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FEAG 2 2013 COVER_FEAG_COVER_MASTER_09 02/05/2013 12:03 Page 1

US$15.00 (UK£9.00)

VOLUME 30 ISSUE 2

ISSUE TWO 2013

Coffee storage Keeping moisture and microbes away

Preview of CAHE 2013 Asia, hub of global egg production Fish production in pond water Poultry vaccination – p13

Philippines coffee industry trends

Hygiene measures to stop bird flu spread


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Contents

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VOLUME 30 ISSUE 2

US$15.00 (UKÂŁ9.00)

Bulletin A round-up of key developments in the regional market

ISSUE TWO 2013

Coffee storage Keeping moisture and microbes away

Agenda Indian market welcomes Aussie lamb, China may dominate soymeal exports, Genetically modified crops gain popularity in China, Thailand to set up rice trade zones

Photo: www.wallpaperskd.com

6

Events 9

Preview of CAHE, Indo Livestock Expo, CIMAE 2013, Inapalm; Reviews of VIV Asia, Rubber Plant Summit Preview of CAHE 2013

Livestock 13

Asia, hub of global egg production Fish production in pond water Poultry vaccination – p13

Poultry vaccination

Philippines coffee industry trends

Hygiene measure to stop bird flu spread

16

Asia, hub of global hen egg production

21

Pond water fish production

21

Crops 23

Coffee and cocoa storage

26

Philippines coffee industry trend

Equipment 31

The latest innovations in agricultural technology

Moreover 35

Hygiene measures to stop bird flu virus spread Monitoring water conditions is a must for pond water fish production improvement

Advertisers Index AWILA Anlagenbau GmbH ..........................................25

MIK International ..........................................................5

CNH International SA ....................................................2

Olmix ..........................................................................17

Compact Seeds and Clones SA ....................................7

SCE nv, silo construction and engineering ..................11

Diamond Engineering Ltd. ..........................................23

SCHAUER Agrotronic GmbH ..........................................9

Eurofeed Technologies S.r.l. ........................................34

Schaumann Agri International GmbH..........................21

Goizper Sociedad Cooperativa ....................................15

SKA s.r.l. Italy ..............................................................31

Henke-Sass, Wolf GmbH ............................................13

Unipoint AG ................................................................34

Lubing Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG....................36

United Business Media (M) Sdn Bhd (Livestock Asia 2013)..................................................27

31

New technology has helped haying machinery industry recover from recession blow

www.fareasternagriculture.com

Managing Editor : Kasturi Gupta Editorial and Design team: Bob Adams, Prashant AP, David Clancy, Andrew Croft, Ranganath GS, Rhonita Patnaik, Genaro Santos, Zsa Tebbit and Nicky Valsamakis Publisher: Nick Fordham Advertising Sales Director: Pallavi Pandey

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Production: Nathanielle Kumar, Donatella Moranelli, Nick Salt and Sophia White Email: production@alaincharles.com

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Representative Wang Ying Tanmay Mishra Bola Olowo Sergei Salov Annabel Marx Saida Hamad Camilla Capece Michael Tomashefsky

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Chairman: Derek Fordham Printed by: Times Printers Private Limited Far Eastern Agriculture (ISSN 0266-8025)

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Audit Bureau of Circulations - Business Magazines

Serving the world of business

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Bulletin Indonesian poultry firm outlines expansion plans INDONESIAN POULTRY INTEGRATOR Sierad Produce has revealed plans to expand its business operations in 2013. The first of these expansion plans will include the construction of two breeding farms in Lebak, Banten, each with a capacity of 200,000 birds. Sierad vice president Eko Putro Sandjojo said, “We expect the breeding farm facility to be operational this year.” With the addition of two breeding farms, Sierad will be able to produce as much as 150mn day old chicks (DOC) per year. Of this amount, the amount of DOC broiler will be about 110mn while DOC layer will be about 40mn. The second phase will be to continue to boost sales of animal feed. In 2012, Sierad projected that animal feed production reached 500,000 tonnes. Sandjojo said, “Our chicken breeding and animal feed business will reach 70 per cent of total consolidated revenue.” The third phase of the expansion will be to expand its subsidiary business, Belfoods Indonesia (Belfoods), which engages in the production of poultry processed products such as sausage and nugget.

Chinese pork processor to boost production CHINESE PORK PROCESSOR Henan Shuanghui has outlined plans to boost output to more than 50 per cent this year as demand for meat has surged with rising incomes. The company is preparing to spend US$805mn on expansion this year, said Zhang Taixi, president of the Luohe-based company in north central China’s Henan province. Zhang added, “China’s demand for meat will certainly keep growing in multiples.” Annual per capita meat consumption is about 40kg and is likely to double in the next few years as China caught up to more developed economies, he noted. About 9,000 dead pigs, which were found in the Huangpu River recently, pointed to improvements in food safety and the problems that small-scale farmers were having in meeting stricter health standards, according to Zhang and Alice Xuan, livestock analysts at Shanghai JC Intelligence in Shanghai.

and experience to our growing team, and I believe he will be a great asset to Cobb and to our customers across this region.”

China reports bird flu outbeak THE CHINESE POULTRY industry has been hit by a new strain of bird flu, H7N9 virus, which has already resulted in the culling of more than 20,000 birds in eastern China and surrounding areas. Shanghai has closed a live poultry trading zone recently in an agricultural products market and began slaughtering all birds there after detecting H7N9 bird flu virus from samples of pigeon from the market. The health scare, which has led to the death of 22 people, prompted authorities to slaughter more than 20,000 birds at the market after some pigeons tested positive for the virus. China’s Ministry of Atleast 20,000 birds have already Agriculture has said that it been culled found the H7N9 virus from pigeon samples collected at the Huhuai wholesale agricultural products market in Songjiang district of Shanghai.

Cambodia to get a new feed mill plant CHAROEN POKPHAND FOODS (CPF) will invest US$8.40mn for purchasing a corn silo and drying plant in Cambodia and the establishment of a new feed-mill plant in Champasak province in south-western Laos. The company has also further invested in three core businesses of feed production, farming and food processing in the two countries. Its businesses are focused on the efficient development of the supply chain to access quality raw materials. The company has said that the recent investment plan was directed at strengthening its agri-industrial business ahead of the Asean Economic Community (AEC). The company has also recently invested in developing a silo and drying plant for corn in Pailin province of western Cambodia.

Cobb appoints marketing head for Asia/Pacific region

Philippines and Cambodia sign rice supply deal

POULTRY RESEARCH FIRM Cobb has appointed Krit Pattanasak as the new marketing manager for the Asia/Pacific region. He will be based in Cobb’s Bangkok office, which the company had opened last year. Pattanasak has marketing and management experience across a range of business, most recently as marketing and communications manager for Johnson & Johnson. He has been involved in developing its business in high growth Asian Cobb marketing manager for the Asia/Pacific region Krit Pattanasak countries — with responsibilities including portfolio strategy and management, new product introduction, market access, customer education programs and event management. Cobb Asia / Pacific region general manager Duncan Granshaw said, “We are very pleased and excited about Krit’s appointment to this new role. He brings a valuable range of international qualifications

PHILIPPINES HAS SIGNED a rice supply agreement with Cambodia that has added Cambodia to a list of leading suppliers of the grain globally. Philippines signed a memorandum of understanding recently allowing its state grain agency National Food Authority to import rice through Cambodia's state-run Green Trade for the next two years, revealed a statement from the Foreign Affairs department. No volume of import was indicated. The import from Cambodia may be Philippines’ last major import before it reached rice self-sufficiency at the end of 2013. The country has indicated that it was sticking to a goal of producing enough rice for its needs by the end of this year, resorting only to imports to boost buffer stock. With the deal, Cambodia has joined Vietnam and Thailand as potential rice supplier of the Southeast Asian country, which has been planning to import 187,000 tonnes this year. Philippines, the world’s biggest rice buyer in 2010 with record imports of 2.45mn tonnes, purchased last year’s supply mostly from Vietnam and Thailand. The country has existing rice supply agreements with Thailand and Vietnam, the top two sellers of the grain globally. Its supply agreement with Thailand will expire this year.

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FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2013 | www.fareasternagriculture.com


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Events 2013 MAY 18-20 28-29 28-30

CAHE 2013 CIMAE 2013 VIV Russia

Wuhan, China

www.caaa.com.cn

Beijing, China

www.cimae.com.cn

Moscow, Russia

www.viv.net

JUNE Indo Livestock Expo Agrena 17-18 Asian Poultry Health Conference 27-29 Palm Oil Palembang 5-7

Bali, Indonesia

6-8

Cairo, Egypt Bangkok, Thailand Palembang, Indonesia

www.indolivestock.merebo.co www.agrena.net www.asian-agribiz.com www.palembangexpo.com

JULY Inapalm 21-25 Poultry Science Association Meeting 2013 2-4

Pekanbaru, Burma

www.inapalm-asia.com

California, US

www.poultryscience.org

AUGUST 5-7

Livestock Philippines

Manila, Philippines

www.livestockphilippines.com

SEPTEMBER 4-6 9-11 23-25 24-26

Asia Fruit Logistica Asean Food Conference Asian Pig Veterinary Society Congress Livestock Asia 2013

Hong Kong, China Singapore Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

www.asiafruitlogistica.com www.sifst.org.sg www.apvs2013.vn www.livestockasia.com

Global rice prices to drop in 2013 GLOBAL TRENDS HAVE indicated that rice prices may keep dropping this year, unlike that of wheat and soybeans. Rice stocks held by the world’s top exporters like Vietnam, Pakistan, Thailand, India and the US could rise to record highs this year due to bountiful harvests and shrinking import demand in the main markets, according to a report released this week by the International Grains Council, a United Nations-linked body. Stocks of rice in India, Vietnam, Pakistan, Thailand and the US will rise 3.8 per cent to 38.2mn metric tonnes in the aggregate 2012-13 marketing year, it said. The five countries are responsible for more than 80 per cent of the global trade in rice. Thailand, one of the biggest exporters, is under strain from a subsidy it gives to producers. Thailand was for long the top exporter. However, it slipped to the third spot in 2012 due to a government policy of buying from farmers at above-market prices to boost rural incomes, and then keeping rice in stock to prevent it further undermining global prices. Thailand now holds record stocks of more than 15mn tonnes. Last year, government’s purchase of rice from growers was a key factor in slashing rice export earnings, which fell to just over US$3.7bn from more than US$6.0bn in 2011. Thai Rice Exporters Association honorary president Chookiat Ophaswongse has said, “Unless the government sells rice to exporters well below its purchase price, it won’t be able to reduce its stockpile because of much lower international prices.” Ophaswongse said Thai rice stocks may balloon to 20mn tonnes because importers have turned to other cheaper rice. The rice market glut comes at a time when drought in several parts of South America, US, Russia, Ukraine and Australia has slashed output of wheat, corn and soybeans. Major rice exporter India, despite dry weather hitting output in 2012, has built up huge government-owned stocks due to high production from the use of better quality hybrid seeds and rising acreage. The volume of the global rice trade is only some 25 per cent of wheat volumes, or slightly more than one-third of soybean volumes.

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Agenda

Food Outlook THE FAO FOOD Price Index averaged 212 points in March 2013, up one per cent (1.7 points) from February, but 1.7 per cent below March last year and nearly 11 percent below its peak in February 2011. The small increase in March was mainly the result of an 11 per cent surge in the dairy sub-index, which carries a weight of 17 per cent within the FAO Food Price Index. The changes in prices were more contained for the other commodity groups. The FAO Cereal Price Index averaged 244 points in March, nearly unchanged from February. The index is seven per cent higher than in March 2012 but still 11 per cent below its peak in April 2008. While maize quotations rose slightly last month, amid tightening exportable supplies in the United States, the increase was offset by sliding prices of wheat. Wheat prices fell initially on improved weather conditions in major growing regions but unseasonably cold temperatures resulted in sharp rebound during the second

half of the month. On the other hand, rice prices remained generally unchanged, as falling prices in Asia were compensated by rising US quotations. The FAO Oils/Fats Price Index averaged 201 points in March, down five points (2.5 per cent) from February. The fall was mostly driven by soyoil prices, influenced by several factors: favourable weather conditions for soy in South America, expectations of a record 2013 US crop, the cancellation of large soybean orders by China and a slowdown in US crush demand. Meanwhile, palm oil prices dropped slightly, amid weakening export demand and ample stocks. The FAO Dairy Price Index jumped by 22 points in March to 225, magnifying a rising trend initiated in August last year. The change in the index is one of the largest recorded. The index registered its highest value on record in November 2007 when it stood at 269 points, 19 per cent above its current level. At the root of the price surge is

South Korea to cull pigs for pork price stabilisation THE SOUTH KOREAN government is planning to cull up to 100,000 female hogs in their child-bearing years to help stabilise pork prices The prices of pork in South Korea have fallen by nearly onethird in just seven months, according to the agriculture minister Lee Dong-phil. The minister said, “Difficulties faced by our farms are intensifying rapidly as livestock prices continue to drop while the price of animal feed is rising. “ T h e The number of pigs in South Korea surged to a government record high of 10.11mn in March 2013 believes the most important thing is to maintain an adequate number of livestock.” The government earlier said the number of pigs being raised in the country surged to a record high of 10.11mn as of 1 March 2013 up 14.2 per cent from just a year earlier. The country had earlier come into criticism for burying more than one million pigs alive to prevent the spread of foot and mouth disease which usually affects pigs, cattle and goats. Culling of pigs from time to time has also not been unknown in South Korea for various economic and animal-health related reasons.

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prolonged hot, dry weather in Oceania which has led to milk production falling off steeply and a concomitant reduction in the processing of dairy products. As a result, the spot prices for New Zealand dairy products – upon which the index is based – have surged, as buyers bid against each other to meet commitments. The “Oceania Effect”, has also caused export prices elsewhere to rise, but not to the same extent.

Indian market welcomes Aussie lamb AUSTRALIA HAS SECURED market access for lamb to India, free of quotas, and based on Australia’s compliance with India’s food safety requirements. Australian trade minister Craig Emerson and agriculture minister Joe Ludwig recently made the announcement. Emerson said, “Indians are fast developing a taste for our world renowned The Indian middle class is showing a great lamb, and that a affinity for novel meat products like Aussie lamb number of Australian exporters are looking to this growing market. “India’s economic growth is creating a rapidly expanding middle class that is looking for quality products of the sort Australia readily provides. India already has a middle class of around 170mn.” Emerson added that as the government had highlighted in its white paper on Australia in the Asian Century, Asia would soon be home to the majority of the world’s middle class. “Working with India to have our lamb enter this massive market is exactly the sort of cooperation we are seeking with the countries of Asia to drive Australia’s prosperity,” he noted. India is Australia’s fourth largest export market and the two-way trading relationship currently stands at around US$18bn.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2013 | www.fareasternagriculture.com


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Agenda

China may soon dominate soymeal exports to Southeast Asia CHINA MAY REPLACE South America as the dominant exporter of key animal feed ingredient, soymeal, to Southeast Asia According to a report from food and agri-financing body, Rabobank, maximising China’s existing industry capacity could help the county gain significant growth opportunities in soymeal export. The report said that China could fundamentally alter the battle for global soybean supply, forcing the crushing industry in the West to either find new markets or shut down completely. Rabobank analyst Pawan Kumar said, “Demand for soymeal from the animal protein industry has increased dramatically in Southeast Asia in recent years, and the region has emerged as an important export destination, accounting for 20 per cent of the world’s soymeal trade in 2011/12. “Up to now, Southeast Asia has had a few choices of its own when it comes to sourcing soymeal to meet this growing demand and has relied on imports from South America. However, soymeal exports out of China could offer an alternative – one that could provide a saving of up to 20 per cent in freight costs.” At price levels averaged in the last two years, soymeal from China is uncompetitive by about US$57 per tonne compared to the Americas. Chinese processors could also begin to sell soymeal at a discount or breakeven prices in order to capture the Southeast Asia market. This would also increase the utilisation rate for Chinese crushers, which might contribute positively to earnings. In such a scenario, exports would also potentially become competitive with respect to direct shipments of US soymeal to Southeast Asia.

Philippines likely to export rice by 2013 end PHILIPPINES, WHICH HAS been the world’s biggest importer of rice, may soon attain self-sufficiency in rice production and turn into an exporter by the end of 2013. Philippines President Benigno Aquino revealed this recently at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum, stating that attaining the feat would be possible only with a good weather this year. The president noted, “From importing almost two and a half million metric tonnes of rice in 2010, now, if the weather permits, we are looking at full rice self-sufficiency and even the possibility of exporting it by the end of this year.” The country has run into a debt of US$4.4bn from the National Food Authority (NFA) in the process of importing more rice to feed a growing population. According to an Asian Development Bank research on the Philippines rice situation in 2012, the country has continued to grapple with significant food insecurity for a long time. The research said, “Years of preoccupation with rice self-sufficiency and rice supply and price stabilisation have not made a dent on the problem.” It pointed out that some of the food insecurity stemmed from rice supply issues and high domestic prices. The ADB research added that in the early 1990s, the government was importing too little and consumers generally paid high prices for rice. In 1995, it said the government imported too late, initially restricting imports but only to see domestic prices spike up, consumers getting alarmed and the government had to eventually intervene to restore stability in the market.

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Agenda

Free phone app for fishing out aqua stock information FISHERY AND BIODIVERSITY knowledge platform iMarine has developed a free mobile application to make information on aqua life available readily. A statement from iMarine said, “While human consumption of fish products has doubled in the last half century, policies for sustainable use of aquatic ecosystems has not caught up with the challenges being offered by the industry. By making information on the sector readily available, the application will help address the challenges facing global fish stocks.” Some 30 per cent of the world’s marine fish stocks assessed in 2009 were over exploited, according to FAO's State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012. FAO’s Marc Taconet, who is also the senior fishery information officer and chair of the iMarine board, said, “With AppliFish, consumers can choose fish that’s not endangered, helping ensure that there will be enough for future generations. “Consumers can also use the application to learn more about species, capture levels

The application combines data from sources like FAO-FishFinder, FAO statistics, WoRMS, Fishbase, SeaLifeBase, IUCN, AquaMaps and OBIS

and habitats, as well as the level of threats faced by these species.”

Genetically modified crops gain popularity in China

Thailand to set up rice trade zones

CHINA HAS BECOME one of the biggest users of biotech farming with over four million hectares of agricultural land planted with genetically modified (GM) crops currently. A report on the status of commercialised GM crops from the International China has the sixth largest area planted Service for the Acquisition to genetically modified crops globally of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA) claimed that China has the sixth largest area planted to GM crops globally. The other leaders are the US, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and India. The main biotech crop in China is cotton, followed by papayas, poplar trees, tomatos and sweet peppers. Last year, GM crops planted by developing countries accounted for 52 per cent of the world total, rising two per cent year-on-year. Worldwide 10.3mn hectares were planted to GM crops with an increase of six per cent over the year before. Globally, the area planted to GM crops has risen from 1.7mn hectares in 1996 to 170.3mn hectares in 2012. ISAAA chairman Clive James was quoted by the Beijing News as saying, “GM crop technology has been adopted faster than any other planting technology in modern history.” James suggested that China should ease restrictions on biotechnology and promote the use of GM food crops. In 2009, China certified GM rice and maize strains that were developed by Chinese scientists, but it still has not permitted the crops to be grown.

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iMarine’s also has a web version that contains additional scientific information, which can help policy-makers, producers and consumers make informed decisions, and contribute to shape policies necessary for the responsible management of fisheries and conservation of aquatic resources, as underlined in the principles laid out in FAO's Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. AppliFish has enabled managing, processing and visualising scientific content to increase awareness of the challenges which aquatic ecosystems face. These applications include the biodiversity mapping tool AquaMaps, the Vessel Transmitted Information Tool (VTI), reporting on vessel activity and environmental conditions for scientists working in fisheries, and the Integrated Capture Information System (ICIS), providing regional and global information on capture of aquatic species. The application combines data from sources like FAO-FishFinder, FAO statistics, WoRMS, Fishbase, SeaLifeBase, IUCN, AquaMaps and OBIS.

THE THAI DEPARTMENT of Foreign Trade has outlined plans to set up a rice trade zone project in the east to process Cambodian rice for export to other countries. Tikhumporn Natvaratat, deputy director-general of the department, said his organisation plans to implement the project in Chanthaburi, Trat, Sa Kaeo and Chachoengsao provinces. The department is yet to decide if the trade zone should be centred in one of the provinces or cover all of them. The department will also decide on the types of rice that Thailand would import from Cambodia to process for export to other countries, with paddy and brown rice among the options being considered. Tikhumporn said, “If Thailand exports the rice to the European Union, it may benefit from the privileges under the Generalised System of Preferences that the EU offers to Cambodia because the origin of the rice is Cambodia. “Consequently, Thailand can boost its competitiveness and benefit from by-products from rice milling including bran and broken rice that can be sold.” He said the authorities would, however, have to convince Thai rice farmers that the project would not have any negative impact on them. He added that it would actually help by preventing the illicit import of Cambodian rice to cash in on the government's rice pledging scheme for Thai farmers. Tikhumporn said his department would work out measures to keep the imported Cambodian rice from affecting the local rice market. He said the trucks that carry imported rice may be equipped with tracking devices. Thailand might initially import 100-1,000 tonnes of rice from Cambodia for the export project, he added.

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Events

CAHE to bring together best of livestock industry HE CHINA ANIMAL Agriculture Association (CAAA) is preparing to host the 11th edition of China Animal Husbandry Expo (CAHE) in May, showcasing the latest products and services in the livestock markets around the world. The forth bio-energy summit this year is another special attraction at the expo. The CAAA will host CAHE 2013 at Wuhan International Expo Centre from 18-20 May 2013. The show has remained a must-event for professionals involved in livestock production and feed industry since the first edition of CAHE which was held in May 2003. The show will showcase specialised livestock production techniques for pig, poultry, beef cattle, sheep, machinery and animal health. The organisers are expecting CAHE 2013 to be a greater success than CAHE 2012 which was successfully held at Nanjing International EXPO Centre in May last year. With 1,240 exhibitors, as well as the exhibition floor space more than 70,000 sq m, CAHE 2012 established itself as one of Asia’s largest animal husbandry expo. More than 100 pig farms and top 80 poultry farms (including broiler, layer, waterfowl) are expected to participate in the 2013 chapter of the exhibition. CAHE 2013 will see CAAA hold professional forums and social activities for visitors from China and abroad. The topics will focus

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The expo will showcase latest products and services in livestock markets around the world

on pigs, poultry, feed and equipment. During the expo, CAAA will cooperate with the media to hold special days dedicated to particular livestock categories to attract more visitors to the show. Attendees will be given the opportunity to join fun activities and win prizes and lucky draws. CAHE will also feature shows like China Animal Products Fair and Bio-energy Show which will have focuses relevant to the particular sectors and portray the connection of each sector with the other. n

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Events

VIV Asia basks in success glory The 2013 chapter proved to be lucrative meeting point for professionals in the global livestock industry HE GLOBAL CATTLE, meat, poultry and egg industry converged on Bangkok to make VIV Asia 2013 an unparalleled success this year. The event offered a comprehensive range of products and services to a large number of decision makers in the Feed to Meat industry. The 770 exhibitors at VIV Asia, which was held recently in Bangkok, were not only visited by key managers representing the strongly growing animal protein industry in Southeast Asia, but also by large Russian investors. In addition, there were many visitors from India, Pakistan and the Middle East. The earlier editions of VIV Asia were held at the Queen Sirikit National Convention Centre but as the expo grew in size and importance, it needed more space and hence was moved to the far larger BITEC centre. This year’s show was spread over seven sections in six halls across the centre. A huge area at the exhibition was given to feed additives industry which had several wellknown multinational companies showcasing their products and services. Another prominent section at the show was assigned to companies involved in fish farming. The poultry sector, which was again a prominent feature at the show, attracted visitors mainly from Asian countries like India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. VIV project manager Ruwan Berculo said, “The combination of western businesses and the enthusiasm of the emerging Asian economies resulted in a sensational atmosphere where plenty of deals were concluded.” Aviagen senior vice president Asia, WRB Souther noted, “We see VIV Asia as an ideal

By Stuart Lumb

Photos: VUN Exhibitions

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occasion to strengthen our relationships and for us it is the only trade show that actually generates business.” Meyn sales director Robbert Birkhoff said, “With innovations on display and a huge number of visitors to our stand, we can confirm that our participation at VIV Asia was an outstanding success.” Several international companies organised gala dinners where they offered updates on their products, innovations and latest solutions. Another important feature at the VIV Asia expo was a series of seminars covering issues related to pig and poultry production. A lot of stress was also laid on reduction of the use of antibiotics with 16 papers being presented by a formidable array of internationally-known industry experts. Some of the top exhibitors that were present at the show included Olmix, Big Dutchman, Aviagen, Pas Reform, Meyn, Moba, Koshin Engineering, Foodmate among others. UK minister of state for agriculture and food David Heath was also present at the show supporting the British Pig Association’s mission to boost ties with Thailand in the area of animal production and health. The show set forth some new trends in the equipment and machinery sector relating to animal production. Machinery has replaced labour in Europe and the USA, and this trend is now moving to Asia as labour has become more expensive and harder to find. Thus the machinery and equipment exhibition at the expo was received with a lot of enthusiasm at VIV Asia. n

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Events

Bali prepares to host Indo Livestock Expo 2013 HE EIGHTH EDITION of the Indo Livestock Expo will see a global forum of livestock industrialists, farmers, feed millers, meat and egg processors, veterinarians, importers, distributors and retailers participate at the three-day show to be held from 5–7 June 2013 at Bali’s Nusa Dua Convention Center. The 2013 chapter of the show is expected to attract 12,000 trade visitors and delegates. More than 400 exhibitors from 40 countries will once again participate in this year’s exhibition. Five country pavilions have confirmed to attend the show including Indonesia, South Korea, Europe, United States of America and China. Bali, which has a tremendous potential as a strategic location for meetings, conventions and exhibitions, also serves as the main gate for entering the market of eastern Indonesia. Along with Indo Feed, Indo Dairy and Indo Fisheries 2013 Expo & Forum, Indo Livestock 2013 Expo & Forum is hosted by the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia. A statement from the Ministry of Agriculture said, “Indo Livestock Expo & Forum is a

Photograph: PT Napindo

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A global forum of livestock industrialists will converge on Bali to attend the Indo Livestock Expo

Photograph: PT Napindo

Photograph: PT Napindo

platform for the Ministry of Agriculture to expand the information regarding the technologies of modern agriculture and animal husbandry as well as introduce a range of current research and development of new technologies in agriculture and animal husbandry.”

The show will consist of conferences, presentations, award ceremonies and SDTI Campaign Programme

The show will consist of expos, conferences, technical product presentations, Indonesian Livestock Industry Award and SDTI Campaign Programme. Indo Livestock Expo & Forum is formed as a strategic marketing springboard in order to achieve maximum return-of-investment in the industry. Major integrators, processors, veterinarians and farmers across the region are gearing up to exhibit their products and services, discuss latest trends and issues, and examine new technology and processes required to improve livestock productivity, feed production, animal health and nutrition, slaughtering facilities, packaging technology and many more.Indo Livestock Expo & Forum is the apt platform for enhancing business cooperation in Indonesia and the Asia-Pacific region. n

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Events

Stage set for agriculture construction expo CHINA IS PREPARING to host one of the most globally Agriculture construction and machinery recognised shows on agriculture construction, the China industry exhibitors will showcase latest International Modern Agricultural Exhibition (CIMAE products at the show 2013) from 29-31 May 2013. The show, expected to have more than 600 exhibitors from domestic and international markets, will be staged at the China International Exhibition Centre (CIEC). The theme for the fourth edition of the show this year is ‘Develop Modern Agriculture, Ensure Food Safety.’ The event will be sponsored by the China Association for the Promotion of International Agricultural Cooperation and the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering and coorganised by Beijing Lanneret International Exhibition. The expected exhibition area will be more than 20,000 sq m where exhibitors will display their new technology and products in modern agriculture. CIMAE 2013 will focus on “Internationalism and Specialism” and will invite global delegations to visit, purchase and communicate in the exhibition. CIMAE will play a more active role in promoting the international communication, cooperation, trade as well as the healthy and rapid development of agricultural modernisation in China. The CIMAE 2012 was successfully concluded at the China International Exhibition Centre in June 2012 with a steady enhancement on the number of exhibitors and visitors, the quality of organising services and the exhibition result compared with those of the previous year. The exhibition attracted more than 300 exhibitors. Site supporting events such as the third International Modern Agricultural Development Forum, 2012 China Efficient Water-saving Irrigation Techniques and Ancillary Equipment Application Forum and the second Modern Urban Agriculture High-end Forum were also held during the exhibition period. These high-end events provided a broader communication and cooperation platform for the exhibitors and industry audience.

US firms showcase food ingredients at China expo

INAPALM ASIA 2013, the second Indonesia International Palm Oil, Machinery and Technology Exhibition & Conference 2013 will take place form 2–4 July 2013 at Labersa Convention Centre, Pekanbaru Sumatera, Indonesia. The palm oil expo will be held in a much bigger scale this year and present a professional networking platform of the international palm industry experts, traders and visitors. The show will aim to bring together suppliers and showcase latest technology of palm oil processing machines, parts and palm oil processing result.

Myanmar, the new rubber hub

FOURTEEN COMPANIES FROM North Dakota, USA travelled to Beijing and Guangzhou in China, to showcase USA’s high-quality agricultural commodities and food products to some of China’s largest food manufacturers and processors. Organised by the North Dakota Trade Office (NDTO), the North Dakota Department of Agriculture (NDDA) and the Northern Crops Institute (NCI), the “Better for You Food Ingredients” event was led by Agriculture Commissioner Doug Goehring and officials from the NDTO and NCI. Goehring said, “The conference was a great opportunity to showcase the use of North Dakota commodities as ingredients in Chinese food products. “We were able to show how our high-quality crops enhance nutritional value and texture and provide a better product to consumers without compromising flavour and overall appeal of the products.” Over 150 Chinese buyers, research and development specialists and food manufacturers attended the two events which were held in Guangzhou and Beijing. NCI assistant director John Crabtree said, “NCI has extensively researched how North Dakota commodities can be used as food ingredients in Chinese cuisine at various levels that add value to the processor and the consumer. “Our goal is to connect the producer and the consumer, through the processor, linking science and technology to meet consumer trends and demands.” Some of the largest buyers and food producers in China participated in the event, including executives from China SDIC International Trade, Lee Kum Kee Foods, and Jiangsu Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs I/E Group. Several North Dakota companies reported that they will continue business talks with Chinese companies that participated in the events.

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Global platform at Inapalm Asia

THE THIRD RUBBER Plant Summit that took place recently in Myanmar held a special significance for the industry experts and traders as the country has emerged as destination of choice for natural rubber investments. The suitable agro-climatic conditions and plenty of denuded forestland that has been converted into valuable farming area have put Myanmar on the rubber map of the world. The summit is an annual meet where plantation owners, agribusiness investors, R&D institutions, traders, regulatory officials, financiers, legal experts, and senior management from the tire/latex, forestry/timber, fertiliser/crop protection and rubber technology sectors convene for updates and networking. CMT’s RubberPlant Summit continued to explore new opportunities in natural rubber growing countries as well as pertinent issues concerning natural rubber price, plantation techniques and productivity. The summit offered updates on Indonesia and Philippines rubber market along with innovations in agronomic practices and production increment. To complement the main summit, the organiser also incorporated an optional “A-Z Site Assessment for Plantations Myanmar” workshop that focused on assessment and evaluation of sites along with soils and climates suitable for the various kinds of intercropping. Some of the key issues addressed at the summit were agronomic practices and cost of establishment of rubber plantations in Myanmar, plans to develop Dawei as an agriinvestment corridor, land, tax, legal and financing issues for structuring a rubber investment in Myanmar, natural rubber market on a global scale and economic feasibility of intercropping rubber with cassava etc.

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Vaccination, a vexed issue for small poultry farmers Poultry vaccines continue to remain an expensive necessity for smaller poultry farm owners ACCINATION IS AN essential part of commercial poultry production but continues to remain accessible only by big farmers due to high cost of vaccines and limited availability. In many parts of the world, vaccination is not generally practised by small poultry farm owners and for a variety of good reasons. Some poultry farmers, and especially those that operate an essentially closed family-run operations, with minimal on and off farm movements, may be lucky to have relatively few disease problems. Others may have diseases in their birds but unaware of its presence. Consequently, the presence of sick and unthrifty hens becomes an accepted norm. For farmers in such situations a problem of ignorance, made worse due to on-going disease problems, continues to persist. Such diseases often do not get diagnosed by a properly qualified professional, either because of limited availability of such service or due to their services being too expensive. Other farmers may be aware of diseases in their flocks but are unable to access vaccines, or are frustrated in their attempts to purchase them, because the appropriate vaccine only comes in multiple (500 to 1,000) dose vials suitable for large producers. The irony is that virtually all mainstream poultry diseases seen in birds could have been prevented through the relevant vaccination at the appropriate age and stage in the bird’s life. Poultry diseases cause widespread and heavy losses in production and profit by impacting on yield and quality of meat and eggs. Vaccination is invariably a very worthwhile and indeed critically important investment.

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All mainstream poultry diseases can be prevented with relevant vaccination at an appropriate stage in a bird’s life

The decision on whether or not to vaccinate against infectious diseases largely comes down to an assessment by the poultry producer on the likelihood of his or her birds becoming exposed to the causal microbial pathogens. A completely closed flock where new birds are never introduced and the birds never leave the farm may get away without vaccination, although disease can still be introduced by wild birds, rodents and contaminated feed and water. However, this kind of completely ‘closed’ flock situation is relatively rare and all producers are advised to vaccinate the bird especially if the owner buys birds from hatcheries, bird auctions or any other sources and introduces and them into his/her existing flocks.

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Practical vaccination Poultry vaccines are generally produced in large doses per vial and especially for the convenience of commercial producers who may have tens of thousands of birds requiring vaccination at the same time. This means the small producer may have to search further afield for a supplier who is prepared to sell vaccines in relatively small quantities. However, any extra hassle in accessing vaccines should in no way deter or discourage the small poultry producer from administering vaccine to his or her birds. Some vaccines such as Marek’s vaccine are best given at the hatchery and this may be the best source of vaccine and therefore the first port of call. Once the decision has been made to vaccinate on farm, the owner should aim and plan to vaccinate the entire flock at one time and be meticulous in following the label directions on the vaccine being used to ensure best protection and complete safety for the flock.

Marek’s disease Marek’s disease is a severe debilitating and often terminal viral disease affecting chickens. Infected birds become emaciated with drooping wings and may develop paralysis in one or both legs. Tumours may also develop within the bird’s internal organs. Marek’s disease is invariably a lot worse that it normally appears because only a small proportion of the birds in an infected flock may show these symptoms and die. However, the majority of birds will have ‘unsymptomatic’ infection and although appearing outwardly normal, they will be shedding virus particles in huge quantities for the rest of their life on the farm. Only a small percentage of birds within an infected flock will show typical symptoms and die. When a virus shedding bird is introduced onto a farm where the disease has never occurred before, high mortality rates are quickly seen. Once infected with the virus a farm is, for all practical purposes, contaminated forever. Generally speaking, broiler birds encounter fewer problems from Marek's disease than do layers, simply because they spend less time on the farm. However, the good news for small poultry producers is that vaccination against Marek's disease is highly effective provided it is carried out in the correct way. This particular vaccination is most correctly and efficiently done at the hatchery to one day old chicks. It is, therefore, easier all round for the producer to order already vaccinated chicks from the hatchery. Otherwise, it is essential to ensure vaccination of all new

Egg production can drastically fall in diseased birds

birds on the day of their arrival on farm. Marek’s vaccine will not be completely effective if a bird has already been exposed to the disease for more than a few days prior to vaccination. Marek’s vaccine is sold frozen for administration under the skin at the back of the bird’s neck. Label instructions must be followed to the letter for vaccination to be successful.

Fowl pox Fowl Pox is caused by yet another highly infectious virus (the pox virus) affecting both chickens and turkeys. Fowl pox is strictly a disease of birds and entirely unrelated to the human illness called chicken pox. The disease typically causes round and firmly adhering scabs on any un-feathered areas of the bird’s skin, together with fever (high temperature) and a drastic fall in feed consumption, resulting in slow growth rates and reduced egg production. The virus is spread from bird to bird through the bites of bloodsucking insects or through wounds and scratches inflicted by birds on each other while fighting. Though seriously debilitating and often fatal, fowl pox is easily prevented by vaccination. Vaccine is introduced directly into the skin by using a two-pronged metal needle previously dipped in the vaccine. All birds on the farm should be vaccinated at one time with yearly booster vaccinations recommended.

Newcastle disease Newcastle disease is the most important of a wide range of respiratory diseases that cause devastating losses in both commercial flocks and village chickens. This virus disease, which is a major constraint on the productivity and survival of village chickens, can be controlled by the use of vaccines. Some Newcastle disease vaccines deteriorate after storage for one or two hours at room temperature, which clearly makes them unsuitable for use in village situations where the vaccine may need to be transported for hours or in some cases days at ambient temperature. The I-2 Newcastle disease vaccine, which has been specifically developed for local or regional poultry production is more robust under higher temperature conditions. It is described as a thermostable vaccine which requires long-term storage in the refrigerator. However, this I-2 vaccine will not deteriorate as quickly as the traditional vaccines during transportation into the field. Evaporative cooling provided by wrapping the vaccine in a damp cloth will be adequate for maintaining the viability of the vaccine during transportation to remote villages. However, if it is stored in direct sunlight or allowed to reach high temperatures, above 37°C, for more than a few hours it too will deteriorate and be unsuitable for use as a vaccine.

Infectious bronchitis (IB) Infected birds become emaciated and appear droopy all the time

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Many poultry producers have problems with Infectious Bronchitis (IB), yet another highly contagious disease of the respiratory system which is caused by a virus. Any poultry producer who buys chicks from hatcheries or other sources and adds them to the flock should definitely

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consider vaccinating for IB. The IB live virus vaccines are usually administered to young birds and may be given together with Newcastle disease vaccine in a combined dose. Therefore, it may be possible and clearly much easier to locate a source of Newcastle vaccine and IB vaccine at the same time. IB live-virus vaccines are usually administered to young birds combined with the Newcastle vaccine for simultaneous administration. Unfortunately, the IB vaccine is usually produced in large quantities for commercial hatchery type applications, although the actual vaccine is relatively inexpensive even when purchased in large quantities. The live-virus vaccine is shipped in a small, insulated cooler with a gel-ice pack to maintain refrigeration. It consists of two parts, the vial of vaccine and diluent, which must be stored separately in the refrigerator (in the dark) until administering the vaccine. When ready to administer, the entire vial of vaccine and diluent are mixed, used to vaccinate the chickens and the remaining contents disposed of. The vaccine can be given via drinking water, eye drop, or nose drop.

Infectious laryngotracheitis Infectious laryngotracheitis is a highly infectious virus disease affecting the bird's trachea or wind pipe. Affected birds typically gasp for air and cough up blood with high mortality rates not uncommon. The disease frequently circulates at bird auctions and shows. Any decision to vaccinate must include every single bird on the farm. Treatment is most effectively applied when the birds are one month old and yearly booster vaccines are recommended. Fast diagnosis

Vaccination is unavoidable if health and well-being of birds have to be ensured

followed by prompt vaccination should curtail the spread of this disease throughout the flock and prevent an otherwise considerable loss of birds. n By Dr Terry Mabbett

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Asia, hub of global hen egg production Global hen egg production to reach a record 65.5mn tonnes in 2013 as a result of phenomenal production boost in the continent ECENT GLOBAL POULTRY trends have identified Asia as the hub of egg production. The continent now accounts for almost 60 per cent of global hen egg production, according to poultry sector expert, Terry Evans, in his analysis of the world’s egg industries. China dominates the league table within Asia, with a share of around two-thirds of the total output from the region. Global hen egg production will reach a new record of around 65.5mn tonnes in 2013, almost entirely as the result of continued growth in Asia. A one per cent cut-back in the US will impact on the total for the Americas, while lower production in the European Union, as a result of the introduction of the ban on cage production, will at least partly offset further growth in the rest of Europe. During the decade to 2010, world hen egg output averaged 2.3 per cent a year, rising from 51mn tonnes to 63.8mn tonnes. Since 2010, the economic climate - in terms of both production costs and consumer purchasing power - has deteriorated, with the result that the annual expansion in egg production has slowed. Consequently, output in 2012 is assessed at around 65mn tonnes while for 2013, an increase of less than one

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China dominates egg production in Asia

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per cent is anticipated, bringing the total to around 65.5mn tonnes. Back in 2000, Asia contributed some 29mn tonnes or almost 57 per cent of the global total of 51mn tonnes. By 2010, this region’s share had risen to 58.6 per cent and it looks as though in 2013 Asia will produce around 38.6mn tonnes of a world total of some 65.5mn tonnes, pushing its

Back in 2000, Asia contributed 29mn tonnes or almost 57 per cent of the global total of 51mn tonnes. By 2010, this region’s share had risen to 58.6 per cent and it looks as though in 2013, Asia will produce around 38.6mn tonnes of a world total of some 65.5mn tonnes of eggs

contribution up to 59 per cent. Output in China has escalated from just less than 19mn tonnes in 2000 to almost 24mn tonnes in 2010, exhibiting an annual growth rate of 2.3 per cent. This was marginally slower than the 2.6 per cent recorded for the region as a whole hence, by the end of the decade, China's share of the total had slipped a shade from 65.2 per cent to 63.7 per cent. Although the quantity of fowl eggs produced in China exceeds 28mn tonnes a year, the volume of hen eggs amounts to around 24mn tonnes, the difference of more than four million tonnes being accounted for by other forms of poultry. The ratio of brown to white-shelled eggs is currently estimated at around 70:30, with 90 per cent of the commercial laying flock housed in cages. Like most producers, the Chinese are facing higher raw material costs but there are also concerns about labour shortages and the related rising labour charges. Consequently, near-future production growth could well be close to the one per cent recorded towards the end of the last decade. India is easily the second largest egg producer in Asia, reporting a 5.2 per cent average annual increase over the years 2000 to 2010. Estimates of annual production vary, the most optimistic puts output in 2010 at 3.72mn tonnes with further growth of some 2.7 per cent in 2011 to 3.82mn tonnes. Large increases in feed prices in particular will have dampened expansion since then, while consumer prices have escalated by as much as 40 per cent, having an adverse impact on demand. Japan is the third largest egg producer. While annual production has shown some yearto-year fluctuation, it has hardly changed significantly throughout the past decade or so at around 2.5mn tonnes. The latest assessments indicate a small movement away from cages to barn production, with the latter currently accounting for some six per cent of all eggs against little more than one per cent a few years ago, according to data published by the International Egg Commission (IEC). The brown to white egg ratio is estimated at 39:61. According to the FAO, Indonesia's egg industry had expanded rapidly by nine per cent a year between 2000 and 2007 to peak at 1.18mn tonnes but it has since contracted somewhat since. n

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Offal consumption gains popularity The global meat industry is exhibiting a strong preference for animal by-products NIMAL BY-PRODUCTS are returning to centre stage in the global meat industry. Over the last few years, the valuation of the animal carcass has shifted from prime cuts to processing cuts and fifth quarter products, driven by changing consumer preference for processed products, preference for animal by-products in Asia and new applications for animal by-products. A report by Rabobank has suggested that this trend will be permanent and will impact the business models of almost all players in the global meat industry. The value of the animal carcass is the combined sales price of all meat cuts and fifth quarter products, most of which have different markets with their own characteristics. The challenge for a slaughterhouse is to optimise the value of all different products while the importance of the prime cuts (loin, ham, belly and rib), processing cuts (shoulder, picnics, chuck and plate) and fifth quarter products may differ between countries depending on traditions, culture, religion, and wealth creating trading arbitrage opportunities. Despite prime meat cuts typically having the highest sales prices and value, the rising price of processing cuts and by-products of cattle and hogs show that the animal carcass valuation has been shifting since 2009.

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Recent developments This is due to five main developments: growing economies in developing countries including the opening of the Chinese market for imports, the economic crisis which has caused consumers to trade down to cheaper

products, the growth of convenience products with more women entering the workforce, consumers having less time to cook, and increased grazing, the growing number of applications for animal by-products in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and the decline in the sow herd in both the US and the EU which resulted in processed meat producers increasingly sourcing their raw material from market hogs. Rabobank analyst, Albert Vernooij said, “The impact of this shift in carcass valuation will be different for slaughterhouses, the further processing industry and dedicated companies active in the different parts of the by-product industry. “For slaughterhouses, the focus will increasingly move towards capturing the value of fifth quarter products, which might lead to forward integration in these activities�. The further processing industry could be forced to change their raw material sourcing to other products or enter into long-term supplier contracts to safeguard supply. For the dedicated processors of by-products competition will increase, which might urge these players to strengthen their positions in the value chain. Historically, the direct consumption of animal by-products has declined in line with increasing wealth due to consumer ability to afford higher priced prime meat cuts. Based on this general theory, consumption of animal byproducts in Asia should start to slow somewhere in the coming decade. However, most animal by-products are considered a delicacy in Asia, which will support continued strong demand for these products in the long term. n

Rising price of by-products show that animal carcass valuation has been shifting since 2009

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China and UN come together to fight animal diseases CHINA AND THE Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations have stepped up their cooperation in animal disease control and detection. According to an interview of FAO representative to China, Percy Misika in China Daily, after more than 30 years of cooperating with the FAO, China has now become capable of detecting animal influenza early and can contribute more to anti-animal influenza efforts both in the region and around the world. FAO in early March 2013 designated the Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, the first reference centre for animal influenza in China. The FAO officially recognised the

China is the 10th country to have an FAO reference centre, and second one to have a reference center focusing on animal influenza research

laboratory because of the lab's contribution to the implementation of FAO's program priorities. If the centre identified a new

iPad app to help pigs ‘breathe easy’ RESPIRATORY DISEASE IS the most frequent and economically significant disease affecting swine production worldwide. Respiratory infections, like Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae are present on over 90 per cent of farms worldwide and are therefore also a major threat to animal welfare. Animal health solution provider Ceva has developed a programme to address the issue of respiratory troubles in animals that is faced by the pig industry often. The online programme can be downloaded as an iPad app from lungprogram.ceva.com. The company has also introduced a series of vaccines such as Coglapix, Auphyl Plus and Hyogen to prevent the development of such respiratory diseases. The Ceva Lung Program will make it easier to evaluate the presence and impact of the main r e s p i r a t o r y pathogens on farm and then to monitor the results of any health interventions implemented. Simple guidelines Respiratory infections are present in and a handy iPad over 90 per cent of farms worldwide app. are the backbone of the new respiratory health program that swine farms will find easy-to-use. Commenting on the introduction of the new program, Stefano Gozio, head of Ceva’s Swine business said, “Our goal is to work together with veterinarians and producers to assist them in achieving better preventative respiratory health on their farms. “We need to create partnerships that lead to answers and in that way, we will all be able to breathe easy.”

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epidemic in China, it will be able to alert other countries more efficiently before a mass outbreak occurred, and that will be able to avoid huge

property losses and save more livestock and even human lives, Misika said. “If a local laboratory is not sure whether a diagnosis is true or not, it will need a second opinion from another laboratory that has higher technical expertise and a higher level of bio-technology. This center will play that role,” he added. FAO designates reference centres in the field of animal health, and these cover disciplines such as veterinary epidemiology, laboratory biosecurity and 12 animal diseases, including those shared by human beings. China is the 10th country to have an FAO reference center, and the second one to have a reference center focusing on animal influenza research.

China’s poultry feed demand may slump by 20 per cent FEED DEMAND FROM China’s poultry industry may slump 20 per cent in the second quarter of 2013 from a year earlier after a bird flu outbreak in the country According to research firm Shanghai JC Intelligence, the H7N9 virus, which has killed at least 22 people in China since the beginning of March, has caused more than US$2.7bn of losses to the nation’s poultry industry as consumers chose to avoid chicken. Poultry feed industry, which mainly depends on corn and soymeal has also taken a hit due to the situation. Poultry-product sales have dropped almost 70 per cent since the end of March as government asked its citizens to avoid contact with live animals, Shanghai JC said in a report released recently. Farms are reducing flocks and selling off broilers, birds under 13 weeks old that constitute almost all commercial chicken production, according to the report. Shanghai JC Intelligence managing director Li Qiang said, “The industry has been dealt a blow so severe that it won’t be able to shake off the impact at least until late May or June.” An average Chinese urban resident gets 28 per cent of annual protein from pork, 14 per cent from poultry and 13 per cent from eggs, according to analyst Alice Xuan of Shanghai JC. In rural areas the figures are 39 per cent, 12 per Poultry feed industry in China has cent and 15 per cent, been hit by the bird flu outbreak respectively.

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Pig production and tools for mycotoxin risk management Growing conciousness about the ill-effects of mycotoxins has made it mandatory to battle the issue for ensuring health of animals HE WORD MYCOTOXIN has become common in the issues related to animal health and production. One of the reasons why the mycotoxin issue is becoming more common in animal production is due to their higher occurrence traced in the last few years. International trade, climate change and a better control and knowledge of these substances have created a higher consciousness of the risk for livestock health and performance. The toxic effects of mycotoxins vary depending on their chemical structure and concentration, the exposition length, animal species, animal health status and the combination of various mycotoxins. Due to the interactions between mycotoxins, as well as their immune suppressor effect, the toxic levels in field conditions are much lower than those referred to experimental conditions. In fact, immunity suppression is now widely considered to be the most important effect of mycotoxins, particularly in developing countries. We know that consumption of mycotoxins, at levels that do not cause overt clinical mycotoxicosis, suppresses immune function and decrease resistance to infectious diseases, as mycotoxins are one of the more immunosuppressive factors coming from feed. This lower resistance to infectious diseases makes mycotoxin detection difficult as the symptoms observed in farms are the same as those coming from opportunistic pathologies. In order to help farmers to detect mycotoxin contamination in the herd, animal nutrition and health solutions provider Olmix has come up with a simple online tool called the Mycotoxins Risk Evaluator (available on www.olmix.com). With this tool the probability of having mycotoxins in the feed can be easily estimated just buy filling up a simple Q-test. One of the most important interactions of mycotoxins in the intestinal tract is the one between deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) and Fumonisins, investigated by Dr

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Isabelle Oswald, from INRA, France. DON damages epithelial cells at intestinal level, thus decreasing villi length and consequently the absorption surface for nutrients, and sometimes even leading to a situation of malabsorption syndrome. Fumonisin impairs cell proliferation so the natural mechanism for repairing the damaged cells is not working in presence of Fumonisin. Thus, even low levels of DON (and other thrichotenecens B, such as 15-0-acetyl deoxynivalenol and nivalenol) in the presence of fumonisins, have a great impact on the intestinal morphology. The intestinal epithelium is an important barrier that limits the access of xenobiotics or pathogens to the internal compartment. DON has been proved to impair the barrier function of the intestine by decreasing the expression of claudin proteins implicated in the regulation of tight junction proteins. This is like opening the door for pathogens into the body. Moreover, it decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance. This results in an increased risk of trans-epithelial passage of both bacteria and endotoxins into the systemic system, and consequently, more incidence of diarrhoea and other pathologies. Fumonisins have also a direct impact of the immune system of the animals. They decrease intestinal expression of interleukins, e.g. IL-8, which is implicated in neutrofil proliferation during inflammatory response. The decrease in IL-8 production can lead to lower neutrofils proliferation, and so less IL-8 at the intestinal level is associated with an increase in sensitivity to enteric infections. In this situation, the importance of using a toxin binder with a broad range of adsorption is crucial. MT.X+, which improves protection and improves performance, is able to adsorb even the mycotoxins with higher molecular size and lower polarity, such as DON and Fumonisin B1, as was demonstrated by Demais and Havenaar (2006) in the TIM1 system at TNO facilities in The Netherlands, showing a more effective adsorbance of DON than active charcoal (40 per cent using 0.1 per cent instead two per cent) and without besides effects on nutrients adsorption. n By Dr Virgil Meallet, Olmix Asia Pacific Technical Supervisor

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Marine ecosystem takes a hit with blast fishing A WORLD WILDLIFE Fund (WWF) Indonesia survey has revealed that use of blast fishing for tuna off the coast of East Flores in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia has been increasing steadily and depleting the marine ecosystem rapidly. Blast fishing or dynamite fishing is the practice of using explosives to stun or kill fish for easy collection. The survey team found that even in a small village in the East Flores regency, a fleet of 98 fishing boats measuring two to three gross tonnage was operated by local fishermen to catch tuna using explosives. A similar situation was also found in several other locations across the regency’s waters including Pulau Tiga, Solor Strait, the southern part of Solor Island, Lamakera Strait and the southern part of Lembata. The survey report has suggested that the blast fishing has not only destroyed the ecosystem, but also severely depleted tuna resources. WWF said that at least 50 per cent of tuna affected by the blast fishing was wasted. The fish die in the explosions and sink to the bottom before the fishermen can collect them.

Blast fishing is the practice of using explosives to kill fish for easy collection

Wawan Ridwan, director of maritime and fishery affairs of WWF Indonesia, said, “Blast fishing not only harms tuna, but also protected animals like dolphins, which are found in the same area as tuna.” In some cases, the fishermen themselves fall victim to the practice, being killed or suffering permanent disabilities. In one of the villages where the survey was conducted,

WWF obtained data that since 2004, blast fishing had claimed the lives of five fishermen and left two others permanently disabled. “This destructive fishing should be stopped. Demand for and trade in fishery products from such damaging fishing practices should be gradually reduced and eliminated,” Wawan said. He admitted that efforts to stop the practice were difficult because it was related to policies and the market situation. Indonesia is the fourth largest tuna fishing nation in the world after Japan, Taiwan and Spain, according to the WWF report. As tuna is a major global fishing commodity, Wawan said, it is increasingly important for retailers to ensure that the products they received from fishermen were sourced from environmentally friendly practices, not from blast fishing. One of the efforts by WWF Indonesia to tackle blast fishing is by conducting counselling and capacity-building programs among fishermen, as well as helping them to orient their products to the environmentally friendly market.

Philippines prepares to protect its endangered fish species

Specific pathogen free shrimp reveals greater export prospects

PHILIPPINES HAS REVEALED plans to protect some of the fish species that it has identified as endangered and has high importance in terms of economic value The Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources in Region 2 (BFAR-2) has identified various endemic species in the region. In a recently conducted meeting attended by representatives from provincial agriculture offices, state universities, the regional director at Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Jovita Ayson said that while the bureau promotes the culture of various fish species, BFAR needs to protect endemic species of high economic value that are now endangered. From the several species identified, the group has set Paltat (Native Catfish), Gurami (Snake-skinned Gourami), Igat / Sihin (Eel), Mori (Goby), Ludong (Mullet), Bisukul (Native snail), Cabibi (Freshwater clam) and Udang / Ulang / Payang (Giant freshwater prawn), as priority species for conservation. BFAR-2 resource management head Evelyn Ame said that the group will prepare a master proposal for the conservation of said priority species. “The proposal will include sub-studies on taxonomy, ecology, biology, and socio-economic and marketing aspect. Development of culture technologies for goby species will also be included,” Ame said. The proposal will be submitted to National Fisheries Research and Development Institute for funding. The group has tapped Ralph Turingan, professor and chairman of the Marine Biology Programme of Florida Institute of Technology in Florida, USA, to assist in the conservation program which will be implemented for five years.

INDIA HAS DEVELOPED a specific pathogen free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock that is ready for supply to hatchery operators. The shrimp variety has revealed potential to boost domestic production and export prospects. The SPF was The shrimp variety can boost marine developed by Rajiv Gandhi product export prospects of the country Centre for Aquaculture, the R&D arm of the Marine Products Export Development Authority in association with the Oceanic Institute, Hawaii, USA. The primary objective of this initiative will be to produce selectively bred Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp broodstock (mother shrimp) that exhibit good hatchery performance for producing high-quality shrimp seed which should exhibit fast growth and high survival on commercial shrimp farms in India. Selectively bred SPF L.vannamei also has the potential to grow under intensive culture conditions, tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperature and require lower protein diet. It can also utilise the natural productivity of shrimp ponds in intensive culture conditions. It is expected to be more resistant to diseases and can mate and spawn easily under captivity. Its survival rate during hatchery rearing is also higher. Shrimp production can substantially contribute to marine product export from the country. Currently shrimp hatcheries import L.vannamei broodstock from Broodstock Multiplication Centres in USA, Thailand and Singapore with high shipping costs and transit loss due to mortality.

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Pond water monitoring to improve fish production Water quality in ponds plays a significant role for the success of aquaculture operations. Here are a few parameters that require regular monitoring ACH WATER QUALITY parameter alone can directly affect the health of fish in a pond. Exposure of shrimp and fish to improper levels of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite or hydrogen sulfide leads to stress and disease. However, in the complex and dynamic environment of aquaculture ponds, water quality parameters also influence each other. Unbalanced levels of temperature and pH can increase the toxicity of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Thus, maintaining balanced levels of water quality parameters is fundamental for both the health and growth of culture organisms. It is recommended to monitor and assess water quality parameters on a routine basis.

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Maintaining balanced levels of water quality parameters is fundamental for both health and growth of culture organisms

Dissolved oxygen (DO) Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the most important parameters in aquaculture. Maintaining good levels of DO in the water is essential for successful production since oxygen (O2) has a direct influence on feed intake,

disease resistance and metabolism. A suboptimal level is very stressful for fish and shrimp. It is, therefore, important to keep DO at optimum levels of above 4.0 ppm. As phytoplankton (microscopic algae) usually

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consumes the most O2 and since photosynthesis does not occur during the night, DO levels decline. Critically low DO occurs in ponds specifically when algal blooms crash. The subsequent bacterial decomposition of the dead

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algae cells demands a lot of oxygen. Managing the equilibrium of photosynthesis and respiration – as well as the algae growth - is an important task in the daily work of a farmer. The DO concentration in water goes up as temperature goes down, and decreases when salinity increases. When feeding the fish and shrimp, oxygen demand is higher due to increased energy expenditure (also known as specific dynamic action). To face this higher oxygen demand, several measures can be taken:

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the pond can affect the oxygen cycle and thus, the oxygen equilibrium. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) is the amount of DO needed by aerobic biological organisms in the water to break down organic material present at a constant temperature during a 5-day period. BOD5 is an important water quality variable that may be required to demonstrate compliance with water quality permits issued by the governments and to achieve farm certification.

Temperature Temperature is another important water quality parameter. It can affect fish and shrimp metabolism, feeding rates and the degree of ammonia toxicity. Temperature also has a direct impact on biota respiration (O2 consumption) rates and influences the solubility of O2 (warmer water holds less O2 than cooler water). Temperature cannot obviously be controlled in a pond. Aquatic animals modify their body temperature to the environment and are sensitive to rapid temperature variations. It is therefore important to adapt fish and shrimp progressively when transferring them from tank to pond. Every 10°C increment in temperature doubles the rate of metabolism, chemical reaction and O2 consumption.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) Carbon dioxide (CO2) in ponds is primarily produced through respiration by fish/shrimp and the microscopic plants and animals that constitute the pond biota. Carbon dioxide levels (and toxicity) are highest when DO levels are lowest. Thus, dawn is a critical time for monitoring DO and CO2. High CO2 concentrations inhibit the ability of fish and shrimp to extract O2 from the water, reducing the tolerance to low O2 conditions and inducing stress comparable to suffocation. An increase in CO2 may also decrease the pH, which can lead to toxicity of nitrite.

pH pH is a measure of acidity (hydrogen ions) or alkalinity of the water. It is important to

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above, nitrites are toxic (injurious or lethal) to many fish and shrimp.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

Unbalanced temperature and pH can increase the toxicity of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in water

maintain a stable pH at a safe range because it affects the metabolism and other physiological processes of culture organisms. It can create stress, enhance the susceptibility to disease, lower the production levels and cause poor growth and even death. Signs of sub-optimal pH are besides others increased mucus on the gill surfaces of fish, unusual swimming behaviour, fin fray, harm to the eye lens as well as poor phytoplankton and zooplankton growth. Optimal pH levels in the pond should be in the range of 7.5 – 8.5.

Ammonia Ammonia is a very important parameter for good fish and shrimp production. Under particular conditions, ammonia can easily rise to dangerously high levels. Ammonia in water exists in two forms, as ammonium ions (NH4+), which are non-toxic, and as the un-ionised toxic ammonia (NH3). The relative proportion of the one or the other depends on water temperature and pH. If the phytoplankton absorbs too much CO2 during the day, and therefore increase the pH to a value above 8.5, the fish and shrimp are subjected, depending on the total ammonia nitrogen concentration, to high ammonia concentrations (NH3). As little as 0.6 ppm (mg/l) free ammonia (NH3) can be toxic to many kinds of fish and shrimp, causing gill irritation and respiratory problems.

Nitrite (NO2-) Nitrite (NO2-) is another form of nitrogenous compound that results from feeding and can be toxic to shrimp and fish. Nitrite is an intermediate product of the transformation of ammonia into nitrate by bacterial activity. The absorbed nitrites from the gut bind to hemoglobin and reduce its ability to carry oxygen. An increase in CO2 may decrease the pH to a value below 6.5, which can lead to toxicity of nitrite through the formation of nitrous acid (HNO2). At 2 ppm (mg/l) and

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a colorless, toxic gas, is a by-product of the deterioration of organic matter, usually under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic soils with moderate to high organic concentrations can be a significant source of H2S, which is toxic to shrimp and fish even at low concentrations since it hinders their respiration. If the bottom soil becomes black and a rotten egg odour is recognised when sediment is disturbed, it indicates anaerobic conditions and the presence of H2S. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic in the unionised form (comparable to ammonia). However, the unionised form is predominant at low pH (< 8) and high temperature. At pH 7.5 approximately 14 per cent of the sulfide is in the toxic H2S form and at pH 6.5 about 61 per cent. Therefore, sulfide concentrations should be below 0.002 ppm.

Alkalinity Alkalinity is the buffering capacity of water and represents its amount of carbonates and bicarbonates. Alkalinity can affect the potential for primary productivity and also the water pH. In case the water pH fluctuates greatly during the day, lime can be used to increase alkalinity in the water to stabilise the water pH. Values of 50 – 100 mg/l are considered moderate and are recommended. Total alkalinity has been traditionally expressed as milligrams per litre (ppm) of equivalent calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally, alkalinity varies from site to site. In the seawater, alkalinity is normally higher than 100 ppm but in freshwater areas, alkalinity is often low, particularly during the rainy season. Low alkalinity in freshwater or in low salinity areas will affect the survival rate and molting of shrimp.

Salinity Salinity represents the total concentration of dissolved inorganic ions, or salts, in water. It plays a significant role for the growth of culture organisms through osmoregulation of body minerals from that of the surrounding water. For better survival and growth an optimum range of salinity should be maintained in the pond water. If salinity is too high, fish and shrimp will start to lose water to the environment. Younger shrimp appear to tolerate a wider fluctuation of salinity than the adults. Drastic changes of salinity may also alter the phytoplankton fauna and their population densities and lead to instability of the ecosystem. Lowering the salinity by more than 5 ppt, at each time of water exchange, is not recommended. n Biomin

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Photograph: Alan Lowes, Omex

Fallen and soil contaminated coffee cherry is a major source of mould fungi and mycotoxin contamination

Maintaining the quality of stored coffee and cocoa Moisture, pests and microbes can pose a serious threat to the quality and commercial value of coffee and cocoa RYING AND STORAGE conditions applied to coffee and cocoa commodity ‘chains’ are essential in maintaining the long term integrity of these crops. Failure to achieve and maintain bean moisture contents below established levels may cause rapid loss of bean integrity, quality and commercial value. Damage and deterioration is often caused due to feeding by insect pests and the metabolic activity of microbes and especially a small, select but highly damaging group of fungal moulds which synthesise mycotoxins. The physical integrity of freshly harvested coffee and cocoa is unavoidably compromised by on-farm processing. Processed beans will freely furnish the taste, aroma but their porous structure makes them prone to risks. What can easily exit the beans can just as easily enter and this means cured coffee and cocoa is at high risk of damage from biotic (biological) as well as abiotic (physical and chemical) agents. Being flavour dependent commodities, they are economically sensitive to any damage or deterioration. Mycotoxins are acutely toxic signature chemicals produced by specific fungal moulds. Aggravating risks to coffee and cocoa in storage and transit is the rapidity and magnitude of any change in temperature and humidity. These physical factors set the scene for the conditions experienced during movement from place of production to point of use. Coffee and cocoa are largely grown in countries with equatorial tropical climates, but for historical and economic reasons are mostly manufactured and consumed in cool temperate countries. As processed commodities they have a much longer ‘shelf-life’ than, for instance, cereal grains and oilseeds and are stored for much longer periods. However, the longer the storage period, the greater the risk of damage and deterioration.

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SPRAY VACCINATION

SUBCUTANEOUS VACCINATION

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Photograph: Dr Terry Mabbett

Visibly diseased coffee cherry should not be harvested for processing

Interacting risk factors Factors that pose a potential threat to the integrity and quality of stored coffee and cocoa beans are physical and chemical (abiotic) and pests and pathogens (biotic). Primary physical factors are temperature and relative humidity which cause secondary problems such as condensation and surface moisture. Examples of chemical factors that can compromise the quality of stored coffee and cocoa are: • Chemical residues of pesticides applied in the field or in store to control insect pests • Contaminating oils in jute sacks used to pack the beans • Chemicals stored in the same area as cocoa and coffee, especially if volatile with intrinsically strong odours Biological factors such as insects, pests and fungal moulds are invariably present but require the interactive intervention of physical factors before they can grow into economically- damaging problems. Insect and pest infestations are triggered by high temperature and humidity. The different types of deteriorative organisms that affect coffee and cocoa in store require different levels of relative humidity to initiate and maintain normal growth and development. Bacteria, fungal moulds (including mycotoxin synthesisers) and mites require a relative humidity level in excess of 90 per cent, 70 per cent, and 60 per cent, respectively. Depending on class and species insect pests require humidity within a 30 to 50 per cent range.

will generate an ERH approaching 75 per cent within the storage structure, which is sufficient to support a variety of so called ‘dry moulds’ including mycotoxin synthesisers. ERH levels exceeding 85 per cent (equivalent to a bean moisture content of 18.5 per cent w/w) support the growth of yeasts and bacteria leading to tainting and offflavours associated with the fermentation activities of these ‘wetgrowth’ microbes. Cocoa beans are most sensitive to changes in relative humidity because like table salt they are hygroscopic [actively absorb water from the air]. The maximum moisture content of cocoa beans required to secure safe storage is just eight per cent w/w. Moisture levels much above this figure encourage mould growth and musty odours. Free fatty acid content inside the cocoa bean is elevated with serious consequences for the cocoa butter fraction and chocolate manufacture. However, the overall exact situation regarding coffee and cocoa bean moisture content and its effect on humidity is not as ‘cut and dried’ as it first seems. This is because not all the water inside the bean will be active in generating an ERH in the surrounding air. More recent considerations and calculations differentiate between bound and unbound water in coffee and cocoa beans and focus on an entity called ‘water activity’ [aw]. Water activity [aw] is regarded as a more meaningful measure of ERH which determines activity at insect, fungal, bacterial and enzymatic levels. Scale of water activity [aw] extends from 0 (bone dry) to 1.0 (pure water). ERH (equilibrium relative humidity) is obtained by multiplying [aw] by 100. Thus dried green coffee with an [aw] of 0.6 has an equivalent ERH of 60 per cent which is below the level at which fungi including the mycotoxin producing moulds can grow.

Moulds and mycotoxins Mycotoxins are the signature chemicals of specific fungal moulds and pose the single biggest threat to coffee and cocoa. Mycotoxins have the potential to cause a wide range of acute health problems in trace amounts (ppm and ppb) for consumers of contaminated products. Presence of mycotoxins in concentrations exceeding the maximum allowable level stipulated by importing countries and manufacturers can completely destroy the marketability of food commodities. There is a wide spectrum of various fungal moulds synthesising a correspondingly wide range of mycotoxins but just one specific mycotoxin from two main fungal moulds affect coffee and cocoa. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is well-established as a serious problem in coffee and more recently recognised as an increasing problem for cocoa.

Green coffee remains at high risk of mycotoxin contamination and should be regularly tested

Moisture inside stored cocoa and coffee beans evaporates to establish an equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) with air in the container or storage structure. Excessive moisture content will generate and establish a correspondingly high ERH to encourage insect pest and fungal mould populations. Most moisture content recommendations for coffee and cocoa come in a range of values, as per cent w/w [weight/weight] and expressed in g/kg, but store managers should aim for a fixed figure and err on the side of caution. For safe storage of green coffee, the bean moisture content should not exceed 11.0 per cent w/w. A two per cent rise to 13 per cent w/w

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Photograph: Nancy Zabe, VICAM

Bean moisture and relative humidity


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Photograph: Dr Terry Mabbett

Relatively high numbers of visibly diseased pods are often seen on trees. These should be discarded if quality control problems further down the line are to be avoided

The two main fungal moulds with the capacity to synthesise OTA are Aspergillus ochraceus, widespread and frequent in the tropical coffee producing countries, and Penicillium verruciosum which predominates in temperate climates. OTA is associated with a raft of health problems showing up in test animals and including nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and carcinogenesis (tumour formation) in pigs, dogs and rats. Mycotoxins are difficult to destroy and will remain at detectable levels in coffee and cocoa even after processing including high temperature roasting. The only way to ensure coffee and cocoa is as free as possible from OTA contamination is to exclude the mould fungi which produces it. Operation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points) is now standard practice in coffee worldwide, from the ripe coffee cherry on the tree or soil to green coffee beans in store and awaiting manufacture. HACCP allows farmers, managers and scientists to pinpoint danger zones and to take the necessary action (e.g. proper drying) to avoid or minimise mould growth and OTA synthesis. Underpinning the success of HACCP is on-going progress in the development of increasingly sensitive and accurate mycotoxin testing equipment. Mycotoxin testing equipment is widely used on site and in the laboratory to quantify and monitor mycotoxin in ppm (parts per million) and ppb (parts per billion). OTA is perfectly capable of causing extensive damage to human metabolism in these minute amounts. Exporters, shippers, traders and importers and coffee manufacturers monitor mycotoxin concentrations in coffee and cocoa to ensure the commodity conforms to maximum allowable levels of OTA. For instance, maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission (EC) in 2004 were 5 ppb (5µg/kg) for roast and ground coffee and 10 ppb (10µg/kg) for soluble (instant) coffee.

prevent early introduction of OTA into international supply chains. Although laboratory methods using fluorometry or HPLC with an immunoaffinity column are widely accepted and available from VICAM and other vendors, there is new technology being developed which serves the field and nontechnical user and is suitable for producers and buying operations, as well as on-site laboratories – quantitative lateral flow strip tests which are now offered by test kit manufacturers. Lateral flow diagnostic tests eliminate the need for highly skilled technical users, which means that accurate results may be obtained at growing, buying and processing points along the chain of custody for green and roasted coffee. The VICAM Vertu® Lateral Flow Reader is one example of technology at the forefront of current drives to identify and quantify OTA hazards at critical control points and as far back along the supply chain as possible. VICAM has gone one stage further with introduction of a seven-minute on-site strip test for ochratoxin A (OTA) which accurately detects OTA over a wide range (0-100 ppb) and with sensitivity as low as 5ppb. VICAM Ochra-V™ strip test was designed for use with the Vertu® Lateral Flow Reader and may be implemented with little or no on-site training or expertise required. This novel test employs the highly sensitive and selective monoclonal antibodies required to accurately measure OTA in samples of coffee and for on-site sampling by non-scientific users. It is innovations from technology providers like VICAM that will continue to enable producers worldwide to measure the quality and suitability of their coffee and cocoa for internal quality and export regulatory requirements now and for years to come. n By Dr Terry Mabbett

Stripping away OTA uncertainty ‘What’s in store for coffee and cocoa’ is the near certainty of even stricter and more stringent maximum allowable limits for OTA. Only way forward is even more sensitive and accurate OTA testing technology and equipment. High sensitivity of OTA testing equipment is critical but clearly not enough. Tests must be carried our as far ‘upstream’ as possible and therefore be suitable for use by farmers and primary processors on-site to

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Hope brews for Philippines coffee industry The Philippines coffee industry is implementing new measures and technologies to tread back to its earlier days of glory HE SPROUTING OF numerous coffee shops in the Philippines in recent years is an indication that coffee isn’t just a breakfast staple anymore. The Filipino association with coffee has become so immense that according to the Philippine Coffee Board (PCB), the Philippines is now the biggest coffeedrinking nation in Southeast Asia. Data from the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics show that coffee production in 2012 was 0.45 per cent higher at 88.93 tonnes due to good demand which encouraged growers to increase production in CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon). The Robusta was the most cultivated variety among growers followed by the Laguna Blend and Barako ng Cabuyao Coffee Programme of the Department of Agriculture. Robusta makes up about 90 per cent of the Philippines’ total coffee production while other varieties such as Arabica (five per cent), Excelsea (seven per cent) and Liberica or Philippine barako (three per cent) are other popular types of coffee. Coffee is suitably grown on hilly terrain where the climate features distinct wet and dry seasons. This makes it one of the best crops to plant in most provinces. The cultivation of the crop for domestic consumption and export was introduced by the Spaniards in 1740s. At that time, the Philippines became the fourth largest coffee producer in the world. However, towards the end of the 19th century, pests nearly wiped out coffee farms and the industry unfortunately was not able to maintain the robust

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production. The country only holds one per cent of the world coffee production and mainly imports from Vietnam at an average of 100,000 tonnes per year worth US$24.42mn. Thus, prices have increased from US$2.19 to US$2.93 per kg. Due to burgeoning demand, last year’s total imports amounted to US$195.40mn which is the highest import bill for coffee in the ASEAN. Benguet State University professor Val Macanes believes that one of the reasons why local coffee production has not progressed since the Spanish regime is the absence of a centralised data bank. He said there are no common figures to speak of pertaining to the volume and area of production, local and foreign demand, operational areas of production among other relevant information. Macanes emphasised that this is crucial to entice farmers to grow and for investors to finance. Vietnam—the world’s biggest coffee

producer with an annual output of 1.4mn tonnes or 30 kg per hectare—is currently helping the local coffee farmers to improve production. In contrast, the Philippines only produces 25,000 tonnes a year or 0.5 to only one tonne per hectare and holds less than one per cent of the total world production. Other problems besetting the industry are the delay in farmers adopting new technologies, ignoring the importance of training and application in the production process, lack of information and education for farmers such as judicious use of pesticides, and its perception as backyard endeavour, according to Manaces. The Department of Science and Technology also cited several concerns such as low prices of coffee beans which have discouraged small farmers as well as replacement of senile and unproductive trees. The urbanisation and industrialisation of some major coffee areas like Cavite is also a pressing issue where families with big tracts of land planted to coffee would rather sell to property developers for instant cash rather than toil the land, resulting to cutting down coffee trees in the area.

The Philippines currently produces 25,000 tonnes of coffee a year

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Back to the days of glory? Although it has been centuries that the Philippines once lorded over the global coffee market, industry players are keen on restoring its former glory back. Led by the Philippine Coffee Board, stakeholders are tirelessly working on promoting coffee production among farmers as they believe the huge financial possibilities of the crop. The PCB is already working closely with the ASEAN Coffee Federation to study new trends in coffee and will partner with the Philippine Chapter of the International Women’s Coffee Alliance as well as the Women Vendors Exhibition Forum to empower Filipino women coffee farmers and give them more access to international markets and to multinational companies. The PCB also hopes to improve post harvest machinery—from pulping, hulling and roasting—through the help of the government. The DA has allotted at least US$4.68mn for coffee and cocoa production last year and is expected to increase as it aims to expand production this year. As part of the coffee industry map, the government is partnering with local food giants Nestle Philippines, Universal Robina Corporation and Commonwealth Foods to put up a mother

Coffee is grown on hilly terrain where the climate features distinct wet and dry seasons

plant in Cagayan Valley as well as help supply the local market with domestic coffee beans. PCB is also in talks with coffee shop chains to get fresh inputs even from small farmers. The partnership is in line with the stiff competition with cheap imports due to free market set up brought about by free trade agreements. The roadmap also aims to increase production by seven to eight per cent percent annually. Another good news brewing for the industry is a possible growth in exports to China as the Chinese coffee market is expected to expand to as much as US$50bn by 2020. Though the Philippines is yet to satisfy local demand, local industry players are hoping to join the thriving Chinese coffee market, which at present is worth

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US$11.1bn. The Department of Science and Technology through its agency Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCAARD) has outlined some several science and technology interventions to increase the present yield level of 400kg of coffee beans per hectare to 800 to 1,000kg that will translate to an additional US$33.20mn of coffee beans per year. The interventions include: rehabilitating unproductive farms, reducing farm production cost through fertilisation and pest management programmes, providing post-harvest facilities and equipment, developing speciality coffee products and local products, implementing aggressive R&D on biotechnology, crop improvement/production/protection, product development/diversification, promoting sustainable coffee production such as organic growing, implementing support and policies for coffee farm and farming communities. Although the goal of self-sufficiency and export may seem far-fetched, the painstaking efforts of both the private and public sectors to rejuvenate the coffee sector is commendable. n Gemma Delmo

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New corn breeding facility in Philippines PHILIPPINES MAY SOON have a breeding facility for hybrid yellow corn seeds with USbased agrotechnology firm revealing plans for setting up a unit in the Southeast Asian country. California’s US Agriseeds has chalked out plans to set up the corn breeding at Mindanao in Philippines. The firm’s general manager for Southeast Asia Carlos Saplala said that the construction for the prospective five to 10 hectares corn breeding facility in South Cotabato will begin soon. Yellow corn is primarily used as a component for animal feed. Saplala said, “South Cotabato is a challenging place to breed corn seeds because of high disease prevalence in the province. “We are fairly new in Southeast Asia but it presents a big opportunity for the company because rice is mainly produced in Asia. It is a good market if the Philippines, Indonesia and Vietnam are put together.” The company intends to introduce a third variety of corn which yields an average of nine tonnes per hectare. Although this variety is lower yielding than those first introduced, it matures in a shorter period and has superior grain quality. “This variety, which has no market code yet, is suited for three cropping cycles in a year,” said Saplala. The company also intends to put up additional rice test areas in Panay, Davao del Norte, Bukidnon and Misamis.

Better wheat variety possible with genetic code mapping A TEAM OF Chinese and US scientists have been able to map out the genetic code of wheat which will help farmers across the globe to grow much better varieties of the crop soon. Once scientists finish precisely mapping all the wheat genomes, higher-yielding varieties that are more resilient to disease and harsh weather conditions can be developed. Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology principal investigator, Zhang Aimin said that the recent mapping efforts were a big step in that direction. The research was jointly conducted by the academy institute, the Shenzhen-based Beijing Genomics Institute, and the University of California, Davis. “With genomes A and D mapped out, the complete mapping of wheat genomes is nearer, because we can Disease resistant high-yielding wheat can be find out more about the other genome developed with precise mapping of wheat genomes based on the first two,” Zhang said. The identification of about 38,000 wheat genes is expected to be of great help to studies on genomic breeding and wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. Zhang revealed that the breakthrough means that in the near future, we can breed more varieties of wheat that are more productive and of higher quality. “By selecting the desired genes, we can breed varieties according to the products we want, for example higher-quality bread or noodles,” he said. Globally, wheat is the most commonly consumed of the three staple foods, the others being rice and corn. China is the world's biggest producer of wheat, yielding more than 120mn tonnes last year.

China to help Pakistan in satellite monitoring of crops

Yellow corn is primarily used as a component for animal feed

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CHINA HAS AGREED to offer financial assistance to Pakistan to launch a project for satellite monitoring of crops. The project will enhance data collection according to current assessments done by Pakistani space agency Suparco. The satellite can, however, monitor only five major crops through real imageries. The Pakistani Planning Commission has plans to initiate a study through a third-party contract to have an in-depth assessment of overall crop reporting system in the country by all stakeholders. Upon completion of this study, Suparco along with four provincial agriculture departments will be authorised to undertake an

actual assessment of production of main crops in the country. The project will be executed by Suparco as its initial programme for monitoring of crops through satellite. The data collection will include input from the crop assessment committees of the provincial agriculture departments, data provided by Suparco and data provided by the relevant sector which consumes agriculture commodities. At present, Suparco releases monthly forecast of crops based on satellite monitoring. According to officials, a huge variation in the size of crops and actual production against the reported production also negatively impacts growth shown by the agriculture.

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Rice with high salt tolerance Rice growers may soon be able to reclaim salt-ravaged lands with the help of a new salt-tolerant rice variety ARMERS LOSE THEIR livelihoods when seawater encroaches on their farms in coastal areas, rendering them too salty to grow rice.

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Scientists at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Philippines have crossed two different species of rice to produce new rice that has double the salt tolerance of existing rice varieties. In four to five years, the new type of rice with high-tolerance of salinity may become available to farmers. Rising seawater causes rice farms along coastal areas to be salty, taking away livelihoods from rice farmers. Farmers are set to reclaim salt-ravaged land thanks to a single rice plant born of two unlikely parents that is spawning a new generation of rice that has double the salinity tolerance of other rice. IRRI lead scientist Dr Kshirod Jena said, “This will make salinestricken rice farms in coastal areas usable to farmers. “These farmlands are usually abandoned by coastal farmers because the encroaching seawater has rendered the soil useless. That means livelihood lost for these communities.”

Qualities of new rice Unlike regular rice, the new rice line can expel salt it takes from the soil

into the air through salt glands it has on its leaves, explained Jena. The new rice was bred by successfully crossing (or mating) two different rice parents – the exotic wild rice species Oryza coarctata and rice variety IR56 of the cultivated rice species O sativa. What is extra special about this breakthrough is that O. coarctata is extremely difficult to cross with cultivated rice varieties. The location of O. coarctata in the rice genome sequence is at the other end of the spectrum from that of rice varieties such as IR56. Jena noted, “When we cross two types of rice with genomes so far off from each other in the genome sequence, the resulting embryo tends to abort itself. “We've been trying to backcross these types of interspecific hybrids since the mid-1990s, but we have never been successful, until now.”

Embryo rescue Scientists at IRRI successfully rescued three embryos out of 34,000 crosses. Out of these three, one plant survived to give scientists enough material to back-cross and make sure that only the desired trait, double salt-tolerance, is acquired from the wild species. The reason scientists did not give up on crossing the two types of rice was because O. coarctata is a special type of rice that grows in brackish, salty water – making it highly resistant to saltiness in the soil. According to Jena, O. coarctata can tolerate a higher salinity concentration (similar to that of seawater), whereas current salinitytolerant rice varieties can cope with only half that concentration. However, O. coarctata is unsuitable for the production of edible rice. The first sign of good news came when, out of 34,000 crosses

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all traits of IR56, and take only the desired O. coarctata trait, which is its salt tolerance. Dr Jena’s team at IRRI is perfecting their new doubly salt-tolerant rice and will test it widely to ensure it meets all the needs of farmers and consumers. They hope to have the new variety available for farmers to grow within four to five years. n By IRRI

The new rice is equipped to expel salt it soaks in from soil

made, three embryos were successfully “rescued.” Of these three, only one embryo germinated to produce one single plant. "We treated this single plant survivor like a baby," said Dr. Jena. The surviving plant was then transferred into a liquid nutrient solution to ensure its survival. Once the plant was strong enough, it was grown in the field, where Dr. Jena and his team used it to backcross with IR56. Backcrossing ensures that the resulting progeny will contain

The rice variety may become available to farmers in four to five years

Asian bank and Japan design crop insurance system for Bangladesh farmers THE ASIAN DEVELOPMENT Bank (ADB) and Japan have undertaken a project to develop a new crop insurance system for small farmers in Bangladesh who often lose crops to natural calamities. ADB said in a statement that they had approved the project recently with Japan’s US$2mn grant. Bangladesh government will provide $420,000. ADB’s senior natural resources and agriculture economist Rezaul Khan was quoted in the statement as saying, “Small scale farmers with few resources are typically unable to insure their crops against extreme weather events and can lose their entire income every time a storm hits.” He added that the new project aimed at developing a new ‘affordable type of insurance product’ will ‘allow and encourage more farmers to protect their crops and source of livelihoods.’ Geography makes Bangladesh one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world and it is estimated that agricultural GDP will be 3.1 per cent lower each year until 2050 due to climate change. ADB pointed out that there is no crop insurance currently available for Bangladesh’s

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farmers after the huge financial losses incurred in the traditional agricultural insurance. The new system, weather index-based crop insurance, that will incorporate historical weather and crop production data, is considered

to be cost-effective and efficient than traditional agriculture insurance. It will reduce farm-level monitoring and transaction costs. Several countries in Asia, including India, Indonesia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, have begun piloting or providing these products but this is the first time they are being tried in Bangladesh. The project will design and pilot the insurance over a three years period in selected districts, targeting to cover at least 12,000 farm households. It will collaborate with agricultural banks, multilateral financial institutions, and farmer cooperatives and try models of distribution that reduce transaction costs and make the business sustainable. ADB said the traditional crop insurance system is less affordable due to high transaction costs and poor outreach networks that lead to lower uptake. The premium cost in some cases is up to 40 per cent. The farmers will be made aware of insurance system and climate risk. The project will also support developing ‘a regulatory and legal framework’ to accommodate the new concept.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2013 | www.fareasternagriculture.com


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Equipment

Haying machinery industry on recovery path Technologically advanced equipment has helped the haying machinery sector regain its health after recession blow AY CONSTITUTES AN important feed component for livestock and influences demand for haying machinery. The haying machinery industry, which had received a major blow during the 2007-2009 recession period, is now looking up with several technological advances that has driven the industry to positive directions. According to a report by Global Industry Analysts, the 2007-2009 recession had most significantly hit the dairy industry, a key end-use sector for haying machinery. The decline in demand for dairy products forced farmers to reduce investments in livestock farming equipment, such as haying machinery. While demand in developed countries like the US and Europe declined sharply, demand in Asia-Pacific remained stable backed by the impetus provided by governments in the form of subsidies.

H

Factors affecting haying machinery market The long-term outlook for the global haying machinery market is positively guided by population growth, rising emphasis on food security and self-sufficiency especially in developing countries, increasing household protein consumption, and mechanisation of farming practices. Technology developments such as engineering refinements in haying machinery are also expected to drive growth in the market. Credit availability, scarcity of farm labour, and subsidies offered by the government to encourage farm mechanisation represent other factors dictating demand patterns in the market.

Engineering refinements have given a boost to the haying machinery sector

on the trend, manufacturers are developing machines which fulfill haying requirements of large farm lands. Another key trend is the growing utilisation of telematics for haying activities. Telematics is increasingly being used to provide information such as vehicle location, motoring speed and engine status (running/idle), and other useful factors such as driver logs, threshold notices, fuel tax reports, routing and two-way messaging.

Asia-Pacificâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s role Haying machinery trends With shortages in farm labour, bigger equipment assumes critical importance in effectively managing large scale farm activities. Cashing

As stated by the new market research report on Haying Machinery, Asia-Pacific represents the leading market worldwide, primarily due to the towering presence of China. The region also includes India, which represents the fastest growing market for haying machinery. China and India together lead the global haying machinery market in terms of dollar sales. The US and Europe are the other major markets for haying machinery. n

Hay is an important ingredient in animal feed and thus has a tremendous influence on the livestock market

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Equipment

Escorts tractors for adressing the needs of Indian farmers ESCORTS HAVE LAUNCHED high-performance tractors which are specially suited for the Indian farming segment. The company, along with Italian farm equipment manufacturer BCS of Ferrari brand fame, will be selling these special tractors in India at a time when the common farmer is evolving as an entrepreneur. Recognising the need of the hour in favour of high-end tractors and farm equipment of an advanced nature, Escorts has introduced these new tractors with a commitment to bring in more technologically-advanced farm equipment in the future. Escorts will be investing more in this high-end tractor segment in the coming five to seven years, in a bid to be a top leader in the tractor segment in the country. 26HP Ferrari is the entry level tractor that has been undergoing tests in various areas. It comes in with a price tag of a little more than US$14,000, while it is The Escorts tractors are specially priced at an equivalent of US$22,000 in the European suited for the Indian farming segment markets and will be sold under Ferrari brand and sports the latest of technology, yet unheard of in the agrobased regions of India. performance, style and comfort targeting the more advanced and The company is gauging Indian markets before it decides to team up progressive farming segment in India. with Escorts to launch a production unit in the country. These 45, 50 and 60HP tractor series gives the impression that one is Escorts has also introduced the new Farmtrac executive tractor series in the driver’s seat of a car, complete with LED headlights, digital which comes in with a higher level of technology and enhanced speedometer and a host of safety devices.

John Deere adds array of environmental sensors to Field Connect EXPANDING ON THE John Deere Field Connect soil moisture monitoring system introduced last year, the company has now added new environmental sensors and features to provide additional information to producers of all types of agricultural crops.

The new environmental sensors include weather station, rain gauge, temperature sensor, pyranometer and leaf wetness sensor. In addition to the soil moisture data provided by the Field Connect system, the new sensors provide data on temperature, wind speed, wind

The new sensors can provide data on temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, solar radiation, leaf wetness and rainfall

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direction, humidity, solar radiation, leaf wetness and rainfall. Nicholas Shafer, product manager for the John Deere Intelligent Solutions Group, said the new environmental sensors, along with the multiple capacitance soil moisture sensors, will give customers a more comprehensive and accurate picture of what is going on in their fields. Shafer explained, “With this detailed sitespecific information, producers will be able to more efficiently utilise water resources, as well as schedule and perform other agronomic practices dependant on soil and environmental conditions. “This results in more efficient use of inputs, fuel and labour saving and additional yield potential from the crop.” Field-specific soil moisture and environmental data is transmitted to a secure website for viewing, and customers can program the system to receive alerts based on set parameters. Field Connect charts the data from the readings over time, allowing producers to identify trends. The system can be customised to each field depending on the objectives of each customer to more effectively optimise the productivity of each field. “These sensors will provide key information to producers, helping them to make better agronomic decisions that will pay off with higher yields at harvest,” Shafer added.

FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2013 | www.fareasternagriculture.com


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Equipment

WEDA’s training station for demand feeding PIG FEED EQUIPMENT manufacturer WEDA Dammann & Westerkamp has developed a costeffective training station for demand feeding stations. The low-budget variation of the SowComp model dispenses with any kind of electronics, works with open doors and with a simple feeding system. This way, the sows in WEDA’s training station learn to reach the trough by passing through a narrow passage. In doing so, the animals get used to taking up their feed in a demand feeding station in a fast, uncomplicated and stress-free way.

In order to simulate real operating conditions of the later demand feeding station, the unit is equipped with a double-flap iron-barred exit gate. The advantage of the gate is that this prevents the entering of the animals into the “wrong direction”. As a rule, the training station is installed far away from the herd of sows, in the quarantine division. It is recommended to split up the gilts to be trained into groups of 15 to 20 animals. After a training period of approximately two weeks, the animals are conditioned and know

Waterless chicken skinning equipment PRIME EQUIPMENT GROUP has introduced a new line of waterless skinning equipment. The company has announced that the skinning equipment can be used for extracting chicken products such as boneless breast butterflies, bone-in thighs and whole legs. The new Waterless Skinner model eliminates the need for Prime Equipment’s Waterless Skinner water during the skinning process, reducing water-related operating costs, preserving the quality of skin pieces commonly used in secondary processes. Offered in 12-, 18- and 24-inch belt widths, these new machines feature an air system for debris ejection and an improved upper belt assembly design with reduced friction bearings for extended parts life. Prime Equipment Group chief executive officer Michael Gasbarro said, “We recognise the need to evolve our designs to meet the changing needs of our customers. “Product quality and yield are important attributes in the industry. Our goal is to deliver the best skinning results while keeping operating costs to a minimum.” Prime machines currently in operation can be upgraded to the waterless configuration and the upgrade can be performed at any facility.

exactly how a demand feeding station functions. After this, they can be transferred into the proper waiting area. As the animals are now used to walking along a passage for taking up their feed, their shying away from automatic demand feeding stations is practically non-existent now. The advantages of the system are that the training station does not require any expensive technology, it involves playful learning of the demand feeding situation, saves training time and no entrance gate is required in the system.

New chick vaccination solution DIAMOND ENGINEERING HAS developed a vaccination technology that offers significant cost reduction and minimised stress to the bird. The latest technology and design changes offer improvements in both accuracy and quality of vaccination leading to lower costs for the farmers. Technical improvements on the inlet valves and the outlet vales of the syringe for the Evolution DOA Subcutaneous Chick Vaccinator were developed after testing in the field and input and suggestions from customers. Several customers recently took part in a workshop organised by Diamond Engineering to look for improvements in the Evolution vaccinator device and the vaccination process. More than 200 personnel were involved in the workshop over a 10 day period. D i a m o n d Engineering managing director Richard Hess said he was delighted with the response from customers and they had made a significant input to the improvements on the device. Even more new developments were in the pipeline.

HSW injection with disinfection container Henke-Sass Wolf’s (HSW) new injection bar is equipped with a HSW disinfection container to make the process of injecting animals like swine, sheep, goat and cattle easier and cleaner than ever before. The HSW injection bar is available in two sizes (total length of 61cm and 102cm) and has been made suitable for mass injections. The improved distance to the animal has enhanced user-safety and as well reduced the stress for the animals, which increases animal welfare. The new HSW injection bars

stand out because of their durable carbonmetal design which has the capacity to ensure less weight and a strong durability. The tightness and robustness of the injection bars has enabled its use in the field. In order to offer higher comfort to the user, the injection has been equipped with disinfection container. It has ensured disinfection everywhere quickly and easily. The container has been made suitable for up to two injection bars and comprises a total volume of 3.5l when filled completely. The

www.fareasternagriculture.com | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2013

disinfection container is totally appropriate for disinfection, storage and transportation of the injection bars due to its disinfectantresistant material. With the new HSW injections the process of disinfection of the injection bars will now be comfortably possible in the field, in the barn and anywhere else. The equipment promises to not only contribute to the animal welfare but also enable a comfortable injection as well as a safe and easy disinfection for the user.

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Mycotoxins and Ammonium are responsible for severe economical losses in livestock industry

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Moreover

Hygiene measures must to stop flu virus spread

International scientific community has advised adherence to strong biosecurity measures to battle the new bird flu virus HE OCCURRENCE OF the deadly A(H7N9) influenza virus in China has stirred up hygiene measures across Asia and other parts of the world to prevent the poultry industry from being hit. Recently the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has prescribed some biosecurity measures that would help in fighting the spread of the virus. Unlike other influenza strains, including highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, this new virus is hard to detect in poultry because the novel virus causes little to no signs of disease in animals. FAO chief veterinary officer Juan Lubroth said, “Unlike H5N1, where chickens were dying off on a large scale, with this virus we don’t have a red flag that immediately signals an infection. This means, farmers may not be aware that virus is circulating in their flock. Biosecurity and hygiene measures will help people protect themselves from virus circulating in seemingly healthy birds or other animals.” The UN body commended China’s quick notification of human cases and subsequent

T

release of detailed information to people on the nature of the virus and other precautionary measures. The international scientific community has been analysing the virus sequence in hopes of better understanding its behaviour and its potential impact on humans and animals. “With the virus harder to detect, good biosecurity measures become even more essential to reducing the risk of virus transmission to humans and animals. Good hygiene measures implemented by farmers, livestock producers, transporters, market workers and consumers represent the first and most effective way to protect the food chain,” Lubroth said.

Need for precautions Some of the precautions include keeping all birds and livestock separate from living areas. Close contact with infected animals can put people at risk. It also requires keeping wild birds away from poultry and other animals and fencing poultry areas to separate species and help prevent transmission. Any illness in animals should be reported to

www.fareasternagriculture.com | FAR EASTERN AGRICULTURE Issue Two 2013

the local veterinary (or public health) authorities. It is important that all signs of illness or sudden and unexplained deaths in poultry, farmed birds, wild birds or other animals are reported to the authorities so that they can deal with them safely and help stop the virus spreading. Washing hands thoroughly must be made a practise to kill and remove the virus. Farmers should always do so after handling birds or other animals, cooking or preparing animal products, and before eating. Eating wellcooked meat products is also important. Farmers should not eat sick or dead animals and should not give or sell them to others. Such animals should also not be fed to other animals. Poultry farm owners should immediately seek advice from doctors if there are signs of fever after being in contact with poultry, farmed birds, wild birds or other animals. FAO has involved itself in monitoring the situation closely through its wide network of country and regional offices and key partners, including the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). n Source: FAO

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Far Eastern Agriculture 2 2013