordingly and longer hot and dry periods (City of Rotterdam, 2013). In the urban context with the shortage of vegetative cover and high density of impermeable surfaces, the infiltration and evapotranspiration processes are limited. It leads to increased volumes and runoff rates that consequently cause urban flooding. Hence, an effective way of dealing with these issues is the implementation of proper stormwater management for specific cases. Affected by these changes cities like Rotterdam in the Netherlands, Copenhagen in Denmark, Melbourne in Australia, and city-state Singapore not only acknowledge the problem but also establish a benchmark in the water management. By developing new legislation, these cities create a framework for innovative urban transformation. Rotterdam is a remarkable showcase of decentralized stormwater measures reducing flood risks caused by heavy storm events. The Rotterdam Waterplan2 launched by the municipality in 2007 introduced ingenious projects for the flood protection and rainwater collection through, for example, flood controlling water plazas and underground water storages (Waterplan 2 Rotterdam, 2007). The further strategies on the way to an attractive, sturdy and climate resilient delta city were developed within

the adaptation programme Rotterdam Climate Proof 2009 (Rotterdam climate initiative, 2009). The Copenhagen Climate Adaptation Plan emphasizes the priorities and provides measures recommended for climate adaptation. For instance, The Cloudburst Management Plan focuses on extreme rainfall impact and flooding mitigation. According to the Cloudburst plan, about 300 projects will be integrated into city fabric in the period of 20–30 years with an emphasis on water retention and drainage including transformation of public open spaces, building of green gardens, rooftops, and bioswales to prevent rainwater from flowing directly into sewers (The City of Copenhagen, 2012). The City of Melbourne is a benchmark in realization and popularization of alternative water and water efficiency initiatives over the last 50 years. The authorities support and facilitate the delivering of WSUD solutions. The example of Melbourne demonstrates advanced achievements in collaboration between officials, researchers, private sector, and citizens as well as creation of legislative framework to assure implementation of goals. A lot of effort is given to awareness campaigns. For example, The Melbourne Water, the water management and protection enterprise, propose manuals and guidelines for Council staff, residential subdivisions, developers and residents. The manuals focus not only on the technical component, design process, practical advice but also provide councils with guidance on how to successfully develop WSUD targets, for instance, «Developing a strategic approach

to WSUD implementation. Guidelines for Councils» (Melbourne Water 2011). Besides, the annual reports inform all parties and ensure and transparency. Singapore with the scarcity of natural water resources obtains about 2400 mm of precipitation falls annually (Ivy Ong Bee Luan, 2010). The water issue is the essential political agenda for the city in the condition of its limited land area to catch and store the rainwater, and the absence of natural aquifers. The Singapore government is the essential stakeholder and top-down force behind water policy fulfillment, development of strategies, and their implementation. Due to the Active, Beautiful, Clean Water Programme initiated by PUB (Singapore’s national water management agency) in 2006, infrastructural assets such as reservoirs, technical ponds, drains have been transformed into picturesque water features with green spaces (PUB, 2006). One common fiature of these the best practice examples is the synergetic approach regarding urban development where infrastructure, habitat, and city open spaces are integrated into one multifunctional system. To emphasis this, the Benthemplein Water Plaza in Rotterdam, apart from the direct function of a public space, can serve as water collector during severe rain events with the storage capacity about 1.7 million liters (Molenaar, 2014). Another example is Bishan-Ang Mo Kio Park in Singapore where the catching runoff is treated in urban wetland and then discarded into the

Figure 1-01: Runoff behaviour in natural and urban conditions (Source: Author, 2019)

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Kallang river closing the water cycle. This, besides the fact that the river used to be enclosed in a concrete canal and had no space to overflow. The renaturalization of the river allows the raising of the water level without further damages. The general idea is the inclusion of natural systems dealing with urban runoff rather than it dumping directly into the sewerage. Thus, the development of blue-green infrastructure enables the efficient drainage of the rainwater and its natural treatment, mitigates flooding risk, and brings water back to the cycle. This approach is known as a Water Sensitive Urban Design. Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS) is a term used in the United Kingdom. The number of guidance documents summaries the «the best practice» experience and accumulate solutions on the planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the sustainable drainage system, for example, Water Sensitive Urban Design a Guide For WSUD Stormwater Management in Wellington (Wellington City Council, n. d), The Best Practice Environmental Management Guidelines for Urban Stormwater (Victoria. Stormwater Committee, 1999), Stormwater Best Management Practice Design Guide (The U. S. Environmental

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Protection Agency, 2004), The Georgia Stormwater Management Manual (the Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016), and other. The construction industry research and information association CIRIA has generated a wide range of manuals and publications related to water management, for example, The SuDS Manual (C753), Guidance on the construction of SuDS (C768), and BeST (Benefits of SuDS Tool). The non-profit organization National Association of City Transportation Officials NACTO, an association of 63 major North American cities and ten transit agencies, within The Global Designing Cities Initiative captures the strategies and international best practices in Urban Street Stormwater Guide. The guide provides a concept on how cities can design streets addressing resiliency and climate change. The document focuses on the generation of vibrant public spaces that deliver social and economic values, while recovering natural ecological processes. To draw the conclusion, Water Sensitive Urban Design theory and practice are represented by a broad spectrum of knowledge documents and implemented examples which can be processed and adjusted to the conditions of Minsk.

Figure 1-02: Natural, urban, and WSUD water balance (Source: Author, 2019 based on Hoban & Wong,2006)


1.3 WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN FOR THE PREVENTION OF URBAN FLOODING RISK In the wide-scale WSUD incorporates stormwater, groundwater, and wastewater management. The link between water management, infrastructure planning, urban design, landscape, architecture is the basic principle of WSUD. The lack of green areas together with the predominance of impermeable surfaces aggravate the runoff volume and rate in the urban environment. Thus, shrinkage of the vegetation layers together with the hardscape increment affect the infiltration and evapotranspiration processes. In contrast, the natural water cycle is presented by the equilibrium between precipitation, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and groundwater recharge. The urban runoff is characterized by more rapid and intensive flow, as well as high discharge into the sewerage system. Its capacity can be constrained especially in case of the heavy rainfall events. The WSUD measures aim to manage urban runoff by mimicking the natural hydrological cycles. The WSUD measures aims to attenuate peak runoff volume and decrease the pressure on the drainage facilities, Figure 1–03.

Figure 1-03: Attenuation of peak runoff by WSUD measures (Source: Author, 2019)

• Runoff management at the place where it falls; • Rainwater is a resource; • Above ground runoff management and reduction of water discharge to the rain sewer; • Facilitation of natural infiltration as much as possible; • Reduction of contamination and pollution by controlling the runoff at source; • Control of runoff velocity and its conveyance; • Runoff treatment applying bioswales, raingardens and other WSUD measures.

The WSUD measures propose solutions for blue-green infrastructure, public spaces, street WSUD also involves decentralized or design, buildings, and DSM facilities. The wide sustainable stormwater management dealing variety of processes such as infiltration, filtration, with runoff at its source. sedimentation, water storage, recycling, evapotranspiration, purification, retention, detention, conveyance, biological absorption, and microclimate improvement arise with introduction of WSUD. In practice, the instruments for WSUD implementation are integrated into building codes, strategic plans, action plans, guidances, and Masterplans. WSUD requires synergetic planning, professional expertise, collaboration between stakeholders, and public engagement. Consequently, it implies financial investments. However, there is a wide range of direct and indirect benefits in the long-term perspective.

The WSUD measures can be applied step by step gradually transforming a city as it becomes more sustainable and its urban environment resilient. The individual components can work together supporting the broad spectrum of processes, for instance, treatment, retention, infiltration, or conveyance depending on the context and target. This sequence of measures complementing each other is defined as the Sustainable Drainage Management Train. Concluding, water is a valuable resource that requires respectful attitude. As it becomes more visible and tangible it brings wellbeing and livability for the built environment.

The philosophy of WSUD is maximizing the benefits and minimizing the negative impacts from surface water runoff in the urban context. The design approach incorporate the following principles (CIRIA, 2015): Table 1-01: Benifits of WSUD (Source: Author, 2019)

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1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION AND OBJECTIVES The projection regarding climate change presumes further rise in temperature and more frequent heavy rain events for the city of Minsk. Considering current and future challenges as well as further densification of the inner city, limited capacities of the sewerage system, and prevalence of the hard surfaces, the existing problem of urban flooding will be more acute. The necessity for the adaptation plan which guarantees not only efficient stormwater management but also implies added values is crucial for Minsk. Thus, the creation of a favorable microclimate, elaboration of vibrant and diverse public spaces are essential components of a city where people would like to live. Besides, it is an attractive environment for new investments and economic development. In this way, the research question arises as stated below: How to mitigate the flooding risk while enhancing the ecological, social, economic, and aesthetic values of the urban environment in Minsk, Belarus?

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Supplementary, the following sub-questions arose: • Which measures can contribute to the flooding risk mitigation and bring added values? • What is the legislative framework for the implementation of these measures and how can it be improved? • How to manage stakeholders in order to ensure the implementation of these measures? • What scenario can be applied to mitigate flooding in Minsk? Lastly, the next objectives of the master thesis research can be distinguished: • Compilation of a toolbox with WSUD measures for the flooding risk mitigation based on the best practice examples; • Drafting improvement proposals for the legislative framework; • Elaboration of stakeholders management and engagement recommendations; • Development of the transformation program/ scenario and prototypes for the study area based on the toolbox including evaluation of its relevance.


RESEARCH FLOW AND METHODOLOGY 2.1 THE STRUCTURE AND RESEARCH FLOW OF THE MASTER THESIS The interconnection between chapters and the flow of the master thesis research «Adaptation guidance for flooding risk mitigation in Minsk, Belarus» is illustrated in Figure 2–01. The selection of the Belarussian issue for the master thesis was driven by the strong desire to contribute to the solution of homeland challenges. The starting point for the topic selection was the recognized problem regarding urban flooding risk for Minsk and WSUD concept applied worldwide for the solution of this challenge but not spread in Belarusian architecture and urban development practice. Inspiration and practical experience were absorbed during the internship in Ramboll Studio Dreiseitl, Hamburg. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION provide a rationale why the chosen master thesis topic is relevant for the Belarusian context. It discusses the adaptation deficit and related challenges as well as the necessity in the holistic approach to the urban planning and stormwater management in particular. State of Art reviews the best practices examples concerning integrated solutions for water management, infrastructure planning, urban design, landscape, and architecture. This section explains in detail the basic principles, benefits, and philosophy of WSUD. Consequently, the research question and objectives are derived. The structure and the research flow of the master thesis, as well as methodology and details concerning obtained data, are explained in Chapter 2 RESEARCH FLOW AND METHODOLOGY. The challenges connected with information accessibility, precipitation statistic, rain sewerage condition and capacity, inflow threshold are discussed as well. Besides, the attention is directed to elaborated methods applied to communication with stakeholders and experts. Chapter 3 STATUS QUO provides the input information about geography, climate and precipitation, urban water cycle, legislative framework, and stakeholders. Thus, the general causes and effects of the regular flooding are compiled in the Problem tree. In conclusion, the potential for the implementation of WSUD measures is emphasized.

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Chapter 4 TOOLBOX: GUIDANCE FOR THE CITY TRANSFORMATION summarizes the best practices examples and the worldwide experience in the way of individual profiles for the selected WSUD measures. The drawings, pictures, and schemes assure a better understanding of the processes and technologies. The vital output is the general vision and recommendations, direction for legislative framework improvement and stakeholders management. The approbation of the elaborated toolbox is presented in the next chapter. Chapter 5 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: TOOLBOX IMPLEMENTATION FOR THE STUDY AREA is dedicated to the approbation of the obtained WSUD measures. First, there are provided the criteria of the area selection and definition of its boundaries, historical overview as well as development outlook. Then, Section 5.4 Processing of the field research materials delivers the results of the field research, analysis of the street network, build-up, greenery, typology of the surfaces, drainage system. The information was obtained twice in May and August 2018. The focus was directed to the collection of material for SWAT analysis and mapping. The main outcome is the data about the ratio of permeable and impermeable surfaces, identification of strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The final part presents the program for the entire study area and offers design solutions with transformation prototypes for the sub-catchment area based on the toolbox and overall scenario. A rough calculation based on DWA standards allows evaluating the efficiency of the proposed scenario. Last but not least important, the final Chapter 6 CONCLUSION: SUMMARIZING THE RESULTS is the evaluation of the master thesis outcome. It provides answers to the research question and sub-questions. Besides, the discussion of the results regarding the transformation program and prototypes critically evaluate the proposed solutions. The Outlook section offers recommendations for the further development of the topic, possible next steps, prospects, and ideas about the popularization of the WSUD concept among professionals, students, and other interested sides. The Remarks part address the complementary mission of the paper.


Figure 2-01: Structure and the research flow (Source: Author, 2019)

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2.2 RESEARCH METHODS AND DATA COLLECTION 2.2.1 Precipitation

2.2.2 Legislative framework

The data is obtained from the information resources of the Republican Center for Hydrometeorology, Control of Radioactive Contamination and Environmental Monitoring POGODA.BY. «Guide to the climate of Belarus. Climatic norm of precipitation in Belarus for the period 1981-2010», the observation archive within the period 1891-2010, and observations for the period 2011- 2018 are the ground for the analysis of the precipitation tendencies.

The review of the policy instruments international, national, and local level related to sustainable development, resource efficiency, climate change adaptation, and urban water cycles as well as interview with Lubov Hertman, the head of department in the Central Research Institute for Complex Use of Water Resources, are the input data for the policy analysis. The purpose is to define the gaps in the legislative framework and controversies as well as distinguish the reasons behind.

Table 3-02: Historical precipitation records within the period 1891-2018 is based on archive «Extreme meteorological indicators, Minsk weather station». It contains the maximum records for each day of a year over the 130 years of instrumental observations in Belarus. The archive includes information about the date, year, and amount of precipitation but does not depict the duration of the rainfall. Due to the fact that climatic norms have changed significantly, and in accordance with the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization the climate standards since July 1, 2017, are calculated based on the period 19812010, for example, mean temperature and precipitation. These norms reflect the climatic conditions of the warming period.

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According to Lubov Hertman The State Program «Environmental Protection and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources for 2016 – 2020» and its sub-program 2 «Development of the State Hydrometeorological Service, climate change mitigation, improving the quality of atmospheric air and water resources» imply activities related to climate change adaptation. However, the issues of adaptation to climate change are not included in urban planning building codes and standards. Despite the understanding of the raising problem, there is no regulatory tool to start the real action on practice. The transcript of the interview together with the supplementary pictures and tables are attached in Appendix 1.


2.2.3 Stakeholders The purpose of the presented stakeholders analysis is to distinguish the main actors regarding stormwater management, their role, and interconnections. That is an essential part of project management and condition for successful implementation of the project. First of all, understanding of the stakeholders is the ability to predict their reactions to the project as it develops. Secondly, the analysis allows identifying the players with the power to influence the whole process, support or vice versa, prevent the project implementation. It is possible to develop an individual approach to each player, knowing the distribution of forces, assuming the ability and interest of stakeholders. Thirdly, detection of the links between players reveals the systematic problems, obstacles, or contrariwise discovers the paths for collaboration and partnership. On the subject of the given research, the stakeholder analysis contains the register and the stakeholders matrix, Figure 3–07, emphasizing the distribution of power and interest of each stakeholder. The register includes the following columns: • Stakeholder`s official full name; • Short abbreviation of the name; • Stakeholder`s focus area or the field of the activity; • Stakeholder`s responsibilities, official duties or functions; • Ranking of the stakeholder`s interest from 1 to 10, where 10 is the highest interest regarding Adaptation guidance for flooding risk mitigation in Minsk, Belarus. • Ranking of the stakeholder`s power from 1 to 10, where 10 is the highest power concerning decision making, influence, or enforcement; • Approach how to manage this stakeholder. The last column provides suggestions on how to increase the interest of a stakeholder, get support, minimize possible conflicts, raise awareness. The approach varies in each particular case.

The Stakeholders matrix is the diagram illustrating the distribution of interest and power. The players with low power and interest, 0–5 points, are Apathetics. In general, they are tertiary stakeholders and impacted the least but has to be monitored in case of disposition changes and informed in order to increase the interest. Defenders have high interest, 5–10 points, but low power, 0–5 points. Thus, they have to be informed and kept involved. The next group with high interest and power, 5–10 points, are Promoters. They are key players for the project success and have to be engaged into the decision making bodies. The last group is Latents with low interest, 0–5 points, but high power, 5–10 points. They present both threats and opportunity. The main focus is to increase the level of interest and prevent any obstacles from their side. The analysis can be repeated on regular basis to monitor fluctuations in the stakeholders attitude. The first draft of the stakeholders’ list was extended and corrected after consultation with experts. The stakeholders are structured into six groups State institutions and enterprises, Private enterprises, NGOs and Association, Mass media, Individuals, International organizations and foundations. Ten experts in the field of urban planning, architecture, sociology as well as representatives of NGOs were asked to evaluate the stakeholder register and provide own estimation of interest and power. Based on the obtained results, the mean values are depicted in the final stakeholder register, Table 3–05. Concerning the accuracy of data, the sample of 10 interviewed experts is not enough for the representative results. It is crucial to have a large number of randomly-selected participants for the confident output and minimization of the error probability. However, the received answers are not widely dispersed and close to the mean value, Appendix 2.

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2.2.4 Conceptual design process The conceptual design is the implementation of the collected toolbox for the selected focus area in Minsk. The first step is the analysis based on the desk research and field exploration. This stage has resulted in the SWAT analysis and mapping. The basis for mapping are the satellite images from Google Maps, OpenStreetMap, topography map, and rain sewerage schemes. The outcome is the quantitative data about the share of different surfaces and qualitative information regarding build-up pattern, streets network, distribution of green areas, impermeable surfaces, the location of stormwater collectors.

The second part assumes the potential and proposes the transformation program for the entire study area, as well as delivers prototypes for the sub-catchment quarter Nemiga street — Gorodskoy Val streets — Nezavisimosti avenue — Lenina street — Pobediteley avenue. Rough estimation and overall attenuation volume provided by WSUD measures for the sub-catchment area are described in Section 5.5.2.3.

Estimation of the applied program and WSUD measures The algorithm of the surface runoff estimation, inflow, and surface percolation capability is based on DWA-A 138E, DWA-M 153E, DWA-A 117E, and ATV-DVWK-M 153. The formulas are described below.

1. Numerical value of an «impermeable surface» area

The calculated value Aimp is the sum of all connected individual sub-areas [AC,i] multiplied by mean runoff coefficient ψm,I which depends on the type of surface, Table 2-02. 2. Runoff inflow

The given formula determines the expected inflow to the percolation facility from the adjusted impermeable surfaces during rainfall event of a selected intensity. 3. The percolation capability of the surface

Based on the described equation, the area AP required for the percolation of the runoff from Aimp is calculated as following:

Table 2-01: Symbols and definitions (Source: Author, 2018)

The formula is acceptable for the estimation of decentralized percolation facilities. For example, the area of the raingarden required for the runoff management from a roof can be distinguished by the equation above.

Table 2-02: Recommended mean runoff coefficients ψm in accordance with DWA-A 117E and ATV-DVWK-M 153

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Figure 2-02: Coefficient of hydraulic conductivity for different types of soil (Source: DWA-A 138E, 2005)


Coefficient of hydraulic conductivity kf characterizes soil permeability, Figure 2-01. The diapason 10-3 – 10-6 m/s is acceptable for the technical drainage (DWA-A 138E, 2005). The soil type of the focus area is sand with depth 5 – 10 m (Minskgrado, 2018).

prototypes to provide a visual comparison with the current situation and illustrate added values. Thus, the presented calculation is sufficient for the determination of primary parameters and measurements. The program and prototypes

A rough calculation based on DWA assesses the efficiency of the proposed program for flooding risk mitigation. Based on that estimation, the potential surface runoff reduction volumes of the selected WSUD measures can be compared to the sewerage system capacity.

Coming to the transformation program and prototypes, the vision was presented to Alexander Akentev, the main architect of Design and Research Utility Unitary Enterprise «Minskgrado». The opinion of the institution responsible for the Masterplan development is significant because the proposal contains radical solutions such as reduction of parking lots, reorganization of Nemiga street from the intersection with Romanovskaya Sloboda to Pobediteley avenue just for the public transport, creation urban wetland. In this way, the presented program does not contradict the Masterplan principles. Besides, it supports the development of pedestrian-friendly environment, extension of the public transport network, limitation of private cars accessibility to the city center, elaboration of the green infrastructure, and growth of the attraction for tourism.

«The technical code of practice 45-4.01-572012 (02250) Rainwater systems. Construction Design Standards» is the building code for the sewerage system design. The capacity is calculated based on the rainfall event 103 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min, or about 12.36 mm within 20 min. It is assumed that flooding occurs after this threshold. The statistic regarding cloudburst repeating ones in 2-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 100-years is not available. Therefore, it is decided to evaluate the efficiency of the program for rainfalls 200, 300, 400 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min. Section 5.5.2.4 provides the results. Runoff coefficients ψm for the estimation of the sewerage system capacity is taken as an average value from recommended by DWA, Table 2-02. For instance, a pitched roof has the mean discharge coeffcient in the range 0.8 – 1.0. Thus, ψm 0.9 is taken. However, for the cloudburst, the value is accepted in accordance with the upper border. Therefore, ψm is 1.0 for a pitched roof in this case. A rough calculation estimates the general contribution of the program to urban flood protection. Computer simulations applying software such as STORM can be considered as the next step for the continuation of the research. Due to the unavailable data, the simulation cannot be run for the presented master thesis. The important outcome of the research is the transformation

Apart from Minskgrado, the feedback was obtained from the Minsk Urban Platform, an educational and research NGO. The remarks and comments are taking into consideration for the program improvement.

2.2.5 Identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats SWOT‑analysis is proposed for identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats regarding two transformation options for Nemega street. Thus, internal and external factors are identified for both options. SWOT‑analysis aims to compare two proposals and distinguish more beneficial one. As well, SWOT‑analysis is applied for the summary of the field research with regards to WSUD measures potential.

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2.2.6 Communication with stakeholders and experts The tangible problem that occurred during communication with stakeholders and local experts was connected to terminology. Some measures related to WSUD are applied in the urban development practice. However, there is a broad range of new terms, such as cut curd, cloudburst road, bioswale as well as Water Sensitive Urban Design itself. Thus, there is a gap in professional terminology to describe all the measures, components, or processes. It was decided to develope pictograms and a set of cards to describe each WSUD measure from the toolbox. The pictograms have a color code according to the group: • Buildings; • Green infrastructure; • Blue infrastructure; • Urban infrastructure; • Technical solutions. The pictograms are applied for the toolbox profiles, prototypes description, and diagrams, for example, Transformation Program for the subcatchment area, Figure 5-47.

Figure 2-03: Pictograms for the WSUD measures (Source: Author, 2018)

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The full set of cards is presented in Appendix 3. The card depicts basic information about the WSUD measure: • The proposed term in the Russian language; • English equivalent; • Application; • Function; • Pictogram; • Picture; • Source of the picture. The expected outcomes of the research are the promotion of WSUD approach in a holistic way for Belarusian urban development practices as well as the introduction of the related terminology both in Russian and English. The intermediate presentation during the research traveling to Belarus was shown for the local supersaver Dr. Vera Sysoyeva, the main architect of Design and Research Utility Unitary Enterprise «Minskgrado» Alexander Akentev, the NGO Minsk Urban Platform, and experts participating in stakeholders register evaluation. The presentation included introduction to the WSUD with approaches and principals, urban flooding risk for Minsk, problem tree, best practices examples, WSUD measures with developed cards, and focus area analysis.

Figure 2-04: An example of a WSUD card (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 2-05: An example of a WSUD card, English version (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 2-06: An example of a WSUD card (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 2-07: An example of a WSUD card, English version (Source: Author, 2018)

The practical approbation of the presented cards has proved the efficiensy of the seceted tool for communication. A visual example with core content instead of verbal explanation ensures the proper delivery of the information and the establishment of the fruitful dialog. The pictograms and a set of cards can find further implementation in work with stakeholders, public discussions, and workshops. The advantage of the cards is that the information is delivered in a simple manner and does not require the specific professional background. Thus, the presented tool is the solution to build the communication bridge between different players and explain the basic concept for everyone.

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STATUS QUO 3.1 GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE The capital of the Republic of Belarus Minsk with about 2 million inhabitants has the total area 308 km2 (Belstat, 2018). It is situated in the region of the Belorussian ridge Minsk Rise, the ridge divides rivers of the Baltic and the Black Sea into two different directions raising the city of Minsk in the crest of the region. Even though Belarus is relatively water-rich country, sources in Minsk are extremely limited. The Svisloch river passes through Minsk from the northwest to the southeast flows to the Black Sea. There are six smaller rivers-tributaries within the city area as well. The relief is hilly and heterogeneous with the average height above the sea level 220 m, the highest point 283 m on the west part of the city, and the lowest one 181 m on the south-east (Minskgrado, 2017). The lowest levels throughout the region are located in the river valley. Belarus has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Dfb) based on Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Kottek et al, 2006). There are warm summers, cold winters, and distinct seasons. The city of Minsk receives on average annually 652–690 mm of precipitation in forms of the rain, snow, and hail (Belhydromet, 2018). The hottest month is July with temperature 18.5 °C. The coldest month is January with average temperature –4.5 °C. The mean temperature amplitude throughout the year is about 23 °C. During the period from April to October 70% of precipitation is in form of rain. Since 1989, the longest period of warming has begun in Belarus over the past 130 years of the instrumental observations. Thus, the average annual air temperature in Belarus is 1.3 °C higher than the climatic norm (BelTA, 2018).

According to the World Bank (2009), the general climate trends for the Baltic region in which Belarus included are: • Raising rainfall intensity and variability; • Increasing heat waves; • The decreasing amount of frost days; • Projected temperature rise by 1.6 °C by 2050 Table 3-01 provides the average monthly precipitation and total yearly amount within 1891-2018, 1991-2018, and 1981-2010 timeframes. The last period is recommended by the World Meteorological Organization as a the standard to reflect the current climatic conditions (Belhydromet, 2019). The data for analysis is obtained from the information resources of the Republican Center for Hydrometeorology, Control of Radioactive Contamination and Environmental Monitoring POGODA. BY. Thus, the diagrams are based on «Guide to the climate of Belarus. Climatic norm of precipitation in Belarus for the period 1981-2010», the meteorological archive within the period 18912010, and observations for the period 2011- 2018 Figure 3–01 and Figure 3–2 demonstrate the changes in monthly and yearly precipitation respectively since 1891. In order to distinguish the tendency, the time frame is divided into 6 intervals 1891–1910, 1911–1930, 1931–1950, 1951–1970, 1971–1990, 1991–2018. Thus, the annual precipitation is 689 mm for the last interval 1991–2018, which is by 37 mm higher comparing with the average 652 mm. Almost all months have become wetter except for August and September. However, this difference is not crucial, 2–9 mm (Figure 3–03).

Table 3-01: The average monthly precipitation and total yearly precipitation within the periods 1891-2018, 1991-2018, and 1981-2010 (Source: Author, 2018 based on Belhydromet data archive retrieved from the web site POGODA. BY, 2018)

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Figure 3-01: Changes in yearly precipitation within the period 1891-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018)

Figure 3-02: Changes in monthly precipitation within the period 1891-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018)

Figure 3-03: Comparison of the average precipitation (1891-2018) and precipitation within the interval 1991-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018)

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Table 3-02: Historical precipitation maximums within the period 1891-2018 (Belhydromet, 2018)

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Figure 3-04: The distribution of the precipitation records for April-October within the period 1991-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018)

Table 3–02 provides the summary about precipitation maximums over the entire period of instrumental observations, 1891–2019. The table contains information about the date, year, and amount. For example, in 2005 the daily amount of precipitation was 77.5 mm is the maximum over 120 years of observation for August 8. 70% of precipitation in form of rain occurs from April to October. The pie chart (Figure 3–4) illustrates Distribution of the precipitation records for April-October within the period 1991–2018. Thus, the last time interval 1991–2017 has the most significant percentage of cloudbursts, 28%. The statistic about the cloudburst events and its frequency (Table 3–03) is extracted from historical precipitation records within the period 1891–2018. However, the information about the duration of cloudburst events is not evadible in open sources. Therefore, the intensity of torrents is undefined. There is a classification of the adverse weather events in terms of rainfall (Belhydromet, 2019): • Heavy rain — rainfall 15–49 mm in 12 hours • Extreme rain — rainfall ≥ 50 mm in 12 hours or less • Continuous rain- rainfall ≥100 mm over a period of 12–48 hours Frequency and duration are crucial parameters for rainwater management and proper adaptation program development.

According to the stormwater management enterprise Gorremlivnestok, there is a flooding risk in Minsk when the rainfall reaches the threshold 20–28 mm in 1–1.5 hours (Minsk-news, 2017). Another source of data is «The technical code of practice 45–4.01–57–2012 (02250) Rainwater systems. Construction Design Standards». The capacity of the sewerage is designed for inflow 103 litter per second from the 1-hectare area within 20 min. It means in case of 12.36 mm rainfall within 20 min the sewerage achieves the maximum. The reliable information about the level of silting and clogging is not available as well. However, it is an important indicator to estimate the sewerage system performance. To conclude, the yearly precipitation has been raised in 1991-2018 by 37 mm in comparison with the average over the entire instrumental meteorological observations. There are changes in monthly amount as well, 2–9 mm. However, the most significant changes are connected with precipitation pattern. Thus, heavy cloudbursts appear more frequent and have a higher intensity. Moreover, climate change forecasts predict the aggravation of the problem.

Table 3-03: Frequency and amount of cloudburst events (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018)

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3.2 URBAN WATER CYCLE The key driver of the urban water cycle in Minsk is the Vileyka-Minsk water supply system. Through the transfer of water from the Viliya river to the main city river Svisloch, it covers the water demand for industrial and domestic needs in Minsk. The city obtains water for drinking and technical purpose and then discharge treated black and gray water back to the surface water body. The Vileyka-Minsk water supply system is complex engineering and hydrotechnical structure. It is presented by a canal with pumping stations connecting rivers of Black and Baltic sea basins, water reservoirs, Minsk water diameter and two semi-rings. After the World War II, Belarus in general and Minsk, in particular, faced an intensive urbanization process. Underground and surface sources of water could not meet the demand of a rapidly growing city located in high rises of Belarus and lacking sufficient natural water resources. Thus, in the 60s it was decided to enrich the main city river Svisloch with water from the Viliya river through the 63,1 km canal VileykaMinsk (Minskvodokanal, 2016).

Figure 3–05: Vileyka-Minsk water supply system (Source: Author, 2017 based on Minskvodokanal, 2016; Pluzhnikov et al, 1987)

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3.2.1 Flowing waters

3.2.2 Water supply

3.2.3 Wastewater

The main waterway of the city the Svisloch river partly by its natural pathway and by an artificial granite-concrete canal. Svisloch shapes the water diameter from the northwest to the southeast creating the green ribbon with the chain of parks, reservoirs, boulevards and squares on both sides of the river. Being a part of the Vileyka-Minsk water system, the blue-green diameter of Minsk was created as a result of the architectural and landscape transformation of the Svisloch floodplain in the 1950–1970s. The overall length is 41 km and the water surface area is 2800 hectares including the Svisloch river and connected reservoirs (Voinau et al.,1993).

Minsk obtains water from both groundwater sources and the surface body, the Vileyka-Minsk system. The water supply system includes 3,068 km of networks, 16 artesian water intake, 353 artesian wells, 367 pumping stations, treatment station for the surface water from Vileyka-Minsk system.

Wastewater and rainwater are separated systems in the city of Minsk. Sewage system has a centralized structure and includes 54 sewage pumping stations (SPS), 1854 km of sewer networks, the Minsk Sewage Treatment Plant, and sludge treatment facilities. Currently, the Minsk Sewage Treatment Plant obtains daily about 500,000 m3 of wastewater generated in the city of Minsk (Minskvodokanal, 2017). The technology includes two main blocks of mechanical and biological treatment.

According to the master plan from 1982, the water diameter of Minsk had to be accomplished by the Slepyanskaya and Loshitskaya waterways forming two semi-rings with ponds, parks, boulevards, gardens and providing the urban outskirts with greenery and access to the water recreation areas. Fully completed Slepyanskaya waterway has total length of 22 km and includes 140 hectares of water surface and 13 water cascades (Sychova et al.,1988). By the end of the 1980s, separate fragments of the Loshitskaya waterway were accomplished such as the Loshitsky Park, the park in the Kurasovshchina district. The Loshitskaya waterway represented by 22 km length chain with 18 parks, 22 hectares of water surface and 650 hectares of landscape areas (Sychova et al.,1988).

The average water supply is up to 163.8 million m3 per year or 450,000 m3 per day (Minskvodokanal, 2016). It means that the daily water consumption is about 225 liter per inhabitant. To date, the water supply from the Vileyka-Minsk system is about 130,000–150,000 m3 per day or 47.3–54.6 million m3 per year (Minskvodokanal, 2017). The water delivery via the Vileyka-Minsk system is connected with the energy consumption required for pumping up water to the city of Minsk. It should be noted that anthropogenic factors such as exploitation of underground and surface water sources and inefficient water management lead to the falling of the groundwater table and the drying out of rivers and lakes. In Minsk particularly, the inflows of Svisloch rivers Perepsa, Nemiga, and Drazhnya dried up, as well as the upper reaches of the rivers Tsna, Loshitsa, and her tributary Myshka, Trostsyanka, and Slepyanka (Makarevich, 2015).

Minsk is characterized by a hilly landscape with a difference in altitudes up to 100 m. Thus, sewage pumping stations serve for the wastewater pumping in the pressure regime from areas where it is not possible to use gravity. The gravity sewers itself is a resource-consuming facility, and it requires large amounts of water to transport sewage to the central treatment plant. Besides, there is a demand for electricity to put pumps into operation. Currently, the rainwater reuse and recycling are not presented in the city scale. However, it has to be introduced already at least for the technical needs and wastewater conveyance in particular.

Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the following economic crisis the further project implementation was interrupted. Thus, the plan to create the blue-green system with diameter and two semi-rings has been implemented not to the full extent. Current development of the system is connected with reconstruction and maintenance work as well as the elaboration of certain parks and segments. The Masterplan restricts the construction within the blue-green system. However, the authorities have a higher power to withdraw the plots from the protected zone for the new development.

Figure 3-06: Minsk Flowing water system (Source: Author, 2017)

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3.2.4 Stormwater The stormwater system is presented by the main collectors and autonomous small collectors. There are seven main collectors with diameters of 1,000–2,950 mm and overall length around 308 km which catch and release storm flow to Svisloch (Minsk City Executive Committee, 2014). The collector Drazhnja delivers mechanically purified runoff to the pond-regulator. This technical pond was created in the Soviet years without any treatment plant for the stormwater filtration. As a result, the pond is contaminated with heavy metals and oil products. Collectors Komarovka, Zapad, Tsentr, and Aranskaja have only a small oil remover at the outlets (Aucharova & Khomich, 2006). Runoff obtained by small collectors with a diameter up to 1000 mm is dumped directly to the Svisloch river and its tributaries without any treatment. Stormwater management is a crucial challenge for Minsk. Thus, the most significant source of contamination for the flowing water system and the city itself is the urban runoff. First of all, the system construction was started in the 60s of the last century, and do not satisfy the current demands in terms of treatment and capacity. Secondly, the network is clogged and the average level of siltation is up to 30%. Annually about 10,000 m3 of silt with garbage is transported to solid waste dumps (Gorremlivnestok, 2017). Thirdly, the significant amount of stormwater is discharged without any pretreatment to the flowing water system. Fourthly, due to the inefficient functioning of the stormwater systems city suffers from flooding during the heavy rainfalls events in the spring-summer period. Moreover, hardscape surfaces are prevailing in the urban fabric. Thus, impermeable materials applied for roads and pedestrian areas such as asphalt and concrete multiply the negative impact.

3.2.5 Summary regarding urban water cycle in the city of Minsk Minsk is one of the highest ranked cities in Europe concerning water consumption (World’s water, 2013). Although there is a possibility to use rainwater, the harvesting and reserving systems are not organized for that purpose. There are crucial challenges for the urban water cycle in general, and the stormwater management in particular. First of all, the specific parts of the city regularly experience flooding caused by heavy storm events. Secondly, runoff is discharged to the surface water body mostly without any pretreatment. It causes transformation of the water chemical composition and temperature pollution. The research conducted by Aucharova and Khomich in 2006 showed that the level of contamination gradually increases in water downstream of the Svisloch river. Thirdly, the opportunity of the reuse and recycling of stormwater does not take place in the current urban water cycle system. However, this resource could be applied now at least to the sewage system for the black water conveyance to the treatment facilities. It would allow reducing the consumption of potable water for the technical needs. Last but not least, the officials withdraw the areas of the blue-green infrastructure for the new developing despite the Masterplan regulations. It results in shrinking of the green

spine and correspondingly leads to the reduction of biodiversity, environmental degradation, and increase the risk of flooding due to the shortage in permeable surfaces. The city lost 302.6 hectares of green areas along the water body for the period 2003–2013 (Nischenko, 2015). The city administration recognizes the necessity of rainwater managemen, control over the quality of discharged effluents and the installation of efficient treatment facilities. Currently, there is the reconstruction of a stormwater storage pond on the outlets of collector Drazhnja and construction of treatment facilities by 2018 (News. tut. by, 2017). The technical pond with overall area 0.18 km2 accumulates runoff from a quarter of the city territory which is up to 55 km2 (Aucharova & Khomich, 2006). This area covers as well the ecologically unfavorable industrial zones. In conclusion, the WSUD approach is not presented in the urban planning practice. The project regarding the reconstruction of the Minsk drainage system does not imply integration of the WSUD measures and tackles only the pipes network development. Moreover, there is no strategy, vision, or adaptation plan aiming to deal with flooding risk mitigation. The Masterplan does not provide any direction or any synergetic guidance for that problem as well.

The authorities associate the rainwater management only with the extension of sewers but not with the alternative or complementary solutions such as WSUD and overall increment of permeable surfaces and green territories. Figure 3-07: Scheme of urban drainage with main outlets in Minsk ( Source: Author, 2018 based on Minskgrado, 2018)

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3.3 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK The following section provides the review and analysis of the policy tools related to sustainable development, resource efficiency, climate change adaptation, and urban water cycles in the context of Belarus and Minsk in particular. The primary target is to distinguish the gaps in the legislative framework and controversies between theory and practice regarding stormwater management. Special attention is given to the analysis of building codes, regulations, and standards. The framework is structured in the following categories: • International agreements, • National strategies and programs, • City guidelines, • Building codes, regulations, and standards.

3.3.1 International agreements The Paris Climate Agreement The Republic of Belarus ratified the Paris Climate Agreement. It is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change entered into force in 2016. Under the Paris Agreement, all Parties undertake the actions aiming to keep global warming well below 2°C reducing the hazards of climate change (UNFCCC, 2015). Thus, each involved country provides a comprehensive plan called nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and guarantee its implementation. The targets of the Republic of Belarus are reflected in the National climate action plan.

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development The Republic of Belarus adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. The SDGs cover social, economic, and environmental transformative steps. Progress in achieving the Goals will be monitored and tracked applying a set of indicators. The implementation of the goals requires revision, elaboration, and concrete definition of the national plans, programs in each case.

3.3.2 National strategies and programs Climate Change Mitigation Measures for 2013–2020 The program was developed in fulfillment of the obligations of the Republic of Belarus under the Framework Convention United Nations on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention. The priority was given to the waste management, efficiency in the energy sector and reduction of GHG emissions. The water cycles and stormwater management are out of scope. However, the program set the following tasks which contribute to the overall knowledge and data generation: • Improvement of the meteorological observations, data collection, climate researches, and climate change impacts analysis; • Preparation of scientific base, education, raising the level of competence; • Informational support and data availability; • International and regional research programs, cooperation, involvement of international specialists; • Public awareness on climate change knowledge.

National climate action plan 2030 According to the National climate action plan, the goal is the reduction of the greenhouse gas emotions by at least 28% by 2030 of the 1990 level (The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus, 2015). However, the national climate action plan mostly tackles the energy sector, forestry, and agriculture. The issue of urban water cycles and sustainable water management is not addressed.

The National Strategy for Sustainable Development in the Republic of Belarus until 2030 The goals and targets on The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are reflected in The National Strategy for Sustainable Development in the Republic of Belarus until 2030. Preservation

of ecological capital for future generations and environmental improvement is the strategic objective of the National policy. The stated objective intends to tackle the following issues (Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Belarus, 2017): • Ecosystem integrity and its protection; • Reduction of anthropogenic pressure on the environment; • Restoring disturbed ecological balance; • Rational use of all types of natural resources; • Environmental safety. One of the direction to ensure ecological sustainability is the development of the National Environmental Monitoring System and control in the field of environmental protection and climate change. The necessity in the improvement of the legal framework, as well as professional competence of stakeholders engaged in decision-making on the Environmental Resources Management, are acknowledged by the document.

The State Program «Environmental Protection and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources for 2016 – 2020» The main objective of the State Program is to ensure environmental protection, rational nature management, ecological safety of the country and transition to a green economy, as well as fulfillment of international obligations of the Republic of Belarus in the field of environmental protection. One of the tasks is raising the level of hydrometeorological security of the state and mitigation of the hazards caused by hydrometeorological phenomena increasing the efficiency in providing state bodies, other organizations, and individuals with hydrometeorological information. This task is tackled by the Subprogram 2 «Development of the State Hydrometeorological Service, climate change mitigation, improving the quality of atmospheric air and water resources». The target is the creation of legislative and institutional frameworks for adaptation to climate change by 2019. The key strategies for the period 2021–2030 imply the

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regulation and stimulation of the GHG reduction, data collection, and development of mechanisms for the rapid response to the emergencies taking into account current and future risks associated with climate change. Furthermore, one of the projects facilitates the improvement of the water quality in surface bodies. The goal is to reduce the volume of insufficiently treated waste- and stormwater by 50% compared to 2015 levels (The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus, 2016). The overall expected results of the subprogram 2 are: • The accuracy of short-term weather forecasts by 92%; • The automation of meteorological observations up to 90%; • The increase in the accuracy of storm warnings with a lead time of 1.5 - 2 days; • The reduction of ghg emissions by 4.5% compared to 2016; • The reduced emissions of pollutants into the air from stationary and mobile sources by 2.7% compared to 2015; • The reduction of the discharge of the not enough treated waste- and stormwater to the surface water bodies by 50 % compared to 2015.

The Union State program 2017-2021 for the development of the hydrometeorological security system The program contains the following objectives (Standing Committee of the Union State, 2017): • Improving the environmental monitoring system; • Analysis of the weather-dependable sectors of economy and preparation of the adaptation plans; • Development and testing of new methods and technologies for environmental monitoring; • The development of modern techniques for predicting the state of the environment. • The expected results include the creation of the database and development of an electronic climate directory.

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3.3.3 City guidelines The Minsk Masterplan The last edition of the Masterplan determining the city development until 2030 was approved in 2014. The target of the environmental strategy is the formation of the sustainable ecological framework with a high natural potential within the boundaries of water protection zones of the city water bodies, preservation and development of specially protected natural and landscape areas, as well as the ecological corridors presented by the water diameter and two semi-rings. The greenery target is 21m2 per inhabitant ((Minskgrado, 2014). The section «The Strategy of development of engineering infrastructure» includes few positions regarding stormwater management. The main direction is the further embranchment of the drainage system with new collectors and reconstruction of existing, as well as the setting of local treatment facilities at the outlets. The paragraph 2.1.1. contains the proposal for possible decentralization of the system and creation of a holistic concept based on the European and world best practices (Minskgrado, 2014, p.65). The weak point of the Masterplan is that the authorities possess the power to modify it without public engagement and often in contradiction to the sustainable city development. The most vulnerable spots are the green zones and the blue-green system.

The Green City Action Plan The city authorities approved The Green City Action Plan financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and facilitated by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (EBRD, 2018). The plan addresses environmental challenges, stakeholders collaboration, and public engagement proses. Currently, the initial stage is dedicated to the collection of indicators in order to define priorities and focus sectors for the green strategic planning.

3.3.4 Building codes, regulations, and standards The technical code of practice 45–2.03–224– 2010 (02250) Engineering protection of territories from flooding. Construction Design Standards The presented code regulates the design of engineering facilities and systems for the flooding protection of settlements, industrial, transport, energy, utility objects, mineral deposits and mining, agricultural and forest land, natural landscapes. Chapter 4 provides the following solutions for the flooding mitigation such as an embankment, artificial rise of the vulnerable territory, river-regulation structures, structures for regulating and discharging surface runoff, drainage systems. Regarding WSUD, the properties and abilities of the natural systems can be used as supplementary engineering protection tools. The building code provides the generic guidance and does not consider current climate changes.

The building code of the Republic of Belarus 3.03.02–97 Streets and roads of cities, villages and rural settlements Introduced in 1997, the giving building code provides guidance for the design of streets and roads of cities, towns and rural settlements in terms of parameters, materials, construction, stormwater management. Regarding WSUD, the current building code does not consider the application of pervious or porous surfaces. For example, asphalt concrete is the offered material for sidewalks, footpaths, bike lanes, driveways, parking lots. According to paragraph 8.4, open drainage systems (ditches, Infiltration trenches, swales) can be organized only in low-rise areas with 1–2 story buildings in urban and rural settlements.

The technical code of practice 45–3.01–116– 2008 (02250) Urban planning. Settlements. Norms of planning and development The technical code establishes norms


for planning and building of settlements. It determines general principles for design of the built environment, main requirements regarding density, functions, typology. Paragraph 4.2 talks about the living environment and environmental safety and environmental protection, protection of health and life of people, the population and territories from emergencies. Chapter 9 provides the set of standards regarding the green system of a city. For example, the proportion of green areas should be at least 25–35% of the entire development territory. Paragraph 9.1.1 states that the greenblue infrastructure has to be organized in the form of a continuous system of open spaces. Chapter 13 refers to environmental protection and microclimate improvement. For instance, paragraph 13.3.1 requires the development of measures to create favorable microclimatic conditions. Summarizing, the generic recommendations need more specific solutions and tools in particular regarding microclimate improvement, protection of the water, soil, air in urban conditions, mitigation of hazards caused by weather emergencies, climate change adaption.

The technical code of practice 45–3.02–25– 2006 (02250) Parking garages and car parks design standards The requirements of this code are obligatory for the design of parking garages and car parks. It determines not only parameters, materials, construction, location but also tackles the environmental protection aspect in Chapter 7. For example, the parking garages and car parks with capacity above 100 automobiles have to be equipped with the facilities for stormwater treatment. If the share of green areas is less than 25%, then parking can be provided only underground. The presented code excludes the application of porous surfaces for car parks.

The technical code of practice 45–3.01–000– 2018 (02250) Urban planning. Settlements. Rules of planning and building for Minsk

The technical code of practice 45–4.01–57– 2012 (02250) Rainwater systems. Construction Design Standards

The code is currently under development but open for the correction and improvement. The purpose is the creation of a framework for the specific conditions of the city of Minsk.

The given code is the base for the design of the rainwater drainage system for urban settlements and enterprises. It also provides the algorithm for the calculation of the surface runoff volumes. The formulas determine the capacity of the system and its parameters such as the diameter of the pipes required to drain the water from the area. The estimated intensity of precipitation is selected according to the table with rainfall event repeating on average 1 time per year duration 20 minutes. Thus, the value for Minsk is 103 litter per second from the 1-hectare area.

Chapter 12 Engineering infrastructure includes the stormwater management section. Thus, a closed drainage system with a minimum pipe`s diameter of 300 mm should be used on the territory of Minsk. The integration of open drainage measures is allowed for park areas, in areas of low-rise buildings, to preserve the surface watercourse, providing attenuation of the peak runoff. In some cases, it is possible to use open drainage systems in the form of cuvette trays that accompany streets. Paragraph 12.4.4 obligates the stormwater treatment applying local facilities at the outlets or centralized treatment plants. However, the discharge of the surface runoff is allowed into detention ponds and Infiltration trenches at the areas without a centralized rain sewerage system. Chapter 13. Environmental protection includes the protection of water resources and biodiversity sections. The strategy of the city of Minsk aims to ensure regulatory water treatment and prevention of flooding caused by the heavy storm events as well as the rehabilitation of the Svisloch river within the city of Minsk by cleaning the bed from sediments. Urban development projects have to assure the preservation and development of biodiversity with an increase of green areas of all categories and especially protected areas ensuring the safety of the green infrastructure. The preservation and development of the green-blue system should be organized interconnected with the formation of a unified natural-ecological framework of the city based on the diameter of the Svisloch river and the semi-rings of the Loshitskaya and Slepyanskaya waterways.

3.3.5 Challenges regarding legislative framework The legislative framework for sustainable development, resource efficiency, climate change adaptation, and urban water cycles which directly or indirectly determines the urban rainwater management is summarized in Table 3-04. The ratification of the international agreements obliges the country to fulfill the distinguished goals and targets. The instruments of the implementation are presented by national strategies, programs, and action plans. These instruments as well determine the overall policy of the country. The national strategies, programs, and action plans are vulnerable to a number of risks. Firstly, legal risks connected with changes in policy, the time required for the formation of the legislative framework necessary for the effective implementation of the programs. Secondly, administrative risks associated with the ineffective management of the State Program implementation, the low efficiency in collaboration between stakeholders which may entail a deadlines violation, failure to fulfill goals and objectives, as well as a decrease in the

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effectiveness in the implementation of measures. Thirdly, financial risks with the subsequent budget deficit, insufficient financing, reduction or termination of programs activities. Last but not least, macroeconomic risks associated with the possibility of deterioration in the domestic and foreign market conditions, a slowdown in the growth rate of the national economy and the level of investment activity, high inflation, as well as a crisis of the banking system and the emergence of a budget deficit.

The city plans, building codes, regulations, and standards have to be updated according to the national strategies, programs, and action plans responding the current challenges in particular flooding risks as well as taking into consideration climate change projections. The lack of environmental monitoring, climatological data, and statistic as well the limited public access to the information interfere the development of the adequate legal base. For example, the calculation of the drainage system capacity does not include the changes in precipitation pattern.

Although the certain approaches connected with WSUD takes place in the legal base, however, there is no holistic guideline with toolbox and solutions which can be applied as an alternative or supplementary measures to the convenient rain sewer. There is no discourse about WSUD as the approach for water management which not only increase resource efficiency, improve city resilience, mitigate climate change, but also enhance livability and encourage community building.

Table 3-04: The legislative framework (Source: Author, 2018)

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3.4 STAKEHOLDERS The summary of the stakeholders analysis is presented in the register (Table 3–05). The stakeholders are structured into six groups State institutions and enterprises, Private enterprises, NGOs and Association, Mass media, Individuals, International organizations and foundations. The table consists of the description of the stakeholder`s focus area and main activity, evaluation of their interest and power regarding WSUD promotion and implementation, as well as an approach how to attract this stakeholder. The group State institutions and enterprises includes Minsk City Executive Committee and subordinate city level organizations, institutions, enterprises such as Committee of Architecture and Urban Planning of the Minsk City Executive Committee, Design and Research Utility Unitary Enterprise «Minskgrado», Communal Design and Exploration Unitary Enterprise «Minskinzhproekt», The Municipal Engineering Unitary Enterprise «Gordorstroy», Production Communal Unitary Enterprise «Minskzelenstroy», State Production Association «Gorremavtodor» and its department The Municipal Repair and Operational Unitary Enterprise «Gorremlivnestok». Municipal Transport Unitary Enterprise «Minsktrans», Ministry of Architecture and Construction, Ministry of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus together with its institution «Republican Center for Hydrometeorology, Control of Radioactive Contamination and Environmental Monitoring» belong to this group as well.

The group Individuals embraces inhabitants from the vulnerable to flooding areas, citizens in general, activists for the revival of national values and heritage, urban activists, as well as deputies and local representatives. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The United Nations are united under the International organizations and foundations group. Figure 3-08 illustrates the distribution of power and interest among stakeholders. The engagement of sites with high power and low interest has a crucial role for a project implementation. The most crucial threat is them being against a project and trying to prevent it. In this particular case, the highest power belongs to State institutions and enterprises. The city level stakeholders in this group are under the control of the Minsk City Executive Committee. In fact, there are customers, designers, executors, controlling and regulatory authorities in one isolated system, Table 3-06. Civil society with high engagement

has little influence and power. Private design and research offices dealing with urban infrastructure or Masterplan development are not presented in this field. State media perform the function of a source of propaganda instead of a tool for public awareness. Private investors and developers are interested in the rapid profit and supported by the state mechanism due to mutually beneficial agreements. In conclusion, the monopoly of the state institutions and enterprises is the biggest obstacle in urban development in general and stormwater management in particular. First of all, the political system with the top-down decisionmaking approach does not welcome active civic engagement. Secondly, there is no market competition leading to more efficient, sustainable, and breakthrough solutions. Thirdly, lack of transparency, open data, public involvement hide the corruption and inefficient schemes. Last but not least, the established practices of design and construction do not encourage specialists to improve professional expertise.

Private enterprises involve Developers, Innovative companies with new technologies, Private businesses (enterprises, offices, shops, supermarkets, restaurants, bars, cafes) in the vulnerable to flooding areas, Insurance companies. The NGOs and Association group represents the civil society and includes the Minsk Urban Platform, Interakcia Foundation, Green Network, Belarusian Association of Transport Experts and Surveyors, Belarusian Transport Union, Belarusian Architecture Students Association. Mass media is represented by State and Independent radio, newspapers, magazines, and internet sources.

Figure 3-08: Stakeholders matrix ( Source: Author, 2018)

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Table 3-05: Stakeholders register, part 1 form 2 (Source: Author, 2018)


Table 3-05: Stakeholders register, part 2 form 2 (Source: Author, 2018)


3.5 CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT The review and analysis of the geography, climate and precipitation, urban water cycle, legislative framework, and stakeholders allow identifying the general causes and effects of the central problem such as regular flooding of exact realms in Minsk, Table 3–07. Inefficient drainage, «Adaptation deficit», changing precipitation pattern are tree central roots of the focus problem. Firstly, insufficient capacity of the sewerage is deteriorated by poor runoff treatment. As a result, there are clogging and silting of collectors, as well as contamination of the surface water body. Centralized drainage system and lack of WSUD measures directly affect the performance of the system. Adaptation deficit means the absence of mechanisms and solutions in the form of guidelines, action plans, and the Masterplan. There is a wide range of reasons leading to the lack of adaptation to present urban challenges including flooding, for example, legislative framework. Existing national strategies and programs created to fulfill International agreements are not supported by actual building codes and standards. The established practices of design follow outdated standards which do not correspond to the best practices. In the context of the strong centralized power, the monopoly of the state institutions and enterprises prevent the involvement of new stakeholders, for instance, the private consultancy in the urban development field, NGOs. Besides, the absence of market competition and general stagnation do not encourage the improvement of professional skills. There is no proper moderation between stakeholders. For example, landscape architecture and drainage design do not intersect. However, the collaboration could solve one common problem of rainwater management via a hollistic approach. Apart from that, citizens have limited access to the information and lack of engagement into the decision making process. The third reason is the changing in precipitation pattern which has been observed for the past two decades. The projections in terms of climate change expect rising rainfall intensity and variability, increasing heat waves, the decreasing amount of frost days, projected temperature rise by

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Table 3-06: Isolated system of State institutions and enterprises (Source: Author, 2018)

1.6 °C by 2050 (the World Bank, 2009). It means that the city will suffer more from heat island effect and hazardous cloudburst in the future. The regular flooding causes the consequent economic, social, and ecological problems. Damaged property and infrastructure, as well as a paralyzed city due to traffic jams and congestions consume extra money from the city budget. For example, the material losses due to rainfall with 56,4 mm in 2 hours 24 June 2009 were estimated at more than 900 000 euro (lenta.ru, 2009). Developers and businesses have high risks to invest money. The threats for health and safety provoke public discontent and concerns. Such concern is the health hazard for local restaurants impacted by the migration of rats fleeing flooded basements. Last but not least, inefficient treatment of stormwater raises the question of water quality in the Svisloch river because the runoff washes out from the streets pollutants, waste, and sediment. Accordingly, the ecosystem balance of the bluegreen infrastructure is under threat.

The city of Minsk already has a base for the integration of WSUD measures due to the existing blue-green infrastructure. The diameter and two semi-rings can get the logical continuation extending the green coverage and share of permeable surfaces. Besides, there are NGOs involved in city advocacy and sustainable urban development, for example, Minsk Urban Platform and Green Network. They are interested in the topic and can accommodate the rise of public awareness and professional expertise. Additionally, the recent statements of the authorities regarding development of a «smart city», improvement of the city ecology, the necessity to preserve and extend blue-green infrastructure is the step towards improvement of the city resilience (BelTA, 2018). Besides, the launched Green City Action Plan for Minsk in 2018 is at the preparatory stage currently and focuses on the collection of indicators to define the priorities. The current paper have a purpose to attract the attention to WSUD concept and its added values.


Table 3-07: The problem tree (Source: Author, 2018)

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TOOLBOX GUIDANCE FOR THE CITY TRANSFORMATION 4.1 THE PURPOSE AND IDEA OF THE TOOLBOX The general idea of the toolbox is the collection of the most crucial information about WSUD measures in the form of profiles. As it was mentioned in previous chapters, WSUD is not wideknown approach among professionals, experts, and officials dealing with urban development in Belarus. The delivery of the material in this way unites the patchwork with different measures to one holistic catalog. The developed set of cards is a supplementary instrument to the toolbox. Thus, cards with a basic description and more comprehensive toolbox profiles can be already applied as the means for communication. Each profile includes the description, area of application in the city structure, function regarding rainwater management, accompanying benefits, limitations, special conditions or design considerations, maintenance, and supplementary graphic material in the form of schemes, photographs or drawings. The presented toolbox summarizes state of the art regarding WSUD world experience. The best practices examples from Rotterdam, Copenhagen, Singapore, Melbourne, and other water knowledge cities have inspired for the creation of a first draft manual for Minsk. The toolbox includes 21 measure applicable to Belarusian context which are conditionally grouped into five categories: • Buildings; • Green infrastructure; • Blue infrastructure; • Urban infrastructure; • Technical solutions. The elaborated pictograms for each measure refer to processes facilitating by it, for instance, infiltration, retention, or conveyance. The WSUD measures can work individually or complement each other within a Sustainable Drainage Management Train where the individual components are interconnected and perform a symbiotic collaboration. Therefore, the symbiosis provide a more flexible system with balancing of different options for water management.

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Moreover, some measures can be vulnerable or less efficient implemented alone. For example, urban canal requires runoff pretreatment within bioswale to ensure proper quality of water and avoid clogging. The selected measures are depicted in the resulting table with the representation of processes arising in an individual case, Table 4–01. In this paper the processes are defined as follows: Infiltration — water seeping into the soil and aquifer recharge; Filtration — sediments separation from water by interposing a medium (filter); Sedimentation — sediments separation from water by setting it out of the fluid; Storage — conservation of cleaner water; Recycling — cleaner water reuse; Evapotranspiration – moisture transferring to the atmosphere by evaporation of water and transpiration from plants; Purification — water treatment through biological processes; Retention — the reduction of rainwater’s peak flow and holding water volume at the source; Detention — the reduction of rainwater’s peak flow and graduate water infiltration; Conveyance — control and rainwater flow transportation to a destination; Biological absorption –nutrients` uptake by plants from water and soil; Microclimate — improvement, for example, heat island effect reduction, shading, sun and wind protection. Certain measures support a wide spectrum of processes Depending on the initial purpose, the resulting table can navigate in the selection of measures to meet the defined objective. Some measures imply either retention or detention depending on the local conditions regarding groundwater table and based on the applied system. Thus, collected by the raingarden water can be retained and then directed to the next destination such as urban wetland or canal. The second option is gradual discharge to the soil. On the whole, the toolbox is guidance providing solutions for the transformation towards more water sensitive, resilient, environmentally orientated city.


Table 4-01: WSUD measures, processes (Source: Author, 2018)

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GREEN ROOF DESCRIPTION

A green roof is a type of WSUD measure organized on the rooftop with full or partial vegetative coverage. The green roof mimics the natural conditions facilitating rainwater retention, attenuation, treatment, evapotranspiration, and providing wildlife habitat. The system typically includes waterproofing membrane, protection layer or root barrier, drainage, filter, growing medium, irrigation system, and vegetation. The green roofs can be classified into three categories depending on the construction and the depth of the growing medium: • Extensive roofs are the simpler and lighter systems with the substrate depths 20–150mm applicable for grasses, succulents, and moss cover (CIRIA, 2015). • Intensive roofs have deeper substrate, more than 150 mm, and consequently higher loadings on the construction. However, they integrate not only more diverse vegetative cover with shrubs, trees, and gardens but also provide space for human interaction. • Hybrid green roofs may include components of intensive and extensive systems. Blue roofs explicitly collect and store rainwater for the further application or extended attenuation capacity. The storage volume can be organized within or under the porous medium, integrating open pools or ponds. A green roof can provide 50–70% of the runoff reduction volume (DWA-A 138E, 2005).

FUNCTION

► Moderation of urban runoff velocity and volume ► Rainwater retention and treatment

APPLICATION

► New buildings ► Retrofitting of existing facilities

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Air quality improvement ► Noise moderation ► Energy reduction for heating and cooling needs ► Regulation of building temperature ► Increased Market Value ► Enhance of the aesthetic value ► Potential for urban farming ► Possible public realm

LIMITATIONS

The complexity and multiplicity of the system in direct ratio increases the design and operation expenses. Construction and maintenance expenses of a green roof are higher in comparison with the conventional one. The recommended slope for a rooftop is 10%; however, the green roof can be organized on the slope up to 25% if the installation and anchoring of trays or other modular system are provided (Swann, 2016). The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment, rainfalls, dry periods, and wind.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Depending on the green roof type and function the system creates extra loadings on the construction. For example, the extensive roof 80 mm weights about 90–140 kg/m², garden roof 260–470 mm is about 320–680 kg/m² (Optigreen Ltd, 2018). The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment, periodic rainfall, hot and dry periods, as well as wind. Waterproofing membrane has to be protected by root barrier.

MAINTENANCE

► Maintenance of soil media and vegetation, replacement when it is required ► Planting management and removal of invasive species ► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment

The Vierhavenstrip DakPark is an example of the hybrid green roof. It occupies the rooftop of the multifunctional building. There are not only green infrastructure but also public spaces for the local communities and water features. Besides, the facility protects the adjacent quarter from flooding in case of water level rise. 42

Figure 4-01: The hybrid green roof, Vierhavenstrip DakPark in Rotterdam, the Netherlands ( Source: Author, 2018)


GREEN FACADE DESCRIPTION

A green facade is a vertical vegetative system which can be created applying self-climbing plants, plants grown in garden beds at its base, plants grown from pots attached to the facade or from a substrate. Besides soil or substrate, the construction includes a water delivery system. The green façade have not only aesthetic value but also provide stormwater retention and attenuation of the peak runoff. Vertical gardens can also be considered in this category. It is a prefabricated modular structure that can be located in front of a façade. The modular elements contain substrate space and automatic irrigation.

FUNCTION

► Attenuation of the peak runoff ► Rainwater retention

APPLICATION

► New buildings ► Retrofitting and renovation of existing facilities

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Wind, noise, and sun protection of a building and adjacent areas ► Air quality improvement ► Enhance of the aesthetic value ► Regulation of building temperature ► Energy reduction for heating and cooling needs ► Unique design for the façade

LIMITATIONS

Vegetation and roots can cause or escalate existing damages. Wind creates problems for plant attachment, particularly at height. Building high and its design limit the access to the green façade. Spiders, insects, birds, and small animals can enter the indoor space via the vegetation on the facades.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The selected species has to require as little maintenance as possible. The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment, rainfalls, wind, dry and cold periods. The orientation of a façade determines plants and construction system. For example, self-climbing plants, which are adapted to shade, are suitable for north facing façade. Depending on the type and function the system creates extra loadings on the construction.

MAINTENANCE

► Maintenance of soil media and/or vegetative system, replacement when it is required ► Planting management and removal of invasive species ► Regular inspection of structural components ► Irrigation if required

Figure 4-02: The green facade, CaixaForum museum in Madrid, Spain ( Source: Author, 2018)

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VEGETATIVE COVER DESCRIPTION

A vegetative cover is natural and semi-natural areas which shape the green infrastructure of a city. Parks, pocket parks, lawns, urban gardens, green stripes are included in this category. Green spaces provide not only the opportunity for active and passive recreation but also slow down runoff velocity, facilitate evapotranspiration, filtration, treatment through the root zone, infiltration into the soil. Build-up areas, plazas, streets, and parking lots with hardscape does not allow rainwater to be naturally absorbed. That is why vegetative cover with its permeability has a crucial role in the reduction of stress on the drainage system — the more percentage of vegetative cover in the urban environment the less the flooding risk. The components of the green infrastructure cannot be efficient and resilient towards challenges in isolation because the size and connectivity with each other are essential for the regeneration ability and efficient performance.

FUNCTION

► Moderation of urban runoff velocity and volume ► Runoff collection, treatment, infiltration

APPLICATION

► Urban open spaces

BENEFITS

► Reduction of the pressure on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Air and water quality improvement ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Enhance of the aesthetic value ► Potential for urban farming ► Health and human well-being ► Possible public space

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LIMITATIONS

The species have to be selected according to the local climate conditions. The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The sustainability of the green infrastructure depends on its integrity. A component has to possess a certain critical mass and potential for connectivity. Thus, a single green island in the middle of the hardscape does not perform in a full extent as if it would be a chain of green spaces forming an urban ecosystem.

MAINTENANCE

► Irrigation during drought, pruning, pest control, weeding and removal of invasive species ► Maintenance of soil media and planting, replacement when it is required

Figure 4-03: An urban garden in Chicago, the USA ( Source: Author, 2016)


RAINGARDEN DESCRIPTION

A raingarden is a bioretention system which is designed as a landscaped depression with vegetation and engineered soils. It serves for management of rainwater obtained from the small areas, for example, a roof of a single property. The runoff flows via inlet pipes, gutters, trough curb cuts, soft edges, gentle side slopes. The raingarden temporary pond water before its filtration. Ponding capacity is the water volume which can be temporary held above ground level of a raingarden. Specially organized vegetated area biologically treats stormwater using soil, plants, and microorganisms. Water soaks through filter media while litter, leaves, and sediment is trapped on the garden surface. Plants and soil microbes process the nutrients. The garden bed typically includes water inlets, vegetation cover, filter media (for example, sandy loam), overflow, underdrains with perforated pipe, and an outlet. Treated water can be directed into a drainage system, infiltrated to the ground, discharged to the water bodies, or reused for different needs. Overflow or bypass protect the raingarden from overloading. The flow velocity can be slowed down by check dams. The simple raingarden does not have underdrain, passing though compost/sand or engineered soils water seeps to the underlying soil. According to «Urban Street Stormwater Guide» (NACTO, 2017), there are distinguished biofiltration and bioretention planters. The biofiltration planter has impermeable base and water collection drainage system. Bioretention planter allows water to soak at the place. The choice of the system depends on local conditions, for example, the characteristics of the native soils, groundwater location.

FUNCTION

► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff ► Runoff catchment, treatment, and infiltration

APPLICATION

► Urban plazas ► Laneways (sidewalks, streets, medians, pedestrian boulevards, along with the property line)

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Flexibility in design (various shapes and sizes, depending on the location and available space) ► Processing of low pollutants levels from vehicles (Wellington City Council, 2013) ► A cost-effective way to treat and hold runoff ► The aesthetic appeal of sidewalks, streets, public spaces

LIMITATIONS

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Raingarden size shall be calculated based upon how much water is collected, it is about 1–2% of the water catchment area (Wellington City Council, 2013; Melbourne Water, 2017). Underground utilities have to be considered, the distance from the building’s foundation is minimum 3 m (CIRIA, 2015; Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016). Depth of the ponding level is 150 mm (CIRIA, 2015). The minimum width is 600mm, the maximum length is 40 m (CIRIA, 2015). The maximum catchment area is 0.8 ha (Davis, 2008). A filter media depth is about 750–1000 mm, but simple raingardens include only 200–500 mm of compost/sand or engineered soils instead of filter media and drainage layers (CIRIA, 2015) A geotextile prevents washing of fines from filter media to the drainage layer. Gravel drainage layer contains perforated pipe with diameter about 100 mm (CIRIA, 2015). Geocellular units can be incorporated instead a gravel drainage in case if the higher attenuation storage volume is required. Priority has to be given to native plantings which able to handle periodical flooding or drought, and require maintenance.

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components especially after heavy rain events ► Maintenance of soil media and planting, replacement when it is required ► Irrigation during drought, pruning, pest control, weeding and removal of invasive species ► Inspection of the underdrain through a well

Raingarden cannot treat runoff from a large drainage area in comparison to urban wetlands. There is a risk of clogging due to litter, debris, and sediment loads. Plantings have to be resilient towards periodical waterlogging and sustain local climate.

Figure 4-04: Biofiltration Planter ( Source: Author, 2018 based on NACTO, 2017)

Figure 4-05: Bioretention Planter ( Source: Author, 2018 based on NACTO, 2017)

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SWALE / BIOSWALE / SHALLOW INFILTRATION BASIN DESCRIPTION

A swale is a linear depressed channel covered with grass or more dense vegetation. A swale is a flat, formed terrain basin for the percolation of runoffs with temporary above-ground storage (DWA-A 138E, 2005). Swales mimic natural drainage processes slowing down runoff velocity, providing evapotranspiration, filtration, and treatment through the root zone, infiltration into the soil. Incorporation of the landscape elements and diverse greenery strategies enhances aesthetic value and creates a distinctive character. There are three types of swells: • Conveyance and attenuation swales obtain runoff and convey it to the destination point, for example, urban wetland. Treatment and Infiltration are not excluded but predefined by the flow intensity and ponding depth (CIRIA, 2015). • Dry swales include a soil filter bed above the underdrain layer filled with gravel. This system provides the additional conveyance volume within the gravel layer. • Wet swales contain a permanent water level at the base, minimum 150 mm, with wetland planting (CIRIA, 2015). This type is convenient for the flat areas, conditions where soil has low infiltration capacity or with the high water table. Urban runoff flows into a swale via curb cuts, trench drain, pipe, gutters or as sheet flow from the adjacent impervious surface. However, the flow concentrating inlets has to contain flow spreaders and pretreatment to prevent a risk of erosion and silting. Vegetated strips at the edge of impervious areas facilitate the runoff pretreatment. Incorporation of the berms and/or check dams perpendicular to the flow path with 10–20 m intervals facilitate settling and infiltration Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016; CIRIA, 2015).

FUNCTION

► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff ► Runoff catchment, treatment, infiltration, and conveyance

APPLICATION

► Along low-volume roads, sidewalks, and car parks ► Nature strips and corridors ► Public open spaces, sport fields

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Enhance of the aesthetic value and appealing landscaping feature

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Trapezoidal or paraboloid shape in cross section for water catchment, convenience in construction and maintenance. The bottom width is 0.5–2.0 m, the depth is 0,4–0,6 m (CIRIA, 2015), the side slope is 2.5:1–4:1 (horizontal: vertical) to resist erosion and provide maintenance access (NACTO, 2018). The longitude slope is 0.5% –6% to assure the water conveyance, the swales with a slope less than 1.5% has to include the underdrain layer (CIRIA, 2015). If the groundwater level is 1m below the base of the swale, the infiltration is allowed (CIRIA, 2015). Overflow elements connected with sewer can be incorporated into design in order to prevent the overload during heavy rainfall events. The recommended water level in swales up to 300 mm with complete filling (DWA-A 138E, 2005).

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment from forebay and channel ► Regular inspection of structural components, for example, inlets, outlets, and overflows especially after heavy rain events ► Mowing to retain the grass lengths 75–150mm for the dry swales ► Planting management and removal of invasive species ► Restoration of construction levels, repair erosion as required

LIMITATIONS

Swales are not recommended for the areas with a steep slope because plants cannot influence the water flow. Due to the limited space, swales cannot be incorporated into dense urban areas. 3:1 or shallower slope of the graded sides is the most convenient for the maintenance access (NACTO, 2018). A wet swale can have an unpleasant odor and attract mosquitoes.

Figure 4-06: An example of the wet swale ( Source: Author, 2018 based on CIRIA, 2015)

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INFILTRATION TRENCHE / PERCOLATION TRENCH DESCRIPTION

An infiltration trench or a percolation trench is a shallow excavation lined with the filter fabric and filled with a porous material such as gravel or crushed stone. The infiltration trench functions as a soakaway obtaining water inflow from the adjacent impervious areas, storing it and gradually discharging to the groundwater. If the infiltration to the ground is impossible or undesirable obtained water can be directed to the next destination, for example, urban wetland. The stormwater is infiltrated into the subsoil from the bottom and sides of the trench while sediment and pollutants remain in the porous media. However, the infiltration trench itself not intended to trap sediment and have to be designed together with a sediment forebay, for example, grass channel, filter strip, swale, or corresponding pretreatment measures. There is a wide variety of configuration and complicity of the system. Those, the integration of the bioretention system on the top of the trench maximizes the treatment capacity and provides higher pollutant removal in comparison with the simple gravel-filled trench.

FUNCTION

► Runoff collection, treatment, infiltration ► Runoff conveyance ► Moderation of urban runoff velocity and volume

APPLICATION

► Sidewalks ► Car parks ► Sports fields, recreational areas, public open space

BENEFITS

► Reduction of the pressure on the drainage system ► Relatively small surface footprint due to a narrow linear configuration ► Applied for draining residential and nonresidential runoff ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Mitigation of downstream flooding

LIMITATIONS

Effective pre-treatment using grass or swales has to be provided especially for areas with high sediment loading. The infiltration trench is not recommended for the sites with the fine-particled soils (clays or silts) due to the obstructed infiltration and as a result, clogging risk for the trench. The infiltration trench may not be appropriate for the areas with a risk of groundwater contamination depending on soil characteristic, depth of the groundwater level. Upstream sediment control is required. Percolation trench cannot be constructed near buildings in order to avoid foundation damage and flooding.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Infiltration trenches are appropriate for sites with porous soils. The depth of the trenches is about 1–2 m (NWRM, 2015; Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016). The size of the fill material has to be enough to provide efficient percolation, 40–60 mm based on the CIRIA recommendations (2007). Soils should have a clay content of less than 20% and a silt/clay content of less than 40% to prevent clogging (Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016).

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Inspection for clogging, especially after heavy rain events ► Replacement of a gravel layer as needed

Figure 4-07: An example of the infiltration trench ( Source: Author, 2018 based on CIRIA, 2015)

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STORMWATER TREE DESCRIPTION

A stormwater tree is a tree with the intensive and broad crown which reduces the flooding risk by capturing rainfall, storing and using rainwater. The tree canopies control the runoff at the source. Firstly, every single tree works as a mini water reservoir moderating a peak flow. Thus, the rain falls on the leaves, branches, and trunk. The particular amount of water evaporates, while some part is absorbed by the tree, the rest drops to the ground. However, the velocity and volume of the runoff are at a much slower rate. Secondly, the roots absorb water infiltrated into the ground allowing the soil to soak more stormwater. Thirdly, trees pump water from the ground and release it into the atmosphere in the form of vapor. This evapotranspiration process reduces the heat island effect and contributes to the creation of favorable microclimate. According to Minnesota municipal tree resource analysis, an individual tree is capable of intercepts about 6,4 m3 of water annually (Center for urban forest research, 2005). Finally, trees accomplish the WSUD components such as tree planters, swales, and raingardens.

FUNCTION

► Rainwater interception, infiltration, evapotranspiration ► Moderation of urban runoff velocity and volume

APPLICATION

► Streets ► Plazas ► Courtyards ► Blue-green system

BENEFITS

► Reduction of the pressure on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity ► Improvement of the soil permeability by roots ► Air quality improvement ► Enhance of the aesthetic value ► Noise moderation, Shading and wind protection ► Moderation of the Urban Heat Island Effect ► Reduction of soil erosion by decreasing the impact of raindrops on the ground of raindrops on the ground

Figure 4-08: A stormwater tree with the broad crown ( Source: Author, 2018)

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DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Certain trees are much better for stormwater moderation than others due to the leaf form and area, pattern and density of branches, general tree size, and shape. Sufficient space, appropriate soil, adequate drainage, and water supply in dry periods have to be provided The root damage potential of selected spices has to be taken into consideration for the design of hardscape and softscape areas. The root system is able to extend the canopy radius in 2-3 times in natural conditions (GreenBlue Urban, 2018).

MAINTENANCE

► The regular inspection and appropriate treatment to assure the healthy trees growing in the severe city conditions ► Replacement in case of its death ► Irrigation during drought, pruning, pest control, weeding and removal of invasive species

LIMITATIONS

The species have to be selected according to the local climate conditions. The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment. Impermeable materials extended towards a trunk prevent air and water. penetration and can provoke roots to lift the paving.


URBAN WETLAND / CONSTRUCTED WETLAND DESCRIPTION

A constructed wetland is a is an artificial wetland or marsh systems with aquatic plants treating stormwater through physical, chemical, and biological processes. A constructed wetland is an engineered system utilizing the natural ability of vegetation, soil, and organisms to purify water. Urban wetlands remove pollutants before the urban runoff discharge to the surface water bodies or groundwater. A constructed wetland consists of a chain of ponds or cells accomplishing different functions. The obtained stormwater passes via the inlet zone or sediment forebays retaining the sediment. Gross pollutant traps also can be applied for the pretreatment. The next stage is the removal of fine particles and pollutants in the shallow part of the permanent pool, aquatic bench, densely planted with cleansing biotope. The luge systems can include a number of pools. A permanent pool has an additional storage capacity above the average water level, attenuation storage volume, to handle the water fluctuation during rainfalls. According to Georgia Stormwater Management Manual there are distinguished following types of constructed wetlands: • Shallow wetlands have marsh depth 150 mm, the relatively deep zones take place at the inlet forebay and pool at the outlet; • Extended detention shallow wetlands have an additional detention potential above the average water level in case of rainfall events; • Pond/wetland systems consist of two separate parts wet pond for sediment removal and shallow aquatic bench for pollutant treatment; • Pocket wetlands treat a specific volume of runoff obtained from the area 2–4 hectares (Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016).

FUNCTION

► Water collection, storage, and treatment ► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff

APPLICATION

► Blue-green infrastructure, parks ► Free downstream spaces

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Air quality improvement ► Enhance of the aesthetic value and appealing ► landscaping feature ► Potential public space

LIMITATIONS

Requires larger sites, generally over 1 hectare (Wellington City Council, 2013)

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The design is unique for each case. Accessibility to inflow and outflow for operation and maintenance purpose The catchment is minimum 25 hectares, except pocket wetlands, 2-4 hectares (Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016). Aquatic bench occupies not less than 80% of a permanent pool area, where the share of a shallow marsh with 150 mm depth and deep marsh with 150-350 mm depth equally distributed (Melbourne Water, 2017). The length/width ratio of the of the flow path is between 3:1 and 5:1 (CIRIA, 2015). The standard depth of the permanent pool is about 1.2 m, and the maximum one is up to 2 m (CIRIA, 2015). The maximum of the storage volume above the permanent pool level is 0.5 m (CIRIA, 2015). Side slope is up to 1:3 to provide safe conditions and access to the structural components (CIRIA, 2007; Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016). The retention time is about 20 days to assure the biological treatment (CIRIA, 2007). The space required for the wetland depends on the catchment area, about 3-7% of its size (CIRIA, 2007). The typical location is at the lowest point of the catchment area. The depth of forebay is 1.2 – 1.8 m, the vertical sediment marker is applicable for measurement of its level (Atlanta Regional Commission, 2016).

MAINTENANCE

► Regular removal of litter, debris, and sediment from a forebay ► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components, for example, inflow and outflow ► Maintenance of a vegetation healthy level, planting management, removal of invasive species

Figure 4-09: An example of the urban wetland in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2018)

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RETENTION POND / WET POND DESCRIPTION

A retention pond is the WSUD measure for flood control and stormwater treatment constructed with additional storage capacity to obtain surface runoff during rainfall. First, rainwater flows to the upstream pretreatment zone for sediment removal. Then, water is directed to the main permanently wet treatment pool. The pond`s banks are designed in the way to accommodate extra water volumes and response to fluctuating precipitation intensity. The water treatment is provided not only by sediment forebay but also by cleansing biotopes located in the shallow zone of the pond, so-called aquatic bench. Thus, wetland vegetation and biological uptake mechanisms remove pollutants. In this way, the retention pond temporary detains urban runoff, treat it during retention time, and then gradually release it to the natural water bodies.

FUNCTION

LIMITATIONS

► Flood control and reduction of the peak runoff ► Runoff collection, treatment

Depending on the catchment area, retention ponds require space for sedimentation zone and main pool area. The retention ponds are not applicable to activities with direct water contact, for example, swimming.

APPLICATION

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

► Green areas, parks ► Green-blue infrastructure

BENEFITS

► Reduction of the pressure on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Air quality improvement ► Enhance of the aesthetic value and appealing landscaping feature ► Possible public open space

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment from a forebay ► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components, for example, pumps, wells, and gates ► Maintenance of a vegetation healthy level, planting management, removal of invasive species

Figure 4-10: An example of the urban wetland in Rotterdam, the Netherlands ( Source: Author, 2018)

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The length/width ration of the flow path is between 3:1 and 5:1 (CIRIA, 2015) The standard depth of the permanent pond is about 1.2 m, and the maximum one is up to 2 m (CIRIA, 2015). The maximum of the storage volume above the permanent pond level is 0.5 m (CIRIA, 2015). Side slope is up to 1:3 to provide safe conditions and access to the structural components (CIRIA, 2007). The retention time is about 20 days to assure the biological treatment (CIRIA, 2007). The space required for the pond depends on the catchment area, about 3-7% of its size (CIRIA, 2007). Retention ponds are typically located at the lowest point of the catchment area. The pond construction has to include the overflow control and emergency spillway.


DETENTION POND / DRY POND DESCRIPTION

A detention pond is the WSUD measure for flood control and stormwater treatment designed as the landscaped depression that accumulates runoff during rainfall event but dry in the usual conditions. The target of the system is to attenuate water flow and hold it for a short period. The dry ponds can have hardscape or covered by greenery. The vegetated basin has a wide range of benefits. For example, it not only contributes to the removal of sediment and pollutant treatment but also increases the detention time. All together these factors improve the water quality. Besides, the detention basin area can be integrated into the overall landscape design and play function of the recreational space. A permanent pool can be incorporated into the overall design of the detention basin. A hardscape detention basin may provide several functions. For instance, playground, sports facilities, car parks, and amphitheater.

FUNCTION

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

APPLICATION

MAINTENANCE

► Water collection, storage, and treatment ► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff ► Blue-green infrastructure, parks, ► Public spaces

BENEFITS

The length/width ration of the flow path is between 3:1 and 5:1 (CIRIA, 2015) The maximum depth is 2m (CIRIA, 2015). The slope of the vegetated basin bottom is up to 1% for the direction of the outlet (CIRIA, 2015). ► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components especially after heavy rain events ► Maintenance of a healthy vegetation level, planting management, removal of invasive species

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Air quality improvement ► Enhance of the aesthetic value and appealing ► landscaping feature ► Potential public space

LIMITATIONS

The infiltration of runoff has to be prevented in case of groundwater contamination risk.

Figure 4-11: An example of the detention pond with the permanent pool (Source: Author, 2018 based on CIRIA, 2015)

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URBAN WATER CANAL DESCRIPTION

An urban water canal is an artificial waterway implying different purposes, for example, flood management, irrigation system, water harvesting, conveyance, storage, and supply. Water features enrich and diversify urban environment. Water canals can be applied for the re-creation of former flowing water systems, dried river beds. Together with green areas and natural water bodies, urban canals establish a blue-green network providing more room for runoff catchment and infiltration. The canal banks are designed with the possibility to obtain additional water volumes during heavy rainfall and response to fluctuating water levels. The incorporation of treatment elements, for instance, gross pollutant traps prevents garbage from entering the water. In the context of the Sustainable Drainage Management Train, runoff firstly can be purified via bioswales or raingardens before discharge to the canal.

FUNCTION

► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff ► Runoff collection and conveyance

APPLICATION

► Blue-green infrastructure ► Reconstruction of former water ways

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Air quality improvement ► Enhance of the aesthetic value and appealing ► landscaping feature ► Possible public realm ► Opportunity for water transport and entertainment development

Figure 4-12: An urban water canal, a diagram with different water levels (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 4-13: the Westersingel canal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2018)

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LIMITATIONS

Pretreatment of the rainwater is vital for water quality and biodiversity, for example, trough bioswales or raingardens.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The design of the canal`s banks has to take into consideration the water level fluctuation, especially during a heavy rainfall event. It is essential to have a sustainable source to feed canal with the permanent water level. For example, reconstruction of former waterways requires examination of the hydrological conditions and capability of an assumed source. Thus, if a wetland, which used to feed a former river, dried up the feasibility and sustainability of the project has to be proved. The tracing of a canal has to be done according to topography.

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Periodical watercourse cleaning ► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components, for example, gross pollutant traps ► Control of water quality


STORMWATER MEDIAN DESCRIPTION

A stormwater median is the separation stripe between traffic lanes applied for runoff collection and conveyance. The integration of bioretention facilities and green infrastructure into design provides the opportunity for water treatment and infiltration. Therefore, stormwater median can incorporate bioswale, raingardens, and stormwater trees. This solution not only reduces the car traffic, connected with it noise and pollutions but also brings green corridor. In this way, the car-orientated street is transformed into a pedestrian-friendly and more welcoming environment.

FUNCTION

Figure 4-14: A stormwater median diagram (Source: Author, 2019)

► Moderation of urban runoff velocity, volume ► Runoff catchment and conveyance ► Possible rainwater treatment, infiltration

APPLICATION ► Streets

BENEFITS

► Stormwater medians can incorporate swales or raingardens for water treatment and infiltration if space wide enough ► Softening of the hardscape environment due to the vegetation ► Traffic reduction and consequently noise and air pollution decreasing ► Transformation of car-orientated street to human-orientated

LIMITATIONS

The underground utilities located in the middle of the road may present an obstacle for the median construction. During the winter time, snow and ice can be stored in the median affecting the quality and condition of vegetation cover afterward as well as durability of the system.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The road’s cross slope has to be directed towards a median. The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment. The height of the vegetation near intersections and crossings has to be limited to provide sight clearness and prevent accidents. The location and configuration of trees have to assure visibility for pedestrians, cyclists, and car drivers.

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components ► Maintenance of a healthy vegetation level, vegetation height control

CLOUDBURST ROAD DESCRIPTION

A cloudburst road is a road with a V-shaped profile and a raised curb protecting sidewalk from raising water level during rainfall. A cloudburst road acts as a water flow path. The street is designed in a way to direct the exceeded water volumes towards the road`s median. Hence, this solution mitigates the flooding of properties, pedestrian and cycle paths along the road.

Figure 4-15: A cloudburst road diagram (Source: Author, 2019)

FUNCTION

► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff ► Runoff collection and conveyance

APPLICATION

► Streets

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Removal of snow and ice during winter time ► Convenient road maintenance

LIMITATIONS

Accumulated water during rainfall affects the traffic. During the winter time, snow and ice can be collected along the middle line of the road affecting the traffic and safety. A cloudburst road does not treat runoff. As a result, sediment and pollutants are transported downstream together with water.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The road’s cross slope has to be directed toward the median The scenario for runoff management has to be elaborated to avoid flooding in the downstream zone. Therefore, the downstream area has to be able to cope with generated water volume as well as with sediment and washed out waste from the street. Cloudburst road is applicable for narrow street where organization of stormwater median is impossible. 53


CURB CUTS / STORMWATER CURB DESCRIPTION

A stormwater curb is a curb with inlets and outlets applied for bioretention cells to let runoff flow in or flow out if the water volume exceeds the capacity of a cell. Thus, the break in a curb construction provides a passage for water towards raingarden or swale where stormwater can be treated and infiltrated. The inlet can include a trap element for sediment and debris removal. The outlet releases the exceeded water volumes back to the street as soon as the capacity of a bioretention cell is overcome.

FUNCTION

► Runoff catchment and conveyance

APPLICATION

► Bioretention cells (raingadens) ► Stormwater medians ► Tree pits

BENEFITS

► The curb cut contribute to the flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff allowing water to enter a bioretention cell ► Easy integration into the existing situation by removing a curb segment

LIMITATIONS

The inlet has to be located in the way to catch upstream water

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The sediment forebay or trapping elements have to be organized at the inlet zone. The outlet has to be provided for the release of the excessive volume of water. The design of inlets and outlets has to be durable to resist incursions by vehicles and bicycles.

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment Figure 4-16: Cut curb and water flow path ( Source: Author, 2018)

WATER FLOW PATH DESCRIPTION

A water flow path is an above-ground drainage depression for urban runoff catchment and its direction to the destination point, for example, swale, raingarden, infiltration tranches, wetlands, ponds, channels. There are alternative names for the above-ground drainage such as fluted gutter, hollow road, sunken channels. The most convenient type of the water flow path is a gutter. There are two types of gutter open gutter and covered gutter. The difference is that a covered gutter has a grate to prevent litter and debris get inside. Water flow paths can be individually designed as a unique elements or constructed from prefabricated modules.

FUNCTION

► Runoff catchment and conveyance

APPLICATION

► Streets, pedestrian zones, plazas

BENEFITS

► An above-ground water flow path keeps water visible in the city and attracts Attention of the inhabitants to the water management issue ► Alternative or complementary options to the underground drainage ► Opportunity for the landscape architecture ► A wide range of prefabricated gutters at the market ► Prefabricated gutters are elementary to install

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment 54

LIMITATIONS

A water flow path can be an obstacle for pedestrians, cyclists, disabled people. A water flow path does not treat runoff. As a result, sediment and pollutants from the streets are transported together with water towards destination point. The above-ground system requires a slope for the runoff conveyance. The design and parameters have to be convenient for cleaning technic. Rainwater has to be treated before the discharge to the surface water bodies.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The recommended longitude slope is minimum 0.5%, the maximum length is 50m, and accordingly depth is 5 cm (Pötz and Bleuzé, 2016). The width is moderated and depends on the design idea. The streets gutters can be assembled with prefabricated elements or formed by the convergence of the surface. Figure 4-17: A water flow path in Hamburg, Germany (Source: Author, 2018)


PERVIOUS PAVEMENT DESCRIPTION

Pervious pavement is a type of surface that allows the infiltration of rainwater managing surface water runoff close to its source. It is an alternative to the conventional impermeable pavement which can be applied not only for pedestrian zones but also for the road surface. The system includes the pervious surface layer, the structural layers or base, and aggregate sub-base layer filled with gravel or crushed stones. Thus, rainwater seeps through the surface to the underlying structural layers and sub-base where sediments filtration occurs. Then, water can be discharged to the piped drainage system or infiltrated to the underlying soil. Based on the surfacing material, the following types can be distinguished: • Porous pavement consists of porous material through which water can pass, for instance, porous concrete and asphalt. • Modular pavers have widened joint between blocks filled with grit for water infiltration. The material of modular elements can be impervious as well as porous. • A grid system is presented by a lattice, typically concrete, filled with soil, and vegetation. Grass reinforcement applies plastic grid with grass and gravel. • Permeable surface assures the water infiltration and incorporates such materials as gravel, woodchips, shells, stones. In this paper, the term pervious pavement is applied as a general name for the described types and specified in cases where it is necessary. However, the term permeable surface is used as a synonym of pervious in the wide range of explored sources.

FUNCTION

► Moderation of urban runoff velocity, volume ► Runoff infiltration

APPLICATION

► Pedestrian zones, Plazas ► Bicycle lines ► Roads surfaces, Car parks ► Sport facilities

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Flexibility in design, diversity in materials ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Softening of the built environment ► Porous asphalt reduces traffic noise (CIRIA, 2015) ► Opportunities for an additional water storage volume in the underlying structural layer for nonpotable purpose

Figure 4-18: Modular pavers (Source: Author, 2017)

LIMITATIONS

Pervious surface cannot be used for roads with intensive traffic due to limited durability. The risk of leakage of oil and contamination has to be taken into consideration for the car park design. Pervious surface is not applicable to the areas with a high sediment load in runoff (Brisbane City Council, 2011).

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The selection of the type is based on the expected traffic, function of the area, characteristic of the underlying soil, requirements to the visual appearance. The replacement of the aggregate sub-base with geocellular sub-base increase the storage capacity (CIRIA, 2015). When an adjacent impermeable area or roofs are draining onto the pervious pavement, the recommended ratio impermeable/pervious surface is up to 2:1 (CIRIA, 2015).

MAINTENANCE

► Inspection and repair paving as required

Figure 4-19: The pervious surface of the tram track in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2017)

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STORMWATER or VEGETATED CURB EXTENSION DESCRIPTION

A stormwater curb extension is an escalation of the sidewalk by narrowing of the roadway which not only slows down traffic but also contributes to the stormwater management due to the integration of a bioretention cell. A stormwater curb extension is a landscaped area that captures urban runoff in a depressed planting bed, for example, raingarden or swale. The runoff flows to the bioretantion cell through an inlet, for example, curb cuts. The inlet area includes a trap zone for sediment and debris. Then, the treatment and infiltration occur in the bioretentoon area. An outlet provides the water release if the volume surpasses the bioretention cell capacity.

FUNCTION

► Runoff catchment, treatment, and infiltration ► Moderation of urban runoff velocity and volume

APPLICATION

► Along the roads ► Roadway intersections

BENEFITS

► Safe conditions for pedestrians due to narrowing of the crossing distance ► Traffic calming measure ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Air quality improvement ► Enhance of the aesthetic value ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The inlet has to be located in the way to catch upstream water. The sediment forebay has to be organized at the inlet zone. The outlet has to be provided for the release of the excessive volume of water. The height of the vegetation near intersections and crossings has to be limited. in order to provide sight clearness and prevent accidents. The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment. The design of inlets and outlets has to be durable in order to resist incursions. by vehicles and bicycles. Curb cuts have to be clearly visible to drivers and cyclists.

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Regular inspection of structural components, for example, inlets, outlets, and overflows, especially after heavy rain events ► Maintenance of soil media and planting, replacement when it is required ► Irrigation during drought, pruning, pest control, weeding and removal of invasive species ► Restoration of construction levels, repair erosion as required

LIMITATIONS

During heavy rainfall events, water from the curb extension may relieve back to the roadway creating unsafe conditions for pedestrians and traffic.

Figure 4-20: An example of the vegetative curb extension (Source: Author, 2019 based on NACTO, 2017)

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MULTIFUNCTIONAL PUBLIC SPACES DESCRIPTION

A multifunctional public space for stormwater management is a facility which besides its direct purpose of public realm and entertainment place carries out the wide range of functions for urban water cycle management. Thus, multipurpose spaces not only bring social benefits enhancing the livability of a city but also reduce the impact of water hazards applying WSUD measures. The planning approaches incorporate urban design, landscape planning, and water management. The most distinctive example of the multifunctional public space for stormwater management is a water plaza. A water plaza is a depressed square located at a lower-lying part of a catchment area. It works as a water reservoir in the case of heavy rainfall. The urban runoff from the surrounding district is delivered to the plaza trough gutters, water flow paths or underground drainage. The water plaza works as temporary water storage and can include additional underground volume. After this, water is discharged to the sewer, slowly infiltrated or reused. Sports facilities and playgrounds can be organized in the way of water plaza.

FUNCTION

► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff ► Rainwater collection ► Temporary water storage

APPLICATION

► High density urban areas with lack of space for rainwater retention

BENEFITS

► The combination of uses ensure beneficial results for environmental, social and economic development ► Water plazas keep water visible in the city and attract the attention of the inhabitants to the water management issue ► Enhance of the aesthetic value

LIMITATIONS

To prevent the multifunctional facility from filling with groundwater, the buffering elements has to be waterproofed.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The sediment forebay has to be organized at the inlet zone. The construction has to be protected by the waterproof layer from the groundwater. The volume calculation is based on the catchment area size.

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► The structural components need easy access for cleaning and repair

Figure 4-21: A water plaza diagram (Source: Author, 2019)

Figure 4-22: The Benthemplein water plaza in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2017)

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TREE PIT DESCRIPTION

A tree pit is a cell for planting street trees which provides stormwater treatment through filtration, biological uptake of nutrients, additional storage volume within the underlying structure, and extended detention. The principle of work of a tree pit is the same like the raingarden system. The capacity of a tree pit is design to manage small volume of runoff from the local area. Stormwater from adjacent impervious areas flows towards tree pit due to slope or it can be delivered through a conveyance path, for example, a gutter, a water flow path. Curb cuts can be used for the organization of the inlet. In addition, permeable surfaces can be applied for collection and direction of the runoff to subsurface media layers. Then, from the ponding area water passes through the filter media where treatment occurs. The base of a pit is presented by a gravel drainage layer. Farther, the water can be infiltrated, directed to the stormwater drainage network, or reused. If the infiltration to the ground is limited or undesirable, the base includes perforated pipe, geocomposites or geocellular units connected with the drainage system (CIRIA, 2015). Modular structures from plastic, concrete, plastic/steel or plastic/concrete can be applied for the creation of root space matrix filled with substrate (CIRIA, 2015). The structure sustains the loads from the overlying pavement, prevents the soil compaction, and provides additional volume for the runoff. Irrigation and aeration can be provided incorporating aeration vent and watering pipe into tree pit system. Free-draining geotextile fabric performs the function of a root barrier and can be applied if the growing roots cause a damage potential for the surrounding facilities and structures. The overflow pipe releases water out in case if a tree pit is overloaded and serves as an observation well.

FUNCTION

► Flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff ► Runoff treatment, retention,or detention

APPLICATION

► Streets, plazas

BENEFITS

► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► Urban biodiversity and wildlife habitat ► Moderation of the urban heat island effect ► Groundwater and aquifer recharge ► Air quality improvement ► Shading and wind protection ► Flexibility in design (various shapes and sizes, depending on the location and available space) ► Enhance of the aesthetic value ► Softening of the built environment

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Runoff can be directed through a conveyance path or just organizing a slope within adjacent surface towards a tree pit. Not individual but connected tree pits increase the space for roots and provide additional volume for stormwater inflow. The parameters of a tree pit, the volume of soil, its composition and quality must correspond to the selected tree species. The minimum required soil volume is calculated taking the projected canopy area multiply by depth 0,6 m (GreenBlue Urban, 2018). The total volume required for root penetration is about 12 m3. If the water storage capacity is 35% each tee pit can retain about 4 m3 (Bauer, 2006) Root barriers can be effectively applied to protect prevent the damage of adjacent structures and facilities. A grate at the base of a tree trunk protects roots. Soft planting or a mulch layer keep the soil moist and prevent weeds growing as well as holds the litter, debris, and sediment An underground root ball supports a yang tree and provides and ensure secure accommodation Trees used for the tree pits should be selected for their ability to grow in the conditions provided by local rainfall patterns and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil used in the tree pit. A length of a root system achieves no more 1m depth of soil in 90–99% cases (CIRIA, 2015).

LIMITATIONS

The root damage potential of selected spices for the hardscape surfaces has to be taken into consideration. The species have to be selected according to the local climate conditions. The species have to be resistant to the aggressive urban environment and able to grow in the limited space of a tree pit.

MAINTENANCE

► Removal of litter, debris, and sediment ► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components such as inlets and outlets especially after heavy rain events ► Appropriate treatment of trees, replacement in case of its death ► Irrigation during drought, pruning, pest control, weeding and removal of invasive species 58

Figure 4-23: An example of the tree pit (Source: Author, 2019 based on CIRIA, 2015)


RAINWATER STORAGE TANK / ATTENUATION STORAGE TANK DESCRIPTION

A rainwater storage tank is underground, above ground or rooftop volume for the temporary rainwater storage before its infiltration, controlled release or use. Rainwater storage module can be integrated into the construction of a green roof, pervious pavement, incorporated into multifunctional public space, connected to bioretention systems. The small-scale tanks usually serve for domestic use. Its size is calculated based on the roof or/and catchment area. The vast underground storages can accumulate water during extreme rainfalls events, 1:30, 1:50, 1:100 years, preventing the flood hazard, for example, a concrete underground system constructed underneath various types of public spaces. Modular storage volumes provide flexibility based on required storage capacity and available space, for instance, geocellular storage system. It consists of individual plastic units with a high porosity around 95% and covered by geotextile or a geomembrane to keep out soil (CERIA, 2015). The individual units assemble the necessary volume sometimes in several layers. The quality of water and treatment requirements for its reuse depends on the water harvesting site and purpose of further utilization. For example, water obtained from the roads has the highest level of contamination and demand pretreatment. On the opposite side, when rainwater flows through a swale or other bioretention system, it is naturally treated and purified. The most typical materials for rainwater tanks are plastic, concrete, steel, and glass-reinforced plastic.

FUNCTION

► Rainwater storage

APPLICATION

► Private properties ► Beneath public spaces and roads

BENEFITS

► Runoff volume reduction at the site ► Pressure reduction on the drainage system ► The harvested rainwater can be applied for non-potable purposes ► Minimization of potable water usage for flushing toilets, washing machines or gardening ► Flexibility in size, configuration, and location

LIMITATIONS

Leakage or any other types of failures have a risk to be unnoticed in particular for underground systems. Geocellular systems have limited access for inspection and cleaning. Plastic tanks vulnerable to deformation within time.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Taking into consideration that storage tanks do not imply treatment function, the overall stormwater treatment strategy has to be developed for the site design. The underground tanks have to be protected from damage by tree roots applying a root barrier or restricting the planting close to the facility. The accessibility for the inspection and maintenance has to be organized.

MAINTENANCE

► Inspection for clogging, especially after heavy rain events ► Litter, debris, and sediment control

Figure 4-24: An example of rainwater harvesting system (Source: Author, 2019)

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GROSS POLLUTANT TRAPS DESCRIPTION

A Gross pollutant trap (GPT) is a primary treatment devise applied for the solid waste catchment from urban runoff before it flows into the surface water bodies. GPTs operate like filters, retaining large and non-biodegradable pollutants, litter, debris, sediment. The GPTs vary based on the size, treatment process, operational needs, trapping performance, and price. The following categories can be distinguished (Department of Planning and Local Government of South Australia, 2010): • Drainage entrance treatments stop the pollutants at the drainage inflow points, for example, nets, grate entrance systems, side entry pit traps, gully baskets. • Direct screening devices, being installed directly in the flow path, allow runoff to pass through but hold the gross pollutant, for example, nets, litter collection baskets, trash racks, return flow litter baskets • Non-clogging screens direct the flow along the screen with tangential direction to its surface • Floating traps are applied for the catchment of buoyant and visible waste at the downstream of waterways with a slow stream if the upstream treatment is failed, for example, floating debris traps. • Sediment traps are a system for sediment retention with different complexity, for example, sediment basins, circular settling tanks, hydrodynamic separators. GPTs can serve individually as a component of a continent drainage system or work together with other stormwater treatment measures. Thus, in the comprehensive system GPTs provide the upstream treatment before the flow reaches the downstream facilities such as urban wetland or bioretention cell. This approach is known as well as a treatment train. To sum up, GPTs integrates different treatment mechanisms and its combinations such as filtration, flotation, sedimentation, screening, flow separation, and slowing of the water stream.

FUNCTION

► Solid waste trapping

APPLICATION

► Stormwater grates ► drainage network ► beach fronts ► urban wetlands ► bioretention systems ► urban canals

BENEFITS

► Water quality improvement ► Preservation of habitats for aquatic and land wildlife ► Enhance of the aesthetic value

LIMITATIONS

Poor maintained GPTs can attract vermin, have an unpleasant odor and ap-pearance Unmaintained inline GPTs can cause flooding by generating additional backwater effects (Department of Planning and Local Government of South Australia, 2010). Lack of maintenance reduces efficiency, creates flood hazard and contamina-tion GPTs can be an obstacle for fauna migration.

Figure 4-25: A gross pollutant trap at the Westersingel canal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2018)

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DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

GPTs typically catch gross pollutant greater than 5 millimeters (Department of Planning and Local Government of South Australia, 2010). The location of the GPTs has to assure the access for the inspection, maintenance, and cleaning. Removable sumps or baskets can be applied for the gross pollutants catchment. The composition of the solid waste depends on the form of development and land use. The location of the GPTs has to be complementary to other stormwater treatment measures.

MAINTENANCE

► Regular inspection and cleaning of structural components to prevent clogging and odor ► Cleaning operations and removing of pollutants are carried out manually, with vacuum equipment, applying a crane to retrieve obtained solid waste from a basket or net, using excavators ► Disposal of the trapped waste ► GPTs are typically cleaned during dry weather periods


4.3 GENERAL VISION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.3.1 Complementarity principle WSUD measures are decentralized solutions for the urban runoff management allowing gradual transformation towards a resilient city. However, the individual components interconnected into one system complement each other and provide better performance. Thus, pervious surfaces, rainwater harvesting, infiltration, conveyance, storage, and treatment systems act together organizing so-called Sustainable Drainage Management Train. The number of components in a train varies based on the individual situation and local context. However, the management starts with the mitigation of runoff volume and velocity by reduction of impermeable surfaces.

term service of such train components as urban wetlands, ponds, urban canals, and raingardens. Gross pollutant traps provide solid waste trapping from the runoff before it reaches the surface water bodies. The wide range of measures such as green roofs, bioretention systems, urban wetlands, ponds ensures the water purification before its reuse, infiltration or discharge. Thus, some components of a Sustainable Drainage Management Train support a range of functions, for instance, swales ensure the flood control and attenuation of the peak runoff, reduction of contamination level, water conveyance and infiltration. A green street containing biorention cells, tree pits, pervious pathway, water storage volumes is the example of the Sustainable Drainage Management Train.

4.3.2 Recommendations for the legislative framework improvement

The best case scenario is to deal with runoff at source close to the location where rain falls returning the water to the natural cycle. Then, stormwater can be directed downstream to the next destination points for water storage, treatment or infiltration. The conveyance can be provided by the above-ground systems such as swales, urban water canals, stormwater medians, cloudburst roads, water flow paths, street gutters. If the aboveground conveyance is limited, pipe components can be included as well but they are more expansive and do not provide runoff attenuation and treatment. The removal of litter, debris, and sediment is the crucial pretreatment for the long-

Elaborating a program for the Sustainable Drainage Management Train, the evaluation of WSUD measures require careful cost-benefit analysis and comparison the overall expenses connected to its implementation and maintenance with direct and indirect advantages. First of all, it is essential to identify the target. It can be the cloudburst which has to be managed at the place, for instance, rainfall event occurring once in 10, 20, 50, or 100 years. Then, the benefits of the proposed scenario, as well as the payback period, has to be compared with potential risks, damages, and related expenses. Based on that evaluation, the most feasible program can be selected.

The transition towards a more sustainable and resource efficient model is slow, inconstant, and inhibited by many barriers. One of the main concerns is the high expenses. Indeed, the cost of WSUD solutions may be higher than the traditional urban stormwater features in the short-term perspective. Nevertheless, potential advantages such as environmental improvement, resilience towards climate change, increased quality of life, economic benefits are incomparably high in the long run. The next obstacle is the lack of flexibility in the institutions responsible for policy making. Moreover, the possibility of changes in the regulations depends as well on the will and initiative of the decision-makers. Last but not least, the capability of the stakeholders to accept the implemented policies directly influence the enactment of the processes.

WSUD is not a new experience or knowledge in the world urban development practice. On one hand, academic researches and best practices prove the efficiency and advantages of WSUD. On the other hand, the conventional approach dominates in the field of stormwater management, particularly in Minsk, Belarus. However, shifts are often provoked by necessity. Thus, climate change, rapid urbanization, environmental degradation, water stress create external pressure to incorporate WSUD approaches into established approaches, norms, and standards of architecture and urban planning.

The changes in the legislative framework and overall policy are vital for the implementation of the innovative practices. Thus, guidelines, adaptation planes, action planes, WSUD manuals provide holistic strategies for the transformation of the urban environment. The urban water management plan has to be an obligatory component of the planning documentation both for general strategic directions and specific development projects such as building, quarter, district. Important to emphasize that the multidimensional aspects of the WSUD demand interdisciplinary teams for design. Figure 4-26: The Sustainable Drainage Management Train (Source: Author, 2018)

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Table 4-02: Recommendations for the legislative framework improvement (Source: Author, 2018)

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4.3.3 Recommendations for the stakeholders management The legislative framework is not enough for the WSUD integration. The transition of these policies into real practices involves the numerous amount of stakeholders and requires intensive and thoughtful cooperation between them. The primary challenge is that the planners, engineers, policy-makers, decision-makers, users, developers possess a different level of technical knowledge and insolvent in the subject. In this way, the creation of the learning environment and knowledge exchange between stakeholders are also crucial for the changes. An effective dialog can be achieved if the actors « speak the same language» or the special mediators facilitates the communication via workshops and other methods of the engagements. The holistic guidelines and setting standards based on best practices provide clear technical solutions for planning, design, and further maintenance. From the opposite side, the absence of a framework with defining requirements instigates confusion amongst agencies, institutions, developers, and other actors. In this way, specific guidance targeting councils, local administration, managers, and representatives of the communities is essential.

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For example, Melbourne Water (2011) introduced a document «Developing a strategic approach to WSUD implementation. Guidelines for Councils.» It assists in developing strategic approaches and WSUD implementation targets. Promotion and raised awareness about direct and indirect benefits of WSUD drive the changes and increase the acceptance of the new solutions. The transition process is more likely to be successful if the key actors with high power to influence the decision are interested in its faster realization. In this connection, stakeholders analysis helps to reveal the links between actors, evaluate their involvement, authority, value or vulnerability. The effective stakeholder engagement enhances the successful achievement of WSUD targets. It is essential to arouse interest and strength the capacity of stakeholders to contribute to the overall planning aim. The earlier engagement and transparency prevent the risk of conflict situations. The breakthrough solutions require the involvement of different opinions and reasonable competition. Thus, the monopoly of state institutions and enterprises at the level of decisionmaking, planning, design, implementation, and maintenance has to be interrupted by the inclusion of the sides from outside of the state bubble.


CONCEPTUAL DESIGN TOOLBOX IMPLEMENTATION FOR THE FOCUS AREA 5.1 FOCUS AREA AND CRITERIA OF ITS SELECTION

Figure 5-01: Hot spot, Nemiga street (Source: Author based on Google map, 2018)

There are about 160 points in Minsk regularly suffering from flooding during heavy rain events (Belteleradiocompany, 2014). One of the hot spots is selected as the focus area for the toolbox approbation. The choice of the area is mainly inuenced by its disrepute regarding flooding among citizens and constant discussion among professionals how to solve the problem. The hot spot is located in the city center and has the name Nemiga in honor of the river flowing through, the inflow of the river Svisloch. However, Nemiga is enclosed in a stormwater collector currently. The street with the same name passes through the former riverbed. The intersection of the Nemiga street and Pobediteley avenue is the lowest point of the adjacent territory. Thus, all the runoff tends to flow there. The situation is exacerbated by terrain features, topography, the dominance of the impermeable surfaces, low percentage of the greenery, inefficient drainage system. In this way, there are natural and anthropogenic reasons behind the appearing flooding. Located in the core, the area has strategic importance for the city. It is a social and economic hub with multiple state institutions, private companies, offices, services, retail, cultural and entertainment facilities. It is a magnet not only for the local inhabitants but also for tourists. The area has the potential for further business development and attraction of new investors.

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This part of the city has a good transport connection via metro, bus, trolley bus, and private motor vehicles. However, problems and challenges associated with the use of cars increase. For example, traffic jams occur in the rush hours when people drive to and coming back from work. Moreover, enormous territories are occupied by open parking lots. Currently, there are no measures applying to limit traffic flow and encourage the use of public transport. In addition, there are also issues with heat island effect, noise, and air pollution. Nemiga street has seven lanes for traffic, hardscape sidewalks, and lack of greenery. Besides, it is flanked on the west by 375 meters long twelve-story building constructed from concrete prefabricated panels. In general, Nemiga street gives an impression of urban hardscape canyon and requires transformation and adaptation to current urban challenges. According to the Masterplan, there is a vision towards the pedestrian-friendly city, limitation of private cars accessibility to the city center, development of the public transport network. This transformation especially tackles the selected area. Currently, there are no completely car-free streets in the city of Minsk. The first shared space street, the segment with length 230 meters of Komsomolskaya street, was introduced in 2018. These first steps reorganize the city not only in a more livable way but also give the opportunity to incorporate WSUD measures into further transformation and create vibrant public spaces.

Figure 5-02: Nemiga, flooding (Source: Motolko, 2014)

Figure 5-03: Nemiga, flooding (Source: Motolko, 2014)

Figure 5-04: Nemiga, flooding (Source: Motolko, 2010)


It is important to emphasize that the area has a direct connection to the blue-green system of Minsk presented by the diameter based on Svisloch and two semi-rings. It gives the possibility to extend the blue-green belt. Furthermore, connectivity and holistic development enhance the resilience of the system and, as a result, improve city ecology. The main criteria why exactly this area was selected can be summarized as follows:

The picture below shows the current situation at Nemiga street. There are recently constructed pseudo historical buildings on the left side. The right site is presented by a mix of Soviet architecture flanking Svyato-Petro-Pavlovskiy Cathedral of XVII century. The background buildings on the right are a shopping mall with a pedestrian platform-bridge and 375 meters long multiple-story apartment building constructed from concrete prefabricated panels.

• Potential to be transformative towards pedestrian and less car-oriented according to the Masterplan; • Possibility to have better investments and chance to launch benchmarking projects than the outskirts districts of the city; • Possibility to become a prototype for the further replication of the WSUD measures due to visibility determined by its central disposition; • Connectivity with the blue-green system of the city; • Opportunity to raise awareness and attract attention due to city core location.

Figure 5-05: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-06: Nemiga street, under a pedestrian platform of a shopping mall (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-07: Nemiga street, view from the bridge at Pobediteley avenue (Source: Author, 2018)

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5.2 DEFINING THE BOUNDARIES The intersection of the Nemiga street and Pobediteley avenue is one of the hot spots vulnerable to flooding. However, incorporation of the WSUD measures just for this part does not solve the problem. It is important to zoom out and analyze the topography and urban situation of the adjusted territories in order to determine the size of the catchment area and runoff direction. It helps to prepare the strategy for each individual case, manage runoff at the place, moderate its volume and velocity, as well as reduce the pressure on the downstream areas. The Satellite image from the Google Maps, the OpenStreetMap, and the topography map with the actual landscape, build-up situation, and heights are the base for the analysis.

Thus, the total catchment area occupies about 1.2 km2 or 120 hectares. Its location within the city structure is depicted in Figure 5-08. The strength and potential of the selected area is the direct connection to the blue-green system of Minsk. However, the city core has a higher density, lower share of pervious surfaces and vegetative cover in comparison to outskirts districts. It brings additional challenges to the elaboration of the adaptation plan. Figure 5–10 illustrates the direction of runoff and distinguish the weak points where the flows intersect. There are five conflict zones within the catchment including the most crucial, described above the intersection of the Nemiga street and Pobediteley avenue.

Figure 5-08: Focus area in the city structure (Source: Author based on Google maps, 2018)

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Figure 5-09: Catchment area (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-10: Catchment area and analysis of the runoff direction (Source: Author, 2018)

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5.3 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK Nowadays, Nemiga is the most heavily loaded street of the city passing from the center to the west of Minsk. But at the same time, it is one of the oldest one occurred along the inflow of Svisloch. The first reference to Minsk in the chronicle The Tale of Bygone Years is connected with the internecine battle of the Polotsk and Kiev princes on the river Nemiga in 1067. Since the medieval time, the river bed and valley were under constant anthropogenic transformation. During XI–XVI centuries the main changes were connected with the creation of a moat, deepening of Nemiga, the development of a defensive embankment and soil compaction in the construction of buildings and roads. In XVI–XVIII centuries with the city growth there were a gradual consolidation of build-up and an increase in paved areas. The Nemiga and Svisloch rivers, as well as marshes areas on the territory of the city, were affected. The water level in Nemiga decreased. Mills and dams significantly were changing the water regime causing stagnation and algal blooms. In the period 1850–1900, the area of the city was increased from 420 to 1760 hectares (Radchikova, 2017). A plumbing system was introduced at that time. The percentage of paved areas increased, the first planned green zones appeared. In connection with the development and change of the water regime, the shallowing of rivers and streams occurred. The downstream river bed of Nemiga was changed at the beginning of XIX century. It was blocked with dam near SvyatoPetro-Pavlovskiy Cathedral. There is the most vulnerable hot spot regarding flooding currently which is selected as the focus area. At the end of the XIX century, the source of Nemiga the Franciscan swamp began to be drained, which affected the river’s water supply (Radchikova, 2017). As a result, the river level dropped down, and Nemiga turned into the stream which was covered afterward with wooden flooring. Even so, the stream flooded the street and the market square after heavy rains as well as during spring and autumn. Moreover, it was used as a gutter and was polluted with wastewater.

Figure 5-11: The place where Nemiga flows into Svisloch, begining of XX century (Source: archive of Volozhinskiy)

It was decided to enclose Nemiga into concrete pipes to prevent this annual flood. In 1926, Nemiga in its lower reaches was placed into a collector (Volozhinskiy, 2016; Radchikova, 2017). The street itself was covered with cobblestones, and narrow sidewalks were asphalted. The rest of the river was enclosed into the collector in 1955 (Volozhinskiy, 2016). Further, the historic center along Nemiga street was reorganized and the neighborhood with one-, two- story buildings was demolished and replaced by modernism architecture. However, in 2005 was launched the construction work on the east part of the Nemiga street with the rough imitation of historic architecture. In the first half of the 1980s, because of the construction of a second metro line crossing Nemiga street in the area of Svyato-PetroPavlovskiy cathedral, a small river was redirected to the collector Tcenter. The new branch of the collector with name Nemiga was constructed in 2011–2014. The depth is about 20 m and diameter is 2 m (Belteleradiocompany, 2014). Nevertheless, even after the introduction of the new collector all the water from Nemiga street

Figure 5-12: Rakovskaya street, Nemiga area (Source: archive of Volozhinskiy)

and adjacent quarters enters the old pipes. If during the rain the level of Svisloch rises by 15 centimeters, it almost completely blocks the work of the collector (Belteleradiocompany, 2014). During heavy rainfall, the river can even pump the water out of the sewers back onto the streets (Belteleradiocompany, 2014). The water level in Svisloch can rise to 1.5 meters. Therefore, the flooding of this area lasts for centuries. The problem is not solved even with the introduction of a new branch of the collector to this day. The memory about the river Nemiga still has value for the citizens. Despite all the transformations, heedless inclusion of modernist buildings, and contemporary pseudo-historical architecture, the place still has so-called genius loci (from Latin spirit of the place).

Figure 5-13: Nemiga street, view on multi-story residential building and shopping mall with the pedestrian platform (Source: Author, 2018)

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5.4 PROCESSING OF THE FIELD RESEARCH MATERIALS AND MAPPING 5.4.1 Identification of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the focus area

STRENGTH Socially, culturally, and economically active area

Figure 5-14: Figure 5-14: Svabody square (Source: Author, 2018)

The area already plays the role of a city magnet. There are historical attractions, access to the blue-green system, retail, offices, and places for entertainment. The resources and opportunities for improvement and transformation are higher in comparison with other districts. Any changes have better visibility and publicity. This part of the city is attractive for investments, developers, the tourism sector.

Green areas for rainwater infiltration are present There are rare green areas organized in the way to obtain surface runoff and infiltrate it. Open gutters serve for rainwater conveyance. However, the presented solution is rather technical and does not have an aesthetic attraction. The conditions are as well not tolerable. Figure 5-15: View on the Svisloch river(Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-16: Open gutter redirecting water from the street to the green area (Source: Author, 2018)

WEAKNESSES Impermeable surfaces predominate

Figure 5-18: Komsomolskaya street after construction work, flooding Jul 13 2018 (Source: Ministry of Emergency, 2018)

Figure 5-17: Komsomolskaya street, construction work May 2018 (Source: Author, 2018)

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Roads, sidewalks, pedestrian zones, plazas are generality impermeable. The most common types of surfaces are asphalt and concrete paving slabs. Despite the paving slabs have joints the base layer contains concrete, Figure 5-17. Thus, the infiltration of the rainwater is excluded. Figure 5-18 shows the construction work on Komsomolskaya street, the first shared space street in the city. The impermeable concrete base does not allow water to soak in.


WEAKNESSES Green areas such as flower beds are organized above an impermeable layer (concrete) As it was mentioned above, the impermeable surfaces prevail. However, there are green islands located above the concrete layer. The soil with 10 centimeters depth is enough for grass and flowers, but infiltration does not occur there. Moreover, the soil is washed out during heavy rain. Consequently, it may cause the silting and clogging of the rainwater sewer.

Figure 5-19: Komsomolskaya street, flower bed above concrete layer (Source: Author, 2018)

Enormous territories are occupied by open parking lots Figure 5–20 illustrates the typical situation where cars occupy both sides of the street and pedestrian zone. Another challenge is the open parking lots covered by asphalt without any green islands or pervious materials, Figure 5–21. In spite of limited space in the city core, there are parking lots for 40, 50, 80 places. Figure 5-20: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-21: Open parking lots (Source: Author, 2018)

Erosion and disturbed landscape due to runoff streams Figure 5-22 illustrates the green hill affected by the runoff streams on the regular base. As a result, fertile layer together with grass are washed out.

Figure 5-22: Erosion and disturbed landscape due to runoff streams (Source: Author, 2018)

Inefficient drainage Instead of to be discharged to the green zone, rainwater is directed to the hard surface. Thus, runoff cannot be managed at the place. In this way, it accumulates more significant volume and causes hazards downstream.

Figure 5-23: Rainwater discharge (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-24: Rainwater discharge (Source: Author, 2018)

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WEAKNESSES The basement floors are vulnerable to flooding Preserved historic buildings have active basement floor. There are retail, bars, and restaurants currently. The flooding not only damages the property but also makes rodents such as rats to migrate. Therefore, the catering and other enterprise have problems with sanitary situations. Figure 5-25: Active basement floor (Source: Author, 2018)

OPPORTUNITIES Direct connection to the blue-green system of Minsk The area has a direct connection to the bluegreen system of the city and the access to Svisloch. Further extension of the greenery into the district can be a resilient solution and logical development of the blue-green network. Historically, the place where Nemiga flowed into Svisloch was a marshy territory. The reconstruction of the wetland can contribute to the rainwater treatment and bring additional value as a unique urban wetland park. Thus, the constructed wetland can be a trailing element of the Sustainable Drainage Management Train before water discharge to the surface body.

Roads and parking lots can be partly converted to the green spaces Following the best practices examples, the city center can be gradually transformed into pedestrian orientated and car-free. For instance, Nemiga street can be reorganized just for public transport. Thus, five traffic lanes will be turned into green zones for public use. It will provide additional space to manage urban runoff, give human scale and vibrant environment, and improve ecology. The capacity of all open parking lots is about 2300 cars not including parking space along streets.

Figure 5-27 : Parking lots (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-26: The view of the blue-green system (Source: Author, 2018)


OPPORTUNITIES Green roofs and facades Green roofs and green facades are not common in architectural practice in Belarus. However, this WSUD measure has a good performance regarding moderation of urban runoff velocity and volume, rainwater retention and treatment. The integration of this approach can be applied for the industrial buildings in the quarter Romanovskaya Sloboda–Nemiga–Korolya street, multi-story parking on Nemiga street, and pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall.

Figure 5-28: Pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-29: Pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall (Source: Author, 2018)

THREATS Unsustainable development Unsustainable development reflected on the extension of impermeable surfaces, reduction of green areas, intrusion into the blue-green system, the car-orientated design is the most crucial challenge. Besides, the established practices of planning do not reflect the solutions and approaches to resist the current urban challenges. The old school is rather slowly accepting new trends, adapting the best practice guidelines and benchmarks. It is applied to planning institutions, design bureaus, construction companies, city administration, and universities.

Figure 5-30. Komsomolskaya street, construction work May 2018 (Source: Author, 2018)

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5.4.2 Creation of analytical maps for the focus area The input materials for the analysis and following mapping is the satellite image from Google Maps, OpenStreetMap, topography map, field research, and the rain sewerage scheme. As a result build-up, green spaces, streets network, impermeable surfaces, drainage network maps were developed. The distribution of the different types of surfaces is summarized in Table 5–01. The build-up is presented by constructions with pitched and flat roofs occupying a territory of 295,712 m2 or about 25% from the catchment area. There is a potential for green roofs installation. For instance, the rooftop of industrial buildings located in quarter Romanovskaya Sloboda — Nemiga — Korolya street, multi-story parking on Nemiga street, and pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall. The construction capacity of industrial buildings and parking with the functioning roof is assumed enough to accommodate the weight of the green roof construction. The total area is 31,473 m2. The evaluation of the potential for residential, retail, office buildings require examination of structures.

The streets network and open parking lots are depicted in the corresponding map (Figure 5–34.). The road infrastructure covers 270,840 m2 or 24% from total focus area. The capacity of the parking lots is up to 2,300 cars not including sides of the streets. There are streets with one side direction, the segment of Komsomolskaya street with shared space. Nemiga street and Pobediteley avenue are city transport arteries with heavy traffic. Pedestrian areas, sidewalks, squares, plazas embrace 405,959 m2 or 34%. The predominant materials are concrete paving slabs and asphalt. Despite paving slabs have joints the base layer contains concrete. This type is distinguished as a hard surface. Figure 5–31 and Figure 5–32 illustrate the distribution of different types of surfaces. Thus, all together impermeable surfaces occupy 56% of the area. Natural infiltration can occur only on 19% of green areas.

The green zones including parks, pocket parks, gardens, courtyards are about 231283 m2 or 19% of the catchment area (Figure 5–35). According to building codes, in particular «The technical code of practice 45–3.01–116–2008 (02250) Urban planning. Settlements. Norms of planning and development.», the proportion of green areas should be at least 25–35% of the entire development territory. Figure 5-31: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018)

Table 5-01: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-32: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018)


Figure 5-33: Build-up map (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-34: Streets network map (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-35: Green areas map (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-36: Impermeable surfaces map (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-37: Collectors map (Source: Author, 2018)

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5.5 TOOLBOX IMPLEMENTATION 5.5.1 Transformation program or scenario for the entire study area The procession of the field research materials described in section 5.4 identified strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the focus area. The elaborated maps depict the allocation of different types of surfaces and its total area, the structure of the district and density of the build-up, streets network, and the current drainage system. The next step is the creation of the strategies for the area transformation based on this input data and the development outlook. The authorities acknowledge the necessity to revise the city development vision. Thus, the president of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko noted in his recent speech that Minsk had become a city for cars and the number of vehicles has become overwhelming. He commissioned to recast a concept for the capital development towards a smart city, stressed the urban ecology problems, emphasized the necessity to preserve and extend green infrastructure (BelTA, 2018). The overall idea of the transformation program presented in this chapter aims to increase green zones, bring nature to the city, elaborate pedestrian orientated urban space, and ensure venues for social interaction. In other words, the program focuses not only on sustainable rainwater management but also on the creation of vibrant open spaces, improvement of the ecological situation, facilitation of economic growth.

The strong aspect to be taken into account for the development of the program is the emotional attachment of the citizens to the area. It is connected to the memory concerning the former river Nemiga. Consequently, the idea to bring water back and make it visible in the form of replica or event full extend renaturalization have a perspective to be gladly accepted by inhabitants. Water was always presented here. That is why it is a significant part of the local identity so-cold genius loci (from Latin the spirit of the place). The analysis showed that the share of impermeable surfaces is 56% including roads, pedestrian areas, sidewalks, squares, and plazas. As it was stressed before, the prospects regarding transformation towards the pedestrian orientated green city with public transport consolidation have to become a reference point for the future urban development. In this way, current impervious surfaces can be considered as the resource. Figure 5–38 reflects the potential for the green infrastructure extension. Thus, it is possible to achieve from 19% to 25% the share of green zones by decreasing the parking lots and the number of traffic lanes on some streets. The lobby of car users is powerful and recognizable. That is why the transformation must be implemented gradually, along with awareness complain and improving the quality of public transport services.

Table 5-02: Types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-38: Potential for green infrastructure extension (Source: Author, 2018)

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According to the scenario, the open parking lots are reduced by 27% or 626 car-places from 2300. It allows introducing new pocket parks, green strips, islands, and lawns. Middle lanes on Nemiga, Romanovskaya Sloboda street, Lenina street, Pobediteley avenue are turned into a vegetated stormwater median. The part of Nemiga street from the intersection with Romanovskaya Sloboda to Pobediteley avenue is transformed into the street just for the public transport. The rest of the road space, width 16 m, and length 445 m, is converted into the green boulevard. The side lanes of Romanovskaya Sloboda, Korolya, Komsomolskaya mostly used as additional parking places are reorganized into the raingardens, vegetated curb extensions partly or in the full extent. The performance of the area in terms of rainwater management can be improved also by the green roofs and green facades introduction. There is no research regarding the construction capacity of the existing facilities. However, the industrial buildings in the quarter Romanovskaya Sloboda — Nemiga — Korolya street, multi-story parking on Nemiga street, and pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall supposed to be capable to carry the extra load. The target regarding types of surfaces, the share of green roofs is presented in Table 5-02 and pie chart, Figure 5-39. The part of hard surfaces presented by roads, pedestrian areas, sidewalks, plazas will be reorganized in order to reach 8% of pervious or permeable coverage. Retrofitting of the existing building has the potential to incorporate

37818 m2 of green roofs. The extension of green areas up to 25% is possible by reorganization of street lanes and wider incorporation of the vegetative cover into pedestrian areas, sidewalks, and plazas. Figure 5-40 provides the comparison of the current conditions with the program. Thereby, the share of green territories is increased by 6% from 231283 m2 to 296011 m2. The area of buildup with green roofs is about 3%. Hard surfaces of roads is decreased by 3%. 7% of pedestrian areas, sidewalks, squares, plazas converted to the permeable surface. Thus, pavement with seal joints, firm gravel covering, pavement with open joints, loose gravel covering, ballast grass, compound blocks with joints, filtration blocks, grass paver blocks all together cover about 100110 m2 or 8% from catchment area.

Figure 5-39: Distribution of different types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-41 presents the scenario for the focus area with eight main strategies. The strategies include combination of WSUD measures obtained in Chapter 4. For example, the Green Street impels the raingarden, bioswale, infiltration trenche, vegetative cover, stormwater median, tree pit, pervious pavement, stormwater curb extension, curb cuts, and water flow path. The necessary combination of measures is elaborated for the particular case. The prototype solutions will be described in the next section. Figure 5-40:. Comparison of the current conditions with the program (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5-41: Transformation Program (Source: Author, 2018)

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GREEN STREET Green street strategy implies the reduction of impermeable surfaces by conversion of parking lots, road lanes and other hardscape surfaces into the objects of green infrastructure, and extension of pervious pavement share. The main measures are raingarden, swale, infiltration trenche, vegetative cover, stormwater median, pervious pavement, stormwater curb extension, and tree pit. Cultivation of trees with the intensive crown or so-called stormwater trees moderates a

peak flow due to the broad tree canopies. Curb cuts and water flow path are supplementary measures for runoff catchment and conveyance to the destination point, for example, raingarden. Rainwater storage tanks is the optional measure to collect and reuse water. The central principle here is the following to the rule of the Sustainable Drainage Management Train where the WSUD measures complement each other.

CLOUDBURST ROAD The giving strategy implies the reorganization of the streets profiles into the V-shaped one. In this way, the exceeded water volume tends to the middle of the road. There are narrow streets in the area with the distance between facades about 12 m, for example, Revolyutsionnaya and Internatsionalnaya. The basement floor of the historical buildings presented here is under constant flooding risk. The modification of the streets profiles redirects

runoff from the buildings to the median. The cloudburst road is a minor change which brings significant contribution especially for limited space where implementation of other WSUD solutions impossible.

WATER PLAZA The water plaza is the multifunctional facility which works as a public space in the normal conditions but collects and retains the exceeded runoff during heavy rainfalls. Rainwater storage tanks increase the capacity and allow to reuse rainwater. Gross pollutant traps can be incorporated for the glugging blockage. Water flow paths, for instance, gutters, regulate the water conveyance. The optional complementary measure is the underground rainwater storage tank.

The selected spots for the water plazas have downstream location where exceeding runoff is accumulated. The potential water plazas are located at the intersection of the pedestrian flows. It is an essential precondition for the elaboration of the public forum and vibrant venue.

VEGETATIVE COVER The strategy involves the overall increase in the number of parks, pocket parks, lawns, urban gardens, green stripes with the introduction of stormwater trees. Besides, there are complementary measures such as curb cuts and water flow path to direct runoff to the green zones. Current parking lots are the potential areas for transformation as well as hardscape squares. The strategy implies as well the idea of gardens with fruit trees which was popular in Soviet urban planning practice.

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RETENTION BOULEVARD Retention boulevard is the general strategy for Nemiga street metamorphosis. It includes the transformation of the road space into a landscape linear park with bioswale, stormwater trees, and the inclusion of pervious pavement. The boulevard is the green corridor giving further development to the blue-green city structure. Filled with the shallow water, bioswale is the sort of replica to the river Nemiga. Thus, the strategy tackles not only rainwater management

but also refers to historical context and issue of genius loci (from Latin the spirit of the place).

URBAN CANAL The more radical alternative to the retention boulevard is the urban canal. In the present context, it is the revitalization of the of the former riverbed of Nemiga. However, the described proposal requires additional research in terms of hydrological regime and the condition of the source of the Nemiga river the Franciscan swamp. It is no excluded that the source is completely dried up and cannot provide the canal with primary water level. In this case the strategy is

not sustainable and not feasible because it will be necessary to pump water up regularly from Svisloch to support the water level in canal.

CLEANSING AREAS The Cleansing areas can be presented by constricted wetlands and retention ponds. There are two potential locations for these measures. The retention pond can be organized within the Adam Mickevich square, the intersection of Nemiga and Gorodskoy Val streets, as an attractive landscape object. The adjusted to the focus area zone where former Nemiga flowed into Svisloch was a marshland. The construction of the urban wetland

is the hydromorphological renaturalization of the historical conditions. Along with the direct function of the water treatment facility, cleansing areas creates a unique landscape and habitat for wildlife. The education function can be also incorporated into overall concept.

GREEN BUILDINGS Green facades and green roofs are the measures of the presented strategy. The program includes the integration of this stratagy for the industrial buildings in the quarter Romanovskaya Sloboda–Nemiga–Korolya street, multi-story parking on Nemiga street, the pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall. Besides that the platform also can be enriched with green facade structures. Supplementary measure is the rainwater storage tank for water collection and subsequent

use. In the conditions of dense urban environment, the green roofs and facades compensate the lack of vegetation. Green facades can improve the inferior aesthetic quality of the monotones residential buildings made of prefabricated concrete panels.

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5.5.2 Design proposals: transformation prototypes 5.5.2.1 Defining sub-catchment areas The key concept of WSUD is the Sustainable Drainage Management Train. It implies the combination of the complementary to each other WSUD measures to deal with the runoff at the place, reduce its velocity and volume, as well as pollution level (Chapter 4). The management train begins with shrinking impermeable surfaces. A general principle is the runoff management on site, minimization of water discharge to the sewer, and water return to the natural drainage system. The combination of different options aims at attenuation of the peak runoff, its catchment, treatment, retention, detention, infiltration, conveyance, rainwater recycling, and storage. The selection of measures depends on the local context, the risk associated with flooding, and its consequences. However, the flooding risks of different intensity must be balanced with the expenses connected with measures to prevent it. The management train concept involves structuring of the area into sub-catchments to distinguish individual strategy based on the wide range of factors such as topography, types of soil, the potential for extension of permeable areas, possibility to organize green roofs, land use, and build-up characteristic. Figure 5–42 presents the sub-catchments of the focus area. The division is based on the buildup map, topography, and corresponding street network. These factors are correlated with the direction of urban runoff. Allocation of individual sub-catchment territories allows to carry out the more precise calculation concerning urban runoff volume and develop the particular scenario for its management.

Table 5-03: Sub-catchment areas (Source: Author, 2018)

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Figure 5–43 demonstrates the scenario of the Sustainable Drainage Management Train for the focus area. The main idea is the maximum runoff reduction at each sub-catchment area applying decentralized WSUD measures. In case if the capacity at the place is overwhelmed, the exceeded water volume is directed to the retention boulevard with bioswale, the part of Nemiga street from the intersection with Romanovskaya Sloboda to Pobediteley avenue. Then, water can be infiltrated, sent to the river Svisloch through the urban wetland, or discharged to the drainage system. However, the overall concept is to avoid rainwater outlet to the sewer. The Sustainable Drainage Management Train implies as well the introduction of the constructed urban wetland. It is adjacent to the focus area territory. It has to be considered in the overall concept. Historically, there was a marshy area at the inflow of Nemiga to Svisloch. The revitalization of the urban wetland refers to the former natural condition. The sub-catchment area 2 is selected for the development of transformation prototypes. There are a few arguments to support choosing. Firstly, the presented in the quarter streets have different typology, function, role, and importance. Thus, there are city, district, and local level streets as well as segment of the shared space at Komsomolskaya street. Along with bustling Nemiga street with retail, offices, and services, there are narrow Revolyutsionnaya and Internatsionalnaya streets. Being 12 m wide in some segments, they are packed with cars. Secondly, the quarter contains plots with various density and build-up pattern. Thirdly, there are presented public and semi-public open spaces alike. Last but not least, there is an opportunity to introduce green roofs and facades as well as pedestrian areas or extend shared space street. Hence, the different prototypes can be elaborated for various situations.


Figure 5-42: Sub-Catchment areas and runoff direction (Source: Author, 2018

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Figure 5-43: The Sustainable Drainage Management Train, scheme for the focus area (Source: Author, 2018)

Table 5-04: Types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018)

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5.5.2.2 Determination of targets for the sub-catchment area 2 The sub-catchment area 2 within the quarter Nemiga street — Gorodskoy val streets — Nezavisimosti avenue — Lenina street — Pobediteley avenue is selected for the The prototypes development. The total areas is 248,904 m2 or 24.9 hectares. Based on the collected analysis it is possible to conlude that the performance of the subcatchment regarding natural drainage is worst in comparison with the whole area. For example, the share of green zones is just 11% while the average is 19%. Impermeable surfaces occupy 54%, the same indicator for the overall territory is 56%. However, the sub-catchment has higher density where build-up is 35%. The average buildup is 25%. Taking everything into consideration, the presented quarter has very limited possibilities for the natural infiltration due to the lack of green coverage, and density. This creates additional difficulties in achieving the goals.

Figure 5-44: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current conditions (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-45: Distribution of different types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018)

The implementation of Transformation Program (Section 5.5.1) rises the amount of permeable or pervious surfaces and consequently improve the resilience of the area to flooding. The summary is depicted in Table 5–05 and Figure 5–45. Figure 5–46 provides the comparison of the current condition and the target after the implementation of the program. The individual character of the sub-catchment area in particular higher density with build-up 35% does not allow to achieve 25% share of green zones. The next section examines the application of WSUD measures and provides a rough estimation of its efficiency.

Figure 5-46: Comparison of the current conditions with the program for the sub-catchment area (Source: Author, 2018)

From the presented arguments, the indicators of selected quartier regarding green areas and density are significantly worst in comparison with average indicators for the entire catchment area. That supports the intention to develop additional measures for runoff management firstly for this territory. Table 5-05: Types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018)

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5.5.2.3 Program for the sub-catchment area Figure 5-47 provides a comprehensive inventory of applied measures for the subcatchment area within the quarter Nemiga street – Gorodskoy Val streets – Nezavisimosti avenue – Lenina street – Pobediteley avenue. The map depicts potential zones of raingardens, vegetated curb extension, new and existing tree pits, water plazas, vegetative cover, pervious pavement, green roofs, cloudburst roads, stormwater medians, and bioswale,. The supplementary measures are shown in connection with the main one, for example, cut curbs, water flow paths. The optional measure is the rainwater storage tank which can be installed along with water plazas, green roofs, and central bioswale. The diagram includes as well the information about the overall area of the new green infrastructure elements, additional ponding volume of raingardens, the capacity of water plazas, number of tree pits, and area of pervious pavement. The description, construction details, design considerations, limitations, and drawings are provided in the toolbox (Chapter 4).

RAINGARDENS Raingardens are applied for Komsomolskaya, Revolyutsionnaya and Internatsionalnaya streets. The total area is 3,021 m2. The possible depth of the ponding level is up to 150 mm (CIRIA, 2015). It means that all raingardens provide 453 m3 of additional retention volume. The width varies from 3.5 m to 8.5 m depending on available space. The maximum length of the individual raingarden does not exceed 40 m. The distance to the foundation of the nearest buildings is minimum 3 m. Water gets to the unit via inlet pipes, gutters, trough curb cuts or soft edges. Lined with riprap, the sediment forebay at the incoming discharge points traps litter and debris as well as facilitate effective maintenance. The outlets at the downstream zone and overflow systems provide the release of the excessive volume of

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water protect the raingarden from overloading. The raingarden units with length 20-40 m are equipped check dams with distance 10-15 m between them. It allows to slow down velocity and control sediment. The depth of the sand filter media is 1,000 mm. The gravel drainage layer with 200 mm depth and 30% porosity extend the retention capacity by 181 m3. The raingardens are planted with trees, shrubs, perennials and contain mulch layer, for instance, bark chips, above the filter media to improve fertility and keep soil moisture. A pedestrian cutthrough is integrated into landscape design. The obtained water can be directed and discharged to Svisloch or to the underlying soil. There is also opportunity to install underground storage tanks and reuse treated water for gardening and other technical purposes.

VEGETATED CURB EXTENSION

WATER PLAZAS There are two multifunctional spaces for stormwater management in the area presented by water plazas. It is a depressed square located at a lower-lying part of Internatsionalnaya street, and intersection of Nemiga street with Pobediteley avenue with the capacity 170 m3 and 150 m3 respectively. The first water plaza is in front of the cinema. It functions as the open air facility or amphitheater. The gutters deliver runoff from the surrounding to the water plaza. Obtained rainwater requires treatment before relief to the surface water body. The limited space and dense network of pipes do not allow to install additional underground treatment tanks. Thus, the collected water can be pumped up and filtrated trough adjusted raingarden or sent to the sewer.

The Vegetated curb extensions are organized along Gorodskoy Val streets by narrowing of the roadway. The width is 4 m, the total area is 1851 m2. The vegetative part is arranged identically to the rain garden and has the corresponding parameters described above. Thus, the ponding capacity 277 m3. The gravel drainage layer holds 111 m3.

The second plaza situated on the intersection of pedestrian streams and plays the role of a public forum. The steep slope 15% towards the plaza is a challenge regarding the runoff stream organization. However, integration of water flow paths is the solution which also enriches the landscape design and enhances the aesthetic value. The water from this plaza can be treated through the urban wetland and the discharged to Svisloch.

TREE PITS

PERVIOUS PAVEMENT

The fulfillment of this measure implies the restoration or replanting of 35 existing and construction of 101 new tree pits. Assuming that the tree pit volume is 12 m3 and storage capacity is about 35 %, each tree pit is capable to retain about 4 m3 (FGSV, 2006). The total volume for 136 tree pits is 544 m3. The tree pits cells are installed in the groups 2-7 units to provide flexibility for roots and increase the efficiency of the system. Runoff flows from the adjacent territory due to organized slope towards tree pit or via curb cuts. Soft planting or a mulch layer keep the soil moist and prevent weeds growing as well as holds the litter, debris, and sediment.

The target is to turn 8% of hard surfaces covering pedestrian areas, sidewalks, squares, and plazas to the pervious pavement. The existing asphalt and concrete paving slabs with impermeable base can be replaced by pavement with seal joints, firm gravel covering, pavement with open joints, loose gravel covering, ballast grass, compound blocks with joints, filtration blocks, and grass paver blocks. Thus, this transformation provides 18810 m2 for water infiltration. In accordance with DWA-A 117E and ATV-DVWK-M 153, the runoff coefficients ψ varies from 0.15 to 0.75 for different types of pervious pavement.


Figure 5-47: Transformation Program for the sub-catchment area (Source: Author, 2018)

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VEGETATIVE COVER AND STORMWATER TREES

STORMWATER MEDIANS

Vegetative cover and stormwater trees are complementary to each other measures. The area is enriched by 5,533 m2 of new pocket parks and gardens as well as 1,595 m2 of planters with stormwater trees.

Stormwater medians are applied for Lenina street by the deconstruction of the central lane. Currently, there are five lanes.The proposal implies 3 segments with width 3.6 m and length 151 m, 131 m, 131 m. The overall area is 1492 m2.

Stormwater trees with broad crown increase the efficiency of green areas regarding attenuation of the peak runoff. The tree canopies catch rainwater, the certain amount evaporates, while some volume is absorbed by the tree, the rest drops to the ground.

The stormwater median is presented by percolation trench in the middle in combination with the vegetated filter strip along both sides. The filter strips catch the sediment and provide pretreatment. The width is 1.05 m for each side. The slope 3% towards percolation trench directs the runoff. There is a 150 mm soil layer above the system which provides additional treatment and possibility to provide the vegetative cover. The underlying geocellular units with 95% retention capacity have a shape of a cuboid with 1.5 m width and 1.2 m height. One unit has the flowing parameters 1000 mm long, 500 mm wide, 400 mm high (Polypipe Civils Ltd, 2018). Thus, the overall retention volume is 706 m3.

GREEN ROOFS The rooftop of multi-story parking on Nemiga street with area 3,546 m2 is transformed into intensive garden roof. The thickness of the system is 260-470 mm and load is 320-680 kg/ m² (Optigreen Ltd, 2018). The rooftop functions currently as the parking lot, accordingly, the construction capacity is sufficient to withstand the garden. Rainwater is infiltrated and then directed to rainwater storage tank located in the technical floor. There are three segments with total volume 18m3 which is enough to hold 5mm rain event. Thus, water is collected and subsequently applied for the technical need. The system is connected with sewer in case of extreme rainfalls and necessity to discharge exceeded water.

Then, water is directed to the constructed wetland for further treatment and released to Svisloch.

CLOUDBURST ROADS The current profile of Revolyutsionnaya and Internatsionalnaya streets to its intersection with Komsomolskaya street is transformed into the V-shaped one. The width of these segments does not exceed 12 m. Thus, the cloudburst road for these streets is the measure to mitigate basement flooding. In this way, the capacity for the water redirection of Revolyutsionnaya street is 260 m3, and for Internatsionalnaya 221 m3.

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Table 5-06: Overall attenuation volume provided by WSUD measures for the sub-catchment area (Source: Author, 2018)

The implementation of the proposed scenario for the sub-catchment area allows to manage about 2,134 m3 at the place, Table 5-06.


BIOSWALE

URBAN CANAL (ALTERNATIVE OPTION)

According to proposed Sustainable Drainage Management Train, in case of heavy rainfall event when the capacity is exceeded water flows from the sub-catchments towards central retention boulevard with bioswale, the part of Nemiga street from the intersection with Romanovskaya Sloboda to Pobediteley avenue.

The more radical proposal is the reconstruction of the former riverbed. However, the feasibility of this proposal depends on the hydrological condition of the river source, the Franciscan swamp. There is no information for estimation if the source can feed the permanent level of the canal.

The bioswale has a trapezoid shape in crosssection with 600 mm height, 2 m bottom width, 6 m top width, 3:1 slope of the graded sides. The length of the bioswale is 445 m. The maximum recommended ponding level is 300 mm (DWA-A 138E, 2005). Thus, the above ground volume is 387 m3.

The design of the banks is organized in the way to respond to fluctuating water volumes. Thus, the permanent level is accommodated by the river source. Then, there is a volume above for the expected heavy rain event 2,670 m3, and the absolute maximum level with extra space for 2,635 m3.

Then water is infiltrated through 100 mm topsoil layer and gets to the geocellular system, 2 m width and 1.2 m height in section. Unit parameters are 1,000 mm long, 500 mm wide, 400 mm high and the void ratio is 95% (Polypipe Civils Ltd, 2018). In this way, the system can hold 1,014 m3.

One side of the canal is proposed as a soft edge with the natural landscape. The opposite side has the inclusion of the hardscape with sitting stairs and promenade.

The cleansing biotopes assure water treatment and bring nature to the city. Taking into consideration that the length of the retention boulevard is 445 m, there are check dams perpendicular to the flow path with 10–20 m intervals. The technical purposes are velocity control, facilitation of settling, and infiltration. Besides, the check dams can be integrated into the overall design and contribute to the aesthetic appearance. Thus, they can play the role of landscape elements, for example, bridges for the connection of two sides of the bioswale. The received water flows to the constructed wetland for treatment and then it is discharged to the Svisloch rive. The exceeded volume can be directed to the rainwater sewer if necessary. The philosophy and idea refer to the Nemiga river. The bioswale does not renaturalize the former river bed, but the streams make water visible in the city and remind about Nemiga.

If the source is dried out and revitalization of the hydrological regime is not possible the permanent water level can be supported only via pumping up of the water from Svisloch. In this way, the option is not sustainable and courses extra expenses connected with energy consumption and technical maintenance. The next issue is the existing infrastructure with pipes, cables and other engineering facilities. It is necessary to carry out the cost-benefit analysis to understand the real price for the infrastructure reorganization. There are other significant obstacles such as pollutants and sediment. The runoff has to be pretreated via bioswales, raingardens or other measures to minimize the clogging risk and pollution level. The philosophy behind is to enhance the spirit of the space connected with the history of the Nemiga river. The toponym is strongly depicted in the collective memory of inhabitants and on the mental map of the city.

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5.5.2.4 Estimation of the applied program and WSUD measures The rainwater sewerage system is designed in accordance with «The technical code of practice 45-4.01-57-2012 (02250) Rainwater systems. Construction Design Standards.» The capacity is calculated based on the rainfall event repeating on average one time per year duration 20 minutes. The value for Minsk is 103 litter per second from the 1-hectare area. It is about 12.36 mm within 20 min. The German technical rules and standards DWA provide the comprehensive information about rainfall intensities with different duration and frequency. Unfortunately, the precise statistic concerning heavy rainfalls and its intensity is not published in Belarusian codes and not in the open access. Therefore, there is no information about torrential rain repeating ones in 2-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 100-years. The analysis of precipitation presented in Chapter 3 shows that overall yearly amount has not changed significantly. However, the precipitation pattern has altered. Thus cloudburst tends to become more frequent and hazardous. For example, 77 mm during 10 hours was reordered in July 2017 with 24 mm during the first 3 hours (tut.by news, 2017). For comparison, the average monthly amount for July is 89 mm. According to Yuri Subbotin the director of Gorremlivnestok, the organization responsible for the stormwater management, it is impossible to avoid flooding in Minsk as soon as the precipitation reaches 20-28 mm in 1-1.5 hours (Minsk-news, 2017). Although flooding caused by cloudburst occurs on the regular base in Minsk, weather warnings thresholds are not indicated in the urban planning standards and codes. As a starting point for the calculation, it is decided to take the torrential rain 103 litter per second from the 1-hectare area in 20 min. Hypothetically It is a threshold for rainwater sewerage. After that point, it is assumed that flooding takes place. The difference between the sewerage system capacity and heavy rainfall event determines the exceeded runoff volume which has to be reduced by WSUD measures.

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The algorithm of the surface runoff estimation is based on DWA-A 138E, DWA-M 153E, DWA-A 117E, and ATV-DVWK-M 153 and described in Chapter 2. First, the numerical value of an impermeable surface [Aimp] is calculated as the sum of all connected individual sub-areas [AC] multiplied by mean runoff coefficient ψm which depends on the type of surface. Supplementary tables with recommended mean runoff coefficients ψm, symbols and definitions are presented in Chapter 2 as well.

For example, a pitched roof has the mean discharge coeffcient 0.8 – 1.0, a flat roof 0.7 – 1.0, and flat green areas 0.0 – 0.1. This value is assumed to be 0.9 for roofs and 0.0 for green areas in the calculation of sewerage system capacity. However, for the heavy rainfall events the mean discharge coeffcient is accepted at the upper limit 1.0 for roofs, and 0.1 for green areas. It takes into account more severe conditions occurring during rapid cloudburst when soil cannot absorb bigger water volumes in a short period. The inflow to the precipitation facility is calculated based on the formula:

The total sewerage system capacity in cubic meters [Vs] is estimated multiplying inflow value by the duration of cloudburst where rD(n) is 103 l/ (s * ha). The calculation of total runoff volume for heavy rainfall event is based on the same algorithm. It is decided to evaluate the efficiency of the program and applied WSUD measures for rainfalls 200, 300, 400 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min, Section 2.2.4. Thus, the threshold for the system is 2,456.9 m3. The difference between sewerage system capacity [Vs] and heavy rainfall event displays how much

water volume has to be managed in order to avoid flooding. Thus, exceeded water volumes in current conditions for 200, 300, 400 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min are 2,911.1 m3, 5,595.2 m3, 8,279.2 m3 respectively Incorporating the proposed program, the performance of the area can be significantly improved. First, the target implies the extension of green zones from 11% to 16%, green roofs from 0% to 1%, permeable surface for pedestrian areas, sidewalks, squares, plazas from 0% to 8%. Thus, the exceeded water volumes for 200, 300, 400 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min are 2,406.5 m3, 4,838.5 m3, 7,270.1 m3 accordingly (Table 5-08). Second, the integration of WSUD measures additionally manage up to 2,610 m3 within the sub-catchment quartier (Section 5.5.2.3). In case if the runoff cannot be completely managed at source the program includes the plan B. In this way, the next step in the Sustainable Drainage Management Train is the retention boulevard at Nemiga street. The proposed bioswale is able to retain 1,401 m3. The alternative solution to bioswale is the urban canal with a maximum capacity of 5,305 m3. According to the proposed program, the cloudburst with 200 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min is managed completely at the place. The rainfall with 300 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min cannot be managed within the sub-catchment area. The exceeded volume is 2,228 m3. The bioswale can reduce this amount to 818 m3. However, the alternative option with urban canal is sufficient for rain with this intensity. Moreover, the capacity of the canal together with proposed measures are enough to hold the cloudburst with 400 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min.


Table 5-07: Calculation, current conditions (Source: Author, 2019)

Table 5-08: Calculation, target conditions (Source: Author, 2019)

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5.5.2.5 Prototypes design The elaborated prototypes visualize the solutions described in the program for the subcatchment area. The situation scheme depicts the sections allocation in the quarter, Figure 5-48. Each prototype set contains a picture from the site, the section with the current situation, the target solution, applied WSUD measures, and added values occurring together with the implementation of the scenario. The comparison of the target with the presented conditions demonstrates the prospects and potential. The idea is to show the prospect of qualitative improvement and enrichment for different spots regarding typology, function, and role.

The city-level Nemiga, Gorodskoy Val, Nezavisimosti avenue, Lenina street, and Pobediteley avenue flank the quarter. The inner Revolyutsionnaya, Internatsionalnaya, and Komsomolskaya are defined as the local rang streets. The functional content of the presented streets is diverse as well and includes residential buildings, mixed-use with restaurants and bars, retail, offices, cultural and entertainment facilities, historical heritage. Besides, the prototypes include the solutions for open spaces, such as plazas and pocket parks. The diverse situations can be adapted and replicated for other city areas.

In addition to the elaborated prototypes, the given section contains the photo collages of the key spots. The first one is the urban wetland park. The assigned territory is outside of the catchment area. However, it is an essential component in the context of the Sustainable Drainage Management Train and has to be considered in the overall planning process. The second collage visualizes the water plaza on Revolyutsionnaya street. The third and fourth pictures illustrate the transformation of Nemiga street to the green corridor connected with the urban wetland and the central city bluegreen system. The existing pedestrian platform and space under are as well included into the concept. Thus, 5,660 m2 is converted to the experimental garden under the pedestrian platform. Currently, the potential of the space is not recognized. It functions as a secondary walking path and parking. Although, the inner garden can be a part of the natural culling system for the adjusted building. Besides, it will bring the unique character and enrich the public functions. The indoor green space is especially valuable during cold winter time.

LEGEND FOR PROTOTYPES ► Road surface ► Build-up ► Impermeable pedestrian area ► Pervious pedestrian area ► Green areas ► Water surface ► Bike lane

Rainwater storage tanks* – optional measure Figure 5-48: Situation scheme with sections (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 1. KOMSOMOLSKAYA STREET

Figure 5-49: Komsomolskaya street, shared space segment (Source: Author, 2018)

WSUD MEASURES

► Raingarden ► Tree pit ► Cut Curb ► Rainwater storage tanks*

Figure 5-50: Section 1, Komsomolskaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

ADDED VALUES

► Green corridor, reduced car traffic ► Public promenade, safe pedestrian space ► Active ground floor, rainwater reuse* ► Reduced amount of parking lots Figure 5-51: Section 1, the proposal for Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 2. KOMSOMOLSKAYA STREET

WSUD MEASURES

► Stormwater Tree ► Vegetative cover ► Cut Curb ► Rainwater storage tanks*

ADDED VALUES

► Reduced car traffic ► Space for playgrounds or workout ► Active ground floor ► Diverse visual environment Figure 5-52: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-53: Section 2, Komsomolskaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-54: Section 2, the proposal for Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 3. KOMSOMOLSKAYA STREET

Figure 5-55: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

WSUD MEASURES ► Raingarden ► Cut Curb ► Stormwater Tree ► Vegetative cover

Figure 5-56: Section 3, Komsomolskaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

ADDED VALUES

► Green corridor, reduced car traffic; ► Public promenade, safe pedestrian space; ► Active ground floor, rainwater reuse*; ► Reduced amount of parking lots. Figure 5-57: Section 3, the proposal for Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 4. INTERNATSIONALNAYA STREET

WSUD MEASURES

► Multifunctional public spaces for stormwater management (water plaza) ► Raingarden ► Pervious pavement ► Cut Curb ► Rainwater storage tanks* ► Gross pollutant traps*

ADDED VALUES

► Green corridor, reduced car traffic ► Open air cinema, public promenade, safe pedestrian space ► Active ground floor, rainwater reuse* ► Diverse visual environment Figure 5-58: Internatsionalnaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-59: Section 4, Internatsionalnaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-60: Section 4, the proposal for Internatsionalnaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 5. REVOLYUTSIONNAYA STREET

Figure 5-61: Revolyutsionnaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-62: Section 5, Revolyutsionnaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

WSUD MEASURES ► Cloudburst Road

ADDED VALUES

► Reduced car traffic ► Preserved historic buildings ► Preserved property

Figure 5-63: Section 5, the proposal for Revolyutsionnaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 6. GORODSKOY VAL STREETS

WSUD MEASURES

► Vegetated Curb Extension ► Tree pit ► Cut Curb ► Rainwater storage tanks*

ADDED VALUES

Figure 5-64: Gorodskoy Val street (Source: Author, 2018)

► Reduced car traffic, moderated heat island effect, diminished noise pollution ► Public promenade, safe pedestrian space ► Active ground floor, rainwater reuse* ► Reduced amount of parking lots

Figure 5-65: Section 6, Gorodskoy Val street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-66: Section 6, the proposal for Gorodskoy Val street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 7. LENINA STREET

Figure 5-67: Lenina street (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-68: Section 7, Lenina street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

WSUD MEASURES

► Stormwater Tree ► Vegetative cover ► Pervious pavement ► Stormwater Median ► Tree pit ► Cut Curb

ADDED VALUES

► Reduced car traffic ► Preserved historic buildings ► Preserved property Figure 5-69: Section 7, the proposal for Lenina street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 8. NEMIGA STREET (0PTION 1)

WSUD MEASURES

► Bioswale ► Stormwater Tree ► Vegetative cover ► Pervious pavement ► Cut Curb ► Green roof ► Green Facade ► Rainwater storage tanks*

ADDED VALUES

► Green corridor, reduced car traffic, moderated heat island effect, diminished noise pollution ► Public promenade, safe pedestrian space, cycling infrastructure, human scale, visible in the city water ► Active ground floor, touristic destination ► Diverse visual environment Figure 5-70: Nemiga street, view from the pedestrian platform (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-71: Section 8, Nemiga street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-72: Section 8 (option 1), the proposal for Nemiga street (Source: Author, 2018)

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SECTION 8. NEMIGA STREET (0PTION 2)

WSUD MEASURES

► Urban Canal ► Stormwater Tree ► Vegetative cover ► Pervious pavement ► Cut Curb ► Green roof ► Green Facade ► Rainwater storage tanks*

ADDED VALUES

► Green corridor, reduced car traffic, moderated heat island effect, diminished noise pollution ► Public promenade, safe pedestrian space, cycling infrastructure, human scale, visible in the city water ► Active ground floor, touristic destination ► Diverse visual environment ► Revitalization of the former river bed

Figure 5-73: Nemiga street, under the pedestrian bridge (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-74: Section 8, Nemiga street current state (Source: Author, 2018)

Figure 5-75: Section 8 (option 2), the proposal for Nemiga street (Source: Author, 2018)

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URBAN WETLAND MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

► The area is about 14,000 m2 ► Water is conveyed to the wetland via bioswale at Nemiga street and stormwater median at Lenina street where pretreatment occurs ► Aquatic bench occupies not less than 80% of a permanent pool area ► The share of a shallow marsh with 150 mm depth and deep marsh with 150-350 mm depth are equally distributed. ► The clean water is discharged to the Svisloch river. ► Discharge to the wetland is controlled. For the proper wetland operation in case of exceeded capacity water is directed to the rain sewerage.

Figure 5-76: The vision for the urban wetland park (Source: Author, 2019)

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WATER PLAZA MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

► The retention volume is 170 m3, the depth is 750 m, the area is 230 m2. ►The capacity can be extended introducing underground rainwater storage tank. ►Upstream green infrastructure provides runoff pretreatment via the green stripes and raingarden. ► The gross pollutant trap at the inlet zone is an optional measure to prevent clogging of the system. ► The function of the water plaza is in not only water retention but also public space. It can be utilized as an open-air cinema, public forum, or cafe.

Figure 5-77: The vision for the water plaza, Internatsionalnaya street (Source: Author, 2019)

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RETENTION BOULVARD, NEMIGA STREET MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

► The length of the retention boulevard with bioswale is 445 m ►The central element is the bioswale. It slows down runoff velocity, provides evapotranspiration, filtration, and treatment through the root zone, infiltration into the soil as well as conveys water to the urban wetland. ► The retention boulevard plays the role of the linear park. ► Taking into consideration the length of the system, there are check dams with 10–20 m intervals to provide the velocity and sediment control. The check dams are integrated into the overall design and serve as well as bridges and interaction spots.

Figure 5-78: The vision for the retention boulvared, Nemiga street (Source: Author, 2019)

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INDOOR GARDEN UNDER PEDESTRIAN PLATFORM, NEMIGA STREET MAIN CHARACTERISTICS

► The area of the potential indoor garden is 5,660 m2, the lenght is about 230 m. ► The indoor garden is connected with retention boulevard ► It is a part of the existing service and retail building. ► It facilitates technical functions such as runoff control, indoor microclimate regulator, natural cooling system. ► The space functions as and the experimental botanical garden and entertainment facility. The educational and research purpose have the potential to be included.

Figure 5-79: The vision for the indoor garden under the pedestrian platform, Nemiga street(Source: Author, 2019)

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CONCLUSION summarizing the results 6.1 ANSWERS TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION AND SUB-QUESTIONS Taking into consideration already existing flooding problem and the projection regarding further changes in precipitation pattern appearing in more frequent and severe cloudbursts, the city of Minsk demands the adaptation plan responding these challenges and bringing added values. Integration of the WSUD measures and development of blue-green infrastructure in the densely built area not only prevent flooding but also create vibrant public spaces, encourage healthy outdoor activities, reduce urban heat island effect, contribute to the biodiversity, brings nature to the city, establish a harmonious environment, and attract businesses. Thus, the proposed scenario with the transformation prototypes would enhance the ecological, social, economic and aesthetic values of the city. The WSUD solutions require the legislative basis for its implementation. The modifications in the policy framework are crucial for innovative practices. First of all, the holistic vision should be depicted in the Masterplan. The strength and potential of the decentralized drainage system briefly mentioned in the Masterplan should be elaborated in details. Secondly, sustainable stormwater management has to be an obligatory section of the planning documentation not only for general strategy but also for the detailed projects on the district, quarter, building levels. Thirdly, the building codes have to regulate the share of the impermeable surfaces. For instance, open parking lots tightly covered with asphalt for a large number of cars (20-50-100 and more places) have to be excluded from the practice. The share of the green spaces has to be at least 25% form the total area. To cover the shortage of greenery in dense conditions, the compensatory solutions have to be integrated, for example, green roofs, tree pits, bioretention system.

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However, any changes in the established system are slow, inconstant, and inhibited by many barriers such as the stiffness of policymakers.The transition of this framework into a real practice involves various stakeholders and requires thoughtful cooperation, the partnership between public and private sector, and public engagement. Planners, facilitators, policy-makers, decisionmakers, developers, and users have a different level of technical knowledge, the power to influence, interest, and involvement in the process. Hence, the creation of the learning environment and knowledge exchange are vital for the general awareness, as well as for transparency in planning and implementation. Environmental, urban advocacy, educational and research NGOs play a role of the mediators in these conditions. Introduction of the alternative approaches to the urban planning at Universities and other educational institutions is essential for the enhancement of the professional expertise. The most significant barrier is the monopoly of state institutions and enterprises at the level of decision-making, planning, design, implementation, and maintenance. Besides, the lack of transparency, open data, and public engagement do not allow other effected sides to influence the process. The involvement of players from the outside of the closed state bubble will bring alternative ideas and approaches along with healthy competition leading to more efficient, sustainable, and breakthrough solutions. The analysis of best practices shows the potential of WSUD in Belarusian context along with some additional recommendations for the improvement of the legislative framework and directions for stakeholders management


6.2 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS REGARDING PROPOSED TRANSFORMATION PROGRAM AND PROTOTYPES The biggest concerns are the lack of open data and rejections some of the actors to provide the information. For example, the municipal repair and operational unitary enterprise responsible for the stormwater management Gorremlivnestok refused to comment the current conditions of the rainwater sewerage, provide the statistic in terms of precipitation, and thresholds for the drainage system. The estimation of the drainage capacity is based on «The technical code of practice 45–4.01– 57–2012 (02250) Rainwater systems. Construction Design Standards» where rainfall event 103 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min is the base for the determination of the sewer parameters. The factor of clogging and sludge is not included in the calculation. This data is not available as well. Thus, there is a threat that the performance of the system is lower than assumed capacity. The proposed scenario aims to manage the maximum runoff at source integrating decentralized WSUD measures. However, the individual components are interconnected into one system, complement each other, and assure better performance. Thus, pervious surfaces, rainwater harvesting, infiltration, conveyance, storage, and treatment elements together organize Sustainable Drainage Management Train.

First of all, the decision has to be based on the cost-benefit analysis of two options, bioswale and urban canal. Secondly, the feasibility of both solutions has to be evaluated comparing the overall expenses for its implementation and maintenance with the potential damages caused by cloudbursts of giving intensively considering as well frequency. As it was stressed before, the data in terms of precipitation does not contain this type of information.

Thirdly, the performance of the proposed measures can be easily improved, for example, introducing geocellular systems. Thus, the limitation of the input data affects the accuracy of the estimation. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats are identified for both options, bioswale, and urban canal. Despite the canal able to manage 3.7 times bigger runoff volume, the weaknesses and threats are more ponderable comparing to bioswale.

Table 6-01: Exceeded runoff volume for cloudburst of different intensity (Source: Author, 2018)

Table 6-02: SWOT analysis, boiswale (Source: Author, 2019)

Based on the scenario for the sub-catchment area, the proposed WSUD measures capable to manage 2,610 m3 additionally to the sewerage capacity 2,456.9 m3. The exceeded volumes can be retained within bioswale or alternative option with the urban canal, and the capacities are 1,401 m3 and 5,305 m3 respectively. The results show that alternative option with urban canal is able to hold the exceeded runoff volume during cloudburst 300 and 400 litter per second from the 1-hectare area duration 20 min. However, it does not mean that bioswel has to be excluded from the program. Table 6-03: SWOT analysis, urban canal (Source: Author, 2019)

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6.3 OUTLOOK The lack of professional expertise and established practices of design are the curtail reasons underlying the Adaptation deficit. The presentation of the research results to the broad audience is essential for the opening of the discussion. The target stakeholders that can be interested in the master thesis at the current point are planning bureaus, educational institutions, NGOs, as well as international organizations and foundations working in Belarus.

Thirdly, the capacities of the NGO Minsk Urban Platform is already used for awareness and educational purposes. Thus, an article regarding mistakes of the water management in Minsk and potential for WSUD integration was published within the online magazine urbanist. by. The vision for the future is the public presentation and workshops in February 2019 related to the adaptation of the city to the current and projected challenges.

First, the Design and Research Utility Unitary Enterprise ÂŤMinskgradoÂť elaborating Masterplan of the city is one of the focus stakeholders. It is the main actor that establishes the framework for the city planning. The promotion of WSUD and alternative solutions to conventional drainage among professionals is the first step for its practical implementation.

Last but not least, the launched in 2018 Green City Action Plan for Minsk is at the primary stage of problems identification. It is dedicated to the collection of indicators in order to define priorities and focus sectors. Thus, the master thesis can find the direct implementation there stressing not only the problem of stormwater management but also providing alternative solutions.

Secondly, the thesis is planned to be presented for the Architecture faculty of Belarusian National Technical University. The introduction of a new topic for students and academic staff can draw attention to the theme and give inspiration for the new researches.

The further elaboration of the topic can be continued with the precise calculations and creation of simulations applying software such as STORM. This tool is sustainable for stormwater management, general drainage planning, pollution load calculation, and flood protection.

6.4 REMARKS Besides the research objectives, the presented master thesis contributes to the knowledge exchange and enrichment of learning environment regarding water in the urban context. WSUD is the new concept for the urban development practice in Belarus. Introduction and promotion of this approach involve as well the elaboration of the professional terminology. The direct translation from English to Russian or Belarussian does not always convey the essence, including collocation Water Sensitive Urban Design. Hence, the designed cards for the work with stakeholder contain English and proposed Russian version for the name for the measures. However, It is not excluded that some of the proposition will be revised over time.

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All the engaged parties have different background and not always possess the professional terminology in the equal level. That is why the set of cards and supporting infographic can serve as the communication tool to explant the content in a clear way. The cards can be applied for the workshops, presentations, public discussions.


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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-01: Runoff behaviour in natural and urban conditions (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 1-02: Natural, urban, and WSUD water balance (Source: Author, 2019 based on Hoban & Wong,2006) Figure 1-03: Attenuation of peak runoff by WSUD measures (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 2-01: Structure and the research flow (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 2-02: Coefficient of hydraulic conductivity for different types of soil (Source: DWA-A 138E, 2005) Figure 2-03: Pictograms for the WSUD measures (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 2-04: An example of a WSUD card (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 2-05: An example of a WSUD card, English version (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 2-06: An example of a WSUD card (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 2-07: An example of a WSUD card, English version (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 3-01: Changes in yearly precipitation within the period 1891-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018) Figure 3-02: Changes in monthly precipitation within the period 1891-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018) Figure 3-03: Comparison of the average precipitation (1891-2018) and precipitation within the interval 1991-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018) Figure 3-04: The distribution of the precipitation records for April-October within the period 1991-2018 (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018) Figure 3–05: Vileyka-Minsk water supply system (Source: Author, 2017 based on Minskvodokanal, 2016; Pluzhnikov et al, 1987) Figure 3-06: Minsk Flowing water system (Source: Author, 2017) Figure 3-07: Scheme of urban drainage with main outlets in Minsk ( Source: Author, 2018 based on Minskgrado, 2018) Figure 3-08: Stakeholders matrix ( Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-01: The hybrid green roof, Vierhavenstrip DakPark in Rotterdam, the Netherlands ( Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-02: The green facade, CaixaForum museum in Madrid, Spain ( Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-03: An urban garden in Chicago, the USA ( Source: Author, 2016) Figure 4-04: Biofiltration Planter ( Source: Author, 2018 based on NACTO, 2017) Figure 4-05: Bioretention Planter ( Source: Author, 2018 based on NACTO, 2017) Figure 4-06: An example of the wet swale ( Source: Author, 2018 based on CIRIA, 2015) Figure 4-07: An example of the infiltration trench ( Source: Author, 2018 based on CIRIA, 2015) Figure 4-08: A stormwater tree with the broad crown ( Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-09: An example of the urban wetland in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-10: An example of the urban wetland in Rotterdam, the Netherlands ( Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-11: An example of the detention pond with the permanent pool (Source: Author, 2018 based on CIRIA, 2015) Figure 4-12: An urban water canal, a diagram with different water levels (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-13: the Westersingel canal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-14: A stormwater median diagram (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 4-15: A cloudburst road diagram (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 4-16: Cut curb and water flow path ( Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-17: A water flow path in Hamburg, Germany (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-18: Modular pavers (Source: Author, 2017) Figure 4-19: The pervious surface of the tram track in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2017) Figure 4-20: An example of the vegetative curb extension (Source: Author, 2019 based on NACTO, 2017) Figure 4-21: A water plaza diagram (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 4-22: The Benthemplein water plaza in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2017) Figure 4-23: An example of the tree pit (Source: Author, 2019 based on CIRIA, 2015) Figure 4-24: An example of rainwater harvesting system (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 4-25: A gross pollutant trap at the Westersingel canal in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 4-26: The Sustainable Drainage Management Train (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-01: Hot spot, Nemiga street (Source: Author based on Google map, 2018) Figure 5-02: Nemiga, flooding (Source: Motolko, 2014) Figure 5-03: Nemiga, flooding (Source: Motolko, 2014) Figure 5-04: Nemiga, flooding (Source: Motolko, 2010) Figure 5-05: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-06: Nemiga street, under a pedestrian platform of a shopping mall (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-07: Nemiga street, view from the bridge at Pobediteley avenue (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-08: Focus area in the city structure (Source: Author based on Google maps, 2018)

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Figure 5-09: Catchment area (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-10: Catchment area and analysis of the runoff direction (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-11: The place where Nemiga flows into Svisloch, begining of XX century (Source: archive of Volozhinskiy) Figure 5-12: Rakovskaya street, Nemiga area (Source: archive of Volozhinskiy) Figure 5-13: Nemiga street, view on the multi-story residential building and shopping mall with the pedestrian platform (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-14: Figure 5-14: Svabody square (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-15: View on the Svisloch river(Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-16: Open gutter redirecting water from the street to the green area (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-17: Komsomolskaya street, construction work May 2018 (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-18: Komsomolskaya street after construction work, flooding Jul 13 2018 (Source: Ministry of Emergency, 2018) Figure 5-19: Komsomolskaya street, flower bed above concrete layer (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-20: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-21: Open parking lots (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-22: Erosion and disturbed landscape due to runoff streams (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-23: Rainwater discharge (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-24: Rainwater discharge (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-25: Active basement floor (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-26: The view of the blue-green system (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-27 : Parking lots (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-28: Pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-29: Pedestrian platform of the Nemiga shopping mall (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-30. Komsomolskaya street, construction work May 2018 (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-31: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-32: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-33: Build-up map (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-34: Streets network map (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-35: Green areas map (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-36: Impermeable surfaces map (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-37: Collectors map (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-38: Potential for green infrastructure extension (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-39: Distribution of different types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-40:. Comparison of the current conditions with the program (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-41: Transformation Program (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-42: Sub-Catchment areas and runoff direction (Source: Author, 2018 Figure 5-43: The Sustainable Drainage Management Train, scheme for the focus area (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-44: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current conditions (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-45: Distribution of different types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-46: Comparison of the current conditions with the program for the sub-catchment area (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-47: Transformation Program for the sub-catchment area (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-48: Situation scheme with sections (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-49: Komsomolskaya street, shared space segment (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-50: Section 1, Komsomolskaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-51: Section 1, the proposal for Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-52: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-53: Section 2, Komsomolskaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-54: Section 2, the proposal for Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-55: Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-56: Section 3, Komsomolskaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-57: Section 3, the proposal for Komsomolskaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-58: Internatsionalnaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-59: Section 4, Internatsionalnaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-60: Section 4, the proposal for Internatsionalnaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-61: Revolyutsionnaya street (Source: Author, 2018)

69 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 75 76 76 77 78 79 80 81 83 84 84 85 89 90 91 91 91 93 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 102 102 103

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Figure 5-62: Section 5, Revolyutsionnaya street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-63: Section 5, the proposal for Revolyutsionnaya street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-64: Gorodskoy Val street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-65: Section 6, Gorodskoy Val street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-66: Section 6, the proposal for Gorodskoy Val street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-67: Lenina street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-68: Section 7, Lenina street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-69: Section 7, the proposal for Lenina street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-70: Nemiga street, view from the pedestrian platform (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-71: Section 8, Nemiga street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-72: Section 8 (option 1), the proposal for Nemiga street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-73: Nemiga street, under the pedestrian bridge (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-74: Section 8, Nemiga street current state (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-75: Section 8 (option 2), the proposal for Nemiga street (Source: Author, 2018) Figure 5-76: The vision for the urban wetland park (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 5-77: The vision for the water plaza, Revolyutsionnaya street (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 5-78: The vision for the retention boulvared, Nemiga street (Source: Author, 2019) Figure 5-79: The vision for the indoor garden under the pedestrian platform, Nemiga street(Source: Author, 2019)

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1-01: Benifits of WSUD (Source: Author, 2019) 13 Table 2-02: Recommended mean runoff coefficients Ďˆm in accordance with DWA-A 117E and ATV-DVWK-M 153 20 Table 2-01: Symbols and definitions (Source: Author, 2018) 20 Table 3-01: The average monthly precipitation and total yearly precipitation withian the periods 1891-2018, 1991-2018, and 1981-2010 (Source: Author, 2018 based on Belhydromet data archive retrieved from the web site POGODA. BY, 2018) 24 Table 3-02: Historical precipitation maximums within the period 1891-2018 (Belhydromet, 2018) 26 Table 3-03: Frequency and amount of cloudburst events (Source: Author based on Belhydromet, 2018) 27 Table 3-04: The legislative framework (Source: Author, 2018) 34 Table 3-05: Stakeholders register, part 1 form 2 (Source: Author, 2018) 36 Table 3-05: Stakeholders register, part 2 form 2 (Source: Author, 2018) 37 Table 3-06: Isolated system of State institutions and enterprises (Source: Author, 2018) 38 Table 3-07: The problem tree (Source: Author, 2018) 39 Table 4-01: WSUD measures, processes (Source: Author, 2018) 41 Table 4-02: Recommendations for the legislative framework improvement (Source: Author, 2018) 63 Table 5-01: Distribution of different types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018) 76 Table 5-02: Types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018) 82 Table 5-03: Sub-catchment areas (Source: Author, 2018) 88 Table 5-04: Types of surfaces, current situation (Source: Author, 2018) 90 Table 5-05: Types of surfaces, target (Source: Author, 2018) 91 Table 5-06: Overall attenuation volume provided by WSUD measures for the sub-catchment area (Source: Author, 2018) 94 Table 5-07: Calculation, current conditions (Source: Author, 2019) 97 Table 5-08: Calculation, target conditions (Source: Author, 2019) 97 Table 6-01: Exceeded runoff volume for cloudburst of different intensity (Source: Author, 2018) 113 Table 6-02: SWOT analysis, boiswale (Source: Author, 2019) 113 Table 6-03: SWOT analysis, urban canal (Source: Author, 2019) 113

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GLOSSARY Aquatic bench — a shallow almost flat area of a pond vegetated with cleansing biotopes for pollution removal Attenuation — a reduction of the peak flow rate. Bioretention cell — the general term for rainwater management facility to capture, treat, and infiltrate runoff organized as a landscaped depressions with vegetative cover and engineered soil medium. Catchment area — the territory where all accumulated surface runoff flows to the same outlet destination, such as rainwater collector or surface water body. Evapotranspiration — the process of water transfer through a plant and its evaporation Extreme rainfall event — relatively rare cloudburst, generally considered to be an event with a return period of 10 years and more. Forebay — a small basin or treatment element at the inlet zone trapping sediment. Geocellular system — below-ground modular plastic units with a high porosity capable of managing high flow events, the alternative to the gravel drainage. Permeable pavement — a surface type covered with a material that is impervious itself, however, there is void space for water penetration from the surface to sub-base. Pervious area — an area of ground that allows water to be infiltrated Ponding capacity — the water volume which can be temporarily held above the ground level of a raingarden. Resilient city — a city organized in the way to resist physical, economic, social or institutional challenges and shocks. Runoff — water flow over the ground surface to the drainage system

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Abbreviations DSM – Decentralized Stormwater Management DWA – German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste GPT – Gross Pollutant Trap NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions NGO – Non-governmental Organization REAP – Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planing SDGs – Sustainable Development Goals SuDS – Sustainable Drainage System WSUD –Water Sensitive Urban Design

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APPENDIX APPENDIX 1: INTERVIEW WITH LUBOV HERTMAN (TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN) Lubov Hertman is the head of the hydrology and water-protection areas department in the central research institute for complex use of water resources. What amount of runoff do fall into Svislach without pretreatment (m3, or in%)? How does it influence water quality and biodiversity? Surface runoff from the city including the industrial zones falls into the rain sewerage network represented by large main collectors with the following release to: • the Loshitsa river (collector Zapad); • the Svisloch river (collector Komarovka) — in

the area of Daumana street, from the streets Mogilevskaya, Zhukovskogo, Voronyanskogo, near the street Belorusskaya, Inzhenernaya, from the district Loshitsa.Here the quality of wastewater is monitored. There is a significant number of medium and small collectors with outlets in almost all water bodies within the entire city territory. In general, 24% of the territory is residential apartment buildings, 6% is the manor buildings, and green areas occupy 19% of the city’ area. The significantly transformed territories occupy 63%. That strongly affects the rate of formation of the hydrograph of surface runoff.

Figure 0-01: The location of the drainage outlets (Source:Hertman, 2018)

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Is there an official and recognized statistics, not forecasts and assumptions confirming climate change in Belarus, precipitation pattern, temperature regime? The Institute of Nature Management of the National Academy of Science under the direction of Academician Loginov V. F. conducted the research which allows talking about the presence of special climatic conditions in cities including the example of Minsk compared to the surrounding territory. Is there any open statistic on precipitation? For example, cloudbursts (liters/minute) that occur once every one year, 5, 10, 20, 50 years? The observations results from meteorological stations including Minsk are in the public domain on the site http://pogoda. by/ Are there any prerequisites in Belarus for using greywater/rainwater? Industrial enterprises can use rainwater after cleaning. From the territory of other functional areas, surface runoff flows into waterways. Are there any prerequisites or attempts to start the transformation of Minsk towards sustainable development? Minskgrado conducts the data for the design and development of the blue-green diameter. The works are financed from the budget of Minsk. Minskinzhproekt elaborates the project for the further development of the rain sewerage system of Minsk.

Do stakeholders, especially decisionmakers, the complexity of the problem associated with stormwater management? It seems that they do not see the connection between flooding and lack of permeable surfaces, open parking lots for hundreds of cars. The State Program «Environmental Protection and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources for 2016–2020» approved by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus № 205 and its sub-program 2 «Development of the State Hydrometeorological Service, climate change mitigation, improving the quality of atmospheric air and water resources» imply activities related to climate change adaptation. There are other programs. However, the issues of adaptation to climate change are not included in urban planning building codes and standards. But the problem is acknowledged. Why does flooding occur after the introduction of the new collector Nemiga? What was the methodology for assessing the drainage system? The calculations were most likely made based on «building norms and regulations 2.04.03–85. sewerage. Outdoor networks and facilities.»The problem with Nemiga is complex. In addition to shortcomings in the calculations, perhaps there is a problem with the implementation of projects (during construction), the maintenance of transport networks and communications.

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APPENDIX 2: STAKEHOLDERS REGISTER, ANSWERS OF THE EXPERTS

Table 0-01: Stakeholders register, evaluation of the interest (source: author, 2018 based on the answers of experts)

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Table 0-02: Stakeholders register, evaluation of the power (source: author, 2018 based on the answers of experts)

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APPENDIX 3: THE SET OF CARDS WITH WSUD MEASURES

The present set of cards is the first draft of the WSUD measures. It was elaborated for the communication with stakeholders and experts. The final toolbox contains the revised measures with comprehensive description.

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APPENDIX 3: THE SET OF CARDS WITH WSUD MEASURES

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APPENDIX 4: COST OF THE RAINGARDEN IN COMPARISON TO THE GRANITE FLOWER BEDS The transformation of the focus area according to the proposed scenario with WSUD measures requires high financial input. Currently, Komsomolskaya and Revolyutsionnaya streets are under the reconstruction. The segment of Komsomolskaya street with a total length of 230 meters is already at completion. Figure 0-02 demonstrates the area of reconstruction. The works will be extended to other streets within the city core. The reconstruction project of Komsomolskaya and Revolyutsionnaya street is prepared by the Municipal Construction and Operational Unitary Enterprise «Minskaya Spadchyna». The failures

of the project such as lack of green areas and permeable surfaces were presented in Chapter 5, Section 5.4.1. It is important to stress that the reconstruction implies granite flower girls instead of flower beds organized on the ground. This solution excludes natural infiltration. Besides, the soil in the girls quickly gets frozen during cold seasons. As a result, perennial plants cannot survive in these conditions. Thus, the new vegetation has to be planted every year. It brings additional maintenance and replacement costs. The National Centre for Marketing has published the procurement list connected with the project. Table 0-03 contains some positions

and cost in Belarusian rubles (BYN) and euro (EUR). The exchange rate is 1 BYN=0.416 EUR (The National Bank of the Republic of Belarus, 2019, February 07). The cost-benefit analysis is out of the research scope. However, the draft price estimation of the raingardens presented for the same area within the scenario in Chapter 5 provides the basic understanding of their sufficiency. It can be compared to expenses related to the current reconstruction work at Komsomolskaya and Revolyutsionnaya streets. The total amount of the granite flower beds is 75 items with overall cost 87,330 euro. The price does not include soil, plants, installation, and maintenance work. The material for pavement is granite stones, 419 euro per m2. According to Rain Garden Alliance, the cost for 1 square foot is 10–15 US dollars (Rain Garden Alliance, 2009). It is 95.04-142.56 euro per 1 square meter. The exchange rate is 1 USD= 0,88 EUR (The National Bank of the Republic of Belarus, 2019, February 07). One square meter is equal to 10,7639 square foot. The total area of raingardens within current reconstruction plot is 1,169 m2. Thus, the estimated cost is 111,101 – 166,652 EUR. It is higher than the price of granite flower girls. However, the last provide only a decorative function.

Figure 0-02: Reconstruction area (Source:Author, 2018)

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Table 0-03: Some items of expenditure for Komsomolskaya and Revolyutsionnaya streets (source: author, 2018 based on the National Center For Marketing, 2017)


Profile for Anastasiya Andrukovich

Adaptation guidance for flooding risk mitigation in Minsk, Belarus_Anastasiya Andrukovich  

Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree: Master of Science Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning HafenCity Uni...

Adaptation guidance for flooding risk mitigation in Minsk, Belarus_Anastasiya Andrukovich  

Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree: Master of Science Resource Efficiency in Architecture and Planning HafenCity Uni...

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