Vertical cemetery Submitted By AISHWARYA RAJASEKAR (311713251005) in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE
MOHAMED SATHAK A. J. ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE, CHENNAI - 603103
ANNA UNIVERSITY CHENNAI â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 600025
MOHAMED SATHAK A J ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE
Certified that this project report titled “VERTICAL CEMETERY” is the bonafide work of “AISHWARYA RAJASEKAR (311713251005)” who carried out the project work under my supervision. Certified further that to the best of my knowledge the work reported here does not form part of any other project / research work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.
Asst. Prof. Mohamed Afzal
Prof. Hari Srinivas
Prof. H.Mohammed Idris
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the process of completing this thesis proposal, a number of people have helped along the way. The scholar wishes to express her appreciation towards all the staff members who lent their helping hand. The scholar is thankful to her honorable dean, Prof.A.Mohammed Haris, for his
continuous support and encouragement. She is also thankful to the director of the campus, Mr.S.M.Hamid Ali. The scholar would like to express her gratitude towards her principal,
Prof. H.Mohammed Idris for his guidance throughout the project. The scholar is also thankful to her head of department, Prof.T. Sathish Kumar.
She is thankful to Ar. Senthil, Prof. Hari Srinivas, Asst. Prof. Mohamed Afzal
and other panel staff members for their timely discussion, encouragement, unconditional guidance, support and sincere advice throughout the completion of my project. The scholar would like to convey her heartfelt thanks to all the people who have helped through the case studies for the project, with relevant information and assistance. Her sincere gratitude and thanks to her parents and family members, who stood beside her as pillars of support, throughout, providing their continuous motivation.
ABSTRACT Most of us donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like to think about death. But as the global population expands, the question of how to dispose of the deceased becomes more pressing. The growing number of designers and urban planners are tackling this issue with innovative concepts for cemeteries of the future. Since there is no archetypal form for a crematorium, this design would create one such structure. â&#x20AC;&#x2039;To solve the space constraints for the dead in order to ensure adequate capacity
to continually accommodate the new dead. And to provide an example of architecture which marries poetry and functionality to create spaces which are respectful, experiential, and user-friendly. This thesis analyzes and provides traditional burial and cremation space for Christians.
MY JOURNEY CHAPTER
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
INTRODUCTION, SCOPE & OBJECTIVES
OUTLINE OF THE STUDY 1.2.1
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1
NET CASE STUDY:
NET CASE STUDY:
DATA COLLECTION â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SECONDARY DATA 3.1
LIVE CASE STUDY:
LIVE CASE STUDY:
SPECIAL STUDY 4.1
DESIGN PROPOSAL 5.1
SITE JUSTIFICATION & ANALYSIS
INTRODUCTION Grave crisis In India: The growth rate of the human population has been increasing fast over the years and this process has brought various changes. Because of that, the structure of urban space needs to be re-evaluated. Some people die every year, and cemeteries are becoming ever more crowded. â&#x20AC;&#x2039;Decline of ritualistic practices
associated with death has seen crematoriums lose their "sanctity." The lack
of maintenance and consideration for the user has resulted in a space which is "without any sensitivity and respect". According to Penzy Morgan of New Delhi's Indian Christian Cemetery, fresh spaces are available in just two of the Capital's seven Christian cemeteries. "The only burials taking place in these cemeteries are of family members of those whose graves are already there, and even they are being buried in layers on top of existing graves," she says. The problem is believed to cut across religious lines. Mehfooz Mohammad, caretaker of the Delhi Wakf Board's mosques and graveyards, says the Capital's Muslims need at least 10 more graveyards. "As per a 1970 gazette notification, 488 Muslim graveyards exist in Delhi. Of these, only 25-30 are in actual operation today. Many graveyards have been illegally occupied and litigation is on to get the land back," he says. a Muslim cleric, attributes the space shortage to too many permanent gravesâ&#x20AC;&#x2039;. â&#x20AC;&#x2039;"As per Islamic law, graves should be kuchha (temporary), so as to facilitate more burials on top. However, people have not only made permanent graves, but also erected tombstones, making it difficult to bury in layers."
Possible solutions: Due to the grave crisis in India, the structure of urban space needs to be re-evaluated. The new cemetery concept is intended not only to solve the urban issues, but also to use all the architectural concepts to optimize the environment to provide warmth to its visitors. The Sewri Christian cemetery in Mumbai exhumes bodies after 18 months and places the remains in small niches that line the cemetery walkways. Relatives of the deceased can erect plaques or put up pictures on the niches. "We have been grappling with space shortage for a long time. The issue, in fact, became so acute that since September 2005, we have withdrawn the facility of people buying space within the cemetery. However, since the introduction of niches, a little more space is
available," says Reverend John Silas of Mumbai Diocese.
The Madras Cemeteries Board (MCB), which looks after three cemeteries in Chennai, recently started the system of multi-tier vault burial. This, after its largest
cemetery at Kilpauk was partially closed for new burials in April 2005 because there was little available space. The multi-tier vault system places bodies in vaults that look like bank lockers. They can be reused after 2-3 years with the remains pushed into a pit below.
Vertical cemetery-a solution to grave crisis: An effort should be put to improve the spatial quality for the living. However, issues relating to the handling of the dead are seldom addressed. So I would like to create a high-rise
cemetery in order, to free up previous ground for cemetery green space for recreation. This would create a vertical resource for the handling and disposal of dead bodies, which would provide storage for the dead for only limited a period of time, in order to ensure adequate capacity to continually accommodate new dead. The tower which would be proposed would cater for burials in the city, their body will be treated according to their religions,
custom. They can choose to be buried deep into the ground, burnt and dispersed up in the air.
Federation of British cremation authorities framed the following guidelines
The following are the main principles which should be observed: a. that the site is well suited for the building, and is accessible by public transport, and, normally, that all main services are available; b. that the crematorium is so sited that its use does not have any material effect on the immediate neighbourhood; c. that the layout of the site provides for the easy movement of vehicles to and from the building, and adequate parking space; d. that the building should be so planned as to allow convenient circulation; e. that proper amenities are provided for those attending or working at the crematorium; f. That the cremation room and its ancillary rooms and spaces comply with good practices and permit cremation to be carried out in a reverent and dignified manner.
The site : o Sufficient land is required to provide an appropriate setting for the crematorium, adequate internal access roads, car-parking space and space for the disposal of ashes. Some recently approved sites have ranged from 2 to 4 hectares (5 to 10 acres). o Care is needed in the selection of a suitable site for a crematorium and the local planning authority should be consulted at the outset.
A well wooded piece of ground with natural undulations and good views is ideal, but this must go along with easy access by public transport and by private car. o To allow for any possible emission of fumes, the direction of the prevailing wind should be taken into account in the selection of a site. o Main services should be available, water drainage electricity and gas. If main drainage is not available a simple treatment plant large enough to deal with soil drainage from the building may be acceptable. o Entrances and exits require careful planning; they should be from or to local distributor roads and appropriate sight lines should be provided. The highway authority, as well as the planning authority, should be consulted. It helps the circulation of traffic to have a separate entrance and exit. If the entrance and exit routes share the same roadway this should be about 5 m wide. o The gateway at the entrance to the site should be set back enough to allow a full turn-in from the road for any vehicle before passing through the gates. A pedestrian gateway should be provided adjoining the vehicular gateway, as many visitors to the crematorium grounds and remembrance chapel may come at a time when the main building is closed. o The size of the car park is to some extent governed by the capacity of the chapel; space for at least one car should be provided for every two places in the chapel. The layout of spaces in the car park should allow cars to arrive, park and depart without noisy manoeuvring. o A small garden, closely adjoining the building is usually provided as an enclosed retreat for quiet thought and contemplation.
o The area for the disposal of ashes, by strewing or by burial, should form a pleasantly treated part of the grounds. There now appears to be an increasing preference for burying ashes. Where strewing is adopted the ground will sour from the continuing application of ash and the plans should include more than one plot. The plots can be used in turn to give the others time to recover. After strewing, the ashes should be lightly covered with earth, this helps to maintain the fertility of lawns if correctly composted soil is used. o Landscape architects should be retained for the design of the grounds and gardens. o New planting should form the subject of a long-term plan from the very beginning. It is important to get quick growing trees and shrubs planted at once, with a long-term planting scheme for forest trees for the ultimate screening and maturing of the site. o It is important that the flow of traffic and visitors within the grounds should be smooth and uninterrupted. Visits should be made to selected crematoria which have been in operation for a few years to see how their plans have worked out in practice.
The building : o The Cremation Act 1902 provides that no crematorium shall be constructed nearer to any dwelling house than 200 yards (182.880 m), except with the consent in writing of the owner, lessee and occupier of such house, nor within 50 yards (45.720 m) of any public highway, nor in the consecrated part of a burial ground. o Crematoria have as much claim to special treatment as any public building, secular or religious, and the building should be designed by an architect, preferably one who specialises in this type of work. Promoters
and local authorities are advised to select their architect with care and with consideration for the dignity and appropriateness of the building. The provision made should include the following: ✔ a porte cochére providing a covered setting-down space at the entrance to the chapel; ✔ the entrance hall suite, connected with a waiting room and lavatories; ✔ the chapel (or chapels - the possibility that a second chapel might be required should be kept in mind); ✔ an independent exit from the chapel leading undercover to an arcade or cloister for flower displays; ✔ a covered departure point and lavatories (note- it is sometimes possible to make one lavatory suite available from both entrance and exit points); ✔ a vestry for the official clergy; ✔ a committal room between the catafalque space in the chapel and the cremation room; ✔ the cremation room suite (with separate access from the main entrance hall), including staff room and lavatories, pulverisation, fan and heating plants, ash repository and a workroom with bench; ✔ a waiting room and lavatories for bearers is sometimes provided. The detailed planning requirements of the various sections of the buildings are as follows: ❖ The porte cochére ❖ Doorways and gangways ❖ Entrance hall ❖ Waiting room ❖ The vestry ❖ The chapel
❖ The crematory ❖ Ancillary space ❖ Chapel of rest ❖ Superintendent’s house and office ❖ Flowers ❖ Conversions
The porte cochére: o This must be long enough to give cover for the removal of the coffin from the hearse and taking it into the chapel, and at the same time for passengers in one car to alight. The minimum length necessary for these
purposes is about 5.5 m and there should be a clear height of at least 3 m.
o The road width between the kerb of the chapel entry and the outer wall and columns of the porte cochére should not be less than 2.7 m. The outer wall or columns should always be based on a kerb wide enough to allow car doors to swing clear. o There should be a pavement at least 900 mm wide between the kerb and the main entrance. The kerb should not be more than 150 mm high and wherever possible this should be the only step between the roadway and the interior of the chapel.
Doorways and Gangways: ● All doorways and gangways through which the bearers have to pass with the coffin should be not less than 1.8 m wide in the clear. Special care should be
taken to use door furniture that has a minimum projection and operates silently. The height of doors should be 2.3 m to allow adequate headroom for the bearers to carry the coffin shoulder high.
Entrance hall : ● This should be of generous size and should have direct communication with the chapel and waiting room.
Waiting Room : ● This requires an area of about 18 square metres, capable of seating about twelve persons, and needs to be placed so that those waiting can see the arrival of the cortège through the window. (Alternatively, a waiting area might be provided in association with the entrance hall). Separate lavatory and w.c. accommodation for men and women should be planned adjacent to the waiting room and care should be taken to ensure that no plumbing noises are audible in the chapel or the entrance hall.
The Vestry ● The vestry should be placed so that officiating clergy can see the approach of the cortége along the approach road. It need not be larger in area than 9 square metres. A separate lavatory and w.c. will be provided.
The chapel : Seating ● Normally, accommodation should be limited to a maximum of 80 persons. The area is calculated on the basis of a minimum of 0.450 square metres per person exclusive of gangways. Either fixed pews or moveable chairs may be
provided. The latter have the practical advantage that they may be arranged for either large or small congregations, but they may give rise to some noise. ● Provision must be made for a clergy desk and for the catafalque. Music ● This may be provided either by an organ or by record or tape-playing equipment, which should be expertly planned and installed. Catafalque ● The catafalque should be about 3 m long, and 1 m wide, the top should not be more than 1.200 m above the floor immediately surrounding it and will normally be at the same level as the cremator hearth. The catafalque must adjoin the committal room.
Transfer ● The method of moving the coffin to the committal room must be decided before this part of the building is planned. ● The main methods of transfer involve: o lowering the coffin through the floor to a committal room at a lower level; o moving the coffin horizontally through an opening at the back or at the side of the chancel; o Placing the catafalque partly or wholly in a recess across which curtains may be drawn. The coffin is subsequently moved by one of the above methods. ● Care should be taken to ensure that the machinery for transferring the coffin to the committal room and for moving the curtains is silent in operation. ● Steps between the chapel and the catafalque should be avoided; but if any are included none should rise more than 125 mm and the treads should not be
less than 375 mm deep. The nosing should be clearly indicated by colour or some obvious contrast in material. Exit from the Chapel ● The exit from the chapel should be at the opposite end from the entrance and should connect with a covered way of sufficient length and depth for the display and inspection of wreaths by mourners on their way out. The covered way should face a quiet section of the grounds and could reasonably be terminated near the car park with a sheltered departure point and a lavatory suite adjoining. Room of Remembrance ● It is usual to provide a Book of Remembrance which is generally placed in a special room or small chapel. This should be quite separately approached as it will be mainly used by persons paying individual visits to the crematorium.
Committal Room ● The committal room should measure at least 3.6 m between the chapel opening and the partition wall separating it from the crematory, and if automatic equipment for charging the cremators is likely to be installed the measurement should be at least 4.6 m. The room should be well but plainly furnished as committals sometimes have to be witnessed. Racks should be provided for any temporary storage of coffins awaiting cremation. ● A warning signal (a buzzer or light) operated from the clergyman's desk will assist in indicating to staff the moment for the transfer of the coffin to the committal room. In case of failure of this signal, a duplicate warning signal might be provided for operation by the chapel attendant. It is also useful to
install monitoring equipment so that at any time the staff in the committal room know what stage a service has reached.
The crematory: ● Access from the main entrance hall to the crematory should be possible without going through the chapel or going outside the building. ● The height, width and length of the crematory depends upon the type of cremator to be used. It is generally necessary to have a clear space of at least 3.6 m from the cremator to the rear wall and a space of at least 900 mm between cremators or groups of cremators and flanking walls. Working conditions in the room will be improved if it is at least twice the height of the cremators and fitted with overhead ventilation and a heating system. It should not be possible for mourners to obtain an accidental view into either the committal room or the crematory.
Ancillary space : ● Adjoining the crematory there should be a small staff room, a workroom, lavatory and w.c. accommodation, a fan room, suitable accommodation for the pulverising machinery and for the storage of ashes and space for the central heating plant. A cleaners' room should also be provided and at the larger crematoria an office may be desired for the senior operator. Information about the space required for meters should be obtained well in advance and their installation so arranged that the meters can be read without entering the crematory.
Chapel of rest : ● It is sometimes desirable to provide a small chapel of rest sited conveniently in relation to the main chapel and accessible to it under cover. This chapel
should be well ventilated and have an outside door to enable the coffin to be delivered directly from the hearse. It should not be heated.
Service Yard â&#x2014;? A service yard will be required outside the crematory suitably screened from view. The entrance to it, and through it to the crematory, should be large enough to allow the movement of bulky equipment. The yard can conveniently incorporate the gardeners' and maintenance stores.
Superintendent's House and Office â&#x2014;? Where a house for the superintendent is not available locally it will usually be necessary to build one on the site. The house, which should be designed with due regard to the privacy and amenities which ought to be enjoyed by the occupants, and the main office should be placed at the main entrance to the site. Offices should not be incorporated in the crematorium building unless they have independent access and there is no possibility of staff using the same entrances and exits as mourners or private visitors to the buildings. The chief parts of the grounds visited by mourners should not be overlooked from office windows, neither should it be possible for mourners to hear the noise of typing or office machinery.
Conversions â&#x2014;? It is sometimes proposed that a cemetery chapel should be converted for use as a crematorium. Although not by any means impossible - there have been several successful conversions - there may be inherent disadvantages in
existing buildings. Developers should satisfy themselves that the basic standards recommended above can be achieved.
R equirement brief Entrance �
Entrance – Provide a canopied entrance to accommodate 3 cars. The canopy should be open but with reasonable cover and shelter from the weather.
Lobby – This is to be located directly adjacent to the canopied entrance and provide a space where people can gather before entering the chapel.
The entrance doors are to be a minimum of 2.4m high constructed in solid material with no transparent window openings either side.
Windows or sliding / folding doors should be provided between the lobby and chapel so that this space can be used as overspill accommodation when required.
The chapel should be designed to accommodate 90-100 people seated with a standing area to the rear.
It is to have large windows on one side to obtain views of the open countryside with clerestory type high level windows opposite.
The catafalque is to have automatic, attractive curtains and be a well-considered and dignified focal point.
The exit from the chapel is to be on the right hand side (south-east direction) via a small lobby leading to a covered area under which people can gather. The covered area should not be immediately adjacent to the lobby so that gatherings do not obstruct circulation from the chapel. There should be a suitable space for displaying wreaths and flowers.
Office / Staffroom o
This area should be approximately 200 sq metres with a private office for meetings/ memorial selection and be suitably positioned to enable supervision of external activities.
A large roller shutter door should be installed off a service yard giving access for maintenance and delivery of replacement machinery parts.
The space housing the crematory is to be approximately 12m x 10m to accommodate the following:
❖ 2no cremators ❖ Store Area ❖ Computer Console Area – with view of cremators ❖ Ashes Store – to also store urns. ❖ Staff WC’s. ❖ Cleaners’ Store ❖ Clergy Vestry
This is to be located near to the chapel exit and provided with cloakroom and WC facilities.
Suitably landscaped car parking.
Staff and hearse parking facilities should be located in the service yard.
The buildings and parking areas are to be set within an attractive landscape setting taking advantage of the existing views, trees and ground features.
Access roads and parking areas should have attractive but durable surfaces.
Garden of Remembrance Pavilion / Visitors Room
A facility for visitors providing shelter, drinks and toilet provision together with an electronic book of remembrance for those paying respect to deceased family and friends.
To solve the space constraints for the dead in order to ensure adequate capacity to continually accommodate new dead.
Aims to provide an example of an architecture which marries poetry and functionality to create spaces which are respectful, experiential, and user-friendly.
OBJECTIVES: o To embrace and provide traditional burial and cremation space for Christians o To create an architectural place and to experience the respectful place where the soul leaves the body.
Scope: Some of the spaces which will be included in the design are entrance arena/foyer, area for the chanting of the mantras, body cleaning arena (water area), path for the procession of the deceased body, funeral pyre area, electric crematorium, childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s burial space, ashes storage area, water body for the immersion of ashes, wood storage area, unidentified bodies + freezers and chillers to keep the bodies, prayer hall, offerings room, chapel, memorial hall, waiting room, columbarium, and superintendentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house and office.
Limitations: Spaces needed for Christians, for their final rituals to be performed.
CASE STUDY Memorial Necrópole Ecumênica, in Santos, Brazil
Location: Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Type: mixed use Building type: high rise building Building status: existing (completed) Architectural style: neo-gothic Main usage: graves Facts: the tallest vertical cemetery building in the world
● With the remains of around 100 billion dead people currently buried or
otherwise stored on this planet, it’s no surprise that we’re running out of space for final resting places. The phrase “six feet under” just isn’t
sustainable anymore, so architects are now looking to the sky as an alternative to sprawling ground cemeteries. High-rise cemeteries are becoming increasingly popular all over the world, and the Memorial Necrópole Ecumênica, in Santos, Brazil, is the highest of them all.
● Pepe Altstut inaugurated the Memorial Necrópole Ecumênica cemetery. ● It measures 108 meters tall, features 25,000 storing units (tombs, if you
will), several wake rooms, crypts, mausoleums, a peacock garden with its
own small waterfall and even a chapel and snack bar on the roof.
● While few regular cemeteries can be considered tourist attractions in their own right, the Memorial Necrópole Ecumênica is actually one of the most visited landmarks in Santos, and acknowledged as such by the local tourism board. ● People from all over the world reportedly come to Santos to see the necropolis where people pay big money for tombs with a view.
● The Memorial Necrópole Ecumênica is made up of several wings, and depending on the view they offer, the tombs are priced differently.
● Each of the 32 floors has rows of numbered blocks with up to 150 tombs, all of which are equipped with a ventilation system and can accommodate up to six bodies. ● Decomposition takes around three years, at the end of which the family of the deceased can have the body exhumed and the remains moved to a different part of the necropolis. ● A three-year rental of a burial plot costs 10,000 to 35,000 Brazilian reals (between $5,900 and $21,000), depending on what part of the Memorial
Necrópole Ecumênica it is located in, and prolonging the rental period can
become quite expensive after a few years. ●
But, for those who can afford it, the vertical cemetery offers even more expensive options, like separate family burial places complete with memorial rooms, for 174,000 reals ($54,000).
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● https://www.dezeen.com/tag/crematoriums/ ● Tughlakabad cemetery 1. http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/a-grave-problem-so-cemetery-g
oes-vertical/1018352/1 2. http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/at-tughlakabad-asias-largest -vertical-cemetery-cemetery-looks-upward-for-burial-space/ ● Why 6ft for burial http://mentalfloss.com/article/31633/how-did-6-feet-become-standard-g rave-depth