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Europe â‚Ź10, Ghana C1.8, Kenya Ksh200, Nigeria N330, South Africa R25, UK ÂŁ7, USA $12

September 2012

P56

Material handling for miners

P18

Development

through

commerce Logistics:

Power:

Construction:

Reforming refrigerated shipping P32

African opportunities for energy firms P42

Entrepreneurs build tiles for homes P50


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UP FRONT

Editor’s Note

www.africanreview.com

Europe €10, Ghana C1.8, Kenya Ksh200, Nigeria N330, South Africa R25, UK £7, USA $12

September 2012

P56

Material handling for miners

T

his issue of African Review of Business and Technology associates the development of commerce and economy with the research and commercial application of solutions and services for African industries. Read in these pages how investors can improve decision-making with better analysis. Learn how technology enables improved healthcare delivery in South Africa. Read of the oil exploration equipment and expertise that is contributing to Angola’s economic prospects. There is a focus, in this issue, on technology to improve surveillance. However, there is also representation of business practices aimed not only at making trade safer but also at making the businesses serving trade more efficient. African logistics benefits from a new approach to shipping as much as it does from the influx of a new generation of quality engineers. Furthermore, utilities gain a spotlight with events including Africa Electricity, Power Gen Africa and Power Nigeria - and innovations, highlighted this month, for interim energy generation and grid power production and provision. The construction sector is addressed with examples of entrepreneurship in the building trade, and the mining sector is promoted broadly through equipment displays and knowledge-sharing at Electra Mining - and, in these pages, with studies of the science underpinning condition monitoring and material handling.

P18

Development

through

commerce Logistics:

Power:

Construction:

Reforming refrigerated shipping P32

African opportunities for energy firms P42

Entrepreneurs build tiles for homes P50

Cover picture: The application of technology supports the full value chain of industry, from finance to production

Andrew Croft, Managing Editor

Contents

REGULARS 04 Agenda:

14 Bulletin:

Commercial initiatives across the continent

63 Profiles:

Developments in trade and for the environment

Businesses and their product portfolios

P18 FEATURES 20 Finance, Economy How analysis influences investor behaviour; COMESA’s commitment to international trade; healthcare and technology in South Africa; a call for more dynamic development of Ghana’s economy; and oil exploration that bolsters employment opportunities in Angola

26 Security Reducing risk and raising efficiencies at free zone operations; and technological research that improves surveillance

P49

32 Logistics, Transport Reforming reefer shipping; trucking to an international standard; training youth for careers in engineering; and wireless communications for road-going vehicles and for aircraft

42 Power Highlighting the virtues of interim power at the African Energy Forum; a show of innovation in African power generation at Africa Electricity; global technology for local solutions at Power Gen Africa; and potential solutions for West African power producers at Power Nigeria

50 Construction Equipment for manufacturing roof tiles; and notes on rebuilding a furnace

55 Mining Condition monitoring for mine machines; a scientific approach to material handling; and the systems and solutions on show this year at Electra Mining

Audit Bureau of Circulations Business Magazines Special Projects Manager: Jane Wellman Email: Jane.wellman@alaincharles.com Managing Editor: Andrew Croft andrew.croft@alaincharles.com

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Head Office: Alain Charles Publishing Ltd, University House, 11-13 Lower Grosvenor Place, London SW1W 0EX, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)20 7834 7676, Fax: +44 (0)20 7973 0076 Middle East Regional Office: Alain Charles Middle East FZ-LLC, Office 215, Loft No 2/A, PO Box 502207, Dubai Media City, UAE, Tel: +971 4 448 9260, Fax: +971 4 448 9261 Production: Donatella Moranelli, Nasima Osman, Devolina Pal, Nick Salt, Jeremy Walters and Sophia White E-mail: production@alaincharles.com Subscriptions: circulation@alaincharles.com

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ISSN: 0954 6782

Serving the world of business

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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NEWS

Agenda / North New oil and gas finds in Algeria Energy firm E.ON E&P and the Algerian national oil & gas company Sonatrach have made further oil and gas discoveries in the Rhourde Yacoub license area, located in the eastern Algerian Sahara, around 250km south-east of Hassi Messaoud. “We are very pleased with another successful discovery of oil and gas in Algeria. The results of this well are very encouraging and we will now enter a phase where we will drill several wells over the next two years to evaluate the extension of the discoveries,” says Hubert Mainitz, Managing Director of E.ON E&P Algeria. The Rhourde Yacoub license is operated by E.ON E&P with an equity share of 49 per cent. Sonatrach holds the majority of 51 per cent. “The successful discoveries in Algeria are important steps for our growing upstream business in E.ON. The success of Rhourde Yacoub and our decision to continue further drilling highlights our commitment to invest in attractive projects in Algeria,” says Frank Sivertsen, CEO of E.ON E&P - which, according to disclosed results, produced 7.6bn cu m of natural gas and 3.6mn barrels of oil equivalent (boe) in 2011.

Steam turbine generator to work at power plant near Suez Alstom has secured an order Damietta gas-fired worth approximately €90mn power plant in Egypt (US$110mn) from the East Delta Electricity Production Co. (EDEPC Inc.) for the supply of equipment for a 650 MW steam cycle thermal power plant at a site located in the vicinity of Suez city, 150 km east of Cairo, Egypt. The plant will directly provide electricity to more than half million people residing in the Suez city district and will also be connected to the National Grid. It will be commissioned in 2015. The scope of the contract includes engineering, manufacturing, erection and commissioning of the steam turbine and generator including auxiliaries like the condenser and the delivery of spare parts. EDEPC provides electricity for the eastern part of the country from areas like the Mediterranean city of Damietta until Egypt’s southern border with Sudan. Alstom has previously supplied equipment to EDEPC for their Damietta combined cycle and the Attaka steam power plant projects. Alstom’s total installed base in Egypt is approximately 4.5GW having supplied its power generation equipment to projects such as the Abu Quir, El Tebbin and Sidi Krir steam power plants and Cairo North, Nubaria III, Kureimat and Talkha gas-fired plants. Abu-Qir steam power plant in Egypt

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Improving solar thermal and photovoltaic plant

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hotovoltaic specialist Leoni has joined the Desertec consortium as an associated partner. The company is thus part of the industrial initiative Dii and its international business network, which wants to realise the Desertec vision. Dii is working towards the creation of a market for desert power to supply North Africa, the Middle East and Europe (EUMENA region) with clean energy. As a leading supplier of cables and cable systems, Leoni will contribute products and services to the Dii that help raise the efficiency of solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants.

Tailormade solar flat wire, made by Leoni

“We are pleased that Leoni as the biggest employer in Tunisia is a new associated partner of our initiative,” Paul von Son, Managing Director of the Dii, emphasised. “The company can make a valuable contribution to reducing the power plants’ construction cost.” The objective is to set up a sustainable, reliable and affordable electricity supply system based on renewable energy for the EUMENA region. “Leoni has more than three decades of experience with its facilities in North Africa and currently employs about 25,000 people in the region. It is not least for this reason that we are certain that we can make a rewarding contribution to the Desertec project,” said Dr Klaus Probst, Chairman and CEO of Leoni AG.


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NEWS

Agenda / East Weir Minerals technology serves Kwale Mineral Sands Project Weir Minerals Africa is supplying its cyclones to Base Resources’ flagship project, the Kwale Mineral Sands Project in Kenya. Not only is this one of the company’s biggest orders to date in Africa for the supply of Cavex cyclones, but it is also the first time that it will supply Linatex rubber liners in the Cavex technology. Both Cavex clusters include the supply of Isogate valves with Linatex rubber linings. The company has also won a contract from the Kwale Mineral Sands Project for the supply of 55 pumps - including tailings pumps,

M

An illustration of a cluster of 10 Cavex CVX 650 cyclones

An illustration of a cluster of 14 Cavex CVX 500 cyclones

cyclone feed pumps, plant and sump pumps. This is one of the largest orders across the product range that Weir Minerals Africa has received out of East Africa. The Kwale Project is located 10km inland from the Kenyan coast and 50km south of Mombasa. Ore mining and production are scheduled to commence in August 2013 with a 13-year mine life, producing ilmenite, rutile and zircon.

Inchcape moves into Mauritius Maritime services provider Inchcape Shipping Services (ISS) has expanded its operations into Mauritius, with the acquisition of Belship Co Ltd. Renamed ISS Belship, this opening marks ISS’ first venture in the country and is based in the capital, Port-Louis, offering marine and offshore agency services, logistics and freight forwarding, within a wider portfolio of global services. The ISS Belship team in Port Louis is headed by General Manager Arnaud Teycheney, who was a former shareholder of Belship and is loyally supported by his team of experienced staff. Allan Vermaak, Vice President – Special Projects said: “We are very pleased to open ISS Belship in Mauritius not only to further our expansion in the region but to support our clients with our extensive range of integrated maritime, cargo and vessel supply chain solutions, developed to maximise efficiencies within their operations and improve business performance and profitability.”

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Mopani Copper invests in environmental project

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

opani Copper Mines (MCM) has invested over ZMK1.1 trillion (US$202mn) in the first two phases of the smelter upgrade project aimed at raising sulphur dioxide capture from zero to 51 per cent. MCM chief executive officer Danny Callow said the mining firm was currently working on Phase Three of the smelter upgrade project which would raise the capture of sulphur dioxide from 51 per cent to 97 per cent. He was speaking when the company handed over acid mist monitoring equipment to Mufulira Municipal Council recently. The project is expected to be completed in 2013. “This is further demonstration of Mopani’s commitment to address the problem of sulphur dioxide which affected the community in Kankoyo, Mufulira, for over 80 years since the first smelter was commissioned in the early 1930s,’” he explained. The donation of the equipment to enable the council and other stakeholders to undertake independent monitoring of the Mufulira West Heap Leach Project, was testimony of MCM’s commitment to the welfare of the community and to operating in a transparent manner. “You may recall that following concerns from the community in Butondo township regarding operations of Mufulira West Heap Leach Project early this year, Mopani started engaging the community through a multi-stakeholders’ forum that was initiated by two civil society organisations, the Citizens for Better Environment and the Southern Africa Resource Watch. Other stakeholders included the Zambia Environmental Management Agency (ZEMA) and the community of Butondo and we have been committed to the process since then,’” he said. Nawa Mutumweno


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NEWS

Agenda / South Digital Learning Centre bridges skills gap with critical training T-Systems in South Africa opened the Hazyview Digital Learning Centre (HDLC) recently. HDLC is an educational facility managed in partnership with the Good Work Foundation (GWF) and Hosanna Community Projects. The centre provides critical skills such as IT, Tourism and English to communities from Hazyview and surrounding areas in the Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces. The opening was attended by South African Minister in the Presidency for National Planning Commission Trevor Manuel, by Reinhard Clemens, Board of Management at Deutsche Telekom and T�Systems CEO, and by the Managing Director of T-Systems in South Africa, Gert Schoonbee. T-Systems donated R3.7mn towards Manuel, South Africa’s Minister in the Presidency in charge the start-up of the centre, construction Trevor of the National Planning Commission costs and the provision of HR and resources as well as curriculum alignment and assistance to ensure the centre meets the highest training standards. The HDLC will focus on those individuals that have left the school system early or mature students who have not been able to further their education due to economic and other constraints. The establishment of the HDLC falls in line with South Africa Minister of Higher Education and Training Blade Nzimande’s green paper on post-school education and training which recommends expansion in all post-school institutional types such as further Education Training (FET) colleges, universities, adult education facilities and workplace-based training. The paper proposes an increase in FET college enrolments from 400 000 to four million in 20 years.

Mobile data capture comes to SA Jasco Enterprise entered into an agreement with UK firm eSAY Solutions recently, to become an accredited reseller for Africa of eSAY’s WorkMobile mobile data capture solution. WorkMobile allows organisations of all sizes to create forms and to capture business data on smartphones and tablets. The product works on all mobile and tablet platforms, and effectively transforms the data capturing process from an inefficient paper-based system to a dynamic, mobile solution. The technology was introduced to

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Jasco by Seoketso Africa Technologies, a strategic partner of the Jasco Group. Sizwe Kotane, CEO of Seoketso Africa Technologies, says, “South Africa is ready for this technology when we consider the uptake of mobility in the local market. This technology provides significant benefits to various markets, one of which we believe is a strong application in the public sector for data capturing and administration purposes. Seoketso plan to introduce this solution to the public sector.”

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Magnets on order for Thubelisha Mine

S

andvik Mining South Africa placed an order recently with Multotec to supply two in-line overbelt magnets for the removal of tramp iron at Sasol’s Thubelisha coal mine in Secunda. “This order was for the supply and installation of our biggest overbelt magnets – 33 ton oil cooled units,” Ernst Maritz, general manager: solid liquid and magnetic separation at Multotec, says. “The two magnets, each 2.4 metres wide, will reduce the risk of tramp iron being conveyed into downstream coal processing equipment.”

One of the two Multotec overbelt magnets being lifted into position at Thubelisha.

The Multotec overbelt magnets being supplied to Thubelisha are 2.4 metres wide

The Multotec team considered conveyor belt speed and size, burden depth, load properties on the belt and the size of the product being conveyed. The magnets, suspended over the conveyor on gantries for easy maintenance, feature an automatic belt-driven self-cleaning mechanism that dumps the tramp iron into collection bins located on the side of the conveyor. Tramp iron includes sections of continuous mine core breaker teeth, conveyor belt idlers, belt joints, wire, roof bolts, metal plates, slings, picks and pick cases, cable hooks, expanded metal, tools and tin cans.


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NEWS

Agenda / West Supporting security at the Nigerian Ministry of Finance The Ministry of Finance in Nigeria oversees various financial and economic affairs of the nation’s federal government. The CEM AC2000 SE (Standard Edition), which provides highend security for the site, was installed by CEM Approved Resellers Acti-Tech Ltd. AC2000 SE offers the Ministry of Finance a fully-integrated and comprehensive access control, alarms processing, and photo ID badging system. The system comes with a suite of applications including the AC2000 The Nigerian Ministry of Finance uses CEM’s solutions to enhance security VIPPS (Visual Imaging Pass Production System), which the Ministry of Finance has found particularly beneficial. The AC2000 VIPPS application allows the Ministry of Finance to design its own ID badges and issue over 1,500 permanent and temporary ID cards to staff and visitors. A range of advanced CEM IP card readers has been installed throughout the building including the CEM S610f fingerprint card reader, which offers increased security by providing three levels of identity checks: ID card authentication, PIN check, and fingerprint verification. The reader allows the Ministry of Finance the opportunity to add an additional layer of biometric security where necessary. The S610f also offers advanced features such as an LCD to show user messages such as ‘Access Granted’, ‘Card Expiring’, and ‘Wrong TimeZone’. Utilising CEM’s advanced range of hardware, the Ministry of Finance has also chosen CEM’s Power over Ethernet solution, which eliminates the need for both a main connection and a local power supply to the door, saving on costs.

Marketing franchise expands online services

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SI, a franchise providing digital marketing solutions, has opened a master franchise office in Lagos, Nigeria, to serve the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). WSI president Ron McArthur says, “WSI’s premier online services are designed to empower local businesses to capitalise on the growing mobile population, as well as optimise their overall web presence and secure a positive online brand. Through the opening of additional WSI offices in the ECOWAS region, countless local businesses will benefit from the opportunity of leveraging online marketing to boost revenue and advance their business.” “There is no doubt that the business landscape, at all corners of the globe, is transforming because of the digital advancements made over the last decade,” says Edirin Abamwa. “With this new presence in the ECOWAS region, WSI’s role, and my team’s ultimate goal, will be to educate business owners on the remarkable advantages of leveraging the Internet to boost revenue potential.”

Partners boost services IFC hosted a conference recently, with 125 participants from sub-Saharan Africa, on accelerating access to safe and reliable water and sanitation services through structured public-private partnership (PPP) projects. Participants included government officials in charge of water and sanitation, executives from water and sanitation utilities, financiers and private operators. The Prime Minister of Senegal, Abdoul Mbaye, opened the conference, which revisited progress made in water and sanitation PPPs in Africa and reviewed models throughout the world. Yolande Duhem, IFC Director for West and Central Africa, said, “With rapid urbanisation and a population exceeding 800mn, water provision in Sub-Saharan Africa is struggling to keep pace. To raise the coverage of safe water and sanitation, national governments must promote

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and harness the private sector to deliver high quality affordable sustainable services.” Approaches that add value to services Participants were afforded opportunities to understand better the prospects and challenges pertaining to public-private partnerships - and to appreciate the perspectives of governments, practitioners and financiers. This was achieved through the promotion and dissemination of best practices in water and sanitation sectors; discussions of challenges facing utilities, operators, and financiers; identification of areas where value could be added; and discussions of innovative PPP approaches. The conference was hosted by IFC in partnership with the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF), the

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

There are significant water challenges in Senegal, as there are across Africa (Photo: KaBa)

Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), the Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (ICA), and the Senegalese Ministry of Water and Sanitation.


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NEWS

Events / 2012 October

10-12

15-17

AfriMold

Finance & Accounting Show Africa

3-5

Johannesburg, South Africa www.afrimold.co.za

Johannesburg, South Africa www.terrapinn.com

13-16

17-20

TEXMED Tunis, Tunisia www.texmed-tunisia.com 3-7

Sudan Build Khatoum, Sudan www.sudanbuild.com 5-7

Afri Print Expo Khartoum, Sudan www.expoteam.info 5-7

Innovation Africa Cape Town, South Africa africanbrains.net 6-8

Kenya International Trade Exhibition

elec expo & EneR

Addis Build Addis Ababa, Ehiopia www.addisbuild.com

Casablanca, Morocco www.elec-expo.com

14-18

23-25

GITEX Technology Week Dubai, UAE www.gitex.com

Africa Electricity Johannesburg, South Africa www.africaelectricity.com 23-26

14-18

ITU Telecom World Dubai, UAE world2012.itu.int

Big Data World Africa Johannesburg, South Africa www.terrapinn.com 24-25

15-16

FT-YES BANK International Banking Summit Mumbai, India www.ft-live.com

AITEC East Africa ICT Summit Nairobi, Kenya www.aitecafrica.com 29 Oct-2 Nov

Africa Oil Week

Nairobi, Kenya expogr.com

Cape Town, South Africa www.africa-oilweek.com

FLSmidth promotes brand at Electra Mining Africa

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ngineering company FLSmidth is actively focused on entrenching its business strategy to be recognised as a one source, full service and solutions provider, through the provision of quality products and with reference to a substantial inhouse technology base to serve customers’ unique requirements. An illustration of the FLSmidth Vertical Stirred Mill (VSM)

“We believe this capability goes beyond what most other companies in our arena are able to offer,” managing director for FLSmidth in South Africa, Peter Lohrmann, says. “In fact, we’re being called upon to develop technology solutions to such an increasing extent that we’re seeing our company actually

transitioning from a supplier of equipment to a single source solutions provider, capable of designing, operating and maintaining systems — effectively a full scope solutions provider.” Lohrmann continues, “We have differentiated ourselves in the African market by providing full lifecycle support for our

products from a local base, ranging from a strong design capability over spare parts supply to technical support teams which can be deployed to customer sites anywhere in Africa within 24 hours.”

An FLSmidth Vertical Stirred Mill (VSM) Pilot Plant

An FLSmidth Circular Stacker Reclaimer at Mafube Colliery

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012


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NEWS

Bulletin / Trade Dubai Chamber builds commercial ties with Ethiopia

disproportionate costs on poorer

distinctive bright white hull - is working

developing countries.

alongside sister-ships the Safmarine Chilka and Safmarine Chambal in the A.P Moller-

The UAE-Ethiopia Business Forum

Importance of trade for growth highlighted at Rio+20

Maersk fleet; “Not only has this modern new

The International Trade Centre (ITC) has been

trade with Africa, but it is yet another

highlighting new and innovative opportunities

example of the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group's

in trade for sustainable development and

commitment to investing in modern, more

engaging in the green economy, with

environmentally-friendly vessels and in

particular references to small businesses, at a

growing and strengthening the Safmarine

series of events hosted within the framework

brand,” said Safmarine CEO Grant Daly.

The Dubai Chamber of Commerce and

of the recent Rio+20 conference in Brazil; ITC’s

Industry has committed to opening its first

events demonstrated where and how green

overseas representative office in Ethiopia by

trade-related opportunities appear and

the end of 2012, following a recent, successful

showcased business models which support

trade mission to Addis Ababa, during which

sustainability and inclusiveness.

vessel been purpose-built for the growing

Fresh prospects of further Chinese engagement

plans were also agreed to sign a the African Union during the Eastern African

Increases in iron ore production and consumption

Community Forum being held in Dubai in

The world iron ore market achieved an all-

October 2012; the office in Ethiopia will be the

time high for production in 2011 of 1.92bn

first in a series that the Dubai Chamber

tons, up 4.7 per cent from 2010, according to

intends to open as part of a strategy to

UNCTAD’s Iron Ore Market 2011–2013 report;

explore opportunities in untapped markets.

bolstering supply is the prospect of additional

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with

supply - with 14 per cent of an expected

Call for impact of non-tariff measures to be addressed

796mn tons of new production capacity was

In a panel discussion at the 15th Annual

and 2014 to be located in Africa.

expected to come on stream between 2012

Conference on Global Economic Analysis, organised by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) of Purdue University, and held

Safmarine vessel now in operation

in Geneva, Switzerland, representatives of the United Nations Conference on Trade and

Chen Deming, Minister of the Chinese Ministry of Commerce (Source: World Economic Forum)

Development (UNCTAD) raised concerns

Chinese Commerce Minister Chen Deming

about the wide array of non-tariff measures

recently co-chaired the 5th Ministerial

and policies, currently in place, which have

Conference of the Forum on China-Africa

restrictive and distortionary effects on

Cooperation (FOCAC) in Beijing, PR China,

international trade and impose

with China’s Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi, and

disproportionate costs on poorer countries;

spoke on the implementation of measures on trade and economic cooperation with Africa;

research by UNCTAD and elsewhere Like her sister-ships, the Safmarine Chachai was built by Hyundai Heavy Industries, which fitted super long-stroke main engines and a waste heat recovery system to reduce emissions and save fuel

Mr Chen spoke of provisioning US$10bn in

restrictive effect than traditional tariffs, and

Supporting trade between Africa and Asia,

diplomatic relations with China and have

that some non-tariff measures (NTMs) have

the Safmarine Chachai - a 4,500 teu, WAFMAX

been granted zero-tariff treatment for the

distortionary effects as they impose

containership featuring Safmarine’s

export of products to China.

suggests that many of these policies have a large impact on the cost of trading, that many of these policies have a much higher

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

preferential loans by the end of 2012,and of 30 African countries that have established


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NEWS

Bulletin / Environment Agency welcomes Nigerian commitment to oil clean-up

have then trained volunteers to work directly

The United Nations has welcomed the

using global positioning system (GPS)

decision by the Nigerian Government to clean

technology to map local environments and

up a major oil contamination in the

understand challenges better.

with local communities in data collection,

Ogoniland region in the country, a year on presented a scientific assessment of oil

The intelligent infrastructure at Alexander Forbes’ impressive new R840mn (US$102.4mn) head office being constructed in South Africa

pollution in Ogoniland, underlining serious

Council of South Africa (GBCSA), and is

public health and environmental impacts; the

expected to achieve a four star rating - with a

independent scientific assessment, carried

combined building management system

out over a 14-month period, showed greater

(BMS) installed by both the developers and the

from the UN Environment Programme (UNEP)

and deeper pollution than previously thought

tenant’s nominated subcontractor to help the

after an agency team examined more than

new head office to achieve this rating.

A Kenyan show of solar LED street lighting

200 locations, surveyed 122km of pipeline samples, reviewed more than 5,000 medical

How geographic data supports economic development

records, and engaged over 23,000 people at

Green Belt Movement (GBM) geographic

local community meetings.

information systems (GIS) specialist Peter

rights of way, analysed 4,000 soil and water

Ndunda gave a presentation to the World-

Philips has developed reliable, efficient and costeffective solar-powered road lighting with the potential to transform urban and rural life

Intelligent infrastructure for South African offices

Wide Human Geography Data Working Group

A pilot project by Philips and the Kenyan

(WWHGD WG) conference on ‘Human

Urban Roads Authority to install solar-powered

Project managed by Electrical Engineering

Geography Data and Mapping for Economic

LED street lighting in Nairobi has the potential

Solutions (EES), the provision of intelligent

Development and Livelihoods’ recently at the

to generate up to 100 per cent energy savings,

infrastructure to financial services group

World Bank in Washington DC, in the USA; Mr

if implemented on a wide scale across the

Alexander Forbes’ head office in Sandton,

Ndunda’s presentation outlined how GBM uses

country; the pilot, the first of its kind in East

South Africa, is due for completion in October

geographic data for economic development

Africa, aims to highlight the benefits of

2012; The building has been submitted for a

and livelihood improvement at the grassroots,

sustainable energy sources and alternatives to

Green Star rating by the Green Building

training more than 70 field staff in GIS who

expensive, less efficient traditional lighting.

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012


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NEWS

Bulletin / Environment A solution for the dewatering menace to mining Every mine is unique, and the degree of water ingress and pumping requirements will vary. Unwanted water in a mine is a tremendous problem – if the mine is filled with groundwater, you simply cannot work. For the most part, the deeper the mine, the more water there is. “One could say that pumps are the first things to enter a mine site when exploitation starts, and the last things to be removed from the mine at decommissioning,” Darryl Macdougall, sales director of Xylem, says. According to Macdougall, Xylem is well- positioned to provide a total solution for the dewatering “menace” for a variety of reasons. “We were the first manufacturer of submersible pumps as far back as 1947 and our company has enjoyed a long history of continuous innovation in this arena,” he says.

Flygt’s adaptive N-technology offers unrivalled selfcleaning functionality.

A skid mounted with a central lifting yoke CD300M Godwin pump powered by a diesel engine.

“We offer the largest rental fleet - 720 units - in Africa and, with a robust stock holding of new units, we are able to satisfy customer demand immediately. This is backed up by spare parts availability, back-up service, on-site maintenance and repairs on and off-site. “The combination of all these services adds up to a complete dewatering solution that can be tailor-made to suit the unique requirements of South African mining customers. We’re effectively a one-stop shop for all their pump requirements.” A selection of Xylem range of pumps and mixers for the mining and minerals processing industries will be on display at Electra Mining Africa 2012, designed to perform in the most severe One of the most energy efficient mixers, the Flygt SR 4660 GPF.

applications and incorporating a wide range of corrosion and abrasion-resistant offerings.

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COMMERCE

AidEx

Suppliers that support humanitarian efforts How prioritising local suppliers and ‘pre-positioning’ can save lives and boost the African economy

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ver six decades, the humanitarian aid model has followed a familiar pattern. A crisis would occur. The international community would arrive, often bringing everything they needed with them including tents, food, water and medicine. The emphasis was on responding to the emergency as quickly as possible. This response phase would take several weeks and often delay the reconstruction period, before rehabilitation and long-term development programmes could begin. The non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved tended to buy their goods in the more developed countries of South and South East Asia - China, India, Pakistan - and then ship them (or fly them) into Africa. Whilst this model was undoubtedly wellintentioned and sometimes practical, it did not always take advantage of the role the local community could play - either as interested parties who could be active in preparing for a flood or drought, or as potential suppliers of goods in a crisis. A new approach to supply The humanitarian aid community is now taking note of the potential of sourcing local suppliers. For example, Advance Aid, a new NGO in Africa, operates a policy of buying emergency supplies locally. This means they are well-placed to act when disaster strikes, and also that they are injecting money and self-sufficiency into local economies. They look for African suppliers which have strong social involvement and look after their workforce, and act as intermediary between that company and NGOs. Much of Advance Aid’s work takes place in Nairobi, Kenya, due to the large number of NGOs which have headquarters there. This strategic position also enables quick access to hotspots such as South Sudan, Somalia, and DR Congo, and the nearby Dadaab camp with

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its more than 400,000 inhabitants. A successful example of Advance Aid’s work as an ‘intermediary’ is evident in the case of Nairobi-based Reltex Tarpaulins, now a valuable supplier for NGOs. The company is the only supplier of emergency plastic sheeting in Africa, so it can move faster than international suppliers to the worst affected zones. Since opening for business in summer 2010, Reltex has doubled its capacity, running 24/7 with three shifts and employing more than 200 people. Similarly, Advance Aid’s work with Spinners & Spinners, a blanket maker from Ruiru, outside Nairobi, has boosted production and led to employment of 1,600 local workers. In addition to the trend of sourcing local suppliers, the humanitarian aid community is investing more resources in assessing where the next crisis is likely to break. NGOs have previously complained of an ‘all or nothing’ approach to their funding, where there is very little money around before an emergency happens and then a wave of money straight afterwards. This has often resulted in organisations and governments trying to procure the same goods from the same suppliers, pushing up prices and pushing down quality. Anticipating the area of the next crisis or disaster helps to ‘preposition’ or stockpile goods closer to the centre of this future emergency. This new approach saves lives by delivering vital resources into the hands of those affected in a much quicker timeframe. Gaining advantage at AidEx Along with prioritising local African suppliers, using domestic stockpiling facilities can also massively reduce transport costs,

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

as the process of airlifting wastes a huge amount of money on cargo planes and causes unnecessary carbon emissions. In an age where we are right to worry about financial and fuel resources, these are all important considerations. Consequently, this year AidEx will launch its ‘Developing World Supplier Zone’. We have invited and funded 25 unique sub-Saharan African and South East Asian suppliers to come to Brussels, Belgium, to demonstrate how their equipment and services can be used to deliver a localised approach to aid. Exhibitors include Reltex Tarpaulins Africa, Sunfire Solutions and the Ghana Bamboo Bikes Initiative, winner of the 2012 World Business and Development Award. On the conference side, we are running workshops on ‘Sourcing and Stockpiling in Advance of a Crisis’ and ‘New Models for Aid Delivery’ featuring representatives from Oxfam, UNHCR and Advance Aid. Overall, a forward-thinking approach using local suppliers and pre-positioning will be critical as we enter a phase where mega trends such as climate change, population growth and urbanisation add further layers of complexity to already difficult humanitarian situations. African suppliers can gain a competitive advantage by actively marketing themselves as best placed to help achieve an organisation’s end goals, due to their geographical location and engagement with their community. ■ Nicholas Rutherford, Director of AidEx, which takes place 24-25 October 2012 in Brussels, Belgium


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FINANCE

Investment

Accounting for key investment behaviour Investors try a multitude of techniques to overcome uncertainty, ranging from trying to predict the future on the back of huge amounts of analysis, to comparing the past performance of asset managers

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s the late Peter Bernstein wrote in his book, ‘Against the Gods’, the evidence “reveals repeated patterns of irrationality, inconsistency, and incompetence in the ways human beings arrive at decisions and choices when faced with uncertainty”. This is the fundamental challenge any investor faces; that at the heart of investing is uncertainty. Investors try a multitude of techniques to overcome uncertainty, ranging from trying to predict the future on the back of huge amounts of analysis, to comparing the past performance of asset managers and relying on this as a predictor of the future. And in so doing, make a number of behavioural mistakes which result from either emotional weakness in succumbing to greed or fear, or from cognitive frailties; which they are often less prepared to acknowledge. Overconfidence is a mistake The real danger is that investors are overconfident in areas where they have some knowledge, but research shows that increased levels of confidence do not correlate with greater success. There are a number of studies that show how people are overconfident in a variety of spheres, the classic example being when dealing with driving ability, where most people rate themselves as better-thanaverage. One study in the US showed that 82 per cent of people say they are in the top 30 per cent of safe drivers. Overconfidence often plays itself out when investors are familiar with something, like an

People feel the pain of loss twice as much as they derive pleasure from an equal gain” 20

Investors try a multitude of techniques to overcome uncertainty, ranging from trying to predict the future on the back of huge amounts of analysis, to comparing the past performance of asset managers” asset manager or a share. In the US for example, people will often own the share of the company for which they work in their retirement portfolio because they feel confident about their knowledge of the company, even though it is probably more sensible to diversify one’s exposure away from their employer. This hard lesson was learned by many unfortunate Enron employees, many of whom had up to 50 per cent of their retirement fund invested in Enron shares, which were worthless when the company imploded. So not only did employees lose their jobs, but also significant portions of their pensions. Fear in the form of loss aversion Amos Tversky, generally acknowledged as the forefather of behavioural finance, said that people feel the pain of loss twice as much as they derive pleasure from an equal gain. In 2001, a review of the UK retirement fund industry by Lord Myners highlighted that trustees were prone to “reckless conservatism” because they were investing members’ funds in conservative portfolios to avoid any negative returns over quarterly reporting periods. This approach was feeding the trustees’ loss aversion fear, and more significantly it was resulting in investment

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

strategies that were inappropriate for the long-term investment needs of the members. An expert in the field of behavioural finance, Meir Statman, sums up this behaviour quite neatly, “People trade for both cognitive and emotional reasons. They trade because they think they have information when they have nothing but noise, and they trade because trading can bring the joy of pride. Trading brings pride when decisions turn out well, but it brings regret when decisions do not turn out well. Investors try to avoid the pain of regret by avoiding the realization of losses, employing investment advisors as scapegoats, and avoiding stocks of companies with low reputations”. The mistake of anchoring Very often investors will anchor their perceptions or expectations on something that can change, such as the purchase price of a share, or its historical price, or on random information or data. As an example, investor Warren Buffet says, “When I bought something at X and it went up to X and 1/8th, I sometimes stopped buying, perhaps hoping it would come back down. We’ve missed billions when I’ve gotten anchored. I cost us about US$10bn (by not buying enough WalMart). I set out to buy 100mn shares, pre-split at US$23. We bought a little and it moved up a bit and I thought it might come back a bit who knows? That thumb-sucking, the reluctance to pay a little more cost us a lot.” The most common way that trustees commit this error is by anchoring their expectations of an asset manager’s performance on their most recent past performance, either good or bad. If good, they expect it to be repeated straight away, if bad, they deem it a reason to fire the manager. ■ Rob Macdonald, , Head of Consulting and Institutional Business, Nedgroup Investments


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COMESA

ECONOMY

Enhancing regional trade From its headquarters in Lusaka, Zambia, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa has emerged as a key member of one of Africa’s newest trade initiatives

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he launch of Africa’s biggest free trade bloc in South Africa in June 2011 signalled enhanced cooperation between 26 nations aimed at boosting economies in the world’s poorest and underdeveloped continent. The Southern African Development Community (SADC), East African Community (EAC) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) will now work as a joint bloc. The three sometimes overlapping trade blocs have created a US$875bn market through this initiative. The agreement includes about half the continent’s nations - but economic disparities and political instability in countries such as Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Libya and Sudan have proved possible hurdles towards improved trade. Besides the trade deal, the three regional economic communities (RECS), seek to address non-tariff barriers, including a cluster of road, rail and air connectivity gaps. The overarching goal is to contribute to the broader objectives of the African Union, including acceleration of economic integration of the continent, with the aim of achieving economic growth, reduce poverty and attain sustainable development.

The objectives of EAC are to develop policies and programmes aimed at widening and deepening cooperation on political, economic, social, and cultural fields, research and technology, defence, security, legal and judicial affairs. This REC has an operating customs union and launched its common market in July 2010. Its roadmap includes a common currency and the creation of a single state. Meanwhile, Africa is targeting the establishment of a continental free trade area by 2017, according to information obtained from the continental body, the African Union (AU), which has made a three-step plan in preparation for the ultimate CFTA target - with the first being to finalise the tripartite agreement among East African Community (EAC), the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) by 2014. ■ Nawa Mutumweno

Aiming to achieve international competitiveness According to COMESA Secretary-General Sindiso Ngwenya, trade between the three regional groupings only accounted for about 10 per cent of their trade. Inter-Africa trade faces numerous challenges, including high cost of doing business across borders and poor logistics. COMESA’s vision is to ‘’be an integrated, internationally competitive REC, ready to merge into an African Economic Community.’ Its mission is to ‘’achieve sustainable economic and social progress through increased co-operation and integration in all fields of development particularly in trade, customs and monetary affairs, transport, communication and information, technology, industry and energy, gender, agriculture, environment and natural resources”. It has 19 member states with a population of 410mn and a total GDP of over US$360mn. It has an annual import bill of about US$152bn and an export bill of over US$157bn, according to official sources. Its headquarters are in Lusaka, Zambia. SADC started as Frontline States whose objective was political liberation of Southern Africa.. The organisation’s 15 member states have a total population of 240mn and a GDP of US$750bn. Its office COMESA has 19 member states with a population is in Gaborone, Botswana. of 410mn and a total GDP of over US$360mn African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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ECONOMY

South Africa

Technological support for South African health How hospitals, clinics and doctor’s rooms can deliver even better sectoral services with improved storage and management of information

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nformation Technology (IT) has become intrinsic to the day-to-day operations of modern businesses, and enterprises in the healthcare sector are no exception. If IT is not managed adequately and IT services are not assured, the impact is not felt by the business alone, but its customers as well. However, whereas in the business world the consequence of poor IT management equals lower profits, ineffective services and unsatisfied customers, the implications in healthcare are far more severe. Ineffective service in healthcare can impact negatively on the health of not only the organisation but also the health of patients. When it comes to the healthcare sector, the effective management of its Information Technology, clinical systems and service infrastructure really can be a matter of life or death.

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Healthcare enterprises, including hospitals, clinics and doctor’s rooms generate volumes of information that must be stored and managed. Included in this is critical and confidential patient data, which also needs to be managed in such a way as to ensure that it cannot be compromised and is secure. The sheer scope of data capture, storage and management required in the healthcare sector is enormous, and high levels of availability are critical because of the risks to patients in the event of downtime. However, these functions are often managed by undersized IT departments operating a vastly complex infrastructures on shoestring budgets. Compounding this problem is the fact that medical equipment has converged with IT, and adopting new healthcare technologies adds pressure to already strained resources. Technologies and clinical systems rely on a stable IT infrastructure to mitigate risk and provide the best patient care possible. IT and IP Healthcare is more dependent on Intellectual Property (IP) than ever before, as IT underpins the service these facilities provide to patients. The challenge for IT departments in healthcare is to adopt and integrate the latest technology and ensure maximum availability and reliability. Ultimately the goal of the IT and clinical infrastructure is to enable the organisation to do things faster, better and cheaper. However, while patient care should be a priority, running an effective healthcare organisation is also about demonstrating value along with governance and compliance to regulatory requirements. When you consider this, as well as the impact that technology has on a healthcare facility such as a hospital, the need for IT Service Management (ITSM) within healthcare becomes immediately apparent. ITSM and the adoption of industry best practices and international standards such as ITIL and ISO/IEC20000 are intrinsically linked to the overall performance of any organisation that depends on IT. This is imperative in assisting healthcare organisations to deliver effective IT services and improved patient care. Accountable and auditable ITSM also has several other benefits, including the ability to deliver consistent services in a manner that is both accountable and auditable. This in turn allows for benchmarking against peer organisations or competitors to compare performance, which can help create a culture of continual service improvement. By centralising IT functions and services underpinned by ITIL and ISO/IEC 20000, IT is able to demonstrate its contribution and value to the organisation, its stakeholders and customers. ■ Edward Carbutt, Executive Director at Marval South Africa


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Lakeside Development Opportunities There are wonderful investment opportunities for the potential investors at Lakeside Estate. They require professional investors with funding and resources. We believe at Lakeside Estate with Ghana’s Government housing statistic of 1,500,000 housing unit deficit, there is tremendous opportunities for many to join us to satisfy the public needs of housing and commerce. We can allocate and co-develop housing and other projects with real estate developers and investors. This has been done successfully at Community #1 with Dream Homes. Below are different types of investment opportunities at Lakeside. Residential At Community #8, there are approximately 18 plots with laterite road and fencewall ready for residential development. The residential developer must continue the infrastructure work of concrete drains, hard surface roads, power distribution, and building of residential houses. Amount to pay for the above opportunity is US$225,000. Amount required to develop as stated above is between US$1.8 to US$2.8 mn. The development must be completed within 24 months.

Commercial – Lakeside Shopping & Banking Centre Lakeside Estate hopes to construct the above community shopping, banking, and office centre by the end of 2012. It will house a banking hall and mortgage centre, insurance shop, commercial shops, property office, provision shop, restaurant, gym, and offices. This is a two-story building with a built-up area of 1,500 m2 and forty vehicles parking. Plot area is 3,743 m2 or 0.94 acres. The proposed rent is US$20/sf-yr with 10 per cent service charge to cover costs of perimeter security personnel, landscape maintenance, parking control, exterior cleaning, and exterior maintenance. Tenant will supply and maintain their own genset. Interested party may apply to Lakeside Estate in early 2012 for rental space.

School or Seminary We have a special zoned plot in prime area for either high school or seminary. The plot is fenced, with power line, and sidewalk. Plot area is 5,577 m2 or 1.39 acres.

Hospital We have a special zoned plot in prime area for either clinic or hospital. The plot is not fenced but with power line. It is available for professional hospital operator and developer. Plot area is 6,767 m2 or 1.7 acres.

Mini-mall We have a special zoned plot in prime area for small mall. The plot is not fenced but with power line and has access on three roads. It is available for joint venture with a professional

mall operator and developer. This will be available for tender in early 2017. Plot area is 10,125 m2 or 2.5 acres.

Recreational Amusement Park The existing Lakeside Marina Park (LMP) is looking for a partner to enter into a joint venture (JV) with 50 per cent equity in 2012. Investment amount is $3.0 M. LMP won the 2010 & 2011 Leisure Developer of the Year award. We hope to develop the area around the Lake (17.6 Acres or 71,527 m2) into a world class amusement park that will also have hotel, and conference centre. This will attract tourists from all over West Africa. Existing Developed Plot area is 8,863 m2 or 2.2 acres. Undeveloped Plot area is 49,258 m2 or 12.2 acres.

CONTACT INFORMATION Interested developers should contact in writing the Managing Director of Lakeside Estate with their credentials and business proposals. No speculators are allowed with this type of developmental opportunities. Investors must develop immediately. Contact office is at Silver Start Tower, Accra, Ghana. Other restriction may apply. Prices quoted in US dollars and specifications may change without notice. (+233 302) 775-043 dmd@lakesideestate.com www.lakesideestate.com African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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ECONOMY

Ghana

Calling for a universal development plan Increasingly, Ghanaians are adopting the position that one of West Africa’s most dynamic economies needs a political push

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t is increasingly considered that Ghana needs to fashion out a genuine and an all encompassing national development plan that is capable of guiding all succeeding governments to help quicken the pace of present and future state projects for the sole purpose of achieving sustainable socio-economic growth and development. The nation’s political leaders must think positively about corporate Ghana, and come up with a credible and dependable working document to act as a roadmap towards the country’s economic revival. Patriotism and unity in diversity have been relegated to the background by the political parties, especially the National Democratic Congress (NDC), the party in government and the New Patriotic Party (NPP), the largest opposition party, and have rather put high premium on their political ideologies. And so working towards genuine national development remains problematic, meaning accelerated development suffers. One may recall that, in 1995, the NDC administration introduced a development plan prepared by the National Development Planning Commission (NDPC), which it christened the Vision 2020 document, to achieve a basis for the use of science and technology for rapid development. Even though the document was pregnant with brilliant ideas and proposals, the difficulty was one of implementation because all the stakeholders were not united to prosecute that agenda. With the coming into office of the NPP administration, the Vision 2020 document was thrown into the dustbin of history and it was replaced with a Vision 2010 programme to suit its political orientation. Visions, targets, and policies According to Professor Kwabena Frimpong-Boateng, former chief executive of the Cardio Thoracic Centre at the nation’s biggest hospital, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, “Not long after the NPP took over the reins of government, its Minister of Finance, Mr Yaw Osafo Maafo, dealt a severe blow to the Vision 2020 document.” It was in September 2001, the Finance Minister declared that, as far as he was concerned, “the Vision 2020 programme is dead”. Prof Frimpong-Boateng continues, “From the pronouncement of Mr Maafo, science and technology were no longer the engine to drive Vision 2010, but rather food production and processing as well as job creation. “I wonder how he was going to produce and process food and also create jobs without the input of science and technology. No wonder we are still stuck with hoe and cutlass, importation of fertiliser and massive post – harvest losses of almost everything our farmers break their backs to produce.

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

“As has often been said by well-meaning Ghanaians over the years, governments past and present have relished taking Ghana from a third-world to first, but have disagreed on the targets and policy framework to achieving that feat. Whilst the NDC touted Vision 2020 as target towards reaching a middle income status, the NPP insisted Ghana could attain that feat in 2015. “In Ghana, serious scientific research is virtually nonexistent, worse still we think the way to development is through accumulation of wealth through traditional and nontraditional exports. “Every boy or girl who shows talent in science and technology must be encouraged and helped, because such talent is especially precious to us and we must foster and guard it. “We also need to reach out to the mass of the people who have not had the opportunities of formal education. We must use every means of mass communication – the press, the radio, television and films – to carry science to the whole population – to the people.” It may be understood that these progressive ideas are what inspired on Ghana’s first democratically elected president, Dr Kwame Nkrumah, to come up with his Seven Year Development Plan to transform Ghana into an industrial competitive country. Indeed, the idea behind Nkrumah’s plan was to inculcate in Ghanaians the philosophy of self-reliance where the people could find their own best method to combat the challenges of poverty and underdevelopment. Hence, the government of the NDC has promoted an industrial policy which it wants stakeholders to support. Trade and Industry Minister Ms Hannah Tetteh observed that if the country wanted to witness the realisation of a long-term vision of high levels of development then it required an industry-driven economy capable of delivering decent jobs and productivity to achieve equitable economic development. The government now seeks to support growth through an Industrial Sector Support Programme, an intervention expected to increase the rate of industrialisation over four years. This policy forms part of Ghana’s long-term vision of achieving middle income status by the year 2020. The note of caution one observes here is that this document is not backed, as yet, by a unity of purpose amongst politicians of diverse political backgrounds - who may continue to be embroiled in an unnecessary ideological fight for supremacy. One hopes that it will be remembered that economic management is always linked to politics, and politics must always be harmonious for successful management. ■ Emmanuel Yartey


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Angola

ECONOMY

Oil for work at Kizomba E

xxon Mobil Corporation’s subsidiary, Esso Exploration Angola (Block 15) Limited (Esso Angola), has only recently begun production on the Kizomba Satellites Phase 1 project offshore Angola. Underway since the start of July 2012, the Kizomba Satellites initial phase is expected to ultimately produce 100,000 barrels of oil per day, and recover a total of approximately 250mn

The Kizomba development in Angola Block 15 utilises a floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessel developed by ExxonMobil

barrels from the Mavacola and Clochas fields, located 153km (95 miles) off the coast of Angola in water depths of around 1.4km (approximately 4,500 feet). “This project combines ExxonMobil’s project management expertise with local suppliers and businesses to maximise the value of Angola’s significant petroleum resources,” said Neil Duffin, president of ExxonMobil Development Company. “The Kizomba Satellites project was completed ahead of schedule and with industry-leading safety performance.” Angolan interests in Block 15 The Kizomba Satellites development has achieved a high level of Angolan content, with approximately US$1.5bn invested in local goods and services, including contracts for fabrication, logistics support and training and development of Angolan personnel. Angolan participation in Block 15 projects has increased significantly over time as local companies, working with ExxonMobil and the Block 15 Contractor Group, developed their capabilities to perform the work required for such complex projects. “Nearly 100 per cent of the topsides and subsea equipment were fabricated in Angola, and we have provided more than 10,000 hours of skill-based training to Angolan contractor personnel for the project,” said Stéphane de Mahieu, Esso Angola Managing Director. ■

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SECURITY

Free Zones

How a free zone focuses on staff and security Development of skill sets and tight management regimes are crucial to combatting illicit trade, His Excellency Ahmed Butti Ahmed reveals

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he development of human resources, in terms of the role of the worker in supporting trade and profitability, and interms of ensuring secure trading conditions, was highlighted recently by His Excellency Ahmed Butti Ahmed, Executive Chairman for Ports, Customs and Free Zone Corporations and Director General of Dubai Customs, during a conference hosted by Google Ideas, the Google network’s creative think tank. Held in July 2012 in Los Angeles, in the USA, Google Ideas was attended by over 200 experts and specialists involved in security issues, and the protection of ports and borders, and the fight against illicit networks. The summit, which was held under the theme ‘Illicit Networks: Forces in Opposition,’ aimed at highlighting the major challenges faced by the airport management sector, particularly across important ports around the world, while also throwing the spotlight on best practices used to intercept and combat illicit global networks. Strategic actions and knowledge-sharing The Dubai Customs Director General focused on the need to maintain a strategic and stronger exchange of information to help reduce smuggling of contraband - especially, drugs and weapons - to different countries, which poses as a major threat to global security and the economy. Butti participated in a special panel discussion that was moderated by the Secretary General of the International Criminal Police Organization

(INTERPOL). Also joining were the Deputy Executive Director of Los Angeles World Airports and the CEO of Panama Canal. During the discussion, Butti revealed that Dubai Customs has adopted the latest advanced inspection technology systems and devices over the last two years. One particular example he cited was the use of a new system for the inspection and examination of mobile trucks. The system, which makes use of radiometric surveying techniques, can examine trucks without asking them to stop, avoiding manual inspection that poses risk to custom inspectors. One of the devices being used can examine and inspect 150 trucks per hour. Developing skills for security The Director General also reaffirmed the commitment of Dubai Customs to attract and develop the best human resources, further pointing out that members of their inspection teams will be entitled to various theoretical and practical training courses all year round. Butti shared that this is an important initiative that aims to upgrade the skills and abilities of their inspectors, thereby protecting the local community from the entry of narcotics and prohibited substances while also not allowing them to pass on to other countries through air, sea or land. According to him, the courses offered by Dubai Customs includes training in security and

Security presents major challenges to airport management

safety; sense of security development; methods of inspection; smuggling routes and methods; and body language, among others. He also stressed on the significance of these inspection teams, which protects and secures the UAE from prohibited substances and counterfeit goods that are promoted by illicit networks, especially as Dubai deals with thousands of travelers, large quantities of goods and materials for re-export purposes or for local use, on a daily basis. The Director General also spoke of the importance of strengthening security measures in the facilitation of the movement of people and goods across borders without disrupting the large number of travelers passing through Dubai. "This should be done without informing the users of the ports, except in suspicious cases that should be examined. The latest technologies and high skills of Dubai Customs inspectors help a critical role in achieving this end," said Butti. ■

Dubai Customs is focused on developing security through development of skills (Photo: Globalism Pictures)

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SECURITY

Guardia Systems

Dedicated to customers With offices in Nigeria, Ghana and Iraq, Guardia Systems is a key partner for security systems - offering low current, integrated and automated solutions for commercial and residential applications

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stablished in 1995 in Lebanon, Guardia Systems has rapidly expanded its operation and services to establish a strong presence in Africa (Nigeria & Ghana), the Middle East and Iraq. This high-tech company specialises in the offer of customised and targeted low current and security solutions to a wide range of key industries, including: ● Banks & financial institutions. ● Hospitals and educational institutions. ● Retail stores & malls. ● Airports and public infrastructure. ● Hotels and tourist areas. ● Oil & gas. ● Government & border areas. A key partner to work with Guardia Systems also enjoys a partnership with key manufacturers from all over the world, offering advanced and sophisticated technologies. The company’s portfolio or partners includes: Tyco (American Dynamics, CEM Systems, Kantech, Software House & DSC); Arecont Vision (IP megapixel technology); Genetec (video management systems); ESSER by Honeywell (fire alarms); Sensormatic (antishop lifting solutions); CAME (automation systems); URBACO (automatic rising bollards); Implant Sciences (explosive detectors); Indect (parking solutions); Crestron (home automation); GUINAZ (videophone); Astrophysics (X-ray scanners); Virdi (time attendance); and others. Guardia’s Safety and security solutions can be broadly grouped under the following main categories of products and services - with considerable overlap, of course: ● Security systems (covering intrusion detection, fire alarm systems, EAS retail security, CCTV equipment). ● Entrance control systems (access control, time attendance monitoring, walk-through systems, gates and barriers, etc.).

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Our biggest asset is our qualified people dedicated to meet our customers’ needs and expectations” Mr Rony Tabbal, Managing Director of Guardia Systems

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Parking systems (management and guidance equipment). Home automation and security equipment. Protection systems (bollards, road blockers, turnstiles, gate barriers, etc…). Other solutions - including data centres, communication & data systems, nurse call systems, public address systems, building management systems (BMS), & audio/video solutions.

Unique engagement with customers “We are distinguished by our ability to adapt our solutions to fit the needs of our customers and their business applications by offering the design, supply, installation, configuration and support of our product and the most sophisticated systems. It is part of our strategy that Guardia Systems is committed to engage with our customers by offering them unique after-sales services”. “Guardia Systems was able to form a group of professionals, highly skilled and specialized engineers by offering our team ongoing trainings and certification in most of the products we represents while trying to establish an effective work environment that requires developments and highly dedicated members.” As an illustration of this commitment to improving security within the region in March 2012 the company sponsored IFSEC West

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Mr Rony Tabbal, Managing Director of Guardia Systems

Africa security-products exhibition, held at the Eko Exposition Centre in Lagos. IFSEC is the leading global brand of specialised security trade exhibitions. The company has also committed for a bigger space in IFSEC West Africa 2013 and this is proof of the company’s commitment and belief in the African market - and the market potential, especially when it comes to safety and security. In short, Guardia systems goes out of its way to set local and international industry standards for implementing and executing the most complex requirements for any type of integrated security-related project. Concludes Mr Tabbal, “Our strength and credibility in project management, procurement, integrated logistics, training and maintenance is emphasised by our 24/7 competent technical support team.” ■ To learn more about Guardia Systems, contact: Guardia Systems, Lekki Phase I, Lagos, Nigeria. Tel: +234-1-8448000 E-mail: info@guardiasystemsltd.com Internet: www.guardiasystemsltd.com


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Surveillance

SECURITY

Monitoring people in public spaces

PARTNER COUNTRY

Indonesia

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Why the research and development in software for CCTV technology has earned industry acclaim

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newlt developed closed-circuit television (CCTV) system, which recently scooped a major industry award, is the product of a pioneering new approach to the development of surveillance software. Created by a partnership of Kingston University in the United Kingdom and the security companies Ipsotek and BAE Systems, the system is able to pinpoint potentially suspicious or vulnerable people in public spaces and monitor them continuously as they move between camera networks. Known as Tag and Track, it was earlier this year named CCTV system of the year, beating off competition from technology giants Samsung and Panasonic at the annual International Fire and Security Exhibition and Conference (IFSEC) awards. Technology for tagging and tracking “The notion that you can tag a person and let the system do the tracking is a dream come true for CCTV operators,” Professor Sergio Velastin, a specialist in applied computer vision at Kingston University and co-founder of Ipsotek, said. “The system relies on two things – firstly, the identification of a person through features, such as their appearance, which different cameras can then pick up on. Secondly, it has the ability to stop cameras searching for those traits over unnecessarily wide areas.” The technology was initially developed by Kingston computer science specialists led by Dr James Orwell, who is based in the University’s Digital Imaging Research Centre. “Once operators notice potentially suspicious behaviour, they can tag the

The full potential of closed-circuit television as a crime prevention tool and also as an investigative and forensic instrument may not yet be realised - but this could be achieved through advanced video analytics” person concerned by clicking on their image,” he explained. “This triggers the system to go back to the database and immediately create a full route for the person concerned using notes it has stored. The technology can provide predictions about individuals’ steps beforehand as well as find out where they move on to afterwards.” Not only does the software make realtime tracking more effective, it also makes checking footage after an incident much easier. “It can take many, many hours with hundreds of cameras all using different systems such as video tape, DVD and hard discs to piece together the circumstances and around 60 per cent of police CCTV research time is spent looking back at footage before an incident. Tag and Track will drastically reduce that,” Professor Velastin said.

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SECURITY

Surveillance

The technology has already been tested in Italy at Rome’s Termini train station, and in the UK at Manchester airport and Kingston town centre, with promising results. Its features enable security operators to carry out a range of activity including: ● Finding missing children. ● Quickly locating passengers who check bags in but do not appear at a gate, delaying flights. ● Immediately determining a passenger’s flight or arrival gate if they turn up at immigration without a passport or travel documents. ● Speedily locating passengers who are

unexpectedly considered a high threat and are already airside. Predicting bottlenecks at queuing points.

Making a contribution The IFSEC award not only recognises Tag and Track’s innovative technology, but also the fact it is likely to make a marked contribution in the real world. “Previously university researchers would simply work on ideas in the laboratory, create papers for publication and then move on to the next idea,” Professor Velastin said. “Nowadays we have to go further and demonstrate how the original research can be turned into something that will have an economic or social impact. Tag and Track is a classic example of this. Through collaboration with industry, the initial concept has now reached a point where it is poised to be rolled out to significantly enhance people’s safety and security.” Ipsotek’s Director Andrew Eggington said the full potential of CCTV as a crime prevention tool and investigative and forensic instrument had yet to be realised.

The notion that you can tag a person and let the system do the tracking is a dream come true for CCTV operators” - Professor Sergio Velastin, specialist in applied computer vision at Kingston University and co-founder of Ipsotek “One of the keys to achieving this is faster and more efficient use through advanced video analytics. Developments such as Tag and Track will deliver new, high-technology solutions that make a real difference.”

Andy Wright, director of technology acquisition at BAE Systems, said the company had become involved with the project as part of its Investment in Innovation initiative. “The programme enables us to work with excellent academic and business enterprises not only to accelerate the development of capability such as Tag and Track, but also to build strong relationships and share valuable learning across organisations,” he said. ■

Professor Sergio Velastin, specialist in applied computer vision at Kingston University in the UK, and co-founder of Ipsotek

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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INTELLIGENT SECURITY

Creating a secure, robust, intelligent security solution is like solving a puzzle that’s unique to each of our customers. Because we are one of the few manufacturers who design and produce all our own hardware and software, CEM has the intelligence and flexibility to get it right for you. The powerful CEM AC2000 security management system features industry leading IP card readers, Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+) door control and offers customers a seriously high standard of integrated security.

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LOGISTICS

Sea Freight

Reshaping reefer shipping Insights into a recent initiative aimed at making refrigerated containers pay their way

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he cost and time delays associated with the repositioning of reefer (refrigerated) shipping containers is a concern for shipping lines and shippers alike. Safmarine has addressed this issue by launching a NOR (non-operating reefer) drive aimed at encouraging its staff and customers around the world to fill reefer boxes (ie the NORs) with suitable cargo - an initiative it is determined will help it, and its customers, save money. Marc Rooms, Global Head of Reefers at Safmarine, attributes the repositioning issue to the largely one-way nature of the reefer trade. "Reefer trades tend to be either export or import dominant with different commodities or cargo types dominating particular trade lanes (for example, fruit and meat exports from the southern hemisphere to the northern hemisphere). Getting boxes back to high demand areas as soon as possible is critical as a lot of reefer cargo also tends to be seasonal and highly perishable." Rooms says in many cases it makes good business sense to fill a NOR with dry cargo, rather than filling a standard dry box. "Filling reefer boxes with 'dry cargo' and shipping them as NORs as opposed to sending them empty from surplus ports to deficit ports, saves Safmarine and our customers money and reduces operational costs." He says Safmarine is encouraging its customers to save supply chain costs and unlock other benefits simply by using NOR containers as opposed to a standard dry container.

Container shipping can be more profitable

"In many cases, using an NOR can also provide benefits such as immediate acceptance of bookings, equipment guarantees and the peace of mind that containers are of the highest quality. Priority loading is also another benefit as NORs generally take priority over dry boxes (although 'live' or operating reefer boxes take priority over NORs)," explains Rooms. Carrying suitable cargo Rooms says the NOR drive also makes it more viable for Safmarine to consider shipping reefer cargo to new markets (previously considered unviable because of the reefer positioning costs). Suitable cargo types for transportation in a NOR container include electronics, glassware, toys, vehicles, furniture, garments, clothes, footware, books, paper materials, beverages, car parts, machinery parts, well-packed fertilisers, drum packed resins and well-packed hazardous chemicals, amongst others. Cargo which is not acceptable in NORs include scrap metals/metal ingots, grain and fine powder products in bags such as cement and flour, 'oily' cargo or used machinery or cargo with sharp edges (such as unpacked metal objects, steel plates and steel tubing) and hazardous cargo (IMO 2.1 and IMO 3). Stones, rocks or carbon related cargo, MRI and CT machines and odorous cargo such as raw hides can also not be shipped in NORs. â– 

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012


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TRANSPORT Fleet Management

Effective tools for logistics enterprises Why Volkswagen trucks have proved effective for international and local logistics contracts

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aunched 24 years ago by KwaZulu-Natal entrepreneur, Richard Fisher, City Couriers has grown into one of South Africa’s top logistics companies, serving a broad spectrum of clients, including several leading local and international companies. Backed by its fleet of 147 truck tractors, 235 trailers with a total of 750 units, the balance being made up of various size rigid vehicles, City Couriers is a 24/7 operation with a nation-wide and cross-border footprint boasting 17 distribution depots, over 1500 employees and a customer satisfaction rating that consistently sits between 97-100 per cent. Despite the highly competitive nature of the logistics industry and the increasingly margin-sensitive operating environment for commercial truck fleets, City Couriers has experienced significant growth since 1988. With its headquarters in River Horse Valley, Durban, City Couriers today offers a diverse range of truck-transport services including linehaul distribution, express delivery and courier services, truck rental, specialised lowbed transport and warehousing. Adopted ponies In early 2011, City Couriers acquired the movable assets and client-base of an insolvent logistics company. The deal included the absorption of 22 Volkswagen Constellation truck tractors into the City Courier fleet. According to Anthony Naicker, Fleet Director at City Couriers, “at the time of the acquisition, we were unfamiliar with the VW truck brand but our confidence in the vehicle was boosted when we learned that MAN had taken ownership of the VW Truck & Bus franchise globally. City Couriers has a longstanding relationship with MAN and our fleet includes dozens of MAN derivatives which have proven to be benchmark vehicles in terms of fuel efficiency and reliability.” The 22 VW Constellation 19.320 4x2 truck

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tractors had each notched up in excess of 350,000km and were no longer covered by a factory warranty. “We invested a large sum in comprehensively refurbishing and servicing the VW’s in our own workshop to get them up to our fleet standards,” explains Naicker. “By March 2011, they were on the road in the City Linehaul fleet, pulling our custom-built volume semi-trailers carrying an average load of 16-17 tons. “ In the months hence, the ‘adopted’ City Couriers VW Constellation’s have earned a reputation as fuel saving champions in their weight class, says Naicker. Room to move “The VW Constellation has the tallest and most ergonomic sleeper-cab in its class which not only pleases our drivers, but assists the aerodynamics of the rig; the high roof, with an aero-kit fitted, helping to deflect air more effectively over the top of the 130 cubicmetre trailer,” he adds. “This helps lower fuel consumption considerably. The VW’s ease-ofdriving is also a surprise. It’s like driving a VW bakkie, straightforward and no problems were presented when training our drivers how to get the best out the truck. “The driveline combination of a 320horsepower Cummins engine and a 16-speed ZF transmission is ideal for our specialised

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

linehaul application. We place much stock in what our drivers say about our vehicles and they are genuinely impressed with the pulling power and comfort of the VW 19.320.” Fuelling the spirit With depots as far afield as Windhoek and Gaborone, City Couriers insists on swift dealer support to keep its vehicle uptime at optimum levels. “The City Couriers mission is to provide an efficient and cost effective service to all its customers and we expect the same commitment from our suppliers. MAN has a comprehensive dealer network across southern Africa and understands our urgency when parts are required, getting the necessary components to our depots within 24-hours, at highly competitive prices,” says Naicker. Now mid-way through their first service life, Naicker expects the VW Constellations to retire from the fleet at 700,000km. “We run a tight ship and monitor each vehicle’s daily performance as well as its total-cost-of-ownership. Thus far, the VW Constellation has served us well in all the right areas. Apart from the impressive CPK figures it delivers, the VW 19.320 keeps our drivers happy, giving them a quality driving experience and fuelling their ‘king of the road’ spirit.” ■


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TRANSPORT Engineering

A pioneering group of learners How an after-sales initiative introduced by Mercedes-Benz South Africa prepares youth for automotive excellence

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he Mercedes-Benz group of companies in South Africa (MBSA) bases its innovative Automotive Repair and Maintenance learnership concept on the belief that the customer service experience can only be as good as the dedication and expertise of its staff members. Twelve young South African learners from the Boksburg township, Reiger Park, were identified to participate in the learnership pilot earlier this year, and immersed in the MBSA culture of service excellence. After 6 months, they have completed the first phase which comprised theoretical and practical instruction at the St Anthony’s Education Centre. The students spent sometime at the MBSA Head Office in Centurion for brand specific training, and are currently involved in on-the-job training at various company dealerships. Successful completion of the three-year programme will equip learners with a Certificate in Automotive Repair and Maintenance, while the workplace exposure and mentorship by the dealers will give them an invaluable head start in their future careers. A commitment to competencies The MBSA leanership is run in co-operation with the Manufacturing, Engineering and Related Services Sector Education and Training Authority (MerSETA), with competency assessments being completed by the MerSETA at the end of each milestone. Vice President for After-Sales at MBSA, Naeem Hassim, explains that the company shares the concern and commitment of government to educate and upskill the youth. “We want to create a sound skills base and a pipeline of technically-skilled individuals with a specific emphasis on customer relations and enhancing the customer experience,” he adds. “The automotive industry is strongly driven by technological

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The pioneering group of learners on the Mercedes-Benz South Africa Automotive Repair and Maintenance learnership programme integrate into life at a leading South African corporate as they enter the second half of their first year

advancement, and we have a severe shortage of technical skills. This learnership will potentially benefit both the company and the sector.” Centre director Vanessa Pillay is satisfied with the progress made by the students. “The learners have a long journey ahead of them, starting with NQF Level 2 this year and culminating in 2014 with an NQF Level 4. Our emphasis is on equipping them for the journey with a combination of technical, job and life skills that will serve them not only in their training but also in their future careers.” One of the learners, Innocent Nkosi, expressed his delight with the outcomes of

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

the programme thus far, and while he admits some apprehension about the challenges he will face in the second half of the year, he is also very excited. “I am grateful for the opportunity to kickstart a career in the motor industry, and have already learned more than I expected,” he says. “We watch the progress of our learners with keen interest”, Hassim says. “The second intake of 12 learners has just taken place, and the success of the pilot project at the end of the year will determine the future trajectory of the programme, but we are confident that we will make a positive contribution to the skills development arena.” ■


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TRANSPORT Communications

Wireless data coming to your car…or flight The future development of technology for aircraft cabin communications is closely linked to the future of car control systems

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radio technology that transmits data at speeds of up to one gigabit-persecond (Gb/s), uses very little power, and can even determine the location of a person or object to within 50 cm, promises to revolutionise wireless communications. Now, research is helping to make the leap from laboratory to market. New applications could include automated controls in vehicles and wireless communications on planes. Using ultraband Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio, also known as ultraband, uses a broad segment of the radio spectrum to transmit and receive data, giving it versatility that, over short distances at least, few other wireless communications technologies can match. At very high data rates it can be used to stream huge amounts of data extremely quickly - substituting and surpassing USB cables for interconnecting computers and mobile devices, for example. At low data rates, it offers a robust communications channel and, uniquely, realtime and precise positioning features, all at a fraction of the power consumption of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or other wireless technologies. It sounds like a dream solution for anyone

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who wants to stream video from their mobile phone, have their sound system automatically adjust to where they are sitting in the room, or wirelessly connect sensors and actuators in a car. Until now, however, its commercial roll-out has been hindered by regulatory hurdles. Using a large segment of the radio spectrum between 3 and 10 gigahertz - makes UWB versatile, but it also means that devices using the technology may operate at frequencies assigned to other services, such as WiMAX, satellite communications or radar. Regulators have therefore feared that UWB could cause interference with other technologies. These concerns are now being addressed through research, trials and demonstrations. 'The regulatory issue and concerns about interference have been the biggest challenges facing UWB but - thanks to revolutionary "new thinking" in the regulatory environment in the very recent past - the take-off of this disruptive radio technology has now been enabled for a wide range of applications,' says Sven Zeisberg, professor for telecommunication technology at the University of Applied Sciences (HTW) in Dresden, Germany - who has long been a proponent of UWB, helping launch a series of

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

There are many commercial applications for UWB in many industries, and many companies are very keen on the -technology” -Professor Sven Zeisberg

initiatives over the last decade to develop and deploy the radio technology - most recently, particpating in work with EADS to demonstrate applications of UWB for communications in an aircraft cabin. “If we can demonstrate that it is safe to use UWB in planes, which is one of the most sensitive radio environments, then we can show that UWB can be used almost anywhere,' Zeisberg explains. Admittedly, it will probably be a few years before UWB technology is used for communications in aircraft, because of the aviation sector's strict regulatory environment, but there are many applications that are both closer to the ground and closer to market. Some are even being commercialised today. ■


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POWER

Africa Electricity

A powerful place for products and services Africa Electricity offers a comprehensive showcase for the power, lighting, renewable, nuclear and water sectors in South Africa

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cheduled to take place in the Gallagher Convention Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa, on 23-25 October 2012, Africa Electricity promises to be a significant meeting place for international suppliers of products and services interested in supporting development of South African utilities by facilitating and addressing the challenging issues of energy demand, efficiency, distribution, transmission, generation, and security of supply. To those exhibiting and attending, the event offers a cost-effective sales and marketing platform that is expected to deliver business contacts that create value for customers. Key deals underpin prospects for successful development in power generation and provision across the continent, and Southern Africa offers a particularly dynamic environment. take, for example, the recent US$7mn deal between Ventyx and Eskom, which will see Eskom undertake implementation of Ventyx’s supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) solution for management of distribution. Ventyx supplies industrial enterprise software for essential industries including energy, mining and public infrastructure, helping to bridge the gap between information technologies (IT) and operational technologies (OT) to enable faster, better-informed decisions in daily operations and long-term planning strategies. The wider context of this deal is that eskom has committed to a Transmission Development Plan between 2012 and 2021, requiring over US$22bn of investment - with US$18.4bn for reliability projects, US$3.5bn for generation integration, US$500mn earmarked for customer related projects.

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Added to the mix is the commitment by three major African organisations to further their renewable energy efforts, by signing a tripartite agreement on climate change adaptation and mitigation in Eastern and Southern Africa. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (Comesa), the East African Community (EAC), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) have developed a five-year programme to implement sustainable

Norwegian government, European Union, and the UK and Irish governments. Focus on improving reliability and access to energy Reliability is especially important in Southern Africa as it affects improvement of the availability of supply. Projects planned and underway at Eskom and in South Africa include: ● The Department of Energy implementing two OCGT power stations by 2013. ● Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme - a pumped storage scheme consisting of an upper and lower dam, both with approximately 22mn cu m capacity, to be completed by 2015. ● Kusile Power Station, which is expected to be completed by 2013. ● Medupi Power Station, which is scheduled for completion by 2015.

Southern African stakeholders are focused now on ensuring that the new power stations currently under construction are integrated into the network and that there is infrastructure to ensure reliability. Southern Africa cannot grow without a reliable supply of electricity, and so there is a clear need for stakeholders to understand what is required to ensure a reliable and secure supply and what investment levels and operational commitments are required to achieve it. exhibiting at Africa Electricity, Eskom’s Transmission Ten-Year attending Africa Electricity, goes a long Development Plan is expected to way towards demonstrating an improve reliability and reach understanding of the commitments required to improve the region’s energy infrastructure - whether you wish to establish new contacts in the region, reinforce your position, launch a measures in the areas of construction, product or sell to the local market. ■ agriculture, and energy. Funded through a multi-donor financial commitment, the www.africaelectricity.com US$90mn agreement has the support of the

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012


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African Energy Forum

POWER

Interim power helps close the energy gap T

hose attending te African Energy Forum 2012, held in Berlin Germany, heard how Aggreko, the global interim power company, is teaming-up with South Africa’s Shanduka in a ground-breaking cross-border initiative in Southern Africa. It is a new gaspowered project that is supplying both Eskom and Mozambique’s electricity provider EDM. Stephen Williams talked to Aggreko’s business development manager Robin James to learn more of this and other projects across Africa A challenge and an opportunity The lack of reliable, affordable electricity is known to have a negative impact on African economies, and even as the continent experiences an era of almost unprecedented economic growth, Africa’s energy gap remains a clear challenge. That is why events such as the African Energy Forum (AEF) are of such importance: they offer a unique networking opportunity for all those working in the energy sector to meet and discuss developments. This year, the AEF’s sponsor was the UK company Aggreko. Aggreko is a worldleader in supplying what is known as interim or temporary energy – a crucially important service if Africa is to upgrade its power supplies. Not only does Aggreko provide power for specific projects (as it did for the Fifa’s 2010 World Cup stadiums in South Africa and London’s 2012 Olympic games), but it also can back up grid supplies while upgrades to energy generation facilities are undertaken. Robin James, Aggreko’s business development manager, told African Review that the company is currently operating in 20 African countries. It is particularly strong in East Africa where it has operations in Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. In fact, regarding the later, James recounted an interesting – but not untypical story for an African country. “Two years ago,” he recalled, “we knocked on the Tanzanian government’s door to offer our services. They declined the offer but six months later they came back to us. It transpired that the Tanzania Revenue Service had noticed a sharp drop in tax revenue. When they investigated they realised that

manufacturing output had declined and that was due to a lack of electricity, in large part created by an extended drought that had reduced hydro-generation. “You must have electricity to produce goods, and you must have electricity to allow your economy to work, so they came back to Aggreko and we are now providing 100MW using gas from the Songo Songo offshore gas field while they focus on rebuilding their power generation assets, and also building new coal and gas-powered plants.” As Idris Rashidi, the managing director of Tanzania’s electricity parastatal Tanesco has commented: “Aggreko has worked diligently with Tanesco to ensure that both Phase I and II were operational ahead of the commitment made by President Kikwete to the people of Tanzania [to ensure reliable electricity supplies]. This demonstrates the company’s flexibility and ability to rapidly respond to the client’s needs.”

Salvador Namburete, Mozambique’s Minister of Energy

Experience in operation Exploration companies in both Tanzania and its southern neighbour Mozambique have discovered significant world-class amounts of off-shore gas reserves, but it will be many years before these reserves can be fully exploited and utilised. But Mozambique already has its on-shore gas fields, much of which is sent by pipeline to South Africa and Sasol’s Secunda plant. The Mozambique government sent a high level delegation to Berlin for the AEF 2012, its led by the country’s Minister of Energy, Salvador Namburete, who was accompanied by Augusto de Sousa Fernando, executive chairman of Electricidade de Moçambique (EDM). Utilising gas from Mozambique’s northern on-shore Tamane gas field, Aggreko has teamed up with the South African investment company Shanduka. The two companies have many years of experience in working

together, and have built and now operate a 107.5MW temporary gas-fired power plant in Mozambique that will supply, over a two-year period, electricity to two utility companies: Eskom of South Africa and Mozambique’s Electricidade de Moçambique (EDM). Eskom will draw 92.5MW from the plant and EDM will use 15MW. James was clearly very proud of his company’s role in this project and it was constantly referred to by all the partners, including the Mozambique government delegation. “What is unique is that it is the first time that a private company has done cross-border electricity trading in Southern Africa,” James explained. “Traditionally, Mozambique was looking to sell the gas, and make money that way. But when you turn the gas into electricity, it adds a lot more value and makes a lot more money for Mozambique,” he added. ■ Stephen Williams

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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POWER

Power-Gen Africa

Solutions for local needs African stakeholders are committing to renewed investment in power generation and energy supply (Photo: Chris Kirchhoff, Media Club South Africa)

A key promotion of power generation and distribution technologies is set to take place for the first time in South Africa

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rranged for the Sandton Convention Centre in Johannesburg in South Africa, for 6-8 November 2012, PowerGen Africa is centred on the theme of ‘Global Technology for Local Soltuions’. This inaugural event promises to provide comprehensive coverage of the power needs, resources, and issues facing the electricity generation industries across sub-Saharan Africa., at a time when global attention is being paid to the continent’s power requirements and as the continent experiences both rapid growth and significant development, and so serious increases in demand for more widespread and reliable electricity. Power-Gen Africa’s conference and exhibition offers insights into all aspects of the power industry, bringing together the power equipment suppliers with those developing power infrastructure in this dynamic region of the world. Infrastructure and energy With reserve margins virtually non-existent in the Sub-Saharan Africa region, leading to blackout and load shedding scenarios, the region faces the real prospect of inadequate energy infrastructure acting as a brake on current and future economic growth. In tackling these problems, the region also faces a great shortage in the area of trained engineering professionals. Power-Gen Africa matters to those who work in the utility and private power sectors, engineering and commercial personnel from the equipment manufacturing and consulting fields. The event addresses professionals from energy intensive industries with responsibility for ensuring power supply,

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“Africa has a phenomenal need for energy to drive its economic growth and to meet the justifiable aspirations of a growing and urbanising population. Over such a large and diverse continent, these needs vary greatly as do the approaches to meeting the challenges and implementing solutions. Power-Gen Africa will bring the industry together to encourage knowledge sharing and partnerships in order to advance these goals in sub-Saharan Africa.” - Nigel Blackaby, event director and director of conferences at the PennWell International Power Group

and officials and ministers from the national and regional political spheres who are tasked with energy policy. Over three days, the event will feature a three-track conference and an exhibition with suppliers from both the International and African power sectors demonstrating their latest technologies. Key players in African power Counted amongst corporate entities sponsoring Power-Gen Africa this year are Wärtsilä and Pratt & Whitney. Wärtsilä supplies power plants for the decentralised power generation market. It offers power plants for baseload, peaking and industrial self-generation purposes as well as for the oil and gas industry. The strengths of Wärtsilä power plants are their flexible design, high efficiency and low emission levels. Of particular note, Wärtsilä specialises in complete lifecycle power solutions for the marine and energy markets. By emphasising technological innovation and efficiency,

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Wärtsilä maximises the environmental and economic performance of the vessels and power plants of its customers. Power-Gen Africa provides a vital platform for companies like Wärtsilä, which are interested in working with the local power industry in sub-Saharan African countries and those looking to invest in the sector. An important forum for power players The inaugural Power-Gen Africa is an important new industry forum, featuring power industry professionals who will share their expertise and experiences to help define Africa’s energy sector of the future. The conference provides the setting for industry leaders and decisionmakers to network and keep abreast of developments, with comprehensive coverage of needs, resources, and issues across sub-Saharan Africa. ■ www.powergenafrica.com


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Conference & Exhibition 6 - 8 November 2012 Sandton Convention Centre Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa

www.powergenafrica.com

GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY FOR LOCAL SOLUTIONS PRE-SHOW GUIDE NOW AVAILABLE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; REGISTER TODAY SAVE WITH OUR EARLY BIRD OFFER BY REGISTERING BEFORE 9 OCTOBER 2012 ABOUT POWER-GEN AFRICA

CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS

POWER-GEN Africa is a unique forum for the industry, combining both a world class three-track conference covering strategic, technical and renewable aspects with an exhibition showcasing the latest technological developments. This premier event will attract senior decision makers, enabling you to make crucial contacts within the sub-Saharan energy industry.

Over the 3 days the inaugural POWER-GEN Africa will provide comprehensive coverage of the power needs, resources, and issues facing the electricity generation industries across sub-Saharan Africa including various highlights such as:

OPENING KEYNOTE SESSION

With POWER-GEN Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s conference and exhibition focusing Speakers include: on all aspects of the power industry and bringing together t.T&MJ[BCFUI%JQVP1FUFST .JOJTUFSPG&OFSHZ 4PVUI"GSJDB the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading power equipment suppliers with those developing power infrastructure in this dynamic region of the t.S#SJBO%BNFT $IJFG&YFDVUJWF0GĂĽDFS &TLPN 4PVUI"GSJDB world, this is one event you cannot afford to miss.

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S08 ATR Sep 2012 Power_Layout 1 20/08/2012 10:49 Page 46

POWER

Power Nigeria

The potential solutions to solve power issues West African power producers prospects are good, as core investment in grid infrastructure remains a must to address weaknesses - and negative and positive issues are represented at Power Nigeria

F

rom 18-20 September 2012, the Abuja International Conference Centre plays host to Power Nigeria, a key energy event spotlighting developments affecting this key West African nation and its neighbouring economies. An example of how intertwined the power supply development of West Africa’s economies are lies in Nigeria’s relationship with Ghana which, like Nigeria, is increasingly focusing on improving its electricity infrastructure. Electricity demand in Ghana has risen over 10 per cent a year in recent years, according to the Ghanaian Ministry of Energy. A consequence of this is that Ghana has experienced frequent issues matching demand with supply. One example of a sector that has transnational, pan-regional dynamics is the gas sector, with supply of gas from the West African Gas Pipeline serving Nigeria as well as its neighbours. Unfortunate issues with the gas supply chain served by the pipeline have meant disruption to supply - with knock-o effects to manufacturing and heavy industry in particular - but administrations such as the Ghanaian government have begun ine arnest to seek counterbalances in generation capacity. Engagement with power problems, through investment in power potentials Back in Nigeria, he Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) governs the use of electricity in the country, and also President Good luck Jonathan is represents Nigeria in the attempting dyanmic change in Nigerian West African Power Pool power generation and provision (WAPP). Its fate is to face (Photo: Blog do Planalto) a considerable

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

chalenge in provision. For several years, despite consistent investment by the Federal Government, there have been power outages in Nigeria. There have been reported cases of improved power supply in many parts of Nigeria, which must go some way towards satisfying the Nigerians that have been calling for constant and uninterrupted energy provision for years. And Professor Barth Nnaji, Minister of Power in Nigeria, is principal amongst those seeking further development for a wholly connected nation. Power generation is presently at a peak capacity of 4,237 megawatts, according to Professor Nnaji. This is a marked increase from the nation’s power output two year’s ago when President Goodluck Jonathan assumed office. In January 2012, the generation capacity peaked at about 4,100MW. At President Jonathan’s office resumption in May, 2012, the amount of power generated in Nigeria was about 2,800MW. Professor Nnaji attributes the increase to increased gas availability to the nation’s thermal plants. He said, “Gas is coming up gradually and, when fully stabilised, we can easily hit 5,000MW.” Nigeria, more than most nations in West Africa, is rich in resources rich enough to ensure that energy poverty is banished to the pages of history. There are, of course, security issues to be addressed - as officials affirm continuing battles with militants in the north and oil saboteurs in the south - but the government is working to transform the nation’s economy by implementing good-governance projects that include infrastructure development. Initiatives include the recent US$23mn deal with Canadian firm Manitoba Hydro International (MHI) aimed at overhauling power transmission throughout Nigeria - a deal that obligates MHI to reorganise and privatise the state-owned Transmission Company of Nigeria as part of long-term plans to improve the country's electricity network. Nigeria's power sector continues to generate significant interest from foreign companies who are ready to invest. there remains a requirement for the federal government to continue to develop an enabling regulatory framework. Nigeria, which is home to Africa’s biggest oil and gas industry, continues to face chronic power shortages - but there is positive movement in the power sector. Consider that Nigeria's cabinet has recently agreed on a US$30.8bn 2013 budget plan - and that power is set to benefit directly. Consider that the role of Power Nigeria is to show how technologies and knowledge-sharing can help to solve the power problems and unlock the country's full investment potential. ■


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S08 ATR Sep 2012 Power_Layout 1 20/08/2012 10:49 Page 48

EQUIPMENT

Power New Doosan portable power products Doosan Portable Power products launched at Intermat in April 2012 include the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new generation large Stage IIIB compliant portable compressors; the new 7/26E+ and 7/31E+ â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Tough Topâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; portable compressors and the new G150-IIIA (150 kVA prime power) and G200-IIIA (200 kVA prime power) generators meeting the EU Stage IIIA engine emission regulations for generators that came into force in January 2011. Stage IIIB compliant large portable compressors The new 12/250 model is the first of five large Stage IIIB compressors based on a common platform, offering free air deliveries from 21.5 to 30.0 m3/min. The Stage IIIB models have been given new designations - 9/275, 9/305, 12/250, 17/240 and 21/220 - to distinguish them from the current Stage IIIA models in the same capacity range, the 9/270, 9/300, 12/235, 17/235 and 21/215 compressors. The compressors are powered by the Cummins QSL9 Stage IIIB engine using EGR, DOC and DPF aftertreatment technologies.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Tough Topâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; compressors Doosan Portable Power also launched new versions of the popular 7/26E and 7/31E portable compressors, equipped with the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Tough Topâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; polymer canopy. As well as offering outstanding durability, the Tough Top canopy is also non-corrodible and can be supplied in customer colours. The new compressors complement the 7/41+ Tough Top model launched in 2010. Stage IIIA compliant generators Doosan Portable Power has also launched the G150IIIA (150 kVA prime power) and G200-IIIA (200 kVA prime power) generators meeting the EU Stage IIIA engine emission regulations for generators that came into force in January 2011. As well as incorporating the changes required to meet the Stage IIIA regulations, the new generators have been redesigned to offer increased reliability, high performance and a wider choice of features to meet the needs of temporary power applications. www.doosanportablepower.com

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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S09 ATR Sep 2012 Construction_Layout 1 20/08/2012 12:57 Page 49

MANUFACTURING

Machine Tools

The right tool for zero-defect production Quality management begins with the selection of the correct stationary screwdriver

T

he achievement of zero defect production has the highest priority in industrial assembly. Time and again we hear of product recalls due to defective screw joints. The associated material damage and loss of brand image is the dread of every industry. And when it relates to safety-relevant components such as in the automotive industry then the manufactures make every conceivable effort to ensure maximum process reliability throughout the installation process. The selection of the correct tightening tool for industrial mass production is the cornerstone in creating a high quality fault free production system. A threaded fastener is intended to clamp components together so that external forces cannot cause them to come apart and the parts essentially behave like a single unit. The designer calculates how high the applied clamping force must be so that the screwed or bolted component can withstand the most demanding mechanical stress. However, the question is whether the predetermined clamping force is correctly achieved during the tightening process. The trickiest problems concerning screw driving technology are unknown screw seating and assembly/component-related variables. Since the clamping force generated during mass production assembly is difficult and, when feasible, expensive to measure, the applied torque and angle of rotation are accepted as the governing process variables in screw driving technology. The more precisely an industrial screwdriver applies the predetermined torque or angle of rotation the more likely that the goal of zero-defect screw/bolt assembly will be achieved. Matching the tool to the application There is no universal answer to the much debated question on the most appropriate drive for the stationary screwdriver spindle. The correct answer lies in finding the best screwdriver for the particular application. Full service providers such as Deprag Schulz. in Amberg/Bayern offer both: pneumatic screwdrivers and screwdrivers using EC Electric motor technology. These specialists in screw driving technology have made a name for themselves with their technically advanced and economical stationary screwdriver spindles. Deprag experts competently advise their clients in choosing the proper screwdriver for the task. Gerd Zinn, head of the Deprag development department for production machines quotes an example: "Stationary screwdriver spindles with EC drive from our Micromat-EC/Minimat-EC range with low maintenance brushless EC motors are always particularly suitable when it comes to achieving and documenting different tightening torques or sequences in one assembly system." The brushless electric motors which Deprag have developed for their screwdriver spindles are practically free of wear parts and therefore

The right tool for zero-defect production (Photo: Deprag Schulz GmbH u. Co)

guarantee a long service life. The EC motor is able to deliver high torque even at low speeds. With its compact, slim design and high energy density it is ideally suited for the demands of seating threaded fasteners. JĂźrgen Hierold, Deprag sales manager, says, "In choosing the right screwdriver you must focus on the individual application". If process parameters have to be identified and documented for the quality management process then an EC screwdriver or an EC Servo screwdriver is the right tool. Electronically operated, programmable screwdrivers are also suitable where high flexibility is needed, e.g. where screw assembly parameters vary or there are frequent product changes on a flexibly assembly line. When data collection and flexibility are not clearly required then the pneumatic torque control screwdriver with function port is the most economical and technically superior solution. The requirement for flexibility and process control are not the only parameters which must be considered in the selection of a suitable fastening system for your application. Consideration must also to be given to the necessary torque accuracy, requirements for data collection and statistical process control, purchasing, operating and maintenance costs, the desired power range, the service lifetime and the availability of the drive media for the tool used. The decision on the drive system may depend on a combination of several of these different influencing factors or it may come down to just one. For instance, the absence of compressed air immediately excludes the use of a pneumatic screwdriver. In summary one can assume that the selection of an optimum system for a particular application is only possible in consultation with experts and through extensive preliminary tests such as screw joint analysis. â&#x2013;  African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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CONSTRUCTION

Housing

High quality house construction Concrete roof tile manufacturing contributes to best practices for construction in residential areas

H

aving successfully supplied its low-volume ‘start-up’ size concrete roof tile manufacturing machines and production plants to African nations for over two decades now, Italian firm Vortex Hydra has launched a new range of ‘Uno Evoluzione’ plants to meet requirements for the use of concrete tiles as the modern-day solution to quality roof construction in the African house building industry. This range of affordable ‘self help’ plants enables entrepreneurs, family concerns and small businesses in many African countries to set up a successful new business in the field of building product manufacture, to serve the increasing demand for better quality housing in local communities.

Portable Metal Hardness Testing Instruments The Equotip family is the most established brand for portable metal hardness testing!

Bearing in mind the need to use only locally available materials such as sand, cement and water, together with minimum labour skills requirements, the local manufacture of concrete roof tiles supported by Vortex Hydra offers a viable economic solution to establishing a new business venture.

Equotip 3

The Vortex development team has devised a range of low–medium volume‘start-up’ size plants that have been designed on an ‘add on’ modular system basis, to enable the easy and most economic solution to plant upgrade”

Equo tip Piccolo 2 Equotip Bambino 2

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Construction from production to customer As the numerous benefits of concrete tile roof construction have become apparent over the years, so has the demand for supply of tiles in the local marketplace. This has led to many of the companies run by existing customers of Vortex Hydra expressing an interest in increasing their existing tile production output after their sales have become established in the market.


S09 ATR Sep 2012 Construction_Layout 1 20/08/2012 12:57 Page 51

Housing

CONSTRUCTION

With many new customers working within tight financial constraints when initially setting up their new business, it has become apparent, also, over the years, that there is need amongst the customer base for the capability to upgrade existing plant - not by simply replacing it with a new higher volume plant, but by being able to expand on existing plant, so incurring minimal upgrade costs. In response to this need, the development team at Vortex has cleverly devised a range of low–medium volume ‘start-up’ size plants that have been designed on an ‘add on’ modular system basis, to enable the easy and most economic solution to plant upgrade. These plants - the ‘Uno Evoluzione’ range of plants - can be upgraded to increase production in increments of 2,000 to 4,000 to 8,000 to 16,000 tiles per eight-hour shift. The added advantage of this range of plants is that it is also possible for a customer to diversify the product base by producing other concrete building products on the machinery - such as décor wall/floor tile and brick finishings.

Affordable ‘self help’ plants enable entrepreneurs, family concerns and small businesses to set up new businesses in building product manufacture, to serve increasing demand for better quality housing in local communities”

In addition to designing and supplying sophisticated machinery, Vortex Hydra will hold the hand of the customer all the way as the customer sets up in a new business. This comprehensive service involves training in concrete tile manufacture, installation and commissioning of the new plant/upgrade - and providing an excellent on-going technical support package that includes technical advice and the supply of spare parts. ■ www.vortexhydra.com

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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CONSTRUCTION

Facilities

An intelligent approach to an urgent project How Electrical Engineering Solutions met its schedule to execute a Consol Glass furnace rebuild in record time

E

lectrical Engineering Solutions (EES) has been engaged in a challenging furnace rebuild appointment, which was scheduled for completion within a very strict construction window. The client, Consol Glass, is the largest glass manufacturer in Africa and the rebuild was at its Bellville plant near Cape Town. An ISO 9000 certified professional services company, EES specialises in project managing the provision of Information Technology (IT) solutions to the built environment. Integral to its business is intelligent infrastructure, the implementation of which entails the convergence of IT and Building Automation Systems (BAS). The project involved the Electrical and Instrumentation (E&I) infrastructure engineering for the furnace. EES was responsible for the management, construction and commissioning of E&I infrastructure, which included interfacing with bespoke technology vendors. Investing to increase capacity The Bellville plant has a total of four furnaces which manufacture bottles for the food and beverage industry. EES and Consol Glass have a long-standing working relationship, and in 2007 EES upgraded Bellville furnace 1 (B1). A furnace of a similar design to that installed for B1 is now being installed for Bellville furnace 4 (B4). The existing B4 furnace produces about 285 tons of glass per day, and the rebuilt B4 furnace will increase capacity to about 320 tons per day. Currently the entire Bellville plant produces between 950 and 980 tons a day, and makes on average approximately two million bottles each day. Partners working to project deadline The different parties involved were working in close co-operation to meet the stringent

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project deadline. Construction execution, which followed months of strategic planning and preparatory work, was expected take no longer than 90 days.

He added that this challenging job utilised the strong administrative ability and special project skills base that EES offers. Findlay commented, “What differentiates

EES completed a furnace rebuild at Consol Glass in Cape Town, which had to be done within a very strict construction window

“The reason for the tight project deadline is that this particular furnace makes flint (clear) containers and is the only facility in the country capable of producing baby food jars and extremely light weight wine bottles,” explains Craig Findlay, Technical Manager at Consol Glass. As a result they were under pressure to supply sufficient stock to the customers who took these bottles while the furnace was out of production for almost three months of the rebuild. Bradley Hemphill, Managing Director of EES, said that this was a particularly high pressure project - that there was no scope for a time overrun, and that EES was doing whatever it took to meet the deadline, whether this meant working through the night or over weekends.

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

EES is their very structured and systematic way of handing projects, from design right through to installation and commissioning. They document everything: design as built drawings, commissioning and handover documents, and we feel that this sets them apart from others. “In addition they are involved hands-on on site, with the contractors during the installation and commissioning phases of a project.” Hemphill concluded, “Consol Glass prides itself in its customer- and consumer-driven culture. It is therefore essential that its service providers enable it to meet customer requirements. We are committed to meeting their needs.” ■


S10 ATR Sep 2012 Report GH_Layout 1 20/08/2012 11:14 Page 53

OT A JOB G GOT JOB TO TO D DO? O? HELP. ELP. P WE W ’RE HERE HERE TO TO H WE’RE TTerex eerex Construction Construction iin nA Africa frica A Att T Terex, e ere ex, ‘Works ‘Works F For or Y You’ ou’ iis sm more ore e tthan han a slogan slogan – iit’s t’s a p romise. IIt’s t’s what what you you can can promise. nd tthe ccount ount on on ffrom rom o our ur e equipment quipment a and he T Terex e ere ex os tteam eam iin n tthe he A frica, w ho iis sh ere tto upport yyou. ou. Africa, who here support F rom w heel loaders loaderrs to to o ff-highway rrigid igid ttrucks, rucks, From wheel off-highway ccompact ompact excavators excavators tto ob ackhoe lloaders oaderrs – w e’ve backhoe we’ve g got ot tthe he rright ight m machine achine tto od do o tthe he w work ork ffor or yyou. ou.

TTerex eerex offers offers the the complete complete solutions: solutions: Tough, Tough, Q Quality uality R Range ange o off C Construction onstruction Equipment allll A Applications Equipment for for a pplications Network Ne etwork o off D Dealers ealers Throughout Throu ughout A Africa frica World World W Wide ide P Parts arts D Distribution istribution Aftermarket Aftermark ket S Support upport Minimising Minim i ising D Downtime owntime

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S10 ATR Sep 2012 Report GH_Layout 1 20/08/2012 11:14 Page 54

EQUIPMENT

Construction Mantrac Uganda showcases used Caterpillar equipment

M

antrac Uganda Ltd, the sole authorised Caterpillar dealer in the country, has showcased the latest stock of Cat Certified Used equipment in a three-day exhibition at its head office in Kampala. The used equipment programme provides Caterpillar machines that are less than ten years old and have low operating hours. The exhibition was the first of its type in the country and provided the best value of used equipment on the market, the company claimed. Elizabeth Buhweire, marketing coordinator of Mantrac, said, “This is the first exhibition for a range of used Caterpillar equipment. We're basically promoting used equipment for wide and varied applications in the construction, agricultural and mining development sectors of the economy.” Used machines are far cheaper than new

Mantrac Uganda Ltd showcased Cat Certified Used equipment recently

ones, with a new hydraulic excavator costing about US$190,000, in contrast to a used one which costs approximately US$118,000, the company said. Equipment on display also included tractors, backhoe loaders, wheel loaders, motor graders, track loaders and soil compactors. The warranty is what differentiates Cat Certified Used equipment from other used construction machines on the market, Mantrac claimed. Through this programme, buyers

benefit from a six-month/1,500 powertrain and hydraulics warranty as standard. It added that each used machine goes through a rigorous inspection and refurbishment process of up to 140 points and the service, performed by Mantrac, uses original Caterpillar parts only. This, along with Mantrac’s after-sales service, makes the purchase of Cat Certified Used machines even more appealing, it claimed. The company commented that the market for Caterpillar machines in the country is large, although the entry of the Chinese in to the market means competition is set to increase. The Chinese government recently offered Uganda a US$100mn loan for the procurement of road equipment in order to help repair numerous roads spread across the country. Geoffrey Muleme

mpers

du ers & ix m 4 X

4

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carmix.com 3 0 0 2 0 N o v e n t a d i P i a v e , Ve n e z i a - I t a l y - Te l . + 3 9 . 0 4 2 1 . 6 5 1 9 1 - i n f o @ c a r m i x . c o m

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012


S10 ATR Sep 2012 Report GH_Layout 1 20/08/2012 11:14 Page 55

MINING

Condition Monitoring

Managing machines and systems Technology helps manage operations and operational costs, but human practices should not be discounted

M

achine systems for waste management include undercarriage systems, ground engaging tools, power train systems and hydraulic systems. Managed well, these machines can support efforts aimed at lowering owning and operating costs on mobile plant, and maintaining the ability to be productive. It is important, in managing waste operations, to focus on theory, practice, and feedback. Operators and engineers know an operator's machines best, so the inclusion of such staff in the systems' management is key. Input from operators', and engagement with operators to deliver better practice, can translate not only into reduced downtime and maintenance costs, but also better productivity, longer component life, and lower fuel costs. A ten per cent fuel reduction, which is achievable, can translate into your currency's equivalent of tens of thousands of US dollars in cost savings. The importance of condition monitoring The cost of pre-emptive maintenance may be but a fraction of costs incurred on repairing a machine that has failed at short notice. Proactive conditioning monitoring, as exemplified by Finsight, offered by Finning, can distinguish a machine's condition from preventable and unpreventable state of failure. And residual values will be higher, too, as they reflect GET and undercarriage expenditure, fuel burn, and component life. Key maintenance practices, then, include condition monitoring and record keeping, allied to operator best practice and consultative support. An operator can save you a fortune or cost you a fortune, and proactive use of technology for condition monitoring - and proactive maintenance can place the emphasis on best practices for saving costs.

A Caterpillar product bearing a lifetime's information on operation, repair and servicing will be a more valuable Caterpillar product

Putting waste technology into action Diversification is key to addressing markets across the continent. Key, also,to a proactive approach to market is condition monitoring and Finning has adopted a 'Repair Before Failure' strategy, to engage more positively with their customers. Where the voice of the customer is paramount, Finning seeks to 'repair it before it fails'. Key to current approaches to condition monitoring, key to the proactive strategy adopted by Finning, is the use of information and communications technologies (ICTs), the use of information collated on the ground, analysed back in the lab, at deployed to serve customer's operations on the front line. Equipment telemetry is fundamental to the efficacious management of this kind of next generation service system. The system itself addresses the following five core elements of condition monitoring: ● Fluid analysis ● Inspections

● ● ●

Equipment telemetry Equipment history Site conditions

Total fleet management is the core aim of condition monitoring. Condition monitoring is about creating a vision and strategy and integrating technology to support asset management. Finsight, developed by Finning, enables identification of best practice processes through proactive utilisation of refined data flows. With Finsight, customers can gain I depth analysis of machines, proactive recommendations for better business practices, and consultative support for short, medium and long term planning. Customers can price jobs accurately because they can plan costs and proactively schedule asset use. And, moreover, a Caterpillar product bearing a lifetime's information on operation, repair and servicing will be a more valuable Caterpillar product. ■

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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MINING

Material Handling

A successful approach to managing material The benefits to be gained from implementation of Weba Chute System’s principles for control of material as it is conveyed

F

rom small beginnings in 1984, M&J Engineering has grown to a point where, today, it is well established as a leading supplier of custom designed systems for bulk materials handling. Key to much of the company’s growth was research undertaken in the early 1990s. M&J Engineering conducted an intensive study into the negative and cost-incurring aspects of conventional chute design. This led to the birth of the Weba Chute System - a streamlined scientific approach to the dynamics of bulk materials handling at transfer points. Success with fine coal and sticky material The same advantages of the Weba Chute System cascade effect, whereby material runs on material, are being achieved with lined chutes and transfer points. Mark Baller, managing director of Weba Chute Systems, says that lined transfer points and chute systems designed and manufactured by the company are proving successful in a number of applications both locally and internationally. Applications include the handling of fine power station coal, synfuel where latex and pine tar binding agents have been added making the material stickier than normal and other difficult materials like limestone. Ensuring material flow Commenting on the decision to use liners in these applications, Baller says that this is generally a material specific application and is applied where the characteristics of the material being conveyed means that the internal angle of friction results in a bonding effect that will inhibit material flow or blockages will occur. “In these instances a lining material is selected that will reduce the amount of friction and facilitate the flow of the material through the chute,” Baller explains. “By applying the Weba Chute System principles we have been able to achieve excellent control of the material being conveyed and virtually eliminate blockages even with the stickiest materials.” In one particular example, power station coal with a particle size of minus 25mm and with an 80 per cent fines content of minus 3 mm the material is being transferred without any hindrance. In addition, issues such as spillages and excessive dust have been addressed through the design of the actual transfer point. Belt loading is another area which is known to create problems in the movement of sticky material and it is essential that the outlet configuration is engineered to achieve optimum belt loading and minimal impact. Each Weba Lined Chute System is custom designed for the specific application taking into accounts factors such as belt width, belt speed, material sizes, shape and throughput.

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

By applying the Weba Chute System principles excellent control of the material being conveyed is achieved

Easy access has been provided for inspection and maintenance purposes. Another advantage is that it does not require ongoing supervision, translating into a saving in manpower and related costs. Extensive experience and technical expertise coupled with applications knowledge has ensured a strong market position for Weba Chute Systems. Technology also plays a strong part, of course. The design of its systems is undertaken using sophisticated 3D computer software. Data received from the customer is always verified, and in many instances the highly skilled personnel at Weba Chute Systems are in a position to make cost-saving recommendations to the customer. ■


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Services

MINING

A southern African hub E

ngineering group Sandvik has now established a regional centralised distribution hub near OR Tambo International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa, near the city of Johannesburg - supporting its customers in the mining and construction industries throughout southern Africa. The new hub is actually the fourth of its kind within the global Sandvik group - and its opening coincided with the group’s 150year anniversary celebrations. The other three strategically-sited warehouses are in the Netherlands, the USA and Singapore. These centralised distribution hubs are characterised by efficient inventory management and advanced logistics to ensure reliability of supply. This distribution philosophy allows the group to ensure rapid deliveries and maintain a broad product offering. Operating from a 16,000 square metre site staffed by a total of 65 temporary and permanent employees, the new distribution hub - known within the Group as C4 - represents the consolidation of six local warehouses - controlling a stockholding of about 28,000 product lines at any one time, from O-rings to 4.5 ton manganese cones, worth in the region of R230mn ($US27.6mn).

Targeting continuous improvement “We’re presently delivering 5 000 lines to customers every week,” Sandvik regional logistics manager, Rodger Winter, says. “With more than 1,2 00 pieces of our equipment operational in southern Africa at the moment, we offer Sandvik employees welcoming guests to the official customers 80 per cent opening of Sandvik's centralised distribution hub in availability on all parts. Wingfield Park This percentage includes both fast and slow moving parts and with continuous improvement programmes in place we are targeting to increase this. We can source and ship the required item within 24 hours and 85 per cent of these customers receive their required parts within six hours of requesting them. Over the course of 2011, our logistics partner travelled 5.3mn kilometres while delivering stock items to southern African customers.” ■

Weba Chute Systems

Absolute Material Flow Control

Tel: +27 (0) 11 827-9372 Fax: +27 (0) 11 827-6132

www.webachutes.com

weba@mjeng.co.za

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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MINING

Electra Mining

Leading technologies for mining operations There is a greater portfolio of product launches and new systems on show at this year’s Electra Mining Africa

A

number of leading mining and mining related industry suppliers will be launching the latest new products and technologies at this year’s Electra Mining Africa trade exhibition. International mining, industrial, construction, power generation and Machine Tools show Electra Mining Africa, taking place in September, enjoys global recognition and is the second largest mining show in the world and the biggest trade exhibition in Southern Africa. Says Gary Corin, Managing Director of Specialised Exhibitions Montgomery, which organises the show, “Exhibitors at the show will be taking advantage of the enormous marketing and sales opportunities provided by the show to launch its latest products and technologies to the South African and African market, as well as to international visitors and inward buying missions organised by the Department and Trade and Industry arm, South African Equipment Export Council.”

DM300 mobile bolter, the DR580 surface mining drill, a compact hybrid crusher and, from its construction range, the DI550 construction drill and the DS210L-M low profile mechanised roofbolter.

Adding value with technology The Multotec Group will exhibit a comprehensive showcase of process and materials handling equipment, services and technical know-how as well as existing, new and value-added technology. Sew Eurodrive will showcase its new electrified monorail system for the first time in South Africa during Electra Mining Africa. Although the technology has been available internationally and is currently working in some of the local automotive plants, these installations has been via European OEMs. MMD Minerals Sizing Africa specialises in the design and development of sizing and ancillary equipment for the mining and allied industries. Engineering group Sandvik will introduce new technology alongside a selection of its world renowned core products at Electra Mining Africa. Mining equipment highlights on the stand will include the company’s new

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African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Xylem will exhibit a total solution for the dewatering of mines at Electra Mining Africa. The company’s extensive rental fleet of 720 units in Africa and its robust stock holding of new units means it is able to satisfy customer demand immediately. MBE Minerals South Africa, formerly Humboldt Wedag, will exhibit static scale models showcasing key elements of its broad range of technology. These will include its Pneuflot flotation, BATAC jig, ROMJIG, Jones Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separator (WHIMS), PERMOS (LIMS), a Palla Vibrating Mill, TESKA HMS Separator and a wide variety of screens and feeders. Expressing the Zest Weg Group’s focus on green energy efficiency, Zest Electric Motors will showcase the motor drive combination of the Weg W22 electric motor coupled with its WEG CFW11 variable speed drive technology. Also on show at the Zest Weg Group stand will be the WEG SSW7000 medium voltage soft starter, which uses advanced technology to provide start/stop control and protection for three-phase medium voltage induction motors in the 2.3 kV to 6.9 kV range. Zest Weg Group’s switchgear division will be introducing its new range of miniature contactors and motor protection circuit breakers with spring loaded terminal connection. Machine Tools Africa and Elenex Africa will be co-located with Electra Mining Africa 2012. Exhibitors at Machine Tools Africa include Talmac Machine Tools which are the sole agents for Faccin, Gasparini, Omera, SIMASV, Mecome and Rolleri from Italy. Also part of Machine Tools Africa, Toolquip and Allied will exhibit its latest range of industrial equipment including: abrasives, band saw blading, HSS and carbide cutting tools, measuring equipment, CNC and conventional machine tools, industrial hand tools, specialised products, toolroom equipment and welding machines and accessories. ■


S11 ATR Sep 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 20/08/2012 11:25 Page 59

DX340LCA

Doosan. The closer you look, the better we get. In construction, quarrying, recycling, waste management and many other industries, the ambition and vision of a project depends on the performance and reliability that only a truly great worldwide manufacturer such as Doosan can offer. With a comprehensive range including Excavators, Wheel Loaders and Articulated Dump Trucks, Doosan equipment optimises productivity and provides solutions for every challenge.

www.doosanequipment.eu


S11 ATR Sep 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 20/08/2012 11:25 Page 60

MINING

Electra Mining

Made for mining, promoting power Product innovations for mineral extraction promoted alongside solutions for power generation and logistics at Electra Mining Africa and its co-located events

S

ince its inception over four decades ago, Electra Mining Africa has grown significantly, offering a comprehensive marketing platform, delivering significant returns on investment (ROI) to participants. Taking place in Johannesburg, South Africa, 10 to 14 September 2012, addressing mining, industrial, construction, power generation, and machine tooling, Electra Mining Africa promises a broad range of products, services and equipment on show, including: ● Mining technology, machinery, equipment and supplies. ● Industrial, engineering and manufacturing products and services. ● Electrical engineering equipment and supplies. ● Bulk materials handling equipment, storage and materials handling systems. ● Equipment, supplies and technology to support safety, health and environmental factors. ● Earthmoving equipment. Co-located for a comprehensive presence Electra Mining Africa is co-located with Elenex Africa, Machine tools Africa, and Transport Expo. Set within the event is the International Infrastructure & Invest Convention (IIIC). Elenex Africa is an internationally respected event promoting power generation, electrical engineering and lighting, including: ● Electrical/electronic equipment. ● Power generation equipment. ● Instrumentation and control equipment. ● Manufacturing and repair equipment. ● Test and measuring equipment. ● Electro-mechanical components. ● Energy conservation equipment. ● Consulting electrical engineering services. Machine tools Africa adds a further dimension to Electra Mining Africa, incorporating a comprehensive range of: abrasives, blading, carbide, hand tools, cutting tools, conventional and CNC machine

60

Electra Mining Africa offers a comprehensive promotion of solutions (Photo: Sandvik)

tools, measuring instruments, welding machines, digital readouts and probing systems, sheet metal technology, press brake tooling, plate rollers, section benders and dish heads, and presses, punches and trimming machines. And, launched in 2010, the Transport Expo will focus on delivering products and innovative solutions in the trucking, transport and logistics industries. Moreover, from 12 to 13 September 2012 the International Infrastructure & Invest Convention will respond to the huge demand for infrastructure development throughout subSaharan Africa. IIIC will be staged by Deutsche Messe and the Southern African-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry and will be fully embedded into Electra Mining Africa. Attending the events, supporting the industry Visitors to Electra Mining Africa and its colocated shows include: directors, owners and general managers; mine managers and supervisors; shift managers and foremen;

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

buyers and project managers; engineers; production managers; metallurgists; safety officers; quality controllers; and analysts. They come from numerous sectoral environments, including: underground mining, surface mining and open-cast mining; power generation; electrical engineering, civil engineering and mechanical engineering; manufacturing; foundries; automotive; oil and gas suppliers, and petro-chemical firms; plant contractors and public works companies; environmental enterprises; safety specialists; transport companies; training and education companies; communications companies; governments and parastatal organisations. The event is supported by a strong drive to attract local and international exhibitors and visitors, with the commitment of industry associations, South Africa’s Department of Mineral Resources and Department of Trade and Industry, and the South African Equipment Export Council (SACEEC). ■ www.electramining.co.za


S11 ATR Sep 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 20/08/2012 11:25 Page 61

Your Partner... ...For Power

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S11 ATR Sep 2012 Equipment_Layout 1 20/08/2012 11:25 Page 62

EQUIPMENT

Mining Why mill liners can no longer be regarded as a commodity In today’s tough economic climate, mill liners can no longer be regarded as a commodity. Mill reliability is becoming paramount to ensure plant productivity and buying cheap liners could jeopardise the required production levels.

Multotec is, therefore, focusing with increasing intensity on identifying millrelated productivity issues in order to implement changes and improvements to liner design and achieve optimum performance and longer life.

Spike Taylor, managing director of Multotec Rubber

“Longer liner life not only reduces the reline frequency, which maximises production levels, but also extends the period of optimal grinding efficiency,” Multotec Rubber’s managing director, Spike Taylor, says. “Although our core business does not include mill liner handling equipment, we’re certainly in a position to advise customers on equipment that will reduce re-line downtime, as well as the safety of re-line operations.” Mr Taylor adds, “To this end, we include attachment systems into our liners that complement new or existing liner handlers and we’re able to custom design liners to suit specific equipment. For example, our Heavy Duty MultoMet liners can be manufactured with lugs that match the liner handling system.”

Passion Through Our People

Coralynne & Associates +27 (011) 422 1949

Multotec Rubber installation team installing rubber liners in a kill box

62

+27 11 723 6000

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

|

www.zest.co.za

Multotec has invested heavily over the past few years in materials handling equipment and moulds for its facilities to increase production efficiencies and reduce costs. These improvements also benefit customers in the form of faster delivery times, OEE (overall equipment effectiveness) and improved operator safety. On the IT side, the company has also made a significant investment into implementing a software package that designs and costs its rubber and rubber composite liners in accordance with best practice for mill liners. “We’ve recognised that while our in-house installation teams are providing a major benefit to customers, the rapidly changing schedules of mill shutdowns present a challenge in terms of deploying the correct manpower at the correct time,” Taylor says.


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PROFILE

Industry From promise to proof

H

ow Hyster is engaging with businesses and supporting project completion through delivery on products and productivity. Its mission to deliver “from promise to proof”. David Bunting, Brand Sales Director, Hyster EMEA, spoke recently of Hyster's continuing commitment to new technology, reduced cost of ownership, and improving customers productivity. He spoke, also, of Hyster's strategic engagement with markets in the Middle East

and in Africa. Under David Bunting's auspices, Hyster is engaging with markets where its name and products are known already for quality and longevity to ensure we are meeting the needs and expectations of both our customers and our dealer partners. It’s very much about focussing on reducing total cost of ownership. It is very much about understanding and anticipating our customer’s expectations. It is a matter of returns on investment that underline commercial viability.

The value proposition Ian Melhuish - Everyone looks at the ticket price, but what companies are looking at, increasingly, is return on investment. Matthew Allen - Consider that the most expensive truck to keep is the truck that has broken down. Factors such as the durability of the product, the reliability of the product, low fuel consumption, as David Bunting affirms, are key to helping our customers control their costs even when renting or leasing a lift truck where maintenance may be included but vehicle damage is not. By designing and manufacturing trucks which, through their robustness, do not damage easily and are efficient to run we are able to continually prove our promises in real world situations. and so serve the on-going success of the business at Hyster.

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

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PROFILE

Industry From trading concern to world-class conglomerate How does a home-grown company become one of the largest business conglomerates anywhere in Africa, profitably employing well in excess of 10,000 people through challenging times? By concentrating on what it does best – industrial manufacturing in the Dangote Group’s case – being visionary (well established in cement and food products, Dangote is now expanding into agricultural inputs via a huge new fertiliser facility in Edo State, and we understand energy products too), and steering clear of problem sectors like banking and finance. With manufacturing and/or reception terminal facilities throughout sub-Saharan Africa – the furthest in Ethiopia and South Africa – ever-expanding Dangote Cement plc is now the largest quoted company in not just Nigeria, but the whole of West Africa, too. During the commissioning of the brandnew six million tonnes per annum plant at Ibese in Ogun State earlier this year President/CEO Aliko Dangote referred to: “Our long term vision to be the number-one cement producer in the world … a panAfrican expansion drive.” He outlined company plans to be in a position to produce a massive 60 million tpa by the end of 2014, which if achieved would be well on the way to achieving that very ambitious target. With large-scale manufacturing facilities in Kogi and Benue States too Dangote’s total roast-and-grind capacity within Nigeria alone currently amounts to an impressive 20mn

64

half-way there already. Thus with interests in manufacturing, importing, packaging, distribution via its own truck fleet and now exportation too Dangote is easily Africa’s most fully integrated cement business. At the latest opening Akin Adesoku, MD of the Plc’s busy Lagos terminal, referred to a new lease of life in the cement business. “We are ready to meet your needs and those of Nigerians at large.”

Alhaji Aliko Dangote, owner of the Dangote Group

tpa; it also operates no less than five separate handling terminals – including two in the busy oil capital of Port Harcourt - that can import and distribute a further 9mn tpa. Already some of these facilities are being turned over to the profitable exportation of Africa’s number-one building material, putting to rest for all time embarrassing and expensive memories of a nation at which cement carriers had to join days-long queues just in order to offload. Diversity in operation Under various brand names such as GreenField in Zambia Dangote also produces traditional top-grade Portland cement in seven other countries, as well as having import reception terminals nearby in Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone. When its processing capacity is expanded as planned the established Obajana plant in Kogi State will be one of the largest single cement plants anywhere in Africa – both North and subSaharan. This will be in excess of 10mn tpa. Eventual plans for the state-of-the-art Ibese factory in Ogun envisage an operating capacity of 12 mn tpa; this just-opened facility is

African Review of Business and Technology - September 2012

Generating employment, providing goods Established in 1981 as a trading concern only the Group is now one of Africa’s most diversified business conglomerates, dealing in the manufacture of food products (sugar, salt, pasta and other wheat products), poly products, port management and nationwide haulage, and real estate, too. Its overall purpose is neatly summed up on the company website ( http://dangote.com ) as “To generate employment and provide goods for the people.” The manufacturing business – now central to its operations – was entered as recently as 1999 with the construction of a series of large-scale food processing facilities, designed to meet the basic daily consumption needs of a huge and fastgrowing population. It went on to commission the largest single integrated cement plant anywhere in SSA in 2003. As a result the Dangote Group is now a fully-fledged conglomerate with an annual turnover in excess of US$3bn – a world-class enterprise by any measure. Its activities are in part carried on by no less than four separate company listings on the Nigerian Stock Exchange – Dangote Sugar Refinery, Flour Mills and National Salt Co as well as the whole continent’s industry-leading cement business. Dangote Cement Plc is currently the largest single quoted business on the entire NSE. And that’s to say nothing of the acclaimed Dangote Foundation, a Corporate Social Responsibility undertaking that facilitates a wide range of humanitarian activities across this fast-growing nation...


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S12 ATR Sep 2012 Solutions_Layout 1 20/08/2012 12:16 Page 66

EQUIPMENT/ CLASSIFIED

Corporate, Business Diplomatic & Tourist Shuttle & Transfer Service in and around Cape Town

Delivery of harvesters shows how purchase programme works

Offering an Oerlikon offers example a new to MIG/MAG African welding machine administrations of the : Citosteel effectiveness 420, which of government enables quality support welding and for Tel: +27 82 837 2973 advanced welding agricultural development, processes New with www.shuttlescapetown.com a simple interface Holland Agriculture at a competitive - which price. Citosteeland manufactures 420sells is designed agricultural in a modular system equipment globally to fit - recently with all users’ delivered requirements. 12 combine harvesters to the It is an optimum Georgian Ministrysolution of Agriculture for carbon as part steel of application a larger purchase in highly demanding markets programme. The company such aswill infrastructure, ultimately supply cranesthe and Ministry heavy with liftinga construction, total of 92 tractors boilerand making, 25 combine earthmoving harvesters, machinery, complemented shipbuilding, by 50 hydroelectric, grain and maize and headers, truck and 25 sunflower railway construction. header kits and 22 dozer blades. Citosteel The first twelve 420 features: TC5070 combine harvesters fitted with 17-foot grain headers werecontrolled handed over to Meqanizatori LLC, the Ministry of ● Fully digital inverter for process repeatability and Agriculture’s farming mechanisation service The machines, consequently higher welding quality with provider. simpler regulation. built at New Holland’s manufacturing plant in Poland, are the ● In Synergic mode, more than 80 synergies arePlock, available for flat first units of the entire programme to be delivered and are ready to current. start harvesting the country. These first units being joined ● Soft switchingaround inverter (increasing efficiency of theare power bysource). thirteen more combines and sixty-seven T6000 Series units from theFull New Holland plant in Basildon, in the UK, which is supplying the ● range of processes: majority of the tractors. Twenty-two TK4060 crawler tractors built in - Standard MIG/MAG.

117 machines are being suplied to Meqanizatori to provide service to farmers in all regions of Georgia with ready-to-use equipment featuring the most advanced technology

New Holland’s tractor plant Jesi,welding Italy, and three high - Speed Short specialty Arc (for high quality thinin sheet & root passes). horsepower in Racine, in the USA, are being - Very high T8.390 quality tractors welds onmade thin material. provided, too. - MIG brazing. As-part of CNH, New Holland plant is dedicated to specific product Gouging (upeach to 6.3 mm diameter electrode). families. This means that each facility has developed specialised - MMA coated electrodes. technical and manufacturing expertise ● Powerful installation up to 420 A at 60 to perachieve cent. the highest levels of Storage quality in order to fully meet eachwire of itsfeeder customer's ● of its 100products weldingin programmes (with expert DMU requirements. P500 or advanced remote control RC JOB).

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S12 ATR Sep 2012 Solutions_Layout 1 20/08/2012 12:16 Page 68


African Review September 2012