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US$15.00 (UKÂŁ9.00)

VOLUME 29 ISSUE 2

ISSUE TWO 2012

Edible citrus Orchard rehabilitation

VIV/ILDEX India 2012 Review Acids in poultry production Liquid feeding systems Abaca: The Philippine fiber

Maintaining egg production persistency - p13

Green investments in marine sector


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Contents

VOLUME 29 ISSUE 2

US$15.00 (UKÂŁ9.00)

Bulletin 4

A round-up of key developments in the regional market

ISSUE TWO 2012

Edible citrus Orchard rehabilitation

Agenda 6

US, China sign Plan of Strategic Cooperation in agriculture; Feeding rice just got easier with smartphones; Thai poultry quota with EU set; plus FAO Food Outlook

Events 9

Reviews of VIV/ILDEX India 2012 and Victam, FIAAP & Grapas Asia; and an overview of other upcoming events VIV/ILDEX India 2012 Review Acids in poultry production Liquid feeding systems

Livestock

Abaca: The Philippine fiber

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Maintaining egg production persistency for broiler breeders

16

Use acids in poultry production with caution

20

Controlling hygiene in liquid feeding systems

Maintaining egg production persistency - p13

Green investments in marine sector

Crops 23

Copper’s role in citrus orchard rehabilitation

29

Abaca: The Philippine fiber

Equipment 31

The latest innovations and agricultural technology

Moreover 35

Green investments increasingly vital in marine sector

Advertisers Index Almex BV..........................................................................................................21

Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH ..................................................................................19

AWILA Anlagenbau GmbH ..................................................................................5

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG ........................................................36

Compact Seeds and Clones S.A. ........................................................................7

PT. Global Expo Management (GEM Indonesia) (INAPALM 2012)........................2

Eurofeed Technologies ....................................................................................34

Unicess Live Group ..........................................................................................11

Goizper Sociedad Cooperativa ........................................................................23

VNU Exhibitions Europe Bv (ILDEX VIETNAM 2012) ............................................9

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FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

Chairman: Derek Fordham Printed by: Times Printers Private Limited Far Eastern Agriculture (ISSN 0266-8025)

Serving the world of business

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Bulletin Animal nutrition conference in Singapore THE WORLD NUTRITION Forum, an established event on the animal nutrition industry’s calendar hosted by Biomin—now at its fifth edition— will be held out of Europe for the first time, from October 10th to 13th 2012 in Singapore. The move to Asia signals the importance of this fast growing market, Singapore, the country where “East meets West”, being the ideal location for such a truly international event. The congress will be attended by more than 700 industry representatives and opinion leaders from all over the world, opening the floor to challenging discussions on and around “NutriEconomics: Balancing Global Nutrition & Productivity”. Presentations and lectures from leading experts, animal specific workshops where science meets industry and discussions about the challenges of our industry with international professionals and colleagues will provide food-for-thought when thinking about solutions for the future. The event follows the “by invitation only” approach, thereby providing a high-level platform for a multinational meeting with guests from all over the globe.

VNU, TCC form joint venture in Thailand AFTER MANY YEARS of cooperation in various trade exhibitions in Thailand, Vietnam and India, VNU Exhibitions Europe from the Netherlands and TCC Exhibition and Convention Center from Thailand have entered into a joint venture. The new company, named VNU Exhibitions Asia Pacific, will be based in Bangkok, Thailand. The new Thai organiser expects to benefit from the combination of sales and marketing expertise and the international network brought in by VNU Exhibitions Europe with strong regional presence and local network of TCC. VNU Exhibitions Asia Pacific will focus on the development of business to business exhibitions in the fast growing South East Asian region, in particular in the sectors such as agri-food, water and energy, and laboratory equipment. The company will look for growth through new launches, project cooperation with third partners and aquisitions in the ASEAN-region. In 2012 several new exhibitions in Bangkok have been launched: Ildex Bangkok, HortiAsia, Thailand Lab and PetVet Asia (in cooperation with Asia Pacific Veterinarian Congress).

OSI Group opens large feed mill in China OSI GROUP POULTRY Development Co. in Shandong Province recently opened a new modern feed mill in Rushan, Weihei, Shandong Province in China. With an annual capacity of 600,000 metric tons, this new facility is now one of China’s With an annual capacity of 600,000 metric tons, the new facility is one of largest feed mills in operation. China’s largest feed mills OSI began their poultry operation in China in 2010, and will reach a slaughtering capacity of 100 million birds per year by 2014, while employing over 1,500 people. The celebration marked an end to the project that started about fourteen months back. “This is an end, but also a new beginning for OSI and the people of Rushan,” said Bill Weimer, EVP and CFO of the OSI Group based in Chicago, IL, USA. Stefan Chen, GM of OSI's Poultry Vertical Integration division in China, outlined the importance of controlled animal protein

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systems to ensure the country’s overall food safety and security. “We are building one of China's most modern vertically integrated poultry operations using the latest on-farm and in-plant technologies,” Chen said.

Meriden targets the swine industry in northern Malaysia MERIDEN ANIMAL HEALTH recently presented their flagship product Orego-Stim and the Fusion Feed Safety Range at two seminars in Malaysia. Meriden’s products are already well known amongst Malaysia’s poultry industry so the aim of the seminars was to create awareness of Meriden amongst swine customers. The seminars created a Meriden Animal Health team great deal of interest in both Orego-Stim and the Fusion Feed Safety Range. Dr. Kelvin Chong, regional technical sales manager for Meriden Animal Health, said, “Both seminars were well attended and the participants were interested to hear how Meriden’s natural products can maximise performance and increase the financial returns.”

Kemin, WFP announce 5-year public-private partnership KEMIN INDUSTRIES AND the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) announced a new five-year public-private partnership to improve the safety and quality of WFP’s food basket. Kemin President and CEO Dr. Chris Nelson and WFP Director of Communications, Public Policy and Private Partnerships Nancy Roman finalized the agreement recently during the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012 in Davos, Switzerland. WFP, the world’s largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger around the world, unveiled a landmark strategic plan in 2008 that aimed to transform the organization from a food aid to a food assistance agency while allowing WFP to feed more than 90 million people a year. This move has included a shift toward increasing local food purchases; providing more locally-tailored products, and investing in longer term solutions to food production to combat hunger and poverty. To accomplish this strategy, WFP is helping to build the production and marketing capacity of local growers and manufacturers, including an increased ability to meet WFP food quality standards. "Kemin's generous gift of technology and understanding of key nutrition issues is helping us feed people smarter," said WFP Executive Director Josette Sheeran.

Best Genetics and Genesus sign cooperation agreement BEST GENETICS, A Chinese swine genetic company, and Genesus, a global swine breeding company, signed a cooperation agreement recently at the fifth Canada-China Business Forum. This agreement stipulates the purchase of top pedigree pigs and Genesus will provide continued genetic program support. With this cooperation, China will have lean meat, safe, high quality pork at an affordable price. The contract was signed under the witness of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Minister of Agriculture Mr. Gerry Ritz, Mr. Xia Guo Hua from Songshan district Chifeng city. Best Genetics has adopted western barn facilities and management processes. Genesus has the largest registered purebred herd in the world, with many Genesus herds producing up to 30 pigs per sow per year.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012


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Events 2012 MARCH 2012 3-5

Horti Expo 2012

New Delhi, India

22-24

ILDEX Vietnam

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

www.hortiexpo.com www.ildex.com

APRIL 2012 2-4

AGRAme 2012

Dubai, UAE

7-9

China International Food Processing and Packaging Machinery Expo

Beijing, China

9-11

GrainTech 2012

Cairo, Egypt

26-28

INAPALM 2012

Sumater, Indonesia

www.agramiddleeast.com www.cifie-expo.com www.igmfairs.com www.inapalm-exhibition.com

MAY 2012 1-4

Australasian Aquaculture Conference & Trade Show

Victoria, Australia

16-17

Pan Pacific Pork Expo

Queensland, Australia

18-20

China Animal Husbandry Expo (CAHE) 2012

Nanjing, China

www.caaa.com.cn

24-27

EuroCarne

Verona, Italy

www.eurocarne.it

www.aquaculture.org.au www.australianpork.com.au

JULY 2012 4-6

Indo Livestock 2012

Jakarta, Indonesia

8-12

CIGR-Ageng 2012

Valencia, Spain

19-21

Agritech Cebu 2012

Cebu City, Philippines

www.indolivestock.com http://cigr.ageng2012.org http://globallinkmp.com

US, China sign Plan of Strategic Cooperation in agriculture US AGRICULTURE SECRETARY Tom Vilsack and China’s Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu have signed a Plan of Strategic Cooperation that will guide the two countries’ agricultural relationship for the next five years. The plan was signed as part of the recently-held US-China Agricultural Symposium at the World Food Prize Hall of Laureates in Des Moines, Iowa. The symposium focused on bilateral cooperation in the areas of food safety, food security, and sustainable agriculture, as well as enhanced business relationships between the two countries. Xi Jinping, China’s Vice President, opened the symposium and stressed the importance China places on supporting farmers and rural development, as well as on food security. “China attaches great importance to food security, and ensuring a sufficient food supply for 1.3 billion people,” Xi said. In the 2011 fiscal year, China became the top market for US agricultural goods, purchasing US$20 billion in US agricultural exports. The value of US farm exports to China supported more than 160,000 American jobs in 2011, on and off the farm across a variety of sectors. “This symposium and plan are a product of a vision I share with my friend Minister Han for the United States and China to work more collaboratively in the future to benefit our nations and agriculture around the world. This plan builds on the already strong relationship our nations enjoy around agricultural science, trade, and education. It looks to deepen our cooperation through technical exchange and to strengthen coordination in priority areas like animal and plant health and disease, food security, sustainable agriculture, genetic resources, agricultural markets and trade, and biotechnology and other emerging technologies,” said Tom Vilsack.

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Agenda

Food Outlook THE FAO FOOD Price Index rose by nearly two per cent or four points from December to January– its first increase since July 2011. Prices of all the commodity groups in the index registered gains last month with oils increasing the most, followed closely by cereals, sugar, dairy products and meat. At its new level of 214 points, the index stood 7 per cent lower than in January of last year, however. “There is no single narrative behind the food price rebound – different factors are at play in each of the commodity groups,” said Senior Grains Economist Abdolreza Abbassian. “But the increase, despite an expected record harvest and an improved stocks situation, and after six months of falling or stable prices, highlights the unpredictability prevailing in global food markets,” he added. “I can’t see that the usual suspects – the value of the dollar and oil prices – were much involved in January. But one reason is poor weather currently affecting key growing regions like South America and Europe. It has played a role and remains a cause for concern,” he concluded. The FAO Cereal Price Index averaged 223

points in January, up 2.3 per cent (5 points) from December. International prices of all major cereals with the exception of rice rose, with maize gaining most, 6 per cent. Wheat prices also gained, though less significantly. Prices mostly reflected worries about weather conditions affecting 2012 crops in several major producing regions. Fears of decline in export supplies in the Commonwealth of Independent States also played a part. The FAO Oils/Fats Price Index rose to 234 points in January, up 3 per cent (6 points), from December. Firming import demand for palm and soy oils, combined with a seasonal decline in palm oil production were the main driving forces behind the increase. According to FAO’s latest forecast, world cereal production in 2011 is expected to be more than sufficient to cover anticipated utilization in 2011/12. Production is expected to reach 2,327 million tonnes – up 4.6 million tonnes from the last estimate in December. That would be 3.6 percent more than in 2010 and a new record. Cereal utilization in 2011/12 was lowered slightly from December, to nearly 2,309 million

tonnes, but still 1.8 per cent higher than in 2010/11. That would put cereal ending stocks by the close of seasons in 2012 at 516 million tones, 5 million tonnes up on FAO’s last forecast. The FAO Meat Price Index averaged 179 points, half a per cent (1 point) above its December value. Prices of the various meat types followed mixed directions, with pig meat up 2.8 per cent on expectations of strong imports by China and poultry down by one per cent. The FAO Dairy Price Index averaged 207 points in January 2012, up 2.5 per cent (5 points) from December.

Safe food from the farm with ISO/TS 22002-3 SAFER FOOD FARMING is the link, which is often the farm. principal benefit targeted by a ISO/TS 22002-3 provides statenew ISO technical specification, of-art requirements and latest in the ISO 22000 series of guidance for getting this right." standards for food safety It will be useful for all management systems. organizations, including Farms are the first link in individual farms or groups of many supply chains that bring farms, regardless of size or food to the kitchen table and the complexity, which are involved in new ISO technical specification, the farming step of the food ISO/TS 22002-3:2011, has been chain and wish to implement developed to ensure that PRPs in accordance with ISO farmers implement best practice 22000:2005, the standard that in maintaining a hygienic gives the basic requirements for environment and play their part food safety management. in controlling food safety It is applicable to the farming hazards in food chains. of crops (e.g. cereals, fruits, ISO/TS 22002-3 is one of a The new ISO technical specification has been developed to ensure that farmers vegetables), living farm animals series of support documents in (e.g. cattle, poultry, pigs, fish) implement best practice in maintaining a hygienic environment the ISO 22000 series providing and the handling of their requirements for food safety prerequisite programmes (PRPs). products (e.g milk, eggs). PRPs address the basic conditions and activities that are necessary All operations related to farming are included in the scope (e.g. for ensuring hygiene throughout the food chain during production, sorting, cleaning, packing of unprocessed products, on-farm feed handling and provision of food safe for human consumption. ISO/TS manufacturing, transport within the farm). 22002-3 specifies the requirements and guidelines for design, The document includes specific examples of PRPs, although these implementation and documentation of PRPs for farming. are for guidance only since farming operations are diverse in nature "The chain from farm to fork may be a long one, even global in according to size, type of products, production methods, geographical scale, involving many different participants," comments Dominique and biological environment, related statutory and regulatory Berget, leader of the ISO team that developed the new document. requirements etc. Therefore, the need, intensity and nature of PRPs "Therefore, it's important to ensure food safety right from the very first will differ between organizations.

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Agenda

Feeding rice just got easier with smartphones SINCE ITS DEBUT in the Philippines a year ago, Nutrient Manager for Rice Mobile (NMRiceMobile)— designed to give fertilizer guidelines to rice farmers via their mobile phones— is now available via smartphones with Android operating systems. Nutrient Manager for Rice Application (NMRiceApp) was launched recently at the Agricultural Training Institute (ATI) through the country’s Department of Agriculture, as a product of ongoing partnership with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).

NMRiceApp is designed to compute fertilizer recommendations comprehensively while being readily accessible to farmers in remote areas

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

“We wanted to make NMRice available on smartphones as a complement to existing Web and mobile phone applications of NMRice,” explains Dr. Roland Buresh, IRRI’s nutrient management expert and lead developer of NMRice. “NMRiceApp provides an additional way for rice farmers in the Philippines to obtain a fertilizer guideline for their crop.” “NMRiceApp has more capabilities than NMRiceMobile,” he adds. “For example, NMRiceApp provides a farmer with a fertilizer guideline adjusted for the farmer’s selected use of organic fertilizers.” The application can be downloaded for free in the Android market by searching "NMRice Philippines." It was pretested in 2011 at three locations: La Paz, Tarlac; Oton, Iloilo; and Makilala, Cotabato. Extension workers and farmers from these locations said that NMRiceApp was easy to use because of pictures and images that helped them understand questions. The idea behind the use of smartphones and NMRiceApp is that farmers won't need to go to their towns or cities to get site-specific nutrient management advice via the Internet, especially when far from their farms. By using NMRiceApp on their smartphones, extension officers can instead visit farmers,

interview them, and store information on their smartphone. Once the smartphone is connected to the Internet, the extension officer can process the fertilizer recommendation for the farmer and send it to him or her via a text message. "The beauty of this tool is it's become more powerful since it has greater capacity to process fertilizer recommendations comprehensively," cites Rowena Castillo, another IRRI nutrient management expert. "But, at the same time, it's also easily accessible since it's on a smartphone and an extension officer can take it to farmers in remote areas. "Besides this, it makes the job of an extension officer easier and more convenient by ensuring that the fertilizer guideline provided to the farmer is based on up-to-date research," she adds. With ATI's support, IRRI aims to further examine the potential of smartphones to reach farmers with fertilizer guidelines in eight partner municipalities through its cyber village project in the Philippines. "Mobile phone applications like NMRice help the Department of Agriculture provide Filipino farmers with precision farming practices tailored to a farmer’s specific situation and needs," says Dr. Buresh. Since it was launched in January 2011, NMRiceMobile has received more than 6,500 calls.

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Agenda

Thai poultry quota with EU set THE THAILAND COMMERCE Ministry has confirmed the results of negotiations with the European Union (EU) on allocation of processed poultry import quotas, according to a recent report in Bangkok Post. The quota for Thailand is 30,810 tonnes or 31.5 per cent of the total quota for six categories of poultry including processed chicken, processed duck and raw and cooked ready-to-eat products that have chicken or duck as an ingredient. The cabinet approved the agreement and will later submit it to parliament. The expectation is the EU will implement the new quota system by July 1. Negotiations took two years and were concluded late last year. The EU wanted to change tariff duties on eight categories of poultry. Government spokeswoman Thitima Chaisaeng said Thailand is a major supplier of the six categories. The private sector earlier asked the government to negotiate the issue of quota allocation to ensure that licence holders are the actual importers. In the past, quotas were traded, which tended to push up the prices of Thai products. Under the agreement, Thailand will receive a quota of 16,100 tonnes of processed chicken. Processed chicken within the quota will be levied a 10.9 per cent duty. After that, the tariff will be 2,765 (112,000 baht) per tonne. For processed duck, Thailand's quota stands at 14,700 tonnes, also at a 10.9 per cent tariff. Since 2007, Thai exporters fully utilised the 160,033 tonnes of cooked chicken meat quota the EU allocated each year to Thailand. Last year, the country exported 200,000 tonnes of cooked chicken meat to the EU. However, the country did not fully utilise the 92,610-tonne raw chicken meat quota, according to Bangkok Post.

China funds new irrigation methods to boost grain output CHINA GOVERNMENT RECENTLY announced funding for the use of water-saving irrigation technologies in major grain-producing regions, a move aimed at boosting grain output for the country’s 1.3 billion people. According to a joint statement issued by the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of Agriculture, China will invest 38 billion yuan (US$6.03 billion) in water-saving irrigation projects covering 2.53 million hectares of farmland in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces and Inner Mongolia autonomous region from 2012 to 2015. Of the investment, 22.8 billion yuan will come from subsidies by the central government, 20 per cent will derive from fiscal arrangements by provincial-level governments in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia, and local governments at the city or county levels, as well as farmers, will contribute to the remaining portion, respectively. Droughts, natural disasters, and a shortage of water resources have threatened stable grain growth in the world’s most populous nation, according to the statement. Grain output by Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia accounts for more than one-fifth of China’s grain production. The promotion of water-saving irrigation technologies in those regions will boost the potential of grain production and create grain security for the country, the statement said. According to the statement, the funding will be used mainly to promote trickle irrigation and micro-sprinkler irrigation in those regions. China’s grain output rose to a record high of 571.21 million tonnes in 2011, marking eight consecutive years of growth.

New initiative to foster sustainable intensification of farming THE PRIVATE SECTOR is committed to play a strong role in transforming agriculture to address urgent global needs, said Sandra Peterson, Chief Executive Officer of Bayer CropScience, recently at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. “Through our work with stakeholders across the food value chain, we are uniquely positioned to understand evolving trends and challenges, to connect the dots and drive new solutions.” Peterson, who co-led discussions during a forum session of the “New Vision for Agriculture” on the topic “Agriculture, Health and Nutrition Linkages”, emphasized that partnership and collaboration are integral. “We need to connect the dots and work across the entire food value chain – from seed to shelf,” Peterson said. Bayer CropScience recently joined as a member of the Forum’s global initiative “New Vision for Agriculture”. The aim of the initiative is to foster the sustainable intensification of agriculture through a novel partnership model involving public and private collaborations. Under this initiative, national action plans for public-private collaborations have been initiated in six countries –Vietnam, Indonesia, Tanzania, Mexico, Nigeria and India.

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Sandra E. Peterson

As a key player in the agricultural industry, Bayer CropScience already plays an important role in driving the innovation to improve agricultural productivity. The company has invested significantly in partnerships with premier research institutes globally on key staple crops such as wheat

and rice. Such collaboration has already led to significant results that will enable these crops to better withstand disease and provide enhanced yields. Giving that agriculture is key to economic growth and prosperity, providing livelihoods for more than 2.5 billion people living in rural areas worldwide, Bayer CropScience has also already taken an early lead in developing a broad variety of tools to support smallholder farmers. In the case of rice, the company already offers solutions ranging from training in good agricultural practices to improvements in water management and post-harvest storage, and has also initiated the highly successful program “Much More Rice” in Vietnam. The “New Vision for Agriculture” was launched in 2011 as a global initiative aimed at achieving sustainable agriculture, based on an innovative model for public-private collaboration at the national level. Led by more than twenty global companies in close collaboration with governments and other stakeholders, the initiative has engaged more than 350 leaders of business, government, civil society, international organizations and academia.

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Events

VIV/ILDEX India showcases growing poultry industry Strong visitor numbers and more exhibitors at the expo highlight the prowess of India’s livestock sector

V

IV/ILDEX INDIA 2012, held recently in Bangalore, proved to be a hive of activity for the region's fastest growing poultry and livestock industry. Over 130 exhibitors from 18 countries showcased their products and innovations at the expo organized by VNU Exhibitions Europe and NCC Exhibition Organizer (NEO) in association with Indian partner Inter Ads. Key professionals and decision makers made their way to the IT capital of India to see what the industry had to offer.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

The event underlined the value of knowledge sharing to trigger economic growth. Extensive conference programmes and walk-in sessions with speakers from various parts of the globe (from major industry players like Marel Stork, Pfizer, Fancom, et al) threw light on the latest innovations, challenges and solutions for the industry.

Feedtech-Croptech This year, for the first time, the feed manufacturing industry was put in the spotlight with the special theme FeedtechCroptech. The exhibitors of this dedicated event focused on the primary processing phases of crops and geared towards those working in milling, processing, storage and handling of raw materials for the feed, food and fuel sectors.

The quality standards of Indian feeds are high and up to international levels. Raw materials for feed are adequately available in India. The feed industry has modern plants and the latest equipment for analytical procedures and least-cost ration formulation, and it employs the latest manufacturing technology. In India, most research work on animal feeds is practical and focuses on the use of by-products, the upgrading of ingredients and the enhancing of productivity.

Opportunities in the subcontinent Economic and population growths in Asia, India in particular, are driving poultry and livestock production. Poultry has a crucial place in India as the eggs and chicken meat are important and rich sources of protein, vitamins and minerals. Poultry provides rich

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Events

Over 130 exhibitors from 18 countries showcased their products and innovations at the expo

organic manure and is a vital source of income and employment to millions of farmers and other persons engaged in allied activities in the poultry industry. Chicken is the most widely accepted meat in India. Even though consumption of food grains has decreased during the recent past, animal protein sources like milk, meat and eggs show a positive trend. This emphasizes the need for increasing domestic production to meet the everincreasing need for animal protein sources. In the last two to three decades, poultry has made tremendous strides particularly in the private sector, with the result that India is now self-sufficient with regard to

requirements of high quality breeding stocks, modern poultry equipment, availability of medicines and vaccines and technically qualified skilled manpower. India is the world’s fourth largest producer of eggs and fifth largest poultry producer. Based on various industry sources and Robobank research, the poultry industry is estimated at around US$3.1bn, and the layer market at US$2.5bn. In India, both intensive and traditional systems of poultry farming are followed, but intensive system is rapidly increasing due to increasing land and other input costs. It is estimated that about 60 per cent of poultry meat and 56 per cent of eggs are

currently being produced in the intensive system. As India’s middle class is thriving, demand for ready-to-eat meat is growing. However, it’s not just the domestic demands that are growing. Animal product exports are also becoming an important part of the Indian economy. Consequently, the importance of delivering fresh and safe meat products with an extended shelf life is increasing. Meat safety can only be guaranteed if every step in the meat production chain is carefully monitored and controlled. To stay current with these developments, today’s meat business is about improving profitability, efficiency, health, transparency and quality. n

ILDEX Vietnam: Bringing international expertise to satisfy local needs AFTER A SUCCESSFUL 2010 edition, The main reason for this is the organizers NEO and VNU are all geared increasing number of international to take ILDEX Vietnam 2012 to a higher participants, but there is also the full level. With the theme ‘Bringing involvement of VNU Exhibitions Europe International Expertise to Satisfy Local in ILDEX Vietnam 2012. VNU has been Needs,’ the 2012 edition will be held a long-time partner of NEO. They jointly from March 22-24, 2012 at Saigon developed VIV Asia, the region’s largest Exhibition & Convention Center livestock expo, more than 20 years ago. (SECC), Vietnam. “In the 2010 edition, there were six This show has a lot to offer Vietnam’s international pavilions from France, livestock, dairy, meat-processing and Singapore, Korea, China, Shanghai City aquaculture industries, according to and the Netherlands,” Smithtun said. the organizers. “As far as the ILDEX Vietnam 2012 Jobe Smithtun, Senior Project The exhibitors’ number in 2010 edition reached a record high of edition goes, we have already 220 companies from 26 nations Manager of NEO, said, “The 2010 received confirmation of participation exhibitors’ number reached a record from places as far away as Eastern high of 220 companies from 26 nations. Such world-wide interest Europe and Central America. This underlines the fact that more and proves that our show’s timely concept of ‘Bringing International more international players are interested in the Vietnamese market.” Expertise to Satisfy Local Needs’, is already an established success. Vietnam is one of the fastest growing countries in aquaculture This indicates even brighter prospects for Vietnam’s livestock, dairy, production in the world and the future for the Vietnamese meat-processing and aquaculture.” aquaculture looks bright. ILDEX Vietnam 2012 is tailored to serve industry needs especially Vietnam has become the world’s third largest producer in aquaculture in Vietnam, anticipating rising demand for livestock aquaculture volume and one of the top ten seafood exporting and aquaculture products both locally and internationally, countries. However, the future of Vietnam aquaculture according to the organizers. development and growth will depend largely on how well the ILDEX Vietnam is moving fast towards becoming a complete country can develop sustainability with food safety guidelines and international event. meet the international standards.

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Events

Victam Asia highlights innovation in animal feed manufacturing ANIMAL FEED MACHINERY new technology would impact demonstrations and the showcase current formulations. of grain milling equipment and Technology for biomass pelleting systems dominated the Victam was also showcased at the Victam. Asia, FIAAP Asia and Grapas Asia, Biomass pellets are processed from three co-located trade shows, held organic waste and are used as in the effervescent Thai capital alternative source for green energy. Bangkok recently. This heat source is becoming more Representatives of the feed and important throughout the world as grain sectors from various conventional energy supplies companies across the globe took become harder and increasingly part in the 2012 edition of the trade expensive to extract. Many of the show that deals exclusively with major companies which provide The event witnessed scores of new product launches and grain processing and the pellet mills for feed plants, who a series of conferences manufacture of animal feeds. were at the show, discussed their The event witnessed scores of new product launches and a series of biomass pelleting technology. conferences including The FIAAP Asia Conference 2012, Petfood Forum The Grapas show profiled the latest technology and systems for rice Asia 2012, Biomass – Pellets Update Asia, Aquafeed Horizons Asia and flour milling; grain processing, preservation, storage and 2012, The Thai Feed Conference, GMP+ seminar Feed safety and movement; and noodle, breakfast cereal and extruded snack sustainability in the global market. production. Major international players displayed the latest equipment A range of products and services, including mills, upgrades to used in these processes. existing systems or formulation programmes and re-conditioned A number of companies that supply ancillary equipment for the equipment were showcased at Victam Asia, the region’s largest feed, biomass and grain industries—with equipment ranging from silos, exhibition for animal feed and the ancillary equipment and technology. conveyors, bagging machines, magnetic systems, quality control, Nutritionists and formulators also attended the event to see how the computers and programmes and trucks— participated in the Grapas.

INAPALM 2012 to be held in April THE INDONESIA INTERNATIONAL Palm Oil, Machinery and Technology Exhibition & Conference 2012 (INAPALM 2012) will be held from April 26 to 28, 2012 at Sumater, Indonesia. The event serves as one of the world's most prospective onestop-exhibitions for palm oil industry and other related industries. It aims to bring together suppliers from different parts of the region and across the world and showcase latest technology of palm oil processing machines, parts, and oil palm processing results. The event offers a great opportunity to build a network among both the local and the overseas palm oil industries and other allied segments. Indonesia is the world’s biggest producer of palm oil, which is used in making several products ranging from soap to cooking oil. Last year, Indonesia produced more than 20 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and around 6 million tons of the total production was absorbed local market, mostly in the form of cooking oil. The other 14 million tons was exported, mostly to China, India, and countries in Western Europe, in the form of CPO as Indonesia has not developed its palm oil downstream industry to process CPO into various products. Palm oil generates major export income for Indonesia and palm oil companies have registered healthy profit. Riau is the largest palm oil producer and plantation province in Indonesia. The number of palm oil plantations in Riau Province shows an increasing trend. This can be seen from the extension of plantation area and the increasing number of total production per year.

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Events

IPM Essen 2012 draws visitors in droves THE RECENTLY-HELD IPM Essen 2012 show in Germany formed the economic barometer for the worldwide green sector, with 36 per cent of visitors coming from overseas – a rise of 10 per cent. This rise in international visitors was reinforced by the fact that 74 per cent of IPM visitors were decision takers, characterising the great success of the 30th IPM Essen. “The 30th IPM Essen was superlative,” said Frank Thorwirth, Chairman and CEO of Messe Essen, and Egon Galinnis, Managing Director of Messe Essen. “On the occasion of the 30th birthday, IPM has received the nicest gift from the exhibitors and the visitors who are confirming the concept of IPM by their success.” This year’s exhibition was ceremoniously opened by Germany’s Federal Minister of Agriculture, Ilse Aigner. She praised the fair as an information hub and an international marketplace which entices exhibitors and guests from all over the world. Heinz Herker, President of Zentralverband Gartenbau (Central Horticultural Association - ZVG), then highlighted the factors he believed made IPM Essen a success: open-mindedness, knowledge transfer and enthusiasm for innovations. Information about innovations, market orientation and maintaining business contacts

were crucial for trade visitors' participation in IPM Essen 2012. In this respect, the fair once again proved to be a meeting place of decision takers and a first-rate networking platform: 74 per cent of visitors have an influence on purchases and procurements in This rise in international visitors was reinforced by the fact that their companies. One 74 per cent of IPM visitors were decision takers, characterising the in three visitors placed great success of the 30th IPM Essen orders directly at IPM or planned to order something during their Publicity Holland (PPH). The prize was won by visit to the fair. Another 28 per cent are the Dutch company Van den Berk for its roof expecting to conclude contracts after the fair tree called The Swing. on the basis of the information they attained The Blu Blumen horticultural business of and contacts they acquired. Visitors were also Mario and André Segler from Langenberg won positive about the variety on offer and for the the 2,500 Horticultural Prize 2012 of the Federal international reach of the fair. Eighty eight per State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW). cent of visitors made a positive assessment of Indega (InterEssenvertretung der the current economic prospects of the sector. deutschen Industrie für den Gartenbau – IPM Essen 2012 also honoured many Association Representing the Interests of the companies via various competitions. Plants German Horticultural Industry) meanwhile with added value were the focus of attention presented its prize for technical progress to of the international competition entitled Colour RAM Mess- und Regeltechnik from Hersching Your Life Award IPM 2012 which Messe for its newly developed measurement and Essen had organised together with Plant analysis technology.

Space age agronomy on show at the World Potato Congress SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED during the cold war is set to deliver state-of-the-art crop monitoring systems to help growers improve agronomy and drive up profits. Although the technology dates back several decades, its capabilities for remote sensing of crops are only now being realised thanks to relatively recent developments in information technology, says Stephanie Race, chief executive of San Franciscobased Earth Analytics Group, who will be speaking at World Potato Congress. “Satellite remote sensing can inform observations of crop canopy development at scale. When used with meteorology, soils data and crop models, growers can monitor in-season production and reduce water use to achieve more favourable yields at a lower cost,” she explains. “Growers can evaluate many more fields with remotely-sensed data than they could by walking them – we are saving time with technology.” Information can be used to fine-tune management decisions during the season and to give an accurate prediction of yield in relation to planned harvest dates. This not only helps growers manage their inputs efficiently and plan harvest campaigns better, it also helps manufacturers improve crop supply forecasts, she adds. Data can also be used retrospectively to evaluate crop performance, helping to pinpoint areas for improvement in future seasons. Cambridge University Farm is working with Earth Analytics Group to develop the technology in the UK and further afield. Dr David Firman,

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head of the Potato Agronomy Group at CUF, says better canopy measurement is the key to improved crop monitoring. “Crop cover drives crop production and water demand. Current methods of measuring it are primitive and time consuming and can only be used on small areas. “Bringing satellite imagery together with locally gathered information and yield and irrigation modelling, which we already operate, will allow growers to make more efficient use of resources during the season and will also allow more efficient data capture which can be analysed to provide an element of forecasting and strategic decisionmaking.” That will help growers make more informed choices based on actual crop performance and expectations, he adds. “One of the challenges is that people tend to be reactive and go from one season to the next without having all the data to hand to make rational decisions. This will give them the information they need.” Visitors to WPC can hear more about this novel approach to crop monitoring including real-life examples of growers using it and where future advances might be made, notably through more efficient use of IT. World Potato Congress takes place every three years, and the 2012 Edinburgh event on 27-30 May is world class, attracting speakers from China, New Zealand, South Africa, Australia, the USA, GB, The Netherlands, and Canada.

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Livestock

Maintaining egg production persistency for broiler breeders Persistency of egg production is an important determining factor for total egg production. Hens with the same total production, however, can exhibit different egg production curves because of differences in persistency.

B

REEDING COMPANIES HAVE been producing increasingly fast growing and more highly efficient broilers for a number of years and like the broiler birds their parents (the broiler breeders) have registered rapid change. Companies which develop and supply broiler breeders have to marry two requirements– selecting for maximum egg number produced by the parent as well as selecting for the all-important traits of the broiler bird which is still the main focus. Cobb, the international producer of broiler breeders, has set out what they regard as the correct management and nutrition of the parent birds to ensure customers obtain maximum number of eggs from their broiler breeders. One main reason why flocks do not achieve maximum potential egg numbers is the wellestablished drop in egg production persistency. Egg production will rise to a good peak but will invariably fall quickly after the parent birds reach 40 weeks of age. The article is based on information written by Paul Welten and published by Cobb Europe* which elucidates the various reasons for drops in post 40-week production and what producers should do to

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obtain the maximum possible number of eggs right until the end of the cycle.

Production persistency Persistency is expressed as a production index number, or “PI”. That is the percentage of production added to the age of the flock, starting at peak production. For example, a flock at 30 weeks of age with an 84 per cent peak has a PI = 114 (30 + 84). The objective should be to maintain this PI of 114 for the whole production period of 40 weeks. This means at 60 weeks of age the weekly production would need to be 54 per cent (60 + 54 =114). Production persistency is maintained by taking the following management guidelines into consideration • Ensuring there is a good sexual uniformity at 23 weeks of age to guarantee a good peak production and production persistency of over 80 per cent. Sexual uniformity also includes fleshing and fat uniformity so females are in the best possible condition to continue good egg production. • By not over-stimulating with artificial light

and not exceeding 15 hours of total light (Table 1). Cobb says that production companies using a maximum of 14 hours of total light are rewarded with a general improvement in the livability of females as well as improved production persistency. • By avoiding over-stimulation with feed going into peak production to avoid excess body weight, says Cobb. They suggest use of the alternative feeding programme shown in Table 2 (page 15) if excess body weight occurs during this period. Body Weight should not increase more than 18 per cent from start to peak production. Optimum control of body weight going into peak production means more flexibility and sufficient ‘in reserve’ to provide increased body weight towards the end of the production period. • Broiler breeder farms are advised to avoid bringing their flocks into production too early (23 weeks or earlier) and to be extra careful about timing if the females are not properly prepared to start production. Early production will result in a good peak but less persistency, more wear and tear of the feathers and smaller egg size, says Cobb.

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• By avoiding over-weight in birds after peak production by reducing the feed regime on time. As a general rule when peak production is achieved feed reduction can be implemented by 2g per week for 2 weeks in a row and then with 1g per week till 40 weeks of age. After this period reduce feed more slowly by 1g every 2 weeks. Many flocks in the field become over weight 3 to 5 weeks after peak production, indicating that excess feed was available in peak or just after peak, says Cobb. • However, producers must not let the females plateau in weight gain because they must register a slow continuous weight gain to ensure that egg production is maintained. In addition, producers should endeavour to avoid any alteration in feed programmes at 40-45 weeks of age which will involve any change to ingredient composition. Every change of this nature is an added stress which can contribute to an irrecoverable fall in egg production. • Quality and consistency of feed rations are key factors in maintaining production performance. Without consistent quality, the feed reduction program is compromised and will fail to control body weight and therefore maintain egg production. Any error in management, whether related to feathering condition, light, watering or feeding program, will destroy uniformity and consistency resulting in erratic and invariably lower production.

Flock management, feeding and nutrition during the rearing stage have significant effects on final performance

Rearing period Flock management, feeding and nutrition during the rearing stage have significant effects on final performance with farmers failing to produce good uniform pullets from day old chicks. Pullets will achieve the required skeletal development, provided body weight profiles recommended by breeding companies are followed. Broiler breeders must achieve the required weekly gain in body weight with good uniformity for fleshing. Flock uniformity is a key ingredient in the recipe for highly productive flocks, says Cobb because uniform flocks can respond to changing feed allocations as a ‘unit’. The first 10-12 weeks of the rearing period defines the birds’ frame uniformity while the following 12 to 20 weeks defines fleshing uniformity. Both are crucially important but generally more attention to grading is required between 10-12 weeks of age. General on-going improvements in genetic potential does not mean breeding companies have increased their body weight targets says Cobb because evidence shows higher body weight profiles between the 10 to 16 week window of the rearing period gives poorer

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production persistency. This means precise body weight control during rearing has become even more important and is therefore subject to even more focus. The rearing phase can be divided into three distinct periods: • 0-6 weeks – the growth and development phase • 7-16 weeks – the control growth phase which brings birds to the optimum body weight. • 17-20 weeks – a dual function period – preparation for lay and growth acceleration Development of sexual maturity speeds up from 15 weeks and from this point on the birds must achieve growth increases according to the standard specified curve. With body weight on target at 15 weeks of age the curve can be safely followed. However, if birds are already 100 g above target at 15 weeks then this should be maintained until 20 weeks, before using the light programme to gradually bring back body weight ‘into line’ before onset of production. Pullets should be reared in dark out-houses where the light regime can be manipulated and controlled. During the rearing period, the

light is reduced from 24 hours in 2-3 weeks to just 8 hours with light intensity raised from 3 lux to a maximum of 10 lux so that birds have a clear night and day pattern. Between rearing and production the light intensity should increase a minimum of 10 times so there is a direct and determined influence on the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

Production Pre-pubertal period The period from photo-stimulation to peak production is perhaps the most critical ‘window’ in broiler breeder management. Birds’ register relatively fast weight gains and ‘lifechanging’ internal events due to the production of hormones by the newly physiologically active ovary. Photo-stimulation timing plays a crucial role in flock development and future egg production. After lighting the very small ovarian follicles start to increase in size and produce large amounts of estrogen hormone that influence the production of egg yolk precursors in the liver. The bird’s liver assumes a paler colour due to increases in fat content to cope

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Table 1: Example of a good working light programme as recommended by Cobb Age (weeks) 20 21 21-22 22-23 Light (hours) 8 11 13 14 Table 2: Feed programme recommended by Cobb Daily egg production (%) 5 15 Rearing feed standard (g/day) 130 136 Alternative feed regime (g/day) 130 133

with and facilitate production of the egg yolk liquids. The oviduct increases in size so it is ready to receive the ovulated follicles, while the estrogen influences changes in the bone tissue so that calcium can mobilised on a daily basis to make egg shells. Light stimulation Age at which photo-stimulation occurs influences sexual maturity, egg production, egg persistency and egg weight. Birds are most sensitive to circulating estrogen levels between 2 to 4 weeks after photo-stimulation and overfeeding during this period leads to many follicles developing in the ovary. This in turn will increase the proportion of nonsettable eggs, such as double yolks and softshell eggs as well as reducing production persistency. Flocks showing good egg production persistency are invariably those having a light program which does not overstimulate the birds into production and one that gives a good balance between production and rest (Table 1). A field trial comprising two different lighting programmes (high and light period increases) and two different feeding periods (slow fed treatment [SFT] and fast fed treatment [FFT]) showed clear results. FFT with the lower light regime produced greater ovary weight. Birds came into lay quicker with the higher light regime but showed poorer egg production post

25 142 136

35 148 142

45 154 150

23+ 15

55 160 160

65 166 166

peak resulting in up to 10 less eggs. FFT birds exhibited higher embryo mortality and therefore fewer chicks compared with SFT birds. Overall this shows how both egg and chick production can be compromised by overfeeding early into lay and how over-stimulation with light too early can lower production persistency. Cobb says the decision to stimulate the birds with light depends on the following: • Whether body weight of the birds is on or above standard around 2250 g dry body weight • Less than 5 per cent of birds weigh under 1900 g • Body weight uniformity is greater than 75 per cent • Birds have the correct body composition i.e. flesh/ fat score of 3-4. Incorrect light intensity can also impact negatively on egg production with very low light intensity levels limiting ovary development, follicle production and egg production. Conversely, high light intensity can cause birds to become photo-sensitive much too early.

Feed and feed allocation Getting the correct amount of feed to the birds at the right time is one of the most important factors in the successful raising of broiler breeders. Maintenance of vital organs, bone and muscle has the highest priority followed by reproduction. Over-supply of nutrients results in excess fat and excess follicle

production which may lead to problems relating to SDS (Sudden Death Syndrome) and Haemorrhagic Liver Syndrome. Feed allocation is at its most critical when broiler breeders are coming into production. Hens need the energy from feed conversion to maintain their body weight, growth and egg production but too many nutrients allows the production of more body fat, more follicle development and excess muscles. Overfeeding is linked to reproductive disorders and poor persistency of lay. Part of the extra nutrients utilised leads to excess fat which impacts negatively on egg production. As a general rule of thumb, for every 200 g more of body weight after peak egg production the bird needs 5 g more feed for maintenance. Females can rapidly become 200 g overweight after peak if the feed amount is too high which means feed reduction should generally begin within 1 week of peak production or even during the peak production period. Total feed reduction from peak egg production should be between 8-14 per cent depending on the time of the year, production persistency and body weight of the females. Nutrient shortage will result in smaller and /or fewer eggs. When broiler breeders don’t get enough nutrients, body weight and production correspondingly decreases with eggs smaller and/or lower in number. Both body weight and egg weight are good indicators of birds receiving the right amount, quality and balance of nutrients and both should therefore be monitored on a regular basis. n Dr. Terry Mabbett Reference: *Welten, P (2010) Promoting persistency in production. www.cobb-vantress.com/publications/ CobbPromotingPersistency.pdf

MSD Animal Health updates poultry vaccines guide MSD ANIMAL HEALTH has updated its safety guide for the use of inactivated poultry vaccines. The wallet-sized guide has become popular with poultry managers seeking to remind staff of the potential dangers from accidentally selfinjecting and the immediate steps which should be taken in the event that this unintentionally occurs. Many MSD Animal Health poultry vaccines contain an oil-in-water emulsion designed to promote effective immune response following vaccination. Inactivated vaccines are commonly used in animal health and livestock production. The specific MSD Animal Health vaccines are listed in the guide. Key information on what immediate

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actions to take should accidental selfvaccination occur are explained. Dr Sarah Rennie, Integrated Livestock Marketing Manager at MSD Animal Health explains, “Accidental selfvaccination is rare but should it happen staff need clear direction on the correct action to take. Producers in the UK recognise their responsibilities in ensuring that staff handle and apply vaccines safely. The purpose of this guide is to provide the necessary detail enabling all staff to understand the risks and implement appropriate safety protocols.” Poultry producers, consultants and vets can request a free copy of the guide by contacting MSD Animal Health.

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Livestock

Use acids in poultry production with caution The application of acidifiers appears to have beneficial effects on poultry production. However, producers need to consider what they want to accomplish by using acids and whether those benefits will outweigh the cost of replacing damaged components.

O

VER THE PAST few years, experts in the poultry industry have given the use of acidifiers closer scrutiny. Putting weak acids in poultry feed and water and on the poultry litter in many cases appears to have beneficial effects. One of the first things a producer must determine when considering the use of acids: will the gain in production outweigh the cost of replacing components damaged by the acid? A producer, for example, had to replace all of the drinkers in his poultry house twice in less than a year because his acidification program was too aggressive. That cost him about US$4,000. pH is a scale, ranging from 0 to 14, that measures how acidic a substance is. Anything with a pH below 7 is acidic;

anything with a pH above 7 is alkaline. A pH of 7 is considered neutral. It is important to note that the pH scale is not a simple one-step measure. It is a logarithmic measure. This means lowering pH from 7.2 to 6.2 increases the acidity of the water by 10 times. Lowering pH to 5.2 makes it 100 times more acidic, and lowering to 4.2 is 1,000 times more acidic. Producers originally began using acidifiers during the last few days of a flock. The acid reduces the pH in a bird's crop, making the gut less hospitable to bacteria. This, in turn, reduced the amount of contamination at the processing plant. Producers also learned that acidifiers improve digestion of proteins by young birds. Many producers then began using

acidifiers as agents to clean the drinking lines. They would use it about once a week. Producers now are using acidifiers on a regular basis — often continually — to keep the pH of the water below 7. This acidifies the birds' crops, as well as kills bacteria in the watering line. Researchers also determined that chlorine used as a sanitizer is more effective when the water's pH is between 6.0 and 6.8.

Weak acids Acids generally are categorized as strong or weak. Only weak acids should be used for poultry or livestock. And, weak acids can be either organic or inorganic. There are a variety of weak organic acids on the market. They include acetic acid (used

The acid reduces the pH in a bird's crop, making the gut less hospitable to bacteria

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to make vinegar), benzoic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, formic acid (used to make formaldehyde), fumaric acid, lactic acid, propionic acid and sorbic acid. Acidifiers are used in three ways in a poultry operation: • Added to the poultry feed in a solid form. This fights mold development in the feed and reduces the pH in the birds' crops. • Sprayed onto the poultry litter. This attacks the bacteria that facilitate the breakdown of uric acid, limiting the amount of ammonia releases. • Injected into the water to kill bacteria, facilitate chlorine in killing bacteria and lowering the pH in the birds' crops. Acids put into the feed tend to be less odorous and less corrosive. The downside: this type of acidifier comes in a solid or powder form and can be a severe irritant if inhaled. Injecting acids into the water is the most problematic. Chlorine alone can corrode metal and plastic parts in the drinkers, causing them to leak or discharge too much water. Adding acid to the water simply compounds that corrosive process. Additionally, acidifiers usually are not a single acid, but a combination of two or more. This is because one acid may be effective on one type of bacteria but not on another. For instance, lactic acid is found to be a good bactericide for E. coli but a poor oxidizer of Salmonella, molds and yeast. Bacteria also have the capability of becoming resistant to a particular acid.

Injecting acids into the water is the most problematic. Chlorine alone can corrode metal and plastic parts in the drinkers, causing them to leak or discharge too much water. It is found that quite often producers who decide to use acidifiers will mix the material according to the manufacturer's instructions and inject it into their water without knowing what the water's pH is. That is simply an invitation for equipment damage and malfunction. (A note of caution: NEVER mix chlorine and an acidifier to make a stock solution. It will release a poisonous gas. If you want to use both chemicals, use a dual injector system.) Another downside to using acidifiers is that they can promote the growth of algae and fungi in the watering system. These too

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Acids put into the feed tend to be less odorous and less corrosive

can grow to the point where they clog drinkers and cause them to leak. They also may require additional chemicals to inhibit their growth.

Biofilm Biofilm is also a factor to consider. Biofilm forms when bacteria in water attach to a solid surface. They begin to exude a sticky substance and quickly become an active colony of pathogens embedded in the slime. Research has shown that chlorine, even chlorine boosted by an acidifier, is very ineffective at killing bacteria embedded in a biofilm. Once established, biofilm will grow to the point where it can inhibit drinkers, causing them to leak or preventing the birds from activating them. Portions of the biofilm also can break off and get into the birds during the drinking process. It is recommended that producers use acidifiers only after very careful consideration. Understand what you want to accomplish with the acidifier and know the pH of your water and how the chemicals will affect that. It is also recommended that an alternative to chlorine and acids. Our research has shown that hydrogen peroxide, when properly formulated, is an excellent water sanitizer when used in conjunction with a regular program to manage the drinking system. To begin, make sure the water is filtered

before it enters the poultry house. This will remove most sediment and inorganic material. Upgrade drinking system components as they become worn and maintain dry, or friable, litter conditions. Use an injector to put hydrogen peroxide into your water. Also practice a regular schedule of high pressure flushing with 1.5 to 3.0 Bars (20 to 40 psi). Flush the system after each intervention of medication. Enclosed watering systems make a regular flushing schedule easy with the bypass valves on flush-through water regulators. In between flocks, charge the lines with a hydrogen peroxide and water mixture, following the manufacturer's guidelines. Let it stand to allow the hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the biofilm, and then flush with pure water for at least a minute for every 100 feet (30 meters). This will rid your lines of biofilm and any sediment, reducing the need for harsher sanitizers. Hydrogen peroxide breaks down into water and oxygen, producing no environmental hazard. Additionally, it does not harm the birds or impact the taste of the water. Sanitizing agents, such as chlorine, can alter the water’s taste to the point where the birds will not drink, hurting the feed conversion rate. n Technical Team, Ziggity Systems, Inc.

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Australian egg consumption on the rise AUSTRALIANS HAVE INCREASED their egg consumption with gusto, eating 7 per cent more eggs in the past year, according to statistics released by the Australian Egg Corporation Ltd. The Australian egg industry has responded by producing a total of 392 million dozen eggs during 2011 or 12.9 million eggs each day. This represents an increase of 10 per cent on 2010 levels and up by 22 per cent on the 5-year average or an increase of 51 per cent since 2000. AECL Managing Director, James Kellaway said that in the past year, each Australian ate on average a whopping 213 eggs, up from the 198 eggs consumed in 2010. “These statistics prove that the humble egg has become a central part of the diet of Australians – be it breakfast, lunch or dinner, eggs are a versatile, nutritious and very affordable food that Australians are eating... with great gusto!” Kellaway said. In terms of retail sales, a total of 128.4 million dozen (worth $523.5 million) were sold, which is up by 5 per cent on the volumes sold in 2010 and up by 19 per cent on the 5-year average with

long term annual growth also averaging 5 per cent each year. This compares to population growth in Australia that averages 1.5 per cent each year. “We believe the increased consumption is due to a growing awareness of new science

that proves that eggs do not increase cholesterol as previously thought and that people can safely eat six eggs a week (according to the Heart Foundation). Not only that, new science shows that egg consumption can help people with diabetes and assist reduce obesity in the community,” Kellaway said. On a segment basis, cage egg retail sales totaled 71 million dozen, down by 1 per cent on 2010 levels but up by 2 per cent on the 5year average. Free range retail egg sales reached 43 million, up by a massive 24 per cent on 2010 levels and up by 64 per cent on the 5-year average. Barn-laid retail egg sales fell to total 11 million dozen, down by 3 per cent, but increased by 64 per cent on the 5year average. “While Australians have increased their egg consumption in the past two years, Mexicans and Japanese eat considerably more eggs than us. According to the International Egg Commission, Mexicans ate a whopping 365 eggs while Japanese people ate 324 eggs in the past year,” he said.

Brasil Foods initiates Chinese joint venture

New modified-live vaccine helps fight against PRRS

BRASIL FOODS RECENTLY signed a joint venture agreement with Hong Kong-listed food and vehicles distributor Dah Chong Hong Holdings Ltd to expand distribution of chilled poultry, pork and beef products in China. “Everybody wants to get into the Chinese market but the point is how to do that. In China, the best way is through a JV. We need local support for this kind of operation, and we think it is much smarter to find the right partner,” Brasil Foods Chief Executive Jose Antonio do Prado Fay was quoted by Reuters as saying. “China is growing in technology and is growing in business that needs labour in the cities, that means food has become very important to China,” Fay said, adding that China would eventually become the company's largest revenue contributor. China now contributes about 10 per cent of Brasil Foods revenue, while the Middle East represents 32 per cent. Dah Chong Hong Chief Executive Donald Yip said the new venture aimed sell more than 140,000 metric tonnes of food in the first year and 300,000 metric tonnes in five years. Brasil Foods, which accounts for 20 per cent of global poultry trade, generated about US$13.5 billion in net sales in 2010, 40 per cent from exports, according to Reuters.

FOSTERA PRRS, A modified-live vaccine for growing pigs from Pfizer Animal Health, helps to fight the the costly battle against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) respiratory disease. Pfizer Animal Health's research and development team created unique cell lines that were able to express a newly discovered key receptor protein for the PRRS virus (PRRSv). This was pivotal in bringing Fostera PRRS to the pork industry. “With more than half of weaning-age PRRSv-negative pigs becoming infected before going to market, this vaccine option helps growing pigs defend themselves against a PRRSv challenge,” says Steve Sornsen, DVM, MS, senior director, Veterinary Business Solutions at Pfizer Animal Health. A challenge study demonstrated that Fostera PRRS, which is the first and only PRRSv vaccine to earn the label claim aid in prevention of PRRS respiratory disease, reduced lung lesions by 84 per cent and reduced overall respiratory clinical signs by 80 per cent. Additionally, results showed vaccination with Fostera PRRS improved average daily gain by 2.5 times compared to pigs in the placebo group. "Fostera PRRS helps optimize performance by minimizing the adverse affects of a subsequent PRRSv challenge, thereby allowing growing pigs to maximize their postchallenge weight gain," says Doug King, DVM, senior veterinarian at Pfizer Animal Health. Fostera PRRS is the second product to launch under the Fostera brand name and is supported by in-field support, resources and diagnostics to help veterinarians and producers tackle this critical disease challenge.

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MSD to develop innovative strategies to complement bovine mastitis treatment MERCK ANIMAL HEALTH (known as MSD Animal Health outside the USA and Canada) recently announced that it has signed an agreement with the Department of Medical Microbiology of the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University in the Netherlands to embark on the development of innovative vaccination strategies against bacterial udder infections (mastitis) in dairy cattle. The project is titled “Evasion Molecules in Bovine Mastitis Vaccines” (EVAC) and its objective is to develop a series of vaccines against difficult to treat infections with certain bacteria known to cause bovine mastitis. Examples of such bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Escherichia coli. The EVAC project is part of the ALTANT Milk collection from a cow with (ALTernatives for ANTibiotics) program that is coordinated by mastitis in one quarter Immuno Valley, a public-private research consortium. Dr. Paul Vermeij, senior project leader at Merck Animal Health’s Discovery & Technology Department in Boxmeer (the Netherlands) explains, “In the open innovation model as applied in the EVAC project, we are combining the veterinary vaccine expertise of Merck Animal Health with the knowledge on evasion molecules of the Department of Medical Microbiology at UMC Utrecht and the expertise on bovine immunology available at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Utrecht University.” “The technologies developed within the ALTANT program may result in an efficacious vaccine against bovine mastitis. In combination with our current therapeutic tools, it can result in unprecedented possibilities to control the disease. In addition to improvement of animal welfare and economic advantages for the farmer, such a vaccine can also contribute to a responsible use of antibiotics,” added Dr. Rene Aerts, vice-president Global Biologicals R&D at Merck Animal Health. Development of vaccines against bovine mastitis has long been hampered due to the fact that the relevant pathogens are capable of producing so-called ‘immune evasion molecules’ that block or interfere with important processes in the immune system of the cow. Similarly, evasion molecules also appear to interfere with the immune response that is provoked with vaccines. Therefore, despite the induction of high antibody levels, the clinical efficacy of most mastitis vaccines that have been developed so far has been poor. In the EVAC project, evasion molecules have been identified and characterized, and subsequently recombinant versions of these proteins have been produced. Combinations of such evasion molecules will be added to traditional antigens in candidate vaccines. Vaccination is expected to raise neutralizing antibodies against immune evasion molecules in the animal. As a consequence, the evasion system of the bacteria is impaired and the antibodies are able to neutralize the mastitis-causing pathogens.

Korea’s feed grains import drop by 7 per cent THE UNITED STATES supplied 77.6 per cent of Korea’s corn imports in 2011, according to Byong Ryol Min, US Grains Council director in Korea. Korea’s total 2011 imports of feed grains and substitutes, including feed wheat, tapioca and lupine seed, dropped 7.7 per cent compared to 2010. “The decline we’re seeing in mixed feed consumption is a reflection of diminishing livestock numbers as a result of the foot-and-mouth outbreak earlier in the year,” Min explained. Given the poor production output, pork imports increased a dramatic 68.4 per cent last year. To curb soaring consumer prices, the Government of Korea stimulated imports with a duty free tariff-rate quota policy in addition to subsidies to cover the cost difference in shipping chilled pork bellies by air transport instead of ocean freight. Consequently, Korea's livestock product imports exceeded 1 million metric tons for the first time in history. The United States provided 36.9 per cent of that total. By Council assessment, that is more than 2.3 million metric tons of US feed grains imported indirectly in the form of meat. “Market development pays dividends across the board,” Min commented. “The U.S.'s proven reliability as a supplier opens many doors.”

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Controlling hygiene in liquid feeding systems Liquid feeding systems are widely used in Europe and became in recent years very popular in other regions of the world too. This trend is most probably not only driven by the positive effect of liquid feeding on performance, but also by extremely high feed prices and the increase in biofuel production, which makes cheap mainly moist by-products available in high amounts. However, in order to achieve the benefits in performance high hygiene standards have to be maintained.

An improved nutrient utilization is a distinct advantage for animals in all production stages

B

ENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF liquid feeding sows, weaner, grower or fattener pigs are well known. The usage of liquid feed in weaning pigs is obvious. The newly weaned pig is withdrawn from the sow’s milk after weaning. Continuing with a liquid diet seems to be more suitable for the piglet at least for a certain period of time. Positive effects are seen in terms of feed intake after weaning resulting in an improved performance. The increase in feed intake postweaning by supplying liquid feed was shown to help maintaining gut integrity and in particular villous height. Villi regression can often be seen in pigs immediately post-weaning. Avoiding this phenomenon can help to maintain the digestive

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capacity of the pig and can help the newly weaned to overcome the post-weaning growthcheck more easily. Also for pigs in other production stages and sows liquid feeding has advantages. Also in other production stages gut health can be improved, which leads to a reduction in medication and an improved animal well-being. Furthermore, an improved nutrient utilization is a distinct advantage for animals in all production stages.

The usage of by-products Considering the current pressure producers experience at the market pricewise a real advantage of liquid feeding is the fact, that by-

products from the human food industry or the biofuel production can be used. Those products are available at cheap prices so that the producer can keep production costs low. Especially the increase in biofuel production is leading to a kind of awkward market situation. On one side the increased demand for conventional feed stuff due to the increase in biofuel production is leading to an increase in prices for conventional feed stuff putting enormous pressure on livestock producers. On the other side, the by-products from biofuel production are available in high amounts and at cheap prices. Market experts expect an almost seven-fold increase in biofuel production from 12 billion gallons in 2005 to

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around 83 billion gallons in 2030. This might lead to the conclusion that liquid feeding remains to be popular as in such systems by-products can be used in high amounts.

Challenges of using liquid feed There are many challenges when using liquid feed. Those challenges are mainly arising due to the usage of by-products. The consistency of the byproducts is one major issue and the livestock producers should make sure, that the quantity and quality of by-products is guaranteed. Some byproducts have a high water content, which makes it difficult to justify long transportation distances as the transportation costs per kg dry matter are high and the manure volume produced by pig units can be increased which is not adding to the sustainability of agricultural production. Also the variability in nutrient content of by-products can vary from batch to batch and frequent sampling of the products is required in order to avoid feeding insufficient or excessive amounts of nutrients to the animal. However, the most pronounced problem when using liquid feed is the hygiene issues such systems carry. A high hygiene standard when using liquid feed is required in order to avoid detrimental effects on growth performance. So should surfaces in feed storage and processing areas kept clean and food splashing be removed on a regular basis in order to prevent the growth of moulds. However, even if the normal hygiene preventions are in place the risk of contamination of liquid feed with microorganisms is still present.

whey were above tolerance levels. Table 2: Guideline values for bacteria, moulds and yeasts (cfu/g) in feed (adapted from Verband Deutscher Landwirtschaftlicher Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalten)

Bacteria (cfu/g) Moulds (cfu/g) Yeasts (cfu/g)

Rye and wheat

Corn

Concentrates

Whey

<5 000 000

<5 000 000

<5 000 000

<1 000 000

<50 000

<40 000

<50 000

<100 000

<50 000

<50 000

<80 000

<100 000

Table 3: Acceptable and limiting values for yeasts, bacteria and moulds (cfu/g) in liquid feed (Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft)

Yeasts Bacteria Moulds

Concentration in liquid feed (cfu/g) Acceptable values Limiting values <1 000 000 >5 000 000 <1 000 000 >5 000 000 <5 000 >10 000

Microbes in liquid feed Liquid feed provides an ideal medium for yeasts, moulds, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteria. These microbes might have adverse effects on growth performance as a certain amount of nutrients are lost to the microbes and not available for the host animal, toxic metabolites might be formed by those microbes and possible inflammatory processes might be required to defend the host organism. Besides that the presence of those microorganisms might have adverse effects on feed intake due to reduced feed palatability. Yeasts and moulds are spoilage bacteria which convert proteins, sugars and starch into carbon dioxide and water. This not only reduces the feed’s dry matter content, the development of carbon dioxide may result in increased aggressiveness and increased mortality due to intestinal distortion and inner bleeding when consumed. Yeasts and Enterobacteria in liquid feed may degrade protein and it was shown that especially lysine is mostly affected by degradation. However, it has to be mentioned that loss mainly occurs in free amino acids. Therefore, microbes such as moulds, yeasts and Enterobacteria need to be controlled in liquid feed in order to maintain hygiene standards of liquid feed and achieve economical benefit. How the microbial load in feed can be controlled and feed hygiene be maintained was shown at a commercial farm in Austria.

Acceptable and limiting values for bacteria, moulds and yeasts for finished liquid feed are shown in Table 3. In general yeasts and bacteria should not exceed 5 Mio. cfu/g liquid feed and moulds should not exceed a level of

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First step - raw material analysis First step in maintaining a good hygiene in liquid feed is the continuous analysis of the raw material. Analysis of the raw material used at an Austrian farm is shown in Table 1.

AL30O

Table 1: Analysis of raw material

Bacteria (cfu/g) Moulds (cfu/g) Yeasts (cfu/g)

Rye and wheat

Corn

Concentrates

Whey

Water

450 000

270 000

90 000

370 000

14 000

145 000

10 000

2 000

<1 000

<1 000

4 000

170 000

<1 000

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1 400 000 <1 000

As it can be seen from the guideline values shown in Table 2 the mould count in rye and wheat and yeast counts in corn as well as

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

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The consistency of the by-products is one major issue and the livestock producers should make sure, that the quantity and quality of by-products is guaranteed

Organic acids to maintain feed hygiene Organic acids are a product group most suitable for the control of yeasts, moulds and bacteria. Using a blend of organic acids furthermore broadens their spectrum of activity as each organic acid has its own characteristics. In a trial at an Austrian farm a mixture of formic, propionic and lactic acid (Biotronic速 SE forte liquid) was used in liquid feed and feed hygiene was examined. The feed was treated with 3l/1000l liquid feed of the mixture of formic, propionic and lactic acid and the water pipes were filled with a solution of 3 per cent of the acid mixture dissolved in water which remained in the pipes over night. Afterwards, the feed was analysed for its yeast content at different stages of feed preparation and distribution. Results of the feed analysis for yeasts are shown in Figure 1. Samples were taken in two different barns and repeat determination was carried out to reduce analytical mistakes in the trial. The amount of bacteria and moulds found was within the tolerance levels. The amount of yeasts was tolerable within the tank, but above tolerance levels in the down pipe and trough. The samples from the tanks basically serve as the control samples in between the groups. In the control feed yeast counts were 1.5 fold increased in the down pipes, twice as high in the trough with fresh feed and 3.6 fold higher when feed residues were taken from the trough. The addition of the acid mixture lowered the pH of the feed from 5.57 to 4.89. This resulted in a reduction of the yeast contamination of the feed in the trough with fresh feed and an almost

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elimination of yeast counts when residues were taken from the trough. Especially when it comes to the residues in the trough the reduction in yeast counts is very beneficial, as residues in the trough might contaminate the freshly prepared feed. 400 Yeast amount in % of the tank

more than 10.000 cfu/g liquid feed. However, tolerance levels may vary between stages of growth.

300

200

100

0 Tank

Down pipe

Control feed

Trough with fresh feed

Trough with feed residues

Biotronic速 SE treated feed

Figure 1: Analysis of feed at different stages of feed preparation and distribution for the occurrence of yeasts

In conclusion, adding a mixture of propionic, formic and lactic acid to liquid feed gives the possibility to effectively control bacteria throughout the distribution channel of the feed, which leads to improvements in growth performance. Furthermore, not only the beneficial effects of acidifiers on feed hygiene, but also on animal growth performance directly provides further beneficial effects for the livestock producer. n Angela Riemensperger, Biomin

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Copperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role in citrus orchard rehabilitation Copper containing compounds have a unique place in citrus rehabilitation due to their broad spectrum activity and longevity of their deposits

E

DIBLE CITRUS, WHICH originates from tropical and sub-tropical Asia, is perennial in growth habit. The most commonly cultivated species include Citrus sinesnis (sweet orange), C. reticulata (mandarin), C. limon (lemon) and C. aurantifolia (lime)â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which comprise todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commercial citrus in myriad of hybrid species and cultivars. A well-managed citrus orchard has a long and fruitful life with trees invariably outlasting those who plant them. Initial investments are high and early rewards few during the initial growth stages as citrus trees normally start bearing fruit from the third year after planting,

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

and economic yields are generally obtained from the fifth year onward. However, once the trees start bearing fruits, farmers can reap profit for at least the next 50 years, provided trees are well managed and citrus markets are receptive. However, markets are fickle and small farmers in particular go through phases where they cannot afford the necessary management including pruning and disease control. Citrus trees are prone to many different diseases which affect all parts of the tree including the root and collar region, trunk, branches, leaves and fruit. Another problem plaguing citrus especially in the humid wet tropics is epiphytic growth on the wood and

Citrus leaves with a thick crust of lichen which impedes gaseous exchange and therefore photosynthesis

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Neglected orange trees with severe scab infections on the fruit

foliage including algae, lichens, mosses and liverworts (Bryophytes), ferns (Pteridophytes) and bromeliads. These problems require continuous management programmes and without proper and timely disease and epiphyte control citrus orchards rapidly fall into a state of disrepair. However, citrus is a hardy and resilient tree, and with care and attention can be rehabilitated and brought back into full production.

Citrus orchard rehabilitation Diseases and epiphytes are suppressed by routine application of copper fungicides which are still the most cost-effective fungicides for citrus. However, even a short lapse in disease management allows trees to fall into disrepair and it requires rehabilitation for a return to full production. Rehabilitation is the repair and rejuvenation of trees in a state of decline due to previous neglect. Pest and disease control plays a key part in rehabilitation. Having made all the initial investment, growers sometime allow trees to fall into a state of disrepair. Adding to the growers woes is the notoriously fickle agricultural commodity markets. Prices may be high at planting but ‘rock bottom’ five years later when the trees start to crop. It may make more economic sense for growers to

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minimise inputs, harvest what they can and switch future investment into profitable shortterm cash crops. But what comes down invariably goes up again and growers may suddenly be presented with opportunities from unexpectedly high prices, only to find their trees require remedial work within a programme of rehabilitation. Structural rehabilitation of citrus including replanting any gaps and radical canopy management by pruning is the first and foremost task. This is followed by the suppression and control of diseases and the accumulation of epiphyte growth which is the decorative phase rehabilitation. That said, infection may be so severe that additional tree pruning may be required to excise diseased bark and wood, and restore tree shape and desired pattern of tree growth and cropping.

Evergreen citrus trees are prime and easy targets for foliar diseases because the leaves remain on the tree for such long periods of time. Citrus leaves can stay on the tree for up to three years although pest and disease load will reduce their longevity. Citrus foliage thus requires extended protection against fungal diseases, which can only be achieved by the most tenacious and rain-resistant deposits of protectant (protective or prophylactic) fungicide. Copper fungicides are well-known for their ability to stick to leaves and fruit even in the face of the most intense tropical rainfall. First copper fungicide was ‘Bordeaux’ a mixture of blue copper sulphate and strong alkali (lime), the latter is used to overcome ultra-high solubility of copper sulphate and its potential for phytotoxic damage to plants. This traditional copper fungicide was superseded by particulate fixed copper compounds such as copper oxychloride, cupric hydroxide, tribasic copper sulphate, copper ammonium complexes and red cuprous oxide. Cuprous oxide is generally considered to be the most active on a gram for gram basis as well as being the most tenacious. Particle size distribution plays a crucial role in deposit tenacity and weathering resistance over and above any inherent high tenacity of cuprous oxide as a fixed copper fungicide. For instance, cuprous oxide manufactured by Nordox (Oslo, Norway) has all particles within the 1µm to 5µm diameter range (80 per cent

Copper as medicine and tonic The copper ion (Cu2+) is best known as a fungicide but it is also an effective bactericide and molluscicide, as well as suppressing algae, lichens and even mosses, ferns and other plants (e.g. bromeliads), that grow on citrus trees in the hot wet tropics. Copper has an important role in plant nutrition through operating in trace amounts as an essential micronutrient.

These citrus fruits are well protected by a uniform deposit of Nordox cuprous oxide - red brown flecks

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Foliar and fruit disease control Research carried out on the island of Trinidad in the West Indies demonstrated how deposits of fixed copper fungicide were maintained at sufficiently high levels on the leaves of grapefruit trees to provide long term protection against Mycosphaerella citri (citrus greasy spot), Elsinöe fawcetti (citrus scab) and Diaporthe citri (citrus melanose). Rain simulation studies showed deposit resistance to the highly erosive effects of simulated tropical rainfall was the key factor maintaining longevity of deposits. Many fungal pathogens will cause

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

Photograph:

less than 2µm and 99 per cent less than 5µm) to give an unrivalled particle-size profile. The high surface area to mass ratio of very small particles maximises their adhesion to crop plant surfaces making removal by growth movements or weathering more difficult. Larger particles (3-4µm) are more likely to be blown off plant surfaces by air movements (wind), physically dislodged by plant growth movements or washed off by rainfall. Rain simulation studies carried out in the Netherlands using a rainfall intensity of 10mm/hour recorded significantly superior deposit retention for cuprous oxide over cupric hydroxide and copper oxychloride. The median particle size of the cuprous oxide was 1µm which was significantly smaller than 3µm for the other fixed copper fungicides. Citrus trees like the mandarin orange shown here can be brought back to full health and production by rehabilitation

spotting, scuffing, scabbing and scarring of the citrus leaf surface but Gloeosporium limetticolum (wither-tip of lime) causes dieback of new shoots and leaves. Failure to synchronise sprays with appearance of new leaf flushes causes the tree to lose its leaf flushing pattern. Extended periods without spraying have led to misshapen lime tree canopies devoid of new leaf flushes and thus requiring resumption of cuprous oxide sprays synchronised with appearance of the new leaf flushes. Citrus fruits are also affected by Phytophthora pathogens, more widely known not only for stem canker and gummosis of the trunk and branches of citrus trees but also infecting full low hanging fruit. Phytophthora spores are splashed up from the soil during heavy rainfall to infect low hanging fruit with a fast moving wet necrosis called brown rot. This disease is avoided by spraying the fruit, and especially low hanging oranges, to run-off with cuprous oxide before the start of the rainy season. An under-appreciated problem for the protection of citrus fruit is the dilution of surface fungicide deposit by fruit growth and enlargement. Research in New South Wales Australia showed how the surface area of lemons increased by a factor of 14 from the time of fruit set to harvest. This translates into a 14-fold dilution of fungicide deposit even without any loss from weathering. No protectant fungicide even highly tenacious cuprous oxide can withstand this sort of dilution through growth, so such ‘loss’ factors must be built into spray programmes through use of

shorter spray intervals where necessary. The broad spectrum activity of cuprous oxide provides for wide-ranging disease control. Fungal pathogens (other than those described above) susceptible to sprays of cuprous oxide include Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (anthracnose), Guignardia cirticarpa (black spot), Phytophthora parasitica (brown spot), Alternaria (brown spot and stem end rot) and Rhizoctonia (seedling blight).

Phytophthora canker and gummosis Phytophthora may also infect the living bark of citrus trees to forms cankers which may bleed (gummosis). Farmers refocusing on trees after several years of neglect will invariably find advanced bark infections at the collar or girdling the trunk (bole) and major branches all with potential to kill the tree. Cankers may arise in a range of positions on the tree, at the collar or just below soil level or on scaffold branches quite high in the tree, since infection may originate in the soil or from leaf and fruit infection higher in the tree. Major branch infection is characterised by brown fluid oozing from the canker, earning the disease its other common name of ‘gummosis’. Gummosis is caused by physiological reaction of the tree tissues to the presence of the pathogen rather than being produced by the pathogen itself and is common problem on Pommelo trees producing the biggest of all citrus fruit which are very popular in South East Asia. Canker infection can be cured by using cuprous oxide as a canker paint formulation which is brushed onto the affected part of

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the tree after cleaning the infected area. This entails cutting and cleaning away of all diseased bark and wood together with a sufficiently wide (several cm) buffer strip of healthy bark as insurance. The area is treated with a canker paint based on cuprous oxide together with adjuvant (e.g. sticker and surfactant) as appropriate. Farmers in South East Asia have achieved excellent results using Nordox cuprous oxide canker paint with addition of various oils and polymers to increase tenacity longevity and the penetration of the paint into the wood.

Algae and lichens growing on the leaves reduce the light trapping potential of chlorophyll in the leaf cells and thereby inhibit photosynthesis, growth and production. Larger epiphytes growing clearly add to the weight and load on the branches thereby increasing the risk of wind damage and breakage. Epiphytic growth is suppressed during routine application of cuprous oxide for disease control and does not normally require extra dedicated

Photograph: Nordox

Epiphytes and molluscs

Citrus trees can be brought back to full health and production by rehabilitation

spray applications. Cuprous oxide also kills molluscs (slugs and snails) which are softbodied animals with the ability and capacity to kill young seedling trees by stripping off all soft green foliage. Routine spraying of cuprous

oxide in nurseries to keep seedling trees free from disease (e.g. Rhizoctonia) will kill these pests at the same time. Dr. Terry Mabbett

Food crops damaged by pollution crossing continents MAN-MADE AIR POLLUTION from North America causes Europe to lose 1.2 million tonnes of wheat a year, a new study has found. The research, led by the University of Leeds and co-authored by the University of York, shows for the first time the extent of the Northern Hemisphere’s intercontinental crop losses caused by ozone – a chemical partly produced by fossil fuels. The study also suggests that increasing levels of air pollution from one continent may partly offset efforts to cut carbon emissions in another. The findings have important implications for international strategies to tackle global food shortages, as well as global climate and human health strategies. In a paper published in Biogeosciences, researchers show how ozone pollution generated in each of the Northern Hemisphere’s major industrialised regions (Europe, North America and South East Asia) damages six important agricultural crops (wheat, maize, soybean, cotton, potato and rice) not only locally, but also by travelling many thousands of kilometres downwind. Of the yield losses to Europe caused by ozone, pollution originating from North America is responsible for a 1.2 million ton annual loss of wheat. This is the biggest intercontinental ozone-related impact on any food crop. The scale of the impact of North American pollution on European wheat has previously been unknown.

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Dr Steve Arnold, a senior lecturer in atmospheric composition at the University of Leeds’s School of Earth and Environment, who led the study, said: “Our findings demonstrate that air pollution plays a significant role in reducing global crop productivity, and show that the negative impacts of air pollution on crops may have to be addressed at an international level rather than through local air quality policies alone.” Researchers calculated projected levels of surface ozone concentration, a powerful air pollutant that is not only harmful to human health (particularly to the respiratory system) but

In terms of global crop losses, Asian pollution dominates worldwide losses of wheat (50-60 per cent) and rice (more than 90 per cent)

also damages vegetation by damaging plant cells and inhibiting plant growth. Enhanced surface ozone concentrations are produced through a chemical combination of hydrocarbon compounds and nitrogen oxides (nitrogen oxides are emitted into the atmosphere during high temperature combustion, for example by combustion of fossil fuels by motor vehicles and in coal fired power plants). Michael Hollaway, a PhD student at the University of Leeds, used a computer model to predict reductions in global surface ozone if man-made emissions of nitrogen oxide from the three continents were shut off. Using crop location and yield calculations, he and the research team were able to predict impacts on staple food crops, each with their own unique sensitivity to ozone pollution. Dr Lisa Emberson a senior lecturer from the University of York’s Stockholm Environment Institute and Environment Department, said, “This study highlights the need for air pollution impacts on crops to be taken more seriously as a threat to food security; currently air quality is often overlooked as a determinant of future crop supply. Given the sizeable yield losses of staple crops caused by surface ozone, coupled with the challenges facing our ability to be food secure in the coming decades further coordinated international efforts should be targeted at reducing emissions of ozone forming gases across the globe.”

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Soil erosion and nuclear power emerging as key green issues THE DEPLETION OF soil and the growing number of end-of-life nuclear power reactors are some of the most pressing environmental issues, according to a United Nations yearbook launched recently that compiles the most important events and developments of the year. The UN Environmental Programme (UNEP) Year Book 2012 depicts the status of key environmental indicators and highlights the benefits of soil carbon and decommissioning nuclear power plants. “The yearbook spotlights two emerging issues that underline the challenges, but also the choices, nations need to consider to deliver a sustainable 21st century– urgently improved management of world’s soils and the decommissioning of nuclear power reactors,” said UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner. “Superficially they may seem separate and unconnected issues, but both go to the heart of several fundamental questions: how will the world feed and fuel itself while combating climate change and handling hazardous wastes?” According to UNEP, 24 per cent of the global land area has declined in productivity over the

Land erosion will also affect climate change as huge amounts of carbon stored in the soil could be released in the atmosphere

past 25 years due to unsustainable land-use. The yearbook points to various assessments indicating that some kinds of intensive agriculture are triggering soil erosion at rates that are about 100 times greater than the rates at which nature can form soil. The yearbook also warns that without changes in the way land is managed, there will be grave losses in forests, peatlands and grasslands, as

Integrated pest management products launched in Japan CROP PROTECTION COMPANY Arysta LifeScience has announced the introduction of Swirski Plus (Amblyseius swirskii) and Spical Plus (Neoseiulus californicus), products of Koppert Biological Systems, for integrated pest management in Japan. Both products can be used in a wide range of fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops. Swirski Plus targets the young larvae of various thrips species, as well as the eggs and larvae of whitefly (both Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci). Spical Plus controls an array of spider mites. “Swirski Plus and Spical Plus offer a new breeding and application method for predatory mites,” said Zenjiro Nakamura, product manager, Arysta LifeScience Japan. “The mites are packed in a slow-release sachet, along with bran and prey, and are released into a crop regularly over several weeks to control pests. This is particularly important in crops where no alternative food is available for the pests—crops such as cucumbers, roses, chrysanthemums and potted plants in which pest pressure must be kept at a low level.” In 2009, Arysta LifeScience Japan launched Swirski, predatory mites in a bottle (with bran). Although effective against pests, the bottled formulation was difficult to apply to some crops such as citrus trees and grapes. “The new sachet packaging can be hooked to branches or stems,” explained Nakamura. “In addition, the mites are protected as they are gradually released, allowing them to withstand negative environmental factors such as less food (target pest or pollen), low humidity, and spray chemicals. By bringing Swirski Plus and Spical Plus to growers, we are introducing more predatory mites and other beneficial insects into our target markets in Japan. We see great benefits for growers of many crops, including cucumbers, eggplants, sweet pepper, citrus and greenhouse flowers.”

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

well as in biodiversity. In addition, land erosion will also affect climate change as huge amounts of carbon stored in the soil in the form of organic matter could be released in the atmosphere, aggravating global warming. “The thin skin of soil on the Earth’s surface is often one of those forgotten ecosystems but it is among the most important to the future survival of humanity. The yearbook cites many options for improved, sustainable management such as no-till policies to ones that can assist in productive agriculture without draining peatlands,” said Mr Steiner. The yearbook, launched on the eve of the 12th special session of the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum, also highlights the importance of decommissioning the growing numbers of nuclear reactors that have reached the end of their original design lives. As of last month, 138 civilian nuclear power reactors had been shut down in 19 countries, including 28 in the United States, 27 in the United Kingdom, 27 in Germany, 12 in France, nine in Japan and five in Russia. However, decommissioning has only been completed for 17 of them.

International cotton prices seen stabilizing INTERNATIONAL COTTON PRICES seem to have stabilized in January 2012 at around US$1 per pound after consistent decreases over the last 10 months. According to a press release from the International Cotton Advisory Committee, prices have steadied due to support provided by the Chinese government—which has made significant purchases in both domestic and foreign markets— as well as increasing demand for cotton globally. But the medium-term outlook is still very unclear. World economic growth is expected to slow in 2012 and global cotton production is forecast to increase 7 per cent in 2011/12 to 26.8 million tons, which would be the largest level of production achieved in five years. However, global Global cotton production is expected to production could drop to increase 7 per cent in 2011/12 to 26.8 24.9 million tons in million tons 2012/13 due to the lower prices received by farmers this season, improving attractiveness of grains and soybeans, and rising agricultural production costs. As a result of the excess supplies in 2011/12, global cotton stocks are rebounding more than 30 per cent to 12.3 million tons, following two seasons at relatively tight levels. Production is expected to continue exceeding consumption in 2012/13, which could translate into further increase in global cotton stocks, which could rise to 12.9 million tons.

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Crops

Firm tea prices set to continue EARLY FORECASTS FOR 2012 indicate continuing firm prices for tea, which averaged US$2.85 per kg in 2011, according to FAO’s Intergovernmental Group on Tea. High prices reflect the fact that demand for black tea, which accounts for most of world production, has exceeded supply since 2009, the Group reported at its recent biennial meeting in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The higher tea prices resulted in an estimated 2.2 per cent increase in the export earnings of producing countries in 2011, significantly benefiting their rural incomes and household food security. Total world tea consumption increased by 5.6 per cent in 2010– the latest year for which figures were available– to 4 million tonnes, and was underpinned by the rapid growth in per capita income levels, particularly in China, India and other emerging economies. In China, total consumption increased by 8.2 per cent in 2009, and 1.4 per cent in 2010 to reach 1.06 million tonnes, the largest in the world. In India, consumption expanded by 2.4 per cent in 2009 and 1 per cent in 2010 to reach 828, 890 tonnes. Meanwhile, world tea production increased by 4.2 per cent to 4.1 million tonnes in 2010. Black tea output increased by 5.5 per cent in response to record prices while green tea output increased by 1.9 per cent. China remained the world’s largest tea producing country with an output of 1.4 million tonnes and a 33 per cent share of the world’s total. The Group said its review of the world tea market indicates an improvement in the fundamental oversupply situation seen in recent years, with supply and demand coming into greater balance at prices higher than over the last decade. But that trend will not continue if growers over-react to current firm prices, it warned. Looking ahead to the next ten years, the Group estimated that

Tea consumption is set to grow at 1.8 per cent per annum and reach 3.36 million tonnes in 2021

world black tea production will grow at almost 1.9 per cent annually to reach 3.28 million tonnes by 2021 and also come into equilibrium with demand at a price of US$2.75 per kg – just under the current price. FAO calculates its world composite tea price on the basis of the weighted average prices for black tea realized in the world market’s major tea auctions. The projected production growth rate for black tea at 1.87 per cent is slightly lower than the 1.99 per cent annual growth averaged over the previous decade. Tea consumption is set to grow at 1.8 per cent per annum and reach 3.36 million tonnes in 2021. World green tea production is expected to reach 2.6 million tonnes in 2021, growing much faster than black tea, the Group found. Green tea’s estimated growth rate of 7.2 per cent reflects significant anticipated growth in China, where production is expected to reach 2.3 million tonnes. Among other recommendations, the Group urged diversification into other market segments such as organic tea.

New project on crop management launched in India A NEW PROJECT in India, Improved Rice-based Rainfed Agricultural Systems in Bihar (IRRAS), was launched by the Catholic Relief Services (CRS) and International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) recently. It is supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Partners for the four-year project are CRS, IRRI, three local NGOs (Bettiah Diocesan Social Service Society, Bihar Water Development Society, and Grameen Development Services), and three research

institutions (Indian Council for Agricultural Research-Research Complex for Eastern Region or ICAR-RCER, Rajendra Agriculture University, and Bihar Agriculture University). The partners will build and interconnect an integrated adaptive research pipeline with a knowledge exchange system by leveraging stakeholders in order to generate and disseminate agronomic technologies to 50,000 smallholder farmers in rice-based rainfed lowlands in Bihar

Partners for the four-year project are CRS, IRRI, three local NGOs (Bettiah Diocesan Social Service Society, Bihar Water Development Society, and Grameen Development Services), and three research institutions (Indian Council for Agricultural Research-Research Complex for Eastern Region or ICAR-RCER, Rajendra Agriculture University, and Bihar Agriculture University).

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state, targeting drought-prone and submergenceprone environments. More than 60 delegates, comprising scientists from ICAR and universities, senior officials from the state government of Bihar, and representatives of NGO partners, attended the launching ceremony held at the ICAR-RCER in Patna. The chief guest for the launch was M.L. Chaudhury, vice-chancellor of Bihar Agriculture University, who spoke about the importance of developing and disseminating improved rice technologies for flood- and drought-prone areas of the state, and reported some key initiatives by the state government to strengthen the extension system. Cassandra Dummett, head of programs at CRS, presented the objectives and key strategies of IRRAS project during the launch ceremony. Uma Shankar Singh, project coordinator, reported on IRRI's projects in Bihar, including STRASA, another BMGF-supported project. Dr. Singh said there is dire need for improved management practices to support the new varieties. Brian Love, program officer of the BMGF, said that Bihar is a priority state in India for BMGF interventions and that the Foundation will work closely with the state government to maximize project impact.

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Crops

Abaca: The Philippine fiber Known worldwide as Manila hemp, the country’s premier fiber has come a long way from its humble beginning as raw material of the ancient Filipinos’ clothes and footwear

W

HETHER AS LUXURY home furnishing or a simple writing paper, the abaca is one of the most viable agro-commodities in the Philippines. But recently, the industry found itself mired in several setbacks, particularly from the world market where Philippine abaca-based items once reigned supreme, on tight competition from other countries as well as the rising costs of production. The Philippine government is well-aware of the abaca’s prowess in the global trade and is determined to bring back the sector’s dominance in the international arena. The efforts are hoped to bring the sector back to its old glory.

also a pillar of employment generation, sustaining more than 1.5 million Filipinos who directly or indirectly depend on it for a living. Figures from the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) show that annual production of abaca fiber increased by 2.70 per cent from 66.51 thousand tons to 68.31 tons in 2011. BAS numbers also show that area planted increased by 1.33 per cent, from 135.09 thousand hectares in 2010 to 136.89 hectares. Bicol Region had the largest share of

33.15 per cent in the national production of abaca while other top ranking regions were Eastern Visayas and Davao Region with shares of 29.31 per cent and 13.29 per cent respectively. Value of production in 2011 totaled to PHP123 million. Despite competition waged by Ecuador on raw materials and China for handicrafts, the outlook for abaca still looks bright this year with the programs that the government is churning out.

The Philippine government is well-aware of the abaca’s prowess in the global trade and is determined to bring back the sector’s dominance in the international arena

Facts and figures According to the Fiber Industry Development Authority (FIDA), abaca or known worldwide as Manila hemp has come a long way from its humble beginning as raw material of the ancient Filipinos’ clothes and footwear. The uses of abaca—which is a variety of banana that cannot be eaten—span from specialty papers like tea bags, meat/sausage casings, cigarette papers, filter papers, monetary notes, stencil papers to opulent decorations such as sofas, lamp stands, dining tables and other home ornaments. FIDA adds that abaca plant is indigenous to the Philippines’ warm and wet climates are suitable for its cultivation. It has been grown in the country long before the Spanish occupation but it was only three centuries later that the abaca was given commercial recognition when an American lieutenant of the US Navy brought a sample of abaca fiber to the US in 1820. Exports were then made five years thereafter and the fiber has since then became well known as one of the strongest materials for marine cordage due to its superior strength and durability under water. After a series of developments, abaca has evolved from being a marine cordage to papers and within the onset of 20th century, FIDA says abaca fiber has become one of the Philippines’ major exports. Being the fiber that made the Philippines known around the world, abaca plays a significant role in the national economy. According to FIDA, the country now supplies more than 85 per cent of the total world abaca requirement as of 2008 and is one of the major foreign exchange earners, generating at least more than US$80 million annually. It is

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

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Crops A tightrope situation? Despite the very bright prospects, the Philippine abaca— which once dominated the global fiber world in the early 1900s to 1970s— found itself stalled from stiff competition waged by Ecuador for raw materials and China for abaca-based products. According to the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) Ecuador almost stole the export market in 2000 as it accounted for 40 per cent of the shipments while the remaining 60 per cent came from the Philippines. These figures are not too narrow which showed the local abaca’s vulnerability. Moreover, the country’s export rate at that time was 0.2 per cent while Ecuador is already enjoying a 2.3 per cent rate. FIDA shares that the country’s low yields was the foremost problem of the sector due to use of mixed varieties, lack of disease-resistant planting materials and postharvest facilities and fragmented research and development. Oddly, Ecuador sources its plants or abaca raw materials from the Philippines. Although the Philippines was fortunately able to maintain its lead in raw abaca exports, China’s tweaking of Filipino designs of abaca designs have become a headache for handicraft exporters. According to a trade player, the Chinese were able to imitate and mass-produce the once expensive Filipino abaca-made handiworks that flooded big US stores such as Macy’s. The insider also revealed that China doesn’t just “pirate” the

Being the fiber that made the Philippines known around the world, abaca plays a significant role in the national economy

designs but they pirate the Filipino designers and with their cheap labor and inexpensive production costs, Philippine abaca made items are now rendered uncompetitive. Other problems that were cited by PCARRD that hinder the development of abaca include the use of outdated planting techniques instead of the new technologies, farmers’ lack of financial and educational

The uses of abaca span from specialty papers like tea bags, meat/sausage casings, cigarette papers, filter papers, monetary notes, stencil papers to opulent decorations such as sofas, lamp stands, dining tables and other home ornaments

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capabilities, peace and order situation in some areas, stronger typhoons and the rapid expansion of abaca production in neighboring countries. Be that as it may, FIDA believes that Philippine abaca is still in the lead when it comes to exports. Based on 2011 figures wherein abaca pulp producers earned US$104.36 million or 46.5 per cent higher than in 2010, the industry is still in a good position. According to FIDA OIC Mystic Pelayo, export earnings from abaca are projected to increase 10 per cent this year and the succeeding years due to higher demand from other countries such as United Kingdom, Japan, China, India and South Korea. The local abaca’s good qualities over others have been an advantage such as in the use of coffee cups as it can preserve the taste of the beverage better than other materials. The government has also allotted PHP4.1 million to rehabilitate and expand abaca plantation in some provinces. The rehabilitation—which will be led by the National Abaca Research Center—includes the mass production of laylay and inosa varieties as well providing disease-resistant breeds and capability building for farmers to further train, establish and manage nurseries for tissue-cultured plantlets. Within two years, the NARC is expecting a 200,000 plantlets of virus-resistant abaca planting materials that will increase production and be a good source of virus-free planting materials. With all these developments, the abaca industry is surely on its way to recovery. n

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Equipment

Forestry equipment: New era heralds new technology T

HE ASIAN TIMBER industry’s rapid move to sustainability, including the rise of the plantation timber sector, has seen the region eager to secure the latest technology to gain productivity and efficiency advantages. While much of the industry is still harvesting by traditional techniques, and the issue of illegal logging is far from resolved, progressive companies have been keen to adapt the latest forestry management techniques and skills to ensure long term productivity and provide greater long term security. Driven by world demand for the highly durable timbers, the Asian plantation timber industry requires technical efficiency and skills development to ensure viability. Globally, the plantation timber industry has grown to become a dominant force in a sustainable approach to forestry and Asia’s move in this regard is inevitable. In countries like Indonesia old style practices and illegal logging are coming under increasingly intense scrutiny, and the industry must continue to move to sustainable practices such as managed plantation forestry projects if it is to survive. The industry also needs to be competitive in global markets and moves toward the use of highly evolved and proven forestry machinery will improve productivity and efficiency. Traditional forestry methods such as hand felling have little to no place in the new enterprises, and the use of less efficient forestry equipment will not sustain productivity. The technology simply cannot keep pace, or deliver the yields required of benchmarked operations. As a new era in Asian forestry continues to unfold, it heralds the arrival of a suite of specialised forestry technology to deliver real productivity gains and a genuine return on investment.

Ground level sustainability In some of Asia’s most important timber producing countries, work is also being done at ground level to ensure the industries smooth transition to sustainability. With technical input and class leading products and service solutions from major industry suppliers such as Caterpillar, the industry is learning how to implement forestry practices to ensure a bright future. Caterpillar is providing solutions, services and products to make use of the natural resources but also reduce harmful impacts on

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

Caterpillar’s new Series 2 track feller buncher

people, the environment and the economy. Caterpillar is partnering with many leading companies in Asia to provide the products and services needed to help them achieve their goals of sustainable forestry management. Caterpillar customers such as Indonesia’s, PT Sumalindo Lestari Jaya, has developed its timber and wood products business around socially and ecologically responsible practices and sustainable resources. Some of the steps toward sustainability that Sumalindo has taken includes preserving high quality residual stands of timber to help maintain eco-system balances; works to rehabilitate degraded areas by replanting native species and collaborating with external agencies and specialists to benchmark its enterprises. The company has committed to the Indonesian Government’s sustainable forestry development programs, and will only purchase legally harvested timber to fill its own supply gaps.

Technology advances At the sharp end of the development of a sustainable timber industry in Asia is advanced, world-class technology. Plantation forestry by design requires high efficiency harvesting and handling equipment to ensure calculated financial returns are achievable. The latest technology not only improves production, but addresses issues such as workplace safety. The technology also assists companies develop a skilled labour pool — a move that will better assist in solving expected future labour shortages. Critical to the success of plantation forestry is equipment such as Caterpillar’s range of feller bunchers, including wheeled and tracked

models, wheeled and tracked skidders, highly mobile and manoeuvrable forwarders and a range of excavators designed specifically for forestry applications. Whether used as single units or as a part of larger fleet of specialised equipment, Cat forestry products have been developed to provide maximum uptime, increased productivity and safety. Used in plantations in many countries around the world, equipment such as range of Cat feller bunchers can be configured with various types of felling tools such as shears, saws or processing heads to optimise timber recovery and to maximise productivity. Wheel feller bunchers offer increased mobility and high travel speeds for applications in flat to moderate terrain where maximum productivity is required, while tracked machines offer improved stability and manoeuvrability combined with high production in steeper terrain. They can also be configured with LGP “low ground pressure” options to enable operation in low land peat swamps. Highly durable tracked skidders are ideal machines for steep grades or tough underfoot site conditions and provide increased traction while minimising ground disturbance to maintain speed for maximised productivity in heavy-duty applications. Caterpillar has developed a holistic approach to forestry management and sustainability. It is a strategy that is focussed on developing improved forest management practices and harvesting systems that contribute to industry development and ecosystem diversity, but at the same time maximise timber recovery and productivity. n

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Equipment

Marel Stork breast cap filleting system updated with advanced features MAREL STORK POULTRY Processing has come up with control by menu for its AMF-BX breast cap filleting system. Using the menu control, it is now easy to tune individual modules from a centrally located touch-screen to achieve the best settings for various sizes of breast cap. This means, it is possible to take full advantage of the system's ability to change weights during production, in order to achieve optimum yields. The AMF-BX also highlights any maintenance required by individual units, AMF-BX system now makes it easier to tune individual reducing potential downtime and modules to achieve the best settings for various sizes of ensuring that the performance of the breast cap whole line remains at an optimum level, according to the company. “As many pneumatic connections have now “In one step, via a touch screen menu, you can been replaced by PLC controlled sensors, there are now adjust module settings. For example, if you now fewer components in the line sensitive to need to start processing a different average weight wear and breakdown. As a result, performance of or a different type of breast cap (a different breed AMF-BX filleting system will stay for longer at a of broiler), you can now enter this information. All higher level; maintenance costs will go down. relevant modules will retune to the new situation. Control by menu will also give you a view of the What you are now able to optimize are number of hours the line has been running and you adjustments such as the moment a blade begins to will be able to judge when maintenance is due. cut and the length if a cut. The quality of your You can also see whether sensors are working as filleting process will improve as a result. You will they should.” achieve higher yields and the end product quality Control by menu is available as a conversion kit will go up,” a company official said. for existing AMF-BX breast cap filleting systems.

New basket fans from Vostermans VOSTERMANS VENTILATION HAS released a revised version of its EMI Basket Fan.

The fans are now provided with streamlined grills, which are easy to mount and enable a durable unit. These recirculation fans can be applied as support ventilation in pork houses. Due to the air movement around the pigs a comfortable climate is created. The large choice in frequencies, voltages, dimensions and materials (stainless steel impellers) and the high quality level makes them suitable for all types of pork houses.

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SmartTray for duck eggs PAS REFORM’S LATEST SmartTray design is now available for use with duck eggs of any size, large and small, in the hatchery. With specially shaped support points for the eggs, the open construction of SmartTray is proven to prevent the occurrence of ‘dead spots’ during incubation. This allows air to circulate freely and uniformly, creating optimal conditions for each individual embryo – and promotes ducklings of high quality. Ergonomically designed and lightweight for comfortable handling, SmartTray offers maximum protection for the eggs and incorporates lifetime Microban antibacterial technology, reducing the risk of bacterial infection by 99.9 per cent. Equally suitable for farm traying, the HACCP compliant setter tray is constructed of smooth, highly durable, impact-resistant polystyrene and is resistant to strong disinfectants, according to a company press release. Other features include self-centring egg positioning to prevent eggs from sticking and breaking; completely smooth finish to prevent the accumulation of dirt; UV stabilized to prevent material deterioration.

Winch motor for flap control in poultry and pig houses HOTRACO AGRI HAS introduced SmartWinch, a new winch motor. Combined with its own power supply and emergency positioning, SmartWinch helps control the air inlet flaps in poultry and pig houses. “The Hotraco SmartWinch is a 24V AC/DC winch motor controlled by a 0-10V signal and a pulling force of maximum 160 kg. The completely brushless motor works with a stepper motor principle, so without potentiometers or end switches the exact position can be determined electronically. By using smart electronics and the easy-tohandle HotButtons, potentiometers or end switches are not required any more,” a company official said. The PS-100 power supply is suitable for 1 or 2 SmartWinches, equipped with a manual control. When a power failure occurs, it is possible to send the SmartWinch to a pre-set emergency position. This can be both open and close, as even a manual position. “The SmartWinch is one of the Hotraco products which are equipped with the

HotButtons. It’s an easy and quick way to calibrate the motor by using 3 pushbuttons. Setting with the HotButtons is done electronically and once fixed, the position will not run faulty anymore. In this way the cap of the SmartWinch can be kept close. Therefore installation of the SmartWinch is a piece of cake.” The SmartWinch can be equipped with a range of accessories, such as a cable drum or a single or double belt drum.

SmartWinch motor

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Equipment

John Deere introduces Harvest Identification, Cotton TO HELP COTTON growers capture, store and retrieve information about their crop for use by the gin, John Deere has Harvest Identification works with the John Deere 7760 Self-Propelled Cotton Picker outfitted with a GreenStar™ 2 2600 or GreenStar™ 3 2630 Display and RFID tags emintroduced Harvest Identification, Cotton. The system bedded in the round module wrap. eliminates manual tagging of modules, provides on-the-go documentation, simplifies record keeping, and improves tracking and delivery of modules to the gin. Harvest Identification works with the John Deere 7760 Self-Propelled Cotton Picker outfitted with a GreenStar™ 2 2600 or GreenStar™ 3 2630 Display and RFID tags embedded in the round module wrap. The system documents module information that is pertinent to the ginning process, such as client, farm, field, module serial number, harvest date and time, all into one easy-to-read document. Utilizing the RFID reader on board in the 7760 cotton picker, the system reads the RFID serial numbers embedded in the module wrap and sends the information to the Application Controller 1120. The Application Controller 1120 collects the information and simultaneously displays the module count and serial number, as well as stores the information as a .txt file within the File Server on the display. Once the information is collected it “The program documents 11 of the most important data points during module can be easily pulled off the display via data card or USB drive and sent formation and the embedded RFID tags improve the traceability of cotton electronically to the cotton gin. modules as they move from the field to gin lot and through the ginning According to Janae Althouse with John Deere Intelligent Solutions Group, process,” says Althouse. “Growers who have tried the system say it saves time Harvest Identification, Cotton, gives growers the ability to continuously in not having to tag modules in the field and greatly simplifies record keeping harvest cotton without the need for additional labor to manually tag modules. and tracking of modules.”

CNH invests in new manufacturing plant in China CNH GLOBAL NV, a leading agricultural and will continue to invest to ensure our construction equipment business company customers have access to our best and part of Fiat Industrial, is to build a new technologies and expertise.” Today, CNH is a Chinese market leader manufacturing plant in Harbin, in the Heilongjiang Province, northeast China, with in high horsepower tractors and harvesting equipment through its two agricultural an initial investment of US$90mn. The new facility, which is planned to be brands, Case IH and New Holland 400,000 sqm, will produce high horsepower Agriculture. The investment in a new tractors, combine harvesters and other manufacturing base will further strengthen machinery featuring advanced technology. CNH’s position in China and will enable its With this investment, CNH will expand its agricultural equipment brands to contribute manufacturing base in China, where it to the mechanization of the country’s fast currently assembles high horsepower developing agriculture sector. tractors and other agricultural equipment in Harbin, and operates a manufacturing plant dedicated to low and medium horsepower tractors in Shanghai. Richard Tobin, current CFO of CNH who will take over as President and CEO in January 2012, commented: “China is a very important market for us and we strongly believe in its potential. CNH has invested in this country for more than 100 years, when the first International Harvester tractor was imported to China. We The new facility, which is planned to be 400,000 sqm, will prohave since steadily developed duce high horsepower tractors, combine harvesters and other our relationship with China and agri machinery

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

New Holland launches T4 PowerStar utility tractor NEW HOLLAND RECENTLY launched the new T4 PowerStar utility tractor equipped with turf/amenity tyres. The powerful machine, available in three models from 55hp – 75hp, features the new VisionView Cab – which is 20 per cent larger and includes a hi-vis roof panel, ensuring operator comfort and visibility. T4 PowerStar also comes with an improved lifting capacity for a tractor of its size – comfortably managing 2,150kg. New Holland’s Compact Tractor Product Specialist, Steve Basnett, said, “The new T4 PowerStar is an allnew utility tractor, specifically designed to suit the amenity market needs. It has improved operator comfort and a larger cab to increase utility and ease of operation.” “Complete with turf/amenity tyres and compatible for an integrated front-end loader, the new T4 PowerStar makes an ideal loader or utility tractor, and includes a passenger seat as standard to enable two people to travel securely and in comfort.”

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Moreover

Green investments increasingly vital in marine sector: UN The economic productivity of the marine sector can be triggered by shifting to a more sustainable approach that focuses on green activities such as sustainable fisheries, renewable energy, and eco-tourism

H

ealthy seas and coasts would pay healthy dividends in a green economy, according to a report released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Maritime Organization (IMO), United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA), International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), WorldFish Center and GRID-Arendal, that highlights the huge potential for economic growth and poverty eradication from well-managed marine sectors. The report, Green Economy in a Blue World, argues that the ecological health and economic productivity of marine and coastal ecosystems, which are currently in decline around the globe, can be boosted by shifting to a more sustainable economic approach that taps their natural potential—from generating renewable energy and promoting eco-tourism, to sustainable fisheries and transport. It highlights how the sustainable management of fertilizers would help reduce the cost of marine pollution caused by nitrogen and other nutrients used in agriculture, which is estimated at US$100 billion per year in the European Union alone. With five months to go before world governments meet at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in Brazil, Green Economy in a Blue World presents a case to stimulate countries to unlock the vast potential of the marine-based economy in a paradigm shift that would significantly reduce degradation to our oceans, while alleviating poverty and improving livelihoods. The synthesis report also examines how Small Island Developing States (SIDS), such as those in the Asia-Pacific and Caribbean regions, can take advantage of green economy opportunities to reduce their vulnerability to climate change and promote sustainable growth. With as much as 40 per cent of the global population living within 100 kilometres of the coast, the world's marine ecosystems (termed the ‘Blue World' in the report) provide essential food, shelter and livelihoods to millions of people. But human impacts are increasingly

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2012

taking their toll the health and productivity of the world's oceans. Today, some 20 per cent of mangroves have been destroyed, and more than 60 per cent of tropical coral reefs are under immediate, direct threat. “Oceans are a key pillar for many countries in their development and fight to tackle poverty, but the wide range of ecosystem services, including food security and climate regulation, provided by marine and coastal environments are today under unprecedented pressure,” said UN Under-Secretary-General and UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner. “Stepping up green investments in marine and coastal resources and enhancing international co-operation in managing these trans-boundary ecosystems are essential if a transition to low-carbon, resource efficient Green Economy is to be realized.”

Fisheries and aquaculture Approximately 30 per cent of the world's fish stocks are overexploited, depleted, or recovering from depletion and 50 per cent are fully exploited. According to FAO and World Bank estimates, the world economy can gain up to USD 50 billion annually by restoring fish stocks and reducing fishing capacity to an optimal level. Aquaculture, the fastest growing food production sector, is creating new jobs, contributing to trade balances, and helping meet rising global demand for fish but, when poorly planned, it can increase pressure on the already suffering marine and coastal ecosystems. Adoption of green technologies and investments to lower fossil fuel use could dramatically reduce the carbon footprint of the sector while enhancing its contribution to economic growth, food and nutrition security and poverty reduction. Green technologies include low-impact fuel-efficient fishing methods and innovative aquaculture production systems using environmentally friendly feeds. Strengthening regional and national fisheries agencies, as well as community and trade fishing associations and cooperatives, will be critical to the sustainable and equitable use of marine resources. Árni Mathiesen, Assistant Director-General of FAO's Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, said, “The food production potential of the oceans is at risk and with it the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people who depend on fisheries and aquaculture. If the current trend in unsustainable use of marine resources is not reverted the ability of our oceans to deliver food for future generations is severely compromised. Ocean fisheries and aquaculture are among humanity's best opportunities to deliver highly nutritious food to a growing population. To lose this opportunity would be a crime on future generations.” n

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nal !

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Far Eastern Agriculture issue 2 2012  

Far Eastern Agriculture issue 2 2012

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