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Process Book

Professor Peter Bartlett | DMGT 702

History & Interpretation of Innovation © Alan Liu Fall 2018

Table of Content 1. What is Innovation?

9. Contemporary Art Innovation

2. Portuguese Expansion

10. Visual Rhetoric

3. Steel Axes

11. Cultural Exploration

4. Joy

12. Sustainability Innovation

5. The Founder

13. Unintended Consequences

6. Notable Designers

14. Original Innovation

7. Lifestyle Innovation

15. What I learned in DMGT 702

8. Failed Innovation

16. Bibliography

What is Innovation? Innovation is not equal to Invention. Invention is to create something never existed before; Innovation is to develop the better solution for human society based on the existed invention. To quote Huffington Post, “Invention is throwing a pebble into a pond; innovation is the ripple caused by the pebble.�

Portuguese Expansion Create an infographic that depicts the Portuguese expansion of the Indian spice trade. Develop visualizations to graphically depict the diffusion of innovation and its consequences. Depicting the Portuguese expansion to India required a geographic representation of the events, and simple vector images replaced text to share the type of ships and selected routes involved. Several key innovation and event in this case study are put on the bottom of the infographic with clear explanation.

Steel Axes Create an infographic that depicts the main events, human, and non-human actors in the Steel Axes for Stone-Age Australians’ story. Use timeline to describe how western technology and culture influence the Yir Yoront people. The key images convey the various factors involved and their interaction with one another.

Movie -

Joy A visual presentation identified the driving forces and key factors prior to the invention and the enabling elements of Joy’s diffused innovation.

Key Factors to Influence Joy’s Innovation

Friendships Grandmother


Friendly Dress


Regulations Political


Social Car Shops


Ex-husband Sketching Frustration in Family Technological Call-in Prototyping Patience Television Manufacturing

Economic Employees Cotton Suppliers Received Investment

Joy’s Mindset: Be Humble, Never Give up, Positive, Critical Thinking, Find out Problem

Movie -

The Founder A visual presentation identified the STEEP driving forces / influencing factors contributed to innovations by McDonald brothers and Ray Kroc.

Key Factors to Influence McDonald’s Innovation Reality Corporation Faith (Church)

New Wife - Joan Quality Control Right people Loyalty in the right position Social Employee’s Strong work Ethic Practice

Golden Arches Opportunity


Trademark Laws



ADs Patience

Suitable Franchises

Franchise Laws Political




Minimized Process Transportation



Investors Limited Loan Powdered Milkshake

Ray’s Mindset: Build family & Faith, Face difficulties, Definite Value, Positive, Efficient, Find out opportunities

Notable Designers Identify, compare, and contrast factors that contributed to creation of innovative design solutions by preeminent graphic designer Ivan Chermayeff and industrial designer Dieter Rams.

Ivan Chermayeff & Dieter Rams

Influencing Factors

Ivan Chermayeff | Graphic Designer


Was born in London in 1932, a distinguished New York-based graphic designer, author, illustrator. Attended Harvard University, and the Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology in the early 1950s. He later graduated from the School of Art, Yale University.


In a partnership with Tom Geismar that spanned 60 years, He created over 100 posters announcing prominent television shows, museum exhibitions, and other cultural events. In 1957 he was a cofounder of the design firm Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv. The firm has long specialized in the design of graphic identities for a wide range of companies, government institutions and cultural organizations. Over the years Ivan designed a range of children’s books that feature bold illustrations and sparse texts.



His partner Tom Geismar sees him from quite another angle: “Ivan combines the sensitivities of the artist with the decisiveness of the corporation executive. This unusual combination is fueled by an extraordinary energy level.”


Ivan Chermayeff

Ivan Chermayeff

Bright Artistic Colorful Abstract Imaginative Museum of Contemporary Art, L.A.

The Museum of Modern Art, New York

For The New York Times to Symbolize the 9/11 Terrorist Attack

Dieter Rams | Industrial Designer Was born in Wiesbaden, Germany, in 1932. He was strongly influenced by the presence of his grandfather who was a carpenter. Dieter Rams's early awards for carpentry led to him training as an architect as Germany was rebuilt in the early 1950s. Worked in German electrical products company, Braun, in 1955. launching revolutionary electrical products. The Ulm School of Design, successor to the Bauhaus. was appointed head of design at Braun from 1961 to 1995. Together with his design team, he was responsible for many of the seminal domestic electrical products for the future.

Influencing Factors






Dieter Rams: 10 Principles for Good Design

"Design Should Not Dominate things. Not dominate people. It Should Help People"

Attempt to transfer the interaction of these product interfaces onto our scope to create understandable, honest, useful, long-lasting, innovative interfaces.

Dieter Rams

Bauhaus Functionalism

Less, but Better

Lifestyle Innovation Create a timeline to structure all images and text including influencing factors based on the date of initial invention and that of subsequent innovations and inventions that made a contribution.

The Bike-Share Boom


Google: Bike-Sharing World Map

Taiwan Youbike operated by GIANT BIKE

STEEP – Influencing Factors Regulations of Leasing

Reduce Air Pollution Release the Traffic Problem People’s needs in the cities



Locations Planning




Sharing Economy - Uber Entertainment

Technological The applications of quick digital payment system/ e-wallet Popularization of using apps on smart phone Manufacture, shipping, delivery, storages, product development

Economic Lower Cost for Citizen Corporate Sponsorships

Dockless Bike Sharing System Impact Pro:

Convenient – Rent & Stop everywhere (Don’t need return) Con: Causing the mess in the cities




Failed Innovation Select an innovation, either historical or current, that failed in the marketplace. Analyze the factors contributing to its failure and develop a verbalvisual presentation.


Colgate Tried to Enter the Food Market in 1982. Purpose: Consumers enjoy eating Colgate dinners and then brushing their teeth with Colgate toothpaste. Main Failed Factors:


Environ. Competitors in the Frozen Food Market

Consumers Recognition Brand Image/ Identity Trust & Credibility


DMGT-702 | SCAD | Professor Peter | Fall 2018 | Š Alan Liu

Contemporary Art Innovation Select one type of contemporary art or artist. Describe and illustrate how the art form was innovative in providing a useful, qualitative aesthetic experience ranging from responses, attitudes, and emotions.

René Magritte 1898 – 1967 A Belgian artist known for his Surrealist Paintings. Rene Magritte’s witty and thought-provoking artworks have made him a central figure in Surrealism. He challenged his viewers’ perception of reality by placing everyday objects in unusual contexts. Apart from images, he also used words to make his viewers question their perception. He continues to be very famous even after his death.

An inspiration to later movements, especially Pop Art. Even after his death, his influence lived on in popular culture, including songs, books, and films. He is undoubtedly one of the most successful artists in history.

Influencing Factors:



1.Magritte’s mother committed suicide.


2.He had a complicated love story with his muse, model, and wife, Georgette.


3.His paintings were the most vibrant during World War II.

4.He was too poor to become a painter right away.


5. He was a master forger (Reproducing paintings/ counterfeit banknotes during postwar period)




The Treachery of Images, 1948



René François Ghislain Magritte



Visual Rhetoric Use a metaphor image to convey the brand essence preferably with minimal text. “The Power of Suction.” is a simple verbal affirmation of Dyson’s identity.

Cultural Exploration Describe your home country including: Facts, Statistics, Overview, Language, Culture, Society, Social Customs, Etiquette, Business Culture and Practice. Taiwan


Capital -Taipei Taipei 101

1st Happiest country in East Asia Taipei is 3rd Safest City in the world

Ethnic Make-up Han




17th Dutch

17th Spanish

Ming 19-20th & Qing

th 17-19



14 Aboriginal Tribes



The population of Taiwan is 23,000,000

New Taiwan Dollars



Traditional Chinese words Simplified


NTD 30 = USD 1



Mandarin (Accent/ Form) Taiwanese Other aboriginal languages

Social Media

Phonetic Symbol Pinyin


Political Party Democratic & Republican

Republic of China

Democracy Constitutionalism


Food Paradise

Sweets Everywhere

People Enjoy the Night Markets

One of Traffic Signal is Dynamic Green Walking Person

The Cleanest and Most Friendly Metro in the World because no one can eat in the Metro system, and people keep lining up for waiting trains coming.

Taiwan Share Bike system is popular and high quality.

Everyone Has Recycling knowledge

Diverse Religion

National Sport

Local Street Art

Jay Chou

ChthoniC Ang Lee Jason Wu

Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon The Ice Storm Hulk Sense and Sensibility Life of Pi Brokeback Mountain

The Heart of Asia

Enriched culture and amazing sceneries Most importantly, you can find the most friendly and generous people in this small island.

Sustainability Innovation Select a product, service or business model innovation where sustainability considerations of environmental, social and financial are integrated as interdependent elements to achieve humanecosystem equilibrium that improves the quality of life. Eco-friendly Toothbrush


Oral care market is 2.9 billion and US toothbrush market is up to 453 million.

Market & Trend


> Electric toothbrushes reduced dental plaque 21% and gingivitis 11% after three months of use, compared with manual toothbrushes. Moreover, electric toothbrushes market is growing up fast in the developed countries.

850 Million ~ A Billion toothbrushes = Up to 50 Million pounds of waste into landfills / year. *Disposable toothbrushes have already become a problem in the real world.

Real Sustainability ?

VS 50 % the total eco-costs of a manual toothbrush and 60 % the lifetime energy requirements for an electric toothbrush are incurred during the manufacture and distribution phases, compared to the usage and disposal phases. In addition, although the electric toothbrushes can reduce the plastic wastes because of replacement heads, the rechargeable batteries could cause toxic chemicals into landfills.

Every component is plant-based: bristles, handle, wrapper, and box.



A lot of experts/ dentists/ organizations certified

Political - Sustainable knowledge becomes popular now. - Consumers are influenced by mainstream electric toothbrush ads



Certified 100% Organic Bamboo (Biodegraded material)

Price is still high: USD 20 /4P

Unintended Consequences Select an Social Innovation that had unintended consequences and conduct secondary research. Identify key influencing factors that have contributed to the unintended consequences. A Whole New way to Communicate - Sticky Notes

Post-its already are being used around our lives; especially in design world.

A New Type of Adhesive The adhesive was weak enough that Silver could stick it and reapply it to surfaces without leaving behind any residue. But he had a problem: He didn't know what to do with it.

Spencer Silver

That problem came "With so many new technologies you file them away in your memory bank and then pull them out when you see problems." - His colleague, Art Fry

when Fry was singing in a church choir. He had bookmarked his hymnal with little pieces of paper but when it was time to sing, the pieces of paper fell out.

Fry started to wonder if he could

create a bookmark that would stick and peel off the pages without tearing the paper. He thought of Silver's new microsphere adhesive, and began creating some prototype products.

Spencer Silver and Art Fry, inventors of the Post-it Note, say the iconic canary yellow was first used because their lab only had scrap yellow paper on hand. (Courtesy of 3M)



Technological / Environment Economic

"At that time we wanted to develop bigger, stronger, tougher adhesives," "This was none of those." - Silver

The Value of Social Innovation "I thought, what we have here isn't just a bookmark," "It's a whole new way to communicate." - Fry.

"It's a new language to communicate in design field."

Original Innovation Define a problem, conduct secondary and primary research, gain insights, identify opportunities and create an original innovation. Prepare a verbal-visual description and craft a ‘pitch’ to sell your idea. Whole New Online Art Sales Platform

Problem Statement

Online art consumers are still frustrated by purchasing artworks because they are not clearly understand the value of artworks, and the digital experience does not capture the authentic experience of the work.

Umbrella Question

How might we use design management to improve online art consumption experience to be more tangible, transparent, and efficient. What’s the current online art market? How can improve the art consumers’ experience? What kind of support is needed for improvement?

Galleries lead the market inflating the cost

Galleries have dominated the market and operated the prices for a long time. Consumers are frustrated by the transparency of price. Obscure value is always a problem for purchasing artworks experience.

Many limitations for art consumers and artists The forms of artworks is other huge problem for online art sales platforms. The digital experience does not capture the authentic experience of the work, such as sculpture, installation, and video.

Target Consumers Opportunity Statement In order to avoid galleries keep dominating the market, the new platform rebuilds the new relationship between artists and art consumers, and solve the problems such as certifying the value of artworks and enhancing digital experience as purchasing artworks. Trough the user-friendly platform, online art consumers can entirely trust the value and find more diverse forms of artworks. Overall, purchasing artworks experience will be more tangible, transparent, and efficient.

Online art sales market is growing up very fast nowadays because people would like to do anything on websites or personal devices. However, they are still limited to the lower price artworks because consumers still can’t trust the current online platforms which are mainly operated by galleries. In addition, top art consumers still buy high price artworks from public auctions or air fairs. Therefore, building the trust & credibility and creating friendly environment on the online platform both are crucial factors for top art consumers or other potential consumers.


• Many galleries shut down in these years because the rent or other costs like art fair. • Online art market’s influence • Only big galleries dominate market. • Consumers can’t obtain the authentic experience of artwork on online system. • Top consumers don’t know the real value of artworks because the prices still are operated by top galleries. • Limitation: installation/ video …

Total sales in the online art and antiques market worldwide from 2013 to 2017 (in billion U.S. dollars)

What attributes would you say are critical when deciding on which online art sales website to potentially buy from?

Reasons for collecting art among art collectors in the United States as of February 2018

Social media platforms galleries find most effective in terms of raising awareness and promotion from 2016 to 2018 In 2018, 62 percent of the respondents stated that they find Instagram to be most effective in terms of raising awareness and promotion.

Findings, insights, opportunities After secondary and primary research, there are some findings, insights, and opportunities here. Gallery opening freeze and even shut down a lot during the economic recession nowadays. Online art sales platforms are growing up, the consumers who purpose is for decoration prefer to purchase online. However, they are limited to lower price artworks market. For top art consumers, they purchase high price artworks considering aesthetic value, investment value, or social status so they still purchase artworks in physical space such as public auctions or art fairs. They feel more tangible and credible in these places. For artists, they usually don’t want to sell their artworks through galleries. They are active on social media and promote themselves and interact with art consumers directly. In the future, if the new platforms could be more credible, traceable, and transparent, it would expand the opportunities on different level consumers and reach more potential consumers.

Value Proposition

Value Proposition

Customer Segment

Track Value

Visual Effect



Google Museum

Price is settled

Gain Creators

List what you get

Share Economy

More channels


Expected higher Value


Don’t need to go to galleries

Social Status

AI Appreciating

Products & Services

Build connections

Artistdriven Platform

Expert Consultant

Google Map

Suggestion/ New type art work

Social Media

Price more clear

Contact with Artists

Accessibility for any form

Value no standard

Pain Relievers

Preference Filter System

Options for consumers

Artist is equal to galleries

Understand Knowledge Find preferences

Customer Job(s)

Filter the preferences

Compare Price

Ask Friends Suggestion

Limited Art forms

Actual Feeling

Some price still not opened

Confirm Needs

Price is clear

Pains Certify System

See artworks from different places

Fake work Problem

More reference

Place Order

Fit needs (Deco, collection,i nvestment

Still hard to contact with artists

Initial Concept

The New Platform can improve online art consumption experience to be more tangible, transparent, and efficient.

Innovative Solution


Value Tracker APP



Google Virtual




To create a user-friendly platform by the new technologies.

Artist-driven Platform with Social Media Connect to Social Media for easily interacting with artists on the platform.

What I learned in DMGT 702 This course taught how to identify and foresee the development of innovation and consequences of its diffusion. I also learned how STEEP factors influence various innovation. In addition, every classmate selected different innovation from different perspectives. I understood different cultural background could be related to the rate of adoption of innovation. Original innovation was a crucial section to practice developing our design concept and create value proposition by design methods. Overall, through understanding design innovation history, it’s not only one factor causes the successful innovation, but also a lot of factors directly or indirectly influence the innovation. Therefore, building multidisciplinary collaboration is one of the most important elements in design management nowadays.

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Profile for Alan Liu

History & Interpretation of Innovation  

SCAD | Fall 2018

History & Interpretation of Innovation  

SCAD | Fall 2018