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Vol 15 Issue Five 2012
Oil Review Middle East - Volume 15 - Issue Five 2012
UK ÂŁ10, USA $16.50
The increasing cost of upstream facilities QP - helping to solve regional technology challenges LNG - growing in importance Erbil Oil & Gas - business is booming in the north Mobile pipeline coating challenges traditional methods Getting to the bottom of ground faults Fire prevention and detection Permanent seismic acquisition installations for reservoir monitoring
Reliable communications for remote locations See us at the show
Majid Jafar, CEO of upstream oil and gas company, Crescent Petroleum, says Iraq is key to the companyâ€™s future growth, but there are still obstacles to be overcome. See page 16
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Vol 15 Issue Five 2012
UK £10, USA $16.50
The increasing cost of upstream facilities QP - helping to solve regional technology challenges
LNG - growing in importance Erbil Oil & Gas - business is booming in the north
Industry news and executives’ calendar
Mobile pipeline coating challenges traditional methods Getting to the bottom of ground faults Fire prevention and detection
Permanent seismic acquisition installations for reservoir monitoring
Interview Jotun Powder Coatings is targeting the regional oil and gas sector.
Reliable communications for remote locations See us at the show
Majid Jafar, CEO of upstream oil and gas company, Crescent Petroleum, says Iraq is key to the company’s future growth, but there are still obstacles to be overcome. See page 16
Why Majid Jafar, CEO of Crescent Petroleum, believes Iraq is key to the company’s future.
l na gio re ctor e th s se 7 9 ing ga 19 rv & Se oil nce si
The importance of good remote communications. See page 75.
Exploration & Production 20
The latest exploration and production news from around the region.
Analysis According to a new report from QNB Group in Qatar, LNG is growing more rapidly than other areas of oil and gas and will continue to do so.
News The latest developments from the regional gas sector.
Executives from Dow Chemical Company recently spoke to Oil Review about industry trends and opportunities within the region.
Developments News updates from the regional petrochemicals sector.
Exhibitions and Conferences 42
Erbil Oil and Gas Exhibition This year’s Erbil Oil & Gas Exhibition is being held at a time when the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has proved that it’s business model can attract investment.
MASSIVE GLOBAL DEMAND exists for oil and gas from the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) and it is to here that international markets will increasingly look for supplies over the next two decades. In this issue, Majid Jafar, CEO of Crescent Petroleum, an active participant in the regional oil and gas sector, outlines the increasing importance of the KRI. As this issue of Oil Review went to press, Crescent Petroleum and its partner and affiliate Dana Gas PJSC, the region’s first private-sector natural gas company, have, in their capacity as joint operator of the Kor Mor field, announced that total production in their major gas operations in the KRI has grown steadily to reach 70,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, with total investment to date approaching US$1 billion. The production includes 330mn cubic feet of gas per day and 15,000 bpd of condensate liquids, and there are plans for further expansion. With three more majors joining ExxonMobil in the KRI recently, questions are inevitably being asked about Baghdad’s ability to attract the investment that it needs for its oil and gas sector. The situation in the KRI means there will be increased interest in the forthcoming Erbil Oil and Gas Exhibition. ‘Erbil is ready and wants your business’, say the show organisers. In the light of the prospects in the region, interest from the industry should be immense.
Adnoc It’s been a pivotal year for Adnoc and we look at some of it’s ambitious projects.
Technical Focus 54
Introducing some of the latest available technologies for the oil and gas sector.
Why mobile pipeline coating technologies are challenging traditional methods.
Zenith Oilfield Technology recently worked on a field where 40 per cent of gauges failed due to ground faults. But the company says these problems can be overcome.
Fire Prevention and Detection
Information Technology 75
The historical safety record for the LNG industry is strong. Different levels of protection ensure that potential hazards are discovered and eliminated before they become a major risk.
Satellite services are often the only form of communications in hard-to-reach areas. very small aperture terminals (VSATs) in particular play a major role in guaranteeing effective communications for oil and gas production in remote areas or offshore. Our special correspondent explains why and looks at the development of the VSAT market for oil and gas communications.
Permanently buried onshore and offshore seismic acquisition systems could considerably improve the value of seismic for reservoir monitoring.
Arabic Section 4 11
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The increasing cost of upstream facilities THE COSTS OF both building and operating upstream oil and gas facilities reached new highs, according to two cost indexes developed by IHS. The IHS Upstream Capital Cost Index (UCCI) rose 2.3 per cent over the Q3 2011-Q1 2012 period to a new high index score of 227. Its counterpart, the IHS Upstream Operating Cost Index (UOCI), rose to 2.1 per cent to an index score of 189 over the same period. The indexes are proprietary measures of cost changes similar in concept to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and draw upon proprietary IHS tools to provide a benchmark for comparing costs around the world. Values are indexed to the year 2000, meaning that capital costs of US$1 billion in 2000 would now be US$2.27 billion. Likewise, the annual operating costs of a field would now be up from US$100mn in 2000 to US$189mn. The 2.3 per cent increase in the UCCI over the six-month period ending March 31, 2012 is sharp compared to 2011, which registered a 5.3 per cent increase for the entire year. The cost increases were driven by strong oil prices that exceeded the threshold price of production for most projects, increasing demand for oilfield goods and services. The high rate of increase for the UCCI can be attributed to increased day rates for deepwater rigs. Despite new entries into the market these rigs are in high demand and with rising fuel and labor costs can command premium rates. The unconventional drive in the U.S. has put pressure on goods and services although the drop in gas prices has switched some of the drilling from gas to tight oil. However, the high duty onshore rigs and fraccing crews remain in high demand. Among the 10 markets that the UCCI tracks, only steel (3.6 per cent decrease) and engineering and project management (one percent decrease) declined. Equipment vendors and subsea manufacturers continue to respond to the high order levels and were able to pass through the increased cost of
shipping both finished products and the sub-components. This was most notable in Brazil and North America. Skilled labour for construction, drilling crews and operations continues to be in short supply. Local currency movements for construction and operations labor saw large increases in the emerging economies where employers struggle to respond to high inflation levels and retaining their crews. The IHS Upstream Spending Report confirms these increased activities levels showing 2012 spending (CAPEX) for exploration and production (E&P) to be US$641 billion, up from US$586 billion in 2011. Operational spending (OPEX) for 2012 is US$500 billion, up from US$457 billion in 2011. These spending levels exceeded the previous highs of 2008 even when cost escalation is considered, demonstrating higher activity levels in both new construction and producing properties which put additional pressure on the vendors and subcontractors.
Kuwait’s oil income to reach new highs STRONG OIL PRICES along with increasing output will boost Kuwait’s hydrocarbon export earnings to a record high of more than US$114 billion this year and the increase will widen its current account and fiscal surplus, according to the International Monetrary Fund (IMF). Kuwait earned a record high of US$98.7 billion from its oil sales in 2011 after crude prices climbed to all time high of more than US$105 a barrel and the emirate pumped at one of its highest levels of nearly 2.6mn bpd of oil.
4 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
The 2011 income was more than 50 per cent above the Gulf state’s 2010 oil revenue of about US$61.8 billion as crude prices were just above US$70 a barrel. Oil prices are projected to average above US$100 this year and a strong crude supply could allow Kuwait to net its highest income from oil exports of around US$114.4 billion in 2012, the IMF said. Earnings are projected to slip in 2013 but will remain as high as US$105.4 billion as the IMF
expects crude prices and the state’s production to remain high. Higher oil exports will allow Kuwait, a key OPEC member, to record its highest current account surplus of around US$88.4 billion in 2012 compared with the record surplus of nearly US$70.8 billion in 2011, the IMF report showed. The surplus is projected to fall back to around US$76.2 billion in 2013 but remains one of the highest account balances recorded by Kuwait.
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Oil demand growth to slow - Opec WORLD OIL DEMAND growth will slow in 2013 from the already weak 2012, OPEC said, citing Europe's debt worries, a faltering US economic recovery and deceleration of growth in emerging markets. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which produces a third of global oil, said healthy output levels from non-OPEC producers next year would be enough to cover the modest growth in demand without the need for OPEC itself to increase output. www.opec.org ‘Besides the eurozone crisis, geopolitical tensions in the Middle East, the contraction of manufacturing in the US for the first time since 2010 and decelerating economic growth in emerging markets have been fuelling uncertainties regarding global economic growth,’ OPEC said in a monthly report. OPEC left its 2012 world oil demand growth forecast unchanged at 0.9mn bpd and said growth in 2013 would slow to 0.82mn bpd.
Australia set to overtake Qatar in LNG AUSTRALIA IS SET to become the world's biggest liquefied natural gas producer, with analysts predicting it will overtake Qatar by 2020 as it unlocks reserves that could last more than a century. Seven of the world's 10 major LNG projects are under construction in Australia, with Aus$176 billion (US$183 billion) of private Australian and foreign investment in gas projects since 2007. "The projects already under development will take us ahead of Qatar. It's just a case of when that happens," Wood Mackenzie analyst Chris Graham told AFP. Analysts expect Australia to pip the Gulf state, which holds the world's third-largest gas reserves and last year saw LNG production capacity rise to 77mn tonnes per annum (mtpa), by 2020. But the government is hoping it reaches the target sooner, with China's demand for LNG growing by almost one-third last year, while India's import capacity is projected to triple by 2015. Australia is already the fourth biggest source of LNG in the world, with three export-operational projects - Western Australia's Northwest Shelf and Pluto projects, and Darwin LNG in the Northern Territory. Indonesia and Malaysia are the second and third largest producers. But based on projects that are already committed or under construction, Australia's LNG exports - of 18.9 mtpa worth Aus$11.1 billion (US$10.77 billion) in 2011 - are expected to hit 63 mtpa by 2016-17.
Helping to solve regional challenges
GCC oil terminals for Hormuz?
QATAR PETROLEUM (QP) has joined the global oil and gas technology facilitator ITF to collaborate on finding new solutions to boost oil and gas production in the Middle East. As a member of ITF, QP will work alongside other major energy players in the region and believes a united approach will help to drive forward new developments, supporting its plans for further exploration and production at onshore and offshore fields. The corporation joins other ITF members in the region including, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) as well as Houston based Aramco Services Company, a subsidiary of Saudi Aramco. ITF has a base in Abu Dhabi and this year launched a Middle East cluster group to bring together oil and gas companies to collaboratively identify and tackle the specific technology challenges being faced in the region, such as water management, heavy oil, asset integrity, and enhanced oil recovery. QP is interested in ITF’s approach both as an end user and as a technology developer. Dr. Nasser AL-Mohannadi, Research and Technology Manager of Qatar Petroleum said: “Joining ITF is an important step in working together with other international and national oil and gas companies in the GCC region. The sharing of knowledge and collaborating on research and technology development will allow us to establish joint industry projects that directly target the needs of industry in the region.”
GULF HYDROCARBON PRODUCERS need to set up a common port in Oman or Yemen to export their crude away from Hormuz Strait, which Iran has threatened many times to shut, according to a well-known Gulf economist. Mohammed Al Asumi, a former economic adviser at the Dubai government’s executive office, said the UAE took the right step by constructing a pipeline across its territory to transport crude from its Habshan field to the eastern port of Fujeirah outside the strategic narrow waterway. But he noted that other key Gulf oil producers still rely almost entirely on Hormuz to export their oil to global markets in the absence of The Hormuz Strait is vital to regional oil producers alternative routes.
6 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
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Offshore equipment rental firm targets Gulf THE FERGUSON GROUP, specialists in the rental of equipment to the offshore energy industry, has launched a new company in the region.. Ferguson Middle East FZE, based in UAE, has been formed to support the Group’s growing range of offshore containers, accommodation modules, workspace modules and refrigerated containers. The new company will be based in the Jebel Ali Free Zone in Dubai, one of the area’s key business
centres. The office is based near to Ferguson’s port and yard, where containers are stored and will allow the team to be on hand to support and assist clients. Mogens Thyssen, Country Manager for Ferguson Middle East, said: “We have been working in Dubai for over 12 months now in preparation for launching the new company and I am delighted that we are now registered and operational.”
Saudi oil assets unlikely to be affected by Eastern province unrest ON 8 JULY, security forces shot and arrested Ayatollah Nimr al-Nimr, a Shia cleric known for his outspoken opposition to the Saudi government, in alAwamiya, Eastern Province. The oil-rich Eastern Province houses the majority of the country’s oil assets. Following his arrest, opposition supporters protested in al-Qatif and other Eastern Province towns, targeting security forces with stones and molotov cocktails, and setting up roadblocks with burning tyres. However in an escalation of recent protest action, the interior ministry claimed that a policeman and an armed civilian had been killed after armed Shia rioters opened fire on a security patrol in Qatif on 4 August. Though opposition groups have claimed tens of thousands participated in protests, footage of protests suggests numbers are more likely in the low thousands. Nonetheless, the demonstrations mark a significant increase in civil and violent unrest in Eastern Province as most demonstrations in the first half of 2012 saw only dozens participating in largely peaceful demonstrations. We assess that the protests are likely to be the beginning of sustained large-scale unrest, with thousands participating in demonstrations. Violent protests are unlikely to disrupt energy sector operations in Eastern Province. The protests are likely to take place in urban, residential areas of al-Qatif, Safwa, Saihat and Tarut located several kilometres away from energy sector assets in Dhahran, Khobar and Ras Tanura (where over 75 per cent of Saudi Arabia's oil exports are loaded). In the three- to six-month outlook, the likelihood of shootings and crude IED attacks against
The Kingdom’s oil facilities should remain unaffected by the unrest
8 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
government buildings and Aramco energy infrastructure will increase if security forces suppress non-violent demonstrations and kill dozens of protesters or senior Shia clergy. Given that many residents own small arms, shooting attacks would be most likely. There is little evidence of sophisticated IED capability and the availability of repair crews means that any damage caused to pipelines would likely be repaired within hours. Damage to government property including buildings and vehicles is very likely, with security forces responding with live ammunition and in turn spurring further unrest. Aside from the shooting on 4 August, Saudi officials have alleged opposition groups used live ammunition in an attack on a police station in al-Awamiya on 13 July. Whilst we cannot verify this claim, opposition groups themselves stress that violence beyond use of molotov cocktails and stone throwing is not legitimate. Protests are unlikely to reach a politically destabilising level due to a considerable security forces presence in the province while sectarian divisions between the largely Shia protesters in Eastern Province and the majority Sunni population in the remainder of the country make it unlikely that protests will spread to other parts of Saudi Arabia.
Exclusive Analysis Ltd is a specialist intelligence company that forecasts commercially relevant political and violent risks worldwide. For additional information, visit www.exclusive-analysis.com
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Industry News & Events
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Executives Calendar 2012 SEPTEMBER 2012 3-6
Erbil Oil & Gas Exhibition
Well and Reservoir Management
OCTOBER 2012 2-5
MOC - Mediterranean Offshore Conference
AAPG/EAGE/SPE Shale Gas Workshop
TOG - Technology of Oil & Gas
NOVEMBER 2012 5-7
SPE Deep Wells Challenges Workshop
Integrated Reservoir Modelling
Artificial Lift Conference
Offshore Southeast Asia
DECEMBER 2012 4-6
SPE Digital Oilfield Implementation Challenges
Basra Oil & Gas Exhibition
4th Arabian Plate Geology Workshop
Kuwait International Petroleum Conference
Readers should verify dates and location with sponsoring organisations, as this information is sometimes subject to change.
Halliburton acquires Petris Technology LANDMARK SOFTWARE AND Services, a Halliburton business line, announced that it has acquired Petris Technology, a leading supplier of data-management and integration solutions to the global energy industry. The acquisition positions Halliburton with a unique capability within the upstream oil and gas industry: Halliburton can now deliver to its customers unrivalled access to their reservoir and well technical data, empowering its customers’ decision-making processes by providing
10 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
them with mission-critical data, where and when they need it. 'By capturing all their scientific data within one environment, we are empowering our customers to make safer, faster and more accurate operational and economic decisions about their reservoirs,' said Gene Minnich, vice president of Landmark Software and Services. The acquisition comprises all of Petris’ integrated solutions, including the PetrisWINDS
products, such as Recall Applications, Recall Data Management, DataVera, Enterprise, DrillNET, and Operations Management Suite – which will become available to Halliburton’s clients as a part of the DecisionSpace® portfolio. The DecisionSpace environment has been designed to drive collaboration and efficient decision-making by ensuring these multiple sources of highly technical data are readily accessible across a customer’s full range of upstream business operations.
S03 ORME 5 2012 Analysis 01_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:44 Page 11
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S03 ORME 5 2012 Analysis 01_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:44 Page 12
Oil Review spoke to Andrea Meconcelli, commercial director for Jotun Powder Coatings and concept manager for Jotun Pipeline Solutions and Ahmed El Sayed, key accounts manager protective coatings, Jotun Abu Dhabi about the company’s new single source pipeline coating solution
Single source pipeline
coating solution A
NDREA MECONCELLI, DIVISIONAL director- architectural and functional-for Jotun Powder Coatings spoke to Oil Review Middle East about why Jotun had decided to expand its current pipeline coatings portfolio and how this would help expand its presence in the hydrocarbon sector. This year has seen Jotun Powder Coatings
Jotun is expanding its current pipeline coatings portfolio
12 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Jotun’s aim with this new concept is to target the regional oil and gas sector in particular
unveil its bold new strategic plan to gain a greater share of the regional oil and gas market by combining its powder and liquid coatings offerings to create and develop an extensive new range of pipeline coating solutions. This single source solution, according to Meconcelli, is the foundation of this new approach which will allow Jotun to provide transmission pipelines with the required protection – both inside and out. “We want to deliver the best possible pipe protection, technical advice to our customers and to have a single point of contact,” said Meconcelli. Juton’s aim with this new concept is to target the regional oil and gas sector in particular. The expansion of the company’s pipeline coatings portfolio will be backed up by a new theme: ‘Tough Outside. Tough Inside’ that will convey the key message that Jotun can provide a comprehensive range of internal and external pipeline coatings under one single source solution concept. The concept is supported by an emphasis on trying to meet customer’s needs in terms of technical advice which could be via prequalification tests, coatings training or factory inspections and tests. “Basically it is a whole package designed to be a one-stop shop. We believe this is the right approach as this a very technical orientated business and by having this reference point we can deal with any technical challenge and provide support,” noted Meconcelli. Meconcelli explained that the Jotun had started exploring the possibility of combing the powder and coating divisions a couple of years ago. They soon realised they had a very appropriate solution for pipe protection in both assortments and the grand scheme was to combine the two separate approaches and design an optimised solution. As a single source supplier we can protect pipelines externally with powders via fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) coatings and the internal side are protected by liquid coatings this combined approach is the crux of Jotun’s new approach. “We thought it was a logical idea to have one single and combined approach,” Meconcelli stated. Adding: “The beauty of this model is that it is much more flexible and we do not have a predefined package and can work on a case by case basis. Products will be based on the conditions; either offshore or onshore, factory application or site application, we can offer a variety of different coatings.”
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Market drivers and new products Key accounts manager for protective coatings, Jotun Abu Dhabi, Ahmed El Sayed, discussed drivers in the market that persuaded Jotun to go ahead with a combined approach to pipeline coatings. One motivator was the technical switch in the market from multi-polyolefin layer based system to a two layer and three layers FBE systems. The traditional coating system has tended to be three layers polyolefin-powders and invasives but they have been experiencing some challenges. So the alternative solution, according to Meconcelli, is a dual layer offering and three layers J- trac, which is a patent technology that Jotun launched a few years ago. Another important driver from a technical point of view is the low application temperature coatings which are essentially powders applied at lower temperatures. These market drivers and the need to stay ahead of the competition is why Jotun places a lot of emphasis on research and development (R&D). “R&D is crucial to what we do at Jotun. Our dedication towards the research and development of improved powder and liquid coating solutions has placed us at the forefront of the coatings industry,” said El Sayed. The R&D department is constantly involved in the modernisation of Jotun’s core assortment of
One of these new products is a fire proofing coating solutions that would target the offshore market. It is currently in the testing process in the US and will hopefully launch by the end of the year.
The R&D department is constantly involved in the modernisation of Jotun’s core assortment of external pipeline coatings solutions
external pipeline coatings solutions. In 2012, the company has created a new range of FBE and liquid coatings for pipeline protection. “This is very important as we are now in the position to touch all the different sectors of the oil and gas industry,” El Sayed noted.
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14 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
In addition to the new products and solutions Jotun is running a global campaign, The 'Green Steps' programme, which aims to eliminate all use of solvents and dangerous raw materials, while still producing the same finishes and effects. “We are targeting the whole Middle East with a real focus on Saudi and the UAE. Kuwait is another key market and we have a presence in Egypt, Algeria and Iraq,” said El Sayed. El Sayed is confident that 2012 will prove to be a strong year for Jotun and that by adding this complete range of solutions the company will be able to capture an even greater share of the pipeline coatings market than the current 30 per cent it holds. ■
S04 ORME 5 2012 Analysis 02_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:45 Page 15
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S04 ORME 5 2012 Analysis 02_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:46 Page 16
Majid Jafar, CEO of upstream oil and gas company Crescent Petroleum*, says Iraq is key to the company’s future growth. “The country offers massive untapped potential”, he says. But, as he tells Oil Review, there are still obstacles to be overcome.
Crescent’s wise man
looks north H
UGE GLOBAL DEMAND exists for oil and gas from Iraq’s Kurdistan Region and international markets will increasingly look to the region for oil and gas supplies over the next two decades. The territory offers massive untapped potential: the US Geological Survey estimates that Northern Iraq holds 40 billion barrels of oil — about as much as the North Sea has so far produced in the UK — and roughly 60 trillion cubic feet of gas. In fact around 40 per cent of the world’s gas resources are found in the GCC states, Iran and Iraq. As a result, the oil and gas sector in the region has been attracting significant international interest in recent months. Tony Hayward, formerly of BP, has described Iraq’s Kurdistan Region as the ‘last oil frontier’ and has recently invested significant amounts of money into the region via his new project Genel Energy. Oil majors such as Exxon Mobil are now circling. Compared with southern Iraq, where many international players are making just a small margin on investments and have been hampered by slow decision-making (over visas and approvals for example), the Kurdistan Region offers better contractual terms, less bureaucracy and bigger margins. Importantly too, security is not as critical an issue as it is in the south.
Good position All of which has attracted Crescent Petroleum to the area. Now in its 41st year of operations, Crescent Petroleum and its partners have invested almost US$1 billion in Iraq’s Kurdistan Region, which makes it the largest private sector investment in the territory, and probably in Iraq as a whole. It certainly seems that the south is showing much less promise than the north at the moment. “Despite all the hype concerning contract rounds in the south, production is only just touching three million barrels a day for the entire country”, explains Majid Jafar. “And that is a figure that was promised five years ago, so results for Iraq have been mixed at best.” Jafar is in a good position to assess the situation: He is Chief Executive of Crescent Petroleum, the Middle East's oldest private oil and gas company, with offices in the UK and internationally. He joined the company in 2004, after a number of years working with Shell International’s Exploration & Production and Gas & Power Divisions in London. He is also a board member of Crescent affiliate Dana Gas, the Middle East’s leading private sector natural gas company of which Crescent is the largest shareholder, owning 22 per cent.
Majid Jafar - “In the end it is Iraq that is losing out”.
16 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Having overseen the successful growth of both Crescent and Dana in recent years, Jafar is a leading expert on Middle East oil and gas exploration and production — and specifically Iraq’s Kurdistan Region and the challenges and opportunities facing production there. And he comes from an Iraqi family with a political legacy, his grandfather having laid the foundations for Iraq’s energy sector as Iraq’s Development Minister in the 1950s.
Endless controversy There remains a big difference in attitudes towards investment in the oil and gas sector between officials in the north and south, says Jafar. “In the Kurdistan Region there exists a regulatory regime that is well understood in terms of the law that was passed and the types of agreement that have been signed,” he points out. “They are not, as some have claimed, overly generous, but they are the type of contracts that the industry understands and has seen elsewhere. They are pro-investment contracts.” In the south by contrast, there has been endless controversy over the oil law, as well as arguments about the constitution and the role of government versus the private sector. Not that this has prevented outbreaks of over-optimism. Jafar points out that there was a sudden rash of bid rounds in the run-up to the 2010 elections in Iraq. “Just prior to the elections, government officials were talking in terms of 12mn barrels per day within seven years, which,” he adds, “is more than Saudi Arabia achieved in 70 years! I think everyone took the government claims with a pinch of salt and, as soon as the elections were over, they were modified down.
Niche “In the end it’s Iraq that is losing out,” Jafar continues. “We are seeing that already; the promised production growth hasn’t come.” Certainly, as he points out, many of the oil majors who have signed deals in southern Iraq have yet to commit staff to the country, and Iraq faces the additional problem of finding trained staff, with the result that, as he puts it, “Their country chiefs are sitting in Jordan or elsewhere and they are relying on contractors to do the work for them.” This is a 1970s mind-set, Jafar feels, dating back to the days of state control.
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Prejudice Central government has not seen these developments in a positive light, however. For example, in 2007, Crescent Petroleum and its Sharjah-based affiliate Dana Gas signed a gas development deal with the Kurdistan Regional Government in Northern Iraq. Crescent and Dana Gas are leading production at the Kormor and Chemchemal gasfields. A second phase will increase production and eventually see Iraq’s Kurdistan Region exporting to international markets. The regional government estimates that as much as 200 trillion cubic feet of gas could lie below the surface of this undeveloped region. However, because the companies signed the development deal, they were blacklisted by the Iraqi central government for bidding on energy projects elsewhere in Iraq, including those related to the country’s biggest oilfields. The government in Baghdad continues to deem oil and gas contracts signed unilaterally with the Kurdistan Region as ‘illegal’. “Since entering the north in 2007, we have seen prejudice against us from the central government,” Jafar says. “We believe there is no basis for that, and no legal validity either. As Iraqis, we are prepared to challenge any central government ruling. It’s really internal petty politics and has no basis in the constitution.” In any case, he adds, the legality of a contract is not something a government official can decide on unilaterally. Having said which, he is clear, as he has already suggested, that the north so far has a far better investment climate. Nevertheless Crescent is ready to invest in other parts of the country, on the right terms and in the right legal framework. “It’s a great shame that Iraq is so disorganised,” says Jafar. “The two major challenges in the constitution are the issues of federalism and dealing with oil resources. The issue is sometimes over-simplified by the media as between Arabs and Kurds. It’s more fundamental than that, and is not an ethnic issue.” Iraq’s constitution calls for all oil revenues to be pooled and shared, and Jafar believes it shouldn’t matter where the oil and gas is produced. But Iraq, he believes, is a sad example of the state mismanaging critical natural resources despite the vast size of those resources. “It is my firm belief that the private sector is a more efficient manager of any commercial enterprise than a state can be,” he insists. “The state should preserve its financial resources for sectors of the economy that are not suitable for the private sector, such as health, education and infrastructure, and should focus on maximising the economic benefits from the oil and gas sector instead of trying to manage projects and assets itself.”
Unpredictable changes The state has one more essential role, however. “The most important thing for any investor, in any sector, particularly in developing countries, is regulatory and political stability. These factors are potentially beyond the investor’s control. All the other elements, including security risks and logistical challenges, are issues that oil and gas companies are well used to managing.” That however, is not likely to be the situation when unpredictable changes in regulatory, legislative or fiscal terms are driven by political considerations, resource nationalism or greed. These changes are damaging and counterproductive in Jafar’s view. However, he says, “In Iraq’s case, it is not
regulatory change but the legal vacuum that is a major obstacle, since there is no legal basis for the contracts that were signed by the oil ministry in Baghdad.” It’s not surprising then that Crescent remains firmly focused on the Kurdistan Region for now. Even so, Jafar says it’s far from the most promising region; in fact it is one of the most challenging and high risk in Iraq geologically. However, an 80 per cent exploration success rate so far — unheard of in the international sector — makes it too attractive to ignore. But the potential of the country as a whole remains enormous, for one simple reason. “The cheap and easy oil elsewhere in the world has largely been produced,” says Jafar. “Companies are going deeper offshore and are facing more challenging operating conditions,” By contrast, he points out, “Iraq is vastly underexplored. It probably has a total of 2,500-3,000 wells drilled, and most of those are from my grandfather’s time.” To put that into some sort of perspective, he estimates that Saudi Arabia alone has at least ten times as many wells drilled, and over a million in the US State of Texas alone. So the world is going to need Iraq’s oil and gas. And it’s also going to need companies like Crescent. “Regional firms like ourselves are better able to manage the local risks than Western companies,” says Jafar. “It’s a challenge that we relish at Crescent Petroleum.” ■
Crescent Petroleum (www.crescent.ae) has been operating as a regional upstream oil and gas company in the United Arab Emirates for almost 40 years. It was the first regional, independent, privately owned Middle Eastern petroleum company to engage in the acquisition, exploration and development of petroleum concessions and the production and sale of crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas. Crescent is the largest shareholder (owning 22 per cent) in affiliate company Dana Gas (www.danagas.com)
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Making your world secure Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 17
But, he argues, few would want to return to those days — not that, in Iraq’s case, it would be possible. “The human resources simply aren’t there anymore,” he says. He explains, “Having suffered an eight-year war with Iran and two with an international coalition, as well as years of sanctions, the last generation of well-trained Iraqis in the oil sector are now close to retirement.” He believes the best way forward for Iraq is to follow the Egyptian model, one that encourages pro-investment contracts that maximise the involvement of all types of companies, big and small. “Small companies are more nimble and can still deploy significant amounts of capital,” he explains. And that’s where Crescent Petroleum has found a niche — with encouraging results for the region it has targeted. Its investments, and those of other private firms in the Kurdistan Region, have already had a huge positive impact on the local economy. For example, electricity supply has gone from a couple of hours a day, as in the rest of Iraq, to around 22 hours. Many new jobs have been created and local markets have been developed.
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The CEO's view ASIDE FROM IRAQ, Majid Jafar spoke to Oil Review about a number of issues affecting the regional oil and gas sector.
On the Crescent Group's 40th anniversary this year "The oil and gas business in the Middle East has been dominated by the NOCs and the IOCs, so to find a private sector company like ourselves operating in the heart of the region is unique. I think we've always recognised what our strengths and weaknesses are and have tried to play to them. Our competitive advantage is in the strength of our relationships, our ability to move quickly and develop opportunities with host governments and specifically address their local needs, which is becoming more important in the region. You sometimes see the IOCs only focused on exports, and not so much on internal investments or the development of the domestic market, particularly where gas is concerned. That's why, with our
affiliate, Dana Gas, we developed the concept of 'Gas Cities', which essentially seeks to create a larger domestic market for gas and enhance economic value for the host country in terms of FDI, a high return on the resource, and in particular, job creation."
On future oil production being driven by the developing world "At the rate of even modest demand growth, we will need a new Saudi Arabia every five years. Where's that oil going to come from? It can only be Iraq." On the role of independent producers "Independents are now leading the way in adding reserves and production growth worldwide." On regional employment issues "Job creation is the biggest challenge facing the Middle East. Countries like Egypt and Oman, which
had previously given priority to exports for gas, are now cutting back and focusing on domestic needs."
On energy subsidies "Energy subsidies are a major challenge for the region, especially as some of these are below market cost, which is completely unsustainable. There are a lot of hard decisions to be made. In some countries — such as Saudi Arabia — there is lack of desire to make major changes to prices for fear of causing instability. In Egypt, given the government's desperate need for revenues and a more democratic trend in the country, they raised gas prices for domestic industry, realising that prices had simply been too low for too long. They were only benefiting a small band of wealthy industrialists. Not only is the Middle East a huge source for oil and gas, but it is also one of the fastest-growing markets for energy usage, and unfortunately, probably the least efficient."
Hi Force continues with major expansion plans HI-FORCE, THE UK headquartered, global high pressure hydraulic tools provider has continued with its ambitious expansion plans throughout 2011 and into 2012 and beyond. In June 2011 the group doubled the size of its Western Australia facilities via the acquisition of an adjoining facility in Rockingham, about 100-km from the regional capital of Perth. The new wholly-owned premises, comprising of a two storey office block and warehouse totalling 710 sq m, will be used for storage of vastly increased stocks of Hi-Force products and spare parts. The additional space was urgently required due to increasing demand for the company’s UK-manufactured products and will help reduce costly air freight shipping costs to this remote city. With this new storage facility, product can now be shipped by the container load, from the UK manufacturing facilities on a monthly basis, providing Hi-Force Australia with a continuous supply of products. In October 2011, Hi-Force Middle East Regional Distribution Centre in Dubai relocated to a new wholly-owned and purpose-built facility within the Jebel Ali Free Zone. The new facility, which is three times the size of the previous one, incorporates a fully equipped workshop repair facility, designated practical and classroom training facility and a huge fully air conditioned warehouse, for storage of over 95 per cent of the company’s product range. This allows Hi-Force to deliver to customers from stock rather than on a forward order basis in what is a highly demanding region. Recent additional appointments of key staff have seen the Hi-Force Middle East team grow to over 40 personnel since the beginning of 2012. In February 2012, Hi-Force South Africa Regional Distribution Centre also purchased a brand new facility, double the size of the previous one. During 2011 Hi-Force South Africa proved to be the group’s fastest expanding region with growth of almost 70 per cent on the previous year. Many new and highly-motivated employees have joined the team in recent months and Hi-Force is now gearing itself up towards major growth within the whole of Africa. Similarly to Australia & Dubai, this new facility, located in Midrand, which is between Johannesburg and Pretoria, will enable the company to increase its stock holding within Southern Africa, providing Hi-Force users with high quality UK-manufactured, hydraulic tools immediately available from locally held stock in the region. In March 2012, Hi-Force UK manufacturing facilities took delivery of a further Mori Seiki NMV5000 5 axis CNC machining centre. Valued at almost £700,000 (US$110mn) this brand new addition to the company’s existing fleet of eight Mori Seiki machines, includes a five pallet loading system making it the most efficient (and costly) machine purchased to
18 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
date. The five pallet system reduces machine down time by switching machining operations between pallets, whilst the operator loads raw material or removes completed items, meaning that the machine never stops machining. It also has the facility to complete multiple machining operations on individual products, by switching from pallet to pallet, which allows completed product to come off the machine faster than if each machining operation was completed in batches. Plans to buy the machine were actually brought forward by a year due to high demand in the Hi-Force machine shop which currently runs for 16 hours per day, five days a week. Weekend and night shift operations are fast moving up the list of requirements for the UK manufacturing facilities. Finally and probably most significantly, group managing director, Kevin Brown recently confirmed that planned expansion of the UK manufacturing facilities has now been given the green light and construction of an additional 2,200 sq m, to add to the existing 4,800 sq m facility, will commence in July 2012. This will be a fast-track project and the contractors are anticipating handover to Hi-Force by the end of April 2013. The new building will be used specifically for all of the UK logistics requirements, including goods inwards, goods outwards and storage of finished products as well as raw materials. During the announcement, Brown explained that, “By moving our complete logistics operation to the new building it will free up an additional 1,000 sq m of space in the existing building, for further expansion of both our machine and assembly shops. It is anticipated that this, combined with the purchase of four more CNC machines, plus further additions to the existing workforce of over 65 people here at the UK facility, will result in a 50 per cent increase in our manufacturing capabilities. The existing road between the two buildings will be closed off giving the company a further 600 sq m of secure yard area. These are exciting times for Hi-Force, which continues to expand and prosper under the leadership of Kevin Brown and his hardworking management team. HiForce also has regional offices in China, Malaysia, Holland, Abu Dhabi and A view of the Hi-Force facility in Dubai Azerbaijan.
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Lukoil-led consortium initials Block 10 deal in Basra IRAQ'S MINISTRY OF Oil has initialled a contract with a consortium headed by Lukoil Holdings for exploration, development and production rights over Block 10 which is located 120 km west of Basra in Di-Kar and Mutannah provinces. Lukoil's overseas arm has a 60 per cent share of the field, while Japan’s Inpex has the remaining 40 per cent stake. The Iraqi holder of the contract is the South Oil Company. Following the signing the document was submitted to the Iraqi cabinet for approval. Andrey Kuzyaev, President of Lukoil Overseas, noted that the distance between Block 10 and West Qurna-2 megaproject operated by Lukoil overseas is only 100 km. "The two projects will obviously benefit from the synergy in terms of infrastructure, equipment and manpower mobilization," said Kuzyaev. According to the agreement, the exploration programme covers 5 years with an option to extend it by two more years and includes a 2D seismic acquisition of 1, 375 line km, drilling of one exploration well and will require a minimum expenditure of US100mn. A two-year appraisal programme will also be implemented. If commercial reserves are confirmed, oil production period will last 20 years and can be extended by five more years. According to Lukoil, a remuneration fee of US$5.99 per barrel was agreed that would be paid for the produced oil. These payments will start as soon as the production level reaches 25 per cent of the target plateau rate which will be determined upon completion of the exploration and appraisal activities.
Total starts production at Halfaya oil field FRENCH OIL MAJOR Total has said that a consortium, led by PetroChina and Petronas, has started production at the Halfaya field in Iraq. The consortium, which has targeted a first phase average of 70,000 bpd, hopes to eventually increase production at the field to 535,000 bpd. The Halfaya oil field is located in the Missan governorate, 35km southeast of Amara city, and spreads across 30km long and 10km wide. "This first step of The Halfaya oil field in Iraq production from Halfaya marks a milestone in the development of the field," said Yves-Louis Darricarrère, president of Total Exploration and Production. "Total remains committed to accompanying the development of the Iraqi oil industry and is looking at engaging in other projects." The operator, PetroChina, holds a 37.5 per cent interest in the consortium, and Total and Petronas Caligari both hold 18.75 per cent stakes in the consortium, while Iraqi state partner South Oil Company holds 25 per cent. The consortium's production launch is part of a 20-year concession contract signed in 2010 with Missan Oil Company for the development of the Halfaya oil field.
20 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
E.ON makes oil and gas discovery in Algeria E.ON EXPLORATION & Production and state-owned Sonatrach have made an oil and gas discovery in the Rhourde Yacoub license area in Algeria. The Rhourde Yacoub license is located in the oil and gas-prone Berkine basin, around 250 km south-east of Hassi Messaoud. E.ON E&P in cooperation with E.ON E&P is investing more in upstream Sonatrach has completed the operations in Algeria drilling and testing of the seventh exploration well in block 405a and found oil and gas in the NEY-1 well. “The results of this well are very encouraging and we will now enter a phase where we will drill several wells over the next two years to evaluate the extension of the discoveries,” E.ON E&P Algeria managing director Hubert Mainitz said. E.ON E&P was awarded this block in a license round in December 2008. Since then the company has drilled 7 exploration wells and made several encouraging discoveries in the license area. “The successful discoveries in Algeria are important steps for our growing upstream business in E.ON. The success of Rhourde Yacoub and our decision to continue further drilling highlights our commitment to invest in attractive projects in Algeria,” added chief executive officer of E.ON E&P Frank Sivertsen. The Rhourde Yacoub license is operated by E.ON E&P with an equity share of 49 per cent, while Sonatrach holds the majority of 51 per cent.
South Sudan set to resume production SOUTH SUDAN HOPES to resume oil production in September after reaching an interim agreement with Sudan on oil export fees, but it may take a year to return to full capacity, its top negotiator said recently. Pagan Amum, South Sudan's lead negotiator with Sudan at the African Union, said oil production would restart around September, especially in the Upper Nile state fields which contributed to much of the country's previous output. 'We're expecting to begin production immediately in September, especially for the Upper Nile oil, of Dar Blend,' Amum said in an interview in South Sudan's capital. 'We expect, of course, to develop the capacity in time. It will not just be an automatic thing. It will take time to open one well after the other,' he said. 'The production will begin from 150,000 (bpd)... and within three, four months, it would go to 180,000, 190,000 (bpd), and then it will go to the (old) level, and possibly higher than the time (before shutdown) within one year,' he said. The two countries have agreed on how much South Sudan should pay to export its oil through northern pipelines, ending a dispute that led to the shutdown in January of South Sudan's output of 350,000 bpd. The deal marked a step towards ending hostilities between the African nations, which came close to a war in April when border fighting escalated in the worst violence since South Sudan became independent a year ago. Sudan still wants to reach an agreement on border security, however, before allowing its landlocked neighbour to export oil through its territory. Both nations need to mark their 1,800-km (border, a tricky issue since much of it is disputed. Oil is the lifeline of both economies, especially for the war-torn South where it made up 98 per cent of state income. Striking a more optimistic tone than when the oil deal was announced, Amum said: “We're aiming at a comprehensive deal ...We will establish a demilitarised zone, we will deploy monitors.” He added, “We will ensure full compliance by the two countries of non-interference in the affairs of the other.”
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Tethys Oil discovers three oil bearing fault blocks in Oman SWEDISH ENERGY COMPANY Tethys Oil has discovered three new oil bearing blocks in Farha South field on Block 3 onshore Oman. The new oil bearing blocks were discovered in three of 10 wells that were drilled into the Barik reservoir of previously undrilled fault blocks. Five production wells were drilled and completed in previously drilled blocks to increase production and two water injections wells were drilled and completed. Tethys Oil managing director Magnus Nordin said the firm saw a 100 per cent success rate in Q2 when drilling new fault blocks in the country. "Again 3D seismic proves to be the key to success. We are hopeful that these new discoveries will have a material impact on our resources/reserve base," Nordin remarked. Tethys is set to continue its drilling programme in Oman with two rigs in operation and will increase its focus in the coming months on exploration, with exploration wells set to be drilled in Block 4. At the end of June, 14 fault blocks were in production with more planned to be drilled later in the year. Test production from the Early Production System (EPS) on Blocks 3 and 4 onshore Oman amounted in June 2012 to 336,803 barrels of oil, corresponding to 11,227 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). Tethys’ share of the production amounts to 30 per cent of the total, or 101,041 barrels. Tethys has a 30 per cent interest in Block 3 and 4, while operator CC Energy Development (Oman) holds a 50 per cent stake. Mitsui E&P Middle East holds the remaining 20 per cent.
DNO completes testing of Peshkabir-1 Well NORWEGIAN OIL AND gas company DNO International has announced that testing of its Peshkabir-1 well, located west of Tawke field in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, has struck oil. Drilled to a total depth of 4,092 meters, the deepest yet for the company in Iraq, the well targeted a large undrilled feature west of the currently producing Tawke field. The results remained mixed as out of the six zones that were tested oil was only found in one zone. Oil shows were encountered in the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic intervals but only the Sargelu formation tested 27-29 API oil and water at varying rates of oil and water cut. The remaining five intervals Triassic Kura Chine A, Triassic Kura Chine B, Cretaceous Mushora, Quamchuqa and Shiranish – all produced formation water. The joint venture will now undertake a detailed evaluation of the results, temporarily suspending the well for possible re-entry later this year. The the drilling rig will be moved to the Erbil license to commence the Benenan and Bastora field development. DNO operates the Tawke field with a 55 per cent interest, with London-listed Genel Energy holding a 25 per cent stake and the Kurdistan Regional Government holding the remaining DNO found oil at its Peshkabir-1 well 20 per cent interest.
22 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Chevron acquires interest in blocks in Iraq CHEVRON HAS ANNOUNCED that that its subsidiaries have acquired Reliance Industries’ interests in two blocks in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Chevron will acquire Reliance Exploration & Production DMCC's 80 percent interest and operatorship of the production sharing contracts (PSCs) covering the Rovi and Sarta blocks. Reliance did not reveal the value of the deal, but press reports said it had sold the stake for about US$200mn. The blocks are located north of Erbil and cover a combined area of approximately 1,124 sq-km. A map of the oil blocks in the Kurdistan Under the agreement with Region of Iraq. Kurdistan, Chevron must drill two wells by November 2013, Chevron spokesman Gareth Johnstone was reported by the Wall Street Journal as saying. The subsidiaries will partner with OMV Rovi and OMV Sarta, which hold 20 per cent interest in the Rovi PSC and Sarta PSC, respectively. In a statement, Reliance said its "exit from the blocks is in line with its portfolio rationalisation strategy of international assets and to create value for the E&P segment." In 2007, RIL had paid US$17.5mn to the Kurdish Regional Government for the two blocks. The blocks have one billion barrels of oil reserves.
PetroChina acquires 40 per cent interest in Qatar’s Block 4 QATAR PETROLEUM (QP) has signed an agreement authorising PetroChina Investment to acquire 40 per cent of the exploration and production rights to Qatar’s Block 4 Exploration and Production Sharing Agreement (EPSA) from GDF Suez Exploration Qatar GDF Suez Qatar will continue to be the operator of the offshore block with its 60 percent stake. The block, close to the North Field which is the source of the country's massive gas reserves, extends for more than 2,500 sq-km in area at water depths up to 75 meters. The two partners have said that they plan to begin drilling operations in Block 4 within the coming months. QP chairman and managing director Dr Mohammed bin Saleh Al-Sada, who oversaw the deal on behalf of the Qatari government, commented, “I am confident that with GDF Suez and PetroChina working together, they would be able to effectively accomplish the exploration programme that is set to be implemented in Block 4.” GDF Suez executive vice president, Jean-Marie Dauger, said, “GDF Suez is delighted to partner with PetroChina in the exploration of Block 4, and our excellent working relationship and close cooperation with QP would undoubtedly serve us well as we continue to study the area's upstream potential.” PetroChina Investment Qatar Block 4 Limited director, Xiangdong Zhu, remarked, “PetroChina looks forward to working in partnership with GDF Suez in Block 4, and we are privileged to further extend our involvement in Qatar’s oil and gas industry, thus allowing us to contribute our knowledge and expertise in oil exploration and production.” QP’s Al-Sada, who is also Qatar’s minister of energy and industry, noted that the deal would benefit Qatar’s attempts to strength its bilateral cooperation and friendly relations with China. "Qatar is keen to have a broader bilateral cooperation with China and we see this as another step to further strengthen the friendly relations between the two countries," Al-Sada said.
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DNO resumes drilling in Yemen DNO INTERNATIONAL HAS resumed active drilling operations in Yemen following the return to the country of service contractors and rig personnel. The first well to be drilled under the new campaign was on DNO has restarted operations in Yemen Block 32, the Tasour-27 well, which was spud on 2 July using the ZEPB Rig 905, recently serviced and now under long-term contract to the Company. On Block 53, operated by Dove Energy, the Bayoot-11 well is drilling ahead and has reached a depth of 2,800 meters. DNO and its partners Geopetrol and state-owned Yemen Oil, Gas & Minerals Co. signed at the end of June the charter of South Hood, the first joint operating company set up under a new model for upstream development and production activities in the country. First oil from the Yaalen discovery on block 47 is expected by the end of 2013 with the installation of early production facilities capable of delivering 5,000 bpd, followed by a permanent facility with a capacity of 10,000 bpd at a later stage.
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Total acquires stake in two exploration Blocks in Iraq TOTAL HAS SIGNED a farm-in agreement in two exploration blocks, Harir and Safen, in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Total's subsidiaries have acquired a 35 per cent working interest in the two blocks, from Marathon subsidiary Marathon Oil KDV B.V. for an undisclosed amount. The Harir block is approximately 705 sq-km and the Safen block is approximately 424 sq-km. Both blocks are located northeast of Erbil. With this transaction, Marathon Oil has reduced its stake to a 45 percent working (56.25 percent paying) interest in each of the two blocks while remaining operator of the Harir block and exploration operator of the Safen block. Total will be the operator of the development of the Safen Block. While, the Kurdistan Regional Government continues to have a fully carried 20 percent interest in each of the blocks. Marathon vice president of global exploration Annell Bay said, “We are pleased to have Total join Marathon Oil in exploring these high-impact exploration opportunities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. “This partnership combines the extensive exploration, drilling and completion experience of Marathon Oil and Total to fully evaluate the potential of these two blocks.” Marathon said that a 2-D seismic programme on both blocks is ongoing and is expected to be completed by the end of the third quarter of 2012. The first exploration well on the Harir block began drilling on July 30, 2012 and will be exploring Mesozoic fractured carbonates with main reservoir objectives in the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic formations. The first exploration well on the Safen block is planned for the first half of 2013. Total added that it is “looking for new opportunities in Iraq."
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Afren finds more oil at Simrit-2 well
ITALIAN OIL SERVICE company Saipem has signed five contracts with Saudi Aramco worth US$250mn. The contracts for the charter of 2,000-HP and 1,500-HP onshore drilling rigs are set for periods from three to five years, starting at different times between the second half of 2012 and Q3 2013. Saipem will now be expanding its onshore fleet by buying three new rigs, while the rest will be transferred to Saudi Arabia from other areas. Saipem said that the awarding of these contracts strengthened its "long-standing relationship with Saudi Aramco." It is operating two jack-ups and 10 onshore rigs, as well as carrying out a number of onshore and offshore EPC contracts.
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Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 25
INDEPENDENT OIL AND gas company Afren announced that its Simrit-2 exploration well in the Kurdistan region of Iraq has found additional oil. Afren reported that the Simrit-2 exploration well has now been drilled to a depth of 3,800 metres and the total net oil pay has increased to 460 metres. Previously the well had encountered an estimated 409 metres of net pay throughout the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic reservoirs down to the initially planned total depth of 3,700 metres. Afren chief executive Osman Shahenshah commented: “The latest results on the Simrit-2 exploration well confirm the transformational potential of this discovery to Afren, further validated by the test results, suggesting excellent production capability.” Analysis of data collected indicates the continual presence of light oil shows throughout the deepened section of the well. After completing drilling operations, an extensive well test program began in June. To date, three drill stem tests out of a planned 12 have been completed at separate zones Afren's acreage in the Kurdistan region of Iraq within the Triassic-age Kurra Chine Formation, yielding an aggregate flow rate of 13,584 barrels of oil per day at a gravity of 39 degrees API. Afren has a 20 per cent interest in the Ain Sifni PSC and is partnered by Hunt Oil Middle East (60 per cent and operator) and the Kurdistan Regional Government (20 per cent).
Saipem signs contracts with Saudi Aramco
S06 ORME 5 2012 E & P 02_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:47 Page 26
Kuwait Energy's Q2 production jumps by 31 per cent KUWAIT ENERGY HAS seen operational activities increase in the first half of 2012. First half production in 2012 was up 32.4 per cent hitting 17,138 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boepd) compared to 12,944 boepd in the first half of 2011. Strong production results were underpinned by a 31 per cent increase in daily average production compared to the second quarter of 2011, generated by last yearâ€™s significant exploration successes in Egypt and increased production from development activities in Egypt and Oman. The companyâ€™s production rate for the quarter was 16,906 boepd average working interest. Egypt's Q2 production jumped significantly by 50 per cent compared to Q2 2011. Kuwait Energy's chief executive officer of Kuwait Energy Sara Akbar, said: â€œI am very proud to report such excellent operational success again. We continue to see the fruits of the exploration and development successes weâ€™ve made over the last year, especially in Egypt. We are also very proud of our most recent license award in Iraq, another milestone for the Company as we continue to focus on growth within our existing operations and in the MENA region.â€? In Egypt, development activity continued in wells in Area A, East Ras Qattara (ERQ) and Burg El Arab concessions. Kuwait Energy also received approval to drill the ASA1-X well located in Abu Sennan concession in the Western Desert, and the Mesaha1-X well in Block 6 - Mesaha concession, an oil and gas exploration asset located at the southern frontier of the country. In Oman, 13 development wells were drilled in the Karim Small Fields, 11 of which were completed and started producing at an initial rate ranging between 100 and 250 boepd each. The remaining two wells were still being drilled at the end of Q2 2012.
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26 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Tethys oil production hit 12,292 BOPD in July SWEDEN-BASED TETHYS OIL has said that test production from the Early Production System (EPS) on Blocks 3 and 4 onshore in Oman continues and amounted in July 2012 to The export pipeline in Oman 381,044 barrels of oil, corresponding to 12,292 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). Tethysâ€™ share of the production amounts to 30 per cent of the total (114,313 barrels). Long term production tests have been carried out on wells from both the Saiwan East oil field on Block 4 and the Farha South oil field on Block 3. Production rates continue to vary depending on test programme design and available capacity. In a statement, Tethys said that production in July had increased to new records as production in June had been partially affected by preparation work for the launch of the export pipeline, connecting the oil fields with the national Omani pipeline system. This pipeline became fully operational at the end of June. Tethys has a 30 per cent interest in Blocks 3 and 4. Mitsui E&P Middle East holds 20 per cent and the operator CC Energy Development holds the remaining 50 per cent.
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GULFSANDS PETROLEUM HAS revealed Map of the Chorbane that results from flow tests on the Sidi exploration block Dhaher well in the Chorbane exploration block in Tunisia showed no quantities of oil and the company will review all test data before conducting any further work on the structure. Gulfsands said that despite good flow rates from the two reservoir zones and substantial amounts of fluids being produced from the upper reservoir zone at Sidi Dhaher, the fluids did not contain any oil. Following the drilling out of the safety plug within the previously suspended well, two separate intervals within the Bireno Formation have been perforated and flow tested, with the benefit of nitrogen lift and approximately 680 barrels of fluid were recovered over a period of 35 hours. The initial interpretation from the well site was that the fluid was a mixture of spent acid, drilling mud filtrate and formation water. The well will now be plugged and abandoned, and the test data will be studied before Gulfsands decides if any further work will be carried out on the Sidi Dhaher structure. ADX Energy Limited is the operator of the Chorbane licence in Tunisia where Sidi Dhaher is located. Gulfsands has a 40 per cent interest in Chorbane and can become the operator in the event of a commercial discovery.
Gulf Marine Services Saudi Arabia wins offshore contract A JOINT VENTURE between the Shoaibi A jack up service barge Group of Saudi Arabia and Gulf Marine Services of UAE, Gulf Marine Services Saudi Arabia (GMSSA), has been awarded a three year contract to support rigless well intervention for a major offshore project in Saudi Arabia. GMSSA will provide a modern selfpropelled jack up service barge from a fleet of 7 sister units, all capable of supporting well intervention, construction and maintenance activities offshore. The barge can operate in water depths up to 45 meters and can accommodate 150 personnel offshore. Khalid Al Shoaibi, chairman of GMSSA, said, "This new contract establishes a strong base for GMSSA's further expansion in the offshore industry in the kingdom." GMS chief executive officer Duncan Anderson noted, “The contract marks a significant milestone in the GMSSA joint venture, , as well as a major indicator of Shoaibi Group’s ability to recognise market requirements in Saudi Arabia’s oil and gas industry. We hope to continue to work closely and expand our foothold in the Gulf.” Gulf Marine Services is an elevating support vessel operator in the Middle East that supplies a fleet of self-propelled barges to the oil and gas market. GMSSA is set to provide floating or self-elevating offshore platforms, which will be used by oil companies for offshore well maintenance, construction and accommodation.
*Mark of Schlumberger. © 2012 Schlumberger. 12-IS-0421
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Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 27
Gulfsands Petroleum reveals disappointing Tunisia well test results
S06 ORME 5 2012 E & P 02_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:47 Page 28
Block 4 onshore Oman spuds
Weatherford awarded Zubair contract
A group led by CC Energy Development has started drilling an exploration well (B4EW3) on Block 4 onshore Oman. The well is located approximately 6 km east of the producing Saiwan East field and will target a prospect similar to that field. The B4EW3 well is on a four-way dip structure identified from 3D seismic and is planned to be drilled to a total measured depth of 2,000 metres. “After a period of focusing primarily on strong production growth on Block 3, this is the first pure exploration well in Block 4 for almost two years. We are very excited and look forward to a period of further exploration also on Block 4,” commented Tethys managing director Magnus Nordin. Block 3 and 4 cover a combined area of about 30,000 sq-km. The primary target is the Khufai formation, the primary producer in the Saiwan East field, at an expected depth of 1,400 metres. The Saiwan East field geological setting is the analogue for the B4EW3 well and reservoir studies indicate that the Khufai target will have similar reservoir properties as in the Saiwan East field. The secondary target is the deeper Masirah Bay sandstone formation, which is an un-tested formation. Tethys has a 30 per cent interest in Block 3 and 4, while operator CC Energy Development (Oman) holds a 50 per cent stake. Mitsui E&P Middle East holds the remaining 20 per cent. Test production from the Early Production System (EPS) on Blocks 3 and 4 onshore Oman amounted in June 2012 to 336,803 barrels of oil, corresponding to 11,227 barrels of oil per day (BOPD).
US-BASED WEATHERFORD INTERNATIONAL has been awarded a US$843 million service contract by the Iraqi cabinet to build crude production units in the Zubair oil field, located in Basra in southern Iraq. Zubair is one of the largest oil fields in the Weatherford’s work will increase the oil output country. from Zubair field Under the contract, Weatherford is to construct six crude production units, each with the capacity to process 50,000 barrels per day (bpd). The duration of the contract is 18 months, the cabinet said in a statement. The initial production facilities (IPF) will enable the Eni-led consortium to dramatically expand output from Zubair to 554,000 barrels a day from 254,000 currently, after about two years from the start of work. Three drilling firms, Schlumberger, Weatherford and UnaRos, a joint venture of Italy's Rosetti Marino and privately-held Unaoil competed to build the facilities in Zubair, located in Basra in southern Iraq. Italy's Eni, US-based Occidental Petroleum Corp and South Korea's KOGAS signed a 20-year deal with Iraq to develop Zubair. They set an eventual output target of 1.2 million bpd by 2017.
DNO finds oil in Oman
Circle Oil completes Al Amir well in Egypt
NORWEGIAN OIL FIRM DNO International has announced that results from initial flow tests of West Bukha-5 well in Oman has shown the presence of oil in the Thamama reservoir The results revealed an estimated flow capacity of 1,500-2,000 barrels per day (bpd). Samples and measurements indicated an oil gravity of 35 API and a gas-oil ratio of 5,000 scf/bbl. The measurements are somewhat uncertain as the well is cleaning up and only about a third of the cumulative spent acid has been recovered, but they are consistent with values observed in neighboring wells. A map of Block 8 in Oman Cleanup operations will be resumed and the well put on production later this summer once pipeline operations resume. DNO has completed drilling of the West Bukha-5 well in offshore Block 8 which is the first of a three well development drilling campaign in Block 8. The well was drilled to a total depth of 5,200 meters, including a 700 meter horizontal section, making West Bukha-5 the deepest well drilled so far by DNO in Oman. DNO also said in a statement that it planned to restart production at its 7,000 bpd West Bukha field within six weeks after replacing a 4.3 km section of a blocked pipeline, connecting the West Bukha and Bukha platforms. The temporary halt will result in lower production in the second and third quarters.
CIRCLE OIL HAS provided an update on the Al Amir SE Field (AASE) and the Geyad field in Egypt. The development well AASE-12X was spudded in April 2012 and is located in the south-central part of the AASE field, updip of the Al Ola-1X producer. The objective was to appraise both the Shagar and Rahmi sands production in that location. The well reached a TD of 10,200 feet MD before being sidetracked to the north-east, for geological reasons, as AASE-12X ST1 and was then successfully drilled to a total depth of 10,300 feet MD into the base Kareem. The well encountered 15.5 feet of net pay in the Kareem Shagar sand, with oil bearing sands present to the base of the reservoir. The well has been completed as a Shagar sand producer and has been perforated in the interval 9,669 to 9,684.5 feet MD and flowed oil and gas on test at an average rate of 2,595 bopd and 4.7 MMscf/d respectively. The well has now been placed on production at an initial flow rate of 1,038 bopd. Circle’s chief executive officer Prof Chris Green said: "Circle is pleased with the results of the AASE-12X ST1 well, which has been completed as a Shagar sand producer with good initial flow. This well result further proves up the south central part of the AASE field and will add to the production rate and ultimate recovery from the field.” Following the successful completion of the AASE-12X ST1 well, the rig has been moved to drill the appraisal/injection well Al Ola-3, in the southern part of the AASE field. The well is expected to be an injector well targeting the Kareem sands, located to the south of Al Ola-1 and Al Ola-2 wells. Currently production from the AASE, Geyad and Al Ola fields is approximately 9,300 bopd (gross). Cumulative production from the NW Gemsa Concession has now exceeded 8.6mn barrels of 42 degree API Crude oil. The NW Gemsa Concession partners include: Vegas Oil and Gas (50 per cent interest and operator); Circle Oil Plc (40 per cent interest) and Sea Dragon Energy (10 per cent interest).
28 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
S07 ORME 5 2012 Gas_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:49 Page 29
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According to a new report from QNB Group of Qatar, LNG is growing more rapidly than other components of the hydrocarbons sector, and will continue to do so.
LNG - growing
in importance A
NALYSIS OF THE energy sector by QNB Group shows that global energy consumption grew by 2.5 per cent in 2011, equivalent of 247mn barrels of oil
(bpd) a day. Oil itself remains the largest source of this energy, providing a third, with coal and gas close behind. Non-hydrocarbon energy sources - nuclear, hydro and other renewables - together only meet 13 per cent of energy demand. The share of gas and non-hydrocarbons in total consumption was almost identical a decade ago. The main change over that period is that the share of coal has increased by six per cent due to China's rapid growth and exploitation of its domestic coal resources. As a result, oil's share has fallen by six per cent. International trade in hydrocarbons currently meets 35 per cent of the world's energy needs. Within this, the growth in the LNG trade is one of the most significant developments of the last decade. The volume of LNG trade grew at a rate of 8.8 per cent a year over that period, more than triple the rate of overall energy consumption. However, LNG’s contribution is still small compared to oil. Around six million boe of LNG was traded every day in 2011, meeting about 2.4 per cent of global energy usage, but this is barely a tenth of the energy content of the oil trade. The oil figure is 55mn bpd, including both crude oil and condensates from gas fields, according to data just released in BP’s annual Review of World Energy.
Improvements The proportion of hydrocarbons that are traded, rather than consumed in their countries of production, is large and rising. This is because there is a mismatch between the location of hydrocarbon reserves and the demand for their usage. The largest net demand is in Europe and East Asia, while much of the supply of oil and gas comes from the Middle East, Russia and Central Asia.
30 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Oil is the most heavily traded hydrocarbon, both in energy terms and in proportion to its production. In 2011, 62 per cent of oil pumped from the ground was exported, up from 57 per cent a decade before. Only 31 per cent of gas produced is traded, roughly a third of it as LNG. This is partly because the infrastructure required to ship LNG is more expensive than the equivalent established systems for transporting oil. However, improvements in LNG technology in the last decade have reduced the trading costs.
The Pearl GTL project in Qatar is the largest gas to liquids plant in the world.
electricity from gas power stations following the shutdown of nuclear power plants in the aftermath of the tsunami. These figures are based on data from the International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers (GIINGL), the global industry body representing companies that import LNG. GIINGL noted that the LNG market was able to cope with the demand surge from Japan largely as a result of the increased capacity in Qatar.
The Middle East was the region with the fastest growth in LNG imports, The growth in the LNG trade is demonstrated by the increasing number of countries involved in exporting or importing it. At the end of 2011, there were a total of 24 LNG liquefaction plants globally, with a rated capacity of 278mn tons per year (mt/y). The actual volume traded increased by 20.7 mt (9.4 per cent) to 240.9 mt, with two-thirds of the increase coming from Qatar and the remainder from Yemen and Peru. Qatar exported 74.8 mt in 2011, 31 per cent of the global LNG supply. At the other end of the chain were 89 regasification terminals across 25 countries, with a combined capacity of 640 mt/y, up 6.5 per cent during 2011. In other words, the theoretical demand capacity is almost two and a half times the currently available supply. A decade ago only 12 countries had regasification terminals. Asia remained the major import market for LNG in 2011, taking in 64 per cent of the total supply, with over half of that bought by Japan, the world's largest LNG importer, which purchased 79.1 mt in 2011. This was an increase of 8.2 mt on the previous year, due to the rise in demand for
South Korea is the second largest LNG importer and it increased its imports by nine per cent to 35.6 mt in 2011. India and China saw stronger growth, at 37 per cent and 36 per cent, respectively. These two giant countries currently only import a relatively small amount of LNG, but the demand growth and the high utilization rates of their regasification facilities are indications that they will become increasingly important LNG markets in the future. The Middle East was the region with the fastest growth in LNG imports, with a 76 per cent increase in supplies to Dubai and Kuwait, although they only represent 1.5 per cent of the total LNG market. Elsewhere in the world, demand was weak during 2011. In Europe as a whole, imports increased by just 0.4 per cent, although that followed an increase of nearly a quarter in 2010. Increased Qatari exports to the UK, which became the world's third largest importer at 18.4 mt, were largely offset by falling LNG demand in Spain and Turkey. QNB Group expects that the LNG trade will continue to grow more rapidly than other components of the hydrocarbon sector. This will be helped by improvements in liquefaction and regasification technology, and as LNG is increasingly used as a cheaper and cleaner alternative to diesel by trucking fleets. ■
S07 ORME 5 2012 Gas_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:49 Page 31
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S07 ORME 5 2012 Gas_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:49 Page 32
Pearl GTL on course to reach full capacity PEARL GTL IS looking to ramp up production to full capacity shortly, according to managing director Wael Sawan. Once fully operational, Pearl GTL will produce 1.6 bcf of gas per day from the North Field, which will be processed to deliver 120,000 bpd of natural gas liquids (NGLs) such as condensate, LPG and ethane and 140,000 bpd of GTL products using Shellâ€™s technological and project management capabilities. â€œThis is the level we are aiming to reach in any single day. Thatâ€™s essentially the capacity we have agreed with Qatar Petroleum,â€? Sawan said in an exclusive interview with Gulf Times. There are two production units (trains) at Pearl GTL, a Qatar PetroleumRoyal Dutch Shell joint venture at Ras Laffan. â€œSince 2002, when we took the first steps on Pearl GTL, we have come a long way. Pearl GTL is one of the largest projects not only for Qatar but also for Shell, and more generally, for the global oil and gas industry,â€? Sawan said. He said that over the past decade, the world-scale project at Ras Laffan, had gone from the initial commercial phase including the heads of agreement followed by a production sharing agreement through to a fiveyear construction period and the commissioning, which started last year. At the peak of construction, the project employed 52,000 workers, with major works completed in 2010, said Sawan, also Qatar Shell chairman. Pearl GTL is already producing a number of high-quality GTL products for sale in oil product markets around the world including: GTL gasoil, a cleaner-burning diesel-type automotive fuel; GTL base oils for premium lubricants; and GTL naphtha, a high-paraffin feedstock for the petrochemical industry. QP and Shell are also working on a petrochemical complex at Ras Laffan.
Regional demand to surge - IEA DEMAND FOR NATURAL gas is likely to rise faster in the Middle East than supply over the next five years, forcing one of the world's biggest gas reserve regions to import more, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said recently. The organisation expects Middle East gas demand to rise by 79 billion cubic metres (bcm) or 20 per cent from 2011 to 2017, outstripping incremental supply in the region by 7 bcm as low gas prices encourage consumption and discourage production. â€˜Middle East gas production is expected to serve exclusively regional market needs in the medium term. Exports from the Middle East are expected to remain flat,â€™ said the agency. It said with the exception of Qatar, the world's biggest liquefied natural gas exporter, www.iea.org regional governments will have to curb demand or import a lot more expensive gas. â€˜Natural gas demand grows more rapidly than internal production, forcing countries to import either LNG or pipeline gas from other regions. In a few countries, gas demand has to be curtailed,â€™ it said. The IEA expects Middle East gas demand to rise from around 389 bcm last year to 468 bcm/year in 2017, while regional gas production is likely to grow from 516 bcm to 588 bcm.
A focus on new opportunities WITH HUGE GAS finds in the Mediterranean, new gas-LNG ventures afoot, accelerating acreage leasing and major capital investment projects across the region, the MENA oil and gas market remains one of the biggest and most dynamic energy markets in the world. It therefore attracts a growing number of companies and investors who find new business opportunities. The Ninth MidEast-North Africa Mediterranean Upstream (MENA-MED) 2012 Conference in Geneva will focus on the exploration and development ventures of national oil companies, governments and companies in this vast and complex region. New opportunities have attracted greater commitments from super-majors, a growing suite of independents, including local oil firms, and increased positioning by national oil companies. The Annual Conference of Global Pacific & Partners, recognised as a business-led, deal-driven and high-level event, is held on September 10th
and 11th in The Four Seasons Hotel desBergues in Geneva, Switzerland. The Program also contains the 46th PetroAfricanuswww.petro21.com PetroArabian Dinner, for networking and relationship building inside the oil and gas industry. Dr Duncan Clarke, Chairman & CEO of Global Pacific & Partners says: â€œ With the worldâ€™s largest oil reserves in the Middle East, major capital investment projects across the region, acreage openings, new oil/gas and LNG strategies across North Africa, plus huge gas finds in the Mediterranean, the meeting will once again highlight significant opportunities for companies and investors, financiers, traders and players across the value chain.â€?
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32 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
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S07 ORME 5 2012 Gas_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:49 Page 33
S07 ORME 5 2012 Gas_Layout 1 13/08/2012 17:03 Page 34
PR E S IDENT OF THE UNITED ARAB AR AB EMIRATES E MI R ATE S UNDE UNDERR THE PATRONAGE PAT R ONAGE OF THE T PRESIDENT KHALIFA BIN BIN ZAYED ZAYED AL A L NAHYAN NAHYAN H H.. H. H . SHEIKH KHALIFA
KRG eyes exports to Turkey
Sustainable Energy Growth: People, Responsibility Respoonsibility and Innovation Abu Dhabi, UA UAE AE
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IRAQ'S SEMI-AUTONOMOUS KURDISH region may begin selling natural gas directly to Turkey within two years, said its energy minister, a move likely to anger the central government and further strain Baghdad's ties with Ankara. The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) in the north of the country and Baghdad have rowed for years over issues including late payments for crude, the legality of the regional government's oil deals and disputed territory. "Even if there's no consensus with Baghdad, we will continue to sell natural gas and oil to Turkey," KRG Minister of Natural Resources Ashti Hawrami told attendees to the Iraq Petroleum Conference in London. "We plan to sell 10 billion cubic meters of natural gas to Turkey, and later Europe in the long-term," he said, adding that sales were expected to begin within 18 months to two years. The KRG is obliged to attract investment from abroad, he said. "If we left everything up to Baghdad this would not work." Once the poorest region of Iraq, Kurdistan is now at its most prosperous, having been largely insulated from the insurgency and sectarian violence in the south, and the regional government has increasingly become less reliant on Baghdad. For now, the region largely depends on receiving 17 per cent of the national budget, but the KRG estimates there are about 45 billion barrels of oil reserves in the north, most of it as yet untapped. While there are no official figures for gas reserves in Kurdistan, Iraq as a whole has the world's 10th-largest reserves at 112 trillion cubic feet, according to US Department of Energy data. Most Kurdish oil is still pumped into the national pipeline system. One pipeline carrying about 60,000 bpd already feeds directly from Kurdistan's Tawke oilfield into the main pipeline to the Turkish port of Ceyhan.
Banagas signs EPC deal BAHRAIN NATIONAL GAS Company (Banagas) has signed a US$15.42mn engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) agreement with JGC Gulf International (JGULF) for de-bottlenecking its processing trains at the Central Gas Plant. The project is designed to facilitate increased feed gas rates up to 18m standard cubic feet per day (mmscfd) from the Bahrain Refinery and maximise liquid recovery by 4,500 barrels per day. The project involves replacement of pumps, construction of additional heat exchangers and resizing certain vessels.
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34 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Mechanical work on the project is expected to be completed in 23 months with commissioning and start-up scheduled for May 2014. A previous EPC contract was awarded to JGULF in August 2011 for construction of a new compressor station. It included gas gathering and transmission lines and a new central control centre worth US$42.4mn. This will help ensure continuous handling of up to 310 mmscfd of associated and refinery off gas.
S08 ORME 5 2012 Petrochems_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:51 Page 35
Oil Well Cement (OWC) produced by Oman Cement Company (S.A.O.G) under accurate temperatures is an obvious choice for oil well cementing worldwide and now it is ready to face the challenges of highly specialized arctic and horizontal cementing: • Conforms to the American Petroleum Institute (API) specification – 10A Class-G- (HSR), Class-B- (HSR) and Class-A- (O) grades. • Tested by worldwide cementing companies • Easy to disperse resulting in considerable cost savings • Used by major oilfield companies such as: Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO), Schlumberger, Halliburton & Occidental • Exported to GC Countries, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Sudan, Tanzania, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India and Syria. Oman Cement manufacturing facility operates on world class quality management system ISO 9001 and environmental management system ISO 14001. Quality control is online and laboratory automation systems consist of online x-ray spectrometers and robotic samplers, linked to process controllers and a raw mill proportioning system. OCC has an enduring commitment to customer satisfaction, continual improvement and a stronger foundation for tomorrow. Winner of His Majesty’s Cup for the Best Five Factories in the Sultanate of Oman for the 10th time.
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S08 ORME 5 2012 Petrochems_Layout 1 14/08/2012 09:43 Page 36
The Dow Chemical Company talked to Oil Review Middle East about current trends in the petrochemical sector and the vast opportunities they are bringing to the Middle East
Opportunities aplenty in the
petrochemical sector C
AROL WILLIAMS, EXECUTIVE vice president of Dow Manufacturing & Engineering, and Markus Wildi, vice president corporate development Kuwait & president Dow Middle East, outlined what they saw as the current trends in the petrochemical industry and the opportunities for investment and collaboration in the region, especially in Saudi Arabia. “The current trends should be seen in our industry as opportunities,” Williams said. “There are lots of new innovations coming up. Just here in the Middle East there is a great deal of movement. We see the world full of opportunities.” With projected investments in capital projects expected to reach into trillions of dollars across the Middle East over the next decade, Williams believes there is a concerted push towards investment of resources with an eye on the big picture. Unsurprisingly, she says, much of the focus in the region falls into four broad categories: transportation and infrastructure, energy, consumer goods and health and nutrition. It is also no coincidence that these categories correspond with the social and economic ‘global megatrends’ that Dow consciously aligns its innovation efforts and business investments.
She highlighted the renewable energy sector as one such example, with Saudi Arabia announcing wind energy projects in which the wind turbine blades will contain an enormous amount of technology, along with the lubricants to keep them running. One of the major issues in the region surrounds the fast growing young population and the need for job creation. “When you think about the petrochemical industry, these are important building blocks that enable us to invest in this sector. I see the chemical industry as the enabler in the Middle East for a lot of these issues from sustainability to job creation,” Wildi noted. The Chemical industry provides the building blocks that are critical enablers to the downstream manufacturing industries and as such is more capital intensive while the downstream is more labor intensive. “If you look at job creation the numbers vary between 5-1 to 8-1 if you go into the downstream space,” said Williams. Meaning that for every one job in the petrochemical industry, five to eight jobs are created from downstream manufacturing as a result.
“The current trends should be seen in our industry as opportunities”
36 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Innovation is also a key element according to Wildi. Saudi Arabia will not be able to become the regional hub for petrochemicals overnight and innovation will be essential to obtaining this position. “Combining our expertise with that of our partners ensures effective delivery of top quality products and innovative use of technology, allowing us to meet our ultimate goal -- bringing sustainable solutions to some of the world’s most pressing challenges,” said Wildi. Wildi, who has oversight of Dow’s regional joint ventures, cited the example of the important joint venture Dow has set up with Saudi Aramco, Sadara, which will produce numerous different products that have never been produced before in the Middle East and that will attract further investment downstream. “When Sadara comes on-stream it will provide a great opportunity for downstream growth,” Wildi observed. Dow has a strong industry presence and the company is committed to two major investments. One is in water and focuses on its membranes technology and the second is in the area of coatings. “Both of these are essentials in the Middle East in terms of investment. If we look at investment in the Middle East, the billions of dollars that will be spent on both water and coatings will be vital to this,” stated Wildi. One other way that Dow is investing is through the creation of its own research centre in Saudi Arabia in partnership with KAUST. The centre is in the early phases of being set up and will focus on oil, gas and water research. The centre will become Dow’s main research and development centre for all of Middle East and Africa, and it is the first time that Dow is creating a R&D centre outside of Europe and within this region. “This local research capability will give us a much better understanding of the needs of the region, the trends and opportunities going forward,” Wildi added.
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Williams said: “We have always focused on R&D and we spend over US$1.5 billion a year on technology that includes both product and process technologies.” One example of this is the new propylene oxide technology that uses one-third the amount of water as traditional PO technology and significantly less energy.
Dow spends over US$1.5 billion a year on technology that includes both product and process technologies “So from a sustainability point of view it is tremendous and it also impacts the cost of the product,” noted Williams. Dow has extensive efforts in process developments to drive sustainable use. For instance, Dow has flexi-crackers in most places that gives it the ability to adjust feedstock, using a wide product slate. In the view of these Dow executives, as the problems facing the world's growing population increase, the petrochemical industry must become part of the solution. The industry not only has the opportunity to increase its own long-term competitiveness but to also deliver systematic and sustainable value to the world. ■
Global hub for the downstream sector THE MIDDLE EAST is on course to become a major hub for the global petrochemical industry in the next few years and by 2015 close to 25 per cent of world petrochemical production will come out of the region. AspenTech’s business consulting director for MENA, Rob Howard, spoke to Oil Review Middle East about the trends that are transforming the sector into a more competitive, advanced and diversified industry in the Middle East. Howard said: “I have noticed in the last 2-5 years there has been a much more rapid adoption of advanced technologies across the whole process manufacturing and engineering environment in the region.” On the refining side, the region is building and revamping refining plants that are far more complex to operate and provide much more upgrading. The Middle East refineries are becoming more and more like those in the West. According to Howard, the question now is how quickly you can deploy advanced manufacturing technologies with the right people and, more importantly, with properly trained people to maintain the plants and applications. “So the big focus now is on training,” added Howard. Training is a major part of the growth of the petrochemical industry in the region and although locals are getting a very good basic grounding, what they need is to be exposed to practical on-the-job engineering training to get them up to best practices as quickly as possible, Howard believes.
38 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
He said: “The aim would be for local people to be able to deploy and maintain the necessary advanced technologies in these new refining plants.” Howard said that in the petrochemical field what he is seeing increasingly is the move from the traditional ethane crackers where feed supply is much tighter, to new crackers that are almost all naphtha based. One of the reasons for this switch is the huge demand for gas on the power side (particularly in Saudi Arabia) resulting in ethane being increasingly used in gas powered stations around the Middle East. This has meant that the region’s crackers are no longer based on a single feedstock, but rather on multiple feedstocks. “By cracking heavier feedstock they are now making higher valued derivatives for chemical products.” Price fluctuation is an area of concern, but the region still has a massive feedstock advantage. Despite this, the profit potential of the feedstocks is more complex and the regional petrochemical companies now have to decide which feedstocks to process and what products to make and how they can differentiate themselves in terms of product range and quality. Howard believes that the local competition is heating up and that regional petrochemical companies are now competing on the global market with similar end products. “Regional petrochemical companies will have to become more agile, flexible and
more responsive to global market prices,” said Howard. The Saudi Arabian market is seeing the biggest transformation with local, independent petrochemical companies pushing for complete integration across the value chain. Sadara, the new joint venture between Dow Chemical and Saudi Aramco, is looking to produce a wide range of performance and value added chemical and plastic products and shows Aramco’s desire to move more downstream in pursuit of where the main value added is to be found. Saudi Kayan, a SABIC affiliate, is now producing polycarbonate at what is the first pol carbonate plant in the Middle East. They are now going for the very highest valued products. “The build up of downstream capacity in this region is phenomenal. 50 per cent of new investment in the world petrochemical industry in the next 4-5 years is being put into the Middle East and mainly in Jubail industrial city.” More complex products in turn will require more complex planning, manufacturing and advanced control technologies and more people to understand and manage the new systems. “We see a tremendous opportunity for our solutions in the Middle East and it is going to be a race among manufacturers to deploy these technologies and to exploit the increased profit opportunity they provide,” concluded Howard.
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Tecnicas Reunidas wins two Saudi petrochemical projects SPANISH OIL ENGINEERING company Tecnicas Reunidas (TR) has been awarded two deals to build petrochemical plants for Sadara and Sabic in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia. The first deal was a US$800mn contract awarded by Sadara Chemical Company (Sadara), a joint venture between Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) and The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) to build part of a petrochemical complex in Jubail II. The contract is for the Chem-III project, part of the US$20 billion chemical complex being built by Sadara. The project awarded includes the ethylene oxide, propylene glycol, polyols, ethanol amines, ethylene amines, butyl glycol ether plants and the auxiliary and control facilities necessary for their operation. The plants are scheduled to be operational during 2015. TR will perform detailed engineering, procurement and supply of the equipment and materials, construction of the plants and the support during commissioning of the units. The Sadara complex in Jubail is the world’s largest chemical complex ever built in a single phase. TR was also awarded a contract by Petrokemya, a subsidiary of Saudi Basic Industries Corp (SABIC) for the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plant. This deal is estimated to cost US$561 million and is expected to start initial operations in the fourth quarter of 2014. Sabic did not provide the value of the contract with Tecnicas Reunidas, and said it would finance the project with its own resources. The project would have production capacity of 140,000 tonnes per year of the ABS product, which is used by the automotive industry among others.
Petrofac wins two Petro Rabigh II contracts UK-BASED PETROFAC HAS been awarded two engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts for Petro Rabigh’s Phase II petrochemical expansion project. Petro Rabigh operates the refinery at Rabigh, about 150 km north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The Petro Rabigh II project is due to start operations in early 2016. The expansion will upgrade the existing ethane cracker and a new aromatics complex will be built using around 3mn tonnes per year of naphtha to make higher-value petrochemical products. The first EPC contract is for tank farms and a second EPC contract is for common utilities. Both projects are scheduled to be completed The Petro Rabigh II expansion project is due to start within 36 operations in early 2016 months. These are some of the first major awards made by Saudi Aramco and Sumitomo Chemical under their In-Kingdom EPC programme and will be delivered from Petrofac’s Saudi Arabia office in Al-Khobar. Chief executive of Petrofac’s engineering, construction, operations & maintenance (ECOM) division, Marwan Chedid commented: “We are delighted to have secured these projects. We look forward to strengthening the relationship with both Saudi Aramco and Sumitomo Chemical as they progress.” Petro Rabigh is a domestic public company in which both Saudi Aramco and Sumitomo Chemical Co each own 37.5 per cent.
40 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Technip wins EPC contract for elastomer project AL-JUBAIL PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY (KEMYA) has awarded French engineering firm Technip an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for a elastomer facility, located in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia. The new Halobutyl 2 facility will produce 110,000 tonnes per year of A plant in Jubail Industrial City in Saudi Arabia rubber using ExxonMobil licensed technology. Halobutyl is a high-quality synthetic rubber polymer. This project is part of the Saudi Elastomers programme undertaken by KEMYA to set up a world-scale specialty elastomers facility to serve local markets, the wider Middle East region and Asia. Technip Senior Vice President of Middle East Region Arturo Grimaldi stated: "We are glad to work on the implementation of this facility, based on a state-of-art technology, in line with Saudi Arabia’s strategic objectives." The project will be executed by Technip’s operating centre in Abu Dhabi. KEMYA is a 50:50 joint venture between Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Exxon Chemical Arabia, an affiliate of ExxonMobil Chemical Company.
Sabic awards EPC contracts for elastomers project SAUDI BASIC INDUSTRIES Corp (Sabic) has said its joint-venture affiliate, Al-Jubail Petrochemical Company (Kemya), has awarded EPC contracts to Daelim Industries, Technip, and Tecnicas Reunidas for its elastomers project in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia The next stage of the elastomers project development has been estimated to cost $3.4 billion and the facility, which has been scheduled for completion in 2015, will be integrated within the existing Jubail complex. Upon completion, the facility will have the capacity to produce up to 400,000 tonnes per year of rubber including halobutyl, styrene butadiene, polybutadiene, and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubbers, thermoplastic specialty polymers, and carbon black, which will serve local markets, the wider Middle East and Asia. SABIC vice chairman and chief executive officer, Mohamed Al-Mady, commented, “The strategic partnership between SABIC and ExxonMobil provides the strength of industry-leading competitive assets and introduces new specialty products to the kingdom.” Neil Chapman, senior VP - polymers for ExxonMobil, added, “The expansion will employ the latest proprietary processes and product technologies to meet the growing global demand for specialty elastomers.” Along with its elastomers facility, Sabic will also establish a High Institute for Elastomer Industries (HIEI), a vocational training centre in Yanbu, a product application centre in Riyadh and thermoplastic polyolefin compounding and inventory management facilities in Jubail. “The HIEI, product support centre, and the Kemya elastomers facility together build a strong foundation for investments in targeted industries such as tire manufacturing, building and construction, automotive and appliances,” said Sabic executive vice president - performance chemicals Koos van Haasteren Kemya is a 50:50 joint venture between Sabic and Exxon Chemical Arabia, an affiliate of ExxonMobil Chemical Company.
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Erbil Oil & Gas
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This year’s international Erbil Oil & Gas Exhibition takes place in one of the world’s oldest cities early in September. Over several years this event has established itself as a top regional happening.
in the north Erbil is ready and wants your business
OINTLY STAGED BY the experienced international fair organisers Pyramids (Iraq) and Expotim (Turkey), this year’s four-day Erbil Oil & Gas expo opens in the prosperous northern city’s Sami Abdel Rahman Park on 3 September. “Along with the central part of Baghdad it is the most secure place in Iraq”, they say. “Since 2003 not a single foreigner has been kidnapped in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq… Erbil [Arbil, Irbil] differs completely when compared to what is currently taking place in other regions … mostly due to strict security measures.” And in addition the city’s busy international airport offers direct flights to Amman and Dubai as well as numerous Western cities, giving visitors an opportunity to avoid the capital altogether.. Exhibitors participating in this key regional event will include businesses and institutions specialising in: 6 Geophysics, geological services 6 Retail and distribution services 6 E&P 6 Specialised software 6 Drilling, well servicing 6 Mechanical construction 6 Oil/gas field equipment, services 6 Human resources incl training 6 Refining, processing, petrochems 6 Security equipment, services 6 Transportation, pipelines 6 On-/offshore technologies 6 Measurement, automation 6 Laboratory equipment 6 Tools and tooling 6 Power generation In his widely acclaimed and immensely positive The Quest (2011) IHS Cambridge Energy Research
42 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
chairman Daniel Yergin says that by 2020 all-Iraqi oil production could reach 6.5mn bpd; some local officials have put forward a much higher figure. Even at the Pulitzer winner’s (appropriately, for his previous The Prize) lower level this would be a major advance on the average daily 2.80mn achievement recorded by BP for last year, itself a significant advance on the 2.48mn total of 2010. The peak before this was 2.5mn bpd back in 2001. The locally based exhibition organisers themselves point out that Iraq’s total proven reserves now easily exceed 140 billion barrels – a figure which others point out seems to be going up all the time as the holder of the world’s third largest oil reserves steadily updates itself after decades of – at best – standing still. It all points to a major increase in business for suppliers of oil- and gasfield equipment and services of all types, who regard the North fields and their immediate development needs as an excellent entry point for a stake in this massively important country as a whole.
Iraq’s total proven reserves now easily exceed 140 billion barrels Antiquated So far 80 individual resources have been found in Iraq, of which only 18 have been developed significantly; the North’s famed Kirkuk field holding a conservatively estimated 11 billion barrels alone. With so few – so far – opportunities for piping let alone selling the cleaned-up product the gas situation is even more unknown, but proven total reserves are known to be in excess of 110 tcf - and much more is more or less certain to be found as
today’s 3D seismic prospecting techniques swing into action. The domestic refining situation is even more antiquated, with a total processing capacity of just 0.6 mn bbl/d, and the achieved utilisation rate well below this. “The sector has not been able to meet domestic demand for most products,” say the Erbil organising team. “As a result Iraq relies on imports for about one-fourth of the petroleum products it uses.” Completely independently of all this the latest BP Statistical Review of World Energy (June 2012) reveals that, in oil alone, more than 90 per cent of the total global increase in the world’s total proven reserves last year was accounted for by developments in Iraq. Fields such as favourably located Kirkuk account for a major proportion of this.
Recent developments The recent BP figures show that proven world reserves increased by just 30.0 billion barrels last year; exploration activity in Iraq accounted for 28.1 billion of these. Without the recent developments in this one territory, in other words, the whole ‘Peak Oil’ debate would be much more lively than it has been over the last decade. This major oil exhibition and its supporters in the North are therefore effectively doing the opposite of throwing fuel on the fire. “Erbil is ready and wants your business,” say Expotim and Pyramids International in concert. Not surprisingly in the light of the figures and the prospects that lie behind them, as outlined above, “Interest from the industry will be immense.” ■
Visit www.erbiloilgas.com or call Event Directors Nazli Candemir or Cagatay Ersahin on +90 212 356 0056 (1166, 1162)
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Erbil Oil & Gas
Integrated oilfield services
OILSERV WAS ESTABLISHED in 2006 as the only local independent oil service company focused on the Iraqi market. Since that time, the company has rapidly expanded in the range of the services it provides and the markets it serves. OilSERV now offers a complete line of discrete and integrated oilfield services for drilling, completion, and production projects throughout the Middle East and North Africa. OiLSERV seeks to provide services that are truly differentiated from those offered by all other providers operating in the region. The company seeks to do this in five key ways; 6 Unrivalled expertise in the companyâ€™s home markets 6 Getting the job done right, efficiently, and safely the first time every time 6 International experience 6 The best equipment and available technology 6 Proven processes to ensure total quality
Compression technology specialist HOERBIGER IS ACTIVE throughout the world as a leading player in the fields of compression technology, automation technology and drive technology. The focal points of the companyâ€™s business activities include key components and services for compressors, engines and turbomachines, hydraulic systems and piezo technology for vehicles and machine tools, as well as components and systems for shift and clutch operations in vehicle drive trains of all kinds. For more than a century Hoerbiger has been developing products to make compressor operation safe, reliable, efficient and environment-friendly. Today, Hoerbiger Compression Technology is a world leading manufacturer of valves, control systems and sealing systems for compressors. The business unit provides high-quality products for manufacturers and operators of reciprocating and screw compressors. To Hoerbiger, quality does not just mean using high-grade materials and first-class processing. The company says it stays with its products every step of the way - from manufacture to application by the customer: with a comprehensive range of service and maintenance options that safeguard the value of each customer's investment in the long term. Hoerbiger continues to support the oil, gas, and process industries with technologically advanced key components and services for compressors, gas powered engines, and turbo machinery. Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 45
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Adnoc has had a pivotal year which has seen the national oil giant push ahead with its ambitious offshore development programme at Upper Zakum, near completion on its massive gas projects IGD and Shah Gas, and most importantly, finally commission a pipeline from Abu Dhabi to Fujairah after 12 years in development
Abu Dhabi’s push for more
oil and gas A
BU DHABI, WHICH has the largest share of the UAE’s oil, plans to invest US$60 billion over the next five years to boost its oil production capacity from 2.7mn bpd to 3.5mn bpd. Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (Adnoc) is entering into a key two years as Abu Dhabi's biggest onshore concession expires in 2014. The ADMA-OPCO concession, which has a capacity of around 550,000 bpd, expires in 2018. The next concession renewal is due in 2014 and it belongs to Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Operations (Adco). Abu Dhabi plans to invite companies including current partners and new partners to bid for onshore oilfield concessions when they come up for renewal in 2014. Adco is the largest single concession in Abu Dhabi, with a capacity to produce 1.4mn bpd, half the emirate's output. State-firm Adnoc owns 60 per cent of Adco, with ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, BP, Total and Partex Oil & Gas holding the rest under a concession agreement that dates back to 1939. The fields began commercial production in 1960 and Abu Dhabi’s state-run oil company joined as a partner in the 1970s, forming Adco, which holds the concession for six main onshore fields until 2014. One of the main points of discussions regarding the expiring concessions is whether or not Adnoc will sign up with existing partners or look eastwards and award the new set of concessions to new partner from the East, mainly South Korea and China. “The principal of the tender is to be more open for partners... In the last three years there has been a change towards more openness, some additional partners,” ADMA-OPCO chief executive officer Ali Al Jarwan said at a press conference in Abu Dhabi. This year alone Adnoc has awarded two key tenders to Eastern oil companies. The first to Japanese refiner Cosmo Oil,which secured a new concession area, while a consortium led by Korea National Oil Corporation (KNOC) finalised a deal in March to take a 40 per cent stake in two onshore and one offshore oil drilling areas. Earlier this year, Adnoc and China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement to cooperate in upstream projects, through which the Chinese company has been studying some exploration opportunities in some onshore and offshore blocks. A final
agreement for production is yet to be signed But Adnoc is not likely to just end its successful approach of partnering with Western international oil companies (IOCs) who will remain major players in the UAE oil and gas industry. “The most probable scenario is continuation of IOCs' partnership with Adnoc, with a minimum 60 per cent ADNOC holding and either one or more partner being from the West,” Mohammed Sahoo Al Suwaidi, chief executive of Abu Dhabi Gas Industries. (Gasco) said.
Gas focus Adnoc is betting heavily on the growing future importance of gas not only in terms of exports but also in helping meet local energy demands. Adnoc has spent heavily on gas
Adco is the largest single concession in Abu Dhabi, with a capacity to produce 1.4mn bpd, half the emirate's output.
development with an estimated US$25 billion invested on gas projects currently under construction, according to the chief executive officer of Gasco Al Suwaidi said, “Adnoc presently invests around US$40 billion in oil, gas, refining and petrochemical projects, out of which US$25 billion alone are dedicated to gas projects.” The gas projects include the Integrated Gas (IGD) and Shah Gas development projects. According to Al Suwaidi, Adnoc will soon be launching an effort to further develop onshore reserves, with an additional emphasis on developing offshore gas resources. One reason for Adnoc deciding to focus on natural gas development is because of the expanding global demand for natural gas and the need for the UAE to find increasing capacity of gas to satisfy both domestic and international demand. Al Suwaidi argued that although the UAE produces significant volumes of gas there was still a great deal of room for improvement. He said the UAE has 3.2 per cent of global gas reserves but produces only 1.6 per cent of the world’s supply. Another factor is that Adnoc is now able to increase natural gas production because new technologies are making it easier and more economical to develop unconventional natural gas fields – including shale gas, tight gas, and sour gas.
Fujairah crude pipeline
View of the Umm Shaif offshore complex
One important milestone that was completed in July 2012 was the opening of the Abu Dhabi Crude Oil Pipeline (ADCOP), which runs from the Emirate’s onshore fields to an export terminal in Fujairah some 230 miles away. This strategically important project will allow Abu Dhabi to export crude oil directly from Fujairah, thus offsetting the reliance on Arabian Gulf oil terminals, while reducing shipping congestion through the Straits of Hormuz. The project comprises the pipeline, pumping stations, a 12mn barrel oil terminal at Fujairah, offshore loading single-point mooring systems and associated facilities. Originating from Habshan in Abu Dhabi – the current collection point for Abu Dhabi’s onshore crude oil production – ADCOP will terminate in Fujairah. The 48-inch-diameter pipeline has been designed to transport some
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Installation of the Abu Dhabi crude oil pipeline
1.5 MMBPD of crude oil from Adco facilities at Habshan over a distance of 380-km to an export oil terminal in Fujairah. The importance of the pipeline, which was originally slated for commissioning in 2010,
was shown earlier in the year as sanctions against Iran provoked the possibility of disruptions to marine traffic through the Strait of Hormuz. "It will make other projects viable in this
area, and will also avoid more insurance and also will give access to the open sea," Abdulla Nasser Al Suwaidi, the head Adnoc said after the opening ceremony. Before the pipeline was commissioned, almost all the emirate’s onshore oil was loaded at the Jebel Dhanna port, while its offshore crude is loaded for export at Das Island. By the end of the year this 1.5mn bpd will be fully operational which is almost 70 per cent of the UAE's crude," IPIC's managing director Khadem Abdulla Al Qubaisi said. Abu Dhabi government-owned International Petroleum Investment Company (IPIC) undertook the pipeline project and Adco will be the operator. IPIC is also planning to build a US$3 billion refinery in Fujairah with a capacity of 200,000 bpd, due to be completed in mid-2016. Qubaisi said the project was at its front end, engineering design (FEED) stage with construction yet to start. ■
Upper Zakum field development project advances PHASE TWO OF the Upper Zakum field development is advancing after the UAE's Supreme Petroleum Council awarded a number of tenders for the Upper Zakum Project that suggests that the UAE’s largest oil fields’ expansion project is finally taking shape. The field is located in the Gulf, 84km offshore from Abu Dhabi. It is the second largest oilfields in the Gulf and the fourth largest in the world. It is divided into four production artificial islands (Central, North, South, and West), with processing facilities at the Central Complex. Abu Dhabi’s Zakum Development Company (Zadco) operates the Upper Zakum field, which currently produces 500,000 bpd and is located 84km offshore Abu Dhabi. Zadco is a subsidiary of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, (ADNOC) which holds a 60 per cent stake, with ExxonMobil and Japan Oil Development Co Ltd holding 28 per cent and 12 per cent respectively. Zadco is working on the Upper Zakum Field Development (UZFD) programme which is aimed at increasing oil production at the offshore field to 750,000 bpd by 2015 and to sustain this production target for at least 25 years utilising the artificial island based drilling and production centres. The field’s operator is also building four artificial islands off Technip and NPCC won a major contract for the Upper Zakum field development project the coast of Abu Dhabi at depths ranging from 6 metres to 14 metres to house drilling platforms, oil production facilities and supporting infrastructure as part of its plans to increase production. the Satah Full Field Development EPC contract worth US$500mn from Zadco French oil services group Technip, in a consortium with the National in September last year. The company had already been awarded the FEED Petroleum Construction Company (NPCC), has been awarded a contract on the contract for the package, which is expected to raise oil production from Upper Upper Zakum Project in Abu Dhabi by Zadco. Zakum by 100,000 bpd. The awarded contract was for the engineering, procurement, fabrication, In late June this year, Adnoc awarded Habtoor Leighton Group the offshore installation, commissioning and start-up on the Upper Zakum Project. utilities and accommodation package for its artificial offshore islands. The The scope of work will cover 240km of subsea pipelines, 128km of subsea engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) deal covers the design and composite and fiber-optic cables and nearly 30,000 tonnes of offshore construction of a 2,150-people accommodation, operational and training structures, including approximately 3,000 tonnes of islands modules and spaces for its Upper Zakum offshore oilfield development. Habtoor Leighton bridges. The project has been scheduled for completion in Q3 2015. Group (HLG) said the project will commence immediately and is anticipated to The contract will also include the complete initial production facilities for be completed in August 2015. temporary wells hook up to serve initial production distributed among the Zadco has also awarded Al Jaber Energy Services, a member of Al Jaber north, south and central islands. Group, a contract for early civil works at the offshore Upper Zakum oilfield Technip's operating center in Abu Dhabi will execute the overall towards the start of the year. engineering and participate in procurement, on-island works, cable installation 2012 has shown that Adnoc and the UAE's Supreme Petroleum Council is and initial production. pushing ahead with the Upper Zakum project more quickly than some in the Technip has a strong record of winning offshore work in Abu Dhabi, winning industry had anticipated.
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Elixier new innovation at Habshan field Oil Review Middle East spoke to Tim Buttkus, senior business development manager, Linde Gas Middle East about the firm’s joint venture with ADNOC Elixier and the latest developments in their cooperation for EOR and Air Gas Supply. The Linde ADNOC joint venture (JV) was established in 2007 to supply industrial gases (IG) in the UAE. According to Buttkus, the JV has implemented two tonnage supply schemes with the industrial gases production sites being owned and operated by the JV. The first Air Separation Unit (ASU) was built in Ruwais in 2009 and basically supplies industrial gases to the tenants of Ruwais and Borouge through a network. The second ASU unit was set up late last year and is located in Mirfa. This site is also home to a new and important innovation which was first tried in Abu Mirfa ASU site construction phase
Dhabi when a nitrogen supply was used for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) at the Habshan field. Buttkus stated: “This is a very interesting project as it uses a future application. Again it uses an ASU, but you don’t use oxygen for the conversion processes. Rather, what you do here is you take out the nitrogen with air and push it down below into the reservoir in Habshan.” “In 2011 we began injecting nitrogen into a condensate reservoir in Habshan for pressure maintenance. This freed 300 to 600 million cubic feet of natural gas per day for use as a clean fuel,” said Mohammed Sahoo Al Suwaidi, chief executive officer of Abu Dhabi gas industries limited (GASCO). Buttkus discussed the need for the ASU to be located near the sea for cooling reasons and power requirements, but as the injection is done in Habshan, the JV had to build a 70km pipeline, which was a huge operation. “In the UAE we have a very good relationship and there is a good appreciation of our technologies’” he noted. He also explained how the Linde engineering arm is well regarded for its cracker capability and Borouge has recently purchased its cracker technology for the third time. N2 pipeline Mirfa to Habshan
50 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
BAB gas compression project on track OIL REVIEW SPOKE to Mott MacDonald about the company’s experience of working on the BAB Gas Compression Project (BGCP) which is about to be commissioned and the lessons which were learnt from the challenging project. The BGCP project is aimed at sustaining gas production from a depleting production plateau in the Bab Thamama C, D and Units 6 & 7 reservoirs, by installing three compressor stations near GASCO’s Habshan plant and reducing the outlet pressure from the wells (WHFP, well head flowing pressure). According to Mott MacDonald’s OGP Abu Dhabi director Hisham Alami: “The BGCP project is extremely important as it will help to secure current and future gas demands for the UAE.” The global engineering consultancy began work on the enterprise in 2007 when it was awarded the project management consultant (PMC) role for the front-end engineering design (FEED) and engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) phases of the project by ADCO. Construction work started in the third quarter of 2009 and the project has been running on schedule and is close to being commissioned. “We are very proud to be working with ADCO on this project which has achieved an impressive safety record of 25 million man-hours without lost time incident. This was the result of a joint effort from all the parties involved, from the project owner to the PMC and EPC contractor,” Hisham said. Hisham added that the project scope included tie-ins to various existing trunk lines and the design and construction of new facilities. Gas condensate from the existing trunk lines, at the lower pressures, were redirected to the new compressor stations where it was separated into gas and liquids. The gas was compressed and the liquids pumped to a higher pressure, combining them after pressurisation and then exported via the existing trunk lines to the existing processing plant.
Hisham Alami, Mott MacDonald OGP Abu Dhabi director shakes hands with ADCO's Senior Vice President (E&P) Mr. Saleh Al Wahedi at the ceremony to celebrate the achievement of 20 million man-hours without LTI.
Hisham also talked about the extreme environmental conditions when working on the BGCP project and the challenges this brought, as well as what steps were taken to overcome the heat related challenges. During 2010 there had been 38 heat-stress related health and safety incidents. This resulted in the implementation of a ‘three flag system’ for managing heat-related health and safety risk, which cut the number of heat stress related incidents to zero in 2011 and improved the overall health and safety performance of the project. Hisham noted that ADCO has played an active role during every phase of the project and has also played a vital role in promoting safety with the launch of the ‘heat stress awareness’ campaign. “The success of the three flag system shows that simple and cost effective ideas can bring excellent results if supported by a strong safety culture,” Hisham concluded.
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Samsung Engineering wins US$2.48 billion Takreer contract
Honeywell launches testing facility for Shah Gas project
SAMSUNG ENGINEERING HAS won a US$2.48 billion project from the Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company (Takreer) to construct a carbon black and delayed coker (CBDC) plant in Ruwais, Abu Dhabi. The CBDC facility will be located at the chemical refining complex in Ruwais, west of Abu Dhabi. It would have the capacity to produce 40,000 tonnes of carbon black per year and 30,000 barrels of crude oil per day. As per the terms of agreement, Samsung will provide project management services for the engineering, procurement, construction and commissioning processes on a lump-sum turnkey basis. The CBDC plant is expected to be completed by December 2015. Samsung Engineering president Park Ki-Seok said, "This award solidifies Samsung Engineering's project management and engineering expertise as well as our strong partnership with TAKREER. We look forward to executing this landmark project to the highest standards." Carbon black is a fine carbon powder used as a pigment. It is made from burning hydrocarbons in insufficient air. Delayed coker is a process by which heavier crude oil fractions can be thermally decomposed under conditions of elevated temperatures and pressure to produce a mixture of lighter oils and petroleum coke. This is the eighth order in five years from the UAE's national oil firm for Samsung. The Korean engineering company had previously won the Ruwais Refinery Utilities and Offsite package worth US$2.73 billion. It was also chosen as the official interface manager for the US$10 billion Ruwais Refinery expansion.
HONEYWELL HAS OPENED a testing facility in the Mussafah industrial zone of Abu Dhabi that will enable Honeywell and third-party engineers to test systems destined for the Shah sour gas field development. The new centre will allow Abu Dhabi Gas The opening ceremony at Honeywell’s new Development Company (Al customer training centre Hosn Gas), who is developing the field, to conduct testing of Honeywell’s control system hardware and software destined for the Shah Gas project. "The new Customer Acceptance Centre provides a state-of-the-art facility that will enable thorough testing of the systems we have purchased from Honeywell," said Al Hosn Gas chief executive officer Saif Al Ghafli. Honeywell Process Solutions is the main automation contractor for the Shah Gas Development Project, providing operation, control, monitoring and full protection of the gas field through its Experion Process Knowledge System (PKS) and Safety Manager technologies. The facility will be able to hold more than 1,500 control system cabinets and can house multiple Engineering Procurement Contractors (EPC) and end user teams who can test the systems, which once completed will be shipped to the site for commissioning.
Adnoc, OMV and Wintershall sign sour gas deal ABU DHABI NATIONAL Oil Company (ADNOC), OMV and Wintershall have signed a technical evaluation agreement to appraise the sour gas and condensate field in Shuwaihat, Abu Dhabi. The appraisal phase will be conducted through an equal partnership between the operator Wintershall and OMV by drilling up to three appraisal wells and acquiring 3D seismic over the field. In the event of a successful appraisal, ADNOC will participate in the development and production phases of the Shuwaihat field, situated 25 km to the West of Ruwais in the Western Region Wintershall,OMV and Adnoc sign the new agreement of Abu Dhabi. OMV chief executive officer Gerhard Roiss said, "The signing of our first upstream joint venture in Abu Dhabi underlines our exploration and production strategy in the Middle East and strengthens relations with the UAE and ADNOC." Wintershall and OMV will employ advanced technologies to ensure successful appraisal and future development of the Shuwaihat sour gas and condensate field. A successful appraisal campaign will result in Shuwaihat being an important gas and condensate field in Abu Dhabi, contributing to cover the increasing hydrocarbon demand of the UAE.
52 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Adgas reduces flaring ABU DHABI GAS Liquefaction Company (Adgas) has said in its latest sustainability report for 2011 that it has beaten its gas flaring target for 2011 by 400,000 standard cubic feet daily (SCFD) as several projects have come into operation that have greater plant efficiency. Adgas average gas flaring dropped to 8.5 million standard cubic feet daily (MMSCFD) in 2011 undercutting the gas flaring target it had set of 8.9 MMSCFD for 2011. In the last six years, the LNG producer has drastically reduced natural gas flaring by 63 per cent from a high of 22.7 MMSCFD in 2005 to 8.5 MMSCFD in 2011, the Annual Sustainability Report 2011 said. Adgas plans to cut its emissions by a further 53 per cent on 2011 emission levels to four per cent in 2015. The reduction in flaring has allowed Adgas’ output to exceed the production target by 6.6 per cent to 7.70 million metric tonnes in 2011, out of which the company sold 7.54 million metric tonnes. The increased production has seen the company's earnings jump as Adgas has been able to convert the gas which used to go into flaring into LNG. Chief executive officer Fahim Kazim said Adgas “continued to create value addition to its shareholder by increasing the net profit above the set target.” Adgas linked this success to the implementation of various mega projects that were completed last year, including fuel gas process control Train-3, the implementation of flaring handling and emission reduction on project one and two. These plant efficiency enhancements have helped reduce flaring. In order to cut emissions, Adgas prepared two schemes to revamp the fuel-gas system in LNG trains and re-route the rich DEA and rich carbonate flash-gases from LNG Trains 1, 2 and 3. Last year, it successfully commissioned and implemented phase one of scheme-1. Under the project, Adgas commissioned a new recovery gas header with a capacity for recovering up to 10 MMSCFD of excess fuel gas from LNG Train-3.
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Rigless intervention system
Pump capabilities expanded
BAKER HUGHES’ SAYS its new mechanized, self-pinning rigless intervention system, Mastiff™, provides operators with an alternative method for carrying out pipe installation and retrieval operations, which typically require a costly offshore rig. By eliminating the need for a rig, the Mastiff Rigless Intervention System (RIS) can reduce the cost of abandonment, workover and drive pipe preinstallation operations. The Mastiff RIS’ modular design and light weight make it ideal for operations on platforms with limited load capacity and is easily deployed worldwide. With a maximum weight of 24,000 pounds (10886 kg), each RIS module can be transported in a standard 40-foot (12-meter) open-top container. The Mastiff RIS has a self-pinning mast erection system that improves safety and enables the unit to be rigged up or rigged down in 24 to 48 hours. Hydraulics built into the system enable the modular components to be assembled and disassembled using a hydraulic, self-pinning design, eliminating the need for riding belt operations, and dramatically reducing risks associated with working at height and manual handling of components. The system’s sturdy mast enables safe operation at wind speeds of up to 50 mph. The system has a 352-ton pulling capacity. While performing conductor pipe removal, the Mastiff RIS can support cutting and pulling lifts of 50-foot sections of 36-inch conductor pipe, inner casing and cement, a significant improvement over casing jack systems, which work with five-foot sections. As an alternative to well abandonment, the Mastiff RIS can be used to initiate a slot recovery program for continued field development prior to the arrival of the drilling rig.
FLOWSERVE CORPORATION HAS launched its expanded range of Durco® Mark 3™ ISO chemical process pumps. The Durco Mark 3 ISO pump range is fully compliant with ISO 2858 (dimensional) and ISO 5199 (design) criteria and is designed to offer end users the benefits of a price-competitive, high-efficiency, high-reliability pump incorporating many advanced design features. In developing the pump, the Flowserve design team combined hydraulic and modeling software with knowledge gained from more than 30 years of experience with its ANSI/ASME B73.1 stablemate, the Durco Mark 3 ANSI pump. With flows to 1400 m3/h (cubic meters per www.flowserve.com hour)/6160 US gpm (US gallons per minute), heads to 220 m (meters)/720 ft (feet) and operating temperatures from -80 C to 400 C (-112 F to 752 F), the Durco Mark 3 ISO pump is available in 45 sizes, plus many designs, configurations and material combinations. The new pump offers increased reliability through its heavyduty casing, large radial and thrust bearings and SealSentryTM seal chamber. A range of impeller options is available. The Durco signature "reverse vane" impeller can offer significant benefits, including ease of maintenance and repeatable pump performance throughout the life of the pump.
Cable and pipe sealing solutions ROXTEC SEALING SOLUTIONS for cables and pipes have been popular world-wide since the early 1990’s. As a result of proven application performance plus benefits that include cost and labour savings, Roxtec products have been achieving significant growth in various business sectors, such as oil and gas, marine, wind power, construction, and original equipment manufacturers (OEM) segments. The Roxtec system is based on a rubber sealing module that consists of two halves, a center core, and removable black and blue layers. This construction ensures adaptability to different sizes of cables and pipes. Just peel off layers to achieve a tight installation. A www.roxtec.com
single module can seal a cable or pipe over a span of several different diameters simply by removing layers from the module halves. In fact, most cables can be effectively sealed with just six basic sizes of Roxtec sealing modules. Easily installed Roxtec modules are used together with a frame and a compression unit, resulting in an optimum sealing solution suitable for wide-ranging applications. The ultimate design objective of the Roxtec sealing system is to provide reliable protection for both people and investments. Cable and pipe seals protect against water, fire, gas, pressure, sand, to name just a few.
Siemens aids Iraqi oil infrastructure Siemens, announced that its Oil & Gas division has won a contract for the supply of fuel efficient turbo pump equipment to be installed at a crude oil pumping station in Iraq. The contract, which is due to be completed in June 2013, was signed between Siemens and engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor Progetti Europa & Global SpA (PEG), and is for the supply and installation of two fuelefficient turbo pump trains driven by Siemens SGT-400 Gas Turbines. The trains will be installed at the new Habaneya PS4 crude oil pumping station located along the north-south Iraq Strategic Pipeline, enhancing the transfer of crude to a major
54 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
depot, while reducing the station’s fuel consumption. Ali Vezvaei, Siemens Executive Vice President for Oil & Gas operations in Middle East and North Africa said: “Habaneya is the second pumping station in Iraq that uses Siemens equipment; we are proud to be a technology partner of choice for Iraq’s oil and gas industry and will continue to support the rebuild of Iraq with our broad range of products and solutions.” The supply of the fuel-efficient pump sets further enhances Siemens’ commitment to the continuing development of Iraq’s infrastructure bringing know-how, expertise and technology to the country’s energy and oil and gas industry.
Siemens already works extensively in Iraq and this latest contract will assist the progress of the country’s resource management by enabling the efficient transfer of crude oil. The company also announced it is supplying SNF SAS, France, a chemical company specialized in polymers, with a produced water treatment system as part of the company’s plant expansion in the Petrocedeño oil field, located in the Orinoco Belt in Venezuela. The system includes a Spinsep vertical flotation unit and a Monosep high flow walnut shell filter to treat 10,000 BWPD (barrels water per day) of produced water as part of the Petrocedeño EOR Polymer Field Test Project.
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Megarme LLC is a professional Inspection, Repair and Maintenance (IRM) provider offering turn-key services that can be deployed individually or as part of a multidisciplined access solution dedicated to the Oil & Gas industry.
IRATA Rope Access Services Non Destructive Testing Blasting & Painting Services Electrical / Mechanical Services Inspection Repair & Maintenance The Flange Facer from Hydratight
Compressor installation for Chevron ATLAS COPCO RENTAL’S first 150 bar booster in Asia has been delivered to the PT McDermott fabrication yard in Batam, Indonesia for pressure testing piping modules bound for Chevron Australia’s Gorgon Project in Western Australia. The complete Atlas Copco installation features two class zero (acc ISO 8573-1) certified 100 per cent oil-free PNS1250 air compressors, dryers and manifolds plus the 150 bar B18-62/2250 2-stage reciprocating-type booster. Housed within fully weatherproof canopies the two PNS1250 compressors each provide a free air delivery of 1250 cfm, 35.4 m3/min at 24 bar. This 100 per cent oil-free air is fed through a manifold and SD150 dryer into the booster. Only recently introduced, the Atlas Copco B18-62/2250 booster is a 2-stage, reciprocating-type compressor and provides a suction pressure of 350 psi, 24 bar and a maximum discharge pressure of 2250 psi, 155 bar to ensure a maximum pressure of 2185 cfm, 62 m3/min. The 2-stage booster is rig-safe and can be used on pipeline and dewatering projects globally. Installed as a permanent installation for the 12 month plus rental contract by PT McDermott, the Atlas Copco system is used for 2000 psi, 150 bar pressure testing LNG modules. The testing is carried out using skid-mounted ‘long toms’ which are initially pressurized to the required test pressure and then transported to the module site and connected to the modules testing point.
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Abu Dhabi - U.A.E. : (Shaheer Naranath)
+971 2 626225 Dubai - U.A.E. : (Amel Vriesman)
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+974 44912890 Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Committed to Excellence - Committed to you!
Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 55
On-site machining range extended HYDRATIGHT HAS EXTENDED its on-site machining catalogue with the launch of several new multi-unit tool ranges. The expanded powered-tool range is now widely available for sale or rental and includes flange facing tools, orbital milling machines, portable tapping and drilling, hot-tapping machines, larger-scale mills and gantry mills. One of the most popular models in the new range is the pneumatically-operated, internally-mounted, MM1000i flange facer capable of refacing flanges from six inches to 40in diameter and featuring quick-setjaws, a powered 360degree tool post and and three-groove-feed gearbox. Hydratight will offer a wide range of internally- and externallymounted facing machines covering sizes up to the usual US maximum of 120in and beyond, the largest being a 157in model. All sizes offer the same high-efficiency operation and ease of use as the MM1000i.
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Well abandonment tool PROSERV, A GLOBAL leader in energy production technology services, has unveiled a next generation subsea cutting tool that provides complete well severance and significantly reduces in-well operational time by up to 50 per cent. Proserv’s enhanced Multi-String Cutting (MSC) tool, which was launched recently at the Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, is a customisable internal multi-string conductor cutter that provides complete well severance from tool deployment to cutting operation and tool recovery within 12 hours. First developed over two years ago in response to client demand for a specialist subsea cutting solution that severs fully grouted or non-grouted www.proserv.com casing strings, the tool has undergone significant enhancements including an innovative new design of cutting head. It also When used in conjunction with Proserv’s marketnow includes highly-reliable wireless data leading water abrasive cutting technology, it transmission technology which removes the need offers clients a superior cutting solution for their for data cables and eliminates the threat of cable most challenging decommissioning and damage, whilst improving control. abandonment requirements.
r r r
56 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Well management contract for AGR AGR HAS BEEN awarded a well management contract from international upstream exploration and production company, Cooper Energy Tunisa Bargou (CTEB). This will see AGR perform the planning, execution and post-drilling activities for a one-well programme in the Gulf of Hammamet, offshore of Tunisia. AGR is currently seeking a suitable jack-up rig to operate the well whilst investigating the possibility of incorporating it into a larger drilling campaign in the Mediterranean Sea. AGR is the world’s largest independent well management group. By enabling clients to achieve increased HSE&Q and operational performance savings, the company claims to have established itself as the preferred solutions provider for the upstream petroleum industry across the world.
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Delivering a massive incremental gain PH PETRO, AN integrated enhanced oil recovery (EOR) company, announced that the recently completed single-well test project for Oman’s Daleel Petroleum Company delivered an impressive 134 per cent incremental oil gain. The project marks the debut of SUR+ (Surfactant Plus) in the Middle East and PH Petro’s first foray into the Arab markets. PH Petro undertakes EOR projects in Southeast Asia from concept to completion and SUR+ has been field tested in more than 18 fields and 50 wells in various producing formation. The recently completed project www.phpetro.com gauges the effectiveness of PH Petro’s surfactant technology in improving oil recovery at a Daleel producer well. PH Petro’s SUR+ technology delivered 5,785 barrels of cumulative oil exceeding baseline forecast by 3,171 barrels of oil. Due to the favorable result, evaluation efforts are now underway to
extend the EOR pilot flooding to cover several injectors and a few more IOR (improved oil recovery) at producer wells. The field implementation is forecasted to deliver incremental gain of between 100 to 300 per cent.
Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 57
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Electronically actuated casing packer
Surface logging technologies save money
AS OPERATORS LOOK to reduce risk in harsh offshore environments, Baker Hughes’ newest technologies offer the latest solutions in long string, deepwater completions. The Baker Hughes ZX-e™ Electronically Actuated Casing Packer remotely creates a mechanical barrier to flow paths during wellbore construction, completion, production and abandonment operations, while a state-of-the-art Wireless Top Drive (TD) Cement Head handles heavy casing strings and remotely launches plugs, balls and darts. The ZX-e remote actuated casing packer features an electronic trigger mechanism and sets the packer without pressure or pipe manipulation. The packer creates a gas-tight barrier between casing strings for critical applications and is the first to use a modular electronic trigger mechanism. This interventionless actuation method simplifies installation operations and provides a mechanical seal that offers more reliable isolation than cement in the casing annulus www.bakerhughes.com in both offshore and land wells.
EMPIRICA, A RAPIDLY growing surface logging company and a member of Reservoir Group, has launched two new technologies that it claims will dramatically cut the time it takes to sample and view well data. Dual Flame Ionised Detection (Dual FID) technology is a high-speed chromatograph, and Live Logging is a real-time cloud-based system that allows operators and geologists to interact with wells from any computer or device anywhere during the drilling process. Dual FID is an industry leading measurement system, with unique highspeed chromatograph technology. The 36-second chromatograph significantly improves on the current industry average of 45-65 seconds and provides 100 per cent resolution between components. The high speed equates to more sampling per foot at a fast rate of penetration and can help differentiate laminated sands and low resistivity pay allowing operators to make quicker decisions, saving time and money. “These two technologies have been developed by our large research and development team, which is what differentiates us from our competitors” said Etienne Roux, Empirica’s managing director. “With the high cost of operating an offshore deepwater rig today being able to trim off any excess time in the process is of immense value to operators.” Live Logging allows for instantaneous interaction potentially saving time and money and, most importantly, optimising the well construction process. It is the first system to capture the human component of surface logging. It allows geologists to interact with the personnel at the wellsite and gives them access to static data instantaneously, as well as the ability to see the notes, pictures and interpretations made by the mudlogging engineer. This provides a full picture of what’s happening on the rig, enabling operators to make better decisions about their asset.
Q Quality uality from from concep ption to to conception ccompletion. omple etion. millio SC SCV V offers offers $45 million on in ready-to-ship ready y--to-ship standar standard d & hard-to-find hard-to-fi find in inventory. ven e tory. Southern S outhern California California Valve Valve is a respected respected manufacturer manufacturer and valves and har hard-to-find d-to-find ““go-to” go-to” source source for fo or standard standard commodity com mmodity valves specialt specialtyy valves. valves. SCV SCV offers off ffe ers a complete complet o e line of gates, gates, globes globes,, checks, checks, balls balls,, plugs, plugs, and sub-sea sub-sea designs designs in all siz sizes, es, pressure pressure classes, classes, and metallurgical metallurgical compositions. comp positions. FFor or more more than 40 years, years, SCV SCV has has served served industries industries including the po power, werr, paper and pulp, pulp, oil and gas, gas, transmission, transmission, and petropetrochemical sectors. sectors. We We pride pride ourselves ourrselves on our high quality quality products, pr oductss, timely deliv delivery ery capab capabilities, bilities, and ccompetitive ompetitive pr prices. ices. API 6A, API 6D D, ISO: 9001:2008, CE-PED C D, & CRN ccertified. ertified. 6D, CE-PED,
V Visit isit us on the web web @ w www.scvvalve.com. ww.sc . vvalv ve.com. Middle Middle East/North East/North A Africa frica Sales Sales a Office: Office: +962 (79) 660-3333 58 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
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New system doubles operating depths ION GEOPHYSICAL CORPORATION has launched CalypsoTM, its next generation redeployable seabed acquisition system. Leveraging ION’s VectorSeis® digital sensors to deliver the same broadband imaging, Calypso is designed to operate at twice the depth and to deliver twice the operational efficiency of its predecessor system, VectorSeis Ocean (VSO). The seabed seismic market has grown over 250 per cent in the last five years, with over US$300mn in contracts awarded in Q1 of 2012 alone. Prompting this growth is seabed www.iongeo.com/calypso seismic’s ability to deliver superior image quality and operate in areas of dense infrastructure. Yet, despite its increasing popularity, seabed seismic still represents a relatively small percentage of total marine seismic projects, largely due to historically high costs and long cycle times relative to towed streamer acquisition. ION’s new Calypso system has the potential to mitigate both barriers to wider adoption by doubling cable lengths and productivity while significantly expanding operating depths.
60 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Major Saudi order for DCT DEEP CASING TOOLS, the Aberdeen-based casing and completion technology specialist, has secured a major order in Saudi Arabia following the introduction of its innovative high-speed drillable reaming system, the Turbocaser Express. Successful runs in the Kingdom’s Eastern Province resulted in landing casing and liners on depth with both 7” and 9 5/8” Turbocaser Express tools and have led a major national oil company to commit to applying the technology in some of its more difficult well environments. Landing casing and liners in mature fields, with highly deviated wells, altered pressure regimes and frequently unstable formations, can be very challenging, leading to multiple sidetracks and casings set off-depth. The economic impact can be serious, with expenditure overruns and delayed production. The Turbocaser Express is an enabling technology for all wells, to ensure casing is set at the planned depth, a fundamental building block of improved well integrity. The Turbocaser Express has particular application where hole conditions can deteriorate with time and where wiper trips can be eliminated. The Turbocaser Express delivers a step change in drilling industry process. It enables casings and intermediate liners to be landed at target depth first time. After normal cementation, the unique internal assembly can be drilled through in minutes in one cost effective operation. Deep Casing Tools CEO Lance Davis said, “This order, for Q2 and Q3 delivery, is well in excess of US$1.5mn, and is a major milestone in the growth of Deep Casing Tools, both in the Middle East, and globally. ” Deep Casing Tools specialises in the development and manufacture of casing and completion tools that enable drilling and completion engineers to land first time at target depth in the increasingly demanding wellbore conditions faced by today's oil and gas industry.
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Virtually all the new steel pipelines built today in the world are protected by external coatings that have various functional roles. The traditional model of a fixed specialized coating facility located in each steel pipe mill or close to it is increasingly challenged nowadays by innovative mobile pipeline coating technologies. Vlad Popovici of ShawCor, Toronto and Simon Dewey of Bredero Shaw, Abu Dhabi explain.
Bredero Shaw’s new BrigdenTM modular facility
Mobile pipeline coating technologies challenge
traditional methods M
OST OF THE world’s transmission pipelines are still built using steel pipe. As noted in one of the industry’s most comprehensive pipeline construction best practice handbooks, pipeline integrity for more than the nominal 2535 years of service is an important aspect in any pipeline’s design, construction and operation. Pipelines should not fail during their service life because such failures could lead to human and economic costs. As the public’s perception of pipeline failures is (generally) much worse than the actual human and economic failure costs, a lot of resources have been dedicated to protect the pipes against any potential causes that could lead to pipeline failure . The pipeline industry has therefore developed various types of external coatings with one or multiple functional roles – anti-corrosion protection, mechanical protection, thermal insulation, buoyancy control. Manual coating of pipelines is usually slow, labor intensive, more prone to application defects and delivering an inconsistent level of quality. Therefore, most of the pipeline coatings for new pipelines are currently applied in specialized facilities, with industrial automated
62 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
coating processes that allow mass production, are less intensive in labor, and offer guaranteed quality. In this traditional setup, specialized permanent facilities are applying the coatings to the bare steel pipes and are either integrated to the steel pipe mills or located close to the steel pipe mills to and operated by independent coating companies. The permanent/fixed coating facility model is challenged today by innovative mobile pipeline coating technologies, developed by leading coating companies such as Bredero Shaw.
Global business Oil and gas fields are discovered ever farther from the main markets and thus pipelines have to be built in regions that are far from the pipe mills and/or coating plants. On the other hand, the oil and gas and the energy services industries are now global businesses, so pipe can be sent from one location to be installed on the other side of the world. These industry trends are encouraging the portable coating plant approach by creating incentives for the pipeline operators, such as reduced project costs, reduced construction time, simplified logistics and
streamlined project management. Bredero Shaw’s newly completely modular mobile plant is capable of manufacturing both anti-corrosion and flow assurance pipe coating solutions with the same quality and output as fixed plants. The plant’s innovative system design include pipe pre-heating and automatic end finishing using advanced robotics. This mobile facility enables delivery of high quality pipe coating anywhere in the world. BrigdenTM is a turnkey operating facility assembled from contents supplied in standard and specifically-designed shipping containers that are ISO certified. Adding more modules to the baseline layout expands the plant capability to accommodate large diameter pipe. New modules are added to accommodate various flow assurance and anti-corrosion pipe coating technologies, robotic cutback, different extruder requirements and production of novel, proprietary coatings. Plants can also be adapted to regional and client specific needs such as small diameter pipe, internal coatings and large manufacturing volumes. Electrical power can be provided from utility grid sources, or site generated as necessary by project requirements. Even the absence of an
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Mobile concrete plant being installed
New option The Brigden mobile plant has the same production capability as a fixed plant. Brigden is capable of coating pipe with an outside diameter of 8 – 42 inches (220 to 1,066mm), lengths of 34 – 80 ft (10.4-24.4m) and weight up to 325 pounds per ft (484 kg per m). The plant comes fully equipped with integrated facilities for raw materials storage, facility maintenance, and quality control and testing. The plant has built in flexibility to accommodate project-specific requirements dependent upon client needs. All phases of the Brigden coating operation, including surface preparation, pre-heat, coating application and final inspection can be conducted in an enclosed area of 18,000 sq-ft (1700 square m). A total area of 2.8 acres (1.2 hectares) is needed to set- up the entire facility excluding pipe storage requirements . Brigden incorporates the latest in capable, safe, and reliable pipe coating technology and employs Bredero Shaw’s industry leading processes to deliver superior products in locations not served by fixed plants. But perhaps the most significant benefit Brigden offers to customers is the essential role of Bredero Shaw’s engineering, mobile technology, and operations personnel and their ability to deliver an end-to-end solution where and when it is needed. The industry now has a new option. Concrete weight coatings have been developed and used during the last 40 years to offer negative buoyancy to the offshore pipelines and onshore pipelines that cross wet environments. Other concrete coatings were developed to offer supplementary mechanical protection to the pipe and pipe coating against impacts from rocks, excavation, etc. When applied in a specialized coating plant, concrete coatings are the only mechanical protection systems in the industry that protect the pipe during the whole pipeline construction process (transportation to ROW, temporary storage, handling, stringing, lowering in, backfilling) and the entire pipeline service life. Although the obvious solution to control buoyancy would be to increase the wall thickness of the steel pipe, the concrete coatings provide the industry with a heavy but better priced substitute that also protects the pipe against impact and penetration damage. Weight, the sought-after benefit of concrete coatings, is unfortunately significantly increasing the logistic costs, especially when pipe coated with concrete has to travel over long distances to the installation location. Costs increase not only because of the additional weight that has to be transported, but because of the reduced number of pipes that can be loaded in one trip, as the concrete coated pipe takes more space on the truck or vessel. In order to avoid the above-mentioned additional logistic costs, the
industry started to look for solutions to bring the concrete coating plant closer to the project location. One of the main application processes for the concrete coatings is the compression coat process. In this side-wrap automated process, the pipe is rotated and conveyed by support wheels at controlled rates through the concrete applicator. The concrete mix, a reinforcing steel mesh and a PE outer wrap are simultaneously wrapped around the pipe at the required concrete thickness in one pass. The tensioned polyethylene outer wrap helps the complete curing of the concrete. The coated pipe is then moved to the storage area .
Benefits Bredero Shaw developed the side wrap concrete coating process and developed the first portable plant for concrete coatings. These efforts were facilitated by the fact that the coating process and equipment are modular. Today, the equipment of a mobile concrete coating plant fits in 8-12 standard 20ft containers that are mobilized from a central hub in Texas. A mobile coating plant can be up and running within two weeks of arrival on site. They can be configured for both onshore and offshore product applications on a wide range of pipes from six to 48 inches in diameter. After being demobilized, every component of the plant is repaired and refurbished in Texas to exacting standards. All equipment is cleaned and quality tested before being crated and mobilized to the next coating project by truck, train or vessel. Since the first mobilized project in Italy in 1994, Bredero Shaw’s mobile concrete coating plants have successfully completed more than 200 projects with concrete weight coatings (Compression Coat) and mechanical protection concrete coatings (Rock Jacket®). Using mobile concrete coating plants for new pipeline projects offers benefits for all parties. The pipeline operators get the same guaranteed coating quality anywhere in the world while avoiding at the same time significant additional logistic costs for pipe transportation. The mobile concrete coating plants allow Bredero Shaw to be more flexible to client needs and to optimize its project portfolio and plant utilization by moving the plants to virtually any location. Finally, the communities where the concrete coating plants are mobilized benefit as local people are hired to operate the plants, raw materials – cement, heavy aggregates, sand – are sourced locally, as well as the auxiliary rolling stock required for the
Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 63
appropriate building structure is not a limitation as the modularity allows for a complete steel frame fabric building rated for coastal wind standards. The Brigden operation is led by a dedicated team of application experts trained in continuous improvement practices and supported by regional operations resources for safe and timely manufacturing and delivery. The plant set-up and execution are based on standard operating practices that are an integral part of the ShawCor Manufacturing System.
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cycle time. Although the traditional approach was the manual application of these coatings, the selection criteria mentioned above have created incentives for the specialized coating companies to automate as much as possible the field coating processes. Bredero Shaw has increased the mobility and automation of its field joint coating equipment. The company is currently using semi-automated and automated equipment for blasting, spraying or moulding various anticorrosion and thermal insulation coatings in the majority of its projects. ■
References Mobile field joint coating equipment on a spoolbase
concrete coating operations – cranes, trucks, front end loaders. No review of mobile pipeline coating technologies would be complete without a short mention of the coating operations that must be executed in the field, such as the coating of the weld area (field joint). The field joint coatings must be applied in various locations, all of them with different
configurations and challenges – by the right-ofway, on spoolbases, at fabrication yards or offshore on pipelaying vessels. Some of the main selection criteria for a field joint or custom coating system are: excellent long-term technical performance, compatibility with the plant-applied pipe coating, easy and consistent (same level of quality) application in any conditions and locations and short application
 International Pipe Line and Offshore Contractors Association (2011), Onshore Pipelines – The Road to Success available at http://www.iploca.com/page/content/index.asp? MenuID=319&ID=820&Menu=1&Item=28.10 Moscarello, R., Kleinen, P., Haberer, S. (2011), The Mobile Option, in Oilfield Technology, August 2011  Popovici, V. (2009), Protecting Pipelines with Concrete, in Concrete Engineering International, Volume 13, Number 4, Winter 2009
Protection that lasts FOUNDED IN 1915, Hempel claims to be one of the world’s largest independent suppliers of decorative, marine, yacht, container and protective coatings. Hempel paints, used in various industries, are tailored to meet all climactic and environmental conditions impacting customers. The company says it provides maximum service to its clients, offering long-term protection to their investments. The range of decorative paints manufactured by Hempel include highquality emulsions, enamels and a wide range of textures that give its customers a myriad of colour palettes to choose from. Foundational products including primers, sealers and fillers are also available. Hempel offers a wide range of special effects paints to imitate distinctive surfaces such as velvet or marble. Additionally, the company offers highly-specialised intumescent coating systems for fire protection. Hempel’s protective coatings have varied applications including oil refineries, chemical plants and pipelines. The company provides its customers with a network of coating advisors, consultants and engineers. Hempel coatings can also be found protecting oil rigs Proximity to customers
64 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Hempel’s protective coatings have various applications including oil refineries, chemical plants and pipelines.
is guaranteed, with over 200 stock points around the globe that provide coatings and services. Hempel maintains a fully-staffed and certified technical services department that provides its customers with professional and internationally accredited technical services. All departments of the company have been independently certified to one or more international standards. Prior to commencement of its projects, qualified coating advisers of the company visit the site and provide practical advice on all coating-related preparations, facilitating projects to be undertaken in a suitable and professional environment. This includes advice on suitability of equipment, access issues and pre-preparation and application surveys on the actual substrate or structure to be coated.
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Running a car with no petrol gauge is something you wouldn’t do, but many operators are effectively doing just that during artificial lift using electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Dave Shanks, Development Manager at Zenith Oilfield Technology explains.
Getting to the bottom of
ground faults G
ROUND FAULTS ARE a persistent problem with this type of artificial lift which affects more than 15 per cent of downhole monitoring systems and has been an issue since ESP gauges were first used in the 1970s. When a fault occurs on the ESP cable this cuts off the power supply to the gauge. So while the pump is still running, its performance is left as a guessing game. All too often in ESP operations a ground fault will cause downhole monitoring systems to fail and leave operators running blind. The interference in data transmission means that pressure, fluid levels and temperature readings are unobtainable. Operators are then faced with running motors at lower pumping rates to keep motor temperatures in safe operating areas, and also with a larger head of fluid to make sure the pump does not pump off. This can result in up to 25 per cent reduction in fluid output compared to a pump optimised with a live down hole gauge, resulting in a significant loss of production. In one case, Zenith Oilfield Technology worked on a field where 40 per cent of gauges failed due to ground faults. Currently the only solution is to remove the perfectly functional gauge from the well, which can be replaced alongside the pump when required. When pumps can last a number of years, and 10-15 per cent of ground fault failures occur in the first six months, this represents a significant loss in production over the remaining lifetime for ESPs. Downhole monitoring specialist Zenith Oilfield Technology has launched a groundbreaking technology to give operators the ability to maintain continuous surveillance for the very first time. Zenith’s Ground Fault Immune ESP gauge runs a unique new power and communication system so that insulation break down caused by ground faults will not short the system. Therefore the monitor will continue to run as long as the ESP cable is operational. The gauge has recently been proven in demonstration tests in the Middle East and the device will be run in trial wells later this year. After analysing the problem of ground faults, Zenith determined a number of factors which must be tackled to produce an effective solution. This includes the gauge needing power over a very wide operating range and able to cope with significant electrical loading. The gauge signal, by default, must be ground referenced so a system is required which is not affected by ground faults. Existing systems will never overcome the problems of
66 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Zenith technican with a gauge
operation with ground faults so a new power and signal transmission would be needed. If there is any damage to the cable, or the metal encasing, then the insulation quality becomes poor and the fragile DC current is shorted by the loss of insulation. The cable in the downhole monitor is the weakest part of an ESP system. In current monitoring systems, when a ground fault occurs with current leakage from the ESP cable, the gauge will lose the signal, cutting off the data transmitted about the operation of the ESP. The Ground Fault Immune gauge can maintain power in any cable fault condition where the motor will still run – and some where the motor will lose function. It will also maintain data transmission with any fault the motor can survive. This not only eliminates the issue of gauge outage due to ground faults but also makes for very fast data transmission at around 0.5 seconds per reading. The system also gives an indication as to where the cable fault is. Gauges are in an extreme operating environment with high voltages. The new gauge can operate with 25-5000 volts but the task is to make the power supply operational. Therefore this operates on a power transfer system. Operating temperature can be at a continuous level of 125°C and the gauge can operate at pressures up to 5,000psi. The use of AC current is the core of this new technology. While the DC transmission loses signal if some of the current is lost, AC current is based on
the change in signal, so is not so easily compromised by the same faults. There were a number of issues to overcome in the development of the new technology such as the interference from the ESP power supply, particularly the switching noise in variable speed drive (VSD) ESPs. The system has successfully been tested with dead shorts on one phase, and resistive shorts on one, two or three phases, anywhere from the surface to the cable junction box. The new technology is considerably more robust than current devices which means that operators are never faced with a gauge failing due to ground faults. Zenith’s gauge offers a monitoring solution which cannot be disturbed by these type of faults for the first time. Zenith has carried out extensive testing with an ESP test rig in the UK and has completed two campaigns of test wells in the Middle East. There are also ongoing installations in two countries. The UK-based tests showed that the gauge could survive applied faults with full ESP power monitoring intact and fault location detected. The gauge was tested at maximum temperature and pressure with up to 5,000 volts applied. The test created faults at all access points along the 7,400ft cable of three sections. The system was tested with a grounded phase from the surface to the cable junction box. It was also put through its paces with both VSD and chop
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Ground Fault Immune Gauge Test Rig
frequency sweeps. The test has been running for more than five months at 125°C, with voltage stress, and there are still no problems, data drop outs or downhole electronics failures. The demonstration test in the Middle East further verified the performance of the new technology. The test was conducted in a 300ft well with a motor and pump and it successfully showed the recording of downhole data at high speed and resolution with single and multiple phase faults in the ESP cable system. Many motor runs were carried out, with data recorded throughout. The set up was a 7,000ft cable on the surface with junction boxes between the cable drums. Faults were applied at all cable access points it could be shown live that the motor was still running. It used a 800 kw VSD power supply, 400 horse power motor and a 2,200 volt system. Three types of fault were applied to the cable system and demonstrated that the Ground Fault Immune ESP gauge successfully remained fully operational. The live demonstrated faults were: 6 Two phases had 1 kohm resistors to ground at the lower cable junction box 6 Two phases had 1 kohm resistors to ground fitted
A fault is identified
68 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
at the joint between cable drums at 1,000 ft from surface 6 One phase had a dead short to ground at the cable junction box The gauge operated with all faults applied and provided excellent data quality with a fast update rate sustained throughout the test. The three phase power system was measured throughout and fault severity and location was measured within 1,000ft and logged. Logging data at 0.5 seconds per reading, the logger software and diagnostic panel allowed for gauge sensor readings on a real time plot which could be scaled and adjusted by the user. There were no adverse affects on the equipment or pump system and a clean sweep of data was achieved from the trial. It also proved that the practicalities of installing this groundbreaking technology were feasible. The system was also tested outside the live demonstration with all possible cable fault combinations as a verification of the systems capabilities, this included multiple resistive faults as all possible locations and also a single phase with a dead short at all possible locations and this testing was also successful.
The Ground Fault Immune ESP gauge provides Zenith with a platform for a range of new products with the ability to provide more electrical power to downhole instrumentation and, with high speed data transmission, gather more accurate and more complex information than has been previously possible. The new gauge will initially be deployed with the existing Zenith ESP tool, with further applications of this technology to be explored. With 95 per cent of the world’s wells now reliant on artificial lift, effective well intervention is key to prolonging and sustaining the life of oilfields. Accurate information is vital to optimise production and improve equipment runlife. As technology and well count advances, the sheer volume of data being generated is growing at an unprecedented rate. Close analysis of problem wells becomes difficult, and with streams of data arriving over data transmission systems, the operators’ workload has increased dramatically. Zenith developed the Z-Sight automated well surveillance system to improve the surveillance of artificially-lifted wells to benefit production rates. The system takes the hard work out of well surveillance by automating the process of data analysis and optimisation. It recently increased oil production in one South American well by 39 per cent generating an additional US$45,900 revenue per day. The Z-Sight system provides real time recommendations on how best to operate the well to achieve optimum production within the limitations of the lifting equipment. A comprehensive model of the well and lifting equipment is referenced in real time against measured data points from surface and downhole pressure and temperature devices. Intelligent algorithms judge whether the pumping system is running within a desirable operating condition and it performs real time sensitivity studies to assess whether production can be improved. Instead of raw data streams the operator is presented with a suggested well head pressure or operating frequency and the potential production gain associated with the new operating point that is within the capability of the well and equipment performance. Well information is presented in a simple dashboard dial system which is available at any location within the operator’s facilities, including the well site. Remote access through a secure internet connection facilitates surveillance and control of the lifting equipment from anywhere with a standard web browser. The operator can instantly recognise and prioritise wells requiring attention, make informed decisions and action the decisions quickly using the remote control function to start, stop or change operation of the well. The system was first field trialled on multiple wells in the Middle East where the well model was checked against multiphase flow meter data for accuracy. Two unplanned well shutdowns were instantly recognised using the remote access module. Well production was re-established, reducing deferment of production and the associated costs. ■
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Detection and prevention
of fire at LNG plants W
HILE LNG IN its original form is a liquid, it will quickly turn into a vaporized gas upon entering into the atmosphere. Potential ignition sources may create a dangerous situation quickly, and thus our goal is to discover any atmospheric presence of gas as early as possible. This is why the detection system becomes an early as well as important barrier to protect an LNG plant. Detecting potential risks and taking necessary precautions to eliminate or prevent them from worsening is the main objective of the safety system. Several factors need to be examined in order to make sure that we have a trustworthy system.
There are two key factors when considering an F&G detection system: Availability and Reliability. The first is rather self-explanatory â€“ it is important that the detection system (and its functions) is available when needed. The latter is no less important â€“ that we can rely on the system to perform when needed. The first step to ensure we can trust our system is to look at the chain of devices necessary to detect and take appropriate action. Every scenario (a beginning fire, a gas leak, etc.) can be reported by a detector. The detector is the systemâ€™s initiating device, and its performance is crucial to ensure early and reliable detection. We want to detect the incident as early as
AutroSafe IFG has been developed in close collaboration with the petrochemical, oil and gas industry
possible, and at the same time avoid detection and reporting of unwanted or nuisance alarms. Different detectors have different properties, particularly when it comes to performance. Comparing datasheets may cause detectors which perform very different to look almost the same. When consulting manufacturers and suppliers of fire and gas equipment, a good rule of thumb is to always ask for what testing has been done according to performance standards (e.g. FM3260 for flame detection). This will point out the differences when it comes to the performance of a specific device. It is of course important that the equipment has the right ingress protection and can withstand necessary environmental conditions, but after all it is the performance of the device that determines whether it will properly detect an incident or not. The detector will report a detected incident to the detection system. By this, the communication becomes important (type of medium, robustness to EMC and environmental conditions, etc) to avoid loss or delay in the communication channel. That is also a driving factor to try and utilize a loop or another form of redundancy for the communication between the detector and the system. In a loop, shortcircuit isolators will ensure that any detector or cable faults will keep all other devices properly communicating with the system. The purpose of the detection system itself is also to ensure that any appropriate actions are taken. In an integrated fire and gas detection system, the logic is normally kept in the same system and actions are taken care of by activating outputs to different devices (activating beacons/sounders, closing ventilation/dampers etc). An alternative configuration is as shown in the figure above; the detection system passes the alarm on to a Distributed Control System (DCS) which will take care of the needed actions. For the last solution, it is important to highlight the need for a secure communication channel between the two systems. Very often the project will also require redundancy for this type of communication. So how do we consider a communication channel or a detection loop to be safe or not? In installations like an LNG plant, a hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is normally done to identify and evaluate potential problems that may be a risk to people or equipment. This will
Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 69
The historical safety record for the LNG industry is strong. Engineering, installation and lifetime use takes into account the well known hazards of such an installation. Different levels of protection ensure that potential hazards are discovered and eliminated before they become a major risk to the installation premises and the people working there. Geir Solem* explains.
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help us determine what kind of equipment is required to protect the installation, however F&G equipment have different safety ratings that need to be examined as well. The reliability is important for the entire system and not only single components. A good standard for consideration of system availability and reliability is IEC 61508: Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-related Systems. This standard defines what is called â€œSafety Integrity Levelâ€? (SIL), an assessment of reliability, failure to safety (how safe the system is) and management/lifecycle considerations. The SIL tells us something about the probability of a failure on demand, i.e. how likely is it that the system functions as intended the day we actually need it? It can work 10 out of 10 times when tested, but that does not matter if it fails the next time it is supposed to detect a real hazard. Since we are talking about an entire system with dependencies, it is important that the entire system is evaluated according to this standard, The AutroSafe system is and not only single components one by one. The being installed worldwide entire system, from detection by one of the initiating devices to action by one of the outputs, should fulfil the requested level of safety (normally SIL2 is required for an individually). To make sure we can maintain all aspects of IEC 61508, a F&G detection system). Combining single components does not Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is often done during the project. In order to necessarily give us the same rating (even if they are rated SIL2 simplify this and ensure you will maintain the required safety level, you should ask the suppliers to prove compliance of the entire system according to IEC61508. This will ease the projecting of a safety system. In most cases, an LNG plant is a wide installation with long distances between areas/structures. The installation consists of buildings, process area(s), pipelines and other premises to be protected. By choosing a system which can integrate all types of detection as well as extinguishing, this will provide a significant reduction in the installation cost. The AutroSafe F&G detection system is being applied worldwide in one of the most critical industries, petrochemicals, oil and gas. Part of the reason for this is that the system maintains a third party verification and certification according to IEC 61508. For Australia, the system is just introduced and about to be installed on the Queensland Curtis LNG project (QC LNG). The QC project involves a 540-km pipeline linking the gas fields to Gladstone, and the construction of a LNG plant on the Curtis Island (near Gladstone) for conversion of the gas to LNG for export. The first stage of the project will include two LNG trains (i.e. processing units)
" with a design lifetime of more than 20 years. The production capacity should be more than 8.5mn tonnes of LNG per year (expandable up to 12mn tonnes). First delivery is scheduled for early 2014. â€˘ SIL 2 capable The QC LNG project is realized by having one AutroSafe F&G â€˘ Double the field of detection panel in each building. Due to the long distances between the view of traditional buildings, all panels are interfaced via a redundant fiber optic network. detectors The figure below shows how the panels interconnect with each other via â€˘ False alarm immune two independent networks (for redundancy), and with centrally located â€˘ Can ignore existing panels in the Main control building, the Main substation building, and in sources of flame the Fire station. â€˘ Video output speeds AutroSafe IFG is also installed at the Ras Laffan refinery in Qatar, this up response to is a setup which further explores the possibilities of the system. The Ras Laffan Port is a combination of several self-contained buildings and incident modules; and all detection and extinguishing equipment are integrated â€˘ Not affected by other into one AutroSafe F&G detection panel. This includes everything from sources of UV or IR traditional heat and smoke detection, manual call points, and flame & radiation such as gas detection, to individual release of separate extinguishing zones sunlight/arc welding inside each building. Early warning aspiration systems (HSSD) are also integrated into the same system (most often considered for local Draeger Safety, P.O. Box 505108, Dubai, U.A.E. Tel: +971 4 4294600 electrical equipment rooms). By combining all the panels into a single plant-wide network, one can easily monitor the entire plant from one or several locations.
Protecting assets through innovation
70 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
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Take it further
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S14 ORME 5 2012 Technical Focus 02_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:54 Page 72
AutroSafe Integrated Fire and Gas detection system provides a totally integrated addressable solution for fire and gas detection in the oil and gas industry
A simplified concept drawing for an installation like the Ras Laffan project is shown below. The F&G detection panels interface all types of detectors and take appropriate actions. Communication to a plant-wide DCS is normally done via Modbus or by direct interpretation of the F&G systems communication protocol. In
addition, local workstations are located in centralized control rooms and e.g. the local fire station. The function of a setup like this can be decided by the configuration data, as it can either be an independent self-contained system for each building or provide a distributed C&E across the entire plant. The entire system will
fulfil a requirement for a SIL2 rating for the complete system. By using loops for all the field devices, we ensure that any break or short-circuit in the wiring will not influence the performance of the system. Even the flame and gas detectors can be protected from such faults by having them localized on a loop. In the solution above, the same two-wire loop also provides power to the detectors, which can translate to major savings when it comes to installation costs. F&G detection systems for LNG plants can be realized in different ways; most importantly, we need to consider the safety aspect of the solution. In order to properly accomplish this, we should examine the entire system with all intended functions (e.g. detection from a smoke detector through all communication pathways including the activation of an output module). Only by doing this, can we say something about how safe our system is, and if we are able to maintain the needed safety rating for the system. After all, it is the system performance on that day we need our system to perform 100 per cent that becomes critical. ■
*Geir Solem is Application Manager at Autronica Fire & Security AS Div. Oil & Gas In partnership with Haven Fire & Safety in the UAE. For further information go to Autronicafire.no or Havenfire.com
European system integrators develop complete solutions for the region Middle East countries will be the principal drivers for growth in the oil and gas equipment market throughout 2012. “Fiscal metering systems for liquids represent an important technology within oil and gas facilities. We can engineer, manufacture, install and calibrate MID-certified metering skids for crude oil, heavy fuel oil, diesel, gasoline, LPG, kerosene, chemicals, volume and/or mass based”, says MIon Andronache, the CEO of Syscom18, a European company that says it has kept pace with the growth and development of the Middle East. Having provided complete systems in the region in the last six years, Syscom18 says it is the most important Romanian manufacturer of fiscal metering skids for liquids, other than water, according OMIL R117, Directive 2004/22/EC (MID), Directive 94/9/ EC ATEX and Directive 97/23/EC PED. The skids have several kinds of www.syscom.ro measuring principles: PD-meter, coriolis, turbine meter or ultrasonic meter. In the last six years the company has manufactured about 200 fiscal skids for Romania, Kazakhstan, Jordan, Iran, and Libya.
72 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Syscom18 applies the requirements of the European Directive 94/63/EC for the control of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) resulting from the storage of petrol and its distribution from the terminals to the service stations. Thus, as systems integrator, EPC or supplier of basic and detailed engineering, Syscom18 completed the implementation of vapour recovery installations and of bottom tanker loading in 17 deposits of petroleum products. The vapour recovery skids were based on the principle of separation membranes (Borsig) or active carbon (Jordan Technologies). The company provides complete solutions from tank gauging and firefighting to SCADA/DCS/EDS etc. “We have modern production facilities, including test and calibration facilities, and we are specialists in mechanical, welding, electrical and metrological areas”, Andronache added. Syscom18 says it is targeting clients for terminal automation systems in Europe, North Africa and Central Asia, but its main focus is the Middle East region.
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Reliable communications -
above all “I
NFORMATION IS BECOMING the currency. You move it around and inevitably you're going to find satellite communications there.” Simon Bull, senior consultant with specialised telecommunications consultancy company COMSYS*, can hardly be accused of understatement. But he is right. Consider, for example, the vast number of people working in the oil and gas business who need missioncritical information even when they are far from cellular or fixed networks. Geologists, geophysicists, drilling engineers, seismic data analysts and others collect massive amounts of disparate data in multiple formats (including GPS, acoustic, compass and other sensor data) and use the information for predictive analysis. Such data can be very bandwidth-hungry, as Martin Jarrold points out. However, such information may still have to be transmitted — and often via satellite communications. Jarrold is chief of International Programme Development of the Global VSAT Forum (GVF)**. He is also chairman, GVF-EMP Oil & Gas Communications Conference Series, so is better positioned than most to offer insights into the application of satellite technology to E&P.
As Jarrold points out, sophisticated ICT solutions not only make E&P activities more efficient and cost-effective, but are also an ideal fit for streamlining supply chain management and refining processes and leveraging off information gathering from all data points along the supply chain... Expensive He explains, “Through the use of satellite-based information and communications technologies (ICTs), widely spread and remotely located experts can, for example, receive oil and gas field data as it is collected in real time and can determine the size and potential value of a payload before any actual drilling begins, a capability that can significantly reduce the amount of time and other resources wasted on drilling sites that don't have a strong yield potential.” This is especially relevant, of course, to upstream in areas like West Africa, where exploration for new hydrocarbon reserves has moved to environments that are dangerous, difficult and expensive to work in — and perhaps hundreds of kilometres away from traditional communications networks. Very small aperture terminals — VSATs — though which information is transmitted and received to and from satellites, are often the only way that voice and data messages can get through. VSATs are better suited to remote environments than conventional Wi-Fi, WiMAX or cellular networks. But, notes Bull, they still face challenges. Some of these challenges include attenuation, antenna size and stabilisation. Ironically, however, perhaps the biggest challenge to VSATs has less to do with terrain or geography or hardware than with expense. As Bull points out, “Our business is always compared with terrestrial. Terrestrial works completely differently. Terrestrial has its downsides: it’s nowhere near as flexible. But when it's there it's infinitely cheaper than satellite bandwidth. And that’s ultimately the problem...our bandwidth is finite and it's expensive.”
VSAT services provide mission-critical information to remote facilities, such as offshore rigs
And when there is direct competition satellite usually loses out. “Last year fibre arrived in Africa in scale,” Bull continues, referring to the long-awaited arrival of undersea cables on the shores of the continent, “and it destroyed the satellite trunking market. Africa was essentially connected to the rest of the world by satellite. All of that went away last year.”
Well established And yet satellite communications continue to thrive. Why? Simply put because there is often no alternative and thus there will always be demand. And that’s where the oil and gas business comes in. As Jarrold points out, sophisticated ICT solutions not only make E&P activities more efficient and cost-effective, but are also an ideal fit for streamlining supply chain management and refining processes and leveraging off information gathering from all data points along the supply chain, from production to delivery to the petrol pump. “With reliable information sharing and collaboration between points on the supply chain, analysts, operators, and managers can optimise their communications and get product where it needs to be, when it needs to be there,” he says. This need guarantees a role for FSS
Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 75
Communications & IT
Satellite services are often the only form of communications in difficult-to-reach areas. Very small aperture terminals (VSATs) in particular play a major role in guaranteeing effective communications for oil and gas production offshore or in remote areas. Vaughan O’Grady explains why and looks at the development of the VSAT market for oil and gas communications.
Communciations & IT
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(Fixed Satellite Services) VSATs, which, along with portable terminals offered by MSS (Mobile Satellite Services), deliver communications in remote areas — onshore and offshore — for the oil and gas communications market. VSAT services are well established today, but it wasn’t always clear that VSATs would take off, as a brief look at the history of VSAT usage suggests. From its inception in the early 1980s, until about the year 2000, a genuinely large market for VSATs and the chance to bring down costs through economies of scale were undermined by one factor in particular: “Proprietary systems, all running a different set of protocols in different product suites,” as Bull puts it. Then everything changed. Like terrestrial systems VSAT systems were redesigned for IP. It opened up the market significantly. Even then, it wasn’t all plain sailing. The basic protocol for IP use is known as TCP/IP. It can be used over satellite except that the assumptions it makes, and indeed its entire design, are intended for terrestrial communications. By ‘assumptions’ we mean latency tests — the time lag between call made and call received. Such speeds are perfectly adequate for most users but not for TCP/IP, which will automatically make a call again even though it isn’t required. The answer is to make TCP/IP believe all is well — to ‘spoof’ it, or, as Bull puts it, “We just tell TCP/IP what it wants to hear.” With IP now widely used, equipment prices fell. But market expansion coincided with the dotcom and telecom bubbles - and fierce competition resulted. Even big names got squeezed as volumes rose but prices tumbled. Nevertheless money was there to be made assuming your company survived. For example, some companies, like US giant Hughes, could offer similar systems to both enterprise and consumer. In fact today Bull says, of a system using VSATs, “It may be running to an oil rig. Their inbound channel rate is 3.6 megs. This is a VSAT services are well established today
system which will process 60 megabits of data a second. It’s incredibly functional at that level…At the same time if you want to sell a US$300 VSAT to a consumer and give him a one meg transmit, 10 meg return for US$50 a month, you do that with the same product!”
Compatibility questions Other big names, like Viasat, had different approaches from Hughes but were still successful. The upshot today is prices as low as US$400US$500 with antenna and RF, dipping to the US$200-US$300 range with subsidies. Don’t forget too that a lot of the VSAT is made up of modestly priced metal and plastic. In addition chipsets are now standard and pretty cheap. “People would argue that it’s been commoditised for more than ten years,” says Bull, adding “The push is to be able to sell the whole VSAT for US$250, with a profit, without subsidy. With subsidy you could get down to US$50 or US$100.” However, he adds, while this may one day be the lowest possible price for consumer service VSATs, it does not apply to an offshore oil or gas operation. As he says, “Once you get on a rig, there’s no way the prices are that low for equipment. You could be talking US$5,000US$10,000 just for the modem — without an antenna - for some of the sophisticated services and high bandwidth links the O&G guys are running.” Nor are compatibility questions a thing of the past: you probably can’t take one person’s VSAT and put it on another person’s hub. However,
In search of greater bandwidth and smaller antennas, many end users are indeed moving up the frequency bands
capabilities are greater, prices are falling and we are a long way from the extreme incompatibility of the early eighties, all of which has helped to make up for the relatively high cost and limited availability of bandwidth. Of course actually selling bandwidth is not a bad market to be in, assuming you can afford the start-up costs. Bull explains. “The typical model is: big company comes along, buys a satellite - it costs US$300mn - sticks it in the sky and then sells the bandwidth on the satellite over a 15-year period.”
Downside The investment may be big but so is the potential market. The average satellite can cover as much as a third of the globe. Thus, as Bull puts it, “If you don’t sell that capacity in Afghanistan, you sell it in France — or wherever”. However, that is not always the case. As you move up the main satellite frequency bands (from L to, C, Ku and Ka) you gain in concentrated power but lose in terms of coverage. That said, you still have reasonable reach, though it may now be across just one continent, say, instead of two. Bull summarises, “The more you concentrate the power, the more bandwidth you get on the ground, the more efficiency you get, the smaller antennas you get. But the less flexibility you have on the satellite to be able to say, “This market doesn’t work; I’ll move to that market.” That isn’t quite the whole story. In search of greater bandwidth and smaller antennas, many end users are indeed moving up the frequency bands, but Bull says: “The downside of going up the bandwidth is you get greater attenuation.” This means that heavy rain absorbs — and therefore ruins — the signal. At one stage that seemed to mean that both Ku and certainly Ka would be unusable, but technology has come to the rescue. A link has been engineered that is reliable and acceptable enough that today, says Bull, “Ku band is used everywhere [and] Ka is growing”. That may explain British satellite telecommunications company Inmarsat’s plans to offer services in the Ka band in 2013 with the launch of its new Global Xpress offering. Of course, this is part of an MSS service, not the FSS of VSATs. However, both mobile and fixed satellite communications offerings are widely used by oil and gas companies and both are hoping to respond to the growing reliability of communications at higher bandwidth. ■
COMSYS is a specialised telecommunications consultancy company with a core expertise in satellite and VSAT systems. www.COMSYS.co.uk *The Global VSAT Forum (GVF) is an association of key companies involved in the business of delivering advanced digital fixed satellite systems and services to consumers, and commercial and government enterprises worldwide. GVF acknowledges the contribution of Northern Sky Research, the GVF Oil & Gas Communications Conference Series Content Partner, in the responses supplied for this article. The 16th conference in the series is planned for Luanda, Angola, in Q4 2012. See www.gvf.org for more information.
76 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
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Communications & IT
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LithoSi application commercialised
Simulation software for refineries
HAMPSON-RUSSELL SOFTWARE & Services, a CGGVeritas company, has launched LithoSi, the newest addition to its HRS-9 suite of reservoir characterization applications. LithoSI is designed to predict Example output of the LithoSI process, showing the facies type and fluid distribution of sand within a geologic formation content from seismic inversion attributes, while quantifying the uncertainty in the prediction. The enhanced understandings that LithoSi provides allows reservoir geoscientists to further refine risk profiles and optimize reservoir production. The LithoSI workflow is based on the modeling of multi-variate probability density functions from log data or from inverted elastic attributes at well locations. The probability functions are then mapped to elastic property volumes from seismic inversion using a supervised Bayesian classification. The outputs are a series of litho-probability cubes and a cube of the most probable facies.
IHS, THE LEADING global source of information and analytics, has released SmartPM (Smart Predictive Maintenance), the first commercially available, advanced thermo-hydraulic simulation software tool that enables oil refinery operators to better manage and reduce maintenance, avoid throughput reductions, improve energy efficiency, reduce emissions and operating costs. “The impact of dirty or ‘fouled’ equipment in refineries is a major economic and environmental problem worldwide,” said Simon Pugh, head of IHS ESDU. “Global costs associated with fouling of refinery pre-heat trains are estimated to be approximately US$4.5 billion annually, in addition to many millions of tons of additional carbon emissions. By mitigating the effects of fouling in refinery pre-heat train heat exchangers, it is estimated that operators could save up to 10 per cent of refinery energy costs and emissions.” Heat exchangers heat crude oil so that it can be distilled, separated and processed into products such as diesel, kerosene, gasoline and heating oil. During the heating process, deposits such as asphaltenes attach to the hot metal surfaces on the heat exchangers and create insulating layers and eventually blockages. This causes a drop in pre-heat train energy efficiency, meaning additional expensive fuel is required to heat the crude to distillation temperatures. The dirty or ‘fouled’ heat exchangers can result in a decrease in the refinery’s crude throughput, cutting production and increasing its carbon emissions.
Reducing operational risk
Reservoir modelling solution
PETROTECHNICS ANNOUNCED THE launch of Proscient, its operational performance & predictive risk software platform. It provides senior management in hazardous industries the ability to reduce risk, optimize performance and drive continuous improvement across their global operations. The biggest operational risk occurs when people interact with the plant. This is the leading cause of HiPo’s, the second leading cause of fatalities and a significant contributing factor in process safety incidents. Organizations typically have rigorous corporate processes for process safety, occupational safety and people management, with systems and data that provide indicators and close the assurance loop. However, when thousands of people interact with the plant every day to do repair or maintenance work, there are limited or no systems and often only paper based processes. This leaves a large gap in the assurance loop with no feedback on performance. In this critical area organizations can only judge performance after the event, i.e. with lagging indicators and audit. Recognizing this critical gap in operational assurance, Proscient closes the loop in the riskiest part of operations. The system intelligently embeds corporate, regional and local policies and processes ensuring they are consistently delivered in frontline practice. The system captures data as part of routine work processes such as type of work, volume of work, interaction of work and associated human factors, and common metrics can be established.
EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT has released Roxar RMS 2012, the latest version of its reservoir modelling software. The launch sees the continued expansion RMS 2012 comes with new seismic inversion, seismic of Roxar RMS into the attributes, and field planning capabilities geophysics domain through a completely integrated reservoir modelling workflow which includes seismic interpretation, reservoir simulation, reservoir behaviour predictions, and uncertainty management. “With average global oil & gas recovery rates at just 22 per cent, the smallest improvements can have a huge impact on both future oil & gas production and the bottom line”, said Kjetil Fagervik, managing director of Emerson’s Roxar Software Solutions. “Accurate predictive reservoir models that can realistically represent the underlying seismic data and that can offer a seamless route from seismic to simulation are absolutely central to efforts to improve oil & gas recovery today. These are the underlying goals behind RMS2012.”
78 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
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Permanently buried onshore and offshore seismic acquisition systems could considerably improve the value of seismic for reservoir monitoring, say Ghiath Ajlani and Michel Denis of CGGVeritas.
Permanent seismic acquisition installations for
reservoir monitoring S
INCE THE EARLY days of water, steam, gas, CO2 and other Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) schemes that were introduced to improve recovery and extend the life of oil fields, there has been a critical need to monitor and understand flood front distribution and sweep efficiency (Figure1). This need has been successfully addressed up to a point by conducting time-lapse 3D seismic (4D) with marine streamer and/or ocean bottom acquisition, mainly for offshore clastic reservoirs. By shooting successive 3D seismic surveys at appropriate time intervals and interpreting the differences in the signal at the reservoir it is possible to monitor the effects of EOR on the reservoir. However, and particularly in the case of onshore carbonate fields, the high accuracy of the 4D measurement in relation to noise required to be able to detect this reservoir 4D signal has proven to be elusive. This is due to the relatively small 4D signature for carbonate reservoirs with a comparatively rigid matrix as well as all the usual challenges posed by onshore seismic acquisition. These include the lack of appropriate repeatability between the base and monitor surveys, 4D noise relating to human and operational activity and variations in environmental conditions, particularly in the near-surface where a multitude of factors affect source and receiver coupling and seismic wave propagation. To tackle these 4D issues, the seismic industry focused on enhancing conventional surface seismic source and receiver equipment, geometries and methodologies. However, some inherent problems with onshore surface seismic measurements persist, such as variable coupling and sensitivity to near-surface variations which limit the sensitivity of the technique. It is true that injection and production monitoring goals are usually achieved when the 4D differences between base and monitor seismic surveys after injection are large (>15%), in terms of acoustic impedance and/or two-way travel times at reservoir levels, especially in the case of shallower clastic reservoirs. However, in the case of carbonate reservoirs in the Middle East where two-way travel time variations are only a few milliseconds (or even less) and amplitude changes are equally subtle, the 4D reservoir signature may be below the sensitivity threshold of surface seismic. This reality has led many operators to abandon implementing 4D seismic for EOR monitoring of onshore carbonate
80 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Figure-1. Example of Enhanced Oil Recovery installations using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) (originally published in the Autumn 2002 Oilfield Review (Kopper, et al., 2002)).
reservoirs due to the significant costs and time losses incurred without tangible benefits. Subsequently, at the turn of the new century, the seismic industry shifted gear towards seismic Permanent Reservoir Monitoring (PRM) through permanently buried installations. CGGVeritas has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of PRM technological breakthroughs offering a portfolio of solutions that spans onshore and offshore installations, including equipment, acquisition services, dedicated 4D processing, reservoir characterization and 4D feasibility studies prior to the start of any pilot or field project. In such studies 4D rock physics templates provide the
model to test various production scenarios and estimate the impedance, reflection amplitude, and travel time anomalies expected. Armed with this information the suitability of the reservoir for monitoring by various techniques can be assessed and the survey parameters optimized. Equipment manufacturing is one of the main challenges involved in developing and implementing effective 4D seismic PRM projects using buried installations. It was found that success is highly dependent on tailor-made equipment, which must be designed, manufactured, calibrated and installed to be fully consistent with the overall project requirements.
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Figure-2. SeisMovie™ installations in a heavy oil field using SAGD to enhance production (image courtesy of CGGVeritas)
Offshore, mature fields in the North Sea were the first to receive this PRM approach deploying buried seismic installations, and operators of these pioneering systems have been clear about the value of the information they have delivered for reservoir modeling and managing production (for example the Valhall Field as described in Gestel et al., 2011). CGGVeritas has deployed the Sercel OPTOWAVE™ fiber optic seismic cable system which is permanently trenched at the seafloor to overcome the difficulties faced when acquiring ocean bottom 4D seismic in offshore fields that are heavily congested with complex surface and subsurface facilities. The use of this permanently buried fiber optic system made a major breakthrough in PRM technologies, bringing higher reliability: no electrical components are deployed subsea, no subsea power is required, a nearly unlimited bandwidth is provided and transmission losses are minimal. Moreover this system is free from inherent noise. All these benefits provided by OPTOWAVE, combined with advanced processing, contribute to a better understanding of the reservoir, optimized oil recovery and an extension of the field’s lifespan. For onshore permanent reservoir monitoring, CGGVeritas designed SeisMovie™ (Bianchi, 2004), a unique solution providing highresolution, high-accuracy monitoring of shallow reservoirs on a continuous basis. SeisMovie™ is well suited to monitor subtle and rapid production effects associated with EOR techniques such as Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) which conventional 4D seismic is unable to discern. It features innovative piezoelectric vibrator sources and receiver arrays buried below the weathering zone to remove the effects of the near-surface variations which plague onshore 4D seismic. A variety of receiver configurations can be
82 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
Figure-3. From top to bottom are the results of successive SeisMovie™ 3D buried seismic PRM surveys recorded over a 12-week period showing +0.5 to -0.5 millisecond transit two-way travel time variations and +10% to -10% amplitude variations at top of the injection reservoir. These results are from a SAGD installation in Canada (Data courtesy of Shell - Forgues et al., 2006).
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deployed from 1C geophones or hydrophones to 3C and 4C stations in horizontal networks and vertical wellbore arrays (Figure-2). At the design stage, meticulous attention is paid to the required seismic signal’s depth of penetration, frequency bandwidth, amplitude, and vulnerability to various forms of noise and attenuation / dispersion in different nearsurface environments. At the implementation phase, careful consideration is given to the deployment and coupling of the piezoelectric sources and velocity/pressure receivers (geophones and hydrophones) in the shallow boreholes and trenches, to ensure effective and consistent signal propagation with the required bandwidth and strength. Burying the lion’s share of the system means that there is minimal environmental impact and minimal surface interference at busy production sites during operations. Since these buried sources and receivers are expected to perform reliably with a high repeatability over the course of many years, a buried system also offers protection from weather and other environmental factors. Once this continuous, automated and buried seismic PRM system has been installed and is operating, it is managed as a remote and autonomous acquisition system, which records data continuously for daily harvesting and automated processing. This provides a daily snapshot of both travel time and amplitude variations which can be viewed as a “movie” revealing the evolution of conditions within the reservoir. Most seismic data interpretation specialists expect high-resolution 3D or 4D volumes to provide a temporal frequency bandwidth of at least 6-70 Hz at target levels, in order to be able to map the required intervals and perform subsequent reservoir characterization tasks. In seismic PRM projects, aimed at mapping reservoir variations caused by EOR, geophysicists require wider bandwidth data and greater sensitivity to detect two-way travel time variations measured in milliseconds, or fractions of a millisecond. Additionally, amplitude variations at target levels can also be mapped to analyze the variations caused by injection and reservoir fluid movements. Such finely detailed mapping of daily amplitude and two-way travel-time variations has been demonstrated in several heavy oil reservoirs with a precision and accuracy of a fraction of a millisecond (Figure-3) (Forgues et al., 2006). This has largely been due to the versatile and flexible designs which have successfully addressed vertically and spatially small 4D reservoir variations. The reservoir depths expected to be reached reliably by these permanently buried seismic PRM systems with low-power buried sources vary depending on source strength, geology of the overburden and near-surface conditions. Usable and accurate permanently buried 3D seismic source-receiver 4D signals down to 3,000’ have been achieved.
Figure 4: Results from Schoonebeek. relationship between the time shift extracted from SeisMovie and the pressure actually measured in a well on the Schoonebeek field during depletion and injection. The solid symbols represent depletion, the open symbols injection (Image courtesy of Shell - Hornman et al., 2012)
CGGVeritas has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of PRM technological breakthroughs The Schoonebeek SeisMovie project conducted for Shell illustrates the uplift brought by SeisMovie in the understanding of heavy oil reservoir dynamics (Hornman et al., 2012). The Schoonebeek field (Netherlands) is a medium heavy oil field where steam is injected to increase the recovery factor. The objective of the reservoir engineers is to understand the expansion of steam. The SeisMovie system was deployed and then the 4D attributes measured during the injection process. Comparison between attributes derived from SeisMovie and data measured along the observation wells showed a good correlation between time shifts (from SeisMovie) and pressure (measured at the well), see figure 4. Many obstacles faced in seismic permanent reservoir monitoring projects have been resolved with the extensive research, development and implementation of dedicated permanently buried systems in land and marine environments. Other critical success factors behind these seismic PRM systems include comprehensive modeling of the 4D signatures of reservoirs and EOR production scenarios (for feasibility analysis and system design), careful consideration of the conditions and
environments for source/receiver deployment, and the development of automated PRMspecific data processing. All these developments have led to tangible improvements in the derivation and interpretation of 4D attributes, making possible seismic monitoring of fields that were hitherto considered unsuitable for this kind of survey. ■
Acknowledgements The author would like to thank the managements of Shell and CGGVeritas for permission to publish this article. References Van Gestel J., Kommedal J.H., Barkved O.I., Mundal I., Bakke R. and Best K.D.  Continuous seismic surveillance of the Valhall Field. The Leading Edge 27, 260–265. Bianchi, T., Forgues, E., Meunier, J., Huguet, F. and Bruneau, J.  Acquisition and Processing Challenges in Continuous Active Reservoir Monitoring. SEG Expanded Abstracts, 23, 2263. Forgues, E., Meunier, J., Hubans, C., and Edwards, R. J.  Steam Injection Seismic Monitoring Experiment. Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists. Hornman, J.C., van Popta, J., Didraga, C.  Continuous Monitoring of Thermal EOR at Schoonebeek for Intelligent Reservoir management. SPE 150215, Intelligent Energy International conference, Utrecht.
Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012 83
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Middle East & North African Rig Count The Baker Hughes Rig Count tracks industry-wide rigs engaged in drilling and related operations, which include drilling, logging, cementing, coring, well testing, waiting on weather, running casing and blowout preventer (BOP) testing.
THIS MONTH OffShore Total
VARIANCE From Last Month
LAST MONTH Land OffShore Total
LAST YEAR OffShore Total
Middle East ABU DHABI BAHRAIN DUBAI IRAN JORDAN KUWAIT OMAN PAKISTAN QATAR SAUDI ARABIA SUDAN SYRIA YEMEN TOTAL
13 4 0 0 0 36 49 17 3 62 0 24 4 212
6 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 7 20 0 0 0 35
19 4 1 0 0 36 50 17 10 82 0 24 4 247
-5 0 0 0 0 1 -1 6 3 -2 0 -3 1 0
14 4 0 0 0 35 50 11 3 64 0 27 3 211
10 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 20 0 0 0 36
24 4 1 0 0 35 51 11 7 84 0 27 3 247
13 4 0 0 0 32 45 12 2 55 0 27 2 192
9 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 13 0 0 0 29
22 4 1 0 0 32 45 12 8 68 0 27 2 221
45 59 9 0 2 115
0 12 0 0 0 12
45 71 9 0 2 127
4 -1 -1 0 0 2
41 59 10 0 2 112
0 13 0 0 0 13
41 72 10 0 2 125
26 55 0 0 1 82
0 10 0 0 1 11
26 65 0 0 2 93
North Africa ALGERIA EGYPT LIBYA MOROCCO TUNISIA TOTAL
Source: Baker Hughes
84 Oil Review Middle East Issue Five 2012
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S16 ORME 5 2012 Arabic_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:48 Page 86
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S16 ORME 5 2012 Arabic_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:48 Page 88
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S16 ORME 5 2012 Arabic_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:48 Page 92
20th Kazakhstan International
OIL & GAS Exhibition & Conference
2–5 October 2012 Almaty • Kazakhstan Atakent Expocentre
4–5 October 2012 Almaty • Kazakhstan InterContinental Almaty
CENTRAL ASIA’S LEADING OIL & GAS EVENT
London • Moscow • Almaty • Baku • Tashkent • Atyrau • Aktau • Istanbul • Hamburg • Beijing • Poznan • Dubai
S16 ORME 5 2012 Arabic_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:48 Page 93
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S16 ORME 5 2012 Arabic_Layout 1 14/08/2012 15:33 Page 94
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:Â˘VQĂ‰ÂŠe .RĂ‰Â¨dGh Â§Ă˜ĂŚâˆ?d Ď€ÂŤHQGC Â˘VĂ´ÂŠe :Ă¤Ă‰ÂŤĂŚâ‰¤J Â§Ă˜ĂŚdG ĂŞGĂ´ĂŽĂ Â°SG ,Ď€NĂłĂ dG /QĂ‰Hâ€™BG â€˜ ÂşÎźĂŤĂ dG ,Ď€cĂ‰BĂ dG â€˜ ÂşÎźĂŤĂ dG ,Ă¤GQĂ‰ÎźĂ HG .RĂľÂŠĹ¸G :Ă¤Ă‰eĆ’âˆ?ÂŠĹ¸G Ă‰ÂŤLĆ’dĆ’ĂŚÎźJh Ă¤â€™Ă‰Â°ĂźJâ€™G .ĂĄjĂ´ĂŤĂ‘dG Ă¤â€™Ă‰Â°ĂźJâ€™G ADVERTISERS INDEX Company ......................................................Page Adghal Oilfield Supplies LLC ........................................86 Al Mansoori ........................................................................13 ALAA Industrial Equipment Factory ..............................4 Asturi Metal Builders (M) SDN BHD ..........................21 Aveva Solutions Ltd ........................................................49 Baumer Group ..................................................................14 Bredero Shaw Middle East Limited ............................ 11 Cansco Dubai LLC ............................................................ 67 Canusa-CPS ........................................................................29 CARBO Ceramics ..............................................................21 Cudd Energy Services ......................................................26 CWC Associates (Iraq Mega Projects 2012) ............................................85 DMG World Media (ADIPEC 2012) ...................... 23, 34 Dome Exhibitions (IDOC 2012) ....................................87 Draeger Safety ..................................................................70 Duferco ................................................................................39 Emerson Process Management ......................................7 Emirates Sky Cargo ............................................................9 Emirates ..............................................................................41 Euroblast Middle East ....................................................63 Exova ....................................................................................77
Expotim International Fair ORG. INC (Erbil Oil & Gas 2012)...................................................... 44 Expotim International Fair ORG. INC (Gulf Oil & Gas Cruise 2013) ........................................74 Garda World ......................................................................17 Gates Engineering & Services ......................................49 Global Pacific and Partners ..........................................73 GRACO BVBA......................................................................46 Hi-Force Ltd. ......................................................................23 Hisaka Middle East Co. Ltd. ..........................................81 Hydroflow Pump Rental Est ..........................................32 IIR Exhibitions (Power Water Middle East 2012) ..79 IIR Exhibitions (Middle East Electricity 2013) ........89 Inmarco Industries FZC ..................................................25 ION Geophysical ..............................................................95 ITE Group Plc (KIOGE 2012) ..........................................92 Jotun Paints U.A.E. Ltd (LLC) ............................................5 Kaeser Kompressoren FZE ............................................59 Marelli Motori S.p.A. ........................................................31 Megarme ............................................................................55 Metscco Heavy Steel Industries Company Limited ........................................37 Middle East Specialised Cables (MESC) ....................61
Mimo Contracting ............................................................51 Oman Cement Company ................................................35 Peri LLC ................................................................................53 Petrotech Enterprises (L.L.C.) ........................................57 Red Helix International Ltd. ..........................................56 Sabin Metal Corporation ................................................15 Saga PCE Pte Ltd ..............................................................33 Schlumberger Oilfield Mktg Communications ........27 Schlumberger Technical Services, Inc. ........................2 Shree Steel Overseas FZCO ..............................................6 Sin Hiap Chuan Hardware and Engineering Pte Ltd ................................................24 Smit Lamnalco Netherlands B.V. ..................................19 Southern California Valve ..............................................58 Stevens Supply International ......................................65 Suraj Limited ......................................................................45 Syscom18 ..........................................................................78 Technip - Region Middle East........................................71 TMK Middle East ..............................................................43 Trans Asia Pipeline Services FZC ................................25 Triplefast Middle East Limited ......................................43 Veritas-MSI China Company Limited ........................10 Voith Turbo GmbH & Co KG ..........................................60
S16 ORME 5 2012 Arabic_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:48 Page 95
Introducing Calypso. Taking seabed seismic to new depths.
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S16 ORME 5 2012 Arabic_Layout 1 13/08/2012 16:48 Page 96
Oil Review Middle East Issue 5 2012