Issuu on Google+


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 2 GENIUS LOCI

......................................................................................................................................... 2

UNITY .................................................................................................................................................. 2 UNITY OF IDEAS ................................................................................................................................. 2

UNITY OF STYLE ............................................................................................................................. 3 UNITY OF DETAIL ........................................................................................................................... 3 UNITY BY LIMITATIONS OF THE SITE

........................................................................................................ 4

SIMPLICITY ......................................................................................................................................... 4 BALANCE........................................................................................................................................... 4 SCALE EN PROPORTION .......................................................................................................................... 5 RHYTHM AND REPETITION ........................................................................................................................ 5 FOCAL POINTS ....................................................................................................................................... 5 USE OF GEOMETRY IN THE DESIGN ............................................................................................................ 6 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................ 6

BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................................... 7

The Garden Studio | P a g e | 1


INTRODUCTION Successful garden design brings together hard and soft materials to create a harmonious effect. This harmony is the result of a carefully thought-out design which relies on a well-balanced combination and arrangement of different elements. The arrangement of elements made is crucial and establishes a big difference in what bad design and good design is. The biggest difference between a garden that looks unnatural or “unprofessional” and one that looks natural or “professionally done” is based on a few key concepts known as Principles of Garden Design which are described as follows.

GENIUS LOCI Almost 300 years ago Alexander Pope adopted the Genius Loci (genius of the place) as an important principle in garden and landscape design. His mantra of respecting the individual qualities of a place, developing an understanding of nature and applying that knowledge foremost when designing a garden is still valid as ever; the principle starts with the following lines from Epistle IV, to Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington: Consult the genius of the place in all; That tells the waters or to rise, or fall; Or helps th' ambitious hill the heav'ns to scale, Or scoops in circling theatres the vale; Calls in the country, catches opening glades, Joins willing woods, and varies shades from shades, Now breaks, or now directs, th' intending lines; Paints as you plant, and, as you work, designs.

UNITY Unity can be described when all parts of a design come together into a single major idea with individual identities merged in the greater whole.

UNITY OF IDEAS Unity attracts and holds attention. It organizes view into orderly groups with emphasis. It develops from a story line, idea or theme. For instance, Japanese gardens create unity with the feeling of peace and tranquillity.

The Garden Studio | P a g e | 2


UNITY OF STYLE The style of a garden is defined by the geometry used in its design. There are different types of style as follows:

FORMAL/SYMMETRICAL STYLE. A garden laid out on regular lines with features arranged in symmetrical shapes or in geometrical designs. The shapes are predominantly composed of straight lines and angles such as squares which can be stretched into rectangles and circles into ovals. ASYMMETRICAL STYLE. It is developed by using creative geometric shapes; they can overlap, touch or be separated. They provide the most useful garden spaces. A sense of movement and dynamism is achieved but they must provide visual stability. It is possible to create an asymmetrical visual garden composition through shape, form, line, position, colour, texture and patterns.

INFORMAL STYLE. It is naturalistic and usually includes asymmetrically placed design elements, naturally shaped plants and beds, casual paving, curved spaces. The informal style is often structured using flowing lines and gentle contours. These flowing lines create an irregularity and softness within the space. Even though everything is under human control it has been designed to integrate with the surroundings. It is usually based on the local landscape and it therefore helps to create additional habitats and increased biodiversity within the design area.

UNITY OF DETAIL It is achieved by consistently using elements with similar characteristics such as height, size, texture, colour, materials and so on; these elements should look similar to put either individually or in groups. In the garden pattern all parts of the design, path, bed, border, or any other area, must be interrelated. The whole must hang together. Anything extraneous detracts from the quiet satisfaction of a unified scheme. Every group of elements must play its part and be related to the whole. The small garden can successfully present only a single idea, a single picture. Larger gardens of more scope can accommodate several pictures but they must not compete.

The Garden Studio | P a g e | 3


UNITY BY LIMITATIONS OF THE SITE In most of the cases, the surroundings impose restrictions upon the design process. A natural transition between the unity of the garden and its boundaries must be carefully planned to avoid abrupt or radical changes in the landscape design by making sure that gradual changes take place to ensure a smooth and overall continuity with the local architecture and with the native species.

SIMPLICITY Simplicity is the elimination of unnecessary detail. This is the fundamental principle of success and this should be carried through into the planning of the garden. The more it can be left out the simpler it will be and the more successful it will become. It is used to focus on what it feels it is the most important element in the garden picture and it purposely cuts out any clutter that might distract the eye or attention. It is achieved by limiting the number of materials and features in the garden, by repeating plants in sweeps and groupings and restricting the use of colour, texture and forms.

BALANCE Balance is equilibrium and harmony. There are different kinds of balance: Symmetrical balance is where all elements of the design are equally divided and then a design is somewhat of a mirror image or reflection. It was used a lot during the Renaissance period where entire gardens are mirror images from one side to the other. By drawing an imaginary line right down the middle of the garden, each side will be a mirror image of the other. Both sides could share all or part of the same shape, form, plant height, plant groupings, colours, bed shapes, theme, etc. Asymmetrical balance consists in balancing dissimilar elements on each side of the garden. It differs from the symmetrical one as this kind of gardens is free flowing adding curiosity and movement. It may be better understood as actually being abstract, or free form while still creating unity and balance through the repetition of some elements. It is a little more difficult to perceive, and it is more natural and relaxed.

The Garden Studio | P a g e | 4


SCALE EN PROPORTION Scale refers to the relationship between two or more objects, one that has a commonly known size. In most cases, the size of objects is compared to our own human scale. Of all the principles of garden design, this one is so obvious but still requires thought and planning to be used correctly as it is one of the most misused and fundamental mistakes any garden designer can make. Proportion is relative and elements can be scaled to fit by creating different rooms in the garden. The goal is to create a pleasing relationship among the three dimensions of length, width, and depth or height. It involves visually balancing both planting and man-made elements, horizontal and vertical, with each other, with the site, and with the human scale.

RHYTHM AND REPETITION They are employed to create a feeling of logical follow-through, a leading up to the climax of the garden producing interest throughout the entire scheme. Rhythm provides movement or flow and prevents the picture from being static. It is developed by repetition of the same element, a group or specimen, in a series of pairs balanced across the main axis of the garden. If the intervals between the groups are regular, rhythmic sequence is produced. Such a planting carries the eye along from the beginning to the end and leads from one picture to the next, tying the whole together into a more unified composition. Everything selected has to compliment the central scheme of things and must have some purpose.

FOCAL POINTS Focal points are used strategically to create visual emphasis in the garden; there is a need for finding dominance and subordination of various elements when a landscape is seen from any direction. If we don't find it, we withdraw from the landscape. Some gardens lack the dominant element. Others suffer with too many dominate elements screaming to be the focal point. The focal points may be placed in the main axis such as the end of a path; curving paths should have a series of focal points. Never clutter up an axis with more than one focal point. A clear way to communicate an idea can often be expressed by the focal point in the design. Towards this point everything else leads; the garden paths, the beds, and the planting. Around such a point the highest development occurs. It is where the most effective groups, the best plants, the richest compositions are placed. The Garden Studio | P a g e | 5


USE OF GEOMETRY IN THE DESIGN Garden design relies on geometry and the use of regular shapes and the relationship and proportions of these shapes to the building, to the site and to each other; the overall effect of the layout can be affected by creating abstract patterns with different shapes and lines, for instance, squares can be stretched as rectangles, circles can be elongated as ovals, flowing lines create curves and so on. The patterns created by these geometric shapes may be described as static or motive spaces and they can strongly influence the mood and style of a site. Static shapes such as squares, circles and hexagons have equal proportions and lead to nowhere when they are enclosed. They create excellent sitting areas while motive spaces are linear in shape and give a feeling of movement.

CONCLUSION

The understanding of the principles of design is the key to succeed in the making of a garden; many designs could work well in terms of singular principles but when they are considered as a whole, there are some out of place features that disturb the overall effect. Gardens must be suitable for any kind of people, however when analysed from different perspectives in terms of good or bad design, the perceptions may slightly differ from one point of view to another. In general, the job of any garden designer is to capture the purpose and use of the landscape and create a versatile space that can be pleasant and interesting accordingly to those principles without being too rigorous.

“Certain principles guide us but we must not confuse them with formulae. Each composition must convey the particular features of each case� Roberto Burle Marx.

The Garden Studio | P a g e | 6


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Newbury, Tim. The ultimate garden designer. Ward Lock, 1996. Brookes, John. Garden design course. Mitchell Beazley, 2007.

Websites. http://www.ext.colostate.edu/mg/gardennotes/413.html#emphasis Principles of landscape design, January 2012.

http://www.landscape-guide.com/garden-design-guide/index.php Garden design guide, 2005.

http://www.weekendgardener.net/design.htm 8 basic principles of landscape design, October 2013.

Images are royalty free using the Google Images advanced search.

The Garden Studio | P a g e | 7


Garden Design Principles