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Vol 16 Issue One 2013 UK £10, USA $16.50

Delivering mega projects in the region Insecurity rises on supply league shift Will Kuwait’s ambitious plans be scuppered by politics? Gas - Mediterranean reserves attract interest

Bapco expansion underway

Improving reliability with essential asset monitoring The hunt for ‘black gold’ goes deeper Centralizing in the under ream

Society of Petroleum Engineers

2013 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

see us at the show stand no. 130 “MEOS makes a concerted effort to showcase the latest in research and technology. The current focus of the industry is on unconventional resources.” Abdulaziz Al Abdulkarim MEOS Executive Committee Chairman Saudi Aramco See page 60

l na o i g re or e sect h t s 97 ing ga 19 v r & Se oil ince s



a ye

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Vol 16 Issue One 2013 UK £10, USA $16.50

Delivering mega projects in the region Insecurity rises on supply league shift


Will Kuwait’s ambitious plans be scuppered by politics?

Industry news and executives’ calendar

Gas - Mediterranean reserves attract interest


Bapco expansion underway

Improving reliability with essential asset monitoring The hunt for ‘black gold’ goes deeper


Centralizing in the under ream

Global Supply


Society of Petroleum Engineers


That the world now is forced to rely more on Iraq than on Iran at a time of still relatively low OPEC spare capacity is in itself something of a problem, which inevitably is being quantified by the crude markets and resulting in a higher underlying and permanent risk premium.


18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

see us at the show stand no. 130 “MEOS makes a concerted effort to showcase the latest in research and technology. The current focus of the industry is on unconventional resources.” Abdulaziz Al Abdulkarim MEOS Executive Committee Chairman Saudi Aramco See page 60




Why Bapco is the driving force behind Bahrain’s economy. See page 48. Cover image courtesy of Bapco.

Samuel Ciszuk sees tensions, uncertainty and brinkmanship continuing in Iraq this year.


l na gio re ctor e th s se 7 9 ing ga 19 rv & Se oil nce si



Will Kuwait’s ambitious plans be scuppered by political infighting?Ex

Editor’s note

Exploration & Production 24

Interview Nabil Aouad, COO-Subsea at Technip Middle East, outlines his plans for the company’s newly-formed subsea division.



The latest exploration and production contract news from around the region.

Gas 30


Gas discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean have in the past few years raised the spectre of a new large-scale play opening up on Europe’s doorstep.


Developments The latest news from the region’s gas sector.

Petrochemicals 40


Booz & Company examines the need for GCC states to better tackle feedstock disruptions across the petrochemicals industry.

Profile 46


Why Bahrain Petroleum Company is at the forefront of developments in Bahrain.

SURROUNDED BY THE likes of Saudi Arabia, it’s easy to forget the importance of Bahrain in the region’s oil history. It may now be the Gulf’s smallest producer but it was here, many years ago, that the world’s richest oil producing region took its first tentative production steps. And that has meant a pioneering role for national oil champion, Bahrain Petroleum Company (Bapco), established in 1929 by Standard Oil Company of California. It was the first to discover oil in the Arabian peninsula way back in 1932, just three years after formation, at Jabal al-Dukhan. Within two years of that initial discovery, the company was exporting Bahrain’s oil and, by 1936, had commenced refining operations. That’s the sort of determination and accomplishment that drillers of today still aspire to. And all eyes will be on Bahrain shortly when the Middle East Oil Show (MEOS) opens its doors. The bi-annual MEOS Conference of which this is the latest edition has evolved into what is probably the largest and best attended technical event of its kind now held anywhere regularly in the Gulf. This year’s Technical programme - always the heart of the four-day event - consists of more than 200 simultaneous high-quality presentations in six different adjacent conference rooms. MEOS provides an excellent opportunity for networking as it’s a meeting point for industry players directly involved with the oil and gas sector.

Conferences and Exhibitions 50

Middle East Oil Show

The 18th MEOS takes place in Bahrain in March. What can visitors expect to see?

Asset Monitoring

Technical Focus

Offshore Technology


Innovations Introducing some of the latest technology for the oil and gas sector.


Downhole Technology

Why centralizer failure or poor spacing can lead to a multitude of downhole problems.




How improvements in plant reliability reduce the risk of catastrophic events and lower maintenance costs.


Deeper wells and renewed safety concerns pose new challenges for the offshore oil and gas industry. Providing solutions offers both opportunities and rewards.

Arabic Section 4 10

Developments Analysis

What should you consider when factoring spare parts provision for your compressor? Gardner Denver’s James Cutting gives some tips. Managing Editor: David Clancy Editorial and Design team: Bob Adams, Lizzie Carroll, Andrew Croft, Ranganath GS, Kasturi Gupta, Prashant AP, Rhonita Patnaik, Genaro Santos, Zsa Tebbit, Nicky Valsamakis, Julian Walker and Ben Watts

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Magazine Sales Manager: Camilla Capece Tel: +971 4 448 9260, Fax: +971 4 448 9261, Email: Country Representative Telephone Fax China Ying Wang (86) 10 8472 1899 (86) 10 8472 1900 India Tanmay Mishra (91) 80 65684483 (91) 80 40600791 Nigeria Bola Olowo (234) 8034349299 Russia Sergei Salov (7495) 540 7564 (7495) 540 7565 South Africa Annabel Marx (27) 218519017 (27) 46 624 5931 Saida Hamad (974) 55745780 Qatar UK Steve Thomas (44) 20 7834 7676 (44) 20 79730076 USA Michael Tomashefsky (1) 203 226 2882 (1) 203 226 7447

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Production: Donatella Moranelli, Nathanielle Kumar Nasima Osman, Nick Salt, Jeremy Walters and Sophia White - Email: Subscriptions: Email: Chairman: Derek Fordham Printed by: Emirates Printing Press, Dubai © Oil Review Middle East ISSN: 1464-9314

Serving the world of business

Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013 3


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Helping regional SME’s penetrate new markets UK-BASED WELLTON ENERGY Ltd, a new company, is looking to help companies that operate in the energy industry to launch, develop and expand their business in Europe, South East Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Wellton aims to help companies in the Middle East export their products and services to other markets, especially the very lucrative European region. Wellton provides the people, resources and contacts for business development programs Jason Brighton that make it possible to enter new markets quickly and profitably, without incurring the costs, risks and delays associated with opening a new office. The Middle East is not simply a giant reservoir of oil and gas. It is also home to thousands of energy-related businesses eager to offer their products to the wider world. Yet marketing those products poses problems. This is especially true for the region’s Small and Medium Enterprises (SME), who often cannot afford to employ skilled marketers familiar with every region the firm wants to penetrate. Wellton is the brainchild of Jason Brighton and Andy McDowell. As a result of their long experience in the oil and gas industry, they came to realise that a gap existed in the market for independent sales and marketing support, especially for SMEs. “We offer companies in the Middle East the opportunity to free up their skilled employees to do the work they were trained to do by letting us do the sales and marketing,” Brighton explained.

Technip appoints new MD in Abu Dhabi TECHNIP HAS APPOINTED Vaseem Khan as senior vice president of Technip in the Middle East and managing director of Technip in Abu Dhabi, UAE in mid January this year. He has succeeded Arturo Grimaldi, who has taken on a corporate position in Paris. He will be responsible for growing and f u r t h e r establishing Technip’s position in the region. K h a n commented, "I am very excited to take on this leading role as Technip in the Middle East has a diversified s u b s e a , offshore and o n s h o r e p r o j e c t s portfolio. With a Vaseem Khan presence in Abu Dhabi for the past thirty years, Technip has participated in a number of prestigious UAE oil and gas awards. We will continue to deliver high-quality and safe-executed projects to all our clients to answer their business objectives." Khan joined Technip’s operating centre in Abu Dhabi in 2003 where he was responsible for a number of offshore and onshore projects before being appointed chief operating officer in 2009, with the creation of Technip’s Middle East Region.

Delivering mega projects in the region OIL REVIEW MIDDLE East sat down with Azfar Shaukat, director oil and gas Mott MacDonald to discuss the misconceptions about working on oil and gas mega projects in the region and the wide experience Mott MacDonald has gathered in the field over many years. Shaukat explained that the usual definition of a mega project is one that costs more than US$1bn, which in practical terms means that even modest projects in the region come under this category. "Mott MacDonald has been working on mega projects for decades, across numerous sectors all over the world" he noted. Shaukat feels that Mott MacDonald can offer learnings from this enormous pool of experience to show how such projects could be executed more effectively in the Middle East. There are a lot of misunderstandings about mega projects, according to Shaukat who argued that, “the simplest is where a mega project is considered just a larger version of a big project, so all you have to do is scale up what you do. That is a recipe for disaster." He added, "Most if not all major projects

4 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

currently going on in the UAE are going to be, almost by definition - world leaders. This means that they will be pushing state-of-the-art technology and revolutionary designs." “One key success factor is to have a single point of contact, an individual who is a champion for that particular project. The stakeholders in the project will look to that individual to galvanise them and help push the project through," Shaukat remarked. He elaborated on this point by saying that from the off, these kind of projects are going to be huge but a lot of the enablers for the project will not exist at the start of the project, which is why it is so important to keep the main stakeholders involved right from the beginning. He provided the example of a typical area where no frameworks will exist, namely first LNG re-gas terminals. In many places these kind of projects are being proposed it will be for the first time and most countries will not have a gas industry or natural gas pipelines, as well as probably no experience of any kind of mega project. A major issue when it comes to mega projects

is with project definition and there is a temptation to go ahead with a project without having adequate defintion. This can prove disastrous since some 90 per cent of a project’s success or failure is decided during the first 10 per cent of the work. Shaukat said that the Middle East was a good region to work on mega projects and that "the leadership in the region is very progressive and very supportive of mega projects. Their personal drive makes the climate conducive to pushing technical boundaries, fostering a ‘cando’ attitude across the project delivery chain." Mega projects need to happen in the region for the oil and gas industry to develop. Vast investments are required to maintain production into the future and at increasingly competitive rates, so innovation will remain a key pre-requisite. In conclusion, he stated, “As projects become larger and more technically complex the demand for our mega projects expertise will remain strong and we will continue to serve it from our extensive multi-disciplinary presence in the region.”

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Executives Calendar 2013 MARCH 2013 3-6

Saudi Safety and Security



SPE-IADC Drilling Conference & Expo



Offshore Asia



Middle East Oil Show (MEOS)



Offshore Mediterranean (OMC)



Middle East Downstream Week



IPTC 2013


31-4 April

Digital Oilfields World Summit



SPE North Africa Technical Conference



LNG 17









Oil & Gas Asia



EAGE Conference & Expo



Gas & Oil Expo


APRIL 2013

MAY 2013

JUNE 2013

SEPTEMBER 2013 2-5

Erbil Oil & Gas



Offshore Europe


29-2 Oct

MEPEC 2013


Readers should verify dates and location with sponsoring organisations, as this information is sometimes subject to change.

Process engineering industry to gather at MEPEC in 2013 THE MIDDLE EAST Process Engineering Conference and Exhibition (MEPEC) is set to return in 2013, bringing together a large number of leading chemical, petrochemical and petroleum engineers and professionals from across the region. Organised by the Saudi Arabian Section of the American Institute of Chemical Engineer (SAS-AIChE), the second edition of MEPEC will take place from 29 September to 2 October 2013. The event, set to be held at Bahrain International Exhibition Centre in Manama, will include a number of workshops and discussions offering delegates practical experience in all aspects of process engineering, with topics relevant to both upstream and downstream

8 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

activities within the region's oil, gas and petrochemical industries. Dubai-based Middle East Energy Events (ME3) has been selected by the Saudi Arabian Section of American Institute of Chemical Engineers (SAS-AIChE) to project manage and coordinate the next edition of MEPEC following the success of the first edition of the conference and exhibition in October 2011. Frederic Malgoire, commercial director of ME3, said, "MEPEC 2011 was a tremendous success and its organisers must also be congratulated for their achievements. Our mission is to turn MEPEC into a truly international and leading conference and exhibition for the process engineering industry." According to ME3, the four-day event show

is likely to attract more than 150 exhibitors, a minimum of 1,400 delegates, and more than 200 speakers and presenters. MEPEC 2013 has been endorsed by the World Petroleum Council (WPC), with the organisation's president Dr Renato Bertani having agreed to join the MEPEC Advisory Committee, which will be headed by the governor of the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA) and former senior vice-president of Saudi Aramco, Abdulatif Al-Othman. Dr Pierce Riemer, director general for the WPC, said, "Process engineers are amongst the most important stakeholders in our industry to help tackle key technical, social, environmental and management issues in order to contribute towards seeking solutions to those issues."

S03 ORME 1 2013 Analysis_Layout 1 25/02/2013 15:31 Page 9

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Independent oil analyst, Samuel Ciszuk, explains why a continued lack of stability in parts of the region remain a cause for concern, in spite of increasing production levels.

Iraq has been slowly increasing its production capacity

Insecurity rises on supply

league shift D

URING JUNE AND July 2012 a fundamental shift took place in the global crude supply tables, with Iraq surpassing Iran as OPEC’s second largest producer. The change did not create many visible ripples on the oil market and had been expected since late last year, as international sanctions on Iran’s energy exports, including a vital EU oil embargo, started being realised. The change is not only caused by Iran’s shut-in exports and production, but also due to Iraq’s southern megaprojects, which have started to deliver their first large increments since late 2011, helping to alleviate what otherwise would have risked to be a far too tightening supply situation. The shift in the OPEC league table is however more fundamentally dramatic than it first might appear and is also likely not to be reversed as easily as some US and EU legislators might think. Iranian crude supply might well struggle to recover from its dramatically low levels after decades of underinvestment in a very mature asset base. In the meantime, the world is forced to

10 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Sanctions on Iran are however not looking near to being lifted

increasingly rely on Iraq, which over the longterm has been one of the least reliable producers in OPEC when it comes to stability of production, a sphere in which the Iranians, perhaps somewhat ironically, in comparison can hardly be faulted. Iraq remains torn by internal political conflict and paralysis, with the increased instability in neighbouring Syria since mid-2011 again demonstrating how easy neighbouring problems tend to spill over into tension within Iraq itself.

While its oil production growth is so far a success story and promises significant further volumes to come, its lack of long-term stability and predictability from a political and operational point of view means that it the world’s increasing reliance on its output at a times of relatively low OPEC spare capacity seems less like a success story in itself. In fact, amid the Iraqi upstream progress, it is a cause for a fundamental rise in oil price risk premiums -one which likely will stay with us over the long-term. Sanctions on Iran’s oil exports have been very successful in slashing the Islamic Republic’s exports almost by half, lowering its production by more than one million barrels per day. As a consequence of political action on the sell-side, it is viewed by many as a temporary measure which should have little or no impact on Iran’s fundamental production capacity when sanctions at some point are lifted. There are two reasons why the consequences might be more long-lasting and negative however. Firstly, Iran has been faced by gradually increasing international sanctions for years if

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not decades, from the US, the EU, other OECD countries, as well as from the UN. This means that there is by now a complex set of laws passed in a wide array of jurisdictions which will have to be repelled before business can properly resume again. While this in theory should be no more complicated than passing the laws and statutes in the first place, history cautions that this process is anything but simple and quick. It is also heavily complicated by the international sanctions targeting many aspects and sectors of the Iranian business environment, meaning that even if oil purchases were to suddenly be allowed in countries where they are now barred, a wide array of financial sanctions targeting shipping insurance and financial transactions would also have to be repealed for most private and public institutions to again dare to engage with Iranian counterparties. The recent example of Libya sheds light on this point, with the US in particular struggling to repel sanctions legislation for years following the 2004 decision by Libya’s then-leader Muammar Khadaffi to give up his country’s nuclear weapons programme in exchange for a return back from international isolation. Having been promised sanctions would be lifted quickly as a quid-pro-quo, the slow and cumbersome process of rewriting US laws into which sanctions had been embedded for years, became a bone of contention in US-Libyan relations and frustrated the pace of the country’s hoped-for economic recovery. Indeed, some of the last remaining sanctions had not yet been repelled by the time of the 2011 popular uprising against the Khadaffi regime, when new sanctions again started being put back onto the crumbling regime (and again, some of them are still to be lifted). Secondly, Iran’s oil industry has suffered decades of underinvestment, despite its generally mature main oilfields suffering increasingly high rates of decline. The lack of technology due to decades of US sanctions has become much deeper since international sanctions started being tightened in the last five years, while the nucleus of emerging foreign upstream investment at the same time has dried up. Not having been able to arrest mature decline rates widely seen to be in the 10 per cent range annually in the past few years, Iran is in a bad position to handle the shut-in of production at some of its largest and oldest fields, many of which are dependent on artificially kept reservoir pressures. Iran’s high domestic gas demand complicates this issue further, as much of its gas is associated and the country therefore will have to prioritise which fields to continue to produce from, not by looking at the possible reservoir consequences of lengthy shut-ins, but from where they can source the highest amount of associated gas production.

12 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Iran’s oil and gas sector is in desperate need of new technology

In fact, amid the Iraqi upstream progress, it is a cause for a fundamental rise in oil price risk premiums -one which likely will stay with us over the long term Iranian domestic technical know-how is generally regarded as high, so given the ample time which it has had to mothball oilfields, this issue might not immediately be the most radical threat to long-term production. Sanctions on Iran are however not looking near to being lifted and the longer such a large part of Iran’s fields remain shut-in the larger the investments that will be required to bring them back onstream –funds which Iran will be even shorter of at the eventual end to international sanctions. Again, history serves a somewhat depressing precedent, with Iran’s oil production capacity

never being able to recover to anywhere near its former levels following the disruption caused by the 1979 revolution and the damage subsequently caused by the 1980-1988 IranIraq war. While it would be alarmist to expect Iran to be unable to restart most of the more than one million bpd of production capacity shut through sanctions, Iran might struggle to reach levels much over 3.0-3.2 mn bpd should the sanctions regime remain in place past the first half of this year, compared to production rates around 3.5 mn bpd in late-2011. In Iraq, the oil industry is currently in the progress of delivering a historically successful growth programme. While the development pace is nowhere near the over-optimistic official targets calling for a 12 mn bpd production capacity by 2016, the lifting of production capacity from 2.4-2.5 mn bpd in 2010 and 2.7 mn bpd as late as at the start of 2012 to 3.3 mn bpd by the start of 2013 should be regarded an impressive achievement. Even better, there is today no technical or economic reason to expect the growth not to continue through the year, as projects near completion make an end-2013 production rate

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just shy of 3.7 mn bpd look very likely. Iraqi uncertainty comes from the unpredictability and uncertainty regarding the country’s political and security situation. While Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki has managed to consolidate his position, this has come at the cost of continued political paralysis and a near standstill of legislative activity. With the Iraqi population demanding progress on the rebuilding of the country and its infrastructure, the situation is at its core unsustainable. Likewise, Iraq continues to be a playing field for its neighbours’ power projections and risks being drawn into increased instability as a cause of the deepening SaudiIranian animosity, as well as more directly from the crumbling Syrian security situation across its porous western border. Both are connected, but the latter has very immediate implications on its disenfranchised Sunni minority as well as its autonomous Kurdish population. The recent spike in al-Qaida-claimed violence in Iraq is also tied to the growing traffic of Islamic militants and arms throughout the Iraqi and Syrian border regions. Oil projects have proven resilient so far and have to some extent even benefitted from the political malaise, giving the oil companies involved some freedom of operations. Project decision-making and clearance issuing by the authorities has been a hurdle however, delaying progress and raising costs across the board. The unpredictability of the Iraqi situation is however amplified by the need to renegotiate the contracts, as the unrealistic production plateau targets are being slashed. Oil companies are paid per barrel produced and will therefore require compensation for the

OPEC - low spare capacity

14 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Oil projects in Iraq have proven resilient so far

Iran’s oil industry has suffered decades of under investment

lower targets and the negotiations are never straightforward in Iraq’s highly resource nationalistic environment, even if the legislative paralysis should ease. Despite Iran widely having been blamed for being a destabilising force in the Middle East over the past years, it has been a stable

supplier of crude to the global markets over the long term. Save the disruption around the revolution and Iraq’s subsequent invasion, targeting some of its most oil-rich areas, it is Iraq which from an oil perspective has caused most disruption and uncertainty. Iraq instigated the eight-year war with Iran and then invaded Kuwait in 1990 causing largescale disruption and damage to the emirate and drawing upon itself heavy damages and a long punitive sanctions regime in the wake of Kuwait’s liberation. Following the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq, production again fell to historical lows and continued to fluctuate significantly below its historic capacity levels for almost all of the subsequent decade. It’s stability outlook has not changed radically, although on the other hand there also no particular reason to be more gloomy now than before the last parliamentary elections in 2010. The greater uncertainty for global supplies instead comes from the comparison between Iraq and Iran’s historic domestic stability levels and the projections going forward. The institutionally developed Iranian state has, despite its democratic deficiencies, proved to have a high level of domestic stability from an industrial perspective, even at times like the aftermath of the contested 2009 presidential elections. Iraq, with its weak institutional framework and multitude of militant groups and areas outside of direct government control could on the other hand quickly degenerate back to the levels of violence seen between 2005-2007, making most large-scale project work unfeasible. That the world now is forced to rely more on Iraq than on Iran at a time of still relatively low OPEC spare capacity is therefore in itself something of a problem, which inevitably is being quantified by the crude markets and resulting in a higher underlying and permanent risk premium. ■

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Iraq has worked hard to increase its oil production capacity, but, as independent oil analyst Samuel Ciszuk explains, the country’s problems are far from over.

Tensions and uncertainty to

continue this year L

AST YEAR, IRAQ started delivering on its large oil output capacity growth promises, as several of its key oil projects in the south were able to raise production on an impressive scale. From producing just about 2.7 mn bpd in January 2012, Iraq produced just under 3.3 mn bpd in December 2012, playing a large part in the world‘s ability to handle toughened sanctions on Iran’s oil exports. In fact, with Iranian exports falling from around 2.2 million bpd in early 2012, to just about one million bpd around the beginning of 2013, it is clear that Iraq alone – through its crude production increases – carried half the burden of the falling Iranian supplies. With Libyan production also recovering from the lows of 2011 and non-OPEC production growing healthily, the situation did not become as critical for Saudi Arabia – OPEC’s swing producer – to manage as markets feared in the first half of 2012. There are complications however. For Iraq, the Iran sanctions in reality presented the country’s State Oil Marketing Organisation (SOMO) with a golden opportunity to increase market share at a time when Iran was unable to maintain its position. As global markets in retrospect were sufficiently supplied throughout the year – despite some tightness - particularly Q1 2012 - there was an inventory build in each quarter – Iraq would probably have struggled to place all its rising export volumes with buyers, had the Iranian supplies not have been receding, without significantly weakening crude prices. However, this shift places Iraq in a much more central position vis-a-vis Iran as a global supplier, at a time when risks in Iraq – political and project – seem again to be increasing. In fact, some of the largest oil production shutins during 2012 (not counting the sanctions on Iran) came from Iraq, where storms in the Gulf succeeded in shutting loadings off completely or lowering southern exports to below one million bpd on several occasions. Luckily, these shut-ins were quickly over, unlike the more publicised problems in the North Sea or the large shut-ins following cyclones off Australia in Q1 2012 and following hurricane Isaac in the US Gulf of Mexico. One-to-two day fluctuations of more than one million bpd in well over a handful occasions in a year demonstrates a certain unreliability of supply, especially compared to nearby ports in Kuwait and Iran, where the downtime was negligible in comparison.

16 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Iraq is still suffering from very high levels of political risk

This uncertainty on so many levels is likely to result in investment levels starting to fall in the coming year Iraq’s outdated export infrastructure has historically been to blame for these disruptions, but even with the installation in the past year of new single-point mooring (SPM) buoys, the overall infrastructure was still found wanting. In the north, security and operational problems with the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline to the Turkish Mediterranean coast were also a significant factor and this year the recurring problems of pipeline bombings were exacerbated by output plunging at the giant northern Kirkuk oilfield.

Together with a deepening of the dispute between Baghdad and autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan, this caused a queue build-up of up to 20 tankers by mid-2012 due to deferred cargoes, which took over one month to clear. The chief risks with Iraq are however not necessarily on the operational reliability level. Iraq is still suffering from very high levels of political risk and despite the past years’ success in raising investment and production, last year was a year of backsliding. Relations between Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s Shi’a dominated government and the country’s Sunni and Kurdish minorities soured further, although an impeachment challenge against him originating from groups within the two main minorities failed to have success. At the start of 2013, gthere is nothing to suggest that the situation is improving. The conflict between Baghdad and the autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has deepened and the

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threat of escalation seems to remain acute. Late 2012 saw shootouts and an armed stand-off across the border held by the KRG – which is not recognised as the autonomous region’s rightful border by Baghdad – and although such incidents have happened before, the widespread sense since is that only a minimal de-escalation took place in the aftermath. While Baghdad and the KRG will continue to argue their cases with regards to KRG oil rights and direct oil company investment in the region, as well as the KRG’s recent decision to officially export crude by truck to Turkey (there has been considerable smuggling of crude previously), the KRG will likely step up its efforts to challenge the Iraqi government in Baghdad itself. It needs to do so, in order to raise the direct political costs for alMaliki’s government for keeping development in the region at bay. This means that the Kurdish factions will continue their efforts to build antiMaliki alliances with mainly the Iraqi Parliament’s Sunni MPs, drawing on the ever growing feeling of alienation which the large Sunni minority is feeling. Bridging the Kurdish-Sunni gap has so far not been easy however. This process was visible already ahead of the 2010 elections, however the yearning for far-reaching autonomy intrinsic in the Kurdish movement has traditionally not sat well with the Sunni’s vision of a centralised state. In the post-Saddam Hussein era, the Sunni interest in centralisation has further been strengthened by a fear that a complete Iraqi fragmentation would result in the Sunnis being shut-out of both the Shi’a-dominated oil rich south and south east, as well as the Kurdish-dominated oil-rich north, leaving the Sunni population even more deprived. Since 2010, the feeling of deprivation has nevertheless been growing as Sunni’s complain increasingly of discrimination and marginalisation – opening a potential window of opportunity for the Kurds to build a new alliance, could they just muster and gain acceptance for, extending sufficient safe guards to the Sunnis that they ultimately do not seek full independence. So what does all this mean for the oil sector in Iraq? Recent increases in violence, have continued to omit the oil producing areas (save Kirkuk) and the tighter grip on power and the nation’s security forces by al-Maliki over the past years has continued to improve the direct security situation in southern Iraq, where oil companies are invested, at least from a anti-terrorist perspective. On the other hand, the government’s trackrecord on fighting the intertwined high corruption and organised crime rate in the south is however far from being similarly convincing. Perhaps the main threat to operations now however stems from the large but more indirect threat of renewed fragmentation in Iraq, as well as the direct threat to project speed and investment posed by the political deadlock. The dramatic need for red tape-cuts apparent over the past two-three years, as projects physically got underway, has, apart from a few high-level exceptions, largely gone unaddressed. This is not because of complete government lethargy however. There exists a

18 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Al-Maliki - will he postpone elections and try to hold on to power?

The chief risks with Iraq are however not necessarily on the operational reliability level political deadlock situation, where parliament is able to pass preciously few laws, there is only so much which can be done. Large-scale upstream investors and contractors need to keep this aspect in mind: The result of the political deadlock is a widespread and growing popular Iraqi dissatisfaction with its elected officials and could well lead to large changes being brought following the next set of elections, making longerterm planning unpredictable. The current government coalition – and to a significant degree also the main opposition parties – have benefitted from being seen by the population as guardians against a renewed slide into sectarian violence, allowing the parties some lenience when their political achievements have been judged. Although a fear of violence will continue to be a strong motivator for the population in elections for a long time to come, it will be a gradually weakening force compared to the rising frustration over political inaction – that is, unless the fear of violence is stoked continuously. With most of Iraq’s political groups looking disposed towards brinkmanship these days, given the overall rising level of tensions, this could easily create a situation where some of Iraq’s new political elite feels even less restrained than before, further raising the risk of one side miscalculating in future standoffs. For the oil industry this means that the outlook for radically improved fiscal terms and operating conditions looks almost impossible to attain, save what can be squeezed out from the negotiations over cutting the overambitious oilfield production targets of 2016-2017 agreed at the time of the licence auctions.

Also, it means that the current political actors in Iraq seem to be running out of steam, paving the way for either some more confrontational behaviour between the main groups, to dislodge each other and in such a way break the deadlock, or a radical change of the actors being the result of elections when they next are called. A third option is that the current government under al-Maliki tries to hold on to power and postpone elections, a course of action which however would be likely to provoke an outright challenge from all opposition factors, potentially helping them unite. This uncertainty on so many levels is likely to result in investment levels starting to fall in the coming year, lowering Iraq’s projected oil production capacity growth in the 2014-2015 timeframe as a result. How happy oil companies will be with the deals secured in the production target renegotiations and what progress – if any – ultimately can be achieved between Baghdad and Iraqi Kurdistan in the first half of the year will be the two most important signposts to watch for the upstream investment climate. Overall violence levels and the potential rise of a unified Sunni-Kurdish parliamentarian challenge against the government will be the two other things to look out for, but for them to produce good enough news to hope for radical changes to Iraq’s current situation is to expect too much. Politico-economically, the best case scenario for Iraq over the coming two years remains scraping through and not being dragged back down into the abyss of sectarian bloodshed. For really good news, that will more likely be weather-related. News in January that Iraq had completed construction of four new storage tanks in the south with a combined one million barrel capacity and was building more in order to lift total southern storage capacity from 5.5 million barrels to 8.5 million barrels before end-2013, should at least mean that with the new single-point mooring terminals offshore installed in 2011 and 2012, less weather-related loading disruptions and delays should be on the cards. ■

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Kuwait’s state-owned oil and gas companies have plenty on their plate as the Gulf state targets rapid production growth.

Will Kuwait’s ambitious plans be scuppered by

political differences? T

HESE ARE POTENTIALLY very exciting times for Kuwait, with oil and gas production capacity growth plans and downstream investments high on the

agenda. But any regular watchers of this tiny Gulf state will remain cautious about whether any new promises and projections relating to the country’s prized energy sector will come through in the end. That’s the voice of experience after major project initiatives from the past, such as the flagship Project Kuwait to tap the nation’s northern oilfields with the help of foreign investors, came to nothing. Political differences inside Kuwait have long unravelled many a good idea in this corner of the Gulf. Still, the nation’s state-owned oil companies are doing a fine job in maintaining and gently lifting oil output, with Kuwait’s production now either at, or about, 30-year highs. Earlier this year, the oil minister Sheikh Ahmad

20 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

al-Abdullah al-Sabah said the nation’s production had breached the three million barrels per day (bpd) mark. That’s even more impressive when you consider the country’s oil infrastructure was practically annihilated by Iraq a little over 20 years ago during the invasion. It means Kuwait is currently operating with plenty of spare capacity, with its OPEC quota restricted to 2.2 mn bpd. More is to come, it seems, with Kuwait focused on boosting oil capacity to four million bpd by 2030, a date that appears to have been pushed back a little, from an earlier 2020 target. Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), established in 1980, is the entity that brings together all of the nation’s multiple state owned-oil companies under one roof. It’s various subsidiaries, operating units and joint ventures, control virtually every aspect of the nation’s oil and gas sector, both upstream and downstream, from discovering new reservoirs to

delivering clean motor fuels. It also includes leading Kuwait’s growing portfolio of energy investments overseas. Upstream, the wholly-owned Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration (Kufpec) subsidiary, recently acquired additional exploration interests off western Australia, reflecting the increasingly global nature of KPC’s portfolio. Downstream, another two operating units, Kuwait Petroleum International (KPI) and Petrochemicals Industries Company (PIC), this year teamed up with Total of France to progress a huge new 300,000 bpd refinery and petrochemicals complex in China, in partnership with Sinopec. China, and other emerging Asian states, have become key buyers for Kuwait’s oil in recent years to feed soaring economic growth. Back at home, it is another KPC unit, Kuwait Oil Company (KOC), that is taking the lead role in exploiting the nation’s upstream oil and gas wealth, which includes the world’s second largest oil field, Greater Burgan.

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in the making. While the bulk of oil production will continue to come from the larger, established fields, such as Burgan, additional increments may be sourced elsewhere. Kuwait’s new oil production is likely to

comprise both crude and heavy oil output, with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques expected to add an extra 180,000 bpd and heavy oil to increase by 220,000 bpd, KOC chairman and managing director Sami al-Rushaid told an industry event recently.

KOC is charged with maintaining and rasing Kuwait’s production capacity

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This company’s history dates back to 1934 when it was established by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, now known as BP, and Gulf Oil Corporation, now Chevron. KOC is charged with maintaining and raising Kuwait’s production capacity from the mighty Burgan field and others, as well as pushing exploration and reserves growth. Despite the group’s recent track record in lifting output this will be quite a challenge. Kuwait’s intention is to reach 3.5 mn bpd by between 2015 2020, climbing to four million bpd in 2030. For KOC, this means the spending will come thick and fast in new projects, creating plenty of work opportunity for contractors and service companies. The government has lined up a five-year growth plan worth a massive US$100 bn, much of it in the hands of KOC. During this year, KOC is planning energy and infrastructure investments worth up to KD10 bn (US$35.5 bn), the company’s deputy board chairman and deputy managing director Mazen alSardi said recently. Current plans include the building of three crude collection centres in northern Kuwait with a daily capacity of 100,000 barrels each; there is also a pipeline linking oilfields to a new refinery

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Kuwait’s new oil production output is likely to comprise both crude and heavy oil output

Kuwait’s long history as a producer of some scale means KOC must also carefully manage the country’s mature fields, which means a more prominent role for EOR extraction technology. KOC is looking to move ahead with the commercial development of its first heavy oilfield in early 2013, called Lower Fars, after successfully carrying out pilot projects. The onshore acreage, located in the north and close to the Iraqi border, is estimated to hold some 13 bn barrels of reserves. The field was initially to be developed by a KOC joint venture with ExxonMobil but the US super-giant pulled out after objections from members of Kuwait’s National Assembly (parliament) who insisted on the Gulf state retain sovereign rights over all reserves. KOC now plans to spend US$7 bn to develop the field, aiming to produce 60,000 bpd by 2017 and subsequently ramping up capacity to 270,000 bpd by 2030.

Offshore focus Al-Rushaid said gas would also play a more prominent role in Kuwait’s energy mix with production of non-associated gas set to increase ten-fold to around 1.5 bn cubic feet by 2030. Rising domestic demand has meant Kuwait has had to rely on gas imports in recent years to fill a widening shortfall. And KOC’s production growth will also hinge critically on booking more oil and gas reserves, and ultimately output, through new exploration, including deposits offshore. In 2013, the company is expected to start drilling the first few exploration wells in Kuwait Bay. This work will start around Bubiyan Island in the north and then move south along the bay. KOC has acquired 3D seismic over a total area of around 10,000 SqKm in advance of the drilling programme, which will include at least six wells.

KNPC downstream One of the biggest tests Kuwait faces, however, is in the downstream sector, namely in pushing through the long-delayed new refinery project at Al-Zour. In early December, the Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC) awarded a US$528 mn project management contract to UK-based AMEC for the new facility, resurrecting a project that has twice collapsed because of political wrangling. If the scheme progresses smoothly this time it could give Kuwait the Middle East’s largest new refinery, with a capacity of 615,000 bpd. The al-Zour project forms a key part of Kuwait’s long term energy strategy, producing cleaner fuels to meet local electrical power generation growth and demand while adhering to the latest environmental standards. The hope this time is that the refinery will be up and running in 2018. That’s five years away, not unreasonable for a large investment project of this kind, but in Kuwait, with its history of political in-fighting disrupting big business, time can sometimes slip away. ■


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Oil Review Middle East spoke to Nabil Aouad, COO - Subsea at Technip Middle East about the latest developments at the company's first Middle East subsea project and his outlook for the newly-formed subsea division.

Subsea growth in the

Middle East T

ECHNIP IN THE Middle East formed its subsea division only last year and secured its first project in the region when it was awarded an engineering, procurement, installation and commissioning (EPIC) contract from Dubai Petroleum for the South West Fatah and Falah fields, located 90km offshore Dubai, at a water depth up to 55 meters. "I was thrilled that we managed to get a project in the Middle East, just a few months after we created the subsea division," Aouad said. The EPIC contract encompasses the replacement of six 18” water injection pipelines, one 12” gas pipeline, and one multiphase 30” pipeline . "The project is a fast track project awarded in June 2012 for a delivery of its major pipelaying part in 2012," he explained Technip’s operating centre in Abu Dhabi will execute the contract and Aouad said he was delighted to have been asked to become director for the new division and help form the Subsea division. Aouad claimed that, "This contract is a confirmation that there is a place for new generation DP vessels in the shallow waters of the Middle East, and that based on its speed of action in transit and setting up in various locations of a brown field without anchors, has proven to be very efficient on small lines as well." The pipelaying was carried out by Technip’s flagship S-Lay installation vessel, the G1201. In addition the diving works associated to this project

Nabil Aouad

24 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Technip’s S-Lay installation vessel the G1201

The EPIC contract encompasses the replacement of six 18” water injection pipelines, one 12” gas pipeline, and one multiphase 30” pipeline. were carried out by a dynamic positioning diving support vessel from Technip fleet. The G1201 docked in Sharjah in early December last year and is the company's largest vessel ever brought to the region. Its arrival in Sharjah port for a short visit was the first time the G1201 has left the Asia Pacific, where it was conceived and delivered last year in Singapore. The G1201 is the latest generation of derrick laying self-propelled vessels, which can work in shallow water, but also without strings attached (no anchors) in a dynamic positioning mode. "It is this latest feature that proves to be of great value as we are installing pipelines over a very congested area of existing pipelines, without taking any risk of dragging an anchor on the seabed or be obliged to run anchorlines under a bridge or through a platform," added Aouad. He touched on one of the main challenges associated with the subsea project for Dubai Petroleum, which is the shutdown that is associated to the 12-inch pipeline replacement, as 25 per cent of the overall DPE production was at stake during this shutdown, which was carried out successfully ahead of its intended duration. The other challenge was the 30” multiphase

pipeline which crosses so many pipelines and cables, that the decision was made to lay it fully without touching the seabed, totally suspended on supports no wider than 6m. The G1201 laid it while monitoring the touch town of the pipeline on these supports in less than 3 days Aouad feels that the Middle East market is wide and the competition is very hard and more so in the subsea market where Technip are just starting. "The road may be bumpy, and the biggest subsea prospects are in other regions with deeper waters where our vessels have a much higher value added than what the competition has here," he pointed out. Aouad believes that the biggest challenge Technip faces is being a newcomer to the subsea business in the region also the fact that most of the clients know the firm as Engineering or a PMC Contractor, and have never seen its work with its own assets as it the case in other areas. “Overcoming this hurdle involves communicating to Oil and Gas companies details of our worldwide leadership on subsea activities, and how Technip uses its own vessels and is deeply involved in other important facets of the industry such as rigid pipelaying, flexible pipelaying, heavy lifts in deep and shallow waters,” he added. “The Dubai Petroleum project is a great showcase for Technip bringing in a top class vessel from outer sea for a small magnitude project where high value is needed, and to deliver a quality product.” Aouad remains realistic about the outlook for the subsea market "as no matter how good our vessels and our teams are, it takes time for local Oil and Gas companies to notice positive change brought by the new built and multi purpose vessels." ■

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Gulfsands Petroleum acquires more oil and gas concessions in Morocco GULFSANDS PETROLEUM HAS completed its acquisition of Cabre Maroc Limited (Cabre Maroc), a subsidiary of British independent Caithness Petroleum, that gives it access to oil and gas concessions covering an area of 13,352 sq-km in northern Morocco. The London-based firm said in a statement that the deal which was agreed in December was now secured following cash payments totalling US$19mn. In addition to the payment, Gulfsands has made a financial guarantee of US$5mn to Morocco’s state oil regulator ONHYM. This will, however, be refunded upon fulfilment of the work commitments as planned in the second half of this year. "The purchase of Cabre Maroc delivers to Gulfsands a large, contiguous and highly prospective acreage position in an area with proven petroleum systems, revenues from near term production, and multiple drilling targets," the company stated. Gulfsands believes that there is meaningful near term value potential contained within the proven conventional and shallow depth gas play in the Rharb Centre permit, together with significant exploration upside related to the fold and thrust belt structures identified in the adjacent Rharb Sud, Fes and Taounate permits. The firm said that it was now set to generate cash flows from gas production as soon as the third quarter of this year. With completion of the acquisition Gulfsands and ONHYM have become co-venturers in the Rharb Centre and Rharb Sud permits, with Gulfsands the operator of the joint venture.

Drilling contracts in Kurdistan awarded WESTERNZAGROS RESOURCES HAS awarded a contract for two 2,000 horsepower (HP) drilling rigs to a North American company, to drill on its Garmian Block in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The two rigs will drill the Hasira-1 The Kurdamir block well, the Baram-1 well and subsequent wells on the Garmian Block in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, the company said in a statement. The drilling services contract was awarded for a two year term with an option to extend for an additional two years. The deal also includes a provision for a third 2,000 HP rig if required. "We are pleased to have reached arrangements to bring two rigs from a new entrant to the Kurdistan Region. This contract supports our objectives in the Garmian Block," stated Simon Hatfield chief executive officer of WesternZagros. Drilling design and site construction are underway for both the Hasira-1 and Baram-1 wells and long lead items have been ordered in anticipation of the spud dates in June and August, 2013, respectively, WesternZagros noted. The firm said it was actively assessing future drilling prospects, the selection of which will be influenced by its 3D seismic programs and drilling results on the Garmian Block and neighbouring blocks.

Exploration of block 9 in Basra is set to start

Genel becomes sole operator of Miran Block

A KUWAIT ENERGY-LED consortium and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil signed the final service contract for the exploration, development and production of Basra’s block 9. The block covers an area of over 866 sq-km area in the Basra province and was awarded to the consortium during Iraq’s fourth bidding round in May 2012. Kuwait Energy will be the operator of the block with a 70 per cent working interest, while Dubai-based Dragon Oil will hold the remainder 30 per cent. In the case of a discovery, the Consortium will be automatically eligible for 20-year development and production phases, extendable by an additional five years. Block 9 is the third block awarded so far to Kuwait Energy in Iraq.

HERITAGE OIL ANNOUNCED that it has completed the disposal of the remaining 49 per cent interest in the Miran Block in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq to Genel Energy. The deal which was announced last year has resulted in Genel holding 100 per cent of the participating interest in the block (and 75 per cent of the working interest) and has become the sole operator. Heritage Oil confirmed that the decision to relinquish the asset was carried out in order to repay a US$294mn loan made by Genel to Heritage in August 2012. Heritage CEO Tony Buckingham commented in the statement, "We are delighted to have received final approval for the disposal which means we have monetised the asset at an attractive valuation. This brings the total disposal proceeds generated by Heritage from asset sales to over US$2bn.”

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Frontier provides update on Oman block 38

Chevron enters blocks offshore Morocco

FRONTIER RESOURCES (OMAN) Ltd has provided an update on Block 38 in Oman. It signed an exploration and production sharing agreement (EPSA) with the government of Oman for a 100 per cent interest at the end of November last year. The six-year EPSA agreement comprises two three-year phases. The block, also known as the Mudayy Block, covers an area of 17,425 sq km and is located in the Dhofar region of southwest Oman, south of the Rub Al Khali Basin. Jack Keyes, chief executive officer of Frontier stated, "The CPR gives Block 38 an estimated original oil in place (OOIP) of 10,865 mn barrels of oil equivalent (MMboe) and we believe that Block 38 contains an untested salt basin analogous to the other proven salt basin of Oman." Block 38 has had only three wells drilled but and is considered a good prospective for oil and gas, where recent findings based on the evaluation of vintage seismic suggest that the block contains an untested salt basin potentially analogous to the other proven salt basins of Oman. Frontier will conduct geophysical and geological studies during the first phase of the agreement to determine the range of drilling opportunities. The firm would then design a 3D seismic survey, the results of which will lead to the drilling of a well if suitable. The company said in a statement that "Block 38 Permit represents an opportunity to develop an onshore oil and gas play similar to PDO's successful Harweel Cluster of fields where production commenced in 2004." Frontier noted that development costs for Block 38, including full scale enhanced oil recovery (EOR), will be high but that they can be supported by the oil volumes which are of sufficient scale based on the analogous Harweel Cluster of fields.

CHEVRON MOROCCO EXPLORATION has entered into agreements with Morocco's Office National Des Hydrocarbures Et Des Mines (ONHYM) for three offshore areas. The three deep-water areas extend over 29,200 sqkm in water depths of 1004,500 meters. George Kirkland, vice chairman, Chevron Corporation commented, "We look forward to participating in exploration activities in Morocco, which provides Chevron an opportunity to The awarded offshore areas advance our growth strategy in frontier basins." Chevron will acquire seismic data and conduct studies in deepwater areas known as Cap Rhir Deep, Cap Cantin Deep and Cap Walidia Deep located between 100 to 200 km west and northwest of Agadir, Morocco. Ali Moshiri, president, Chevron Africa and Latin America Exploration and Production Company noted, "This is an opportunity for Chevron to expand its already strong presence in the region and allows us to acquire further knowledge about promising geology in an emerging area." Chevron Morocco Exploration is a subsidiary of Chevron Corp and it will have a 75 per cent working interest in the three areas, with ONHYM holding the remaining 25 per cent.

Oil Search sells Yemen block to Total AUSTRALIA-LISTED OIL SEARCH has completed the sale of its 40 per cent interest in Block 3 (Gardan), onshore Yemen, to oil giant Total for US$44mn. Total will become the sole operator of the block. Peter Botten, Oil Search's managing director commented on the sale, “The completion of the sale of Oil Search’s interest in Block 3, Yemen is in line with our strategy to optimise our international acreage portfolio in the Middle East and North Africa, with a focus on licences with material upside. Drilling is currently underway on a large prospect in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, with encouraging Total’s presence in Yemen preliminary indications, and a high potential well in Tunisia is due to commence drilling in early 2013.” Oil Search's remaining asset in Yemen is its 34 per cent interest and operatorship of Block 7 (Al Barqa), also onshore Yemen, which contains the Al Meashar oil field discovered in 2010. The firm added that it was planning to acquire a 2D seismic programme over prospective areas of the Block in 2013, subject to a stable and safe operating environment prevailing in this area.”

28 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

WesternZagros increases contingent resources estimates at Kurdamir block WESTERNZAGROS RESOURCES HAS reported a fourfold increase in the company's contingent resource estimates at the giant oil discovery on the Kurdamir Block in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. According to a report by Sproule International the total mean estimate of gross unrisked contingent resources (Mean Contingent Resources) at Kurdamir has increased to 590mn barrels of oil (MMbbl) in the Oligocene and Eocene reservoirs. When gas and condensate are included the Mean Contingent Resources exceed onebn barrels of oil equivalent, the company said in a statement. Simon Hatfield, WesternZagros's chief executive officer commented, "The Kurdamir structure has the potential to be the largest light oil field discovered in Kurdistan, with the possibility that it extends on to our neighbouring Garmian Block. We're therefore highly motivated to drill the Kurdamir-3 well on the Kurdamir Block and the Baram-1 well on the Garmian Block this year to further delineate this giant discovery." WesternZagros noted that this was the fourth successive independently audited upward revision of contingent resources since the Kurdamir Discovery was announced in November 2009. In the Oligocene reservoir, mean contingent resources increased to 435mn barrels of oil from 147mn barrels previously. This equates to 786mn boe when gas and condensate are included. The latest resource estimate also recognised contingent resources in the Eocene reservoir on the Kurdamir Block for the first time. Mean contingent resources for Eocene stand at 155mn barrels of oil, or 226mn barrels of oil equivalent when gas and condensate are included. Based on reservoir data obtained from the Kurdamir testing program and independent engineering assessments, WesternZagros predicts "that sustainable production rates" of 7,000 to 11,000 boepd are possible for individual wells in the Oligocene reservoir utilizing horizontal drilling and completions technology.

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Tethys' Oman production fell in December E&P

TETHYS OIL AB, through its wholly-owned subsidiary Tethys Oil Block 3 and 4 Ltd, produced 456,762 barrels of oil in December 2012, corresponding to 14,734 bopd which was a slight fall from The total production in 2012 was 4.49mn barrels of oil in the new record the two blocks set in November of 14,981 bopd. The total production in 2012 from the blocks amounted to 4.49mn barrels of oil, corresponding to 12,257 barrels of oil per day, a press release stated, adding that Tethys' share of the production is 30 per cent of the total, or 137,029 barrels last year. The firm owns 30 per cent interest in the two blocks onshore the Sultanate of Oman.

MENA Hydrocarbons re-commences drilling in Egypt MENA HYDROCARBONS HAS re-commenced drilling activities in its Lagia oil field in Egypt and a new progressive cavity pump (PCP) has been installed in well nine, which has produced 90 bpd over a 12 day period in January. MENA also completed installation of required production facilities in the field with three oil storage tanks, a water tank, and a 500 barrel fuel tank, and has connected all producing wells with flow lines, a press release from the firm stated. Lagia Nukhul FormationCaption wells 8 and 10, which were drilled in 2012 and designed for steam injection, will be placed on production following an initial steam injection cycle that began in February. The company has signed an agreement with Middle East steam operator Steamtech and Co to provide steam injection equipment and personnel for the project. It is expected that production volumes from the wells will be significantly improved as the quality of sandstone reservoir and oil gravity is good, said the release. The two remaining production wells in the field, Lagia 6 and 7, were drilled by a previous operator and were not completed with thermal casing, however, their flow rates are expected to increase from their current 22 bpd with steam injection into the other nearby wells. MENA is also aiming to drill a 1,524 metres exploration well in 2013 to identify the source of API oil that was recovered in the Lagia concession.

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Gas discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean have in the past few years raised the spectre of a new large-scale play opening up on Europe’s doorstep –indeed potentially even within the EU’s common market- but, asks independent oil analyst, Samuel Ciszuk,, are we actually looking at a game-changer, or just another source of diversification?

Mediterranean gas reserves attract interest but

increase tension D

EEPWATER GAS DISCOVERIES offshore the Gaza strip some years ago seemed initially to be greeted with a relatively disinterested yawn by the wider industry, apart from in the Palestinian Authority itself, of course, as well as in the very immediate surrounding area. The discovery was probably seen as a not entirely unexpected extension of the prolific Nile Delta basin, off neighbouring Egypt. In any case, the discoveries were only ever likely to supply their domestic markets, displacing some of their current imports, but not changing any global balances in any larger way. The 2010 discovery of the Leviathan gas field however, estimated to hold 17-20 tcf of gas, changed that perception. Subsequently, the discovery of a 7 tcf gas field offshore Cyprus by Noble Inc. –which has been responsible for several of the discoveries in the Eastern Mediterranean so far, including Leviathan- proved that a large basin extends between the waters of

Israel, the Palestinian Gaza Strip and Cyprus and quite likely also into Lebanese waters. Further extensions to Syrian and Turkish waters do not look unfeasible either at this stage.

Diversified base The scale of the Leviathan find –together with the preceding 9 tcf Tamar discovery in 2009quickly made it clear that at least for the region’s countries, this was a game-changing discovery, allowing the prospect of gas import independence and –for the most successful –

Initially, a more complex issue might be how to solve the export issue, physically, as well as in the context of markets

even the development of future export capacity. Leviathan on its own could for instance power its home country for decades at today’s gas demand levels. Given the region’s need for a balanced and diversified base for its own energy security strategy, none of the countries there are in any case likely to make themselves entirely dependent on natural gas, raising the chances that a healthy portion of the discovered reserves will be exported. The new gas-rich neighbourhood is however not known for its geopolitical stability. As recently as in 2006, Israel and the Hezbollah movement in Lebanon fought an outright war, culminating in a partial invasion by Israeli forces of Lebanon. Looking slightly beyond the IsraeliPalestinian conflict in particular and the IsraeliArab conflict in general, Cyprus continues to be partitioned between two governments claiming sovereignty over each other, as well as upholding overlapping claims to the waters surrounding the

The new gas-rich neighbourhood

30 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

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island. Looking even further north, the delineation of maritime borders between Cyprus and Turkey raises serious questions, as well as between Greece and Turkey, should the basin prove to extend to the north of Cyprus. Moreover, the recently deteriorating situation in Syria is complicating the region further, already showing signs of sucking in Turkey and Lebanon.

Exports Nevertheless, the Levantine Basin is located on the threshold to Europe, at a time when Egyptian gas exports look likely to decline over the long term, Libyan gas development remains near stalled –and in the past decade blighted by a set of disappointing exploration results- while Algerian growth seems somewhat tepid. Should enough reserves be firmed up for sizeable exports from Cyprus, the EU would in fact have a new gas producer within its common market. That said, on a global basis the Levantine Basin still has a lot to prove and the legal ambiguities with regards to maritime borders and government authority could well slow down progress, not least on the Cypriot side. So far the geopolitical and political signs have been good, however. The first discoveries almost

Moreover, the deteriorating situation in Syria is complicating the region further

The Levantine Basin is located on the threshold of Europe

immediately set off knee-jerk reactions by lawmakers to raise government take and tighten the contract frameworks -according to the recognisable pattern of countries with newly discovered resources- there seems to have been efforts to try to keep international conflict over the resources to a minimum. Long-existing claims to maritime borders in the region were also again dusted off.

Agreements Lebanon, one of the countries involved in maritime border disputes, has however tried to set an encouraging example through moving the issues to international arbitration, while encouraging exploration work to begin in non-

disputed waters –as to minimise the overall impact on business sentiment. Where possible, some of the countries, including Cyprus, also quickly reached agreements on the delineation of their respective maritime borders, although in some cases these are yet to be ratified. Lebanon in particular made moves suggesting a will to ‘ring-fence’ the maritime border issue not to allow it to affect progress elsewhere in its waters. For Cyprus it is not that easy given its divided nature and the Turkish backing for the northern Cypriot government when it restated maritime claims in late-2011. The result was a naval show of strength around the rig drilling which subsequently became Cyprus’ first deepwater gas

Investors seem undeterred by regional politics

32 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

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A more complex political problem might be how to solve the export issue

discovery in late 2011. The discovery’s location to the south east of the island, far from the land area controlled by the northern Cypriot government, likely helped to defuse the situation this time, but if discoveries creep northwards in the waters east of Cyprus, this conflict will resurface in strength. Nevertheless, investor interest seems undeterred. Even in the infected Cypriot setting, there is a feeling in industry circles that both sides - as well as Turkey - might want to ring fence the issue for now and concentrate of getting exploration going in less charged or disputed areas, given the clear benefit all sides could derive from potentially being able to exploit their own gas resources in the relatively near future.

Conundrum Initially, a more complex issue might be how to solve the export issue, physically, as well as in the context of markets. Gas could be exported to the growing Asian markets (where prices are decidedly higher), but there are some physical problems with this. Shipping LNG from the Mediterranean to Asia would also mean a very long journey around Africa, as the size of tankers required to make such a long journey profitable likely would be too large for the Suez Canal. More generally, the NIMBY (not in my backyard) issue is one of particular relevance in several of these countries, where relatively high population density and the relative importance on the tourist industry, means that the availability of large tracts of waterfront property for heavy industrial development is very limited. Another conundrum for the budding East Mediterranean gas industry is the need for

34 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

liquefaction technology and experience, which today almost exclusively resides with the supermajors and a few of the largest service companies. These companies are largely the ones which are the most reluctant to wade into unresolved conflicts involving so many different Middle Eastern and European countries and consequentially, they have yet to farm-in to the discoveries still held largely by independents. This however could serve to speak in favour of joint international LNG export projects, could such be agreed. Large international contractors could then be used to provide the technology off the shelf. Cyprus has been identified as a potential host for an LNG export venture sourcing part of its gas feedstock from the country’s eastern neighbours. Potential land has been provisionally allocated in the south of Cyprus, in an area previously set aside for heavy industrial and petrochemical development, hopefully also disarming the NIMBY opposition.

Domestic demand Pipeline connections are naturally also being studied, but so far, the maritime disputes to the north and northwest of Cyprus are proving a significant complication. Such multilateral subsea pipeline projects require multilateral state-level treaties clarifying maritime boundaries. Attaining such agreements in at least the medium term between Greece, Turkey and the two Cypriot sides, does perhaps look a bit too optimistic. The depth a pipeline directly to Greece would have to lay at is also providing a very serious technical challenge. Other alternatives for the region would be exports to Egypt and Jordan, which however also looks unlikely to happen in

the medium-term for political reasons, despite the long-term demand being there. The question of demand is another irony, as the most gas-starved economies in the surrounding region are the Arab states neighbouring the young gas region. Despite Egypt’s gas exports to Israel having stopped, domestic demand keeps growing at a strong pace and Egypt’s LNG ventures have produced well under their nameplate capacity for years. Similarly, Jordan is starved for gas, to the extent that it hopes to build a nuclear power plant (as is Egypt), although apart from the challenge of accessing the technology, finance for such an undertaking remains a problem. Lebanon too remains starved for gas, at least until the day it might discover its own deepwater reserves and Syria, already an importer, is unlikely to ever become self-sufficient in gas again. Of course, given the current level of conflict, as well as internal political instability, such exports do not look likely at a time when gas companies are trying to firm up long-term clients, making a historic opportunity for all involved sides likely to be lost. For Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean gas boom no doubt provides a very interesting and encouraging sign, promising some further diversification of its portfolios and, in essence, a somewhat limited reliance on Russia. However, the reserves discovered so far are no way near a game-changer for the continent –or for the EU members for that matter. In comparison, Russia exports around 5.3 tcf per year of gas to Europe, meaning that the full Eastern Mediterranean reserves discovered so far of under 30 tcf only would cover Europe’s needs for half a dozen years. ■

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NGL extraction plant in Egypt helps Dana Gas DANA GAS HAS provided an operational update on its Egyptian Bahrain Gas Derivatives Company (EBGDCo) Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) extraction plant at Ras Shukheir, Egypt. The EBGDCo is a Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) extraction plant based in Ras Shukheir, Egypt. Its main activities are gas processing and marketing of liquid propane and butane to local and international markets. In the plant’s first 3 months of operation (it started commercial operation in October last year,) it has processed a combined 12,340 metric tonnes of Propane (10,500) and Butane (1,840). The average gas flow-rate for the quarter was 75 million standard cubic feet per day (mmscfd) with recovery rates of 98.9 per cent and 99.9 per cent respectively. Rashid Al Jarwan, executive director and acting CEO of Dana Gas, said, “We are pleased with the

results to date and are looking ahead to 2013 as the project shifts towards a more fully operational plant and our flow-rate increases from nearby gas fields." The NGLs, which Dana Gas extracts from the main gas flow, provide an additional revenue stream. Total additional revenue from NGL sales to date is US$7.7 mn of which Dana Gas has used US$2.8 mn to repay the first instalment of the project’s development financing. All the NGLs extracted from Ras Shukheir is exported internationally. Dana Gas has 26.4 per cent interest in EBGDCo. The interest is held through Dana Gas’ 66 per cent ownership of Danagaz Bahrain. Other shareholders include Egyptian Natural Gas Holding Company (EGAS) with 40 per cent shareholding and Arab Petroleum Investments Corporation (APICORP), with 20 per cent.

Algeria and Turkey to renew gas agreement TURKEY WILL RENEW its current LNG import contract with Algeria which ends in 2014. The new deal will last for 10 years with Algeria set to deliver four billion cubic metres of gas annually to Turkey. Turkey's Energy Minister Youcef Yousfi was reported as saying by APS news agency that Algeria's Sonatrach and Turkey's Botas have "already decided on the conditions and terms of the new agreement." There is a real possibility that Turkey will increase the volume of gas imported to six billion cubic meters/year (Bcm). "We have said we wish to increase our imports to six billion cubic metres a year. Everything will depend on Algeria's export capacity," Yildiz added. Algeria and Turkey signed a 20-year agreement in 1988 on the sale and purchase of four Bcm of gas annually, and which came into effect in 1994. Botas has already reached an agreement with Algeria to import up to 2.5 Bcm/year of spot LNG in addition to its ongoing contract Botas imports LNG through its own Marmara Eregli import terminal, and the Aliaga terminal owned and operated by Turkey's Egegaz, which also imports LNG. Gas demand in Turkey is rising rapidly and is forecast to reach 50 Bcm/year in 2013, close to its total import portfolio of 51.8 Bcm/year and local production of less than 1 Bcm/year.

NIGC processed more gas last year THE NATIONAL IRANIAN Gas Company's (NIGC) processing plants have processed more than 136bn cubic metres of gas since 20 March 2012, which is a rise of per cent the same period last year, the company has claimed. Hasan Montazer Torbati dispatching department manager at NIGC stated,"The Iran has a vast gas pipeline network volume has been transferred to consumption destinations across the country through 35,000 km of highpressure gas grid and 70 boosting gas pressure stations." NIGC delivers gas to 938 cities across the country through 210,000 km of gas pipeline infrastructures. Torbati added that 18mn cubic metres of CNG were being delivered to stations daily.

WorleyParsons grabs Iraq gas deal AUSTRALIAN SERVICE PROVIDER WorleyParsons has won a project management support and services contract for Shell Gas Iraq BV. The work will focus on the rehabilitation of gas facilities and infrastructure that is part of the scope of Basrah Gas Company (BGC) to help increase the country's gas resources. This joint venture is designed to capture, treat and monetise associated gas currently being flared from three southern oilfields, wasting more than 10mn dollars per day of the country’s natural resources. WorleyParsons will provide project management, technical and construction supervision personnel to support BGC in rehabilitation inspection, and EPC activities. Andrew Wood WorleyParsons chief executive officer, said; "We are pleased to continue our involvement in the development of Iraq’s gas infrastructure as well as being part of this project that will significantly contribute to the sustainability of the Iraqi economy and environment." The contract will be executed from WorleyParsons’ offices in Iraq and the UAE. BGC is a 25-year joint venture with state-run South Gas Company holding a 51 per cent stake, while Shell and Mitsubishi hold a 44 per cent and five per cent interest respectively.

36 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

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Petrofac awarded gas service contract in Algeria UK-BASED OIL AND gas service provider Petrofac has been awarded a services contract in Algeria by the In Salah and In Amenas joint ventures which comprise of BP, Statoil and Sonatrach. The three-year contract will see Petrofac's Engineering & Consulting Services business provide a range of multi-discipline consultancy, design and procurement services which will support the efforts of the JVs to develop and expand hydrocarbon production on both the assets. Craig Muir Petrofac Engineering & Consulting Services managing director commented, “This

award is strategically important to Petrofac. It expands our presence in Algeria where the Group’s track record extends over the last 15 years." The services are intended to support the joint ventures’ development programme to increase gas production on both the In Salah and In Amenas assets. The contract can be extended further with two additional one-year options. The firm noted that a significant proportion of the services is expected to be delivered from Petrofac's engineering centre in the city of Algiers.


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Muir added, "We will continue to develop our capability in Algeria, to establish a local engineering centre with strength and depth, supporting our longer-term sustainability incountry." The recent hostage crisis at the In Amenas project has increased fears about the firm’s exposure to Algeria even though Petrofac had no direct exposure to the crisis. The group already operates Algeria’s US$2.2bn El Merk gas processing plant, where first production is due shortly.

Dana Gas makes new onshore gas finds DANA GAS HAS said that it has made two new onshore gas discoveries, known as Alyam-1 and Balsam-1, in the Nile Delta Basin of Egypt. Initial estimates indicate that together these finds should increase the company's commercial reserves by between 17 (proved) and 95 (proved and probable) million barrels of oil equivalent (mmboe). Both discoveries were made in the West El Manzala Concession, which is operated by Dana Gas. The company has already filed a declaration of commerciality and development plans for the two discoveries. Patrick Allman-Ward, Dana Gas Egypt general manager commented, “These two new wells mark an excellent result to 2012 drilling in the Nile Delta. We still have to conduct appraisal drilling to confirm the full extent of the new fields, but as they are near existing infrastructure, we plan to accelerate their development and maintain the long-term growth of our production in Egypt.” The Balsam-1 well encountered 51 meters of net pay in a good-quality sandstone reservoir of the Qawasim formation at high pressure, indicating high deliverability from the field. Production testing yielded 10 million standard cubic feet per day of gas on a 20/64-inch choke and more than 1,000 bpd of liquid condensate, Dana Gas reported. The estimated reserves for Balsam-1 are between 76 to 436 billion cubic feet (bcf) of gas with between 2.5 and 9.4 million barrels of condensate (mmbo). The estimated reserves for the Alyam-1 discovery are between 8 and 66 BCF and between 0.2 and 1.3 MMBO. Dana Gas aded, “that the two new fields have the highest liquid yield of any gas field discovered in the area so far.” The Balsam-1 and Alyam-1 wells are adjacent to the El Basant Field and its associated pipeline network, operated by Dana Gas, and the plan would be to connect both the new fields to the nearby pipelines.

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Booz & Company examines the need for GCC states to develop ‘on-purpose’ production technologies in order to better tackle feedstock disruptions across the petrochemicals industry, write Andrew Horncastle and Asheesh Sastry*.

Rebalancing global petrochemicals

markets W

ITH SHORTER GAS supply in GCC, and new feedstock developments elsewhere, e.g, shale gas in the US, conventional gas in Iraq, the global petrochemicals industry has recently experienced significant disruptions. This is especially evident in the supply and pricing of key chemicals– ethylene, propylene, butadiene, and benzene – due to the changing mix of feedstock used in petrochemicals production. While the quantity of ethylene has surged, supplies of propylene, butadiene, and benzene have declined. In line with this, a study by management consulting firm Booz & Company found that ‘onpurpose’ or alternative production technologies for propylene and benzene could correct these supply imbalances, as well as reduce prices. The analysis also highlights how these feedstock developments affect the different players in the chemicals value chain. These include Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) producers, global producers and consumers.

Outside the GCC, Iraq has an abundant gas supply in the form of associated gas – which is rich in Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs) content The emergence of new feedstock sources The global petrochemicals industry relies on a few basic chemicals to create its end products. Crackers produce these as a by-product of certain raw materials (feedstock), such as “light” natural gas and “heavy” liquid naphtha. “In recent years, the emergence of potential new sources of light feedstock has significantly changed the availability of the four chemical building blocks – as light feedstock sources are replacing heavier ones,” said Andrew Horncastle, a Partner with Booz & Company. “This is due to the fact that light feedstocks are mostly used to make ethylene, whereas heavy feedstocks produce propylene, butadiene, and benzene. These changing supplies – a result of developments in the Middle East, North America and China – have led to supply-demand imbalances and pricing distortions across global petrochemicals markets.”

40 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Middle East propylene margins are thin

Gas developments in the Middle East Whereas North America is awash with natural gas, the GCC finds itself in precisely the opposite position. Gas production – currently associated with oil – is increasing modestly in line with oil extraction; and, most of the anticipated supply is already committed to existing and new projects. National oil companies in the Middle East are responding to the shortage of natural gas by exploring non-associated gas,

unconventional gas, and shale gas, while various petrochemicals companies have shifted to cracking more liquid feedstocks. Outside the GCC, Iraq has an abundant gas supply in the form of associated gas – which is rich in Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs) content. The country has established an oil production target of 13 mn barrels per day by 2017 and, such growth is also set to increase gas production.

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Shale gas developments in North America The US chemicals industry is booming thanks to the wealth of shale gas resources that has created abundant and cheap natural gas and ethane supplies. This is reshaping the global petrochemicals playing field by giving US-based players a significant cost advantage compared to European and Asian players. The abundance of cheap shale gas-derived NGLs has displaced naphtha at many existing steam crackers. Although plans for about a dozen new crackers have been announced, producers are hesitant to add new capacity due to concerns about the future supply and price stability of feedstock.

Shale gas developments in China In the long term, China could have a significant impact on global feedstock supply. The nation has the largest shale gas reserves in the world; and, although there is currently no shale gas production in China, the government’s five-year plan calls for 6.5 bn cubic meters of domestic production by 2015.

Shifts in the supply of key chemicals The North American shale gas boom is changing the petrochemicals landscape. “And, with the Middle East stepping up exploration and China about to tap huge reserves, more supply and changes are on the way,” explained Asheesh Sastry, a Principal with Booz & Company. “Simply put, the global petrochemicals industry is headed toward a glut of ethylene supply.” Crackers that can tap into these light feedstock sources will have a notable competitive advantage as they will be able to produce more ethylene at a significantly lower cost than many existing mixed feed crackers. As new capacity comes on stream to produce ethylene, margin will compress and prices will decline further – putting even more pressure on marginal producers. “The downward trend in prices could mean that by 2025, 10 to 20 per cent of existing cracker capacity may come under threat and some may even be forced to close. This could seriously disrupt the production of other critical petrochemical building blocks,” added Horncastle. These supply shortages and price distortions for propylene, butadiene, and benzene are creating opportunities for ‘on-purpose’ and alternative production technologies that were once marginal or uneconomical.

GCC players must approach ‘on-purpose’ cautiously Over the last few decades, petrochemical companies in GCC have built significant capabilities based on the “cracker + 1” model of producing key petrochemical building blocks – and then converting them into basic chemicals. Furthermore, current feedstocks are sufficient to meet the capacity of the region’s producers. “Going forward, however, looming gas supply shortages could challenge growth. GCC producers could therefore be tempted to adopt ‘on-purpose’ technologies in the region and internationally,” said Sastry. “Increasing ‘on-purpose’ production, however,

42 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Middle East on-purpose propylene production has challenging economics

will require that companies in the region develop or acquire more technology-centric capabilities.”

‘On-Purpose’ technology options Three ‘on-purpose’ technologies currently supply the propylene market – propane dehydrogenation (PDH), methanol to propylene (MTP), and olefin metathesis. While ‘on-purpose’ production of propylene via PDH in the Middle East seems competitive , it could become marginal if PDH capacity in the US and CTP capacity in China were to grow as planned, as both of these have better economics than ME based PDH (at market prices of propane). Further, declining availability of propane in the region could constrain the growth of PDH technology. However, if ethylene and 2-butene are available at advantageous prices, the metathesis technology for propylene production could also be competitive. Nonetheless, if it is based on market prices, metathesis will remain a marginal technology. Economics of MTP in the Middle East might, at first, seem attractive. However, with propylene margins at about US$600 per tonne, MTP does not adequately compensate for the potential methanol margins. On the aromatics/benzene side, GCC producers should consider the coal to BTX route – referring to mixtures of benzene, toluene, and xylenes, all of which are aromatic hydrocarbons. This is especially advantageous given the positive outlook for construction in the Middle East and in Asian countries such as India and South Korea. GCC players considering investments in ‘onpurpose’ technologies also need to take into account higher capital costs, logistics costs, and destination markets. Capital costs and logistics costs in the region tend to be higher than in North America, which increases the total cost of production. However, investing into on-purpose

technologies outside the Middle East, where feedstock is available at advantageous prices, could be an attractive option. To conclude, feedstock developments have implications that resonate across the petrochemical industry. Today, producers have significant growth opportunities in regions such as the US and China, where feedstock is available for ‘on-purpose’ production. Producers globally have mostly invested in process technology, but now, they must reconsider product technology, their research and development strategy, and even the ways to play in this market. GCC companies will need to recognise that ‘on-purpose’ production in the region would be less attractive or marginal without the availability of advantageously priced feedstock. They also need analyse their value chains and protect their margins against raw material price fluctuations e.g. they could consider backward integration or margin management across the entire value chain. Finally they should augment their existing capabilities and seek new geographies where feedstock is available. ■

*Asheesh Sastry is a Principal with Booz & Company and a member of the firm’s energy, chemicals and utilities practice. He has over 11 years of strategy and energy industry experience across the Middle East and Europe. He specialises in strategy and transformation issues in the Upstream and Downstream Oil & Gas and Chemicals sectors. Andrew Horncastle is a Partner with Booz & Company and a member of the firm’s energy, chemicals, and utilities practice. He has over 13 years of consulting experience in chemicals. His functional expertise covers the fields of mergers and acquisitions, strategy, organisation and integration, and cost reduction.

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Jubail to be home to the first butanol plant in the region SAUDI KAYAN, SADARA Chemical and Saudi Acrylic Acid Company (SAAC) have estabished a new company that will build the first butanol plant in the Middle East and will be located in Jubail Industrial City. The Saudi Butanol Company, which will produce butanol to support the growth of the paints and coatings industry in Saudi Arabia, will be located at Tasnee Petrochemicals Complex in Jubail Industrial City and operated by Tasnee. The new plant is scheduled to go on-stream in the first quarter of 2015. It will be designed to have a capacity of 330,000 metric tonnes per annum of nbutanol and 11,000 metric tonnes per annum of iso-butanol. Under the agreement, the three partners will have equal stake in the production quantities for downstream use or for sales in the local and Jubail will be home to the region’s first butanol plant overseas markets.

KBR and AYTB agree maintenance contract for Satorp refinery KBR HAVE SIGNED a seven-year contract to provide refinery maintenance services for the Saudi Aramco Total Refining and Petrochemical Company (Satorp) at the new 400,000 bpd refinery in Jubail, Saudi Arabia. The value of the contract ranges between US$140mn and US$170mn, depending on services. Production is set to start in 2013. KBR, through a joint venture with Jubail-based AYTB, will deliver full-service maintenance services at Satorp. The contract includes site management and field supervision of a craft workforce covering all mechanical, electrical and instrumentation disciplines. KBR and AYTB will also provide detailed planning and scheduling services, execution of preventive and predictive maintenance programmes, management of subcontractor activities and procurement of tools and equipment. "This is a milestone project for KBR as it represents a major step forward for our Services Business Group, taking on its first long-term maintenance contract in Saudi Arabia," said Ivor Harrington, KBR Service group president. Under terms of the contract, the joint venture between KBR and AYTB will work in partnership with Satorp to demonstrate a model for delivering services. Abdulmohsen Al-Ogaili, AYTB CEO argued, "This GMS contract could redefine how plant maintenance will be performed in the future."

Foster Wheeler wins contracts for two KNPC refineries

Kuwait awards EPC contract for refinery in Vietnam

Foster Wheeler AG said its global engineering and construction group has won a US$500mn project management and consultancy (PMC) services contract for a clean fuels project at the Mina Al-Ahmadi and Mina Abdullah refineries in Kuwait. Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC), which awarded the contract, is implementing a multi-billion upgrade and expansion of the refineries to increase their combined throughput by 264,000 barrels per stream day to 800,000 barrels per stream day. The Clean Fuels Project is expected to be completed during the second quarter of 2018. Fahed Salem Al Ajmi, KNPC’s chairman and managing director, said, “The Clean Fuels Project is a critical mega project that will shape the future of Kuwait’s refining capability." The aim is to increase conversion of fuel oil to higher value products in order to meet expected market demand and tighter specifications (one percent) for the sulfur content of transportation fuels. Foster Wheeler said its scope of work includes the provision of project management services during the tendering phase for the main EPC contracts, and management of the contractors through to completion of performance testing.

Kuwait Petroleum International (KPI), a subsidiary of Kuwait Petroleum Corp (KPC), and its joint venture partners has awarded an international consortium the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contract for the US$9bn refinery and petrochemical complex in northern Vietnam. Nghi Son Petrochemical Refinery Complex, to be built 180km south of the Vietnamese capital Hanoi. The first phase of the state-of-the-art refinery will have an oil processing capacity of 200,000 barrels per day (bpd) when operational in 2017. The joint venture will possibly double the volume to 400,000 bpd after the project is expanded in the The refinery complex will go on stream in 2017 second phase.

44 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

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Surrounded by the likes of Saudi Arabia, it’s easy to forget the importance of Bahrain in the region’s oil history.

Bapco at the forefront of



T MAY NOW be the GCC region’s smallest producer but it was in Bahrain, many years earlier, that the world’s richest oil producing region first kicked into gear. And that has meant a pioneering role for national oil champion, Bahrain Petroleum Company (Bapco), established in 1929 by Standard Oil Company of California. It was the first to discover oil in the Arabian peninsula way back in 1932, just three years after formation, at Jabal al-Dukhan. Within two years of that initial discovery, the company was exporting Bahrain’s oil and, by 1936, had commenced refining operations. That’s the sort of determination and accomplishment that drillers of today still aspire to. Since those early years, Bapco, now whollyowned by the government, has helped shape modern day Bahrain, not just through the production of oil wealth, but also through the development of the nation’s manpower. Bahrain’s 2013-2014 budget forecasts output from its own wells to reach 47,500 barrels per day (bpd) in 2013, rising slightly to 51,000 bpd in 2014. The country’s large Bahrain field, which covers up to 80 per cent of the island, dominates domestic production figures. But the government also relies heavily on output from Saudi Arabia's Abu Safa oil field for around 70 per cent of its budget revenue. This field is currently producing at a level just below 300,000 bpd, of which Bahrain receives about half. The government’s forward budget counts on its output from this field staying at 150,000 bpd this year and in 2014.

46 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

In a further bid to lift production and stimulate reserves, the government is also pushing upstream exploration Much of this additional Saudi production is sent to Bahrain’s export refinery, one of the largest and oldest in the region. And, in true pioneering spirit, Bapco continues to push the boundaries, adding greater value to its oil production with the completion of the refinery’s US$725 million low sulphur diesel plant. It means the company now exports ultra low sulphur diesel to countries with even the most stringent environmental standards. Next up is a massive expansion project, worth up to US$10bn, that could raise capacity at the site by a further 100,000 bpd, to a total 360,000 bpd. Financial arrangements to bankroll the scheme, one of Bahrain’s single biggest investment projects, are now being put in place, with Bapco expected to issue the next wave of tenders in the second half of this year. It has already appointed some contractors for the vast scheme, including GE, which is to supply a system for dealing with waste water from the expanded refinery. The full expansion project is expected to be completed in 2017. What Bahrain may never escape, however, is the reserve constraints that, somewhat unfairly, do not seem to apply in the same way to many other

Gulf states. Compare Bahrain’s 124 million barrels of reserves, for instance, to Saudi Arabia’s 260bn barrels. However, Bapco is not operating alone, working in conjunction with other state-owned entities under the National Oil and Gas Authority (Noga) umbrella. The more recently-formed Oil and Gas Holding Company (nogaholding) - Noga’s business and investment arm - oversees the government’s investments in Bapco, plus a host of other state companies working across the energy spectrum. These include the Bahrain National Gas Company (Banagas), the Bahrain National Gas Expansion Company (BNGEC), the Bahrain Aviation Fuelling Company (Bafco), the Bahrain Lube Base Oil Company, and the Gulf Petrochemical Industry Company (GPIC). On the upstream side, nogaholdings’ flagship venture is Tatweer Petroleum, a relatively new partnership with foreign investors, Occidental Petroleum (Oxy) of the US, and Mubadala Development Company of the UAE. It is charged with leading the ongoing redevelopment and expansion of the strategic Bahrain field - also known as the Awali field - over the next 20 years. Working closely with Bapco, Oxy says the plan is to continue growing gross non-associated gas production capacity at the field to over 2.3bn cubic feet per day and gross oil production to over 75,000 bpd. Innovative techniques such as water flooding and steam flooding are to be used to boost production from the legacy field’s ageing reservoirs.

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In 2012, Tatweer Petroleum inaugurated its third phase of gas compression work, near Hafeera. The Compression Phase 3 project handles approximately 100 mmscfd of additional associated gas, which will contribute to lifting oil production. The compressors re-inject the gas for reservoir pressure maintenance, effectively storing the gas for future production. This project now has 33 compressors in three stations, bringing Tatweer’s total installed compression capacity to over 230 mmscfd. Other gas initiatives, led by Banagas, will also ratchet up the nation’s production. Last year, Banagas brought in JGC Gulf International for the debottlenecking of both processing units at Bahrain’s central gas plant. This US$15 million project is designed to facilitate an increased feed gas rate up to 18 mmscfd from the Bahrain refinery and maximise liquids recovery by 4,500 bpd. Commissioning and start-up is scheduled for May 2014. BNGEC, operated by Banagas, is also engaged in helping to meet the country’s growing demand for associated gas, both to enhance oil production from the Bahrain field and to make more energy available for local users. BNGEC was incorporated in 2008 when the

Next up is a massive expansion project, worth up to US$10 billion Banagas expansion project processing train was converted into an independent company. In a further bid to lift production and stimulate reserves, the government is also pushing upstream exploration with the offshore area in Bahrain divided into four blocks. Noga has awarded Blocks 1, 3 and 4 to established partner Oxy, with Block 2 going to Thailand’s PTTEP. Oxy has now initiated work with Bapco and Noga to explore its various offshore blocks. In February 2011, a further agreement was signed between Noga and the California-based company to work on the exploration and production of deep gas from the Bahrain field, in a bid to drive up reserves and output. In a January presentation at a Goldman Sachs investor conference, Oxy executives lumped Bahrain in with Iraq as two notable areas where it sees strong upside potential. The company’s own production figures for 2012

already indicate a gentle uptick from its Bahraini operations. For the nine months of 2012, oil production net to the company edged up to 5,000 bpd from 4,000 bpd in the same period a year earlier. Net daily natural gas output also jumped during the same timeframe to 229 mmcf, up from 171 mmcf a year before. But Bapco and Bahrain’s other state-owned oil and gas companies are also working against the clock. With popular protests still playing out on the streets of Manama, the government is understandably keen to deliver more services to its people as soon as possible. And that hinges critically on developments in the all-important energy sector. While Saudi Arabia, which supports Bahrain’s Sunni rulers politically, is unlikely to cut the amount of oil from the Abu Safa field, especially if Manama's budget runs into trouble, it is not an impossibility. This makes strategic projects such as the revitalisation of the famous Bahrain field and the expansion of the national refinery all the more significant. Once again, Bapco - and all other key government stakeholders - will be at the forefront of these critical developments. ■

Bapco seeks funding for expansion STATE-OWNED BAHRAIN PETROLEUM Co., or Bapco, is seeking financing between US$4.8 billion and US$5.5 billion to partly fund a large-scale expansion. Bapco is expected to receive the financing’s first tranche, amounting to US$1 billion, by mid-2014, a company spokesman said. The plan to develop the country’s only oil refinery is made up of five phases and the third phase to complete by mid-2013 and in this phase it will select the technology for the project and start awarding the deals. Meanwhile, Bapco refinery's crude run last year exceeded its annual business plan by 1.83 million barrels a year, having achieved a 262,400 barrels per day production record. This was reached in spite of the planned

48 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

shutdown of two crude units in October for major maintenance and inspection and slowdown of various crude units for essential repairs during the year. This demonstrates the reliability of the refinery process units and the high level of dedication, professionalism and performance of the Bapco workforce, which ensured that the refinery processed safely the maximum possible crude rate. "We take pride in this achievement which reflects the dedication of our employees and contractors," said a Bapco spokesman. "We fully realise the importance of the Bapco refinery to the national economy, and will continue to strive for excellence in meeting our targets and maximising revenues for Bahrain," he added.

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18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

Conference: 10 -13 March 2013 Exhibition: 11-13 March 2013 Bahrain International Exhibition and Convention Centre


Conference Organisers

ce eren nd f n o C me a m a r prog stration t regi ow a n e l b availa s2 meo

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

2013 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

Another major technical conference is being staged in Bahrain next month, organised as usual by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and its Dubai-based staff. A comprehensive exhibition of complementary products and services - organised again by Arabian Exhibition Management - is being held alongside.

Transforming the region’s

energy future U

NDER THE PATRONAGE of Bahrain’s Prime Minister the 2013 edition of SPE’s 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Conference runs from 10-13th March. Conference chairman will be Abdulaziz Al Abdulkarim of Saudi Aramco. The exhibition within the same complex, the Bahrain International Exhibition and Convention Centre, opens on the 11th. Once again the international Society of Petroleum Engineers, working together with staff from their Dubai office, have put together a balanced and comprehensive selection of technical papers and opinions, offered in various updated formats. SPE is the leading not-for-profit professional association whose 104,000-plus members all over the world are engaged in most aspects of energy resources development and production.

Unrivalled experience The biannual MEOS Conference, of which this is the latest edition, has evolved into what is probably the largest and best attended technical event of its kind now held anywhere regularly in the Gulf. "By providing high quality presentations focused on Middle East issues,” says a representative from its busy local office in the UAE, “the quality of delegates is exceptional and unique.” SPE has unrivalled experience in organising petroleum conferences such as this around the world. Here at MEOS their global skills are once again being matched with unequivocal support from the immediate region’s key local and national oil businesses. “This support, in tandem with participation from suppliers of products and services to the region [brought together by AEM2] has maintained MEOS’ position as the best petroleum conference in the region.” Last time there were more than 1,840 of these delegates, comprised mainly of geologists and geophysicists, senior production company representatives, petroleum and reservoir engineers, drill rig managers and engineers, pipeline and processing specialists, and representatives from all the civil, electrical and mechanical engineering professions.

50 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

This year’s technical programme – always the heart of the four-day event - consists of more than 200 simultaneous high-quality presentations in six different adjacent conference rooms. We could not detect any recognisable “tracks” on the detailed

programme published, so close inspection of the full schedule and preparedness to move smartly between locations is recommended to obtain full benefit from this prestigious event. Each individual technical topic – more than 30 in all although

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

2013 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

some are two-session units – is covered by four separate speakers with a matching number of complementary posters and alternates. Follow the link on the website under ‘Technical Programme’ for full timetabled details, with the speakers booked and the organisation they represent: 6 The interspersed panel, plenary and other all-together sessions are described as: 6 Transforming the energy future (Sunday pm, an executive plenary) 6 The gas challenge (Monday am) 6 Talent development and knowledge sharing (Monday am) 6 Technologies required to unlock conventional resources (Tuesday am) 6 ‘Greener petroleum’ – Collaboration for sustainability (Tuesday am) 6 Developing local content (Wednesday am)

In addition a special combined industry breakfast session on ‘Financing the change’ is being staged on Tuesday 12th between 08.00-10.00 hrs. Addressed by H.E. Abdullatif A Al-Othman, Governor/Chairman of the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority, this extended session will address such issues as: What are the main changes expected over the coming decade? Who will develop the required strategies, and drive their execution? How best can these changes be managed and financed? The question of issues arising from the North American shale-gas revolution seem very likely to come up.

obtain additional copies for US$300 at the Society’s prominent stand within the exhibition hall. The associated trade show has been assembled by AEM, a very experienced member of the Allworld Exhibitions group which also organises GEO and Middle East Petrotech (Bahrain), and the Kuwait Oil & Gas Show. Last time there were 300 exhibiting companies whose products and services were seen by more than 5,300 individual visitors, nearly nine out of ten of which came from somewhere in the Middle East (70 per cent from Bahrain and Saudi Arabia alone). ■


1 +971 4 457 5800 ( 2 +973 17 550033 ( For all information including the very detailed conference programme visit

The full text for each paper presented at MEOS 2013, together with technical diagrams and other essential illustrations, will be provided to each Conference attendee. Non-members will be able to

Training too

High praise for MEOS 2011 ADNOC: As one of the world’s most significant oil and gas events, with the industry’s key players and decision-makers, this four-day event delivered significant business opportunities and networking at the highest level

BAPCO: A fantastic event to meet key professionals and enhance business development

KPC: MEOS 2011 provided an excellent opportunity for business engagement as it provided a meeting point with industry players directly involved with oil and gas activities

Saudi Aramco: The best oil industry conference I have attended in 2011 … … The best show for anyone who wants to do business with upstream Saudi Aramco

Schlumberger: MEOS has been a great event for Schlumberger … Every year we have participated in the show we have benefited through new or expanded contracts in the oil and gas industry

Simtronics Plant Leadership: An outstanding opportunity to meet senior officials and learn about regional trends

52 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

THE SOCIETY’S POPULAR series of training courses for industry professionals anywhere is being continued at this year’s MEOS. All three events listed here are being offered on the 10th March, each one running from 08.00-16.30 hrs with suitable break periods. Two have a Canadian flavour in tune with the increased attention that is now being given to oil sands development there. The first two are traditional SPE technical fare. Dr Safdar Khan of the Canadian office of Schlumberger will be presenting an intensive on the mechanical properties of rocks. “Geomechanics for effective shale gas exploitation” is the title he offers this year. And nearby in the Bahrain Convention Centre Prof Hemanta K Sarma of Abu Dhabi’s Petroleum Institute is running a combined course on EOR and IOR techniques. “Enhanced and improved oil

recovery methods” is the topic he has chosen, an evergreen if ever there was one in today’s straitened circumstances. And now for something completely different. With an eye to the developing manpower crisis, not just here but throughout the whole world of petroleum, the SPE has gone for Dr Abdullah AlMulhim of the Canadian Institute of Stress’s Vital Work Centre. “How to charge your body cell phone” is the intriguing title of this consultant psychiatrist’s 2013 course. A new direction indeed for an industry that features more human breakdowns than most … And finally a separate series of Training Workshops on “Talent and retention” and “Issues facing science teachers” is being organised by the SPE; timing details are on the Conference programme.

Halliburton vessel operating in Manifa Field HALLIBURTON’S NEWEST STIMULATION service vessel is in the Arabian Gulf working with Saudi Aramco for the Manifa Field stimulation campaign. Built for dedicated use by Saudi Aramco, the Stim Star Arabian Gulf vessel will serve as a high performance platform for delivering technology and stimulation treatments in the most efficient manner. The vessel employs the latest safety and environmental systems with advanced safety features, and is designed to meet or exceed requirements of SOLAS, IMO, IEC, and MARPOL regulations. Although initially developed for primarily acidizing treatments on both producing and injection wells in the Manifa Field, the vessel is adaptable to handle all phases of production stimulation, including fracturing, sand control and conformance solutions for the regional offshore market.

Unique technologies featured on the vessel are its acid-on-the-fly (AOF) capability and the ability to reconfigure using Halliburton’s Vessel Modular Solution (VMS) system. Halliburton’s AOF system provides real-time control of the acid blend. The VMS system provides a level of flexibility and options not available with standard vessels. It is also designed to enable easily adding future expansions and upgrades, increasing the capabilities of the vessel when needed. The Stim Star Arabian Gulf vessel is 234 feet long (71.32 meters), 56 feet wide (17.07 meters), and 18 feet deep (5.49 meters) and can provide up to 14,000 hydraulic horsepower for stimulation treatments. It has the newest control-room technology, with safety as a primary focus. The vessel is equipped with features such as a highpressure pump over pressure kick-out system, and a dedicated fire-suppression system to help ensure that operations are safe at all times.

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

2013 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

Shell - sailing into the future SHIPPING IS AN efficient way to transport goods. But with global demand for liquefied natural gas rising fast and the world’s tanker fleet growing, Shell now has a sleek new model on the drawing board designed to burn less fuel and produce fewer emissions. Ocean-going tanker builders don’t stage glittering public shows like car makers, but if they did Shell’s design for a new liquefied natural gas (LNG) tanker might draw admiring crowds. The ship Shell’s new design for an LNG carrier is at the concept stage design – currently at the concept stage – owes its head-turning lines to the quest for greater fuel largest vessels available today with potentially 20 per cent greater efficiency. efficiency, which leads to lower emissions. Current ships are efficient when fully loaded It’s an evolution in the design of LNG carriers, in relatively calm seas. But seas often aren’t of which Shell is one of the world’s largest calm and ships spend half their lives unloaded operators. The design philosophy adopted on a return run, with tanks full of sea water enables the ship to carry as much LNG as the

ballast for stability. Moving all that water burns a lot of fuel. Shell designers decided to start afresh to achieve the greatest efficiency for the whole round trip. Computer simulations helped designers sculpt hulls to better cut through waves, relocate tanks and crew quarters to aid streamlining, and design propulsion systems to perform in various conditions. Engineers are also exploring other possible ways to boost efficiency, including wasteheat recovery, novel lightweight materials, fuel cells and renewable technologies. Shell is not planning to build this concept but the ideas, technologies and design methods used in creating it are already shaping the company’s approach in considering future charters.

Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013 53

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

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Intelligent acoustic sensor SILIXA LTD. HAS developed the world’s most advanced distributed acoustic sensor, iDASTM (intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensor), that offers unsurpassed abilities in measuring true acoustics with better resolution, range, and sensitivity than any other sensor. The iDAS measures the full acoustic field along unmodified optical fiber up to tens of kilometres in length with a spatial resolution down to one meter, capturing the full amplitude and phase of the incident wave on the sensing optical fiber up to frequencies >100 kHz with a wide dynamic range (›120dB). The sensor technology can be combined with the company’s industry leading distributed temperature sensor, the Ultima DTS. Working with Chevron, Statoil, Saudi Aramco, and other companies, Silixa has demonstrated the benefits of its high performance monitoring systems both in flow and seismic imaging. A wide range of installation methods for in-well surveillance applications have also been developed. Having successfully completed a multiple logging operation in high temperature deviated gas wells using its bespoke micro-coil tubing fibre optic sensor, the company is currently working on enhanced cable design for permanent installations. Silixa’s applications include seismic appraisal at the borehole, monitoring fracturing treatments, fracture analysis, flow profiling, well integrity evaluation, and gas lift and electrical-submersible-pump optimization. Silixa has developed several advanced embedded data-handling and visualization tools to process the high volume of data generated by iDAS. Acoustic-array processing allows the speed of sound in the material surrounding the fiber to be determined accurately. In

54 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

multiphase-flow measurements the speed of sound can be used to profile the fluid composition. This can be used to profile the fluid composition, or in enhanced oil recovery, to monitor the flow of injection fluids (such as steam) entering the production wells. Also, the fluid velocity can be mapped by measuring the difference in speeds of sound caused by the Doppler shift introduced in the moving fluid. Established in 2007, Silixa has been rapidly growing and expanding its business in the energy, security and other industrial sectors. Silixa provides sensing solutions based on its pioneering distributed sensing technology. Silixa works closely with customers and can offer full integrated solutions bringing a continuum of benefits at different stages of the project.

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Welltec W elltec® re-introduces e-introduces the smallest coiled coile co tubing (CT)

By being able to reach total depth before stimulating,

tractor in the market; the 2 1/8” ” Coiled T Tubing Well ubing W ell

the new 2 1/8” Coiled T Tubing ubing W Well ell T Tractor ractor® enables

ow available in a tandem an ver T Tractor ractor®, now version. This new

operators oper around the world to realize the full ull producproduc p -

offers pr f tool of fers significantly improved pull force on CT to

tion potential of their wells.

e accessible depth. ep increase the Please visit us during the MEOS taking place 10-13 rf tool has been developed lo This small but powerful on

March in Bahrain to hear more about our capabilities.

nd successfully su demand byy a client in the Middle East and

1 in Hall 2 or online Yo ou will find nd W elltec® at stand #2331 You Welltec

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

2013 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

Safety first at Bapco BAHRAIN PETROLEUM COMPANY (Bapco) has always put a strong emphasis on safety and security at its facilities. Oil Review Middle East recently spoke to Ebrahim Talib, Deputy Chief Executive, Refining and Marketing about the company’s achievements and aspirations. Would you say Bapco is a regional leader in plant safety and security?

Yes, indeed we are. Not only regionally but beyond. This is clearly evident by the number of internationally recognized Health & Safety awards we have won over the years. An example is the US National Safety Council Robert W. Campbell Award which we won in 2007. Bapco was the first oil company worldwide to win this award and first outside North America. This did not happen by chance but was the result of decades of work in establishing a strong safety culture and process at Bapco. In addition, we are the recipients of the British Safety Council 5star award, and several others. Our philosophy in managing health & safety has always been not only to comply with the Kingdom’s legislations but to go beyond and compare ourself to the best in the industry. In recent years, Bapco has outlined some ambitious safety targets, such as 12mn hours without incident. Can you pick some highlights from recent years?

Personal safety is clearly a major corporate objective. We must ensure that all our staff and contractors return home safely every day. We strive for an incident and injury free workplace. In 2012 we were able to achieve eight million manhours worked without a lost time injury. This is a tremendous achievement and in essence meant that we worked for over a year without a significant injury. Our Refining Division, which is the largest division and is involved in high risk category work, has now worked over two years without a lost time injury. This does not come by chance, but rather is the result of instilling a strong safety belief and culture in our organization. One recent initiative Bapco has adopted is Operational Excellence Management System (OEMS). This system is adopted from Chevron and is a comprehensive, proven means for systematic management of process safety, personal safety & health, the environment, reliability and efficiency. Another initiative is Behavioural Based Safety (BBS) which addresses human behavior in carrying out

56 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Bapco places a strong emphasis on safety and security at its sites

day-to-day activities. BBS helps us identify critical behaviours of both employees and contractors that may cause injuries and subsequently put adequate control measures in place to eliminate and in many cases control such behaviours. Health & Safety Stand-down is also an initiative introduced recently by Bapco executive management. The purpose of this procedure is to reflect on a serious incident or mishap in the organization or outside to prevent it or learn from it, or to improve safety readiness before major events. This process reflects our very strong safety culture as we in essence stop ALL work in the organization for 20 to 30 minutes to talk about safety related issues. The whole organization is focused on one key issue. The objectives are to increase operational readiness, evaluate safety and health risks, correct deficiencies and emphasize awareness of good environmental health and safety (EHS) practices for all Bapco and Contractor employees. As Bapco continues to expand and break production and refining records, so the risk of an incident is heightened. How can you continue to maintain a good safety record under these circumstances?

We do not believe that the risk of an incident increases. Contrary, we believe that reliable operation results in a safer workplace as there are less number of abnormal conditions or transient operations. Hence, we break records through improving reliability, and hence our safety performance is expected to

improve as well. The key here is not the high risks we deal with on a daily basis, it is how effective we are in identifying and ensuring that control measures are in place for such risks. There are many comprehensive tools available to help eliminate or control risks (both process and human related risks). These tools are validated at a regular interval to ensure they continue working effectively and efficiently. In line with pacesetter refineries and organisations, Bapco aspires to provide world class performance in project execution. We have therefore adapted a project development and execution process which is based on identifying and assessing opportunities, generating and selecting alternatives, developing the preferred alternatives, execution and operation and evaluation. This process provides a good definition of decision makers, deliverables, work team, focus items, resources, matrix and roles and responsibilities. The issue of reliability and efficiency is embedded at the early stages of design phase to ensure that the final outcome is a reliably and efficiently run facility. The emphasis on reliability also relates very strongly to the safety of the facility in its compliance with the environment and the provision of a healthy environment to the employees. Do you undertake all of your safety training/education in house too?

With 80 years of experience in the oil & gas industry, Bapco’s name has always been synonymous with safety whether in the

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Oil Well Cement (OWC) produced by Oman Cement Company (S.A.O.G) under accurate temperatures is an obvious choice for oil well cementing worldwide and now it is ready to face the challenges of highly specialized arctic and horizontal cementing: • Conforms to the American Petroleum Institute (API) specification – 10A Class-G- (HSR), Class-B- (HSR) and Class-A- (O) grades. • Tested by worldwide cementing companies • Easy to disperse resulting in considerable cost savings • Used by major oilfield companies such as: Petroleum Development of Oman (PDO), Schlumberger, Halliburton & Occidental • Exported to GC Countries, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Sudan, Tanzania, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India and Syria. Oman Cement manufacturing facility operates on world class quality management system ISO 9001 and environmental management system ISO 14001. Quality control is online and laboratory automation systems consist of online x-ray spectrometers and robotic samplers, linked to process controllers and a raw mill proportioning system. OCC has an enduring commitment to customer satisfaction, continual improvement and a stronger foundation for tomorrow. Winner of His Majesty’s Cup for the Best Five Factories in the Sultanate of Oman for the 10th time.

Oman Cement Company (S.A.O.G) Corporate Office: PO Box 560, Ruwi, PC 112, Sultanate of Oman. Tel: +968 24437070, Fax: +968 24437799 Email: Website:

ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED CO CER NO: IND10.7100

American Petrolium Instute Cerfied Company Linces No. 10A-0059

ISO 14001 : 2004 CERTIFIED CO CER NO: IND10.7570

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

2013 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

Kingdom of Bahrain, regionally or globally. As such we have the knowledge and the resources to develop and deliver the majority of our training whether compliance or specific related. We also utilise some external agencies in augmenting the development of specific competencies such as crisis and emergency responsibilities, oil spill etc. Bapco also plays an important role in providing fire and safety training for thousands of contractor employees and some government agencies as part of its corporate social responsibility. How do you benchmark yourselves within the industry and what are your plans to achieve and sustain world class performance in safety and security?

Bapco has established various approaches to enable the Company to be comparable with other similar and non-similar activity companies. The first evaluation of health and safety performance was established with the introduction of OHSAS 18001 (the British standard of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series) in addition to that Bapco follows the ANZI 16.4 (American National Standards Institute) standard in classifying its Lost Time Injuries (LTI’s) and Non-Lost Time Injuries (NLTI’s) and first aid injuries. The annual information is usually shared with other companies in the region and an annual report is produced ranking Bapco against others performance. Not only concentration on lagging indicators, Bapco has focused on

Bapco’s crude run milestone BAPCO'S REFINERY ACHIEVED a record monthly crude run in January. The refinery achieved the highest average monthly record of 271,800 barrels per day (bpd) of crude run, surpassing its previous highest record of 271,300 bpd in November 2011. This is a major achievement considering the refinery's average capacity of 262,000 bpd. "This major achievement is a culmination of the high performance in operation and the high availability of process units, resulting from regular reliability checks and ongoing maintenance programmes leading to highest possible plant availabilities," said a Bapco spokesman. "This new record is a tremendous tribute to the dedication of our entire workforce," he added. "Through a focus on safety, the environment, clear communication, visible leadership and supply chain management, we continue to deliver superior results. "Our focus on the strategic plan has enabled us to concentrate on the things that matter, and allows us to demonstrate that we are a true pacesetter in the industry," he added.

58 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

the application of health and safety leading indicators within the company that are established in line with API RP 754 (American Petroleum Institute) standard that sets the requirements to measure Process Safety Management (PSM) performance. These are used to benchmark Bapco health and safety performance internationally through the joint venture with Chevron. Furthermore, Bapco’s implementation of Operational Excellence (OE) has generated the introduction of a dashboard & Key Performance Indicators (KPI) system within the company, that is very transparent and provide a very comprehensive illustration of where the company health and safety performance stands. This system is established to provide better focus of problematic areas and resolve these issues. It also serves as a window that Bapco uses to benchmark its performance with other companies as all the detailed information of health and safety performances are available in one resource. We in Bapco believe that we have achieved a world class safety performance however, it’s a challenging task to maintain it. One tool we utilize to help us maintain such performance is always seeking continual improvement through internal and external audits, researches and engaging in discussions with our peers. Our vision is Striving for Excellence, and we intend to achieve this in all aspects of our business.

Has the security of Bapco’s oil and gas facilities evolved over recent years?

We have completed our new high security perimeter fencing at our operational areas and we are looking forward to bettering our overall security with the completion of the security enhancement project. Security in general for all oil and gas facilities has become more sophisticated due to the regional security climate, and we at Bapco believe that we have adapted to this climate and will surpass this with the completion of our security enhancement project. Can you elaborate on current and future plans to enhance security arrangements of the oil and gas facilities at Bapco?

Bapco is currently working on its Security Enhancement Project, which will provide the necessary coverage of all the company’s facilities. This project will address the security requirements at the refinery, Sitra Tank Farm, Marketing Terminal, Wharf, and other critical infrastructure. Physical security, training, electronic surveillance, command & control, and close co-ordination with counterparts and local authorities will be a part of this endeavour. Additionally, more effort is being placed at our wharf in order to further secure the facility, including an increased emphasis on waterside security, standard operating procedures, entry control point screening, and co-operation with other companies and industries sharing the port facility.

Redline to discuss smart drilling REDLINE COMMUNICATIONS WILL be at MEOS this year. You can find the company at booth no.1130. Mr. Ali Al-Lawati, Senior Business Development Manager of Redline Communications, will be speaking in the conference on Wednesday, March 13 at 9:45 on the topic Terrestrial Wireless Broadband Enables Smart Drilling.

Read a blog post about Redline presenting the networking challenges of the digital oilfield at a recent trade show in Basra, Iraq. (

If you would like to book an appointment to meet at MEOS, please contact

Lithicon to present joint paper with ADCO LITHICON, FORMED BY the merger between Numerical Rocks and Digitalcore, will be present as exhibitors at MEOS. Visitors can find the company at booth no. 2001 in Exhibition Hall 2. Lithicon will also be presenting a joint paper on Digital Rock Analysis of Carbonates with ADCO. The paper is titled (Validation of Digital Rock Physics Based Water-Oil Capillary Pressure and Saturation Exponents in Super Giant Carbonate Reservoirs) and will be presented by Zubair Kalam of ADCO on Wednesday 13th of March at 8.30am in Session 33. The integration of the two companies, which was originally announced in March 2012, brings together Digitalcore’s leading core imaging and processing expertise with Numerical Rocks’ advanced multi-phase flow modelling capabilities, positioning the new company at the forefront of the digital rock analysis revolution. Digital rock analysis is rapidly supplementing conventional laboratory methods. Computer models of the rock structure are built from a combination of high-resolution 2D and 3D images and used to determine both static and dynamic properties: digital-RCA and digital-SCAL.

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A show of strength - why MEOS has earned an enviable reputation for quality The 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference (MEOS) will take place from 10–13 March 2013 at the Bahrain International Exhibition and Convention Centre under the patronage of His Royal Highness the Prime Minister of Bahrain Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa. Organised by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) and Arabian Exhibition Management (AEM), MEOS continues to be one of the largest and best attended technical events of its kind in the region. Oil Review Middle East spoke with Abdulaziz Al Abdulkarim, MEOS Executive Committee Chairman, about the reasons behind the continued success of the event.

This year’s event will be the 18th in the series. Such longevity for a show is almost unheard of in the region. Why has MEOS been so successful? MEOS is by far the number one oil industry conference and exhibition in the region. It has a very good brand image and identity. Being one of the first conferences established by the SPE in the region, it has grown as the oil industry has grown in the region. Its spectacular success can be attributed to several factors including great support from the Middle East oil industry, its technical edge, its focused conference programme, motivated and passionate people on the steering committees, senior industry panellists and high ranking keynote speakers, and the quality of delegates from all over the world. Another important factor is the exhibition. For example this year over 300 exhibitors from 30 countries including NOCs in the region will be present including Saudi Aramco, ADNOC, Bapco, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, Petroleum Development Oman, Qatar Petroleum, and other industry stalwarts like Baker Hughes, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Halliburton, Oxy, Schlumberger, Shell and Weatherford, in addition to smaller specialist suppliers, distributors and numerous new entries to the Middle East market. Moreover, the quality of papers presented at the MEOS conference focus always on current challenges and issues facing the industry, and it presents solutions through the technical papers presented during the event. I think this is one of the main reasons why MEOS has been so successful.

The MEOS conference has an enviable reputation as a technical event of quality, are there any specific topics we should look out for this year at MEOS 2013? MEOS makes a concerted effort to showcase the latest in research and technology. The current focus of the industry is on unconventional resources. There will be a lot of buzz on this topic during MEOS. The event will highlight the latest technology used to develop these resources, and how to better manage the resources, as well as the latest findings related to the enhanced oil recovery (EOR), reservoir management and drilling techniques. Other topics and areas that will be highlighted include the gas challenge, greener petroleum, talent development and knowledge sharing, and developing local content, besides the suite of conventional topics. This year the theme for MEOS 2013 is “Transforming the Energy Future”, and it will be the foundation for the multidisciplinary technical programme which includes over 140 presentations during 36 technical sessions, as well as over 50 poster presentations.

It’s rare for an oil and gas event in the GCC to attract the support of all six NOCs. How has MEOS managed to unify the NOCs when many other events have failed to do so? MEOS showcases the latest technology. The application of these technologies makes a real impact on the NOCs bottom line...profitability. MEOS also has the critical mass and this attracts everyone in the region. If there is one conference or exhibition that people would want to go to in the region, it is MEOS. The oil and gas show is also an event where everyone wants to be seen and heard. Service companies also make a

60 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Abdulaziz Al Abdulkarim, MEOS Executive Committee Chairman, Saudi Aramco

great effort to showcase their products and technologies. Everyone wants to go this bazaar of oil and gas technology! The support from the NOCs, in tandem with participation from suppliers of products and services to the region, has maintained MEOS’ position as the best petroleum event in the region.

Can MEOS continue to be successful in its present form? How can further value additions be made to the event? Without doubt, and like everything else in life, MEOS has to be innovative and inventive. It has to adapt to change...rather embrace change. Some of the innovations we are looking at include live broadcasting of sessions, virtual panellists, TED-type lectures, interactive technologies and complete immersion. Advanced technical courses and workshops in conjunction with the oil show is another avenue we are exploring. In addition, the MEOS conference is organised by SPE, which is a nonprofit organisation aimed to develop knowledge among oil and gas professionals, and also spread best practice among the industry. There are almost 13,000 SPE members from the Middle East out of 100,000 worldwide. These members are employed by major regional NOCs and IOCs and they know the quality of the events organised by SPE. Also, the event offers an excellent opportunity for networking with industry peers from all over the world. Finally, we always have been very successful in having MEOS in Bahrain, and the last MEOS (in 2011) attracted more than 7,000 participants for both the conference and the exhibition and just recently SPE has organised the Artificial Lift Conference which turned out to be very successful event. We are looking forward to even greater success at MEOS 2013.

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A LPINE SPECIA LIT Y CHEMICA LS†Lost Circulation Products and Ser vices form a fast-acting plug that stabilizes the wellbore and stops losses in any uid, in any formation and ever y time. Simple to mix, our products are engineered to perform consistently, regardless of the temperatures encountered or the time spent downhole.

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

2013 18th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference

Aramco’s technology quest THE FIRST SAUDI Aramco Downstream Technology Quest was held recently in Paris. Potential partners gathered at the invitationonly event to discuss downstream technologies that address key challenges in implementing Saudi Aramco’s strategy to expand its existing fuel technology and petrochemical research capabilities. Hosted by Aramco Overseas Company (AOC) B.V. on behalf of Saudi Aramco’s Research and Development Center, the two-day symposium focused on exploring solutions and establishing future partnerships with companies and institutions that can offer viable and innovative solutions to technological challenges Saudi Aramco faces in the downstream domain. Seven challenges within two research domains were pre-communicated on the TechQuest website to potential partners such as petrochemical companies, car engine and fuel designers, universities, research institutes and small to medium enterprises allowing them to develop and submit proposals for future collaborations. Seventeen distinguished members of academia and technology providers from Europe, North America and the Asia Pacific region were invited to attend the event.

Nabil Aldabal, managing director of AOC, welcomed the guests and opened the event. "I am particularly proud to be speaking to you today as we are, for the first time, holding a Downstream TechQuest, which is essentially a forum to discuss and encourage innovative technology contributions, in addition to fostering long-term, fruitful partnerships for Saudi Aramco." Ashraf Al-Ghazzawi, acting manager for the Research and Development Center of Saudi Aramco, said: "The R&D Center’s vision is to become a leading global center for oil and gas research and technology. The center

conducts pioneering research and introduces new technology to create value for the company. In doing so, we continue searching for new ways to address industry challenges. Events like TechQuest help us gather subject matter expertise from all around the world to collaborate and find innovative solutions to some of these challenges." Over the two-day symposium, delegates were given 90 minutes for their one-on-one meeting to present their solutions according to the respective challenges and discuss research proposals with Saudi Aramco R&D members, providing them an opportunity to discuss their ideas for collaboration in detail. "Overall, the event was successful in enabling Saudi Aramco to identify some promising innovative approaches that may help accelerate the advancement of our select downstream technologies," said Ibrahim Abba, chief technologist of Chemicals Research at Saudi Aramco. This year’s event was Saudi Aramco’s second European Technology Quest, with the first one focused on Upstream Technology and held in Aberdeen, Scotland. Saudi Aramco has previously had two upstream TechQuest events, both of which were hosted in Houston, Texas, by Aramco Services Co.

A new identity for CGG CGG ANNOUNCED RECENTLY that the main agreements needed to close the acquisition of Fugro’s Geoscience Division had been signed. The effective date of the closing was January 31st, 2013, with the exception of the airborne activity and certain minor assets which will be contributed later, once all operating licenses and administrative authorizations have been received. The Group has now simplified its brand name from CGGVeritas to CGG and is now organized around three Divisions: Equipment, Acquisition and Geology, Geophysics & Reservoirs (GGR). With this transformative acquisition, CGG believes it establishes a leading position in the high-tech integrated geology & geophysics and reservoir characterization market while strengthening and extending its existing businesses. CGG becomes a fully integrated geoscience group, with a less cyclical but low capital intensive businesses. The agreement also includes strategic partnerships: The creation of a Joint-Venture, Seabed Geosolutions, a focused global leader in the rapidly growing seabed acquisition market, which is 60 per cent-owned by Fugro and 40 per cent by CGG. A marketing and selling multi-client agreement for CGG to sell Fugro’s existing 3D data, which remains owned by Fugro. A global strategic technical and commercial mutual preferred supplier agreement.

62 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Jean-Georges Malcor, Chief Executive Officer of CGG said: “The acquisition of Fugro’s Geoscience division was completed by January 31, 2013 and I would warmly welcome our 2,500 new talented colleagues into the Group. We have a strengthened asset base, increased resources and enhanced capabilities. The addition of Fugro’s activities and technologies, including Jason and Robertson, significantly enhance our integrated geoscience capabilities. It also strengthens our core activities in equipment, imaging, and acquisition, particularly in marine with the addition of four high-end 3D vessels. Moreover, we expand into new markets such as airborne geophysics, marine gravity, electromagnetic and Data Management Services. We are creating an exciting new Group to better serve our clients. Our three new Divisions (Equipment - Acquisition – Geology, Geophysics & Reservoir) cover better the exploration to production value chain. This presents us with many opportunities to create value for our shareholders, our clients, our colleagues and our partners. As we are entering a new era, the brand name of the Group is changing and is simplified to CGG. This new brand identity enables us to capitalize on our historic roots while also leading the way to the future. We now have a group of nearly 10,000 people from all around the world, who are passionate about geoscience and working together to deliver the best solutions to our clients. It will help us create a stronger and more sustainable business for the future. “

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Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013 63


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Mott MacDonald expands upstream offering MOTT MACDONALD HAS acquired Procyon Oil & Gas Limited that will expand the global firm's upstream offering in both offshore and onshore locations. Procyon offers specialised process and facilities services across all phases of upstream design, engineering, construction and operation. The firm’s work includes M&A support, due diligence, debottlenecking analysis, facilities definition, FEED and PMT. Mott MacDonald chairman Keith Howells commented, "Bringing Procyon into the Group will strengthen our ability to provide all phases of upstream design, process engineering, construction management and operation for our clients operating both in the offshore and onshore arena." Procyon work is divided 50/50 between offshore and onshore development projects. John Gridley, director of Procyon remarked, "Procyon's work will be enhanced by having access to Mott MacDonald’s global network, resources and capability. We consider this will enable us to offer our customers a more comprehensive service, leading to greater collective opportunities.” Howells said in a statement that with this added resource and expertise Mott MacDonald will be able to target additional opportunities in the Middle East where the company already has a strong base.

Det-Tronics flame detector gains extra certification DETECTOR ELECTRONICS (DETTRONICS) X3302 Multispectrum Infrared Hydrogen Flame Detector has been certified as Safety Integrity Level 2 (SIL 2) capable by exida. With the SIL 2 capability, the X3302 flame detector can be used in extreme hazard applications that pose a high risk of hydrogen fire, including refineries, chemical loading, compressor areas, and gas plants. The detector also meets each requirement of IEC 61508. “SIL 2 compliance indicates high reliability in extreme hazard environments,” said Charles Hoff, product manager of Det-Tronics. Engineers and system designers

The X3302 multispectrum infrared hydrogen flame detector

can incorporate X3302 Hydrogen Flame Detectors into their SIL 2 system design to protect people and property against fire hazards. In addition to SIL 2 compliance, DetTronics introduced additional sensitivity modes on the X3302 Hydrogen Flame Detector. These sensitivity modes will help optimise the X3302 Hydrogen Flame Detector for specific applications based on fire size and distance to ensure reliable hydrogen flame detection. “The X3302 Hydrogen Flame Detector is fit for protecting environments that may pose high risk to personnel and where fire may cause a large amount of property damage,” Hoff added.

Honeywell introduces new HPS high pressure switch HONEYWELL HAS BROUGHT to market HPS High Pressure Switches with a two million life cycle rating, IP67 environmental sealing, and multiple port and termination options, which the company claims helps improve equipment uptime, simplify rapid design and assembly, and reduce total production costs. The HPS Series are durable, reliable electromechanical gauge pressure on/off switches that are available with either single pole single throw (SPST) or single pole double throw (SPDT) circuitry. The switches are suited for use in rugged industrial and transportation applications. The new two million life cycle means that the application has a long life. The switches are very durable and are compatible with a variety of media including petroleum-based hydraulic fluids (engine oil, gasoline, diesel, and transmission fluid), pressurised air, water, mineral oil-based brake fluid, and more enhance durability in tough environments. The HPS Series switches feature a switching point accuracy of up to ±2 per cent which provides efficient operation of equipment. They also operate in temperature ranges from -40 °C to 120 °C which means it can be used in a variety of Honeywell HPS series switch environments.

Conductor Installation Services wins well services contract in Qatar CONDUCTOR INSTALLATION SERVICES (CIS), an Acteon company, has been awarded a multi-million dollar contract via an agreement with Al-Shaheen Weatherford to provide conductor-driving and cold-cutting services for approximately 55 wells located offshore Qatar on behalf of a major operator in the region. The three-year contract, which features two one-year options to renew, will be carried out by CIS personnel from its base of operations in Qatar. The first installation operation will take place at the end of Q1 2013, the company said in a statement. CIS will use 90kJ hydraulic hammers to drive the 20-inch conductors that will create part of the foundations of the new wells. CIS will supply a complete set of 90kJ hydraulic hammers, as well as a backup set and buffer set, in the event that two separate operations must be carried out simultaneously. Since 2008, CIS has been supplying major operators with conductor installation services in Qatar. CIS recently completed series of operations on a number of wells operated by this particular operator in Qatar, which saw the conductor installation specialist drive 29 conductor piles during the past three years. Al-Shaheen Weatherford is a joint venture between Al-Shaheen Holding (a subsidiary of Qatar Petroleum) and Weatherford Holding BVI (a subsidiary of Weatherford International).

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CIS will use hydraulic hammers to drive conductors that will create part of the foundations of new wells offshore Qatar

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Schoeller-Bleckmann UK (SBUK) is a major stockholder in Duplex, Super Duplex, 6 Moly, Nickel Alloys and Stainless Tube, Pipe and other components. Via our parent company Bohler-Uddeholm (UK) Limited we have access to Wire, Rod, Round Bars, Plates and Forgings in the full range of corrosion resistant alloys. Our particular strengths lie in the supply of STAINLESS STEELS and EXOTIC GRADES Duplex (UNS S31803), Super Duplex (UNS S32760 / UNS S32750), 6 Moly (UNS S31254) and Nickel Alloys (625/825). Our Duplex materials are produced to a high specification and conform to the latest NORSOK / SHELL / ARAMCO / PDO requirements. Our UK stockholding operation has ISO 9001, 14001 and 18001 accreditations.

Sales Office and Warehouse in Jebel Ali, Dubai Sales Office in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia SCHOELLER-BLECKMANN UK EUROPEAN BUSINESS PARK, TAYLORS LANE OLDBURY, WEST MIDLANDS, B69 2BN Tel: +44 (0)121 552 1535 Fax: +44 (0) 121 627 9282


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GE Oil & Gas expands its integrated compressor line GE OIL & Gas has introduced its first single-stage ICL, designed for low-pressure ratio applications such as pipeline compression. It features 20 per cent more operating range flexibility and greater efficiency. The single-stage ICL has a simplified design with only two magnetic bearings and no split parts and offers full access to critical components. With its very simple and robust architecture, the product costs about the same as a conventional BCL/PCL compressor, but has lower operating costs. The new product is the first in the industry with only one impeller. This design enables high performance in applications where the requested

design pressure ratio is very low (1.1-1.4), such as pipeline gas compression stations. The single-stage ICL is designed for gas boosting in a pipeline application (Due to the length of the pipe, the gas pressure drops. In order to keep the gas transportation effective, after a certain distance the gas needs to be recompressed until the next station or its final destination). The single-stage ICL has been optimised for this operation by minimising the electric power consumption. The use of state-ofthe-art technology enables a very simple design using only one impeller, removing half of the bearings compared to a multi-stage ICL and improving both reliability and maintenance.

"Adding the single-stage ICL to the product line gives our customers an even broader range of technology options for their compressor applications. It reflects GE’s ongoing commitment to reliable innovation and advanced technology solutions that tackle our customers’ toughest challenges,” said Riccardo Procacci, general manager Gas Turbines & Compressors for GE Oil & Gas. The single-stage ICL offers a power range of 215mw design inlet pressure of 20-80 bar, discharge pressure up to 120 bar and maximum speed of 18,000 rpm. The new product is available globally, with the first commercial applications expected in the 2014-2015 time frame.

Trican expands into the downhole tools market TRICAN WELL SERVICE has completed the acquisition of Norwegian i-TEC Well Solutions that expands the Canadian-based company capabilities into the completion systems and downhole tools market. i-TEC has developed a field-proven portfolio of completion systems and intervention tools and the acquisition gives Trican a comprehensive portfolio of field proven advanced completion and intervention technologies which can be used in cemented as well as open hole installations. i-TEC's patented i-FRAC valve system allows for valve clusters to be placed in prolific portions of the reservoir so that customers can optimize production

regardless of whether the completion is cemented or open hole. The i-FRAC technology maximises the number of fracture initiation sites with up to 400 valves in a single completion activated by only 20 balls. Trican said in a statement that it believes that this technology is a game changer and should convert plug and perf users to sliding sleeves and allow its customers to perform more cemented sliding sleeve completions with confidence. With the acquisition, i-TEC is expected to leverage Trican's geographic reach, which includes Kazakhstan and North Africa, and will provide it with deeper sales penetration into these markets.

Enclosures from the smallest to the largest.

Climate control from the largest to the smallest. Rittal Middle East FZE, PO Box 17599, Jebel Ali, Dubai, UAE Phone: + 971 (4) 3416855 Fax: +971 (4) 341 6856 Email:, Web: www. ENCLOSURES


66 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013




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UNIQUE WELLUBE FZC, a Unique Maritime Group Company, has successful completed Qty 3 off 28” Class 150 RF Hot Tap on 58” ASTM A358-304L pipeline for Madina Group and Chiyoda Almana Engineering (CAEL). The project was for Ras Gas. The First Tap was a mock up performed in Madina's Doha Workshop in August 2012 by Greg Hunter & Mario Abobo. The Second and Third Hot Tapping was performed on a live Gas Line inside Ras Gas premises in Ras Laffan Industrial City in September last year by Mario Abobo & Michael Easthope. Train 5 was performed on September 12th and Train 4 on September 13th, 2012. The Qty 3 off 58” x 28” x 58” Class 150 RF stainless steel extruded hot tap fittings for Ras Gas was manufactured by the firms US manufacturer as per The stainless steel hot tap fittings ASME 31.3 standards.

Larger flexible line pipe introduced FLEXSTEEL PIPELINE TECHNOLOGIES has released a new larger-diameter FlexSteel pipe, which is now 8-inch diameter up to 1,500 psi. This offers up to 125 per cent increased flow rate compared to FlexSteel 6-inch pipe. The 8-inch diameter The FlexSteel pipe FlexSteel was developed with the same helically wound steel core as existing FlexSteel pipes for failure-free performance with the durability of steel and the installation, performance and cost benefits of flexible pipe products. "The new 8-inch FlexSteel was developed in response to customer requests for a spoolable pipe solution with greater flow capacity," said Brian Anderson, vice president of strategy and marketing for FlexSteel Pipeline Technologies. Developed with corrosion-resistant technology, FlexSteel pipe performs under gruelling cyclic loading environments and installs up to five times faster than traditional steel line pipe to provide the lowest total cost of ownership compared to steel. Additionally, the 8-inch pipe has 93 per cent fewer connections per mile vs. steel. FlexSteel can be installed easily and quickly in all types of terrain with minimal disruption to land. It does not require special bedding or handling. FlexSteel's time-tested swaged fittings make for fast, reliable connections that are not sensitive to cleanliness or ambient temperature. FlexSteel spooled pipe is used in various applications including oil and gas and CO2 transportation.



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Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013 67


Unique Wellube completes project for Ras Gas


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New innovations in artificial lift technology WEATHERFORD SHOWCASED ITS latest artificial lift technology in Abu Dhabi as the global oil services company hosted a seminar explaining their key advantages for taking a solutions approach to optimising producing wells. The method for oil companies to overcome production challenges via various artificial lift systems was also demonstrated. Oil Review sat down with both Rafael Bastardo, regional business unit manager production system – MENA and Ahmed Shoukry, director RRL and HL, to learn why demand for higher production is changing what operators are looking for and how Weatherford is offering solutions to these problems. The company displayed various lift systems for gas lift, plunger lift, hydraulic lift, reciprocating rod lift, progressing cavity pumping, electric submersible pumping, capillary technologies and production enhancement services. The UAE based event was part of a larger running Middle East based seminar programme with similar events taking place in Egypt, Kuwait and Oman. "We tailored all our events and training days to the specific country needs. In Oman and Kuwait we focused on heavy oil and in the UAE we focused on gas lift," said Shoukry. "We wanted to promote open discussion and share what concerns there are in the market as dialogue with clients is of the up-most importance," Bastardo explained. Weatherford had qualified experts on hand to talk about the solutions for every form of artificial lift. "The importance of artificial lift for Middle East countries stems from the trend of more wells needing artificial lift to produce. That is why our main focus for here in this region is new artificial lit technology. Our customers need to have continuous production," added Shoukry. One of the key messages that Weatherford presented at the event was that the company provides a one-stop shop for artificial lift production requirements. The firm supplies open solutions which can work with an operator’s legacy systems and mirror the strategy on which they are embarking. "We offer the best hardware, electronics, and software for whatever kind of artificial lift you need. We are the only oil and gas supplier offering a completely integrated solution," argued Shoukry. Bastardo elaborated: "The seminars are also about where we think operators are going which will increasingly be focused on digital oilfields that will see the integration of all the solutions into one bundle. This will help us work with customers on the workflow side and to optimise their fields in a better way." One other reason for these Middle East focused technical seminars, according to Bastardo, is to deliver the message that Weatherford has changed to be more of a solution provider than just a mere equipment manufacturer and provider. Operator demands Bastardo stated: "We feel there is a change in how operators are seeing what the next step is going to be and they are looking at how to maximise their production with less cost through intelligent investments. "The two main challenges facing companies are the need to reduce costs and lower capex without negatively affecting production," he added. One way to reduce costs Weatherford found was to introduce a rental side to the business and the company introduced it to the Kuwaiti market in 2012 and the service will be extended to Oman this year. The company is in discussions with PDO on what kind of model they would follow.

Ron Schmidt with Weatherford discusses the DVX gas lift technology with seminar attendees

"The first year of offering rental equipment has proved popular and we won a five-year contract with KOC for all rental equipment," Shoukry said. Market demand Shoukry pointed out that Weatherford‘s biggest market for artificial lift is in Oman, closely followed by Kuwait. 55 per cent of Weatherford‘s Middle East business is in these countries. The reason for this is because there is a shift to heavy oil and focusing on deeper exploration. That is why Weatherford's hydraulic lift pumps can go deeper, reaching 4,878 meters, and can produce more as they are capable of higher production rates. This new hydraulic lift technology is important in Kuwait and Oman, according to Shoukry. "We have nearly all of the PCP market in Kuwait, and in Oman we have nearly all the reciprocating rod lift market," remarked Bastardo. "The UAE is one of the countries that we feel has a lot of potential to grow, and we feel we can almost double or triple our size there in the next three to five years," he added. Oman and Kuwait are focusing on heavy oil and they are trying to get production from other reservoirs previously not touched. But with heavy oil, one must consider steam injection and modifying facilities with more artificial equipment. A big challenge for artificial lift systems is high temperatures, and Weatherford is developing equipment that can cope with it specifically. With the move to increased production, the need to explore deeper and improve recovery factors has increased. This means that different types of applications are being used, which bring extra challenges in terms of choosing the best technology based on the knowledge acquired through years of experience. That is the focal point for Weatherford, which is looking at how that vital knowledge element can be transferred in an optimal way. "We want to provide this to the customers so the operators can take advantage of us. That is why these seminars are more of a knowledge transfer exercise than a selling exercise," Bastardo explained.

Aker Solutions purchases Enovate ABERDEEN-BASED ENOVATE Systems Limited, a technology company within subsea well control equipment was purchased by Aker Solutions for an undisclosed sum. Enovate has developed a wide range of patented components and products for use in open water workover systems, in

68 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

riser workover systems, rigless intervention systems and drilling safety systems. "Enovate has developed and qualified unique technology for safe and efficient well control. Components from Enovate are also important building blocks for systems within workover and well-

intervention services for high pressure and ultra-deep water fields worldwide," noted Åsmund Bøe, chief technology officer of Aker Solutions. Aker Solutions said it was committed to invest in increased capacity and further development of the product range in close collaboration with current customers.

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MSA Safety Solutions for Industry

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ALTAIR® 4X Multigas Detector

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S11 ORME 1 2013 Innovations_Layout 1 25/02/2013 18:55 Page 70

Web selection - Innovations from A selection of recent products and service developments for the oil and gas sector. Full information can be found on www

Hydraulic actuator range offers improved safety features EXPANDING ITS PORTFOLIO of hydraulic actuators for the surface drilling sector, GE Oil & Gas recently launched the CHA Hydraulic Actuator Series. The new series offers improved safety features and two large-diameter (1/2”) LP actuator ports.

Full details can be found at

Turbocaser clears the way CASING AND COMPLETION technology specialist, Deep Casing Tools has completed its first operation in the North Sea, with a very successful 21 hour reaming run. Two conventional attempts to run a 7” liner to total depth (TD) had been unsuccessful in the Statoil operated Gullfaks’ satellite well, resulting in the liner hanging up hundreds of metres from TD.

View of a rig floor

Full details can be found at

Energy sector innovation from Norgren NORGREN, AN INTERNATIONAL market leader in pneumatic motion and fluid control technologies, has unveiled a comprehensive guide to its highly innovative Redundant Valve Manifold (RVM) system for process control in the oil, gas and chemical sectors.

Full details can be found at

Trelleborg strengthens LNG offering TRELLEBORG MARINE SYSTEMS, part of Trelleborg business area Offshore and Construction, has acquired Sea Systems Technology Ltd. (SeaTechnik), a global market-leader in the design and manufacture of systems for safeguarding the transfer of LNG between liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers and shore terminals.

Gas tester ensures compliance CROWCON’S TETRA:3 (T3) portable, multi-gas detector complies with relevant national/regional safety regulations and individual company requirements. The device feeds the T3’s sensors a known concentration of gas, a process known as ‘bumping’, to ensure the sensors are working correctly. The way it works is simple: when a T3 is inserted into the Gas Tester, the T3 automatically switches into ‘bump’ mode and either passes or fails. The T3 gas tester

Full details can be found at

User satisfaction with BOP handling FOUR J D Neuhaus EH 60 air operated monorail hoists supplied for offshore BOP handling have completed 12 months satisfactory operation to customer requirements and have also successfully passed their first annual inspection. Full details can be found at

Superior data downhole metrology OPENFIELD, A NEW Francebased startup specialised in the conception, production and commercialisation of wireless micro-sensors for the oil and gas industry recently announced the launch of its new pressure and temperature micro-recorder for hydraulic fracturing.

Full details can be found at

Full details can be found at

Improving flow and reducing costs

Dual-fuel technology offers benefits HALLIBURTON, APACHE CORPORATION and Caterpillar have developed innovative dualfuel technology capable of safely and efficiently powering the pumping equipment used for fracturing treatments with a mixture of natural gas and diesel. This is one of the largest-scale dual-fuel projects ever conducted in the oil and gas industry.

Full details can be found at

70 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

KONGSBERG OIL & Gas Technologies (KOGT), a wholly-owned subsidiary of KONGSBERG, announced the latest release of LedaFlow®, the new transient multiphase flow simulator. The release focuses on ways to reduce field development costs and the operating costs for wells and pipelines, by improving the accuracy of the underlying models. Full details can be found at

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Technical Focus

Centralizer failure or poor spacing can lead to a multitude of downhole problems, as Cliff Berry* of Centek explains.

Centralizing in the

under ream C

ORRECT CENTRALIZATION OF tubular casings is crucial to the success of a well, as incorrect centralization can result in, amongst other things, channelling and poor cementation. Centralizer failures can lead to rig downtime, pulled casing, stuck pipe, fluid migration, side-tracks and even loss of wells. The great majority of centralizer failures are due to choosing an incorrect unit for the job. Everyday someone, somewhere, is pulling casing and leaving debris in the hole for the simple reason that the wrong type of centralizer, for job specific applications, was used.

Major regional operators have adopted Centek centralizers because of their robustness Before choosing a centralizer consideration needs to be given to the well geometry, stand-off required, zonal isolation, formation pressure and well friction factors as all this will directly affect performance. It must be clear what the customer actually wants and to fully understand this.

Benefit Centralizer failure or poor spacing can lead to a multitude of downhole problems, all at great expense and rig downtime. In getting to final depth, the centralizers must counteract the often very powerful radial forces exerted by the tubular due to well geometry, and centralize within the borehole to allow optimum passage of annular fluids and correct cement displacement. Achieving proper centralization is especially difficult in under-reamed wells. Under-reaming is a widely used drilling technique for enlarging the diameter of a borehole. Under reamed sections are becoming more popular as results show improvements, yet for a centralizer, these sections pose the greatest difficulty in getting to final depth. A further benefit of under-reaming is it improves the flow and pressure of the annular fluids, but in some cases, by increasing the fluid flow you may run the risk of eroding the surrounding formation. You are also often limited to how central you can get the pipe, which naturally depends on the choice of centralizer, small units in large holes tend not to be the optimum solution, but also the well geometry is an important fact to consider. If you

72 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Centek S2 centralizer

can increase the diameter of the annulus you improve the potential for good well clean out, but if units are lying on the low side then fluid will take the easiest route and the low side of the casing will show little benefit from the clean-out. A basic problem with under-reamed wells is getting effective casing centralization in the underreamed section. Ordinary bowspring centralizers can be damaged when passing through previously

set casing. Some suppliers make them oversize so as to improve stand-off down hole, but this makes the centralizers tight in the casing and requires a large insertion force which causes drag problems. In addition, conventional bowspring centralizers of a suitable outside diameter to fit the under-reamed section accurately and with sufficient standoff, often get so compressed that they lose their elasticity when passing though the narrower casings.

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Technical Focus

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Well cleaning Another approach is the solid or rigid centralizer, which while axially strong has a fixed diameter and cannot expand to fit the under-reamed hole, so that in horizontal wells it will lie along the bottom of the borehole increasing the risk of bad centralization and a poor cement bond. Centek centralizers are manufactured from a single piece of steel which is fully heat-treated to give a hardened surface that results in greatly reduced torque and drag losses, so abrasive wear caused by running to depth and rotating the tubular is virtually eliminated. These centralizers offer exceptionally high fatigue strength for axial forces and radial side loads on bows during tubular rotation. Despite being fully compressed during passage through the casings, the centralizer offers exceptional restoring force with a very high stand-off ratio once in the open hole. As a low profile unit it takes up less annular space, so its ECD (Equivalent Circulating Density) signature is low allowing the operator if required to pump at a slightly higher rate. This improves well cleaning, and the low torque aids part rotation and minimises stall-out all of which contribute to improved cementation.

Unequalled flexibility Centek’s Under Reamed range includes the Centek TUR and UROS centralizers that will compress and then expand to fit the largest hole, within reason, that the customer requires. Under-reamed centralizers are not manufactured to API standards as there is currently no API standard for underreamed applications. However testing of the units is naturally to API procedures Centek products have been used successfully in

Once through the compressed stage, the UROS reverts to normal centralizer operation in the open hole with the bows regaining their nominal outer diameter to maximise standoff. The UROS achieves this reduction in drag by its unique, patented bow design. This produces a significant reduction in drag force without reducing the strength of the unit or its capacity to centralize the casing once in the open hole.

Advanced simulation

Cliff Berry

thousands of applications worldwide without a single centralizer being left downhole when casing has been pulled. Centek can justifiably claim to have reinvented the bowspring centralizer with unequalled flexibility and strength. In an under-reamed hole, the Centek TUR is the Industry leader and now other established companies are trying to produce very similar units because of its success. Centek has introduced a radical innovation in centralizer design which provides quantifiable reductions in drag and torque. Centek’s UROS, or Under-Reamed Off-Set centralizer, answers the need to reduce drag forces on run-in-hole through previously set casing before continuing into an under-reamed well section. The UROS significantly reduces initial insertion forces, a characteristic of bow type centralizers, and additionally delivers a substantial reduction in running forces when passing through previously set casings.

Cross section of a pulled casing where bad centralization has inhibited cement flow on the narrow side of the annulus leading to channelling and a poor cement bond.

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“This revolutionary design offers the best solution for under-reamed sections of virtually any well geometry, providing reduced insertion and drag forces, to ensure a problem free run through tight previously set casing, and once clear of all restrictions, the UROS expands every time to the designed OH size to optimise cementing operations in under-reamed wells,” said Cliff Berry, Vice President, Global Business Development at Centek Group. “Once in the OH the UROS’s characteristics are those of a gauge hole centralizer so maximising stand-off.”

Achieving proper centralization is especially difficult in under-reamed wells Berry stresses the importance of understanding insertion, running and accumulative restart forces because all three apply as bow springs are compressed when passing through the previously set casing. Insertion force occurs once, each time a unit is run into the well and it should be measured. Running force, or drag, is also measurable and the accumulative restart force, again measurable, relates to the forces that must be overcome as a new joint of pipe is added to the string. Centek, as market leaders, are familiar with these issues and using its advanced simulation and modelling software it produces dynamic calculations which are used to design customised centralizers based on the characteristics of each well. The UROS is available in 7” x 9.1/2”, 7” x 9.7/8” and 10.3/4” x 13.1/2” sizes, with additional sizes being continuously developed to meet demand. Centek Group opened a US manufacturing subsidiary in September 2012 based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. The 80,000 square feet plant is fully self-sufficient in all aspects of centralizer manufacture with its own heat treatment and laser cutting equipment. Initially manufacturing will concentrate on the widely used Centek S2 bowspring centralizer. Centek has been operating in the Middle East since 2004, in countries like Abu Dhabi, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar. A major problem in some of these areas is the Nahr Umr reactive shale formation which can cause serious run-in-hole difficulties, such as getting stuck, damaged centralizers, fishing trips, poor cement jobs and not getting to TD.

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Reactive shale can respond badly to mechanical interference, typically by swelling which reduces the diameter of the wellbore and can damage less robust centralizers. The effects of swelling can also be made worse by friction in horizontal wells.

Guarantee Major regional operators have adopted Centek centralizers because of their robustness when compressed on passing through shale sections or other restrictions. Traditionally a mixture of latch or pinned centralizers and solid body units has been used, but the engineering and operational difficulties these caused have led many operators to use Centek units. Most oilfield service providers want peace of mind and the virtual guarantee that the drill

string will get to bottom, and should it be pulled due to well conditions then all centralizers will be safely returned to the surface with no units being lost down hole. Centek centralizers can be used with all types of well geometry but are designed primarily for long horizontal well sections with high build sections. It is here that the Centek benefits become apparent with no drag, digging in, or difficulties from being either under or oversized to the bore hole, so meeting the operational criteria for running casing successfully. Al Shoumoukh Group is Centek’s distributor in Abu Dhabi and will be displaying Centek products at ADIPEC 2012. Richard Berry Centek’s Technical Sales Engineer for the Middle East and North Africa will be the Centek representative on the stand.

Biography Cliff Berry’s oilfield career started in 1977 with Halliburton in Brunei, Malaysia and Sarawak as a cementer and tool operator. He also worked offshore in the North Sea and Persian Gulf with Halliburton. He then worked for Diamond B (UK) Limited, a leading centralizer manufacturer in the mid 1980’s. Cliff joined BJ Tubular Services as European Operations Manager working from the German office and successfully introduced BJ Tubular Services into Denmark, Hungary, and Holland in addition to growth in Germany. He joined Centek in 2001 as Sales and Marketing Manager responsible for worldwide sales and was appointed VP Global Business Development at Centek Group in June 2012. He can be reached at

Optimized Performance

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Technical Focus

Side view of Centek Uros centralizer

Richard has over seven years’ experience in the Industry and his offshore and technical background made him an ideal candidate for this role. Other areas of interest to Centek within MENA are Saudi Arabia where SFAX are now using Centek units and Oman, where the national operator uses Centek products. Al Shoumoukh have been representing Centek since 2004 and has started to gain a major foothold in the region. Other areas also of keen interest to Centek are Kuwait and Qatar. ■

Technical Focus

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James Cutting, aftermarket sales manager from Gardner Denver FZE, manufacturer of the CompAir range of compressors and the established Broomwade brand, which is installed in hundreds of applications in the Middle East, outlines the areas to consider when factoring spare parts’ provision.

The genuine

article I

T IS WIDELY accepted that using nongenuine manufacturers’ parts can be detrimental to compressor performance and can have a negative impact on a machine’s efficiency and energy consumption. For operators in the oil and gas industry in particular, where in recent years the market has seen an influx of cheaper, third party spares, particular care needs to be taken to ensure that routine parts’ replacement is not adversely affecting compressor performance. The Broomwade range of piston compressors are the preferred choice in a host of oil and gas applications, with many units having been in operation for decades. The slow-speed, watercooled, piston design with pressures up to 20.5 bar g offers the ideal combination of robust and reliable performance in the harshest of environments. However, customers may not be aware that the Broomwade range of machines, also called the Vmajor or V-compact are still being manufactured today by Gardner Denver, with the complete range of spare parts available for purchase, or as part of routine service and maintenance contracts. As a result, this particular range of compressors serves as a good example of the dangers of choosing cheaper alternatives to genuine manufacturers’ spares; as customers are either unknowingly accepting pirate parts from a third party or selecting cheaper imports and putting compressor performance at risk. It is a fact that even small non-genuine parts such as piston rings and guide rings have resulted in catastrophic failures to Broomwade piston compressors. Broomwade spare parts, along with all other CompAir-branded product components are readily available from Gardner Denver and its authorised dealer network and can make the difference between optimum efficiency and unwanted downtime. Here’s a short guide that define some of the areas to consider when selecting compressor parts:

Spend a little? Non-genuine spares and lubricants are generally a cheaper alternative to the manufacturer’s original parts and, when cost is an issue, can appear to be a sound investment. As well as a shorter operational life and the associated issues of compressor downtime, the wrong spare part can in some cases, cause real damage to the compressor, ultimately meaning the machine can fail completely. This won’t just result

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in an expensive repair bill, but will affect productivity with unscheduled machine downtime.

Replacement is necessary Any compressor, whether brand new or one that has been performing well for many years will, in the normal course of operation, require components to be periodically replaced. These can include items such as filters, valves, seals and oil. Unless a genuine, like-for-like replacement part is used, there can be no guarantee that the original performance will be maintained. Non-genuine parts are not manufactured to the same specification as the manufacturers’ original. By virtue of the fact that they are engineered to cost less, they will typically incorporate inferior components that cannot offer the same levels of energy efficiency or performance reliability. In contrast, genuine parts have been manufactured to meet the same standards as the compressor they are intended for. This means that they have passed the same stringent manufacturers’ testing regimes, in a qualitycontrolled environment, to offer the repeatable, dependable operation that operator’s need to keep production costs down.

In contrast, genuine parts have been manufactured to meet the same standards as the compressor they are intended for optimised to work with all of the machine’s component parts. This ensures that the correct lubrication, cooling and anti-wear qualities are maintained. Compressor oils can operate quite aggressively and, if specified incorrectly, they can place additional demands on the filter element, which can result in dust and other particles coming in to contact with internal components. In addition, the right oil and oil filter combination can help to extend oil change intervals. This not only reduces the cost and frequency of oil changes, but also helps to reduce the environmental impact associated with oil disposal. This combination of the right oil with the right filter assembly can help to improve temperature stability, which results in lower energy consumption as the compressor can run at a stable, predictable level.

Oil As well as the physical component parts, the quality of oil used to lubricate and seal a compressor can have a major impact on filtration capabilities. Genuine lubricants are formulated with additives to improve performance and are

Filters The role of a filter is to ensure that dust and particles cannot enter the compressor system, helping to protect components from corrosion and unnecessary wear. This encompasses everything from the compressor itself to the pipe work that

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Just because it fits, doesn’t mean it’s right Non-genuine parts and lubricants can damage your compressor and your bottom line

ts help tto o rreduce educe lubricants ˜ Genuine parts & lubrican running costs costs

egular servicing ensur ensures es ultima ultimate te ˜ RRegular e efficiency fficiency & pe peace ace o off mind

Non-genuine genuine parts & lubrican lubricants ts can le lead ad ˜ Nontto oe expensive xpensive br breakdowns eakdowns

CompAir - protecting you, your equipment & your workforce.

Gardner Denver FZE P..O. Box 61146, Office 503, JAFZA 16, Jebel Ali Freezone, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Tel: + 971 4 8811744 Email: CompAir is a brand of Gardner Denver

Your Y our o Ultimate U Sour Source ce for V Vacuum acuum a and Pr Pressure essure

Technical Focus

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carries air around the plant to the equipment at the point of use. Non-genuine filters are more likely to have low dust and dirt holding capacity meaning that more contaminants can enter the system. This results in the inevitable downtime when equipment fails and increased maintenance costs to rectify the problem. Such filters can contribute to higher pressure drops, meaning that the compressor has to work harder to produce the same level of compressed air at the point of use. And of course, the harder a compressor is working to produce compressed air, the more energy it is consuming unnecessarily and the more costs escalate.

Seals The quality of seals is another area to consider. Designed to handle compressor oil, high temperatures over prolonged periods and varying pressure levels, they provide protection against the ingress of dirt and other contaminants and should be selected carefully to ensure optimum efficiency is maintained. n

For further information about spare parts for your Broomwade or CompAir compressor, please contact James Cutting, Gardner Denver FZE on 00971 4 8811744 or email

78 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

Saving space and energy KAESER’S NEW ESD series rotary screw compressors combine impressive air delivery and availability with maximum efficiency and compact design. With motor powers of 200 kW and 250 kW respectively, the ESD 352 and ESD 442 cover free air deliveries from 36.1 to 42.1 m³/min (at 8 bar) and - just like all Kaeser rotary screw compressors - are designed for pressures up to 15 bar. Their exceptional efficiency and performance is the result of Kaeser’s meticulous engineering and design. The new ESD models save energy in four key ways: Operating at low speeds of 1500 rpm, the airend in every unit features refined flow-optimised ‘Sigma Profile’ rotors for superior efficiency - the ESD 442 is equipped with a specificallydeveloped airend. In combination with additional optimisation measures, such as the minimisation of internal pressure losses, Kaeser’s energy-efficient design has enabled specific power to be reduced by up to five per cent compared with previous models. Kaeser rotary screw airends are powered by IE3 drive motors for maximum performance and reliability. These motors will become obligatory in the EU from 01.01.2015, but users can already enjoy the benefits that these premium efficiency motors have to offer by choosing Kaeser compressors. Kaeser’s highly efficient 1:1 drive design eliminates the transmission losses associated with gear or V-belt driven systems, as the motor directly drives the airend. With five pre-programmed control modes, the newly developed PC-based ‘Sigma Control 2’ compressor controller enables compressor performance to be precisely matched to actual air demand thereby allowing additional energy savings. Kaeser’s new Sigma Control 2 controller also offers added advantages: This advanced system provides greater flexibility through its numerous interfaces and innovative plug-in communication modules. Therefore, connection to energy-saving master control systems, computer networks and/or remote diagnostics and monitoring systems, such as Kaeser's Teleservice facility, couldn’t be easier.

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Technical Focus

Improvements in plant reliability reduce the risk of catastrophic events and lower maintenance costs, says Nikki Bishop* of Emerson Process Management.

Improve reliability with essential

asset monitoring “R

ELIABILITY” IN THE control process industries can be defined as the ability of a system to perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances, as well as in hostile or unexpected circumstances. Unexpected circumstances in an operating facility can easily lead to catastrophic events. Improvements in plant reliability reduce the risk and occurrence of these events and lower maintenance costs. Improving plant reliability means ensuring process equipment is properly maintained and available for continuous operation. According to Solomon Associates, a world-class performer is a company whose maintenance costs are below 1.4 per cent plant replacement value, with mechanical availability greater than 96.7 per cent. Becoming a world-class performer requires implementation of an effective asset management strategy. Real-time monitoring (and protection) of critical process equipment, such as large compressors or turbines, is standard practice at most facilities. However, monitoring of second-tier equipment has traditionally been deemed costprohibitive or too difficult. Second-tier equipment,

also referred to as “essential assets,” includes such things as pumps, heat exchangers, blowers, small compressors, pipes/vessels, cooling towers and air-cooled heat exchangers (“fin fans”). While these unmonitored assets may not have been originally classified as “critical,” an outage or failure can cause a serious process disturbance or shutdown, resulting in lost production, injuries, fines and adverse impact to the environment. According to Doug White, a refining industry expert with over 30 years of experience, “We have performed a large number of studies for various refineries around the world. Our analysis of this data compiled from multiple industry sources shows that, in a typical refinery, about 25 per cent of unplanned outages are related to equipment failure. Our consolidated data is presented in Figure 1 which shows the main root causes of unplanned shutdowns and slowdowns and the unit availability loss associated with each. According to our studies, just seven asset classes account for the majority of the loss: valves, pumps, vessels, compressors, piping, exchangers and fired equipment." With regards to the maintenance spending on these assets, Dr. White adds, “Based on our industry

analysis, maintenance of these same seven asset classes consumes about 70 per cent of the total maintenance budget at a typical refinery. Figure 2 shows the approximate percentage of the maintenance budget associated with each of the seven asset classes that we have found in our studies. We have found maintenance cost to be closely correlated with the asset management strategy employed. Choosing the right strategy can reduce costs and increase asset reliability and process availability. While it may be tempting to focus only on cutting costs, that practice can lead to reduced reliability over the long run. Maintenance and reliability cannot be decoupled. The focus should be on increasing reliability, which will, in turn, lower the total cost of ownership.”

Common strategies Selecting the right asset management strategy is a balancing act between implementation cost and expected reliability. Reactive maintenance represents the most costly and least reliable maintenance program. For example, some essential assets may have a spare as part of a reactive maintenance program. A common practice is to run

Figure 1, Causes of unplanned shutdowns and slowdowns

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Technical Focus

equipment to failure and then switch to the spare when needed. But it may not be possible to bring the spare online in time to avoid process disturbances or a shutdown. Even with the spare asset online, maintenance personnel are faced with repairing the failed asset. For equipment without a spare, shutdowns are necessary to repair failed assets. On average, repair cost for a failed asset is typically 50 per cent higher than if the problem had been addressed prior to failure. Alternatively, some sites employ a preventive maintenance program that calls for schedule-based asset servicing, whether maintenance is necessary or not. While this approach may offer greater reliability than a run-to-failure method, it has its own drawbacks. Valuable time and resources are wasted servicing assets that may not require repair. The personnel busy unnecessarily servicing assets could easily be doing other productive work instead. And if the assets being serviced do not have a spare, the process is unnecessarily disrupted, costing valuable production time. Predictive maintenance is another option as an asset management strategy. In this approach, essential assets may be monitored manually with spot-checks in the field. These “clipboard rounds” may occur once per shift, but can occur as infrequently as once per quarter or longer. Periodic handheld vibration or performance audits may be conducted on selected assets on an annual or monthly basis. This method of predictive maintenance based on periodic—possibly infrequent—data acquisition fails to give real-time insight into asset health. Thus, equipment may fail during the interim of data acquisition, causing process disruption and a more costly repair than a well-maintained asset. Resources are wasted sending skilled personnel for data collection into the field, which might also be a hazardous environment. Additionally, analysis and interpretation of the collected data requires the skills of a trained reliability engineer or equipment specialist. The problem is compounded as experienced personnel retire and take their vast stores of knowledge with them. Periodic monitoring leaves operators and maintenance personnel without sufficient insight into the health of their equipment. When faced with selecting an asset management strategy, the ideal approach for increased reliability and minimal maintenance costs is an automated monitoring strategy—one that provides online indication of an asset’s health. Automated monitoring can detect process conditions that may be unintentionally and unknowingly inducing a fault on equipment. Armed with the knowledge of adverse process conditions, operators can make adjustments so that process related equipment faults can be avoided altogether. In the event of impending failure, online indication of asset health provides advanced warning of health degradation that allows enough time for spare equipment to be safely brought online, eliminating process upsets, off-spec product and safety incidents that result from an unexpected trip. Advanced warning gives maintenance staff the information they need to determine when servicing

Figure 2, Essential assets maintenance cost

On average, repair cost for a failed asset is typically 50 per cent higher than if the problem had been addressed prior to failure is necessary to prevent a failure, even on assets that do not have spares. An automated monitoring strategy can bring asset management into the control room and eliminate unnecessary trips to the field to collect data. Centralised, online asset monitoring also eliminates the need to send personnel into hazardous areas for data acquisition.

Survey The heart of any early warning system is online field signals. Historically, process plants have been built with only the minimum amount of instrumentation necessary to safely operate the unit. This may be due to budgetary constraints, or it may be that the necessary measurement technology was not available at the time of design, such as vibration or acoustic transmitters. An effort to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs should start with a survey of what measurements currently exist and what measurements are missing. Traditionally, adding missing measurements was a daunting task that was expensive, time consuming and, at times, impractical due to the location. The advent of wireless technology has considerably lowered cost barriers to implementation, making it easy to monitor the condition or “health” of process equipment—be it a pump, heat exchanger, control valve, steam trap, pressure relief valve or other essential assets. Wireless devices can be installed in hard-to-reach places and in locations deemed cost-prohibitive by conventional means. Wireless devices typically take two hours to install, compared to two days to install a wired device. Setting up a wireless network allows for easy future expansion by seamlessly adding devices to the existing network, while simultaneously strengthening the network robustness and resilience. Wired devices can also be adapted to communicate wirelessly,

allowing stranded local measurements to become part of the wireless network. While wireless technology provides an easy and cost-effective means of adding measurements, data collection alone will not prevent equipment failure or improve plant reliability. Data aggregation and analysis is necessary to generate meaningful alerts from the information gathered. Combining asset data, process data, and statistical process control techniques creates a powerful trifecta for detecting equipment faults. Monitoring process data, such as pressure, temperature or flow, along with asset data, such as vibration or bearing temperature, identifies specific process conditions that may cause asset health degradation. Adverse process conditions can be detected and adjustments made to prevent further asset damage. Statistical process control methods applied to aggregated process and asset data provide meaningful alerts to plant staff and eliminate nuisance alarms. Alerts that clearly indicate actionable issues enable problems to be diagnosed and resolved quickly and effectively. Applying smart analysis to generate meaningful alerts also reduces the demand on trained reliability engineers or equipment specialists, as less experienced personnel can respond when meaningful alerts clearly indicate problems.

Benefits Downtime of essential assets causes process slowdowns or shutdowns, which lead to lost production and, ultimately, decreased profit. An automated monitoring program reduces unplanned shutdowns or slowdowns, providing the highest reliability and lowest maintenance costs. Wireless technology, coupled with pre-engineered integrated solutions, breaks through cost barriers to provide an easy and cost-effective means of essential asset monitoring. n

*Nikki Bishop, PE, is a Senior Application Consultant at Emerson Process Management. With over 10 years of experience in the process control industry, her experience includes projects in industrial energy, pharmaceuticals, power generation, pulp and paper and refining.

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Technical Focus

Deeper wells and renewed safety concerns pose new challenges for the offshore oil and gas industry. Providing solutions offers both opportunities and rewards.

The hunt for black gold

goes deeper D

ESPITE MOVES TOWARD greater energy efficiency and a turbulent economic climate, global demand for oil and gas shows no sign of letting up. Consumption in the developed world may be flatlining, but China will more than double its oil consumption from 2000 to 2015, while in India demand will increase by about 75 per cent. Debate continues about when ‘peak oil’ will be reached, but the fact remains that a huge amount of oil is still in the ground – enough to last several decades by most estimates. The problem is that much of the “easy” oil has been found, and demand for energy is taking exploration and production to ever-tougher extremes of geography and climate. The deepwater (more than 500 meters or 1,600 feet) and ultra-deepwater (more than 1,500 meters or about 5,000 feet) energy sector represents one of the major growth areas for the oil and gas industry, but exploiting these reserves presents tough technical challenges. Exploiting deepwater reserves presents tough technical challenges

Risks “This is a very onerous environment,” says John Drury, Business Group Director for Trelleborg’s business that focuses on the offshore industry. “The risks multiply exponentially with depth, and operators are looking for fail-safe solutions.” One issue with ever-deeper wells is that the hot oil cools and thickens on its way to the surface, slowing the flow and potentially causing blockages. One of Trelleborg’s many product lines for the oil and gas industry is thermal insulation material to prevent this cooling. “Our materials are engineered to cope with environments at extreme depth plus temperatures well in excess of 100°C [212°F],” says Drury. Safety has long been a priority for the offshore oil and gas industry, but the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, which resulted in 11 deaths and the largest accidental oil spill in history, thrust the issue into the spotlight. “Operators are introducing increased riskmitigation strategies to avoid these sorts of incidents in the future,” says Drury. “There should be further opportunities for our safety-related products as legislation is introduced.” Among Trelleborg’s wide range of safety systems for the offshore oil and gas industry are the Elastopipe deluge system for fire protection, microspheres for smothering fires and flexible fireretardant coatings. Trelleborg is also working on innovative

82 Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013

One issue with ever-deeper wells is that the hot oil cools and thickens on its way to the surface buoyancy solutions that improve safety by reducing the load on the long pipes bringing oil up more than a kilometer (3,000 feet) from the seabed. The industry, which accounts for about 10 percent of Trelleborg’s total sales, has witnessed increased globalisation in recent years as new deepwater fields are exploited, such as off the coast of Vietnam, Brazil and West Africa.

Opportunities “In Brazil there is heavy investment to enable the construction of ships in the country, whereas historically they might have been built in Korea,” says Drury. “Similarly in Southeast Asia there is a shift toward deeper waters, and at the same time countries in the region are looking to develop more locally based supply chains.” To capture these opportunities, suppliers including Trelleborg are setting up production in these new markets.

But while the opportunities are plentiful, the competition is tougher than ever. “There are a lot of building projects ongoing, but people are being very aggressive to win and everyone is very conscious about margins,” says Thor Hegg Eriksen, Business Unit President for Trelleborg’s business that focuses on the offshore industry. “This seems a bit of an anomaly for a business that is making so much money on the operator side. But there is not really a direct competitor that is able to offer such a broad product portfolio from as many locations as Trelleborg.” Industry observers see an intriguing period ahead, with expected regulatory changes on safety, national oil companies becoming more outward looking, the rise of Asia as a supplier and consumer, and increased investment in deepwater drilling. “There are changes going on, and it is an interesting environment,” says Eriksen. “But with our core competencies, our ability to work on a global scale and our extensive innovation work, Trelleborg is well positioned to see what happens and to jump on the opportunities as they arise.”

On the rise With the deepwater discoveries off its Atlantic coast representing a third of all worldwide oil discoveries in the past five years, Brazil is widely

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thanks to strategically placed protective sections spaced within the RiserGuard that transfer loads between the joints and the deck. “Always keen to meet the changing wants and needs of our customers, we recognized the need to be able to stack the riser joints and decided to develop a stackable version of the product,” McBride says.

Gushing up

An onerous environment

touted as the next oil giant. Petrobras, which has grown to become the world’s third-largest oil and gas company by market capitalisation, will be investing some US$224 billion by 2014, much of it in platforms, rigs and other infrastructure. To supply this booming market, Trelleborg is investing heavily in Brazil, acquiring an existing factory and building another on a greenfield site. “Brazil is becoming hugely important,” says Brian McSharry, President of Trelleborg’s U.S. business that focuses on the offshore industry. “We have studied the market conditions and recognized the significant potential, and as a result we have established a major presence there.” The new facility, located in Brazil’s oil capital, Macaé, will manufacture a wide range of polymerbased solutions for offshore topside and subsea oil and gas exploration. “There is no other manufacturing on this scale in the country,” says McSharry. “We will be able to reach near capacity relatively quickly, and the size of the facility is such that if we need to expand, we can.” The second factory, at Santana de Parnaiba, was acquired in April 2011, together with a nipple hose technology for transferring oil from floating production, storage and offloading vessels and terminals. “This product completes our product and solution portfolio,” says Managing Director XavierAlexandre Delineau. Another line at the factory will produce printing blankets to cater to the growing Latin American printing market.

Explosive decompression Petrobras has set aggressive objectives on local content for its projects, so the factories are important for Trelleborg to access Brazil’s oil and gas market. “One of our goals is to have two worldclass factories serving the global offshore and marine offloading business, and we have a plan in place to sustain and develop our leadership position,” Delineau says. When engineers specify a seal material for an

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Industry observers see an intriguing period ahead, with expected regulatory changes on safety application, they have to consider such things as working temperatures, pressure and compatibility with chemicals. In oil and gas applications there are other critical criteria that must be considered, such as explosive decompression. Inherently, elastomer seals contain voids. Gas or gas mixtures in contact with elastomer surfaces during oil and gas processing are absorbed and saturate elastomer seals. At high pressure this absorbed gas is in a compressed state. When external system pressure is reduced, either rapidly or over a relatively short period of time, the compressed gas nucleates, inflating at the voids within the elastomer. Depending on the strength and hardness of the elastomer, this can cause the elastomer to break or crack. No elastomer can be completely ED resistant. However, Trelleborg has engineered the XploR™ range of sealing materials that demonstrates unrivalled ED resistance for each elastomer type.

Innovative system Trelleborg has developed a new stackable version of its innovative RiserGuard® system that provides a solution for rigs with limited storage space while offering the same high protection as the original system. “We originally developed our RiserGuard product to help protect bare riser joints as they were handled and run on the rig,” says Alan McBride, Vice President of Drilling at Trelleborg’s business that focuses on the offshore industry. “In addition, the product would enable the riser to be run and pulled quicker, saving valuable rig time.” The new joints can be stacked alongside buoyant riser joints in the same deck storage area,

The starting point of today’s mega-billion-dollar oil industry came in the 1850s when Polish pharmacist Ignacy Lukasiewicz distilled clear kerosene from seep oil. For centuries in North America in what is now the U.S. state of Texas, Native Americans used tar from oil seeps to treat ailments. In more recent history, reservoirs were unearthed when settlers drilled deep for water. Initially, oil was considered a nuisance until its potential was realized. Because the reservoirs in the region were under several hundred feet of sand, the oil was difficult to extract. Flow was slow, and the drill holes were prone to cave-ins. At the turn of the past century, engineers at the Spindletop oilfield in Beaumont, Texas, tried pumping mud into the drill hole instead of water to flush out drill cuttings. The mud stuck to the sides of the hole and kept it from caving in. The result was historic. On January 10, 1901, following a noise like a cannon shot, mud, natural gas and then oil came shooting out of the ground in a gusher that rose to a height of more than 150 feet. Lucas 1, as the well was dubbed, initially flowed at a rate of nearly 100,000 barrels a day, more than all the other producing wells in the U.S. combined. n

A new safety standard A NEW STANDARD in offshore safety which aims to advance the critical role of elected safety representatives (ESRs) in minimising the risk of accidents and improving safety is to be trialled in the North Sea. Offshore workers are elected under the Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1989. Independent of management, their functions and powers include investigating potential hazards, dangerous occurrences, complaints and the causes of accidents as well as the inspection of installations. While a basic introductory course already exists, this new advanced standard aims to support more effective workforce involvement by giving ESRs access to training that helps them develop their effectiveness and confidence. Four, two-day pilot courses will be delivered in Aberdeen by risk management company DNV in February and March 2013. Volunteer delegates will get the chance to trial the latest development in safety training for the North Sea workforce. Upon successful approval of the standard, the courses will then be rolled out across the industry and will be available to over 2000 ESR’s.

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Technical Focus

Ichtys contracts emphasise Cegelec’s expertise Cegelec Oil & Gas Services, a VINCI Energies GSS company, has just been awarded two commissioning* contracts on the Ichthys* production and exploitation of natural liquefied gas project (NLG) off the coast of Western Australia. The Ichtys project, estimated at approximately US$35 billion, has been touted as one of Australia’s most expensive Energy Projects. The scheme will see gas from the Ichthys Field undergo preliminary processing at the offshore central processing facility (CPF). This condensate will be pumped to a floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) facility anchored nearby. The gas will be transported from the CPF through a subsea pipeline more than 885 Km to the onshore LNG processing plant. The Ichthys project will have an initial production capacity of 8.4 million tonnes of NLG (Natural Liquefied Gas) a year and 1.6 million tonnes liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) a year, as well as approximately 100,000 barrels of condensates a day at the peak of production. Production is scheduled to start at the end of 2016. The three-year contracts will see Cegelec perform Pre-commissioning and Commissioning Engineering of both the CPF and the FPSO, as well as the Commissioning Execution for each unit, out of the respective Korean Yards. During the Execution Phase - Cegelec will work in Integrated teams with each EPCC contractor - providing relevant Commissioning expertise to their existing knowledge – therefore combining strengths to reach a common objective of

successful delivery of both projects. This attribution not only recognises Cegelec Oil & Gas Services’ international expertise but also its leading position in the commissioning sector.

Oil Review Middle East Issue One 2013 85

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Written by Mr. Ahmed Abdulnabi Al-Hashemi, Chief Chemist Water, Handling North Kuwait

North Kuwait water handling facility implements

LIMS system LABORATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT Systems (LIMS) have an ever increasing importance in today’s laboratory infrastructure, dealing with sample tracking, data storage and data reporting. KOC-Water handling North Kuwait facility has been using a customized database system that has been developed and installed in each of the laboratories. Several LIMS features such as auditing, electronic approvals, SOP, calibration, stock management, ad hoc reporting, instrument interface etc were not being met by our existing database system. The collection of quality data therefore became a very complex task when corporate management requires consolidated reporting results from various laboratories. The solution had to address the needs of each of the laboratories and had to be accomplished with a single common database. The system also needed to have the ability to automatically schedule the collection of samples at regular intervals. Seamless data collection from the process control instrumentation was extremely important, and the

based on an off-the-shelf Labvantage’s LIMS system. The system is capable of supporting multiple laboratories with multiple workflows and provides system-wide sample identification and traceability. Furthermore, the system enables KOC’s asset level data sharing and reviewing while adhering to data accessibility rules. Labspecific configuration supports tests, interfaces, and ad-hoc data and functionality.

Conclusion Ahmed Abdulnabi Al-Hashemi

ability to interface with other databases was required. In addition, we were looking forward to having an easy-to-use reporting solution to support management’s information sharing demands.

Results By identifying and addressing functionality gaps that have to be met to improve the operational efficiency of KOC-north Kuwait water handling facility, an enterprise LIMS framework has been developed and deployed

We have been able to deploy Labvantage LIMS very quickly. LABVANTAGE uses workflows for collecting samples, auditing the facility, changing sample status automatically as the samples are processed, and auto-emailing based on calendar dates. This helps lab officials to make decisions quickly and confidently from the test data, which is displayed in a graphical, timebased format. Furthermore, the system would help us comply with GLP, ISO and other regulatory and environmental directives without compromising on our ‘GO Green’ paperless initiative.

S15 ORME 1 2013 DMS_Layout 1 25/02/2013 14:23 Page 87

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S16 ORME 1 2013 Arabic_Layout 1 26/02/2013 14:47 Page 89


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SS BUILDING ON SUCCE FOCUSING ON THE FU TURE FDI Libya conference will bring together the visions of the corporate world and the new authorities in Libya. FDI Libya will host a spectrum Libya and beyond. Take part in this event

29-30 May The Landmark London




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17-19 7- February 2013 Dubai Inte rnational Convention Du International & Exhibition Cent re E Centre Un United Arab Emirates Under ronage of nd the pat patronage H.. H. H Sheikh Maktoum bin Mohammed in Rashid Al Maktoum, bin Dubai ub Deputy Ruler

Doing Global D B Business a P Power of Good The he premier international showcase for or the power, lighting, nuc nuclear and en enewable sectors. e a part of the world’s leading Be ne energy event. Meet over 1000 eminent up suppliers from 56 countries and is discover the new technologies shaping he future of the energy industry. the

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please visit

Beach Rotana Hotel, Abu Dhabi March 24-28

2013 9th International SOGAT Conference

March 26-28

SOGAT Workshops: Filtration and Separation Sour Oil & Gas Process Optimisation Acid Gas Injection H2S Safety How to Design a Sulphur Forming and Handling Facility Reducing Liquid Flaring and Oil Wastage during Sour Well Testing and Intervention Optimising the Management of your Catalysts to Improve Sulphur Recovery

March 24-25 March 24-25 March 24 March 24 March 24

SOGAT Exhibition

March 25-28

March 25 March 25

Official Media Partner

Officially Supported by

Optimized Gas Treating, Inc.

Organised by

Shaila D’Sa Dome Exhibitions PO Box 52641 Abu Dhabi, UAE E-mail: Tel: +971 2 674 4040 Fax: +971 2 672 1217

S16 ORME 1 2013 Arabic_Layout 1 26/02/2013 14:47 Page 97


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‫اﻟﻘﺴﻢ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ 4






‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎت اﻟﻘﺴﻢ اﻹﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰي‬ :á°UÉN ôjQÉ≤J êGôHGC ¥ƒ°S ôjô≤J ,øe’CGh áeÓ°ùdG ,êÉàf’EGh Ö«≤æàdG ,äÉYÓ£à°SG ,ƒμHÉH ôjô≤J ,øjôëÑdG .ôØ◊G ......................................................................................................................................................................................................

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:äÉeƒ∏©ŸG É«LƒdƒæμJh ä’É°üJ’G .Iô£ÿG ≥WÉæŸG ä’É°üJG ,äÉfÉ«ÑdG øjõîJ ......................................................................................................................................................................................................

:¢VQÉ©e …Oƒ©°ùdG ¢Vô©ŸG ,πcÉBàdG áëaÉμe äÉ«æ≤àd äGQÉe’EG ¢Vô©e ,§°Sh’CG ¥ô°ûdG §Øf ¢Vô©e .øe’CGh áeÓ°ù∏d ADVERTISERS INDEX Company ......................................................Page ALAA Industrial Equipment Factory ............................41 All World Exhibitions (MEOS 2013) ............................49 BAPCO ..................................................................................47 Bauer Kompressoren Middle East ................................79 Bredero Shaw Middle East Ltd. ....................................13 Cansco Dubai LLC..............................................................22 CARBO Ceramics................................................................21 Castolin Eutectic Messer Switzerland S.A. ................75 CGGVeritas Services SA UAE........................Cover Wrap CompAir Middle East........................................................77 DEWA-Dubai Electricity ..................................................19 DMS ......................................................................................91 Dome Exhibitions (SOGAT 2013) ................................100 Duferco..................................................................................39 Emirates ..................................................................................2 Emerson ..................................................................................7 FourQuest Energy ..............................................................71 GE Energy................................................................................9 Global Pipe Company ......................................................41 Hardbanding Solutions by Postle Industries ............31

Hempel Paints Bahrain ....................................................17 Hi-Force Ltd. ........................................................................29 Hyderabad Industries Ltd ................................................54 ICCSAT - CHANNEL CENTER ELECTRONICS ..............59 IIR Exhibitions ....................................................................98 International Exhibition Services S.r.l. (SAOGE 2013) ..........................................96 Jotun Paints U.A.E. Ltd. (LLC)............................................5 Kaeser Kompressoren FZE ..............................................33 Kohler Power Systems ....................................................78 MARELLI MOTORI S.p.A. ..................................................37 McCoy Drilling & Completions......................................67 ME3 Events (MEPEC 2013) ............................................45 Metscco Heavy Steel Industries Co. Ltd.....................83 Middle East Tubular Services Ltd. ................................38 MSA Middle East ..............................................................69 National Pipe Company ..................................................36 Oeltechnik............................................................................22 Oman Cement Company ................................................57 Pace Group ..........................................................................94 Prakash Steelage Ltd. ......................................................27

Qatar Expo............................................................................92 Rawabi Holding Company ..............................................61 Rittal Middle East FZE......................................................66 Sabin Metal Corporation..................................................25 Saga PCE Pte Ltd. ..............................................................15 Saudi Steel Pipe Company ............................................35 Schlumberger/MI Swaco ................................................61 Schlumberger Technical Services, Inc ..........................6 Schoeller - Bleckmann UK..............................................65 Shell Overseas Services ..................................................51 Shree Steel Overseas FZCO............................................26 Silixa Ltd...............................................................................53 Societa' Italiana Elicotteri S.r.l.......................................85 Society of Petroleum Engineers....................................43 Suraj Limited ......................................................................63 TMK, OAO..........................................................................103 Top Oil Field Industries Ltd. FZC ..................................73 Trans Asia Pipeline Services FZC..................................44 VF Imagewear ....................................................................63 Welltec AS ..........................................................................55

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Oil Review Middle East 1 2013  

Oil Review Middle East 1 2013

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Oil Review Middle East 1 2013