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Citrus crops Choosing the right fungicide

Preview of Livestock Philippines Avoiding feed contamination Automated pig housing Poultry feed check – p13

2013: Year of rice for Philippines?

Monitoring crops to prevent wheat rust

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Bulletin A round-up of key developments in the regional market


Citrus crops Choosing the right fungicide

Agenda 6

China corn import to surge 85 per cent in 2014, Thailand and Cambodia to set up trade zone for cassava and corn, Vietnam expects bumper coffee harvest in 2013, Myanmar to boost rice exports

Preview of Livestock Philippines, Seafood expo, Inapalm 2013, Review of Indo Livestock Expo, Thailand Rice Convention 2013


Events 9

Preview of Livestock Philippines Avoiding feed contamination Automated pig housing


Poultry feed check – p13

2013: Year of rice for Philippines?

Monitoring crops to prevent wheat rust


Poultry feed management


Pig housing becoming automated


Mineral management to boost animal performance


Crops 23

Choosing the right fungicide for citrus crops


2013: Year of rice for Philippines?

Equipment 31

The latest innovation in agricultural technologies

Moreover 35

Monitoring crop to prevent wheat rusts Genome sequencing of duck species for understanding bird flu better

Advertisers Index AWILA Anlagenbau GmbH ..........................................5

Omex Agrifluids Ltd...................................................27

Brinsea Products Ltd ................................................15

Schaumann Agri International GmbH ........................13

Compact Seeds and Clones SA ................................23

SKA s.r.l. Italy ............................................................29

Diamond Engineering Ltd. ........................................19

Technical Systems ......................................................7

Eurofeed Technologies S.r.l. ......................................34

Tithebarn Ltd.............................................................21

Goizper Sociedad Cooperativa ..................................33

Unipoint AG................................................................34

Impex Barneveld b.v..................................................31

United Business Media (M) Sdn Bhd

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG ..................36

(Livestock Philippines 2013)........................................9


Algae farm hub to come up in Myanmar

MIK International AG..................................................17

Managing Editor : Kasturi Gupta Editorial and Design team: Bob Adams, Prashant AP, David Clancy, Andrew Croft, Ranganath GS, Rhonita Patnaik, Genaro Santos, Zsa Tebbit and Nicky Valsamakis Publisher: Nick Fordham Advertising Sales Director: Pallavi Pandey

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Chairman: Derek Fordham Printed by: Times Printers Private Limited Far Eastern Agriculture (ISSN 0266-8025) | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013

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Bulletin Sino-French agreement on food exports

PT TRI DINAMIKA Nusantara has been appointed as the distributor of Jansen Poultry Equipment in Indonesia. Pt Tri Dinamika Nusantara owner David Hoo said that he was extremely excited about the tie-up between the two companies. The agreement between both companies has been signed in Colony house for broiler production Bekasi, Indonesia, recently. Introduction of the Jansen Poultry Products will take place within a short time at the Indonesian Livestock Exhibition in Bali. Both companies believe that Jansen’s BroMaxx colony system for broilers is likely to become very popular in Indonesia. This modern poultry equipment enables the farmers to improve the living condition of the birds. This, in turn, results in better growth rates, better feed conversion, higher life of broilers and higher profit for the farmer. For broiler breeders, Jansen’s Premium+ laying nests will be made available in the Indonesian markets. The nests ensure that eggs are produced in a highly efficient and clean manner.

FRANCE AND CHINA have signed a cooperation agreement over food safety practices that should open up the Chinese market to French meat and foods. The agreement was signed by the French agriculture minister Stépan Le Foll and the Chinese minister of the general administration of control quality, inspection and quarantine (AQSIQ) Zhi Shupingduring. Le Foll said that food safety measures to protect the consumer have always been a priority for international trade in agricultural and food products industry. This French-Chinese cooperation will help to improve the understanding between the two countries and strengthen dialogue to reduce health barriers to trade. The agreement will be expected to benefit trade in pork products in particular and it will mark a breakthrough in opening up the market to China. The agreement has also opened discussion on potential beef exports, with both sides agreeing to abide by the international standards of the OIE – World Organization for Animal Health.

BASF to set up research centre in India THE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL group BASF has revealed plans to shift its R&D work to Asia for supporting its major expansion into the region. The company is looking at several sites to set up a global research centre for developing plant protection products in India. BASF senior vice-president for crop protection in Asia Pacific Raman Ramachandran said, “A decision has been made for setting up the centre in India.” A number of sites for the centre were being evaluated including Mumbai, he said. The investment and time-frame of setting up the centre were being considered and relevant approvals were being sought from the Indian authorities, he added. For the longer-term, BASF would also invest in a production plant in India for making crop protection products, said BASF president for crop protection in Germany Markus Heldt. The Indian manufacturing facility would be similar to BASF’s facility being built at Rudong in the Chinese province of Jiangsu. The Chinese facility would be operational in 2014 with more than 100 employees producing crop protection solutions for markets in China and Southeast Asia, Ramachandran said. In the meantime, field trials have started at BASF’s global agro research station in Pune, which was initiated in 2012.

Big Dutchman cooperates with CP Group BIG DUTCHMAN HAS signed an official partnership contract with Jiayuguan CP Modern Agriculture and Husbandry Industrial Farmers Cooperation Organisation in Jiayuguan city of Gansu province in China. From Big Dutchman Pig Equipment pig Asia business unit president Pieter Jan Brouwer, pig equipment China national sales director Kim Nielsen, pig equipment North China sales director Leiden Lei were present at the contract signing ceremony. It was also attended by Jiayuguan municipal party committee deputy secretary Wang Feng, agriculture and forestry bureau chief Jia Xingzhi, CP Lanzhou senior president Ma Jilin, CP Lanzhou vice president Li Linxing, general manager of the new project Sun Lihua and president of the Farmers Cooperation Organisation Liu Yang. The partnership between Big Dutchman and Jiayuguan CP Modern Agriculture and Husbandry Industrial Farmers Cooperation Organisation is a US$7,564,971 venture.


Photograph: BroMaxx®

New Jansen distributor in Indonesia

China inks agricultural agreement with New Zealand CHINESE AGRICULTURE MINISTER Hang Changfu has signed a Strategic Plan on Promoting Agricultural Cooperation with New Zealand’s minister for primary industries Nathan Guy. “This is an important agreement which will encourage cooperation and the sharing of knowledge to benefit both countries,” said Guy. The plan sets out areas in which both countries can benefit from each other, such as animal welfare and science, increasing productivity and building skills and knowledge. The New Zealand minister added, “This document will further build on the strong relationship that the two countries share, particularly in the agricultural sector. “The two-way trade between China and New Zealand has reached almost US$15bn. Our aim is to double bilateral trade to US$20bn by 2015 and we’re on track to achieve that goal. “The strategic plan will open wider the channels for cooperation, including between our industry organisations and companies.” The agreement will run from 2013- 017 and can be updated any time.

Perdue Agribusiness expands soybean exports to China US-BASED PERDUE AGRIBUSINESS has expanded exports of Virginia soybeans to China. China’s Dandong Port Group has agreed to buy up to 29mn bushels of soybeans from this year’s crop. Since an agreement signed in September 2011, Dandong has purchased more than 30mn bushels of soybeans. Virginia governor Bob McDonnell said that the recently signed agreement for expanding soybean exports to China was reached during a trade and marketing mission to Asia in April 2013. Perdue Agribusiness operates an export terminal in Chesapeake. Under the export agreement, Dandong can purchase up to 14 Panamax vessels of soy from Perdue. The export is expected to be ready for shipment by October 2013.


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Events 2013 AUGUST 7-9

Livestock Philippines 2013



The 10th International Congress of Plant Pathology

Beijing, China


Asia Fruit Logistica 2013

Hong Kong, China


Asean Food Conference



Asian Pig Veterinary Society Congress

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


Livestock Asia Expo & Forum 2013



Kistock (Korea International Livestock Expo)

Daegu, Korea


Palmex Indonesia 2013

Medan, Indonesia


Ildex Indonesia 2013

Jakarta, Indonesia


Leman China Swine Conference

Xi'an, China


China International Meat Industry Exhibition

Qingdao, China


Livestock Myanmar 2013 Expo & Forum

Yangon, Myanmar


International Conference on Green Agro-industry (ICGAI)

Yogyakarta, Indonesia


PIPOC 2013

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


4th International Conference on Agriculture and Animal Science

Phuket, Thailand

Record global cereal output predicted in 2013 THE FOOD AND Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the US agricultural department (USDA) have predicted record global output of cereals and oilseeds in 2013. The World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report by the USDA has predicted a record 701.1mn tonnes of cereal production for 2013-14 in the September to August cycle, up by 45.5mn tonnes over 2012-13. The prediction has been made despite a seven per cent decline in US production due to continuing drought and an April freeze. The dip is more than compensated by increases in Asia, EU, Argentina and Australia. The report predicts consumption of 694mn tonnes, higher than last year but lower than the 2011-12 record of 696mn tonnes. In India, the third advance estimates from the government pegs this year’s wheat output at 93.6mn tonnes, just short of the 2012 record. According to FAO data, wheat prices are US$324 per tonne, up 16 per cent from a year ago. However, its own prediction of a wheat harvest of 695mn tonnes for the calendar year 2013 has raised hopes that the prices might ease up. Rice production was also predicted by USDA to reach a record level of 479.3mn tonnes, up nine million from 2012/13 on the back of record to near-record rice crops in India, Thailand and Vietnam. Rice consumption, too, will hit a record 476.8mn tonnes, up by one per cent in the last year. China is expected to emerge as the world’s largest rice importer with an estimated three million tonnes purchased from international markets. India is expected to export 8.5 million tonnes rice. Rice prices are averaging US$586 per tonne, about three per cent higher than a year ago, according to FAO data. Coarse grains are also predicted to hit a new global production high in 2013-14. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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Food Outlook THE FAO FOOD Price Index averaged 215.2 points in May 2013, very close to its April value of 215.8 points but 10 points (five per cent) higher than in May last year. At that level, the index is nearly 10 per cent below the peak reached in February 2011. The small decline in May was the result of falling dairy and sugar prices, which more than offset an increase in cereals. Oils and meat prices remained unchanged. The FAO Cereal Price Index averaged 238.9 points in May, up four points (1.9 per cent) from April and nearly 17 points (7.8 per cent) above May last year. Last month’s increase was mostly associated with a strong rebound in maize prices, mostly a reaction to tightening export supplies and planting delays in the United States. By contrast, wheat and rice quotations were largely unchanged from the previous month. The FAO Oils/Fats Price Index averaged 199.0 points in May, unchanged from April. While palm oil prices gained strength following a drop in global inventories from their recent

record-high levels, soy oil values eased further reflecting higher than anticipated export availabilities in Argentina and the encouraging outlook for the United States' 2013/14 soybean crop. The FAO Dairy Price Index averaged 249.8 points in May, a fall of nine points (3.5 per cent) from the exceptionally high level recorded in April. Amongst the products that make up the index, skimmed milk powder experienced the sharpest fall (12.2 per cent), followed by butter (-6.8 per cent) and whole milk powder (-6.2 per cent), while the average price of cheddar cheese rose slightly. Supplies of milk products for trade are still constrained by weather related factors affecting milk production in most of the major exporting countries. The FAO Meat Price Index averaged 179.3 points in May, about the same as in April. The index has remained within the narrow band of 177–179 points since October 2012. For the different categories of meat which compose the index, poultry prices continued to edge higher, reaching an all-time high. Prices were

also up for ovine meat, but largely unchanged for the other meat categories. The FAO Sugar Price Index averaged 250.1 points in May, down 2.6 points (one per cent) from April. Sugar prices continued to soften in May, driven by favourable harvesting conditions in Brazil, the world’s largest producers and exporter, which boosted cane harvest. More generally, the price slide reflects the prospect of more abundant global supplies, combined with weaker import demand.

China corn import to surge 85 per cent in 2014

Thailand and Cambodia to set up trade zone for cassava, corn trade

IMPORTS OF CORN by China will surge as much as 85 per cent in 2014, fuelled by a delay in planting and increase in domestic consumption. The China National Grain and Oils Information Center (CNGOIC) has said that China, currently the world’s second largest corn consumer, will be expected to import five million tonnes in the year starting October, nearly double a forecast of 2.7mn for the current year. CNGOIC’s 2013/14 estimate China is currently the world’s was, however, lower than a second largest corn consumer record seven million tonnes predicted by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA).The USDA figure was in line with estimates by analysts after the domestic crop was damaged by mould and wet weather delayed planting. Although planting has been delayed by about two weeks, China's corn harvest will be estimated to rise 2.8 per cent in 2013/2014, while annual domestic demand will be expected to grow by an even faster 5.2 per cent. China will be expected to harvest 214mn tonnes of corn, while consumption has been projected at 212.63mn tonnes. China, the world’s top wheat producer is expected to produce one per cent more wheat this year, with the winter harvest due in June seen rising 1.5 per cent to 116.5mn tonnes.

THAILAND AND CAMBODIA are on a path towards the setting up of a special trade zone that will see the two neighbouring countries increase cassava and corn trade. Thai commerce minister Boonsong Teriyapirom revealed recently that the fourth Thailand-Cambodia Joint Trade Committee (JTC) meet has seen both nations content with the expansion of cross-border trade. Thailand and Cambodia have agreed to set an annual trade growth rate of 30 per cent between 2012 and 2015. Last year, trade between both countries expanded by 40.5 per cent to US$4.03bn from US$2.86bn in 2011. Boonsong stated Thailand and Cambodia will also set up a new joint working committee, tasked with the study of the establishment of a special trade zone for two major agricultural products, cassava and corn. He said that study will cover the entire supply chain for both products and the proposal of the location of the special trade zone. The commerce minister added that another taskforce was also set up to follow up on all steps and report everything to the next JTC meeting in 2014, which will be hosted by Thailand. Meanwhile, Piramol Charoenpao, director general of Department of Trade Negotiations, said the commerce minister will soon travel to Bhutan to sign a trade cooperation Thailand and Cambodia have agreed to set an annual trade growth rate of 30 per agreement between the two countries. cent between 2012 and 2015



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Vietnam expects bumper coffee harvest in 2013 VIETNAM, THE LARGEST grower of robusta beans, is expected to witness a bumper coffee harvest in 2013 with the country receiving an appropriate amount of rainfall this year The robusta beans have a huge demand in the market with Nestle SA (NESN) using it majorly in its instant drinks. The production of the crop is expected to reach highest level in two years as rain this month ended drought in the Dak Lak province that represents about 30 per cent of output. A Bloomberg report claimed that production may advance 4.9 per cent to 1.5mn metric tonnes in the 12 months starting October from 1.43mn tonnes a year earlier. This will be the highest since a record 1.65mn tonnes in 2011-2012. The harvest had been forecast to drop as much

as 30 per cent to an eight-year low because of the drought in Dak Lak province. While rains in Vietnam have tempered concern about production losses from the drought, global supplies of the beans will trail demand this year, Rabobank International said in a report last month. Mai Ky Van, deputy director at October CoffeeCocoa One Member, said, “There’s regular rain now, however, without the drought, the crop would have been bigger." The National Center for Hydro-Meteorological Forecasting said in May that the Central Highlands region, which includes Dak Lak province, may get more rainfall this month than average. Buon Ma Thuot, capital of Dak Lak, may receive as much as 300mm (12 inches), compared with the 30-year average of 226mm, it said.

Robusta beans have a huge demand in the market with Nestle SA (NESN) using it majorly in its instant drinks | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013

Vietnam raw fish imports up by 15 per cent IN THE FIRST three months of 2013, Vietnam has imported non-processed fish worth a total of US$131mn, a figure that represents an increase of 15 per cent yearon-year, according to data released by the Vietnam Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers (VASEP) in cooperation with Vietnam Customs. Taiwan and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) were Vietnam’s most important exporters of fish, each making up 12.3 per cent of the total value of Vietnamese imports, at US$16.3mn. Next was the European Union (EU) with nearly 10.8 per cent. Japan, located behind Taiwan, was the second exporter country, with shipments for US$12.6mn, equivalent to 9.5 per cent of the total value of Vietnamese imports. In third position was India with US$12.2mn worth of seafood supplies. It was followed by Norway, in fourth place, with US$11.9mn and Chile in fifth place with US$8.3mn. Further back was Poland, with US$7.6mn million and Thailand, in seventh place with US$5mn. South Korea, in eighth place, exported products to Vietnam for US$4.6mn. Indonesia, in the ninth position, exported products worth US$4mn million and Ecuador in tenth place with US$4.4mn worth exports. Marine fish species were the most imported items in terms of value, making up 48.5 per cent of the whole at US$64mn.


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Philippines to boost corn silage exports to South Korea PHILIPPINES HAS OUTLINED plans to increase its monthly exports of corn silage to South Korea. The Department of Agriculture secretary Proceso J Alcala said recently that South Korea has requested for an increase in corn silage imports from the Philippines, from the initial 1,000 metric tonnes per month to 3,000 metric tonnes per month. The corn silage from the Philippines will be shipped to Incheon and Busan, Alcala noted. The agriculture secretary further explained that the department expects to start shipment of the 3,000 metric tonnes per month corn silage in June until December this year. He added that the department has increased its export target for corn silage this year to 45,000 metric tonnes from 15,000 metric tonnes.

Thailand ups 2013/14 sugarcane forecast THAILAND HAS RAISED its sugarcane crop forecast for the 2013/14 period, which is also expected to boost sugar production in the country. According to a Thai agriculture ministry official, sugarcane production for 2013 and 2014 has been forecast at 105mn tonnes, up nearly two per cent from the previous year. Investment analyst at Phillip Futures Joyce Liu said the increase could push sugar production above the latest forecast by the Office of Cane and Sugar Board (OCSB) of 9.7mn tonnes. “We will have more sugar in the market, so that will push prices down and increase availability,” added Liu. Office of Agriculture Economy deputy secretary-general Surasak Pannop, however, told Reuters that it was too early to forecast sugar output and the ministry of agriculture would update the production forecast of major commodities in the second half of the year. Pannop added, “We need to keep an eye on a possible dry spell in June-July and if it happens, it could cut sugar content in the cane and we would not have that much sugar.” The recent sugarcane forecast is higher than markets had expected and tops the government’s January predictions for output of 100mn tonnes.

Exporting more corn silage to South Korea will increase Philippines farmers’ incomes by an average of 20 per cent

Alcala said that South Korea has agreed to increase imports of corn silage from the Philippines after its local market responded favourably. Last week, the department was able to get a reply from South Korean authorities that the market is satisfied, he added. Alcala said the department has already allotted an additional 6,000 hectares of corn plantations to keep up with the increased demand from South Korea. The Philippines is getting more demand from South Korea because Manila is in a position to ship corn silage within four days, compared to Vietnam, which ships imports within six days. Vietnam currently controls 80 per cent of the imported corn silage market in South Korea. The department, along with corn industry groups, had sent an initial 24 metric tonnes of corn silage bovine feed for cattle and dairy cows to Busan, South Korea last April. Alcala said exporting corn silage would increase farmers’ incomes by an average of 20 per cent.

Sugarcane production for 2013 and 2014 has been forecast at 105mn tonnes, up nearly two per cent from the previous year

Myanmar to boost rice exports by early 2014 MYANMAR HAS REVEALED plans to nearly double its rice exports to three million tonnes by early next year, selling majorly to newer markets Myanmar Rice Industry Association central executive member Soe Tun told Radio Free Asia’s Myanmar service that Myanmar has plans to export to several new markets beyond Africa by the end of the current fiscal year in March 2014. Myanmar’s rice market was mostly confined to Africa during decades of international sanctions against the Southeast Asian nation’s military regime, which yielded to a reformist government in 2011. According to commerce minister Win


Myint, “Myanmar expects its rice exports to reach three million tonnes in the next fiscal year. “We are now exporting to European countries, including Russia, Spain, Portugal, and Belgium. We have exported about 5,000 tonnes to these countries.” Myanmar had signed an agreement in March that led to a shipment of 5,000 tonnes of rice to Japanese trading house Mitsui earlier in May 2013, its first export of rice to Japan in 45 years. The deal will also see Japan invest in Burmese processing plants that will have an annual intake of 400,000 tonnes of rice.

Soe Tun said Burma had recently set new records in rice exports, referring to a state media report which said that the country had exceeded its target of 1.5mn tonnes in the last fiscal year by about 600,000 tonnes, marking “the highest amount of rice exported from Myanmar in the last 46 years.” “Myanmar is now fifth in terms of rice exports around the world and is now poised to grow,” he added. The Southeast Asian nation was the world’s biggest rice exporter for much of the first half of the 20th century until it was overtaken by Thailand in 1962.


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Livestock Philippines 2013

Southeast Asian livestock industry awaits Livestock Philippines THE SOUTHEAST ASIAN livestock sector is gearing up to take part in the Livestock Philippines 2013 expo which will take place from the 7-9 August this year in Manila. Organised by the Bureau of Animal Industry, Department of Agriculture, the exhibition will showcase the latest products and services in the livestock sector. The exhibition will be hosted at the SMX Convention Centre, Pasay City, Metro Manila. The event is considered one of the premium trade event for livestock nutrition, animal health and production and meat industry. The event will bring together key decisionmakers including integrators, farmers, feed millers, manufacturers and traders of feed ingredients, additives, supplements and premixes, meat and meat products processors, farm equipment fabricators and suppliers, slaughterhouse operators, veterinarians, veterinary drugs and products manufacturers and other industry stakeholders. The expo will provide a platform to showcase state-of-the-art technology, equipment and machineries, deemed to improve production efficiency.

Livestock Philippines 2013 is expected to provide the appropriate time for business-to-business transactions with new and existing trade partners

It is an apt venue for entrepreneurs to meet, interact and network with business leaders, major stakeholders and other industry players. It is also an occasion for industry professionals, livestock and poultry producers and raisers to get updates on issues, trends and challenges confronting the industry supported by the unveiling of field-tested technological advances and breakthroughs. More importantly, it will provide the appropriate time for business-to-business transactions between new and existing trade partners. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013

The theme for this year’s show will be ‘Food Security through Feeds Safety,’ and it will focus on providing solutions to the continuing challenges faced by the livestock and poultry feeds manufacturers, traders of traditional and alternative feed ingredients, additives, supplements. Co-located with the event will be Feeds Philippines 2013, an international animal feed, feed ingredient, additive, supplement and feed quality control expo and conference.


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Seafood expo to focus on premium seafood products THE ASIAN SEAFOOD Exposition, which focuses on fresh, frozen and packaged seafood market, has announced that there will be a special stress on premium seafood products when the show returns to Hong Kong this year in September. Scheduled to take place at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre, the industry’s signature trade event annually attracts over 6,000 buyers from 50 countries and more than 150 exhibiting companies from 25 countries, including China, Japan, Korea, Australia, Canada and the United States. According to Mary Larkin, vice-president of the seafood expositions at Diversified Business Communications, the organisation that produces the Asian Seafood Exposition, the rationale behind showcasing a greater variety of premium seafood this year originates from increasing demand in China for higher value products such as lobster, crab, abalone, scallops, oysters, mussels and caviar. Ms Larkin said, “Rising wealth and income levels in China are creating

an increasing appetite for premium seafood products, both domestic and imported, which in turn is providing new opportunities for producers and exporters of high-end fish and seafood products.” Research indicates that there is a strong link between income growth and seafood consumption. With seafood culturally considered to be both healthy and prestigious on the mainland, the Food and The reason behind showcasing the greater variety of Agriculture Organisation (FAO) premium seafood this year of the United Nations has originates from increasing predicted that seafood demand in China consumption in China is likely to rise from the current average levels of 12kg per person to 36kg by 2020. In addition, China has emerged as the world’s largest exporter of seafood mainly supplying affordable fish and shellfish to markets such as Japan, Europe and the United States. In terms of why Hong Kong was selected as the location for this year’s Asian Seafood Exposition, Larkin said that the territory was wellpositioned as a re-export centre for seafood products in Asia.

Asia Fruit Logistica promises new trade opportunities

Inapalm to showcase the latest in palm oil sector

INTERNATIONAL FRESH FRUIT and vegetable business expo Asia Fruit Logistica is scheduled to take place in Hong Kong from 4-6 September 2013. The show had attracted 341 exhibitors from 30 different countries and at least 5,700 top decision-makers in 2012. The expo is expected to provide an overview of the market and an opportunity to make important business contacts. Asia Fruit Logistica takes place together with the Asiafruit Congress and combines the experience of Fruit Logistica, a leading fresh produce exhibition, with Asia’s top international conference event. It offers an ideal opportunity to extend one’s knowledge of the Asian markets. It is one of the prominent fresh produce business conference for the Asia-Pacific region. Organised by Asiafruit Magazine, it is expected to attract some 600 top decision-makers from all over the world at this year’s show. The Congress and the exhibition are the only trade events in Asia focused on the fresh fruit and vegetable business covering the whole.

WITH INDONESIA CURRENTLY a prominent crude palm oil producer in the world with an average production of 23.5mn tonnes per year, Inaplam Asia, an exclusive expo catering to the palm oil market holds a special significance in the Asian plam oil sector. The resounding success of Inapalm 2012, which had attracted 110 exhibiting companies from five countries, 4.210 trade visitors and 251 conference delegates, had established the show as one of mustvisit events every year. The second Indonesia International Palm Oil, Machinery and Technology Exhibition & Conference 2013 is scheduled to take place form 2 – 4 July 2013 at Labersa Convention Centre, Sumatera and holds promises of repeating the success of its glorious first year. It is identified as the largest international trade event in Riau for palm machinery and technology. The exhibitors can get an opportunity to boost sales and gain exposure as well as meet key decision makers and potential buyers. The show this year will be expanded to wider scale to generate more visitors. It will showcase the latest palm oil processing machines, parts and palm oil processing results. The event will offer a great opportunity to build a business to network with both the local and the overseas palm oil industry and other related industries right on the spot.



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Indo Livestock Expo 2013

Indo Livestock Expo in Bali witnesses success galore The eight edition held in the Indonesian province was a mix of trade event and seminars, which benefitted businessmen as well as visitors NDO LIVESTOCK EXPO was held recently at the Bali Nusa Dua Convention Centre in Bali, Indonesia. The event saw trade buyers representing integrators, farmers, feed millers, meat and egg processors, retailers, veterinarians, importers and distributors come together to view the latest technology, update on the latest issues, network and to further business opportunities. The three-day exhibition also witnessed 364 exhibitors from 36 countries in the eight edition of the expo. PT Napindo Media Ashatama was the organiser and the event was hosted by the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia. The forum saw 8,200 professional visitors in attendance. Bali, which has a tremendous potential as a strategic location for meetings, conventions and exhibitions, also serves as the main gate for entering the market of eastern Indonesia. The opening ceremony was attended by minister of agriculture, Republic of Indonesia; head of Bali Provincial Industry and Trade department; head of Bali Provincial Livestock and Animal Health department; representative of Coordinating Ministry for People’s Welfare; chairman of Indonesia Livestock Associations; representative of embassy of foreign countries in Indonesia; winners of Indonesian Livestock Services awards, amongst others. The expo witnessed SDTI (Milk, Meat, Egg & Fish) programme to support the campaign for the increasing of animal protein and Indonesian farming products consumption. The campaign aimed to educate and increase people awareness of the importance of animal protein, particularly for people who lack the understanding about animal protein consumption. The SDTI programme comprised of site visit to kindergarten Prema Santhi Bali to campaign the importance of animal protein in two weeks,


Indo Livestock Expo & Forum is the apt platform for enhancing business cooperation in Indonesia and the Asia-Pacific region the result of which have been evaluated. A talk show with theme on myths about nutrition was organised with the speaker from Representative of Coordinating Ministry for People’s Welfare. Amin Fa, S.Psi., CTL, CH, Cht. CI (CEO of Aminfa Institute), spoke about discovering the potential for developing identity The Indonesian Livestock Services Awards ceremony was also held whereby awards were given to districts based on creative programme, the involvement level of farmers and

communities, the impact of the programme as well as its sustainability. Some of the districts to win were Sumbawa (represented the Middle area), South Lampung (represented the Western area) and Bone (represented the Eastern area). For more information on livestock subject matters, seminars were held by Ministry of Agriculture, who spoke on food security. FORMAT (Livestock Media Forum) discussed opportunity and challenge investment in the field of livestock. A seminar by MKTI (Indonesia Animal Welfare Society) was held on livestock transportation system principled for Animal welfare. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) too conducted sessions. Indo Livestock Expo & Forum is the apt platform for enhancing business cooperation in Indonesia and the Asia-Pacific region. n

The 2013 chapter of Indo Livestock Expo saw 8,200 professional visitors in attendance | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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Myanmar expo cashes on crops THE SECOND INTO Myanmar AgriTrade, Investments & Technology Global Summit was held recently in Yangon. It also featured a special optional conference on Myanmar’s Livestock, Feed & Food Processing Opportunities in the capital city. This summit provided networking opportunity with key existing & new players from Myanmar’s rice, pulses, edible oil, seeds, sugar, rubber, fertilizer, farm equipment, downstream food processing, canning and packaging and other agricultural sectors, bankers, commodity traders and animal feeds companies & senior government decision-makers. Agricultural and farm development is the priority in Myanmar government's development policy. With 70 per cent of its population living in the rural areas, the agricultural sector remains a major source of income for the country. The Myanmar government, under President Thein Sein’s leadership, was seeking to promote more growth and stability for the agricultural sector — not just for the dominant rice sector but also for other cash and industrial crops as well as the livestock sector, government sources said. The summit’s wide-ranging and complete coverage of Myanmar’s agricultural activities provided the strategic platform where buyers, sellers, brokers, farm owners, bankers, insurers, region & township farming leaders met with the world's top agri traders, investors and agricultural experts. In addition, downstream food processing, canning and packaging entrepreneurs also sought new overseas markets and learn from some of the leading international food marketing and buying companies. A new Foreign Investment Act was passed in 2012, providing incentives and protection for foreign investments into the country. New by-laws, including for the agricultural sector and on investment in agricultural land, once these are passed, are expected to provide more clarity and confidence to the foreign investor. With more investments in post-harvest activities, better quality rice with competitive prices will be exported. Countries such as the US, Japan, Korea, India, China, Taiwan, Israel, the Netherlands, Belarus have undertaken to transfer relevant farm and crop technologies to Myanmar farms, improving productivity and efficiency. At the same time, new markets such as Japan, Korea, Russia and the Middle East are being sought for Myanmar farm produce.

Taipei hosts organic food fest THE NINTH INTERNATIONAL Vegetarian and Organic Food Festival was organised recently in Taipei, featuring more than 600 booths. Held at Taipei World Trade Center’s Exhibition Hall 1, the festival was hosted by the Merit Times and co-sponsored by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), the Council of Agriculture and other agencies. The themes of this year’s event included India, organic agriculture, environmental protection, cross-strait tea culture, vegetarian caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps militaris), vegetarian dog food, prayer beads and local agricultural products. A special feature this year was the India pavilion, which was co-sponsored by the IndiaTaipei Association and exhibited Indian cuisine, masala tea, coffee and agricultural products. Hsiao Hui-chuan, the director-general of the EPA’s department of supervision evaluation and dispute resolution, said that the eco-friendly lifestyle the EPA wants to promote is about “saving resources and only buying products that are environmental friendly.”

Thailand Rice Convention 2013 highlights country’s producing, marketing capabilities THAILAND’S DEPARTMENT OF Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce, recently organised Thailand Rice Convention (TRC) 2013 at International Convention and Exhibition Centre in Chiang Mai. With an objective of “Pushing ASEAN towards the World’s Rice Hub”, the event had the participation of over 500 delegates from 40 countries. These participants included official trade representatives from rice producing and exporting countries, rice importers and traders, academics and experts specialised in rice production and trade from the host nation and others. The convention provided a platform for both sellers, buyers and distributors to come together to discuss advancements in the production, trade and development of the Thai rice industry. Variety such as ‘Thung Kula Ronghai’ jasmine rice, Asia’s first rice to receive recognition of its geographical tag was discussed. Talks were also held on organic rice being researched at Maejo University, which has been certified for product quality and has gained international recognition. The country is now recognised as the world’s premier rice producer as well as regional and global hub of rice trade. The objective of the TRC 2013 was to


Thailand was the world’s largest rice exporter in 2011

organise an international academic convention about rice as an international product, with participants from government and private sectors from Thailand and overseas — all the key players, decision-makers and trend-setters in the global rice trade. The event also brought to fore Thailand’s acknowledged status as the world’s leading exporter of quality rice. It provided a meeting ground for players in the rice trade to share and exchange instrumental information and beneficial comments pertaining to the development of the industry, as well as to foster closer relationships between rice importers and exporters that lead to more concrete and mutually beneficial

trade deals in this staple food grain. TRC 2013 also conveyed the Thai government’s intention to improve financial stability and quality of life for its rice growers, which eventually leads to the added value of rice products and sustainability of the supply chain. Speaking at the event, Dr Olarn Chaipravat, president of Thailand Trade Representative and advisor to the Thai Prime Minister, said, “The rice demand-supply structure is changing in the world and added that Thailand should adopt new strategies to cope with new challenges.” He outlined four broad marketing strategies to boost rice exports: improve quality of rice; promote specialty rice and branding; develop niche markets; and enhance regional cooperation. TRC 2013 also presented the quality and capability of Thai rice to fulfil the current needs of consumers, whose decisions are increasingly dictated by the health benefits derived from food. Exhibits include organic rice, pigmented rice (Riceberry) and nonpigmented rice (Sinlek), all of which are high in therapeutic value. The exhibition also included numerous varieties of Thai rice from sources all over the country.


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Practical feed and water management for broilers Careful consideration of feed components and hygiene is essential to ensure that poultry producers reap full benefit from feed management efforts ROPER FEED RATION and clean water supply are the key ingredients to ensure proper health of the flock. Avian nutritionists and feed formulators around the world are continuing to make huge strides on behalf of poultry producers through the continual refinement of feed specifications for better flock health. Feed compounders go to great lengths to see that commercial feed rations contain correct levels and proportions of nutrients to ensure consistently high economic poultry production. Benefits from improvements in pellet quality are now well-established with trials conducted by Aviagen showing quite clearly that for every 10 per cent increase in the proportion of fines (defined as feed particles smaller than 1mm), there is a corresponding reduction of 40 gm in the live-weight of birds at 35 days. However, all these high-spec refinements in feed content and pellet formulation are of limited consequence unless producers physically handle feed and water inputs in the most common-sense and economic way to get the most out of them.


Feed pellet breakdown Inputs made at the mill to improve feed pellet quality will be lost if onfarm feed management is poor. Pellet breakdown commonly occurs if the feed is blown from the delivery lorry and into the feed bin. Pellet breakdown at this point can be minimised by maintaining the feed pipe full of feed as possible and the discharge speed corresponding low. An

Commercial feed rations should contain correct levels of nutrients to ensure consistently high economic poultry production

appropriately low speed can be achieved by maintaining an engine speed of between 1,300rpm and 1,500rpm with a pressure of nine psi for meal and seven psi for pellets. However, care must be taken not to maintain the discharge rate too low and slow because the risk of pipe blockage becomes greater and with blockage invariably comes an increase in the rate of pellet breakdown.

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Contains the SCHAUMANN probiotic PROTECURE at a high dosage. Application of OVILAC WA is simple and safe with the drinking water.

■ reduced feed intake ■ reduction in ammonia ■ contains vitamin C + D · | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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Poultry producers should also try to minimise the distance that the feed has to travel between the delivery lorry and the feed bin. It is clearly an important consideration when planning new units or renovating existing ones. There should be no holes in the pipe itself because this will require an increase in the pressure at which the feed is discharged and therefore result in even more wasted feed.

On-farm feed storage Feed consignments and stocks are more easily, economically and safely managed by having two storage bins per poultry house. This system permits an entire consignment of feed to be depleted at one time thus ensuring the correct type of feed is being fed and that withdrawal times are met. It is perfectly possible to manage feed by utilising a single bin but it is less desirable with greater care required. Bulk storage bins should be designed, constructed and sited to protect feed contents from rain to avoid feed from becoming wet, damp and mouldy. Mouldy feed poses clear and direct risks to poultry health through production of mycotoxins by fungal moulds growing on the feed grain or finished feed. In addition, it will almost certainly lead to significant logistical, practical and hygiene problems from feed sticking to the side of the bin and blocking the flow of feed through the feeders. Vermins, rodents and wild birds are a potentially big factors in on farm feed loss, significantly reducing the amount available and reducing quality through contamination. Storage bins should designed so that vermin cannot enter with regular inspection and cleaning carried out as a matter of course. If feed storage in bags is unavoidable, the bags should be kept off the floor using raised pallets to prevent them absorbing moisture from the floor and to provide some protection from rodents. At the end of the poultry crop cycle, producers should remove unused feed and store it in a secure and hygienic manner. Safe and easy management of remaining feed at the end of poultry crop cycle is much easier and straightforward when the house is furnished with dual feed bins. When only one bin is available the need to transfer leftover feed to

Vermins, rodents and wild birds are a potentially big factors in on farm feed loss, significantly reducing the amount available and reducing quality through contamination

After the first seven days of feeding, producers are advised to have at least one period per day when the birds are allowed to clear up completely before receiving new feed

a single storage bin makes feed management that more difficult, while use of a sucker/blower to move the residual feed will additionally increase pellet-breakdown. Care must also be taken to ensure that conditions in the holding area where leftover feed may have to be bagged off and stored do not cause feed deterioration or contamination. This includes degradation of protein, vitamin and mineral components or high temperature and humidity which may promote the growth of mycotoxin producing mould fungi. Correctly stored feed will generally remain in a useable condition for up to several months.

Focus on feeders Feeder provision recommendations are one pan for every 65 birds or 2.5cm of track per bird. However, if feed contains a high proportion of fines and is dusty these standard levels may not be adequate at peak demand. This is because poor feed quality increases the time the birds take to eat and therefore places greater pressure on the feeding system. Feeding space should be adjusted upwards accordingly. Feed and water consumption and the feed to water ratio, should be monitored on a daily basis. Any deviations from expected levels of water consumption should be considered, investigated and acted upon because this may be the first indication of a potentially serious problem. Breakdowns in the feeder system are a much more common occurrence than running out of feed. So, it is important that the system is well-maintained and any worn components are promptly replaced. The feeder line must be kept level (including corners of the tracks), with no bowing, to prevent augers from kinking.

Track and pan feeders

Storage bins should designed so that vermin cannot enter and regular inspection has to be carried out from time to time


Track feeders should only run when required to fill the feeding systems and it is good practice to allow the birds to eat up all the presented feed. Systems that run too frequently damage pellet structure leading to excessive waste. Good practice also includes running the chain when you can see the bottom of the track and not to have too much feed in the track. Managing the track and chain in this way can improve feed conversion by at least five points. Good practice for pan feeders includes feeders running only a few times per day until consumption is sufficiently high for regular running. This strategy reduces the risk of one line running empty for long periods


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Water should be provided at all times during natural daylight and when the lights are on. All water supplies should be tested on a regular basis for microbial load and mineral content and necessary action taken in response to the test results received of time. Number of times the feeders are on per day and the length of time they run for will clearly need to be increased as broilers age with a corresponding increase in feed consumption. After the first seven days of feeding and irrespective of feeding system used, producers are advised to have at least one period per day when the birds are allowed to clear up completely before receiving new feed. This should occur at the same time every day. This avoids the build-up of fines and avoids the accumulation of coccidistats which could be consumed in excess amounts within a withdrawal period shortly before slaughter.

Good ways with water Water should be stored in a light-proof tank to prevent the formation of contaminating green algae. Water sourced from boreholes should be filtered to prevent the accumulation of sediment and where necessary treated with a water softener.

Mineral content of water and how this may affect the flock birds is an important consideration in poultry feed management

Mineral content of water and how this may affect the flock birds must be considered. All water supplies should be tested on a regular basis for microbial load and mineral content and necessary action taken in response to the test results received. Water should be provided at all times during natural daylight and when the lights are on. Water storage capacity must be sufficient to supply peak demand for water which occurs when the lights come on. Any reductions in water flow to the drinkers will be reflected in decreased growth of birds. As a general ‘rule of thumb’ calculate flow rate in ml as (weeks of age x 7) + 20ml/min. Meeting the needs of the birds with a consistently sound programme is the key to success, irrespective of the ‘nuts and bolts’ of the feeding and watering system used. n By Dr Terry Mabbett

Cargill launches poultry farming training in Indonesia CARGILL INDONESIA HAS announced a poultry farming mentorship programme to provide hands-on training to high school students willing to take up a career in the poultry sector. As part of the three-month long programme launched in May 2013, Cargill has donated a teaching farm stocked with 500 local Ayam Kampung Super (AKAS) day-old chickens. Students from Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) Agri Insani, a vocational school in Indonesia, will be the first to benefit from a 90-day programme on how to develop and manage poultry farms. The farm is fully-equipped with tools including eating and drinking containers, temperature-controlled chicken cages and Cargillsupplied chicken feed. During the programme, students will be mentored on how to raise the local chickens from hatchlings till they are harvest-ready. Students are also tutored in farm business management, where they learn skills such as profit and loss calculation, feed efficiency and capital management. Cargill Feed and Nutrition Indonesia managing director Akkarit Boontawee, said, “Our intent is to support Indonesia’s smallholder farmers by helping to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of farming practices. Every year, we at Cargill Feed and Nutrition Indonesia commit one per cent of our annual earnings towards smallholder farmer training and rural development programmes to give back to the communities where we live, work and do business. “We hope that by training the students in the techniques of modern breeding, they will leave the programme well-equipped to support and contribute towards the growth of Indonesia’s chicken farming industry.” | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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Pig housing becoming automated Environmental regulations, animal welfare policies, consumer demands, labour costs and evolving pig genetics are driving changes to pig housing methods ITH A GROWING focus on automation and newly developed high-tech housing materials, sow and piglet housing is becoming more high-tech. Environmental regulations, animal welfare policies, consumer demands, labour costs and evolving pig genetics are driving change. These pig housing advancement are likely to shape the future of pig accommodations in other regions, as well. Some of the aspects that are considered before setting up a high-tech pig housing today are:

Photograph: Big Dutchman


Eliminating odour, ammonia As far as the environment is concerned, the managing director of Big Dutchman Pig Equipment, Magnus Westerkamp, commented the goal to eliminate odour and ammonia emissions and reduce the release of other greenhouse gases is forcing companies to develop new ventilation systems for pig producers. They are also looking at new materials to meet the latest fire protection regulations.

New-style accommodations are needed to provide pigs with more space in all stages of growth to meet future animal welfare and consumer demands

Westerkamp also said new-style accommodation will be needed to provide pigs with more space in all stages of growth to meet future animal welfare and consumer demands, as well as changes in pig genetics, particularly future sows bred to produce more piglets. He said, “These sows and piglets will all have to be handled easily, which will have an effect on the sort of equipment and the type of housing that are used in the future. “We are also going to need better solutions for pig manure handling in future. This is a huge environmental problem that has to be solved. We believe that in future, slurry will be used close to where it is produced and farmers will not be allowed to transport it over long distances. It will have to be separated and solid parts used to produce biogas, or palletised. We have to find a solution for this.” Westerkamp commented that bigger pig farms of the future would need new equipment to collect data from all areas of production so they could provide statistics to satisfy future abattoir, processor and retailer demands for a farm-to-fork trail.

Photograph: Big Dutchman

Farm labour costs

The HydroAir liquid feeding system is suited for small and large animal numbers, starting from 500 and through to 4,500 piglets.


“Pig producers should start planning future investments to include new buildings with high-tech equipment now, so they stay on top of all the changes that are likely to come and enjoy future prosperity.” High-tech pig housing may not decrease farm labour costs. While there might be fewer workers on pig farms because of increased automation and computer controlled programs, the workers will have to be highly-skilled technicians to master the complex machinery. Westerkamp is expecting to see a big revolution in pig equipment over the next few years. He predicts that some small pig farmers are likely to quit in future, because they don’t have enough money to invest in equipment and housing to meet these new demands. On the other hand, many medium-sized pig producers are waiting to see what happens. Medium-sized pig farmers could all be in for some surprises, according to British Pig executive, environment programme manager, Nigel Penlington. “It’s time to start designing pig farms for the technology we have today – and expect for tomorrow – rather than try to fit modern equipment into existing farms.”


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Photograph: Big Dutchman

Biosecutiry measures to stop hog diarrhoea

Modern materials and construction techniques are needed to deliver more sustainable and affordable pig buildings

Pig industry should consider rectangular walls instead of straight ones to improve air flow with rounded corners to aid cleaning and avoid dirt traps This includes using modern materials and construction techniques to deliver more sustainable and affordable pig buildings that are designed and built at the factory to accommodate the equipment and technology needed to meet high welfare and health needs of pigs and their keepers. These pig units also must use resources with maximum efficiency and protect the environment, a step beyond the pre-fabricated techniques, considered by some to be “revolutionary” in the past. Penlington said, “Pig industry should consider rectangular walls instead of straight ones to improve air flow with rounded corners to aid cleaning and avoid dirt traps. Walls and floors should be made from or coated with low-adhesion materials, or with special coatings to reduce ammonia and self-sterilise. The roofs could be shaped to optimise air flow.”

STUDY CONDUCTED BY a US-based university has revealed that hog producers should use proper biosecurity practices to reduce the risk of animals becoming infected with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV). A veterinary resident from the University of Missouri, Josh Schaeffer said that PEDV is similar to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and causes diarrhoea and vomiting in pigs. It is a swine-only disease and poses no threat to public health or food safety, but it could be a big problem for hog producers, Schaeffer added. PEDV is not a new virus. It was first identifies in Great Britain in 1971 and has been endemic in Asia for more than 30 years.The first US case was diagnosed in May and so far PEDV has been confirmed in several US states. “These cases have popped up roughly at the same time, so we believe these pigs were exposed to something that had the virus in it at relatively the same point in time,” said Schaeffer. Vaccines for PEDV have seen mixed results in Asia. Schaeffer noted that biosecurity is the best way to prevent infection. Standard biosecurity practices in the swine industry include requiring workers and visitors to shower and clean coveralls and boots before coming into contact with pigs, and taking steps to reduce the risk that an infection in one group of hogs will spread to another group.

Robotic pigpen Penlington even suggests a robotic “pig pen friend” to perform stock husbandry functions, including keeping walls and floors clean, monitoring and cleaning feeders and drinkers, monitoring the building’s atmosphere, recording pig growth and health, providing interest for the pigs and sounding alarms when necessary. All the information this robot collects could be relayed to a smart phone or tablet so pig producers could see what was happening in the unit, he explained. As far as energy is concerned, Penlington suggested that modern pig buildings should have solar thermal panels to provide hot water. He noted, “They should also have solar PV panels to generate electricity and ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings and floors for pig comfort and optimum lying and dunging behaviour.” He also recommended a wind turbine to generate electricity. Renewable energy is the way forward, if the location and conditions are right, because it enables pig producers to fix their energy costs, as well as earn some extra cash by selling excess power to the National Grid. Both Penlington and Westerkamp urge large pig producers to start planning their future investments to include the construction of new buildings with modern, high-tech equipment now, so they stay on top of all the changes that are likely to come and enjoy future prosperity. n Roger Abbott/Wattagnet | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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Avoiding feed ingredient contamination

Avoiding feed contamination is a must for ensuring feed quality and economic and healthy animal production process

Trace mineral contamination of feed supplements has been causing frequent animal health problems across the globe. It is essential to know the source of minerals to ensure feed safety EED CONTAMINATION CAN cause immense damage to the livestock production process. It is always better to be sure of where the feed minerals are sourced from and whether trace mineral supplement contamination is a possibility. The feed stock recalls after detection of contamination can cause severe losses. A study by AMR Research, a US-based international research firm, has shown that recalls are more common and costly than expected, expenses often exceed US$10mn per recall, with companies losing twice that much. An effective traceability system can make many of these recalls avoidable. Safeguarding the quality of ingredients in animal feed is therefore essential in ensuring food safety.


Trace mineral contaminants In recent years, contamination of trace mineral supplements has been causing more frequent problems across borders. China is a major supplier of inorganic minerals to the animal nutrition sector. Recently, trace elements shipped from China, including sources of zinc, copper


and manganese, have been included in a list of products that are subject to enhanced checks before being allowed to enter the European Union. Cadmium and lead contamination have been identified as the potential hazards in these shipments. Dioxin is a general term for a large group of fat soluble organochlorine compounds, the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, about 30 of which are significantly toxic. Dioxins can potentially be formed whenever organic compounds, chlorine and high temperatures are involved. Common sources include volcanic eruptions, forest fires, exhaust emissions, incinerators and in the manufacturing of chemicals, pesticides and paints. Dioxins can also be formed during the processing of inorganic minerals. Metals, especially copper, can act as catalysts in dioxin formation. Dioxins are termed “persistent organic pollutants� because they are very stable, resisting physical and biological breakdown to remain in the environment for long periods of time. Dioxins are known teratogens, mutagens and carcinogens in humans and animals.

The difference in PCBs PCBs, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, differ from dioxins in that they are intentionally produced for the manufacture of transformers, inks, plasticisers, lubricants and building materials. PCBs are present in inorganic trace mineral sources due to the recycling of metal sources, such as copper wiring. At least 70 per cent of copper sulphate is produced from renewable sources. PCBs are also a known carcinogen in humans and animals. In recent years, contamination of trace mineral supplements has been causing more frequent problems across borders.


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Heavy metals are a concern because they can enter the soil resulting in the contamination of inorganic trace mineral sources and can enter groundwater as a pollutant. Mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic can cause neurological signs in livestock such as blindness, anemia, softshelled eggs, kidney and renal damage, and sudden death. The use of mined versus recycled minerals has also been debated, however, both have had negative implications. Mined minerals tend to be higher in heavy metal contamination, and the mining process can cause contamination with dioxins and PCBs. Dioxins can also be formed during recycling and often materials such as PVC coating are not removed during the process of recycling.

A global issue Dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals are a global issue. In December 2008, pork in Ireland was found to be tainted with dioxin contamination, resulting in the product being pulled from 24 countries. In July 2011, Belgian food safety officials found a 138-tonne consignment of feed grade copper sulfate imported from Romania with higher than permitted presence of dioxin. In January of 2013, China’s State Council publicised a circular on soil pollution that sets out a plan to contain the increasingly severe problem by 2015. For heavy metal alone, experts estimate the country’s pollution results in the loss of 10mn metric tonnes of grain and the contamination of another 12mn metric tonnes annually. In 2010, Alltech conducted a survey of more than 300 samples of various inorganic minerals, premixes, organic minerals and complete feeds from different countries in Asia. The test for heavy metals lead, arsenic and cadmium was determined using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry at the Alltech China facility. Results showed contamination from eight to 67 per cent. Overall, 19 per cent of all samples were contaminated with at least one heavy metal (lead, arsenic and cadmium).

Quality control check The risk of contamination associated with inorganic minerals is a concern for manufacturers of all mineral supplement forms because inorganic mineral sources are used to manufacture organic mineral products. Besides contamination issues, many feed mills are turning to organic minerals to limit their impact on the environment. Growing awareness of the environmental pollution caused by those unused trace minerals has led to concern and even new legislation in parts of the world controlling trace minerals in feed and manure levels. Quality control has to be at the top of each feed mill’s list when choosing trace minerals. As a result of past and current food crises, animal feed is an important area that affects the integrity and safety of the food chain. In addition, legislation concerning the production of feed

Soft-shelled eggs can result from mercury, lead, cadmium and arsenic contamination

China is a major supplier of inorganic minerals to the animal nutrition sector

is getting stricter. Routine analysis of feed and food ingredients and the assurance of equally high standards of quality and transparency from suppliers will continue to be critical in a global ingredient market to protect the food chain from contaminants such as dioxins, heavy metals and PCBs. n Roger Scaletti/Wattagnet



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S05 FEAG 3 2013 Livestock_Layout 1 01/07/2013 09:51 Page 20


Mineral management to boost animal performance ANIMAL HEALTH SOLUTION provider Alltech will launch a new mineral management programme that will help its customers feed fewer organic trace minerals to their livestock and get optimal performance results. Alltech’s Total Replacement Technology project was launched recently to the swine market at the World Pork Expo. The company recently formed a global mineral management team to focus on providing solutions and support while introducing a modern nutrition application. A company statement said, “By creating a network of mineral consultants and researchers around the world, Alltech has delivered a technology that can address nutritional and environmental mineral concerns.” This approach encompasses all of the company’s efforts to redefine organic trace mineral nutrition by educating the feed industry about Total Replacement Technology and to no longer address single mineralrelated issues but overall mineral nutrition challenges. Alltech global director of the mineral management division Steve Elliott said, “Minerals are Alltech’s top selling product division and now we have dedicated an entire team to the value-added programme. “We want to set the tone for the industry and revolutionise the way organic trace minerals

Research has shown that if hogs are overfed inorganic trace minerals, they do not perform with optimal productivity

are supplemented into an animal’s diet.” With new environmental feeding regulations being put in place each year, the Total Replacement Technology project strives to provide a secure source of organic trace minerals that are contaminant-free and safe for the environment. The latest research shows producers can feed substantially less organic trace minerals than inorganic and get a similar, if not better, performance in the swine barns. Elliott said, “Research has shown that if hogs are overfed inorganic trace minerals, they do

not perform with optimal productivity. “Feeding a pig exactly what it needs with organic trace minerals, will result in enhanced efficiency and less mineral excretion.” The new mineral management program has joined a list of Alltech On-Farm support services which have proved to be beneficial for the feed industry earlier. The company currently provides workshops and training for employees, nutritional advisory services, 37+ Mycotoxin analyses, TrueCheck in vitro screening, quality control checks and many other services to support the industry.

Feed enzyme market fast growing, says report THE GLOBAL FEED enzyme market is a fast growing segment of the feed additives market, according to a new report. Feed additives have now become an essential part of globallyincreasing meat production industry value chain, according to a new market report from Market and Markets . Most of the feed additives are used in micro quantities in the form of injectable, pellets, liquids and powders. There are variety of feed additives available that are used in different quantities and concentrations depending upon the type of animal and feed. Nutritional feed additives are amino acids, minerals and vitamins that provide essential nutrition to the animal in order to gain lean meat and higher muscle mass at a faster rate. Non-nutritional feed additives protect animal against diseases, improve its digestive system, aid in reproduction, and reduce phosphate content in the livestock waste. Antibiotics, hormones, probiotics, prebiotics and enzymes are few of the major nonnutritive feed additives. The global feed enzyme market is a fast growing segment of the feed additives market. The report estimates the market size of the global feed enzyme market in terms of value and volume. It studies the market in various regions and key countries from each region. Market drivers, restraints and opportunities are discussed in detail for the same.


Increasing population trends support the meat market globally, hence leading to a growth in the demand for feed enzymes. Non-starch polysaccharide enzymes (NSP) dominate the market share in terms of value. Protease enzyme shows promising growth across all regions, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.2 per cent from 2013 to 2018. Growing meat consumption in Asian subcontinent creates resultant demand for poultry and pig meat and in turn for NSP and phytase enzymes. Feed enzymes accelerate the biochemical reactions in animals in order to support life. These enzymes are added to pig, poultry, cattle and aquaculture to enhance the production efficiency. The major function of feed enzymes is to increase the digestibility of animals, like phytase is used in the animal feed to break down the protein consumed by the animals which enhances their digestibility. Some enzymes improve the fat absorption and starch digestibility that adds to the well-being of animals and reduces the mortality. Pig feed segment dominated the market share and is projected to grow at a healthy CAGR of 7.5 per cent. In terms of volume, poultry feed dominated the market scenario with a 44.0 per cent share in 2012. High rate of adoption of phytase by manufacturers drives the North American market to grow at a healthy CAGR of 7.1 per cent from 2013 to 2018. Developing economies of Asia-Pacific such as India and China drives the regional market. Brazilian animal feed production drives the market for feed enzymes in Rest of the World (ROW).


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Genome sequencing of duck species for understanding bird flu better A DUCK GENOME study has shed new light on ways to understand and combat the deadly bird flu virus. Fighting bird flu effectively has been a top priority in 2013 after the outbreak of the deadly virus in China earlier this year. Scientists from China Agricultural University, Beijing Genomics Institute, University of Edinburgh and other institutes have recently completed a genome sequencing and analysis of a duck species, Anas platyrhynchos, which was a principal natural host of influenza A viruses that caused a new epidemic in China since in February this year. The work has revealed some noteworthy conclusions and has provided an invaluable resource for unravelling the interactive mechanisms between the host and influenza viruses. As a natural host of influenza A viruses (including H5N1), the duck is known to often remain asymptomatic under influenza infection. To uncover the interactive mechanisms between the host and influenza

Duck species, Anas platyrhynchos, was a principal natural host of influenza A viruses that caused a new epidemic in China in February 2013

viruses, researchers sequenced the genome of a 10-week-old female Beijing duck, and conducted transcriptomic studies on two virus-infected ducks.

This work yielded the draft sequence of a waterfowl-duck for the first time, and the data indicated that the duck, like the chicken and zebra finch, possessed a contractive immune gene repertoire comparing to those in mammals, and it also comprises novel genes that are not present in the other three birds (chicken, zebra finch and turkey). By comparing gene expression in the lungs of ducks infected with either highly or weakly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses, the team identified genes whose expression patterns were altered in response to avian influenza viruses. They also identified factors that may be involved in duck host immune response to avian virus infection, including the avian and mammalian -defensin gene families. Jianwen Li, project manager from BGI, said, “This study provides very important data to better understand the interaction between the host and the avian influenza. Scientists will be able to explore more deeply the mechanisms on the spread and infection of avian influenza.�

Keeping poultry processing plant salmonella free A MAJOR PLACE where cross contamination of poultry products can easily take place is in the processing plant. It is of great importance to minimise such microbial contamination, especially in relation to any foodborne pathogens, such as Cross-contamination of carcasses can salmonella. occur via contaminated equipment The salmonella status of broiler flocks should be monitored from an early stage. If nonetheless salmonella is found, positive flocks should be processed separately, usually at the end of the shift. The equipment and the processing environment are then cleaned and suitably sanitised before the next flock is processed. Due to the nature of the process and the high speed at which finished carcasses are often produced, it is not possible to entirely prevent the spread of any salmonellas that may be introduced by incoming birds. Cross-contamination of carcasses can occur via contaminated equipment. Some equipment are prone to harbouring salmonellas, for example defeathering machines. This requires special attention in cleaning and disinfection. Also process water, aerosols and the hands of personnel are important sources. Product contamination can be minimised by the application of hazard control principles, in conjunction with good manufacturing practices and use of standard operating procedures for plant cleaning and disinfection. These systems involve appropriate training and supervision of staff. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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Indonesia and FAO strengthen aquaculture cooperation INDONESIA AND FAO will strengthen cooperation in the field of marine affairs, fisheries and aquaculture as part of an agreement that was signed recently in Jakarta. The three-year agreement, which sets up a framework for future joint activities in those sectors, was signed by Indonesian minister of marine affairs and fisheries Sharif C Sutardjo and FAO director-general José Graziano da Silva. As part of the agreement, specific arrangements will be made to increase cooperation in a number of areas including sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development, marine conservation and the prevention, deterrence and elimination of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. The agreement will also cover capacity building, education and training, research and the exchange of experts as well as food safety. FAO and Indonesia also agreed to consult on matters of mutual interest prior to international fisheries meetings. In 2011, Indonesia's fishery production totalled some 8.4mn tonnes, of which inland and marine catch accounted for about 5.7mn tonnes and aquaculture 2.7mn tonnes. About 95 per cent of the country’s fishery prod uction comes from artisanal fishermen. In the same year, more than six million people were engaged in inland and marine fishing and fish farming. About 54 per cent of Indonesia’s current animal protein supply comes from fish and seafood. Per capita annual consumption has almost tripled from an average of 10.2kg in the 1970 to 27.3kg in 2010.

Fish oil market to reach US$1.7 billion in 2018, says report THE GLOBAL MARKET for fish oil is expected to reach US$1.7bn in 2018, according to a report published by Transparency Market Research The global fish oil market was worth US$1.1bn in 2011 with a demand of 1,035kg tonnes which is expected to increase to 1,130kg tonnes in 2018. The report has attributed this rise in demand to people becoming more aware of the health benefits of omega 3, a fatty acid found in marine oils, with fish oil being the primary source. The report Fish Oil Market for Aquaculture, Direct Human Consumption, Hydrogenation and The rise in fish oil demand is Industrial Applications - Global Industry due to people becoming more Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends aware of the health benefits of omega 3, a fatty acid found in and Forecast, 2012 – 2018, has stated marine oils that the reduced or static production levels of fish oil may act as a major inhibitor for the growth of the market, which will be expected to escalate due to the uneven frequency of El Nino, which further reduces the overall fishing volumes. Aquaculture was the largest application segment in 2011, accounting for over 70 per cent of the consumption of oil, but direct human consumption of fish oil has been increasing over the past five years. Europe was the largest consumer of fish oil in 2011, with over 450kg tonnes of oil consumed. Asia Pacific and Latin America are the fastest growing regions in terms of fish oil consumption, due to growing aquaculture in China and Chile. The leading fish oil producers include EPAX AS, Croda Inc, COPEINCA ASA, Corpesca S.A and Omega Protein Corporation, among others.


Indonesia and FAO will increase cooperation in a number of areas including and aquaculture development, marine conservation and elimination of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing

In 2012, the total value of Indonesia’s fisheries exports was US$3.6bn. The fishing industry accounted for 21 per cent of Indonesia’s agricultural economy and three per cent of national GDP. Indonesia is one of 38 countries who have already met the Millennium Development Goal of halving their percentage of hunger by 2015.

Java fishermen to breed mud crabs FISHERMEN IN TUBAN mangrove area in East Java have revealed plans to breed mangrove crabs or mud crabs in an attempt to increase their income as the species have a high economic value. The members of Wanasari fishermen’s group have been developing a number of crab ponds in Tuban mangrove forest to breed the crabs, a high demand gourmet delicacy product. Many seafood lovers consider them to be among the tastiest crab specie. In traditional fish markets in southeast Asia mud crabs are in huge demand. Mud crabs are usually found in estuaries and mangrove forests in Asia, as well as in Australia. A report on Bali Day quoted fisherman Agus Diana as saying, “ We have received orders from nearby Many seafood lovers consider food establishments for mangrove mangrave crabs to be the tasti- crabs. est of crab species. “We have set up five crab traps and breeding spots measuring 15 by 20 meters near Teluk Benoa mangrove to breed and catch the crabs.” Each of the traps costs around US$5,065 to build. The construction is semi-permanent and made of bamboo and nylon fishing nets. Breeding mangrove crabs is seen as a profitable option for the desperate fishermen. Diana said that demand for the crabs was predominantly from seafood restaurants operating in Kuta and Tuban. “Mangrove crabs contain tender, delicious meat when compared to other crab species procured from Sulawesi and Papua, currently flooding Bali markets,” Diana said. Crabs from these two areas have to travel a long way to the local market.


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Choosing the right fungicide for citrus crops Finding the appropriate fungicide spray that maintains health of citrus crops can often be a challenge for cultivators LL EDIBLE CITRUS crops with the exception of grapefruit originates in Asia. The continent has given the world citrus crop and the world gave citrus crop a whole lot more diseases to contend with. Citrus, which one of the most widely cultivated fruit crop, has to contend with a wider range of difficult growing conditions and a broader spectrum of diseases. As such, citrus crop is now one of the most intensively sprayed fruit tree crops in the world. Take any crop out of its natural distribution and it will encounter new and wider range of diseases. Citrus is no exception. Trees are generally less able to tolerate new diseases because they lack


genetic resistance to them and because more growing conditions outside the norm mean more physiological stress for trees. Centuries of citrus crops breeding has created a broad genetic base of commercially grown citrus crops equipped to produce a higher yield across a wider range of growing conditions. Cultivars now grow citrus crops in Equatorial climates with its year-round high temperature, high humidity and rainfall and also classic Mediterranean type of climates with hot dry summers and cool wet winters and some sub-zero temperature. Net result is a wide range of citrus genotypes grown in a large number of countries, climate and environment resulting in | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013

specific fungal and bacterial pathogens evolving on particular types of citrus in different climatic and agronomic situations. In the year 2000, The American Phytopathological Society listed no less than 65 fungal diseases of citrus together with the plant pathogens responsible. The situation is further complicated by two or more species of the same fungal genus causing the same disease and with different species of the same genus causing distinctly separate diseases. For example, Alternaria alternata is responsible for ‘albinism’ as well as the more common alternaria brown rot, while Alternaria citri is listed as the cause of alternaria stem end rot as well as alternaria leaf spot specifically of


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rough lemon. There are at least seven species of Phytophthora (P. citricola, P. citrophthora, P. hibernalis, P. nicotinae, P. parasitica, P. palmivora, P. syringae) that cause brown rot of citrus fruit. All except P. citricola are also identified as causal pathogens of phytophthora foot rot, gummosis and root rot disease.

This well-distributed and well-dried deposit of cuprous oxide will protect the citrus fruit from a wide range of fungal diseases

oxide [Cu2O] is 143.00 with 127.00 of this (88 per cent) accounting for by the combined mass of two copper atoms. Equivalent figure for cupric hydroxide [Cu(OH)2] is 63.5/97.5 (65 per cent) and for copper oxychloride [3Cu(OH)2.CuCl2] 381.00/696.00 (55 per cent). Mean particle size and particle size distribution govern fungicide performance and efficacy. The total number of particles and their

Photograph: Dr Terry Mabbett

Citrus crop growers, who are faced with a wide range of plant diseases, clearly need a ‘one fits all’ fungicide to make spray application programmes as cost effective as possible. Broad spectrum fungicide activity from weatherproof spray deposits, freedom from fungicide resistance and no phytotoxic citrus fruit reaction (called ‘stippling’ or blemishing) are all essential requirements. Particulate fixed copper compounds which furnish fungicidally active Cu2+ ions are the only products with this all-round ability. These sparingly soluble salts of metallic copper, which include copper oxychloride, cupric hydroxide and cuprous oxide, are universally sprayed to control citrus crop diseases. Molecular weight comparisons show cuprous oxide has the most active copper translating into highest levels of disease control when these three fungicides are sprayed and compared on a weight for weight basis. Molecular weight of cuprous

Photograph: Nordox

Fungicide requirements

Timely fungicide sprays are required to protect both newly emerged leaves and newly formed fruit


combined surface area (in a fixed weight of fungicide) increases with a decrease in mean particle size, to give superior mixing and suspension in water and more even coverage over the plant surface. Spray deposits of particulate fixed copper fungicides like cuprous oxide show greater adhesion than cohesion because the particles stick to plant surfaces with greater force than they stick to each other. The smaller the particles, the more uniform is the spray coverage and the greater the chance of particles landing and adhering to the actual plant surface rather than another particle of copper fungicide. The larger surface area (relative to mass) of smaller particles means the spray deposit has more contact with the plant surface and greater adhesive forces to enhance spray deposit retention and resistance to weathering. This was demonstrated at Centrilab in the Netherlands by applying simulated rainfall to plants sprayed with various fixed copper fungicides. Following simulated rainfall applied at 10mm/hour the retention of Nordox cuprous oxide (mean particle size 1.2µm) was 80 per cent of the initial spray deposit, compared with less than 40 per cent for cupric hydroxide and copper oxychloride with a mean particle sizes of around 3µm. All particles in cuprous oxide fungicide manufactured by Nordox AS (Oslo, Norway) were within the 1µm to 5µm diameter range with 80 per cent less than 2µm and 99 per cent less than 5µm. A survey of the copper fungicides used as foliar sprays by the Australian citrus industry showed a wide range of median particle size from the 1.0 µm recorded for Nordox (750g Cu/kg of product) and up to 3.0 µm for products based on cupric hydroxide, copper oxychloride and tribasic copper sulphate. More particles with a higher total surface area mean a greater capacity to release copper ions in the


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Loss of spray deposit by weathering is generally exponential with initial high losses caused by dislodgement and removal of larger particles, leaving a residue of increasingly smaller particles. Reports suggesting that single large dose applications are less effective than the same amount of fungicide split between two or more repeat applications may be due to lower cohesive forces created when particles are deposited on top of each other rather than directly onto the leaf surface. In other words a particle of copper fungicide in contact with other particles is more easily dislodged than if in direct contact with the actual leaf surface.

Photograph: Dr Terry Mabbett

presence of moisture to enhance the fungicidal or bacterial activity of the product. Main factors affecting spray deposit retention of copper fungicide deposits on citrus crop leaf and fruit surfaces are: • Rains: Dislodgement of particles by the physical force of falling raindrops and loss of fungicide during solubilisation from washing and run-off effects of rainfall and/or condensation from the atmosphere as dew; • Wind events: Particles over three to four µm in diameter are blown off plant surfaces due to their weaker adhesive forces. Abrasive effects of leaves and the fruit rubbing together during wind-caused movement can dislodge particles. • Physical removal of particles on plant surfaces due to plant growth movements with tension in leaves and fruit.

Research in Australia shows how a surface deposit of protectant fungicide on lemons can be reduced (diluted) by up to a factor of 14 simply through an surface area from fruit growth

Copper fungicides in action on citrus (such as cuprous oxide) as protectant fungicides is its ability to stick firmly on the plant surface where it lands. From this initial deposit position, copper ions are gradually released by solubilisation to enter the germinating fungal spore and kill them before they can infect the leaf or fruit. Copper fungicides are most effective against

Photograph: Dr Terry Mabbett

Copper fungicides are purely protectant in action. Disease control relies on maintaining an even distribution of spray deposit with good retention over all susceptible citrus plant surfaces. By definition, protectant copper sprays must be applied evenly over the leaf or fruit surface before spore germination. The superiority of fixed copper compounds

Citrus crop suffering from two fungal diseases at the same time. The leaves show symptoms of greasy spot (Mycosphaerella citri) while the fruit displays symptoms of citrus scab (Elsinöe sp) | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013

pathogens which are dependent on free water for infection and disease development. Plant surface water from rainfall, condensation (dew) or irrigation receives biochemical exudates from the plant and fungal and bacterial spores. Being weak acids they will reduce the pH of surface water. Since the solubility of copper fungicides increases as the pH falls, the release and accumulation of copper ions in the surface water accelerates accordingly. Copper ions, which come into contact with germinating fungal spores or bacteria, are picked up and absorbed into these microbial cells to disrupt enzyme activity on a broad front, killing fungal spores and bacterial cells before they cause infection. Free water is particularly important for the propagation and spread of bacterial inoculum. Bacterial canker of citrus caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. aurantifolii is a classic example. It is controlled by copper fungicide but spraying when dew is the leaves makes matters worse. Air assisted sprayers blow spray droplets and bacteria around the orchard to cause particular problems. American Phytopathological Society advises


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against spraying against bacterial canker in wet conditions and with early morning dews. Fungicide coverage will decrease over time due to deposit loss caused by plant growth and weathering through rainfall and wind. Growth movements may dislodge particles of copper fungicide from the plant surface while an increase in the surface area of leaves and fruit from growth will dilute the deposit accordingly on a mass per unit area basis. Expanding plant surfaces create unprotected areas and can dislodge fungitoxic residues. Surface area of lemon fruits growing in New South Wales (NSW) Australia increased by a factor of 14 between fruit set and harvest with surface deposits of fungicide ‘diluted’ accordingly. Loss of effectiveness of copper fungicides against citrus melanose on young fast growing grapefruit in Florida was more attributed to the dilution of surface deposits from fruit growth rather than to actual loss of deposits due to rainfall and other environmental factors. Period of fungicide protection is shortened under conditions of high rainfall and use of overhead irrigation. Follow up fungicide applications may be required to maintain the protection of foliage and fruit, depending on the retention properties of the copper fungicide used.

Photograph: Nordox


Highly tenacious cuprous oxide fungicide provides weatherproof deposits for citrus crops like this mandarin grown in high rainfall areas

Trials in Spain (Valencia) to control Alternaria brown rot of citrus showed copper fungicides with longer residual activity on fruit and higher rain-fastness than mancozeb, difenoconazole, iprodione, famoxadone, and pyraclostrobin. Cuprous oxide controlled this fruit disease for 28 days and withstood 71 mm of rainfall, its rain-fastness and

persistence outperforming that of both cupric hydroxide and copper oxychloride. Based on these findings a 4-week spray application schedule was proposed for the control of Alternaria brown rot on Fortune Mandarin during periods favourable for disease development. Follow up applications to replace lost copper fungicide deposit were only necessary after heavy or wind-driven rains. Use of fixed copper fungicides with smaller particles, and therefore enhanced tenacity and superior weathering ability, has important practical implications for the protection of evergreen tree crops like citrus. Leaf deposits which lack tenacity will suffer large early losses of fungicide due to the erosive effects of rainfall. As such growers are required to apply much higher rates of fungicide with increased cost of control. Fungicide formulations which contain a narrow range of much smaller particles will show more gradual release of copper ions from the deposit. This gradual redistribution of fungicide means some falls on and protects the new leaf flushes produced after spraying.

Photograph: Dr Terry Mabbett

Cuprous oxide ‘fits all’ for citrus

A wide range of citrus hybrids suited to different growing conditions are now available. An orange-lemon hybrid growing in Australia


Fixed copper compounds can cope with the wide range of diseases affecting citrus leaves and fruit. Strength comes from broad spectrum of fungicidal and bacterial activity and sparingly soluble properties enhancing rain-fastness, persistence and spray deposit longevity, while providing an ideal release profile of copper ions. Inherently higher copper content and low solubility of cuprous oxide provides the highest efficacy and longest persistence to give superior disease control at lower spray dosage rates, and with minimum risk of citrus fruit ‘stippling’ (blemishing). n By Dr Terry Mabbett


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2013: Year of rice for Philippines? As Philippines takes bold strides towards attaining rice self sufficiency, here is a look at the worries that need to be addressed WO YEARS AGO, the Philippines government had declared that the country will be self-sufficient in rice production by 2013. The government’s confidence was bolstered by consistent growth in rice production in 2011 and 2012 at six per cent (16.68mn tonnes) and eight per cent (18mn tonnes), respectively. With these impressive figures, the Department of Agriculture (DA) is convinced of hitting the 20mn tonne mark, an adequate volume that would make the country rice self-sufficient once more after many years of being an importer. The DA also boasted of drastic cut in rice imports, from 2.4mn tonnes in 2010 to 860,000 tonnes in 2011 and 500,000 in 2012. The prediction may actually materialise as palay rice (unhusked rice) output in the first quarter rose 5.5 per cent to 4.5mn tonnes from January to March 2013 from 4.24mn tonnes in the same threemonth period last year. Agriculture secretary Proceso Alcala has attributed the increased production to good weather condition and higher prices of the produce. The National Food Authority (NFA), the country’s grain arm, announced that it bought 2,286,324 bags of palay in April, the highest in 41 years. According to local daily Business Mirror, NFA administrator Orlan Calayag said the bags exceeded the food agency’s target of 1,078,500 bags by 212.03 per cent. Calayag said most rice producing provinces have surpassed their target outputs and even non-traditional rice producing regions have also been procuring record volumes of palay. In fact, the country had become self-sufficient in rice as a staple food as early as last year. Based on current data of palay production and assuming a 90-day buffer stock, assistant secretary and National Rice Program coordinator Dante Delima said calculations on per capita consumption and updated population figures, rice production of 11.75mn tonnes of milled rice have already met the needs of 97.61mn people last year. Not only that the country has plans to be self-sufficient in rice, but


2011 and 1012 has seen a consistent growth in rice production at six per and eight per cent respectively

also it has embarked on designing exports strategies. From being the world’s biggest importer of rice, the Philippines has initially shipped some volumes of rice abroad as its modest step to enter the niche market for the staple after forty years.

The increase in rice production has been attributed to consistent good weather and higher prices of produce | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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The problem of rice smuggling has been rising steeply, cutting down precious profit margins

Last year, NFA showed that it can export 900,000kg of cereals (corn, rice and rice seeds), with rice seeds comprising the bulk. In fact, Business Mirror reported that around 24,000kg of heirloom rice from the Cordillera Autonomous Region (CAR) will be exported to the US. An additional 800kg of black rice will be exported to the Netherlands in June-July, 40 tonnes of white rice and 15 tonnes of organic rice to Hong Kong and 15 tonnes of black rice as well as 20 tonnes of white and long grain aromatic rice has already been exported to Dubai in May. According to GMA News, the DA is looking at a total of 100 tonnes of rice exports to Dubai, Hong Kong, Macau, South Africa and the US and may double it to 200 tonnes in 2014 if the shipments this year are successful.

Rice smuggling Amid the impressive performance, the industry has issues that need immediate attention. The problem of smuggling has been rising steeply, cutting down precious profit margins. Although this has been a problem for ages, the illegal trade has become more extreme and is severely affecting the small farmers. Rosendo So of the party list group Abono said farmers fear that prices for locally produced grains would drop further as cheaper imports are already flooding the market. So said the documents from the Bureau of Customs show that rice smuggling is occurring in ports, particularly in huge cities of Davao and Cebu.

Smuggled rice mostly comes to Philippines from China and Vietnam


So says rice smuggled into Mindanao is shipped to Luzon and sold at US$28.81 per sack. Locally milled rice is sold at US$33.61 per sack after being bought at US$0.42 per kg. Smuggled rice mostly comes from China and Vietnam and the Bureau of Customs (BOC) has been actively seizing illegal entry of imported rice in the country. In 2012, So said that around 600,000 tonnes of rice worth US$240.12mn was smuggled into the country. BOC on the other hand denied such claims, saying their agency has been working hard for controlling such illegal acts. BOC Commissioner Ruffy Biazon said the shipment was found in 20footer vans consigned to Davao-based traders. Biazon added that the BOC has stepped up its fight against. President Benigno Aquino III has already drafted a manifesto on rice smuggling to control the entry of illegal rice imports which has been plaguing the industry for many years.

Questions on self-sufficiency Some analysts have however expressed doubts on the rice selfsufficiency plans and said that the rice self-sufficiency goal may not be good for the country. According to Rene Pastor, columnist at, it may make better sense to just import the shortfall in rice rather than forcefully plant more. With the population growing rapidly to nearly 100mn, Pastor said massive rice farming would mean more chemical-based fertilisers that will damage the whole rice farmlands which are already in trouble considering its shrinking size brought about by industrialisation and booming real estate business in semi-urban areas. “The Philippines can increase rice production in the short-term, but farms and fisheries may suffer irreparable damage from fertiliser abuse. Switching crops or getting Filipino farmers to reduce their use of fertiliser would require a determined government thinking of long-term consequences for the country,” Pastor said. Although he is cognizant of Aquino’s rice self-sufficiency goal is an achievement, compelling environmental and economic considerations should also be taken account, which ignored, could be more detrimental for the country that is just beginning to feel some economic relief. Nevertheless, issues on the rice industry, whether detrimental or beneficial, would always be pertinent and interesting to the Filipinos who live and breathe on rice. n By Gemma Delmo


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Indian bank ties up with Escorts ESCORTS HAS SIGNED a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with State Bank of India (SBI) for providing financial assistance to its newly-launched agri service infrastructure called ‘Escorts Crop Solutions’. The signing ceremony was presided over by SBI chief general manager Ashish Kumar Roy and Crop Solutions & Application Marketing head Rajan Aggarwal along with Escorts Agri Machinery commercial head A Biswas. This tie–up is expected to help in boosting the farm mechanisation at grass root level in India. Escorts Crop solution (ECS) is an initiative through which Escorts intends to provide “end-to-end farm machinery” through custom hiring route to small and marginal farmers. The company is establishing Escorts crop solutions centres both at district and village levels for easy access. These custom hiring centres would also have provision of sales and service of the machines. Escorts Agri Machinery CEO S Sridhar said, “Conventionally, farm mechanisation strategies are tractor centric where as our focus is to be crop centric and the offer is complete end-to-end farm machinery solutions. “This is in line with the Indian government’s thrust on providing sustainable and affordable farm mechanisation solutions to the farming society without disparity. The alliance with SBI aims at addressing these challenges by providing easy and absolute access of machines along with the required financial assistance.”

Pests becoming resistant to GM crops, says study MORE PEST SPECIES are becoming resistant to the most popular type of genetically-modified, insect-repellent crops, a study has revealed recently. The paper, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, delved into key aspects of so-called Bt corn and cotton, plants that carry a gene to make them exude a bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis, which is toxic to insects. Researchers have analysed the findings of 77 studies from eight countries on five continents that reported on data from field monitors. Of 13 major pest species examined, five were resistant by 2011, compared with only one in 2005, according to the study. The benchmark was resistance among more than 50 per cent of insects in a location. Of the five species, three were cotton pests and two were corn pests.The authors said they picked up a case of early resistance, with less than 50 per cent of insects, in yet another US cotton pest. There were early warning signs (one per cent resistance or less) from four other cotton or corn pests in China, the United States and the Philippines. The scientists found big differences in the speed at which Bt resistance developed. What made the difference was whether farmers set aside sufficient refuges of land for non-Bt crops, said the study. The genes that confer resistance are recessive, meaning that insects can survive on Bt plants only if they have two copies of a resistance gene, one from each parent. Planting refuges near Bt crops reduces the chances of two resistant insects mating and conferring the double gene to their offspring.

Study helps protect wheat crop in Asia and Africa from pests US-BASED OREGON STATE University (OSU) has developed an environment monitoring system using mobile technology and cloud computing that will help farmers thousands miles away, in west and central Asia, effectively combat a pest that is a huge threat to wheat crop. Twenty million acres of wheat in parts of Asia and North Africa are threatened by a bug — Sunn pest — that can destroy the value of wheat. Speed in confronting this pest is essential. Even minor delays in use of pesticides can cut wheat yield by 90 per cent. Even if just two to five per cent of the grains have been affected, the entire crop becomes unusable for making bread. A solution to that problem has emerged from an unusual collaboration between an entomologist, a rangeland specialist and an OSU computer scientist who have used a mobile technology and cloud computing for better management of the devastating pests. Mustapha El Bouhssini, a senior Even if two to five per cent of wheat grains in a harvest is entomologist at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the affected by the Sunn pest, the entire crop becomes Dry Areas, an organisation based in unusable for making bread Lebanon, collaborated with Doug Johnson, an OSU professor of rangeland ecology and management, to create a unique solution for pest control. El Bouhssini said, “To control Sunn pest, governments treat infested wheat fields with pesticides and close to US$150mn is spent annually on chemical control. That’s a lot of pesticide to dump in the environment. It kills the bees, and pollutes the water and the environment.” OSU professor and computer scientist Bechir Hamdaoui joined the project to develop an integrated data acquisition system that could collect and process photos from the field quickly and accurately. With the help of smart phones or smart cameras, workers in filed can capture location information and transmit it wirelessly to a remote OSU server for automatic processing. Decision-makers will be able to find out the number of Sunn pests in their fields and spray only when conditions warrant action. The data collected for pest management can also be examined year-toyear, along with other factors like temperature and weather for prediction modelling. | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


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Biofuel crop could improve farmers’ income in Indonesia INDONESIA HAS MADE an attempt at harnessing the potentials of Camelina Sativa, a shrub originating in Europe that can be processed into biofuel, to improve the incomes of local farmers. The first planting of the shrub, also known as camelina, was conducted recently by the Yogyakarta Forestry and Horticulture Agency in cooperation with Waterland Asia Investments, which has committed to buying the harvest. Apart from being a source of biofuel, the leaves and stalks of the shrub can be used as an alternative source of cattle feed. According to a report on Jakarta Post, Akhmad Dawam, Yogyakarta Forestry and Horticulture Agency head, said, “I really hope the camelina shrub will be able to improve the wealth of local farmers as they will not be dependent only on food crops.” The shrubs were planted, widely spaced among rows of cajuput trees, on 300 hectares of state forest at Manggoran Resort. The newspaper quoted Akhmad as saying that his office was still conducting trials and

The leaves and stalks of the shrub can be used as an alternative source of cattle feed

research on the plant’s feasibility in Gunungkidul. If successful, he added, another 1,800 hectares of land will be provided for the plant.

“Camelina can be cultivated in dry seasons when it is impossible for farmers to plant food crops. Theoretically, therefore, this can improve the farmers’ income,” Akhmad said. The crop is of immense economic importance in comparison to other bioenergy plants like jatropha and nyamplung (Calophyllum inophullum) since it requires only two months harvesting time. Akhmad also said that his agency had signed a cooperation agreement with Waterland for the development of bio-energy plants and other crops in Gunungkidul regency. Waterland, he said, will buy the harvest at between US 20 cents to 25 cents per kg. Separately, Waterland chairman Adi Sasono said that the plant could be a solution to the need for renewable energy sources. Indonesia, he said, currently was experiencing an energy emergency in the fossil fuel supply because imports accounted for 60 per cent content of fuel production. At the same time, he added, domestic crude oil reserves were only some four billion barrels and this was expected to be used up in 10 years.

Algae farm hub to come up in Myanmar

Nine high-yielding seeds

MYANMAR MAY SOON have an algae farming hub in Yangon with Nation First International Development Asia (NFIDAsia) Company planning to invest in such a venture at the earliest. Algae are a profitable source of biofuel and commercial animal feed for aquaculture and agriculture. It can also be a sustainable source for a broad range of high profit value products. Algae farming can be Algae farming can be carried out at places like fish farms carried out at places like fish farms. The NFDIAsia has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Hisham Koh & Associates (HKA) which carried out the UNDP’s development programs in Myanmar to facilitate algae farming products in the rural areas throughout the country. NFIDAsia president Johnathan Pierce said, “The NFIDAsia Company is not a business which will take Myanmar’s money out to other countries. The project will be beneficial for local people. “We will grow the algae, manufacture it locally and distribute the finished products around the world. The company will not manufacture the products in other countries by only taking the raw materials.” The president also said that the company has been successfully operating the algae farming businesses in several countries like Japan, US and Israel. The company expected that their operation tasks will be successful in Myanmar combined with its rich international experiences. Algae are suitable for cultivation and production in central Myanmar. However, the techniques needed to produce algal based farming products for the export is not developed to the required quality specifications. Production of spirulina, a fresh water algae consumed by both humans and animals, is being carried out in Butalin Township of Sagaing region, in upper Myanmar and is widely used as a nutritious food in 70 countries.

AN INDIAN AGRICULTURAL varsity has recently released nine high-yielding varieties of rice, groundnut, soya bean, sugarcane and chickpea crops. The research was conducted by the Birsa Agriculture University (BAU) in India’s Jhanrkhand state. The seeds are resistant towards major diseases and pests. BAU vice-chancellor P Pandey said all these varieties will be made avilable for planned multiplication during coming seasons to ensure that they reach the farmers soon thus enabling them to derive the benefits of enhanced productivity and income through its cultivation. “This will pave the way for a second green revolution in the state because the new variants are not only high yielding but also resistant to diseases and pest, making it profitable for the farmers,” he said. Four of the nine crop varieties that have been released are of rice alone. Of these, Birsa Vikash Sugandha-1 can mature in 120 -125 days and is suitable for cultivation if it receives proper rains. It is a scented variety of grain with a yield potential of 40-45 quintal/ha. The rice is moderately resistant to brown spot, blast diseases and pests.



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Evolution 2V vaccinator creates ripples UK-BASED POULTRY VACCINATION solutions manufacturer Diamond Engineering’s Diamond Evolution 2V vaccinator has been recognised as a key vaccination innovation in the poultry sector in recent times. The company has received an order to supply 100 Evolution 2V vaccinators from a China-based client. The order was placed recently after extensive field trials in China at the customer’s own research site and at hatchery farms spread over China for a period of six months. The Evolution 2V vaccinator is a subcutaneous chick vaccinator that is equipped to deliver two vaccines simultaneously to one to 15 day old chicks. The machine is supplied with a single syringe for dose of two volumes of vaccine dose according to requirements. The Diamond Evolution 2V vaccinator emerged a winner in four significant areas considered by the client based on price, quality, ease of use and simplicity of service. The company has also recently received orders from 40 hatch sprayers from clients in the Middle East and Asia.

Weda software for improving sow management WEDA DAMMANN & Westerkamp GmbH (Lutten) has introduced new and useful software to aid pig farmers to increase the efficiency of the entire animal house management. The 4PX setup developed by Weda has new and useful program features that will enable a consistent exchange and comparison of data between the animal house segments of mating station, waiting section and farrowing section.

Evolution hatch sprayer

The 4PX setup developed by Weda has new and useful programme features that will enable a consistent exchange and comparison of data

JetSpray humidifier helps maintain carcass moisture ABATTOIR EQUIPMENT FIRM GM Steel has installed JS Humidifiers’ JetSpray humidifier for helping it reduce carcass moisture loss after slaughter by up to 1.5 per cent. By maintaining a consistently high humidity in the chill-down area, GM Steel has been able to reduce the moisture loss from around 2.5 per cent to less than one per cent. For an abattoir processing 3,500 carcasses per week and an average cost of beef at US$4 per kg, this technology could increase profits by over US$2mn per year by preventing over 500,000kg of beef simply evaporating into its chill store’s atmosphere. The JetSpray humidifier consists of rows of precision engineered nozzles that combine compressed air and water to produce a spray that has a droplet size of just 7.5 microns. The nozzle line is mounted directly in front of the evaporator coils of the refrigeration system and introduces moisture to the airstream as is enters the chill store. The extremely fine spray ensures the moisture is absorbed by the atmosphere and prevents wetting inside the room. Tiny needles inside the nozzles act as a self-cleaning mechanism and prevent blockages making the system extremely robust, requiring very little maintenance. Robert Ten Cate, GM Steel consultant, said, “A carcass coming from the slaughter line is wet and warm. When it is introduced to the chill store, the cold dry air strips moisture from its exposed surface. By maintaining a high humidity in the chill store with a JetSpray humidifier during the initial cooling, moisture loss from the carcass is inhibited and can be reduced to less than one per cent.”

The data transfer can be carried out via the networking interface, ISOagriNET. Based on the new software architecture, the sows can now also be identified as individual animals in the group at the feed valve. This, compared with previous versions, is a technical innovation because the animals standing at the feed trough will not be anonymous any more. Also, data from an external computer, as for instance the demand feeding station “4PX SowComp” can be read in from the liquid feeding computer via interface. This way, important data can be stored in the main computer, for example, the number of the sow, the number of the responder, or the day of the cycle. Thus, the sow only has to be allocated to the respective feed valve. WEDA’s all-in-one solution is thus a house management system which simplifies and optimises the complete animal administration. Due to the entries into the computer system, it is, therefore, possible to control the movements of individual animals within the station.

Innovative drinking technology


controlled by Impex

IMPEX Barneveld BV Harselaarseweg 129 • P.O. Box 20 • 3770 AA Barneveld • HOLLAND T: 31 (0)342 - 41 66 41 • F: 31 (0)342 - 41 28 26 • E: • I: | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013


S08 FEAG 3 2013 Equipment_Layout 1 01/07/2013 09:55 Page 32


Greaves Cotton launches mini tractor in India GREAVES FARM EQUIPMENT Business, Greaves Cotton, has launched a new mini tractor called Ustaad in India recently following their foray into the tractor market in the country. Greaves Cotton Ustad will be offered in 11 and 12hp range and will be ideally suited for a land holding of size three to five acres. The entry level mini tractor will possess a Greaves G600 WII engine which is highly fuel efficient with consumption of diesel at just one liter per hour. The four stroke direct injection single cylinder engine can offer a maximum torque of 32Nm. The engine is emission compliant and is easy to service. It will also aid Indian farmers where a number of other farming functions are concerned, which include hauling, cultivation facilities, seed drill, as a rotavator and for spraying of pesticides on plants. Greaves Ustad mini-tractor comes in with an advanced ergonomic design offering farmers with a comfortable riding experience with advanced features, while fuel efficiency is one of its major attributes. Greaves Ustad features forward – reverse with eight forward and two reverse gears, completely sealed water proof mechanical brakes and a pawl and ratchet type locking arrangement as a standard fitment. Ustad comes with a combination of synchromesh, constant and sliding mesh gear shifting with epicyclical planetary reduction gear that is suited for all agricultural operations and haulage. Ustad presents a three point linkage allowing for attachment of various implements like plough, cultivator, and harrow seed drill and for movement of implements. Greaves Cotton MD and CEO Sunil Pahilajani said, “The launch of Greaves Ustad is a testimony of our continuous focus on new product development and innovation. It symbolises our commitment of providing the farming community a value for money product backed by a strong after market support.”

New sprayers from Goizper GOIZPER HAS DEVELOPED a range of sprayers, MATABI, which is suited for gardening, orchard farming and agricultural sectors. The Evolution 16 hand-operated and E+ electrical, are the two new models equipped with knapsacks which offer features that make the work easier to the user, ensuring an efficient crop protection treatment. Technological innovation in agriculture is extended to all fields and areas of crop protection. Goizper said that the evolution of the machines and tools reflect on concepts such as the design, ergonomics, improved features, efficiency, respect for the environment and the company has always kept these parameters in mind while designing its products. The E+ electrical sprayer is Electric characterised by a total capacity of 15 Sprayer E+ litres and a light ergonomic design. It has adjustable padded straps and belt with a pocket. It has also been equipped with a carrying handle for easy transport, fiber glass lance with adjustable blue cone nozzle, a diaphragm pump, translucent tank and a pressure regulator integrated in the handle. The Evolution 16 knapsack sprayer has a total capacity of 16 litres. It has a resistant and light polypropylene tank, a translucent side level indicator, ergonomic carrying handle, steel chromed handle, long fiber glass lance with hollow cone yellow nozzle and comes with a five years guarantee. Goizper said that it pursues a continuous innovation strategy as its goal and its team of engineers has therefore been able to successfully launch the new range of sprayers.

New cab for John Deere 5E Series tractors JOHN DEERE’S 5E Series three-cylinder utility tractors have been fitted with a new John Deere designed cab aimed at providing more comfort for enhancing performance. The 5E Series tractors are suitable for a range of customers including smaller livestock or mixed farms, specialty growers and parttime farmers or private landowners, as well as the commercial grounds care market. The 5055E, 5065E and 5075E models from 55 to 75hp (97/68 EC rating) can be ordered with two new cab options, equipped with either basic roof-mounted heater or ventilation outlets and controls or a higher specification air conditioning and heating system. The cabs also feature opening front, rear and side windows for extra visibility when required. An additional new feature is a digital instrument panel. All three models feature a John Deere PowerTech M Tier III engine, providing good fuel economy and low emission levels, and an open centre hydraulic system with independent pumps. A single rear SCV will be operated by a


The 5E Series tractors are suitable for a range of customers including smaller livestock or mixed farm owners, specialty growers and part-time farmers

dedicated lever as standard. Additional options include a second rear or midmounted SCV, operated by a joystick control. The synchronised nine forward/three reverse inline transmission follows an H pattern and can be shifted on the move via side-shift levers within the range. A standard 540rpm PTO can operate at a rated engine speed of

2400rpm, while the 540E economy version runs at 1700 engine rpm. The tractors can be fitted with a choice of two mechanical self-levelling or non self-levelling loaders, with lift capacities of either 873kg or 989kg to a maximum lift height of 3.38m. Rear lift capacity is 1.8 tonnes at the hitch balls.


S08 FEAG 3 2013 Equipment_Layout 1 01/07/2013 09:55 Page 33


Students develop time-saving pesticide sprayer STUDENTS FROM AN Indian university have developed a time-saving and easy-to-use pesticide sprayer which can prove to be a boon to farmers. Four students Hassan Mohammed Suhail, Mithun Shetty, Mohammed Suhaif, and Anish R of Shree Devi Institute of Technology (SDIT) have designed a single-wheeled sprayer, the speciality of which is that it can reduce the consumption and also time required for spraying of pesticides in farmlands. This innovative equipment is designed in such a way that it prevents hand pumping to spray the pesticides as it is designed using cranking mechanism.

Explaining about how this equipment works, Hassan Mohammed told Indian newspaper Times of India that a farmer has to just push this equipment on the farmland and the nozzle will spray pesticide automatically in whichever direction he wants. A single wheel is hinged on the axle, which in turn drives a cranking mechanism to create to and fro motion and actuates the pump of the pesticide tank. This creates pressure inside the tank and due to this pressure pesticide gets sprayed, said Hassan Mohammed. Another speciality is that the height of the sprayer can be adjusted and pesticide can be sprayed in four parallel rows simultaneously in

farm lands which saves time and farmers’ work. Usually farmers carry pesticide tanks on their back and spray on the crops, he said, adding, “This usually makes farmers very tired but our equipment can be used easily even by aged farmers without carrying the tank on the back.” These budding engineers have developed this equipment within one month under the guidance of Thrivikram Prabhu, head of the department of mechanical engineering, and Dilip Kumar K, principal of SDIT. Hassan Mohammed said, “If any poor farmer approaches us, we will help them to develop this equipment. The maintenance of this equipment is easy.”

Maschio Gaspardo launches cereal air drill MASCHIO GASPARDO HAS launched a seed placement solution, Gigante cereal air drill, that guarantees a consistent placement and a uniform seeding depth of rice grains during planting seasons. The Gigante seeding unit design, with single notched disc openers, can cut every soil including

hard no-till surfaces. The side gauge wheel sets the seeding depth and allows adjustment of it considering seed and soil types. The seed trench created by the coulter is extremely narrow and easy to close with the rear tapered cast wheel. Seed to soil contact is perfect all the time and the furrow closing action can be | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013

adjusted by setting the down pressure of the rear closing wheel. Each unit is mounted on a heavy-duty tool-bar made of high tensile steel, linked by a cast hinge and tempered pin where the opener arm is mounted on the bar. The cast arm is rugged and guarantees effective cutting capability in every soil.


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Mycotoxins and Ammonium are responsible for severe economical losses in livestock industry


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Monitoring crop to prevent wheat rusts Wheat belt regions in Asia and Africa should step up measures to prevent the spread of the fungal disease that can destroy harvest completely Wheat rusts manifest themselves as yellow, blackish or brown coloured blisters that form on wheat leaves and stems

HEAT RUSTS, A fungal disease that occurs particularly in wet seasons, has drawn the attention of global communities in recent times with yields in West and South Asia, North Africa and Middle-East, which account for more than 30 per cent of global wheat output, vulnerable to impact of the fungus. FAO has called for countries in the global ‘wheat belt’ to step up monitoring and prevention for wheat rusts to ensure enough harvest to meet global needs this year. FAO plant production and protection division agriculture officer Fazil Dusunceli said, “The favourable growing conditions for wheat are also good for the rust diseases that affect wheat, so when there is good precipitation for wheat, that is also when wheat rusts will be able to best thrive and proliferate. “The ideal approach to prevent the rusts is to grow the right cultivars which are resistant to rust diseases.” Wheat rusts manifest themselves as yellow, blackish or brown coloured blisters that form on wheat leaves and stems, full of millions of spores. These spores, similar in appearance to rust, infect the plant tissues, hindering photosynthesis and decreasing the crop’s ability to produce grain.


Asia and Africa are risk areas Central, West and South Asia and Africa are particularly susceptible to the crop disease. If wheat rusts strike on susceptible varieties at an

To achieve sustained and improved productivity in wheat, increased investments are needed to support collaboration efforts for supporting integrated disease management in the regions often at risk of wheat rust epidemics early stage, the entire crop can be lost. According to a joint alert on issued by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, both FAO partners, “Conducive climatic conditions for rusts, especially yellow rust, are resulting in potentially serious outbreaks in the central and West Asia and North Africa region. Cool and wet conditions have persisted in many countries from Morocco to Bhutan.” According to the report, especially yellow (stripe) rust has been damaging on susceptible varieties in some parts of Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iran, Iraq, | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Three 2013

Morocco, Pakistan, Turkey and Uzbekistan. In Pakistan, a marked increase in reports of high (more than 40 per cent) and moderate (more than 20 per cent) severity for three types of rust diseases was reported a few years back, but the effects of yellow rust were most pronounced, appearing in 53 per cent of the surveyed fields.

Prevention and rapid response Using resistant cultivars and early intervention are the key principles of controlling wheat rust diseases, but monitoring for rusts on the ground is typically weak and likewise the reporting times are slow in many countries. FAO has been running a global programme since 2008 to provide support to the countries concerned emphasising on prevention, by encouraging the development and planting of resistant cultivars, use of certified seed, rapid seed multiplication, training of farmers and strengthening surveillance. Wheat rusts, like other pathogens, over time can evolve into new strains that are more virulent and damaging to wheat crops. It must be closely monitored as part of a global collective effort. To achieve sustained and improved productivity in wheat, increased investments are needed to support collaboration efforts to support integrated disease management in the regions often at risk of wheat rust epidemics, specifically in East and North Africa and the Central and South Asia. n


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Far Eastern Agriculture 3 2013