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agri Vol 46 • No 3

JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17

Highly Commended

FOKUS • FOCUS • Besproeiing/Irrigation


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agri Inhoud/Contents

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14

Redaksioneel Editorial

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47

Inhoud Contents

Die reënboog op die horison

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oudat die Springbokke weer ‘n slag regte rugby speel, is die gesprekke rondom die vleisbraaivure skielik ook van ‘n ander aard. Ja, ons kla nog oor die politici en hulle dinge, maar mense klink net skielik heelwat meer positief oor die wêreld en sy vreemde dinge as ‘n maand gelede. Dit is wat ‘n mens elke jaar op Nampo opval. Al kom jy stokflou en natgesweet ná die ure se stappery (en alles wat jou sintuie oorweldig) by die huis, is daar elke keer die besef: Die landbou is goed en gaaf en die mense wat hulle brood deur die landbou verdien (natuurlik nie net boere nie), is lekker mense met groot harte. En hulle staan saam. Daar is ‘n teorie dat, as jy met ‘n positiewe lewenshouding die paaie van die lewe bewandel, daar sekere chemiese reaksies in jou brein plaasvind wat van jou ‘n gelukkige mens maak. Natuurlik is dit makliker gesê as gedaan (lees die koerante!), maar as jy die vele vriendelike gesigte by Nampo betrag, is daar nog baie gelukkige mense op aarde. Miskien is dit reg om te glo dat daar weer altyd ‘n reënboog op die horison wag. Derick van der Walt

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3 Redaksioneel 5 Boekresensies/Book Reviews 9 Stille waters 12 Standpunt/Viewpoint

7 7 7 14 18 20 23 27 28 28 29 31 37

NUUS/NEWS Droogtehulp: Gekonkel met diensverskaffers South African to lead WFO! Dankie vir jou bydrae Fracking for shale gas in the Karoo: throwing caution to the wind? The environmental impact of mining on agriculture Possible impact of wealth taxes on the agricultural sector Plaasaanvalle nie ’n liggewigsaak nie Jongboerfinaliste word aangewys Agriculture a shining light in a declining economy Harry Prinsloo verkies tot NAMC-raad Draft Amended AgriBEE Sector Code: Getting to grips with BEE Key agricultural economic intelligence, 2015 compared to 2016 Load shedding, water shedding ... what next? Food shedding?

FOKUS/FOCUS 36 Besproeiing/Irrigation GEREELD/REGULAR 47 Water 54 Wyn/Wine 55 Fauna 57 Uit ‘n ander hoek

Voorblad geborg deur/ Cover sponsored by Nedbank Bladsye/Pages 8&9

Jou opinie maak saak. Vertel ons waarvan jy hou en wat jy sou verander in Agri. Your opinion is important... Let us know what you like and what you would like to change in Agri. Stuur jou kommentaar en besonderhede aan:/Send your comments and details to: derick@greenpepper.biz/or Privaatsak/Private Bag X180, Centurion 0046 agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Nuus/News

CORE VALUES

ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY

MULTI-CROP EXPERTISE

OPTIMISED PRODUCTION BUSINESS PARTNERSHIP

YOUR DREAMS • OUR ADVICE No matter what challenges nature throws at you, PANNAR offers the right cultivars for your fields. We are here to provide hard-working farmers, like you, with the seeds and advice you need to ensure a healthy harvest. PANNAR helps you manage the risks that surround you, optimise your yield and plan for prosperity. While you do your part to feed the nation, our goal is to help your farm flourish for generations to come. www.pannar.com | infoserve@pannar.co.za ® Registered trademarks of PANNAR LTD, © 2017 PANNAR LTD 2017/CORP/ASA/03GENERATION

TM

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agri Agri (waarby ingelyf Die Boer/The Farmer), word vyf keer per jaar versprei aan lede van Agri SA en ander intekenare. Agri (under which Die Boer/The Farmer is incorporated) is distributed five times a year to Agri SA members and subscribers. Redaksionele komitee/ Editorial committee Omri van Zyl, Christo van der Rheede, Kobus Visser, Annelize Crosby, Derick van der Walt, Hamlet Hlomendlini, Livhuwani Ngwekhulu & Janse Rabie Personeel/Staff Uitvoerende redakteur/Executive editor: Derick van der Walt 082 770 5111 derick@greenpepper.biz Advertensiebestuurder/ Advertising manager Mabel Schmahl 082 563 4427 or (012) 997 3407/12 Mabel@agrisa.co.za Senior sales executive Riaan Schmahl 074 170 6403 riaan@mesconsultants.co.za Kantooradministrateur en intekenare/ Office administrator and subscribers Thea Liebenberg Medewerkers/Contributors Dr Gerhard Verdoorn, Cassie du Plessis, Dr Gerhard Backeberg & Lehman Lindeque Uitleg/Layout Fréda van Wyk Adres/Address Agri, Privaatsak/Private Bag X180, Centurion, 0046 Blok/Block A, Inkwazi Gebou/Building, Embankmentstraat/Street, Zwartkop, Uitbreiding/Extension 7 Tel: (012) 643 3400 Faks/Fax: (012) 663 3178 E-pos/Email: derick@greenpepper.biz Reproduksie en drukwerk/ Reproduction and printing Business Print Centre: (012) 843 7600 Agri SA aanvaar geen verantwoordelikheid vir aansprake wat in advertensies ge­maak word nie en die menings en aan­bevelings van individue of enige ander liggaam of organisasie wat in artikels in Agri verskyn nie. Kopiereg word voorbehou en inhoud mag slegs met die toestemming van die direkteur: Korporatiewe Skakeling gereproduseer word./ Agri SA accepts no responsibility for claims made in advertisements or for opinions and recommendations expressed by individuals or any other body or organisation in articles published in Agri. Copyright is reserved and the content may only be reproduced with the consent of the Director: Corporate Services.

Indien u op Agri wil inteken, skakel/ If you wish to subscribe to Agri contact Thea Liebenberg Tel: (012) 643 3400 Faks/Fax: (012) 663 3178 www.agrisa.co.za Artikels in Agri is ook op aanvraag in ‘n alternatiewe taal beskikbaar/Articles in Agri are also available in an alternative language on request. Sirkulasie/Circulation

agri Boeke/Books

Boekresensies Book Reviews ‘n Boek verniet Agri gee ‘n eksemplaar weg van elk van die boeke wat op bladsy 5 bespreek word. Stuur ‘n e-pos met jou naam, posadres en telefoonnommer na agricompetitions@gmail.com. Sê ook watter boek jy wil hê (slegs een boek per e-pos, asseblief). A site-by-site guide to trees in the Kruger National Park (In Afrikaans beskikbaar as Bome van plek tot plek in die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin) Marissa Greeff (Briza Publications) No visitor to the Kruger National Park has not, at some point, become a nature enthusiast once the Big Five hunger has been stilled. This book is about trees, but has been compiled around places in the Kruger National Park. It describes 51 species of trees in rest camps, picnic sites and bird hides as static objects. When you arrive in a rest camp, at a picnic site or bird hide, the book will draw your attention to a remarkable or interesting tree. The small map at the top left of each title page indicates in which part of the Kruger Park the tree is – the southern, central or northern region. More than 220 beautiful photographs in full colour, user-friendly descriptions of 51 tree species and special anecdotes provide the reader with interesting general knowledge as well as an insight into the history of the Park. Enquiries: PO Box 11050, Queenswood, 0121, tel no: (012) 329-3896, fax: (012) 329 4525, e-mail: books@briza.co.za, website: www.briza.co.za. Bookshop: 121 Soutpansberg Road, Riviera, Pretoria. Vreedsame revolusie Niël Barnard (Tafelberg) Om ’n vreedsame revolusie om ’n tafel te bewerkstellig, is ’n totaal ander uitdaging as om met die vyand agter tralies te onderhandel. Dít het Suid-Afrika se destydse spioenbaas Niël Barnard besef toe ’n grootliks onvoorbereide NP-regering hulle telkens by die Kodesaonderhandelings teen die ANC vasgeloop het. As senior onderhandelaar het Barnard in die enjinkamer van die onderhandelinge gesit en dié onstuimige proses, wat telkens byna ontspoor het, eerstehands beleef. Navrae: nb@nb.co.za Die koning se wingerd F.A. Venter (Lux Verbi) Een van die mees aangrypen­de hoofstukke in die Bybelse geskiedenis word in hierdie klassieke topverkoper meevoerend vertel. F.A. Venter herskep die bewind van Agab met die gesag en oortuiging van iemand wat diep nagevors en nagedink het.

Hy toon Agab as ’n man wat verslinger word tussen die ou Israelitiese waardes en die afvalligheid van sy tyd, waarin sy heidense vrou, Isebel, ’n leidende rol speel. Teenoor Isebel staan die skraal profetiese figuur van Elia. Maar die verhaal is ook die verhaal van Nabot, godvresend, maar nie bereid om te erken dat God die God van alle mense is nie. Die skrywer slaag daarin om die botsende magte so teenoor mekaar op te stel, en met fyn besonderhede die vervloë atmosfeer so onmiddellik op te roep, dat dit vir die leser ’n suiwerende belewenis word. Navrae: nb@nb.co.za Die apies se dieretrein Rosamund Haden, illustrasies Tony Pinchuck (Tafelberg) Olifant ontvang ‘n uitnodiging na die apies se partytjie by Kokosneutbaai en klim dadelik in sy stoomenjin vir ‘n avontuurlike reis oor die hele Afrika-kontinent. By elke stasie klim nog meer diere op die trein. Hulle speel, stry en vertel stories op die langpad. Die rymende teks en kleurvolle illustrasies wat die wilde diere van Afrika in fantasmagoriese glorie uitbeeld, gaan kinders vasgenael hou. Ideaal vir voorlees. Navrae: nb@nb.co.za Blits: Perlemoendiewe Nedine en Adriaan (Tafelberg) Avontuur-junkie Hannes Joubert en sy Melkbosmaats word betrek by ‘n permeloenstroopsindikaat. Toe hulle ‘n paneelwa sonder nommerplate opmerk terwyl hulle in die skemer longboard deur die lane, besluit hulle om die kar te agtervolg. Hannes se speurinstink skop in toe hy en Zander die mans sien see toe stap met staalmesse en nette. Die volgende oomblik is hulle vasgebind agterin die bakkie. Dinge gaan warm raak hier in die rustige seedorpie! Navrae: nb@nb.co.za

Boekwenners vorige uitgawe: Die Suid-Afrikaanse melktert versameling, LP Stoltz, Nigel, 1490; As in die mond, Bennie Botha, Bothaville; Elim, Gretha Wasserman, Humansdorp, 6300; Eindspel, Nico Cohen, Douglas, 8730; Bring nature back to the city, Laura Hulley, Sezela, 4215. agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

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agri Nuus/News

Droogtehulp: Gekonkel met diensverskaffers Christo van der Rheede, adjunk-direkteur van Agri SA, vertel meer. 1. Wanneer en hoe het Agri SA agtergekom daar is met die geld vir droogtehulp gepeuter? Ons is deur ons provinsiale strukture en bedryfsorganisasies ingelig dat droogtehulp in baie gevalle nie by landbouers uitgekom het nie. Hulle het ook hul kommer uitgespreek oor die diensverskaffers wat hulself in die proses verryk het. Opkomende boere het ook laat blyk dat droogtehulp nie by hulle uitgekom het nie. 2. Julle het ’n beroep op die ower­ hede gedoen vir ’n foren­siese ondersoek. Hoe is die versoek ontvang en waar staan ons nou? Die Openbare Beskermer het ontvangs van ons skrywe erken. 3. Waar dink jy was die grootste gekonkel? Die grootste uitdaging hou verband met die

aanstelling van diensverskaffers en die feit dat die normale tenderprosedures nie gevolg is nie. (Daff se droogteverslag is op Agri SA se webwerf beskikbaar.) 4. Volgens Daff se droogte-verslag was daar heelwat probleme met die toekenning van fondse vir droogtehulp. Wat dink jy was die belangrikste probleme en wat het ons geleer? Daar moet ’n nasionale droogte- of rampbestuurspan saamgestel word wat uit toegewyde amptenare op nasionale, provinsiale en distriksvlak bestaan. Verder moet daar baie streng maatreëls in plek gestel word om seker te maak dat staatsgeld vir die doel effektief aangewend word en dat voer by hulpbehoewende boere uitkom. Volledige rekords moet gehou word van alle voer: waar, vir wie en die

hoeveelhede wat gelewer word. Monitering en evaluering van die hele proses van voeraankope, vervoer van voer, lewering van voer en impak van aksie moet weekliks geskied en aan die nasionale droogte- of rampbestuurspan deurgegee word. 5. As jy nou terugkyk op Agri SA se heldhaftige poging om self fondse te genereer, wat is jou blywende indruk oor Suid-Afrika en sy mense? Suid-Afrika se mense oor grense heen is ons redding. Nie net het hulle hul beursies oopgemaak nie, maar hulle het uit hul pad gegaan om voer en ander vorme van humanitêre hulp te skenk. Ons kan nie ophou om dankie te sê nie en ons waardering uit te spreek teenoor almal wat op een of ander manier ’n bydrae gemaak het.

Dankie vir jou bydrae Agri SA het in Mei ‘n ontbyt in Centurion aangebied om persone en instansies te bedank vir hulle finansiële en ander bydraes tydens die droogte. Die foto’s is by die geleentheid geneem.

South African to lead WFO Dr Theo de Jager, a past deputy president of Agri SA, was recently elected president of the World Farmers’ Organisation in Helsinki, Finland. “This is the first South African to lead the World Farmers’ Organisation and we are proud of his achievement as a fellow South African and farmer,” says Johannes Möller, president of Agri SA. “We also wish to congratulate Alfred Banda, a fellow African, who have been elected as board member for the African continent.” agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

INNOVATION AT THE HEART OF NAMPO DIALOGUE AND NEDBANK AGRIFOCUS

N edbank was proud to participate at the Nampo 2017 event showcasing innovation and highlighting challenges, as well as prospective solutions, in the agrisector. A critical dialogue forum, Nation in Conversation, covering the major agricultural issues was hosted at Nampo. Nation in Conversation is regarded as the voice of producers and their key partners in the agricultural food chain. Nedbank realises the importance of agriculture to the South African economy and that is why we were once again proud to be a sponsor of Nation in Conversation. ‘In line with our new brand promise encouraging clients to “see money differently”, platforms such as Nation in Conversation are key to ensure that we devise informed and sustainable solutions for addressing the challenges the agrisector faces,’ said Herman de Kock, Nedbank Business Banking Head of Sales. As we are a bank committed to innovation, it was heartening that one of the key discussions at Nation in Conversation focused on using technology to address problems regarding water and land resource scarcity, climate change, increased urbanisation and the decreasing number of commercial farmers. Inevitably, these challenges will require technological intervention, which highlights the key role of new technologies in agriculture. Technological advancement is necessary to increase agricultural productivity sustainably, and ultimately to feed the growing world population while protecting the environment. For us as financiers it was particularly pleasing to note the advances in technology and how technology can contribute to effective farm management, increase productivity and ultimately improve business profitability. An example of technological advancement

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

is within the agricultural machinery and equipment space, where devices inside agricultural equipment not only connect different machines to one another, but also connect machinery to producers, dealers, and agricultural consultants. These connections aid producers in being more productive and make them more effective. During the discussions it emerged that, thanks to technology, when anything goes awry, a message is sent to a dealer, who immediately reacts to the problem, even before the producer knows about it. When downtime of machinery is optimised, it ensures increased productivity. Even more helpful is the fact that producers are able to share real-time and historical data with agricultural consultants and advisors, leading to quick and accurate decisionmaking. Nedbank is convinced, as the discussions at Nation in Conversation have shown, that innovation is critical in ensuring that farmers are able to take their business to the next level. This is why we as a bank are exploring innovative options by using technology to ensure that the agrisector is given an edge in meeting its goals. Water conservation, solar and wind technology, investment funds for farm labourers and agridata management are some of the agribusiness innovations being developed through the Nedbank Stellenbosch University LaunchLab. Established in 2014 the LaunchLab is a network of campus-based business incubators for innovative thinking and entrepreneurial startups that address pressing national needs. Nedbank Group is part of the LaunchLab partnership, which includes Stellenbosch University, its industry interaction and innovation company Innovus, and the Department of Trade and Industry. The agrisector, including agritech and

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greentech, is an important focus of the LaunchLab, as are the digital media, edutech and fintech sectors. Nedbank provided the capital investment to build the LaunchLab as we see ourselves as a bank that supports innovation, entrepreneurs and small-business development. Since 2014 over 100 new companies have incubated in the LaunchLab, where they have access to mentors, research data and business development expertise. One of the green-technology projects that the LaunchLab assisted is an initiative of Stellenbosch University ’s Faculty of Engineering where work is being done on constructing a 50 KW wind turbine that would be suitable for light industry and farmers. A LaunchLab agri-innovation is the picking harness developed by Adagin Technologies for the table grape industry. Pickers traditionally bend down to pick up crates each time they need to move. With the ergonomically designed, strap-on picking harness they are able to comfortably carry the crates, which fit onto the harness. The harness reduces lower back strain and makes picking more time efficient. In the agritech sector LaunchLab has overseen the production of software for all types of farming data, based on global technology such as satellites and drones and also on laboratory and scientific input. This data empowers farmers to optimise decisionmaking against multiple factors, including soil moisture and nutritional content, satellite weather data, and drought yields.


agri Promosie/Promotional Nedbank is pleased with the commitment to innovation that was high on the agenda of Nation in Conversation and also on display at the Nampo exhibition. It certainly resonates with our efforts as a bank committed to the farming community and the agrispace on which our future – now more than ever – depends. For all your agriculture banking needs please contact us at agriculture@nedbank.co.za. Francois Strydom, CEO of Senwes, presenting a certificate of appreciation to Herman de Kock. Francois commented that ‘Nedbank is making an impact’.

FRANCOIS AND HERMAN

Stille waters Moenie bang wees nie Die Here julle God gaan saam met julle om vir julle teen julle vyande te veg, om julle die oorwinning te laat behaal (20:4). GESELSVRAAG: Waarvoor is jy vandag bang?

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ie sielkundige voorbereiding vir ’n wedstryd is amper belangriker as die inoefening van die bewegings wat nodig sal wees,” verduidelik ’n sportsielkundige. Daarom hou die afrigter of die kaptein van

die span ’n ernstige spanpraatjie voor elke wedstryd, en selfs ook met rustyd. Meermale sien ’n mens daarna ’n radikale verbetering in daardie span se prestasie. Moses het dit ook besef. Hulle was ’n klein groepie teen ’n groot oormag. Die priesters moes hulle dus moed inpraat. Bang mense of mense met dwalende gedagtes moes liewer teruggaan. Hul invloed op die res is nie goed nie. Maar die belangrikste om te onthou is dat die Here met hulle is (vgl. v. 4). Daarom hoef hulle nie bang te wees nie (vgl. v. 3). God veg ook vir hulle. Hy sal die oorwinning gee. Elkeen van ons moet vandag uitdagings die hoof bied. Dalk is dit

boelies by die skool of by die werk. Dalk is dit die droogte of die stand van die ekonomie. Dalk is dit spanning in die gesin of ’n siekte. Dalk is dit skuldeisers of skuldenaars wat nie betaal nie. Ons moet onthou aan wie se kant ons is. Die Here wil ook vandag met jou wees. Vertrou op Hom. GEBED: Here, sonder U kan ons nie vandag se uitdagings die hoof bied nie. Dankie dat U elke oomblik saam met ons is. Lees vanaand in Deuteronomium 20:9-20 hoe die Israeliete in oorlogtyd moet optree. agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Standpunt

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agri Promosie/Promotional

GoGlobal, the new umbrella brand behind GoReefers GoGlobal can rightfully be seen as an industry disruptor. The company has built a remarkable reputation as a truly innovative organisation that maintains a forward thinking mind-set in everything it does. The GoGlobal umbrella, which began as GoReefers, has over 15 years of experience, a love for the industry and dedication to its clients, establishing its pioneer status and cementing its spot as one of the most influential and most successful brands in the market.

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eing at the forefront of logistical services, the GoGlobal team attended this year’s Fruit Logistica Exhibition in Berlin, Germany. The exhibition included numerous key importers and exporters, fruit and vegetable producers, wholesalers and retailers, packaging and handling specialists, transport and logistic specialists and more. GoGlobal was in the centre of over 76 000 trade visitors from 130 countries, and exhibited alongside 3 077 companies and organisations from 84 countries. The GoGlobal stand drew massive attention with the launch of the highly anticipated GoReefer’s App; ground-breaking techno­logy that was successfully showcased along­side other industry leaders from across the globe. Initially GoGlobal was one of the first industry players to offer an innovative and state-of-the-art 24/7 login function with password protection, which allows clients to obtain live, up-to-date information and reports on their cargo via their website. GoGlobal integrated its existing online tracking and cargo management software with a new, cutting edge mobile application. “The App not only provides advanced tracking of freight and cargo through integrated EDI systems worldwide, but provides up-to-date sailing schedules of multiple shipments and containers.”

It allows real time booking and cargo management. Included is container packing list information, export document status with waybill courier information and a search function, indicating PUC blacklist status. The app provides booking notifications with stacks closing or SI cut-offs and customisable push-notifications offering information on arrivals or delays in transshipment, ports of discharge and container collection. This enables clients to access their online information 24/7 from their smart devices, whether at home, office or in the field. GoReefers, the team responsible for setting up the GoReefers App, is a logistics service specialising in the shipment of perishable cargo to and from South Africa. Its track record speaks for itself with more than 50% of clients having been with the company for over 10 years and 75% for over five years. A network of agents and offices, locally and globally, the newly opened UK office, as well as agents in the Far East, NWC and the Mediterranean can assist clients with a wide scope of unconstrained logistic services. GoGlobal has also invested heavily in industry-leading IT systems, used and developed not only by GoReefers but other services, GoIntel and GoSolutions. Linking GoGlobal’s vast operational system with its clients’ IT system, results in transparency and

efficiency of a previously unachievable level. In addition to the IT solutions, GoGlobal has also developed and created GoChill, an ultra-modern, purpose-built cold storage and citrus handling facility situated close to the Durban port in KwaZulu-Natal. On both sides of the South African border, GoBorders offers a one-stop cross-border solution for all import and export needs, linked with relevant customs authorities. On the road, GoRoad is the proud owner of a fleet of private trucks that haul both long and short distance loads in South Africa, as well as across SADAC regional borders. Through innovation, the company has created services and products to provide value and tools for clients to manage their businesses more efficiently, giving them visibility in the chain, reducing handling of cargo and thus cutting direct costs. GoGlobal does not merely consolidate customers’ freight needs; it truly adds value throughout the entire logistics chain. Looking back over its journey, GoGlobal has created an entire suite of value-added services that are entirely unique – something that cannot be found anywhere else under one umbrella. This culmination of modular services is why GoGlobal was developed. The company motto to Go Beyond truly means that it will go further, go bigger and do infinitely better.

CALL: +27 21 912 5900 | EMAIL: GOBEYOND@GOGLOBAL.GROUP | WEB: GOGLOBAL.GROUP agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Viewpoint

The Chinese are coming OMRI VAN ZYL, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: AGRI SA

Given global food security fears – climate change and geopolitical instability – the question remains who will feed the world.

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y and large Africa is the perfect continent and solution to this increasing global risk. So, let’s see what the picture looks like 50 years from now.

have an average of fewer than four tractors per thousand people. People living in the other group of regions have more than thirteen tractors per thousand people. Thus, the rate of tractor ownership in one group of regions is at least three times higher than that in the other group of regions. The top ten territories for tractor ownership are all European, the bottom ten are mainly African. It is important that this is a count of working tractors because broken tractors are not useful to farmers.

Conclusion When analysing the data, Africa will have a large population that are not well educated – the low agriculture mechanisation rate and technology adaptation challenge also implies that Africa will not be able to feed itself, the question is who will? Population by 2050 By 2050 it is estimated that the earth’s human population will be 9,07 billion. 62% of the people will live in Africa, Southern Asia and Eastern Asia – numerically this is the same as if all the world’s current population lived just in these regions. In addition, another 3 000 000 000 will be spread across the rest of the world1.

China China’s 1,4 billion people are building up an appetite that is changing the way the world grows and sells food. The Chinese diet is becoming more like that of the average American, forcing companies to scour the planet for everything from bacon to bananas. But China’s efforts to buy or lease agricultural land in developing nations show that building farms and ranches abroad won’t be enough. Ballooning populations in Asia, Africa and South America will add another 2 billion people

Agricultural mechanisation Tractors have a skewed distribution, which splits the regions of the world into two groups. The people living in the larger group of regions 1

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agri Standpunt

Die Chinese is op pad OMRI VAN ZYL, UITVOERENDE DIREKTEUR: AGRI SA

Gegewe voedselsekerheidsvrese wêreldwyd – klimaatsverandering en geopolitieke onstuimigheid – is die vraag steeds: wie gaan die wêreld voed?

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frika is waarskynlik die perfekte kontinent en oplossing vir hierdie toenemende globale risiko. Kom ons kyk hoe die prentjie sal lyk oor 50 jaar:

Omri van Zyl

Bevolking teen 2050 Teen 2050 sal die wêreldbevolking na raming 9,07 miljard beloop, waarvan 62% in Afrika, Suid-Asië en Oos-Asië sal woon. Numeries is dit dieselfde asof die huidige wêreldbevolking almal in slegs hierdie drie streke woonagtig is. ’n Verdere 3 000 000 000 mense sal versprei wees oor die res van die wêreld.

Landboumeganisasie Trekkers is ongelyk versprei en daarvolgens kan die streke van die wêreld in twee groepe verdeel word. Mense in die groter groep van streke het gemiddeld minder as vier trekkers per duisend mense. Mense wat in die ander groep streke woon, het meer as 13 trekkers per duisend mense. Die mate van trekkereienaarskap in een groep streke is dus ten minste drie maal so groot as dié in die ander groep streke. Die top-tien gebiede vir trekkereienaarskap is almal in Europa geleë, terwyl die onderste tien hoofsaaklik in Afrika is. Dit is belangrik dat hierdie syfers verwys na werkende trekkers – stukkende trekkers is van geen nut vir boere nie. Gevolgtrekking ’n Ontleding van die data dui daarop dat Afrika ’n groot bevolking sal hê, maar nie goed geleerd sal wees nie – die lae landboumeganisasiekoers en die uitdagings ten opsigte van tegnologiese aanpassings impliseer ook dat Afrika nie in staat sal wees om homself te voed nie. Die vraag is: Wie sal? China China se 1,4 miljard mense is besig om ’n aptyt te ontwikkel wat die wyse waarop die wêreld voedsel produseer en verkoop, sal verander. Die Chinese dieet is besig om meer soortgelyk te raak aan dié van die gemiddelde Amerikaner. Dit forseer maatskappye om die 1

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planeet plat te ry op soek na enige iets van spekvleis tot piesangs. Maar China se pogings om landbougrond in ontwikkelende lande aan te koop of te huur, is ’n aanduiding dat die bou van plase oorsee nie genoeg sal wees nie. Groeiende bevolkings in Asië, Afrika en Suid-Amerika sal ’n verdere 2 miljard mense binne een geslag byvoeg en hulle sal ook meer voedsel benodig.

China se grondbeleggingindeks2 Dit laat China met ’n skrille ultimatum: Ten einde genoeg voedsel vir sy bevolking in die tweede helfte van hierdie eeu te hê, sal hulle seker moet maak dat die wêreld voedsel produseer vir 9 miljard mense. Die antwoord is tegnologie. China se landboubedryf – vanaf ’n klein rysveldjie wat deur 70-jarige oupas verbou word tot die reuse-maatskappye wat besig is om globale spelers soos Nestlé SA en Danone SA aan te vat – ondergaan tans ’n revolusie wat net so ’n groot invloed sal hê as die industriële transformasie wat wêreldhandel herskryf het. Die verandering het vier dekades gelede begin toe China begin het om sy produksie- en private ondernemingstelsels te herstruktureer. Daardie hervormings het gelei tot ’n ekonomiese ontploffing, gedryf deur fabrieke, belegging en uitvoer, maar die veranderings op plaasvlak was net so dramaties. ’n Verandering in dieet verhoog die soeke na oorsese voorrade. Beesvleisverkope aan China het die afgelope dekade met 19 000% gestyg. Sojabooninvoer, wat in dierevoer gebruik word, het so vinnig gegroei dat die regering in 2014 stilweg graan verwyder het van sy selfonderhoudingslys. Grondhervorming het die produksie van grane soos rys en koring verhoog, en miljoene mense het aangesluit by ’n nuwe ryk middelklas wat meer groente en varkvleis eet en skaars luukshede soos beesvleis en melk wil hê. 2 Nota: Belegging in grond sedert 2006; en in landbou sedert 2005. Bron: The Heritage Foundation, GRAIN.org >>> bladsy 15

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agri Nuus/News

Fracking for shale gas in the Karoo: throwing caution to the wind? JANSE RABIE, HEAD OF NATURAL RESOURCES, AGRI SA

Fracking for shale gas in the Karoo is certainly one of the most hotly debated and emotive topics in the general discourse in South Africa today. It is a multi-faceted issue, which raises important questions about how South Africa, as a developmental state with a growing need for reliable, accessible, cheap, clean energy, will weigh the potential benefits which may flow from a successful shale gas industry against the potential environmental and other harms which its development may cause.

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aturally, different role players have different views on this issue. For obvious reasons, the agricultural sector is extremely concerned about the potential immediate and long-term negative effects which any shale gas exploration and production activities in the Karoo may have, particularly with respect to its impacts on surface and groundwater. Shale gas development as proposed for the Karoo is by its nature unconventional and, as a result thereof, naturally contentious. Its development proponents (currently Shell International, Bundu Gas and Oil Exploration (a subsidiary of Australia’s Challenger Energy) and Falcon Oil and Gas (in partnership with Chevron)) propose using exploration and production techniques that have never been used in South Africa before. Coupled with what is already known about the highly complicated geological sub-surface of the Karoo area, this endeavor is fraught with risk. Government, through the CSIR, has embarked on one of the most thorough strategic environmental assessments ever undertaken in this country, which aims include enabling South Africa to establish effective policy, legislation and sustainability conditions under which shale gas development may occur. The persistent theme that the strategic environmental assessment tries to address, is the level of caution at which shale gas development in the Karoo should proceed. The South African Constitution (which is agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

the supreme law in the Republic) enshrines the right of every person to an environment that is not harmful to their health and wellbeing and to have the environment protected for present and future generations through reasonable legislative and other measures that prevent pollution and ecological degradation, promote conservation and secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources, while promoting justifiable economic and social development. South Africa’s flagship environmental legislation, the National Environmental Management Act, 107 of 1998, stipulates that any development (i.e. including shale gas development) must be socially, environmentally and economically sustainable (the so-called principle of sustainability). The principle of sustainability includes that sustainable development requires the consideration of all relevant factors, including that a risk-averse and cautious approach is applied that takes into account the limits of current knowledge about the consequences of decisions and actions. This requirement for a risk-averse and cautious approach about the consequences of decisions and actions embodies the “precautionary principle” in environmental law in South Africa. The precautionary principle has been well traversed in many writings and in many countries throughout the world. The application of the precautionary principle is of importance particularly in situations where

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the scientific data might not have been finally crystallised, but where there is some context where the environment or society might be endangered. The precautionary principle entails that, if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is not harmful, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those proposing taking an action. This is a fundamental departure from the normal situation where the burden of proving the harmful effects of a development rests with the party opposed to such a development. The precautionary principle further assumes that the proponents of a product or project should provide evidence that: (a) they have looked at all reasonable alternatives and are going about their business in the least harmful way possible; and (b) that their activities are not likely to degrade human health or the natural environment. It also entails that, in the case of environmental decision-making involving shale gas development, government should be able to demonstrate that its actions or policies are not harmful. The precautionary principle also has its critics, mainly because it is conceptually almost impossible to satisfy. It is almost never possible to anticipate all harms which a new development may cause and to mitigate against such harm sufficiently in all cases. >>> page 15


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Die gevolg Die gevolg is dat Afrika waarskynlik nie die pad vorentoe vir globale voedsel­ produksie sal aanwys nie – lande soos China sal wel. Moenie verbaas wees as China, Afrika oorneem om voedsel vir sy mense te produseer nie. China se nuwe samesmelting via Syngenta en ChemChina van $43 miljard dui op ’n groot stap van China in die rigting van Europa en die res van die ontwikkelde wêreld. Ons sien al hoe meer grondverkryging in Afrika en meganisasie sal binnekort volg. Die etiese basis van hierdie grondverkrygings moet bevraagteken word, maar ons moet <<< page 12 within a generation and they too will need more food.

China’s land investment index2 That leaves China with a stark ultimatum: If it is to have enough affordable food for its population in the second half of this century, it will need to make sure the world grows food for 9 billion people. Its answer is technology. China’s agriculture industry, from the tiny rice plots tended by 70-year-old grandfathers to the giant companies that are beginning to challenge global players like Nestlé SA and Danone SA, is undergoing a revolution that may be every bit as influential as the industrial transformation that rewrote global trade. The change started four decades ago when the country began to recast its systems of production and private enterprise. Those reforms precipitated an economic boom, driven by factories, investment and exports, but the changes down on the farm were just as dramatic. Note: Land investments are since 2006, agriculture since 2005.

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Source: The Heritage Foundation, GRAIN.org

<<< page 14 By and large, however, this principle has been absorbed into the European Union treaties as well as by various countries throughout the world, including South Africa. It may well be anticipated that govern­ ment will soon grant exploration rights to Shell, Falcon and Bundu in the Karoo. Public interest groups that are principally set against any form of shale gas development in the Karoo are poised to challenge the granting of such rights. It is highly likely that the application of the precautionary principle will be invoked when doing so. Interestingly, our courts are not unfamiliar with the application of the precautionary principle that has previously successfully been invoked to halt contentious developments. As far back as 2007, the precautionary

onthou dat dit deur wedersydse toestemming is – hoe dit ook al verkry word. Verdere grondverkryging is onvermydelik en sal waarskynlik van ’n Oosterse supermoondheid kom saam met China en miskien Indië as moontlike kandidaat. Volgens die beskikbare syfers en data sal Afrika ’n afhanklike kontinent bly in die jare wat voorlê. Die basiese ekonomiese spilpunte vir groei soos opleiding, infrastruktuur en kommersiële volwassenheid is steeds nie in plek nie en ons glo nie dit sal in die afsienbare toekoms verander nie. Die gevolge van hierdie scenario is sleg en sal heel moontlik tot die volgende lei: - Voedselvlugtelinge. My voorspelling is dat

die meeste hiervan uit Afrika sal kom en op beweeg na Europa en uiteindelik die Amerikas; - Inter-landelike konflikte oor water en toegang tot bewerkbare grond sal toeneem, wat meer spanning op die geopolitieke verhoudings sal plaas; - Onvolhoubare verstedeliking sal aanhou styg; - Armoede en honger sal toeneem in Afrika. Die situasie lyk sleg – en ons sal vir hierdie scenario’s moet beplan. Die getalle is duidelik. Dit sal ’n impak op die hele globale dorpskonsep hê – veel meer as enigiets anders wat ons in die onlangse geskiedenis gesien het.

A change in diet is accelerating the search for overseas supplies. Beef sales to China have risen 19 000% in the past decade. Imports of soybeans, used in animal feed, have grown so fast that the government quietly dropped grain from its self-sufficiency list in 2014. Land reforms lifted production of grains like rice and wheat, and millions joined a newly wealthy middle class that ate more vegetables and pork and wanted rare luxuries like beef and milk.

however that is gained. More land acquisitions are inevitable and will most likely come from an Asian superpower with China and perhaps India as the most likely candidates. Looking at the obvious numbers and data, Africa will be a dependent continent for time to come. The basic economic growth pivots, i.e. education and infrastructure, commercial maturity are still not in place and we don’t see this changing in the foreseeable future. The consequences of this scenario are dire – we are very likely to have: • Food refugees. My prediction is that most of these will come from Africa and move up to Europe and eventually the Americas; • Inter-country conflicts about water and access to arable land will increase putting more tension on geo-political relations; • Unsustainable urbanisation will continue to increase; • Poverty and hunger will increase in Africa. The situation looks dire – and we will have to plan for these scenarios – the numbers are clear. It will have an impact on the whole global village concept – much more so than anything else we’ve seen in recent history.

The bottom-line The bottom line is that Africa is unlikely to chart the way for food production globally – countries like China will. Don’t be surprised if China takes over Africa to produce food for its people. China’s new merger via Syngenta and ChemChina of $43 billion shows a big step from China in the direction of Europe and the rest of the developed world. We see more and more land acquisitions in Africa and very soon mechanisation will follow. The ethical basis of these land acquisitions must be questioned but we need to remember that it is via mutual consent – principle was referred to by the Constitutional Court in Fuel Retailers Association of Southern Africa vs. the Director General, Environmental Management, Department of Agriculture Conservation and Environment, Mpumalanga and others, where it was stated: “The precautionary principle required these authorities to insist on adequate precautionary measures to safeguard against the contamination of underground water. This principle is applicable where due to unavailable scientific knowledge there is uncertainty as to the future impact of the proposed development. Water is a precious commodity; it is a natural resource that must be protected for the benefit of the present and future generations.” As mentioned, the application of the precautionary principle in the case of

shale gas development is conceptually almost impossible to satisfy. As a possible counterpoint to its general applicability, it may be argued that the precautionary principle does not satisfy the requirement of it being a reasonable measure that may be invoked to prevent pollution and ecological degradation. However, because the precautionary principle has found its way into our body of law and has even been endorsed by our courts, it may currently be the most difficult obstacle for proponents of shale gas development in the Karoo to overcome. The application of the precautionary principle for now remains central in the debates around shale gas exploration and production. The question remains: Will we throw caution to the wind?

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agri Promosie/Promotional

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Getting Closer™ to control A commitment to creating sustainable solutions for the agricultural sector has pushed Dow AgroSciences to develop class-leading products.

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ap-feeding pests can be among the most destructive insects, laying waste to crops and causing huge economical losses for the agricultural industry. Protecting our valuable produce requires extensive control strategies, pushing producers to demand the best possible solutions. Closer™ 240SC, a two-time awardwinning product, is the progressive farmer’s choice, offering complete control of sapfeeding pests with swift knockdown action combined with long-lasting protection. Two very important effects are the reduction of feeding damage and limiting the spread of viruses . Furthermore, within just four hours of spraying CloserTM, it is regarded safe to non-target organisms and leaves no residues in the soil.

The key ingredient Isoclast™, discovered by and proprietary to Dow AgroSciences, is the active ingredient in Closer™ providing excellent efficacy against insect pests, even at low use rates. Isoclast shows excellent systemic and translaminar activity. In the field, Isoclast controls insect populations known to be resistant to older types of insecticides such as neonicotinoids, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids.

Controlling difficult-to-control sap-feeding insects in all major crop groups, it has been approved in the EU and is currently registered in more than 40 countries, with another 40 countries in progress.

Intelligent targeting Closer™ destroys pests in two ways, on contact and through ingestion. It controls insects in its direct line of spray, as well as those that hide within the plant canopy and underneath the leaves. Beneficial insects are crucial to farmers and using Closer™ guarantees a targeted control. When used according to the directional labels, it has shown minimal exposure to non-target organisms as well as no significant impact on population levels of any of the natural predatory pests and beneficial mite species. Crop care Vigorous testing has determined its success on a range of crops that are prone to suffer under invasion of mealybugs, whiteflies, aphids and other sap-feeding insects.

Used on potatoes, fruit trees, vegetables, grapevines and citrus fruits, it shows huge agricultural potential, staving off insecticide-resistant strains of insects and offering control within 2-3 hours of application. Because South Africa is one of the world’s largest exporters of fresh citrus – and in the top 20 for citrus production – demand for agro-chemical products acceptable to the export market is high. Closer™ fits neatly into this space as all major crops has import tolerances set in all of our biggest markets. As a much-needed rotational product, Closer™ helps growers fend off the resistance of pests for longer periods and, when used according to label recommendations, will reduce the environmental load of insecticide active ingredients applied to crops. Closer™ is a key economical tool in maintaining a sustainable supply of produce each harvest – we may not be able to control nature, but we can manage insect pests.

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agri Nuus/News

The environmental impact of mining on agriculture GREGORY SMITH, RESEARCH ASSISTANT, AGRI SA

South Africa is an arid country and is currently experiencing a severe water crisis. Supplies continue to dwindle due to depletion and pollution, while demand is steadily rising due to population growth, industrialisation, mechanisation and urbanisation. Water resources continue to become scarcer, thereby limiting social and economic development, which in turn has a direct link with the prevalence of poverty, hunger and disease.

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ncontrolled discharge of contaminated mine water has for nearly a decade been recognised as a major environmental threat in South Africa. The situation is particularly dire in Gauteng and Mpumalanga, where coal and gold mining take place. As a result, groundwater in the Johannesburg is heavily polluted due to acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD forms when water and oxygen combine with sulphide minerals exposed in open mines, tailings and dams, producing highly acidic water. It is estimated that 50 Ml of AMD is discharged into the Olifants River Catchment per day. In Mpumalanga, it is estimated that mining is threatening 25,6 % of South Africa’s high potential arable land. Mpumalanga has 46% of the country’s high potential arable land, yet nearly 60% >>> page 19

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agri Nuus/News <<< page 18 of the province is under either mining or prospecting right applications. Mining has an adverse effect on agricultural sustainability and restrictions need to be put in place to protect resources vital to agriculture production, i.e. arable land and water. The following environmental impacts arise due to mining activities: • Soil degradation: Mined soils may never be rehabilitated to their pre-mining state. During the rehabilitation process soils are often compacted by machinery, preventing roots penetrating the water table. Soils are often acidified when exposed to mining material. The cost of replenishing soils back to cash crop potential outweigh that of the long-term feasibility of the land. All underground mining excavations collapse over time, resulting in potentially severe surface impacts. • Water quality: Water pollution is one of the most severe problems associated with mining. Pollution negatively affects water quality and kills aquatic organisms. This polluted water needs to be extensively treated at a high cost before it is suitable for re-use. • Health risks: Human exposure to AMD

pollutants can occur through ingestion of contaminated water, food or through dermal absorption via water or air. Health effects associated with coal mining include a higher chance of contracting kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and hypertension. • Economic impacts: This includes reduced crop yields and grazing capacities due to competition for land and water quality issues. These environmental impacts should be managed properly. A two-pronged approach is required, namely: • The development of new treatment technologies as a reactive approach to mine water pollution; • The enactment of clear and sensible legislation; and

• Effective law enforcement through a comprehensive compliance monitoring and enforcement programme, appropriate penalties and the transparent reporting of results. The presence of mine water pollution threatens the scarce water resources of our country and places severe strain on our ability to produce our own food in South Africa. Proper mechanisms need to be put in place to prevent and mitigate its impacts.Remember: no farms, no food, no future.

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agri Nuus/News

Possible impact of wealth taxes on the agricultural sector HAMLET HLOMENDLINI, SENIOR ECONOMIST, WITH INPUT BY MARTINA BENADÉ AND PUSHO MAKGOLANE, AGRI SA

While it is widely acknowledged that the current government inherited fundamental economic structural and social problems from the apartheid regime, which was a direct cause of the existing inequality the country is battling today, the current regime has also significantly failed to address this problem. Inequality between rich and poor is wider than ever.

1 See: The Impact of Piketty’s Wealth Tax on the Poor, the Rich, and the Middle Class by Michael Schuyler (2014)

Land tax The new proposed wealth tax options are both undesirable and unfeasible. It is not fair to the agricultural sector that a second land tax be introduced while farmers are already paying municipal rates on their land. This is by definition a land tax and it has been in operation since July 2005. Any additional tax proposed in this regard would mean a

double tax on the same thing for farming communities.

Impact on farm units and food security While it is not clear how land tax will be calculated and whether it will be based only on land value and excluding building and improvement, experience from other countries such as Australia suggests that land tax is paid as percentage of the value of the land one owns. Lessons taken from the Australian experience is that, whether land tax includes or excludes building and improvements, the impact is negative for the land owners. The proposed land tax is likely to limit investment on land because the more land one owns and/or the higher the value it

Figure 1: Producer support estimates (PSE) as % of gross farm receipts, 2014 and 2015

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Source: OECD: Agricultural Policy: Monitoring and Evaluation, 2016

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increases a country’s tax base and therefore makes it possible for the government to spend more on the key public services of health and education. It is generally accepted that such factors (education and good health) may lead to the emergence of a strong and growing group of entrepreneurs, which should generate pressure for improved governance. The fact is that South Africa’s economy is not growing at the rate that can propel it to reduce poverty, unemployment and inequality. As is the case in the USA, wealth tax will, instead of addressing these triple challenges as they are known, simply depress economic growth and ultimately lead to a declining tax base. Given the recent downgrading the country suffered and the fact that economic growth predictions for 2017/18 are well below potential, the question that comes to mind is whether this is good time to introduce any form of tax or taxes that will ultimately stint economic growth.

nfortunately, inequality inhibits economic growth and undermines social, economic and political stability, as currently observed in the country. It is against this background and the disadvantageous effect brought about by South Africa’s recently downgrading to junk status, that the issue of inequality, unemployment and sluggish economic growth will not simply be addressed by imposing wealth tax. It is apparent that several of the few countries around the world that have previously implemented a wealth tax, have abandoned it because the cost of compliance exceeds the yield from the tax. As a result, wealth taxes have steadily declined in recent decades in those countries. For example, in a study conducted in the United States of America (USA) on the impact of wealth tax, it was found that a wealth tax in the USA would depress the capital stock by 13,3%, decrease wages by 4,2%, eliminate 886,400 jobs, and reduce GDP by 4,9%, or about $800 billion, all for a revenue gain of less than $20 billion1. In South Africa there is already a proliferation of different taxes that are largely borne by the same tax base. These include transactional taxes such as value-added taxes, existing wealth taxes such as estate duty, transfer duty and donations tax, as well as income tax that has just been increased to a relatively high 45% during the recent budget. Any additional tax is simple asking taxpayers to add more to the fiscus, which ultimately is in most instances spent ineffectively on poorly run state-owned enterprises (SOEs) such as Eskom, SAA, Transnet and likely also PetroSA. Economic growth is the most powerful instrument for reducing poverty, unemploy­ment and inequality. Also, there is a macro link whereby economic growth


agri Nuus/News Insufficient cash flow equals non-repayment ability. As mentioned previously, land tax will potentially lead to farming businesses becoming unprofitable. As a consequence this will lead to cash flow problems for farming businesses whether small or big. Also important to note is that cost of capital is already on the rise in South Africa, given its poor economic performance and issues like the recent downgrading. Access to capital is crucial for farming businesses and if the cost of it is too high, farmers will not be able to afford it under constrained cash flows. Given this argument, it is very important to understand that when dealing with the agricultural sector, there are a number of challenges to consider which are less prominent to other sectors. For instance, income for farming businesses is not land – it is somewhat lumpy. When producing a crop, for example, the farmer often needs to invest in seeds, fertiliser, pesticides, labour, maintained and harvesting upfront. Yet they will receive their income once they have harvested and marketed it – but they need to produce first. If all these dynamics are not taken into consideration, the sector will not perform to its true potential. As a result of land tax, the current farming debt ratio will significantly increase and profitability will be compromised. Under such circumstances farmers will resort to mechanisation as an attempt to reduce the overheads created by the added tax value. Farmers will look to reduce labour as it is a major contributor to overheads. This will result in job losses of about 20-30% of the current 900 000 plus farm workers and farmers.

Figure 2: Number of farming units (commercial)

Source: Agri SA and DAFF

Also important to note is that since the 1970s the population has been growing rapidly, leading to increased food demand, while farming units on the other hand have been declining leading to lower food production (see figure 3). Again, the land tax will result in low productivity and compromise food security.

Figure 3. Number farming units vs total population growth

If South Africa, as the economic engine of the SADC region, becomes food insecure as the result of land tax, the whole SADC region will be affected. This will result in regional immigration to South Africa, leading to overpopulation to many cities and destruction of infrastructures in the cities.

Implications on cash flow It can be argued that land tax can be quite significant and it can significantly affect agricultural businesses’ cash flow. Cash flow is an important indicator of profitability for any business. Usually, the decision by any bank to lend ultimately depends on the client’s ability to repay the loan, which in turn depends on the client’s cash flow.

Figure 4: Agricultural debt as % of assets and net income as % of turnover

It is important that, from a taxation point of view, the regulatory environment should not impede the opportunities for agricultural development that still exist. Taxation should be conducive towards employment creation and maintaining the current labour force to the fullest possible extent. New entrants to the agricultural sector should be supported to make a meaningful contribution to the economy. If the three proposed wealth tax options are implemented, the sector will be impacted negatively and new entrants into the sector (or simply put, emerging farmers) will be the ones who will be hit hard. Given the points highlighted above perhaps, section 229 (2) of the Constitution will come into play if land tax is contemplated i.e. “The power of a municipality to impose rates on property,... may not be exercised in the way that materially and unseasonably prejudices national economic policies, economic activities across municipal boundaries, or the national mobility of goods, services, capital or labour”. The question of ability to pay an additional tax must also feature in this regard, especially considering the current economic environment.

Recommendations While it must be acknowledged that inequality is a major problem in South Africa, implementing the proposed wealth tax option will, however, not address this problem. >>> page 24 agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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Source: Agri SA and DAFF

Source: Agri SA and DAFF

<<< page 20 accumulates, the higher land tax payable by the owner on an annual basis. For example, if one owns one or more than one farm, those will be added together and land tax will be calculated on the sum of all farm values. Basically, what this means is that each year farmers will be paying x% of the value of land they own towards tax. This could potentially lead to a farmer selling pieces of land or be forced to hand them over to government to avoid paying land tax. Consequently, this will significantly affect their return on investment, production output which will in turn have a negative impact on the country’s food security and will ultimately result in net farm income declines. This in turn will have a negative impact on the country’s food security and will result in job losses in the sector. Already, unemployment in South Africa is among the highest in the world. It should be noted that South African farmers are not subsidised and yet they are expected to compete with global players who are subsidised. Over the years South African commercial farming units have been on the decline as reflected in figure 2. Needless to argue that imposing land tax will exacerbate this situation, and ultimately lead to a decline in productivity and negatively affect the country’s food security status. The land tax will adversely affect economies of scale, increasing the marginal cost and affecting profitability of farmers.


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PLAASAANVALLE nie ’n liggewigsaak nie KOBUS VISSER, DIREKTEUR: KORPORATIEWE SKAKELING, AGRI SA

Die landboubedryf was die enigste wolk met ’n silwer rand met sy bydrae tot die nasionale ekonomie in die eerste kwartaal van 2017 – te midde van die voortslepende gewelddadige aanslag teenoor die boerdery­ gemeenskap.

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ie bydrae van die landbou tot die ekonomie van 22% in die bruto binnelandse produk (BBP) was die eerste positiewe groeitendens sedert 2014. Die groei is weer eens ’n bewys dat die landbou en diegene wat daarin werk en woon ’n bate vir die land is en daarom behoort die regering dringende oorweging te gee aan die volgehoue beskerming van dié bate vir die toekoms. Enige plaasaanval is gewoonlik traumaties, uitermate ontwrigtend en niks kan jou werklik voorberei op so ’n gebeurte­nis nie. Wat wel positief is, is die pogings wat mense en organi­sasies soos Agri SA en die Agri Securitas Trustfonds oor ’n wye front aanwend om die situasie te beredder. Uitsprake oor plaasaanvalle en die hantering van die aangeleent­heid sal altyd vir diegene wat daaraan blootgestel is holklinkend wees, maar die weerstand teen plaasaanvalle uit verskeie oorde is ten minste ’n faktor wat ’n groot deel van die bevolking saambind. Meer as 8 500 plaasaanvalle oor ’n tydperk van 14 jaar en ’n moordsyfer van meer as 925 oor dié tydperk spreek boekdele van die volgehoue misdaadaanslag op boere en plaaswerkers, wat uiteraard ook Suid-Afrika se strewe na voedselsekerheid nie juis bevorder nie. Dit maak van plaasaanvalle en die effek daarvan op die landbou nie ’n liggewigsaak nie en daarom bly dit ’n prioriteit vir Agri SA. Daarmee saam word ’n premie op landbou-ontwikkeling en werkskepping deur die Nasionale Ontwikkelingsplan op die landbousektor geplaas, wat slegs kan plaasvind in ’n veilige omgewing. Landelike misdaad is ’n omvangryke probleem met uiteenlopende dimensies en dit maak dat oplossings op ’n verskeidenheid

van terreine, waaronder beleid, samewerking, paraatheid en effektiewe polisiëring, gesoek moet word. Die Agri Securitas Trust­fonds is maar een van die instrumente wat in die prak­ tyk op ’n praktiese wyse ’n bydrae maak tot die beveiliging van boerdery­gemeen­skappe. Dit bly moeilik om aan diegene wat direk blootgestel is of was aan misdaad te verduidelik dat Agri SA en die Agri Securitas Trustfonds alles moontlik in werking stel om die veiligheidsituasie te verbeter – of dit nou die implementering van die Landelike Beveiligingstrategie is, pogings om die reservistebedeling te bevorder, gereelde interaksies met die bevelstruktuur van die polisie of selfs interaksie met die SuidAfrikaanse Nasionale Weermag. Besoeke aan Agri SA van die hoof van die Weermag met die oog op gesamentlike ontwikkelingsprojekte, getuig van ’n organisasie wat met optrede na die oordeel van beleidmakers ’n rol op verskeie terreine speel om landelike veiligheid te bevorder. Die bywoning van die top-bevelstruktuur van beide die polisie en die weermag by Agri SA se afgelope kongres getuig weer eens van die goeie skakeling wat tussen Agri SA en die land se veiligheidstrukture bestaan. Die skakeling se doel is uiteraard om ten minste ’n beter basis daar te stel om die tergende en uitmergelende fenomeen van landelike misdaad beter te hanteer. Voortgesette skakeling met relevante veiligheidsrolspelers op regeringsvlak vind gereeld plaas, maar kan veral op plaaslike vlak nog verder verbeter. Sommige van Agri SA se provinsiale affiliasies vind dit egter moeilik om op ’n volgehoue basis konstruktiewe skakeling te bewerkstellig en dit maak die toepassing van beleid, strategieë en prosesse

soveel moeiliker, ’n saak wat deurlopend aandag geniet binne die organisasie. In ’n persepsie-opname onder die boeregemeenskap deur Agri SA ’n tyd gelede, het respondente vyf knelpunte geïdentifiseer, naamlik: • grondhervorming; • hoë insetkoste; • misdaad/landelike veiligheid; • gebrek aan regeringsondersteuning; en • ekonomiese onsekerheid. Dié vyf knelpunte word gesien as die belangrikste uitdagings waarmee die landbou te make het – selfs in die huidige tydvak. Die uitslag wys op die noodsaak van volgehoue aandag aan die misdaaduitdagings vir die landbou op alle vlakke van die organisasie. Daarom beywer die Agri Securitas Trustfonds hom vir ’n veiliger landelike omgewing deur beveiligingsprojekte op boereverenigingvlak te ondersteun, wat tot die bereiking van hierdie ideaal sal bydra. Die projekte wat ondersteun word, is gerig op voorkomende maatreëls, sowel as nasorg. Dit sluit onder meer bystand in vir kommunikasienetwerke om noodkommunikasie te bevorder, kamerastelsels vir die monitering van toegang, logistieke behoeftes vir aanwending op plaaslike vlak, oprigting van valhekke en die verskaffing van traumaberadingsdienste. Die Trustfonds is ook betrokke by ’n inisiatief van Agri SA om oor ’n langer termyn en op ’n gestruktureerde en deurlopende wyse aandag te gee aan ’n onderliggende persepsieprobleem wat bydraend tot die onaanvaarbare hoë voorkoms van plaasverwante misdade en -aanvalle is, naamlik die wanpersepsies wat by die breër >>> bladsy 24

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agri Nuus/News <<< page 21 In light of this, it is suggested that instead of imposing a further tax burden, government should concentrate on rehabilitating the public sector and raise the education level of its people and producing the skills that are currently in short supply. But most importantly, the focus should be on curbing wastage and eliminating corruption that is currently draining the fiscus. As a developing country South Africa needs more growth and not more taxes. The proposed forms of wealth tax will lead to wealth destruction, low investment, low growth and lower taxes collections. It is therefore recommended that there should be a socioeconomic impact assessment conducted on imposing wealth tax, taking into account all the concerns raised by organised agriculture and the citizens of South Africa. <<< bladsy 23 gemeenskap bestaan oor kommersiële landbou en hoe dit verbeter kan word. Hoewel die Trustfonds in hoofsaak gefokus is op ’n verbetering van landelike veiligheid en tersaaklike ondersteuning van beveiligingsprojekte, kan beveiliging deur middel van pro-aktiewe beplanning in werking gestel word. Om pro-aktief te wees, beteken

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dat die individu en gemeenskap op enige voorval bedag en gereed daarvoor moet wees. Hoewel individue in staat is om hulself tot ’n sekere mate te beskerm, is ’n waaksame gemeenskap ’n doeltreffende afskrikmiddel. Die meganismes van landelike beveiliging bestaan in hoofsaak uit die weerbaarmaking van die huis, die inoefening van gebeurlik­ heids­beplanning vir die inwoners en gemeen­ skap, die organisering van optredes en inligting-insameling en kommunikasie tussen werkgewer en werknemer, met die breër gemeenskap, asook met plaaswagte. Dit is belangrik om nie geleenthede vir misdadi­gers te skep nie, maar deur betrokke te raak by die strukture van georganiseerde landbou en die implementering van landelike beveiligings­ planne kan misdaad aan bande gelê word. Onthou: geen beskermingsmaatreëls is ’n waarborg dat ’n plaasaanval moontlik nie sal plaasvind nie, maar dit kan ’n aanval vertraag en/of bemoeilik. Een van die pilare vir die suksesvolle implementering van die Landelike Beveiliging­ strategie is die reservistestelsel. Tesame met ’n goed funksionerende plaaswagstelsel, asook aktiewe gemeenskapbetrokkenheid, kan reserviste ’n belangrike beveiligingmeganisme teen plaasaanvalle wees. Reserviste speel dus ’n rol om misdaad in toom te hou en behoort op plaaslike vlak bevorder te word.

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Kernfunksies van reserviste behels alge­mene funksionele diens op stasievlak, insluitend die voorkoming, bestryding en onder­soek van misdaad, die handhaaf van openbare orde, die beskerming van lands­ burgers en hul eiendom en die handhawing en afdwinging van die wet. Dit is daarom belangrik dat plaasgemeenskappe betrokke sal raak by beveiligingstrukture tot hul beskikking. Hierbenewens is dit belangrik dat plaasgemeenskappe waaksaam moet wees vir dinge wat van hulle ’n teiken kan maak, soos: • Maklike toegang tot die plaas – pas die protokol vir plaastoegang deurlopend toe; • Groot hoeveelhede kontant wat by die woning gehou word, veral wanneer plaasprodukte van die plaas verkoop word; • Sigbare en maklike toegang tot kluise; • Maklike toegang tot voertuie vir ontvlugting – verwyder sleutels uit voertuie wat nie gebruik word nie; • Wees versigtig om in die donker uit te gaan om ondersoek in te stel; • Gebrekkige beveiliging van die woning – installeer veiligheidshekke voor buitedeure, diefwering voor vensters wat oopmaak en installeer ’n goeie alarmstelsel; • Gebrekkige kommunikasie tussen boere – maak seker dat goeie kommunikasieverbindinge tussen bure bestaan.


agri Promosie/Promotional

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Jongboerfinaliste word aangewys KOBUS VISSER, DIREKTEUR: KORPORATIEWE SKAKELING, AGRI SA

Die eerste jongboerfinaliste vir die Toyota SA/Agri SA 2017 Jongboer van die Jaar-kompetisie is onlangs aangewys. Die nasionale wenner sal in Oktober bekend gemaak word. Dit is die 13de jaar dat Toyota SA die kompetisie borg. Agri SA beskou die kompetisie as van groot waarde omdat jong rolmodelle geïdentifiseer word en hulle noodsaaklik is vir nuwe toetreders en ook vir die toekoms van die bedryf. Die finaliste is die room van die jongboere van Suid-Afrika. VRYSTAAT LANDBOU: JOHAN VAN HUYSSTEEN Die Vrystaat Landbou Jongboer van die Jaar-kompetisie staan in sy 21ste jaar. Johan van Huyssteen is op 6 April 2017 tydens ’n glansgeleentheid by Monte Bello Landgoed in Bloemfontein as die wenner aangewys. Johan en Juanita van Huyssteen boer op die plaas Bloekom in die Virginia-omgewing. Hy en sy pa boer saam. Volgens Johan is hy ‘n perfeksionis en beplanner, eienskappe wat hy in al die fasette van sy boerdery probeer toepas. Die beste manier van doen word in alles oordink en beplan. Hy hou egter van eenvoud: hoe makliker, eenvoudiger en vinniger, hoe beter! Diversifisering is goed, maar hy verkies om te spesialiseer. Die vernaamste verandering wat hy in die boerdery teweeggebring het is vooraanplantingsvoorbereiding met presisietoerusting. Topbemesting word nie meer toegepas nie, wat bydra tot beter wortelontwikkeling. Die toekomsvisie vir die boerdery is om volhoubaar te groei, risiko’s te bestuur en om meer effektief te boer. Johan wil ook in die toekoms tegnologie beter benut. Van die vernaamste risiko’s wat hy moet bestuur, is droogte en die prys van produkte. Die 50%-oorlêstelsel wat gebruik word, dra by tot goeie opbrengste en werk droogtetoestande teë. Wat prysbestuur betref, word stappe gevolg saam met maatskappye wat inligting verskaf. “Met goeie inligting kan goeie besluite geneem word, wat so risiko’s beperk.” Van Huyssteen is ’n aktiewe lid van die gemeenskap en landbouvereniging. Hy is iemand wat leiding kan neem en mense inspireer. Hy is tans voorsitter van Virginia Landbou asook die Brandvereniging. Hy was ook lid van Vrystaat Landbou se jongboerkomitee.

NOORDWES: ROAN VAN TONDER Roan van Tonder, Agri Noordwes se jongboer, boer op die plaas Klipfontein in die Potchefstroom-gebied en is getroud met Miquet. Hy beskik oor ’n BCom-graad in entrepreneurskap en omgewingsbestuur, asook ’n diploma in omgewingsbestuur. Sy broer boer saam met hom en hy was verantwoordelik om die plaas te ontwikkel en te omskep van ’n bees- na ’n wildplaas. Wildboerdery is die grootste vertakking op die plaas, met ’n klein beesgedeelte. Sy toekomsvisie is om die beste gemsbokteler in die land te word en, deur waardetoevoeging in sy teelprogram, topgehalte manlike diere te produseer. Vir die toekoms beoog hy om sy bedrywighede na Namibië uit te brei. Hy word as ’n leierboer geag en nuwe asook jong wildboere klop gereeld by hom aan vir leiding. Hy help graag. Oor die rol van die landbou in die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie sê Roan: “Dit is die ruggraat van die ekonomie: as jy landbou wegneem, sal die land se ekonomie nie kan funksioneer nie en die landbou is ook veronderstel om die voedselmandjie van Afrika te wees.” Hy is van mening dat jongboere ’n belangrike rol in die voortbestaan van die landbou speel, om nuwe tegnieke en tegnologie in te bring en jongboere moet kan aanpas by ’n veranderende omgewing en omstandighede sodat hulle suksesvol kan funksioneer. Roan is ’n aktiewe lid van Agri Potchefstroom en betrokke by fondswerwing vir die dienssentrum vir bejaardes. Hy is lid van die Brandbeskermingsvereniging en ook deel van hulle sektorbeveiligingsgroep.

AGRI WES-KAAP: JOHANN NEL Agri Wes-Kaap se jongboer vir 2017, Johann Nel, boer al vir agt jaar op Hoëkraal Landgoed met Jerseykoeie, Dohne Merino’s, kuilvoermielies, hawer, saadkoring, gars en ontbythawer. In sy oë is vandag se jongboere innoverend, passievol, doelgerig en probeer hulle deurentyd verbeter en vernuwe op die ongelooflike fondament en voorbeeld van boerderypraktyke wat die vorige generasies en leermeesters gelê het. Die jongboer speel ’n groot en waardevolle rol in die land se voedselketting om genoegsame en goeie kwaliteit voedsel te produseer. Johann sê hy sien kans vir enige dag in die boerdery omdat hy die beste bestuurspan het en sy arbeidsmag die belangrikste bate is. Boerdery is vir hom die gesondste, dienendste en nederigste werk om te verrig. Buiten die genoegdoening en bevrediging wat hy uit boerdery haal, is dit wonderlik om te kan weet hy verskaf werk aan broodwinners en help dat hulle ’n goeie huis kan >>> bladsy 28 hê en kos op die tafel aan hulle familielede kan voorsit. agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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Agriculture a shining light in a declining economy The news by Statistics South Africa that South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP) contracted by 0,7% for the first quarter of 2017, following a decrease of 0,3% in the fourth quarter of 2016, indicates that the country has fallen into a technical recession.

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his is a big concern for all South Africans as this could lead to high unemployment, falling average incomes, increased inequality, higher government borrowing and increased taxes. Agri SA is concerned that, if the country’s economic growth slips further into the negative territory in the second quarter, it would mean the country is in full recession. This will have an adverse impact on employment creation, as it was recently revealed by Statistics South Africa that unemployment in the country reached a record high: 27,7% in the first quarter of 2017 from 26,5 per cent in the previous period. Furthermore, as a result of the recession, businesses will not be able to make profit and consequently government will receive lower corporate tax. Moreover, income levels will fall, leading to government collecting less income tax from the labour force. Agri SA is also concerned that the recession will lead to lower investment and

therefore to the undesirable damage in the long-term productive capacity of the economy. From a global perspective, South Africa’s economic growth rates are not on par with international benchmarks. However, because of key issues such as the unstable political environment – resulting in policy uncertainty; corruption and lack of economic and political leadership – growth in the South African economy will remain in dire straits. Agri SA, as a federation of agricultural organisations and an organisation committed to the development of agriculture in South Africa, is quite pleased with the positive performance of the sector. The situation could have been far worse had it not been for the agricultural sector’s contribution to GDP and a year-on-year growth rate of 22%.

This speaks volume of the importance of the sector in the economy and therefore Agri SA will continue in its endeavours to reach out to government to make agriculture development a national priority. Most importantly we appeal for clear policy certainty with regard to land ownership as we are concerned that, without security of tenure, the South African economy and food security will be compromised further.

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MPUMALANGA LANDBOU: HENDRIK PRINSLOO Hendrik is aangewys as Mpumalanga Landbou se Jongboer van die Jaar en boer op die plaas Oudewerf in die Kiepersol-distrik. Hy is getroud met Liandra en hulle het drie kinders. Sy hoof-boerderyvertakking gebaseer op omset is avokado’s, makadamia-neute en piesangs. Sy visie is om ’n volhoubare boer in Suid-Afrika te wees ten spyte van die huidige ekonomiese en politieke klimaat. Dit is vir hom belangrik om deel van die oplossing te wees en ook sy sosiale verantwoordelikheid teenoor sy mense na te kom en hulle te bemagtig. Volgens Hendrik is jongboere die toekoms van die landbou aangesien hulle die baanbrekers in die uitdagende politieke en ekonomiese tye is. Hy maak gebruik van spesialiskonsultante in elkeen van sy boerderyvertakkinge en gebruik inligting van sy onderskeie bedryfsorganisasies wat hom inlig oor marktendense en navorsing. Hy woon graag studiegroepe by waar aspekte soos plaagbeheer, bemesting en snoeipraktyke bespreek word. Hendrik ag homself ’n persoon met ’n positiewe uitkyk op wat hy aanpak, terwyl integriteit en deursigtigheid ’n deel van hom is. Hy glo in effektiewe probleemoplossing en vra altyd wat hy uit ’n situasie kan leer. Hy streef na konstante persoonlike groei asook die positiewe motivering en ontwikkeling van die mense met wie hy daagliks werk. Hy is lid van die Kiepersol Boereverenging asook ’n raadslid van die Sabirivier Besproeiings­raad. Hy is deel van die Kiepersol-veiligheidsnetwerk en ondersteun ’n huis vir swart weeskinders finansieel asook ’n kerk wat plaasbediening doen.

Harry Prinsloo verkies tot NAMC-raad Harry Prinsloo, voorsitter van Agri SA se Bedryfskamer en ook Kommersiële Beleidskomitee, is verkies tot vise-voorsitter van die Nasionale Landboubemarkingsraad (NAMC). Baie geluk!

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DRAFT AMENDED AGRIBEE SECTOR CODE

Getting to grips with BEE LIVHU NGWEKHULU, TRANSFORMATION MANAGER, AGRI SA

The main aim of Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is to get bigger companies to play a more significant role in an inclusive economy and to develop smaller businesses in their respective industries and regions of operation. To this end, the draft amended AgriBEE Sector Code was gazetted in November 2015. This article sheds some light on this issue.

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Brief history he history of the AgriBEE Sector Code goes back to the time when a steering committee was formed in the early 2000s. After the department of trade and industry (the dti) came up with the Black Economic Empowerment Amendment Act 2003 (Act no 53 of 2003) that allowed sectors to have their own codes, the steering committee started working towards the AgriBEE Trans­formation Charter. This was after the dti published generic codes or codes of good practice (CoGP) in 2007. The AgriBEE Transfor­ mation Charter was gazetted in March 2008 under section 12 of the Act. The charter was merely a statement of intent and there­fore not binding to entities operating in the agricultural industry. The main objective of the charter was implementing equitable access and partici­ pation in accordance with the country’s Agri­ cultural Sector Plan. After the charter gazette, the AgriBEE Charter Council was formed in December of that year. The Charter Council’s task was to work on the AgriBEE Trans­forma­ tion Charter and convert it into a final AgriBEE Sector Code under section 9 (1) of the Act. The Act stipulates that before the final code is gazetted, it must first be published as a draft under section 9(5) of the Act. After some four years of deliberations, the final AgriBEE Sector Code was gazetted in December 2012. Soon after this gazette, the dti amended the BEE Act and subsequently the generic codes of good practice. That meant going back to the drawing board for the AgriBEE Charter Council, by then called merely the AgriBEE Council, as the charter period was passed. The task was to align the AgriBEE Sector Code of 2012 with the amended codes of good practice from the dti. The dti is the custodian of the codes and everyone has to align their sector codes when the generic codes are changed. The draft amended AgriBEE Sector Code was gazetted in November 2015. Scope of application What entities are covered by the draft amended AgriBEE Sector Code? It covers entities that derive the majority of their turnover from primary production of agricultu­

ral inputs; the beneficiation of agricultu­ral products whether of a primary or semibeneficiated form; provision of inputs and services to enterprises engaged in the produc­tion of agricultural inputs; and lastly, the storage, distribution and/or trading and allied activities related to the non-beneficiated agricultural products.

What the draft amended AgriBEE Sector Code entails Just like the Code of Good Practice (CoGP), the draft AgriBEE Sector Code has lifted the thresholds from the 2012 AgriBEE Sector Code to higher levels. The thresholds are now as follows: Exempted Micro Enterprise (EME) > R10m annual turnover, Qualifying Small Enterprises (QSE) are between R10m and R50m annual turnover and lastly, large enterprises are those with an annual turnover of over R50m. Furthermore, AgriBEE elements have been reduced from seven to five, being Ownership, Management Control, Skills Development, Enterprise and Supplier Development as well as Socio-economic Development. Some elements were collapsed into one, such as Management Control and Employment Equity became Management Control, whereas Preferen­tial Procurement and Enterprise Develop­ment became Enterprise and Supplier Development. The three elements Ownership, Skills Development and Enterprise and Supplier Development, have been designated priority elements and a subminimum rule was imposed. This means that a measured entity must score a minimum of 40% in each of them. Failure to do so in either one will result in the recognition BEE level being dropped by one level. Implications of thresholds for the farmer As mentioned at the start of the article, the main aim of BEE is to get bigger companies to play a more significant role in an inclusive economy and to develop smaller businesses in their respective industries and regions of operation. The R10m annual turnover threshold (EME) helps farmers, most of who fall in this category as they are still growing, to focus on growing their businesses. All entities with less than R10m annual turnover get a deemed recognition level four (4).

Furthermore, due to the new enhanced B-BBEE recognition levels, all entities with less than R10m annual turnover and that are 100% black owned, get a deemed recognition level one (1), while those with at least 51% black ownership get a deemed recognition level two (2). The same applies for Qualifying Small Enterprises (QSEs), however, QSEs now have to comply with all five elements in the scorecard, unlike previously where they could choose some elements. As for large enterprises, they have to comply with all five elements. Start-ups are also treated as EMEs in their first year of operation regardless of the expected total revenue for the year, however, they should submit a QSE scorecard or large enterprise scorecard should they wish to tender for any contract with a value classified in the QSE or large enterprise category respectively. EMEs deemed level four (due to their annual turnover being less than R10m) who want to get a better level, can use the QSE scorecard to do so. There have been largely done away with costs for compliance for the EME and QSE farmers. All they have to do is to get an affidavit declaring their annual turnover and their level of black ownership. The affidavit can be downloaded from the dti website or alternatively, the annual CIPC issued certificate can be used. The concept of empowering supplier was introduced in the place of value-adding supplier. Basically, every entity now needs to be an empowering supplier or their AgriBEE status will be useless for flow-through. This means that without it a supplier’s B-BBEE certificate cannot be used for the procuring company’s own preferential procurement calculations. Luckily for EMEs, their affidavit also recognises them as an empowering supplier, whereas QSEs need to be verified. It should be noted that the declaration of false information in annual turnover or black ownership, as mentioned above, constitute fronting and it is now punishable by up to ten years’ imprisonment or 10% of the annual turnover of the company involved. The BEE Commissioner is already busy dealing with such cases.

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Grasland

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agri Nuus/News

KEY AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE*, 2015 COMPARED TO 2016 The purpose of these indicators is to determine a broad overview of the financial position of the agricultural sector, mainly for 2016 in comparison with the previous year. Basic statistics were provided by the Directorate Statistics and Economic Analysis of the department of agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

2015 2016

% Change



Gross farm income (R million) ¨       Field crops (R million) ¨       Horticultural products (R million) ¨       Animal products (R million)

230 306 51 227 65 374 113 705

259 620 57 018 79 043 123 559

12.7 11.3 20.9 8.7

Expenditure on intermediate goods and services (Rmillion)

124 430

133 243

7.1

    

¨       Fuel (R million) ¨       Seed and Plants (R million) ¨       Farm feeds (R million) ¨       Maintenance and repairs (R million) ¨       Labour remuneration (R million) ¨       Interest paid (R million)

11 147 7 808 35 799 17 450 16 318 7 624

11 844 8 589 38 663 18 340 17 335 8 390

6.3 10.0 8.0 5.1 6.2 10.1

     

Net farm income (R million)

76 084

96 337

26.6

Cash flow of farmers (R million)

66 539

84 211

26.6

16.8 34.0 19.6 5.7

   

Important cost items (R million)

Producer price index (2010 = 100) ¨       Field crops ¨       Horticultural products ¨       Animal products

154.4 183.2 144.2 146.8

180.3 245.4 172.5 155.1

All farming requisites index (2010 = 100) ¨      Machinery and implements ¨      Materials for fixed improvements ¨      Intermediate goods Feeds Fuel Seeds Packaging material Fertilisers Maintenance & repairs

147.3 150.2 138.9 147.4 152.7 136.4 164.8 151.0 127.5 145.7

156.2 162.6 149.1 155.7 163.6 142.9 174.9 159.2 131.4 151.6

4.8 8.3 7.3 5.6 7.1 4.7 6.1 5.4 3.0 4.1

         

1.05 1.24 0.98 1.00

1.15 1.57 1.10 0.99

10.1 26.3 12.8 -0.4

  

133 089

144 981

8.9

Terms of Trade (2010 = 1,00) ¨       Field crops ¨       Horticultural products ¨      Animal products Farming debt (R million) Debt ratio (Assets : Liabilities) %

33.7%

33.9%

Weaken

394 385 208 196 61 122 125 067

427 790 231 305 65 088 131 396

8.5 11.1 6.5 5.1

   

SA exports (agricultural products only) (R million)

86 090

97 901

13.7

SA imports (agricultural products only) (R million)

67 244

82 362

22.5

130.2 126.8 138.0

138.3 133.9 152.8

6.2 5.6 10.7

  

Value of Farm assets (R million) ¨      Land and fixed improvements (R million) ¨      Implements, motor vehicles and tractors (R million) ¨      Livestock (R million)

Consumer price index (2010 = 100) ¨      All items ¨      All items (excluding food) ¨      Food * Source: Directorate: Statistics and Economic Analysis: Daff

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Biogas hier om te bly Biogas word deesdae as een van die oplossings vir Suid-Afrika se energieprobleme beskou en baie boere getuig reeds dat dié vorm van herwinbare energie ‘n duik in hulle elektrisiteitsrekening gemaak het. Biogas-aanlegte skiet oral op soos paddastoele. Met goeie rede.

B

otala is een van die eerste ingenieursfirmas wat in biogas spesialiseer en op dié manier boere en ander landbouvertakkings help om bekostigbare elektrisiteit te produseer. “Plase verskil en het spesifieke behoeftes. Dieselfde plan werk nie vir almal nie. Daarom ontwikkel ons saam met boere en landboubesighede planne wat nommerpas vir hulle omstandighede is,” sê Peet Steyn van Botala. Die firma se ingenieurs besoek plase en besighede om eerstehands te bepaal watter plan die beste gaan werk. “Die konsep van groen energie of energie vervaardig van afvalmateriaal is lankal nie meer net gonswoorde nie, maar ‘n werklikheid waarvan Suid-Afrikaanse boere moet kennis neem. Om elektrisiteit te produseer en terselfdertyd van afval ontslae te raak, maak eenvoudig besigheidsin. Biogas word reeds vir jare in Europa en die VSA geproduseer. Dit werk ook in Suid-

Afrika en ons klimaat is ideaal daarvoor geskik,” sê Steyn. Een van Botala se kliënte is ‘n hoenderboer naby Heidelberg in Gauteng, wat deur die opwekking van biogas van hoendermis sy Eskom-elektrisiteitsrekening met ‘n driekwart verminder het. Die boer se biogasaanleg beslaan net 15m x 20m. Dit het ‘n kragkapasiteit van 25kW, wat hy met slegs 500 kg hoendermis per dag opwek. Botala het ook ‘n biogasaanleg vir die Tswane Food and Energy Centre buite Bronkhorstspruit opgerig. Dié 80kW-aanleg verskaf energie, buiten dié wat hulle van Eskom gebruik, vir hulle hoenderbroeiprojek. Die aanleg word gevoed deur afvalgroente

wat van die Tshwane Varsproduktemark afkomstig is, sowel as hoendermis van die plaas se broeiaanleg en kuilvoer wat spesifiek vir energie-opwekking aangeplant word. Botala het ook ‘n kliënt naby Tarlton wat van vrugtepulp gebruik maak om die biogasaanleg te voed. Steyn sê hierdie is almal suksesverhale wat wys dat biogas ‘n werklikheid vir Suid-Afrikaanse boere geword het en hulle geld bespaar.

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Bewaringsboerdery in rygewasse – die regte planterkeuse is die sleutel tot sukses Daar is deesdae geen kommersiële boer meer wat nie die beginsels van bewaringsboerdery begryp en ondersteun nie. Die definisies is egter wyd uiteenlopend, maar die feit dat natuurlike hulpbronne soos grond en water nie hernubaar is nie, motiveer ons almal om dit met groot sorg te hanteer en aan te wend.

D

aar is nie ‘n “regte” en “verkeerde” benadering nie – net verskillende opinies – wat verskillend gemotiveer en aanvaar word. Ongeag of die keuse op konvensionele, minimum- of geenbewerking val om die gestelde doelwitte te bereik, sal die keuse van die spesifikasies van die rygewasplanter bepalend wees in die suksesvolle bereiking daarvan.

Eenvoudige basiese beginsels Die plant van rygewasse is nie ingewikkeld nie, en die volgende doelwitte moet bereik word: * Presiese plantdiepte, soos vereis en vooraf bepaal. * Korrekte saad-tot-grond kontak, verkry met die korrekte kompaksievlakke. * Presiese en korrekte interplant-afstande, elke pit, elke keer. * Korrekte plasing van die korrekte hoeveelheid kunsmis. * Min of geen variasie in bogenoemde wanneer planttoestande varieer. * Eenvoudige en maklike verstelling van die planter om die bogenoemde doelwitte te bereik. Die enigste werklike verskil tussen planter­ vereistes in konvensionele -, minimum- en geenbewerkingstoestande lê hoofsaaklik in die vermoë van die plantereenheid om plantresidu te hanteer (minimum- en geenbewerking) sowel as om die fermer grondstruktuur tydens geenbewerking te hanteer. ’n Goed ontwerpte konvensionele planter behoort geredelik aangepas te kan word om in minimumbewerkingstoestande te kan plant deur eenvoudig ryskoon­ makers aan te bring en ’n opwaartse verstelling van die druk op die ry-eenheid. Dit gee die produsent die geleentheid om

Ryskoonmakers

dieselfde planter onder verskillende bewerkings­toestande aan te wend. Geenbewerkings­ planters is gewoonlik ontwerp om deur groot hoeveelhede plantresidu te sny sonder om van ryskoonmakers gebruik te maak. Dit sal masjiene vereis wat meer druk op die snyskywe kan plaas om die snywerk effektief te doen. Ook sal die hoër druk op die plantereenheid gebruik word om meer druk op die kompaksiewiele te plaas om in fermer grond steeds goeie saad-tot-grond kontak te verkry.

KUHN MAXIMA 2

KUHN – ’n Planter vir alle toestande KUHN vervaardig rygewasplanters vir verskillende toestande in sy fabrieke in Frankryk en Brasilië. Die KUHN MAXIMA 2-reeks is pneu­matiese presisieplanters wat gemik is op die konvensionele en minimum­bewerkings­omgewing. Modelle is beskikbaar in 4-, 6- en 8-ry formaat,

MAXIMA 2 Basiese plantereenheid op parallelogram

KUHN PDMPG PRIME

75 of 90 cm gespasieer, en beide in sleepen driepuntmontering beskikbaar. Toevoeging van die ryskoonmakers verander die MAXIMA 2 in ’n planter wat effektief minimumbewerkings­ toestande kan hanteer. Die planteenheid is op ’n parallelogram gemonteer, wat presisiediepte plant in variërende grondkontoere ondersteun. Die KUHN MAXIMA PG en PDMPG PRIME is ontwerp en gebou vir geenbewerkings­ toestande. Planters is beskikbaar in 4-, 6-, 8-, 10- en 12-ry formaat, 45, 75 en 90 cm gespasieer, en in sleepweergawe beskikbaar. Die PDMPG PRIME is toegerus met sentrale saadvoorsiening en V-SET PRECISION® uitmeeteenhede wat deur die ELLIOT FLEXSHAFT transmissie aangedryf word vir minimum-onderhoud en optimale presisie. agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Nuus/News

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36

© 2017 Lindsay. All rights reserved. Zimmatic and FieldNET are registered trademarks of the Lindsay Corporation.


agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

Load shedding, water shedding... what next? Food shedding? PART 1

CHRISTO VAN DER RHEEDE, DEPUTY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, AGRI SA

According to the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FewsNet) millions of Africans experience food shortages, hunger, malnutrition and famine due to the 2015/16 El Niño-induced drought. This has resulted in a regional maize deficit of just over five million tonnes in southern Africa alone. Good rains in countries such as Zimbabwe and Mozambique have led to improved maize and other crop production, however, the poor liquidity situation continue to affect the level of incomes that rural households usually earn from such crop sales. State of food security on the continent of Africa or severely affected African states such as South Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia and even parts of Nigeria, the food situation remains dire. Some have become desperately dependent on food aid, importation of maize and other critical staple foods. In addition, civil and intra-state conflict has severely disrupted trade, humanitarian aid delivery and rural livelihoods. Very poor macroeconomic conditions also constrain household market access to quality and cheap food and below-average as well as failed crop production has resulted in acute food insecurity. (Picture 1)

F

State of food security in South Africa Although household access to food in South Africa has improved considerably, the General Household Survey (GHS) conducted by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) in 2015 found that 14.3 million people still had inadequate and severely inadequate access

Picture 1

to food. (Picture 2) According to the National Food and Nutrition Security Plan, South Africa’s social protection strategy and programmes are seriously constrained by a lack of coordination and integration of government systems, limited funding and significant deficit in human capacity and resources within key state institutions. Furthermore, unemployment and extreme poverty have resulted in many South African households not being able to

access, through production or purchasing, sufficient food to meet their daily nutritional requirements. Hunger, malnutrition and famine pose serious risks to peace and stability in South Africa. In this regard, the commercial farming sector and business sector have a critical role to fulfil. That is to compensate for the state’s failure to implement its own social protection and economic growth strategies effectively >>> page 39 and efficiently.

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agri

FOKUS â&#x20AC;˘ FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

Agrico Trackfiller

vir Spilpunte & LineĂŞre Besproeiers

Vul spilpunt wielspore vinnig en effektief Na:

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Meer as 100 jaar diens

Verkope en diens met takke regoor Suidelike Afrika: Aliwal-Noord | Bellville | Bethlehem | Bloemfontein | Caledon | Ceres | Christiana | Cradock | Estcourt | George | Hartswater | Humansdorp | Kakamas | Kimberley | Kroonstad Lichtenburg | Lusaka | Nelspruit | Nigel | Nylstroom | Pietermaritzburg | Piketberg | Rawsonville | Tzaneen | Upington | Vredendal | Wellington


agri

<<< page 37

Picture 2

Impact of South African fiscal crisis on food security The fiscal crisis in SA is worsening by the day. Government’s total debt now stands at R2.2 trillion. The debt to GDP ratio was 23% in 2009 and is now pegged at 50.7%. Total government debt service cost has risen from R147bn in 2016/17 to R162bn this year and will rise more than R200bn over the mediumterm expenditure framework period. State guarantees to failed state-owned enterprises (SOEs) amount to R477bn, with SAA and Eskom the major beneficiaries of these guarantees. While these SOEs are large contributors to economic activity, accounting for 20% of gross capital formation, they are plagued by operational inefficiencies, poor procurement

practices, weak corporate governance and failures to abide by fiduciary requirements. According to Treasury many face serious financial, governance and management difficulties, adding to the fiscal crisis is the year-on-year bailouts from the public purse to state-owned enterprises. While well-managed publicsector assets can promote economic growth and social development, South African SOEs’ poor performance are materially affecting the broader public finances and economic progress.

Decline in gross tax revenue for 2016/17 and its impact on food security Consolidated expenditure amounts to R1.56 trillion in 2017/18, R1.68 trillion in 2018/19, and R1.81 trillion in 2019/20. It is expected to grow at 1,9% in real terms over the period. R884 billion, however, is spent on social services entrenching the perception that welfare has taken precedence over wealth creation. Another big concern is the fact that Treasury estimates that gross tax revenue for

FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

2016/17 will be R30.4 billion lower than the original estimate of the 2016 budget. Personal income taxes, customs duties and import VAT are all expected to show large shortfalls, with smaller shortfalls forecast for the fuel levy and specific excise duties. Corporate income tax receipts are expected to marginally outperform projections as a result of higher commodity prices and labour stability in the mining sector, along with strong performance in the financial sector. In terms of tax performance in 2016/17 relative to budget 2016 targets, there is uncertainty regarding the path of revenue collection. Risks include weaker than expected economic growth, and concerns about tax morality, compliance and administration. (Picture 3) Reduced income tax revenue poses particular challenges for food security in that less money is made available for state departments that are mandated with the responsibility to ensure food production and household food security. This is reflected in the 2017/18 budget. While huge emphasis is placed on education, health services and municipal functions in rural areas through net increases in funding for the post-school education and training, basic education, economic affairs and health functions, the total budgeted amount for agriculture, rural >>> page 40

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10

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agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

<<< page 39 development and land reform in the national budget amounts to R 26.50 billion – a mere 2%. More worrying though is the yearon-year decline in agricultural spending. (Picture 4). This makes it increasingly difficult for the department of agriculture, forestry and fisheries to execute its mandate which is to focus on improving food security, creating decent jobs and sustainably increasing the contribution of the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors to GDP. For example, over the medium term, the department plans to support around 435 000 subsistence and smallholder farmers through providing farm equipment, fencing, fertilisers, seedlings and other essentials and disbursing a grant through the comprehensive agricultural support programme. However, with a R889.7 million net decrease, mainly due to reductions effected on the comprehensive agricultural support programme, such a lofty ideals will remain a pipe dream.

Picture 3

Can we trust government with ensuring food security? Certainly not. Given the fiscal constrains outlined previously and poorly managed SOEs, government cannot be trusted at all with ensuring food security. Furthermore, according to research by the NAMC and BFAP, the three government initiatives CASP, MAFISA and RECAP that were specifically developed for emerging black farmers have not achieved sufficient progress in terms of ensuring sustainability and self-reliance of these farmers. Nor did it sufficiently empower these farmers to significantly bring about food security and employment creation. Explanations for this include poor project design, ineffective capacity building for farmers by strategic partners and mentors, limited outreach for financial services, low loan repayment rate, limited coordination in the implementation of the initiatives, limited >>> page 41

Picture 4

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agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

<<< page 40 decision-making power of beneficiaries, and lack of clear selection criteria for projects and farmers. The inept governance and management of developmental projects aimed at establishing emerging farmers by government are further complicated by poor agricultural policy development, execution, management and governance by various government departments.

Lack of state assistance to commercial farmers diminishes food security The lack of support for commercial farmers who are at this point fulfilling a critical role in ensuring food security without state assistance, pose a particular challenge to food security. Such lack of assistance can be traced back to the post ’94 era of market deregulation and trade liberalisation, which went hand in hand with the new government introducing new policies, which in effect led to a withdrawal in assistance to the commercial sector, the phasing out of tariff protections to South African farmers and further decreases in farm subsidisation. This was in partly based on the IMF, World Bank and Washington Consensus, which encouraged SA to disincentivise in the productive sector. As a result of the latter, the Producer Support Estimate to South African

Picture 5

producers shrunk to about 3% – well below the 20% average of the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The extent to which the previous tariff regime was reduced also went far beyond what was required in terms of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. Sadly

though, while South Africa went overboard with reducing assistance, other countries just paid lip service to the aforementioned international agreements. South Africa is now indeed paying the price for withdrawing support from its productive sectors. >>> page 42

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FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

<<< page 41 The current upheaval relating to the commercial viability and job creation potential of the poultry sector is a case in point. SA producers produce chicken more efficiently and cheaper than their European counterparts. However, EU producers receive direct and indirect subsidies, export assistance and quota protection. R800bn in subsidies were provided to European agriculture in 2014! Such support makes it difficult for the local poultry industry to compete with international imports, more so to sustain local operations in the face of ongoing and increasing dumping. Hopefully the discussions held between various government departments and the poultry industry the past few months will lead to firm steps being introduced by government to save the poultry industry from collapse. The chickens have indeed come home to roost.

Inept management of land reform diminishes food security According to a recently released report by the Commission on Restitution of Land Rights, approximately 80 000 claims have been lodged of which 79 212 has been settled at 31 December 2016. This has resulted in 3.3 million hectares of land and R11.63 billion financial compensation being awarded to 2.03 million beneficiaries. Had the claimants who opted for financial

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

Picture 6

compensation chosen land restoration, an additional 2.7 million hectares would have been restored. The total cost of the settlement of these claims amounts to R36.5 billion. There are 6 989 claims that were lodged before the 1998 cut-off date which are still outstanding. Further­more, restitution amounts to just under R3, 25 billion for the 2017/18 financial year. A total of R10,3 billion is allocated for settling land restitution claims over the MTEF period, which constitutes 31,9%

42

of the DRDLR budget. Noteworthy though is the fact that consultants are extensively utilised as part of the pre-settlement of claims, especially the appointment of valuers, conveyancers and specialist researchers. According to Commission on Restitution of Land Rights this is a major cost driver in the restitution programme. Over the MTEF period, R503,7 million will be spent on such consultants. See part 2 of this article in the next issue.


agri Promosie/Promotional

KITE 2017: The definitive interactive platform for industrial technology solutions There is only one place to view and source industrial technology equipment from over 120 exhibitors in the KwaZulu-Natal region. With a history spanning over 36 years, the KwaZulu-Natal Industrial Technology Exhibition (KITE) has been the launchpad for a number of best practice technologies over the years and has provided a diverse market with a multitude of solutions.

H

eld at the Durban Exhibition Centre from 26 to 28 July, KITE has a lineup of new and updated tech­ nologies for all industrial sectors in the province. The exhibition is characterised by its interactive nature, with ongoing demonstrations providing a completely simulated real-life experience for visitors. Careful consideration is given to the variety and quality of exhibitor technology and services in order to ensure that visitors are presented with a wide range of suitable offerings. This year’s event is no exception and visitors can interact with exhibitors providing electronic components, packaging and plastics machinery, heavy machinery; hygiene products and services; industrial equipment and components; IT and telecommunications manufacturing equipment; materials handling; monitoring, process control and sensors; security equipment; workwear and protective

equipment; plant and facility equipment; safety equipment and machinery; tools; and industrial services. This year’s event includes the addition of the Propak Africa Pavilion. Other visitor attractions, geared around maximising visitors’ time at the show, include the freeto-attend SAIMechE Seminar Theatre, the MESA (Manufacturing Enterprise Solutions Association) special interest group and the Lifting Equipment Association of South Africa (LEEASA) conference. “We urge visitors to register to attend KITE. This substantially reduces the

time one stands in queues, leaving you with more time to enjoy the exhibitors’ offerings, competitions and other visitor attractions on site,” says Charlene Hefer, portfolio director at Specialised Exhibitions. For more information on KITE 2017, visit the website or pre-register now at www. kznindustrial.co.za. Use our social media platforms on Facebook, Twitter #KITE2017, Instagram.

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Nuus/News

Netafim

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

Beheer boorgatdruk doeltreffend Met die huidige waterskaarste is ’n groot en algemene probleem die beskadiging van boorgatpompe as gevolg van die watertafel wat daal. Boorgate wat al deur vorige geslagte geboor is en nog altyd standhoudend was se watervlak begin skielik vir die eerste keer daal as gevolg van droogtetoestande en pompe word beskadig as gevolg van droogloop.

D

eur die aanwending van die GSM Pro van Agriplas kan die druk by die boorgat gemonitor word en kriteria word opgestel waartydens die pomp moet afskakel. Dus stop die pomp outomaties wanneer die kritieke minimumdruk bereik word en die boer word van die aksie in kennis gestel via sms. Die pomp sal slegs weer aangeskakel kan word deur die boer indien die boonste stelpunt van die kriteria bereik word, waartydens die boer weer via sms van die aksie in kennis gestel sal word. Daar kan ook werklike waardes van die druk gesien word op die internet en geskiedkundige waardes kan gebruik word vanaf die internet om die patroon te bepaal van watervlakke in ’n spesifieke boorgat, gemeet aan die druk wat die pomp lewer. Bogenoemde funksie kan dan ook gekombineer word met die skakel van die pomp deur middel van ’n selfoon en ook om te monitor of die krag aan of af is by die pomp.

Vir meer inligting skakel u Agriplas-handelaar of die Gulf Outomatisasie-span by 012 653 2561.

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2015/07/09 3:02 PM agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page


agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

New generation pump is a winner KSB Pumps and Valves’ latest generation of its standardised Etanorm water pump series continues to top the sales charts in South Africa, as well as the rest of the world.

I

n Africa it has become a trusted name in the agricultural, municipal and other industries where its versatility, efficiency and reliability have made it the most popular pump type in use today. Produced non-stop since 1936, the Etanorm has sold more than 1,5-million units, which have proven themselves over more than eight decades. The latest version comprises 43 pump sizes which can be driven by either 2-pole or 4-pole motors. The selection chart has also been extended with additional pump sizes so that sizes can be selected that are the closest to the best efficiency point.

Efficient design In intensive work done on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for flow simulation, KSB’s development engineers have also optimised the hydraulic contours, making them more efficient in order to easily meet tough global efficiency requirements; including the benchmark European Union’s requirements (ErP) of Commission Regulation 547/2012/ EC for water pumps. According to Dave Jones, regional sales manager for KSB Pumps and Valves, the

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has also been enlarged to enhance venting to make allowance for this. The new spacious design also facilitates dis­mantling and reassembly of the mechanical seals.

KSB Pumps and Valves’ new Etanorm pump follows more than 80 years of proven reliability.

engineers focussed in particular on obtaining an excellent suction and a low NPSH value, thus minimising the risk of cavitation and obtaining a smooth and stable pump operation even in difficult operating conditions. This means the pumps run reliably and contribute to a greater availability of the overall system. Jones adds that the material range comprises cast iron, bronze and nodu­lar cast iron, as well as stainless steel. The diversity of materials and a large choice of seal variants have extended the suitability of the new type series to applications beyond those of water. The space allocated to the mechanical seal

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Locally manufactured In line with KSB’s common practice for industrial pumps, every pump will be supplied to the customer with the impeller diameter trimmed exactly to the duty point. Impeller trimming combined with the large range of pump sizes available for selection is the only way of keeping the energy consumption of the pump to the necessary minimum. Operators benefit from the type series being manufactured at four different sites – in Germany, India, China and South Africa – which all comply with the same quality standards. This makes global procurement much easier; pumps and spare parts are readily available. KSB Pumps and Valves, Annett Kriel, Tel: (011) 876 5600, Fax: (011) 822 1746, Email: Annett.Kriel@ksb.com, Web: www.ksbpumps.co.za


agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing/Irrigation

In this series of articles, Agri is in discussion with Dr Gerhard Backeberg, executive manager: water utilisation in agriculture of the WRC, in order to obtain information on water use and what the WRC is doing for investment of funds in water research.

Many irrigation farmers in South Africa pay an annual research levy to the Water Research Fund (WRF) in respect of water, which is used for irrigation on scheduled land. This fund is dedicated to financing the activities of the Water Research Commission (WRC) to support and undertake research on the use of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes. The levy on irrigation water is, however, not the only source of income for the fund: Levies on water use for urban, industrial and domestic purposes makes by far the biggest contribution.

Agri: Extension and advisory services are essential change agents to encourage adoption of research-based innovations in agriculture. What is being done to capacitate extension officers who are active on irrigation schemes? Backeberg: For many farmers but especially smallholder farmers, extension advisors play a pivotal role in building capacity through programmed learning and access to information. Appropriate training of extension advisors is urgently required so that they can respond effectively to the needs of smallholder farmers and to enable them to successfully integrate into the food value chain. The better the extension service, the better the smallholder operation. For this purpose, the WRC initiated two research and development projects and published the findings in 2007 and 2012 respectively. In the first report, a conceptual framework was developed for training of extension advisors in irrigation water management (WRC Report No. KV178/07). The second report documents the training material in three volumes, namely the main report; technical learner guide; and extension learner guide (WRC Report Nos.TT 539/12, TT 540/12 and TT 541/12). The final project and report on knowledge dissemination, published in June 2016, states the rationale for brokering and dissemination of the learning material. This is followed by an overview of agricultural education and training pathways in South Africa. A brief description is given of the current training programmes

offered at agricultural colleges and universities of technology, followed by a synthesis of bilateral discussions and workshop outcomes. Finally, concluding thoughts and the way forward for the uptake and implementation of the learning material are provided. The process followed with this project was a focussed drive to equip extension advisors with the necessary knowledge and skills required by the new generation of extensionists. This involved disseminating the research output (set of learning materials) to agricultural colleges; universities of technology; Agri SETA accredited training providers; FET colleges; commodity organisations involved in development of irrigation agriculture; and provincial departments of agriculture involved in extension delivery to farmers; as well as international irrigation advisors and professionals. This report reflects activities and discussions held with various stakeholders involved in agricultural education and training to raise awareness of the training material, but also to encourage and catalyse the possible inclusion into existing curricula and use for practical training of extension officers at irrigation scheme level. This was achieved through a series of discussion forums and interactive meetings held with staff of amongst others agricultural colleges, commodity organisations (e.g. SASRI, TSB, SAB), the newly established comprehensive University of Mpumalanga (formerly known as Lowveld Agricultural College), department of cooperative governance and traditional

affairs responsible for the Community Works Program, and extension advisors from various provincial departments of agriculture. Key findings as expressed by participants are that the current curricula offered at many colleges and universities of technology are out-dated and should be reviewed. The general opinion stated during the majority of discussion forums and meetings held was that the WRC should play a more important intervening or brokering role in addressing the shortcomings and misalignment of informal and formal education by agricultural colleges and universities. This is currently being addressed by initiating a process to develop partnerships and fund training of trainers, for in turn providing prac­ tical training of extension officers on irri­gation schemes. These partnerships will require collaboration with specific agricultural colleges and provincial departments of agriculture who accept the importance of continued professional development of extension officers. The report on “Knowledge brokering and dissemination of irrigation management guidelines for training of extension advisors” (WRC Report No. KV 356/16) by Dr J B Stevens and Dr P S van Heerden, is obtainable from the WRC at the contact addresses below.

Visit the Water Research Commission’s webpage www.wrc.org.za for more information and/or ordering of research reports Tel: 012 330 0340 Fax: 012 331 2565 Email: wrc@wrc.org.za Private Bag X03, Gezina, Pretoria 0031 agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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Dr Gerhard Backeberg

Extension for irrigation water management


agri Promosie/Promotional

Land- en lugdekking vir hommeltuie beskikbaar Met onbemande lugvoertuie (OLV’e) of hommeltuie wat wêreldwyd al hoe meer in verskeie sektore van die ekonomie gebruik word, het onlangse versekeringseise in Suid-Afrika getoon dat, om ’n hommeltuig “te verloor”, beslis nie so verregaande is as wat ’n mens sou dink nie. bykomende gespesialiseerde versekering word gevolglik vereis. Die Regulasies vir Afstandbeheerde Lugvaartuigstelsels het met ingang van Julie 2015 van krag geword. Die Lugvaart­ owerheid onderskei tussen twee soorte hommeltuiggebruike: dié vir private gebruik en dié vir kommersiële gebruik. Volgens Godden is dit belangrik om daarvan kennis te neem dat, wanneer na private gebruik verwys word, die hommeltuig net gebruik mag word vir die individu se persoonlike en private doeleindes, met geen kommersiële belang of gewin nie. Private hommeltuigoperateurs moet voldoen aan al die wetlike vereistes met betrekking tot aanspreeklikheid, privaatheid en enige ander wette wat deur enige betrokke owerheid toegepas mag word – en moet verantwoordelik met die gebruik van sodanige toerusting optree. “Kommersiële gebruik word omskryf as enige ander gebruik en moet ’n geregistreerde besigheid wees wat kragtens Deel 101 van die Lugvaartregulasies

(SACCA, 2016) bedryf word.” In reaksie op die toenemende gewildheid van hierdie afstandbeheerde lugvaartstelsels het Santam Lugvaart ’n versekeringsproduk ontwikkel wat volledige dekking bied vir hommeltuigeienaars en -gebruikers wat dit vir private of kommersiële doeleindes benut. Santam is een van die min versekeraars wat bereid is om hierdie nisproduk te verseker. “Dit is egter belangrik om daarop te let dat, veral by hommeltuigoperateurs wat dit vir ontspanning gebruik, versekering onder algemene persoonlikelyne-produkte baie beperkte vlugdekking bied en dekking sal verleen vir verlies van die hommeltuig en eise vir gemeenregtelike aanspreeklikheid. Dekking vir sambreelaanspreeklikheid en persoonlike regsaanspreeklikheid is uitgesluit,” sê Godden. Die Santam Lugvaart-polis verskaf volledige en omvattende dekking vir die hommeltuig, ongeag of dit gebruik word of nie. Dit sluit in omvattende derdepartydekking teen die perk wat die kliënt verkies. >>> bladsy 49

Versekering wat koning kraai op die plaaswerf. As die leier in korttermynversekering vir byna 100 jaar verstaan Santam die boerderybedryf. Daarom verseker ons alles van jou vee en oeste tot jou persoonlike en boerderybates onder een sambreel. Santam. Regte, egte versekering.

Vir meer inligting, bel jou makelaar of besoek www.santam.co.za/products/agriculture. Santam is ’n gemagtigde finansiële-diensverskaffer (lisensienommer 3416).

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KINGJAMES 39297A/R

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ames Godden, hoof van Santam Lugvaart, sê hommeltuie kos enigiets van ’n paar duisend rand tot baie meer vir die meer gesofistikeerde en duurder kommersiële hommeltuie. Operateurs en geesdriftige hommeltuig­ vlieëniers moet seker maak dat hulle behoorlike versekeringsdekking het in geval van ’n verlies. In Suid-Afrika word hommeltuie onder meer in die landbousektor gebruik vir die bestuur van wild, om die krimpende diere­ bevolking van uitwissing te probeer red en om kragdrade in stand te hou. Om gepaste korttermynversekerings­ dekking te bekom, moet private en kommer­siële hommeltuigoperateurs die wette nakom wat die gebruik van hierdie onbemande lugvaartuie beheer. Godden sê hommeltuigoperateurs wat dit vir ontspanning gebruik, moet spesifiek kennis neem dat die versekering onder die meeste algemene persoonlike versekeringsprodukte nie dekking verleen vir lugvaartuie terwyl dit in gebruik is nie (terwyl dit vlieg) en


agri Promosie/Promotional

<<< bladsy 48 “Ons verseker tans ’n paar hommeltuie ingevolge die Santam Landbou-polis onder die afdelings Sake Alle Risiko’s en Huiseienaars,” sê Godden. Kommersiële of besigheidspolishouers moet egter daarop let dat die maatskappy nie die versekerde skadeloos sal stel vir enige aanspreeklikheid met betrekking tot

hommeltuig besit, gemoedsrus bied dat hulle die regte dekking het, sê Godden. “Dit is egter steeds die eienaar en operateur se plig om verantwoordelik op te tree met die gebruik van dié toerusting. Ons is hier om aan ons kliënte raad en leiding te gee om enige risiko’s te beperk wat kan lei tot skade, verlies of aanspreeklikheid wat kan voortspruit uit die gebruik van hierdie onbemande vaartuie.”

eienaarskap, huurkoop of verhuring van enige lugvaartuig nie, aangesien dit nie deur die Lugvaartwet gereguleer word nie. “Dit is dus belangrik dat hommeltuie wat vir kommersiële doeleindes aangewend word, gedek word onder ’n afsonderlike lugvaartpolis wat groter sekerheid bied teen aanspreeklikheidseise as gevolg van hommeltuigbedrywighede.” Santam wil aan sy kliënte wat ’n

Uitstekende resultate met CAP 122-60 Capstone Seeds produseer reeds vir jare hoëgehalte-, mieliebasters wat hulle staal regoor Suid-Afrika toon. Of jy kuilvoer of graan produseer, Capstone Seeds verskaf die mededingende voordeel wat jy nodig het.

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n KwaZulu-Natal se middellande oortref CAP 9021 steeds die verwag­tinge as dit by kuilvoerproduksie kom. Onlangse resultate het getoon dat CAP 122-60 mededingers die loef afsteek as dit by graanproduksie kom. In die hoë mielie­ produksie-areas lewer CAP 122-60-oeste meer as 9 mt/ha op droëland en tot soveel as 14 mt/ha onder besproeiing. In Prieska, byvoorbeeld, het CAP 122-60, 14.9 mt/ha behaal. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die boer die opervlakte wat vir CAP 122-60 gereser­­­­veer het met 1 000 km2 vergroot het. In proewe by Sonop het CAP 122-60 8.97 mt/ha onder droëland behaal, terwyl die gemiddelde opbrengs vir die area slegs 7.8 mt/ha was. Al dié resultate word behaal terwyl CAP 122-60 nog nie eens onder optimumkondisies verbou word nie.

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MIELIES KONTANTGEWASSE WEIDINGSGEWASSE GROENBEMESTINGSGEWASSE GRASPERK- EN GERIEFSGRASSE ENTSTOWWE

www.capstoneseeds.com

Thys Fourie - 082 326 6797 Nasionale Verkoopsbestuurder

Mark Wattam - 082 603 8471

KONTAK

2

Area Verkoopsbestuurder - Kaap

Stiaan van Rensburg - 082 602 4414 Area Verkoopsbestuurder - Hoëveld

Neville Young - 082 654 2162 Verkoopverteenwoordiger - KZN

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Veelsydige staatmaker lewer ook goeie kuilvoer Die geelmieliebaster PAN 6B-410B is ’n veelsydige staatmaker in die mediumgroeiklas wat goed onder droëland en besproeiing presteer. In die verre noorde van Limpopo word dit ingespan as ’n kuilvoermielie. Dit het ook die voordeel van die tweede generasie stronkboorderweerstand vir doeltreffende bekamping van stronkboorders.

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ie Limpopo-melkery en sy suiwelverwerkingsaanleg buite Louis Trichardt op die plaas Ledig van die Fouriefamilie huisves sowat 1 600 Holsteinkoeie, waarvan omtrent die helfte in melk is. Die melkbeeskudde, wat dag in en dag uit volstoom melk lewer, vereis eersteklas voervloeibeplanning. Daar moet altyd genoeg kuilvoer van ’n hoë gehalte wees en daarvoor is veelvuldige snysels per jaar nodig. Willie du Preez is aan die stuur van die primêre boerdery op Ledig. “Ek kyk onder meer na die gewasverbouing. Dit is belangrik om ’n staatmakermieliebaster, soos PAN 6B-410B, te gebruik. Ons het besproeiingslande en hierdie meerkoppige baster in die mediumgroeiklas gee vir ons ’n goeie opbrengs van ’n goeie gehalte kuilvoer met ’n uitstekende verhouding van kop tot plant. Die styselen proteïeninhoud is net wat ons wil hê vir kuilvoer.” Die besproeiingswater is beperk en PAN 6B-410B kan droogtestremming en hitte goed trotseer.

Twee snysels Danksy die besproeiing en die lekker warm lente is die eerste aanplanting vir die somer reeds in Augustus.

Willie du Preez by die mooi stand PAN 6B-410B wat hy vir kuilvoerproduksie aanplant en waarvan hy gemiddeld 57 ton kuilvoer van uitstekende gehalte sny.

“Ons sny kuilvoer in Desember of Januarie, wanneer die mielies reg is vir inkuiling.” Willie sny kuilvoer teen ’n voginhoud van 65% wanneer die mielies die hardedeeg­stadium bereik (ongeveer 50% melklyn). Die gemiddelde oes (nat materiaal) is 57 ton per hektaar. “Daarna plant ons in Januarie weer sodat ons in Mei en Junie die tweede snysel kan afhaal. As daar tyd is, plant ek ’n voersorghum wat vinnig kan groei.” Die plantestand op die plaas Ledig is redelik hoog vir PAN 6B-410B, wat gewoonlik teen ’n plantestand van 55 000 plante per hektaar PAN 6B-410B onder besproeiing aanbeveel word. Die baster beskik oor die MON 89034-stronkboorderweerstands­gene. Dit het dieselfde “Ons het bepaal dat ’n plantestand van genetiese agtergrond as PAN 6Q-408CB. Hierdie baster lewer baie goeie resultate, met 62 000 plante per hektaar met ’n rywydte goeie stabiliteit in die oostelike en westelike produksiestreke. Dit word as deel van die van 91 cm in hierdie geweste vir ons hoofaanplanting onder droëland aanbeveel. die optimale produksie bied,” sê Willie. Dit is belangrik om die mediumbaster teen die aanbevole plantestand vir die betrokke Trouens, hy is besonder opgewonde oor hoe produksiestreek aan te plant. Wees versigtig met hoë plantpopulasies, wat die reeks se PAN 6B-410B as kuilvoermielie presteer. prestasie kan benadeel. Die baster is ’n goeie keuse vir graan- en kuilvoerproduksie of “Ons sien in ons melkproduksie dat die weimielies. Dit pas ook goed in waar slegs ’n enkele oes van mielies onder besproeiing kuilvoer van ’n hoë gehalte is en dit word en aanvullende besproeiing verbou word. onderskryf met ons topprestasie in die Dit het goeie weerstand teen roes en noordelike blaarskroei (NCLB) en beskik oor kuilvoerkompetisie die afgelope paar jaar. goeie staanvermoë en droogteverdraagsaamheid. Dit toon nie sensitiwiteit teenoor Hierdie is ’n mielie wat jou nie in die steek sulfonielureum teen die aanbevole dosis nie. laat nie.” agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Contact: Hannes Mouton Office no: +27 (0) 11 617 4400 Cell no: +27 (0) 81 347 7489 E-mail: hannes.mouton@tokheim.co.za

Tokheim Diesel DiaLOG Fuel management system

• • • • • • • • •

No more manual logbook entries Pump approval via RFID Tags Vehicle and driver control Fuel consumption tracking Automatic Tank Gauge connection Kilometers + hours counting Automatic reporting to office E-mail alerts Export of reports and data

• • •

Contact : Fanus Roux Office no: 011-617 4400 Cell no : 083 450 6036

Mail : fanus.roux@ tokheimsa.co.za

The key functionalities

• • • •

Pump alert messages Tag Period or limit settings Quota system available Import external transaction

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agri Nuus/News

Global Print (15/06A/N) - info@globalprint.co.za

Tough enough for farm life Efficient enough for farm business

Agriculture is an unforgiving business, which is why you need the toughest, most reliable and most efficient cleaning equipment to help you keep your productivity on track. Nilfisk’s comprehensive range of hot and cold pressure washers, wet and dry vacs and floor scrubbing machines offers you everything you need to achieve the standards of hygiene and cleanliness your business needs with a level of efficiency, reliability and ease of use that will help you boost your productivity. See how we can help your business at www.nilfisk.co.za agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Keeping it clean and green – trends in agri-cleaning From farm to factory, cleaning matters more than ever in agriculture. Improper sanitation can destroy not just a crop or herd, it can cost certification, contracts, reputation and a brand.

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egular cleaning is essential for the protection of animals and crops, and hygiene requirements across the industry are becoming increasingly strict and can take valuable time away from a farmer’s primary business. There are bottom line pressures as well. Outdated technologies and methodologies are costing South African farmers significant amounts of money. Gavin Herold, general manager of Africa & the Middle East for Nilfisk, one of the world’s leading manufacturers of cleaning equipment, says the new generation of Nilfisk cleaning equipment offers significant assistance to local farmers in five key areas. Fit-for-purpose. Tailored stationary systems are available for farm buildings and storage facilities, as well as mobile units for machinery, outdoor spaces and courtyards with stand-on, walk-behind and rider models. Small, battery-operated microscrubbers can be used in tight areas that could only be cleaned by hand in the past. They can also be easily transferred between facilities.

Specialised equipment. There are new systems designed for demanding tasks like grain store vacuuming (with bog bore hoses) or dealing with fungicides on citrus pack house floors. Greenhouses and stables also create particular cleaning challenges, which can be met quickly and economically with powerful new systems. Eco-friendliness. The latest technology either radically reduces the use of detergents or replaces them completely with water or with bio-products. New orbital scrubber driers use a detergent dispensing system that allows the operator to use the minimal amount of detergent needed for cleaning an area, while providing a burst of power in heavily soiled areas. Productivity. By doing the job quicker, better and more reliably, investment in

the new Nilfisk technologies produces a quick ROI in terms of reduced labour costs, resources and maintenance. Specific machines for different spaces, one-pass efficiency and faster drying times are just some of the ways productivity can be improved substantially. Better working conditions. Enhanced ergonomics mean less operator fatigue and savings on labour costs and the increased safety minimises chemical fumes and slippery floors. Lower bills. It is possible to achieve significant reductions in consumption of water, electricity and disposables. Recent water shortages around the country, especially in the Western Cape, have highlighted the value of new orbital scrubbers which, paired with a squeegee design, leave floors dry in a single pass and reduce water consumption markedly. The Nilfisk equipment also eliminates the need to use multiple chemicals, which ultimately reduces supply chain costs. Herold says the Nilfisk technology is the farmer’s friend in terms of 21st century cleaning; “We have set out to make machines that meet the huge challenges of agricultural cleaning and align with the practicalities of farm workspaces. They offer reliability, efficiency and sustainability and, as result, can deliver enormous value to the business.”

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agri Wyn/Wine

Soete verleiding vir die winter

Baardskeerdersbos Pub se Cassie Barnard skink plesierige soetes met groot plesier.

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ie dat dit regtig nodig was nie, want rondry in die Boland bring altyd eie ontdekkings, maar dis goed om te sien wie aangewys is as die wenners van die minder bekende Muskadel SA Toekennings en Cappa-kompetisie vir Port- en Portugese styl tafelwyne (van die Cape Port Producers’ Association). Wel, die uitblinkers was nie verrassings nie. Oranjerivier Wynkelder van die NoordKaap was vir die derde jaar agtereen­volgens die toppresteerder onder die muskadel­ meesters en Boplaas Wyne van Calitzdorp was soos dikwels tevore bobaas met die Porra-style. Hierdie is meer eksklusiewe kompetisies uit die sowat 40 waarin wyne deesdae op plaaslike bodem letterlik by die duisende meeding. Mens moet egter van hulle kennis neem. Seker die beste ooit, KWV 1930 Muskadel, is vandag nog fris en gesond en word deur KWV verkoop vir R10 000 per bottel – teenoor R65 vir hul ‘gewone’ Rooi Muskadel. By die 15de Enartis Muskadel SAtoekennings het Oranjerivier twee platinumtoekennings losgeslaan met sy Orange River Cellars White Muscadel en ORC Red Muscadel, beide 2016-oesjaar. Ja, dié mense gooi deesdae rooitaal op hul etikette. Hulle het dus al vyf platinum- en twee goue Muskadel SA-toekennings sedert 2013 in die sakkie. Die ander twee platinumwenners was Du Toitskloof Red Muscadel 2014 en Alvi’s Drift Premium 2014. By platinum word ook ontwerp en

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

estetika in ag geneem – om die negatiewe beeld van muskadel teen te werk wat soms in bottels kom wat lyk asof dit vir lampolie is. Wat goud betref, was van die ontvangers Nuy Wynkelder, letterlik oor dekades al bekend vir sy juweel-muskadelwyne; asook Rooiberg Rooi Muskadel 2014, wat half toegeplak is van seëls van kompetisie­ suksesse; en ’n soetes-veteraan van Douglas se geweste, Ian Sieg, se Landzicht Rooi Muskadel. Boplaas presteer omtrent altyd by enige kompetisie en hul Boplaas Heritage Collection 2014 het ook goud gekry. Boplaas se Cape Tawny NV het in die Cappa-kompetisie nie net goud vir beste in sy klas gewen nie, maar ook die algehele wentrofee en vyf uit ’n totaal van sewe goue medaljes. Aan die minder formele beoordelingskant was van my eie wen-ontdekkings die McGregor Rooi Muskadel 2014, wat ek met ’n besoek aan Eseltjiesrus-beskermplaas vir donkies se bielie-boekefees by die kelder gaan koop het. Ons sou oorslaap en ’n koue aand was in die vooruitsig. ’n Koper-rooi wyn met weelderige karakter en wenke van heuning, gedroogde appelkoos en spesery lê lank en strelend op die smaak. Hy spog met seëls van Michelangelo Goud en Getaway Best Value. Prys: R50 by die kelder – sprekend van die waarde wat jy nog in hierdie afgeskeepte kategorie kry. Dan moet ek ook noem van “soetes” wat ons in die Strandveld Pub in Baardskeerdersbos raakgedrink het. Dit was ’n koue Saterdag, tydens die B’bos-plaasmark – ’n regte ouwêreldse mark met alles van kerrie-afval tot handgemaakte lappoppe. Dit gebeur maandeliks in Oranjerivier Kelder se volsoetwenners.

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die ou plaasskooltjie se saal en jou knertsie vat jy langsaan in die klaskamer waar ’n kennisgewing teen die muur die “Soetwyndieet”-les gee: “Jy verloor baie, jou sinne, jou worries, jou klere en jou naam ...” Ek weet van beter as om dit ernstig op te neem en het heerlik geteug aan die ryk, gelerige Overberg Wit Hanepoot, met ys. Teen R20 per glas! Hierdie wyn kom van Mooiuitsig-kelder by Bonnievale, wat nogal die meeste van die land se nagmaalwyn maak. Ja, die pryse van versterkte wyne is dikwels ’n groot weerspreking van die gehalte. So ook die gebruike. Dit is heerlik verfrissend met ys, ook in die somer, en dan weer wonderlik by die winterkaggel. Onthou, jy drink hom in ’n kleiner kelkie; dan kom jou alkohol-inname maar omtrent op dieselfde te staan as met tafelwyn in groter glase. Onthou net om nie van “soetes” in uitgelese geselskap te praat nie. Die muskadelmenere gaan met jou raas. Muskadel kom mos van rooi of wit Muskadel-druiwe (oftewel Muscat d’Frontignan en Muscat d’Frontignac); hanepoot weer van die hanepoot-kultivar of Muscat d’ Alexandrie, en gewone dessertwyn of jerepiko van enige kultivar in ’n versnit. Suid-Afrikaanse portwyn, aan die ander kant, mag volgens internasionale wetgewing nie meer Port genoem word nie en word aangedui volgens die agt style met die “Cape”-voorvoegsel: Cape White, Pink, Ruby, Tawny, Vintage Tawny, Late Bottled Vintage, Vintage en Vintage Reserve. Port word ook versterk met die toevoeging van wynspiritus, maar neig na droër style as die genoemde dessertwynstyle, almal met alkoholvlakke van so 16% plus. Maar dié gaan ek nie nou verder probeer uitlê nie. Verwarrende terme is ongelukkig nog ’n probleem – een wat in onbelangrikheid vervaag met elke teugie.

CASSIE DU PLESSIS

Teks en foto: Cassie du Plessis

Net toe ek met die aankoms van die Kaapse winter se snerpende reën en koue goed op pad was met ’n ondersoek na lekker soetwyn om die binneste te verwarm – en om die einde van die droogte te vier – toe kom die kompetisie-resultate sterk deur om leiding te gee.


agri Fauna

Hoe lank nog sal die bosreuse bestaan? DR GERHARD H VERDOORN, GRIFFON GIFINLIGTINGSENTRUM

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n die voortye het skepe die lyke van geelhout- en stinkhoutbome na die Britse Eilande vervoer en onder die hout was die geelwit ivoor van die bosreuse verberg om die ego’s van ridders en adellikes in die noorde te vertroetel. Voor die Groot Oorlog die wêreld tot stilstand geroep het, was die groot gryses van die Knysnabosse skaars ’n gedagte in die verroeste geheue van die ou mense. Ná die Groot Oorlog het Afrika die wêreld gelok met beloftes van minerale, hout, edelgesteentes en ander skatte wat die hebsug van die mensdom verder aangewakker het. Teen die laaste sug van die twintigste eeu het die sluimerende nasies van die Ooste ook oor Afrika se bates begin kwyl. Die bosreuse se ivoor het skielik in die Verre Ooste die hebsug van die mense begin aanwakker. Netwerke van stropers wat die reuse met gewere, strikke en gif takel het soos swere in Afrika die olifante begin teiken. Voor die draai van die eeu was daar miljoene olifante en nou waar die winter van 2017 die veld laat vaal word, is daar minder

is nie. Dikwels as 60 000 van die bosreuse oor. is daar ernstige Lande in Afrika soos Kenia waar daar nie aantygings gejag word nie, paai hulself dat die diere dat senior veilig is maar wat niemand openbaar maak staatsamptenare nie, is dat onwettige jag die aarde soos ’n en politici deel grafkelder laat lyk. Die strikke en giflokaas van die sindikate is maar net ’n onwettige en onetiese vorm is wat die wêreld van jag maar dit word onder die komberse se natuurlewe weggesteek sodat min mense daarvan weet. met alle mag en Waar jagters nog welkom is, is stropers mening ter wille uiters versigtig om met hulle moordlustige van geld uitwis. strooptogte voort te gaan en is daar darem Dit kan egter nie losgemaak word van nog kans dat die wilde diere se bevolking die uiteindelike mark wat daarvoor bestaan hulself gestand kan doen. Tog is dit nie eers nie. Dit is betreurenswaardig dat die mens ’n waarborg dat die diere veilig sal wees nie so kortsigtig is dat ons meer vat as wat want in Zimbabwe is daar in een jaar meer die aarde kan produseer. As ’n jagter een as 300 olifante met sianied vergiftig. olifant jag, is dit nog aanvaarbaar, maar ’n Vae kommer krap elke dag aan die die stroper en sy netwerk gemoed van die roei ’n hele trop uit. Is dit bewaringsgemeen­ “As die mensdom nie dan nodig dat alles op die skap want die ernstig begin briek aarde in terme van geld korrupsie in Afrika is aandraai met sy hebsug gemeet moet word? Wat is so erg dat g’n mens nie, sal die olifant, die die waarde van ’n olifant? weet wie almal by Is dit honderdduisend rand stropery betrokke renoster, die leeu, die of is dit honderdduisend Bengaalse tier en menige dollar? Vir sommige van ander ikoniese spesies net ons is dit onmeetbaar iets wees wat sommige want die waarde van so ’n dier is iets wat in mens se mense sal onthou.” inbors verborge lê; dis nie iets wat met ’n sakrekenaar uitgewerk kan word nie. As die mensdom nie ernstig begin briek aandraai met sy hebsug nie, sal die olifant, die renoster, die leeu, die Bengaalse tier en menige ander ikoniese spesies net iets wees wat sommige mense sal onthou. Ons het alreeds daarin geslaag om die bloubok, die kwagga, die dodo en ’n paar visspesies te laat sneuwel. Daar is nog tyd om die olifant van uitwissing te red maar daardie bietjie tyd is uiters min …

Dr Gerhard H Verdoorn, Griffon Gifinligtingsentrum, nesher@tiscali.co.za 082-446-8946 agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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DR GERHARD H VERDOORN

Oor die vlaktes van Afrika stap hulle in gelid op pad na ’n bestemming wat sonder skrif met bloed en traandruppel in die argiewe van die aarde aangeteken sal word. Die ongenaakbare hebsug van die mens, sy onvermoë om die aarde met ander wesens te deel en sy grootheidswaan vul die aarde se argiewe tot barstens toe met die boodskap van verwoesting en uitwissing.


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agri Uit ‘n ander hoek

Soveel geluk by die ongeluk FRIKKIE KRAAMWINKEL©

Dit gebeur toe by die dertiende putjie. Die Amerikaanse fiets knipmes en met die valslag sny die trap my kuit behoorlik tot op die been oop.

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k kon mooi sien wat gaan alles binne aan. Nog een van daardie meer ongewone ongelukke wat ek al oorgekom het. Soos die keer toe ek my hand op die grond vasgepen het deur die tuinvurk se tand deur my wysvinger te kap. Of die keer toe ek my hakskeensening met ’n grassnyer afgesny het. Of die keer toe ek met liggaamsoefeninge by die skool my groottoon losgeskeur het van my voet. Ek wil nog die boer sien wat jou nie ’n letsel kan wys van die een of ander gebeurtenis wat sterk herinner aan al die ongeluksgevare wat iewers in die gang van daaglikse boerdery skuil nie. Vandaar dat Afrikaans selfs praat van ’n ongeluksvoël wat jou tref. Dis ervaringe waaruit mens baie leer. Gelukkig het die fiets niks oorgekom nie en was ’n bloedspoor van drie kilometer tot by die sewende bof en die huis die enigste wat kon vertel van my jaagtog om nader aan die hospitaal te kom. Ek bel die heksekuriteit van ons landgoed om te hoor of hulle my dalk op ’n bakkie kan laai en by ’n dokter kry. Al waarmee hulle volgens protokol kan help is om ’n ambulans te ontbied. Verbeel jou – ’n ambulans vir ’n gapende wond aan die been. Ambulanse is bedoel vir veel ernstiger omstandighede, het ek geredeneer. Gelukkig onthou ek van ’n paramedikus wat naweke aan diens is by ons sekuriteits­kompleks. Die paramedikus het die yslike vars wond waaruit die bloed steeds gespuit het

net een ervare kyk gegee en daar en dan moes ek stil op die bed lê – want dit was ernstig. Wat hom laat dink het dat ek ná die fietsjaagtog onstabliel was, weet ek nie, maar ek moes daar en dan gestabiliseer word. ’n Drup aan die arm was eerste en toe suurstof en ’n stewige verband om die wond om die bietjie bloed wat ek nog gehad het te probeer binne hou. Hoe meer ek hom verseker dat ek op 84 nog rateltaai is, hoe meer vertel hy my dat, as die bloed deur die verband syfer, hy die lekkende aar sal moet soek en toebind. Ek roep my vrou om met haar tablet ’n foto te neem. Die ambulans het vanaf Pretoria tot by Hartebeestpoort gekom om my na die hospitaal in Randburg te neem. Ek kon maklik ambulans toe gestap het. Maar nee – die boek sê ek moet van die bed op die trollie gelaai en met seremonie in die ambulans gestoot word. Dit word ’n rit wat ek nie maklik sal vergeet nie. Die geluk wou dit so gehad het dat die ambulans eers die volgende dag nuwe skokbrekers sou kry. Anders was daar dalk nie ’n ambulans nie ... Van kop tot tone deurgestamp bereik ons die hospitaal. Maar nie voordat die ambulans-paramedikus my nie deur al die voorskrifte van die handboek en gekoppel aan allerhande dinge wat geluide en grafieke maak geneem het nie. Hy het dit self gesê, hy hou geweldig baie van sy werk en is toegewyd aan elke pasiënt wat hy versorg – terwyl sy vrou die ambulans

bestuur. ’n Man-en-vrou-spanpoging het hy dit genoem. Ek het onmiddellik aan die gesig van die dokter gesien dat my verwonding nie alledaags is nie. Maar bygestaan deur haar span verpleegsters het hulle my so vinnig as wat jy mes kon sê op die slagveld gehad. Die dokter het haar gereedskapstas gevra. Die goed daarin was heeltemal anders as wat jy in ’n trekker se gereedskapskas sou vind. Inspuitinggoeters was in die eerste linie. Toe naald en garing. Sy het so ’n netjiese joppie daarvan gemaak dat ek nie anders kon as om te dink dat sy baie hoëre punte vir naaldwerk op skool moes gekry het nie. Ná ’n uur was ek weer behoorlik aanmekaar gewerk en met stewige verbande om die been padwaardig te verklaar. ’n Klem in die kaak-inspuiting was die kersie op die koek. Die episode het my ’n baie waarderen­ de kykie in ons anders minder bekende daaglikse lewe van paramedici, dokters en verpleegsters gegee. Mens sou kon dink in hoe ’n wonderlike land ons nie sou gewoon het as almal maar net met soveel toewyding en nougesetheid hulle dagtaak teenoor hul medemens aangepak het nie. Te meer het ek gewonder hoe dit sou gewees het as almal met dieselfde dankbaarheid teenoor ons boere vervul sou gewees het vir die veeleisende taak om te sorg dat ons iedere dag ons daag­likse brood op die tafel het. Amen.

agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

SPEEL KLAAR MET MUF EN MIKOTOKSIENE

Hoe muf en mikotoksiene die prestasie van voerkraalbeeste en melkkoeie beïnvloed Die meeste voer vir lewende hawe bevat muf- en swamspore. Gedurende hierdie somer het die gereelde reën ’n uitdaging geskep vir hooiprodusente wat beoog het om hooi te sny, te baal en te stoor.

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it is belangrik om die impak wat reën op hooi, graan en kuilvoer kan hê, te besef. Benewens die verlies aan voedingstowwe is ’n ander belangrike komponent van voerwaarde die groei van muf en teen­woordig­ heid van mikotoksiene. Muf het vog (relatiewe humiditeit van bo 70%), suurstof (ten minste 1 tot 2% O2), tyd en die regte temperatuur (veranderlik na gelang van die spesie; hoë temperature bevorder Aspergillus, lae temperature bevorder Fusarium) nodig om te groei. Nat, styfgebaalde hooi verskaf ’n vogtige, donker omgewing vir muf om te groei. Gewoonlik beïnvloed muf die smaak en daaropvolgende inname van hooi deur lewende hawe. Muf kan op graan in die land groei, terwyl dit gestoor word of in die kuilvoerbunker. Weerstoestande kan mufgroei op gewasse op die land raak. Graan word gewoonlik droog gehou om te voorkom dat muf groei terwyl dit gestoor word. Muf wat gewasse op die land besmet, kan verskil van dié wat groei terwyl die gewas gestoor word of in die kuilvoerbunker is. Mikotoksiene is die sekondêre produkte wat sommige muf/swam-spesies produseer en kan giftig wees vir diere indien dit teen vlakke wat hoog genoeg is, ingeneem word.

Muf en mikotoksiene sal die verterings­proses negatief raak Muf in voerkomponente kan beesproduk­sie negatief raak as gevolg van die invloed op voedings­waarde, mikose en miko­toksikoses. Mikose is ’n siektetoestand wat deur die muf en swamme self veroorsaak word, en miko­ toksikose is ‘n siektetoestand wat deur die miko­toksiene veroorsaak word. Die swam self kan dus produksieverliese veroorsaak wat apart van, en bykomend tot enige toksiese effek voorkom. Trouens, verskeie swamme word met negatiewe gesond­heidseffekte op plante, diere en mense verbind. In talle kliniese gevalle wat gerapporteer is, is dit moeilik om die uitwerking van mikose en dié van mikotoksikoses te skei. Produsente vermoed gewoonlik dat mikotoksiene die vernaamste sondaars is wanneer laer voerinname, diarree, aborsies, swak gewigstoename of vrektes waar­geneem word. Selfs waar dit in lae vlakke aanwesig is, kan die inname van veelvuldige mikotoksiene nadelig wees vir beeste se gesond­heid en prestasie. Produsente moet pro­aktief wees en mikotoksien-teenwoordigheid en -vlakke moniteer en ’n mikotoksien-bestuurs­ agri JUNIE/JUNE • JULIE/JULY ‘17 bladsy/page

program inkorporeer. Terwyl mikro-organismes (protosoë) in die grootpens wel tot ’n sekere mate van hierdie toksiene onskadelik kan maak, kan van hierdie metaboliete (afbraakprodukte) van sulke toksiene net so of selfs meer toksies wees. Wanneer hierdie mikotoksiene deur mikrobes in die grootpens verander word, word hulle omgeskakel na produkte wat soms meer toksies as die oorspronklike mikotoksien kan wees. Sekere protosoë kan egter net op bepaalde mikotoksiene inwerk. Vir sommige mikotoksiene is daar geen protosoë in die grootpens beskikbaar wat hulle kan afbreek nie, en beeste word aan die negatiewe uitwerking daarvan blootgestel. Daar moet altyd onthou word dat miko­ toksiene ’n negatiewe uitwerking op die groot­pens­omgewing en -aktiwiteit sal hê – selfs voordat die diere self aangetas word. Sommige van hierdie mikotoksiene en metaboliete het ook ’n antibiotiese uitwerking en kan die grootpens se mikro­biese omgewing versteur, en so die weg vir ander muf­toksiene, giste en bakteriële gevare baan. Dieet speel ook ’n rol. Wanneer voer­kraal­ beeste en melkbeeste hoër verhoudings graan gevoer word, word die grootpens se pH verlaag, en so ook die vermoë om miko­toksiene af te breek. Robuuste grootpens­fermentasie is belangrik om maksimum mikotoksien-afbreking in die groot­pens te bewerkstellig. Die gebruik van buffers en voldoende effektiewe vesel om grootpens­funksie te stimuleer, is noodsaaklik. Onder normale omstandighede is besmet­ ting deur veelvuldige toksiene waarskynlik. Voer­krale en melkprodusente benut ’n wye ver­skei­den­heid voerbestanddele, en ’n groot deel daarvan sal waarskynlik verskillende miko­toksiene tot die totale gemengde rantsoen (TGR) voeg. Die insluitingskoers van graan, gluten, koringsemels, “chop”, hooi sowel as mieliekuil­voer, sal die mikotoksienbydrae tot die TGR bepaal. Bestuurders en voedingkundiges sal dikwels probeer om die mikotoksienvlakke te beheer deur die insluitingvlakke van bestand­dele wat hoog besmet is met mikotoksiene te verminder. Dit kan ’n goeie metode wees, maar talle van die vervangingsbestanddele kan feitlik dieselfde hoeveelhede mikotoksiene bydra. Mieliekuilvoer is ’n algemene voerbron en kan ’n groot deel van beeste se rantsoen uitmaak. Met verloop van tyd verhoog die mikotoksieninhoud van gestoorde voere dikwels

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omdat muf aanhou groei. Kuilvoer kan met oestyd mikotoksiene en ook mufspore bevat. Hierdie mufspore kan mikotoksiene produseer in die kuilvoer, aangesien die omgewing die regte temperatuur, vog of suurstofvlak verskaf. Mikotoksiene kan dus tydens die stoorproses vermeerder – en dit gebeur wel. Om die groei van mikotoksiene in kuilvoer te voorkom, moet lug in die kuilvoerbunker so vinnig moonlik uitgesluit word. Dit beteken dat plante teen die regte vogvlakke ingekuil moet word en fyn gekerf moet word (8–12 mm) vir goeie kompaktering. Die gebruik van ’n kuilvoer- inokulant/entstof om fermentasie te versnel en die verseëling van die silo onmiddellik nadat dit volgemaak is, is ook uiters belangrik. Nadat die kuilvoer oopgemaak is, moet 200 tot 300 mm van die voorkant (gesigkant) van die kuilvoer daagliks verwyder word. Die gebruik van ’n snyer word ook aanbeveel om ’n skoon, lugdigte gesigkant te verseker. Enige bederfde kuilvoer of kuilvoer met muf moet weggegooi word. Veelvuldige toksiene vanaf verskeie voer­komponente kan ’n sinergistiese effek hê, wat die negatiewe impak op die dier se prestasie en gesondheid verhoog. Toksiene van muf en swamme, gekombineer met bakteriële toksiene, verhoog die negatiewe gesondheidskwessies beduidend.

Opsomming Hoewel beeste dalk nie simptome van mikotoksikose (mikotoksienvergiftiging) toon nie, word die beeste se prestasie egter eerstens benadeel. Hierdie verskuilde effek op prestasie is van groter ekonomiese belang as mikotosikose. Muf en mikotoksiene moet in gedagte gehou word wanneer enige soort suboptimale prestasie by herkouers aangespreek word. Benewens die direkte negatiewe effek van mikotoksiene, produseer talle mufspesies stowwe met antibiotiese aktiwiteit. Inname van gemufte voer en mikotoksiene verander die grootpens-mikroflora, wat noodsaaklik is vir doeltreffende vertering, Bestuurstrategieë wat blootstelling aan en die inname van mikotoksiene voorkom, is altyd die beste weg om te volg. Wanneer produsente vermoed dat daar mikotoksiene aanwesig is, moet voermonsters dadelik getoets word. Wees bewus van die uitwerking van veelvuldige mikotoksiene, en skerp die bestuur van voerstore, graansilo’s en kuilvoerbunkers op. Sluit ’n geskikte mikotoksien-deaktiveerder by die voer in en implementeer ’n mikotoksienrisikobestuursprogram.


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