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agri KERSUITGAWE • CHRISTMAS EDITION Vol 45 • No 6

DES/DEC ‘16 • JAN‘17

Highly Commended

FOKUS • FOCUS • Finansiële Instellings & Vervoer • Financial Institutions & Transport


AGRICO Spilpunte & Lineêre Besproeiers

Met uitstaande standaard eienskappe en verskeie opsies:

NUUT: Internetbeheer

Spilpunte word in-huis gegalvaniseer; minimum 100mikron (1.8 keer “Cablesaver” beperk kabel diefstal. die ISO 146 standaard). Dit beteken “Windsaver” masjiene is stabiel en Die kabel loop binne-in die pyp en 80% langer lewensverwagting. vir 4 jaar gewaarborg teen omwaai. word nie maklik bygekom nie.

“Autoflush” spoel die spilpunt wanneer die pomp aankom.

AGRICO naatlose diens: Opmeet, Die AGRICO 3-been senter met sy ontwerp, vervaardiging, aflewering, wye voetspoor is besonder stewig. oprigting en naverkopediens.


agri Inhoud/Contents

Redaksioneel Editorial

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56 77

17

15

17

Voor in die wapad brand soms ‘n lig

S

uid-Afrikaners het ‘n rowwe jaar agter die blad. Op die politieke front het sake plek-plek soos ‘n televisie-sepie verloop. Daar was kommer oor die ekonomie en ‘n moontlike afgradering, werkloosheid is kommerwekkend hoog, en die rug van die droogte is nog nie gebreek nie. Oor die Springbokke word liewer niks gesê nie. In vreemde lande het die vlugtelingprobleem groter geword namate die oorlog in die MiddeOoste uitsigloos voortduur. Brexit het die wêreld verras en wenkbroue is nou nog gelig oor Amerika se nuwe president. Wat gaan Trump vir wêreldvrede, internasionale handel en die wêreldekonomie inhou? Tóg is jy verras oor hoe positief baie Suid-Afrikaners steeds is, veral dié tyd van die jaar wanneer almal pê is. Lees maar wat ons Jongboer van die Jaar elders in hierdie uitgawe te sê het. En luister maar na die praatjies rondom die braaivleisvuur. Dit is waarskynlik in die mens se aard om altyd op beterskap te hoop. En dit is reg so. ‘n Mens moenie hoop verloor nie. Daar is gewoonlik ‘n lig in die tonnel wat nie met ‘n aankomende trein verwar moet word nie. Vrede en voorspoed vir 2017 vir jou en jou naastes. Derick van der Walt

78

Inhoud Contents 3 Redaksioneel 5 Boekresensies/Book Reviews 7 Stille waters 8 Standpunt/Viewpoint 14 Brokkies/Snippets

19 21 23 26 33 33 34 36 39 44 45

NUUS/NEWS Agri SA to consult widely with agricultural sector regarding the proposed national minimum wage Give the national minimum wage a fair chance Arbeidsknelpunte kry aandag SA commercial farmers play crucial role in Sub-Saharan Africa Kersboodskap: Johannes Möller Agri SA verwerp grondbesettings Land ceilings in spotlight of ministerial workshop What is redistribution and where does it fit in? Magtiging vir die onttrekking en opgradering van water hersien Unpredictable weather increasing financial risks for farmers and the industry Input costs in the agricultural sector likely to ease in 2017

56 57 57 63 72 71 75 75

Verskil begin by jouself, sê Jongboerwenner Busy year for Agri SA’s marketing division First meeting of new SAPPO committees Roekelose uitlatings ongewens Agri SA se rol in landelike beveiliging Farmer still grabs profitable opportunities Boerderygemeenskappe staal hulle teen misdadigheid Progress with reservist dispensation welcomed

FOKUS/FOCUS

44 50

Finansiële instellings/ Financial institutions Vervoer/Transport

GEREELD/REGULAR

76 78 80 81 82

Bewaring/Conservation Wyn/Wine Agri Fauna Water Uit ‘n ander hoek

Jou opinie maak saak... Vertel ons waarvan jy hou en wat jy sou verander in Agri. Your opinion is important... Let us know what you like and what you would like to change in Agri. Stuur jou kommentaar en besonderhede aan:/Send your comments and details to: derick@greenpepper.biz/or Privaatsak/Private Bag X180, Centurion 0046 agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Agri (waarby ingelyf Die Boer/The Farmer), word vyf keer per jaar versprei aan lede van Agri SA en ander intekenare. Agri (under which Die Boer/The Farmer is incorporated) is distributed five times a year to Agri SA members and subscribers. Redaksionele komitee/ Editorial committee Omri van Zyl, Johan Pienaar, Christo van der Rheede, Theo Boshoff, Nic Opperman, Kobus Visser, Elize van der Westhuizen, Annelize Crosby, Derick van der Walt & Livhuwani Ngwekhulu Personeel/Staff Uitvoerende redakteur/Executive editor: Derick van der Walt 082 770 5111 derick@greenpepper.biz Advertensiebestuurder/ Advertising manager Mabel Schmahl 082 563 4427 or (012) 997 3407/12 Mabel@agrisa.co.za Senior sales executive Riaan Schmahl 074 170 6403 riaan@mesconsultants.co.za Kantooradministrateur en intekenare/ Office administrator and subscribers Thea Liebenberg Medewerkers/Contributors Dr Gerhard Verdoorn, Cassie du Plessis, Dr Gerhard Backeberg & Lehman Lindeque Uitleg/Layout Fréda van Wyk Adres/Address Agri, Privaatsak/Private Bag X180, Centurion, 0046 Blok/Block A, Inkwazi Gebou/Building, Embankmentstraat/Street, Zwartkop, Uitbreiding/Extension 7 Tel: (012) 643 3400 Faks/Fax: (012) 663 3178 E-pos/Email: derick@greenpepper.biz Reproduksie en drukwerk/ Reproduction and printing Business Print Centre: (012) 843 7600 Agri SA aanvaar geen verantwoordelikheid vir aansprake wat in advertensies ge­maak word nie en die menings en aan­bevelings van individue of enige ander liggaam of organisasie wat in artikels in Agri verskyn nie. Kopiereg word voorbehou en inhoud mag slegs met die toestemming van die direkteur: Korporatiewe Skakeling gereproduseer word./ Agri SA accepts no responsibility for claims made in advertisements or for opinions and recommendations expressed by individuals or any other body or organisation in articles published in Agri. Copyright is reserved and the content may only be reproduced with the consent of the Director: Corporate Services.

Indien u op Agri wil inteken, skakel/ If you wish to subscribe to Agri contact Thea Liebenberg Tel: (012) 643 3400 Faks/Fax: (012) 663 3178 www.agrisa.co.za Artikels in Agri is ook op aanvraag in ‘n alternatiewe taal beskikbaar/Articles in Agri are also available in an alternative language on request. Sirkulasie/Circulation

agri Boeke/Books

Boekresensies Book Reviews ‘n Boek verniet Agri gee ‘n eksemplaar weg van elk van die boeke wat op bladsy 5 en 7 bespreek word. Stuur ‘n e-pos met jou naam, posadres en telefoonnommer na agricompetitions@gmail.com. Sê ook watter boek jy wil hê (slegs een boek per e-pos, asseblief). Snakes & Snakebite in Southern Africa Johan Marais (Penguin Random House South Africa/ Struik Nature) An essential guide to identifying all dangerous snakes and common harmless snakes in southern Africa, as well as quick and important practical advice on first aid measures in the case of snakebite. Simple icons, distribution maps, succinct text and numerous colour photographs assist with easy identification of snakes commonly encountered in the region. Symptoms and treatment of snakebites are described, providing the reader with vital firstaid information. Enquiries: marketing@penguinrandomhouse.co.za or www.struiknatureclub.co.za

Natuurlewe van Suider-Afrika Redakteur Vincent Carruthers (Penguin Random House South Africa/Struik Nature) Hierdie gewilde veld­ gids tot die natuur­ lewe van Suider-Afrika is nou omvattend bygewerk. Dit bied beskrywings en akkurate illustrasies in kleur van meer as 2 000 diere en plante, asook verspreidingskaarte vir die meeste groepe. Elke hoofstuk het sy eie kleurkode om die naslaan van inligting te vergemaklik en kenmerke in die beskrywings is in vetdruk. Elke hoofstuk is geskryf deur ’n kenner op dié gebied. Al die vernaamste dier- en plantgroepe is ingesluit: laer ongewerweldes, spinnekoppe en ander spinagtiges, insekte, varswatervisse, paddas, reptiele, voëls. soogdiere, grasse, biesies, varings en swamme en veldblomme. Enquiries: marketing@penguinrandomhouse.co.za or www.struiknatureclub.co.za

Guide to birds of the Kruger National Park Warwick Tarboton and Peter Ryan (Penguin Random House South Africa/ Struik Nature) The Kruger National Park, one of the largest and bestknown conservation areas in the world, supports a remarkable diversity of birdlife. This attractive guide presents more than 500 species that have been recorded there. Of these, more than 400 of the most common or likely to be seen species are described and supported by colour photographs and unique distribution maps based on actual sightings of the birds. An informative introduction describes the park’s underlying geology, vegetation types, climate and rainfall, and how these dictate bird distribution within the area. Enquiries: marketing@penguinrandomhouse.co.za or www.struiknatureclub.co.za

Freshwater life: A field guide to the plants and animals of southern Africa Charles Griffiths, Jenny Day and Mike Picker (Penguin Random House South Africa/Struik Nature) This is the first comprehensive, illustrated field guide to aquatic life in the wider southern African region. The book spans all aquatic life forms, from the large and conspicuous vertebrates, through insects, mollusks and other invertebrates, to aquatic plants and microscopic algae. More than 1 000 freshwater organisms are included, species having been selected on the basis of how likely they are to be encountered. Descriptive text and notes on the ecology of each species are accompanied by photographs and distribution maps. A comprehensive introduction details the ecology and significance of freshwater systems in Southern Africa. Enquiries: marketing@penguinrandomhouse.co.za >>> bladsy 7 or www.struiknatureclub.co.za

Boekwenners vorige uitgawe: Meesterboer: Johm Boulle, Bloemfontein, So is dit nou: W Smith, Clanwilliam, The new game rancher: James Stander, Kimberley, Storiemuis 5: Rolene Oosthuizen, Albertina, Tannie Popppie kook weer: Jacques Gentle, Lichtenburg, Jenna en die leesperd: Janine Matthee, Humansdorp agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Stille waters

Stille waters Lees Psalm 127:1-2

Tevergeefs

D

it is ’n moedelose woord dié, Here. Drie lettergrepe wat jou uitasem laat. Wat jou in trane kan laat uitbars. Wat jou radeloos en oorwonne jou hande in die lug laat gooi. Jou laat moed opgee. Die aftog laat blaas. “Tevergeefs” is ’n harde oordeel, Here, oor dié wat hulle afsloof. Diegene wat hulle lewe op die spel plaas. Wat alles in die stryd werp. Wat voluit voortstu vir dit

<<< bladsy 5 Tuistafel Errieda du Toit (Human & Rousseau) Errieda du Toit is ‘n bekende in koskringe en is die inhoudsver­ vaardiger van die TVprogramme Kokkedoor en Koekedoor. Tuistafel is die kookboek waarvoor almal ’n stoel wil nader trek. Tuistafel trek jou in met kosmaak se klein en groot plesiere – of dit ’n eenvoudige onthoukos-gereg of voorbereidings vir ’n feesmaal saam met Errieda se kleurryke kosvriende is. Tuistafel bevat resepte fyn gestippel met familie- en kindsbeenkos. Haar man Ian se fotografie (en verskeie van sy eie resepte) en illustrasies deur Roelien Booyens, ’n jong en baie talentvolle grafiese kunstenaar wat in Taiwan bly, vorm ’n hegte eenheid saam met die egte kosvertellinge. Navrae: nb@nb.co.za

waarin hulle glo en waarvan hulle oortuig is. Hulle ken nie “stadig!” nie en gun hulleself nie juis rus nie. “Verlof” is nie in hulle goeie boekies nie. Hulle het “24/7” geskep en verwys dikwels daarna. Tevergeefs is ’n wrede woord, Here, vir hulle wat op onafhanklikheid roem en gereeld sê: “Ek sal sélf regkom, dankie.” Of: “Nee, ek het niks nodig nie.” Here, U vat sulke mense kort met hierdie woord. U lóóp hulle met dié voorbeelde: bou, waak, brood verdien. Dít is dan juis ons grootste roem – hoe ons kan uithaal en wys. Kan uithou en presteer. Kan deurdruk en triomfeer. Maar die heel grofste woord hou U vir laaste: Hier sê U, in ’n enkele kort 101 Kruger Tales: Extraordinary stories from ordinary visitors to the Kruger National Park Compiled and edited by Jeff Gordon (Penguin Random House South Africa/ Struik Nature) This is a collection of 101 jaw-dropping stories, as told by the ordinary tourists who experienced firsthand accounts of sightings, scrapes and encounters in one of Africa’s greatest national parks. It details hair-raising experiences from the Kruger Park’s roads, camps, picnic sites and walking trails, such as: • An enraged elephant flips a car onto its roof • A lioness opens a terrified couple’s car door • A fleeing impala leaps through an open car window • A hyena snatches a baby from a tent

lettergreep, hoe U, gratis en verniet, aan hulle vir wie U liefhet, álles ... “gee”. As hulle hard werk? Hul kant bring? Hul deel doen? Nee. Wanneer hulle slaap. Wanneer die onbekommerde nagrus aanbreek van hulle wat hulle bedags aan die veldlelies verkyk en hulle heeljaar oor die mossies verwonder. Wanneer hulle aan die einde van ’n lang dag hul oë sluit – en voordat hul asemhaling diep en reëlmatig word, eers die Gewer dank. • A tourist takes a bath in a croc-infested waterhole. Including 192 colour photographs taken at the scenes of the tales. Enquiries: marketing@penguinrandomhouse. co.za or www.struiknatureclub.co.za Pathfinder: Illustrated for nature enthusiasts Janesta Puletta (Kejafa Knowledge Works) The book is not a guidebook but a unique combination of illustrations and text depicting the author’s experience of nature while being a student. The book consists of 640 pages with more than 1 300 colour illustrations. Enquiries and orders: Magda Boynton, Kejafa Knowledge Works, tel no (014) 577 8006, accounts@kejafa.co.za >>> bladsy 16 agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Standpunt

Die kommersiële boer in Afrika: ’n sake-perspektief OMRI VAN ZYL, UITVOERENDE DIREKTEUR: AGRI SA

In ’n onlangse aanbieding tydens die African Investment Indaba in Kaapstad het ek die sake-perspektief vir kommersiële boerdery in Afrika voorgehou. Ek het besluit dat feite die boodskap die beste sal oordra en gee dit gevolglik bloot weer in dié stuk: Res ipsa loquitur.

D

ie gehalte van primêre inligting bepaal die gehalte van sekondêre strategiese ontwikkeling. Dit geld ook landboustrategieë in Afrika. Ek grond my stelling op die verskillende argumente.

1. Suid-Afrikaanse kommersiële landbou groei vinnig en is besig om tot die mees gevestigde en winsgewendste sektor op die vasteland te ontwikkel Bron: Daff

Suid-Afrika is tans die Afrika-land met die grootste voedselseker­ heid en daarbenewens die enigste netto uitvoerder van produkte op die vasteland. Die netto verdienste van die Suid-Afrikaanse landboubedryf bedra jaarliks ongeveer R80 miljard en sorg terselfdertyd vir sowat 8% van die land se formele werksgeleenthede.

2. Suid-Afrikaanse boere is tegnologie-bedrewe

Bron: Oesskattingskomitee

Volgens droogheidsindekse is ’n skrale 13,5% van Suid-Afrika se grond geskik vir doeltreffende landbou­bedrywighede, soos gewasverbouing – slegs 3% is hoëpotensiaal­grond. Dit beteken dat Suid-Afrikaanse boere nie veel het om mee te werk wat potensiaal aanbetref nie. Die grootste beperking is die tekort aan beskikbare water as gevolg van ongereelde of onbetroubare reënval. Sowat 60% van Suid-Afrika se waterbronne word vir landbou­doeleindes aangewend, wat besproeiingswater aan 1.3 miljoen hektaar se gewasse voorsien. Ondanks klimaat-uitdagings span Suid-Afrikaanse boere wêreldklas-infrastruktuur in deur toegepaste tegnologie en presisie­boerdery om nie alleen in die plaaslike vraag te voorsien nie, maar ook internasionaal. Produktiwiteit op verminderde aantal hektare word in die grafiek links uiteengesit. >>> bladsy 10

V E N N OT E I N L A N D E L I K E B E V E I L I G I N G | PA R T N E R S I N R U R A L S A F E T Y Use agricultural fleet code F14911 when purchasing a Nissan vehicle for Nissan SA to contribute to farm safety | Gebruik landbouvlootkode F14911 wanneer ‘n Nissan voertuig aangekoop word vir Nissan SA om ‘n bydrae te maak tot plaasveiligheid

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agri Viewpoint

A business case for the commercial farmer in Africa OMRI VAN ZYL, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: AGRI SA

Speaking at the African Investment Indaba in Cape Town, I presented the business case for commercial farming in Africa. I decided to let the facts speak for themselves as I merely relay them to you in this piece: Res ipsa loquitur.

T

he quality of primary data determines the quality of secondary strategic development. This also applies to agriculture strategies in Africa. I will take you through my reasoning below.

1. South African commercial agriculture is growing rapidly, evolving into the most mature and lucrative sector on the continent. Source: Daff

South Africa is currently the most food secure country in Africa, and the only net exporter of produce on the continent. Net income from South Africa’s farming industry amounts to approximately R80 billion on average per annum and provides around 8% of formal employment.

Source: Crop estimates Committee

2. South African farmers are tech-savvy Aridity indices indicates a mere 13,5% of land to be suitable for effective agricultural activities such as crop production – only 3% is high potential land. This really means that South African farmers do not have much to work with in terms of potential. The greatest limitation is the deficit of available water resulting from uneven or unreliable rainfall. Around 60% of South Africa’s water resources is used for agriculture, providing irrigation to 1.3 million hectares of crops. Despite climate challenges, South African commercial farmers use world class infrastructure with applied technology and precision farming to not only meet local, but also international demands. Productivity on diminishing hectares is set out in the graph on the left. >>> page 11

“South Africa is currently the most food secure country in Africa, and the only net exporter of produce on the continent.”

Omri van Zyl, Agri SA se uitvoerende direkteur, is aangewys as die kontinentale landbouwenner in die CEO Globalkompetisie. CEO Global is ‘n besigheids- en professionele dienste-maatskappy wat jaarliks toekennings maak vir uitnemendheid in die private en publieke sektor. agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Standpunt

Bron: DAAU, 2015

<<< bladsy 8

3. Suid-Afrika is verreweg die aantreklikste investeringsmark in Afrika – beide in terme van gevestigheid van ons primêre produksie sowel as sekondêre verwerkingsektore. Ons finansiële stelsels is van die beste in die wêreld, ons besit ons plase en ons skop stof in ons bure se oë wat alle aspekte van sektorgroei en winsgewendheid betref. 4. Doeltreffende kommersiële finansiering in Suid-Afrika Die grafiek hieronder dui daarop dat sekuriteit die enigste manier is om landbou in Afrika te finansier. Die gaping tussen Suid-Afrika en ander lande word in die grafiek getoon. Grondeienaarskap is ’n baie beter manier om finansiering vir produksie en landbou-ontwikkeling te beding. ’n Eenvoudige verduideliking is dat die landbousektor se insetkoste sowat R130 miljard is teenoor ’n nasionale boekwaarde van sowat R220 miljard. Die grondwaarde maak dié leningsomvang moontlik. 8,96

6,000 5,000

3,000

a) Skep ’n bevorderlike beleidsomgewing waar grondeienaarskap van primêre belang is. Ons kan nie die Groen Revolusie in Afrika op enige ander wyse finansier nie. Baie Afrika-lande probeer reeds dekades lank om kleinboere op te hef, skenkers het miljarde dollars in Afrika gepomp en tog bly dié vasteland steeds in armoede vasgevang. Kom ons wees slim: grondbesit beteken nie veel sonder befondsing nie. b) Gebruik Suid-Afrikaanse landbou as die spil vir groei in Afrika. Ons het die kommersiële boere, ons het die tegnologie, ons het die finansiële stelsels, ons het die investeerders en die tersiêre vermoëns.

d) Ontwikkel plaaslike, Afrika- en internasionale markstrukture om die markvraag na ons landbouprodukte te vergroot.

2,000

Ghana (06/2013)

Zambië (12/2010)

agri DES/DEC ‘16 • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

10

768

Suid-Afrika (12/2012)

338

Kenia (06/2012)

228

Tanzanië (06/2012)

224 Uganda (06/2013)

556

206 Mosambiek (12/2010)

1,000 0

Na aanleiding van besoeke aan en betrokkenheid by beide landboukommersiële en -ontwikkelingprojekte op die vasteland, is my gevolgtrekkings eenvoudig. As ons veronderstel dat ons almal ekonomiese groei nastreef, werksgeleenthede wil skep en voorspoed en voedselsekerheid wil verseker, moet die volgende gedoen word.

c) Aanpassing by klimaatverandering is uiters belangrik vir toekomstige landboupraktyke. Weereens, benut die SuidAfrikaanse landbouspil om nuwe variëteite te ontwikkel, nuwe boerderypraktyke in te span, slim oplossings vir water te bedink, ensovoort. Om groot tegnologietreë te gee.

Kommersiële finansiering deur banke aan landbou in US$

4,000

5. Gevolgtrekking

e) Ontwikkelingsfinansiering vir nuwe boere moet opnuut onder die vergrootglas geplaas word. Dit is nie moontlik om nuwe kommersiële boerdery-ondernemings te vestig met tradisionele befondsing en bankmodelle nie. Nuwe bevorderlike modelle moet so gou moontlik ontwikkel en geïmplementeer word.


agri Viewpoint

Source: DAAU, 2015

<<< page 9

3. South Africa is by far the most attractive market space to invest in in Africa – both in terms of the maturity of our primary production and secondary processing sectors. Our financial systems are some of the best in the world, we own our farms, and we have outstripped our neighbours in all aspects of sector growth and profitability. 4. Effective commercial lending in South Africa The graph below indicates that the only way to finance agriculture in Africa is through security. The gap between South Africa and other countries is indicated in the figure. Land ownership is a much better way of leveraging finance for production and agriculture development. A simplistic explanation is that the sector input costs are approximately R130 billion against a national book value of 8,96

6,000 5,000

Commercial bank lending to agriculture in US$

4,000

5. Conclusion Having traveled and worked around the African continent in agriculture, both commercial and with development projects, my conclusions are simple. Let’s assume we all want to grow the economy, create jobs, establish prosperity and food security, the following must be done: a) Create a conducive policy environment where land ownership is of primary importance. We cannot fund the Green Revolution in Africa by any other means. Many African states have been trying for decades to uplift small holder farmers, donors have pumped billions of dollars into Africa, and yet it remains trapped in poverty. Let’s be smart about it. Having land does not mean much without funding. b) Use South Africa’s agriculture as the hub for growth into Africa. We have the commercial farmers, we have the technology, we have the financial systems, we have the investors and the tertiary means. c) Climate change adaptation is critical for future farming practices, again let’s use the South African hub to generate new varieties, new farming practices, water smart solutions, etc. Technological advancements.

3,000 2,000

Uganda (06/2013)

Ghana (06/2013)

Zambia (12/2010)

South Africa (12/2012)

228

d) Development of local, African and international market structures to provide more market pull for agricultural produce.

768

Kenya (06/2012)

224

556 Tanzania (06/2012)

206

338

Mozambique (12/2010)

1,000 0

around R220 billion. To generate this type of lending magnitude the leverage is the value of land.

e) We need to review development funding for new farmers, it is not possible to establish new commercial ventures on traditional funding and banking models. New progressive models must be developed and implemented as soon as possible.

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agri Promosie/Promotional

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agri Promosie/Promotional

GoGlobal, the new umbrella brand behind GoReefers GoGlobal is the culmination of over 15 years of immensely hard work, year-on-year client satisfaction and industry-leading innovation. From their ground breaking beginning with the GoReefers Logistics venture providing perishable goods solutions across South Africa and now with the birth of their umbrella brand GoGlobal – the go-to supplier of specialised logistic solutions, international freight and unique business solutions.

W

ith client needs in mind, they’ve constantly worked to go beyond the boundaries of conventional logistics; developing a fully comprehensive modular suite of logistic capabilities to not only meet customer needs, but to stop at nothing to get your produce and cargo to destination. It’s because of this drive over the past fifteen years, that what started as a focus on excellence in perishable logistics, has gone beyond that and grown into a much larger offering. It was the realisation of this growth that led to the creation of the GoGlobal umbrella – the brand that offers solutions at each point in the perishable and general cargo logistics chains while maintaining the same personal link with their clients that they always have – same company, new perspective. The company has always focused on going

beyond their client’s immediate needs and requirements, providing solutions today, for tomorrow’s problems. They created a new cold store facility to service the KwaZulu-Natal region, and took the project beyond merely handling increased volume by creating a one-stop for ambient, sterile, mobile racking and empty container facilities. This provided clients with options unmatched in the market and offers them the opportunity to entirely exclude costs by completing multiple functions on the same site. When clients wanted to keep track of their livelihood, they rose to the challenge, building an all-encompassing software solution, which provides their clients with not only live tracking of their container movements and push notifications to advise exceptions no matter where they are, but the ability to make a booking on the App for anywhere in the world too. Their innovative thinking over the years has

manifested in whatever they do – The first forwarding company to link via EDI, the first to load ambient citrus, the first to load fruit containers from Maputo and the first to manage the cold chain, from pack house level, with Namibian grapes.

“We never stop pushing boundaries. We never stop going beyond.” GoGlobal’s vast freight logistics and unique business solutions experience allows them to truly offer every imaginable service, with the best expertise, the best options and the best process to ensure all goes smoothly. Their clients trust them with their produce and cargo, knowing that they treat it with as much as care they have, from seed to harvest. GoGlobal has everything you need to get your produce and cargo into your customer’s hands – as fresh as if they had picked it themselves.

CALL: +27 21 912 5900 | EMAIL: GOBEYOND@GOGLOBAL.GROUP | WEB: GOGLOBAL.GROUP agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Snippets

Brokkies

agri Brokkies/Snippets

Nuwe leiers vir Agri-Expo Agri-Expo het nuwe leiers tydens sy 85ste jaarvergadering aangewys. Op die foto is Chris Fourie (visepresident), Du Toit Wessels (vierde lid van die dagbestuur), Hugo Lochner, (president), Johan Ehlers (uitvoerende hoof en lid van die dagbestuur) en Wynand Wessels (finansiële bestuurder en lid van die dagbestuur).

Fertasa welcomes new CEO Dr Pieter Haumann has been elected as the new chief executive officer of the Fertiliser Association of Southern Africa (Fertasa). The association promotes the responsible and sustainable use of Dr Pieter Haumann fertiliser.

Monsanto invests in the future Monsanto will award 13 students study grants for 2017 as part of a support programme towards the development of the scientists and agriculturists of the future. In addition, ten graduates will receive internships in various roles. “We are confident that the investment we are making in the future of young people in South Africa, as well as the valuable research that will be generated through this bursary and support programme, will lead to more effective solutions for farmers in the future,” says Kobus Steenekamp, MD of Monsanto South Africa. “Monsanto is committed to a Broad Based Black Economic transformation in agriculture that will have a positive and sustainable impact on our sector and that will empower people and communities from previously disadvantaged groups, through education and skills transfer. “We acknowledge the importance of B-BBEE and with the bursary programme, we reaffirm our commitment as a responsible corporate citizen by contributing to the improvement and development of young people so that previously disadvantaged people can gain access into the entire agricultural value chain.” In addition to the bursary scheme, Monsanto will once again also continue with its internship programme and will employ ten young people to gain work experience in 2017. agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Clover visitors centre

opens doors to the public Clover recently launched its new Clover Visitors Centre in Clayville, Midrand. The state-of-the-art green facility will be open to visitors as from February 2017. The centre will give unique insights into the company’s bottling and packaging activities. The R40 million centre will present educational tours to groups of between 20 and 40 people, twice a day, four days a week. Online bookings will be facilitated through the Clover website.

Hulle lei VinPro vir nuwe termyn VinPro se direksie is onder nuwe leierskap. Anton Smuts, eienaar van die plaas Lucerne in Robertson (regs) is deur die direksie tot voorsitter verkies en Phillip Retief, hoof- uitvoerende beampte van Van Loveren Familiewingerde in Robertson, is die ondervoorsitter.


agri Brokkies/Snippets

Young farmers elected to GWK boards Following the release of GWK’s annual financial results, four successful young farmers were elected at the 2016 GWK AGM, held on 9 November, to serve on GWK’s divisional boards for the next year. GWK aims to give leading young farmers the opportunity for greater engagement and decision-making within the company and gain experience in their directorship roles. From left: Kolver Mülke (Douglas/Kimberley), HF Cilliers (Douglas), Frank Lawrence (chairman of the GWK Board), DB Lubbe (Prieska) and Nico Jacobs (Jacobsdal).

Wimpy partners with Agri SA for drought relief Wimpy restaurants in Pretoria East pledged their support for Agri SA’s drought relief fund with its “Funky Cappuccino Campaign”, which ran from 12 June until the end of September 2016. The campaign managed to collect more than R24 000 through the sale of Funky Cappuccinos at select Wimpy restaurants. By adding R2 to their bill for a Funky Cappuccino the Wimpy customer received a pink coloured cappuccino with a heart as its latte art. The cheque hand-over took part in October at Wimpy Centurion Mall with Agri SA. “We’d like to send a massive thank you to the customers who supported our 23 participating Wimpy restaurants by contributing their R2’s and other generous donations,” says Luise Peters, marketing manager at Wimpy. Tania Janse van Vuuren, Luise Peters, Hannes Bezuidenhout, Jurita Tree (Agri Gauteng) and Nicolas Economou, all from Wimpy.

Loeriesfontein achieves health and safety milestone Loeriesfontein Wind Farm has announced that it has achieved over a million hours without a single lost-time-incident, which is a health and safety highlight in this renewable energy project’s construction programme. It is one of the country’s largest wind farms, and considering the sheer scale of the project, the multiple level of activities and the complexities involved, it is an impressive achievement. Approximately 70% of the workforce come from the Loeriesfontein community and have directly benefitted from the skills development programmes. This work experience will no doubt benefit Khobab Wind Farm, the adjacent wind farm, which is also currently under construction.

Land Bankskema steeds beskikbaar vir veeboere Alle veeboere is nie bewus van die bepaling in die eerste bylaag van die Inkomstebelastingwet, Wet no 58 van 1962, waarvolgens die opbrengs uit die verkoop van vee weens droogte vir ‘n periode van ses jaar belastingvry by die Land Bank belê kan word nie, sê Johan Pienaar, adjunkuitvoerende direkteur van Agri SA. “Paragraaf 13A van die bylaag bevat die besonderhede en is al vir meer as dertig jaar op die wetboek. Dit wil egter voorkom asof daar wel ook in die jongste verlede van die stelsel gebruik gemaak is aangesien na verneem word nagenoeg R400 miljoen in die verband belê is.” agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Brokkies/Snippets

Taking a fresh look at African soils Researchers from seven African countries have launched the African Soil Microbiology Project at the University of Pretoria, in a world-first attempt to survey soil microbiology in sub-Saharan Africa. The project hopes to gain a baseline understanding of the organisms in Africa’s soils and contribute to soil fertility, climate change and health research on The African Soil Microbiology project team, in the Centre for Microbiology and Genomics laboratories at the the continent. University of Pretoria. (Photo: Prof Don Cowan) Professor Don Cowan, director of the Centre for Microbial Ecology and Genomics at the University of Pretoria (UP), says that this is a cutting-edge project: “We know now that microbial communities in soil are important for agricultural performance, bioremediation and many other things. But we know almost nothing about soil microbiology in Africa.” Funded by USAID and running over three years, the African Soil Microbiology Project (AfSM) will rely on research partners in other countries to complete the first-ever microbiological survey of African soils. These partners will carry out sampling campaigns in their respective countries and send the samples to UP for analysis using Next Generation DNA sequencing. This will identify all the microorganisms found in different types of soil – a science known as phylogeography. Researchers from each of the partner laboratories will help analyse data, share knowledge of local ecological conditions, and write publications. When combined with climate and land use information, this can be an extremely valuable resource for researchers and policymakers. “We hope to start to understand the way in which differences in region, climatic patterns, and land use can affect the structure of microbial communities,” says Cowan. Africa faces major challenges in soil conservation and food security, which are exacerbated by increasing populations and the looming threat of environmental change. The results of the research will improve scientists’ understanding of soil fertility, soil degradation, the future impacts of climate change and public health issues. <<< bladsy 7 Liam gaan wildtuin toe Christina van Straaten (Kejafa Knowledge Works) Kleurvolle illustrasies vergesel van ‘n heerlike storie sal kinders in staat stel om wilde diere in hul natuurlike habitat uit te ken. Daar is talle wilde diere om te vind, te identifiseer en te tel. Terwyl kinders die diere soek en tel, word probleem­ oplossing en telvaardigheid ontwikkel. Die gesoek na ‘n haas op elke bladsy verhoog die pret. Ook in Engels beskikbaar Navrae en bestellings: Magda Boynton, Kejafa Knowledge Works, tel no (014) 577 8006, accounts@kejafa.co.za agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Storiemuis: Boek 4 Human & Rousseau Leon Rousseau, Karen Ahlschläger en Marjorie van Heerden (illustrasies) Hierdie splinternuwe reeks bevat pragtige volkleurillustrasies en wemel van stories, ryme, liedjies en leersame elemente. Die boek word vergesel deur ‘n oudio-CD. In Boek 4 is daar nog liedjies, syfer- en letterpret, kleure, vorms, prentstories, geluide, rympies, sowel as heerlike stories. Kom luister, lees en leer saam! Agri het vyf boeke, asook ‘n Storiemuisdrasak en -boekmerk om aan vyf gelukkige lesers weg te gee. Laat hoor van jou. Navrae: nb@nb.co.za


agri Brokkies/Snippets

Boere en landboukundiges ontvang hoogste erkenning Die room van die oes in landbougeledere is in November 2016 tydens ’n spoggeleentheid net buite Pretoria deur Landbouskrywers SA aangewys. Allesbeste Boerdery (dr André, Liezel, Edrean en Zander Ernst) was die wenner in die kategorie Boer van die Jaar, Eric Ntlaba is as die beste nuwe toetreder tot die kommersiële landbou bekroon, en dr Theo de Jager is aangewys as Landboukundige van die Jaar. Die geleentheid is deur Absa, Monsanto en Santam Landbou geborg. Landbouskrywers SA bied die kompetisie sedert 1977 aan. “Vanjaar se kandidate in die drie kategorieë is elk op hul eie terrein besonderse presteerders en dit was nie maklik om die wenners aan te wys nie. Ons is trots op al die kandidate wat as provinsiale wenners aangewys is. Ons glo hulle kan met die beste in die wêreld meeding,” sê Magda du Toit, voorsitter van Landbouskrywers SA. Du Toit sê dat een van die doelwitte van die toekennings is om die prominente rol wat boere en landboukundiges in die landbousektor in Suid-Afrika speel, te beklemtoon. “Dit is ook belangrik om kennis te neem van die breër rol wat hierdie kandidate in die land en kontinent se ekonomie speel,” sê sy.

Landboukundige van die Jaar: Cobus Wells (hoof van Absa Agribesigheid), LT de Jager (dr Theo de Jager se seun), Karen de Jager (dr Theo de Jager se vrou wat toekenning namens hom ontvang het. De Jager was in die buiteland) en Magda du Toit (voorsitter: Landbouskrywers SA)

Boer van die Jaar: Magda du Toit (voorsitter van Landbouskrywers SA), dr Andre, Liezel, Edrean en Zander Ernst, Gerhard Diedericks (hoof van Santam Landbou)

Nuwe toetreder: Magda du Toit (voorsitter van Landbouskrywers SA), Eric en Lindiwe Ntlaba, Kobus Steenekamp (besturende direkteur, Monsanto SA)

Joernalis van die Jaar bekroon Charl van Rooyen van Landbouweekblad is die wenner van vanjaar se Landbouskrywers SA Joernalis van die Jaar-kompetisie. Die doel van die kompetisie is om joernalistieke uitnemendheid te bekroon. Die fokus van die inskrywings is op kommersiële boere wat werklik ‘n verskil aan die lewens van opkomende boere gemaak het. Op die foto is Japie Grobler (voorsitter van die Agri Securitas Trustfonds), Charl van Rooyen en Thea Liebenberg (Agri SA).

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Agri SA to consult widely with agricultural sector regarding the proposed national minimum wage Agri SA considers the labour force in the agricultural sector of critical importance, said Neil Hamman, chairperson of Agri SA’s Labour Policy Committee. He responded to the deputy president’s announcement of the quantum of a national minimum wage (NMW) applicable on all sectors of the economy.

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hile labour cost is a major cost driver, a contented labour force is equally essential for optimum production in the sector. Compromising the intricate balance between wages and the sustainability of farming enterprises will however result in unintended consequences such as job losses and mechanisation, Hamman said. “Given the vulnerability of the sector, Agri SA is calling for in-depth research and consultation with all agricultural roleplayers, especially farmers in drought stricken areas, those who face stiff international competition, as well as emerging farmers. “Agri SA welcomes the fact that struggling farmers will still have access to section 50 of the BCEA that makes provision for exemptions from ministerial determinations. We also welcome the fact that the expert advisory committee recommended that a lower amount

should be applicable to domestic and farm workers, depending on circumstances,” Hamman added. “The proposed secret ballot before registered unions embark on a strike is also welcomed. Agri SA also seeks active participation in the proposed Decent Work Commission, which will be responsible for minimum wages, as well as employment conditions and employment equity. “Agri SA, however, remains concerned

about the impact on employment and profitability of the agricultural sector and therefore ask that government and the business sector should work together to create a conducive business environment in which businesses and agricultural enterprises in particular can flourish. Creating more businesses and ensuring higher productivity and competitiveness should be South Africa’s first priority,” Hamman said.

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Give the national minimum wage a fair chance JOHAN PIENAAR, DEPUTY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, AGRI SA

The labour force in the agricultural sector (given the still relative labour intensive nature of the sector) is of obvious importance, in fact an integral part of production.

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he share in the economic active population of the country, approximately 4% in comparison to the contribution to the GDP of 2,4%, points to disproportionately higher labour intensity than most other sectors in the economy. According to official figures, payments for salaries and wages, which represented 10,4 % of the total farming costs, amounted to almost R17 billion in 2015/2016. An evaluation of the notion of a national minimum wage obviously must take these factors into account. Clearly, as a major cost item labour costs exercises a major impact on the agricultural economy. On the other hand, a contented labour force is also essential for optimum production in the sector. We do realise that we are dealing with a minimum wage and not actual wages, however fact remains that minimum wages being set too high will impact on actual wages at all levels. The national minimum wage having been announced should also be viewed within this context. Apparently, a national minimum wage of between R3 440 and R3 500 per

month will become operational as from 1 July 2017. Based on the peculiar situation in the agricultural and forestry sectors in terms of the vulnerability of the sector to possible job losses, it is proposed that only 90% of the proposed national minimum wage will apply to these sectors in year 1, in other words, up to 1 July 2018. It is also stated that any further adjustments in this regard will be done based on evidence. The current minimum wage in the agricultural sector amounts to R2 779 per month and is based on current calculation methodology likely to increase to R2 973 per month as from 1 March 2017, given an expected increase of 7%. Based on the proposed national minimum wage, as indicated, the actual wage will be at a level of R3 096 for agriculture and forestry given it to be fixed at 90% in terms of the specific proposal. The difference between the national minimum wage and that based on current calculations will thus be R123 per month (R3 096 minus R2 973) as from 1 July 2017. Effectively the minimum wage

(sectoral determination) will thus increase by this amount as a result of the national minimum wage proposal. An adjustment period of two years is proposed, which presumably means that the current national minimum wage level will be maintained until at least 1 July 2019. Given the fact that especially “normal” increases in minimum wages would have taken place anyhow, the national minimum wage currently envisaged seems acceptable. Farmers will still have access to section 50 of the Basic Conditions of Employment Act (BCEA), whereby alleviation of compliance can be granted to those experiencing financial problems. Agri SA will cooperate towards evaluating the proposed system if implemented and to supply empirical evidence as to the impact thereof on the agricultural and forestry sectors. We will also, if so required, wish to participate in the activities of the envisaged Decent Work Commission, which will be responsible for minimum wages as well as employment conditions and employment equity.

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Arbeidsknelpunte kry gefokusde aandag ELIZE VAN DER WESTHUIZEN, SENIOR BESTUURDER: ARBEIDSVERHOUDINGE

Agri SA se beleidskomitee vir arbeid- en maatskaplike sake het vanjaar skerp gefokus op belangrike beleidsareas, insluitend vergoedingsake, die stabilisering van die arbeidsmark, voorstelle oor die veranderde SETA-landskap en internasionale immigrasie. Sektorale vasstelling 13 vir plaaswerkers

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ie hersiening van die vergoedings­­vlakke van plaas­ werkers soos vervat in die sektorale vasstelling 13 het vanjaar weer Agri SA se aandag in beslag geneem. ’n Proses is deur die departement van arbeid gevolg om geskrewe en mondelinge insette van beide werkgewers en werkers te bekom oor die verhoging van lone in die sektor. Na aanleiding van die konsultasies en ook in ag genome die uitwerking van die droogte op landbou, is die minimumloon vir plaaswerkers met 6,6% verhoog.

Nasionale minimumloon Onderhandelinge oor ’n nasionale minimum­­loon het in die Nasionale Eko­ nomiese-, Ontwikkelings- en Arbeidsraad (Nedlac) plaasgevind. Agri SA was deel van die besigheidsverteenwoordigers wat met die

aangeleentheid gehandel het. Terwyl sektor­ spesifieke navorsing ingesamel is – wat as basis van die gesprekke gebruik is – is daar gepoog om die breë besigheidsbelang te verteenwoordig. Gesprekke in Nedlac het verskeie kere ’n dooie punt bereik weens verskillende uitgangspunte van die sosiale vennote, onder meer oor die vlak van die loon, die instelling wat so ’n loon moet bepaal en die inligting wat in ag geneem moet word met die instelling daarvan. Adjunk-president Cyril Ramaphosa het besluit om ’n paneel aan te stel om uitsluitsel oor benoemde vraagstukke te gee. Terugvoering hieroor word eersdaags verwag.

Stabilisering van die arbeidsmark Die afgelope jaar het Nedlac ook intensief gehandel met meganismes om die arbeids­ mark te stabiliseer en veral gefokus op gewelddadige en uitgerekte stakings. Daar is verskeie meganismes ontwikkel wat tans nog in konsepformaat is, onder meer ’n goeie praktykskode vir kollektiewe bedinging en industriële aksie; ’n konsepprotokol en verklaring oor goedertrou-bedinging; wysigings aan artikel 188 van die Wet op Arbeidsverhoudinge, 1995, met betrekking tot ’n kriminele skuldigbevinding tydens staking wat verband hou met intimidasie, geweld en skade aan eiendom tydens stakings; riglyne vir verpligte adviserende arbitrasie, generiese betooglinievormingsreëls en stakingsooreenkomste. Daar is ook aandag geskenk aan maatreëls ter bevordering en versterking

van kollektiewe bedinging en bestaande institusionele Elize van der Westhuizen reëlings (bedingingsrade) op ’n wyse wat nie inbreuk maak op die grondwetlike regte en verpligtinge van rolspelers en internasionaal ooreengekome reëls nie.

Voorstelle oor die veranderde SETA-landskap Die minister van hoër onderwys het op 10 November 2015 ’n konsepstrategie gepubliseer vir publieke kommentaar. Agri SA saam met Agbiz het gesamentlik kommentaar op die strategie voorberei en ingedien. Die konsepstrategie het gefokus op die sentralisering van verskeie SETA-funksies, vaardigheidsheffings en die funksies van ’n SETA-raad wat verander van uitvoerend na adviserend. Beide organisasies was dit eens dat die voorstelle nie aanvaarbaar is nie en het alternatiewe voorstelle ingedien. Die voorlegging van Agri SA en Agbiz het ook deel van Besigheideenheid Suid-Afrika (Busa) se voorlegging uitgemaak. Onderhandelinge hieroor sal eersdaags in Nedlac ’n aanvang neem. Internasionale immigrasie Die minister van binnelandse sake het ’n groenskrif oor internasionale immigrasie gepubliseer vir kommentaar. Agri SA, as deel van ’n taakgroep van Busa, is tans besig om sekere beginsels wat in die groenskrif aangespreek is, te onderhandel en voorstelle te maak wat in die witskrif opgeneem kan word.

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FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing, water & energie/Irrigation, water & energy

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FOKUS • FOCUS Besproeiing, water & energie/Irrigation, water & energy

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SA commercial farmers play crucial role in Sub-Saharan Africa HAMLET HLOMENDLINI, SNR ECONOMIST, AGRI SA

There have been growing concerns in recent years regarding the ability of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to feed its growing population. To this day, SSA remains the most impoverished region in the world, with estimates suggesting that the region will require 360% as much food production in 20501 compared to current production.

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he most concerning fact about this is that agricultural output in the region is primarily produced by smallholder farmers, which account for more than 80% of all the farmers in the region2. The biggest challenge facing most of these farmers is that they lack good technical farming skills, capital and adequate mechanisation and they produce on small parcels of land that is often degraded, with no access to irrigation3. It is for these reasons that most smallholder farmers in the region cannot produce optimally. Given this, the question therefore is what role can the South African farmers play in supplying the region with good quality food so as to contribute to poverty alleviation for the whole region? Population growth in the region: Estimates indicate that the current world population of 7.3 billion is expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030, 9.7 billion in 2050, and 11.2 billion in 21004. More than half of this growth is expected to occur in Africa (see the table). Given the above mentioned, it is therefore not surprising that out of 48 countries expected to experience high population growth, 28 countries are in Africa. Between 2015 and 2050 through to 2100, these countries of which the majority is in SSA (e.g. Nigeria, DRC, Ethiopia, Uganda and Tanzania), are projected to more than double their current population (see Figure 2 on p 27). Overall, the SSA is estimated to comprise more than 20% of the world’s population by 2050 and more than 30% by 2100. Challenges posed by the growing population in the region: The prospects of high population growth are posing serious challenges that could consequently lead to issues of food insecurity and deepening malnutrition in SSA. To understand why the growing population could pose challenges for the region it is important to note the following. Firstly there are concerns that some parts of the region lack good soil agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Figure 1: Sub-Saharan Africa Poverty Map.

Hamlet Hlomendlini

figure on the left). If the above estimates are anything to go by, what do they mean for South Africa’s agriculture and its commercial farmers? To answer this question, it is important to put a few things into context regarding the country’s agricultural sector and its commercial farmers. As mentioned previously, South Africa’s agricultural sector is by far the most sophisticated, robust and lucrative sector in the region – making it the most food self-sufficient or food secure country in SSA. In fact, although it has been particularly affected by the drought in 2015 and through Source: FAO (Regional Poverty Data) 2015 2016, South Africa remains a Table1: Continental Population Projections 2015, 2030, net food exporter of major foods 2050 and 2100 in Africa. In 2014 South Africa’s agricultural exports were 10% of total world exports. In the 2015/16 season the value of agricultural exports increased by 0.2% from R82 839 million in 2014/15 to R83 022 million5. Much of this – if not all – is owed to the competitiveness of the country’s commercial farmers, who are the main Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2015) producers of exportable products – exporting mainly to quality, which is needed to produce sufficient Africa, the EU (including UK) and Asia6. food. Secondly, the growing population Furthermore, even through the worst could subsequently lead to low productivity drought since 1992, the sector remains of agricultural land due to subdivision and resilient and autonomously supreme fragmentation of land holdings as more compared to other major agricultural sectors land (potentially agricultural) would have in the SSA. Although its contribution to to be spared to accommodate the growing country’s GDP is less than 3%, the sector’s population. gross value of production is estimated at Why do South African farmers stand a R233 237 million7. The sector is also one of better chance to feed the region? Interestingly, the leading employers – currently employing South Africa, the only country with the most over 800 000 people. sophisticated and lucrative agriculture sector Competitiveness of the South African in SSA, is expected not to contribute much agricultural sector: South Africa is one to the population growth of the region (see of the top-five biggest economies in SSA and >>> page 27


<<<page 26 in the region – either by further improving local productivity, by extending operations to the rest of the continent or by sharing skills and knowhow with their peers on the continent. While everything highlighted above relating to the sector is true, it would be a complete act of naivety to assume that South Africa will remain competitive in agriculture without doing more to strengthen the sector. Source of Data: UN Department of Economic and Certainly, the current competitive Social Affairs. state of the sector, which is enormously driven by the Figure 3: Crop Production Output of the top five biggest commercial farming sector, economies in SSA. puts South Africa on the edge. However, if South Africa aims to keep its status as Africa’s most competitive and the largest food producer in SSA the following four points need to be addressed: Change of attitude about agriculture: It is not a secret that previous regimes – mainly apartheid – have contributed Source of Data: FAO Stats (2014) immensely towards the current landscape of agriculture in South Africa and the tensions thereof Figure 4: Livestock Primary Products of the top five economies in SSA. that currently exist within the sector. Apartheid as a system allowed the opportunity for white people to venture and create value in agriculture, while on the other hand depriving black people of the same opportunity. Ultimately, different perceptions about agriculture in the country started Source of Data: FAO Stats (2013) to emerge. Consequently, today there are talks of commercial has the most productive and competitive agriculture, white in colour, and agricultural sector compared to the other a smallholder agriculture which is black in countries in this category. This is to greater colour – ironically, agriculture is green, not extent driven by the highly complex and white or black. sophisticated commercial farming business. A different mindset is therefore needed Looking at the production output of the in terms of how agriculture is viewed. top five biggest economies in SSA, data Agriculture in South Africa will only thrive from FAOSTATS indicates that South Africa’s when government, business, policy makers, production output of most staple crops and civil society and farmers (commercial livestock products outperforms the other four and smallholders, white and black) stand big economies in the region. together and put aside politics for the FOASTATS further indicates that South betterment and transformation of the Africa’s chicken meat and egg production sector. Agriculture (unless only practised for account for 29% and 40% respectively of the subsistence purposes) must be looked at total output of the region’s top five biggest from a business point of view – not from a economies (see figures 3 to 6 above). political point of view. Considering their competitiveness, the South Sort-out the land reform issues and African commercial farmers indeed have improve water sources: Land and the capacity to feed the growing population water are the main pillars of agriculture – Figure 2: Total Population Growth Estimates

agri Nuus/News Figure 5: Chicken Meat Production (%) of the top five economies in SSA.

Source of Data: FAO Stats (2013) Figure 6: Egg Production (%) of the top five economies in SSA.

Source of Data: FAO Stats (2013)

they are the main ingredients for sufficient production. With regard to land, the biggest problem in South Africa is land reform, which is done by people with no agricultural knowledge. Consequently, this has resulted in the ultimate failure of many agricultural land reform projects because they were given to beneficiaries that had no farming experience – leaving land that was commercially productive in an idle state. Given that the land reform policy – even in its modified format – has not lived up to its expected outcomes, it is important to shift its focus. It is essential that land reform focuses on addressing the issue of property rights, preserving and keeping agricultural land on full production, selecting beneficiaries on basis of farming experience, providing proper and adequate support to beneficiaries and establishing partnerships between them and organised agriculture. Furthermore, while it is understood that landlessness, particularly by previously disadvantaged population, needs to be addressed, it is also important to understand that land problems cannot be solved in the same way they were created – trust between government and organised agriculture is of great importance for the successful land reform outcome. Lastly, most of agricultural production in South Africa, especially grain production and particularly by smallholder farmers, >>> page 29 agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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is heavily reliant on rain water. Perhaps considering the devastating impact this drought has had on the sector now is the moment that government, business and organised agriculture sit together and start talking about possible ways of expanding the country’s current dams and maybe consider building new ones to increase water capacity. Invest in agriculture: One of the major challenges facing the agricultural sector in South Africa is that investment by both government and the private sector has been very low since 1994 and yet government continues to demand food security from the sector. While government must be applauded for creating a conducive environment that allows commercial farmers to export their products to the international markets, its budget allocation towards the sector remains very limited. Smallholder farmers on the other hand are finding it extremely difficult to find lucrative markets for their produce but also to produce marketable products. The lack of adequate support for these farmers is a major obstacle to the transformation of the sector and to the potential commercialisation of some of them.

If South Africa aims to feed the region, government must increase its expenditure on the sector, which must be directed to improving agricultural infrastructure, research and development and education and training for smallholder farmers. The result of this will be a highly productive and transformed sector in the region – but again this can only be possible through a strong partnership between government, private sector and organised agriculture. Revitalise the sector through innovation so as to attract young people to participate: Since 1994, there have been many initiatives aimed at improving the sector especially for smallholder farmers. First of all, as mentioned earlier, the way in which agriculture or farming is viewed, needs to change – farming must be looked at from a business perspective. Although in a different type of business, farmers are business people and farming is therefore a business venture. Given that farming is a business, it is therefore necessary to come up with innovative tools and measures that will ensure farmers, especially smallholders, improve their competitiveness. This therefore requires building farming business models that will drive and enhance farmers’ productivity and competitiveness, which will be critical to ensuring South Africa plays a significant role in contributing to poverty alleviation in SSA and that it remains the

net exporter of food in Africa. Certainly, use of modern technology is critical to help farmers improve productivity and to grow crops more efficiently, but also important is to innovatively organise farmers, especially smallholders, and connect them to the information they require to be successful. This will extensively help them to transform from their traditional farming approaches to new practices that can help them improve their soil quality and ultimately improve their productivity. Lastly, there is a great need to devise innovative ways to attract young people to participate in the sector – this is fundamentally important to sustain the sector. Young people must be made aware that farming is a business career with great opportunities to engage in the value-chain and to make profit. In conclusion, the points discussed above are not the only solutions to transforming and increasing the productivity of the sector. However, if addressed as advised, the sector could be on the right path to transforming and will ultimately lead to South Africa playing a crucial role as main contributor in feeding the region.

References 1 See Africa Agricultural Status Report (2014) by the Alliance for a Green Revolution Africa (AGRA) 2 Refer to footnote 1 3 Refer to footnote 1 4 See United Nations, department of economic and social affairs, population division (2015). World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241. 5 See Daff’s Economic Review Report of the South African Agriculture 2015 6 See BFAP Baseline: Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024 (Launched 2015) 7 See Daff’s Economic Review Report of the South African Agriculture 2015.

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All the best for 2017 JOHANNES MÖLLER, PRESIDENT, AGRI SA

Whether one plans for the year ahead, reflects on the previous year, or reminisces on the past, time is always the common denominator. Without fear of contradiction, I believe that redeeming the time is nowhere more important than in the agricultural sector. It is a biblical command anyway.

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f it would not have been possible for farmers to treasure their farming enterprises and to put their hearts into it, the various challenges they face as individuals, and as part of the sector at large, would have been extremely difficult to deal with. The drought we faced the past year is certainly a case in point and brought about serious demands on the mental mindset of farmers and the financial survival of many farming enterprises. We are grateful though, that despite drought conditions in many areas, some sub sectors in agriculture still did very well in 2016. We are equally grateful that producer prices on the back of, among others, exchange rate movements, moved to such levels as to secure macro income on levels not significantly less than in the previous

year. Obviously, this did not alleviate the plight of those who experienced crop failures. The livestock sector will obviously also feel the impact of the drought for some years to come as herds have to be rebuilt and grazing conditions have to be allowed sufficient time to recover. Many of the national demands on the agricultural sector have not subsided and will still require serious attention and advocacy in 2017. Issues in relation to water availability and quality, land reform, labour and especially rural safety have not disappeared and will again require serious attention. In fact, these matters will again dictate the activities of Agri SA next year. Rainfall is obviously the ultimate determining factor of the welfare of the agricultural sector. Although difficult to

fore­cast, there are positive Johannes Möller signs that the La Nina phenomenon is currently prevailing and that general rainfall, in especially the summer rainfall areas, may return to normal. I certainly trust that this will be the case and that our farmers will enjoy a prosperous 2017. I wish to thank every farmer for his or her resilience, your contribution to the sector and to the economy of the country. Agri SA will continue to convey this message, especially from a food security perspective. My best wishes for 2017 go to all farmers, their families and those aligned to the agricultural sector. (This message previously appeared in Farmer’s Weekly)

Agri SA verwerp grondbesettings “Daar was onlangs heelwat politieke retoriek oor grondbesettings wat ons voel baie onverantwoordelik is,” sê Johannes Möller, president van Agri SA. “Dit is noodsaaklik dat ons die impak van sodanige retoriek en die uitwerking daarvan op voedselsekerheid en die algehele stabiliteit van die sektor verstaan.”

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olgens Möller is die betrokke stellings eerstens strydig met die bepalings van die Grondwet, wat voorsiening maak vir ordelike grondhervorming. Ernst Pringle, voorsitter van Agri SA se beleidskomitee oor landbou-ontwikkeling, sê Suid-Afrikaners het die verwoesting in Zimbabwe gesien wat met grondbesettings gepaard gaan. “Dit het nie net enorme onsekerheid vanuit ’n beleggingsperspektief veroorsaak nie, maar ook diegene wat ’n lewe uit die grond maak in armoede gedompel. Hulle kan hulself nie voed of ’n bestaan maak nie.” Pringle sê die waardeketting begin by die boere en dié sektor maak nagenoeg 3% van die land se BNP uit. “Waar die produksiebasis verkrummel, word duisende werkgeleenthede bedreig. Daar is ’n nou skakeling tussen finansiële stelsels, landbouveiligheid en belegging. Waar die primêre stukkie van hierdie legkaart beïnvloed word, ly die res,” sê Pringle.

Möller sê die aangeleentheid moet op ’n baie verantwoordelike en volwasse wyse benader word. “Ons is bereid om met enige party te praat om oplossings te vind vir die transformasie van die sektor en die vestiging van suksesvolle nuwe kommersiële boere. Ons werk nou saam met die departement van landbou, bosbou en visserye en die departement van landelike ontwikkeling en grondhervorming

om projekte te loods en het reeds verskeie suksesse in hierdie verband behaal.” Grond as sodanig beteken volgens hom nie veel sonder die nodige kapitaal en vaardighede om ’n besigheid te ontwikkel wat winsgewend sowel as volhoubaar is nie. “Daarom is ons die enigste land in sub-Sahara-Afrika wat voedselsekerheid geniet en ons kan nie waag om met ons suksesvolle formule te torring nie.” agri DES/DEC ‘16 • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Land ceilings in spotlight of ministerial workshop Annelize Crosby, Agri SA’s advisor legal and land affairs, reports on the ministerial workshop on the Regulation of Landholdings Bill held in November 2016.

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n the 2011 Green Paper on Land Reform a four-tiered system of land tenure was suggested for South Africa. This implied that private ownership of particularly agricultural land would be limited. Minister Nkwinti indicated that he intended to enforce ceilings on agricultural land ownership, limiting the number of hectares that any owner will be able to hold. Agri SA opposed this proposal in principle from the outset for a variety of reasons. The minister has held several workshops on the subject of land ceilings since 2011 and at one stage came up with a proposal that there will be three categories of ceilings: 1 000 hectares for small farmers, 2 500 hectares for medium sized farmers and 5 000 hectares for large farmers, with the possibility of certain commodities being capped only at 12 000 hectares. Minister Nkwinti threatened to table legislation aimed at enforcing ceilings in his budget speech in 2015 and again in 2016. It appears that Cabinet had refused to allow such legislation to proceed because it met with opposition from the department of

agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Subsequently, there have been engagement between the two departments and Daff has proposed criteria to be inserted into the Bill to determine the size of landholdings on a district basis.

Minister Nkwinti’s speech and presentations by various people The minister told the attendees of the workshop in November that he was consulting on the proposed policy on land ceilings because he did not want to leave consultation to Parliament alone. He cited the recent Lamosa court case where Lamosa and other non-government organisations took the government to court over flawed consultation processes regarding the Restitution Amendment Bill. They won. He also said that the department of rural development and land reform (DRDLR) prepared a draft Bill, which they took to Cabinet, but that it was referred because they did not consult with the department of agriculture, forestry and fisheries (Daff). Daff has meanwhile been consulted and was also invited to the workshop. The minister said that there were farmers in South Africa that owned up to 33 000 hectares of farmland. In Zimbabwe a farm of 500 hectares is considered large. Do you know this logo? He said that a political decision had been taken that a 1 000-hectare You will start seeing it appear on our products as the SABS mark expires and ceiling was very we replace it with the SATAS mark. generous. The No need to panic! minister again Nothing has changed regarding the quality of the product. It is still SANS accused Agri SA approved, i.e. made to the South African National Standard. It is merely the certification body that we are changing. of not assisting in giving him the Already SATAS approved, to the latest SANS specifications, economic criteria are Ultraflo 966-2; Duroflo 966-1 and Freeflo 967. to enable him Visit our website for updated SANS certificates on all our water & sanitation piping systems. to set different ceilings for different commodities. Agri SA took a decision, which was properly mandated, that it would oppose www.dpiplastics.co.za +27(0)11 345 5600 info@dpiplastics.co.za ceilings in principle,

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therefore we could not concede that ceilings were acceptable by assisting the minister as requested. Minister Nkwinti indicated that Afasa did make certain proposals in this regard. He said that the Bill would now be tabled in Parliament in 2017. Presentations were made by Hilton Toolo on the draft policy, by Michael Aliber on land expectations, by Mr Gama on identifying strategically located land and by Prof Lipton from Sussex University on the international experience with land ceilings. There was also a presentation on the process of the Social, Economic and Environmental Impact Assessment (SEEIA). Hilton Toolo indicated that the policy seeks to ensure that the legacy of colonialisation is reversed and that the objects of the Freedom Charter are achieved. The proposed three categories of small, medium and large farms were removed because it was deemed arbitrary. Instead, ceilings will now be set on a district basis based on certain criteria. Foreign ownership will be banned, but this ban will not apply retrospectively. He said that a draft Bill had been developed and will be submitted to Cabinet. Mr Gama from the spatial development branch in the department made a presentation on the identification of socalled strategically located land. He said that the SPLUMA branch has come up with 15 indicators for identifying suitable farms for redistribution. These includes things such as proximity to infrastructure and distance from mining activities, as well as soil types, rainfall and other factors that are regarded as desirable for agricultural activities. Michael Aliber delivered a pre-recorded presentation on peoples’ land needs. The study looked at the land needs of four categories of people, namely farm dwellers, people in communal areas, people living in informal urban areas and people residing in formal urban areas. Of these farm dwellers expressed the highest need for more land to grow food. The study found that most people who want land, want small amounts of land for food security purposes. This study was done in 2006 and only covered three provinces. Prof Lipton from Sussex University in the United Kingdom was invited to present on the international experience with land ceilings. It needs to be noted that many studies had been done and papers published by many people on this subject over the years. During the Nareg process that followed >>> page 35


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<<<page 34 the publication of the 2011 Green Paper, Prof Herman van Schalkwyk and André Makhanete were requested to do a study on the possible impact of land ceilings. They also looked at the international experience and found, amongst other things, that land ceilings internationally have affected production adversely, contributed towards agricultural being a low-profit venture in several parts of the world, had neutral or even negative effects on poverty, failed to change agrarian structures and was costly and difficult to administrate. Prof Lipton, however, chose to focus only on the perceived positive outcomes of land ceilings on poverty relief. He argued that small farmers are more productive and create more employment per hectare than big commercial farmers. He said that ceilings in Taiwan, South Korea, West Bengal, China and Romania supported a transition to more employment-intensive and faster agricultural growth. He added that ceilings were a very powerful way of doing redistribution. He said that the regulation of subdivision of farms were a hindrance to introducing land ceilings. Ceilings tend to act as a disincentive to large landholdings and encourage large landholders to make land available to the poor. Exemptions to ceilings can lead to evasive action and needs to be avoided. Proper support services to the smallholder farmers will be critical. He also said that there is no absolute conflict between commercial farmers and smallholder farmers in South Africa. He maintained that there were in fact synergies to be explored. The presentation on the SEEIA focussed only on the methodology and not on the contents of the SEEIA. One of the risks that need to be addressed is the avoidance of the disruption of agricultural production. The question needs to be answered whether the benefits of land ceilings outweigh the costs thereof.

Commissions Participants in the workshop were allocated to three commissions that discussed the following topics: • The composition of the proposed Land Commission, its powers and responsibilities; • Land needs and demands; and • Land ceilings – on what basis should these be set, what exemptions should be allowed and what should the criteria be. Reports from all three commissions are avail­ able. It needs to be noted that questions were framed in a manner that pre-supposes that there will be land ceilings. Little or no debate was entertained on the desirability of ceilings or the alternatives to ceilings. Some of the most important recommendations were: • Heterogeneous ceilings must be set by the minister per district; • Exemptions must only apply to those farmers who can show commitment and a contribution to the developmental agenda of the country; • Land ceilings must be aimed at wealth

redistribution; • Exemptions must be granted to restitution beneficiaries, smallholder farmers, people farming on communal land; • Criteria should focus on the income required that could sustain a family. Household income must be the main criteria; • Ceilings must not suppress the growth of smallholder farmers; • The issue of access to water for smallholders must also be addressed; • The private sector must contribute 50% of funding to land reform and must transfer skills and support farm workers; and • A long list of information to be disclosed by current landowners was also compiled. After the rapporteurs for the commissions reported back, minister Nkwinti again took to the podium. He said that a report of the workshop would be compiled and taken to Parliament. He said that the people have spoken and that the policy and the Bill will now be concluded. Daff attended the work­ shop as well and have been consulted.

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What is redistribution and where does it fit in? Redistribution is one of the three pillars of land reform in South Africa. Lately, the department of rural development and land reform has added a fourth pillar, namely that of land development. Section 25(5) of the Constitution gives the mandate for redistribution. The section provides as follows: “The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to foster conditions which enable citizens to gain access to land on an equitable basis.”

THIS IS PART ONE OF THIS THREE-PART SERIES.

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lthough redistribution is only one of the pillars of land reform, which is the broader concept, there are redistributive elements in the tenure reform programme as well. The Labour Tenants Act and the Extension of Security of Tenure Acts are aimed at tenure security, but also provide for permanent solutions, which are redistributive in character. The 1997 White Paper on Land Reform provided, with regards to redistribution: “The purpose of the land redistribution programme is to provide the poor with land for residential and productive purposes in order to improve their livelihoods.” A big debate over the past 20 years has been what the focus of the redistribution programme should be – simply pro-poor as the White Paper suggested, aimed at creating a class of black commercial farmers as LRAD intended, or maybe both? And a critical question that needs to be answered is whether the state ownership of land can be regarded as redistribution at all.

How successful has past attempts at redistribution been? There have been various programmes over the years that were intended to facilitate redistribution. The first one was the socalled Settlement Land Acquisition Grant (SLAG) programme that ran from 1997 to 1999. The White Paper described the SLAG programme in the following terms: “The Land Redistribution Programme enables eligible individuals and groups to obtain a Settlement/Land Acquisition Grant to a maximum of R15 000 (later increased to R16 000) per household for the purchase of land directly from willing sellers, including the state.” Priorities Redistribution projects will give priority to the following: • to the marginalised and to women in need; • to projects which can be implemented quickly and effectively. “In each case, viability and sustainability of the projects must be demonstrated. Government will ensure a geographical agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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THE HISTORY AND FUTURE OF LAND REDISTRIBUTION Annelize Crosby, Agri SA’s advisor: legal and land affairs, made a comprehensive presentation on land redistribution to the High Level Panel on Legislation. This panel was appointed by Parliament to investigate the impact of legislation on poverty, unemployment and inequality; the creation of, and equitable distribution of wealth; land reform, restitution, redistribution and security of tenure; and nation building and social cohesion. In the presentation she discussed the following topics: • What is redistribution and where does it fit in? (including redistributive tenure reform) • How successful has past attempts at redistribution been? • What were these policies and programmes? (SLAG, LRAD, PLAS) • Was willing-buyer-seller the real problem? • New approaches – regulation of landholdings, valuer general, expropriation, relative rights • International best practice • What is organised agriculture doing and what are commercial farmers doing? • Some concluding remarks spread of projects and a diversity of project types, covering different beneficiary sectors, different land uses, and different tenure arrangements.” Unfortunately this programme failed to provide sustainable solutions and real improvement in the economic situation of the beneficiaries and many of the projects became poverty traps. R15 000 was way too little to purchase any land. Beneficiaries had to come together in large groups to buy land and the numbers were then often unsustainable. In 2001 minister Thoko Didiza introduced a new redistribution programme called LRAD (Land Redistribution and Development Programme). This programme was geared towards establishing black farmers. In terms of this programme grants were made available to beneficiaries on a sliding scale of between R20 000 and R100 000. All beneficiaries were required to make a contribution, either in cash or in kind. LRAD made grants available to individuals, which meant that more than one individual per household could quality. A household of four adults, for instance, could qualify for as much as R80 000. The LRAD programme did deliver some successes. Many people who previously could not acquire land for farming, now had the opportunity to do so. A number

of these beneficiaries made a success of farming on the LRAD farms. Keswell & Carter1 found in a 2011 study that LRAD did result in consumption gains well beyond the value of the land transfer. LRAD was successful in redistributing wealth in rural areas and might have the potential to stimulate improvements in learning and income larger than what would be expected from the direct value of the land transferred alone. LRAD also had its share of problems. In a 2009 dissertation on the impact of LRAD in Gauteng2, Alwyn Prinsloo draws the following conclusions: “Three main factors are identified in this study that contribute to the slow pace of land redistribution in terms of the LRAD sub-programme. These factors are the bureaucratic processes that government follows to implement LRAD projects, the limited size of the LRAD grants and the formation of group projects. The mentioned critiques and the results of this study also show that there are a variety of factors that have an impact on the sustainability/quality of projects. These factors are: limited financing of projects, lack of start-up capital, lack of agricultural skills, poor design of projects, lack of post-transfer support, group dynamics, crime, and a disregard for >>> page 37


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<<<page 36 environmental factors.” Hans Binswanger-Mkize writes in a 2014 article in the African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics3: “Both restitution and PLAS use the willing-buyer-willingseller approach. Direct land acquisition at negotiated or market prices therefore is most unlikely to have been the major problem for SLAG and LRAD. Instead, SLAG was doomed by the small grant size, the emphasis on group farming, and the lack of post-settlement support. LRAD let some farmers operate individual farms, but still created many group farms and also suffered from poor post-settlement support. Furthermore, beneficiary groups under SLAG tended to acquire land of lower quality, one of the reasons for the change to LRAD (see Anseeuw & Mathebula 2008:10). After the first two years of implementation, LRAD was starved of budget and ultimately was side-lined.” The following conclusions emerge from this brief overview: • Many black people, including the black youth, are interested in farming; • The emphasis on creating successful commercial farms and the associated focus on a group or cooperative farming model rather than subdivision into family farms is probably the single most important cause of programme failure; • The lack or late delivery of postsettlement support for beneficiaries has clearly been one of the major impediments to better performance; • Poor beneficiary participation in all aspects of the programme has been a major source of beneficiary disaffection, and the failure of many projects; • The capacities of DRDLR, Daff and the RC are overwhelmed by the deep involvement of their staff in planning, management and implementation of all aspects of the programmes; • While the strategic partner model may work in some cases, its imposition on beneficiaries is inappropriate; • Unclear policies and procedures of the programmes and the lack of operational manuals contribute to the lack of understanding among beneficiaries and officials; and • The poor performance of the programmes is not due to the willingbuyer-willing-seller model of the purchase of land at negotiated or market prices.” In my experience a lot of this rings true. Other commentators have also done detailed budgetary analyses of the spending on land reform programmes

and it is clear that over time quite a small percentage of the national budget was allocated to land reform and the support of land reform beneficiaries. The group farming model has certainly been problematic, also from the perspective of those who try to render support to these groups as infighting and a lack of leadership and clear rules is often a feature of these groups. And I have personally experienced many times the lack of information and lack of knowledge of the programmes and what they entail among potential beneficiaries and provincial officials. The success or failure of the redistributive programmes cannot however be viewed in isolation, but needs to be evaluated in the context of the support programmes such as CASP (the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme) and other forms of government support to these beneficiaries. It seems that the lack of timeous and proper support was often the cause of the failure of projects. In 2006 PLAS was launched to replace LRAD. This strategy was aimed at speeding up the transfer of land through the proactive acquisition of the land in the market by the government for redistribution purposes. The implementation manual of the PLAS programme states that it is primarily pro-poor. It is implemented by using the Provision of Land and Assistance Act, Act No.126 of 1993, as amended. Land is warehoused within government. In theory the beneficiaries can get ownership after a period. In practice, anecdotal evidence

seems to point to permanent state ownership of the land acquired. E.N. Randwedzi did a thesis on “The potential and limits of the proactive land acquisition strategy”4 at the University of the Western Cape. He found, among other things, that DRDLR has been struggling to properly administer lease agreements entered into with beneficiaries under PLAS. He also found that: “When beneficiaries are not certain about who will ultimately own the land, it threatens their investments on the property, and similarly creates over-dependence on the state by the beneficiaries.” There seemed to be no clear strategy to link PLAS acquisitions to an area-based strategy as envisaged and that there was often a mismatch between the land and beneficiaries. He did however conclude that PLAS demonstrated positive results in terms of land delivery and has the potential to speed up the process of transferring more land from the white owned commercial farmers. It seems that state ownership of land i.t.o. PLAS, undermines agricultural investment and productivity, as the beneficiaries feel insecure with tenure arrangements under which the state exercised undue influence over their activities. Private sector investment is basically excluded as the commercial banks require that the land be put up as collateral for loans. Beneficiaries are forever dependant on the state, not only for tenure security, but also for production finance. Mercedes Stickler writes in an article in >>> page 41 “Focus on land in Africa” agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Magtiging vir die onttrekking en opgaring van water hersien NIC OPPERMAN, DIREKTEUR: NATUURLIKE HULPBRONNE

Die hersiene algemene magtiging vir onttrekking en opgaring van water is op 2 September 2016 in die Staatskoerant gepubliseer. Wat word gemagtig?

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rie watergebruike word afsonderlik gemagtig: die uitneem van oppervlakwater en van grondwater uit ‘n waterbron en die opgaring

van water. Die volumes wat in die kennisgewing gemagtig word, beïnvloed nie enige ander watergebruiksregte nie en is ook nie aanvullend tot sulke magtigings nie. Dit beteken dat die grootste volume vir die ander magtiging of die algemene magtiging geld. Water mag op ‘n ander eiendom as die eiendom waarop dit onttrek word, gebruik word, onderhewig aan voorwaardes. Die volumes wat gemagtig word, is onderhewig aan die kapasiteit van die bron en die behoeftes van ander gebruikers. Water mag nie binne bepaalde afstande van waterbronne, vleilande, riviermondings, staatsdamme, staatsdamwalle of die hoog­ watermerk van die oseaan geneem word nie.

Van wanneer af en hoe lank sal die magtiging geld? Die magtiging sal ses maande ná publikasie op 2 September 2016, dit wil sê op 2 Maart 2017, in werking tree. Die huidige algemene magtiging sal op 2 Maart 2017 verval. Die magtiging sal vir twintig jaar geld, maar dit mag vroeër in geheel of D:\!BMG\#Jobs\Adverts\2016\122016\BMG-AGR06122016.cdr 07 December 2016 09:13:39 AM gedeeltelik teruggetrek word. Color profile: Disabled

Hoe bepaal ‘n gebruiker die volumes wat vir die gebruiker gemagtig is? Die magtigings van die watergebruike word vir elke dreineringgebied gegee. Die volume oppervlakwater wat in terme van die magtiging uitgeneem mag word en die volume water wat opgegaar mag word, word in ‘n tabel vir elke dreineringgebied gelys. Die tabel dui ook aan teen watter tempo die oppervlakwater uitgeneem mag word en gedurende watter maande. Die volume grondwater wat uitgeneem mag word, moet bereken word en is gebaseer op die grootte van die eiendom waarop die water uitgeneem word. Die onttrekking­faktor vir die berekening word in ‘n tabel vir elke dreinering­gebied gelys. Die gemagtigde volumes is per eiendom in die geval van geregistreerde eiendomme en per persoon in die geval van kommunale grond. Wat moet ‘n gebruiker doen om gemagtigde watergebruik uit te oefen? Die gebruiker moet die magtiging sorgvuldig bestudeer en vasstel watter volumes water­gebruike uitgeoefen mag word. Die gebruiker moet enige ander magtigings verkry wat vir die aktiwiteit waarvoor die watergebruik uitgeoefen gaan word nodig mag wees, byvoorbeeld ‘n damveiligheid­magtiging of ‘n magtiging om in ‘n rivierbedding te werk. Die gebruiker moet die watergebruik by

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die waterbestuursowerheid registreer indien die volume water wat gebruik word die registrasiedrempel in die magtiging oorskry. Die gebruiker moet die volume water wat onttrek word, meet indien die onttrekking­tempo die betrokke meting­ drempel in die magtiging oorskry. Die gebruiker moet ook die volume water wat opgegaar word, meet. Die rekords moet volgens die magtiging bewaar en op versoek voorsien word. Gebruikers wat water vir besproeiings­ doeleindes uit waterbronne neem en dit moet meet, moet aan die regulasies wat die minister eersdaags gaan publiseer, voldoen. Gebruikers moet aan al die voorwaardes in die magtiging voldoen, wat insluit dat gebruikers water doeltreffend moet gebruik en alle redelike waterbesparingmaatreëls moet ondersoek en toepas. Geen verdere magtiging van die water­bestuurowerheid is nodig nie. Heffings mag in terme van die waterprysstrategie van die departement op die watergebruike gehef word.

Hoe verskil die magtiging van die vorige magtiging? Die stel oppervlakwateronttrekking- en opgaringvolumes verskil. Waar die vorige magtiging slegs 150 000 m3 per jaar of geen oppervlakwateronttrekking, en 50 000 m3 opgaring gemagtig het, word in die hersiene magtiging 2 000, 10 000, 20 000, 40 000 of 80 000 m3 per jaar of geen oppervlakwateronttrekking en dieselfde volumes opgaring gemagtig. >>> bladsy 41

Happy Holidays and a Prosperous 2017

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<<< page 35 with the title “Land Redistribution in South Africa”5: “Limited administrative capacity and poor coordination of pre- and postsettlement support across different agencies and levels of government was identified as a significant challenge with both SLAG (Adams & Howell, 2001) and LRAD (Greenberg, 2010). Emerging evidence suggests that PLAS still struggles with some of the same challenges (Randwedzi, 2011).” I fully agree with these sentiments. While I am no expert on the very complex issue of communal land, a similar problem seems to prevail in the communal areas, where people are forever dependant on the state and traditional leaders and struggle to get financing to develop the land. While titling cannot happen overnight and may not be desirable or feasible in every instance, consideration ought to at <<< bladsy 39 Die vorige algemene magtiging het voormalige staatswaterbeheergebiede en soortgelyke beheergebiede uitgesluit. Die hersiene magtiging verwys nie meer na die voormalige beheergebiede nie en het nie meer die spesiale magtiging van die gebruik van grondwater vir klein nywerhede nie. Die hersiene magtiging magtig verder die onttrekking van 2 000 m3 oppervlakwater per jaar en opgaring van 2000 m3 in alle dreineringgebiede. Water mag nou op ander eiendomme as waar dit onttrek word, aangewend word, onderworpe aan voorwaardes.

Wat moet gebruikers wat deur die verandering in die algemene magtiging geraak word, doen? Die hersiene magtiging tree ses maande nadat dit gepubliseer is in werking om watergebruikers wat deur die verandering geraak word, tyd te gee om stappe te neem om aan die hersiene magtiging te voldoen.

least be given to some form of registered informal title that is recognised by financial institutions. Rather than coming up with a completely new scheme for redistribution every time, should we not rather focus on building on the elements of the existing schemes that seem to work and fix the elements that are not working? LRAD did achieve a lot of success, but the lack of adequate budgeting and inadequate post settlement support seriously hampered the programme. The main problem with PLAS seems to be the non-transfer or very slow transfer of the land from the state to beneficiaries. These are the elements that need fixing. (Continued in our next issue.)

References 1 http://www.aae.wisc.edu/events/papers/

Watergebruikers moet watergebruike wat gemagtig was en ongelukkig nou gedeeltelik of glad nie gemagtig is nie, aanpas, staak of om lisensies aansoek doen.

Wat beteken die woorde wat hier gebruik word? • Departement beteken die departement van water en sanitasie. • Nasionale Waterwet beteken die Nasionale Waterwet van 1998, Wet 36 van 1998. • Watergebruik is een van die aktiwiteite wat in artikel 21 van die Nasionale Waterwet gelys is, waarvan die uitneem van water uit ‘n waterbron en die opgaring van water die twee is wat hier van belang is. • Dreineringsgebied beteken die opvang­ gebied van ‘n rivier en sy takriviere. • Waterbron, soos in die Nasionale Waterwet gedefinieer, beteken water wat oor die grond loop, ‘n stroom, ‘n

deptsem/2012/carter.02.17.pdf: Poverty and Land Redistribution: Evidence from a Natural Experiment: Malcolm Keswell and Michael Carter 2 Prinsloo, AP 2008, A critical analysis of the LRAD sub-programme in the Gauteng Province of South Africa, MInstAgrar dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://hdl.handle. net/2263/27144 3 African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Volume 9 Number 4, pages 253-269 4 http://etd.uwc.ac.za/xmlui/handle/11394/ 4490: The potential and limits of the proactive land acquisition strategy: land reform implementation in Gauteng province of South Africa Ranwedzi, Emmanuel Ndivhuho 5 http://www.focusonland.com/fola/en/ countries/brief-land-redistribution-in-southafrica/

pan, ‘n dam in ‘n rivier, ‘n vleiland of ‘n grondwaterdraer. • ‘n Waterbestuursowerheid vir die doel van die magtiging is een van die nege opvanggebiedbestuurowerhede. Daar is reeds twee owerhede ingestel: die Breede-Gouritz- en Inkomati-Usutuopvanggebiedbestuurowerhede. Daar is proto-opvanggebiedbestuursowerhede, wat nog deel van die department is, vir die ander gebiede.

Waar kan meer inligting verkry word? ‘n Kaart van dreineringgebiede kan van die departement of op die departement se webwerf verkry word. Die departement stel ook Google Earth-dekking beskikbaar, wat gebruik kan word om die oppervlakwater- grondwater- en opgaringinligting op enige plek aan te dui. Die opvanggebiedbestuursowerhede kan genader word vir meer inligting of hulp. Hulle kontakbesonderhede is ook op die departement se webwerf.

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agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Finansiële instellings/Financial institutions

Unpredictable weather increasing financial risks for farmers and the industry The volatility of weather conditions, from drought to flooding and hailstorms in South Africa, is taking its toll on farmers financially, and creating some concern for the sustainability of the sector.

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he impact on farmers’ finances is forcing them to try cut costs, which could leave them exposed to more risk, according to Philip du Preez, head of Agriculture at Mutual &

Federal. “With regard to insurance, we have noticed that farmers have started to explore more affordable options and are reducing certain insurance covers because they are under pressure financially. This is not advisable because being covered during volatile weather conditions is more important than ever for farmers to protect their business,” says Du Preez. South Africa has experienced its worst drought in 71 years over the past year after an El Niño weather pattern brought drought conditions to much of southern Africa. The drought resulted in eight of nine South African provinces declared disaster areas and in recent weeks, several areas in the Free State, the Western Cape and KZN have experienced flooding. October to January is typically of one of the key periods in Southern African agriculture – the planting and early crop development stage. However, this year’s early crop season may prove challenging to the farming industry. “Certain regions had some good rains at the right time, which lead to acceptable crops. For the rest, it was a disaster,” says Du Preez. North West province, Limpopo and the central Free State were most affected by the harsh weather conditions. Some parts of the Western Cape, dependent on winter rains, are facing very dry conditions, which could lead to disastrous consequences for the province. “Due to the drought, many farmers were not able to plant in December 2015, which is essential to ensure mature crops for South Africa. The continuation of the drought into 2016 further delayed the planting of these crops, leading to concerns of the security of both food and the farming industry in South Africa,” says Du Preez. Du Preez answers some of the big questions around the impact of the drought on farming businesses, agricultural insurance and the effect of the recent flooding in certain areas on crops.

What is the outlook for farming following the drought? “The drought will definitely have longer term financial implications for farming businesses,” says Du Preez. “This may include reduced crop production, reduction of livestock and increased debt, which will ultimately lead to less income.” He says the full effects of the drought will probably become more evident over the medium term and that economies of scale will become increasingly important as farmers’ margins are under pressure. “We foresee fewer, but larger, farming operations in the future, downsizing of farms will not be economically viable in most instances,” says Du Preez. “From an insurance perspective, we have noticed that farmers have started to explore more affordable options and are reducing certain covers.” What advice do you have for farmers who are looking to reduce cover to cut costs? “The current weather patterns are putting increased pressure on farmers and causing financial uncertainty for them,” says Du Preez. “This means that investment into agriculture is becoming even riskier and farmers are being more price sensitive or are simply not able to afford the premiums on multi-peril crop insurance (MPCI).” Despite these tough times, farmers find themselves in, Du Preez advises against reducing cover to cut costs. “Cutting insurance cover would be the wrong kind of solution to this problem. It is especially during high-risk times like these that farmers need to have the right cover in place to help them get back into the financial situation that they were in before the disaster struck. Being under-insured or having no cover in place will likely be more expensive in the long run,” he says. What are the financial effects of the drought on the insurance industry and farmers? The extreme weather conditions lead to volatility, which makes it difficult to allocate capital to this line of business. Returns on economic capital are therefore under pressure. “From an insurance and reinsurers perspective, it is therefore becoming

increasingly risky to do business, which reflects in an increase in rates and pressure on capacity,” du Preez says. MPCI is heavily dependent on reinsurance capacity and, for the last few years, the amount of reinsurers willing to offer this cover has drastically declined. “The selection of clients is also becoming more complicated. Insurance companies are heavily dependent on new forms of data and insights form experts. Farmers with proven track records in the production of crops are currently being considered and farmers without this are finding it difficult to be accommodated.” What can be done to assist smaller and emerging farmers without a proven track record? “It is critical for the insurance industry and government to establish a Public Private Partnership (PPP), accommodating MPCI on a sustainable basis. Currently, only agriculture in South Africa and Australia are not subsidised and supported with MPCI insurance by government,” says Du Preez. Agricultural companies and the banking industry should consider making MPCI cover compulsory for financing input production. “This is not only an insurance or agricultural problem. All ‘role-players’ – including government – must get together to address the threat of changing weather patterns. Thought has to be given to product development, ways to increase the insurance pool and how to manage costs better. In so doing, an affordable product, suited to the farmers and insurance companies in South Africa, could help to address this threat,” Du Preez says. How will the rainfall impact crop production? Bloemfontein was recently hit by massive hailstorms on 20 October. Du Preez says it is still too early to determine the impact this could have on farming in the area. In the Western Cape, low-lying areas across the Cape Peninsula were affected by flooding, but overall conditions throughout the cereal producing areas of the province, especially the Southern Cape, have been conducive for crops. “A larger wheat crop is forecasted for the Western Cape, due to an increased area planted and improved weather conditions,” >>> page 45

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agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Finansiële instellings/Financial institutions

Input costs in the agricultural sector likely to ease in 2017 The drought that the country is experiencing has caused a significant drop in planted areas. The much-awaited rains will bring much relief and farmers can at long last commence with planting.

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his situation has turned around with the latest Crop Estimates Committee’s (CEC) planting intentions report showing a rebound in the expected area for most of the crops. Approximately 3.753 million hectares is expected to come under crop production during the 2016/17 season. Dawie Maree, head of Information and Marketing at FNB Business, Agriculture, says that “as farmers begin with their seasonal activities, we look at the relative input costs that they will face. While input costs remain elevated compared to historical trends, there has been some decline, which bodes well for the season going forward.” Maree says that fertiliser and fuel are the major inputs in crop production, particularly grains, and accounts for approximately 35% and 11% of total variable costs. “The prices of these inputs are largely influenced by the international crude oil market from a transport

(freight) perspective, as well as the fact that some are derived from oil processing. The benefits of lower crude oil prices were however offset by the increased volatility in the rand exchange rate that we continue to experience.” Other important inputs for summer grain producers include herbicides and pesticides, electricity and water tariffs and labour. Maree says in all of these farmers have experienced increases above inflation over the last couple of years. However, it seems that increases might ease off, except maybe for water tariffs. The strength or weakness of the rand has a huge impact on input prices in the agriculture sector. A weaker rand raises the prices of imported inputs such as fertiliser, pesticides, and herbicides. In addition, the prices of most grain commodities are import parity based and the weaker rand has helped increase the price of maize, which is a major ingredient in the manufacturing of livestock feeds. The

stronger rand however has an Dawie Maree opposite effect. Currently, yellow maize prices are approximately 11% higher year on year, but have since fallen from the 2016 peak of R4 021/ ton. This trend is likely to continue in the medium to longer term given the improved seasonal outlook with the May and July 2017 yellow maize futures already trading below the R 3 000/t level. Profitability margins in the feedlot, poultry, dairy and pork industries are therefore expected to improve in 2017. “The improving domestic grain supply outlook coupled with the huge global production with grains for 2016/17 projected at a record of over 2 billion tons, of which 50% is maize, augurs well for the livestock sector in the year ahead. A moderation in input costs will help revive the sector, which is reeling from a devastating drought during 2015/16 season” concludes Maree.

<<< page 44

“Thankfully, these locations fall beyond the summer grain producing areas and harvesting had in any case been completed during these events,” du Preez says. Due to the lack of planting, does the flooding mean farm soil is being washed away? The flooding occurred mostly in locations where farm soil wasn’t really at risk of erosion, according to Du Preez. There is, however, an increased risk of elevated soil erosion after an extremely dry season as a result of decreased plant cover on natural veld, leaving bare soil exposed.

What is the way forward for our farmers? “South Africa is quite used to droughts and, given the history of our country, we have built up the resilience to survive difficult situations,” says Du Preez. “Similarly, the agricultural sector has, for many years, been exposed to harsh and changing weather conditions and patterns, and has been able to pull through.” He concludes, “I am hopeful that, with support from all relevant parties, our farmers will continue to find ways to survive and thrive.”

says du Preez. According to data by the Crop Estimates Committee released on 27 September, the total area on which wheat is planted in the Western Cape increased from 310 000 hectares in 2015 to 323 000 hectares in 2016. Production forecasts for malting barley and canola are also higher. In KZN, mostly the coastal areas had been affected by the flooding and, according to reports, Amanzimtoti and Stanger have been badly affected.

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FOR EARTH FOR LIFE

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agri Nuus/News FOKUS • FOCUS Finansiële instellings & vervoer/Financial institutions & transport

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If you’d like to find out more about Investment Portfolio+, please contact your Financial Adviser, your Regional Offshore Specialist, or call +27 (0) 21 524 4726.

ADVICE I INVESTMENTS I WEALTH

Old Mutual Life Assurance Company (South Africa) Limited is a registered long term insurer and a licensed financial service provider.

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FCB10020564JB/E


agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Finansiële instellings /Financial institutions

Call to come clean: Special Voluntary Disclosure Programme There has never been a better time to come clean about any undeclared offshore assets as now, says Wayne Sorour, head of Old Mutual International South Africa. Globally, there is a move towards the Common Reporting Standards. These standards are designed to facilitate the exchange of financial information between financial institutions in different jurisdictions, making it far more likely that undeclared offshore assets held by South Africans can be discovered.

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o help South Africans stay on the right side of these regulations, and others, the Minister of Finance, Pravin Gordhan, announced a Special Voluntary Disclosure Programme (SVDP) in his last budget speech. Sorour adds that this is an opportunity for these non-compliant parties to disclose offshore assets and income voluntarily. It also offers some relief from exchange control contraventions. During the Voluntary Disclosure programme of 2003, South Africans with undeclared offshore assets were granted a full amnesty. Sorour says 43 000 participated and it resulted in a large amount of money being disclosed to the fiscus, around R64bn. And raised a further R2.9bn in levies for the South African fiscus. Sorour believes that this one has the potential to yield a similar amount. The South African Revenue Service and the South African Reserve Bank aim to assess tax non-compliance and exchange control contraventions in one joint process. Companies can also apply for the SVDP. They will have to pay penalties and part taxation, but not such onerous penalties and potential criminal prosecution if they are caught once the SVDP closes. After the undergoing this process, the assets become ‘clean’. It serves a dual purpose: the authorities know where the assets lie and investors can sleep peacefully at night. Provision is also made for donors, settlors or beneficiaries of trusts to apply for the SVDP, however, slightly different rules apply to them in some instances. The SVDP has been read into the South African parliament and the penalties and taxes payable are now clear. For tax breaches, 40% of the highest value of all assets, at the end of each tax period between 1 March 2010 and 28 February 2015, is included in clients’ taxable income. Income tax will be payable on this amount at their marginal tax rate. For exchange control breaches; if the client repatriates the assets, a 5% penalty is payable. If the client decides to retain

This SVDP is a great opportunity for advisers, and for Old Mutual International (OMI) by extension, according to Sorour. Many advisers are encouraging their clients with undeclared offshore assets to take up the SVDP, as are the lawyers and accountants with whom they have ties.

Wayne Sorour, head of Old Mutual International South Africa

the assets offshore, a 10% penalty is payable. These penalties are calculated on the market value of the assets as at 29 February 2016. However, if the client is not paying the penalty from the assets which are already offshore, the penalty is 12%. This SVDP is a great opportunity for advisers, and for Old Mutual International (OMI) by extension, according to Sorour. Many advisers are encouraging their clients with undeclared offshore assets to take up the SVDP, as are the lawyers and accountants with whom they have ties. Sorour says once clients have legitimised

their assets and paid the necessary taxes and penalties, they would need to consider whether their assets are working as hard as they could. For instance, are they invested in the correct vehicle to suit their specific needs? In which types of assets are they invested? Are there any tax advantages? Old Mutual International South Africa has life wrapped solution, called Investment Portfolio+, which offers benefits around tax administration with beneficial tax rates; estate planning features; and eliminating SITUS liabilities. Contact details: +27 (0) 21 524 4726 or www.oldmutualinternational.com agri DES/DEC ‘16 • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Nuus/News

Nedbank’s agrifocus offers a full range of business solutions for the farming sector Nedbank’s role in its relationship with the farming community has evolved beyond that of lending to one of forging partnerships focused on holistic solutions for everyday and seasonal operational requirements. We provide you with a team of specialists across Nedbank who are able to create tailored financing and innovative banking solutions to grow your business to the next level.

Managing any business comes with a range of challenges. As a business grows, different problems and opportunities demand specific solutions, as what worked in the past may not be the best approach in the present.

Nedbank is committed to taking your agribusiness even further by harnessing the skills and experience of both the farming community and our agriculture specialists.

This offering includes advice and support from Nedbank Business Banking in respect of working capital management, cash-handling and card solutions, global-trade solutions and digital-trade channels, payment and receipt management, and a full range of investment products.

Such an ongoing partnership seeks to contribute to the economy and create jobs through working on innovative solutions together. Nedbank’s agriculture-specific offering includes financing of renewable-energy and sustainable-water solutions, instalment sale finance and production loans, global-trade and transactional banking solutions. We are cognisant of the effects of the country’s worst drought in three decades and have contributed more than R1,25 million to support farmers in this time of need. We anticipate that the effect of the drought will remain with us for the next few years. Although we are extremely glad about the good rainfall, we know that this will not immediately change the financial difficulties experienced due to the drought. Nedbank is committed to making banking accessible in South Africa and, as a bank for all, we are growing our footprint in communities where we were not present previously.

Whole-view Business Banking™ In a first-to-market approach Nedbank has launched Wholeview Business Banking™ for business, a solution that is supported by a team of specialists to provide a personalised, seamless, value-added service across multiple areas.

Cobus de Bruyn, Divisional Manager of Agriculture, heads agriculture for Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Northwest and Gauteng. For more information about our specialised service offering for Agriculture Business Banking please contact Cobus at cobusd@nedbank.co.za.

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agri Nuus/News 16908

TAKE YOUR AGRIBUSINESS TO THE NEXT LEVEL Nedbank’s team of specialists provides pioneering solutions for your agribusiness. Growing your business was always your goal, which is why you had the foresight to seek guidance from someone with the right expertise. A bank that provides you with an industry-skilled business manager, backed by a team of specialists across Nedbank, who is able to create tailored financing and inventive banking options to grow and take your business to the next level. Amazing things happen when you partner with Nedbank. Contact Cobus de Bruyn at cobusd@nedbank.co.za.

Our agrisolutions offer you the following: Financing of renewable-energy solutions with extended periods.

Instalment sale finance and production loans for all types of agricultural equipment, machinery and production inputs.

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A full range of flexible insurance solutions for farming activities through AgriPlus insurance.

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agri

FOKUS • FOCUS Vervoer/Transport

Isuzu KB-reeks bied meer krag en beter rygehalte GERRIE SMIT, LID VAN DIE MOTORSKRYWERSGILDE

Die Isuzu KB-bakkiereeks is nou al amper 30 jaar een van Suid-Afrika se gunstelinge. In ’n stadium was dit van plaas-tot-plaas die gunstelingbakkie. Daar is egter nou ’n bakkie-oorlog aan die gang waar die Toyota Hilux op die oomblik koning kraai. Die Ford Ranger is besig om ook sy eie sterk volgelingbasis op te bou en die VW Amarok begin ook vashouplek kry.

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et omdat die Isuzu-bakkie­ verkope deesdae nie naby dié van die Hilux en Ranger s’n is nie, beteken nie dat Isuzu-bakkies tegnologies agtergeraak het nie. Isuzu se dieselenjins is bekend vir hulle brandstof-ekonomie en beloof ’n gemaklike rit. Met ’n Hilux en Ranger moet jy eerder nie sonder vrag op ‘n stamperige pad ry nie, want hierdie bakkies is besonder hard geveer en jy gaan styf en seer wees ná ’n lang rit. Dit is egter nie die geval met die Isuzu-bakkies nie. Met of sonder vrag is daar altyd net eenvoudig lekker ry ter sprake en daarom sal die keurige bakkieverbruiker altyd ’n Isuzu ernstig oorweeg. Die huidige reeks KB-bakkies, wat in 2013 bekendgestel is, is onlangs verder opgegradeer om met die jongste tegno­ logie-tendense by te bly en een van die verbeterings is om die ry-gemak nóg verder te verhoog. Die Isuzu Hi-Rider 4X2-modelle is met verbeterde voor- en agterste skokbrekers toegerus, terwyl die 4x4-modelle se skokbrekers aangepas is om harde skokke nóg beter te hanteer. Die resultaat is ’n sagter rit met minder padvibrasie en ’n stiller kajuit. Deel van die verbeteringe op die Isuzu-

reeks is dat die luukse LX-modelle nou met nuwe kopligte met geïntegreerde LEDdagrylampe buite en binne as standaard toegerus is, met ‘n 6,5” hoë-definisie- TFTraakskerm wat die klank-, inligting- en kommunikasiestelsels beheer. Daar is ook satellietnavigasie, foonkoppeling en jy kan selfs die internet daarmee verbind. Die LX-dubbelkajuitmodelle het nou ook ’n tru-kamera en die 4x4-modelle het onder meer ’n trekstang, dak­relings en kragverstelbare leersitplekke as standaard­ toerusting. Die LX-dubbelkajuitmodelle kry verder ook sleutellose toegang met ’n knoppie op die afstandbeheerder, waarmee die enjin van buite die voertuig aangeskakel kan word. Die Isuzu’s se voorkante is nou subtiel, maar slim gestilleer om ’n slanker dog meer aggressiewe voorkoms te toon. Die nuutontwerpte sierrooster, enjinkap en misligte tref visueel, maar dit is die nuwe hoofligte wat myns insiens grootliks bydra tot ’n varser voorkant. LED-dagryligte is ingebou in die lighulse van die modelle met die luukser “LX”-afwerking. Aan die binnekant is min verander. Die instrumentehuls is herontwerp en bied nou beter funksionaliteit. Vir beide die handraten outomatiese modelle (wanneer “manual

modus” op die outokas gekies is) word daar nou aangedui in watter rat jy ry en wanneer jy moet oorskakel. Die 3-liter- 4x4 LX-dubbelkajuit se voorste sitplekke kan elektries verstel word. Daar is ook die genot van ’n verbeterde klankstelsel. Dit vertoon ook die beelde van die tru-kamera as jy na trurat oorskakel en die stelsel kan boonop DVD’s speel. Al die 4x4modelle kom standaard met leerbekleedsel wat opsioneel ekstra by die ander modelle beskikbaar is. Daar is geen petrolaangedrewe modelle in die nuwe KB-reeks nie, maar die drie dieselenjins wat voorheen beskikbaar was, word weer aangewend. Die twee werkesels in die reeks, die gewone KB 250 en die Fleetside-enkelkajuit, is nog steeds beskikbaar met ’n 2,5 liter- dieselenjin, wat ’n kraglewering van 58 kW teen 3 800 omwentelinge en ‘n wringkrag van 170 Nm teen 1 800 omwentelinge bied, maar hierdie twee modelle is ook nou beskikbaar met die nuwe, kragtiger 2,5 liter-dieselenjin wat ‘n kraglewering van 100 kW teen 3 600 omwentelinge en wringkrag van 320 Nm tussen 1 800 en 2 800 omwentelinge lewer. Die LX-modelle het die 3 liter turbo-

Die verbeterde Isuzu KB 300 LX 4x4-dubbelkajuit wys dat dit enige padtoestand kan aandurf waaraan bakkies blootgestel mag word. agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri ondersteunde dieselenjin wat 130 kW teen 3 600 omwentelinge en 380 Nm teen tussen 1 800 en 2 800 omwentelinge lewer. Die meeste Isuzu KB-modelle in die reeks het ’n handratkas met vyf gange, maar ’n outomatiese ratkas, ook met vyf gange, is in die LX Extended Cab- en dubbelkajuitmodelle beskikbaar. Die gemiddelde brandstofverbruik in die gekombineerde siklus vir die vierwielaangedrewe LX-modelle is 7,9 liter per 100 km, en 7,7 liter per 100 km vir die 4x2-modelle. Om te bewys dat die nuwe verbeterde KB-reeks hulle man steeds as volwaardige bakkies kan staan, het General Motors SA, die verspreiders van Isuzu-bakkies in Suid-Afrika, ’n groepie joernaliste Namibië toe geneem om met die 4x4-modelle sandduine, rowwe paaie en selfs ’n hewige onbeplande sandstorm aan te durf en te oorwin. Die verbeterde Isuzu-reeks se 3 liter diesel- 4x4-modelle het beïndruk met hoe gemaklik dit die uitdagings van dik sand en hoë duine gehanteer het. Selfs teen hoër as normale spoed op grondpaaie was daar ’n merkbare verbetering in ritgehalte en paddinamiek. Isuzu mag miskien nie meer onder die

FOKUS • FOCUS Vervoer/Transport

Die weelderige binnekant van die Isuzu KB 300 LX 4x4-dubbelkajuitbakkie.

top bakkie-verkopers wees nie maar, soos rare wyn, stel dit nie teleur nie. Die nuwe KB-reeks word deur ’n omvattende ondersteuningsdiens, bekend as Isuzu Complete Care, gerug­steun. Dit behels padbystand, ’n waarborg van vyf jaar of 120 000 km, ’n diensplan van vyf jaar of 90 000 km en ’n waarborg van

vyf jaar teen roes, ongeag die kilometerafstand. Diens­intervalle is 15 000 km of een keer per jaar. Die pryse van die nuwe modelle wissel van R 235 000 vir die intreevlak- KB 250-enkelkajuit tot R 563 000 vir die KB 300 LX 4x4-dubbelkajuit met ’n outomatiese ratkas.

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BIG BOY SCOOTERS HOTLINE: 011 794 6399 · www.bigboyscooters.co.za Guaranteed parts & service, proven best quality in South Africa. Massive range. Dealers countrywide. agri DES/DEC ‘16 • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Nuus/News

Engine Engine Type Displacement Fuel Consumption Max Power Cruising Speed Clutch Type Starting System Max Torque Max Speed

4-stroke, Single-cylinder, air-cooled, diesel engine 460cc 20-25 km/L 8.2Kw/3600rpm N/A Manual 4-speed,1234+R, 462 Mini Vehicle Clutch & Reducer, Dry Single-Plate Electric 2.3Nm/2600rpm 40km/h

Chassis Brakes Tyre Size

Front-drum, rear-drum Front-5x12, rear-5x12

Dimensions Length (L x W x H) Seat Height Wheel Base Dry Weight Tank Capacity

3,740×1,350×1,550mm - Bin (1,920x1,200x810mm) 900mm 2,390mm 595kg 13Litres

Usage Max Rider Weight Age Requirement Application Warranty Period Run in Service Service Intervals

350kg License B - 18yrs+ Town commutting/Tar and good sand roads 6 Months on Drive Train 5Tanks/1 month Every 20th Tank/3 months

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agri Nuus/News

QUALITY AGRIC COMPONENTS When it comes to keeping your machinery and vehicles operating at an optimal level, think twice before you install inferior quality parts. They will need replacing far sooner than an OEM quality BMG products, engineered to improve your productivity and cut costs in the long run. We have the widest range and largest stockholding of superior quality products as well as the technical expertise to help you make the right, cost effective choices. • • • • • • • • • •

Bearings Agricultural Chains Tie Rod Cylinders PTO Shafts Tractor Accessories Fasteners Drive Belts Hand & Power Tools Electric Motors Irrigation Gearboxes

For more information contact your nearest BMG branch.

BEARINGS • SEALS • POWER TRANSMISSION • DRIVES & M HYDRAULICS • PNEUMATICS • FILTRATION • LUBRICATIO

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BMG-AGRI31102016

CULTURAL

agri Nuus/News

MOTORS • MATERIALS HANDLING • FASTENERS & TOOLS ON • VALVES • TECHNICAL RESOURCES • FIELD SERVICES

BEE 3

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agri Nuus/News

Verskil begin by jouself, sê Jongboerwenner “Verskil begin by jouself. Landbou kry verskriklik baie druk van vele kante af, maar dit skrik my nie af om verder in die bedryf te belê nie. Daar is nog baie geleenthede en ons jong boere kan ‘n groot verskil aan die ekonomie maak.”

A

an die woord is vanjaar se wenner van die gesogte titel Jongboer van die Jaar, in die kompetisie wat deur Toyota SA en Agri SA aangebied word. Oor die prys sê Jacques: “Dis ‘n voorreg, maar dit wys maar net dat as jy jou kant bring, jy die vrugte pluk.” Hy voeg dadelik by dat ‘n toekenning van dié aard kwalik net aan die bydrae van ‘n individu toegeskryf kan word. “Almal op die plaas het hierin ‘n aandeel en dit is almal se prys.” Maar natuurlik is daar ‘n paar onverwag­se meevallertjies. “Die toeken­ ning het nuwe geleenthede geskep. Daar is reeds nuwe markte wat wink en daar is verskeie nuwe kliënte wat voelers begin uitsteek het,” sê hy. Hy het nie boerdery noodwendig as ‘n loopbaan oorweeg nie, hoewel die familieplaas in sy bloed was. Ná ‘n BComgraad in logistiek aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch het hy ‘n loopbaan in die finansiële wêreld oorweeg. Sy pa het egter besluit dat hy klaar op die familieplaas geboer het, wat reeds sedert 1903 in die familie se besit is. As Jacques en sy broer Eugene nie belangstel nie, gaan hy die plaas verkoop, was die tyding. Jacques het besluit hy gaan plaas toe en het in 2006 die boerdery oorgeneem. Hy is die vierde generasie Beukese op die plaas. Op die plaas Modderdrift naby De Doorns word met tafeldruiwe geboer en die mikpunt is die uitvoermark. Hy is positief oor die toekoms van landbou, veral vir boere in die Wes-Kaap. “Ons besighede is aan die uitvoermark

skaal te skep. Met meer ondersteuning van die regering kan ons nog meer help as wat ons tans doen. “Ek is baie lief vir die tafeldruifbedryf en ek gaan bly belê in hierdie wonderlike bedryf. Daar is elke dag baie uitdagings, maar ek glo ons moet dit Jacques en sy vrou Heleen by Charlé (2), links en Liela (4) in geleenthede omskep. Ek wil van Modderdrift een van die beste tafeldruif­ gekoppel en dinge lyk rooskleurig.” besighede in Suid-Afrika Hy skryf die boerdery se sukses maak. Ons moet geken word aan die goeie daaraan toe dat hulle net die “hoogste gehalte van ons vrugte. Soos die Bybel sê: voedselstandaarde handhaaf. Jy moet Aan jou vrugte sal jy geken word.“ aanloklik vir die supermarkte wees.” ‘n Verandering aan ‘n pakhuis op die plaas het onder meer daartoe gelei dat groot spelers soos die Britse supermarkte Waitrose, ASDA, Tesco, Sainsbury en Univeg baie meer toeganklik geword het. Daar is tans planne om ‘n nuwe pakhuis met koelkamers te bou wat waarskynlik in 2018 operasioneel gaan wees. Bestaande koelkamerfasiliteite bied vir mede-boere in die omgewing die geleentheid om hulle druiwe daar te verkoel. Modderdrift is ‘n deesdae ‘n bekende “Suid-Afrikaanse boere het ‘n groot rol handelsmerk in Europa. in die ekonomie te speel. Landbou het die potensiaal om werk op groot

Jong boere kan ‘n groot verskil aan die Suid-Afrikaanse ekonomie maak, glo Jacques. Jacques by sy nuwe vuurwa.

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agri Nuus/News

Busy year for Agri SA’s marketing division It has been a busy, yet exciting year for the marketing department of Agri SA, says Annemi Rautenbach, marketing manager. “The year started with the developing of new marketing, communication and fundraising strategies that have been well received and these have been successful to date. There have been numerous events and conferences such as the Agri SA Commodity Conference, Manna vir die Boere concert, Farm to Fork, NAMPO and our annual congress to name but a few. “We upped our game and focused on creating world-class brand awareness. “A lot of focus was placed on developing long-term strategic partnerships with national and international organisations. The emphasis was on raising money for the drought relief fund, conferences, training and development programmes, transformation and the vast variety of projects that we receive requests for on a national level. I am excited for what awaits in 2017. I am sure that we are on the right path. A big thank you to all the organisations and individuals who made a difference alongside Agri SA in 2016 – Together we will build a better South Africa.”

First meeting of new SAPPO committees The first historical meeting of the South African Pork Producers’ Organisation (SAPPO)’s new national council and executive board took place in November in Pretoria. This marks the first step of a new era for the organisation, which started with the closing of the provincial offices earlier this year. SAPPO believes that the new organisational structure will eliminate duplication and an extended national office will be able to render better services to pork producers. On the photo below is the executive board. Front: Dave Osborne (Eastern Cape), Thami Zimu (KZN), Anna Phosa (Gauteng) and Simon Streicher (CEO). Back: Myles van Deventer (KZN), James Jenkinson (Gauteng), chairman, JP van der Walt (Limpopo), vice-chairman and Peter Mockford (Limpopo).

Stumbleblock

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Patentkali ensures high and excellent potato yields K+S KALI GMBH Patentkali, fertilisation for potatoes, is rich in potassium, magnesium and sulphur to ensure high yields and excellent quality, as well as contributing to potatoes with longer shelf life. It is also effective against black spot. K+S KALI is represented in South Africa by Industrial Commodities Holdings (Pty) Ltd

P

Potassium otassium is a major determent of yield quality. It has a very positive effect on production, translocation, conversion and storage of carbohydrates through the activation of plant enzymes. Potassium regulates the osmotic turgor of the cells and the water balance. Crops grown with adequate potassium availability use less water per unit weight of plant biomass and are therefore better able to survive periods of drought. Magnesium Magnesium plays a primary role in

photosynthesis, protein synthesis and in the activation of various enzymes. In case of magnesium deficiency growth is stunted and results in reduced yields and crop quality. A considerable area of potatoes is grown on light soils, which are inherently low in magnesium and therefore require magnesium fertilisation.

Sulphur The only solution to have sufficient sulphur available is potassium sulphate/magnesium sulphate or also ammonium sulphate. All other sulphur fertilisers, generally containing elemental sulphur have to be converted to sulphate first and therefore need longer

starting time and in addition they are associated with a decrease in soil Ph.

Patentkali (K-25%/Mg-6%/S04-17%) Is a special potassium fertiliser with a high content of magnesium and sulphur. The nutrients are present in the form of sulphate and are water-soluble and therefore immediately available to plants. Patentkali is effective regardless of the soil Ph. The uniform particle size spectrum enables precise distribution at any spreading widths. Patentkali is certified for the use in organic agriculture pursuant, EC regulation 834/2007 and 889/2008.

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agri Promosie/Promotional POULTRY EQUIPMENT DESIGNED TO MAXIMISE YOUR PROFIT

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124 Ridge Road, Laser Park, Honeydew, Ext 15, Gauteng P O Box 4012, Honeydew, 2040, South Africa Phone: +27 (011) 794 4455, Ext 214 I Fax: +27 (011) 794 4515 Email: sales@gsiafrica.co.za I Website: www.gsiafrica.co.za

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agri Nuus/News

Roekelose uitlatings ongewens vir die land Die uiters onverantwoordelike en roekelose uitsprake van Julius Malema, leier van die EFF, soos in die media gerapporteer, dui op onvolwassenheid en ’n totale wanbegrip van die impak daarvan op die land en sy mense, sê Johannes Möller, president van Agri SA.

D

ie uitsprake oor die terug­ neem van grond, selfs op ’n gewelddadige wyse, lei tot ’n verdere polarisasie tussen die mense van SuidAfrika en die aanhitsing van geweld teenoor ‘n sekere groep van die samelewing, is verwerplik. Die emosionele en ondeurdagte uitsprake hoort nie tuis in ’n samelewing waar onderlinge respek en verdraagsaamheid gerespekteer moet word as ‘n vereiste vir nasiebou, stabiliteit en vooruitgang nie.” Volgens Möller kan die opruiende wanvoorstellings geen regverdiging bied om regmatige eienaars van hulle grond te ontneem nie. “Dit is ’n uiterste konflikterende benadering, wat katastrofiese gevolge vir beleggingsvertroue, voedselsekerheid en werkskepping inhou. Suid-Afrika staan aan die vooraand van ’n hergradering van die land se beleggingstatus en dié uitsprake voorspel niks goeds nie, indien graderingsagentskappe dit in hulle

beoordeling in ag sou neem.” Agri SA het reeds die kwessie oor betreding en onwettige besetting van grond by ’n onlangse vergadering van die prioriteitskomitee oor landelike veiligheid bespreek. ’n Beroep is op die polisie gedoen om die konsepbeleid oor die hantering daarvan deur die polisie op plaaslike vlak, spoedig af te handel en te implementeer. “Ons verwag ook van die Menseregtekommissie om die uitsprake van Malema vir haatspraak en die aanhitsing van geweld te ondersoek en hom tot verantwoording te roep,” sê Möller. Möller maan dat dit katastrofies sou wees om die tipes revolusionêre uitsprake

as oplossing te bied, veral omdat dit op ongegronde en verkeerde aannames gegrond is. “Ons vertrou dat daar in die geledere van die regering steeds genoegsame verbintenis tot die beginsels van die grondwet en die handhawing van wet en orde is om moontlike misdadigheid wat verband hou met Malema se uitsprake, aan bande te lê.”

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Kubota and Olive Branches – a heavenly combination Surrounded by World Heritage sites and unique floral diversity, De Rustica Olive Estate is situated deep in the picturesque Swartberg Mountains of the Southern Cape. While this may sound romantic, the work on the farm is hard and challenging.

B

ut it’s worth it,” says farm manager Joop Steenkamp. “We produce a world class product, which we are very proud of, in the best possible environment.”

Producing quality olive oil Producing quality olive oil is not a straightforward task. “It’s all about making the right choices from the smallest things to the biggest,” says Steenkamp, “and when it comes to tractors choosing Kubota has made a real difference to us.” De Rustica started with Kubota nearly three years ago. “We were looking for an efficient orchard tractor with a cab and Kubota was the only company in this region that had what we wanted. So we gave it a try and never looked back,” says Steenkamp. Today De Rustica has five Kubota’s ranging in size. “They are great machines – very fuel efficient, reliable and, importantly, we get the best possible service from Carlu Trekkers, Kubota dealer in George. They go the extra mile for us and this makes a huge difference as downtime is so costly.” Kubota Tractors making a difference The Kubota that made all the difference in the beginning for De Rustica was the M8540 Narrow with Cab. But this machine has made a difference to countless farmers and others all over the world. Re-engineered, restyled and powered by Kubota’s world renowned Tier III compliant, 4 cylinder E-CDIS (centre direct injection system) diesel engine, this lightweight, shortwheelbase tractor appeals to farmers, amenity professional and contractors alike. Boasting advanced transmission and PTO technology, a range of new features as standard and high performance hydraulics, the M8540 N is an exceptional workhorse, built on proven technology. “It was interesting that no other tractor company could provide us with a narrow tractor with a cab. This was essential to us as we spray the trees using these tractors and of course our operators need protection,” says Steenkamp. Importance of a CAB tractor in South Africa On this subject Smith Power Equipment (SPE), Kubota distributors in South Africa, warn that South African farmers generally are not taking

Left to Right: Kerneels Rabie (divisional manager, Lucerne) and Joop Steenkamp (general manager, De Rustica Estate).

seriously enough the importance of a welldesigned, safe tractor cab, which conforms to international safety standards, which is most especially important with cabs of spraying tractors. According to SPE’s Deon Engelke, one of the problems is that farmers have become guided by price alone failing to take into consideration the lifetime costs of ownership. “It is productivity over the life of a tractor that is the most important issue not the once-off capital cost,” says Engleke, “and this productivity is very much influenced by, amongst other things, tractor quality and operator comfort and safety.” Engelka says that a variety of both impor­ ted and locally constructed tractor cabs have been available in South Africa for many years. “While the imported cabs are generally built according to these international safety standards, many of the locally made cabs, built mainly with economy in mind, often do not comply.” “The facts are clear. The cabs available on the various Kubota tractors, like the M8540N, which is used extensively for spraying, have many important features that meet international farming safety standards if you are considering upgrading your tractors, particularly spray tractors, you must be sure to check Kubota’s important features and build-quality.”

Kubota ‘Safe, Visible and control’ “The main areas of evaluation must concern safety, visibility, sound, climate control, the layout of the controls, operator space and, most importantly, air filtration. You will be impressed with all these features which meet all the customers farming safety requirements,” Engelke says. “While operator safety and comfort is important from a labour ethics point of view – and more farmers in our country should be taking this into account – I must stress that a poorly equipped cab is also bad for business! Even though a world class cab may be more expensive in terms of the initial outlay, the extra productivity gained through a safe, comfortable and happy operator outweighs this expense a hundred-fold over the life-time of the tractor,” concludes Engelke. Keeping tabs on the cost Steenkamp concurs. “We look at our costs very carefully as any successful farmer would do. But we recognise that sometimes, especially with tractors, that a cheaper initial investment can be expensive in the long run. With our Kubotas there is no doubt that while they were a little more expensive to buy, over time they have saved us a lot of money,” he says. Kubota is a premium and quality product but it is very competitively priced.

Address: Carlu Tractors: 15 Montagu Street, Blanco; Tel: 044 870 7660; Fax: 044 870 8433; Email: iando@carlotractors.co.za; Contact Iando Minni agri DES/DEC ‘16 • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Promosie/Promotional

Goeie wortelontwikkeling verhoog opbrengs Die afgelope droogte van die 2015/2016-seisoen het weer die waarde van ’n goed ontwikkelde en vertakte wortelstelsel beklemtoon. ’n Goed verspreide wortelstelsel in die grondprofiel sorg vir meer doeltreffende opname van water en voedingstowwe vanuit die grondprofiel en kan bydra tot ’n beter opbrengs. Die voorkoms van die bogrondse plant gee selde ’n akkurate aanduiding van hoe goed en doeltreffend die wortelstelsel ontwikkel is.

V

HENDRIK LINDE, LANDBOUKUNDIGE, PANNAR SAAD

erskeie komponente binne die grond het ’n invloed op gewasproduksie. Ideaal bestaan grond uit ongeveer 25% lug (wat deur water vervang kan word), 25% water, 45% minerale-deeltjies en 5% organiese materiaal wat bestaan uit humus, wortels en grondorganismes. Grondtoestande wat wortelindringing, verspreiding en funksie beheer, kan verdeel word in fisiese, chemiese en biologiese eienskappe wat voortdurend kan verander om verskillende grondwortelomgewings te skep. Grondfisiese eienskappe wat ’n belangrike invloed op die wortelomgewing het, is massadigtheid, meganiese kompaksie, waterinhoud, deurlugting en temperatuur. Chemiese eienskappe wat wortelgroei kan beperk, is byvoorbeeld voedingstofkonsentrasies, pH en basiese toksisiteite.

Wortelgroei en anatomie Wortelgroei begin met die ontkieming van die saad. Wanneer die embrio uit die saad te voorskyn kom, vorm die radikula/kiemwortel die eerste deel van die wortelstelsel.

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Die wortelpunt word beskerm deur die wortelmussie en word voortdurend vervang, omdat dit maklik beskadig word soos die wortel deur die grond druk. Die wortelpunt kan in drie sones verdeel word, naamlik ’n sone vir seldeling, een vir verlenging en een vir veroudering/ differensiasie. Die sone vir seldeling is die naaste aan die wortelpunt en bestaan uit aktief verdelende selle van die wortelmeristeem. Die sone van verlenging is waar die nuutgestigte selle in lengte vermeerder Hef alle verdigtingslae op om optimale wortelontwikkeling te laat en sodoende vind geskied. wortelverlenging plaas. Die sone van Die buitenste sellaag van die vaatweefsel selveroudering en differensiasie word gevind staan bekend as die perisikel, ’n gebied waar die eerste wortelhaar voorkom en wat verantwoordelik is vir die ontwikkeling die korrelselle in spesiale seltipes begin van sywortels. In dikotiele (tweesaadlobbige onderskei. Al drie sones word gevind in plante) plantwortels is die xileem en ongeveer die eerste sentimeter vanaf die floëem in die stam afwisselend gerangskik wortelpunt. in ’n x-vorm, terwyl die vaatweefsel in Vaatweefsel in die wortel is gerangskik monokotiele (eensaadlobbige plante) in die binneste gedeelte en staan bekend plantwortels in ’n kring om die murg as die vaskulêre silinder. Die endodermis gerangskik is. skei die vaatweefsel van die grondweefsel Penetrasie-weerstand en in die buitenste gedeelte van die wortel. meganiese kompaksie Die endodermis dien as ’n kontrolepunt Baie faktore beïnvloed die wortelverspreiding vir materiaal wat die vaskulêre stelsel van van ’n gewas. Penetrasieweerstand (PW), die wortel binnedring. Op die kant van gemeet met ’n drukmeter (penetrometer), die endodermis is wasagtige suberien en die grondwaterinhoud is hoogs teenwoordig en die area staan bekend as interafhanklik en beide word beïnvloed die Kaspariese band. deur tekstuur, struktuur, aggregasie en Die Kaspariese band veroorsaak massadigtheid. dat water en opgeloste stowwe die Teen ’n konstante grondwaterinhoud kan plasmamembraan van die endodermis die PW verhoog met ’n toename in die slikoorsteek, in plaas daarvan om tussen die en kleifraksie, massadigtheid of die mate selle in te beweeg. Dit verseker dat slegs van kompaksie. materiaal wat deur die wortel benodig Wortelverlenging vind plaas wanneer word, deur die endodermis beweeg, worteldruk meganiese kompaksie oorskry. terwyl gifstowwe en patogene nie deur die Vir enige grond op ’n gegewe massadigtheid endodermis beweeg nie. >>> bladsy 69


agri Promosie/Promotional

<<< bladsy 68 sal die PW verhoog namate die grond droër word en afneem namate die grond natter raak. Gevolglik kan massadigtheidmetings alleen nie verduidelik hoe grondfisiese toestande wortelgroei beïnvloed nie. Wanneer die wortelpunt ’n struikelblok teëkom wat penetrasie verhoed, kan die wortelpunt verstomp en kan dit veroorsaak dat die oppervlakselle afsterf. Meganiese verdigting verlaag die tempo van wortelverlenging as gevolg van beide ’n afname in die tempo van selverdeling in die meristeem en ’n afname in sellengte (eerder as volume). Die toename in die worteldiameter in gekompakteerde gronde is as gevolg van ’n toename in die dikte van die korteks; dit is ’n gevolg van beide die toename in die deursnee van die buitenste selle en ’n toename in die aantal selle per lengteeenheid van die wortel. Kortliks beteken dit dat die wortel vertikaal in die grond sal afgroei totdat daar ’n gekompakteerde laag (dit wil sê, ’n ploegsool, kompaksielaag ens.) voorkom, horisontaal groei parallel met die kompaksie en weer vertikaal kan afgroei as dit ’n niegekompakteerde laag bereik.

Waterinhoud en besproeiing Wanneer wortelverspreiding nie deur ander faktore beperk word nie, word die worteldiepte deur die grond se waterhouvermoë beheer. Daar is gevind dat die maksimum worteldiepte vir mielies toeneem namate die beskikbare vog afneem. Dus, growwe tekstuur en goed gedreineerde gronde het ’n groter worteldieptepotensiaal as swak gedreineerde gronde. Besproeiing het ook ’n invloed op wortelverspreiding en hoëfrekwensie-besproeiing lei tot

vlak wortelstelsels teenoor laefrekwensiebesproeiing wat dieper wortelstelsels tot gevolg het en dus doeltreffende wateropname uit die diep lae van die profiel verseker. Selfs met ’n groot waterreservoir dieper in die grond kan gereelde besproeiing, met vlak benatting, die wortels tot die boonste grondlaag beperk.

Temperatuur Wortelontwikkeling word betekenisvol beïnvloed deur ’n verandering in grondtemperature en dit kan ’n uitwerking op morfologiese veranderinge sowel as die funksie en metabolisme van die wortels tot gevolg hê. Morfologiese veranderinge as gevolg van ’n verandering in grondtemperatuur kan ’n verandering in die wortellengte, droëmateriaal en vertakking van die wortels veroorsaak. In die algemeen sal wortelgroei toeneem met ’n toename in grondtemperatuur, totdat ’n optimum bereik word en waarna die groei weer sal afneem. Die uitwerking van lae grondtempe­ ra­ture kan die opneem van water en voedingstowwe deur die wortels vertraag. By ’n lae grondwaterinhoud sal die tempo van wortelontwikkeling van ’n mielie afneem met die toename in grondtemperatuur. By ’n temperatuur van 30˚C sal die wortelontwikkeling toeneem met ’n toename in beskikbare water,

maar dit is egter nie die geval by ’n lae grondtemperatuur van 15˚C nie.

Slotsom Dit is belangrik dat gronde wat vir gewas­ produksie gebruik word nie gekompakteer moet wees nie, veral gronde met ’n lae kleipersentasie, en dat die grond se voedingstatus gebalanseerd is. Hierdie is bestuurbare aspekte wat die produsent kan bestuur en regstel om wortelpenetrasie en -verspreiding optimaal te laat geskied om water en voedingstowwe effektief te onderskep. Navrae: Hendrik Linde, Landboukundige, Wes-Vrystaat 079 527 7695.

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agri Nuus/News

STRATEGIESE LANDBOUVENNOOTSKAPPE Agri SA en die Agri Securitas Trustfonds het strategiese vennootskappe met die privaatsektor gesluit tot voordeel van lede van die landbousektor. Dié ondernemings maak finansiële bydraes tot Agri SA en die Trustfonds se werksaamhede.

STRATEGIC AGRICULTURAL PARTNERSHIPS Agri SA and the Agri Securitas Trust Fund have concluded strategic partnerships with the private sector to the benefit of members of the agricultural sector. These businesses make a financial contribution to Agri SA and the Trust Fund’s activities. Nissan SA Nissan SA is by die Agri Securitas Trustfonds betrokke en dra by tot die fonds se landelike beveiligingsprojekte. Gebruik die vlootkode, F14911, by u handelaar wanneer ‘n Nissan-voertuig aangekoop word, sodat Nissan SA sy bydrae tot die Trustfonds kan maak. Besoek www.nissan.co.za. l Nissan SA is involved with the Agri Securitas Trust Fund and contributes to the Fund’s rural safety projects. Use the fleet code, F14911, when you visit your dealer to purchase a Nissan vehicle so that Nissan SA can make its contribution to the Trust Fund. Visit www.nissan.co.za.

T&E FinOps Dié maatskappy het die gesinsbeskermingsplan in samewerking met Agri SA ontwikkel, waarin onder meer voorsiening gemaak word vir dood, ongeskiktheid, trauma, hospitaalkontant en passiewe oorlogvoeringvoordele. Kontak Tiens Theron, 082 386 1593. l The company has developed a family protection plan in collaboration with Agri SA which, among other things, makes provision for death, disability, trauma, hospital cash and passive-war benefits. Contact Tiens Theron, 082 386 1593.

CrisisOnCall CrisisOnCall beskik deur middel van verskeie diensverskaffers oor die infrastruktuur om mediese hulp, reismonitering, padbystand en vele meer, aan lede regdeur die land te bied. Kontak deur te sms, coc Agri SA na 33282. l CrisisOnCall, via its various service providers, has the necessary infrastructure to provide medical assistance, travel monitoring, roadside assistance and many other services to members throughout the country. To contact CrisisOnCall, send an sms, coc Agri SA to 33282.

Sonfin Dié maatskappy spesialiseer in groenkragoplossings en bied doelgemaakte oplossings aan kliënte, wat in hulle eie kragbehoeftes wil voorsien. Kontak Chris Schutte met verwysing AgriSec/Sonfin, 087 751 1216. l The company specialises in green energy solutions and can offer custom-made solutions to clients who wish to meet their own energy needs. Contact Chris Schutte, 087 751 1216, and use AgriSec/Sonfin as reference.

AliSom Die ooreenkoms met Vodacom bied deur die maatskappy se “fulfilment partners”, soos AliSom, die landbou toegang tot moderne tegno­logiese oplossings op die sellulêre, satelliet- en dataplatforms. Kontak Niandre, 082 389 5169 of e-pos ebuadmin@alisom.co.za l The agreement with Vodacom offers through the company’s “fulfilment partners”, such as AliSom, members of the agriculture sector, access to modern technological solutions on cellular, satellite and data platforms. Contact Niandre, 082 389 5169 or email ebuadmin@alisom.co.za.

Sanlam Sanlam maak deur die Agri Securitas Trustfonds ‘n bydrae tot Agri SA se Transformasie Kommunikasie, waardeur gepoog word om die beeld van kommersiële landbou te bevorder. Besoek www.sanlam.co.za. l Sanlam, via the Agri Securitas Trust Fund, makes a contribution to Agri SA’s Transformation Communication, which strives to promote the image of commercial agriculture. Visit www.sanlam.co.za.

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agri Nuus/News

Farmer still grabs profitable opportunities LIVHUWANI NGWEKHULU, TRANSFORMATION MANAGER

Madambi Muvhulawa, a farmer from Louis Trichardt in Limpopo, has had a long farming journey.

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grew up under a widowed mother and had to take care of other people’s livestock with other boys,” says Muvhulawa. “My mother took good care of us out of her smallholder farming operation and therefore I didn’t take it seriously and decided to pursue an accounting diploma.” It was pure interest that made him buy a few cows. Around 1982, when the then Venda government was distributing land to smallholder farmers, he applied and received some hectares in Nwanedi next to the Limpopo River, where he kept his livestock. “That is when I decided to go commercial and to buy specific breeds, which was a good decision.” However, as the land was a lease from the government, the lease specified that the government only had to give three months’ notice to take the farm back. “That didn’t suit me at all, as I was solely a livestock farmer and consequently I started saving money from calves that I sold at a reasonable profit.”

Own farm purchase and land claims Some commercial farmers have always been very good to new farmers, he says. “I got a 300 hectare farm for sale around Louis Trichardt and agreed with the commercial farmer that I will pay him once a year after selling the calves. I really needed a farm at that point and never thought he would agree to my proposal.” Surprisingly the farmer agreed and their agreement was that the transfer would be delayed until the last instalment. “I paid to the last cent. This meant that I had two farms: one under government lease and the other under my ownership. Unfortunately the one

under government lease received land claims from surrounding communities and were all transferred to the communities under the land reform program and our leases were terminated.”

Venturing into horticulture business, challenges faced Muvhulawa also wanted to farm with different fruits and decided to ask the local traditional authority to grant him some land. “I was granted 15 hectares, where I planted some avocados, like everyone else was doing in our communities. However, I saw the commercial farmers in the region planting macadamias, even uprooting the avocados. “I decided to plant 5 hectares of macadamia as well. I later added another 5 hectares of macadamia to make it 10 hectares. I, however, struggled to market them as I was told that I was not a member of the club. I had to use one of the commercial farmers, who was a club member, and he marketed on my behalf. He would give me a cheque later. Our relationship was based on mutual trust. “I started using different nut marketing companies until I settled with Royal Macadamia. I used them heavily as they were different and I felt they paid better. All these nut marketing companies had to crack your nuts and that added to the costs. Lately Macridge came along with a Chinese market, who preferred the nut in its shell. That reduced the farmer’s costs.” Macridge’s horticulturist advised him to spray more to deal with stinkbugs and other pests. “They check our nuts regularly and identify various problems. Last year my quality was one of the best. My cultivars

are mainly Nel II and Beumont. My main advantage is that the rain is high here and I hardly irrigate as the rain almost meets my moisture requirements. My main costs are bush maintenance on orchards, pruning and pesticides.” At full season, he employs around 14 workers on his 10 hectares of macadamia alone. “On the 300 hectare farm I purchased from a commercial farmer I have 30 hectare peppadews that I plant on contract, the other 270 hectares is grazing for my 80 herd of cattle. It, unfortunately, is also under land claims – like many farms here in Louis Trichardt. It is a challenge we all have to face as farmers.”

Farmers’ organisations He says that he has valued farmers’ organisations since his early farming days. “I joined the then Venda Livestock Farmers’ Association and became the secretary – as I was the youngest. Later I became the chairperson, until 2013. It is now called Vhembe Livestock Farmers’ Association. Aggrey Mahanjana then came and recruited us to become part of Nerpo and I became a board member. Then Nerpo started offering training and we started recruiting staff members. I became Nerpo’s national chairman until around 2011.” He is still very much involved in running Nerpo and is currently the chairman of Nerpo Investments. “Succession plans are very important in farmers’ organisations,” he says. “Just look at the Vhembe Livestock Farmers’ Association to understand the smooth succession plan”. Other value chain developments Having been in the industry for a long time, Muvhulawa understands that more value lies in the agricultural value chain. As part of the Vhembe Fresh Produce Cooperative, the European Union helped them build a packhouse to take advantage of fresh produce produced in the area. “Furthermore, as part of Vhembe Agroprocessing Cooperative, we got R1.8m from the department of social development. We want to make achar from mangoes and veggies and we also plan to dry fruits. We are assembling the necessary equipment there. The producers will be the owners of the plant.” There is no doubt that he has come a long way since buying his first cows in the 80s. agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Agri SA se rol in landelike beveiliging KOBUS VISSER, DIREKTEUR: KORPORATIEWE SKAKELING

Die Landelike Veiligheidsentrum vir Uitnemendheid fasiliteer Agri SA se betrokkenheid by die beïnvloeding van beleid, wetgewing en programme wat betrekking het op die veiligheid en sekuriteit van boerderygemeenskappe en landelike omgewing.

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ie werksaamhede van die Sentrum word ondersteun deur die polisie, weermag, korrek­ tiewe dienste, die Nasionale Vervolgings­gesag en die Instituut vir Sekerheid­studies. In ‘n persepsieopname onder die boer­dery­gemeenskap het respondente vyf knelpunte geïdentifiseer as die belangrikste uitdagings waarmee die landbou te kampe het. Die uitslag wys op die noodsaak van volgehoue aandag aan die uitdagings wat misdaad vir die landbou op alle vlakke van die organisasie bied: • grondhervorming; • hoë insetkoste; • misdaad/landelike veiligheid; • gebrek aan regeringsondersteuning; en • ekonomiese onsekerheid;

STRATEGIESE ONTWIKKELINGS Die ontwikkeling van landelike beveiliging­ strategieë is deur die volgende verwikkelinge beïnvloed: 1997: Agri SA versoek die regering vir strategieë om boerderygemeenskappe te beskerm. 1997: ‘n Landelike beveiligingsplan word geïmplementeer met fokus op plaasen kleinhoewebeskerming en huis- en haardbevordering. Oktober 1998: Ná gesprekke met president Nelson Mandela word ‘n Landelike Spitsberaad gehou, en plaasaanvalle deur regering geprioritiseer. 1999/2000: ‘n Prioriteitskomitee oor Landelike Veiligheid word gevestig deur die Jointstruktuur. 2001: ‘n Strategiese plan vir Suid-Afrikaanse landbou kom tot stand en die behoud en

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uitbreiding van die kommandostelsel word gevestig. April 2001: ‘n Ondersoekkomitee word deur minister Steve Tshwete aangestel na die motiewe vir plaasaanvalle. Daar word bevind dat roof die hoofmotief is. Februarie 2003: President Thabo Mbeki kondig die uitfassering van die kommandostelsel aan. Landelike veiligheid word die verantwoordelik­heid van die polisie en benodig ‘n nuwe strategie. Julie 2011: ‘n Omvattende landelike beveiligingstrategie word geïmplementeer en gemeenskaps­polisiëring word ingestel. 2014: ‘n Ondersoek van die menseregte­ kommissie bevind roof is die hoofmotief van landelike misdaad en wys op goeie samewerking tussen grondeienaars en werknemers en dat die landelike beveiligingstrategie omvattend en inklusief is. Die waarde van Agri SA se tydige ingryping en volgehoue betrokkenheid by landelike veiligheid in Suid-Afrika sedert 1997 kan moeilik oorskat word. Genoodsaak deur 1997 se skokkend hoë voorkoms van plaasmisdaad – insluitend die hoogste moordsyfer op Suid-Afrikaanse plase tot nog toe – het Agri SA destyds die inisiatief geneem om die erns van die situasie onder die regering se aandag te bring. Die regering is onder meer versoek om dringend gepaste strategieë te ontwikkel om die boerderygemeenskap te beskerm. Agri SA en ander belanghebbendes is gestruktureerd en gekoördineerd betrek by die ontwikkeling van dié plan. Die beveiligingsproses het stukrag gekry ná Agri SA se gesprekke oor die aangeleentheid met president Nelson Mandela en ’n landelike spitsberaad daaruit

gevloei het. Die beraad­ konsensus was dat ’n proses gevestig moes word Kobus Visser om doeltreffend teen plattelandse misdaad op te tree en terselfdertyd bestaande strategieë te verstewig. Een van die belangrike besluite tydens die beraad was dat georganiseerde landbou ’n aktiewe rol moes speel om landelike veiligheid te verbeter. Dit het onder meer daartoe gelei dat Agri SA die Agri Securitas Trustfonds in 1999 gevestig het. Dié fonds was die afgelope 17 jaar betrokke by die finansiering van ’n magdom projekte wat plattelandse veiligheid bevorder het.

UITDAGINGS Agri SA en sy affiliasies moes deurgaans op die voorvoet bly om die momentum van die beveiligingsproses deur gepaste beleid en prosedures te behou. So was die onverwagse uitfasering van Suid-Afrika se ondersteunende kommandostelsel vroeg in 2003 ’n terugslag vir die doeltreffendheid van die landelike beveiligingsplan. Agri SA het kort ná dié aankondiging met die ministers van veiligheid en sekuriteit asook verdediging vergader om sy besorgdheid oor dié verwikkelinge uit te spreek en die belangrikheid daarvan oor te dra dat Agri SA ’n aktiewe rol in die ontwikkeling en inhoud van ’n werkbare nuwe plan behoort te speel. Dit het daartoe gelei dat Agri SA nie alleen oor die inhoud van die nuwe veiligheidsplan – gerig op alle persone woonagtig in landelike gebiede en nie net boere nie – geraadpleeg is nie, maar aktief betrek is by die ontwikkeling daarvan. Wat die nuwe bedeling betref, waar die SA Polisiediens (SAPD) die beproefde kommandostelsel moes vervang, sal die strategie volgens vier meganismes gevestig word: • Die toepassing van sektorpolisiëring; • Die gebruik van misdaadbestrydings­ eenhede om landelike veiligheid te verseker; • Die gebruik van reserviste; en • Die toewysing van meer personeel aan die >>> bladsy 71


agri Nuus/News

<<< bladsy 70 verskillende polisiestasies. Die feit dat die polisie voortaan in geheel vir die veiligheid van die plattelandse gemeenskappe verantwoordelik sou wees, het uiteraard veranderinge aan die landelike beveiligingsplan genoodsaak en die ontwikkeling en toepassing van ’n proses wat die voortgesette veiligheid van die plattelandse gemeenskappe sou verseker. Wat Agri SA gepla het, is dat daar verskeie obstruksies geïdentifiseer is wat die praktiese toepassing van die nuwe bedeling kon belemmer. Dit sluit onder meer in • ’n Verouderde veiligheidsplan vir landelike gebiede, onvoldoende riglyne, leiding en ondersteuning deur die nasionale en provinsiale polisievlakke om die toepassing van veiligheid by plaaslike polisiestasies doeltreffend te laat geskied; • Die hulpbronne (logistiek én personeel) was ontoereikend by landelike polisie­ stasies en die tegnologiese bystand en ontwikkeling was ook gebrekkig; • Infrastruktuur en onderhoud was nie op standaard nie, vaardighede is aan stedelike gebiede afgestaan en die ondersteuning en bystand aan beginnerboere was gebrekkig; • Samewerking en koördinasie tussen departemente is nie goed nie en personeel het nie presies geweet wat hulle rol en verantwoordelikhede is nie; • Kommunikasienetwerke en -meganismes was ondoeltreffend en kommunikasie met die gemeenskap ook nie na wense nie; en • Dienslewering is ook deur stadige reaksietyd weens groot gebiede belemmer, terwyl die vlak van arrestasies en skuldigbevindings ook kommer gewek het. Hoewel die Khayelitsha-kommissie van ondersoek hoofsaaklik op die stand van sake in Khayelitsha gegrond was, het dit dié uitdagings bevestig. Van die bevindinge van dié ondersoek was: • Misdaadintelligensie was gebrekkig;

• Misdaad is ondoeltreffend ondersoek; • Toesig om te verseker dat saakdossiere die hof bereik, was gebrekkig; • Die opleiding en mentorskap van speurders en die gehalte van speurderrekrute was nie goed genoeg nie; en • Opleiding in die bestuur van misdaadtonele en forensiese wetenskappe was swak en die hulpbronne gebrekkig om goeie werk by misdaadtonele en ondersoeke moontlik te maak.

OMVATTENDE STRATEGIE In ooreenstemming met Agri SA se beleid om nie net te kritiseer nie, maar ’n positiewe bydrae tot die verbetering van landelike veiligheid te maak, het die organisasie hom deurlopend beywer vir die verbetering van dienslewering op alle vlakke. Dit het uiteindelik daartoe gelei dat sy voorstelle met min uitsonderings in ’n nasionale landelike beveiligingstrategie (RSS) opgeneem is. Die nuwe, omvattende strategie het in Julie 2011 die lig gesien en, hoewel daar in die praktyk knelpunte kan voorkom, was Agri SA tevrede dat dit ’n werkbare strategie vir plattelandse veiligheid is. Die Landelike Beveiligingstrategie staan op vier pilare: • Bevorderering van dienslewering, ondersteun deur sektorpolisiering en polisiereserviste; • Ontwikkeling van ‘n geïntegreerde benadering; • Gemeenskapsbeveiliging, insluitend huisen haardbeskerming; en • Landelike ontwikkeling. Dié strategie maak dit vir die polisie moontlik om: • Dienslewering aan almal in die landelike gebiede te verbeter; • Sigbaarheid in landelike gebiede te verhoog; • Reaksietyd te verbeter; • Doeltreffend in landelike gebiede op te tree;

• Die toepassing van sektorpolisiëring in die landelike omgewing te ondersteun; • Bewusmaking van veiligheid te verhoog en die plattelandse gemeenskap se kennis van veiligheid en sekuriteit te verbeter; • Kommunikasie en verhoudings tussen die polisie, boerderygemeenskappe, ander belanghebbendes en uitgebreide plattelandse gebiede te verbeter; • Ondersoeke en skuldigbevindings uiteindelik veel beter te laat geskied. • Dienslewering aan almal in die landelike gebiede te verbeter; • Sigbaarheid in landelike gebiede te verhoog; • Reaksietyd te verbeter; • Doeltreffend in landelike gebiede op te tree; • Die toepassing van sektorpolisiëring in die landelike omgewing te ondersteun; • Bewusmaking van veiligheid te verhoog en die plattelandse gemeenskap se kennis van veiligheid en sekuriteit te verbeter; • Kommunikasie en verhoudings tussen die polisie, boerderygemeenskappe, ander belanghebbendes en uitgebreide plattelandse gebiede te verbeter; en • Ondersoeke en skuldigbevindings uiteindelik veel beter te laat geskied. Die beleid oor reserviste bepaal dat ‘n reservis in die sektor waarin hy woon, aangewend sal word en kan met die goed­ keuring van die nasionale kommissaris elders aangewend kan word, indien die situasie dit vereis. Reserviste word geag as die ruggraat vir die uitvoering van die Landelike Beveiligingstrategie. Die vestiging van sektorpolisiëring op ‘n gedesentraliseerde en geografiese basis, is ‘n benadering wat ‘n polisie-area in bestuurbare sektore verdeel om diens­lewering en gemeenskapsbetrokkenheid te bevorder. Die reservistebedeling en sektorpolisiëring behoort deur die landbou­gemeenskap ondersteun te word in ‘n poging om >>> bladsy 73

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agri Promosie/Promotional

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agri Nuus/News

<<< bladsy 71 polisiëring op plaaslike vlak verder uit te brei. Verdere ondersteuning kan geskied deur die vestiging van plaaswagte in ‘n observasie- en inligtinginsamelings rol. Hierdie benaderings kan gesamentlik ‘n groot rol speel om, as ‘n mag vermenigvuldiger, ter ondersteuning van meer effektiewe polisiëring. NASIONALE ONTWIKKELINGSPLAN Die Nasionale Ontwikkelingsplan (NOP) spreek in hoofstuk 12 die skep van veiliger gemeenskappe aan. As deel van die plan word die volgende aanbevelings gemaak om ‘n meer professionele mag daar te stel; naamlik; • Die vestiging van ’n nasionale polisiëringsraad met multi-sektorale en multi-dissiplinêre kundiges. Dié raad moet onder meer standaarde stel vir die werwing, keuring, aanstelling en bevordering van polisielede; • ’n Bevoegdheidsopname by alle offisiere en klassifikasie daarvolgens; • Die samestelling van ’n gedragskode vir SAPD-lede wat daarna deel moet wees van dissiplinêre prosedure; • Die ontwikkeling van ’n tweestroomstelsel aan die hand van objektiewe evaluering, sodat hoogstaande rekrute en polisielede daardeur verseker kan word; en • Die demilitarisering van die polisiemag. Dit sluit ’n hersiening in van die organisatoriese kultuur en sub-kulture binne die polisie. In sy kommentaar op die Witskrif oor die Polisie en Veiligheid en Sekuriteit, het Agri SA hierdie beginsels in ag geneem. Die Witskrif oor die Polsie as struktuur sal gevolg gee aan ‘n nuwe polisiewet. Die breë beginsels oor polisiëringsaspekte en die veiligheid- en sekuriteitsaspekte van die gemeenskap is in die Witskrif oor Veiligheid en Sekuriteit aangeraak. Die polisie het hom tydens ’n werks-

winkel oor plattelandse veiligheid op 7 Julie vanjaar opnuut aan doeltreffende landelike beveiliging verbind en ‘n beplanning gedoen oor die operasionalisering van die landelike beveiligingstrategie. Die polisie se “Back to Basics-program” het ook heelwat aandag geniet. Die “Back to Basics-program” het ten doel dat die polisie die basiese aspekte van polisiëring deurlopend goed doen. Die verbetering van dissipline en verhoogde polisiesigbaarheid is belangrike doelwitte, terwyl onderprestasie en stelselgebreke by polisie-eenhede en -stasies ook hoë prioriteit geniet. Omvattende aandag is ook gegee aan die vier strategiepilare vir landelike veilig­heid, wat verbeterde dienslewering, bewusmaking by die gemeenskap, platteland­se ontwikkeling en ’n geïntegreer­ de benadering insluit. Voorvalle op plase en kleinhoewes maak ’n spesifieke fokusgebied van die beveiligingstrategie uit. STRATEGIESE BENADERING Agri SA se leiding en aktiewe betrokkenheid by landelike veiligheid vir byna twee dekades het bepaald vrugte afgewerp. Tog besef dié organisasie dat sy rol nooit uitgedien kan raak nie. Gevolglik is ’n omvattende strategie ontwikkel met verskeie belangrike strategiese doelstellings. Dit sluit ses kerndoelwitte in om landelike veiligheid te verseker; • Kommunikasie moet bevorder word. Dit behels deurlopende gesprekvoering met die uitvoerende gesag van die regering en polisie om die waarde van landbou en die belang van voedselsekerheid vir die land te beklemtoon; die uitwerking van landelike misdaad op werkskepping en die ontwikkeling van die plattelandse ekonomie te wys; om bevel- en beheerprobleme op stasievlak te herstel; te sorg dat die reservistestelsel goed werk;

• Die implementering van die landelike beveiligingstrategie moet bevorder word. Dit sluit suksesvolle selfhelp-aksies deur boereverenigings om misdaad te bekamp, die vestiging van plaaswagte ter ondersteuning van reserviste en goeie opleiding in; • Die effektiewe bestuur van misdaadtonele deur goeie opleiding en deeglike voorbereiding van saakdossiere vir die hofproses; • Doeltreffende navorsing oor toepaslike sake, insluitend aspekte soos die voorkoms en motiewe van plaasaanvalle; • Die bespoediging van die implementering van landelike polisie-eenhede in prioriteitsklusters, soortgelyk aan die taktiese reaksie-eenhede (TRT’s); en • Sosio-ekonomiese doelwitte van Agri SA te bevorder, soos die verbetering van die sakevernuf van kommersiële en opkomende boere, die bevordering van geakkrediteerde opleiding en ander sake van belang wat uiteindelik tot landelike stabiliteit bydra. ‘N PAAR KAPSTOKKE Die Landelike Beveiligingstrategie bly die oorhoofse instrument om landelike beveiliging te bevorder en die volgende aspekte kan deur boereverenigings oorweeg word om die veiligheidsituasie plaaslik aan te spreek; • Bevorder deurlopende samewerking met die polisie; • Raak aktief betrokke by die Plaaslike Prioriteitskomitee oor Landelike Veiligheid, waar plaaslike polisiëring en misdaaduitdagings hanteer moet word; • Vestig ‘n Subgemeenskapspolisiëringsforum om sektor gebonde kwessies te hanteer en affilieer by die plaaslike Gemeenskapspolisiëringsforum (GPF); • Raak betrokke as reservis by die reservistestelsel; • Vestig plaaswagstelsel in samewerking met polisie en ontwikkel ‘n gedragskode; • Ontwikkel toepaslike beveiligingsplanne in samewerking met die polisie; • Bevorder eie en plaaswerkers se paraatheid; • Pas die protokol vir plaastoegang effektief toe; • Meld swak dienslewering deur die polisie onmiddellik aan by die stasiebevelvoerder; en • Rapporteer alle misdade by die polisie en, as klaer, bly deel van die strafproses tot die saak afgehandel is. Agri SA vertrou dat sy positiewe betrokkenheid by landelike veiligheid ook in die toekoms ’n verskil kan maak. agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Nuus/News

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agri Nuus/News

Boerderygemeenskappe staal hulle teen misdadigheid Die boerderygemeenskappe van Umvoti in KwaZulu-Natal en Colesberg in die Noord-Kaap is beter vir misdadigers toegerus nadat die Agri Securitas Trustfonds geld beskikbaar gestel het om nommerplaat­herkenning­ kameras en ‘n radioherhaler in die onderskeie gebiede op te rig. Die stelsels sal gebruik word om toegang te moniteer en radiokommunikasie tussen lede te verbeter.

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e midde van verskeie uitdagings, waaronder die negatiewe impak van misdadigheid op hulle besighede, word dit vir boerderygemeenskappe al hoe moeiliker en te oorleef en te produseer. Dit bly moeilik om aan boere, wat as hulle primêre verantwoordelikheid vir genoeg kos moet sorg, te verduidelik dat hulle ook na hulle eie veiligheid moet omsien,” sê Japie

Grobler, voorsitter van die Trustfonds. Die Trustfonds probeer om met dié ondersteuning boerderygemeenskappe te help om hulle veiligheid op voorkomende maatreëls te rig, eerder as op reaktiewe optrede. “Deur te help om ‘n veiliger produksie-omgewing te skep, wil die Trustfonds pro-aktief bydra om boerderygemeen­skappe veiliger te hou en om voedselproduksie vir die land se groeiende bevolking in stand te hou,” sê Grobler.

“Dié beveiligings­projekte is weer ‘n bewys dat boerdery­gemeenskappe bereid is om na hulle eie veiligheid om te sien en unieke oplossings vir die misdaadprobleem in hulle areas te vind.” Grobler sê die Trustfonds kan landelike veiligheid nie alleen takel nie en daarom is baie dank aan strategiese vennote vir hulle finansiële ondersteuning verskuldig. Hulle is Nissan SA, Sanlam, CrisisOnCall en Sonfin.

Progress with reservist dispensation welcomed Agri SA has welcomed the acting national police commissioner’s announcement that all nine provinces may go ahead with the recruitment of reservists for the 2016/2017 financial year in accordance with operational requirements.

A

well-functioning reservist system will contribute towards promoting the police’s “back to basics programme” and supplement the police force in rural areas to give further momentum to the implementation of the Rural Safety Strategy,” said Kobus Breytenbach, chair of Agri SA’s Rural Safety Committee. Reservists will be used mainly in support of crime-prevention operations at station level and to strengthen the capacity of the police during peak crime periods. People who wish to be considered as reservists will be subject to stringent criteria and will be recruited and deployed within the community in which they live. They will be recruited in two categories, namely for functional policing and for specialised

operational support. Functional reservists will perform general policing functions such as serving in the community centre, investigating complaints and becoming involved in home and hearth activities. A reservist in a specialised profession, such as a pilot or social worker, will be deployed in his/her professional capacity. The reservist will be expected to volunteer for 16 hours’ service per month and to undergo the prescribed training. Implementa­tion of the reservist system is a matter, which Agri SA has discussed with the police on an ongoing basis, even at the organisation’s recent congress. “We call on qualifying members of the farming community to use this opportunity and consider joining as a reservist and to

apply at the nearest police station for this purpose,” said Breytenbach. The reservist dispensation and sector policing must be supported by the farming community in an attempt to Kobus Breytenbach expand policing at local level. Further support can be provided by establishing farm watches in an observation and information-gathering role. “These approaches collectively can play a major role in support of more effective policing and the creation of safer rural areas,” concluded Breytenbach.

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agri Bewaring/Conservation

Augustuswinde... in September, Oktober en November LEHMAN LINDEQUE

lehman.lindeque@gmail.com

Ek is nie seker of dit is as gevolg van die geweldige stofstorms wat met die huidige droogte gepaard gegaan het nie, maar hierdie jaar het dit vir my gevoel asof die wind erger gewaai het as ooit tevore. “Up with the sun. Gone with the wind.” Bob Seger (sanger en

liedjieskrywer)

W

In hierdie artikel kyk ons na wind, die effek daarvan op erosie en ‘n paar praktiese riglyne om skade deur winderosie te beperk.

Is daar meer wind en waai dit sterker as in die verlede? In ‘n goeie tegniese artikel van die “Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering” beweer Kruger, Retief en Goliger (2013) dat daar nie werklik veranderinge in die windpatrone is sedert ‘n studie wat hulle in 2011 gedoen het en ‘n vorige studie van 1985 nie. Die enigste verklaring vir veranderinge in data is volgens die skrywers die beter beskik­baarheid van data. Die Suid-Afrikaanse Weerdiens se Outomatiese Weerstasienetwerk het sedert 1990 sodanig uitgebrei dat meer data oor wind tans beskikbaar is as wat die geval in 1985 was. Uit hulle studie is twee kaarte vir die land ontwikkel, een wat die relatiewe sterkte van rukwinde (gusts) aandui (Figuur 9 uit hul verslag), en die voorgestelde jaarlikse maksimum uurlikse windspoed, beide uitgedruk in meter per sekonde (m/s)( Figuur 2). Die kaart van die rukwinde (Figuur 1) toon ‘n duidelike afname in waardes van suid na noord. Die gebied met relatiewe hoë

LEHMAN LINDEQUE

inderosie is in baie gevalle die stiefkind van al die erosietipes en ek dink daar is ‘n groot wanpersepsie oor hoe ernstig die probleem regtig is en hoeveel kosbare bogrond deur ‘n enkele windstorm verlore kan gaan.

interessant is: die gebiede met die hoogste uurlikse windspoed is die Kaapse Skiereiland weswaarts, wat gedeeltes van die Overberg insluit, die Figuur 1. Die voorgestelde 1:50 jaar maksimum hoeveelhede kus en aangrensende jaarlikse rukwinde (m/s) (Kruger et al 2011) binneland van Algoabaai en ‘n waardes in die noorde van die Oos-Kaap is redelike groot gedeelte in die Groot Karoo as gevolg van die geweldige donderstorms vanaf die oostekant van die Hexrivierberge wat van tyd tot tyd daar voorkom. Dit tot by Beaufort-Wes. verklaar natuurlik, saam met die topografie Tydens die ontwikkeling van die Wind en geologie van die gebied, hoekom Atlas for South Africa het die projek onder dit een van die mees gedegradeerde leiding van die departement van energie, gebiede in die land is. Die uitbreiding van gedetaileerde metings van wind gedoen op die 40 – 45 m/s-lyn in die Oos-Vrystaat tien stasies in die Wes-Kaap, die westelike om gedeeltes van die Noord-Vrystaat en gedeeltes van die Noord-Kaap en groot Noordwes in te sluit, het weer eens te doen gedeeltes van die Oos-Kaap, hoofsaaklik om met die relatiewe sterk verwantskap tussen die moontlikheid en lewensvatbaarheid vir die rukwinde en donderstorms. opwekking van windenergie te ondersoek. Soos in die geval met die rukwinde, Tydens die studie is twee grafieke (teen­ toon die jaarlikse maksimum uurlikse oor­ staande bladsy) geprodu­seer wat ‘n windspoedkaart (Figuur 2) ook ‘n afname aanduiding gee van die verspreiding van die in windspoed van suid na noord. Wat egter Lehman Lindeque: lehman.lindeque@gmail.com

agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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>>> bladsy 77


agri Bewaring/Conservation

<<< bladsy 76

Suspension for kms

pro

file

Saltation

Win d

Altitude above the ground

Dry mist or dustcloud

Traction Wind speed

Figuur 3. Drie prosesse van winderosie: suspensie, spronge en rol- of kruipbeweging (FAO 1980)

Figuur 2. Die voorgestelde 1:50 jaar maksimum hoeveelhede uurlikse gemiddelde windspoed (m/s) (Kruger et al 2011)

wind gedurende die jaar en ook ‘n daaglikse siklus. Uit die grafieke is dit duidelik dat die meeste wind in Augustus, September en Oktober waai en in November weer afneem. Gedurende die dag kom die meeste wind in die namiddag en vroeg­aand voor.

tydens die droogte van die 1930’s is groot stukke aarde bar, droog en sonder enige beskerming teen wind gelaat. Die stofstorms en winderosie was die ergste in die geskiedenis. In die slegste jare van die 1930’s was die sigbaarheid beperk tot minder as ‘n myl vir groot gedeeltes van die dag as gevolg van stof. Behalwe die miljoene tonne vrugbare bogrond wat verlore gegaan het, het honderde, indien nie duisende mense gesterf as gevolg van “dust pneumonia”, stof in die longe. Dit is juis hierdie groot omgewingsramp wat aanleiding gegee het tot die totstandkoming van grondbewarings­diens in Amerika. Nader aan die huis: wie sal die onlangse stofstorms wat met die droogte gepaard gegaan het maklik vergeet?

Wind en winderosie Soos algemeen bekend, was die “Dust Bowl”droogte van die 1930’s een van die grootste omgewingsrampe van die twintigste eeu. Drie miljoen mense het hul plase verlaat op die “Great Plains” en ‘n halfmiljoen mense het migreer na ander state van Amerika, meestal na die weste. Interessant genoeg, in meteoro­ logiese terme ge­meet, was die droogte van die 1930’s nie die ergste in die geskiedenis van Amerika nie. Die droogte van 1856 tot 1865 was, wat afwyking van die gemiddelde reënval betref, erger. Wat egter aanleiding gegee het tot die omgewingsramp, is dat die droogte gepaard gegaan het met onoordeelkundige grondbenuttings­praktyke. Groot gedeeltes van die Prairies is in die dekades voor die 1930’s omgeploeg soos koringverbouiing weswaarts uitgebrei het. Natuurlike Prairie-grasse kan droogtes weerstaan, maar koring nie, en Mean seasonal cycle

0.5 0.0 -0.5

Month (2010-2013)

Nov

Sep

Jul

May

Mar

-1.5

Jan

-1.0

Goodwell, Oklahoma, 4 Junie 1937. Mean daily cycle

4 Normalised wind speed (m/s)

1.0

25 km/h Threshold triggering wind erosion

Praktiese riglyne vir die beheer en die voorkoming van winderosie Voor ons kyk na ‘n paar praktiese riglyne, is dit belangrik om die proses van winderosie te verstaan, veral hoe die grond of sanddeeltjies deur wind vervoer word. Daar is drie belangrike prosesse wat plaas­vind as die windspoed 15 – 25 km/h of 4 – 7 m/s oorskry. Eerstens is daar springende bewegings van fyn sandgedeeltes (0.1 tot 0.5 mm). Tydens hierdie proses word fyn sandgedeeltes etlike meters ver deur sterk wind gedryf. Dit slaan teen wat ook al in die pad kom en is die hoofoorsaak van erosie van rotse in die tipiese paddastoelformasies en ook vir grootskaalse verlies aan gewasse. Die tweede proses is suspensie, waar baie ligte grondpartikels of stof in suspensie weggevoer word. Lugstrome suig basies die stof op en dit word weer neergelaat as ‘n stofwolk. So ‘n stofwolk kan etlike kilometers groot wees en kan ook honderde kilometers beweeg. Die laaste proses van winderosie is die kruip- of rolaksie van die groter gedeeltes (0.5 tot 2 mm). Hierdie gedeeltes is te groot om deur lugstrome opgesuig te word of oor groot afstande te spring en word fisies oor die grond gesleep of gerol. Hierdie drie prosesse word goed geïllustreer in figuur 3. >>> bladsy 79

3 2 1 0 -1 -2

1

4

8

12 16 Hours

20

24

Vrystaatse stofstorm, foto deur Frikkie Kapp (www.dphotographer.co.uk) agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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agri Wyn/Wine Daar’s die ou gesegde dat die beste wyn die een in jou glas is. En dat daar nie regtig ’n ding soos slegte wyn is nie. Debatteerbaar, ja, maar by nadenke oor wat die afgelope jaar die beste in my glas was, het ek besef dis die nuwe spelers uit chenin blanc- en cinsaut-geledere.

Die nuwe sy van chenin en cinsaut

One Formation en Talent & Terroir – deel van Boland se chenin-reeks. agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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Eben Sadie, drywer van alternatiewe cinsaut en chenin in die Swartland.

rooikultivar in Suid-Afrika, veral gebruik in meer kommersiële, alledaagse en dalk boring rooiwyne, sowel as port en rosé. Maar in die stilligheid was dit die geheime bestanddeel in ikoniese rooies. Chateau Libertas het oor die jare gewys hoe goed dit kan verouder met ’n groot cinsaut-komponent, terwyl dit ook ’n spesiale rol gespeel het by Alto Rouge, Uitkyk Carlonet, Schoongezicht en Rustenberg droë rooi – en natuurlik Tassenberg. Cinsaut is egter uitgewerk deur merlot as “versagter” toe Bordeaux-versnitte mode geraak het. Hedendaagse wynrebelle en buurwyn­ makers in die Swartland, Eben Sadie en Adi Badenhorst, het die eerste gesogte Platter’s-vyfstertoeken­nings losgeslaan vir cinsaut. Dit was vir die Sadie Family Pofadder 2013 (2015-uitgawe) en AA Badenhorst Family Wines Ramnasgras Cinsault 2014 (2016-uitgawe). The AA Badenhorst CWG Auction Reserve Kalmoesfontein Ramnasgras Cinsault 2012 het ook 4½ sterre in die 2015- Platter’s gekry. In die jongste van hierdie wynbybels het die Bosman Familie Twyfeling 2015 en Kaapzicht Skuinsberg hierdie onderskeiding behaal.

Aardse en bisarre name is deel van hierdie nuwe rigting – ook gedryf deur Callie Louw (Porseleinberg) en Chris en Andrea Mullineux (Mullineux Wines) van RiebeekKasteel, via die “Swartland Rewolusie”, ’n beweging waarin nuwe styl chenin blanc en cinsaut die fokus was. Riebeek-Kasteel het daarna ook die uitreiking gesien van Mount Abora Saffraan Cinsaut 2014, gemaak deur Johan Meyer “om ’n Swartland-wyn van hierdie vergete kultivar te maak wat met die elegansie en kompleksiteit van koel klimaat pinot noirwyne kan saampraat”. Nog ’n voorbeeld was die uitreiking van die Neil Ellis Cinsaut Noir 2012 einde verlede jaar van 40 jaar oud bosstokke van Groenekloof in die Darling-heuwels – ’n gebied van waar verskeie van die alternatiewe cinsaut-sterre se druiwe kom. Ek hou van Janno-Briers Louw van Eenzaamheid in die Agter-Paarl se Cinsaut >>> bladsy 79

Teks en foto‘s: Cassie du Plessis

J

a, chenin bly die mees aangeplante druifsoort in die land en beide hierdie kultivars was altyd bekend as veelsydige werkesels, dikwels tot hul nadeel. Met die vordering in stylvariasie en sofistikasie wat egter in die jongste tyd gemaak is, verkies ek chenin se vriendelike, fris vrugtigheid (en nou ook kompleksiteit) bo baie ander wittes. Chenin is mos soort van pinotage se eweknie as ’n wynsoort tipies aan Suid-Afrika, hoewel dit eintlik Frans van nasionaliteit is, waar dit egter veel minder prominensie kry. En cinsaut (aka hermitage en cinsault) is natuurlik een van ons eie pinotage-kruising se ouers. Vandag egter ’n afgeskeepte en erg uitgekapte stiefkind – wat gelukkig nou deur ‘n nuwe geslag jong, alternatiewe wynmakers ’n reddingsboei kry. Dít in die vorm van beperkte produksie kultivar-spesifieke wyn in skeppende versnitte met subtiliteit, lae alkohol en minder kleur, veral van ou, droëland-bosstokke – wat in boeretaal beteken dat hulle swaar kry en karakter ontwikkel sonder besproeiing en opleiding aan kapstelsels. Onthou, 50 jaar gelede was cinsaut die hoogste produksie


agri Wyn/Wine <<< bladsy 78 2015 met sy ligter-somerlyf en wenke van roosblaar en kersies ná ligte houtkontak. “Cinsaut se dun velletjie verleen hom nie na donker kleur nie; die mooiheid lê in sy suiwer vrug,” sê hy. Kyk ook uit vir BlankBottle se My Koffer, geïnspireer deur die “tas” van Tassenberg, die ikoon- rooi vin ordinaire met cinsaut-basis sedert 1936. Wat chenin blanc betref, is dit insiggewend om te kyk na die wenners van vanjaar se Standard Bank Chenin Blanc Top Tien, waarvoor daar 124 inskrywings was. Opmerklik is die groot styl- en prysvariasie en deur die bank ’n mate van eikehoutbehandeling, subtiel met veral vatgisting of veroudering in groot, gebruikte eikehoutvate. Hulle is, met bottelpryse: Allée Bleue 2015 (R65), Bellingham The Bernard Series Old Vine 2015 (R160), Boschendal Sommelier Selection 2015 (R85), DeMorgenzon Reserve 2015 (R225), Kleine Zalze Family Reserve 2015 (R160), Kleine Zalze Vineyard Selection Barrel Fermented 2015 (R80), Leopard’s Leap Culinaria Collection 2015 (R80), Perdeberg The Dry Land Collection Barrel Fermented <<< bladsy 77

Riglyne vir die beheer van winderosie Noudat ons verstaan hoe die wind grond­ partikels beweeg, kan ons kyk na praktiese riglyne vir die beheer daarvan. Baie bewaringspraktyke kan toegepas word om die effek van winderosie te beheer, maar almal het ten doel om een of meer van die volgende te bereik: • Verminder die spoed van wind op die grondoppervlak: Dit kan gedoen word deur windbreke, oesreste, dekgewasse, oppervlakruheid en strookbewerking. • Vang die gronddeeltjies wat deur wind beweeg word: Dit word gedoen deur oesreste op lande te los, om die grondoppervlak so ru as moontlik te bewerk en bewerkingsmetodes wat ongelykheid of walletjies maak (ridging), alles om bewegende gronddeeltjies so

2015 (R77), Rijk’s Private Cellar Barrel Fermented 2013 (R140) en Spier 21 Gables 2015 (R150). Intussen was daar nie minder nie as 15 vyfster-chenins in die nuwe Platter’s, met die mees fassinerende naam die Ronnie B Patatsfontein Steen. Witwyn van die Jaar is die Stellenrust 51 Barrel Fermented Chenin Blanc 2015. Die bogenoemdes is onderskeidelik van Stellenbosch en Montagu. Maar Paardebergen Paarl/Drakenstein is oor die jare die hartland van goeie, geen-nonsens chenin. Boland Wynmakery alleen verkry hier druiwe uit vyf klimaatsones vir sy ses chenins en chenin-versnitte. Kyk net na die pryse as jy wil weet van waarde: Reserve No1 Chenin Blanc Gehout 2015 ( R75), Reserve No1 Chenin Blanc Ongehout 2015 ( R60), Talent & Terroir Chenin Blanc 2016 (R53), One Formation Chenin/Sauvignon Blanc/Viognier 2016 (R55), Five Climates Chenin Blanc 2016 (R35) en Sixty40 Chenin/Sauvignon Blanc 2016 (R35). Almal baie welkom in my glas. Geniet die cinsaut- en chenin-shopping in die feesh-tyd. gou as moontlik vas te vang. • Vergroot die grootte van grond­aggregate. Dit kan gedoen word deur wisselbou, insluiting van grasse en peulplante, plant van kontantgewasse met baie reste en die behoud van daardie reste en deur mis in te werk. In uitsonderlike gevalle kan noodbewerking gedoen word om die oppervlak rof te maak en groot klonte uit te breek as die grondtekstuur dit toelaat. Deur die grootte van die gronddeeltjies te vergroot, verminder die kans dat dit deur wind rondbeweeg kan word. Ter opsomming en miskien die belangrik­ ste om te onthou: ‘n beskermende laag van lewende plante of oesreste bly die eenvoudigste en doeltreffendste manier om wind- en gronderosie te beheer. Uit die aard van die saak is dit moeilik om tydens lang droogtes lewende plante in stand te hou en oeste is van so ‘n aard dat dit nie voldoende oesreste produseer nie. Wat bewerkings­ metodes betref, het bewaringsbewerking verreweg die grootste impak op die vermindering van winderosie. Elke bewerking verminder die hoeveelheid reste op die oppervlak en droog terselfdertyd die grond uit, wat dit net meer vatbaar maak vir winderosie.

Louis van der Riet van sover as Calitzdorp het pas sy houtverouderde Le Seur Chenin Blanc 2016 uitgereik (R125) en maak ook ‘n ligte rooi versnit, Paradoks, van die pinotage-“ouers”, cinsaut en pinot noir.

Tabel 1: Die relatiewe vermindering in grondverlies met ‘n toename in grond­bedek­ king (http://extension.unl.edu/publications ) Grondbedekking Relatiewe vermindering (%) in grondverlies (%)

0 0 10 35 20 60 30 70 40 80 50 85 60 90 70 93 80 96 90 98 100 99 Laastens, die tabel hierbo illustreer die effek van grondbedekking op die voor­koming van grondverliese baie duidelik.

Verwysings: Kruger, A.C., Retief, J.V., & Goliger, A.M. 2013. Strong winds in South Africa: Part 2 Mapping of updated statistics. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering. Volume 56 Number 2 August 2013 Effects of wind erosion http://www.fao.org UNL Extension publications online at http:// extension.unl.edu/publications Wind Atlas for South Africa online at www.wasaproject.info agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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O boereplaas, verlore grond... DR GERHARD H VERDOORN, GRIFFON GIFINLIGTINGSENTRUM, NESHER@TISCALI.CO.ZA 082-446-8946

Suid-Afrika se grondgebied is besig om stukkie vir stukkie uitgeloot te word en die wenners is feitlik sonder uitsondering individue en maatskappy wat nog nooit ’n deernis of respek vir die grond, sy wonderlike gawe van lewe aan die aarde en die volhoubare gebruik daarvan gehad het nie.

O

m deur die grasvelde van Mpumalanga te reis is soos ’n ode aan die gestorwe, want die aarde lê dood met gapende wonde en smeulende afvalhope wat suurwater soos giftige tentakels oor die brose aarde uitstuur. Waar boere jare gelede die velde met vee bewei het of kontantgewasse vir die nasie voortgebring het, is daar deesdae verwoesting van ’n ongekende aard met swart steenkoolwolke wat oor die velde lê. Jan FE Cilliers se gedig, Die Vlakte, wat lui “ek slaap in die rus van die eeue gesug, ongewek, ongestoord” is ook nie meer in die Karoo van toepassing nie want die gierige oë van mynhuise en gassoekers dwaal gretig oor die wêreld waar vir duisende jare net die voetval van die springbok en die Sanmense hoorbaar was. Dit was ’n blye dag toe wetgewing ter beskerming van landbougrond geskep is. Die landbougemeenskap het asem geskep – maar ook net vir ’n wyle – want die werklikheid het soos ’n doodsengel neergedaal toe die boere begin besef dat die wet waarskynlik net ’n verdroogde perkament sou wees. Die wyse waarop die regering die wette op mineralehulpbronne saamgestel het en tans tot volvoering bring, is ten beste afgryslik. Mynwese is ondersoeker, wetmaker en waghond alles in een. As ’n boer iets op die grond wil doen soos nuwe grond vir gewasverbouing ontgin, is die aanklopplek vir permitte die omgewingsake-department,

maar as die mynhuis wil ontwikkel, gee die mynwese-departement die permit. As daar al ooit ’n kontroversie van die ergste graad was, is dit seker die beste voorbeeld hiervan. Boere moet stewig in hulle spoor trap vir watergebruik en die waterwese-departement grom gedurig vir boere, maar daar is seker nie eers 50% van die jonger myne wat met permitte in die hand staan vir hul watergebruik nie. Hoeveel keer hanteer ’n mens nie die desperate situasie nie waar ’n boer se grond onbruikbaar verwoes is as gevolg van ’n mynmaatskappy wat mineraalregte bekom het? Daardie mens het geen verweer teen die wreedaards wat die aarde blitsig in ’n grafkelder omskakel nie. Probeer ’n

staatsdepartement om op te tree as die mynmaatskappy onregmatig opgetree het en jy loop in ’n betonmuur van onbevoegde staatsamptenare vas. Die skrif is aan die muur: Of ons begin ernstig om landbougrond met alle mag en mening te beskerm en verdedig of ons moet oor ’n jaar of twintig ernstig begin om die grootste gros van ons kos, vars water en skoon lug in te voer. Dit is te betwyfel of die wetgewing wat landbougrond moet beskerm enigsins die gewenste uitwerking gaan hê omdat die staat sy onvermoë om beleid en wet toe te pas al telkemale sorgvuldig gedemonstreer het. Voorbeelde lê in myne wat gesluit is en nooit gerehabiliteer is nie en die massiewe skade wat deur suur mynwater oral oor aangerig word. Myne word geaktiveer sonder watergebruikspermitte en gaan bloot voort terwyl die minister kerm oor boere wat water vir voedselproduksie gebruik. ‘n Belaglike situasie! Agri SA het onlangs begin met ’n poging om die situasie met sinvolle debat, gespreksvoering en samewerking aan te spreek. Dit gaan hopelik ’n model skep waarvolgens die landbougemeenskap en die Kamer van Mynwese kan saamwerk met belangegroepe om die land se kosbare landbougrond vir die nageslagte te bewaar.

Dr Gerhard H Verdoorn, Griffon Gifinligtingsentrum, nesher@tiscali.co.za 082-446-8946 agri DES/DEC • JAN ‘17 bladsy/page

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DR GERHARD H VERDOORN

agri Fauna


agri Water In this series of articles, Agri is in discussion with Dr Gerhard Backeberg, executive manager: water utilisation in agriculture of the WRC, in order to obtain information on water use and what the WRC is doing for investment of funds in water research.

On-farm treatment of irrigation water to reduce microbial contamination

Agri: Concerns have been expressed that raw irrigation water is contaminated with pathogenic bacteria that potentially influences food safety of freshly consumed fruit and vegetables. What actions can be taken at farm level to reduce this risk? Backeberg: Research has provided evidence that the microbiological contamination of South African rivers is often above national and international quality standards. Insufficient sanitation facilities and inadequate sewage treatment works at various localities have mostly been implicated as the primary sources of pollution. Farmers are dependent on these rivers as their main source of irrigation water. Thus use of river water poses a possible health risk to farm workers and consumers alike. Prevention of river and irrigation water pollution would be the ultimate solution, but in the interim cost effective treatment techniques for irrigation water are required to ensure food safety. Several disinfection techniques exist that are currently used on-farm. According to a scoping project, led by Dr Gunnar Sigge at Stellenbosch University, these are generally classified into one of three categories, namely: Chemical (chlorine, bromine, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid or ozone based); Mechanical/physical (filtration); and Physical/ photochemical (ultrasound and ultra-violet (UV)) disinfection. The effectiveness of these treatments depends on parameters of water quality, including total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH, total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

The aim of the project was to evaluate different on-farm treatment options to reduce the high levels of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms from irrigation water. The results indicated that resistance variation between strains were evident for all the treatments (chemical and UV). It was also observed that environmental strains (isolated from rivers and fresh produce) were in general more resistant than reference strains. This once again illustrates the ability of bacteria to adapt to environmental stress. Treatments tested on river water samples did also indicate that disinfectant efficacy for all treatments were greatly influenced by river water quality. Water quality, measured in terms of physic-chemical parameters such as COD, turbidity, pH, alkalinity etc. had a direct influence on the available chlorine and peracetic acid levels during disinfection, as well as on the degree of photo reactivation that can occur after UV irradiation. The chemical treatments (chlorine and peracetic acid) also had disadvantages in terms of their range of efficacy, concerns about the safety and effect on the environment, microbial resistance, cost, long contact times and overall carbon footprint. UV was, however, shown to have potential as an environmentally friendly and safer disinfection treatment for polluted irrigation water. Certain factors still need to be considered, one of the most important issues being how effective UV disinfection of water from rivers with different physic-chemical properties will be. Another important question is what the maximum tolerated limits should be for

quality parameters, within which optimum UV disinfection (with minimum photo recovery) can be achieved. The use of specific pre-treatment technologies to achieve water with quality parameters below these limits should also be considered for severely polluted rivers. Therefore, the use of ultra-violet (UV) treatment of irrigation water to ensure food safety should be further researched by conducting a study on the technical and financial requirements for an onfarm irrigation water UV treatment system; choosing and optimising a pre-treatment step (sand/media filtration and/or flocculation/ sedimentation process) to standardise the water quality (in terms of physico-chemical characteristics) for different river waters used for irrigation of fresh produce; determining the microbial loads of different river waters used for irrigation of crops for fresh produce and making recommendations as to the UV dose required to sufficiently reduce the most resistant micro-organisms; finally performing an analysis of costs (capital and operational) of the selected full-scale pre-treatment technologies and UV treatment of river water of differing qualities. The published findings of the scoping study on different on-farm treatment options (WRC report no 2174/1/16) can be obtained at the addresses below.

Visit the Water Research Commissionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s webpage www.wrc.org.za for more information and/or ordering of research reports Tel: 012 330 0340 Fax: 012 331 2565 Email: wrc@wrc.org.za Private Bag X03, Gezina, Pretoria 0031 agri DES/DEC â&#x20AC;˘ JAN â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;17 bladsy/page

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Dr Gerhard Backeberg

Many irrigation farmers in South Africa pay an annual research levy to the Water Research Fund (WRF) in respect of water, which is used for irrigation on scheduled land. This fund is dedicated to financing the activities of the Water Research Commission (WRC) to support and undertake research on the use of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes. The levy on irrigation water is, however, not the only source of income for the fund: Levies on water use for urban, industrial and domestic purposes makes by far the biggest contribution.


agri Uit ‘n ander hoek

Josef Rooikerf-knipmes en voorslagriempie FRIKKIE KRAAMWINKEL©

Die jare ná die groot depressie van 1933 was maer sprinkaan­ jare. Boere het allermins in die land van Kokanje gelewe. Nêrens is die lewe van destyds skerper vasgelê as in die Afrikaanse taal nie – die taal waarin die boer dit wat eie aan hom en sy plaas was tot uitdrukking gebring het.

H

oe goed kan ek nog onthou hoe ons eenkeer per week met die perdekar na Holme Park op die Springbokvlakte is. Holme Park was ‘n vierkantige winkel met ’n rooi dak en ’n stoep waarop daar ’n groot weegskaal gestaan en sakke mielies en ’n eenskaarploeg gelê het. Binne was ’n groot houttoonbank en allerlei plaasgoed het op die vloer gestaan of aan die dakbalke gehang. Op die stoep en binne in die winkel het die boere sit en staan en gesels. Hulle het sterk, swart moerkoffie gedrink want die melkbeeste het in die brand geloop. Kasaterwater was dit allermins. Almal het vir die poslorrie gewag wat vanaf Nylstroom moes kom. Dit was Hertzog- en Smutsjare en tye van groot kwaggapolitiek op die bokwaens. Almal wat hulle boerematriek agter die rug had, het gretig op die koerante gewag om dan saam met die kretie en die pletie oor die lands- en wêreldpolitiek te gesels. Onder die boere was daar ’n paar mak Engelsmanne wat

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soos Daantjie Donderbos jou tot by oom Daantjie in die kallerhok sommerso op ’n jakkalsdraffie alles van Natte en Sappe kon vertel. Die winkel het ’n slingertelefoon gehad. As boere iewers heen wou bel, moes hulle die sentrale in Nylstroom oplui deur die slinger ’n paar vinnige draaie te gee soos jy van destyds se motorkarre nog met ’n slinger aan die brand geswaai het. Voor die winkel was ’n handswaai-petrolpomp met tweegallon-glasbottels wat petrol teen ’n sjieling en ’n sikspens per imperiale gallon uitgemeet het. Dit was nog in die dae van ponde, sjielings en pennies toe ’n oulap en ’n bokstert nog ’n goeie kerfie pruimtwak en ’n snuifdoos kon koop – en dis nie spekskiet nie. ’n Riksdaler was al ampers plaasgeld. Dit was lank voordat mense eers daaraan gedink het om maan toe te vlieg. Daardie boere het nog met hulle voete stewig op die aarde gestaan. En kon hulle die langsweep klap en het hulle die osse by name geken! Pragtige name soos Donkerberg, Waterberg, Akkerman, Wakkerman en so aan en so voort. Touleiers was nog van formaat. Die swartmerrie met ounooi se wikkel­ wa agterna het oor Settlers en Ardeer na Marble Hall geloop. Melk- en roomkanne en eierkaste saam met ander plaas­ produkte bestem vir die groot stad het met die trein gery. Toe die reent uiteindelik gekom het en die osse weer blinkvet broek gedra het van die lekker weigras vreet, kon jy sien dit begin weer pastersteek klopdisselboom met die boere gaan. Wat vandag presisie-

boerdery geword het, was toentertyd nog eksie-perfeksie as die Hickory King-mielies geilgroen op die swart turfland gestaan het. Dit was nog die dae van die breiklip onder die doringboom en saans by kerslig voorslagriempies vir die swepe met ’n Josef Rooikerf-knipmes sny. Die mak Engelse het die knipmes nog by sy naam Joseph Rodgers genoem, maar in die Afrikaanse boere se kortbroeksak was hy sommer kortweg Josef Rooikerf. Daar in Holme Park se rooidakwinkel wis die boere toe nog nie van televisie nie, nie van mobiele fone nie, nie van 4x4-voertuie nie, nie van selfaangedrewe stropers of GPS-trekkers of GM-saad nie. Om met ’n vliegtuig te gevlieg het, was nog iets uit ’n ander wêreld. Toe het jy hulle nog al om die hawerklap hoor praat van stormlanterns, paraffienlampe, vetkerse, lampetbekers, aambeelde, kolestowe, bekslaanhekke, oskettings, jukke en skeie, perdekrag, dorsmasjiene, ballasmandjies, karringmelk en Koos onder die kooi. Soos Vader Tyd aangestap het, het nuwe woorde hulle intrek op die plaas geneem om boere se dink en doen te bepaal. Veredeling van plante, genetiese diversiteit, spilpuntbesproeiing, geëlektrifiseerde omheining, alarmstelsels, gas- en elektriese stowe, digitale kameras, rekenaars, traksiebeheer, megaboere, kiloWatt, liters, massakarre en talle ander wat soos inkommers op die plaas loop wortel skiet het in die plek van toeka se uit eie bodem Afrikaanse plaaswoordeskat waarmee ons nog grootgeword het. En dis ’n groot waarheid soos ’n koei so reg uit die perd se bek.


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