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AFTEX Cover Issue 4 2013_cover.qxd 07/02/2014 12:17 Page 1

ISSUE FOUR 2013/ ISSUE ONE 2014 QUATRIÈME EDITION 2013/PREMIÈRE EDITION 2014

Alternate seaming techniques Techniques de couture alternatives

Spotlight on Egypt Heimtextil 2014 review Synthetic dyes on the rise Pleins feux sur l’Egypte Revue d’Heimtextil 2014 Textile demands encouraging innovation of new dyestuffs

Les teintures synthétiques augmentent


S01 AFTEX 4 2013 Start_Layout 1 07/02/2014 12:18 Page 2

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TEXTILE


S01 AFTEX 4 2013 Start_Layout 1 07/02/2014 12:18 Page 3

CONTENTS Developments

4

News of recent textile projects, markets, contracts and events

4

Revue des récents projets textiles, marchés, contrats

Spotlight on Egypt

6

Gloomy economy fails to have an effect on exports

Synthetic Dyes

Développements Pleins Feux sur l’Egypte

6

L’économie lugubre manque d’avoir un effet sur les exportations textiles

12

New dyestuffs on the rise

Teintures synthétiques

12

Les teintures nouvelles augmentent

Heimtextil 2014

16

The German event touches new-high again

Heimtextil 2014

16

L’événement allemand touche encore un nouveau record

Apparel Africa

19

Seaming techniques that save time

Revue d’habillement

19

Les techniques de couture qui permettent d’économiser du temps

Moreover

23

Increasing Indian textile chemicals sales drive market forward

Cover: Alternate Seaming Techniques (Cover Pic : www.spincushion.com) Inset: Synthetic dyes

De plus

23

L’augmentation des ventes de produits chimiques textiles indiennes conduit le marché en avant

Couverture: Techniques de couture alternatives Inset: Colorants Synthétiques

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TEXTILE NEWS Banks to lend US$150 million to Burkina Faso’s cotton firm A GROUP OF national banks, led by Ecobank, would lend about US$150mn to Burkina Faso Fibres and Textiles Company (SOFITEX) to support cotton production in the country, according to local media reports. The loan will support 201314 production, including transportation, ginning, marketing and payment to cotton farmers, according to the agreement. In the previous season, the domestic banks had contributed US$144mn to SOFITEX. Since 2010-11 season, its cotton production has continuously increased, the company said. With 16 cotton ginning factories, SOFITEX is reportedly the largest cotton company in Burkina Faso.

Turkmenistan to sow cotton on 545,000 hectares in 2014 TURKMENISTAN WILL SOW cotton on 545,000 hectares of land to achieve the planned production of 1.05mn tonnes of cotton in 2014, according to the Ministry of Agriculture. The country’s President has assigned the job of cotton sowing and harvesting tools jointly to the Ministry of Agriculture, Turkmenpagta state concern and governors of Akhal, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary provinces. The plan, which is a part of the president’s programme of socio-economic development of the country in 2012-2016, advises rational use of land, water, agricultural machinery and mineral fertilisers as well as further increase of the cotton production volumes on the basis of control of the high quality of land treatment.

Turkey textile mill begins production in Ethiopia MNS MANUFACTURING PLC, a Turkey-based textile company, has begun production of carpets, towels, polyester, and home textiles with an investment of more than US$62mn, The Ethiopian Herald reported. The Turkish company currently is setting up textile production in three phases in Laga Tafo in Oromia state. The first phase of the construction is completed and production has started, while the company is soon going to start construction of the remaining phases, the report added.

Egypt to allocate land for cotton growing in 2014 THE EGYPTIAN MINISTRY of Agriculture and Land Reclamation has announced that it will allocate around 154,377 hectares for more cotton cultivation in the country in 2014. According to Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), exports of cotton from Egypt decreased by 38.8 per cent during JuneAugust 2013 period. Egypt exported 91,600 quintal of cotton during the three-month period of 2013 compared to exports of 149,500 quintal made during the same period in 2012. The amount of ginned cotton reached 19,200 quintal during JuneAugust 2013, as against 318,900 quintal of ginned cotton during the same period in 2012, registering a decline of 94 per cent.

4

TEXTILE CALENDAR / CALENDRIER March 2014 1 - 31

MEGATECH Pakistan 2014

Lahore, Pakistan

www.megatechpakistan.com

3-5

Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics

Shanghai, China

www.intertextileapparel.com

11 - 13

SPINEXPO

Shanghai, China

www.spinexpo.com/shanghai

11 - 13

Techtextil Russia 2014

Moscow, Russia

www.techtextil.messefrankfurt.ru

26 - 29

Texpo Eurasia 2014

Istanbul, Turkey

www.texpoeurasia.com

April 2014 1-3

2014 AATCC International Conference

North Carolina, USA

www.aatcc.org

1-3

DOMOTEX Russia 2014

Moscow, Russia

www.domotex-russia.com/english

23 - 24

Hong Kong Intl Home Textiles And Furnishings Fair

Hong Kong

www.domotex-russia.com/english

May 2014 7-9

Proposte 2014

Cernobbio, Italy

www.propostefair.it

13 - 15

Texprocess Americas 2014

Atlanta, USA

www.texprocessamericas.com

20 - 23

FESPA Digital 2014

Munich, Germany

www.fespa.com

June 2014 16 - 20

ITMA Asia + CITME 2014

Shanghai, China

www.cematex.org

19 - 24

Heimtextil India

New Delhi, India

www.heimtextil.in

July 2014 2-4

FESPA Africa 2014

Johannesburg, South Africa

www.fespa.com

August 2014 27 - 29

Intertextile Shanghai Home Textiles

Shanghai, China

www.messefrankfurt.com.hk

September 2014 24 - 26

Cinte Techtextil China

Shanghai, China

www.techtextilchina.com

October 2014 21 - 24

IGATEX Pakistan 2014

Lahore, Pakistan

www.igatex.pk

May 2015 5-7

Techtextil 2015

Frankfurt, Germany

Further information on these events can usually be obtained from the Embassy (Commercial Office) of the country in question. Des renseignements plus complets sur ces évènements peuvent être demandés de l’Ambassade (Bureau Commerciel) du pays en question

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014


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TEXTILE NEWS Nigeria and India look for closer ties in textile trade Africa,” she added. OLUSEGUN AGANGA, Aganga said that the NIGERIA’S minister of Nigerian government’s industry, trade and investment, aspiration for the textile and has called for effective apparel industry is to increase collaboration with India on its domestic market share from textile trade. its present position of 12 per In a meeting with India’s cent to 25 per cent by 2020. Rani Mallick, the first secretary The minister noted that the in High Commission of India, sector holds strong potential Aganga cited two lessons due to its natural cotton Nigeria could learn from the endowments, large market size Indian experience, namely, her and legacy sector knowledge, success in productivity growth adding that Nigeria’s through smallholder agriculture population of over 167mn and, micro, small and medium The Nigerian government wants to people represents a natural enterprises development, increase its domestic market share market for basic textiles and which requires both marketfrom its present position of 12 per apparel related goods. based incentives and public cent to 25 per cent by 2020 He stated further that the support, as this has formed the potential to export to regional and select cornerstone of the Indian economy. On trade volume between the two countries, developed markets (such as the US under the Mallick said trade volume between India and AGOA tariff regime) are also attractive, just as the Nigeria reached US$16.67bn dollars in 2013, existing textile infrastructure and skill base adding that that the trade relation between the two provides the industry with a pool of countries was favourable to Nigeria. “During the knowledgeable workforce particularly in northern past few years, bilateral trade has doubled and Nigeria. These realities, the minister said, make Indian exports to Nigeria have tripled. Today, the sector too important for government to ignore, Nigeria is India's largest trading partner in local media reported.

China to help Ethiopian textile industry grow ETHIOPIAN PRESIDENT MULATU Teshome has said that China will invest in the country’s textile industry, China Daily reported. Teshome said that China is helping Ethiopia transform its economy, especially through investment in the manufacturing sector. The President added that Ethiopia, along with other African countries, can attract a significant portion of the 80mn manufacturing jobs that China is likely to shed over the next few years, owing to the rising labour costs. He said once the Chinese textile and garment factories are fully integrated into the the economy, the products manufactured would be labeled as Ethiopian. Through manufacturing success, Ethiopia can become a middle-income country, he added.

Turkey’s textile body signs up for sustainability in textile manufacturing THE ULUDAG TEXTILE Exporters Association (UTIB) in Turkey has signed a new project in order to implement clean production of textiles to avoid excessive use of energy and reduce wastage, especially in the textiles finishing sector. According to a statement, the association has signed a project under the Textile Industry Integration Pollution Prevention and Control Communiqué, in order to help textile finishing enterprises to achieve their goals through a more sustainable method and the project would be implemented by the UTIB with support from the Bursa Textile and Apparel Research and Development Center (BUTEKOM). The Communiqué discusses the main issues of production process in enterprises that could negatively impact the environment, and provides an

alternative through minimisation of raw materials and energy and improving efficiency through implementing clean production technology. UTIB president Ibrahim Burkay said that the companies using lesser raw materials and energy create less harmful chemical wastes and help keep the environment clean. Burkay added that the activities to be carried out under the project would include developing models for a cleaner production plan in the Turkish textile finishing enterprises which would create less wastage. Burkay said that the main objective of implementing the project is to ensure that Turkish textile industries carry out manufacturing activities with clean production technologies, and move forward in sustainable development.

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014

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SPOTLIGHT ON EGYPT

Textile producers see light through a tunnel of turmoil, hopes up FDI in Egypt’s textiles and clothing are threatened by the ongoing economic crisis, but the sector continues to remain a leading supplier of quality fabrics worldwide

W

ITH MOST OF Africa booming and economic growth returning to the world’s major textile markets, business analysts are starting to ask, “Is Egypt in danger of being left behind?” The general instability that has been apparent since the overthrow of Mohammed Morsi’s administration, has certainly dented the economy. Tourism is suffering badly and the fear in the textile and clothing industries, which are heavily reliant on overseas markets, is that the much needed foreign direct investment (FDI) will continue to be cut-off at the source. Some may wonder why invest in faction-riven and a seemingly direction-less Egypt when so many better opportunities are offered elsewhere, especially in the Gulf? Much of the headway that has been made by Egyptian entrepreneurs over the last 20 years could be lost to more agile operators elsewhere in North Africa, Turkey and further afield. This is ironic, in light of the current surge in the North American

Combined textile and clothing exports of Egypt accounted for nearly 10 per cent of its 2011 total business

6

textile and clothing markets which have been the mainstay of Egypt’s private sector exporters for so many years. In recovering Europe, it’s pretty much the same story. The situation was well summed up by American Chamber of Commerce’s Isabel Esterman in an article in the latest issue of Business Monthly. She has quoted CEO Mohamed Kassem of Egyptian textiles exporter World Trading Company, on the different attitudes of local and international investors to the ongoing crisis. Talking about Egypt, Kassem reportedly said, “There are sentimental and emotional factors at

Egypt has the potential for structural transformation towards a more productive economy, and for optimal use of its immense resource wealth

play here. That factor does not really figure in observers’ minds, because they only read numbers. They are number crunchers. They don’t care whether you trust the government or you don’t... they want to see things on the ground.” And what they see on Egypt’s troubled ground right now is not pretty. So in the Egyptian textiles and clothing industry, as it is for the rest of the economy, numbers matter the most. While examining the International Trade Statistics 2012 report, presented by the World Bank, most would agree that long-term trends in Egypt are encouraging. Combined textile and clothing exports of Egypt accounted for nearly ten per cent of the total commodity business by the end of 2011. But then it has to be remembered that it was at the beginning of that year that the troubles, often described as the “Arab Spring”, really kicked off. ‘Temporary insanity’ is the term that AmCham Egypt has chosen to employ in its latest monthly review. And the money lenders in the Gulf (and employers of so many expatriate Egyptians) have not been too impressed either. The African Development Bank, in its mid-year Egypt Economic Outlook, said, “Egypt has the potential for structural transformation towards a more productive economy, and for optimal use of its immense resource wealth, provided vital policy reforms are introduced.” The IMF has pointed out that growth will be welcomed if Egypt’s economy manages to expand by at least two per cent in 2013. Meanwhile, workers in the industrial cities of Lower Egypt and the Delta, that include many skilled textile and clothing employees, have to put up with shortages of power, water, road fuel and even bottled gas. They have to pay more for just about everything, because of the weakness of the Egyptian pound and its impact on nearly all imported supplies. One needs to only examine the surge in Egypt’s textile and clothing imports over the last 20 years to understand this. The cost of Indian and European machinery needed for the functioning of factories and workshops has escalated.

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014


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SPOTLIGHT ON EGYPT

The vision needed to make all this right seems to be lacking. One cannot deny that Egypt’s interim administration has gone out of its way to put prominent economists in key positions. Some even have the experience from international institutions which are so heavily frowning on Egypt today (there is nothing unusual here; Cairo has always taken an independent approach in matters such as the pace of privatisation, in textiles in particular). But what potential overseas investors really

want is some kind of clear statement of national objectives, more than the ability to just ‘get by’. They want some sign that the country is starting to pull together, to resolve the factional issues that divide its people, including the organisers of industrial labour. On the positive side, the recent AmCham article did point out that even the US has being going through factional problems of its own of late, leading to the suspension of many Federal services

International Trade Statistics 2012 issued by the World Bank Egypt’s textile and clothing exports 1990-2011 (millions of US$) Textiles Clothing

1990 554 144

2000 411 313

2010 1,292 1,277

2011 1,485 1,380

2010 2,035 608

2011 2,121 399

Egypt’s textile and clothing imports 1990-2011 (millions of US$) Textiles Clothing

1990 211 9

2000 216 11

because the politicians were not prepared to compromise. Despite these shortcomings, all that prime longstaple cotton continues to be grown and successfully harvested in Egypt and many textile and clothing activities carry on as they did before the Mubarak regime was overthrown. In November the Russian supported SmarTex World Textiles Conference took place in the calm environment of Sharm El Sheikh, under the auspices of Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research & Technology. Through March 2014, the nation’s leading International Fair is being held as usual in the capital, that includes a major Fashion & Textile Exhibition. In short, Egypt’s going through a bad patch but definitely not entering the terminal ward. The country continues to remain a leading supplier of high quality fibres, fabrics and finished products to a textile-hungry world. ❑

Jordan’s clothing industry benefits from international trade agreements, knowledge transfer IN RECENT YEARS, the Jordanian garments manufacturing sector has benefitted from the country’s free-trade agreements (FTA) with Western economies. The corner stone to this success was the FTA with the US in 2000 that resulted in the Qualifying Industrial Zone (QIZ) that houses manufacturers from Jordan and Egypt. In 2009 Jordan etched a similar deal with Canada and the Middle East nation is expected to sign a bilateral trade agreement with the European Union as well in the coming days. In the process, the country’s garments manufacturers have gained access to some of the world’s most sought-after clothing markets, along with knowledge transfer and operational insights. These players have also made a conscious effort to differentiate themselves and have gained an edge over competition in the international arena by switching to man-made fibres, which lowered wage costs. Though man-made fibres are more expensive than natural ones like cotton, the FTA with the US has given Jordan access to a very large consumer market that can help offset this cost. As a result in 2010, Jordan’s exports of clothes increased 5.7 per cent from a year ago, and then by 13.7 per cent in 2011. According to figures published by the Central Bank of Jordan, in 2012, the country’s garments exports rose 4.2 per cent. Almost 90 per cent of these exports are to the US, but

Some branded apparel labels have come under considerable public scrutiny in recent days and have been urged to source their goods from ‘ethical manufacturers’. Earlier this year, Jordan signed an agreement with the US to implement better working and living conditions for workers in the country. The ‘Better Work Jordan’ campaign came on the heels of this accord and was designed by the UN’s International Labour Organization (ILO) to promote improved working conditions. The event focussed on topics such as the methods used to recruit migrant laborers, working hours, discrimination, fire safety, and basic conditions on factory floors and inside the workers dormitories.

the new trade relations with Europe Union countries are also improving the prospects of Jordanian textiles manufacturers. Working out an advantage With a budding garments industry, Jordan’s Civil Society and the Jordan Garments, Accessories and Textiles Exporters Association are channelling their efforts into improving safety of workers. This is expected to enhance the industry’s position in the international markets, as Western consumers are increasingly concerned about the conditions under which such products are manufactured.

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014

Addressing concerns While Jordan has risen up in the world’s garments manufacturing arena, it does face the same challenges as the other producer nations in this industry. Garments manufacturers worldwide find it difficult and expensive to obtain credit from banks. Coupled with this are the rising costs of energy and some critics have argued that the regulatory environment is unpredictable. On the other hand, the arrival of foreign capital and the partnerships that come with it would lessen the need for credit, alleviate the burden of energy prices and provide support for clearer rules.

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PLEINS FEUX SUR L'AFRIQUE DU SUD

Les producteurs de textiles sud-africains face à la hausse des prix dans le monde Les performances commerciales ne sont pas encourageantes, mais en se spécialisant dans des produits tels que les toiles de parachute, les tissus pour l'industrie automobile et les vêtements haut de gamme à destination des États-Unis, les négociants du secteur textile exploitent un segment alternatif ous avons commencé à récolter les fruits », a déclaré en janvier 2013, le ministre de l'industrie et du commerce en faisant référence aux mesures du Programme d'amélioration de la compétitivité du secteur Textiles et Habillement (CTCIP) qui ont été prises pour endiguer la sortie de devises étrangères liées aux activités combinées. D'autres sont notamment des incitations à la production et un plan d'aide à la commercialisation des exportations spéciales.

«N

Une « traversée de moments difficiles ces derniers temps », telle était la définition donnée par la fédération du textile (TexFed) un mois plus tard. La TexFed représente les fabricants de tissus tricotés et de laine peignée parmi plusieurs autres associations professionnelles, et travaille en étroite collaboration avec Cotton SA et Cape Wools (les principaux fournisseurs de matières premières). Les signes indiquent clairement que l'industrie sud-africaine du textile et de l'habillement, dont les exportations ont totalisé moins de 500 M d'USD en 2011 tandis que les importations s'élèvent à six fois le montant injecté, a encore beaucoup de retard à rattraper. Le déficit commercial était habituellement une simple fraction de ce montant. Le Conseil d'exportation de l'industrie textile d'Afrique du Sud (SATIEC) est préoccupé par cette situation et met tout en œuvre pour aider les exportateurs tels que Frame Textiles of New Germany (tissus d'habillement), Aranda Textile Mills (Randfontein, matières d'ameublement/matières tendances) et Gelvenor (Hammarsdale, la plupart des produits y compris les textiles techniques et des toiles de parachute haut de gamme) à réduire le déficit. L'appel à une plus grande stabilité économique en particulier se fait souvent entendre en Afrique du Sud. Selon Helena Claassens, la spécialiste du marketing de la TexFed « Un environnement économique stable a une importance cruciale pour toute croissance future ». La récente dévaluation du

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Commerce du textile et de l'habillement en 2000-2011 Afrique du Sud (en millions d'USD) 000

2010

2011

% total des échanges 2005

2011

Textiles : Exportations Importations

237 569

231 1145

235 1385

0,6 1,6

0,2 1,4

218 223

101 1363

119 1529

0,3 1,5

0,1 1,5

Habillement : Exportations Importations

L'Afrique du Sud demeure le plus grand marché unique de consommation de la région sub-saharienne, et les détaillants y font dans une large mesure de la vente par correspondance dans les pays voisins rand est une bonne nouvelle pour les deux industries, et dans l'ensemble, le marché boursier (JSE) se porte bien. Mais la situation dans l'industrie textile (hausse des prix des intrants indispensables comme le coton, le transport et l'énergie), et dans le secteur connexe de l'habillement, n'est pas satisfaisante (perte de 50 000 emploi au cours de ces 10 dernières années, bas salaires prédominant au milieu des allégations de sous-facturation des importations concurrentes et ainsi de suite). Le taux de chômage est à un niveau inacceptable, dépassant les 25 % dans tous les secteurs de l'économie ; le marché du travail dans l'industrie est généralement rétif, et les élections qui pourraient faire évoluer toute cette situation auront lieu l'année prochaine. En bref, c'est un amalgame solide car presque tous les prix continuent à augmenter, et la situation dans d'autre pays qui sont des

membres influents du groupe de la zone « BRIC » (dont la Chine) donnent des signes d'essoufflement. La vérité indéniable est que l'industrie textile qui était un des plus grands employeurs du secteur manufacturier d'Afrique du Sud est devenue en quelque sorte un faire-valoir ; la production représente désormais moins de deux pour cent de la production totale. De 2010 à 2011, la production a chuté de plus de 10 pour cent ; l'utilisation des capacités est tombée à environ 71 pour cent, malgré la fermeture de nombreuses usines. Néanmoins, le chiffre d'affaires a progressé et les exportations, ainsi qu'il est indiqué ci-dessus, ont été fortement stimulées par le dynamisme du commerce de la laine brute. Néanmoins, dans le même temps , un « secteur prêt à rebondir » est une opinion plus encourageante émise par un représentant de l'association professionnelle des fabricants de vêtement d'Afrique du Sud (Apparel Manufacturers of South Africa, AMSA). Cette confiance repose sur les preuves attestant des difficultés croissantes rencontrées par la Chine, sa rivale (pénurie de main-d'œuvre qualifiée et hausse des salaires) mais aussi sur l'avantage clé détenu par l'Afrique du Sud en ce qui concerne la « rapidité d'accès au marché » dans le cas des États-Unis (facilitée par les dispositions de la loi sur la croissance et les opportunités en Afrique (African Growth & Opportunity Act), un accord de libreéchange avec l'Union européenne qui connaît

TEXTILES AFRIQUE ET MOYEN ORIENT 4ÈME EDITION 2013 / 1ÈRE EDITION 2014


S02 AFTEX 4 2013 Spotlight_Layout 1 07/02/2014 12:19 Page 9

PLEINS FEUX SUR L'AFRIQUE DU SUD

L'industrie de l'habillement reste le segment à plus forte intensité de main d'��uvre du secteur manufacturier d'Afrique du Sud

une remontée de l'euro et le dynamisme des ventes aux deux extrémités -inférieure et supérieure- du marché intérieur. L'Afrique du Sud demeure le plus grand marché unique de consommation de la région sub-saharienne, et les détaillants qui y sont établis font dans une large mesure de la vente par correspondance dans les pays voisins (d'où provient une part si importante du coton nécessaire ; la laine de haute qualité reste quant à elle un produit d'exportation majeur). Cependant, l'AMSA a fait référence en même temps aux « entreprises non conformes opérant dans l'industrie », ce qui fait partie d'une longue histoire inachevée portant sur le piège mortel de la « course au nivellement par le bas » des coûts salariaux (en particulier chez les femmes) dans les provinces à forte concentration de l'industrie de l'habillement comme les provinces de KwaZulu-Natal, du CapOriental et du Cap-Occidental. L'industrie de l'habillement reste le segment à plus forte intensité de main d'œuvre du secteur manufacturier d'Afrique du Sud, même si l'emploi total a chuté de façon spectaculaire depuis la réduction progressive des tarifs protectionnistes dans les années 1990. Le Conseil National de négociation de l'industrie textile a eu beaucoup de mal à maintenir les salaires à leur niveau actuel,

L'industrie de l'habillement reste le segment à plus forte intensité de main d'œuvre du secteur manufacturier d'Afrique du Sud, même si l'emploi total a chuté de façon spectaculaire dans les négociations en cours avec l'AMSA, dont certains membres sont désormais considérés comme étant aux mains des Chinois). Les syndicats affirment que les pertes d'emplois observées ne sont pas le résultat de revendications salariales irréalistes, mais sont plutôt tout simplement dues au fait de ne pas intervenir suffisamment pour contrôler le niveau des importations « illégales » et les pratiques de sous-facturation prétendument répandues et au fait que d'autres fournisseurs extrême-orientaux sont eux aussi venus profiter de la manne (comme l'éphémère coup de pouce apporté par la Coupe du Monde). La Chine reste la principale source d'importations de textiles et de vêtements. Les activités commerciales dans ces deux secteurs ont plongé en 2007 et 2008 en raison des quotas, de la concurrence des Vietnamiens qui ont su exploité la faille.

TEXTILES AFRIQUE ET MOYEN ORIENT 4ÈME EDITION 2013 / 1ÈRE EDITION 2014

Toutefois, stimulée par de nombreux investissements internes nécessaires, la valeur de la plupart des aspects des activités commerciales chinoises a rapidement remonté la pente depuis. Cette tendance a été reconnue dans de nombreux secteurs de l'économie de l'Afrique du Sud. La réponse du gouvernement réside dans l'efficacité démontrée par le Programme CTCIP précédemment mentionné qui aurait déjà été bénéfique à plus de 400 entreprises. Plus de 10 000 nouveaux emplois sont réputés avoir été créés dans les deux secteurs industriels en conséquence, dans le processus endiguant ce qui a été allégué comme la création effective de nouveaux emplois dans le textile et l'habillement ailleurs dans la zone plus étendue de la Communauté de développement d'Afrique australe (SADC) car les salariés en Afrique du Sud ont dû lutter pour conserver leurs conditions de travail chez eux. Les termes « destruction d'emploi » et « désindustrialisation » sont des termes indésirables qui ont été colportés sans retenue. Et Helena Claassens de la TexFed a fait référence de façon très spécifique au « fléau que constituent les importations illégales et sous-évaluées de vêtements et de textiles » dans une récente édition du magazine Cotton Africa publié à Nairobi de la .Fédération des industries de coton & textiles africain (ACTIF). ❑

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TEXTILE NEWS Coats launches three high temperature-resistent yarns UK-BASED COATS, an industrial thread and consumer textile crafts business, is launching Aptan xtru, an innovative new high tenacity, coated, engineered yarn. Manufactured from high temperature resistant PVC polymer, it can withstand extreme mechanical stress as well as contact with chemicals and fuels and is specifically designed for vehicle harness wiring systems used in automotive, marine and aerospace sectors. Aptan xtru has a high tenacity nylon core for strength and is designed to create the braided protective cover over vehicle harness wiring systems. The flame retardant PVC coating is available in a wide colour range with either a matt or gloss finish and there are also options for anti-microbial coating and colour matching. Andrew Morgan, research and development director, Coats, said, “Our customers are constantly reviewing and improving the safety features of their vehicles. Aptan xtru is a prime example of working with an industry sector to help improve safety standards.” Aptan xtru is supplied on specific types of tube that fit braiding machines used in the production of vehicle harness wiring systems and is manufactured under automotive manufacturing quality assurance specifications. Coats also recently launched two products — Flamepro and Signal — at the A+A, an international trade fair on safety, security and health at work, held recently in Dusseldorf, Germany. Flamepro is a range of flame, electric arc and cut resistant yarns, which can be used for protective equipment, while Signal is a collection of reflective tapes for high visibility applications. Shantanu Banerjee, MD, global speciality, said, “Our company has developed Flamepro and Signal with a detailed understanding of the flame protection and safety standards that govern the production of personal protective equipment. We have combined this with our long-standing expertise in yarns and trims to produce safe and practical products.”

Oerlikon’s new winder boosts yarn production by 20 per cent OERLIKON BARMAG, BRAND of Oerlikon’s Manmade Fibers Segment, has launched new yarn winder the Winding INtegrated Godet Solution (WINGS) POY 1800 for the efficient production of polyester fibres. The new winding unit boosts productivity by another 20 per cent using virtually the same amount of production space as the previous model. “With WINGS POY 1800, we are once again underscoring our technological leadership in the area of filament spinning. We will use this technology to sustainably bolster our market share of more than 40 per cent in the man-made fibre machinery industry,” said Stefan Kross, CEO of Oerlikon’s Manmade Fibers Segment. Oerlikon Barmag is the developer and manufacturer of complex spinning plants for the production of man-made fibres. About 40 per cent of the man-made fibres produced worldwide are processed on Oerlikon Barmag equipment. The yarns are used in products such as clothing, tire cord, seat belts, cushions and technical textiles like geotextiles.

WINGS POY 1800

WINGS reportedly which requires more than 30 per cent less space. Oerlikon Barmag introduced WINGS to the market in 2007 ushering in a totally new generation in man-made fibre spinning. More than 14,000 WINGS POY units have been sold since 2007 for the yarn types preoriented yarn (POY) and fully-drawn yarn (FDY). “Unlike any other spinning products in the marketplace, WINGS delivers efficient and profitable filament production while supplying the highest level of yarn quality,” Kross added.

Uster Technologies Limited acquires cotton cleaner Jossi Systems USTER TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED, manufacturer of products for quality measurement and certification for the textile industry, has acquired Jossi Systems AG to complement and strengthen its position as the world leader in yarn quality management. Jossi Systems, based in Waengi, Switzerland, producer of systems for cleaning cotton and removing contaminating material from cotton at the first stages of production in the spinning mill. Uster Technologies has acquired 100 per cent of the shares of Jossi Systems AG, plus all intellectual property relating to the company, from Jossi Holding AG. The transaction was finalized for an undisclosed amount. Geoffrey Scott, CEO of Uster Technologies, said, “Jossi is a long-standing company in the area of cotton cleaning and contamination removal. They have a fine reputation as a quality supplier and their products fit perfectly with Uster Technologies, complementing our existing product range. The problem of removing disturbing foreign matter from cotton is one of the major challenges faced by any quality-minded spinning mill. "The combination of Jossi’s products with the USTER QUANTUM 3 yarn clearer, and the deep knowledge that exists in our two companies, means that USTER can now offer a complete solution to customers to tackle this challenge.” “We are very happy with Uster Technologies as the new owner of Jossi Systems”, added Armin Jossi, CEO of Jossi Holding AG.

Kodak and PurThread partner to develop antimicrobial textiles PURTHREAD TECHNOLOGIES AND Eastman Kodak Company have partnered to develop an antimicrobial coated material meant for use in the medical textile industry. According to the deal, PurThread will embed Kodak’s antimicrobial agent into textile materials. The agent will be put into synthetic fibres before they are spun into yarn and woven into

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fabric, ensuring that the antimicrobial effects of the fabric are uniform and constant throughout the life of the product. Kodak, which developed the agent, has specialised in the production of photosensitive materials. PurThread’s product line includes healthcare textiles, such as medical scrubs, lab coats, privacy curtains and linens, as well as fitness apparel,

like polo shirts and base layers. Lisa Grimes, chief executive officer, PurThread Technologies said, “We are extremely pleased with the efficacy of Kodak’s antimicrobial agent and their stewardship in the development of our textile technology.” The company plans to continue research on textile products that can be used in infection control strategies.

Tom McHugh, general manager for Kodak’s digital printing and enterprise said, “The antimicrobial technology sector is an exciting new venture for Kodak. Because of PurThread’s unique manufacturing process and expertise, we are delighted to be working with them to market products using our propriety materials and technology.”

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TEXTILE NEWS Nonwoven materials and products market to reach US$45 billion by 2019 THE REVENUE GENERATED by the nonwoven materials and products market globally was US$28,784mn in 2012 and is expected to reach US$45,364mn by 2019, growing at a CAGR of 6.7 per cent from 2013 to 2019. This was revealed in the Transparency Market Research report Nonwoven Materials & Products (Polypropylene, Polyester, Nylon and Others) Market For Disposable and Durable Applications—Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 - 2019. The global demand for nonwoven materials and products was 8,176kg tonnes in 2012, the report added. Durable applications market is the largest application area for nonwoven materials and products followed by disposable applications market. Durable applications include home furnishings, wall coverings, coating substrates, apparel interlinings, roofing products and geotextiles. Disposable applications include adult incontinence products, baby diapers, disposable wipes, feminine hygiene products, linens, medical or surgical products, filters, disposable garments and fabric softener substrates. Moreover, durable applications market is the fastest growing market for nonwoven materials and products. The rising global demand for medical disposable supplies is expected to be the major driver for the growing consumption of nonwoven materials and products. The durable applications segment dominated the demand for nonwoven materials and products and accounted for 59.6 per cent of the global demand in 2012. The increasing use of durable nonwovens in various industrial, construction and agricultural applications is expected to trigger the demand for nonwoven materials and products across the globe. The growing nonwoven medical disposables market is expected to be anotherkey factor driving thedemand for nonwoven materials and products. The rising demand for nonwoven materials and productsin the medical, construction and agriculture industriesisanticipated to drive the global nonwoven materials and productsmarket in the next six years. The global nonwoven materials and productsmarket was dominated by the Asia Pacific region, which accounted for 40.4 per cent of global volume consumption in 2012. Growth of the nonwoven materials and products market in Asia Pacific is mainly driven by the increasing demand from the medical agriculture industry in countries such as China and India. Asia Pacific was followed by Europe with 22.4 per cent share in total volume consumption. The market saturation and product maturation in the North American and European region has led the major market players to focus on the attractive Asia Pacific market.

Needling Lines for Filter Fabrics

Cellulosic fibre: The new substitute for cotton FACED WITH SOARING raw cotton prices in 2011, many textile and apparel producers switched to man-made fibres or started to use a greater proportion of man-made or cellulosic fibres in blends. In fact, the rise in global cellulosic fibre production in 2012 was due almost wholly to expansion in the man-made fibre industry in China. In percentage terms, Chinese cellulosic fibre output rose by 17.3 per cent in 2012 after growing by 19.5 per cent in 2011. Cellulosic fibre production is set to continue growing rapidly in the coming years, according to a report in Textiles Intelligence. By the end of the 21-month period (March 2013 to December 2014), Chinese capacity will represent 64.2 per cent of the global total while India will account for 9.9 per cent. Cellulosic fibre production worldwide rose by a healthy 11 per cent in 2011 compared with a 3.7 per cent rise in global demand for fibres of all types. Furthermore, cellulosic fibre production grew by an even faster 12 per cent in 2012, while world fibre demand continued to grow by 3.7 per cent. Looking ahead, global cellulosic fibre capacity is expected to rise by 13.7 per cent in the 21 months, while demand for cotton in the 2013/14 season is projected to rise by a much slower 2.1 per cent.

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014

Needled filter fabrics for cleaner air and water

DiloGroup P. O. Box 1551 69405 Eberbach / Germany Phone +49 6271 940-0 Fax +49 6271 711 42 info@dilo.de, www.dilo.de

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SYNTHETIC DYES

New dyestuffs use on the rise due to ever-expanding textile industry By Ian Holme

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N 2012, A study on global fibre trends indicated that world fibre production increased by 4.5 per cent from a year ago to 85.8mn tonnes. Synthetics now dominate the global fibre market, growing by six per cent to reach 56mn tonnes, of which polyester fibre comprised 41.4mn tonnes. A World Synthetic Fibres Study by Tecnon OrbiChem, London, has forecast that global synthetic fibre production will grow to 110.5mn tonnes by 2020, and to 132mn tonnes by 2025. Production will ramp up due to the growing global population and improved prosperity of individuals, coupled with shorter fashion cycles. In addition, there will be growth in innovative textile materials and new product applications. New product applications will be particularly important in the area of technical textiles, as markets for these products are increasingly diverse and expanding significantly. This will be fuelled by greater industrialisation in countries in the Middle East and Africa (MENA), while improved standards in hygiene would stimulate demand for non-wovens. There is also continuing growth in bio-based polymers which are chemically identical to those derived from petrochemicals, but are partially derived from bio-mass. Biopolyester (bio-PET) fibre production is likely to grow to around five million tonnes by 2020, partially based on production of bioethanol from sugar cane. However the expansion in bio-PET is more likely to occur in Asia and South America because of better access to feedstock and favourable political frameworks. In the natural fibre sector, cotton fibre production has been estimated at 25.4mn tonnes between 2011 and 2013. Twelve countries, including the USA, Argentina, Australia, South Africa, India and China, are producing biotech cotton, also known as ‘transgenic’ or ‘genetically engineered’ cotton. These account for about 77 per cent of the global cotton production and 92 per cent of the global biotech cotton produced. In light of these developments, the major areas of activity for dyemakers and textile chemical along with their blends.

Textile Dyestuffs A report from Transparency Market Research has forecast that the global textile chemicals market would grow by 20 per cent to US$23.4bn by 2018 from present levels. In 2011, colourants and auxiliaries amounted to 26.9 per cent of the market, but the major sector was coating and sizing

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Production of textiles is expected to ramp up in the near term due to the growing population and improved prosperity of individuals

New product applications will be particularly important in the area of technical textiles, as markets for these products are expanding significantly chemicals which captured a 32.1 per cent share. Another sector comprising surfactants, desizing agents, bleaching agents and yarn lubricants occupied 22.9 per cent of the global textile chemicals market. In 2011, the Asia-Pacific region dominated the global textile chemicals market with a share of around 52.3 per cent. This is likely to be the fastest growth market with an average growth rate of four per cent between 2013 and 2018. Reactive dyestuffs for cotton and other cellulosic fibres are still a major area of interest for dyemakers globally. Modern trends in the industry, that entail using bright fashion colours in medium-deep shades, favour high colour fastness dyestuffs in the reactive and vat dye ranges, for both apparel and household textiles. Reactive dyestuffs are produced as monofunctional, bi-functional or polyfunctional

systems. Both homo-bifunctional and heterobifunctional reactive dyes are widely used. The increase in the number of fibre-reactive functional groups in the dyestuff molecule increases the potential dye fixation value on the fibre, thereby decreasing the amount of unfixed and hydrolysed reactive dyestuff to be removed by extensive washing-off after dyeing. Increasing the functionality of the dyestuff reactive system increases the dyestuff cost, but this is balanced by greater fixation, shorter dyeing /wash off times and less colouring in a lower volume of waste water. Huntsman Textile Effects has extended their reactive dyestuff range by introducing the Avitera SE tri-reactive dyestuffs that includes the new Avitera Light Red SE. This dye has to be combined with Avitera Yellow SE, Avitera Cardinal SE and Avitera Light Blue SE on pale shades. For medium depths of shade Huntsman recommend Avitera Yellow SE, Avitera Cardinal SE, Avitera Red SE and Avitera Blue SE. Dark shades can be obtained by using Avitera Orange SE, Avitera Cardinal SE, Avitera Red SE and Avitera Deep Blue SE. For very deep shades that are often requested, Huntsman recommends Avitera Orange SE, Avitera Cardinal SE and Avitera Navy SE. Huntsman’s Avitera SE innovations are considered a major step forward in reactive dye

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SYNTHETIC DYES applications. Exhaust dyeing and washing off can be carried out at temperatures up to 60°C. In addition the lower amount of unfixed reactive dyestuff (generally five per cent or less) greatly decreases the number of rinsing baths and the total wash-off time. This increases machine productivity and water, energy and carbon emissions can reduce to 50 per cent. DyStar has complemented their Remazol RGB and Remazol Ultra RGB reactive dye ranges with a novel wash-clearing additive. The Sera Fast CRD has been formulated to speed up the removal of hydrolysed reactive dyestuffs at 60°C. It encompasses a pronounced wash-accelerating action which leads to significant savings in water, energy and processing time. This has a positive impact on machine productivity and the process sustainability. DyStar has introduced Levafix Amber CA-N, a non-photochromic yellow dye designed for application in ternary pale-medium shades. As a replacement for the Levafix Amber CA, this new dyestuff provides significant less staining on polyamides, together with high colour fastness to hydrogen peroxide and chlorine. Similarly, the Levafix Red CA-N is an alternative to the Levafix Red CA and provides a bluish-red dyestuff suitable for ternary shades in medium-dark shades. Both these new reactive dyestuffs are applicable via exhaust or continuous processes. For polyester dyers, the commercialisation of the first industrial scale sCO2 fabric dyeing machine offers a quantum shift in waterless dyeing. Three-beam dyeing machines have been installed in a dyehouse in Thailand and these are capable of dyeing fabric batches of 175-200kg, depending upon the fabric thickness and weight per unit area. In sCO2 dyeing, specially developed dispersable dyestuffs are used from Triade, Netherlands, in machines made by DyeCOO Textile Systems BV. The disperse dyes for sCO2 dyeing are marketed under the DyeCOO brand name. In sCO2 dyeing, nearly all the dye is absorbed by the polyester, the process generates no

waste water and 95 per cent of the CO2 is recycled into the next batch. Dyeing is conducted at 130°C under a pressure of 300 bar, so that engineering is robust and of quality standards. The dyed fabric emerges dry from the machine. This eliminates the need for thermal drying to remove water. The decreased energy consumption and chemical usage is said to reduce production costs by up to 50 per cent. Currently, DyeCOO is working with Huntsman to extend the sCO2 technology and the first products are likely to emerge for finishing agents and fluorescent brightening agents.

Textile Auxiliaries and Finishes Germany-based firm Rudolf has introduced the Rucogal ERL, a non-ionic diffusion accelerator for dyeing polyester and polyester blends. A lowfoaming, self-emulsifying product, Rucogal ERL is a liquid product based upon a fatty alcohol ethoxylate and a fatty acid ester. Rucogal ERL is resistant to water hardness and acids under normal dyehouse conditions, and can be applied in all types of dyeing machinery. It imparts good colour-intensifying effects and excellent levelling performance. The ITOSOLT LJ550 from UK’s LJ Specialities has been specifically engineered to provide excellent removal of oil from greige fabrics coupled with excellent dispersion to prevent oil redeposition on the fabric. For dye dispersions at high temperatures, LJ Specialities produced the TOSOLT SN550. This auxiliary product is also designed to eliminate problems of dye spotting or staining of machinery. India’s Sarex Chemicals has introduced Careguard FF, which is a fluorine-free, ecofriendly

Anti-static finishes for polyester materials are essential to avoid garment clinging and build up of static

In sCO2 (supercritical carbon dioxide) dyeing, used by DyeCOO, nearly all the dye is absorbed by the polyester and the process generates no wastage of water

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014

durable water repellent finish for outdoor, leisure and sportswear fabrics. Careguard FF is based on a hydrocarbon matrix with hyper-branched polymers that make it durable for more than 20 washing treatments. Suitable for LAD (Laundry Air Dry) aftercare treatments, the Careguard FF is free of paraffin wax and formaldehyde and designed for application to cellulosic fibre fabrics and cellulosic/synthetic blend fabrics. Huntsman has introduced its EverGlide Low Friction Systems, a textile finish for all types of substrates that can reduce fabric-to-skin friction in sportswear. This finish imparts a soft, silky handle and has already demonstrated that it is four times more effective than conventional softners on nylon/elastane and polyester knitted fabrics. Huntsmans EverGlide Low Friction Systems have low yellowing properties and do not affect fabric whiteness under moulding conditions or thermomigration. The finish is highly durable and performs well under wet conditions. It has the added advantage of incorporating a ‘cool comfort’ moisture management system that promotes fast drying and body temperature regulation. For many applications, anti-static finishes for polyester materials are essential to avoid garment clinging and build up of static. Rudolf’s Ruco Stat ADM is based on a cationic alkyl ethoxylate. This is applicable by exhaustion or padding to polyester or polyamide fibres without any influence on fabric handle. The fibres also need to be resistant to mild washing. With the Ruco Stat ADM, no curing is required to impart durability to the fibre. The combination of Ruco Stat ADM with hydrophilic finishes such as Feran ICS can enhance the anti-static effect. In the textile flame retardant sector, companies are facing increasing pressure from ecotoxicologists due to the use of halogenated flame retardants, particularly of bromine-based flame retardants. Hence, many chemical companies are conducting research to find alternatives to products like DecaBDE (decabromodiphenyl ether), which has been widely used in back coating formulations. UK-based Avocet Dye & Chemical produce their Cetaflam BC6 range which reportedly uses the best available DecaBDE-equivalent flame retardant technology. Ready-to-use compounds or additive blends are available and the Cetaflam BC6 claims to conform to all current environmental legislations. Avocet also has its Cetaflam BC8 range which is totally halogen-free and can be complemented with specially blended additives, where the textile coater can compound on-site. Other novel products for textile coating are TANA COAT OMP, designed by Tanatex Chemicals. This product can be used as a soft basecoat, together with TANA COAT MTO as a medium hard topcoat. Notable features of this coating combination are the high light fatness properties and resistance to UV radiation. This coating system provides very good resistance to hydrolysis and in addition, the final coating is resistant to the action of mildew and fungi. ❑

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LES TEINTURES ÉCOLOGIQUES

L'amélioration des machines de teinture contribue au développement durable par Ian Holme a teinture des textiles est un domaine de la technologie textile qui a résolument adopté une approche « verte » ou écologique pour le traitement par voie humide. Les fabricants de machines de teinture ont conçu de nouvelles approches de la teinture des textiles, fondées sur l'innovation dans la conception des machines, associées à l'automatisation et même à la robotique. C'est ainsi qu'au cours des trois dernières décennies, est apparue une nouvelle génération de machines à faible rapport de bain de teinture, pour la teinture de fibres lâches, de câbles de filature,d'écheveaux de fils, de tissus et de vêtements avec beaucoup moins d'impact sur l'environnement.

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L'utilisation d'un rapport de bain inférieur apporte, à la fois au fabricant de machine de teinture et aux teinturiers, des avantages considérables pour la teinture par épuisement. Un rapport de bain plus faible signifie que la concentration du colorant dans le bain de teinture est plus forte et la diffusion du colorant dans les fibres est favorisée par une concentration élevée du colorant. De plus, comme la quantité de bain de teinture en circulation est moindre, la circulation de la totalité du bain de teinture s'effectue plus rapidement et, à chaque circulation du bain une petite quantité de colorant est adsorbée. En outre, la vitesse de montée en température peut être augmentée en raison du moindre volume de bain de teinture. En conséquence, l'absorption du colorant est plus rapide, ce qui réduit la durée du cycle du procédé de teinture ; en outre, les quantités d'eau, d'énergie et de vapeur consommées par cycle de teinture sont nettement diminuées. La quantité d'eaux résiduaires issues du procédé de teinture par épuisement est également diminuée ce qui réduit le coût du traitement des effluents et l'impact sur l'environnement est également réduite. En conséquence, un procédé de teinture avec un faible rapport de bain de teinture est considéré comme une approche plus conforme aux principes du développement durable, car il utilise moins de ressources mondiales importantes comme l'eau et l'énergie. En effet, le concept de développement durable revêt une importance de plus en plus grande dans le monde entier alors que la population

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Les machines de teinture à jet de la série TEC de Fong sont conçues pour différentes capacités de tissu par chambre

La clé de la survie d'une entreprise de teinture consiste à satisfaire les demandes de ses clients qui souhaitent obtenir une meilleure qualité de la teinture et du finissage des matières textiles mondiale ne cesse de s'accroître et que la consommation des ressources de la terre est en augmentation constante. Un autre facteur important pour les fabricants de machines textile a été la demande croissante d'un niveau plus élevé de en matière de technologie de fabrication de machines. Comme la concurrence est acharnée dans le domaine des procédés de traitement par voie humide, la clé de la survie d'une entreprise de teinture consiste à satisfaire les demandes de ses clients qui souhaitent obtenir une meilleure qualité de la teinture et du finissage des matières textiles. Les fabricants de machines de teinture ont dû relever tous les défis susmentionnés et résoudre des problèmes pratiques inhérents à la teinture des tissus tels que la prévention de la formation de marques de plis. Il ne s'agit pas d'une question simple, en particulier dans

les machines de teinture dotée d'une capacité de charge élevée, et avec certains types d'étoffes tricotées, comme les tissus en jersey à maille simple. Les tissus contenant un pourcentage élevé d'élasthanne sont particulièrement sensibles aux conditions de traitement rencontrées lors de la teinture par épuisement à chaud.

Technologie Then de Fong Le Groupe Fong intègre la technologie de la teinture textile Then et sa machine de teinture Then-Lotus est spécialement conçue pour le traitement par voie humide des tissus sensibles tels que les tissus contenant près de 50 pour cent d'élasthanne, ainsi que les tissus structurels, les tissus antibalistiques, les toiles de parachute, tous les types de tissus utilisés dans le domaine automobile et même les tissus fonctionnels des articles de sport. La machine Then-Lotus est conçue comme une technologie « sensible à long tube » ; C'est la première machine de teinture de type jet à long tube qui intègre la technologie AirFlow de Then. Ce système de traitement par voie humide, à la pointe du progrès, pour la teinture de tissu est en mesure de fonctionner avec un rapport de bain de teinture/articles traités plus faible qui est de un à deux, ce qui permet aux teinturiers de réaliser des économies considérables d'eau, d'énergie et de produits chimiques, et

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LES TEINTURES ÉCOLOGIQUES constitue une approche de la teinture des textiles plus conforme aux principes du développement durable. Un problème constant de la teinture au jet des étoffes tissées et des tissus à mailles, en particulier dans les machines de teinture à haute capacité est la probabilité de formation de marques de plis. Le pré-thermofixage du tissu sur une rameuse en pleine largeur, ou pour les tissus tubulaires l'hydrofixage sous l'eau ou le vapofixage ont été pratiqués afin de libérer les tensions internes auxquelles ont été soumis les tissus. Cette approche s'accompagne souvent de l'utilisation de lubrifiants et d'adoucissants pour textiles qui diminuent le frottement des fibres entre elles à l'intérieur du tissu et contribuent à éliminer la formation de plis pendant la teinture. Cependant, ces deux approches augmentent les coûts globaux du traitement et sont susceptibles d'entraîner d'autres problèmes comme par exemple des variations de température lors du thermofixage susceptibles d'avoir une incidence sur la teignabilité (tinctabilité) des fibres et conduire à des problèmes de nuançage. En outre, certains lubrifiants/adoucisseurs peuvent générer de la mousse dans les conditions de turbulences du bain de teinture en circulation caractérisant la teinture de type jet.

Des machines de Fong abordables La nouvelle génération à savoir la Série TEC de Fong et ses machines de teinture à jet HTHP (haute températures haute pression) ont été conçues pour apporter une réduction des coûts, une qualité élevée et une protection de l'environnement grâce à une conception d'avant-garde. Lors de l'exposition ITMA à Barcelone, Fong a présenté sa machines de teinture à jet -JUMBOTEC 2-2T , équipée du contrôleur couleur multifonction FC30. Ce contrôleur de programme de nouvelle génération comporte un écran TFT LCD couleur de 6,5 pouces, 640 x 480 pixels, qui, avec de nouvelles fonctions de contrôle permet au contrôleur du programme FC30 de fournir un système de contrôle du cycle de teinture plus efficace. Le FC30 peut également être intégré à ViewTex de Fong et au système informatique de commande TDS Then, et apporter de ce fait aux teintureries textiles un système de commande et de régulation complet. Les machines de teinture à jet de la Série TEC Fong sont conçues pour différentes capacités de tissu par chambre. La Jumbotec (300 kg par chambre) est la plus grande machine, suivie par la Miditec (250 kg par chambre) et par la Minitec (200 kg par chambre) mais les trois séries TEC de machines de teinture sont toutes conçues pour fonctionner à des températures pouvant aller jusqu'à 140 ° C maximum avec une pression

nominale maximale de trois bars. Le rapport de bain en circulation minimum, à l'exclusion du bain retenu dans le tissu, est de 1:1,4.

Traitement au sel Les machines Jumbotec de Fong ont mis en place un nouveau réservoir d'addition de sel pour la teinture des tissus à base de coton et de cellulose avec des colorants directs et réactifs. Pour une intensité de teinte légère et moyenne et pour les couleurs sensibles la méthode par adjonction de sel au démarrage utilisée pour les fortes intensités de teinte, (qui consiste à injecter du sel dans le bain de teinture avant d'ajouter les colorants) n'est habituellement pas utilisée. Dans ce cas, le sel est dissous séparément puis ajouté lentement dans le bain de teinture. Les machines de teinture à jet de la série TEC comportent désormais un nouveau système d'addition de sel qui est intégré à la fonction de trop-plein (dans le réservoir d'addition). Ainsi, les fonctions de dosage, les fonctions de mixage de circulation et de retour de flux sont combinées avec le chauffage vapeur direct ou le chauffage indirect et la fonction d'injection à température élevée (105 ° C) pour fournir un dosage du sel régulé afin d'obtenir une excellente uniformité et une reproductibilité d'un lot à l'autre avec un bon rapport coût-efficacité. La plupart des machines de teinture à jet sont équipées de filtres à charpie de type à cage pour éliminer les fibres perdues et laissées par le tissu lors de son passage dans la machine. Des quantités considérables de fibres (c'est-à-dire de charpie ou de bourre), surtout avec les étoffes tissées avec des fils à faible torsion peuvent être recueillies par le filtre à cage et, parfois, même conduire à un colmatage du filtre accompagné d'une chute de pression dans la buse à jet, ce qui a une incidence négative sur la teinture. Fong a mis au point un nouveau système de collecte de charpie automatique avec lequel la charpie est recueillie et s'accumule dans la partie inférieure en forme de V et peut être évacuée automatiquement lors de la vidange. Ce système est réputé éviter le colmatage du filtre ; il fait gagner du temps et augmente la productivité de la machine parce que l'opération de nettoyage du filtre à forte intensité de travail n'est plus nécessaire. Les machines de teinture à jet de la série TEC de Fong sont équipées de la fonction de rinçage multi-intelligent permettant d'avoir un faible niveau continu de rinçage et avec cette fonction il est possible de régler le niveau de rinçage et la température de rinçage pour accroître l'efficacité du rnçage. Il est possible d'utiliser l'indice de rinçage pour garantir l'uniformité du rinçage dans chaque lot de colorant et améliorer l'automatisation de l'étape de rinçage. En outre, la pompe de la

TEXTILES AFRIQUE ET MOYEN ORIENT 4ÈME EDITION 2013 / 1ÈRE EDITION 2014

machine principale est désormais une pompe de type vertical,car le point d'aspiration peut être plus bas, la pompe d'auto-refroidissement ne nécessitant pas d'eau de refroidissement externe. Un autre perfectionnement réside dans l'utilisation d'un échangeur de chaleur vertical qui améliore l'écoulement mais aussi permet d'éviter les problèmes de formation de tartre. L'optimisation de sa position a contribué à réduire davantage le rapport de bain de teinture de la machine.

Machine iMaster H2O de Thies La machine iMaster H2O de Thies est une machine de teinture à jet très polyvalente, à rapport de bain ultra-court, conçue pour traiter par voie humide tous les types de tissus tricotés ou tissés, fabriqués à partir de fibres naturelles et synthétiques, ou mélangés à un pourcentage élevé d'élasthanne. Cette machine souple d'emploi et très polyvalente a démontré qu'elle était en mesure de traiter un large éventail de matières et de mélanges, notamment les mélanges coton/viscose, polyester/modal, modal/cupro, laine/polyamide, 100 pour cent micromodal, 100 pour cent microviscose, 100 pour cent laine et laine/viscose/lin, en utilisant des rapports de bain de teinture de 1:4 à 1:5. L'iMaster H2O utilise une nouvelle technologie de tourniquet de réduire les tensions exercées sur les tricots légers délicats (60-100g/m2) et sur les mélanges à base de viscose. Son nouveau filtre autonettoyant qui permet de réduire les coûts d'énergie et de main d'œuvre est une autre amélioration. Une version de la machine iMaster H2O de Thiès (à savoir l'iMaster H2O F) a été spécialement conçue pour le traitement des tissus bouclés épais tels que le tissu éponge à des rapports de bain de teinture aussi bas que 1:4 sur le coton. L'iMaster H2O F est équipée d'un grand tourniquet transporteur situé à l'intérieur de la cuve à débouillir qui permet de traiter des tissus avec un allongement nettement moindre. Cette amélioration de la conception de la machine se traduit par une meilleure stabilité du tissu mais aussi par une amélioration de l'état du tissu et de son apparence. L'iMaster H2O F est équipé d'un réservoir de stockage à 100 pour cent, d'un réservoir de dosage et un système d'alimentation en sel déshydraté. La machine a été optimisée pour la production d'articles en éponge et les procédés rinçage, de lavage et de bain de teinture sont mesurés en ligne, et sont analysés en permanence et affichés sous forme de graphiques. Les machines de teinture iMaster H2O F de Thies, dotées d'une capacité de 400 kg ont parfaitement fonctionné sur des tissus bouclés très épais pesant jusqu'à 1,5kg/m2 avec une buse de plus grand diamètre (2 200 mm). ❑

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HEIMTEXTIL 2014

New year brings fresh success for Frankfurt exhibition There has been huge growth again at the international contract textiles trade fair, with significant business opportunities for exhibitors and visitors.

A high degree of international firms participated in the event in January 2014

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SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN exhibitor numbers and visitors set an optimistic mood at Heimtextil 2014 that took place in Frankfurt, Germany from 8-11 January. A high degree of international firms — 88 per cent of 2,718 exhibitors and 66 per cent of nearly 67,000 visitors dominated the fair this year. Detlef Braun, member of the executive board of Messe Frankfurt, the trade show organiser for Heimtextil, said, “In addition to the excellent statistics, the quality and enormous spectrum of products underscore the unique position of Heimtextil as the world’s leading trade fair for home and contract textiles.” The fair got off to a successful start with 94 per cent of visitors said that they had achieved their goals at the fair and 79 per cent exhibitors reported that they had achieved their targets. More than 50 per cent of both sectors felt that the economic situation in the textile sector was more than satisfactory this year. Over 44,000 visitors and 2,391 exhibitors came from Scandinavia, East Europe, South America and South Korea. The biggest visitor nations after Germany were Italy, Turkey, China, Great Britain, the US, France, Spain, Poland and the Netherlands. “Fascinating trends effectively presented, satisfied exhibitors and enthusiastic visitors,” Martin Auerbach, director general of the Association of the German Home Textile Industry, Wuppertal, said. A wide spectrum in textiles, ranging from playful interactivity, scientific depth, contemplative calm or a textile labyrinth, was the highlight. Robert Petit, international sales and marketing manager of Chivasso, Netherlands, said, "Heimtextil was unequivocally an order fair. Great

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A wide spectrum in textiles, ranging from playful interactivity, scientific depth, contemplative calm or a textile labyrinth, was the highlight interest was shown in our high-quality wallpaper designs by German and international visitors.” New exhibitor Arthouse added, “Our first presentation was a great success. We came to Heimtextil as visitors for many years and now want to enter the export markets. At the fair, we were able to reach our key markets and reach out to numerous potential customers.

A platform for young designers The spotlight was on young companies with ‘New&Next’. Eleven start-ups presented their refreshing and innovative textile development to an international audience of trade visitors. One of them was Crishome Tez from Portugal. “For us, Heimtextil is the ideal platform for presenting our collection and launching it in completely different markets. We have met with customers from all over the world with the visitors to our stand coming from the USA, Mexico and even Greece,” said CEO Cristina Teixeira.

Digital textile printing in the ascendant Digital textile printing proved to be a milestone in the development of textiles and a major trend at Heimtextil. Market leaders, such as Durst, Reggiani from Italy, SPG prints from the Netherlands, Pod Iberia from Portugal and

Hewlett-Packard made presentations at Heimtextil for the first time. Oliver Luedtke, marketing manager of Kornit Digital Europe said, “Today, there is hardly a manufacturer who is not interested in digital printing. We see ourselves at the beginning of a major development in this segment, which will also be reflected at Heimtextil.” Mr Aditya Chandavarkar, founder, Inkjet Forum India, who was a part of the invited speaker panel provided an Indian perspective on the potential for digitally printed home textiles and interior furnishing products. He said, “The Indian digital textile printing landscape is changing fast with the total printed output of 43mn metres worth US$200mn. Digital printing for home textiles is in its very early stages worldwide with many companies taking first steps. This application area makes up 10 per cent to 15 per cent of the total digital textile printed output in India with a total volume of five million m/year.”

Upcycling: Turning old into new ‘Upcycling’ was a special show characterised by original ideas and high-grade products made of article remainders. With the ‘Young Creations Award: Upcycling’, Heimtextil presented for the second time an award for young people focusing on the principle of sustainability. The subject proved very popular with 42 projects being submitted after the competition had been opened to four instead of two universities as in the first year. First prize worth US$2050 went to Jacqueline Theuer for her ‘un Tragbar’ project, a chair made of colourful textile scraps held together by a tension belt, which will also be exhibited at the Berlin Fashion Week in July. In the future, Heimtextil plans to expand the competition to include international universities. ❑

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EVENT NEWS East Africa Trade Hub marks its presence at Texworld USA THE EAST AFRICA Trade Hub (EATH) attended its third Texworld USA textiles and apparel exhibition held 21-23 January 2014. The goal of the Texworld was to introduce international producers of textiles and apparel to buyers from around the world. As part of its ongoing Origin Africa campaign to make African producers a top option for US buyers, the trade hub showcased samples from 15 different manufacturers from Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Mauritius, and Ethiopia. Over the three-day event, the Origin Africa booth successfully conveyed the message that African textile and apparel manufacturers produce creative and innovative products that are ready for expansion in the US market. Based on the high interest shown by buyers, African companies shined at the exhibition and

helped change perceptions of doing business in Africa. Patrick Yun, COO of medical apparel company, Iguanamed, said, “After meeting with Origin Africa here, I’m going to place my first container order in East Africa.” Introducing East Africa manufacturers to US companies at trade expositions was the core EATH activity. In tandem with other market linkage activities including buyers’ missions and technical assistance, this activity has contributed to over US$160mn in project-supported African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) exports since 2009. The Trade Hub team now plans to continue to promote African producers throughout 2014 at future Texworld and industry events.

Italy textile makers showcase at China’s Guangzhou symposium ITALY’S TEXTILE MACHINERY manufacturers saw huge response at the technology symposium on technical textiles and nonwovens held in Guangzhou, China, in October 2013. Organized by the Italian Trade Agency and the Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT), the event saw the participation of around seventy Chinese textile manufacturers and one hundred local operators. While confirming its high concentration of businesses active in the traditional textile industry, the province of Guandong has also

developed the non-wovens sector especially products for the medical, personal hygiene and building sectors. Around 700 manufacturers are currently operating in this sector in the province. Along with the representatives of the Italian delegation and local association — Guandong Province Textile Association and Guandong Nonwovens Association — who collaborated in the event’s success, five Italian producers like Biancalani, Dell’Orco & Villani, Itema, Loptex, Roj had the opportunity to showcase their technological advancements and develop contacts with local

manufacturers who took part in the event through B2B meetings. ACIMIT said, “We’re especially satisfied for having organized this event in Guangzhou. “Many manufacturers based in the province of Guandong already operate in the niche sectors touched on by the symposium, and their numbers are growing rapidly. This initial approach was therefore extremely important in allowing local businesses to become acquainted with the validity of Italian technology, even in the field of nonwovens and industrial textiles.”

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EVENT NEWS Intertextile Shanghai expo sets new record with exhibitor and visitor profile NEW RECORDS FOR both exhibitor and visitor numbers were set at this year’s Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics as the industry continues to thrive in the wider region. A total of 3,751 exhibitors from 35 countries and regions took part at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre held in October 2013. This exhibitor figure represented an 11.7 per cent increase compared to last year, which comprised a 10 per cent rise in domestic suppliers and 15 per cent more from overseas. Seven countries and regions were represented at the fair for the first time including Belarus, Bulgaria, Lebanon, Macau, South Africa, the UAE and Uzbekistan. In turn, this also attracted over 69,000 buyers from 98 countries and regions to the fair — a five per cent increase on 2012. Both domestic and overseas visitor numbers grew this year which, according to fair co-organiser Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, was a reflection of the fair’s status in the region. The other organisers included Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT (CCPIT-Tex) and China Textile Information Centre (CTIC). “Despite the challenges in the global economy, the textile industry in this region remains upbeat, as evidenced by the growing participation here,” commented Wendy Wen, senior general manager of Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fair. “It also shows that the positioning of the fair – with its focus on functional and eco fabrics, and highlighting the strengths of various European and Asian countries — is resonating with the industry.” While the fair is well-attended by local buyers, it is also a key event for overseas brands who source from both domestic and overseas suppliers. “Here we can meet a lot of buyers including European and American manufacturers and wholesalers,” said Rony Van Der Cruyssen from Chemitex of Belgium, who featured in the popular SalonEurope. “We have met more than 100 buyers so far, including H&M and PVH, and around 20 per cent have been new customers,” added Tapan Sannigrahi from Indonesia’s Aditya Birla Group. For many overseas exhibitors however, their primary focus is the domestic market, which they confirm still has room for growth. “There is definitely strong demand here in China and we are seeing a lot of interest in our embroidered fabrics,” said Omar Kaskas from first-time Lebanese exhibitor Kaskas Co. Schoeller Textil AG, Switzerland agreed. “Because our products are high-end and high-tech, we really see the potential for this market to grow,” commented Gwen Hsu. “Chinese customers are interested in innovative products now and demand high quality.” Luxury fabrics Premium fabrics and accessories from Europe continue to be popular in China, and over 260 exhibitors of such products featured this year in SalonEurope. Within SalonEurope, the Milano Unica Pavilion housed 132 high-end Italian fabrics and accessories firms, and recorded a 17 per cent increase in visitors compared to the 2012 edition. Alessandra Contessotto from Loro Piana. “The response we’ve received at the fair has been very good, with many domestic visitors and Korean buyers

For many overseas exhibitors however, their primary focus is the domestic market, which they confirm still has room for growth

coming to our booth. Our products are all very high quality which is appreciated by the market.” Also in SalonEurope was the Premium Wool Zone which featured high-end British and French suppliers, and reflected another growing sector within the domestic textile industry. “There are a lot of visitors in this zone, and we’ve had buyers here from China, Japan and Korea.This fair is very good for brand building and name recognition in China,” says William Halstead from British firm Taylor & Lodge. Denim in demand Another area of growing demand in the local market is denim. “We are showcasing our functional denim in the Beyond Denim zone and it is a good platform to attract more customers and introduce our brand and fabric functions to them,” said Claire Cheng from INVISTA Management (Shanghai) Co Ltd. Over 540 accessories suppliers filled two halls this year as demand for these items increase in China. “We have seen many more customers compared to 2012, and many of them are big brands, so I am very happy,” said Jack Zou from Kee Zippers, Hong Kong. “We receive many overseas orders by exhibiting at this show, and its scale makes it an indispensable trading platform,” said Liao Xiaoshi from Quanzhou Guanhe Garments. Exhibitors were also satisfied with their access to buyers from around the world. “We had a lot of customers from the US, Italy and other European countries visit us on the first day of the fair,” commented Hyun-jung Kim from FITI (Shanghai) Testing & Inspection. In particular, overseas buyers have noticed an improvement in the standards of domestic exhibitors. “Every year the quality of Chinese suppliers improves, and they are also trying to improve in terms of the environmental aspects of production,” said Kalle Korvenranta from Finnish firm Luhta.

Hong Kong International Textile fair: A plethora of business opportunities THE FIFTH EDITION of HKTDC Hong Kong International Home Textiles and Furnishings Fair will be held at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre on 20-23 April 2014. A comprehensive spectrum of textiles will be showcased for easy and one-stop sourcing. It is expected that over 220 exhibitors from six countries and regions will be in attendence. In addition to the exhibitors from the Chineseand India, the fair will also feature exhibitors from Czech Republic and Taiwan. The fair is structured to include a number of themed sections catering to key market segments. The new ‘Design Solutions and

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Trade Services’ will feature interior designers and branding experts to give buyers advice for material sourcing as well as design solutions. The growing trend for ‘green’ textiles and furnishings will be mirrored in the show, which highlights those exhibits that focus on sustainable, recyclable, reusable materials and products. The show also acts as an information exchange platform. The Product Demo and Launch Pad session provides suppliers with extra opportunities to announce their newest products in an interactive setting with buyers. Networking Reception brings together

industry players to an occasion conducive to forging and strengthening relationships. MS Bipin, regional manager, Middle East & North Africa, at Cottonopolis International FZCO, specialising in the sales and marketing of high quality textiles products for the hotel industry, said, “The Hong Kong fair is a platform to explore business opportunities. I have established contacts with seven potential suppliers from India, Taiwan, Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland for the provision of bed linens... The fair is amazingly demonstrating a very high level of service standards... I will definitely come again.”

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APPAREL Africa and the Middle East tapes which melt and glue the materials together, many natural fibres can also benefit from these techniques. This makes alternative methods of seam construction interesting to companies in the fashion industry, technical clothing and textiles.

When a cutting edge is used on the anvil, the fabric is cut through and the edges are sealed at the same time Ultrasonics

Belsonic, developed by Verus of Belgium, uses a needle-type horn and feed-dogs to move the fabric, similar to a sewing machine

Seam construction: Adopting the faster and threadless route Niki Tait examines the alternative methods of joining fabrics together that are making headways in the industry

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LTRASONICS, HIGH FREQUENCY, bonding, glueing, laser, hot wedge and hot air welding are some alternative methods of joining, cutting, patterning and quilting fabrics together without the use of sewing thread. This can sometimes be done at four times the speed of sewing machines. As materials become more complex and technical in their construction and end use, a large

segment of the textiles industry are competing to develop the best ways of joining materials. However, whichever way a company is thinking of joining the materials, they need to work with the equipment suppliers to test the seams and joins before going into production. Most of these alternative methods apply only to plastics and synthetics. However, by using bonding

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Belsonic, developed by Verus of Belgium, is an ideal model to explain the principles of ultrasonic seaming. Every ultrasonic unit contains five elements. A power supply takes line power at 50 or 60 cycles and changes it to ultrasonic frequency at 20,000 cycles per second or even higher. A converter contains piezoelectric crystals which change the incoming high frequency signal to mechanical vibrations. A booster transmits the vibrations and increases its amplitude like operating volume control on a radio. A horn delivers the vibrations to the plastic film or fabric to be worked on. An anvil or backup part supports the work piece and, in the case of textiles, takes the form of a pattern wheel or a non-rotating cutter, depending upon the application. The ultrasonic vibration is transmitted from the horn to the material, developing frictional heat where they touch. This momentary heat fuses the edges of the fabric. If double plies are present, the plies join together. Where a cutting edge is used on the anvil, the fabric is cut through and the edges are sealed at the same time, preventing any fraying. Thus, without any additional glue or heat, the seam is finished. Plunge welding or cutting is accomplished by placing the material over a fixed anvil and having the horn or tool descend to the fabric. This approach is used to punch holes, such as buttonholes, to cut fabric strips to pre-set lengths, or to join pieces together. Although ultrasonic welding can cut and bond at the same time, only synthetic fabrics can be welded this way and a ‘kissing edge’ or butt seam can be very weak, though it is very flat and comfortable against the skin. Branson Technology illustrates how, apart

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SEAMING from surface welding, the ultrasonic process can be utilised for staking, flanging, spot welding or to insert metal sockets in the material. It is also used for cutting and edge-sealing of thermoplastic films and fabrics. Branson’s own ultrasonic welding equipment, normally associated with technical textiles, converts 50/60Hz current to 15, 20, 30 and 40kHz of electrical energy through a solid-state of power supply. This energy is supplied to the converter that transforms it to mechanical motion. It is then transmitted through an amplitude-modifying booster to the horn, which transfers these vibrations directly to the parts being assembled. Taiwan Evergreen Ultrasonic’s seaming machines include the Ultrasonic Lace Sewing Machine, EGR-053/EGR-076 which enables extended operation time to ensure a good bond. It contains a special design of roller balance adjustments together with a high tech horn and roller treatment process. Rollers can be changed according to different patterns and sizes. It uses a frequency of 20kHz and depending on model, the maximum speed can vary between nine and 18 metres per minute. The machine is also used for packaging, knitted products, sportswear, bed covers, window shades, satin, surgery masks, umbrella edge lace and Christmas decoration ornaments. The Evergreen Ultrasonic Quilting Machine, EGQ-6430/EGQ-8830, offers high speed and productivity, strong welding strength and good quality for products such as mattresses, car seats, winter jackets and bedcovers. With specially structured design, easy adjustments and roller replacement, different rollers and patterns can be designed according to the material and product requirements. With a working speed of up to 10 metres per minute, depending on machine model, the maximum working width can vary between 60 inches and 84 inches. Materials to be welded need to contain more than 65 per cent synthetic.

Welding differently Swiss manufacturer Schips’ ultrasonic welding machine (HSCSIC) has been developed on the sewing machine model, using feed dogs to move the fabric. When the feed dogs go down, the anvil comes up and vice-versa. The fixed horn or sonotrode produce vibrations from above the machine bed. Twelve pedal positions control machine speed, which can seam up to 12 metres per minute. Schips is also currently experimenting with laser welding (HSC81B) for applications where ultrasonics cannot be used. The 40-watt laser creates heat of 170ºC inside the two layers of fabric, melting them together — whereas ultrasonic heat comes from outside the fabric. With both, the fabric must be synthetic and both systems require no glue. The Belsonic SeamStar BS 2060 features a larger and higher wheel than some of its other machines allowing for increased operator access to the machine. The SeamStar will sew, seal and trim in one pass at speeds up to claimed four times faster than traditional sewing machines. The need

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Sonotronics uses a tablet to control its ultrasonics machines with wireless communications, which are extremely energy efficient

As long as the fabric has twenty per cent of man-made fibres, it can be joined using ultrasonic seaming machines for thread, glue or other consumables is eliminated, and there is very little training required. The maximum usable width of the pattern wheel is 22mm, whilst the horn can be 25mm or 50mm diameter. The SeamStar BS 2060 Z is equipped with an additional PLC control system. Germany’s Sonotronic provides welding, cutting, punching, and thermo-fixing technology for several industries. An ordinary tablet such as an iPad is used to control the machine using wireless communications. For the textile industry, its energy efficient machinery range includes ultrasound systems for welding, cutting, punching and stamping; ultrasonic seam welding units, ultrasound thermo-fixing and units for heat setting, stretching, shrinking and calendering of ribbons for belts or ropes for parachutes. Through the various weld geometries of its seam welding equipment, continuous welds with different contours and spot welds can be produced. The latter are particularly suitable to maintain the elasticity of the material, for instance, while welding corsetry. Several layers can be cut by cutting and welding in a single operation together. The ultrasonic roll seam Sonotronic units are designed with bearings on both sides of the probe or with cantilever design for welding. Applications include for continuous welding or cutting and welding of elastic and non-elastic textiles like PA, PES, PP, aramid, Dyneema®, fiberglass, nonwovens, films and blended fabrics. The new ultrasonic Pfaff 8312, designed mainly to weld technical textiles works at 35kHz using 500W and no air. It uses two rotating wheels, one above the seam and one below it. The Sonotrode, or horn, vibrates on the anvil and with more vibration, higher energy and heat is generated. The

two independent anvil wheels which cut and seal the edges, and seams a second weld seam as reinforcement in one operation, are mounted on one post, but on separate shafts. The two wheels are running in sync but the newly patented solution ensures an individual adjustment of the welding force, enabling the machine to be adjusted more precisely to the material being processed. The resulting seam is stretchable, waterproof and can contain a fancy design. Since it has no holes, it is very suitable for filters. Herman Ultraschall offers ultrasonic welding for plastics, joining of injection moulded thermoplastic parts and has recently developed a new generation of HiQ ultrasonic welding machines. The HiQ VARIO system series is a very flexible machine that can be configured according to requirements. A variety of pneumatic drive units with various strokes and cylinder diameters are available, all of which feature Herrmann’s proportional valve technology. Users can also choose between three operating frequencies as well as digital ultrasonic generators that can provide up to 6,000W of power. The Unicode capability of the control panel allows menu guidance in different languages, thereby enabling ease of use worldwide. The capability of utilising various password levels secures the welding parameters against accidental or unauthorised changes. Graphic visualisation of the joining process helps an operator to define the weld parameters and record the quality data during production whilst the secure quick change system QCS simplifies the stack changing process. Ardmel is one of the pioneers of seam sealing technology and offers a one stop shop for tapes and machines for a wide range of uses including outdoor wear, shoes, medical and automotive as well as chemical, biological, radiation and nuclear protection. It claims that as long as the fabric has 20 per cent of man-made fibres, it can be joined using its ultrasonic seaming machines, though tests should be carried out first. A weld tool, which resembles a sewing machine needle, makes contact

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SEAMING  with the sonotrode to melt the fabric, meaning that a sewing machine operator can easily retrain for this machine. Products include seam sealers for covering sewn seams where specific tapes can be used for products such as sportswear, life rafts and dashboards. Tapes can be of two layers (polyurethane and adhesive) or three layers (supporting fabric with inherent strength, a waterproofing layer and adhesive). Decorative, logo and anti-abrasion tapes are also available. The hot air machine uses hot air blowing onto tape to melt the adhesive and then pressure to bond. If hot air is being used to seam two polyurethanes, no tape is required. Both, top and bottom rollers can be heated or hot plates can be used with adequate pressure, depending on the needs.

Bonding Bonding, which also uses ultrasonics, implies the use of bonding glue, normally applied via a tape, and the need to overlap. But any fabric can be bonded including wool, silk and cotton, though silicone, neoprene and Teflon are not normally bonded due to the chemicals they contain. Most tape is made from polyurethane, though different glues are required for different fabric types; other governing factors include temperature, speed and pressure. When those in the textiles industry began using the bonding technique, production costs were high and the process was slow. But continuous development of this method has resulted in lower machine prices, while the quality and diversity of glue has improved over the years. Bonding can still be more expensive than sewing, but if the operation is well engineered it can cost less. Each operation needs to be looked at individually to calculate the cost effectiveness of different types of joining methods. Framis Italia has developed the NoSo technology that combines the development of both bonding tapes and the machines from one source, and thus the company claims to provide a 100 per cent bond guarantee. Instead of using a roller foot, NoSo uses a foot similar to that of a normal sewing machine. Machines offered range from edge binging, weld and fold or cut, and joining equipment. Framis Italia also claim to have developed a unique method of bonding fleece, where the glue is melted before it touches the fibres and the fibres are not burnt. Macpi have a well-developed bonding division

that supply bonding tapes and heated rollers. Now about 45 per cent of the company’s total turnover comes from this division which uses wheel-based technology. Although the company specialises in producing a flat seam for underwear, swimwear or cycle wear, it is expanding into shoes, bicycle seats, airbags and automotive industries and even applies bonding for G suits of airline pilots. Brother’s new BM-1000 bonding or glueing machine was recently awarded the Texprocess prize for innovation. The machine produces a seam by sticking it together using proprietary glue made by Brother, which the company claims is three times faster than sewing. There are two different configurations of this new machine – a left nozzle and a right nozzle – the choice depends on whether it is used for hemming or joining. The glue cartridges, specially made for Brother by Hankle, hold 300 gm of urethane polymer based glue, equivalent to eight hours of production and each cartridge has a shelf life of 24 hours once opened. Each cartridge can join about 400 metres at a maximum speed of 10 metres per minute at eight micron glue thickness. The whole cartridge of glue is melted at 105 ºC and pumped using a stepper motor though the nozzle where the temperature is lower than that which is used for tape bonding. Single glue is used for most fabrics, except on plastics and shiny surfaces. Looking essentially like a sewing machine, it has a top roller and a bottom belt with separately programmable differential feeds, enabling easy seaming of curves. The glue thickness is also programmable. There is a choice of four different nozzle sizes: 6,8,10 and 12mm, and the nozzle is placed between the two pieces of fabric. Currently, only two layers of fabric can be joined together. While this concept has been developed with Asian underwear manufactures, it has also proven effective with sportswear, tent and sun protection products. The results of gluing are very similar to that of bonding.

High Frequency Welding Forsstrom AB from Sweden explain that High frequency (HF) welding is the joining of material by supplying HF energy in the form of an electromagnetic field (27.12 MHz) and pressure to the material surfaces to be joined. A generator produces the energy via an electrode. The electrical

Four important factors that affect the final results are pressure, welding effect, welding time and cooling period energy causes the molecules within the material to start moving, which generates heat that causes the material to soften and fuse together. No outside heat is applied. After cooling the welded surface under maintained pressure, the material is fused. The weld seam can be at least as strong as the surrounding material or even stronger. Four important factors that affect the final results are pressure, welding effect, welding time and the cooling period. These parameters can be adjusted and combined in different ways to achieve the optimal welding result for a specific material. The material most commonly used with HF welding is PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), sometimes called Vinyl and PU (Polyurethane). The material can be thick or thin, reinforced or coated. It can also be plain, coloured or patterned. Forsstrom customers manufacture a great variety of end products in these materials, such as truck and boat covers, tarps, tents, structures, pool liners and billboards. Forsstorm claim the advantages of high frequency welding include reliable technology and strong and durable welds which are air, gas and water tight for low emission of gas fumes or solvents. One of the key innovations of the company is ForFlexx which makes it possible to join PVC and PU fabrics with metal coating using HF. The core business of FIAB is high frequency welding using fabric or materials coated with PVC, polyester and polyurethane. Electrodes are used to produce the heat within the material and molecules are set within each ply. The material is not actually melted as the chemical compound remains the same. The pneumatics requires 3-5 bar pressure and the machine uses 3-32kW of power. About 1.7 metres wide materials can be joined on large machines but the company also offers a mobile unit on wheels for welding large structures. A Lammel electrode is offered where multiple layers need welding. Polish Zemat Technology Group develops and produces new technologies that span a diverse set of technical applications using High Frequency Welders and sealers.

The hot edge

The Miller Weldmaster’s hot wedge welding machine can join materials like PVC, polyurethane, polyethylene and other technical fabrics

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014

Claiming speed without compromising seam strength, seam appearance or integrity, as the main advantage of hot air and hot wedge welding over high frequency, the Miller Weldmaster offers a complete line of hot air, hot wedge and impulse welding, standard and automated machines which are used for the fabrication of various products such as inflatable products, awnings and shades to truck tarp curtains, tents, banners and billboards. Materials which can be welded include PVC, polyurethane, polyethylene, and various other technical fabrics. Furthermore, as the molecular bonded seam is welded from the inside and not over the outside layers,

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SEAMING the company claim significantly improved seam appearance with no stray radio frequency energy. With an array of different fabrics other than PVC available on the market, a manufacturer needs to be able to weld all thermoplastic materials, including environmental friendly fabrics made of polyolefin (polypropylene and polyethylene). These can only be welded with hot air or hot wedge. Miller Weldmaster says HF energy can only weld PVC and polyurethane, whilst it is easier to make a three dimension product with a hot air machine. Hot air rotary heat sealing is a welding process used to join thermoplastic industrial fabrics and films using very precise heat, speed and pressure settings. In the case of hot air welding, heat is provided by compressed air blowing across electrical heat elements which is injected at the welding point. The tightly controlled temperature can range from 400ºC to 750ºC. If the product being welded has a lot of different shapes and curves, the weld width has to be changed often throughout the manufacturing process. Multiple welding heads have to be simultaneously used and one needs to produce a versatile product range. One has to start and stop often throughout the welding process. The Hot Wedge rotary heat sealing is a welding process similar to Hot Air, but here a heated wedge is precisely positioned at the weld point providing the required heat. The fabric or film is then pulled across the heated wedge. The tightly controlled temperature of the wedge can range from 400ºC to 490ºC. Miller Weldmaster’s Impulse technology relies on the same philosophy of heat, speed (time), and pressure. With an impulse welding machine, pressure is applied to the seam area by two impulse-heating bars. Heat is created by pulsing energy through the element in the top and bottom bars for the duration of the weld. After a set weld time is completed, liquid is flushed through the impulse sealer bars to allow a cool down cycle, helping eliminate wrinkles. Pfaff have been offering hot wedge welding for several years, for joining flexible thermoplastic materials such as polyethylene, polyamide, polyester polypropylene and PVC. Its latest machine is the Pfaff 8320 which melts two plastics together using a hot wedge at 450ºC. Pfaff also offer hot air taping using a contactless

AD INDEX Dilo Machines GmbH..................................11 Stäubli International AG................................2 Brother Internationale Industrie Machinen GmbH..........................17 Erhardt + Leimer GmbH ..............................5 Hong Kong Trade Development Council....24

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Xi’an Typical’s Vetron hot air welding machine combines a new air heater and an air nozzle to reduce heat losses

Hot air welding solutions range from hand-held devices to automated high-production machines, but these require continued burning of material hot weld which uses hot air to heat the glue. With temperatures at 400ºC to 600ºC degrees C, bonding is almost instantaneous. It also produces laser welding useful for products such as stadium membranes and has developed a combined ultrasonic laser welding machine. Xi’an Typical’s Vetron 5374 Hot Air Welding machine, which won a Texprocess award, combines a new air heater and an air nozzle to reduce heat losses. Energy losses are further reduced as a result of the use of Tnanoporous thermal insulation and the optimisation of the air channel. The newly designed nozzle optimises the transfer of energy to the tape. Comparison tests revealed potential energy savings of more than 90 per cent when compared with previous systems. US-based Sinclair Equipment produces hot wedge and hot air welding for all sorts of thermoplastic coated or laminated thermoplastic textiles, along with thermal bonding, using adhesive tapes for joining non-thermoplastic textiles. Its main focus is on tarpaulins, awnings, tents, geomembrane coverings and digital print industries. Hot air welding solutions range from hand-held devices to automated high-production machines but these require a continual burning of the material. Hot wedge, on the other hand, is very clean and

produces no smoke or fumes while welding. It can be very precise and provide a wider range of finishing styles from 10mm to 50mm seams. Italian SMRE Engineering offers multipurpose welding machines which can be used for ultrasonic, glue and hot air welding. It was the first company to introduce continuous linear welding technology and holds patents such as Intelligent Torque, a process of interaction between welding wheels and software that keep the processed fabric under exactly the right tension at all times during the welding cycle. The company says this technology has resulted in strong, straight and flat seams on a wide range of very different fabrics. The company offers welding solutions with stationary or travelling heads. SMRE Engineering also offers liquid glue technology for the bonding of acrylics and polyester fabrics, and Rotosonic (ultrasonic) technology for the welding of nonwoven fabrics, acrylic and polyester with glue strip. These technologies can be installed separately or simultaneously on the machines. The SMRE SM-210-SA is a fully automatic linear welder with travelling head and up to three bonding technologies: liquid glue, hot air, or the patented Rotosonic (ultrasonic). It was developed for manufacturers who bond various technical fabrics with different characteristics. For hard to bond Teflon coated fabrics a specifically developed glue and glue application system is available. There is also a system for full automatic welding of zippers to technical fabrics where the zipper is unwound, welded and cut without intervention of the operator. With its 90cm long welding arm and double steel racks for optimal speed and total motion control, the machine is particularly suitable to process large, heavy rolls of fabric. ❑

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MOREOVER

Increasing Indian textile chemicals sales drive market forward

Growth in both Indian textile exports and domestic demand for quality textile materials are expected to generate US$1.5bn by 2018

T

EXTILE CHEMICALS HAVE symbiotic relationship with the textile industry, hence growth in textiles market coupled with growing trade is anticipated to positively influence the textile chemicals market in India. For the production of final product, a textile has to go through numerous chemicals and water intensive processes. In addition, over a hundred chemicals are used during textile processing and manufacturing, which are broadly classified into colourants and auxiliaries. It is expected that by 2018, auxiliaries will hold major market share of Indian textile chemicals market because of the increasing domestic and international demand for quality textiles and technical textiles. The market for auxiliaries will also grow due to growing exports of textiles in foreign markets, such as US and Western Europe, which demand high quality products. According to recently published report by TechSci Research India Textile Chemicals Market Forecast & Opportunities 2018, the Indian market for textile chemicals is expected to cross US$1.7bn by 2018. Indian market for textile chemicals is highly fragmented with the majority share being held by the unorganised/minor players. However, the share of organised/major players is expected to increase by 2018 as a result of increasing preference for quality products as well as growing market penetration of technical textiles. Chemicals such as formaldehyde and azo dyes that are used in textile processing are hazardous to the environment. As a result, manufacturers of textile chemicals are investing in R&D and are

“The textile chemical producers are increasing the usage of bio-auxiliaries and other environment friendly materials to decrease the overall pollution load opting for green solutions in order to produce ecofriendly textile chemicals. The textile chemical producers are increasing the usage of bioauxiliaries and other environment friendly materials to decrease the overall pollution load. The Indian textile chemical industry is also one of the major consumers of water and energy. During textile processing, around 60 per cent of the energy consumed in the textile industry is used in wet processing. In terms of water consumption, the dyeing process requires a product-to-water ratio of 1:200. Water and energy consumption can be reduced by processes, such as beck dyeing modification, foam process, dye bath reuse, mach nozzle fabric drying, close cycle textile dyeing, ink and film application. Major end user application segments of textile chemicals are classified into apparels, home furnishing/textiles and industrial textiles. Of these, the apparel segment is expected to account for the largest market share by 2018. This can be attributed to the increasing demand for fashionable and eco-compatible products. “Healthy growth in textiles market is expected to

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST TEXTILES ISSUE FOUR 2013 / ONE 2014

The Indian government is also encouraging new players to enter the market by introducing Technological Mission

positively influence the related textile chemicals market as these chemicals are derived products and are essential for the manufacturing and processing of textiles. Increasing thrust towards exports to western regions is expected to positively drive the market for textile chemicals. In addition, the increasing investments by the industry players on eco-friendly chemicals and nanotechnology will also contribute to the market growth,” said Karan Chechi, research director with TechSci Research, a research-based global management consulting firm. According to the report, the textile chemicals market in India is expected to grow at the CAGR of approximately 12 per cent, in terms of industry revenues. Major players such as BASF, Clariant and Huntsman are emphasizing towards product innovation in textile chemicals through preparation of eco-friendly products as well as high end products, which add functional properties to the end products i.e. textiles. Other innovative solutions in textile chemicals include implementation of functional solutions such as novel effect, negative ion therapy, stain releases, anti-microbial effect, etc. The increasing penetration of these products and solutions is expected to improve the overall market for major manufacturers. The government of India is also taking initiatives to encourage new players to enter the market of technical textiles by introducing Technological Mission, which aims to support new industry players by offering them knowledge about technical textiles. In addition, major factor supporting the growth of textile chemicals in Indian market is the rapidly growing textile and apparel industry. ❑

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Africa & Middle East Textiles issue 1 2014