Page 1

2012

A Glance at Akava Highly educated in the Finnish labour market


2

Contents

Akava 2012

3

Akava and the labour market

4

Extending working careers

10

Wellbeing at work

15

Salaries

19

Taxation of employees

24

Education

28

Entrepreneurship

31

Union membership

33

This publication can be found on the Internet at www.akava.fi/en/ Printing house: Kirjapaino Uusimaa, 2012 ISBN: 978-952-5628-52-4

A Glance at Akava 2012


3

Akava 2012

Akava, the Confederation of Unions for Professional and Managerial Staff in Finland, is one of the three independent trade union confederations in Finland

Akava’s 35 affiliates have a total membership of 573,000 including approx. 107,000 student members

Akava’s unionisation rate is about 70 per cent. 27 per cent of trade union members in Finland are Akava members.

Akava represents the interests of professionals and managerial staff and others with a high level of education.

Akava oversees its members’ economic, professional and other common interests.

A Glance at Akava 2012


4

Akava and the labour market 

 

Three out of four Akava members are in permanent full-time employment. Atypical work is common among young women. In 2010, 39,000 Akava members were employed on a fixed-term employment contract. Of these, 78% were unable to get permanent employment, though they wanted it. 50% of highly educated individuals work in the private sector. 29% are employed by local authorities and one in ten is employed by the government. 8% are entrepreneurs or self-employed. Akava members mainly serve in expert, teaching or managerial positions. The most typical for men are senior expert positions, and for women senior expert positions in teaching. In all age groups, the proportion of men serving in managerial positions is larger than that of women. At the end of 2010, 46,000 people with tertiary-level education were unemployed in Finland. The unemployment rate for this group was 4.6%. Since 1994, the unemployment rate among those who have completed basic and upper-secondary education has fallen faster than that among the highly educated. Long-term unemployment is on the increase. The average length of time that highly educated individuals are unemployed is a total of 40 weeks. Approximately 5,400 highly educated Akava members had been unemployed for over a year in October 2011.

Employment rate among recently graduated  

The employment rate among those who graduated from university in 2005 was relatively good in 2010. In some sectors, people were clearly or slightly overqualified for their jobs five years after graduation. The situation was the reverse in a number of professional sectors, in which work tasks are felt to be too demanding. A Glance at Akava 2012


5

Unemployment rate 1990–2010 by educational level, % %

%

22 22 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 17 17 16 16 (67,000) 15 Basic education only 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 11 11 Upper secondary (111,000) 10 10 9 9 All 8 8 (224,000) Lowest level of tertiary 7 7 education and lower 6 6 degree level (35,000) 5 5 4 4 (12,000) 3 3 Higher degree level of tertiary education & 2 2 doctorate 1 1 0 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Source: Statistics Finland, Labour force statistics; Akava’s own estimation

A Glance at Akava 2012


6

Unemployed Akava members in selected fields, March 2012 Decrease

Increase

Bachelor of Engineering Bachelor of Business Administration Master of Humanities Master of Engineering Master of Business Master of Natural Sciences Master of Social Sciences Master of Arts Bachelor of Economics Master of Education Bachelor of Social Services Doctorate Bachelor of Humanities Master of Law Licentiate Bachelor of Natural Sciences Bachelor of Nursing Master of Agriculture Master of Theology Architect Master of Medicine Pharmacist Master of Dentistry -1 000

0

1 000

2 000

3 000

4 000

March 2012

Change per previous 12 m onths

4 204

-175

2 059

216

1 751

110

1 586

-129

1 356

96

1 234

51

936

31

603

2

556

-19

539

-30

531

13

510

53

448

26

323

35

261

-5

229

29

202

-2

189

18

127

2

95

-8

73

5

72

10

15

-3

5 000

Excluding persons laid off, situation 31.3.2012 Source: Statistics of Ministry of Employment and the Economy

A Glance at Akava 2012


7

Employment rate by age, 2010 % 100 90

100 90

Highly educated

80

80

All wage and salary earners

70

70

60

60

50

50 40

All

Highly educated

67.6

84.9

30 20

40 30

Employment rate, %

20

Unemployment rate, %

8.5

4.4

Outside labour force, %

26.1

11.2

10 0

Alle 20

10 0

20–29

30–39

40–49 Age group

50–59

60–64

Persons with at least a master’s degree Source: Statistics Finland, Labour Force Statistics 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


8

Employment rate among older age groups, 2000–2010 55–59 years of age

60–64 years of age %

%

All

100

Highly educated 89 86 85 88 88

90 80 70 60

100

63

67 68 65 66 66 65

71 71

74

59

All

Highly educated

90 80 70 56 57

60

60

57 58

50

50

41 39 39 37 39

40

40

30

27 29 26 30 23 25

20

20

10

10

0

0 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

34

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Persons with at least a master’s degree Source: Statistics Finland, Labour Force Statistics 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


9

Employment relationships in Finland in 2010, %

Akava members

All wage and salary earners

8%

14 %

11 %

11 %

81 %

Permanent full-time work

Permanent full-time work

Fixed term full-time work

Fixed term full-time work

Part-time work

Part-time work

75 %

Source: Statistics Finland, Labour Force Statistics 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


10

Extending working careers    

     

Over 70% of Akava members expect to remain in employment until they are at least 63 years of age. The employment rate of highly educated individuals over the age of 60 was approximately 20 percentage points higher than it was for other employees in 2010. 6% of highly educated individuals aged 58-62 are receiving a disability pension or are unable to work due to a long-term illness; the corresponding figure for all employees was 20%. In 2010, the average age of those retiring on an earnings-related old-age pension was 63.4. One in three retired people retired on a disability pension at an average age of 52. Due to this, the overall retirement age was 59.6. Mental health problems were the most common reason for highly educated individuals retiring on a disability pension. Job security, reducing time pressure and improving managerial and supervisory skills in particular are all factors that make it easier for people to cope at work. The majority, 63%, of Akava members are prepared to start a new job after receiving rehabilitation if the alternative is to retire on a disability pension. 60% of Akava members would be prepared to continue working after 63 years of age if they were to receive more annual leave or other time off. Almost 70% of Akava members are very or fairly willing to work after they retire on an old-age pension. If the funding of pensions has to be changed, Akava members would prefer their retirement benefits to remain the same and to pay more in employment pension contributions. A Glance at Akava 2012


11

Persons retiring in 2010 and 2011 with a pension based on their own work history by pension benefit 2011; total 71,600 persons

2010; total 70,700 persons 62

Normal old-age pension

59 32

Disability pension

32 3

Early old-age pension

4 2

Unemployment pension

5 1

Special pension for farmers

1 0

• • •

10

20

30

40

50

60

%

In 2009 for the first time more people retired on a normal old-age pension than on a disability or an unemployment pension. In 2010 one in three retired people retired on a disability pension at an average age of 52. Average age of those retiring, years: 2009 2010 2011 • Old-age pension 63.4 63.5 63.5 • Unemployment pension 60.3 60.9 61.7 • Disability pension 52.1 52.0 52.1 • All 59.5 59.6 59.8

Source: Statistics of Finnish Centre of Pensions

A Glance at Akava 2012


12

Persons retiring on disability pension in 2001 and 2011, by main diagnosis 2011

Share 2011, %

2001

8,100

Diseases of the musculoskeletal system

35 %

7,300

6,700

29 %

Other diseases 6,600

6,500

Mental disorders

28 %

6,900

1,700

Diseases of the circulatory system

7%

2,500 0

2000

Persons 4000

6000

8000

 Both in 2001 and in 2011 approx. 23,000 persons retired on a disability pension.  In 2011 almost one in three of these was due to a mental disorder. Source: Statistics of Finnish Centre of Pensions

A Glance at Akava 2012


13

Average intended age of retirement of Akava members 1997*

61.2

2001*

61.3

2004*

62.0

2008**

62.8

2010***

63.2

58

59

60

61

62

63

64 Years

 Three in four persons think they will stay in working life at least until the age of 63. The employee pension scheme reform of 2005 has achieved the desired results.

Sources: *) Akava Member Opinion Polls **) Statistics Finland, Quality of Work life Survey ***) Survey by TNS Finland commissioned by Akava, autumn 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


14

Factors enabling Akava members to remain longer in working life Important

Not very important

Meaningless

80

certainty JobJob certainty

16

69

Reduction in pace work Reduction in pace of ofwork

27

62

Improvement of leadership skills Improvement of leadership skills

61

Improvement of working environment Improvement of working environment

59

More flexible working hours More flexible working hours

49

Job alternation or sabbatical leave Job alternation or sabbatical leave

48

36

Part-time pension Part-time pension

47

40

Reduction of work load Reduction of work load

47

10

20

7 10 10 16 13 7 9

49

9

47

35 0

32

46

38

in work assignments Change Change in work assignments

7

47

41

Increased education & training possibilities Increased education & training possibilities

30

41

45

of rehabilitation possibilities ImprovementImprovement of rehabilitation possibilities

4

31

Improvement of occupational services Improvement of occupational healthhealth carecare services

Rise in Rise insalary pay

4

15

52 30

40

50

60

12 70

80

90

100 %

Total number of respondents: 1,094 Source: survey by TNS Finland commissioned by Akava, autumn 2009

A Glance at Akava 2012


15

Wellbeing at work 

The average working week of Akava members in full-time employment was 40.6 hours in their main job. The working week of one in ten Akava members, and of one in five who are managers and senior officials, was longer than 48 hours.

Akava members did more overtime than the average for all employees, and often without compensation. The weekly overtime hours of one in five Akava members added up to one working day, i.e. 7.4 hours. 7% of these received no compensation for the overtime. 15% of Akava members were compensated for the overtime in the form of money or free time.

The working hours of senior employees are monitored less often than those of other employees. A total of 35% reported that their working hours were not monitored in any way.

Senior employees experience more mental stress as a result of their job than other employee groups. 43% of senior employees experience rather a lot or a lot of mental stress as a result of their job. One in two experiences time pressure in the job fairly often or very often.

Manual workers are more familiar with health and safety issues and the health and safety organisation than other employees. 24% of senior employees are not sufficiently familiar with health and safety documents and 27% believe there is room for improvement in the operations of the health and safety organisation. 35% also state that supervisors are not active enough when it comes to health and safety.

A Glance at Akava 2012


16

Experience of mental stress Rather a lot All Socio-economic groups Entrepreneur Upper-level employees Lower-level employees Manual workers

A lot

24

6

21

30

8

29

33

10

25

6

15 0

3

43

31

18

10

20

30

40

50

60

%

60

%

Experience of time pressure Fairly often All

Very often 46

19

27

Socio-economic groups Entrepreneur Upper-level employees

15

24 0

10

48

21

27

Manual workers

52

22

30

Lower-level employees

53

19

34

20

30

39 40

50

Source: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health 2009

A Glance at Akava 2012


17

Overtime work in 2010 Without compensation

With compensation

Akava members

6

Men Women

7

All wage and salary earners

11

13

6

Lower-level employees 0

1 16

6,5

0 16

7,3

0 16

12 5

7,6

1 21

14

0

7,9

1 23

14

1

7,3

1 23

15

3

Socio-economic groups Upper-level employees Manual workers

14

4

6,6

1 20

8

Private

8,1

1 21

14

Employer State

7,4

1 21 13

5

Municipality

Both

14 8

Overtime hours/week

5,9

0 13 10

8,9 15

20

25

30 %

Wage and salary earners working full time; overtime compensation in money or free time Source: Statistics Finland, Labour Force Statistics 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


18

Persons who worked at least 48 hours/week, 2010

All wage and salary earners

Estimated number of persons who worked at least 48 hours/week, 1,000 persons

100

10

Akava members: All

22

11

Men

14

13

Women

7

9

Employer: State

3

13

Private

14

13

Municipality

4

7

Position in organisation: Legislators, senior officials and managers

9

19

Teaching professionals

4

10

Others

1

10

Professionals

5

8

Technicians and associate professionals

2

8 0

5

10

15

20

%

Wage and salary earners in full-time work Source: Statistics Finland, Labour Force Statistics 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


19

Salaries 

Akava members earned EUR 4,050 a month on average, with women earning EUR 3,600 and men earning EUR 4,520 a month in 2010. Women earn 80% of what men earn.

The average monthly salary of all employees was EUR 3,090 in 2010.

50% of Akava members earned EUR 3,590 or more a month, with one in ten earning less than EUR 2,420 and one in ten earning more than EUR 5,930 a month.

The average starting salary of an Akava member is EUR 3,270 a month, increasing to EUR 4,490 towards the end of the working career.

Private sector middle management and corresponding experts in Finland do badly in European salary comparisons. Their gross salary is 84% of the salary of people in corresponding positions in western Europe. The corresponding comparison figure for employees other than manual workers (i.e. for approx. an average Finn) is 92%.

The high price level and steep tax progression in Finland weaken the purchasing power of the salary of middle management and those who carry out corresponding expert tasks to 71% compared with western European countries. The corresponding comparison figure is 78% for employees other than manual workers.

A Glance at Akava 2012


20

Total earnings in 2010 Akava members mean, EUR/month

All wage and salary earners in Finland mean, EUR/month

State

4,230

3,420

Municipality

3,670

2,790

Private enterprises

4,270

3,180

Men

4,520

3,420

Women

3,600

2,800

All

4,050

3,090

Employer sector:

Distribution of total earnings (without bonuses) F10 2,420

Akava members All wage and salary earners in Finland

F10 1,940 1 400

F90 5,930

M

F90 4,500 1 900

2 400

2 900

3 400

3 900

4 400

4 900

5 400

5 900

Wage and salary earners working full time; total earnings in table include bonuses *) From the beginning of 2010 the university sector is included in the private sector (private enterprises) Source: Statistics Finland, Structure of Earnings, 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


21

Total earnings of wage and salary earners by level of education in 2010, EUR/month

Total

Number of persons in wage and salary statistics (1,000)

3,090

1,386

Primary&lower secondary education

2,590 172

Upper secondary education

2,650 585

Lowest level tertiary education

3,140

Lower-degree level tertiary education

221

3,310

Higher-degree level tertiary education

196

191

4,340

Doctorate

21

5,200 0

500

1 000

1 500

2 000

2 500

3 000

3 500

4 000

4 500

5 000

5 500

6 000

EUR/month

Wage and salary earners working full time; total earnings include bonuses Source: Statistics Finland, Structure of earnings, 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


22

Gross earnings per year in private sector 2011 Western Europe = 100

Middle management and professionals 2)

Clerical/Technicians 1) Switzerland Denmark Norway Luxembourg Germany Belgium Austria Western Europe Netherlands Finland Sweden Ireland France Italy Spain United Kingdom Portugal

182 130 121 121 117 107 104 100 95 92 88 88 83 75 74 66 56 0

50

100

150

Western Europe = 100

200

Switzerland Luxemburg Germany Denmark Norway Belgium Netherlands Austria Western Europe Italy Ireland France Sweden Finland Spain United Kingdom Portugal

162 122 116 110 106 103 102 101 100 96 95 88 85 84 83 80 69 0

50

100

150

200

Western Europe = 100

1) Comparable to Finnish employees with salaries of approx. 2,950 EUR/month; Grade 8 = Graduate/Administrator in Global job value framework of Watson Wyatt 2) Comparable to Finnish employees with salaries of approx. 5,290 EUR/month. Grade 14 = Middle Managers Source: 2011/2012 WWDS Global 50 Remuneration Planning Report

A Glance at Akava 2012


23

Relative purchasing power of salaries in private sector 2011 Western Europe = 100

Middle managers and professionals 2)

Clerical/Technicians 1) Switzerland Luxembourg Germany Ireland Belgium Netherlands Austria Western Europe United Kingdom Denmark Norway France Spain Sweden Finland Italy Portugal

Switzerland Luxemburg Germany Ireland United Kingdom Netherlands France Western Europe Austria Spain Belgium Italy Portugal Norway Sweden Denmark Finland

154 151 122 113 104 103 101 100 95 92 88 88 85 85 78 71 70 0

50

100

150

Western Europe = 100

200

147 146 127 107 104 103 101 100 99 97 92 85 85 79 78 78 71 0

50

100

150

200

Western Europe = 100

1) Comparable to Finnish employees with salaries of approx. 2,950 EUR/month; Grade 8 = Graduate/Administrator in Global job value framework of Watson Wyatt 2) Comparable to Finnish employees with salaries of approx. 5,290 EUR/month. Grade 14 = Middle Managers Source: 2011/2012 WWDS Global 50 Remuneration Planning Report

A Glance at Akava 2012


24

Taxation of employees 

The Government is supporting the framework agreement reached for the labour market through reduced taxation for employees in 2012. The net salary of an employee covered by the contractual pay increases and changes in taxation who is earning EUR 3,000 per month will rise by 2.8%, or EUR 60, in 2012. The net salary of someone earning EUR 4,000 will rise by 2.7%, or EUR 71.

One in five full-time employees in Finland is an Akava member. These employees earn a quarter of Finland’s entire wages and salaries bill, and pay one third of taxes and social security contributions paid by employees. Akava members account for 42% of state income taxes paid by employees.

The income tax rate of someone with a monthly salary of EUR 3,000 is 29%, while an income of EUR 4,000 is subject to 34% income tax.

Finnish employees have high and progressive marginal tax rates. The marginal tax rate indicates what proportion of additional income is collected as tax. At a salary of EUR 2,100, nearly 45% of additional income is collected as tax. The marginal tax rate is close to 50% for a monthly salary of EUR 3,400, and almost 57% when the salary exceeds EUR 6,100.

In international comparison, the high and progressive marginal tax rates are evident in the fact that while low-income employees in Finland are taxed moderately by European standards and employees with average salaries are taxed near the European average, those who earn more than average are taxed quite harshly.

A Glance at Akava 2012


25

Pay and taxes: Akava members and other wage and salary earners Akava members Wage and salary earners (1,7 million)

Other wage and salary earners

81

19

Wage and salaries bill (62,0 billion EUR)

74

26

Taxes and payments (15,4 billion EUR)

68

32

By type of tax:

State income taxes (4,0 billion EUR)

58

42

Municipal tax (9,5 billion EUR)

28

72

Pension and unemployment insurance contributions (2,9 billion EUR)

26

74

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

%

Employees who have worked at least 6 months full time with income over 12,302 EUR per year Source: Statistics Finland, Income Distribution Statistics 2009

A Glance at Akava 2012


26

Average personal income tax for single wage and salary earners in Finland and in other Western European countries in 2011, % %

54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 24.8 26 24 22 22.2 20 18 16 14 20,000 30,000

45.7

Finland 36.3

29.8

41.9

Other Western European countries*)

34.3

29.6

40,000

50,000

60,000

70,000

80,000

90,000

100,000

110,000

54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14

120,000

Income per year 2011, EUR

*) Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Italy, Austria, Norway, France, Sweden, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark. Excluding Estonia. One-person household. Source: Taxpayers’ Association of Finland, International Wage Tax Survey 2011

A Glance at Akava 2012


27

Average personal income tax rate in 2011 for income of 4,720 EUR/month Belgium

46,7

Germany

42,6

Italy

40,2

Austria

38,5

Denmark

38,2

Finland

36,3

Holland

36,1

France

33,8

Sweden

32,6

Spain

29,5

Norway

28,6

United Kingdom

27,8

USA

27,0

Estonia

23,1 % 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

One-person household with income of 59,000 EUR per year Source: Taxpayers’ Association of Finland, International Wage Tax Survey 2011

A Glance at Akava 2012


28

Education 

       

In Finland, the proportion of people aged 25-64 with tertiary-level education has increased by 23 percentage points in 35 years. However, one in five remain with no educational qualification beyond compulsory education. 39% of Finns aged 25-34 have completed a lower or higher degree in tertiary education. This ranks Finland near the middle among OECD countries. The number of students in relation to teachers in universities has risen by around 70% in the period 1985-2009. 61% of university students and 59% of polytechnic students worked in 2009. The average duration of studies is 6.2 years in universities and 4 years in polytechnics. Nearly half of Akava members state that they need training to maintain occupational skills. 31% of employees with a high-level education attended non-degree training in 2011. For 4%, the training was not work- or occupation-related. Every tenth employee with a high-level education participated in work-related training either entirely or mostly during their own time. Responses of Akava members to questions regarding occupational skills and self-development: 

 

90% feel that employers should place more emphasis on maintaining and developing employees’ occupational skills. 14% feel that being busy at work does not present any problem whatsoever when it comes to renewing occupational skills. 30% are of the opinion that no suitable continuing education is available. 10% feel that their competence is outdated and no longer meets the requirements of working life. A Glance at Akava 2012


29

Persons with higher-degree level education in Finland and in some other countries in 2009 25–64 years of age Japan USA Finland England Norway Estonia Ireland Switzerland Denmark Belgium Sweden Holland OECD Spain France EU21 Germany Greece Austria Portugal Italy Turkey

25–34 years of age Japan Ireland Norway England Denmark France Belgium Sweden USA Holland Schwitzerland Finland Spain OECD Estonia EU21 Greece Germany Portugal Austria Italy Turkey

44 41 37 37 37 36 36 35 34 33 33 33 30 30 29 27 26 24 19 15 15 13 0

20

40

%

55–64 years of age 56

48 47 45 45 43 42 42 41 40 40 39 38 37 37 34 29 26 23 21 20 17 0

20

40

%

USA Estonia Finland England Schwitzerland Holland Japan Norway Sweden Denmark Germany Belgium OECD Ireland EU21 France Spain Austria Greece Italy Turkey Portugal

41 33 29 29 28 27 27 27 27 26 25 23 22 20 20 18 17 16 15 10 10 7 0

20

40

%

In addition to university and polytechnic degrees, higher-degree level tertiary education also includes some lowest level tertiary education qualifications, such as technicians and diplomas in Business and Administration Source: OECD, Education at a Glance 2011

A Glance at Akava 2012


30

Akava members and total labour force in 2010 by educational level, % Doctorate

5

Highest level academic degrees of licentiate and doctorate (scientific post-graduate degrees)

1

Higher-degree level tertiary education

51

Mainly higher university degrees (master’s level), specialist’s degrees in medicine, graduate engineers

11 26

Lower-degree level tertiary education Mainly polytechnic degrees and lower university degrees

Akava members

11

Lowest level tertiary education

Total labour force

8

Vocational college education. Examples of vocational college qualifications include Technician Engineer, Diploma in Business and Administration and Diploma in Nursing

13 8

Upper secondary education

46

Gives general eligibility for tertiary education

1

Primary & lower secondary education

18 0

10

20

30

40

50

60 %

Source: Statistics Finland, Labour Force Statistics 2010

A Glance at Akava 2012


31

Entrepreneurship 

About 24,000 Akava members, or 6% of the membership, are entrepreneurs and selfemployed persons on a full-time or part-time basis. Over one third of these are women.

Around half of Akava’s entrepreneurs operate in the field of social welfare and health care.

62% of Akava’s entrepreneurs are full-time and 38% are part-time self-employed persons and entrepreneurs.

Independent work and fulfilling one’s dreams are motivating factors in entrepreneurship.

The greatest obstacles to entrepreneurship have to do with financial livelihood.

Entrepreneurship is seen as a natural step in career progression or as a way of becoming employed.

Akava’s self-employed and entrepreneur members are more satisfied with their work than members who are employees.

The key challenges faced by highly educated entrepreneurs are the differences in the social security benefits between employees and entrepreneurs, for example in unemployment security and sickness security, and reconciling work and family life.

A Glance at Akava 2012


32

Akava’s entrepreneurial/self-employed members, 2011

Medical doctors in all specialisations 44 %

Agriculture, forestry and environment 4%

Social services and health care 9%

Social sciences 27 %

Technology and natural sciences 16 %

Among Akava’s membership there are approx. 24,000 full- or part-time entrepreneurs and self-employed persons. Source: Akava’s affiliates

A Glance at Akava 2012


33

Union membership 

Akava members are highly educated, and mainly join a union that corresponds with their qualifications or occupation.

Akava has 35 affiliated unions, and at the beginning of April in 2012 there were altogether 573,400 members. The number of members is growing. The aim is to have 600,000 members by 2015.

University and polytechnic students can join their respective Akava unions while they are still studying. Akava’s affiliates have 107,400 student members.

Akava members are of the opinion that union membership brings general security in life. Private-sector employees value the earnings-related unemployment security, while publicsector employees value pay security and employment protection.

Members are of the opinion that Akava’s success in representing its members’ interests has improved. Nearly half of Akava’s members are of the opinion that Akava has succeeded well or very well. Four years earlier, one in four felt this way.

A Glance at Akava 2012


34

Number of Akava members 1,000 members

600

600

573

500

375

400

300

265

200

162

100 42 0 1970

1980

1990

2000

1.4.2012

Aim 2015

Source: Akava’s affiliates

A Glance at Akava 2012


35

Membership of each of the three main employee confederations as a percentage of all wage and salary earners in Finland, 1970–2011

% 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1970

SAK; 1 040 000

STTK+TVK

STTK; 615 000

Akava; 553 000 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Source: Employee confederations’ cost distribution

A Glance at Akava 2012


36

Number of student members in Akava 107,400

110 000 100 000

91,200 90 000 80 000 70 000

64,100

60 000 50 000

49,000

40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 0 1996

2000

2005

1.4.2012

Source: Akava’s affiliates

A Glance at Akava 2012


37

Reasons for membership in an Akava member organisation, % Of some significance

Pay related benefits in case of unemployment

Very important

17

Security in pay and employment conditions

73

28

Membership provides general security

61

36

Well-educated should stick together

49

39

Services and allowances for members

34

51

At present it is customary to be a member

21

34

Professional development

30

42

Professional activities in the organisation

20

34

11 %

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Source: Akava Member Opinion Poll 2011

A Glance at Akava 2012


38

Akava’s organisation for negotiations Akava

Akava’s Public Sector Negotiation Commission JUKO The Delegation of Professional and Managerial Employees YTN Employees in Technical and Basic Service Professions KTN

Organisations’ collective agreements Entrepreneurs and self-employed persons

Central organisation agreements Tripartite agreements Coordination

Employers and government

Collective Agreements (public sector)

Office for Government as Employer Commission for Local Authority Employers Church

Collective Agreements

Confederation of Finnish Industries EK and its affiliates

Collective Agreements (public sector)

Collective Agreements

Influencing legislation

Commission for Local Authority Employers

Employer organisations

Parliament, Ministries, Local Authorities A Glance at Akava 2012


Akava’s affiliates 1.4.2012 and number of members 1.1.2012 Trade Union of Education in Finland

118,967

Finnish Psychological Association

6,274

The Finnish Association of Graduate Engineers TEK

73,491

Finnish Association of Academic Agronomists

5,917

Union of Professional Engineers in Finland UIL SEFE - The Finnish Association of Business School Graduates Union of Professional Business Graduates in Finland TRAL

68,984

The Officers Union

5,895

48,562

The Union of Church Professionals within Akava AKI

5,783

28,377

4,518

Akava Special Branches

26,589

Finnish Union of Environmental Professionals The Institute Officers Union of the Finnish Defence Forces and the Border Guard

Sales and Marketing Professionals SMKJ

26,212

Union of Swedish-speaking Engineers in Finland

3,337

Finnish Medical Association

23,694

Society of Finnish Professional Foresters

2,619

Union of Professional Social Workers

22,226

The Finnish Association of Architects

2,589

Association of Finnish Lawyers

15,516

Finnish Veterinary Association

2,339

Social Science Professionals

11,347

Union of Finnish University Professors

2,334

4,435

Union of Technical Professionals, KTK

9,726

The Union of Diaconal Workers in Finland

1,976

Managers and Specialists in the Private Sector YTY

8,687

The Finnish Association of Occupational Health Nurses

1,834

Finnish Pharmacists' Association

8,647

Union of Finnish Speech Therapists

1,378

Finnish Union of Experts in Science

7,590

Health Science Academic Leaders and Experts

1,075

Finnish Union of Public Health Nurses

7,204

Kirkon Nuorisotyöntekijöiden Liitto KNT

1,053

Finnish Dental Association

6,810

AKAVA's General Group

Finnish Union of University Researchers and Teachers

6,608

Total

812 573,405

A Glance at Akava 2012


40

Statistical information on Akava members 2011-2012 Number of Akava members 1.4.2012

573,405

Proportion of women

52 %

Average age

Main occupation:

42 years

Full-time work

85 %

Age distribution 2012:

Part-time work

7%

under 30

9%

Unemployed

4%

30–39

29 %

Entrepreneur

4%

40–49

28 %

50–59

25 %

over 60

9%

Employer 1.1.2011: Private enterprise

56 %

Municipality

33 %

Lower tertiary or a higher level qualification

82 % 32 %

State

7%

Living in Helsinki Metropolitan Area

Self-employed professionals

3%

Members in full-time work:

Church

1%

Fixed term work

12 %

Average years in service in current employment

Position in organisation:

9

Professionals

34 %

Average gross income 2010, EUR/month

Teaching professionals

24 %

Average working hours/week

40.6

Legislators, senior officials and managers

21 %

Persons working overtime

21 %

Technical and associate professionals

16 %

Persons working over 48 hours/week

11 %

Persons working overtime without compensation

35 %

Others

6%

4,100

Sources: Statistics Finland, Labour force statistics; Akava's affiliates

A Glance at Akava 2012

A glance at Akava  

basic information on Akava and its members

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you