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FEAG 6 2013 COVER _FEAG_COVER_MASTER_09 12/19/2013 2:03 PM Page 1

US$15.00 (UK£9.00)



Irrigation Ensuring good yields with less water

Preview of Livestock Myanmar 2014 Probiotics reduce pathogens in piglets Cure for cattle FMD found in protein Improving quality of eggs – p13

Pig Buyers’ Guide

Sorghum as bioenergy alternative

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US$15.00 (UK£9.00)

Bulletin 4

A round-up of key developments in the regional market


Irrigation Ensuring good yields with less water

Agenda China’s 2013 corn output to reach 215 million tonnes, India’s rice exports to touch record high of 11 million tonnes, South Korea to double farm and fisheries exports by 2017, Australian farm exports to reach a record high in 2013



Events 9

Preview of FIAAP, VICTAM and GRAPAS, Myanmar Agribusiness Investment Summit Review of Asian-Pacific Aquaculture, Palmex Indonesia 2013, IDF World Dairy Summit

Preview of Livestock Myanmar 2014 Probiotics reduce pathogens in piglets Cure for cattle FMD found in protein Improving quality of eggs – p13


Sorghum as bioenergy alternative

Pig Buyers’ Guide


Enzyme-induced rye in feed aids digestion


EU promotes insects as feed for poultry and pigs


Tunicates as essential fish feed


Crops 23

Seaweed industry to emerge stronger in the Philippines


Frequent harvest leads to more agriculture produce

Equipment 27

The latest innovation in agricultural technologies

Moreover 35

Rice strategy for Asia-Pacific will improve sustainability

Wheat in turkey diet improves feed conversion ratio

Advertisers Index AWILA Anlagenbau GmbH ........................................19

Messe Essen GmbH (IPM ESSEN 2014)....................15

CNH International SA ................................................36

Schauer Agrotronic GmbH ........................................17

Eurofeed Technologies S.p.a.....................................34

Unipoint AG ..............................................................34

Impex Barneveld b.v ................................................31

Victam International bv ............................................11

Institut de Sélection Animale B.V ..............................29

VNU EE (VIV Europe 2014) ........................................9


Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG..................2 Robotic herding to manage cattle in fields

Managing Editor : Rhonita Patnaik Editorial and Design team: Bob Adams, Hiriyti Bairu, Lizzie Carroll, David Clancy, Andrew Croft, Ramya Dilipkumar, Ranganath GS, Prashant AP, Genaro Santos, Zsa Tebbit, Nicky Valsamakis and Ben Watts Publisher: Nick Fordham Advertising Sales Director: Pallavi Pandey Magazine Sales Manager: Richard Rozelaar, Tel: +44 207 834 7676, Fax: +44 207 973 0076 Email: Country China India Nigeria Russia South Africa Qatar UAE USA

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Production: Nathanielle Kumar, Donatella Moranelli, Nick Salt and Sophia White Email: Subscriptions: Chairman: Derek Fordham Printed by: Times Printers Private Limited Far Eastern Agriculture (ISSN 0266-8025) | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

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Serving the world of business


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Bulletin Better Pharma launches fish anaesthetic BETTER PHARMA, SUPPLIER of veterinary drugs for aquatic animals, has teamed up with Thailand’s Chulalongkorn University Intellectual Property Institute (CUIPI) to introduce Aquanes, a new anaesthetic for aquatic animals. Chayanon Kittayachaweng, Betagro Group’s senior vice-president, Animal Health and Technology, said, “Among aquatics, fish in particular has substantial economic importance in Thailand. The main reason is that fish consumption is growing as more people are becoming health conscious. Additionally, there is an increasing interest in raising pet fish as a pastime. These make aquaculture one of the country’s key economic drivers.” According to the company, a unique characteristic of Aquanes is that it contains natural ingredients — all come together in the form of a ready-to-use solution that sedates animals by loosening up their muscles and reducing metabolism, causing animals to be very calm or sleep. It is also safe for animals, farmers (users) and consumers.

US’ Tyson Foods eyes China’s chicken industry US-BASED COMPANY TYSON Foods is spending millions of dollars to build its chicken farms in China to tackle food safety. Tyson Foods aims, by 2015, to run 90 such farms in China and supply its processing plants here almost exclusive company-raised broilers. At present, the company has 20 farms in China. The goal is to double production in the country to three million birds a week for supermarkets and restaurants to help offset sluggish growth in the US. Tyson Foods did not disclose its investment costs, but according to CLSA Americas the revenue was about US$715mn in the fiscal year that ended in September this year and will reach US$1.1bn by fiscal 2015. China’s chicken market is central to Tyson’s plan to increase its sales from international production by at least 12 per cent annually over the next few years.

Malaysian firm to build catfish feed factory MALAYSIA’S PY MAJU Trading has planned to invest US$32,941 in building a catfish feed factory to meet the country’s increasing demand for the fish. The company’s manager Zakaria Harun said that the factory is expected to have a daily production capacity of two metric tonnes or 100 sacks of pellets. PY Maju began producing 'keli' (catfish) in Kampung Kubang Puyu five years ago. It owns 100 ponds that cover a build area of 12 hectares of land, which can produce seven metric tonnes of catfish a month. “Trees of cempedak in the fields shade the ponds and provide a constant supply of fruits to the fish, which yields optimum performance of the farm,” said Harun. The company also produces frozen and dried catfish, which are marketed throughout Malaysia.

The joint venture company is officially known as Hubei Tong Xing Cobb Breeding Company with 85 per cent of the shares of which owned by Cobb. Its initial production target amounts to five million parent females per year. The hatchery will have a total capacity of 18mn hatching eggs per year, and the first egg setting is planned on October 1, 2014. Petersime BioStreamer incubators for four and for eight trolleys have been ordered to provide maximum flexibility.

South Korea builds its first crop mutation lab SOUTH KOREA HAS completed the construction of its first laboratory to start of crop seed mutation breeding, the government said The new mutation breeding research centre was completed at a cost of US$12.4mn. It is located at the Advanced Radiation Technology Institute in Jeongeup, located some 260km southwest of Seoul in North Jeolla Province. Mutation breeding is the process of exposing seeds to radiation to create mutants with desirable traits, and is therefore fundamentally different from breeding genetically-modified organisms (GMOs). The technology is also considered much safer than GMOs as it leaves no trace of radiation, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. South Korea is currently ranked 25th in the world in terms of the number of mutagenic plants it has developed, the ministry said in a press release. Mutagenic plants refer to plants created by radiationinduced mutation. However, the area used for the cultivation of mutagenic plants currently accounts for only 0.5 per cent of the country’s total arable land.

Diamond V opens new layer research unit in Thailand DIAMOND V HAS inaugurated its new layer research unit in Thailand. The unit is located in the Animal Science Learning Center of the Department of Animal Science on the Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Kasetsart University in Nakhon Pathom. Diamond V supplies microbial fermentation products used to optimise digestive function and nutrition key to animal and aqua health, productivity, efficiency and profitability. “This facility continues the well-established dedication of Diamond V to conduct high-quality research whose significant insights can advance the operations of livestock producers,” said Mark Kujawa, PhD, vice-president of International Business Development at Diamond V. The Diamond V Layer Research Unit is located approximately 90km west of Bangkok, Thailand. It sits next to new units for layer, broiler, swine and cattle research; a biogas unit; feed mill; laboratory and office in the Animal Science Learning Center.

Cobb, Tong Xing JV for GP hatchery project in China COBB-VANTRESS HAS SIGNED a joint venture (JV) agreement with Chinese chicken producer Hubei Tong Xing Agriculture Company to establish new grandparent (GP) farms and hatchery facilities in Suizhou, China. Petersime has been selected to design the hatchery and supply the incubation and HVAC equipment.



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Events 2014 JANUARY 21-22

Myanmar Agribusiness Investment Summit 2014

Yangon, Myanmar


Livestock Myanmar 2014 Expo

Yangon, Myanmar



Pasay City, Philippines


3rd Starch World 2014

Jakarta, Indonesia


Poultry Focus Asia 2014

Bangkok, Thailand


Pig Focus Asia 2014

Bangkok, Thailand


4th Rubber Plant Summit

Phnom Penh, Cambodia


ILDEX Vietnam 2014

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

APRIL 8-10


Bangkok, Thailand


ILDEX India 2014

Bangalore, India

China Animal Husbandry Expo 2014

Qingdao, China

9th Indo Livestock Expo & Forum

Jakarta, Indonesia

MAY 18-20

JUNE 18-20

Global poultry production set to rise by 18 per cent in 2014 GLOBAL POULTRY PRODUCTION will continue to surge rising by 18 per cent in 2014, leading to a rise in the growth rate of the industry for the first time in four years, a report said. According to the USDA International Egg and Poultry study, global poultry exports have expanded by over 25 per cent in the past five years, with more than 80 per cent of that growth attributed to Middle East and subSaharan Africa’s demand. The report forecasted that Thailand’s production will rise by eight per cent to a record 1.6mn tonnes due to greater demand and lower feed costs. Despite the subsequent price increase, consumption is not expected to be constrained, the report added. Poultry exports from the country will also be up by seven per cent to 580,000 tonnes on higher demand from Japan and the European Union (EU). The report noted that China’s production would be up to record 13.7mn tonnes due to new government subsidies for breeding stock purchases. However, exports, primarily to Japan, are expected to remain flat at 415,000 tonnes. China is currently seeking eligibility to export processed poultry products to the US, the report added.

More than 80 per cent of the poultry production growth can be attributed to Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa’s demand

Production in India is forecasted to rise six per cent to 3.6mn tonnes, fueled by escalating demand for animal protein and a rising preference for processed poultry products. The report also said that US poultry production will rise three per cent to a record 17.5mn metric tonnes on lower input costs and greater domestic demand. Exports are forecasted to hit 3.4mn tonnes with greater exportable supplies and growing demand from Mexico, Iraq and sub-Saharan Africa. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

Production in the EU is forecast to expand to a record 9.9mn tonnes as a result of greater domestic demand for lower cost supplies of animal protein and reduced feed costs, the study added. Meanwhile, broiler production is expected to grow in 2014 to 17.4bn kg, compared to the current 2013 forecast of 16.9bn kg. Trade forecasts look for exports to jump to 3.4mn kg in 2014, a 109,315kg increase from the projected figure for 2013.


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Food Outlook THE FAO FOOD price Index averaged 206.3 points in November 2013, almost unchanged from the revised value of 206.6 points in October, but 9.5 points (4.4 per cent) below its November 2012 value. A sharp decline in sugar prices last month nearly offset the rise in oils. Cereals averaged slightly lower but meat and dairy values were stable. The FAO cereal price Index averaged 194.2 points in November, down two points (one per cent) from October, and as much as 61 points (or 24 per cent) below its November 2012 level. A record cereal crop this year has helped to improve the global supply situation, weighing on the international prices of all cereals, including wheat, maize and rice. The FAO vegetable oil Price Index averaged 198.5 points in November, up 11 points (or 5.6 per cent) from October. The rise in the index has been driven mainly by palm oil: the concurrence of strong global import demand, including for biodiesel production, and belowexpectation output in Southeast Asia (following excessive rainfall) have pushed palm oil prices

to a 13-month high. International prices for soy, sunflower and rapeseed oil also firmed on sustained demand, further contributing to the rise in the index. The FAO dairy price Index averaged 251.4 points in November, practically the same as in October. Demand for milk powder, especially from China, remained strong and processors in the southern-hemisphere focused on this product rather than on butter and cheese. Southern hemisphere milk production has passed its seasonal peak; however, supplies are adequate to meet current demand. Overall, the index stands 23 per cent above its level in November 2012. The FAO meat price Index averaged nearly 187.1 points in November, unchanged from October and similar to its level one year ago. Regarding the different categories of meat, prices for bovine and ovine meat increased further, while those for pig meat moved lower and poultry was stable. In the case of bovine and ovine meat, limited export supplies lent support to prices, while pig meat and poultry

China’s 2013 corn output to reach 215 million tonnes CHINA’S CORN OUTPUT may reach 215mn tonnes in 2013-14, seven million tonnes more than in 2012-13. According to forecasts from the National Grain & Oils Information Center and the China Food Industry Association, the increase in corn output may result in a decrease in the price of corn. Affected by the corn harvest in October 2013, the pressure from imported corn and the depressed corn deep-processing industry, the domestic market is facing an oversupply of corn, the agencies said. Liu Xiaoran, deputy secretary-general of CAGS’s corn branch, said, “We predict that the consumption will be 197.5mn tonnes in the year from 2013 to 2014, which is about 14mn tonnes below output.” Li Tong, analyst with Zhengzhou Grain Wholesale Market in Henan province, said that the corn supply exceeded demand as both stocks and imports were high. In 2011, China had imported 1.75mn tonnes of corn and in 2012, 5.2mn tonnes, according to country’s general administration of customs. However, due to the oversupply of corn, the market price of corn harvested in autumn may decrease and it may be even lower than the government's corn purchasing price for temporary reserves.

The domestic consumption will be much lesser than the output in 2013-14


benefited from the reduced cost of feed. The FAO sugar price Index averaged 250.6 points in November, down 14.2 points (5.3 per cent) from October. The decline was mainly attributable to improved harvesting operations in Brazil, the world’s largest sugar producer and exporter. Speculations of a possible surge of exports from Brazil and India, owing to the weakening of currencies against the US dollar in November exacerbated the price slide. Overall, sugar prices were particularly volatile amid continued uncertainties on the extent of the anticipated production surplus for the new 2013/14 season.

India’s rice exports to touch record high of 11 million tonnes INDIA’S RICE EXPORTS are estimated at a record 11mn tonnes for the marketing year that ended in September 2012-13 due to the bumper production and strong overseas demand, according to a US Department of Agriculture (USDA) report. Rice exports of India, the world’s second largest rice producer, stood at 10.38mn tonnes in marketing year 2011-12, which runs from October to September. “MY 2012-13 export estimate is raised to a record 11mn tonnes based on preliminary official statistics for October 2012 to August 2013, and shipping data compiled by a private source for September 2013,” the report said. The Indian agriculture watchdog has also revised upwards the rice export estimates for MY 2013-14 to 10mn tonnes from earlier projection of 9.3mn tonnes. However, exports are still expected to be lower than the record 11mn tonnes in previous year. “Based on the relatively strong export demand for Indian rice, both basmati and non-basmati, and sufficient domestic supplies, the MY 2013/14 rice export estimate is raised to 10mn tonnes,” the report added. “While exports of basmati rice are likely to grow further, total exports are likely to be lower than last year’s record sales due to relatively tight domestic supplies of non-basmati rice and food price inflation concerns in an election year.” Quoting market sources, USDA said exports of non-basmati rice have slowed down from in October 2013 due to the strengthening of the Indian rupee when compared with the dollar. India had emerged as the world’s largest rice exporter in 2012 ahead of its Asian counterpart Thailand. On production, USDA has projected an output of 105mn tonnes in 2013-14 as against 104.4mn tonnes in the previous year.


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Philippines forms inter-agency committee against illegal fishing THE PHILIPPINES HAS created an committee as will two municipal One of the key items in the action plan is its aim to introduce inter-agency committee to curb illegal fishers and two commercial fishers IUU fishing in the high seas and in coastal waters of other fishing and to meet global standards from the National Fisheries and states as a new statutory offence on marine resource conservation. Aquatic Resources Management In the order, President Aquino said Council. They will represent the illegal, unreported and unregulated private sector. (IUU) fishing undermines efforts to The committee will implement manage fisheries in a sustainable domestic fishing laws as well as the manner and threatens food and International Plan of Action to livelihood security of coastal prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, communities. unreported and unregulated fishing. “There is a need to address the Although it has annual ecological, biological and socioappropriations from the component economic challenges posed by IUU government agencies, it is also fishing in a coordinated and authorised to accept donations and integrated manner through a collaborative and in coastal waters of other states as a new grants, officials said. institutional mechanism involving the statutory offence. Fisheries bureau director Asis Perez said that concerned departments and agencies of the The new committee includes representatives the committee has been tasked with government,” the order read. from the office of the President, the implementing ‘a stringent response’ to all Aquino also cited the need for the departments of agriculture, transportation and forms of illegal fishing in the Filipino waters as Philippines to implement the action plan as communications, interior and local government, well as all Philippines-flagged vessels. a member of the United Nations Food and finance, justice, defence and foreign affairs, as The IUU fishing undermines national and Agriculture Organization (FAO). well as the heads of economic zones. regional efforts to implement a One of the key items in the action plan is its Fisherfolk representatives from the National sustainable fisheries environment by aim to introduce IUU fishing in the high seas Anti-Poverty Commission will also be in the destroying marine habitats.

South Korea to double farm and fisheries export by 2017 SOUTH KOREA HAS announced that it aims to double its farm and fisheries products exports to US$16bn by 2017, according to Agriculture Ministry sources. The government also plans to increase the number of export items from current 13 to 23, while creating 10 large-scale fish farms to produce countryspecific and high-value products like sea cucumber and abalone, sources added. Under a new plan, the Ministry of Agriculture revealed that nearly US$1.8bn would be invested to develop new products and farming technologies, according to a YonhapNewsAgency report. Lim Jeong-bin, head of the Ministry’s food industry policy bureau, said, “The government plans to invest up to US$1.8bn by 2017, with most of the amount to be spent on research and development projects to develop country-specific products.” South Korea’s farm exports have been reportedly growing steadily with an average annual increase of 16 per cent over the past five years. According to reports, China is fast catching up to Japan as the world’s largest importer of South Korean food products, purchasing US$467mn worth of products in the first half of 2013, up 9.5 per cent from the same period last year.

Abalone is a high-value product

Vietnam shrimp exports costs to rise by 15 per cent in 2013

Shrimp is a key earner for Vietnam

VIETNAM EXPECTS TO increase its shrimp export value by 15 per cent this year to between US$2.5bn and US$2.6bn. Like Thailand, early mortality syndrome (EMS) has hit shrimp farms in Vietnam, but Vietnam has constrained the diseases and thus managed to ensure its supply of shrimp to the world and make a high profit, reports The surge in export value results from a hike in the global price of shrimp due to its scarce supply, the report added. Seafood exports raked in US$4.7bn in the first nine months of this year, 4.5 per cent more than the same period last year, including US$2bn contributed by shrimp. The increase in shrimp exports is also attributed to changes in the global market when some countries are cutting down their export of shrimp due to infectious diseases in this crustacean. Vietnam’s total 2013 seafood exports could rise five per cent in 2013 from last year to US$6.5bn, with shrimp a key earner, according to Reuters. The country has exported US$5.48bn worth of fish and shrimp in the first ten months of 2013, up 7.3 per cent from the same period in 2012, the report said. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013


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Indonesia to import 112,000 tonnes of beef and cattle in 2014 INDONESIA’S BEEF AND cattle imports will total around 20 per cent of total consumption next year at about 112,000 tonnes, the agriculture minister said. According to minister Suswono, overall beef consumption in Indonesia will hit 560,000 tonnes in 2014, up from 549,000 tonnes this year. “We estimate that around 80 per cent of beef consumption next year can be supplied from domestic production,” he added. In an effort to ease food inflation and following a beef shortage and import scandal earlier this year, Indonesia has loosened rules on all imports but abandoned a 2014 selfsustainability drive. Prior to relaxing the beef and cattle import rules in the second half of 2013, Indonesia used a quota system in an attempt to boost its domestic beef market. The new 2014 import estimate will be more than twice the recently scrapped beef import quota for 2013 at 32,000 tonnes, of which approximately 20 per cent consisted of prime cuts. The live cattle import quota was set at 267,000 head of cattle. Australia, the world’s No.3 beef exporter, is the main supplier of beef to Indonesia.

Japan agrees to chicken imports from Colombia JAPAN HAS AGREED to the import of chicken from Colombia. The chicken will enter the Asian country as part the free trade agreement between the two nations, offcials said. The Japanese government has assessed several aspects of poultry production in Colombia including health, hygiene, veterinary inspection and surveillance of Colombian poultry production practices and as a result has given approval for imports. According to the sources, this was possible as a result of management by the National Institute of Food and Drug Monitoring (INVIMA). After six years of

work, INVIMA has helped the Colombian poultry sector to achieve eligibility due to high health standards. Cajigas Blanca Elvira Acosta, director general of INVIMA, said, “It is certainly a specific event that shows that Colombia has increased its health status and complied by the authorities’ demand for sanitary measures and that countries recognise and trust the regulatory capacity and surveillance by the Institute.” Japan has a huge market for chicken consumers. Roughly half of Japan’s imports are prepared (cooked or semi-cooked) chicken mainly from Thailand and China.

Japan has a huge market for chicken consumers

Australian farm exports to reach record high, say analysts AUSTRALIAN FARM EXPORTS are likely to reach a record output of US$38bn in 2013–14, with higher forecasts for beef and veal, and dairy products, according to the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES). ABARES executive director, Karen Schneider, said that if farm exports reach the target, this would be a record high in nominal terms and around eight per cent above the average over the five years to 2012-13 in real terms.

The ABARES report came on the heels of a free trade agreement (FTA) with Korea, TransPacific Partnership (TPP) and World Trade Organisation trade talks, the release of the federal government’s Agriculture White Paper on global competitiveness and a survey finding almost a third of Australian farmers have big expectations of export opportunities. Dairy and large sheep operations saw the biggest prospects in overseas markets according to the survey results,

Livestock and livestock product export earnings are forecast to increase by 11.9 per cent in 2013–14 to US$16.7bn


commissioned by the Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CBA), with 47 per cent of respondents in each of those sectors naming export demand as the greatest opportunity. “Livestock and livestock product export earnings are forecast to increase by 11.9 per cent in 2013–14 to US$16.7bn,” Schneider added. “Export earnings are forecast to increase by 12 per cent for beef and veal and 24 per cent for dairy products. Export earnings from fisheries products are forecast to increase by 6.2 per cent to US$1.25bn, following a decline of 4.2 per cent in 2012-13,” she added. During this financial year, farm production is forecast to rise by 2.9 per cent, crop production is forecast to rise by 3.9 per cent and livestock production is forecast to increase by 1.6 per cent, the report noted. “The gross value of farm production is forecast to increase by 6.3 per cent to $50.9 billion in 2013-14, compared with a small decline of 0.3 per cent in 2012–13,” Schneider said. Australia is the third-largest beef shipper and was the biggest wheat exporter after the US last season.


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Pig Focus Asia and Poultry Focus Asia aim to secure better animal health

INAHGEN 2014 to bring the best in animal health products

THE SIXTH EDITION of Asia’s leading porcine technical conference — Pig Focus Asia — will return to Thai capital Bangkok on 3-5 March 2014 at the Queen Sirikit National Convention Center. The sixth edition of Asia’s Poultry Focus Asia will also be held simultaneously. Since the first event in 2004, this independent technical conference for the pig, poultry and dairy sectors has grown into Asia’s leading technical conference for livestock sectors with over 90 presentations. In the fifth edition, the show saw an attendance of 500 delegates from world over. For the next edition also, interest is running high and early bookings indicate another successful event, according to the organisers. Following four keynote papers that will look to the future on topics like intestinal targeting of nutrients for specific gene expression; the revolutionary road of diagnostics; latest developments in mycotoxin control and vaccination in the future, the conference will also take a detailed look at topical pig health, nutrition and management issues that are relevant in Asia. When it comes to pig management, a variety of issues will be covered including the emerging fumonisin challenge, growing pigs like mushrooms, improving sustainability through genetics, breeding for disease tolerance and AI for farrowing rate and litter size. On poultry management, topics that will be covered include layer profitability, efficiency in integrations, layers in the tropics, getting a good start, Japanese efficiency and saving energy and feed costs. All the speakers are experts in their own fields and come from over a dozen countries in Asia, Europe and the US.

INAHGEN 2014 OR The Farmers’ Congress, in its fifth edition is Philippines’ largest and most prestigious agri-business exhibition. To be held on 8-10 February at SMX Convention Center in SM Mall of Asia in Pasay City, Philippines, this bi-annual event, organised by the Philippine Veterinary Drug Foundation, Inc. (PVDFI) and the Philippine Swine Industry Research and Development Foundation, Inc. (PSIRDFI), plays host to livestock and poultry industry leaders from the Philippines and around the world. INAHGEN will focus on discussions and convention programmes on the resolution of animal health, genetics and nutrition issues for efficient animal production and advances in animal food safety and security, according to the organisers. In its 10,000 square metres of exhibition space, around 800 exhibitors are expected to display live animals, the latest products and equipment, technology and innovation, ranging from feed suppliers, raw materials, feed ingredients and additives; animal health and breeding; farm and slaughter equipment, as well as meat processing, packaging and handling. World famous speakers, stakeholders, farmers, suppliers and distributors will share their most recent researches, commercial findings, recommended veterinary medication programs and other enriching information. Counting 62,000 visitors, INAHGEN 2014 promises the convergence of the brightest minds and globally competitive animal nutrition and production products. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013


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Asian-Pacific Aquaculture reflects the region’s potential AFTER THE FIRST successful meeting in 2007, Vietnam’s Ho Chi Minh City recently hosted Asian-Pacific Aquaculture 2013. This was a great chance for the international aquaculture community to visit and see the rapidly expanding aquaculture industry in the country — nearly 50 per cent increase in the last five years in hectares in aquaculture production and over 100 per cent per year increase in tonnes produced every year for the last 16 years. The country is poised to develop its aquaculture in an industrial, modern and sustainable way to meet international standards. Vietnam is the third largest aquaculture country in Asia-Pacific and among the top 10 exporters of aquatic products in the world, according to the country’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD). According to Cao Duc Phat, minister of agriculture and rural development at the AsiaPacific Aquaculture Conference, in 2012, Vietnam farmed 3.27mn tonnes of aquatic products, representing 55.2 per cent of its

The region reportedly consumes approximately 116mn tonnes of aquatic products per year

total aquatic production, an increase of 7.2 per cent over 2011, and 287.4 per cent over the past 10 years. Speaking at the Asian Pacific Aquaculture Conference, themed “Positioning for Profit”, Phat noted that the Asia–Pacific is the largest aquaculture region in the world. In 2010, the output of its farmed products reached 53.1mn tonnes, accounting for 89 per cent of the global

Palmex Indonesia 2013 scores success PALMEX INDONESIA 2013, Asia’s largest specialised palm oil machinery and supporting industries expositions, once again brought together an international congregation of both upstream and downstream palm oil companies to showcase the latest developments in palm oil equipment and palm oil related products. Held recently at Medan in Indonesia and organised by Fireworks Medi,, the exhibitor profile included producers, equipment suppliers and purchasers. Countries including Australia, Belgium, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, the UK and the US participated in the event. Attended by more than 5,600 visitors and 80 exhibitors, this unique event also was a platform to educate the public on the importance of the palm oil industry and the future trends of palm oil in the region. The international character and regional audience of Palmex Indonesia provided unparalleled marketing, education and networking opportunities. The recent rise of Indonesia’s ranking as the world’s leading producer of palm oil opened up more opportunities for the palm oil process industries and also all related supporting industries to help cope with the huge demand of palm oil. Indonesia currently sits at the top for CPO (Crude Palm Oil) production producing more than 17mn tones of CPO in 2007. With a total area of 1,500 square metres, the show also showcased Asia Palm Oil Conference and palm oil technology seminars. More than 4,000 industry professionals turned up at this event. The international character and regional audience of PALMEX Indonesia 2013 provided unparalleled marketing, education and networking opportunities. Exhibitor Hai Sien of PT Krisbow Indonesia, said, “We received many enquiries during this event.” Robert Lau of Sefar Singapore Pte Ltd, added, “Fantastic results for a first event! We will definitely be back!”


sector’s total output, respectively, he added. Nine Asia-Pacific nations namely China, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Japan, were listed in the top 10 countries with highest aquaculture output and value in 2010. The region reportedly consumes approximately 116mn tonnes of aquatic products per year. The figure is predicted to increase by 16mn to 20mn tonnes annually by 2020 and 25mn tonnes each year by 2030. During this period, the region will also promote aquaculture instead of catching to satisfy growing demand. This event exhibited latest technology in aquaculture industry. A trade show was also held on the sidelines of the conference, drawing 173 regional businesses to introduce their research outcomes, achievements and aquatic products. Besides the show, programmes such as Farmer’s Day, Fifth International Oyster Symposium and various workshops were held for visitors.

FIAAP, VICTAM and GRAPAS promises grander show FIAAP, VICTAM and GRAPAS will be held as part of one event serving South and Southeast Asia coming April 2014. These three related and co-located trade shows for the animal feed and grain processing industries will all be under one roof serving the Asian markets. The three shows will be co-located in Bangkok and will take place at the Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre, Bangkok, Thailand. In 2012, the event comprised 166 exhibitors from 29 different countries. For the year 2014, 191 exhibitors have officially registered. Victam International general manager and former feed mill owner, Henk van de Bunt, said, “A successful animal feed production plant, petfood plant or aquafeed feed plant require different components. These include qualified and reliable staff, investment, professional management, etc. But you also need additional important ingredients, these are a safe and healthy working environment, well-constructed premises, good processing equipment, reliable and up-to-date ancillary equipment, and a range of feed formulation programmes. In this way you should be able to produce the best possible product for your clients.” While FIAAP will profile the ingredients and additives used within the formulation of safe and cost effective animal feeds, VICTAM will be a premier event for the sophisticated technology that is required in the processing and manufacturing animal feed. The show will also cover the important and very necessary ancillary equipment and systems that are utilised in a feed mill, rice mill and flour mill. VICTAM is also the industry showpiece event for biomass pelleting technology. GRAPAS will display ancillary equipment found in a mill, but its main coverage will be for specialist systems and technology used in rice and flour mills, together with additional exhibits for grain storage, preservation and transportation.


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Agribusiness expo to help boost Myanmar’s potential The first-time summit will help tap the potential of the country’s agribusiness and associated industry OSTED BY THE Federation of Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Myanmar Agribusiness Investment Summit (MAIS) 2014 is organised by Confexhub. The aim of this summit is to bring together potential investors from all over the world to Myanmar with the agenda to provide a platform for the international agribusiness industry players to understand the market potential and development plan of the agribusiness in Myanmar, along with the implication of new economic regulations arising from the latest parliamentary decisions. MAIS 2014 will take place at Inya Hotel, Yangon on 21-22 January 2014. With high growth and development potential, Myanmar is quickly building prominence, attracting the attention of international investors aiming to draw profits from the country’s vast natural resources. While oil, gas and coal mining, hydropower projects and logging have featured most prominently until now in terms of investments in Myanmar, agribusiness has emerged at the forefront of recent government development policies. The political transformations that Myanmar has been undergoing provide a golden opportunity for the country to engage in agribusiness to achieve economic growth with sustainable and rights-based outcomes. The event aims at focussing on the trade and investment opportunities in the Myanmar agribusiness sector; to review Myanmar’s modernisation plan and investment opportunities; bringing together high-level government authorities and regulators to discuss on policies and initiatives; providing networking opportunities through a hive of activities throughout the two-day event; giving unparalleled opportunities to explore investment potentials with the government and local industry players and bridge partnerships via customised business matching programmes.The summit themed Investing in Myanmar Agribusiness, will bring together over 20 speakers from the Myanmar

ministries, agencies, consultants and advisors to provide industry status updates, discuss on investment opportunities and policies. According to the organiser, over 200 international delegates from the region is

expected to converge at this summit to meet face-to-face with the relevant authorities to have better understanding of the investment opportunities, policies and regulations, at the same time to network with the potential local


8 - 10 April 2014, Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC) Bangkok, Thailand | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013


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business partners for their venture in the Asian country. According to Abdul Aziz, chairman of Confexhub, “Myanmar is a country that has high potential for rapid growth and development, given its rich natural resources, abundant labour force, great geographical location and a government that determined to embrace economic and politic change. “Agribusiness has emerged at the forefront of recent government development policies. The transformations that Myanmar is undergoing are a golden opportunity for the country to engage in agribusiness to achieve economic growth with sustainable and rightsbased outcomes.” He added that all industry players, supporting industries and manufacturers should take this opportunity to join them at the summit to explore the investment potential of Myanmar. Paul Yeo, director of the Myanmar Agribusiness

Investment Summit 2014, said, “Myanmar could be the last frontier in Asia. Although many investors see it as not an easy place to do business initially, but most of them feel that the risk of missing the opportunity is greater. They must look at Myanmar as a long-term opportunity.” He added that preparations were underway for the event which will incorporate a high calibre summit, a comprehensive showcase of products and services, business-matching

meetings between the international and local industry players and post-summit workshop. “We see the importance to provide a platform to equip potential investors with relevant information on the key development issues of investing in Myanmar’s agribusinesses and new economic regulations arising from the latest parliamentary decision, so that they could benefit from the early-mover advantage,” he added. n

First Livestock Myanmar 2014 Expo to bring huge opportunites to the country

IDF World Dairy Summit focuses on improved milk production

MYANMAR WILL SEE its first official feed, livestock and meat industry event — Livestock Myanmar 2014 Expo — from 23-25 January 2014 at the Tatmadaw Exhibition Hall, Yangon, Myanmar. Described by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as “Asia’s next rising star”, the country is strategically located for export markets, straddling the border between South Asia, Southeast Asia and China — home to more than 3.6bn consumers. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources including arable land, oil and gas reserves, water, and corn — the major ingredient for livestock feed. To help all interested stakeholders to better understand the potential opportunities in Myanmar, particularly with the coming ASEAN Economic Community in 2015, the event promises to be a grand show. Khin Zaw, livestock breeding and veterinary department’s deputy general director, said that the government was pleased to strongly support Livestock Myanmar 2014 Expo. “Being a comprehensive and international trade show that covers the entire value chain from farm to fork, it is the ideal platform to stimulate interest in business opportunities and technology transfer in Myanmar. We encourage cooperation and investments to contribute to accelerating our economic and social development. Myanmar has the potential to become a regional force in agriculture — the best is yet to come,” he added. Hosted by the Myanmar Livestock Federation and organised by UBM Asia, the expo will address changes and opportunities in the animal protein sectors, major issues and future trends, including regulations, sustainability, health and productivity. The Myanmar Livestock Federation will also hold the 14th Annual Meeting on 23-24 January in Livestock Myanmar 2014 Expo. “We are expecting more than 500 members to attend,” said Mya Han, chairman of Myanmar Livestock Federation. The event will also help breeders know the opportunities that will be brought about by the establishment of ASEAN Economic Community in 2015. It will also provide a platform with economic opportunities in the livestock breeding and fishery sector and technology transfers.

PREMIER DAIRY EVENT IDF World Dairy Summit 2013 recently concluded in Yokohama, Japan. The theme of “Rediscovering Milk” aimed to contribute towards solving problems in the global dairy sector and to show the country’s industrial technology Experts in food safety gathered at the and results of basic research IDF World Dairy Summit for discussion. The conference on Future Direction of Milk and Health noted that global population growth will continue to drive demand for responsibly produced foods and nutritionally adequate, healthy and affordable diets. It demonstrated how the sector has operated in a manner to continually reduce its impact on natural resources, while contributing significantly to dietary quality and nutrient adequacy around the world. Organised by Japanese National Committee of International Dairy Federation (JIDF) and International Dairy Federation (IDF), this year’s programme focussed on the optimal use of natural resources for dairy industry. Dr Greg Miller, president of the Dairy Research Institute in the US, discussed about the dairy industry’s advances in this area, research on the nutritional, health and economic value of dairy products, and also an evaluation of the studies linking the dietary patterns and environmental impacts. The forum also talked about major developments, new trends, and the evolution of the demand for dairy products, as well as gathering statistics on production, consumption and trade in all regions of the world. Experts in food safety gathered at the IDF World Dairy Summit to throw some light on microbiological testing as a practical and costeffective solution that enables dairy producers to verify the performance and acceptability of the entire food safety system. This dairy event attracted over 2,000 industry leaders attending from Japan and around the globe.



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Improving the quality of eggs Ensuring proper management of hen rearing, feeding and nutrition of birds and poultry husbandry is sure to result in good output of eggs IGHT POULTRY BREEDING and careful egg production management is the key to laying the right egg for commercial purposes. In direct contrast to almost all other livestock management, the poultry production is a vertically integrated system that allows a high degree of control over the end products. By owning and managing every aspect of the business — rearing of young laying hens (pullets) and laying hens, feeding and nutrition of birds, housing of flocks, poultry husbandry and product marketing — egg producers can meticulously monitor the entire process. The only aspect of production not owned and controlled by egg producers is the very first stage. Poultry farmers rarely own the primary breeding stock, which are the parent lines supplying their egg laying operations. These are purchased as one day old chicks from primary breeders. This article gives a general account of the stages involved in the typical layer cycle including chick-placement, vaccination schedules, lighting, temperature control, feeding and nutritional requirements, moulting and removal of layers. Egg collection and processing are also considered.


There are no hard and fast rules to commercial egg production, and no two producers will rear layers in exactly the same way. Therefore, there are many different deviations from the typical layer rearing programme outlined here. This will depend on available breed resources and producer preference for particular breeds, prevailing diseases affecting specific vaccination requirements and decision when to moult. Last, but not least, geography, topography and climate play a major role in affecting house design, feed ration profile and temperature control. The following programme outlined is based on the generally accepted requirements of leghorn breeds.

Chick purchase and early rearing Egg producers buy in layer stock as day-old chicks from an egg-type hatchery, which will deliver chicks within one to two days of hatching. On arrival at the farm, chicks will either be placed in typical layer pens or reared in a pullet house. At the hatchery, chicks will have been vaccinated according to the specifications given by the producer. Chicks reared in layer cages are furnished with a bio-degradable mat, which allows them | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

to better locate feed while additionally providing a ‘lean-in’ time for the chicks to gradually adjust to the wire mesh floor. Within seven days, the mat will have degraded into the litter pit or have been removed. Up to fifty chicks may initially occupy one layer cage with this density progressively lessened as the birds grow in size and weight. Chicks put in pullet houses are reared on floors covered with absorbent materials such as wood shavings. The birds should be beak trimmed within a week. Pullets like these started on the floor will remain there for about 10 to 15 weeks before being moved to a layer facility.From placement and through the following 16 weeks the pullets are fed according to body weight gain and/or age. The aim is to rear strong, robust and healthy birds with the capacity to support maximum egg production as dictated by breed capability. Daily light exposure (photoperiod) is increased at Week 16 to induce egg lay. If the laying hen has not reached proper body weight (1.5kg) by Week 18, egg production will quickly cease. As such, it is crucially important to ensure that pullets attain a body weight that supports egg production. This is achieved through correct manipulation of feeding, lighting and other factors.

Feeds and feeding General assumption within the poultry industry is that layers, in contrast to birds raised specifically for meat (broilers), will regulate


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their intake of feed. For this reason, egg producing birds are usually raised on full feed rations (ad libitum). Rations are traditionally presented to birds via a chain system which transports and conveys feed into metal feeders at precise pre-set times during the day. As a general rule, five centimetres of feeder space is provided per pullet and at least 7.5cm for each adult laying hen in the flock. Young birds are fed a high (20 per cent) protein feed during their first few weeks of life, with this level progressively reduced to 12 to 15 per cent by the egg production phase. Poultry producers should carefully monitor other ingredients in the hens’ diet, including lysine, methionine, calcium and phosphorous. All are crucial to attainment of maximum egg production.

Egg production In order to support egg production producers should start to photo-stimulate birds and manipulate their diet at around 18 weeks of age. This will include manipulation of nutrients so that, for instance, the level of calcium is approximately five to seven times greater than the level of phosphorus. Egg production starts off slowly at 18 to 20 weeks but rapidly rises thereafter to peak at 30-32 weeks of age. At 18-20 weeks of age, only 10 to 20 per cent of layers in the flock will be in lay, but this rises rapidly thereafter with over 90 per cent of birds in lay by week 30 to 32. Peak production rate starts to slip thereafter declining to just 50 per cent at Weeks 60 to 70. This is the time when producers must

There are no hard and fast rules to commercial egg production, and no two producers will rear layers in exactly the same way

make hard economic decisions. Fifty per cent production is generally judged to be the economic ‘break-even’ point in feed cost relative to market price received for the eggs. For this reason most producers will, at this point, decide to ‘moult the flock to achieve a higher level of egg production. Generally speaking it will take about 10 weeks from the start of a moulting programme to be back on track at 50 per cent production. However, post-moult egg production increases rapidly and substantially to reach 80 per cent shortly thereafter. That said, peak post moult

Egg producers buy chicks from an egg-type hatchery that will deliver chicks within one to two days of hatching


production is generally short-lived with flocks regressing to 50 per cent production by the 100 to 110 weeks of age. Up to half of producers will induce a second moult using the same programme and process as the first moult at 60 to 70 weeks of age. Whether or not a second moult is entered into is largely governed by egg prices at that time and the availability of replacement pullets. The alternative economic option to a second moult is to send the birds to a spenthen processing facility. Producers should bear in mind that the majority of hens and flocks will reach the end of their egg production cycle at between 100 and 130 weeks of age. So depending on the egg market and the price and availability of replacement flocks some producers may opt for just one moult before sending the flock to the spent hen facility at 100 to 110 weeks of age. After the spent flock has been removed from layer house, the building must be thoroughly cleaned by removing all organic matter, washing down to remove all ‘soil’ from equipment followed by disinfection and disinfestation to eliminate any residual pests and disease.

Egg collection and processing There are two main methods of egg collection. They are the in-line facility and offline facility. Either way, hens will be laying eggs onto an angled wire floor from which eggs will roll toward the front of the cage (floor angle is generally eight to 10º) and onto a nylon belt. This conveys the eggs out of the house to either an egg processing facility via an in-line facility or into a storage cooler via an off-line facility. Rate egg removal is based on hourly demand which means eggs may stay on the belt for as long as 12 to 14 hours. However, the majority will be collected within several hours post-lay. The in-line facility moves eggs directly from the layer house to the on-site egg processing centre where they are washed using a detergent solution to remove soil and visually inspected for eggshell defects, cracks and blood spots before grading for packaging. Packaged eggs are moved to a cooler room to await shipment to wholesale or retail outlets. Egg producers will endeavour to deliver eggs to their customers within one week of lay. Off-line facilities function almost identically except that the eggs are transported out of the house into a cooling room. Eggs will be kept in the cool room facility for two to three days before transportation to an off-site egg processing facility in a refrigerated vehicle. n By Terry Mabbett


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Enzyme-induced rye in feed aids digestion, productivity Research shows that the cereal helps fight toxic fungi but proper care should be taken by feeders to ensure the quality of the intake HEN IT COMES to managing feed for livestock such as poultry and pigs, farmers often tend to avoid cereals like rye. While this cereal is quite cost-effective and the only available source in some localities, it contains certain anti-nutritional factors that have been proven by researchers to impair animal performance. With poultry, industry onlookers advise that up to 20 per cent of rye should be used in layer diets, and for broilers, it should not exceed 15 per cent. Growing pullets can be fed up to 40 per cent of rye in their feed. A good quality of rye with a suitable enzyme can be fed to growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows. Without such enzymes, especially when the quality of cereal is questionable, it is best to reduce the inclusion level to 25 per cent. Rye is said to contain higher levels of antinutrients than wheat. The cereal contains soluble non-starch polysaccharides and pentosans (arabinoxylans), which reach the small intestine and produce a viscous environment that reduces nutrient digestibility. The pentosans also result in soft and sticky feces, which is quite problematic for broilers and layers. The polysaccharides, on the other


Proper care should be taken to ensure that the rye is ground well enough to improve digestibility

hand, are hemicellulose in nature. The quality of rye is often affected by the presence of toxins in the field, which stems from the ergot fungi. Ergot-infested rye contain more than 10 toxic compounds, which including ergotamine, ergotoxine and ergonovine. These toxins reduce animal feed intake, growth and severely impair reproduction. In recent times, new varieties of rye have been developed with genes that have additional resistance to toxic fungi. But it is still imperative to employ suitable quality control measures for rye in animal feed. Hence, using enzymes in the feeds have been necessary for maintenance of poultry and pigs. Firstly, these additives can help reduce | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

the negative effects of pentosans in rye, and to some extent, in wheat as well. A recent Canadian research has demonstrated that feeding poultry and pigs good quality rye with an enzyme is similar to a barley diet. Researchers have determined that rye should not be fed to lactating sows and piglets as it is rather unpalatable. Lack in taste for these animals is partly due to improper grinding of the cereal. Pelleting and adding oil to the feed helps reduce dustiness in rye, to some extent. Proper care should be taken to ensure that the rye is ground well enough to improve digestibility. Gradual introduction of rye in feeds helps overcome non-palatability, especially when combined with some molasses. n


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Extra warmth reduces mortality of newborn pigs Research proves that heating a creep area in the pen helps reduce hypothermia-related diseases in piglets ROVIDING EXTRA HEAT in the farrowing house can save the lives of many newborn pigs. Research at Aarhus University shows how underfloor heating can combine with room temperature to prevent hypothermia and deaths. Newborn piglets are relatively mature at birth compared to many other newborn mammals. However, many piglets succumb to hypothermia in their first few hours of life, as they have almost no energy reserves with which to keep warm. If a newborn piglet becomes chilled, it is weakened and has little strength to fight any problems that may subsequently arise. The piglet may die of starvation, disease or may be crushed to death by the sow. It is, therefore, important to prevent neo-natal piglets from being chilled. Pig farmers already practice heating a separate creep area in the farrowing pen away from the sow, which the piglets gradually learn to use from when they are one to two days old. Immediately after birth the piglets have no benefit from this source of heating, as they instinctively seek the sow’s udder during the critical first few days of life. Establishment of either heating or radiant heat in the birthing area can, however, help to ensure that there is adequate heating so they avoid getting chilled. However, the floor should only be heated for the minimum period necessary — both for economic reasons and to ensure it does not become unbearably hot for the sow. Scientists from Aarhus University therefore studied the effect on piglet body temperature during the duration (12 or 48 hours after birth) of underfloor heating in the farrowing pen in combination with different air temperatures in the farrowing house (15°C, 20°C or 25°C). The scientists also looked at how much the pigs used the heated creep area in the farrowing pen.


Mortality higher in a cool room The probability of piglets dying before they managed to get their first drink of life-giving colostrum from the sow was nearly seven times higher at an ambient temperature of 15°C compared to 25°C, despite the floor surface being heated to about 34°C. When the farrowing pen was heated to either 15°C or 20°C, the body temperature of the piglets in the first post-natal half hour dropped by more than at a room temperature of 25°C. Their body temperature also took longer to return to normal when the room was either 15°C or 20°C compared to 25°C. With an air temperature of 15°C the situation started to become critical. The piglets' body temperatures were dangerously close to a level that can affect their metabolism and ability to regulate body heat.

Heated floor for neo-natal piglets Heating the floor in the area where the pigs are born is a method that is used to keep neo-natal piglets warm — but how long a period after birth do you need to keep the floor warm? The study revealed that 12 hours with heated flooring gives almost as good a result as 48 hours with heated flooring in terms of piglet cooling — regardless of the air temperature. This means an energy saving if you can limit heating to 12 hours after birth.


Twelve hours with heated flooring gives almost as good a result as 48 hours with heated flooring in terms of piglet cooling

In the first hours after birth the piglets do not normally use the creep area in the farrowing pen since they are strongly attracted to the sow's udder. This is opportune since it increases their chances of getting the necessary colostrum. During their first few days of life, the piglets will gradually learn to look for alternative sources of heat to the sow – if such sources exist in the pen. In the study, the scientists observed that at low ambient temperatures the pigs were more likely to and did more rapidly seek out the creep area. This may explain why heating the floor for 48 rather than 12 hours did not provide additional benefits. In fact, the probability of dying within the first seven days after birth was 1.6 times higher in litters with 48 hours of heating compared to 12. Maybe the pigs are more often trampled on or crushed to death when they are close to the sow or maybe the sow is heat-stressed if the heat is on for too long, which can indirectly affect piglet survival. In the study, the piglets that were born into an air temperature of only 15°C were drawn to the warm creep area already 6-12 hours after the heating in the floor had been turned off. Nonetheless, only about half of the pigs sought the warmth of the creep area before they were two days old – even at an air temperature of 15°C. This shows that a heated area away from the sow is unable to meet the heat requirements of newborn pigs. Other solutions must be found, including floor or radiant heat in the birthing area in the first few hours of life combined with an elevated ambient temperature of up to 25°C in the farrowing pen around the time of birth. “The time span when they need extra heat may be limited to the period when the piglets get their first colostrum, i.e. 6-12 hours after the birth of the first pig in the litter, depending on how long the delivery lasts,” said senior scientist Lene Juul Pedersen. Other factors also have an effect on piglet mortality. “Sow sickness, farrowing difficulties and piglet birth weight can all affect piglet survival,” added Pedersen. n


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Probiotics reduce pathogens in piglet’s intestine PROBIOTICS ARE LIVE bacteria or micro-organisms that are either mixed in the feed or administered individually by mouth to produce a beneficial effect on the organism in the gut. Under normal conditions the intestines of the pig contain a complex of 400 or more organisms which constantly protect against disease. Specific bacteria can also protect against specific pathogens. Piglets fed probiotic Enterococcus faecium showed reduced numbers of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in their intestines, according to a team of German researchers. The research is important because in 2006 the European Union prohibited the feeding of antibiotics to livestock as growth promoters. Therefore, the research team sought to investigate whether probiotics could substitute for antibiotics, by reducing pathogen populations in the intestines, says first author Carmen Bednorz of Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany. The study was published ahead of print in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology. “We found a clear reduction of E. coli strains possessing typical genes for extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC),” said Bednorz. The reduction was particularly noticeable in strains that adhere to the

intestinal mucosa (and less so in the feces), which was ‘interesting,’ she said, because ‘ExPEC typically harbour a lot of adhesion genes that promote colonization of the mucosa.’ Antimicrobials are thought to promote growth in industrially grown livestock because without them, in such close quarters, a surfeit of pathogens would slow growth. “Our data suggest that the feeding of probiotics could substitute for antimicrobials as growth promoters,” Bednorz said. “This could help to reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance,” she added. In the study, Bednorz and her collaborators compared piglets fed with E. faecium to those in a control group. They collected more than 1,400 samples of E. coli from piglets of different ages, and from different parts of the intestine. While a number of strains of E. coli are pathogenic, non-pathogenic E. coli ‘contributes to the maintenance of the microbial gut balance,’ according to the report. These were relatively unaffected by the feeding of E. faecium, which ‘did not influence the overall intestinal E. coli diversity, corroborating previous data,’ according to the report. Thus, the researchers conclude, the results suggest that E. faecium inhibits pathogenic E. coli from becoming attached to the intestinal mucosa.

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Ovo-therapeutics can help boost efficiency in female broilers TARGETED IN-OVO THERAPEUTICS can accelarate gut development in female chickens as means of increasing post-hatch growth rates of the embryos. Using a relatively new development in animal science known as ‘foetal programming’, the researchers at the University of Adelaide, Australia aim to improve gut health and feed conversion ratio in broilers. Professor Phil Hynd is heading up a Poultry CRC project entitled In-ovo therapeutics to improve gut efficiency and health in the broiler chicken. With efficiency and health gains in broiler chickens rapidly diminishing, Hynd’s defined the foetal programming as ‘alterations in the foetal environment, which result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, metabolism, health and production of the offspring’. “The concurrence of the science of foetal programming with the technology for mass in-ovo injection presents an opportunity to develop targeted treatments to chicken

The therapy can help improve gut performance in broiler hens

embryos, to improve their post-hatch performance and health. Such developments would allow chickens (post-hatch) to more rapidly adapt to life ex-ovo,” he said. To date, the research has identified two promising candidate molecules and has discarded another due to negative impact on bodyweight. The first is amino acid, a well known stimulator of growth and development in foetal and early life

models in other species. When administered in-ovo at Day Nine, significant changes to the gut of the resultant chicks were observed. This includes increase in ileal weight and length at hatch, and the jejunum had an increase in villi number. However, Hynd said that administration before the eggs are placed in the incubator would be easier commercially. Hence the next phase of the project investigated administering

the stimulator into the albumen at Day Zero. Earlier administration hoped to target cranial gut development, as well as satisfying industry protocols. Introduction into the albumen at Day Zero resulted in significant improvements in hatchability, and increased the weight of the liver, gizzard and bursa of fabricius on day of hatch. “However, no significant changes were observed in the gut under this regime,” noted Hynd. The second candidate was polyamine. “The injection of polyamines at Day Seven in the air cell is achievable, and does not detrimentally impact embryo viability. One, in particular, shows promise for future in-ovo studies. Indeed, a very small amount (six micromoles) injected into the air cell at embryonic Day Seven was able to induce remarkable results in day of hatch chickens,” explained Hynd. Overall, both the total gut length and weight were significantly increased in this treatment group.

Wheat in turkey diet improves feed conversion ratio, says study RECENT WORK BY a research group in Poland indicates that turkey diets supplemented with moderate levels of wheat, either ground and pelleted or as whole grain, enhances the bird’s gastrointestinal function, which helps to improve feed conversion ratio (FCR). The researchers also observed additional benefits attributable to wheat supplementation including an increase in gizzard weight and a significant reduction in gizzard pH. The group authored an article summarising its findings, Gastrointestinal morphology and function in turkeys fed diets diluted with whole grain wheat published recently. “In recent years, one view that has gained popularity is that feeding larger particle size and whole grain to poultry improves gizzard function and overall bird health. The aim of our study was to verify a part of this hypothesis, namely that moderate dilution of complete turkey diets with whole wheat — we examined levels up to 22.5 per cent — would improve gastrointestinal function and, hence, contribute to growth performance. Our findings indicate that this is the case,” said Dr Zenon Zdunczyk, lead author. In the study, 900 male BIG-6 turkeys were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments:


The use of whole grain wheat improves physiological parameters and growth performance

a basal diet; a basal diet diluted with low levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat; or a basal diet diluted with high levels of ground and pelleted wheat or whole wheat. At successive stages of the experiment, the dilution levels of wheat ranged from five per cent to 22.5 per cent. The 180 male turkeys in each group were studied from five to 18 weeks. They had free access to feed and water, and were kept in pens on litter in a building with a controlled environment. The trial lasted for 126 days, with the birds weighed at the beginning of the experiment (at 29 days of age) and at the end of each feeding period — on days 56, 84, and 126.

Body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio were calculated for each period. The results of the experiment indicated that moderate dilution of a basal diet with wheat does not reduce the final bodyweight of turkeys, and that the use of whole grain wheat improves their physiological parameters and growth performance. Supplementation of the birds' diets with whole wheat improved feed conversion as a result of improved gastrointestinal tract function, i.e. lower pH of gizzard digesta, and other parameters characterising the physiology of the small and large intestines. The experiment was conducted at the Research Laboratory of the Department of Poultry Science at the University of Warmia and Mazury. “Turkey production is an important poultry enterprise throughout the world, with regional ingredient availability and varying cultural preferences often resulting in significantly different rearing practices in various markets. Some of the strategies turkey researchers are pursuing — including those discussed in Dr Zdunczyk’s group's paper — may help producers address these differences,” said Dr Michael Smith, director of Poultry Science Association.


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EU promotes insects as feed for poultry and pigs A EUROPEAN UNION (EU)-funded project PROteINSECT aims to promote insects as a source of protein feed for pigs and poultry, which is currently prohibited in Europe. With almost US$4.13mn from the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, PROteINSECT wants to proves the efficacy and safety of insect protein to be used in animal feed. At the moment, insect protein is only allowed in fish or shellfish feed in Europe. “It is hoped that insect protein will also be permitted in pig and poultry feed in the future, particularly as these animals already consume insects as part of their natural diet,” read a statement from the UK Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA), which is leading the project. The agency and its project partners hope that the European Commission will relax rules to allow the inclusion of insects in poultry and pig feed from 2015. PROteINSECT was prompted by the increase in the meat consumption in developing countries and, thus, the need to tap into alternative feed sources. “Insects are

PROteINSECT wants to draw on the expertise of organisations in China and Africa, where there is already a tradition for using insects in food and feed

increasingly recognised as an excellent protein alternative for use in animal feed,” a project briefing document read, noting that many species are highly nutritious and their production has a lower environmental impact than other feed sources. According to the project, insects can be reared quickly and

easily on organic waste, such as vegetables and domestic waste, which would lead to a 60 per cent reduction of that waste. PROteINSECT wants to draw on the expertise of organisations in China and Africa, where there is already a tradition for using insects in food and feed. The Chinese Guangdong Entomological Institute — with the expertise in the rearing of insects; the Malian Institute of Rural Economy — with expertise in sustainable agriculture; and the Ghana non-governmental organisation Fish for Africa are part of the project, which is expected to conclude in 2016. A young French company Ynsect, has also identified a cheap, nourishing and locally sourced alternative to soybeans as a vital source of protein in animal feed. Black soldier flies, common housefly larvae, silkworms and yellow mealworms were named as among the most promising species for industrial feed output in a report earlier this year by the FAO. According to the FAO, protein such as meat meal, fishmeal and soymeal make up 60 per cent to 70 per cent of the price of feed.

Pig aggression can be handled by candies, study finds CHOCOLATES CAN HELP calm aggressive pigs, according to trials held in Hanover, Germany. A pig fight can be interrupted by providing more interesting alternatives. In trials in Hanover, Germany, pigs were successfully taught to respond to the sound of a feeder. The feeder in the experiment at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Hanover, Germany, included chocolate candies. The research was driven by the knowledge that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. The trial consisted of two phases. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between sound given by an electronic dog feeder called MannersMinder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of eight days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in residentintruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during eight days of training and the interest of the piglets increased during the training days. In the resident-intruder test, 79.5 per cent of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions, where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7 per cent versus 93.1 per cent) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. The researchers concluded that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in residentintruder situations. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013


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Promoting Tunicates as essential fish feed TUNICATES, MARINE INVERTEBRATE animals, have shown great potential as a fish feed due to their high protein content. Researchers in Norway now believe that these promising ocean weeds can become a new aquaculture adventure. Tunicates are found in all the world’s oceans. When their water content is removed, they consist of 55 per cent protein, and they are also the only animals that produce cellulose. They could, therefore, in the long term be used for both feed and biofuel. “Production has, so far, exceeded our greatest expectations,” said researcher Christofer Troedsson of Uni Research. People reportedly worked intensively for two weeks to collect 30 tonnes of tunicates, which were then washed, pressed, dried and ground into animal and fish feed. “This is really exciting. We’ve gone from small-scale experiments to a large-scale pilot project,” added Mr Troedsson. “This is about producing marine protein at the bottom of the marine food chain. Today we mostly use other types of fish that are high up in the food chain. Tunicates eat algae and microorganisms that pass by. Thorolf Magnesen, professor of Aquaculture at the University of Bergen (UiB), said, “In other words, we have taken an organism that usually represents a problem and turned it into something positive.” The tunicates may be turned into a major industry, researchers said. Uni Research and UiB have teamed up with the Research Council of Norway, which has provided funding for the project, and BTO, which will help commercialise the product.

Tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal and consists of 55 per cent protein

The tunicates are first brought onboard a boat, washed in fresh water, and then 70 per cent of the water is pressed out. The remains are sent to the company Weyland at Flesland where they are ground and dried into powder. “This is an organism found in seawater all over the world. Tunicates improve the water quality by removing particles from the sea. There is a huge potential in using this resource for feed. We’re on the right track, but there’s still a long way to go,” said Magnesen.

Protein developed to fight FMD in livestock DEVELOPED BY THE US department of agriculture (USDA) scientists, proteins called interferons are being used to combat foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). These proteins kill or stop viruses from growing and reproducing. Scientists with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Foreign Animal Disease research unit have demonstrated that interferons can be used to protect animals immediately against FMD infection. This rapid protection gives vaccines time to induce the animal's immune response needed to fight the disease. Interferons consist of three families — type I (alpha-beta), type II (gamma), and type III (lambda). ARS chemist Dr Marvin Grubman discovered that type I is very effective in controlling FMD virus infection. Pigs inoculated with a viral vector containing the gene coding for swine type I interferon and challenged with FMD virus were protected for five days. To cover the seven-day window it takes for vaccines to start protecting against FMD, Grubman combined type I and II in an antiviral vaccinedelivery system, which quickly blocks the virus in pigs. In combination with a vaccine, this patented technology provided thorough protection from day one until the vaccine immune response kicked in seven days later. To fight symptoms in cattle, ARS microbiologist Teresa de los Santos, computational biologist James Zhu and Grubman have identified a type III


To fight symptoms in cattle, a type III interferon has been identified that rapidly protects cattle against FMD virus as early as one day after vaccination

interferon that rapidly protects cattle against FMD virus as early as one day after vaccination. In laboratory tests, disease was significantly delayed in animals exposed to FMD virus after previously being treated with bovine type III interferon, as compared to a control group that did not receive treatment. In other experiments, the type III interferon treatment was found to be even more protective in cows that were naturally exposed to FMD, according to Dr de los Santos.

Robotic help can herd cows in future ROBOTS COULD BE used in the future to round up cows on dairy farms, according to researchers. A four-wheeled device, known as Rover, has been tested by a team at University of Sydney. It was used to move a herd of cows from a field to a dairy. Researchers said that the cows easily accepted the presence of the robot. They were not fazed by it and the herding process was calm and effective, they added. Because the robot moved in a steady manner, it allowed cows to move at their own speed which was important in reducing lameness among cattle, Dr Kendra Kerrisk, dairy researcher and associate professor, told the BBC. Robots are already used in the milking process but the team wanted to see if they could be used in other areas of dairy farming. The prototype needs to be operated by a human but it's hoped that in the future a version can be developed that will be fully automated.


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Trickle irrigation focuses on good yields with less water With water becoming dearer in many parts of the world, this system not only ensures sufficient water for crops but also the basic nutrients are made available RICKLE (DRIP) IRRIGATION IS the precise placement of water in the root zone to give maximum growth with minimum water volume. Alternatively called ‘micro-irrigation’, the system was developed for crops in dry environments where water is scarce. Trickle systems require high initial investment and a long learning curve and are most appropriate for high-value fruit, flower and vegetable crops. They offer considerable advantages but also come with disadvantages. The basic advantage is that the growers require access to much smaller water resources, usually less than half that used in sprinkler irrigation. Lower operating pressures mean less energy for pumping and precise placement of exact volumes provides high levels of water management. Crop diseases are less frequent because the crop canopy stays dry and humidity is lower. Labour and operating costs are invariably less because a high-degree of automation is possible. Irrigation water is highly targeted. None is placed between rows or on non-productive areas. Field operations continue as normal because the inter-row area stays dry, weed growth is minimal and production costs correspondingly lower. Delivery of soluble fertilisers through drip systems (fertigation) is highly efficient. Drip irrigation is suitable for terrain and soil conditions which other systems cannot cope with. Soil erosion and nutrient leaching is minimised. Major disadvantage is that the start-out investment costs are higher in total and on a per unit area basis, compared with mainstream irrigation systems. Management requirements are also high and any delay in operational decisions can lead to irreversible crop damage and high financial loss. Damage to drop tubes from gnawing rodents, insects or human activity may cause leaks leading to high maintenance, replacement costs and water loss. Water must be filtered to avoid clogging small openings in the trickle line. Water


Crop diseases are less frequent because the crop canopy stays dry and humidity is lower

movement and distribution is restricted by its precise placement.

Drip irrigation applications Drip irrigation is used in a wide range of crop production systems including fruit orchards, citrus groves, vegetable gardens, nurseries and greenhouses, especially for high-value crops for export. Row-crop fruit and vegetable use drip tubing with pre-punched emitter holes (a linesource emitter) for continuous strip wetting along the rows. Since most vegetables are grown as annual plants growers can profitably use a thin-walled disposable tubing (four or eight mm thick) with a short single-season working life. Growers wanting operational versatility place less emphasis on buried mainlines and sub-mainlines. This allows the system to be dismantled and moved conveniently. Costs of installation and application can be high. It is probably cheaper to design your own system using bought in components rather than purchasing an entire dedicated system from a dealer. However, help from a technically competent dealer can pay huge dividends by avoiding problems further down the line. Water comes from a variety of sources namely wells, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, canals, municipal lines or pits. As a general rule, well water sources are fairly clean and only require a screen to remove particles, although precipitates, mineral and chemical | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

contaminants in the water should be determined by a water quality test before use in a drip irrigation system. Municipal water sources generally come with quality documentation and guarantees making it much easier to identify potential contamination and blockage problems. Surface water from streams, ponds, pits or rivers contain bacteria, algae and other aquatic life, which means sand filters are essential.

Key components of the trickle irrigation system Main components of any drip/trickle irrigation installation are: • Delivery system — mainline distribution to field, sub-mainlines (header), feeder and drip tube • Filters — sand, disk or screen • Pressure regulators — spring or valves • Valves or gauges — hand-operated, hydraulic or electrical

Delivery Foundation and core of the delivery system is a mainline distribution conduit into the field which may comprise an underground plastic, or PVC pipe or over-ground aluminium pipe for uninterrupted delivery of water from source to sub-mainline. For the sub-mainline (header), it is usual to employ a vinyl ‘lay-flat’ hose which is durable and as the description implies laid flat when not in use so that equipment can be safely driven over it. The lay-flat hose and feeder


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Crops tubes will be retrieved after each growing season and stored until the following crop. Feeder tubes are small plastic tubes that connect the sub-mainline and each drip tube. Water flows to the drip tubing through these feed tubes which can be directly inserted into the vinyl hose. Drip tubing is designed with an inner and outer chamber to allow uniform distribution of water in different conditions. Tubing is invariably polyethylene, black plastic, four to eight mm thick and with perforations located at intervals of 20cm to 60cm along the length. As a general rule, the sandier the soil, the closer the hole spacing required Drip tubing is shipped, flattened on a roll and commonly called drip tape.

The secret of success is application of a small supply of water to the plant as required usually on a daily basis

Water Filtration Filters are critical for drip/trickle irrigation systems. Water from wells or provided by a municipality is suitable for use with screen or disk filters. Screen filters (150-200 mesh screen) are generally available in a range of sizes from two to 15cm. Some have a valve which can open and flush the filter. Disc filters operate through a series of discs stacked vertically to separate out small solid particles. They are more expensive but compensate through reliability and ease of cleaning. Water from an open or surface water source requires sand filters installed as pairs of sandfilled canisters that can be back-flushed for cleaning. Timing and frequency of sand filter cleaning is gauged by monitoring any loss of pressure through the filter. Pressure gauges are installed on either side of the filter with a pressure difference of five to seven psi indicating the need to clean. When stream or river water is used a sand separator is usually needed to remove suspended sand from the water before it enters the filter.

Pressure regulation Drip tubing is designed to operate at eight to 15 psi pressure, with 10 psi regarded as standard. A spring-type or diaphragm-type pressure regulator may be used to maintain water pressure at a steady level. Both types are inexpensive and adjustable, although pre-set types are also available.

Control Several sections of a single field can be irrigated using just one water source by utilising a zone system equipped with valves to open and close the different lines. If fertilisers or chemicals are injected into water taken from a well or municipal water resource then a backflow/autosiphon valve is absolutely necessary. Manuallyoperated gate or ball valves or electronic solenoid valves may be used to automate the system by utilising a time clock, water-need sensor or automatic controller box.


Extra benefits One huge advantage of drip/trickle irrigation is that soluble fertilisers/nutrients may be added to the water to secure crop fertilisation uniformity, otherwise impossible to achieve. All fertiliser injections should take place at a point ahead of any main filters in the line so that any contaminants have already filtered out by the time fertiliser is introduced. ‘Fertigation’ is most frequently used to deliver nitrogen fertiliser since nitrate is highly soluble and moves easily through the soil structure and to the roots. Phosphate and potash which are much less soluble are best applied before planting and not injected through the irrigation system. Growers can also use ‘Chemigation’ in which pesticides are delivered in the water supply. A check valve is essential to ensure no contamination of the water source. Growers should not carry out fertigation or chemigation unless the product label says the chemical is designed and approved for such use. Most cost effective use of drip irrigation is with crops fitted with plastic mulches to reduce soil evaporation. Vegetable growers typically use one metre-wide rolls of black or white-on-black polyethylene plastic mulch on 1.5 metre row centres. The drip tape is buried two cm to eight cm deep below the plastic either seven cm to 12 cm to the side of the row or in the centre, depending on whether single-or double-row crop is being grown. Growers must take care to lay the tubing straight to avoid damage during transplanting. Plastic laying machines can lay drip tape and plastic mulch in a single operation.

System maintenance Drip system filters must be checked daily and cleaned when required. Clogged and blocked screen filters are cleaned using a stiff bristle brush while immersed in water, but sand filters must be back-flushed. Lines should be monitored for excessive leakage. An extensive wet area in the field invariably indicates a leaking drip tube.

Excessive mineral precipitates in drip lines are dissolved by using acids such as phosphoric acid. Tapes buried under plastic mulches are much less apt to become clogged from precipitates. Bacteria, algae and slime in the line are eliminated by injections of an approved hypochlorite or commercial bacterial control agents applied through the fertigation system. Frequent flushing of the mainline, sub-mainline and drip tape is recommended to avoid blockage. Adapters are available for the ends of each drip tape to each irrigation cycle, or they can be manually opened to allow a few litres of water to flush from the end, to avoid any buildup of contaminating solid matter at the end of the drip line.

Management of water resources The secret of success is application of a small amount of water to the plant as required usually on a daily basis. The grower’s goal is a high level of efficiency for maximum yield from minimal amounts of water. As the plants grow root systems become more extensive and leaf area index increases, and so will the relative amount of water required though still small by normal irrigation standards. Under hot, dry conditions, relatively more water will be required to replace the amount lost by transpiration from the crop. Most simple and accurate method of determining daily crop water requirement applied by drip irrigation is by use of a tensiometer. This is a porous, porcelaintipped tube of water with a vacuum gauge at the top located at root zone depth with the porous lip buried in the soil. As water moves from the porous tip a vacuum reading indicates the soil water status. Tensiometers are typically installed in pairs called a ‘station’, one at 15cm depth and the other deeper at 30cm depth. n By Terry Mabbett


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Seaweed industry to rebound strongly in the Philippines Typhoon-hit country may not have lost everything as there is a flicker of hope arising from the marine plants QUACULTURE, INCLUDING SEAWEED, from the four regions — Eastern, Central and Western Visayas and Mimaropa — is responsible for 33 per cent of total national aquaculture production in the Philippines, according to the Philippines bureau of fisheries and aquatic resources (BFAR). In 2012, seaweed topped Philippine aquaculture production with over 1.7mn tonnes or almost 70 per cent of the total aquaculture production. In November 2013, Supertyphoon Haiyan (locally known as Yolanda) hit the country. The devastation is still incalculable, although latest numbers show that losses already reached are reaching more than US$680bn and is expected to rise. But Haiyan did not destroy the seaweed plantation, particularly in Bohol. According to a local report, some 20 hectares in Jao island where the plants are about to be harvested and some just planted were washed out by the typhoon. Hingutanan Island also reported of more US$45,603.55 in losses, where post harvest farms and facilities for processing the seaweed were destroyed. However the country is now on the road to recovery with help from United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), who is encouraging sustainable farming to rebuild the sector. The Filipino government is already enroute the reconstruction plan that includes short and medium- to long-term recovery for all agriculture sub-sectors. “The Philippines Government has made important efforts to support small-scale fisheries and we need to ensure that the response to this disaster does not reverse that good work,” said Rodrigue Vinet, acting FAO representative in the Philippines.


Varied uses of seaweed Started as an alternative planting in the 1970s, seaweed is now a major industry in the Philippines and is either cultivated in pond culture or caught from natural stock. More than 800 species of seaweeds are cultivated in

The Filipino government is already enroute the reconstruction plan that includes short- and medium- to long-term recovery for all agriculture sub-sectors, including seaweed

the country but the commercially planted species are the carageenan bearing red seaweed (Eucheuma Cotonii and Eucheuma Spinosum) and the Agar-agar bearing red seaweed (Gracilaria and Gelidium). As the number one aquaculture commodity as well as being a perennial top export, the seaweed industry has a lot to look forward to. The country supplies about 40 per cent of the world’s seaweed material requirements for carrageenan production, shipping the commodity either in raw forms (fresh or dried) or processed forms (semi-refined chips/carrageenan and refined carrageenan) to countries such as USA, Europe, China, France, Hong Kong and Thailand. It generates an annual income of US$200mn and employs around 200,000 coastal families and in allied services. The seaweeds are used to manufacture three seaweed colloids for agriculture use: agar, alginates and carrageenan. There is also brown seaweed with 153 species which is used for industrial purposes Carrageenan extracted from seaweeds is an important ingredient in the manufacture of ointments, additives, binders, food emulsifiers, pharmaceutical, beverage, cosmetics as well as a texture agent in toothpaste, powder, dairy products and many others. The country also cultivates other seaweed varieties that have economic value as food, animal feed, fertiliser, diet supplement and medicine. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

With the seaweed’s varied uses, the country — second largest producer after China — is in a good position to seize a large chunk of the global market. According to the Seaweed Industry Association of the Philippines (SIAP), the country’s coastline and suitable sea water is very ideal to cultivate more seaweed species. Moreover, the advanced technology on farming and extraction of carrageenan, as well as several refineries that will produce quality carageenan and other seaweed byproducts that are preferred by other countries will fuel the sector. The University of the Philippines Marine Science Institute has developed four new commercially hybrid varieties of seaweeds that are ready for propagation. In a report by local daily, the varieties don’t have scientific names yet but most of them are from the existing Euchuema and Kappaphycus varieties. UP professor Marco Nemesio Montaño says these varieties can help the country to meet the improved production for seaweeds for the growing need for carageenan as these are fast growing species. He added that a hundred grams of one of the four new varieties can reproduce into more than a thousand kilos, or a tonne within only ten months. These new varieties would go well with the government’s plan of increasing and rebuilding seaweed production by as much as 10 per cent. BFAR said that this could be accomplished by developing 3,000 hectares of


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seaweed farms through provision of farm implements directly to the fisherfolk engaged in the crops’ cultivation. It also believed that the possibilities of tripling seaweed production areas in the country could synchronize the increase of revenues by as much as US$600mn next year. In Q3 2013, seaweed production gained 1.03 per cent increase and recovered from its previous year’s decrease.

All is not lost In the wake of the disaster, concerns aired by BFAR are the deteriorating quality of the seedlings and stocks; poor quality of dried raw materials; seaweed diseases; sub-standard postharvest handling and drying techniques; unstable buying and pricing practices; lack of credit assistance to the seaweed farmers; and the lack of regulation on seaweed culture and management. However, SIAP remains optimistic of its outlook as the sector implements new strategies and taps new markets. The group says that by 2016, the seaweed industry cluster is expected to record domestic and export sales to US$394mn by putting in place 10,200 additional hectares of seaweed farms across the country. Exploring new markets in Asia, South America and Africa would also help achieve the goal, said SIAP. According to another local daily, the industry’s earnings logged export sales of US$217mn this year and may increase in the coming years with government intervention for

Post disaster, concerns raised are deteriorating quality of the seedlings, poor quality of dried raw materials, seaweed diseases, among others

research and development and marketing. SIAP hopes that by 2016, their strategies will be upgraded on cost reduction through employment of environment-friendly planting measures, redistribution, quality and innovation by penetrating new markets and enforcing seaweed product standards as well as providing easy access loans to farmers. China is becoming the top buyer of Philippine seaweed raw materials which make the industry prospects rosier. SunStar also reports SIAP and BFAR plan to come up with a price stabilisation

that would set floor prices on seaweed during high production. BFAR is urging for more collaboration with other sectors to expand studies and research on seaweed production. If these initiatives are implemented, SIAP is confident the Philippines will be a major supplier of raw seaweed. Production and market will supply continuous which will provide a lucrative and sustainable livelihood for farmers, thus, protecting coastal areas from illegal fishing. n Gemma Delmo

Cambodia to tap niche organic rice market

Four new rice varieties to help farmers achieve self-sufficiency in Philippines

IN A SIGN that demand for its organic rice is increasing, Mekong Oryza Trading in Cambodia is the first private company to start exporting the product abroad. Phnom Penh-based rice exporter signed a memorandum of understanding with the agricultural non-profit CEDAC, which introduced the concept of organic rice farming in 2004 and became the sole exporter about five years later. While demand is on the rise, the market is still puny compared to Cambodia’s staple milled rice product. On the strength of more interest in the US and EU, CEDAC estimates it will export 320 tonnes of organic rice in 2013, compared with 100 tonnes for all of last year. In the first 10 months this year, Cambodia exported nearly 300,000 tonnes of non-organic rice. As part of the agreement, starting in early 2014, Mekong Oryza Trading will provide funding to farmers and help scout potential markets.

PHILIPPINE RICE RESEARCH Institute (PhilRice) has announced that its four new rice high-yielding varieties can help the country achieve self-sufficiency. PhilRice’s executive director Eufemio T. Rasco Jr. said that the guaranteed yield was between seven metric tonnes (MT) and 10.4 MT per hectare. The four new rice varieties — Tubigan 23, Tubigan 24, Tubigan 25 and Japonica 3 — have already been registered with the country’s National Seed Industry Council. According to PhilRice, Tubigan 23 is direct-seeded and is submergence-tolerant. Its grains are long and slender, which means they have the qualities preferred by consumers. Its potential yield is eight MT per hectare and has a maturity period from direct seeding of 104 days. Tubigan 24 matures from 112 to 117 days, the institute said, adding, that its potential yield is 10.4 MT per hectare and its milling recovery is a high 72.2 per cent. It also has long and intermediate grain sizes. Tubigan 25 can also be transplanted or direct-seeded and has a potential yield of 10.4 MT per hectare. It has same physical properties as others. The maturity period is 115 days when transplanted, and 106 days when direct-seeded. PhilRice’s Japonica 3 is reportedly a variety exclusively for transplanting, with yield potential of 7.2 MT per hectare. It matures at an average of 113 days from transplanting and offers grains that are tender and smooth in texture.

Around 5,000 Cambodian households have taken to organic rice farming



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IRRI and Japan researchers discover more rice yielding gene SCIENTISTS FROM JAPAN and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) have discovered a rice gene that in preliminary testing increased production by 13 per cent to 36 per cent in modern long-grain indica rice varieties — the world’s most widely grown types of rice. “We discovered the gene, SPIKE, in an Indonesian tropical japonica rice variety,” announced rice breeder Nobuya Kobayashi of the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization — Institute of Crop Science in Japan. Kobayashi is a former IRRI scientist seconded from the Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS). Tropical japonica rice is mainly grown in East Asia and accounts for only about 10 per cent of global rice production. Incorporating SPIKE into indica varieties that are very popular and widely used across 70 per cent of global rice-growing areas could significantly contribute to food security. IRRI breeders had earlier observed traits related to higher yield potential — such as

Breeders at IRRI are now using SPIKE to boost the yield potential of leading local rice varieties

large panicles, large leaves, a vigorous root system, and thick stems — in several Indonesian tropical japonica rice varieties. At the time, however, the specific gene responsible for higher yield among these varieties had not been identified. The discovery of SPIKE means that breeders can now start incorporating the gene into popular indica rice varieties. The gene can improve plant architecture without altering grain quality or growth periods.

“Using a new approach of combining molecular identification of the SPIKE gene and conventional breeding, we have developed rice, with the SPIKE gene, that has higher yield when compared with an equivalent rice without the gene,” Kobayashi said. The function of the SPIKE gene was validated by IRRI scientists. “Our work showed that SPIKE is indeed one of the genes responsible for the yield increase that breeders have spent many years searching for,” said Inez Slamet-Loedin, head of IRRI’s Genetic Transformation Laboratory. Breeders at IRRI are now using SPIKE to boost the yield potential of leading local rice varieties. “Testing of new rice varieties that have the SPIKE gene is underway in multilocation trials across several developing countries in Asia, including Indonesia. We believe that these will contribute to food security in these areas once the new varieties are released,” said Tsutomu Ishimaru, an IRRI and JIRCAS rice breeder who is now leading the work to develop new varieties with the SPIKE gene.

Malaysian scientists decode oil palm genome for better production MALAYSIA IS SET to expand its palm oil industry, thanks to the researchers in decoding oil palm genome for better yield. The discovery promises to break the deadlock in palm oil yield, which has been stagnated for many years now. This is also expected to bring comfort to the industry, which is under pressure from environmental groups calling for further restrain in opening new land for oil palm cultivation. With the expected 30 per cent improvement in yield, the oil palm will continue to widen its lead in productivity over other competing oils. Though led by Malaysians, the team had collaboration from US’ Orion Genomics. The discovery involves the identification of a single gene, called Shell, which is responsible for increasing the plant’s oil yield. For long, palm oil is a source of nearly a half of the supply of edible vegetable oil worldwide. This is now expected to be sustained for a longer term. According to MPOB directorgeneral Datuk Dr Choo Yuen May,

The discovery involves the identification of a single gene called Shell, which is responsible for increasing the plant’s oil yield

the discovery will have a significant impact on the Malaysian economy because for every one per cent increase in palm oil yields, Malaysia would gain US$330mn in income. The oil palm that is widely grown in Malaysia is a hybrid of two varieties: dura, which has thick shells and gives lower yield, and the shell-less pisifera, which makes processing difficult to separate the

palm oil from the kernel oil. The hybrid of the two is the tenera, which is the common variety cultivated. It has a thinner shell than the dura and, therefore, has better yield. Seed producers rely on selective breeding techniques to maximise plantings of tenera palms. The problem is that they often end up with up to 10 per cent of plantings, | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

which may be the low-yielding dura. This arises because of the uncontrollable wind and insect pollination. Identifying whether an oil palm plantlet is the desired shell type can take six years. This can be costly because, by then, the trees cannot be uprooted. The identification of Shell has enabled the development of a simple molecular screen that can be used with seeds and plantlets to prevent the cultivation of undesired nontenera plants, thereby, raising the efficiency of oil palm plantations. The researchers also are hopeful that the public release of the genome will allow other scientists to pinpoint more genes that might be useful for improving oil palm trees, such as resisting drought and diseases. Genome-driven improvements to oil palm trees, the researchers argue, could allow farmers to produce more oil on less land. They also claimed that the genome will help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.


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Frequent harvest leads to more agriculture produce Cropping frequency is already increasing on the existing agricultural lands in Asian countries of China and India, raising the global food production supply ORE FREQUENT HARVEST could substantially boost global food production on existing agricultural lands, according to a study. The study, published in Environmental Research Letters, tracked global harvest trends of 177 crops between 1961 and 2011. It found that the total amount of land harvested increased four times faster than the total amount of cropland between 2000 and 2011, suggesting that harvest frequency was on the rise. The harvest gap is the difference between the yearly maximum potential and the actual harvest frequency for 2000–2011. A harvest gap of 0 indicates harvest is maximized, while a harvest gap of 1 implies the potential for an additional harvest each year. Harvesting existing cropland more frequently could substantially increase global food production without clearing more land for agriculture, according to a new study from the Institute on the Environment (IonE) at the University of Minnesota in the US. The researchers found that Asia, Africa and Latin America have the highest concentration of potential harvest gaps. Brazil, for example, which on average harvests its croplands nearly once per year, has a harvest gap of 0.9, suggesting that on its current arable lands, a second harvest is possible each year. Closing the gap would boost crop production on existing croplands without resorting to further clearing for agriculture, and so could potentially reduce the pressure to destroy additional rain forest.


Harvest Frequency Risky Increased harvest frequency also holds potential for mitigating risk under a changing climate. Worldwide, the researchers found that closing harvest gaps worldwide could theoretically boost production more than 44 per cent. “Could existing arable lands get more


The researchers found that closing harvest gaps across the globe could theoretically boost production more than 44 per cent

In their efforts to increase crop harvest frequency, producers must also be wary of the extent of deterioration of soil, water and the agricultural land base frequent harvests, and what is the upper limit?” asked Deepak Ray, lead author of the study. To answer that question, he introduced a new concept: harvest gap. Harvest gap is also the difference between actual per-year harvest frequency and the maximum potential frequency. Dr Ray and the study’s co-author, IonE director Jonathan Foley, estimated that on average an extra harvest is being missed globally every two years due to the presence of this harvest gap. Dr Ray notes the study amounts to “scientific eyeballing,” since only national data were available and for just 177 crops. To fully quantify the potential impact, more local data is required, and local farmers would have to weigh the benefits against the costs of additional harvests, which may turn out to be prohibitive. In addition, the researchers note that efforts to increase crop harvest frequency must also be wary of the extent of deterioration of soil,

water and the agricultural land base. “Depending on local environmental conditions, agronomic practices and social contexts, increasing cropland harvest frequency could present a short-term gain in crop production, with long-term losses in agricultural yields and environmental conditions. Only when increasing frequency of harvests is done sustainably is this strategy a potential way to address some of the challenges of crop production and food security,” they said. Localised studies suggest that farmers around the world already are benefiting from increasing the number of harvests. “Introduction of second crops, generally corn following the primary soybean crop, has increased local incomes across economic sectors,” the report noted. Countries in which cropping frequency already is increasing include India, China and Brazil. However, others, including many African nations, have shown a decline in recent years. More frequent cropping, the authors said, represents a potentially powerful “third way” of increasing food production, in addition to expanding cropland and increasing harvest yields, both of which are widely studied by IonE researchers. “The challenge for our generation is to meet growing food demands without destroying our environment. Increasing cropland harvest frequency is another piece toward solving the global food security puzzle,” Foley said. n


S07 FEAG 6 2013 Equipment_Layout 1 19/12/2013 14:16 Page 27


Claas’ flagship tractor series feature new look WITH OVER 500 horsepower, the new Claas Xerion 4000, 4500 and 5000 series is one of the world's most powerful tractors. It is ready to be launched in January 2014. The revised line, comprising the 530hp 5000, 490hp 4500 and 435hp 4000, replaces the smaller 3300 and 3800 machines which had been dropped two years ago, Claas said. Along with heavy cultivation, the re-furbished Xerion series can now count silage clamp use and other specialist functions such as wood chipping and mulching among its applications.

Claas Xerion 5000 Series

The Xerion’s new Mercedes Benz sixcylinder engine uses SCR catalytic converter technology to meet the Stage IV (Tier-4) exhaust gas purification standard. A common-rail engine, it achieves maximum torque at as low as 1,300 rpm and remains torque-stable over a wide engine speed range, which is of particular benefit to users in hightraction applications. While the Xerion 4000 features an 11-litre cubic capacity under its hood, the larger two share the same 13-litre 12.8 engine. A hydraulically-driven reversible fan with automatic speed adjustment works via a number of input factors, including coolant and hydraulic or transmission oil temperature, to engage only when necessary. All three new models utilise the company’s TRAC concept (centrally-positioned fixed cab) and com in Trac VC (rotating cab) versions. The 4000 can also be had in Saddle Trac (forwardmounted fixed cab) configuration. The transmission is delivered using either the ZF Eccom 4.5 or the Eccom 5.0 which each perform different functions. The ZF Eccom 4.5 covers driving forwards and in reverse with full power and full speed both available. With a reverse speed of 30kph, the ZF Eccom 5.0 transmission is nevertheless more cost effective being around 700 kg lighter and available with or without PTO coupling. Another new feature of the XERION series is the cross bracing between the side members of the chassis, which is now bolted on rather than welded.

John Deere new 5M tractors more versatile than predecessor AVAILABLE FROM JANUARY 2014, John Deere's new generation 5M Series utility tractors are suitable for a wide range of sports turf, local authority, commercial and horticultural applications, from mowing to trailer and front loader work. Replacing the previous 5M Series launched in 2009, this new range consists of four higher horsepower models from 75 to 115hp, all featuring fuel-efficient, Stage III B compliant engine technology and a choice of transmission options. Compared to previous models, these new front loaders have been redesigned to provide more accuracy and improved reach, so the full lift height can be utilised to dump material into trailers for example. The redesigned 5075M, 5085M, 5100M and 5115M will be available: • With a proven standard cab for all four models, which offers high levels of operator comfort and visibility • With a newly designed low-profile cab which reduces overall height to less than 2.5 metres. These versatile models are designed for use in and around low buildings, or for applications that require tractors with a low centre of gravity for transporting and hauling operations • With an integrated open operator station (IOOS), available on the three larger models • As a newly designed 5M Narrow version with an overall maximum width of 1.72m. These tractors meet the needs of horticultural and specialist producers, including vineyards, fruit and hop farms.

The 5115M tractors offer operator comfort

The transmissions are available with a ground drive pto as well as in a creeper version, which can reduce the speed to 300 metres/hr at rated engine speed. They also feature a unique park lock as standard, which ensures that the tractor stops safely when parked on steep slopes. A number of additional options are available for operating a wide range of mounted implements and trailers. These include a joystick control with a memory function, for operating loaders or front-mounted implements. As a further option, an integrated gear shift button on the joystick allows the operator to change gears using a single lever during loader work. John Deere's exclusive mid-frame design on the 5M Series not only offers additional strength and durability but also reduces noise and vibrations. For extra versatility the tractors can be equipped with an optional front hitch, front pto and matching H Series front loader, the H260 or H310. Visibility has been improved with a new hood guard, and there is an additional 12 degrees of roll-back to make filling the loader bucket more efficient.

Lamborghini tractors debut in India SPORTS CAR MAKER Lamborghini made its debut its range of luxurious tractors in the Indian market recently. The Italian company, associated with sports car, has been manufacturing tractors since mid-1950s that bear its distinct styling and engineering hallmarks. However, SDF Group acquired the ownership of the Lamborghini brand of tractors as part of its acquisition of Trattori Lamborghini in 1973. The Lamborghini Nitro tractor recently received the 2014 “Golden Tractor for Design” award at Agritechnica show held recently in Hanover (Germany). The tractor is being manufactured at SDF’s India plant in Ranipet and exported to other nations. This plant is also global production hub for many of SDF’s internationally renowned tractor models including DEUTZ-FAHR, the company said. Bhanu Sharma, CEO, SDF India, said, “We are thrilled to launch this beautiful Lamborghini Tractor in India. Highly popular abroad, Lamborghini has won the hearts of many across the globe and I am confident the same story will be repeated here. “With this launch, SDF is all set to define the concept of high-end utility tractors in the Indian market, on the lines of its global offerings”. With its initial target market comprising rich farmers, golf courses, vineyards, cricket stadia and luxury resorts in India, the company said that it seeks to create a whole Lamborghini Nitro tractor new segment in the tractors market. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013


S07 FEAG 6 2013 Equipment_Layout 1 19/12/2013 14:16 Page 28


CNH Industrial Group’s tractors win accolades at Agritechnica 2013 CNH INDUSTRIAL GROUP’S agricultural equipment and machinery brands Case IH and New Holland Agriculture won a number of awards at Agritechnica 2013 held recently in Hanover. Both the Case IH Quadtrac tractor and the New Holland T8 Auto Command tractor won the ‘Machine of the Year 2014’ award in their respective categories, while New Holland’s Opti-Speed

strawwalker technology and the Cornrower for Maize Headers received silver medals in the Innovation category. The latest generation 2014 series Case IH Quadtrac tractor won in the XXL Tractor division. This new model delivers the highest performance levels coupled with optimum traction and maximum ground protection together with a unique design

Case IH Quadtrac

Standen-Reflex to launch robotic weeder


and engineering concept that allows for a large area of ground contact in every situation, including damp or difficult ground conditions. The T8 Auto Command tractor from New Holland won the award in L Tractor division for its ability to offer ultimate in-field performance in high speed cultivation tasks, making it ideal for a number of large scale transport operations. The Opti-Speed strawwalker delivers up to 10 per cent higher productivity by automatically

varying the strawwalker speed based on a field’s incline. The Cornrower for Maize Headers, a superfine chop system, is a key part of New Holland’s Clean Energy Leader strategy to improve farming productivity and sustainability. This technology reduces operation time and cost while ensuring improved combustion and fermentation. The Agritechnica Innovations 2013 awards series recognises the leading technologies and new developments in the agricultural equipment and machinery sector.

Bomford to reintroduce the Dyna-Drive cultivator

STANDEN-REFLEX WILL BE launching Steketee IC automatic weeder, which can operate at speeds of up to 3.5kph, in 2014. The machine, developed with Wageningen University, uses four cameras to see the crops, with an enclosed hood to prevent sunlight or shade from affecting the machine’s performance. Instead, LED lighting is used to improve precision and also for night operation. From the camera, the computer can decipher the height, width and colour of the crop. That allows it to control exactly when the weeder blade passes between the plants. The control console is also wifi-enabled so the machine can be controlled remotely. Adjustments available on the console include compensation for the height and width of plants, colour shade and the entry and exit time delay between plants. Other information available are the hours worked and compressor oil temperature.

Steketee IC automatic weeder

New Holland T8 Auto Command

BOMFORD IS SET to reintroduce its Dyna-Drive cultivator in 2014. Originally introduced in the 1980s, the production ceased 10 years ago. According to the UK-based company, the decision to reintroduce the Dyna-Drive comes as arable farmers look to control blackgrass and other weeds by using a cultivator or harrows to quickly go over stubbles in fields. This encourages weed seeds to chit so they can then be sprayed off prior to drilling. One of the key design features is that the two rotors are not pto-driven. This reduces power requirement so forward speed is not restricted and large areas can be covered quickly, according to a report. Initially the Dyna-Drive will be available in working widths of 2.6m, 3m, 4m and 5m, Bomford added. Minimum suggested power requirements range from 80hp up to about 160hp for the 5m model. At an average forward speed of about 12kph, typically outputs of 3.13ha/hour up to 6ha/hour can be achieved. The machine comprises two ground-driven rotors, linked by a heavyduty drive chain. Fitted with alternating left- and right-twisted tines, the forward tines on the front rotor initially penetrate, then lift and break up soils. The backward-facing tines on the rear roller then firm the broken-up soil and leave a level finish. Bomford’s marketing manager Chris Tucker, said, “The Dyna-Drive was also very popular throughout Europe. The reaction to having the new machine at this year’s Agritechnica was incredible and resulted in potential orders for up to 50 machines already.”


S07 FEAG 6 2013 Equipment_Layout 1 19/12/2013 14:16 Page 29


Schauer FarmManger for online pig management in realtime SCHAUER LAUNCHES FARMMANAGER, an online pig husbandry management tool for livestock farmers. The software processes feed and water consumption data together with technical system information in real time. Schauer FarmManager is the first-class solution not only for the manager who needs status information from all his farm locations but also for the area manager who wants to see information from a detailed area, which is necessary for making decisions.

health problem. A sudden decrease in feed or water consumption or changes in the feeding order in groups of sows are initial symptoms that occur before illnesses become apparent. In pig farming, one needs to run the operation as cost-efficiently as possible, identify problems early on and respond to them. Data on feeding, ventilation etc. are stored permanently in a central database, analysed and displayed for the user in a clear arrangement. If a problem crops up, various actions (email, text message, video recording) are triggered, depending on how the system has been configured. Schauer FarmManager has multi-user capability, is multilingual and can easily be adapted to any equipment.

Schauer FarmManager is intuitive and easy-to-use

According to the company, Schauer FarmManager is intuitive and easy-to-use for monitoring the health of the swines. There is a wide range of different data and perspectives available for individual animals or groups along with changes in the time pattern that may be an indication of a

Features in a glance: • Coupling to Schauer feeding systems (individual animals’ feed consumption). • Cameras with alarm-controlled recording including past minutes. • Alarm centre with automatic response and transfer to Email or by SMS to cell phone. • External systems and sensors like monitoring of water consumption or feed consumption by monitoring the feed use out of silos.

Breeding for 500 Eggs! | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013


S08 FEAG 6 2013 Pig Buyers Guide_Layout 1 19/12/2013 14:22 Page 30

Pig Buyers’ Guide

2 0 1 3

Section One - Listings by categories Section Two - List of suppliers Section Three - Contact details of agents in Asia PLEASE MENTION FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE WHEN CONTACTING YOUR SUPPLIERS

CATEGORIES Section One All Equipment

Probiotics Int. Ltd. (Protexin)


MIK International AG


Evolution Vaccination Technology

Feed Additives, Natural

Big Dutchman Pig Equipment GmbH

Schauer Agrotronic GmbH


Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH

Eurofeed Technologies S.p.A. Olmix

WEDA Dammann & Westerkamp GmbH


Hotraco Agri b.v

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Environmental Control

Probiotics Int. Ltd. (Protexin)

MIK International AG

Manure Treatment

Big Dutchman Pig Equipment GmbH

Schauer Agrotronic GmbH

Feed Ingredients

Schauer Agrotronic GmbH

Hotraco Agri b.v

Eurofeed Technologies S.p.A.

WEDA Dammann & Westerkamp GmbH


Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Probiotics Int. Ltd. (Protexin)

WEDA Dammann & Westerkamp GmbH

Exports Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH

Evolution Vaccination Technology

Awila Anlagenbau GmbH

Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH

Big Dutchman Pig Equipment GmbH

Probiotics Int. Ltd. (Protexin)

Hotraco Agri b.v


Impex Barneveld b.v

Feed Awila Anlagenbau GmbH

Feed Additives Eurofeed Technologies S.p.A.

Health Products

Feeding Systems

Schauer Agrotronic GmbH WEDA Dammann & Westerkamp GmbH

Eurofeed Technologies S.p.A.

Veterinary Instruments Evolution Vaccination Technology Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH

Impex Barneveld b.v Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Watering Equipment Big Dutchman Pig Equipment GmbH Impex Barneveld b.v

Mould Inhibitors

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Eurofeed Technologies S.p.A.

Pork Processing

Big Dutchman Pig Equipment GmbH Hotraco Agri b.v Impex Barneveld b.v

WEDA Dammann & Westerkamp GmbH

Salmonella Control

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Eurofeed Technologies S.p.A.


Awila Anlagenbau GmbH Dillen 1, Lastrup 49688 Germany Tel: +49 44 728920 Fax: +49 44 72892220 Web: E-mail:

Big Dutchman Pig Equipment GmbH PO Box 1163, Vechta 49360 Germany Tel: +49 44 47801-0 Fax: +49 44 47801237 Web: E-mail:


On five continents in more than 100 countries of the world, the name Big Dutchman stands for long lasting quality, rapid, worldwide service and unsurpassed know how. Big Dutchman’s equipment for the pig sector ranges from simple systems via computer-controlled systems to turn-key projects. It includes installations for sow management, piglet rearing and pig finishing. Reliably functioning feeding systems for liquid, wet and dry feeding as well as safely functioning climate concepts are also part of their complete range of products. Agents: China - Big Dutchman (Tianjin) Livestock Equipment Co. Ltd. Supply Chain & After-Sales Service Office Japan - Fuji Kasei Co. Ltd. Korea - Bongdong Agrico. Ltd. Korea - HK Global Trading Co. Ltd. Philippines - Asia Giant Enterprises Poultry & Livestock Equipment Taiwan - Global Ace Trading Co. Thailand - BD Agriculture Ltd. Vietnam - Big Dutchman Vietnam HCM Rep. Office of BD Agriculture Sdn. Bhd Vietnam - P & N Agro Business Co. Ltd.


Eurofeed Technologies S.p.A.

Evolution Vaccination Technology

Via L.Einaudi 12 loc Bettolino Brancido (BS) 25030 Italy Tel: +39 030 6864682/9973064 Fax: +39 030 6866560 Web: E-mail:

Shirehill Industrial Estate Saffron Walden Essex CB113AQ United Kingdom Tel: +44 844 8541731 Fax: +44 844 8541732 Web: E-mail: Manufacturers of ultra-reliable, easy to use vaccination equipment.


S08 FEAG 6 2013 Pig Buyers Guide_Layout 1 19/12/2013 14:22 Page 31

Pig Buyers’ Guide

Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH Keltenstrasse 1 Tuttlingen 78532 Germany Tel: +49 7462 9466118 Fax: +49 7462 94665209 Web: E-mail: Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH, with location in Tuttlingen / Germany is a leading manufacturer, with more than 90 years of experience in designing and producing veterinary syringes, needles and application systems. Our products stand out with their innovative and modern design, stateof-the art-production techniques and continuous quality control measures. Agents: Indonesia - Pesona Scientific Korea - Yushin Corporation Philippines - P&J Agricultural Trading Taiwan - Ennchih Co. Ltd.

Hotraco Agri b.v Stationsstraat 142 Hegelsom 5963 The Netherlands Tel: +31 77 3275020 Fax: +31 77 3275021 Web: E-mail: Agents: China - Hotraco Agriculture Systems Beijing Co. Ltd. Japan - Fa. Hosoya and Co. Ltd. Japan - Onda Co. Ltd. Japan - Yoshida L'SYS Inc. Korea - JLFA Co. Korea - Myung Sung System Co. Ltd. Thailand - Systemate Co. Ltd

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG Lubingstrasse 6, Barnstorf 49406 Germany Tel: +49 5442 98790 Fax: +49 5442 987933 Web: E-mail: Agents: China - Lubing System Engineering (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd. India - Lubing India Pvt. Ltd. Indonesia - PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia Poultry Equipment Division Japan - Hytem Co. Ltd. Malaysia - Tong Seh Industries Supply Sdn Bhd Pakistan - Ample Trade Impex Thailand - KSP Equipment Co. Ltd. Vietnam - DONG A Material-Veterinary JSC

Harselaarseweg 129 The Netherlands Tel: +31 34 2416641 Fax: +31 34 2412826 Web: E-mail: Impex Barneveld BV is a pioneer and specialist in drinking equipment for poultry, pigs and livestock. Impex automatic AGRILANDÂŽ drinking systems originate from the need for efficient animal breeding automation and are perfected by our technical staff with more than 45 years of experience in the coordination of automation for poultry and pig management.

Schaumann Agri International GmbH An der Muhlenau 4 Pinneberg 25421 Germany Tel:+49 4101 2185300 Fax:+49 4101 2185399 Agent: China - Schaumann Agri Trading (Shanghai) Co. Ltd.

WEDA Dammann & Westerkamp GmbH Am Bahnhof 10 Lutten 49424 Germany Tel: +49 44 4187050 Fax: +49 44 415500 Web: As full-line provider of product solutions in the domain of pig management, Weda - Dammann & Westerkamp GmbH is one of the internationally market-leading enterprises of this branch of trade. Our slogan, >>We care about pigs<< communicates the guiding idea of our enterprise. Pig is what our activities are focussed on.

MIK International AG Masselbachstr. 22, Ransbach-Baumbach 56235 Germany Tel: +49 2922 885800 Fax: +49 2922 885870 Web: E-mail:

Olmix ZA du Haut du Bois, Brehan 56580 France Tel: +33 2 97388103 Fax: +33 2 97388658 Web: E-mail: Agents: Vietnam - Olmix Asia Pacific Representative Office

AGENTS Section Three Bangladesh Novartis (Bangladesh) Ltd. House 50 Road 2A Dhake 1209 Tel: +880 2 8615302 Fax: +880 2 8613489

China Bejing Kingpeng Global Husbandry Technology Co. Ltd.

Probiotics Int. Ltd. (Protexin)

Impex Barneveld b.v

Agents: China - Bejing Kingpeng Global Husbandry Technology Co. Ltd. China - GSI Group Shanghai Philippines - Broad Science Phil. Corporation Taiwan - Broad Science Co. Ltd.

Lopen Head, Somerset, TA135JH United Kingdom Tel: +44 1460 243230 Fax: +44 1460 249543 Web: E-mail: Agents: Bangladesh - Novartis Ltd. India - Novartis India Ltd. Indonesia - Novindo Agritech Hutama Korea - Jaein Biotech Co. Ltd. Malaysia - Agritech Enterprise Sdn Bhd Pakistan - Hilton Pharma Pvt. Ltd. Philippines - Prebiotech Health Products Phils Taiwan - Nedtex Co. Thailand - Novartis (Thailand) Ltd.

7th Floor Advanced Material Building No. 7 Beijing 10094 Tel: +86 10 58711009 Fax: +86 10 58711003 Web: E-mail:

Big Dutchman (Tianjin) Livestock Equipment Co. Ltd. Supply Chain & After-Sales Service Office No.21 Shuangyuan Road Beichen Economic Development Zone Tianjin 300400 Tel: +86 22 26970158 Fax: +86 22 26970157 Web: E-mail:

GSI Group Shanghai 6th Floor Building 7 No.51 Xinzhuan Road Shanghai 201612 Tel: +86 21 61159777/6607 Fax: +86 21 61920880 Web: E-mail:

Hypor PO Box 114 Boxmeer 5830 The Netherlands Tel: +31 485 801951 Fax: +31 485 801952 Web: E-mail:

Schauer Agrotronic GmbH Passauerstrasse 1 Prambachkirchen, 4731 Austria Tel: +43 72 7723260 Fax: +43 72 77232622 Web: E-mail: | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013


S08 FEAG 6 2013 Pig Buyers Guide_Layout 1 19/12/2013 14:22 Page 32

Pig Buyers’ Guide Hotraco Agriculture Systems Beijing Co. Ltd. A206 Chuangye Mansio Yingbin, North Road Yanjiao Sanhe City Hebei Province E-mail:

Institut de Sélection Animale P/A Building 36-3-602 Nan Shi Li Ju Jiu Xian Qiao Chaoyang District, Beijing 100016 China Tel: +81 568 34 0607 Fax: +81 568 34 0607

Lubing System Engineering (Shenzhen) Co. Ltd. Song Ming Industrial Park Gongming Town Guangming Dist., Shenzhen City Guangdong Province 518106 Tel: +86 755 27411888 Fax: +86 755 27411124 Web: E-mail:

Schaumann Agri Trading (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. Room T3-16B 2601 Xietu Road Shanghai 200030 Tel: +86 21 51878630 Fax: +86 21 51878631 Web: E-mail:

India Lubing India Pvt. Ltd. 271/P/B Ingawale Patil Estate Bhugaon, Paud Road Tal Mulshi Pune Maharashtra 411042 Tel: +91 20 2952404/9890996030 Fax: +91 20 2952403 Web: E-mail:

Novartis India Ltd. Animal Health Business Unit Dr. Annie Besant Road Worli Mumbai Tel: +91 22 66156768 Fax: +91 22 66156764

Indonesia Novindo Agritech Hutama Duta MAs Fatmawati Blok A1/39 Cipete Utara - Kebayoran Baru Jakarta Tel: +62 21 7245986 Fax: +62 21 7220373 E-mail:

Pesona Scientific Komplek Kopo Mas Regency Bandung Tel: +62 22 5430583 Fax: +62 22 5430314 E-mail:


PT. Charoen Pokphand Indonesia Poultry Equipment Division Jl. Raya Serang Km 30 Balaraja, Tangerang 15610 Tel: +62 215951187 Fax: +62 215951013 Web: E-mail:

PT ISA Indonesia Plaza 3 Pondok Indah JL TB Simatupang Blok F/7 Jakarta 12310 Indonesia Tel: +62 21 766 1515 Fax: +62 21 766 1616

Japan Fa. Hosoya and Co. Ltd. 6-8-37 Ochiaiminami. Ayase-shi Kanagawa-Ken 252-1115 Tel: +81 467 781881 Fax: +81 467 761887 E-mail:

Fuji Kasei Co. Ltd. Shiguma Industrial Park 1004-5, Anaki-Cho Kumamoto City, Kumamoto-Pref. 861-5501 Tel: +81 96 2453711 Fax: +81 96 2453770 E-mail:

Hytem Co. Ltd. 2-10 Techno Plaza Kakamigahara City, Gifu 509-0109 Tel: +81 58 3850505 Fax: +81 58 3851230 Web: E-mail:

ISA Japan Company Ltd. Kachigawa-cho 7-37-E1203 Kasugai, Aichi 486-0945 Japan Tel: +81 568 34 0607 Fax: +81 568 34 0607

Onda Co. Ltd. Ibaraki-ken 300-2666 Shimobeppu Tsukuba-shi 327-1 E-mail:

Korea Bongdong Agrico. Ltd. 1207-11, Bongdong-Ri Yeomnu-Eup Nonsan-Si Chungcheongnam-Do Tel: +82 10 43713040 Fax: +82 41 7413788 E-mail:

HK Global Trading Co. Ltd. Samjoo 10F, 606 Gangnam Main Road Gangnam - Go, Seoul Tel: +82 42 6244101 Fax: +82 42 6272626

Jaein Biotech Co. Ltd. No. 617 Expotel Seo-Gu Daejeon-City Tel: +82 42 47219667 Fax: +82 42 4721968 E-mail:

JLFA Co. Sinbong-ri 1306, Yeongin-myeon,Asan-si Chungcheongnam-do 336-822 Tel: +82 11 3298987 Fax: +82 31 6295317 E-mail:

Myung Sung System Co. Ltd. 43-3 Jinan-dong Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-do 445390 Tel: +82 31 2357745 Fax: +82 31 2357819 E-mail:

Yoshida L'SYS Inc. 155 Yoshida,Fujita-Cho Wakayama-Pref. Gobo-shi 649-1342 Japan E-mail:

Yushin Corporation 7F, 751 Bldg. Kangnam-Ku Seoul Tel: +82 2 5682525 Fax: +82 2 5693113 E-mail:

Malaysia Agritech Enterprise Sdn Bhd 22 Jalan SS 4C/5 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Tel: +60 3 78033226 Fax: +60 3 78033911 E-mail:

Tong Seh Industries Supply Sdn Bhd Lot 780, Block A Jalan Sg.Putus Off Jalan Kapar 3 3/4 Miles. Klang, Selangor 42100 Tel: +60 332 916958 Fax: +60 332 915198 Web: E-mail:

Pakistan Ample Trade Impex Office 3-4, 2nd Floor Sarjah Centre, 62 Shadman Market Lahore Tel: +92 42 7584400 Fax: +92 42 7532102 Web: E-mail:

Hilton Pharma Pvt. Ltd. Progressive Plaza Karachi Tel: +92 21 111123000 Fax: +92 21 111124000 E-mail: khalid@


Broad Science Phil. Corporation Ortigas Center Passig City Manila Tel: +63 2 6331876 Fax: +63 2 6331339 E-mail:

P&J Agricultural Trading 184, St. Antonio Avenue Manila Tel: +63 2 640053 E-mail:

Prebiotech Health Products Phils 1508 (Unit 305) Southgate Bldg Madrigal Business Park Ayala Alabang Muntinlupa City Tel: +63 2 8099848 Fax: +63 2 8099848 E-mail:

Taiwan Broad Science Co. Ltd. No. 16, Kejia Rd. Douliu City, Yunlin County 640 Tel: +886 5 5511822 Fax: +886 5 5511833 E-mail:

Ennchih Co. Ltd. No. 310 Chung Shan S. Rd Tel: +886 3 4758168 Fax: +886 3 4753803 E-mail:

Global Ace Trading Co. 11F-1, No.239 I Hsin 1st Road Kaohsiung Tel: +886 7 3335481 Fax: +886 7 3314190 E-mail:

Nedtex Co. 5F, Tung Sheng Bldg Taipei Tel: +886 2 27352233 Fax: +886 2 27328834 E-mail:

Thailand BD Agriculture Ltd. Block F7 & F8, 41/76-77 Moo 6 Bangna-Trad Rd Km 16.5 Bangchalong Bangplee Samutprakarn 10540 Tel: +66 2 3496531 Fax: +66 2 3496535 Web: E-mail:

Asia Giant Enterprises Poultry & Livestock Equipment

Institut de Sélection Animale

Unit 403 Goldhill Tower #5 Annapolis St Greenhills San Juan 1500 Metro Manila Tel: +63 2 7236347/48/62469 Fax: +63 2 7253942/7236708 E-mail:

P/A 160/813 ITF Silom Palace Building Silom Road Bangrak Bangkok 10500 Tel: +66 2 267 7834 Fax: +66 2 267 7835

KSP Equipment Co. Ltd. 51/845 Moo 3 Tumbon Lamsai Amphoe Wang Noi Pranakhonsi Ayuttaya 13170 Tel: +66 2 8176410 Fax: +66 2 8176439 Web: E-mail:

Novartis Ltd. 622 Emporium Tower Sukhumvit Road Bangkok Tel: +66 2 6850999 Fax: +66 2 6850909

Systemate Co. Ltd 688/102 Ruenrudee 5 Village Hathairat Rd Klongsamwa Bangchan Bangkok 10510 Tel: +66 2 50981245 Fax: +66 2 9445243 E-mail:

Vietnam Big Dutchman Vietnam HCM Rep. Office of BD Agriculture (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd Saigon Royal Building Unit 203, 2nd Floor 91 Pasteur St. Ben Nghe Ward Dis.1 Tel: +84 8 39390948/ 39390949 Fax: +84 8 39390951 E-mail:

DONG A Material-Veterinary JSC 62 Ho Tung Mau Caudien Tuliem Hanoi Tel: +84 43 7632583 Fax: +84 43 7632602 Web: E-mail:

Olmix Asia Pacific Representative Office 136 Hoa Lan Street Ward 2, Phu Nhuan District Ho Chi Minh City Tel: +84 8 35172098 Fax: +84 8 35172163 Web: E-mail:

P & N Agro Business Co. Ltd. 798 Truong Sa street ward 14, district 3 Ho Chi Minh City Tel: +84 8 8465765 Fax: +84 8 9350687 E-mail:


S08 FEAG 6 2013 Pig Buyers Guide_Layout 1 19/12/2013 14:22 Page 33


Researchers tweak sorghum genes for bioenergy SORGHUM IS ESSENTIALLY used as an animal feed and also for human consumption. Researchers are now looking to develop this plant to fulfil future bioenergy requirements. Although sorghum lines underwent adaptation to be grown in temperate climates decades ago, a University of Illinois researcher said that he and his team have completed the first comprehensive genomic analysis of the molecular changes behind that adaptation. Patrick Brown, assistant professor in plant breeding and genetics, said that having a complete characterisation of the locations affecting specific traits in the sorghum genes will speed up the adaptation of the plant and other related grasses to new production systems for both food and fuel. Brown is currently working on the project through the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) at the University of Illinois, hoping to use the sorghum findings as a launching pad for working with complex genomes of other feedstocks. The EBI provided the startup funding for the study. The researchers used a new technique called genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to map genetic differences in 1160 sorghum lines. Brown says GBS is a new technology developed in the past two years. Brown and his team, along with other researchers, have made refinements to the process. “Using GBS, we’re now able to cover the whole genome with some gaps in individual lines,” he says. While much improvement has been done for grain sorghum, Brown said little improvement has been done for sweet or bioenergy types. “Part of the reason for caring about all of that now is that up to this point sorghum has mostly been grown for grain. But now there is a lot of interest in using sorghum for other things, such as growing sweet sorghum in areas where they grow sugarcane, and growing biomass sorghum for bioenergy through combustion or cellulosic technology.”

Getting a complete map of the traits of sorghum such as plant height and maturity will help researchers unlock the diversity in the exotic lines and bring it into grain sorghum, Brown says. “We’ll be able to start moving forward. We’ll basically be able to breed all these sorghum types more easily and use the genes that we bred for in grain sorghum over the last hundred years and move them into sweet sorghum and biomass sorghum. We think that finding those genes is going to be critical,” he says. On the other hand, Brown added that if improvements are to be made for sweet, forage or biomass sorghum, researchers will need to bring in some of the genes from grain sorghum, for traits like seed quality or early-season vigour. “However, the bigger problem with biomass sorghum right now is the moisture content of the biomass. Unlike miscanthus or switchgrass, where you can go in and harvest in February when it’s pretty much bone dry, and all the nitrogen has already been moved back down underground, sorghum doesn’t work that way,” Brown said. Because biomass sorghum is grown annually, growing until frost comes, when it is harvesed, it has a high moisture content. “When we cut it down, there’s tonnes of biomass. I don’t know that there’s anything else that can match it in the area, but the biomass is really high moisture. For the existing cellulosic idea as it stands now, that is not very useful,” he said. “That’s one of the roadblocks to biomass sorghum right now,” he said. “Right now, we’re using sorghum as a model — maybe we can find sorghum genes that we can also tinker with in miscanthus or sugarcane,” he said. Another gene found shows that sorghum produces a huge amount of antioxidant in the outer layer of the grain. “It produces 10 times more antioxidant than blueberries. There is stuff to work out with all of this,” Brown concluded.

A new technique called genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been used to map genetic differences in 1160 sorghum lines | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

Turn agri and aqua waste into renewable energy

AN INNOVATIVE NEW three-year research project will see the aquaculture, agriculture and biogas sectors working together to develop renewable energy. The initiative demonstrates how improving sustainability, reducing waste and achieving operational efficiencies can be achieved simultaneously. The EU-funded pilot project, known as BIFFiO, would play an important role in contributing towards the EU goal of sourcing 20 per cent of Europe’s energy demands from renewable energy systems by the year 2020, according to a report. The agriculture and aquaculture sectors are under tremendous pressure to reduce their environmental impact. Both sectors produce a great deal of waste, which is often untreated and unused. The BIFFiO project aims to tackle this issue by developing an economic and resource efficient system for handling mixed waste agriculture and turning into usable energy. The main concept of the project is to mix waste that is readily available from fish farms and manure waste from the agriculture industry in a reactor for production of biogas, which, in turn, can be used to fill the need for renewable energy in the aquaculture industry and supply fertiliser products to the agriculture industry. The project, which was launched in November 2013, will first of all investigate how waste can best be used to create renewable energy, and examine what nutrients can be recovered for other uses. The next objective will be to shrink current state-of-the-art technologies used in large scale waste treatment to farm-scale, so that efficient and economical biogas energy can be produced locally on or near a farm site. Over the next three years, the project team will also address the challenges currently faced by industry, and look at new ways of meeting regulatory requirements. The US$1.61mn project is scheduled for completion in October 2016.


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Mycotoxins and Ammonium are responsible for severe economical losses in livestock industry


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Moreover There is a growing realisation that responsible markets and agriculture trade policies are needed to reduce the volatility of rice prices and avoid a repeat of the 2007/08 food crisis

Rice strategy for Asia-Pacific will improve sustainability The proposed plan seeks to improve environmental friendly farming, keeping in mind the global climatic changes and effects of fertilisers and post-harvest losses SIA AND THE Pacific region is a step closer towards adopting a regional rice strategy, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) announced after its External Rice Advisory Group (ERAG) recently came up with an outline to formulate a rice strategy for the Asia-Pacific region. Hiroyuki Konuma, assistant director-general and regional representative, said, “A regional rice strategy for Asia will contribute to the betterment of people in this region, especially small farmers a majority of whom depend upon rice for their livelihoods — economically, socially and environmentally. Indeed, without rice, no sustainable development can be achieved in this region and beyond. In 2012, at the FAO Regional Conference for Asia and the Pacific in Hanoi, Vietnam, FAO member countries asked the organisation to streamline the development of a regional rice strategy because policy-makers in Asia want to make rice farming more environmental-friendly and sustainable. A rice production strategy for Asia and the Pacific must be based on sound assessments of global demand, taking into account that rice is a somewhat differentiated commodity with demand outlook being influenced by its various types. FAO established the ERAG as an advisory body on the formulation of an Asia-Pacific rice strategy. Professor MS Swaminathan is the


chairperson of the ERAG and the group’s team leader is RB Singh, former FAO assistant director-general and regional representative for Asia and the Pacific. Rice farming is facing several new challenges, such as global climate change and the need to reduce the environmental footprint of rice farming, while increasing the efficiency of inputs like seeds, fertiliser and water. The fact that some rice growing areas lag far behind other regions and the need to ensure that the benefits of rice farming accrue equitably to women farmers, are also the issues troubling rice production. On the other hand, according to FAO, there are several new opportunities to increase the impact of rice on hunger and poverty reduction. These include opportunities to lower post-harvest losses, raising incomes, and stabilising the market supply through value chain improvements. There is also the growing realisation that responsible markets and agriculture trade policies are needed to reduce the volatility of rice prices and avoid a repeat of the 2007/08 food crisis. Modern scientific developments are also making it possible to increase yield, reduce disaster risk, and also add nutritive value to rice. FAO warned that increased rice production is vital because Asia’s economies are undergoing structural transformation in | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Six 2013

which agriculture's contribution to the gross domestic product will be smaller, and agriculture will also employ smaller proportion of the population as the economy continues to grow. Noting that a single regional rice strategy does not capture the diversity that exists in rice production systems and policy priorities across countries, the ERAG consultation decided that the Asia-Pacific rice strategy document would be useful to policy-makers in member countries if the outputs are presented in the form of strategic options and implied trade-offs instead of being prescriptive recommendations. The rice strategy’s goals are to increase productivity and nutrient content of rice adequately to meet the rising global demand through sustainable intensification of rice production systems; to reduce environmental footprint of rice production and enhance the ecosystem functions of rice landscapes, including the protection and promotion of rice heritages and culture; to improve mitigation and adaptation of rice farming to climate change and augment farmers’ capacity to manage risk; to improve the value chain by enhancing quality, and safety and reducing post harvest losses; to improve the efficiency, reliability and fairness of domestic and international rice markets for stabilising rice prices and supply, and promote regional collaboration; and to enhance the capacity and well-being, livelihoods of small holders, youth and women farmers, especially in lagging regions, to adapt to long-term changes in demography, farm size and labour supply. n


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Far Eastern Agriculture 6 2013  

Far Eastern Agriculture 6 2013

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