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ENERGY FROM AGRICULTURE AS A ROUTE TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES A Project funded by Shell International Foundation and Implemented by Global Green-Life Institute with the following local partner-institutions: Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement Development Academy of the Philippines Preferred Energy, Inc.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines




Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

INTRODUCTION PROJECT DESCRIPTION The “Philippine Agriculture Energy Utilization as a Pathway to Community Development” is a project funded by The Shell International Foundation and is part of their Sustainable Energy Program whose two major objectives are reducing the impact of fossil fuel use and overcoming poverty by increasing the access of lowincome communities to modern energy services. It is a joint initiative of Global Green-Life Inc. (GGI), Preferred Energy Inc. (PEI), Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), and Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) together with other partners. University of California, Davis (UCD), US Department of Energy (US DOE), California Energy Commission (CEC), The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), US-Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP), and the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) serve as the Technical Advisory Group of the Project. UCD and US DOE will provide technical support in biomass-gasification/combustion research and operations. On the other hand, CEC, NREL as well as US DOE will provide state and federal policies on renewable energy and distributed power generation for agro-energy. Other partners such as PEI, US-Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP), DAP, and PRRM will provide the overall direction and coordination work with the Philippines national and local government agencies and will assist with the planning and implementation on a workshop. GGI will provide overall project management, communication, and coordination with its local and U.S. partners. The project has three major components that are being initiated by different agencies. The first component is an eight- month project being carried out by PRRM entitled “The Participatory Biomass (Rice Hull) Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study Project.” The second component involves the conduct of a feasibility study at the private enterprise levels, which is being conducted by PEI while the third component involves national biomass policy coordination through the formation of an Inter-Agency Working Group (IWG). This is being facilitated by DAP. The IWG was formed last September 2001 and is composed of representatives from various government agencies that have jurisdiction over biomass development and production to utilization. These are the Department of Agric ulture (DA), Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG). The IWG is tasked at developing policies for the use of biomass.

PARTNERS Local Project Partner Institutions § § §

Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP) Preferred Energy, Inc.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines § § § § §

Department of Agriculture (DA) Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

Foreign Project Partner Institutions § § § § § §

Global Green-Life Institute (GGI) California Energy Commission (CEC) University of California, Davis (UCD) US Department of Energy (US DOE) The National Renewable Energy Laboratory US Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP)

List of Agencies Involved in Biomass Development, Production and/or Utilization Non-Government Organizations: 1. Preferred Energy Inc. 2. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement 3. Renewable Energy Association of the Philippines 4. Global Green-Life, Inc. 5. Green and Clean Engineering Ltd. 6. Green Peace Government Agencies: 1. Department of Agriculture § Bureau of Soil and Water Management 2. Department of Energy § Non-Conventional Energy Division § New and Renewable Energy Program 3. Department of Agrarian Reform 4. Department of Science and Technology § Industrial and Technical Division Institute § Forest Products Research and Development Institute 5. Department of Environment and Natural Resources 6. Department of Interior and Local Government 7. Development Academy of the Philippines

Academic/Research Institutions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Biomass Energy Laboratory Philippine Rice Research Institute International Rice Research Institute National Institute of Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology University of the Philippines Los Baños Philippine Biomass Energy Laboratory Agricultural Mechanization Development Program Agricultural Machinery and Testing Evaluation Center Central Luzon State University 4

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines 10. University of California-Davis

International Agencies: 1. Resource Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP), Canada 2. California Environment Protection Agency, USA 3. California Energy Commission 4. Department of Food and Agriculture, USA 5. Resource Agency 6. Trade and Commerce Agency 7. US Department of Energy 8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA 9. Regional Wood Development Programme in Asia 10. Shell International Foundation 11. Sustainable Energy Program 12. US-Asia Environmental Partnership (US-AEP),

Private/Business Corporations 1. Philippine Bio-Sciences Company, Inc. (PHILBIO) – represents a Philippine

business model for resource recovery through biological treatment of organic waste streams. Designs, constructs, operates and finances waste-to-energy projects, operating in three key sectors: (1) Livestock waste; (2) Municipal Solid Waste and (3) Food and Beverage Processing 2. Akasya BPV, Inc. - Manufacturers, Mechanical

Engineers and Metal Fabricators who make components for the Energy Industry including but not limited to Biomass Energy System Components, Geothermal Systems, Wind Systems, Cogeneration, as well as project development and turnkey for mini energy systems such as mini hydro, cogeneration and distributed processing. 3. Enertech Systems Industries, Inc. - Send Email to Enertech Systems Industries,

Inc. Manufacturer of biomass energy boilers 4. First Philippine Energy Corporation – design, installation and construction

engineering of alternative sources of energy 5. James and James Science Publishers -

Worldwide publisher involved within the Renewable Energy industry. Online directories of companies 6. Biomass Energy Production -

Engineering and construction company offering services for biomass energy production, gasification plants, as well as natural gas fueled and waste fueled power plants. 7. Changing World Technologies Inc. -

Develop and finance environmental and energy-producing technology. Pilot 5

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

projects include fuel cells, and thermo depolymerization process plants which convert waste into energy. 8. Vogelbusch - The Bioprocess Company -

Vogelbusch - Technology, Process Engineering and Plant Construction for the Biotechnology Industry 9. DynaMotive Technologies -

BioOil fuels and the chemical free DynaPower wire cleaning system. 10. Premium Pellet Ltd -

Your source for premium quality wood pellets, a clean, renewable biomass energy source. 11. Innovative Technology Centre -

Research into biomass energy, gasification and anaerobic digestion. 12. Snow Flame Corn Burner -

Alternative heating source for furnaces. Burns corn, various grains, cotton gin waste, cannery waste, pelletized waste from wood and plastic products to dry animal feces. 13. Biogas Technology of LRZ Neukirchen - http://www.lrz- Develops, designs, operates and provides technical support for biogas plants and its compounds for fermentation of organic waste and production of renewable energy. 14. The PGI Power System -

Biomass power; technology for biomass- fueled power generating systems. 15. Prime Energy -

Low temperature, air starved, gasification of biomatter to produce an energy source for electricity generation, steam production, process heat, or any combination of these useful forms of energy. 16. Sensible Steam Consultants -

Steam engines, boilers, generators and complete steam gensets. 17. Steam and Control Systems, Inc. -

Plants designed and built to produce energy from renewable biomass fuels including wood waste, rice hulls, bagasse and papermill sludge. 18. Gas Separation Technology LLC -

Processes for enriching low quality methane sources, such as landfill gas and coal mine gas, to pipeline quality. 19. Organics Ltd. -

Designs, manufactures and installs environmental protection systems. Primary


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

product range covers equipment for the safe collection and disposal of landfill gas and leachate. 20. Central MN Ethanol Co-op -

Ethanol production from corn. 21. Spillingwerk GmbH -

Designs and constructs systems for generating electricity from biomass. Products include steam engines and compressors, and gas expansion engines. Includes product applications and company news. 22. A.T. Biopower -

Biomass energy project company developing rice husk fueled power plants in central Thailand. 23. Worldwide Service Company LLC -

Providing a patented way to remove and recycle waste with the cleanest possible and most energy efficient process. 24. The Corporation For Future Resources - Anaerobic fermentation conversion systems for generating methane gas, carbon dioxide and anaerobic organic fertilizers. 25. Malavalli Power Project Pvt. Ltd. -

Biomass Power Plant - firing sugarcane residue bales and briquettes as fuel. 26. Oexalt Energy -

Energy service company specializing in alternative energy sources and energy recovery. 27. Rotary Power International, Inc. -

Rotary Power International manufactures the S.C.O.R.E. rotary engine. Rotary Power's engine is the only engine to run directly off the producer gas of a biomass gasifier.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

PART 1. BIOMASS POLICY PAPER 1. Introduction Biomass is a resource whose uses have been overlooked by policy and decision makers in the Philippines. Presently, there is no clear integrated policy dealing with biomass. The only discernable biomass policy in the country comes from the energy sector, which treats biomass as a source of renewable energy and, therefore, defines biomass in energy terms. Another policy, although not as prominent as the one that the energy sector promotes, comes from the environment sector, which treats biomass largely as waste. In the other sectors, namely agriculture, local government and agrarian reform, there is no clear policy related to biomass. Yet biomass is largely available in the country, especially in the rural areas. And there are various uses of biomass such as fuel for cooking and heating, organic fertilizer, etc. For a predominantly rural country, it is therefore ironic that policy makers have not taken a closer look on the value of biomass as a means of spurring rural development and alleviating poverty in the countryside. This paper aims to discuss the scientific and economic perspectives of biomass. The objective is to provide policy makers with information and recommendations on how to tap biomass for economically productive uses. 2. Rationale and Background Biomass is largely available in the Philippines. A multitude of biomass conversion technologies exist and can be employed to obtain energy, fuels and chemicals. If properly utilized, biomass has great resource potential to he lp reduce poverty, promote sustainable development, protect the environment from further degradation, improve the quality of life, promote gender equity and encourage the use of indigenous resources. Poverty Alleviation The Philippines is still largely an agricultural country with the rural sector having a high incidence of poverty. The World Bank reports that 77.4% of the poor can be found in the rural areas and that 67.8% of them are employed 1 . Biomass use can help in the poverty alleviation efforts of the government. This is especially true in the agricultural sector since biomass use can lead to increased farm production and income. Biomass use can also play a major role in creating energy self-reliant communities and industries. Promoting biomass as an energy source through gasification (fixed bed and fluidized bed), combustion, liquefaction, biomethanation or other applicable technology will provide an opportunity for rural communities to own, manage and operate their own enterprises. 1

Sales, R. F. Jr. Biomass for Sustainable Development: Issues, Prospects and Challenges. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM). Paper presented at the ConferenceWorkshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Biomass can also be used to improve soil quality, thus promoting a sustainable farming practice. Producing fertilizers for commercial purposes can also be a livelihood option. Biomass utilization projects, therefore, could result in increased livelihood options fo r the rural communities. Farmers will be able to sell their produce and investors can provide employment through small, medium and large-scale biomass projects like energy, chemical and pharmaceutical production. As new markets are created, the rural economy will become more diversified. Sustainable Development Sustainable development essentially means meeting the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In the Philippine Agenda 21, sustainable development involves the harmonious integration of a sound economy, responsible governance, social cohesion and ecological integrity to ensure that development is a life-enhancing process. These principles are integrated in the country’s medium-term development plan, which includes plans to develop and utilize renewable energy technologies, review options and techniques for waste management, and promote sustainable agriculture, among others. Biomass use can support efforts to promote sustainable development in the country. Biomass resources can be used as organic fertilizer and soil conditioner, thus contributing to sustainable agriculture practices. Based on 1999 estimates, the agricultural sector has produced 2,357,325 metric tons (MT) of rice hull, 9,311,251 MT of coconut by-products, 5,985,840 MT of sugarcane bagasse and 31,616,656 MT of animal wastes from swine, chicken, carabao, cattle, goat and duck manure 2 . These data show the abundance of biomass resources, which are waiting for the right technology so that they can be channeled into a sustainable enterprise. Thus, a policy promoting the use of biomass is well in line with the objectives of the Philippine medium-term development plan and would help in achieving its sustainable development agenda. Environmental Protection The proper use of biomass can reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, improve air quality and reduce acid rain deposition, reduce landfilling, maintain soil quality, help manage agricultural and industrial wastes and reduce the use and dependence on fossil fuels. Biomass can play key roles in reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel usage in the power generation and transportation sectors since it can readily supply base load electrical power and can be converted to fluid transportation fuels such as ethanol fuel and producer gas. The use of ethanol fuel emits 2.3 tons less CO2 than fossil fuels for every ton utilized. Sulfur dioxide emission is less compared to the burning of fossil fuels since biomass contains less sulfur than fossil fuels. Biomass fuels are also not a source of hazardous emissions, such as mercury, fluorine, chlorine, lead, arsenic and others. 2

Overend, R.P., S.C. Capareda, A.M. de Asis, M.A. Dorado K.S. Artes, and R.V. Luna. ___. Biomass Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines. Biomass Energy Laboratory through the UPLB Foundation, Inc.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Biomass combustion for energy production has zero net emission of carbon because it can emit no more carbon than biomass crops have absorbed from the environment. Although the burning of biomass releases other greenhouse gases such as CO and NOx, it is at a much lower concentration compared to the burning of fossil fuels. Negative environmental impacts can, however, arise during the farming of crops for large-scale biomass-to-energy development projects, if proper measures are not taken. The unsustainable farming practices can release CO2 and NO2 into the atmosphere, which could eventually lead to soil degradation and displacement of traditional crops grown for food. Accelerated and poorly managed harvesting of forest products and crops will contribute to environmental degradation and climate change 3 . When left untapped for productive uses, biomass poses as a big problem to society due to problems related to waste disposal, as well as CO2 and CH4 emissions during decomposition. CH4 is significant because it has 21 times the heat-trapping effect of CO2 . But if properly utilized, biomass from agricultural production has various uses. For instance, agricultural and industrial by-products such as sludge/slops from food and beverage industries can be used as substrates to produce chemicals (e.g. activated carbon, methane, ethanol, synthesis gas) that have high commercial value. Also, animal wastes can be used to produce biogas for electricity. Gender Equity The Philippines is promoting the Gender and Development (GAD) approach, which examines how the relative positions of men and women in society and the system governing the relations between them affect their ability to participate in development. GAD seeks to empower women and promote equal social/gender relations. It aims for full equality of women within the framework of economic development 4 . Biomass projects can potentially contribute to the GAD approach. Engaging in biomass-related enterprises would mean more livelihood opportunities for men and women in rural communities. Such alternative form of employment can help reduce the hard manual labor tha t women often experience in farm-related work, which is detrimental to themselves and their children. With less hard labor on the part of the women, they can still contribute to the family coffers and at the same time attend to the needs of their children. Needless to say, improved living condition is helpful in improving family relations and ties. Quality of Life The use of biomass in the rural areas will help reduce dependence to chemical fertilizers, improve air quality and soil fertility, among others, thereby enhancing the 4 Martine, G. 1997. Gender and Sustainability: Re-assessing Lingkages and Issues. FAO Advisor on Population, Development and Environment. 4


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

socio-economic well-being and environmental health of the rural communities. Presently, 20% of the country’s barangays (about 40% of the rural population) does not have access to electricity. Through biomass-to-energy projects, farmercooperatives and organizations could improve farm productivity through such benefits as local power to run rice mills, irrigation pumps, dryers and other farm equipments. Use of Indigenous Resources The Philippines has abundant supply of biomass, which consists mostly of indigenous materials such as agricultural residues (e.g. rice straw and hulls, bagasse from sugarcane, corn fiber, coconut coir and nutshells), wood waste (e.g. sawdust, timber slash, and mill scrap) municipal wastes and manure lagoons on cattle, poultry and hog farms. These resources are just lying around in huge quantities and pose as a serious risk to the environment 5 . And there are clear evidences that the use of these largely untapped resources could help build self-reliant communities. 3. The Concept of Biomass The Biomass Energy Research Association defines biomass as non- fossil organic materials that have an intrinsic chemical energy content. Biomass includes all water- and land-based vegetation and trees, and all waste such as municipal solid wastes, municipal biosolids (sewage) and animal wastes (manures), forestry and agricultural residues, and certain types of industrial wastes. It is a naturally-occurring and energy-containing carbon resource that is large enough to be used as a substitute for fossil fuels 6 . According to the US Department of Energy, biomass resources include any organic matter available on a renewable basis, including dedicated energy crops and trees, agricultural food and feed crops, agricultural crop wastes and residues, wood wastes and residues, aquatic plants, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other waste materials 7 . Biomass can also refer to vegetative and related organic materials and residues that come from activities in urban, agricultural, forest and wood processing sources 8 . The American Bioenergy Association defines biomass as stored solar energy that can be converted to electricity or fuel9 . Thus, biomass-to-energy projects utilizes agricultural residues (e.g. bagasse from sugarcane, corn fiber, rice straw and hulls, and nutshells), wood waste (e.g. sawdust, timber slash, and mill scrap), the paper trash and urban yard clippings in municipal waste, energy crops (fast growing trees like poplars, willows, and grasses like switchgrass, elepha nt grass, and prairie bluestem.),


For example, animal waste can destroy the marine life of a river or lake. Klass, D. L. An Introduction to Biomass Energy. A Renewable Resource. Entech International, Inc. Barrington, Illinois 60010-2422, USA. 7 8 California Environment Protection Agency, Department of Food and Agriculture, Resource Agency and Trade and Commerce Agency. Using Biomass to Enhance the Economy and the Environment. A Joint Budget Proposal, FY 2001-2002. 9 st American Bioenergy Association. Taking Biomass into the 21 Century. 6


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

and the methane captured from landfills, municipal waste water treatment, and manure lagoons on cattle, poultry and hog farms 10 . 4. The Value of Biomass If properly utilized, biomass residues can provide great benefits to the country. It can provide an environment- friendly alternative to fossil fuels, a cheaper and renewable source of heat and energy and a sustainable form of fertilizer and soil conditioner for farmers, especially in rural areas were biomass is abundant. The aforementioned benefits of biomass are befitting the rural farmers, who not only produce the biomass required but also need the energy that biomass can provide to power irrigation systems, drying beds and other farm equipments. It will greatly benefit off- grid barangays whose geographic locations are the most often cause of inaccessibility to electric power. Hence, establishing biomass power systems in the rural agriculture-based villages would not only provide them with electricity but also provide additional use for the biomass residues that they produce. Aside from benefiting the Filipino farmers, opting for biomass power systems is beneficial for the global and local environment since it can reduce the rate of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere by sequestering carbon and by substituting for fossil fuels. When feedstock is grown renewably, biomass contributes no net buildup of atmospheric carbon. Locally, biomass plantations can reduce demands on existing forests, lessen soil erosion, provide a means to restore degraded lands, and when combusted, offset emissions such as SO2 and NOx and local impacts from fossil- fired power generation11 since its emissions are considerably less than in fossil fuels. In the Philippine setting, a study by Tadeo, et. al 12 showed that low-cost sustainable agricultural products can be easily produced within the household farm by system integration of biomass and other farm wastes. Biomass farm inputs help maintain and preserve soil and water quality and productivity, and enhance biodiversity in order to produce safe food, mitigate drought, and reduce methane gas emission. Based on 1999 estimates, the Philippines generates about 50 million metric tons (MT) of biomass from both crop and animal wastes. This volume has an equivalent power of 22,282.8 MW and 80,949,671.97 BFOE (Barrel of Fuel Oil Equivalent)13 . Table 1 below shows the distribution of how biomass is utilized by the residential and industrial sectors. Total volume of biomass used by both sectors is only 27,093 MT, which is only 0.054% of the total volume of biomass that the country generates.



American Bioenergy Association. Taking Biomass into the 21 Century. 11 Perlack, R. D. and J. W. Ranney. 1993. Integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries: Yunnan, China. In Proceedings of the First Biomass Conference of the Americas. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Co. 12 Tadeo, B.D., R.C. Corales, R.E. Aldas, H.X. Tiuong, P.S. Ramos and N.A. Ablaza. Development of Eco-Profitable Agricultural Products by System Integration of Biomass and other Household Farm Waste in the Philippines. Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. 13 BFOE conversion is based on fuel oil equivalent at 18,600 BTU/l, and electric power conversion of 600 kW/BFOE.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Table 1. Biomass Consumption by End – Use. Resource

Industrial/Commercial Sectors End-use Type Ton/Year Wood Boiler 712,292 Fuelwood Cooking stove 13,916 Woodwaste Drier 42,722 Other Techs 3,413 Furnace/Kiln 239,642 Coconut husk Cooking stove 108 with shell Driers 10,114 Furnaces/Kiln 700 Other Techs 426 Coconut Cooking stove 1,579 Fronds Drying 2,780 Furnace/Kiln 410 Other 412 Coconut shells Boilers 200,604 Cooking stove 181 Drier 605 Furnace/Kiln 38,208 Gasifier 847 Other Techs 78 Coconut husks Drier 509,113 Furnace 7,467 Other Techs 63 Bagasse Boiler 5,969,434 Cooking stove 629 Furnace/Kiln 17,582 Other Techs 2 Charcoal Boiler 24 Cooking stove 4,323 Drier 53 Furnace/Kiln 9,072 Gasifier 586 Other Techs 165,546 Ricehull Boiler 6,824 Cooking stove 1,473 Drier 16,085 Furnace 399,985 Other Techs 7,774 Animal Manure Biogas 10,692

Residential Sector End-use Type Ton/Year Cooking stoves 14,557,024

Cooking stoves


Cooking stoves


Cooking stoves


Cooking stoves


Cooking stoves Water heating device Others Flat iron

300,317 200,211 192,511 77,004

Cooking stove


Cooking stove Flat Iron Lighting

69,548 7 1 18,698,068

8,395,764 Total

27,093,832 TOTAL Source:


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

The table shows that wood biomass has the highest usage from the residential sector while bagasse from sugarcane has the highest usage in the industrial sector. The volume of rice hull used for cook stove is also fairly large, indicating that the use of rice hull cook stoves is gaining popularity. According to the Department of Energy, there are about 42,000 wood-based biomass-to-energy installations throughout the country. Aside from these installations, domestic cooking using firewood as fuel is still largely practiced, mostly in rural sectors, throughout the country. On the other hand, a number of sugar mills are using bagasse to minimize expenses from grid electricity. Sugarcane residue is used directly in sugar centrals as boiler fuel. There are about 39 operating sugar mills in the country with an average that uses about 4,600 tons of canes per day. Bagasse contributes about 10.16 MMBFOE mostly to the industrial sector or 3.6% to the total energy mix in 1998. A joint report of UNDP and Word Bank has estimated that bagasse can produce as much as 60-90 MW of power that can be exported to the grid. For rice hull utilization, two large-scale rice hull- fired power projects are currently being proposed. One is a 35 MW plant in the Province of Bulacan while the other is a 25-30 MW to be located in the Province of Nueva Ecija. These provinces are among the largest rice producing areas in the Philippines. Both projects have been granted partial accreditation by the DOE. In terms of biomass from coconut, coconut shells are converted into charcoal, which is primarily used for cooking, ironing and water heating. They are, however, primarily processed into activated charcoal for export. As an industrial fuel, it is used for copra drying and in desiccating plants. Coconut husks, on the other hand, are mainly used for copra drying and, to a lesser extent, as fuel for cooking in the households. Coconut fronds are used for cooking fuel in household and drying in rural industries. The total potential of coconut shells and coconut husks in 1997 are 1.79 and 4 million metric tons, respectively. The UNDP-WB study has also estimated this resource to potentially contribute around 20 MW of power to the grid. Currently, there are more than 653 biogas systems, ranging from small to large-scale systems, installed in the country14 . Utilizing animal wastes as energy through biogas technology is already in the commercial stage in the country. The largest biogas technology user is Maya Farms, which has developed the technology since the early 70's. The farm covers 40 hectares of land with a population of about 60,000 heads of hogs and several hundred heads of cattle. The farm is operated in an integrated manner, i.e. it recycles waste into energy for lighting, refrigeration, for running generators and various equipment, breeding piglets, water pumping, running its feedmill, as well as for heating scalding tanks and cooking vats. There are a total of nine biogas technology manufacturers and suppliers in the country. These manufacturers provide the necessary facility and service to biogas 14,459,461&_dad=portal30&_schema=POR TAL30


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

system users. Services include sales and installation of turn-key plants, after-sales monitoring, operation and maintenance services. Concrete digesters are being promoted for backyard to small-scale systems because of the availability of local and cheap materials. Environmental concerns are forcing hog farms to adopt a biogas system15 . In Nueva Ecija, the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PRRI) has developed technologies in using biomass to fuel driers, pumps, rice milling equipment, domestic stoves and electricity generation. The rice hull stove has already gained wide acceptance among low-income farmers. The rice hull furnace also proved to be an effective component of the drier and contributed in lowering costs, while the gasifier proved capable of producing alternative fuel for running an internal combustion engine 16 . The international Rice Research Institute (IRRI) has developed low cost dryers that have been custom- made for Bangladesh, a rice hull stove that they have called “Lo trau.”17

From the government sector, the Industrial Technology Development Institute (ITDI) of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) has developed a coproduction reactor, which is capable of producing commercial grade activated carbon from coconut shells and low calorific gas as by-product. It has an estimated capacity of 500kg/hr coconut shells and can produce about 50 kg/hr activated carbon and generate 500 kW of electricity18 .

The Agrarian Reform Communities (ARCs), which are supported by the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR), generate substantial amounts of biomass residues. Presently, three ARCs are into bio-organic fertilizer projects, which require some degree of processing (decomposition) of rice straw and rice hull with incorporation of animal manure and other products. About 14 ARCs are also using rice straw for fertilizer and soil conditioning, while some three ARCs in Negros Occidental are using sugarcane bagasse as soil conditioner and fertilizer. In Cagayan de Oro City, the Norphil Farmer's Multi-purpose Cooperative uses bagasse and poultry wastes to produce bio-organic fertilizer. The cooperative has already reached annual sales of P1.07 million and has already acquired a palletizing machine. In Nueva Ecija, one ARC uses bagasse as fuel for household stove 19 .


Ibid. Aldas, R.E., B.D. Tadeo and L.S. Sebastian. An Approach to Sustainable Management and Recovery of Rice-Based Biomass and Other Wastes. Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. 17 Agricultural Engineering Division, International Rice Research Institute. Instruction Manuals: Rice Hull Stove, IRRI DR-1 Batch Dryer. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. 18 Vinluan, F.D. Co-Production of Activated Carbon and Energy-Making Biomass A CostCompetitive Energy Source. Industrial Technology Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Taguig, Metro Manila. 19 Abad Santos, C.O. Agrarian Reform Communities: Biomass Residues and Prospects for Utilization. Paper presented at the Conference-Workshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. 16


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

A case study conducted by Samson, et. al. 20 , examined the transition of a former haciendero-owned sugarcane plantation in Negros Occidental into a diversified, self- reliant, agro-ecological village. The case in point implemented a system of continuous trash farming to encourage nitrogen fixation and soil carbon accumulation from cane litter. Efficient rice hull cookers have also been introduced, thereby minimizing the use of LPG, kerosene and wood fuel for cooking. Members of the community are also now in the process of identifying and implementing appropriate ecological farming and renewable energy systems in their farms and households. Most of the efforts on biomass utilization especially for energy production are still in the infantile stage in the Philippines. Most ventures are on the small- to medium-scale. Table 2 below shows an assessment of the status of existing biomass technologies in the country. However, in other countries, large-scale biomass-based projects are being undertaken. In Canada, the government has commissioned the CANMET Energy Diversification Research Laboratory to determine the potential of utilizing biomass as an energy source in remote communities. As a result, a project in Obedjiwan, Quebec and in Ogoki, Ontario are being put in order. Two separate biomass- heating systems with a total capacity of 300 kW that will be used for a school and for a sawmill is already being developed. For the latter, a 200 kW biomass boiler will be installed to heat the town’s community center, existing health clinic building and the new clinic that will soon be built. An oil- fire boiler will handle peak demand and back-up but the new system will save an estimated 93,000 liters of fuel oil per year. The study showed that the internal rate of return of the project is 158.8% and the payback is estimated at 2.4 years. In India, a 500 kW gasifier-based power plant was commissioned in the remote Island of Chhotomollakhali in the Sunderbans in 2001. The power plant comprises four biomass gasifiers with a total 125 kW capacity. Each biomass gasifier is connected to diesel generator sets. The power plant will be operated daily for seven hours at only 41 Rupees per KWH to residents 21 .


Samson, R., L. Amongo, E. Yap, T. Mendoza and L. Mulkins. Towards and Agro-ecological Village at the Flora Community - Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Organic Based Farming and Energy Self-Reliance. Resource Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP), Canada and UPLB. 21


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines Table 2. Assessment of Biomass Energy Technologies in the Philippines Technology



Stage of Development P D V

L Household: Commercial Establishments Furnace Fuelwood Heat, steam, power Oven Charcoal Process heat Boiler Bagasse Heat, steam, power Cocoshell/husk Heat, power Cocoshell/charcoal Waste heat recovery Ricehull Heat Ricehull Heat, power Gasification Charcoal Process heat System Ricehull Heat Wood/woodwastes Heat, power Biogas System Animal manure Household (heat) Animal manure; Industrial (heat) stillage Industrial (power) Pyrolysis Woodwastes Heat, power Liquefaction Other biomass Heat, power Densification Ricehull Briquettes Heat Liquid fuels Alcohol, coconut oil Transport, power Legend: L – Laboratory; P- Pilot Stage; D- Demonstration; V- Commercia lly Ready; C – Commercially Available. Improved Cookstove

Fuelwood Ricehull



Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines 5. Uses of Biomass for Government Agencies

Treating biomass as a resource and providing the needed policy and economic environment for biomass use by private, government and other sectors could help a lot in achieving two important objectives of development efforts in the country: poverty reduction and resource regeneration. Presented below is the contribution of a policy on biomass use vis-à-vis the strategic objectives of relevant government agencies. DA’s Agricultural Productivity Program The Department of Agriculture (DA) is currently implementing the Gintong Masaganang Ani Program, which is its banner program for agricultural development. Among its policies and strategic frameworks are enhancement of profits and incomes of farmers and fisherfolk, protection and development of watersheds, proper management of agricultural land and water resources, establishment and rehabilitation of irrigation systems, providing marginalized sectors with preferential access to productive assets and providing other essential measures and support services. A policy that advocates the use of biomass as source of energy, as source of additional livelihood and income diversification among others, can be integrated in the program framework. The promotion of biomass use in DA’s programs can be beneficial to the farmers. Such intervention can help them in farm composting and energy production, soil conditioning and sustainable farming, among others. The use of biomass as energy source can make the use of agricultural equipment more economical and reduced harmful emissions. Studies are being conducted and technologies are being developed on biomass utilization by various institutions such as PhilRice, IRRI, and UPLB. These institutions have used direct combustion through the development of rice hull furnaces for rice paddy drying and rice hull stoves for domestic cooking. Gasification technologies have also been adapted for flat-bed drying. A downdraft gasifier developed at the University of California Davis was adapted through PhilRice. This aims to develop village- level technology that can effectively utilize the increasing volume of biomass for energy applications. It is being tested on several applications such as on shallow tubewell irrigation, crop drying, rice milling and electricity generation. DAR’s Land Productivity Program The Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) has currently no policy statement on biomass but it has several thrusts that could serve as vehicle for incorporating a policy on biomass use. These thrusts include increasing farm income and generating savings, providing programs and projects on social infrastructure and capabilitybuilding support services, promoting gender and development and community-based resource management. Also, there are already initiatives on biomass utilization among the Agrarian Reform Communities (ARC), which are the beneficiaries of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP).


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

A policy on biomass use, therefore, could be easily integrated in DAR’s programs and projects. For instance, it can be incorporated in the BAYANIHAN Program, whose overreaching goal is the development of "Bayan-Anihan" Agrarian Reform Zones. Since the program will be carried out to safeguard and sustain the gains of ARC development, expand the coverage of the program in terms of area, beneficiaries, support service delivery, as well as gear up to a higher level of development, the promotion of biomass use could be adopted as one of the strategies to ensure the program’s success. Such a strategy is relevant considering that a large volume of biomass is generated each year from ARC crops like rice, coconut, corn and sugarcane. Rice hull and straw, coconut husk and shell, corn straw and cob and sugarcane bagasse and trash could reach more than P 5,000,000 MT annually. Such largely untapped and wasted resource could surely help in increasing the farm income and in generating farm savings. In addition, the ARCs have a distinctive competence: they produce biomass, have access to the resource, have security of land tenure, and have gained some experience in running community-based enterprises. DILG’s Local Resource Management Program The local government units (LGUs) are in the forefront of efforts to promote sustainable development in the country. Specifically, the primary responsibility of managing solid wastes has always been in the hands of LGUs. Because of the important role played by the LGUs, the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) has provided them with policy guidelines and related capability-building assistance to improve their performance. In relation to solid waste management, DILG issued Memorandum Circular No. 96-119 entitled Comprehensive Solid Waste Management System Program. The promotion of biomass use could help LGUs in at least two ways: raise revenue or income and effectively address the mounting local solid waste management problem. Even in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila, a biomass use policy can be integrated into the three-pronged solid waste management strategy, which includes eco-waste management (waste reduction, segregation, recycling and composting), use of alternative technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis and the use of a sanitary landfill. Studies are now being done to execute an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) to convert distillery slops into fertilizers, compost and industrial grade methane. DENR’s Natural Resource Management Program Biomass as a resource is a renewable non-fossil material that, when utilized, will help lessen dependence on fossil fuels. The use of biomass for fuel production will help minimize agricultural waste products, employ less labor thus minimizing costs, and recycle natural by-products, which could be used in supplying part of the energy needs of the country. Although there is no explicit policy recognizing biomass as a resource, there are opportunities to integrate a policy on biomass use in the present projects and programs of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). One


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

such opportunity is to enlist the support of the National Solid Waste Management Commission to promote the use of biomass by LGUs and industries for productive uses rather than dump biomass resources in controlled dumpsites or sanitary landfills. The beneficial effects of such a policy are rather clear: reduction of air, water, and land pollution; reduction of emissions that contribute to climate change; longer lifespan of controlled dumpsites and sanitary landfills; lesser expense associated to the construction and maintenance of new dumpsites and sanitary landfills; generation of income from the various uses of biomass, etc. DOE’s Rewable Energy Program The Department of Energy (DOE) treats biomass as a non-conventional energy resource under the country’s Ten-Year Philippine Energy Plan, which aims to promote energy self-sufficiency, address climate change concerns and use indigenous materials. These aims are also reinforced in DOE’s New and Renewable Energy Program. Based on the projections of the DA and DENR, the aggregate biomass supply potential in 2000 is equivalent to 253.8 Million Barrels of Fuel Oil Equivalent (MMBFOE) and is expected to exhibit a modest growth of 301.5 MMBFOE in 2008. Contributors to this aggregate biomass supply potential are woodwastes, bagasse, coconut and rice residues, animal wastes and municipal solid wastes. Hence, the potential of biomass as alternative fuel to run power- generating plants in the country. Further research, however, are needed to improve on biomass-to-energy technologies to meet environmental standards especially as regards to emissions. A study by the Regional Wood Energy Development Programme (RWEDP) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Natio ns (FAO) estimates the consumption of wood fuels in the Philippines at 25.84% of the total sustainable supply. This means that the country is not yet fully utilizing the resources that are locally available. Currently there are about 42,000 biomass-to-energy installations throughout the country that are mostly wood-based. Part V. Issues, Gaps and Challenges Biomass-to-energy projects, if managed properly can be sustainable, environmentally benign and economically sound. They can also create substantial local employment. Moreover, the raw materials are renewable, cheaper than other fuels, locally available and the volume of supply add to the economic advantage. Proper use of biomass can be of great environmental advantage as well since it can reduce solid waste and run-off, provide an alternative to fossil fuels and minimize air pollution. However, several issues, gaps and challenges still need to be addressed to be able to effectively promote and implement biomass projects and maximize the gains of biomass utilization. Current issues include the absence of a common working definition of biomass and a lack of uniform national policy on the use of biomass. This lack of direction makes it difficult to formulate guidelines for agencies to promote and integrate biomass use in their existing programs and projects. For instance, there is no purposive effort to integrate biomass use into the productivity improvement


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

programs for agriculture and energy production. Without the adequate policies and collaboration of various agencies, problems may arise regarding the sustainability of biomass-to-energy programs. It is also important for policy coordination among relevant government agencies, with their specific thrusts clearly defined and put in place, and with participation of stakeholders. There is inadequate data on biomass resources and on information regarding the benefits and disadvantages of its use. Cutting edge research and development on the economic and substitution value of biomass is needed, as well as adequate Information, Education, Communication (IEC) campaigns and other advocacy efforts to promote its use and acceptance among the people. Information regarding the economic value of biomass as an environment- friendly resource should also be disseminated, as well as the negative impacts of improper management. Though a resource assessment study was already conducted in the country for six biomass resources (rice hull, bagasse, coconut residues, animal manure, forestry wastes and urban refuse), there is still inadequate data on available technologies, biomass potential for investors, possible livelihood ventures and its performance. Most technologies still need to be developed so that they would become costcompetitive compared with conventional sources. 6. Conclusion The Philippines generate as much as 50 million MT of biomass yearly and only 0.054% of it is being utilized. Most end up as agricultural or industrial wastes that add up to our burgeoning waste problems. As such, it becomes a pollution problem because of the gasses and particulates it emits during decomposition and the nutrient build-up it creates in bodies of water. It is an untapped resource that can be used to help abate air pollution, promote sustainable farming through the use of organic fertilizers, energize remote rural areas and provide livelihood especially for those in the rural areas. A multitude of technologies exist that use biomass to generate electricity. Continuous research and development is being done to improve the technology and increase its efficiency as well as minimize emissions. These technological advancements in biomass utilization have brought about opportunities for rural development. In several countries such as India, Canada and the USA biomass is already being used on large-scale bases to minimize dependence on fossil fuels and provide energy in remote and rural areas, especially those that are not served or are poorly served by grid. However, the development of these biomass projects must also be locally driven and area-specific, especially since resource availabilities vary across localities. Transfer of technologies must also take into consideration the managerial capabilities of the communities and benefits must always be shared equitably with the local people who always end up bearing the social and ecological costs of certain technologies. Electricity can be generated through gasification, combustion, liquefaction, pyrolysis and the microbiological conversion of biomass to obtain gaseous and liquid fuels by fermentative methods. Thermal decomposition or pyrolysis of municipal solid wastes is done to produce liquid fuel oils and chemicals. Microbial conversion


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

of animal waste is done to produce a high- methane-content fuel gas (biogas) of medium-calorific-value, and the alcoholic fermentation of corn to obtain fuel ethanol for use as an oxygenate and an octane-enhancing additive in motor gasolines. Biomass can also be combusted to produce steam that would pass through a steam turbine that would generate electricity22 . In the Philippines, some of these technologies such as the use of biogas are already being used like in Maya-Maya farms and Jhon-Jhon Farms. Village level electrification programs using biomass have also been started such as in Alaminos. The Philippine government had recognized that the link between biomass production and societies’ needs could only be solved if the biomass was transformed into intermediates to serve the modern needs for electricity and transportation fuels. Important interventions are imperative at this point to incorporate biomass use in various programs and projects of various government agencies, sustain long-term gains and come up with well-defined strategic institutional policies for biomass development, promotion and implementation. There is the need for investor support mechanisms especially on policies promoting and supporting biomass use and biomass resource development. To accelerate investments and use of agricultural biomass resources in rural areas, there is a need to set up innovative and sustainable financing mechanisms that would provide opportunities for the rural poor 23 . This can be in the form of micro-credit, loans for productive use and product development, grants and risk guarantee funds. REFERENCES Abad Santos, C.O. Agrarian Reform Communities: Biomass Residues and Prospects for Utilization. Paper presented at the Conference-Workshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, ShangriLa Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. Agricultural Engineering Division, International Rice Research Institute. Batch Dryer. Los Baùos, Laguna, Philippines.

Instruction Manuals: Rice Hull Stove, IRRI DR-1

Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. Aldas, R.E., B.D. Tadeo and L.S. Sebastian. An Approach to Sustainable Management and Recovery of Rice-Based Biomass and Other Wastes. Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Paper presented at the Conference-Workshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. American Bioenergy Association. Taking Biomass into the 21 st Century American Bioenergy Association. Taking Biomass into the 21 st Century. California Environment Protection Agency, Department of Food and Agriculture, Resource Agency and Trade and Commerce Agency. Using Biomass to Enhance the Economy and the Environment. A Joint Budget Proposal, FY 2001-2002. DENR Projects and Policies Related to Biomass Management. Paper presented at the Conference-Workshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. Galang, N. Relevant Local Government Policies Contributive ot Biomass. Paper presented at the Conference-Workshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City.


Klass, D. L. An Introduction to Biomass Energy. A Renewable Resource. Entech International, Inc. Barrington, Illinois 60010-2422, USA. 23 Sales, R. F. Jr. Biomass for Sustainable Development: Issues, Prospects and Challenges. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM). Paper presented at the ConferenceWorkshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines Klass, D. L. An Introduction to Biomass Energy. A Renewable Resource. Entech International, Inc. Barrington, Illinois 600102422, USA. Martine, G. 1997. Gender and Sustainability: Re-assessing Lingkages and Issues. FAO Advisor on Population, Development and Environment. Overend, R.P., S.C. Capareda, A.M. de Asis, M.A. Dorado K.S. Artes, and R.V. Luna. ___. Biomass Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines. Biomass Energy Laboratory through the UPLB Foundation, Inc. Perlack, R. D. and J. W. Ranney. 1993. Integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries: Yunnan, China. In Proceedings of the First Biomass Conference of the Americas. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Co. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in South East Asia. Queias, R. E. Study of Biomass As an Energy Source and Technical Options for Greenhouse Gas Em ission Reduction: The Philippine Case. Non-Conventional Energy Division, Department of Energy. Sales, R. F. Jr. Biomass for Sustainable Development: Issues, Prospects and Challenges. Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM). Paper presented at the Conference-Workshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. Samson, R., L. Amongo, E. Yap, T. Mendoza and L. Mulkins. Towards and Agro -ecological Village at the Flora Community Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Organic Based Farming and Energy Self-Reliance. Resource Efficient Agricultural Production (REAP), Canada and UPLB. Paper presented at the Conference-Workshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. Tadeo, B.D., R.C. Corales, R.E. Aldas, H.X. Tiuong, P.S. Ramos and N.A. Ablaza. Development of Eco-Profitable Agricultural Products by System Integration of Biomass and other Household Farm Waste in the Philippines. Philippine Rice Research Institute, Maligaya Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Paper presented at the ConferenceWorkshop on Policy Coordination on Biomass for Rural Development, September 14-15, 2000, Shangri-La Hotel, Mactan, Cebu City. Vinluan, F.D. Co-Production of Activated Carbon and Energy-Making Biomass A Cost-Competitive Energy Source. Industrial Technology Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Taguig, Metro Manila. World

Energy Council. 1999-2002. Biomass Other geis/publications/reports/ser/biomass/biomass.asp


Wood. ntation.pdf


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines



1.1 Colonial governments The Spanish Law of Waters of 1866 was implemented by the Spanish government in the country in 1871. It is the earliest legal edict on environment and states that "when an industrial establishment was found, after due investigation, to have contaminated the water with substances or properties noxious to the public health, the Governor-General could suspend its operations until the owner adopted a suitable remedy." Under the American rule, environmental laws consisted mainly of regulations on the allocation and utilization of forest, water, and fisheries resources. An example of these laws is the Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriation Bill of 1901 which provides "that no sale of lease or other disposition of public lands or the timber thereon, or the mining rights therein shall be made until the establishment of a permanent civil government." This provision was strengthened in 1902 when the Forestry Bureau was given the power to ascertain and delimit lands for agricultural and forest purposes. The basis of the present-day statutory and administrative provisions for the appropriation of public water is embodied in Act No. 2152 that was passed by the Philippine Legislature in 1912. The order of priority in allocating water uses as provided in Section 3 thereof is as follows: domestic, agricultural, industrial, fishponds, and mining. As regards the fisheries resources, Act No. 4003, otherwise known as the Fisheries Act (1932) sets the rules and regulations on the exploitation of fishery resources by prohibiting the use of toxic substances and explosives in fishing, banning the gathering of fry or fish eggs and small fish not more than three (3) centimeters long, except for propagation or educational purposes, and forbidding the discharge or disposition of petroleum, chemicals, refuse or other substances deleterious to fish or aquatic life.


This does not cover the latest environmental laws such as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act and its IRR. For further reference, see Antonio G. M. La Vina, Basic EIAME Course Module B: Natural Resource and Environmental Policy Framework (no date); EMB and UNDP, Training Module No. 1: Implications of Environmental Legislation to Development Sectors (no date); Amado S. Tolentino, Environmental Law in the Philippines, Materials and Comment, pp. 7-8 25 See EMB and UNDP, Training Module No. 1: Implications of Environmental Legislation to Development Sectors (no date)


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Wildlife conservation concerns are notable in the various legislative acts on protection of flora and faunal species found in wilderness areas. Protection of wild animals is provided in Act No. 2950 of 1916 and its various amendments. The list of protected wild animals, however, was limited to game species of birds, fishes, and mammals. The conservation of non-game animals was totally ignored. Act No. 3983 of 1932 provides for the protection of wild flora by prohibiting outright the collection of rare wild plants. It was also during the period of colonial governments that the basic legal foundation for the creation of national parks was enacted. Act No. 3915 of 1932 mandates that "any portion of the public domain which, because of its panoramic, historical, scientific or aesthetic value, should be dedicated and set apart as a national park for the benefit and enjoyment of the people of the Philippine Islands." During the Commonwealth period (1936-1942), the promulgated laws predominantly regulate the development and utilization of the country's economically most important non-renewable resource - minerals. Commonwealth Act No. 137 or the "Mining Act" (1936) defines the regulations for the exploration, disposition and development of minerals and mineral lands. Section 77 of this Act declares that "every lease granted shall contain a clause by which the lessee shall bind himself to comply with such rules and regulations for the policing and sanitation of mines, easements, drainage, disposal of wastes or tailing." The implementing rules and regulations (IRR) of this Act provides the following sanctions for violations: "any person who willfully and maliciously causes or permits sludge or tailings to accumulate in, or flow from his mining claims so as to cause danger, injury or obstruction to any pub lic road, rivers, or streams or other public property, shall be punished upon conviction, by a fine not exceeding two hundred pesos, besides paying for any damage which may have been caused thereby." Commonwealth Act No. 383 of 1938, although enacted in relation to flood control and to navigational uses of river streams, is the first law to deal directly on waste disposal. Also known as the Anti- Dumping Law, Section 1 thereof prohibits the "dumping into any river of refuse, waste matter, or substances of any kind whatsoever that may cause an elevation of the level of river beds, or block the course of streams."

1.2 From independence to 1972 During this period, the trend in environmental legislation continued to focus on the natural resources sector. In the fisheries sector, for instance, laws were passed prohibiting the use of fishing methods that would lead to the depletion of fishery resources. Thus, RA 428 (1950) as amended by RA 1535 (1956) declares as illegal the possession, sale, or distribution of fish or other aquatic animals stupefied, disabled or killed by means of dynamite or other explosive or toxic substances. Other laws enacted prohibit trawl fishing in areas that are less than seven fathoms deep (RA 3048 of 1961), exploration of bangus fry (RA 3586 of 1963), and electro- fishing in freshwater areas (RA 6451 of 1972). In the forestry sector, laws on reforestation and afforestation were passed such as RA 115 of 1947 and RA 737 of 1952 that provide for the reforestation and 25

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

afforestation of denuded areas within public forestlands. Establishment of municipal and city forests, tree parks, and watersheds was encouraged, as embodied in RA 5752 of 1969. In 1949, the Petroleum Act was enacted to promote the development of petroleum resources in the country. Article 24 thereof includes, as one among the general obligation of a concessionaire, the institution of measures to avoid hazards to life, health, and property and prevent pollution of air, land and water. The landmark wildlife conservation measures passed during this period were RA 826 of 1952 (providing the creation of the Commission of Parks and Wildlife whose main purpose is the development, maintenance, and conservation of national parks, national monuments and wildlife), RA 1086 of 1954 (calling for stricter enforcement of the prohibition against the killing of the tamaraw), and RA 6147 of 1970 (declaring the Philippine Eagle as a protected bird in the country). The enactment of RA 3931 in 1964 added a new dimension to environmental policy. The law is the first legal declaration that pollution control is a major environmental policy to be pursued by the state. The economic situation of the country at this period was characterized by the establishment of manufacturing and industrial firms especially in urbanizing areas, which began in the 1950s.

1.3 Period from 1972 to the present This period saw the emergence of organic laws that defined environmental management as a major policy of the state. The trend was caused by the 1972 Stockholm UN Conference on the Human Environment that brought to the attention of the global community the urgent need to incorporate environmental concerns in the overall concept of development. The laws promulgated from 1972-1986 comprise the main body of environmental laws that are being implemented. These include the Pollution Control Law (PD 984), Philippine Environmental Policy (PD 1151), Philippine Environment Code (PD 1152) and the establishment of the Environmental Impact Statement System (PD 1586). Laws pertaining to the natural resources sector promulgated during this period involve the streamlining of organizational structures and updating of existing laws, e.g., Forestry Reform Code (PD 389 as revised by PD 705), Mineral Resources Development Decree of 1974 (PD 463), among others. 2. Constitutional Framework The Philippine Constitution, being the fundamental law of the country, provides the framework for policy and lawmaking in the land. Its provisions highlight the national priorities and influence future legislative policies and executive decisions. In the area of environment, the following constitutional principles are applicable: (1) policy on environment, (2) policy on resource utilization, and (3) policy on due process and people participation.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

2.1 Constitutional policy on environment The 1987 Philippine Constitution is definite about the importance of the people's right to health and ecological security. The two provisions that directly address this concern are: Art. II, Section 16: "That State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced an healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature." Art. II, Section 15: "The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them." In the case of Oposa vs. Factoran (The Children's Case), the Supreme Court of the Philippines defined what is meant by the right to a balanced and healthful ecology. In defining the meaning of the phrase "rhythm and harmony of nature," the Court said: Nature means the created world in its entirety. Such rhythm and harmony indispensably include, inter alia, the judicious disposition, utilization, management, renewal and conservation of the country's forest, mineral, land, waters, fisheries, wildlife, off-shore areas and other natural resources to the end that their exploration, development and utilization be equitably accessible to the present as well as future generations. The Court also recognized the primacy and centrality of the right to ecological security and health among the many rights assured by the Constitution. It said that: While the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is to be found under the Declaration of Principles and State Policies and not under the Bill of Rights, it does not follow that it is less important than any of the civil and political rights enumerated in the latter. Such a right belongs to a different category of rights altogether for it concerns nothing less than selfpreservation and self-perpetuation - the advancement of which may even be said to predate all governments and constitutions. As a matter of fact, these basic rights need not even be written in the Constitution for they are assumed to exist from the inception of mankind. If they are now explicitly mentioned in the fundamental charter, it is because of the well- founded fear of its framers that unless the rights to a balanced and healthful ecology and to health are mandated as state policies by the Constitution itself, thereby highlighting their continuing importance and imposing upon the state a solemn obligation to preserve the first and protect and advance the second, the day would not be too far when all else would be lost not only for the present generation, but also for those to come - generations which stand to inherit nothing but parched earth incapable of sustaining life.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

2.2 Constitutional policy on resource utilization The Regalian Doctrine is the principal legal concept that the government relies upon to control the utilization and management of natural resources. It is premised on the notion that all natural resources in the territory belong to the State and therefore private ownership or title must come from the State. Hence the doctrine, according to the official view, states that all lands not covered by official documentary certificates of titles are presumed to be owned by the government. It states: "All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated." (Article XII, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution) As regards the doctrine, Prof. La Vina opines: "On the basis of the Regalian Doctrine, the executive branch, through DENR, exercises an almost unrestrained control over land tenure decisions affecting millions of Filipinos living within the socalled public domain. This includes all forestlands. "Included also among lands of the public domain, because they are usually situated in upland forest zones, are those lands which have been occupied by indigenous cultural communities since time immemorial. By such inclusion, these time- immemorial occupants have been effectively disenfranchised of their rights to their ancestral lands, resulting in their being categorized as squatters in their own lands. This injustice has been further institutionalized by Section 15 of the Revised Forestry Code (PD No. 705) which provides that no land of the public domain eighteen percent (18%) in slope or over shall be classified as alienable and disposable. Under this provision, majority of ind igenous uplanders have become illegal occupants in their own lands, subject to criminal prosecution. "The propriety of using the Regalian Doctrine as the foundation of Philippine natural resource laws have been questioned by legal scholars. It has been pointed out that the doctrine is not only patently unjust but it is also legally and historically flawed. "While it was the principal weapon used by the two colonial masters of the Philippines, Spain and the United States, to consolidate their use and control of Philippines natural resources, political independence did not lead to the rejection of the Regalian Doctrine. Ironically, the same concept was enshrined in all post- independence constitutions of the Philippines, thus ensuring the systematic marginalization of many Filipino citizens. "From the point of view therefore of both equity and ecology, there is a need to rethink the application of the Regalian Doctrine to all natural resources particularly to ancestral lands in forest zones, and by analogy, to 28

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

forest lands occupied and held by long-term migrants. The national government must be willing to yield both ownership and total control over at least some resources. This is imperative if indeed there is to be democratization of access to and management of forest resources. This is also an imperative demanded by the Constitution." 2.3 Mode of utilizing natural resources Article XII, Section 2 of the Constitution also establishes the modes of utilizing natural resources. It states: "The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. The State may directly undertake such activities, or it may enter into coproduction, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or corporation or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. The Congress may, by law, allow small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipino citizens." This enumeration is exclusive. Under the principle of inclusio unius est exclusio alterius, the Constitution, by enumerating the allowable modes of exploration, development and utilization, clearly intended to exclude all others which are not enumerated. 26

2.4 Constitutional participation







The constitutional principles under this policy include the right to due process, the right to information, the right to just compensation, the rights of various sectors to participate in nation building, and the State policy of full disclosure. The Constitution provides the following: The right to due process Article III, Section 1: "No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws." Article III, Section 9: "Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation."

The right to information Article III, Section 7: "The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records and to 26

R. P. Lotilla, "Developing the Law on Fisheries and Living Aquatic Resources," 10:3 Phil. L. Gaz. 1,2 (1989) quoted in Antonio G. M. La Vina, Basic EIAME Course Module B: Natural Resource and Environmental Policy Framework (no date)


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law." Article II, Section 24: "The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building." Article II, Section 28: "Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest."

The right to people participation Article II, Section 13: "The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building." Article II, Section 14: "The State recognizes the role of women in nationbuilding and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men." Article II, Section 18: "The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force..." Article II, Section 22: "The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development." Article II, Section 23: "The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation." 3. Role of Local Government Units 27 The Local Government Code of 1991 provides for the promotion of the autonomy of local government units (LGUs) to ensure their fullest development as self-reliant communities and make them more effective partners in the pursuit of national development and social progress. Such policy effectively places LGUs in the forefront of translating the national environment policy into actual practice.


In addition to their political duties and responsibilities, LGUs, as corporate entities, also have products (ordinances, programs, projects, etc.), services (primary health care, basic education, etc.) and activities (construction of roads, bridges and other infrastructure) that have significant impacts to the environment. As such, LGUs have corporate environmental responsibilities in terms of ensuring that the impacts of their operations will not cause significant negative changes to the quality and quantity of their environment. Thus, the environmental responsibilities of LGUs -- which are both to enforce and observe the environmental policies, laws, rules and regulations - necessarily places LGUs in the front line of environmental protection and enhancement.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Under the Code, an LGU is defined as a "body politic and corporate endowed with powers to be exercised by it in conformity with law. As such, it shall exercise powers as a political subdivision of the national government and as a corporate entity representing the inhabitants of its territory." Its functions, among others, include the following: • • • • • • • • • • •

Ensure and support the preservation and enrichment of culture; Promote health and safety; Enhance the right of the people to a balanced ecology; Encourage and support the development of appropriate and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities; Improve public morals; Enhance economic prosperity and social justice; Promote full employment among their residents; Maintain peace and order; Preserve the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants; Discharge the devolved functions and responsibilities of national agencies and offices, and Provide basic services and facilities. (Sections 16-17)

As a body politic, LGUs share with the national government, particularly the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), the responsibility of managing and developing the environment and natural resources within their territorial jurisdictions. Under Department Administrative Order No. 30, Series of 1992, which provides the guidelines for the transfer and implementation of DENR functions devolved to the LGUs, the devolved functions, programs and projects include the following: Forest management • • • • • • • •

Implementation of community-based projects Management and control of communal projects Management, protection, rehabilitation and maintenance of small watersheds Enforcement of forest laws in community-based forestry areas Protected areas and wildlife Establishment, protection and maintenance of tree parks, green belts and other tourist attraction sin areas identified and delineated by DENR, except those covered by NIPAS Regulation of flora outside protected areas Implementation of rehabilitation in conservation hotspots (RICH) project and the conservation of rare and endangered species (CARE) project in areas identified and delineated by DENR

Environmental management • • •

Enforcement of pollution control and environmental protection laws Implementation of solid waste disposal and other environmental management systems and services related to sanitation Abatement of noise and other nuisance as defined by law 31

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Implementation of cease and desist orders issued by the Pollution Adjudication Board

Mines and geo-sciences development, and • • •

Enforcement of the small-scale mining law Issuance of permit for guano collection and extraction of quarry resources Imposition and collection of fees and charges on quarry resources

Land management •

Involves the conduct of surveys (post-survey activities such as records keeping and issuance of patents are to be done by DENR)

Under RA No. 8749 or the Clean Air Act, including its implementing rules and regulations, LGUs have the following roles within their territorial jurisdiction: •

Share the responsibility of managing and maintaining air quality;

Implement air quality standards;

Establish an Environment and Natural resources Office (CENRO) in every province, city or municipality;

Prepare and develop, with the assistance of DENR, an action plan consistent with the Integrated Air Quality Framework, to attain and maintain the ambient of air quality standards within their respective airsheds;

Prepare and implement a program and other measures in relocation, whenever necessary, to protect the health and welfare of residents in the area;

Develop and submit to DENR through EMB a procedure for carrying out the action plan for their jurisdiction28 , and

Perform such other powers and functions as may be provided by applicable laws, rules and regulations.

It may be recalled that in 1977, Pres. Marcos issued PD No. 1160, which vests authority in Barangay Captains to enforce pollution and environmental control laws. The law also deputizes the Barangay Captain, the Barangay Councilman, and the Barangay Zone Chairman as peace officers with authority to arrest violators in accordance to law, for purposes of enforcing and implementing national and local laws, ordinances, and rules and regulations governing pollution control and other activities that create imbalance in the ecology or disturbance in environmental conditions.


In this role, the DENR through EMB shall maintain its authority to independently inspect the enforcement procedure that is adopted.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

4. International Environmental Agreements 29 Internationa l agreements and treaties, of which the Philippine government is a signatory, form part of the laws of the country. The significant international environmental agreements include the following: 4.1 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal Adopted in 1989 and signed by the Philippines on the same year, this Convention reflects the international community's intent to control the movement and disposal of hazardous wastes at the international and nationa l levels and to dispose such wastes in an "environmentally-sound manner." It not only prohibits the export and import of such wastes but also enjoins Parties to the Convention to reduce their generation to a minimum. The government's response to the Convention is the passage of RA No. 6969 and its implementing rules and regulations. 4.2 The Global Framework Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer This Convention requires the protection of human health and the environment from the effects of ozone depletion. Its offshoot, the Montreal Protocol, calls for 50% reduction in CFCs by the year 2000. It contains a comprehensive schedule for phasing out the production and consumption, as well as imposition of control measures on manufacturing and import of ozone-depleting chemicals. The Philippines signed the Protocol in 1988, ratified it in 1991, and responded by enacting RA No. 6969 and its implementing rules and regulations, among others. 4.3 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity Background This Convention intends to ensure the effective international action to curb the destruction of biological species, habitats and ecosystems. The most important provisions of the Convention include the following: •

The requirement that countries adopt regulations to conserve their biological resources;

The legal responsibility of Governments for the environmental impact in other countries of activities of their private corporations;

Funding to assist developing countries in implementing the Convention to be administered through the Global Environment Facility, pending the establishment of a new institutional structure;

The transfer of technology to developing countries on preferential intellectual property rights or patents;

Regulation of biotechnology firms;


See DENR-EMB, Philippine Environmental Quality Report, 1990-1995.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Access to and ownership of genetic material, and

Compensation to developing countries for extraction of their genetic materials.

The government's response to the Convention includes the promulgation of RA No. 7586 or the NIPAS Law, issuance of Executive Order No. 24, series of 1995 that prescribes the guidelines and establishes a regulatory framework for the prospecting of biological and genetic resources, their by-products and derivatives for scientific and commercial purposes, review of existing national laws on ecosystem management, and formulation of the Philippine Strategy for Biodiversity Conservation. 4.4 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change The Convention's ultimate goal is to stabilize the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. This goal has to be achieved within a timeframe to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally and to ensure that food production is not threatened. The Convention is based on the following principles: •

International equity - the climate system should be protected for the present and future generations;

Common but differentiated responsibilities - recognizes the historical emissions and the economic conditions of developing countries, which make them more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, and

Precautionary principle - states that the lack of scientific evidence should not be the basis for delaying actions to prevent climate change.

The government ratified the Convention in 1994. Its initiatives, in response to the Convention, include researches, public awareness campaigns and policy formulation activities that are conducted by the government, private, and nongovernment sectors. An Interagency Committee on Climate Change (IACC) composed of 15 government agencies and NGO representatives. 4.5 Global Agenda 21 This document was adopted by various countries during the Earth Summit held in 1992. It spells out the common agenda to make development economically, socially and ecologically sustainable. In response to this, the government formulated the Philippine Agenda 21, which the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development is currently implementing and monitoring.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

5. Statutory Environmental Policies On November 7, 1975, former President Ferdinand E. Marcos 30 issued Presidential Decree (PD) No. 825, which provides penalty for the improper disposal of garbage and other forms of uncleanliness. The law was enacted in line with the government's principal aims of effecting social, economic and political reform through discipline and order. It is premised on the idea that a healthy citizenry is a vital factor in bringing about the said reform. Thus, it is the duty of every citizen and resident of the country to keep his/her environment clean and wholesome. Such duty involves the cleaning up of his surroundings, yards and gardens, as well as canals, roads or streets in his/her immediate premises. The law also provides that all garbage, filth and other waste matters shall be placed in the proper receptacles, which shall be disposed of by garbage collectors. Moreover, the law penalizes any person who shall litter or throw garbage, filth or other waste matters in public places. In the same year, Pres. Marcos issued PD No. 856 of the Code of Sanitation. Like PD 825, it gives paramount importance to people's health, hence, all efforts of public services should be directed towards the protection and promotion of health. The law was also an attempt of the government to update and codify the scattered sanitary laws to ensure that they are in keeping with modern standards of sanitation. In this law, the concerned Department Secretary is authorized to promulgate rules and regulations for the control and prevention of the following types of pollution: •

Pollution of pesticides and heavy metals;

Pollution of food caused by chemicals, biological agents, radioactive materials, and excessive or improper use of food and additives;

Non-ionizing radiation caused by electronic products such as laser beams or microwaves;

Noise pollution caused by industry, land and air transports and building construction;

Biological pollutants including the causative agents of intestinal infections;

Pollution of agricultural products through the use of chemical fertilizers and plant pesticides containing toxic chemical substances and unsanitary agricultural practices, and

Any other type of pollution not covered by RA No. 3931, the rules and regulations of the National Water and Air Pollution Control Commission, PD No. 480, and the rules of the Radiation Health Office of the Department of Health.


In recognition of the important role of the State to protect and manage the environment, Pres. Marcos issued PD No. 461 in 1974 reorganizing the then Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources (DANR) into two departments, namely, the Department of Agriculture (DA), and the Department of Natural Resources (DNR).


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

The phrase "any other type of pollution" refers to pollution that affects the community health adversely. In 1976, Pres. Marcos issued PD No. 979, which revises PD No. 600 that governs marine pollution. PD No. 979 stresses that the marine environment and the living organisms it supports are of vital importance to humanity, and that all people have an interest in assuring that it is managed and protected in such a way that its quality is not impaired. It recognizes the capacity of the sea to assimilate wastes and render them harmless, as well as its limited ability to regenerate natural resources. It also presupposes that marine pollution comes from many sources such as rivers, estuaries, brooks or springs. PD No. 979 places responsibility on the state to control both public and private activities that cause damage to the marine environment by promoting the use of the best practicable means and by improved disposal processes to minimize harmful wastes. It declared as a national policy the prevention and control of pollution of seas due to dumping of wastes and other matter which create hazards to human health, harm living resources and marine life, damage amenities, or interfere with the legitimate uses of the sea within the State territory. It declares as unlawful for any person to commit the following: •

Discharge, dump, or suffer, permit the discharge of oil, noxious gaseous and liquid substances and other harmful substances from or out of any ship, vessel, barge, or any other floating craft, or other man- made structures at sea, by any method, means or manner, into or upon the territorial and inland navigable waters of the Philippines;

Throw, discharge or deposit, dump, or cause, suffer or procure to be thrown, discharged, or deposited either from or out of any ship, barge, or other floating craft or vessel of any kind, or from the shore, wharf, manufacturing establishment, or mill of any kind, any refuse matter of any kind or description whatever other than that flowing from streets and sewers and passing therefrom in a liquid state into tributary of any navigable water from which the same shall float or be washed into such navigable water; and

Deposit or cause, suffer or procure to be deposited material of any kind in any place on the bank of any navigable water, or on the bank of any tributary of any navigable water, where the same shall be liable to be washed into such navigable water, either by ordinary or high tides, or by storms or floods, or otherwise, whereby navigation shall or may be impeded or obstructed or increase the level of pollution of such water.

Another law enacted in 1976 is PD No. 1067 or the Water Code of the Philippines. This law prohibits and penalizes, among others, the following: •

Dumping of mine tailings and sediments into rivers and waterways without permission from the government;

Appropriation of subterranean or ground water for domestic use without proper registration required by government; 36

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Non-observance of any standards of beneficial use of water;

Failure of the appropriators to keep a record of water withdrawal when required;

Failure to comply with any of the terms or conditions in a water permit or a water rights grant;

Unauthorized use of water for a purpose other than that for which a right was granted;

Construction or repair of any hydraulic work or structure without duly approved plans and specifications, when required, and

Failure to install a regulating and measuring device for the control volume of water appropriated, when required.

In the same year, Pres. Marcos issued another important piece of legislation -PD No. 984 or the National Pollution Control of 1976 31 . It declares as a national policy to prevent, abate, and control the pollution of water, air and land for the more effective utilization of the country's resources. The law prohibits the throwing, draining or dispersing into any water, air or land resource, or causing, permitting, suffering to be thrown, running, draining, allowing to seep or disposing thereto of any organic or inorganic matter or any substance in gaseous or liquid form that shall cause pollution thereof. The following year, 1977, the statutory policy on environment was promulgated under PD No. 1151 or the Philippine Environmental Policy. This law recognizes the piecemeal approach to environmental protection in use at that time and declares such approach as a "tunnel- vision concept" that is not conducive to attain an ideal environmental situation where man and nature can thrive in harmony with one another. In response to this, the government found it urgent to formulate an intensive and integrated program of environmental protection that will bring about a concerted effort in protecting the whole spectrum of the environment through the conduct of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and the submission of environmental impacts statements (EISs). As a matter of policy, the law states that it is the continuing policy of the State to: •

Create, develop, maintain and improve conditions under which man and nature can thrive in productive and enjoyable harmony with each other;

Fulfill the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations of Filipinos, and

Insure the attainment of en environment quality that is conducive to a life of dignity and well being.


Regulations on industrial and municipal wastewater effluents are embodied in Department Administrative Order (DAO) No. 35 or the Revised Effluent Regulations of 1990.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

In pursuing the above policy, the government, under Section 2 of the abovecited decree, is given the responsibility to use all practicable means, consistent with other essential considerations of national policy, in promoting the general welfare to the end that the country may: •

Recognize, discharge, and fulfill the responsibilities of each generation as trustee and guardian of the environment for succeeding generations;

Assure the people of a safe, decent, healthful, productive and aesthetic environment;

Encourage the widest exploitation of the environment without degrading it, or endange ring human life, health and safety or creating conditions adverse to agriculture, commerce and industry;

Preserve important historic and cultural aspects of the Philippine heritage;

Attain a rational and orderly balance between population and resource use, and

Improve the utilization of renewable and non-renewable resources.

The law, which also recognizes the right of the people to a healthy environment and provides that it is the duty and responsibility of each individual to contribute to the preservation and enhancement of the country's environment, also requires all agencies and instrumentalities of the national government, including government-owned or controlled corporations, as well as private corporations, firms and entities to prepare, file and include in every action, project or undertaking, which significantly affects the quality of the environment, a detailed statement on: •

The environmental impact of the proposed action, project or undertaking;

Any adverse environmental effect which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented;

Alternative to the proposed action;

A determination that the short-term uses of the resources of the environment are consistent with the maintenance and enhancement of the long-term productivity of the same, and

Whenever a proposal involves the use of depletable or nonrenewable resources, a finding must be made that such use and commitment are warranted.

In the same year (1977), PD No. 1198 was enacted to require all those engaged in the exploration, deve lopment, and exploitation of natural resources or in the construction of infrastructure projects to restore or rehabilitate the affected areas back to their original condition. The basis of this law is the policy of the State to create, develop, maintain, and improve conditions under which man ca be most productive and to ensure an environmental quality that enhances human dignity and


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

well being. Specifically, the law provides that all "individuals, partnerships or corporations engaged in the exploitation of natural resources like those engaged in mining, quarrying, or construction of dams, irrigation systems, roads and bridges and other infrastructure projects, as well as those engaged in similar or related operations or activities, shall, to the fullest extent possible, restore, rehabilitate and return the lands, rivers, and the natural environment subject thereof or affected thereby to their original condition as of before such operations or activities." On June 6, 1978, PD No. 1152 or the Philippine Environment Code was enacted to establish specific policies and prescribe environmental quality standards in a Code. This law complements PD No. 1121, which creates the National Environmental Protection Council (NEPC), by launching a comprehensive program of environmental protection and management. In terms of land use management, the Code aims to provide a rational, orderly and efficient acquisition, utilization and disposition of land and its resources to derive thereby maximum benefits. Another goal is to encourage the prudent use and conservation of land resources to prevent an imbalance between the nation's needs and such resources. An important provision of this law states that in "the location of industries, factories, plants, depots and similar industrial establishment, the regulating or enforcing agencies of the government shall take into consideration the social, economic, geographic and significant environmental impact of said establishments." In the same year, PD No. 1586 was passed following the provisions of PD No. 1151. This law establishes an environmental impact statement (EIS) system and other environmental management related measures. Its goal is to balance the exigencies of socio-economic undertakings with the requirements of environmental quality. Thus, the law declares it as a State policy to attain and maintain a rational and orderly balance between socio-economic growth and environmental protection. Specifically, the law provides the establishment of an EIS system founded and based on the environmental impact statement required, under Section 4 of Presidential Decree No. 1151, of all agencies and instrumentalities of the national government, including government-owned or controlled corporations, as well as private corporations, firms and entities, for every proposed project and undertaking which significantly affect the quality of the environment. Other salient provisions of this law include the following:The President of the Philippines may, on his own initiative or upon recommendation of NEPC, by proclamation declare certain projects, undertakings or areas in the country as environmentally critical; •

No person, partnership or corporation shall undertake or operate any such declared environmentally critical project or area without first securing an Environmental Compliance Certificate issued by the President or his duly authorized representatives;


The Ministry of Human Settlements shall: a) Prepare the proper land or water use pattern for said critical project(s) or area(s); b) Establish ambient environmental quality standards;


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

c) Develop a program of environmental enhancement or protective measures against calamitous factors such as earthquake, floods, water erosion and others, and d) Perform such other functions as may be directed by the President from time to time 32 •

All other projects, undertakings and areas not declared by the President as environmentally critical shall be considered as non-critical and shall not be required to submit an environmental impact statement. The government, however, may require proponents of non-critical projects and undertakings to provide additional environmental safeguards as it may deem necessary.

The NEPC shall issue the necessary rules and regulations to implement this Decree.

Any person, corporation or partnership found violating Section 4 of this Decree, or the terms and conditions in the issuance of the Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC), or of the standards, rules and regulations issued by the NEPC pursuant to this Decree shall be punished by the suspension or cancellation of his/its certificate and/or a fine in an amount not to exceed Fifty Thousand Pesos (P50,000.000) for every violation thereof, at the discretion of the NEPC.

Proceeds from the penalties prescribed in the preceding Sectio n 9 and other penalties imposed by the National Pollution Control Commission (NPCC) as authorized in P.D. 984, shall be automatically appropriated into an Environment Revolving Fund hereby created as an exemption to P.D. 711 and P.D. 1234. The fund shall be used exclusively for the operation of the NEPC and the NPCC in the implementation of this Decree. The rules and regulations for the utilization of this fund shall be formulated by the Ministry of Human Settlements and submitted to the President for approval.

In relation to PD 1586, Pres. Marcos issued Proclamation No. 2146 on December 14, 1981 proclaiming certain areas and types of projects as environmentally critical and within the scope of the EIS system. The environmentally critical projects (ECPs) include the following: •

Heavy industries such as non-ferrous metal industries, iron and steel mills, smelting plants, petroleum and petro-chemical industries;

Resource extractive industries such as major mining and quarrying projects, forestry projects, dikes for/and fishpond development projects, and

Infrastructure projects such as major dams, major roads and bridges, major power plants, major reclamation projects, major ports and harbors, waste disposal


These functions are now performed by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) through the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB). The EMB is now exercising the power and performing the functions of NEPC and NPCC.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

facilities, major flood control projects, etc. The environmentally critical areas (ECAs) cover the following: •

All areas declared by law as national parks, watershed reserves, wildlife preserves and sanctuaries

Areas set aside as potential tourist spots

Areas which constitute the habitat for any endangered or threatened species of indigenous Philippine wildlife

Areas of unique historical, archaeological or scientific interest

Areas which are traditionally occupied by cultural communities or tribes

Areas frequently visited or hard-hit by natural cala mities

Areas with critical slopes

Areas classified as prime agricultural lands

Recharged areas of aquifers

Water bodies characterized by one or any combination of the following conditions: tapped for domestic purposes, within the controlled or protected areas declared by appropriate authorities, and support wildlife and fishery activities

Mangrove areas characterized by one or any combination of the following conditions: with primary and pristine and dense young growth, adjoining mouth of major river systems, near or adjacent to traditional productive fry or fishing grounds, act as natural buffers against shore erosion, strong winds and storm floods, and on which people are dependent for their livelihood, and

Coral reefs

During the administration of Pres. Corazon C. Aquino, Executive Order (EO) No. 192 was issued to reorganize the Department of Natural Resources, which Pres. Marcos created from the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, into the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The policy of the Aquino administration, as embodied in the said Executive Order, is to give equal attention to the environment and natural resources development. The aim of this policy is to ensure the sustainable use, development, management, renewal, and conservation of the country's


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

forest, mineral land, off-shore areas, and other natural resources, including the protection and enhancement of environmental quality. One of the important environmental laws passed during the administration of Pres. Aquino is RA No. 6969 or the law controlling toxic substances and hazardous and nuclear wastes. The policy under this law seeks to: •

Regulate, restrict or prohibit the importation, manufacture, processing, sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment;

Prohibit the entry, even in transit, of hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into the Philippine territorial limits for whatever purpose, and

Provide advancement and facilitate research and studies on toxic chemicals

The law covers the importation, manufacture, processing, handling, storage, transportation, sale, distribution, use and disposal of all unregulated chemical substances and mixtures in the Philippines, including the entry, even in transit, as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country for whatever purpose. Its objectives are as follows: •

To keep an inventory of chemicals that are presently being imported, manufactures, or used, indicating, among others, their existing and possible uses, test data, names of firms manufacturing or using them, and such other information as may be considered relevant to the protection of health and the environment;

To monitor and regulate the importation, manufacture, processing, handling, storage, transportation, sales, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk or injury to health or to the environment in accordance with national policies and international commitments;

To inform and educate the populace regarding the hazards and risks attending to the manufacture, handling, storage, transportation, processing, distribution, use and disposal of toxic chemicals and other substances and mixtures, and

To prevent the entry, even in transit, as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country for whatever purpose. In 1992, the implementing rules and regulations of RA 6969 were promulgated.

The year 1992 also saw the passage of RA No. 7586, which provides for the establishment and management of the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS). The policies under this law include the following: •

Secure for the people of both present and future generations the perpetual existence of all native plants and animals through the establishment of a comprehensive system of integrated protected areas within the classification of a natural park;

Recognize such areas as possessing common ecological values, despite their distinct 42

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

features, that may be incorporated into a holistic plan that is representative of the natural heritage; •

Recognize that the effective management of such areas is possible only through cooperation among national government, local government, and concerned private organizations, and

Recognize that the use and enjoyment of such protected areas must be consistent with the principles of biological diversity and sustainable development.

The NIPAS encompasses the remarkable areas and biologically important public lands that are habitats of rare and endangered species of plants and animals, biogeographic zones, and related ecosystems, whether terrestrial, wetland or marine. RA No. 7611 or the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan was likewise enacted in 1992. This law places responsibility on the State to: •

Protect, develop and conserve its natural resources. Towards this end, the State shall assist and support the implementation of plans, programs and projects formulated to preserve and enhance the environment, and at the same time pursue the socioeconomic development goals of the country.

Support and promote the sustainable development goals for the provinces through proper conservation, utilization and development of natural resources to provide optimum yields on a continuing basis. With specific reference to forest resources, the State shall pursue and implement forest conservation and protection through the imposition of a total commercial logging ban.

Adopt the necessary measures leading to the creation of an institutional machinery including, among others, fiscal and financial programs to ensure the effective and efficient implementation of environmental plans, programs and projects.

Promote and encourage the involvement of all sectors of society and maximize people participation in natural resource management, conservation and protection.

In 1995, RA No. 7942 or the Philippine Mining Act was passed. The law declares all mineral resources within the territory and exclusive economic zone of the country as owned by the State following the Regalian Doctrine of the Philippine Constitution. Consequently, the State has the responsibility to promote their rational exploration, development, utilization and conservation through the combined efforts of government and the private sector in order to enhance national growth in a way that effectively safeguards the environment and protect the rights of affected communities. Among the salient provisions of the law are the following: •

Prohibiting the applications of mineral agreement or financial or technical assistance in areas such as those that are (a) near waterways, reservoirs, etc. except upon written consent by the party concerned, (b) in areas covered by smallscale miners unless there is prior consent by them, (c) in old growth or virgin forests, proclaimed watershed forest reserves, wilderness areas, mangrove forests, parks, greenbelts, game refuge and bird sanctuaries, and in areas prohibited by 43

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

law, etc. •

Requiring proponents to effectively use appropriate anti-pollution technology and facilities to protect the environment and to restore or rehabilitate mined out areas and other areas affected by mine tailings and other forms of pollution or destruction.

Requiring every contractor to undertake an environmental protection and enhancement program covering the period of the mineral agreement or permit. Such environmental program shall be incorporated in the work program which the contractor or permittee shall submit as an accompanying document to the application for a mineral agreement or permit. The work program shall include not only plans relative to mining operations but also to rehabilitation, regeneration, revegetation and reforestation of mineralized areas, slope stabilization of minedout and tailings covered areas, aquaculture, watershed development and water conservation, and socioeconomic development.

Requiring the issuance of an ECC based on the Philippine Environmental Impact Assessment System including Sections 26 and 27 of the Local Government Code of 1991 which require national government agencies to maintain ecological balance, and prior consultation with the local government units, non-governmental and people's organizations and other concerned sectors of the community. A completed ecological profile of the proposed mining area shall also constitute part of the EIA. Also, people's organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) shall be allowed and encouraged to participate in ensuring that contractors/permittees shall observe all the requirements of environmental protection.

Requiring the technical and biological rehabilitation of the excavated, mined- out, tailings covered and disturbed areas to the condition of environmental safety, as may be required. In this connection, a mine rehabilitation fund shall be created, based on the contractor's approved work program, and shall be deposited as a trust fund in a government depository bank and used for physical and social rehabilitation of areas and communities affected by mining activities and for research on the social, technical and preventive aspects of rehabilitation. Failure to fulfill the above obligation shall mean immediate suspension or closure of the mining activities of the contractor/permittee concerned.

In 1997, RA No. 8435 or the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act was passed. The policies under this law include the following: •

Promote more equitable distribution of opportunities, income and wealth, sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people, and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged.

Promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. In pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all 44

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. •

Enable those who belong to the agriculture and fisheries sectors to participate and share in the fruits of development and growth in a manner that utilizes the nations resources in the most efficient and sustainable way possible by establishing a more equitable access to assets, income, basic and support services and infrastructure.

Promote food security, including sufficiency in our staple food, namely rice and white corn. The production of rice and white corn shall be optimized to meet our local consumption and shall be given adequate support by the State.

Adopt the market approach in assisting the agriculture and fisheries sectors while recognizing the contribution of the said sector to food security, environmental protection, and balanced urban and rural development, without neglecting the welfare of the consumers, especially the lower income groups. The state shall promote market-oriented policies in agricultural production to encourage farmers to shift to more profitable crops.

Empower the agricultural and fisheries sector to develop and sustain them. RA No. 8435 operates on the basis of the following principles:

Poverty Alleviation and Social Equity - The State shall ensure that the poorer sectors of society have equitable access to resources, income opportunities, basic and support services and infrastructure especially in areas where productivity is low as a means of improving their quality of life compared with other sectors of society;

Food Security - The State shall assure the availability, adequacy, accessibility of food supplies to all at all times;

Rational Use of Resources - The State shall adopt a rational approach in the allocation of public investments in agriculture and fisheries in order to assure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of scarce resources and thus obtain optimal returns on its investments;

Global Competitiveness - The State shall enhance the competitiveness of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in both domestic and foreign markets;

Sustainable Development - The State shall promote development that is compatible with the preservation of the ecosystem in areas where agriculture and fisheries activities are carried out. The State should exert care and judicious use of the country's natural resources in order to attain long-term sustainability;

People Empowerment - The State shall promote people empowerment by enabling all citizens through direct participation or through their duly elected, chosen or


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

designated representatives the opportunity to participate in policy formulation and decision- making by establishing the appropriate mechanisms and by giving them access to information; and •

Protection from Unfair Competition - The State shall protect small farmers and fisher folk from unfair competition such as monopolistic and oligopolistic practices by promoting a policy environment that provides them priority access to credit and strengthened cooperative-based marketing system. In terms of objectives, the law seeks to achieve the following:

Modernize the agriculture and fisheries sectors by transforming these sectors from a resource-based to a technology-based industry;

Enhance profits and incomes in the agriculture and fisheries sectors, particularly the small farmers and fisherfolk, by ensuring equitable access to assets, resources and services, and promoting higher-value crops, value-added processing, agribusiness activities, and agro- industrialization;

Ensure the accessibility, availability and stable supply of food to all at all times;

Encourage horizontal and vertical integration, consolidation and expansion of agriculture and fisheries activities, group functions and other services through the organization of cooperatives, farmers' and fisherfolk's associations, corporations, nucleus estates, and consolidated farms and to enable these entities to benefit from economies of scale, afford them a stronger negotiating position, pursue more focused, efficient and appropriate research and development efforts and enable them to hire professional managers;

Promote people empowerment by strengthening people's organizations, cooperatives and NGOs and by establishing and improving mechanisms and resources for their participation in government decision- making and implementation;

Pursue a market-driven approach to enhance the comparative advantage of our agriculture and fisheries sectors in the world market;

Induce the agriculture and fisheries sectors to ascend continuously the valueadded ladder by subjecting their traditional or new products to further processing in order to minimize the marketing of raw, unfinished or unprocessed products;

Adopt policies that will promote industry dispersal and rural industrialization by providing incentives to local and foreign investors to establish industries that have backward linkages to the country's agriculture and fisheries resource base;

Provide social and economic adjustment measures that increase productivity and improve market efficiency while ensuring the protection and preservation of the environment and equity for small farmers and fisherfolk; and


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Improve the quality of life of all sectors.

Another important law, which the Philippine Congress enacted in 1997, is RA No. 8731 or the Indigenous People's Rights Act. The policy under this law requires the State to recognize and promote all the rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples (ICCs/IPs) such as the following: •

Rights of ICCs/IPs to their ancestral domains to ensure their economic, social and cultural well being and shall recognize the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or relations in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain;

Rights of ICCs/IPs to preserve and develop their cultures, traditions and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation of national laws and policies;

Rights of ICCs/IPs regardless of sex to equally enjoy the full measure of human rights and freedoms without distinctions or discriminations;

Rights of ICCs/IPs to their cultural integrity, and to benefit on an equal footing from the rights and opportunities which national laws and regulations grant to other members of the population, and

Rights of ICCs/IPs to maximum participation in the direction of education, health, as well as other services, to render such services more responsive to the needs and desires of these communities.

The passage of RA No. 8731 is significant considering that among the proposals of the participants to the 1997 Philippine Livelihood and SME World Congress held in Manila is the protection of ancestral domain and lands through a moratorium on issuances of licenses and permits. The other proposals ask LGUs to declare the municipal waters for the exclusive use of marginalized fisherfolk using non-destructive fishing gears, and ensure the strict enforcement of laws against piracy and poaching of small vessels in territorial waters. The SME concerns that surfaced during the activity are as follows: •

Protecting the rights of fisherfolk;

Protecting and recognizing the rights of indigeno us people to their ancestral domain;

Capability building for LGUs in disaster preparedness and management of calamity funds, and

Enactment of a land use policy

The year 1999 saw the passage of the landmark but controversial law, RA No. 8749 or the Philippine Clean Air Act. The law hinges on the following principles:


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines •

Protection and advancement of the people's right to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature;

Promotion and protection of the global environment to attain sustainable development while recognizing the primary responsibility of LGUs to deal with environmental problems;

Recognition that the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment is primarily area-based;

Recognition of the principle that "polluters must pay" for the cost of pollution, and

Recognition that a clean and healthy environment is for the good of all and should, therefore, be the concern of all.

The policies under this law are as follows: •

• • • • •

Pursue the balancing of development and development;

environmental protection through sustainable

Formulate a holistic national program of air pollution management that shall be implemented by the government through proper delegation and effective coordination of functions and activities; Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among citizens and industries through the application of market-based instruments; Focus primarily on pollution prevention rather than on control and provide for a comprehensive management program for air pollution; Promote public information and education and to encourage the participation of an informed and active public in air quality planning and monitoring; and Formulate and enforce a system of accountability for short and long-term adverse environmental impact of a project, program or activity. This shall include the setting up of a funding or guarantee mechanism for clean-up and environmental rehabilitation and compensation for personal damages.

The law also recognizes the following rights of the citizens, which the State shall guarantee: • • • •

The right to breathe clean air; The right to utilize and enjoy all natural resources according to the principles of sustainable development; The right to participate in the formulation, planning, implementation and monitoring of environmental policies and programs and in the decision-making process; The right to participate in the decision-making process concerning development policies, plans and programs projects or activities that may have adverse impact on the environment and public health; The right to be informed of the nature and extent of the potential hazard of any activity,


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines undertaking or project and to be served timely notice of any significant rise in the level of pollution and the accidental or deliberate release into the atmosphere of harmful or hazardous substances;

• •

The right of access to public records which a citizen may need to exercise his or her rights effectively under this Act; The right to bring action in court or quasi-judicial bodies to enjoin all activities in violation of environmental laws and regulations, to compel the rehabilitation and cleanup of affected area, and to seek the imposition of penal sanctions against violators of environmental laws; and The right to bring action in court for compensation of personal damages resulting from the adverse environmental and public health impact of a project or activity.

The implementing rules and regulations of RA No. 8749, which was promulgated in 2000, establishes the national air quality guidelines and provides for the maintenance of attainment areas and management of non-attainment areas, air quality management system, air pollution clearances and permits for stationary sources, standards for pollution from stationary and other sources, among others. Its salient provisions include the following: •

Sources not in compliance with the standards in attainment areas must submit a compliance plan to EMB for approval. The plan shall detail how the source can comply with the standards.

New or modified sources in attainment areas are required, among others, to install and operate best available control technology for each regulated pollutant that has the potential to be emitted in quantities equal to or greater than 100 tons per year.

New or modified sources in attainment areas shall install and operate, according to manufacturer specifications, continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for each pollutant, as listed in Section 4, Rule IX, that has the potential to be emitted in quantities equal to or greater than 100 tons per year.

Existing sources in non-attainment areas not in compliance to the standards must submit a compliance plan, which details how the source can be brought to compliance, to EMB.

New or modified sources in non-attainment areas shall install and operate air pollution control technology that will provide the lowest achievable emission rate (LAER) of the pollutant.

New of modified sources in non-attainment areas must install and operate, according to manufacturer specifications, continuous emission monitoring devices for each covered pollutant.

Establishment of an Air Quality Management Fund to finance the containment, removal, and clean up operations of the government in air pollution cases, guarantee the restoration of ecosystems and rehabilitation of areas affected by the acts of violators, to support research, enforcement and monitoring activities and


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

capability building of the relevant agencies, including the provision of technical assistance to the relevant agencies. •

Requiring project proponents to put up financial guarantee mechanisms to finance the needs of emergency response, clean up or rehabilitation of areas that may be damages during the program or actual project implementation. This will be made part of the environmental management plan required under the EIS system. The financial liability instruments may be in the form of trust fund, environmental insurance, surety bonds, letters of credit, as well as self- insurance.

Providing incentives to industries that install control devices or retrofit their existing facilities with mechanisms that reduce pollution. Incentives shall include tax credits and/or accelerated depreciation deductions, among others.

Requiring the owner or operator of an industrial plant or stationary source to conduct its operation or process using the best practicable means, as may be necessary, to prevent or minimize air pollution through the employment if cleaner production and sound environmental management practices. This requirement applies when no emission or ambient standards is prescribed for a specific air pollutant that is potentially harmful to public health or public welfare.

Requiring each existing stationary source to submit to the EMB Regional Office in the region where the facility is located a self- monitoring report of its emission rates, indicating the status of compliance to the standards.

Requiring the submission of proof of an approved environmental management system (EMS) in the form of an EMS audit report prepared by the person or party responsible for the facility or an EMS audit report prepared by a third party EMS auditor.

Prohibiting any person from causing, letting, or allowing the emission of a particulate matter from any source whatsoever witho ut taking reasonable precautions to prevent such emission.

Prohibiting any person from storing, pumping, handling, processing, unloading or using in any process or installation any volatile compound or organic solvent without applying known existing vapor emission control devices or systems deemed necessary and approved by DENR through EMB.

Prohibiting any person from discharging from any source whatsoever such quantities of air contaminants or other material which constitute nuisance under Articles 694 to 707 of RA No. 385 or the Civil Code of the Philippines.

Prohibiting any person from burning any material in any quantity, which results in the emission of toxic and poisonous fumes.

Prohibiting any establishment, firm, company, either government or private entity or organization, from burning or causing open burning of waste materials in their premises, areas of jurisdiction, including recognized or unrecognized dumpsites,


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

in any quantity or quality. •

Prohibiting any incineration, which is defined as the burning of municipal, biomedical and hazardous wastes, whose process emits toxic and poisonous fumes 33 .

In December last year, the Congress of the Philippines enacted Republic Act No. 9003, otherwise known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. The law was approved by President Gloria-Macapagal in January 25, 2001, making it the first law that she signed after assuming the Presidency. The law tasks the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) to promulgate the Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR), in coordination with various sectors, within one year after that law's enactment. RA No. 9003 adopts the systematic, comprehensive and ecological approach to solid waste management. Among its relevant policies are as follows: •

Utilize environmentally sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resource conservation and recovery, and

Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management

The law also requires the formulation of a National Solid Waste Management Framework, which should include, among other things, "practical applications of environmentally sound techniques of waste minimization such as, but not limited to, resource conservation, segregation at source, recyc ling, resource recovery, including waste-to-energy generation, reuse and composting (underscoring supplied)." This provision is reiterated in the draft IRR. Another important feature of the law is the policy that retains to local governments the primary responsibility of dealing with the solid waste management problem. In the proposed IRR, local governments are required to initiate efforts that would lead to the preparation and adoption of ten-year local government solid waste management plans (LGSWMP). To guide the local governments, the National Solid Waste Management Commission, NEDA, DENR, DILG, DA and the various leagues of local governments are required to develop a coordinative mechanism. B. PHILIPPINE ENERGY LEGISLATION 34 1. Introduction As defined by law, energy resource means any substance or phenomenon which by itself or in combination with others, or after processing or refining, or the application to it of technology, emanates, generates or causes the emanation or 33

This prohibition does not apply to traditional small-scale method of community or neighborhood sanitation "siga", traditional, agricultural, health, food preparation, and crematoria. The rules and regulations also provide that existing incinerators shall be phased out on or before 17 July 2003, subject to certain conditions. 34 See Antonio A. Oposa Jr., Energy and Mineral Resources in Environmental Law in the Philippines, 1992


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

generation of energy such as, but not limited to, petroleum or petroleum products, coal, marsh gas, geothermal and hydroelectric sources of energy, uranium and other similar radioactive minerals, solar energy, tidal power, as well as non-conventional, existing and potential sources. 35 Minerals, on the other hand, are defined as any valuable inert or lifeless substance formed or deposited in its present position through natural agencies alone, and which is found either in or upon the soil of the earth or in the rocks beneath the soil. 36 In the Philippines, energy resources are classified into indigenous and imported resources. Indigenous resources consist of conventional and nonconventional sub-classes. The indigenous conventional energy sources such as oil, coal, hydropower and geothermal supplied 22% of energy demands in 1989. Indigenous non-conventional energy resources consisting of bagasse, coconut husk/shell, rice husk, woodwaste and others supplied 13.1% of the total energy consumption in the same year. 37 Because the country has bountiful mineral resources, the past administrations have been seeking opportunities to taps such resources. According to Antonio Oposa, one of the country's top environment lawyers: "Realizing the wealth of the country's mineral resources, the historic emphasis of governmental policy was on the exploration, exploitation and development of these resources. Thus, the bulk of early laws focused on mining claims and rights, administrative procedures for the exploitation of minerals and the promotion of the exploitation thereof. Little thought, if at all, was given to the environmental impact of this policy... Lately, there has been more emphasis on the conservation and judicious use of energy and mineral resources."38 Lately, however, the government's energy program rests on the following avowed policies: •

Promotion of self- reliance and minimization of dependence on outside sources of energy supply;

Rationalization of energy prices to reflect the true costs of production and distribution;

Encouragement of energy conservation measures to promote efficiency;

Participation of the private sector in energy projects, and

Maintenance of environmental and safety measures for energy projects


Black's Law Dictionary 1146 (1957 ed.), cited by Oposa Com. Act. No. 137 (1936), sec. 7, cited by Oposa 37 Ibid. 38 Ibid., 228 36


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Such shift in policy, says Oposa, is "significant if only because it marks the realization of the finite character of the available resources and the need to sustain the development and utilization of the same."39 The foundation of "all energy laws in the country is that all natural resources are owned by the State which has full and absolute control of its exploration, development and utilization."40 The Philippine Constitution clearly spells out this policy saying: "All lands of the of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, are owned by the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated. The exploration, development and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. The State may directly undertake such activities, or it may enter into co-production, joint venture, or production sharing agreements with Filipino citizens. Such agreements may be for the period not exceeding twenty- five years, renewable for not more than twenty- five years and under such terms and conditions as may be provided by law. In cases of water rights for irrigation, water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than development of water power, beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant."41 2. Background of Energy-Related Policies and Laws In 1936, two energy-related laws were passed. The first law is Commonwealth Act No. 120 that created the National Power Corporation (NPC) and mandated it to undertake the development of hydraulic power and the production of power from other sources. The second law is the Mining Act, which regulated the conservation, disposition and development of mineral lands and minerals, as well as the licensing, leasing and granting of concessions for the exploitation, development and utilization of mineral oils and gas. Section 103 of the Mining Act penalizes "any person who willfully, and maliciously causes or permits sludge or tailings to accumulate in, or flow from his mining claims so as to cause danger, injury, or obstruction to any public road, rivers, streams or other public property." In 1949, Republic Act No. 387 or the Petroleum Act was passed to promote the exploration, development, exploitation and utilization of petroleum resources of the country and to encourage the conservation of such resources by way of the concession system. Oposa, however, observed that no significant petroleum exploration activity was conducted as a result of this law as the concession system "encouraged the prevalence of adverse legal technical and psychological factors that conspired to downgrade Philippine petroleum prospects and opportunities."42


Ibid., 229 Ibid., 229 41 Philippine Constitution, Art. XII, sec. 2. 42 Oposa p. 230 40


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

The year 1967 saw the passage of Republic Act No. 5092, which aimed to promote and regulate the exploration, development, exploitation, and utilization of geothermal energy, natural gas and methane gas. The law gave the Director of Mines the responsibility to prescribe rules and regulations to include, among others, the prevention and abatement of nuisances in or about bores and industries using geothermal energy, natural gas and methane gas. This law was later amended on June 11, 1978 by Presidential Decree No. 1142 that allowed the conversion of geothermal exploration permits and leases into service contracts to accelerate the development of geothermal resources. The other early laws enacted by the State include the following: •

Republic Act No. 5207 (1968) - enacted to license and regulate atomic energy facilities and establish the rules on nuclear damage in case of an accident.

RA No. 6038 (1969) - gave way for the electrification of the country on an area coverage basis. Electric cooperatives were then set up nationwide under the supervision of the National Electrification Administration.

PD No. 8 (1972) - abolished the concession system and replaced it with the scheme of a service contract. This was superseded by PD No. 87 (1972) which aimed to attract foreign investment in the venture. Oposa noted that "to accomplish the avowed policy of accelerating the exploration and development of petroleum resources, the law granted generous tax, capital repatriation and other incentives."43

PD No. 334 (1973) - created the Philippine National oil Company (PNOC) to allow the government to take a more active role in assuring the adequate supply of oil and promote the accelerated exploration and development of local oil and petroleum sources. PD No. 334 was subsequently amended by the government. PD No. 572 (1976), for ins tance, expanded the powers of the PNOC to explore, discover, development, and extract all forms of energy resources such as oil, coal, marsh gas, methane gas, geothermal sources of heat and power, uranium, and other minerals and fossil deposits. According to Oposa, PD No. 572 in effect "removed from the National Power Corporation and responsibility of the exploration of energy resources (sic), with the exception of hydropower, and vested the same solely upon the PNOC. At present, the NPC is the entity responsible for the country's power generation."44

PD No. 292 (1977 coal energy development program) - enacted to promote and develop the necessary financial capability and undertake a scheme for the effective exploration and exploitation of coal reserves.

In the 70s, with the global concern over the depletion of resources and the degradation of human environments, the Philippines passed PD No. 1151 or the Philippine Environment Policy, and PD No. 1152: Philippine Environment Code. The Environment Code "mandates that rules and regulations shall be promulgated to 43

Ibid., p. 231 Ibid. p. 232



Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

prevent or mitigate the adverse effects of energy development on the environment. For this purpose, all nuclear-powered plants exploring and utilizing geothermal energy were directed to observe internationally-accepted standards of safety and to provide safety devices to ensure the health and welfare of their personnel as well as of the surrounding community."45 It may be noted that the concern over pollution and depletion of resources was reinforced by the first energy crises in 1973. The energy crisis triggered efforts to explore the potentials of indigenous sources of energy. By 1979 the energy plan formulated by the country's energy ministry was acclaimed worldwide as a model program for developing countries. 46 From a mere 7.9% in 1973, indigenous resources of energy increased to 35.1% in 1989 which resulted in decreased oil dependence at 61.3%.47 In support of the energy plan, the Batasang Pambansa passed Batas Pambansa Bilang 33 in 1979 declaring as a state policy the promotion of energy conservation as a way of life. The law aimed to strengthen measures to conserve energy, and to prohibit those acts that are inimical to public interest and national security. According to Oposa, "speed contests utilizing petroleum-derived fuels, skydiving and waterskiing were prohibited." But "this law has since been honored in the breach."48 The following year, Batas Pambansa Bilang 73 prohibited the importation, manufacture or assembly of gasoline powered motor cars with engine displacements of over 2,800 cc., the use of neon lights and electric lights for commercial advertising during certain times of the night, and the use of government vehicles for purposes other than official. Eight years later, during the administration of President Corazon C. Aquino, the government, through the Administrative Code of 1987, declared as a state policy the conservation of natural resources consistent with the necessity of maintaining a sound ecological balance and of protecting and enhancing the quality of the environment. It also declared that the goal of exploration, development and utilization of natural resources is to ensure that such resources shall be equitably accessible to the different segments of the present and future generations. This policy direction of the Aquino administration clearly enunciates the message of the World Commission on Environment and Development, which issued in that year its report entitled Our Common Future. The report popularized the concept and philosophy of sustainable development. It was also during the Aquino administration that the management of environment, natural resources, and mining were placed in one government agency -the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Prior to 1987, the Bureau of Mines implemented the laws related to mining. Such laws include the following: •

Mining Act (Commonwealth Act No. 137) - excluded from the ownership of a parcel of land the mineral deposits found underneath and declared ownership of


Ibid., 233 Oposa, p. 223 47 Ibid., 224 48 Ibid. 46


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

the same by the State. •

PD No. 463 (1974) - revised CA No. 137 by incorporating provisions on environmental protection and also obliging the lessee of mining claims to perform reforestation work within the mining site as provided in CA No. 137 (1936)

Consolidated Mines and Administrative Orders (CMAO) - laid down the policy on wise use of minerals and prevention of unnecessary waste, 49 requiring the submission of project studies for prospective sand mining operators 50 and quarry permit holders. 51

Mines Administrative Order No. 16 (1977) - required the restoration of mined-out areas and not less than P20,000.00 surety bond per hectare of a fraction thereof to guarantee faithful compliance in the restoration works.

Mine Wastes and Tailings Fee Act (1977) - imposed fee from mining companies to contain future contingencies. The money, which will accrue to a reserve fund, is to be used exclusively to pay for damages on land, agricultural crops and forest products, marine life and aquatic resources; destruction of infrastructure; revegetation and rehabilitation of farm lands, and other areas devoted to agriculture and fishing damaged by pollution. As Oposa correctly pointed out: "From 1936 to 1987, the Bureau of Mines was the only government agency tasked with the implementation of mining laws and the regulation of mining activities. In 1987, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources was created and the functions of the Bureau of Mines were subsumed by the Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau."52

EO No. 279 (1987) even authorized the DENR Secretary to negotiate and conclude joint venture, co-production or production sharing agreements for the exploration, development and utilization of mineral resources. 53 One of the minimum requirements of the contract is the institution of industrial safety and anti-pollution measures and the restoration and/or protection of the environment. In contrast to the Bureau of Mines, which single-handedly implement miningrelated policies and laws for about 50 years, the administration of energy-related policies and laws went from one government agency to another. According to Oposa, this "penchant for institution changes in response to purported inefficiencies in the administration of laws has led to the proliferation of legislation creating, abolishing 49

CMAO Section 42 CMAO Section 42-A 51 CMAO Section 42-B 52 Oposa, 235 53 Under this undertaking, the private contracting party with at least 60% Filipino owned capital, shall furnish the technical, management and financial services for the development of mineral resources for a period not exceeding 25 years, which is renewable for a similar period. 50


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

and recreating government bodies."54 As a result, the following government bodies were created: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

National Power Corporation (PD. No. 1067) National Institute of Science and Technology (Com. Act. No. 120, 1936) Philippine Atomic Energy Commission Atomic Energy Research Center (R.A. No. 2067, 1958) National Electrification Administration (RA 6938, 1969) Power Development Council (PD No. 2699, 1973) Philippine National Oil Company (PD No. 334, 1973) Petroleum Board (PD No. 575, 1974) Energy Development Board (PD No. 8, 1972; PD No. 87, 1972) Philippine National Petroleum Center (PD No. 10, 1976) Department of Energy (PD No. 1206, 1977) Bureau of Energy Development (Id.) Bureau of Energy Utilization (Id.) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (EO No. 131, 1987) Energy Regulatory Board (EO No. 172, 1987) Office of Energy Affairs (EO No. 20, 1986; EO No. 193 (1987) 3. Policy Directions

Lately, the country faces yet another energy problem, which is compounded by environmental, political and social problems. The rising cost of oil worldwide and the apparent inability of the government to meet such crisis are a clear indication that society has to look for ways of pursuing development with the least cost, both economically and ecolo gically. As Oposa suggested ten years ago: "The energy problem should not be on how to expand supplies to meet the postulated exponential needs of a dynamic economy, but rather how to accomplish social goals with a minimum of energy and effect, meanwhile taking care to preserve the social fabric that not only tolerates but encourages diverse values and lifestyles. 55 It is high time, therefore, to actualize the policy of the state that promotes energy efficiency as a way of life. But, as Oposa noted, "a comprehensive package of policies and benefits/incentives is required to accelerate the development of energy efficiency."56 4. Recent Developments in the Energy Sector57 4.1 Creation of the Department of Energy In 1992, Congress enacted RA No. 7638 creating the Department of Energy (DOE). The law mandates DOE to prepare, integrate, coordinate, supervise, and 54

Ibid. Ibid., 259 56 Ibid., 260 57 For more information, refer to the DOE website at 55


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

control all government plans, programs, projects, and activities relative to energy exploration, development, utilization, distribution, and conservation. It also declares as a State policy to: •

Ensure a continuous, adequate, and economic supply of energy to ultimately achieve self reliance in the country's energy requirements through integrated and intensive exploration, production, management and development of the country's indigenous energy sources, and through judicious conservation, renewal, and efficient utilization of energy to keep pace with the country's growth and economic development with the active participation of the private sector in various areas of energy resource development, and

Rationalize, integrate, and coordinate the various programs of the government towards self - sufficiency and enhanced productivity in power and energy without sacrificing ecological concerns.

In accordance to RA No. 7638, the DOE formulates its vision, which states that "energy must be adequate, reliable and affordable to industries to enable them to provide continuous employment and low cost goods and services, and to the ordinary citizen to enable them to achieve a decent lifestyle. It should be produced and used in a manner that will promote sustainable development and utilization of the country's natural resources but at the same time maintain the country's overall economic competitiveness." This vision is translated into the DOE Mission Statements that include the following: •

Formulation of clear policies and responsive plans and programs;

Intensive development of indigenous energy sources;

Effective coordination of downstream energy activities;

Judicious conservation and efficient utilization of energy;

Provision of benefits to host communities, and

Close coordination and cooperation with other government agencies and private sector entities.

Under the law, the DOE Secretary is authorized to establish policies and standards for the effective, efficient and economic operation of the DOE in accordance with the programs of the Government, and to exercise direct supervision and control over all its functions and activities. The DOE Secretary also has authority to devise a program of international information on the geological and contractual conditions obtaining in the country for oil and gas exploration to advance the industry and to create regional offices and such other service units and divisions as may be necessary. Presently, the DOE has the following bureaus and field offices with their respective duties and responsibilities:


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Energy Planning and Monitoring Bureau •

Assist in the development and updating of an integrated energy plan for the short-, medium-, and long- term periods to provide a comprehensive assessment on the demand scenarios and supply options as well as the impacts of energy policies on the economy, poverty, and environment;

Develop and maintain a centralized, comprehensive, and unified data and information program to ensure the efficient collection, evaluation, analysis, and dissemination of data and information on reserves of various energy resources, production, demand, development technology, and related economic and statistical information which are required for policy formulation, program planning, and implementation;

Supervise, coordinate, and integrate the formulation, monitoring, and review of programs and plans for energy supply development such as power development such as power development, local energy resource development and production, and energy importation;

Regularly review and analyze past and current patterns of energy consumption vis-a-vis growth and development performance of the country's various economic sectors to evaluate current and foreseeable trends in energy demand; and conduct energy supply-demand balancing studies to define energy supply and utilization strategies, estimate the resources required, and assess the energy program's economic environmental, social, and political impact.

Assure the incorporation of national environmental goals in the formulation and implementation of energy programs, and to advance the goals of restoring, protecting, and enhancing environmental quality, and assuring public health and safety; and

Conduct studies on international energy issues that have a direct impact on supply and utilization of energy and provide technical advice on international negotiations involving energy resources and technologies.

Energy Resources Development Bureau •

Assist in the formulation and implementation of policies to develop and increase the domestic supply of local energy resources like fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, and geothermal resources;

Assist in the formulation of sectoral programs and plans relative to the exploration, development, and extraction of local energy resources and implement, monitor, and regularly review said programs;

Conduct energy research and studies in support of the aforementioned activities;

Provide consultative training and advisory services to practitioners and institutions in the areas of regulated activities; and


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Assist in the formulation of financial and fiscal policies, rules, guidelines, and requirements relative to the operations of service contractors and implement and enforce said policies.

Energy Utilization Management Bureau •

Assist in the formulation and implementation of policies for the efficient and economical transformation, conversion, processing, refining, marketing, distribution, transportation, and storage of petroleum, coal, natural gas, geothermal, and other non-conventional energy resources such as wind, solar, biomass, and others; and ensure their efficient and judicious utilization.

Monitor sectoral energy consumption and conduct energy audits, technical training, energy management advisory services, and technology application projects on efficient energy utilization;

Develop, promote, and commercialize applications of biomass, solar, small hydro, wind, wood, and charcoal and other non-conventional energy systems including new and more efficient and economical transformation, conversion, processing, refining, marketing, distribution, transportation, and storage technologies for conventional energy resources;

Assist in the formulation of an integrated rural energy program to effectively address the needs of rural development and environmental programs and implement, monitor, and regularly review said program;

Assist in the formulation of an operational plan for the allocation of oil, fuel, and energy sources in the event of the declaration of critically low energy supply.

Provide information on energy technology and develop middle- and long-term energy technology development strategies in cooperation with the Department of Science and Technology.

Monitor the implementation of energy projects in coordination with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to ensure compliance with prescribed environmental standards;

Recommended appropriate courses of action to resolve major issues which may impede energy project siting or result in adverse environmental impact;

Require industrial, commercial, and transport establishments to collect or cause the collection of waste oil for recycling as fuel or lubricating oil; and

Develop and implement a continuing energy conservation program designed to optimize energy utilization, including a nationwide information campaign on energy conservation.

Energy Industry Administration Bureau


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Assist in the formulation of regulatory policies to encourage and guide the operations of both government and private entities involved in energy resource supply activities such as independent power production, electricity distribution, as well as the importation, exportation, stockpiling, storage, shipping, transportation, refinement, processing, marketing, and distribution of all forms of energy and energy products, whether conventional of non-conventional.

Draw up plans to cope with contingencies of energy supply interruptions; and

Assist in the formulation of financial and fiscal policies, rules, guidelines, and requirements relative to the operations of entities involved in the supply of energy resources such as oil companies, petroleum product dealers, coal importing and distributing companies, natural gas distributing companies, independent power producers, and all other entities involved in conventional energy supply activities and implement and enforce said policies.

Field Offices •

Implement laws, policies, plans and programs and rules and regulations of the DOE affecting all aspects of the oil industry in their respective areas of jurisdiction, through among others are the following : a. Inspection of refineries, depots, LPG, refilling plants and other related terminals to observe plant operations. Determine whether operational capacity is within that authorized by law, determine the product inventory levels at any given time, and/or determine whether measures prescribed and restrictions imposed in consideration of the ecological and environmental needs of the community are being complied with. b. Investigation of complaints for underselling, adulteration, operation and related activities without permit/ license, illegal construction, and such other violations of DOE rules, orders and decisions. c. Inspection of petroleum retail outlets like gasoline stations, kerosene distribution outlets, lubes and grease resellers, and establishments engaged in the business and sale of LPG to determine compliance with the DOE's order, decision, rules and regulations. d. Inspection of actual construction of petroleum product retail outlets to determine compliance with approved plans and specifications and with DOE regulations.

Conduct hearings for the reception of evidence in investigations of violations of DOE rules and regulations.

Represent the DOE in hearings before any court in connection with cases filed against person(s) for violations of DOE laws, rules and regulations, orders and decisions.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Gather information and prepare periodic reports and recommendations on consumption, utilization, conservation, availability of petroleum products in the locality, and trade practices of those engaged in the marketing, distribution, hauling, storing, repacking and selling of petroleum and specialty products, which information are to be made the basis of studies in the formulation of policies and decisions of the Department.

Monitor oil, coal and geothermal exploration, development and production activities in the area as maybe necessary.

Conduct safety audit / inspection of coalmines and geothermal plants / installations.

Conduct inventory and monitor tax - exempt imported equipment, machineries and materials of contractors under Presidential Decree Nos. 87, 972 and 1442.

Submit reports on the activities of the office and other documents to the Undersecretary for Operations through the concerned Bureau Director.

4.2 Energy Plan Objectives and Strategies When Pres. Joseph Ejercito Estrada assumed office in 1998, the Philippine economy was already affected and reeling from the adverse impacts of the Asian economic crisis. In response to this, Pres. Estrada pursued a development program that balances economic growth and social equity. He also continued the pursuit of deregulation, liberalization, and privatization -- all trademarks of a global market economy. Under the Medium- term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP), the country gears for "economic growth with social equity, led by a dynamic and internationally competitive private sector that is supported by an efficient and impartial government." In line with the MTPDP, the DOE prepared a new Philippine Energy Plan, which aims for the following: •

Supply Security and Reliability - To ensure sustainability of energy supply through the continuous exploration and development of indigenous energy. Thus, the DOE will encourage the development and utilization of indigenous energy resources by enabling reasonable returns on investment for private developers while achieving maximum benefit to the Filipino people and revenues to the government.

Energy Affordability and Accessibility - To make energy accessible to all areas and sectors of the economy in view of the social equity and poverty reduction thrusts of the government.

Environmental Quality - To enhance integration of energy and environmental policies and program implementation in the context of global and national initiatives to mitigate impacts of climate change and local pollution.

Consumer Protection - To protect consumers from market power abuses. 62

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

4.2 Major Programs The major programs of the energy sector include institutional reforms, electrification, energy efficiency, and environmental management. Institutional Reforms The current initiatives involve the review of existing policies and formulation of appropriate structural reforms that observe the principles of sustainable development and global competitiveness. The structural reforms will be pursued in the power and downstream oil and gas sectors to create an environment that is marketfriendly and conducive to private sector investment and participation. An example is the deregulation of the downstream oil industry. Electrification The DOE aims for total electrification of all rural barangays by 2008 as part of its mission to improve the standard of living of people in these areas. Under the Philippine Energy Plan (PEP) 2000, about 90% of all barangays will be provided with electricity by 2004. Energy Efficiency The PEP 2000 also provides appropriate strategies and major energy efficiency programs to encourage the economic, efficient and effective use of all forms of energy. The strategies for implementation include the following: •

aggressive promotion of energy conservation and energy-efficient technologies in the residential, commercial, industrial, transport and power sectors;

provide technical assistance to energy- intensive industries in identifying, implementing and evaluating effective energy efficiency measures, and

passage of the Energy Conservation Bill into law.

The specific programs geared to achieve the targeted energy efficiency are as follows: • • • • • • • • •

Vehicle Efficiency Standards and Testing System Loss Reduction Program for Electric Utilities Heat Rate Improvement of Power Plants Energy Audit Financing Energy Conservation Projects Energy Efficiency Information Campaign Room Airconditioner (RAC) Energy Standards and Labeling Refrigerator and Freezer Energy Labeling Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Energy Labeling


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Environmental Management The DOE is currently pursuing policies and programs to ensure an integrated energyenvironment approach. Such policies will guide the development and utilization of energy resources in accordance to established principles of economics and cultural and ecological sensitivity.

C. PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY POLICY ADMINISTRATION 1. Summary of Policies The 1987 Philippine Constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country, constitutes the Philippine State and embodies the terms and conditions of the social contract of the citizens. The Constitution, therefo re, is an important document because it specifies the nature of the State. Because of this, all laws enacted by Congress, rules and regulations promulgated by the Departments, proclamations and other issuances of the Chief Executive, and ordinances or resolutions of local government units (LGUs) must conform to the letter and spirit of the provisions of the Constitution. According to Amado Tolentino, one of the country's top environmental lawyer: "The first hierarchical legislative level of any country is the Constitution. No doubt, constitutional provisions help highlight a national priority and thereby influence future legislative policies and executive actions 58 . The Constitution embodies the fundamental environment and energy-related policies. These policies generally cover the following: •

Promotion and advancement of the right of the people to a healthful and balanced ecology,

Protection and promotion of the people's right to health,

Recognition of the people's rights to due process, information, just compensation, and to participate in nation building, and

State ownership of resources within the territory under the Regalian Doctrine.

As a consequence of these fundamental policies, the government controls and/or prohibits air, land, and water pollution and other forms of uncleanliness or unsanitary practices. The immediate reason for this policy is to ensure that the government protects public health and prevents any harm to the people and ecosystems as a result of calamities brought about by pollution. In line with such a policy, the government prohibits the environmentally destructive activities or those that destroy the natural resources. It also requires the owners or operators of projects and undertakings to use suitable remedies to prevent or minimize the emission of pollution. Such policies are necessary so as not to disrupt the "rhythm and harmony 58

Amado S. Tolentino, Jr., "Review fo Environmental Legislation and Administration and its Application in Selected DMCs" in Environmental Planning and Management, ADB, 1986.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

of nature" and to attain an environment quality that is conducive to a life of dignity and well being. In relation to the use of suitable remedies, the government requires the use of the best practicable means and improved disposal processes to minimize the production and impacts of harmful wastes. The use of the best available technology in manufacturing and industrial activities and processes is also necessary to increase efficiency and productivity, and to conserve the use of energy. By virtue of State ownership of the natural resources under the Regalian Doctrine, the government regulates the allocation and use of natural resources for the general benefit of the people. In relation to this policy, the government protects certain plant and animal species, as well as certain areas such as those suitable for the establishment of national parks. Specifically, the government, through the NIPAS Law, promotes an intensive and integrated program of environmental protection that will bring about a concerted effort in protecting the whole spectrum of the environment. The government's adoption of the philosophy of sustainable development is consistent to the fundamental policy that promotes and advances the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology. This fundamental policy is supplemented by statutory policies aimed to ensure the productive and enjoyable harmony between man and nature through the effective utilization of resources, and environmental management. Specifically, the government adopts a policy to ensure the sustainable use, development, management, renewal, and conservation of the country's forest, mineral land, off-shore areas, and other natural resources, including the protection and enhancement of environmental quality. It also requires the restoration or rehabilitation of certain areas affected by the exploitation of resources back to their original condition. In the energy sector, the adoption of sustainable development as a guiding principle is clearly manifested in the policies that emphasize the conservation and judicious use of energy and mineral resources, and promote energy conservation as a way of life. These policies are supported by another policy, which mandates an integrated and intensive exploration, production, management and development of the country's indigenous energy sources, as well as judicious conservation, renewal, and efficient utilization of energy, with the active participation of the private sector, in various areas of energy resource development. 2. Policy Implementation Instruments The Philippine Government uses a number of instruments to implement the environment and energy-related policies. The se instruments may be categorized as follows: • • • • • •

Command/control instruments, Institutional mechanisms, Environmental management tools and approaches, Economic or market-based instruments, Information, education and communication (IEC), and Networking and public participation. 65

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Command/Control Instruments Command/control instruments refer to the traditional approaches of governance in which an institution tasked to implement a set of laws, rules and regulations uses a top-down approach or obey-or-be-punished type of administration. These instruments are punitive in character. There are three types of command/control instruments that may be distinguished. The first instrument takes the form of administrative sanctions, which are often used. These sanctions "consist of non-compliance with or violation of prohibitions, permits, authorizations, clearances, discharge limits and other administrative standards and orders defined in the rules and regulations, and could result in revocation or cancellation of permits and licenses, as well as administrative fines and other penalties 59 ." Amado S. Tolentino pointed out that an important feature of the regulatory measures in some Asian countries, including the Philippines, involves the legal requirement for permits and licensing prior to undertaking activities such as mining, construction, taking of forest products, trade, industry, sale or use of radioactive substances, etc. This requirement, he said, allows government to keep track of the nature, type and density of activities in the project site. It may also facilitate "relocation or a constant review of the state of the environment as a result from those activities." He concluded that by imposing "conditions to protect and conserve the environment, the license- issuing authority plays a vital role in solving or minimizing the adverse effects of human activities on the environment." For instance, he cited the "limitations on the quality and type of forest products, oil and gas and minerals that can be extracted, limitatio n on the type, size and distribution of a particular trade or industry, requirement by license- holders to rehabilitate used mining land, and regulations on the emissions (solid, liquid or gaseous) from industries 60 ." As regards environmental pollution, Tolentino identified two kinds of regulatory controls applied to point sources of pollution. These include specification standards and performance standards. Specification standards prescribe that particular measures like anti-pollution devices or equipment be installed to prevent environmental degradation, while performance standards provide for certain level of performance that must be achieved 61 . The second type involves judicial remedies or the imposition of fines and imprisonment. According to Tolentino, the proceeds from judicial remedies are usually deposited in the National Treasury for disposition as general revenues. The Clean Air Act, for instance, provides for the establishment of an Air Quality Management Fund. A third type of command/control instrument includes civil actions filed against a violator. Civil actions have three categories, namely, violation of the law, injunction, and damages. Tolentino explains this instrument: 59 60 61

Ibid., p. 82 Ibid., p. 63 Ibid., p. 63-64


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

"Where the law either does not provide for a penal sanction [or] when it leaves the choice open, a civil suit could be filed against the violator. An option to proceed on the basis of a civil complaint facilitates action against a violator inasmuch as a civil action usually requires less rigorous proof of intent and negligence. Injunction seeks a judicial order to cease and desist from an environmentally noxious activity in violation of the law. Lastly, action in damages is available as a remedy for losses caused by alleged violation of law and regulations. This action is based either on a specific provision in the environmental law or on general tort law62 . Institutional Mechanisms The use of institutional mechanisms in environmental legislation and governance cannot be discounted considering that one of the most momentous problems that confront democratic states like the Philippines is the ability to formulate rational, responsible, and goal-oriented policy. In the case of political administrative institutions, which generally refer to the government bureaucracy, a major criterion for determining organizational efficiency is the ability to formulate policy proposals for the political superiors. Consequently, a major task of administration is the formulation of policy proposals for consideration by the political executive and the legislature. Here, the capacity of institutions to perform rationally and responsibly the task of formulating the policy alternatives for politically responsible superiors is the major criterion of organization efficiency. According to Norton E. Long, the beginning of wisdom in administrative analysis consists in a realistic assessment of the capacity of the organization to think 63 . He explains: "The doctrine of the political supremacy of the elected over the nonelected branch of government has inspired the delusion that to be politically supreme, the legislature must not only make final decisions on policy, but must also have primacy in the whole process of policy formulation - that the bureaucracy should be an instrument rather than a brain. In practice it must be recognized that the bureaucracy, is a part, and a highly important part, of the collective brain that somehow thinks or emotes a government policy. The establishment of policy consensus and the search for politically acceptable values is a highest priority endeavor64 ." In relation to environmental governance, environmental law and policymaking are important but not sufficient to ensure the protection and enhancement of the environment. Equally important are the growth and development of environmental institutional arrangements that can effectively and uniformly implement laws and policies. Tolentino says: 62 63 64

Ibid., p. 82 Norton E. Long, The Polity (Chicago: Mand McNally & Co., c. 1962), pp. 77-93 See Norton E. Long, 1962


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

"An environmental protection institution's broad mission may be described as the defense of the environment. Such an institution provides an integrated and coordinated approach to environmental protection, based on a view of the environment as it truly is. Such an approach could involve a single system or several systems of interdependent and interrelated parts. It is the primary aim of environmental protection institutions to simultaneously consolidate, evaluate and improve the knowledge available, applying the many techniques for environmental management and anticipate what lies ahead 65 ." Tolentino observed that in the past administrations, the environmental management functions were "variously delegated to a multiple of government agencies at both the local and national levels." He thought that this type of environmental administration "was anomalous insofar as there was little or no coordination within and between the two levels or among agencies concerned." As a result, "The national leadership, taking note of the lack of a total environmental protection program and the lack of a coordinated system in the enforcement of existing environmental-related laws, enacted PD 1121 in 1977, creating the National Environmental Protection Council (NEPC). NEPC is the central authority that overseas, unifies and integrates the planning, management and implementation of the Government's environment program66 ." Tolentino's observation of the environmental administration in the past jives with Oposa's observation in relation to the administration of energy-related policies and laws, which went from one government agency to another. According to Oposa, this "penchant for institution changes in response to purported inefficiencies in the administration of laws has led to the proliferation of legislation creating, abolishing and recreating government bodies."67 Currently, environmental administration generally observes the principle of subsidiarity, which empowers the communities within or near a natural resource area to take responsibility of protecting and managing such resources instead of merely benefiting from them. This institutional mechanism provides local communities with the opportunity to undertake a community-based resource management (CBRM). CBRM has been used in various natural resource areas such as coastal and forest zones. A number of projects are now being implemented, namely, community or integrated coastal resources management and community-based forest management projects. The principle of subsidiarity is also the immediate foundation of the devolution of environment-related functions to LGUs. Such devolution is premised on the notio n that those communities or political institutions that are nearest to a natural resource area are in a better position to protect and enhance the resources therein. 65 66 67

Tolentino., p. 54 Ibid., p. 59 Ibid.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Another trend in environmental administration relates to the sharing of responsibilities by various sectors or stakeholders of society. The distribution of responsibilities over environmental protection and management to national government agencies like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the Department of health (DOH), local government units, and local communities has resulted in the evolution of new institutional arrangements or mechanisms. Examples include the creation of permanent or ad-hoc interagency or intersectoral coordinating groups whose membership cuts across various stakeholders and interested groups. These groups are provided with funds to enable them to perform their assigned tasks and functions. This trend appears to meet Tolentino's basic requirement for success in environmental management. He exp lains: "Success in environmental management depends on the proper implementation of the environmental policies adopted using as a tool an efficient public administration, in which sectors and areas of responsibility need to be restructured or supplemented through reorganization of agencies or through the coordination of those extant. Public administration in this regard includes all branches of government - legislative, executive and judicial. Laws in the sense of assignment of responsibilities and budgetary authorizations are needed to accomplish the task 68 ." Environmental Management Tools and Approaches Environmental management tools and approaches such as area-based resource management, EIA, environmental planning and management, installation of an environmental management system, and self- monitoring are now part of the policy instruments in the country. These instruments aim to gather sufficient data and information to ensure a better and informed decision- making, to integrate all relevant activities, and to provide a venue for coordination by various players or stakeholders. Integrated Area Resource Management The current initiatives to promote integrated area resource management are brought about by the recognition of the importance of observing the basic laws of ecology in environmental management. According to Barry Commoner, the laws of ecology can be reduced into four laws. These are as follows: • • • •

Everything is connected to something else Everything must go nowhere Nature knows best Nothing comes free

The basic message of these laws is that nature observes the fundamental principle of unity amidst diversity. Thus, environmental management begins and ends with the 68

Ibid., p. 77


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

ecological systems. Consequently, natural resource planning and management has to be systemic in contrast to past practices that were confusing because they were disjointed and uncoordinated. Integrated area resource management aims to assist ordinary people improve their quality of life, to promote a place-based or bottom- up approach to environmental management, to encourage people to become actors, not merely the beneficiaries, of development, and to encourage collective self-realization and community action. It is consistent to the principle of biogeographical equity and community-based resource management under the Philippine Agenda 21, which states that those "communities residing within or most proximate to an ecosystem... should be given prior claim to the development decisions affecting that ecosystem, including management of the resources. To ensure biogeographic equity, other affected communities should be involved in such decisions." Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is defined as the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating, and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of proposed projects and physical activities before making major decisions and commitments for their implementation. As a process, it involves multidisciplinary experts and stakeholders. In relation to environmental management, EIA is used basically as a planning tool but can also become, through the EIS, a monitoring instrument and through the ECC conditions a regulatory tool. There are two substantive goals of EIA: First, to facilitate sound, integrated decision- making in which environmental considerations are explicitly included in project development; second, to achieve or support the goals of environmental protection and sustainable development. It has also evolved, internationally, as a multi-purpose process that emphasizes the promotion of long-term societal goals, which reflect and express the following ideals of sustainable development: • • • • • •

Safeguarding valued ecological processes and heritage areas; Avoiding irreversible and unacceptable loss and deterioration of natural capital; Ensuring that development is adjusted to the potentials and capacities of the resource base; Optimizing natural resource use, conservation and management opportunities; Protecting human health and community well being, and Addressing distributional concerns related to the disruption of people and traditional lifestyles.

Specifically, EIA aims to achieve the following: • • • • • •

Better, informed, and democratic decision making Public participation or involvement Analysis of viable alternatives Prediction of impacts Prevention of avoidable negative impacts Mitigation of unavoidable negative impacts


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

• • •

Enhancement of positive impacts Follow- up or monitoring and feedback Compliance to government and industry regulations Environmental Planning and Management

Environmental planning and management (EPM) refers to the process of addressing an environmental problem or protecting and enhancing a natural resource. In relation to EIA, EPM is used to enhance the positive or mitigate the negative impacts of a project or undertaking. In relation to environmental management, EPM is used to formulate the goals that have to be accomplished as regards the identified environmental problems, as well as to determine the strategies that will ensure the attainment of such goals. EPM is an important tool or instrument in environmental management since it fosters cooperation among the various stakeholders and interested parties, and identifies areas for compliance monitoring to determine the success or failure of the EPM implementation. Environmental Management System Environmental Management System (EMS) is an approach to manage the activities of an organization to continually improve its environmental performance. EMS as popularized by ISO 14000 follows the Deming's principle of management, i.e., Plan, Do, Check and Act (PDCA) cycle. EMS has six elements, which are briefly described below. Environmental Policy. This element is defined by the top management of an organization based on the nature, scale, and impacts of its activities, products and services. It embodies the organization's commitment for continual improvement and prevention of pollution, commitment to comply with environmental legislation, regulations, agreements and other requirements. It also serves as a framework for setting up and reviewing the environmental objectives and targets. To make the policy available to a wide audience, it is documented, implemented, maintained, and communicated to all employees, as well as to the partners and other stakeholders. Environmental Management Programme. This element translates the organization's Environmental Policy into operational terms. It contains specific objectives and targets at the organizational level and at each relevant function/office level of the organization. The programme is formulated based on identified environmental aspects, as well as legal and other requirements. It contains the activities to achieve the objectives and targets, including the means and time frame by which they are to be achieved and the human and financial resources. Implementation and Operation Plan. Under this element, the organization defines the roles, responsibilities and authorities needed to implement the EMS. Specifically, this element includes the resources necessary to implement the EMS, training program for the employees, procedures for establishing and maintaining the internal and external communications, and procedures for establishing and maintaining documentation and document control. Here, the organization plans its operations and activities to ensure that they are carried out under specified conditions.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

It also needs to establish and maintain procedures for emergency preparedness and response. Environmental Monitoring Plan. The environmental monitoring plan includes the procedures for establishing and maintaining a system to monitor and measure relevant operations and activities. The organization defines the responsibility and authority to handle and investigate non-conformance, to take action or manage the resulting impacts, and to initiate and complete a corrective and preventive action. This element requires the organization to properly manage its environmental records, and to identify procedures or programs for conducting periodic EMS audits. Management Review. This element provides an opportunity for the organization's senior management to review the EMS. It aims to ensure the continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the EMS. The management review addresses concerns such as the possible need for changes or improvements in the other elements of the EMS. Continuous Improvement. The relevance and effectiveness of the EMS depends on the ability of the organization to enhance the other elements to meet current and future needs or requirements. Under this element, the organization determines certain processes, activities or resource requirements that may stand further improvements, or, when necessary, modification. The organization also documents its performance in implementing the EMS to generate information that can be used for internal benchmarking. Under this element, the organization also compares its performance to other organizations or benchmarks to get sufficient bases for improvement. Self-Monitoring or Industry-Monitoring Self- monitoring is an instrument used to encourage industries to measure their level of compliance to standards and other legal or regulatory requirements using their own technical and human resources. It is a departure from the previous practice of giving to the government the sole responsibility for compliance monitoring. It is based on the recognition on the part of the government that it has no sufficient technical and human resources to conduct compliance monitoring for all industries nationwide. This instrument, therefore, is a consequence of the government's efforts to reach out to the private sector and other project owners or operators to secure their assistance in monitoring compliance to environmental laws and regula tions. Under this set-up, industries are required to conduct their own compliance monitoring activities and to submit the monitoring reports to the appropriate offices of the DENR. However, the government is not precluded from conducting its own compliance monitoring from time to time or when a need arises such as due to the filing of a complaint. Environmental monitoring and evaluation, according to Tolentino, "are important phases of law implementation and enforcement calling for adequate facilities and proper guidelines." The goal is "to use environmental data to determine


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

whether the sources of pollution control or natural resources exploitation are exceeding the acceptable limits, and if they do, the data will serve as rationale for the formulation and enforcement of environmentally-related policies, laws, rules and regulations 69 ." The importance of environmental monitoring is shared by the PRIME Project of the DENR. In July 2000, the Project's newsletter stated that: "Environmental monitoring for regulatory purposes is a primary analytical tool in evaluating compliance with environmental standards. The Pollution Control Law, the Philippine EIS System, LLDA's Environmental User's Fee Program, etc. require companies to monitor the environment affected by their operations. We need to monitor from the conceptualization stage of the project or undertaking up to the abandonment phase. And we need to monitor environmental quality or ambient level and from specific sources of possible pollutants for the health and safety of our communities70 . Although there is no arguing that environmental monitoring is an important aspect of ecological governance, this important activity is hampered by the lack of technical and human resource capability on the part of government. According to the PRIME Project: "Problems in environmental management always point to the lack of capacity of regulatory bodies to properly carry out required monitoring activities, resulting into low compliance with environmental standards. This is mainly due to personnel and equipment deficiency. The policy study conducted by the PRIME Project on environmental entrepreneurship identified environmental monitoring as one of the government functions that can favorably be devolved to the private sector 71 ." Economic or Market-Based Instruments Economic instruments are policy tools used to achieve compliance to environmental policies, rules and regulations. According to the Asian Development Bank, these tools either use markets and price signals, such as effluent charges and user fees, or create markets, for instance through the use of tradeable permits, to achieve environmental objectives 72 . The idea is to translate the benefits of sound environmental practice into economic terms that are easily understandable by project owners. Also, most of the economic instruments are basically incentives aimed to entice industries to comply with environmental legislation.


Ibid., p. 82 PRIME Project, Tech Review, July 2000, Quezon City, no pagination. 71 PRIME Project, Tech Review, July 2000, Quezon City, no pagination. 72 See An Overview of Market-Based Instruments as Economic Incentives for Environmental Management. A paper presented by Lisa C. Antonio during the International Environmental Management Training, on 22 March to 02 April 1999 in Pasay City, Metro Manila and Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. 70


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

The use of economic instruments in environmental management is an offshoot of efforts 73 to understand and manage the trade-offs between conventional economic development objectives and environmental goals. It operates on a theory, which according to Henry M. Peskin: "...views the environment as a source of wealth whose value reflects the valuable services provided by the environment. Were these services traded in conventional markets, presumably they would command a positive price reflecting what society would be willing to pay for these services as well as their scarcity. Scarcity is important. If these services were very abundant, they would not command a positive price - in the jargon of economic these services would not be economic."74 The economic instruments for natural protection and natural resources management generally fall under seven catego ries, namely, property rights, market creation, fiscal instruments, charge systems, financial instruments, liability systems, and bond and deposit refund systems. 75 The economic instruments under each category are as follows: Property Rights • • •

Ownership rights -- land titles, water rights, and mining rights Use rights (physical division) -- stewardship, licensing, concession/bidding, and territorial use rights (turfs) Development rights -- patents and prospecting rights

Market Creation • • • • • • • •

Tradeable emission/effluent permits Tradeable catch quotas Tradeable development quotas/rights Tradeable water share Tradeable water shares Tradeable land permits Tradeable offsets/credits Tradeable transferable development rights

Fiscal Instruments


In the Philippines, efforts toward such direction include the Environment and Natural Resources Accounting Project (ENRAP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the and the United SEEA resource and accounting project implemented by the National Statistical Coordination Board. 74 Environmental Accounting: The Theoretical Foundations of ENRAP. A Paper prepared for the Conference on Resource Accounting and Policy, February 3-4, 2000, The Manila Hotel, Philippines. 75 See Environmental and Natural resources Accounting Project Overview. A paper delivered by Marian S. de los Angeles at the Conference on Resource Accounting and Policy, February 3-4, 2000, The Manila Hotel, Philippines.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Pollution taxes -- effluent and emission taxes Input taxes Product taxes Export taxes Import tariffs Tax differentiation Royalties and resource taxes Land use taxes Investments tax credits Accelerated depreciation Subsidies Property taxes Capital gains tax

Charge Systems • • • • • • • • •

Pollution charges User charges Betterment charges Impact fees Access fees Road tolls Administrative charges Resource protection charges Collection charges

Financial Instruments • • • • • • • • • •

Financial subsidies Soft loans Grants Location/relocation incentives Subsidized interest Hard currency at below equilibrium exchange rate Revolving funds Sectoral funds Eco- funds/environmental funds Green funds

Liability Systems • • • •

Legal liability -- non-compliance charges and joint and several liabilities Natural resource damage liability Liability insurance Enforcement incentives

Bonds and Deposit Refund Systems


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

• • • • • • •

Environmental performance bonds Land reclamation bonds Waste delivery bonds Environmental accident bonds Deposit-refund systems Deposit-refund shares Forest management bonds

In the Philippines, the economic instruments explicitly provided by existing policies include the following: •

Environmental Funds such as the Environment Revolving Fund, Air Quality Management Fund, Environmental Monitoring Fund, and Environmental Guarantee Fund for the clean-up, environmental rehabilitation and compensation for personal damages;

Incentives to industries that install control devices or retrofit their existing facilities with mechanisms that reduce pollution. Incentives shall include tax credits and/or accelerated depreciation deductions, among others;

Granting of generous tax, capital repatriation and other incentives for energy projects;

Financing for energy conservation projects, and

Rationalization of energy prices to reflect the true costs of production and distribution. Information, Education, Communication

The use of information, education and communication (IEC) is important in environmental management because IEC helps to achieve the following: •

Make the stakeholders or those affected by the environmental legislation know their roles and obligations;

Make the stakeholders understand why the environmental legislation was passed and why they should comply to such legislation;

Enlist support from the stakeholders and the public in terms of ensuring compliance to the legislation, and

Minimize potential conflicts that may arise as a result of misinformation.

IEC can be perceived as a right and as a strategy for gaining the support of the stakeholders. As a right, IEC is something to be fulfilled. It is based on the principle that right actions and right decisions stem from right information. It may be noted, however, that right information is also a function of how such information is communicated to the receiver. Hence the importance of education as a strategy to properly communicate right information.


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

The Philippine Constitution is emphatic in stressing the importance of IEC in nation building. Article III, Section 7 of the Constitution provides that the "...right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law." Article II, Section 24 also provides that the "State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building." Thus, in Article II, Section 28, the fundamental law provides that subject to "reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest." That is why, all laws, rules and regulations must be published before they take into effect. IEC is also a strategy for gaining the support of the stakeholders. This is particularly true in the case of the EIS System. A lot of proposed projects or undertaking have been shelved because of the failure to secure the support of the stakeholders. This, in turn is largely attributed to a failure in IEC. The Procedural Manual of DAO 96-37, which is the implementing rules and regulations of the PD 1586, specifically requires the social preparation process, which is a series of IEC campaigns to prepare the stakeholders so that they can make an informed decision. Also, in the Environmental Management Plan under the EIS System, project proponents are required to prepare an IEC Plan, which shall be implemented as soon as the project commences. Networking The Philippine Agenda 21 views sustainable development as derived from "an image of society and a shared vision of the development path of that society." It takes off from an understanding of the "state" of Philippine society and proceeds towards an agreed upon development objective. Three key actors define the goal of development, namely, government, business and civil society. Thus, to promote sustainable development, "there must be an interplay of market forces, state intervention, and civil society participation." The recognition of the three key actors points to three essential dimensions of Philippine society -- economy, polity and culture. These dimensions are the "realms where the key actors are active and from which the actors derive the substance for their dialogue interaction with each other." In this context, a "harmonious integration of a sound and viable economy, responsible governance, social cohesion/harmony, and ecological integrity" is essential to promote sustainable development. Thus, the "ultimate aim of development is human development now and through future generations." Short of this, development becomes economically 'jobless' and 'ruthless,' culturally 'rootless,' politically 'voiceless,' and ecologically 'futureless.'


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

Of the 15 principles of sustainable development in PA 21, two principles, namely participatory democracy and institutional viability, have direct bearing on networking. The participatory democracy principle recognizes the importance of participation and empowerment of all sectors of society in development decisionmaking and processes. It also advocates intersectoral and multisectoral consensus. In the institutional viability principle, the State declares that sustainable development is a shared, collective and indivisible responsibility which calls for institutional structures that are built around the spirit of solidarity, convergence and partnership between and among different stakeholders. These principles are consistent with the Philippine Constitution, which provides for the people's rights to information and participation. Although the PA 21 and the Philippine Constitution do not define the meaning of networking, nevertheless the two documents provide certain elemental concepts in relation to networking. The first concept refers to the critical role of information and/or communication. This suggests that in any networking relationship, all parties or stakeholders possess sufficient information for them to make an informed decision on matters presented to them. The second concept refers to the participation of the various stakeholders themselves. Here, the first and second concepts fuse because the quality of the stakeholders' participation is directly proportional to the quality of information given to them, including the manner by which such information is communicated. The third concept has something to do with the capability of an institution, whether a national or local institution, to tap the resources of the stakeholders. This concept assumes that the stakeholders do not merely have an interest to promote and protect. It also assumes that they have a valuable contribution to enhance the quality of both the process and outcome of decision making. Public Participation and Social Acceptability Public participation is giving citizens the opportunity to influence major decisions that affect them. As a process, it provides many opportunities and paths through which decision- makers become aware of the concerns of the affected community. Under the EIS System, public participation is the only process that helps promote and acquire social acceptability, which is crucial to the issuance of an ECC for a project or undertaking. It also offers the following added values and benefits: • • • • • •

Helps identify and address concerns of affected groups Focuses planning on issues of concern Provides alternatives for consideration in planning Provides further sources of expertise Reduces level of misinformation and distrust Improves decision- making

Social acceptability, as popularized by the EIS System, is the result of a process that is mutually agreed upon by the stakeholders to ensure that their concerns are fully considered and/or resolved in the decision- making process for granting or denying the issuance of an ECC. It means that the proponent is able to meet all of the relevant and valid issues and match them with corresponding mitigative/enhancement measures,


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

together with the available resources to implement the measures and the corresponding agreements and guarantees for the fulfilment of such measures. In evaluating whether a proposed project or undertaking is socially acceptable, the following criteria are used: •

The project should be consistent with plans/programs and policies of the national, regional, and local authorities;

The project should be able to contribute to the government's effort in promoting social equity such that the social benefits outweigh the social cost;

The project should be able to provide gainful employment and alternative sources of livelihood, and

The project should involve women and vulnerable groups.

For purposes of determining social acceptability, the following broad spectrum of environmental factors and equity issues are considered: •

Ecological and environmental soundness of the proposed project - Examples of proofs that this has been met can include: a. Risk management plan, if applicable b. Environmental management plan with the commitment of the proponent to implement the proposed measures c. Municipal, barangay or provincial resolution endorsing the project d. Endorsement letters from the local NGOs, and POs e. Signed contract between the proponent and project contractor(s) incorporating all the mitigating and enhancement measures in the TOR or scope of work of the contractor(s) f. List of detailed specifications of raw materials and equipment to be used in the project from the different suppliers showing that these are made of environment friendly processes and substances. An example of this would be a statement from the supplier that the fuel to be used has low sulfur content.

Effective implementation of the public participation process - Examples of proof include: a. Scoping report that has been signed by all key parties and stakeholders' representatives b. Matrix showing the manner of inclusion of the comments and suggestions of stakeholders in the various aspects of EIA


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

c. Letters of stakeholders signifying interest to participate in the monitoring of the project and/or implementation if the environmental management plan d. Report of the Hearing Officer during the public hearing With regard to indigenous cultural communities and their ancestral lands, social acceptability may be determined by a prior informed consent obtained from the concerned indigenous cultural group for the utilization of their ancestral land. In the case of mining permits of agreements in areas claimed as ancestral, Section 16, paragraph 2 of the Mining Act provides: "Prior consent refers to prior informed consent obtained, as far as applicable, in accordance with the customary laws of the concerned Indigenous Cultural Community. Prior informed consent should meet the minimum requirements of public notice through various media such as, but not limited to, newspaper, radio or television advertisements, fully disclosing the activity to be undertaken and/or sector consultations wherein the Contractor/Permit Holder/Permittee should arrange for a community assembly, notice of which should be announced or posted in a conspicuous place in the area for at least a month before the assembly: Provided, that the process of arriving at an informed consent should be free from fraud, external influence and manipulations." •

Resolution of conflicts - Examples of proof include: a. MoU between the disputing or conflicting parties b. Negotiated agreements on conflicts should be firmed up through MOA between the proponent, DENR, LGU, and legitimate stakeholders c. Resettlement and compensation plan, if applicable d. Social development plan, if applicable. e. Promotion of social and intergenerational equity and poverty alleviation


Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

PART III. RICE-HULL / BIOMASS PROJECTS IN THE PHILIPPINES Projects/Proposed Projects § 35 MW rice hullpowered plants1 §


§ §








Bulacan Province


2 MW Two communal rice hull- fueled plants rice hull- fired power plants operated in the country proposed 25-30 MW power plant 1 6 MW biomass combustor and electrical generating system using rice hull as fuel2 agri-dryers, communal rice hull power plants and other decentralized energy system technical and financial assistance in the commercializati on of communal rice hull power plant potential for briquetted fuels


Cabatuan and Aurora, Isabela


Iloilo and Tacurong, Sultan Kudarat § Nueva Ecija



Zurn Devco of the Philippines



Philippine Bioten Biomass Project, designed to deliver power to the Ileco Power corporation (this will be the first in about 2040 replications throughout the Philippine islands)



passed feasibility implementation



by the Belgian representative as a result of PNOC-ERDC’s market and feasibility study in 18 sites



Biomass pyrolyzer systems3

§ Piloted 5 units in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao


using coal, wood wastes, agriwastes, charcoal and other solid fuels in with efficient stoves and furnaces has been identified as another promising area to provide energy to remote communities Forest Products Research and Development Institute Used for farm Irrigation in Luzon, Visayas Island and Mindanao Used for power generation in Mindoro


Ilo- ilo

§ §


Cypress Energy plans to construct power plants to which intends to use rice hull from a radius of 80 km By Decentralized Energy System Project of the Philippine National Oil Company Energy Research Development Centre, using rice hull from local mills owned and operated by the National Food Authority; non-operational




Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines


Biomass Power Generation4 Uses wood, agricultural and other farm wastes Biomass Pyrolyzer System




JIREH Industries, Valencia, Bukidnon (power generated used to augment energy requirements of its fortified brick project)





BEST (Biomass Energy Systems and Technology)5



§ §


Philippines REFTA (Renewable Energy Financing and Assistance) Project6 modular downdraft biomass gasifier coupled with an internal combustion engine (5-25 kW range)7



§ §

JIREH Industries ( power source for domestic use and recreational facilities of the 40-unit fortified bricks housing project of Jireh Industries) WinRock International Project emphasis is to assist private sector investments in rural economic activity based on residue energy by reducing risks to the private sector inherent in applying new systems in new environments USAID The project seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from increased energy production by reducing the technical, financial, economic, and institutional risks associated with renewable energy development.


Aklan, Panay


Integrated Biopower in the Philippines8 Installed a small





§ §

modular biomass gasifier (BioMax)



§ § §

U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, Community Power Corporation (CPC), in partnership with Shell International Renewables and California Energy Commission Uses biomass fuels such as coconut shells and husks, bagasse, rice hulls, wood residues, rubber wood, and palm nut shells. Field testing of prototypes Funding Agenc y: Shell Foundation Implementing Agency : The Center for Renewable Efficiency.







Project Partners: SEP, Community Power Corp. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA), Shell Renewables Philippines Corp. (SRCP), The Center for Renewable Resources and Energy Efficiency, the Philippine Coconut Authority and Alaminos Coconut Development Cooperative (ACDC) Assisting small farmers without access to the grid to replace diesel by the use of waste coconut shells as a fuel to power small mills to extract higher value coconut oil.

Energy From Agriculture as a Route to Community Development in the Philippines

§ § §

Bataan Cogeneration Project9 65 MW Cogeneration Power Plant Magellan Cogeneration Power Plant9


Mariveles, Bataan

§ §

COVANTA Energy Solutions Power generated is sold to the National Power Corporation, with the balance sold to the Export Processing Zone in Mariveles



§ §

COVANTA Energy Solutions Power is sold to the economic zone authority and the National Power Corporation

Sources: 1 Department of Energy 2 3 4 nmindanao/bukdist2.htm 5 6 7 8 9









Biomass Utilized


Domestic Biomass Combus tion Commercial Biomass Combustion Industrial Biomass Combustion

Crop residues, wood, coconut, rice and sugarcane residues Crop residues, wood, coconut, rice and sugarcane residues Granular biomass (from agricultural residues, wood, sawdust etc)


Boiler Steam Turbine Systems

Agro- industrial residues, waste wood, crop residues


Direct- fired Systems/Direct Conversion

Wood, bagasse, urban wastes

Steam and/or electricity


Wood, crop residues

Power generation, electricity

Remarks § Heat is used through the traditional

and improved cook stoves Heat

§ Used for drying, curing, smoking,

cooking, baking, pottery etc. Heat, Electricity

§ Dutch ovens, inclined-grate

combustors, spreader-stoker systems, suspension burning systems, and fluidized bed combustors. § Practically all electricity generation

plants based on biomass combustion employ steam turbine systems at present. § The most highly developed

conversion technology § Has thermal efficiency range of 5580% § Substitutes biomass for a portion of

coal in an existing power plant furnace

Page 85

§ There is little or no loss in efficiency

Bio- fuel

Acid Hydrolysis of cellulose


Sugar solution used for fermentation and to produce ethanol




Modular Systems

Industrial/municipal solid wastes, Agricultural and Forestry Wastes (wood, crop residue, livestock manure), and energy crops Wood, Crop residues

Intermediate to high heating value gas streams, liquids and chars Pyrolysis gas can produce methanol Electricity

Bio- fuel


Crop residues

Bio- fuel

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Anaerobic Digestion


Liquid fuel and intermediate grade (4500 kcal/cubic meter) gas Sugar solution, ethanol

Bio-power, Bio-chemical

Sewage waste, animal manure, municipal solid waste, industrial wastes (distillery slops)

Biogas, fuel, electricity

with the addition of biomass § New developments show an improvement in residence time requirement from 2 hours to 20 seconds with sugar yields of 53% § The most developed systems include vertical and horizontal shaft, rotary kiln and fluidized-bed reactors § Thermal efficiency range of 50-75% § Employs some of the same technologies as direct-fired and gasifier systems § Integrated pilot-scale to modular-size demonstrations required to assess the value of the technology § One of its major economic factors is the cost of enzymes § Two process configurations: high rate, single-stage and two-stage fermentations have received attention § Calculated thermal efficiencies is about 50%

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Bio- fuel, Biochemical

Gasification and Gas Fermentation Technology

Cellulosic waste


Biomethanation (a form of anaerobic digestion) Chemical Process Densification

Lignocellulosic crop residues (coconut coir dust, rice straw, rice husk and coconut husk) Biomass oils suc h as algae oil, canola and soybean oil Rice hull, wood sawdust, woodchips, agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes (any biomass as long as it is chopped finely)

Bio-chemical Bio- fuel, Biopower

Bio- fuel, Biochemical

Thermochemical Conversion Process

Synthesis gas (consisting primarily of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen) Synthesis gas can substitute for coal as starting material for ammonia, methanol and oxoprocess chemicals Biogas

§ Applies high temperature gasification process § Anaerobic bacteria are then used to convert synthesis gas into ethanol § Commercial units are already in operation worldwide § The efficiency of conversion to

biogas was in the range of 45-67% § Produces twice as much biogas compared to cattle manure. Diesel- like fuel or biodiesel


Heat, solid fuel,

§ can be categorized into four main

Fuels like methanol, ETBE and MTBE

types, namely: piston press densification, screw press densification, roll press densification, and palletizing § a relatively new process in which the air is squeezed out at very high pressure to make pellets, briquettes, cubes or logs § heats up biomass but doesn’t burn it, producing gas and liquid forms of methane and alcohol

Page 87



Maligaya Rice Hull Stove – Developed by the Philippine Rice Research Institute. The current design is an improvement of Vietnamese and Indonesian rice hull stoves. After testing their performance with other rice hull stove designs (local and foreign), both stoves were found to possess outstanding features that were incorporated in this new design. It is environment- friendly, practically smokeless, ignites after 36 seconds after dropping a burning paper, consumes 1 kg of rice hull per hour, can reach a temperature of around 600-700°C for 15 minutes and one load can continuously burn for 28 min, enough to cook rice and vegetable viand for a household of five members. Source:

The IRRI "Ipa-Qalan" Rice Hull / Biomass Cook Stove - In the Philippines, the inclined grate rice hull stove on a cabinet or cylindrical framework is popular, but it usually consumes much rice hull during operation. Rice hull stoves, called "Lo trau" and widely used in Vietnam, feature a smaller conical grate setup. Improvements on the conical grate stove sought to increase its burning, control, and heat utilization efficie ncies, as well as minimize the attention needed to maintain an effective flame. A 25kilogram bag of rice hull can suffice for a family's cooking for a week. This could eliminate the need to gather firewood, which consumes much time (may take up to 5 hours daily) but also entails traveling for distances of up to 12 kilometers.


Page 88

Rice Hull Furnace attached to a blower – consumes 2-3 kg of rice hull per hour, with a drying temp of 43°C and a drying rate of 23% moisture (wet basis) paddy to 14% in 5 to 6 hrs


The IRRI DR-1 Batch Dryer – Developed to provide low cost, improved alternative to sun drying. It utilizes engine heat and kerosene or rice hulls to raise temperature of the drying air. It can dry a ton of wet paddy in 3 to 6 hours depending on the initial grain moisture content. It is also compact and semi-portable, needs little maintenance and is easy to operate, gives uniform final moisture content, has an automatic safety valve to shut off kerosene burner when blower stops and it uses a direct fires burner for higher heat energy efficiency.


PhilRice Flatbed Dryer - PhilRice adapted the Vietnamese design by using hollow blocks for bin. The design of furnace was replaced with an inclined step grate type instead of the original vibrating ash grate. Later, the furnace was made of adobe replacing the fire bricks in the original design. The dryer can complete drying from wet or dripping wet to 13-14% MC; dried output can be used for seed purposes with accurate control of temperature at 43°C. It consumes 35 kg of rice hull per hour but it can also use other farm by-products such as corncobs, or coffee hulls as fuel for heating drying air. It is simple, easy to fabricate and operate, and needs minimal maintenance. It also has multi-crop capability for other grains such as corn,


Page 89

coffee, legumes, and other crops (banana and cassava chips) aside from palay and allows drying during unfavorable weather conditions, i.e., at night and during typhoons. Prototype modular down-draft biomass gasifier coupled with an internal combustion engine – developed by Community Power Corporation (CPC) through a cost-fund sharing with the US DOE. The units are designed to generate power in the 5kW to 25kW range by gasifying biomass fuels such as coconut shells and husks, bagasse, rice hulls, wood residues, rubber wood, and palm nut shells. In partnership with Shell International Renewables, CPC expects to initially market the systems for electrification of off- grid communities in the Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil. CPC has built a small (7 kW) prototype unit for laboratory evaluation in Colorado, and will install and evaluate field prototypes in the Philippines and United States.


Small-Scale Biomass Pyrolyzer For Farm Irrigation – produces combustible gas and carbon from agro-forest wastes such as rice hull, shells of pili, peanut and coconut, corn cobs, coffee bean hull and wood chips. The gas can be used to fuel an internal combustion engine to drive irrigation pumps. The system is capable of pumping about 30,000 gallons of water per hour compared to the traditional diesel engine pump's 12,000 gallons per hour output. It can supply the water requirement of a 9.3- hectare farm in eight hours.

Source: m.htm

Page 90

Fluidized Bed Combustor For Steam Generation – Optimum operating conditions are obtained using dry sawdust at 14% moisture content as fuel, with temperature of 92oC. An energy audit on the system showed that the FBC unit had an overall thermal efficiency of 70% with pollutionfree exhaust even when low-grade fuels were used. The system consists of a fluidized-bed reactor, variable speed screw feeder, fluidizing air blower, induced draft fan and dry cyclone particle separator integrated with a 15Hp, 100 Psi, 2-pass, horizontal return tube boiler. Fuel feeding the unit was easily controlled, and on automatic mode approached the convenience of fossil oil fuel. Initial tests showed that the boiler coupled to the system reached 85% of its rated capacity. Fruit Drier 2000 – a tray type drier that uses biomass energy. The furnace on the other hand is composed of a hopper with a capacity of 2 sacks of rice hull per loading which lasts for about 2 to 3 hours. A heat exchanger, which is composed of 27 boiler tubes having a diameter of 2-1/2" and arranged in regular triangular array was also added in the design. A chimney with a 6" diameter serves as the exhaust of smoke.



Page 91

Cement bonded boards - FRDI developed a new panel product called cement-bonded board (CBB) from agroforest wastes and residues. CBB panel is made of either shredded wood, flakes/splinters/particles of wood or agricultural wastes and residues like sugarcane bagasse, coconut coir fiber, tobacco, and corn stalks. It is bonded with ordinary portland cement and some mineral additives and cold-pressed under low pressure and ambient temperature. CBB has been found to possess the essential physical properties adapted to the country's climate. Wood wool cement board (WWCB) and other panel products out of the abovementioned agroforest wastes are found to be weather- and fireproof. They are resistant to fungal and termite attacks and possess excellent thermal and acoustic insulating properties. These boards are ideal for low-cost housing projects where they can replace expensive construction materials like bricks, hollow blocks, tiles and plywood. Rice hull Ash Cement Hollow Blocks Ricehull-ash-cement (RHAC) hollow block is a combination of refined rice hull ash, cement and sand. These blocks are as durable as the concrete hollow blocks yet much cheaper. Rice hull contains high temperature forms of silica, which in amorphous state (burned between 700 to 750oC) is pozzolanic or possesses binding property. But at very high temperatures (beyond 750oC), the amorphous silica turns crystalline, thus losing its binding property.. Since natural pozzolanas are usually of volcanic origin and occur in only a few regions of the world, artificial pozzolanas such as rice hull ash cement are needed to serve as cement substitutes.

Source : .htm


Page 92

Furnace-Type Lumber Dryer - a cheap yet efficient lumber dryer that can meet the standards set by both local and foreign markets for Philippine- made wood products. The FTLD is easy to install and can be made from locally available materials; easy to operate; utilizes biomass as heat source; dries wood materials to a level acceptable to both local and foreign markets, has drying efficiency comparable with that of conventional steam- heated dryer. Some of the spin-offs from the FTLD are the bamboo, grass and handicraft dryers.

Commercial Gasifier - A gasifier is a device that converts various biomass materials such as wood chips, cotton stalks, briquettes, rice hull etc. into a combustible gas called producer gas. This gas is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and traces of other hydrocarbon, which is formed under incomplete combustion at high temperatures. Gasifiers are however, not so popular because of uncertainty in biomass fuels and also because the integration of gasifier into an existing process is often not straight forward, and it involves some developmental work which most are not willing spend for.


Rice-Husk Based Gasifier – a 100KW capacity Rice-Husk based Gasifier installed in a rice mill in Andhra Pradesh


Page 93


Economic Environmental Benefits Issues/Problems Benefits Issues/Problems Energy Cost Energy not a core Less pollution Unsustainable Savings business among farming practices potential users for large-scale biomass development can release CO2 and Nitrogen from soil into the atmosphere Elimination/ No clear and Less Accelerated Minimization favorable policy Greenhouse harvesting of of Disposal regarding biomass Gas emissions forests and crops Costs promotion and use

Income from heat and electricity sales

Uncertainties regarding longterm biomass supply

Reduce landfilling

Additional income from by-products

Transportation problems and seasonality of supply

Contributes to the Solid Waste Management Efforts of the Country by minimizing municipal and agricultural wastes

Needs further development to increase efficiency and make it cost competitive compared with conventional sources

Immature Technology can result in

Social/Community Benefits Issues/Problems Creation of High Project local job Development opportunities Cost

Reduction of dependence on imported fossil fuel oil

Lack of Technical Know how in developing and managing projects Increased Wrong Livelihood perception Options regarding environmental impacts in communities Contribute to Inadequate the Advocacy and electrification IEC campaigns of rural areas on biomass and who still don’t promoting have electricity biomass use (this comprise of 20% of the barangays in the country) Provide a cheaper alternative source of fuel for agricultural equipment such as pumps and dryers

Page 94

PART VII. BIOMASS RESOURCES IN THE PHILIPPINES A. DATA ON RICE HULL BIOMASS Table 1 below lists the means by which biomass is used or disposed of in the country and in selected provinces. These areas where such data is available are usually the areas were development projects are being conducted on the use of renewable or non-conventional energy. Other areas are pilot sites for equipments being developed using biomass as source of energy. Table 2, on the other hand, provides a regional breakdown of rice hull production in the country from 1990 to 1999. Highlighted cells are the top producing regions on rice hull for the corresponding year. Rice hull estimates are based on using a conservative value of 20% recovery. For every ton of palay produced, about 200 kg of rice hull are generated. This assumption was based on the major processing of palay into rice using rubber roll rice mill. Table 1A. Ri ce Hull Util i zation I n The Phil i ppines Location § Philippines

Means of Disposal/Uses § Renewable energy source


§ Fuel for cooking stoves


and boilers § § § § §

§ Nueva Ec ija

Heat production (furnace) Soil conditioner Dumping and burning Briquetted fuel Cement extender (20% rice hull, 80% cement)

§ Mulching and soil

amendment materials for organic farming

§ Thermal conductivities of

rice hull and ash combinations and its use as insulator for a gasifier reactor (experiment)

§ § § § §

Remarks Amounted to 44.29 Peta Joules in 1996 and estimated to be 83.88 Peta Joules by 2025 by the Non-conventional Energy Division, DOE. End use applications of biomass fuels in the households and industrial sector (1 kg of rice hull has a heat value of 13,000 to 16,000 kJ) Drying of palay, fish and paper mache Improves soil aeration and porosity Most common practice of rice millers NFA project NFA project

§ A study conducted by B.D. Tadeo,,

“Development of eco-profitable agricultural products by system integration of biomass and other household farm wastes in the Philippines” § Rice hull and ash as lining material for

gasifier reactor; rice hull ash, compacted § Thermal insulator

Page 95

§ Tarlac

§ Gasifier

§ Used

§ Manila

§ Organic fertilizer

§ UP Los Baños,

§ Burning § Compost material with the

§ For vegetable production § To control weeds (burning) § Reduce soil microbial population (15 cm



brick- making


Laguna § Raliant and

addition of Trichoderma § gasifiers

thick) § Produces 10,000 tons of rice hull; ¼ of

Farmers Rice Mill, Isabela § Mindoro

Occidental § Maligaya,

Muñoz, Nueva Ecija

produced is for paddy drying § Cooking oil, insulating

material, fiber board, building blocks, cooking fuel and fertilizer § Furnace fuel


§ Maligaya flatbed dryer § Maligaya rice hull stove

Sources: 1. 2. Reuben Emmanuel T. Quejas. Study of Biomass as an Energy Source and Technical Options for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction: The Philippine Case. Non-Conventional Energy Division, Department of Energy. 3. Department of Energy 4. An interview with Diocano D. Alojado, Supervising Research Specialist, TRDDNFA.

Page 96

Tabl e 2A. Regi onal Ri ce Hull Producti on In Met ri c Tons Region









CAR 33,117 30,512 31,294 33,392 38,242 38,644 41,896 43,705 REGION 1 - Ilocos Region 169,538 179,717 165,224 167,651 183,494 177,303 198,521 215,351 REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley 232,952 206,723 217,736 178,336 247,452 269,852 288,269 308,946 REGION 3 - Central Luzon 382,186 349,698 347,187 320,868 377,350 351,485 377,617 401,775 REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog 191,457 223,617 215,978 216,054 221,045 198,552 212,152 218,099 REGION 5 - Bicol Region 137,400 148,845 143,092 133,026 137,914 119,724 132,193 137,578 REGION 6 - Western Visayas 177,346 236,777 247,741 296,987 288,454 258,255 294,886 265,534 REGION 7 - Central Visayas 36,588 41,540 32,739 39,744 41,690 46,152 46,413 47,380 REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas 67,492 76,591 72,417 77,779 79,556 89,211 87,158 91,452 REGION 9 - Western Mindanao 70,063 77,238 61,907 74,644 65,259 69,098 76,339 71,814 REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao 61,214 65,366 55,791 65,111 73,072 71,452 62,393 54,207 REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao 129,962 122,758 92,396 98,615 109,325 122,008 136,549 129,660 REGION 12 - Central Mindanao 88,614 95,683 83,073 101,562 128,965 150,485 166,884 151,540 ARMM 40,744 23,696 24,722 34,466 65,583 65,437 65,504 60,558 CARAGA 45,183 55,892 34,490 48,608 50,210 80,472 69,939 56,194 1,863,855 1,934,652 1,825,788 1,886,842 2,107,611 2,108,130 2,256,714 2,253,793 PHILIPPINES



33,994 44,274 170,823 216,378 221,874 341,762 261,832 368,531 177,869 241,495 98,699 144,049 208,892 306,346 23,289 41,673 72,402 101,279 52,885 65,229 54,940 66,402 112,138 136,168 128,817 158,797 44,521 68,901 47,990 56,042 1,710,965 2,357,325

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B. Biomass from Crop By-products The sugarcane bagasse production per region is given in table 1B. The major sugarcane producer in the country is Region VI (Western Visayas). This region accounts for over 58.52% of the country’s bagasse production. This was followed by Region VII, IV, X, and III. The top five regions account for over 92.59% of the country’s bagasse production. Tables 2, 3 and 4 shows the biomass production per region of coconut wastes. Region XI had the highest coconut husk production in the country having 1.23 million metric tons production in 1998. These are concentrated in the provinces of Davao and South Cotabato, followed closely by Region IV, IX, VIII and ARMM. Coconut shell is also concentrated in Region XI, followed by Region IV, IX, VIII, and ARRM. The same production pattern can be observed in the production of coconut coir. Figure 1 shows the regional production of biomass from crop by-products while figure 2 presents a breakdown of crop biomass production in the country. The huge volume of production of sugarcane bagasse in region VI clearly portrayed in figure 1. This is quite expected because of the vast tracts of land devoted to sugarcane and the sugar industry which is still thriving despite the decline in the price of raw sugar in the world market. This major biomass wastes from sugarcane are mostly utilized by the sugar mills for their boilers. The resource calculations for coconut wastes are as follows: for every 1,000 whole nuts of coconut, about 0.180 metric ton of coconut shells are produced, 0.400 metric ton of coconut husks and 0.280 metric ton of coir dust. These are the conversion values used by the industry, particularly the United Coconut Association of the Philippines (UCAP). Every year, UCAP reports an annual coconut statistics presenting important data from the coconut industry. They have been reporting coconut statistics in over thirty years. In the case of sugarcane bagasse, calculations were based from the Industrial Research and Development Office of the Sugar Regulatory Administration. The estimated bagasse production from cane production was estimated at an average of about 29% having a moisture content of about 50%. A 20-25% recovery could be used as a conservative estimate value. The cane trash comprised about three-and-a half percent.

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Table 1B. Reg ional Sugarcan e Baga sse Product ion in Met ric Tons Region CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA PHILIPPINES











8,889 6,358 5,480 6,065 6,034 3,512 3,119 2,725 2,344 11,092 13,772 11,310 17,842 18,715 18,391 31,301 48,364 38,637 46,934 435,604 381,284 408,140 442,426 374,681 221,801 340,604 299,263 222,243 211,839 357,927 400,158 452,944 435,060 500,181 358,699 389,773 508,675 327,477 332,090 9,832 16,605 34,225 47,164 47,513 43,333 50,334 43,317 53,671 69,160 2,223,948 2,746,021 2,656,410 2,601,506 2,876,819 2,067,521 2,617,161 2,439,181 1,930,014 1,928,821 269,803 364,226 361,869 426,155 541,685 360,960 483,155 558,277 450,546 493,329 134,876 162,065 160,785 189,058 164,550 121,377 139,659 118,718 115,279 114,547 245,191 232,836 237,052 375,945 298,718 272,222 391,352 325,351 259,992 270,638 36,211 41,573 32,177 41,793 110,141 81,761 134,185 110,747 71,719 87,074 5,302 47,801 3,733,372 4,364,898 4,360,392 4,583,013 4,939,038 3,554,880 4,628,444 4,454,619 3,469,577 3,556,776

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Table 2B. Reg ional Coconut Coir Product ion in M et ric Tons Region CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley












403 23,181 5,135

406 23,444 5,194

412 24,184 5,505

406 23,114 5,858

406 22,126 6,504

406 21,745 7,977

406 21,949 8,652

311 22,288 11,642

311 22,865 11,984

294 23,106 10,279

285 23,105 11,180

REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region

560 542,147 342,952

568 548,122 346,721

482 529,166 353,307

442 541,470 354,326

428 520,610 340,298

420 510,118 346,749

448 501,446 436,811

728 439,944 386,173

759 543,962 400,767

720 518,700 372,229

753 518,202 377,301

REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas

206,374 82,821 115,623

208,645 83,731 116,903

206,290 59,786 91,070

212,554 66,682 93,089

205,607 70,003 92,078

198,946 68,158 96,690

197,036 64,156 100,240

167,569 73,926 111,964

202,577 76,678 115,394

179,673 68,978 97,129

177,711 68,167 95,807

268,562 271,516 216,636 231,174 229,698 221,931 223,054 225,540 311,724 274,702 154,650 141,361 139,675 131,986 139,345 136,623 132,714 133,339 1,078,056 1,079,901 1,081,884 1,085,725 1,104,760 1,100,859 1,252,166 1,166,990 1,130,718

343,843 142,106 867,182

356,723 134,023 850,452

104,583 253,772 70,899

101,139 258,072 66,842

3,306,912 3,343,306 3,161,452 3,193,378 3,171,958 3,137,960 3,411,265 3,183,065 3,393,166 3,053,492


REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA PHILIPPINES

143,077 223,317 -

144,654 225,770 133,081

148,627 210,910 91,834

140,664 204,067 94,133

141,439 216,896 89,118

141,448 216,549 66,620

141,187 260,901 66,189

125,272 256,248 61,757

116,659 264,071 61,359

Page 100

Table 3B. Regional Coconut Husk Production in Metric Tons Region CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region











576 33,116 392,432

580 33,492 220,928

588 34,548 201,944

580 33,020 199,536

580 31,608 188,552

580 31,064 199,064

580 31,356 195,176

444 31,840 189,592

444 32,664 190,484

420 33,008 203,008

1999 407 33,008 191,462

1,540,080 1,542,716 1,545,548 1,551,036 1,578,228 1,572,656 1,788,808 1,667,128 1,615,312 1,238,832 204,396 206,648 212,324 200,948 202,056 202,068 201,696 178,960 166,656 149,404 7,336 7,420 7,864 8,368 9,292 11,396 12,360 16,632 17,120 14,684

1,214,932 144,484 15,972

REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas

800 774,496 294,820

812 783,032 298,064

688 755,952 294,700

632 773,528 303,648

612 743,728 293,724

600 728,740 284,208

640 716,352 281,480

1,040 628,492 239,384

1,084 777,088 289,396

1,028 741,000 256,676

1,075 740,288 253,873

REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao

118,316 165,176 383,660

119,616 167,004 387,880

85,408 130,100 309,480

95,260 132,984 330,248

100,004 131,540 328,140

97,368 138,128 317,044

91,652 143,200 318,648

105,608 159,948 322,200

109,540 164,848 445,320

98,540 138,756 491,204

97,381 136,868 509,605

REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA

489,932 319,024 -

495,316 322,528 190,116

504,724 301,300 131,192

506,180 291,524 134,476

486,140 309,852 127,312

495,356 309,356 95,172

624,016 372,716 94,556

551,676 366,068 88,224

572,524 377,244 87,656

531,756 362,532 101,284

539,001 368,675 95,488

4,724,160 4,776,152 4,516,360 4,561,968 4,531,368 4,482,800 4,873,236 4,547,236 4,847,380 4,362,132



Page 101

Table 4B. Reg ional Coconut Shell Product ion in Met ric Ton s Region












CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley

259 14,902 176,594

261 15,071 99,418

265 15,547 90,875

261 14,859 89,791

261 14,224 84,848

261 13,979 89,579

261 14,110 87,829

200 14,328 85,316

200 14,699 85,718

189 14,854 91,354

183 14,853 86,158

REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region

693,036 91,978 3,301

694,222 92,992 3,339

695,497 95,546 3,539

697,966 90,427 3,766

710,203 90,925 4,181

707,695 90,931 5,128

804,964 90,763 5,562

750,208 80,532 7,484

726,890 74,995 7,704

557,474 67,232 6,608

546,719 65,018 7,187

REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas

360 348,523 132,669

365 352,364 134,129

310 340,178 132,615

284 348,088 136,642

275 334,678 132,176

270 327,933 127,894

288 322,358 126,666

468 282,821 107,723

488 349,690 130,228

463 333,450 115,504

484 333,130 114,243

REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao

53,242 74,329 172,647

53,827 75,152 174,546

38,434 58,545 139,266

42,867 59,843 148,612

45,002 59,193 147,663

43,816 62,158 142,670

41,243 64,440 143,392

47,524 71,977 144,990

49,293 74,182 200,394

44,343 62,440 221,042

43,822 61,590 229,322

REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA

220,469 143,561 -

222,892 145,138 85,552

227,126 135,585 59,036

227,781 131,186 60,514

218,763 139,433 57,290

222,910 139,210 42,827

280,807 167,722 42,550

248,254 164,731 39,701

257,636 169,760 39,445

239,290 163,139 45,578

242,550 165,904 42,970

2,125,872 2,149,268 2,032,362 2,052,886 2,039,116 2,017,260 2,192,956 2,046,256 2,181,321 1,962,959



Page 102

Table 5B. Reg ional Break down of Biomass Resource f ro Crop By-product s in Met ric Tons Rice Hull Philippines CAR Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Region IX Region X Region XI Region XII CARAGA ARMM

2,357,325 44,274 216,378 341,762 368,531 241,495 144,049 306,346 41,673 101,279 65,229 66,402 136,168 158,797 56,042 68,901

Bagasse 3,556,776 2,344 46,934 211,839 332,090 69,160 1,928,821 493,329 114,547 270,638 87,074 -

Coconut Shell 1,954,133 183 14,853 86,158 546,719 65,018 7,187 484 333,130 114,243 43,822 61,590 229,322 242,550 42,970 165,904

Coconut Husk 4,342,519 407 33,008 191,462 1,214,932 144,484 15,972 1,075 740,288 253,873 97,381 136,868 509,605 539,001 95,488 368,675

Coconut Coir 3,039,762 285 23,105 11,180 753 518,202 377,301 177,711 68,167 95,807 356,723 134,023 850,452 101,139 66,842 258,072

Page 103

Figure 1. Graph of t he Regional Break down Of Crop Biomass Resou rce



Rice Hull

Coconut Shell Coconut Husk Coconut Coir




IV Re gio n V Re gio nV I Re gio n VI I Re gio nV III Re gio n IX Re gio n X Re gio nX I Re gio n XI I CA RA GA


Re gio n


Re gio n

Re gio n

Re gio n


0 CA R

metric tons

Bagasse 1,500,000

Page 104

Figure 2. Graph of Crop Biomass Production in the Philippines

5,000,000 4,500,000 4,000,000

metric tons

3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 Rice Hull


Coconut Shell

Coconut Husk

Coconut Coir

Page 105

C. Biomass from Animal By-products The animal population showed a positive growth rate between 0.76 to 5.19% during the last 15 years and the livestock and poultry industries in the Philippines continue to grow to address the demand for animal protein to support the increasing population. Consequently, the estimated amount of wastes from the animal population continues to increase. However, the waste treatment processes in the country have been minimal and continue to pose serious problem of environmental pollution in many growth areas in the country. The change is the pattern of livestock and poultry production from small to medium and large-scale operations and the increased concentration of livestock and poultry establishments in a few animal production areas have resulted to environmental pollution problems. Utilization of animal wastes will not only minimize the environmental pollution from decomposing animal wastes but may also provide a means of producing electricity using biogas, and a form of organic fertilizer. The data on biomass from animal by-products presented on Tables 1C to 5C include manure from hogs, cattle, carabao, poultry, and duck. Table 6C and figure 3 provides the regional breakdown of biomass production from animal wastes while figure 4 presents the volume of biomass production from various animal wastes in the country. Region IV is the top-producing region for hog wastes in 1999 followed by Region III. For chicken wastes, Region III is the top-producing region in 1999 followed by Region IV, VI, XI and VII. For cattle wastes, Region I, IV and VII are the highest producers followed by Region X and XI. The aggregate sum of these regions wastes account for about 56.81% of the country’s total waste generation. For carabao manure, there was an almost even distribution of wastes in Regions II, IV, VI, V and XI. These regions account for about 47.08% of the country’s total carabao waste generation. The raising of goat in the Philippines is primarily due to the use of its meat as a popular meat delicacy called "caldereta". This meat dish is popularly served in numerous bars, nightclubs and in major feasts and occasions in the country. The top producing regions include Region VII, XI, I, VI and III. Duck raising is a popular livelihood activity for numerous coastal communities in the Philippines. The popular delicacy called "balut", a 21-day old incubated duck egg, accounted for most of the income and sales of backyard duck raisers. Region III had the highest duck population followed by Region VI, II, IV and XI. The conversion factors used to estimate the animal manure production in the country are as follows: cattle and horse: 10 kg/head/day; carabao: 12 kg/head/day; swine: 2.0 kg/head/day; goat: 1 kg/head/day; and chicken and duck: 0.1 kg/head/day. These values are very conservative estimates especially for those animals that are caged or housed. When the above values are used, it is likely that the estimated volume production could be recovered. The values are also close to estimates used by the Bureau of Animal Industry and the Institute of Animal Science of the leading agricultural institution in the country.

Page 106

Table 1C. Regiona l Hog Wast e Generat ion in Met r ic Tons Region











CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley

153,724 372,249 287,548

149,998 338,995 289,318

147,543 352,302 331,434

146,347 352,092 346,698

158,682 327,092 337,938

183,704 293,504 347,947

184,054 316,433 325,222

180,894 369,293 371,308

188,056 372,570 430,459

182,784 350,575 412,662

REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region

770,027 804,394 280,802

878,854 849,490 319,591

748,095 832,312 319,795

768,685 862,055 279,143

821,676 891,975 307,550

902,099 988,017 351,509

970,833 989,691 367,154

1,002,655 1,091,502 410,866

1,146,014 1,119,134 444,490

1,079,649 1,156,868 447,468

REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas

393,931 460,660 539,331

408,120 427,922 561,691

415,259 424,778 547,693

415,206 430,722 516,245

407,498 477,827 526,749

378,907 500,687 563,787

345,336 562,319 517,198

424,372 562,145 545,347

414,750 568,459 576,664

450,359 616,450 575,883

REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao

458,324 331,677 530,936

416,532 305,419 537,023

419,173 309,824 535,602

404,174 264,107 555,159

427,311 291,646 581,093

509,379 312,615 691,311

505,986 347,013 647,277

538,303 372,110 742,111

509,014 390,223 752,053

533,462 481,100 745,037

REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA

236,272 20,221 199,903

210,838 16,238 187,888

272,376 15,345 184,454

266,193 12,969 186,384

246,011 14,359 187,960

248,514 18,915 235,666

224,285 27,375 258,231

219,993 19,958 267,851

238,601 19,455 283,445

263,421 15,505 278,589



5,857,977 5,808,172


6,528,556 6,590,403





Page 107

Table 2C. Regional Catt le Waste Generat ion in M etri c Tons Region









CAR 238,491 211,655 235,557 203,049 199,517 222,172 229,223 216,831 REGION 1 - Ilocos Region 758,540 800,861 765,398 777,425 750,130 844,435 970,943 1,130,649 REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley 304,301 293,600 306,170 333,084 383,743 426,214 444,442 506,510 REGION 3 - Central Luzon 510,960 502,418 511,242 482,235 555,086 505,453 541,707 620,771 REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog 759,648 724,015 783,592 906,732 820,048 802,374 858,790 934,897 REGION 5 - Bicol Region 172,748 217,036 242,597 324,132 302,385 338,247 376,373 452,513 REGION 6 - Western Visayas 395,601 399,650 408,691 453,594 476,416 447,343 443,994 459,710 REGION 7 - Central Visayas 415,575 433,411 471,587 599,630 573,945 644,299 629,897 628,400 REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas 752,842 805,848 794,438 881,909 959,264 1,009,773 1,085,862 1,094,347 REGION 9 - Western Mindanao 99,539 101,380 83,381 113,076 125,218 146,951 131,207 130,574 REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao 586,600 666,713 720,678 836,259 773,447 749,711 742,647 778,188 REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao 395,595 415,984 508,058 480,067 535,704 618,422 644,073 654,891 REGION 12 - Central Mindanao 213,256 201,955 228,125 279,007 287,730 300,323 334,059 346,542 ARMM 311,542 302,614 217,004 266,928 267,213 265,429 283,900 276,779 CARAGA 33,314 43,132 40,065 52,111 56,740 55,707 51,747 40,337 5,948,552 6,120,272 6,316,583 6,989,238 7,066,586 7,376,853 7,768,864 8,271,939 PHILIPPINES



223,424 213,196 1,181,893 1,236,904 547,912 549,402 615,144 606,623 1,016,058 1,103,721 458,561 460,203 468,245 454,115 641,426 693,321 1,071,549 1,078,356 114,817 113,154 896,236 905,437 695,450 729,399 371,767 370,351 334,756 340,822 39,186 40,545 8,676,424 8,895,549

Page 108

Table 3C. Regional Carabao Waste Generation in M etri c Tons Region











CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley

359,642 776,400 1,373,875

346,998 768,585 1,136,224

385,545 756,325 1,128,227

381,775 672,790 1,064,831

396,105 680,674 1,082,850

438,395 708,339 1,157,722

484,245 853,701 1,251,962

455,011 1,072,640 1,334,560

463,987 1,013,430 1,340,472

435,647 1,040,697 1,398,972

REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region

1,085,583 1,128,069 1,203,800

1,010,470 873,427 1,171,533

952,719 803,498 1,162,237

851,057 1,027,412 1,189,643

859,164 994,948 1,214,648

796,692 1,054,822 1,168,125

785,598 1,218,945 1,128,445

780,249 1,259,265 1,174,185

774,874 1,280,090 1,184,956

740,720 1,259,692 1,155,716

REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas

1,300,027 679,776 752,222

1,245,313 650,255 722,215

1,219,608 630,795 693,525

1,189,539 632,262 694,019

1,128,109 630,900 700,582

1,213,549 605,027 793,061

1,217,023 616,546 769,864

1,213,599 619,503 836,790

1,218,695 611,342 825,928

1,258,628 611,515 859,352

REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao

601,724 444,088 831,807

658,209 482,020 883,817

704,715 417,038 879,644

831,413 398,439 822,196

811,549 375,156 764,048

804,002 400,463 924,228

882,193 328,027 1,004,758

878,322 408,540 1,067,963

915,184 439,385 1,116,037

901,173 439,695 1,125,721

REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA

773,289 338,880 461,301

777,551 370,355 496,193

820,186 304,783 427,768

796,802 306,469 423,209

819,433 331,255 421,912

963,801 432,485 399,097

981,602 515,750 406,136

1,036,602 518,912 430,339

996,183 578,449 438,775

1,011,267 492,842 434,597


12,110,483 11,593,165 11,286,613 11,281,856 11,211,333 11,859,808 12,444,795 13,086,480 13,197,787 13,166,234

Page 109

Table 4C. Regional Poultry Waste Generation in M etri c Tons Region CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA PHILIPPINES

1997 58,083 241,914 245,570 855,402 1,026,668 175,265 483,809 398,793 202,108 211,040 229,014 471,332 128,232 68,359 87,876 4,883,464

1998 52,618 264,268 292,797 953,026 850,925 225,251 504,710 420,560 233,909 182,215 268,749 490,345 126,984 60,679 94,142 5,021,178

1999 53,052 201,214 258,627 770,185 765,521 276,314 423,388 297,661 175,746 163,151 223,466 366,494 113,147 52,627 77,803 4,218,395

Page 110

Table 5C. Regional Duck Waste Generation in M etri c Tons Region











CAR REGION 1 - Ilocos Region REGION 2 - Cagayan Valley

44,702 102,807 128,487

45,877 146,583 149,355

62,929 151,143 140,738

47,675 188,580 241,901

60,442 181,846 192,010

69,968 188,233 400,776

70,240 170,133 403,249

68,265 146,570 409,116

66,302 155,311 356,666

56,604 136,063 320,652

REGION 3 - Central Luzon REGION 4 - Southern Tagalog REGION 5 - Bicol Region

616,212 280,774 121,098

744,998 344,964 93,914

644,197 344,941 100,998

425,017 401,210 140,046

446,298 319,927 163,484

749,045 377,587 126,577

896,535 322,242 117,335

743,792 270,929 116,952

710,485 262,818 101,939

777,407 302,947 87,703

REGION 6 - Western Visayas REGION 7 - Central Visayas REGION 8 - Eastern Visayas

371,307 112,278 104,153

323,015 140,493 93,730

410,142 170,123 114,421

483,539 146,505 126,700

444,334 84,721 121,948

443,561 84,172 79,119

440,844 87,940 97,366

411,693 83,733 102,478

416,415 75,392 100,408

403,741 69,938 95,621

REGION 9 - Western Mindanao REGION 10 - Northern Mindanao REGION 11 - Southern Mindanao

100,305 68,985 277,240

112,500 81,314 378,432

93,555 69,100 366,809

154,905 108,739 394,489

129,369 140,373 333,924

105,654 80,683 226,553

68,727 99,491 262,203

81,709 110,124 276,075

97,654 181,102 277,035

82,129 142,319 277,952

REGION 12 - Central Mindanao ARMM CARAGA

181,055 130,217 45,420

182,901 119,957 59,674

208,970 96,991 72,072

187,258 72,578 58,836

217,007 84,549 67,980

167,091 120,008 92,329

171,693 145,174 103,269

198,200 134,723 102,720

189,080 142,209 88,984

173,443 137,863 68,989


2,685,040 3,017,707 3,047,129 3,177,978 2,988,212 3,311,356 3,456,441 3,257,079 3,221,800 3,133,371

Last Updated on 3/8/01 By Jasper Source: Biomass Atlas of the Philippines

Page 111

Table 6C. Regiona l Break down Of Biomass Resour ce f rom Animal By-p roduct s in Met ri c Tons

Philippines NCR CAR Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region V Region VI Region VII Region VIII Region IX Region X Region XI Region XII CARAGA ARMM

Swine 5,840.000 000.000 153.724 372.249 287.548 770.027 804.394 393.931 460.660 539.331 458.324 280.802 331.677 530.936 236.272 199.903 20.221

Chicken 4,228.241 9.846 53.052 201.214 258.627 770.185 765.521 276.314 423.388 297.661 175.746 163.151 223.466 366.494 113.147 77.803 52.627

Cattle 5,948.552 000.000 213.196 1,236.904 549.402 606.623 1,103.721 454.115 693.321 1,078.356 113.154 460.203 905.437 729.399 370.351 40.545 340.822

Carabao 12,110.483 000.000 435.647 1,040.697 1,398.972 740.720 1,259.692 1,155.716 1,258.628 611.515 859.352 901.173 439.695 1,125.721 1,011.267 434.597 492.842

Goat 804.340 000.000 13.065 131.726 34.441 90.883 63.422 30.564 121.845 167.725 18.779 74.146 57.598 146.445 65.456 31.175 50.297

Duck 2,685.040 000.000 56.604 136.063 320.652 777.407 302.947 87.703 403.741 69.938 95.621 82.129 142.319 277.952 173.443 68.989 137.863

Page 112

Figure 3. Graph of t he Regional Break down of Biomass Resource f rom Animal Wast es




Swine Chicken Cattle Carabao Goat Duck






Re gio nX I Re gio nX II CA RA GA

Re gio nX

Re gio nV I Re gio nV II Re gio nV III Re gio nI X

Re gio nV

Re gio nI I Re gio nI II Re gio nI V

Re gio nI


0 NC R

metric tons


Page 113

Figure 4. Graph of t he Volume of Product ion of Biomass f rom Animal Wast es in t he Philipp ines

14,000.00 12,000.00

metric tons

10,000.00 8,000.00 6,000.00 4,000.00 2,000.00 0.00 Swine






Page 114

DAP Project Team Magdalena L. Mendoza Managing Director Center for Governance Ma. Concepcion P. Pabalan Director, Environmental Management and Local Development Offices Center for Governance Alan S. Cajes Project Manager and Junior Fellow Environmental Management Office Center for Governance Ma. Teresa Serrano Technical Staff and Associate Project Officer Environmental Management Office Center for Governance Bughaw Cielo Bibal Technical Staff and Associate Project Officer Environmental Management Office Center for Governance

Page 115

Biomass Resources in the philippines