Page 1


LEARNING SPACES in TRANSITION

TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS


LEARNING SPACES in TRANSITION


IMPRESSUM

Editor in chief \ Ksenija Vitale Editorial board \ Ivana Fabrio Romana Kajp Vanja Rister Mia Roth Čerina Tomislav Vlainić Graphic editing \ Romana Kajp Tomislav Vlainić Public health consultants \ Aleksandar Džakula Ksenija Vitale Toni Marušić Photography \ Domagoj Kunić Borna Aaron Grčević Mira Svibovec Video \ Đuro Gavran

Publisher \ University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture, School of Design; UNICEF - NYHQ Education Section Programme Division

For the publisher \ Boris Koružnjak Stipe Brčić Reviewer \ Feđa Vukić Slavica Sović Croatian proofread \ Nina Lolić

Design \ Lara Žic Tipography \ Typonine Sans Pro paper \ Munken Lynx print \ Printera print run \ 500 Text for print accepted by Editorial board, Faculty of Architecture on the meeting held on November 20th 2014 ISBN 978-953-8042-04-1 CIP available on computer catalogue National and University Library in Zagreb number 000900038


Table of Contents

10

preface

52

School as a dangerous place for students Mujkić A., Miškulin M., Meštrović J.

56

Child mortality in Serbia:  Shall we improve child safety? Đurić P.

60

How Serbian schools are prepared for child safety prevention programs? Đurić A.

64

Rural schools in Ankara: Evaluating school buildings in context of architectural design Saglam H.

Symposium 16

ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN AS TOOLS OF TRANSFORMING THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN SMALL COMMUNITIES Fabrio I., Kapetanović Z., Rister V., Roth Čerina M.

22

SCHOOLS IN RURAL AREAS IN MACEDONIA IN THE LAST DECADE: CONDITIONS, ACTIONS, CHALLENGES P. Korobar V.

30

Design strategies for future rural schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina Pašić A., Sivčević N., Zečević M.

36

Problems with mould and dampness in schools:  Croatian review on Parma Declaration commitments Brdarić D., Egorov A., Capak K., Barišin A., Doko Jelinić J., Naumova E., Kulinkina A., Sellitto M.

workshop

40

Regional schools and water supply in the county of Požega (Slavonija) and Sisak (Moslavina) Marić A., Petrović I., Andabaka D.

46

Impact of energy efficient measures on comfort in schools in Kosovo Muhaxheri K.

72

76 94 110 130 148

Current School Conditions and Workshop Proposals District school Donja Gračenica District school Gornja Letina District school Graboštani District school Gradusa \ workhop team 1 District school Gradusa \ workshop team 2


LEARNING SPACES in TRANSITION

TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Symposium and workshop were organised by


Preface

The Editor Ksenija Vitale

Right to education is one of the main children’s rights and access to education constitutes a basic human right. Besides that, education is a strategic question for every country and population, determining its development in many aspects including economy status and health status of population. All children should be going to school, so we can regard schools as the strongest social institution that affects growth and development as well as physical, mental and social health. At the age between seven and eighteen at the dynamic phase of growth and development child’s body is sensitive to many environmental influences so schools should be constructed and considered as the places of increased potential for healthy growing and studying and places of decreased risks. It is well known that work capability and strength of adult person depend on his/her health in childhood and youth.

potential, ergonomic and didactic insufficiency, low maintenance or non existing of heating system and waste waters system, microbiological contamination of water and poor organization of school kitchen.

Pronounced urbanization trends are present in most of the regions in Europe, particularly in South East Europe. Rural areas are remaining empty regardless of their potential for suitable living and ageing. Unfortunately political and social climate that should present an important opportunity to implement principles of sustainable development in rural areas are often contradictory. On one hand they promote agriculture as a way of economic activity and on the other they shut down rural schools which as a consequence leads to exodus of young families. Rural areas remain populated with geriatric population with slow extinction of every form of community life. Rural schools are particularly vulnerable in the sense of sustainability, due to the small number of children and high maintenance costs. On the other hand rural schools are important for rural lifestyle sustainability; they are indicators of depopulation and initial settings for public health interventions. Previous studies carried out by Faculty of Architecture, Study of Design and School of Public Health ‘A. Štampar’ in collaboration with UNiCEF demonstrated poor state of rural schools including unused space

This year meeting of LEARNING SPACES IN TRANSITION builds upon experiences from the first workshop held in October 2013 which successfully connected real-life educational conditions in primary school spaces, architectural and design methods with public health insights. The meeting under the title ‘LEARNING SPACES in TRANSITION; TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS’ took place on October 23-26 2014 in Zagreb, Croatia. The meeting was framed by two events; symposium which hosted design and public health experts from Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Serbia and Croatia, and workshop which assembled students for hand at work experience. Symposium scientifically covered problems of conditions of learning spaces, health and ergonomic requirements, condition of infrastructure, existing policies regarding education and potential for improvement. Along with that goal of symposium was to share regional experience and activation of group of professionals who will possibly create a network for future development of research and design methodology. Book also presents the works of five teams consisted of thirty students from the undergraduate and graduate levels of architecture, industrial design and visual communications and their mentors, who gave their conceptual idea for each case study school. They explored the schools as potential points for community revitalization, for new forms of population specific elementary school education, but at the same time new forms for lifelong education. They gave solutions for space potential that could serve for educational, entrepreneur and cultural activities. Such an interdisciplinary approach is almost unique in the Croatian university education curricula, and therefore sets valuable example for further interuniversity collaboration.


All the above-described topics are presented in the book, but it is unfortunate that book can never reflect the dynamic debates and exchange of the ideas during student’s work with their mentors, workshop itself where all symposium lecturers brought their experience, discussions at symposium and informal meetings. This book will certainly serve as a foundation for further development of a regional collaboration into an international network of practitioners focused on the improvement of learning environments, children’s wellbeing and wellbeing of their communities. It can also serve students as supplementary text book in the undergraduate and graduate studies in the field of architecture and design. Besides that, this book is the useful documentation for local communities which seek new models for community revitalization and development. In the end the editor, on her behalf, and behalf of all authors express their deep gratitude to the UNICEF New York office and UNICEF Zagreb office for the professional and no less important financial support, which made the organization of this event possible.


LEARNING SPACES in TRANSITION

TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

12

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS


INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM

OCTOBER 24, 2014 School of Public Health ‘Andrija Štampar’ Rockefeller st. 4, Zagreb

13


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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS


Welcome and opening speeches \ Prof. dr. sc. Jadranka Božikov, Head, School of Public Health ‘A. Štampar’, University of Zagreb Prof. Boris Koružnjak, Dean, Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb

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Architecture and Design as Tools of Transforming the Educational Process in Small Communities

Ivana Fabrio Zlatko Kapetanović Faculty of Arhitecture, School of Design, University of Zagreb Vanja Rister Mia Roth Čerina Faculty of Arhitecture, University of Zagreb Corresponding email — iva@ivanafabrio.net

16

Abstract — The consequences of transition and urbanization processes, shifting social and economic conditions as well as deindustrialization leave legible marks on spaces of learning and education in numerous small communities. Along with negative demographic trends, the identity of these communities is fading as well. Learning spaces play an important role as mediators in nurturing and keeping local tradition and strengthening cohesion within these communities. Research of the context in which elementary education is (or was) taking place is a key prerequisite in understanding relevant circumstances and developing tools and methods in which design and architecture could be used in creating better conditions in a spatial-communicational sense as well as improving the educational and social environment. A method of solving specific problems in small schools in rural areas can be formulated after extensive casestudy research. Such field research was carried out before the first ‘Learning Spaces in Transition’ workshop in which five rural schools in the Pozesko-slavonska county were analyzed. Upon obtaining data, a method approaching the problems on three levels was formulated. The first one is diagnostic and cannot be skipped in creating healthy and stimulating conditions: recognizing necessary technical interventions to meet hygienic standards, raise energy efficiency and improve infrastructure.

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

The second level is creative and addresses specific needs derived from deficiencies noted during field research (i.e. multipurpose spaces for the school and community, articulating the open spaces of the schools, defining the threshold between school and village, reinterpreting the floor plan, designing versatile storage and room-division elements, colonizing the outer wall either from the inside or the outside etc.). The third level aims to establish short-term and long-term strategies of integrating the school with the community. Through mapping and interpreting local traditions and recourses, new projects are implemented whilst promoting collaboration between the school and local population. Engaging all stakeholders of the community increases the quality of education, but also activates the social and economic well-being and rebuilds the community’s identity. The paper presents the results of the described method which uses architecture and design as tools in long-term improvement of learning within, as well as outside of, the regular educational system. Keywords — design research method, design and architecture as methods of solving educational problems, design thinking, methods of integrating the school within the community


Arhitektura i dizajn kao alati transformiranja obrazovnih procesa u malim sredinama

Sažetak — Posljedice tranzicije, općih procesa urbanizacije, promijenjenih socio-ekonomskih uvjeta i deindustrijalizacije ostavljaju čitljive posljedice na prostore učenja i obrazovanja u brojnim malim općinama. Uz negativne demografske trendove vezano je i blijeđenje identiteta tih zajednica, pri čemu upravo prostori učenja posreduju u njegovanju i očuvanju tradicije i jačanju kohezije stanovništva. Istraživanje konteksta u kojem se odvija (ili se odvijalo) osnovnoškolsko obrazovanje nužan je preduvjet za razumijevanje cjelovite situacije, kao i za razvijanje alata i metoda kojima se dizajnom i arhitekturom može pridonijeti stvaranju kvalitetnijih uvjeta kako u prostorno-komunikacijskom smislu, tako i u smislu unaprjeđenja obrazovnog ali i društvenog sustava. Metoda rješavanja specifičnih problema u prostorima područnih škola ruralnih sredina može se formulirati tek po provedbi case-study istraživanja. Takvo terensko istraživanje provedeno je uoči prve interdisciplinarne radionice ‘Prostori učenja u tranziciji’ u kojem je analizirano pet područnih škola u Požeško-slavonskoj županiji. Po istraživanju formulirana je metoda koja rješavanju problema pristupa na tri razine. Prva je dijagnostička i ne može se preskočiti u razmišljanju o realizaciji zdravog i poticajnog prostora za učenje: prepoznavanje potrebnih tehničkih intervencija za sanaciju prostora (higijenski i zdravstveni uvjeti, energetska učinkovitost, infrastruktura,

international symposium \ Architecture and design as tools of transforming the educational process in small communities

racionalizacija). Druga razina je projektantska i izravno adresira konkretne specifične teme proizašle iz nedostataka prepoznatih u predistraživanju (npr. školski polivalentni trijem, artikulacija otvorenih prostora školskog zemljišta, prag škola-selo, reinterpretacija tlocrta, višenamjenski elementi pohrane i odvajanja unutar učionice, naseljavanje fasadnog zida s unutarnje ili vanjske strane). U trećoj razini rješenja trebaju se uspostaviti kratkoročne i dugoročne strategije suradnje sa zajednicom. Kroz prepoznavanje i reinterpretaciju lokalnih tradicija i resursa implementiraju se projekti tako da se afirmira suradnja zajednice i škole. Angažiranjem svih sudionika u zajednici unaprjeđuje se kvaliteta nastave, ali i aktivira društveni i ekonomski život te gradi identitet lokalne sredine. U članku se prezentiraju rezultati provedbe opisane metode koje arhitekturu i dizajn koriste kao sredstvo dugoročnog unaprjeđenja obrazovanja unutar i izvan redovnog školskog sustava. Ključne riječi — dizajn istraživanje, dizajn i arhitektura kao alati rješavanja obrazovnih problema, dizajn mišljenje, metode integracije škole u život zajednice

17


Difficult social and economic situations are present in many parts of rural Croatia. It is a consequence of the War for independence, economic and transitional crises as well as the general process of urbanisation. Many small municipalities have educational establishments that are in a very bad state, which additionally contributes to the negative tendencies in these areas. Most contemporary development concepts aim to reverse negative trends by facilitating social standard services. In the smallest communities, this means reconstructing and modernizing the network of district schools. Our team worked on the thesis that rural schools of small capacities need to be reaffirmed and included as a vital function of the salvation and development of rural communities. The workshop Learning Spaces in Transition explored these possibilities through case studies. The Workshop aimed to use architecture and design as tools for action in need. The need arises from emergency context situations that result in a lack of healthy and well-equipped learning areas for students. Working together with UNICEF expertise, students of architecture and design from the Faculty of Architecture learned about the concepts of transitional learning spaces as provisional solutions. Research methodology — The workshop was preceded by research of five schools throughout the Požeško-slavonska County. The team of mentors conducted research with an emphasis on contextual methods in research: people and communities, objects, surroundings and activities. By using methods of observation and immersion, photographs and interviews with teachers, school psychologists, principals and students, data were collected on: \ the state of school buildings, teaching equipment and surroundings, \ the methods by which classes and extracurricular activities are conducted, \ the social, economic, educational and familial situations that dominate the surveyed localities

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

The key idea the research was based on is that all people are creative. By this we mean that people who are exposed to a certain issue or a problem have ideas and can contribute to design processes that aim to improve their lives. Therefore the mentor/researcher approach was that using design thinking can translate stories gathered in the research phase into frameworks that inspire new design directions. The findings were presented through a method of storytelling, enhanced by using the photographs, as well as the diagrams that represent clear information. Research findings \ The features of space and curricular organization in researched schools \ a school building is divided so that half of the plan belongs to educational space (a single classroom, entry, toilet) and half to the teacher’s apartment \ only first to fourth grade program \ too large classroom space to number of pupils ratio, in most cases double shifts because of the impossibility of conducting parallel classes \ neglected interior spaces and equipment \ mixed classes in a traditionally organized classroom adapted to mainly frontal teaching \ lack of storage space for didactic material, books, and other pupil or teacher equipment \ a large plot with unarticulated open spaces \ difficult adaptation of school space to other needs of the local community Significant problems diagnosed during the research \ a low degree of education, \ a high degree of poverty \ no strategy for economic growth, development of entrepreneurship, and revitalization of traditional skills, products, and services.


Shortcomings \ substandard facilities: heating, water and sanitation, learning equipment, Internet and media, no gym, no library, abandoned or rented teachers apartments, and fairly bad condition of playgrounds — various degrees depending on the school \ children come from large families (3-4 children per family, few generations living together), parents mostly uneducated and unemployed. \ parents are not motivated to help their children through education, so most of the students don’t understand the benefits of schooling in the development of their careers and lives in general \ no development plan for the region on the state level so besides working in the fields, community lacks a vision of local potentials and opportunities that could enable their children to provide a living in the future \ most of the teachers are not improving their teaching methods even though there is a good framework for improvement (less children more time to do extracurricular activities) Advantages — Although in all the schools classes are held in substandard conditions with regard to the state of the building, equipment and infrastructure, the survey also diagnosed several advantages of education in such environment: \ a safe and healthy environment \ clean air, natural foods \ closeness between students and teachers \ empathy \ humility and readiness to co-operate \ freedom from consumerist habits \ adaptability in demanding situations

\ strong motivation of certain teachers in organizing extracurricular activities that aim to develop student skills and creativity Potentials \ small number of students per class makes it possible to have a very personal approach to each student \ strong relationships between the students and the teachers \ older students help younger ones with the school duties (dressing up, cleaning, learning, playing) \ there are no signs of brand competitiveness between the students and they are very collaborative in learning and playing \ students are quite attached to their teachers and have a traditional respect to wards them \ some teachers (especially younger generations) are applying contemporary teaching methods in the classroom: morning meditation, not depending on the school bell so strictly, art and drama classes \ students are adaptive to difficult environments \ people within the community are humble and unpretentious, small things make them happy \ there are many local crafts and traditions that can be implemented in education Research conclusion — Although the standard of the schools and equipment is of lesser quality comparing to urban learning environments, the children don’t seem to mind it. Beside providing safe and healthy learning environments, the project should focus on improving the learning conditions and creating stronger visions on the benefits of schooling and education. Therefore it is important to involve parents and

international symposium \ Architecture and design as tools of transforming the educational process in small communities

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local communities in the life of schools and education, even more so because the school buildings are the only public places in the villages. The assumption is: if we engage parents and the local community in improving the standards of learning by including them in the process of school renovation, or giving them the opportunity to learn through workshops and collaborative work (lifelong learning programs,) they will motivate their children to see the benefits of schooling and potentially develop the grounds for creating products and services that could help the region to economically grow. Workshop assignment — Based on the conclusions of the research, a three-level project task was formulated: 1. Diagnostic level \ should not be avoided in devising and achieving healthy and stimulating spaces for learning; students had to recognize needed technical interventions for spatial or technical improvement (hygienic and health conditions, energy efficiency, infrastructure, rationalization). 2. Design level \ directly addresses specific themes identified in the research, with the intention to keep solutions applicable to other similar situations. Suggested themes were: school porch, articulation of school open spaces (gardens, sport, and pavilions), school-village threshold, ground plan interpretation (atomizing, concentration, apartment-classroom), multi-purpose elements of storage and separation within classroom, population of the outer wall from the inside or outside (winter gardens, working zones, occasional extensions). 3. Short and long-term strategies for community co-operation \ through the recognition and reinterpretation of local traditions and resources, students were asked to suggest possible implementations of projects affirming co-creation between school and community. By engaging all participants in the community, the quality of

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

education is improved, but also social and economic life is activated and the identity of local community is built. The projects were worked through all three levels of tasks, and specific solutions were suggested so that they have a character of universal applicability. Projects were also supposed to be simple to carry out, rational, feasible and adaptable.


international symposium

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Schools in Rural Areas in Macedonia in the Last Decade: Conditions, Actions, Challenges

Vlatko P. Korobar Faculty of Architecture, Saints Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje Corresponding email — vvpk@ukim.edu.mk

22

Abstract — Public buildings in general and schools in particular have been among the most affected parts of the building stock in the period of transition. Almost echoing the fragility of their users, these buildings themselves have shown their fragile nature, acting as a seismograph that registers all misconceptions, imperfections and false priorities of the social and political agendas. The long period of economic decline in the 80’s left its mark on the condition of school buildings and their state of deterioration continued in the 90’s as other issues were held more urgent. The schools were trapped in the division of authority between the central government and the municipalities. According to the law on local self-government, schools were under the authority of municipalities, but the long period of implementation of the fiscal decentralization did not support the faster improvement of working conditions in the schools. In the last ten to fifteen years actions have been taken towards betterment of the conditions in some of the schools in rural areas ranging from basic improvements of the building shell, to improvements of sanitary conditions, upgrading of equipment etc. Besides funds from the ministry of education and the local authorities, these actions were often taken through foreign donations with involvement of the non-governmental sector. However, the actions taken did not reach behind the mere improvement of the

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

physical condition of the buildings, leaving the challenge of harvesting wider social benefits from these actions for the future. The new role that schools could have in rural areas coupled with the demographic trends that show a constant decrease in the number of new first grade pupils will set the stage for future challenges. Keywords — rural schools, strategies, Macedonia


Škole u ruralnim sredinama Makedonije u prošloj dekadi: stanje, djelovanja, izazovi

Sažetak — Od ukupnog broja osnovnih škola u Makedoniji preko 8o% su škole u ruralnim sredinama. Iako broj učenika ne korespondira s ovim postocima, jasno je da škole u ruralnim sredinama predstavljaju veoma značajan dio ukupnog školskog fonda i njihovo stanje utječe na znatan broj učenika koji su u formativnim godinama. Imajući u vidu pogoršanje uvjeta u školskim objektima u dužem periodu, u posljednjoj dekadi bilo je poduzet je niz zahvata s ciljem njihova poboljšanja. Unatoč tome što je lokalna samouprava odgovorna za osnovno obrazovanje, zbog ograničenih financijskih kapaciteta, ove su akcije veoma često podržane vladinim sredstvima, ali i stranim donacijama putem međunarodnih organizacija i nevladinog sektora. Prioritetna područja bila su: strukturna poboljšanja uz poboljšanje elementarnih uvjeta vezanih za sanitarne i infrastrukturne probleme, obnova obrazovne infrastrukture i primjena IT opreme. Dopunske mjere, kao spajanje dviju škola, kombinirana odjeljenja, dopuštanje manjeg broja učenika u odjeljenju od dozvoljenog minimuma, rađene su s ciljem omogućavanja školovanja blizu mjesta stanovanja. Ipak, neposredne posljedice ovih akcija nisu dosezale dalje od pukog poboljšanja fizičkih uvjeta rada. Ubiranje većih socijalnih boljitaka vezanih za škole izazov je za budućnost. Broj učenika će znatno utjecati na primijenjenu strategiju transformacija škola i školskih objekata. Prosječan broj učenika u područnim školama je

international symposium \ Schools in rural areas in Macedonia in the last decade — conditions, actions, challenges

između 18 i 30. Škole sa 100 i više učenika teže tradicionalnijem obrazovnom okolišu, iako ni jedna škola u ruralnim sredinama ne bi smjela propustiti priliku da ostvari korist od prihvaćanja širih društvenih aktivnosti i funkcija. Što su škole manje, to bi više trebale težiti komplementarnim funkcijama. Škole u ruralnim sredinama rijetko su suočene s nedostatkom prostora. U većini slučajeva imaju višak ili su potpuno napuštene. Tada ne treba tražiti lake solucije kao ‘isključivanje’ viška prostora, već kao i u slučaju napuštenih prostora treba težiti alternativnim obrazovnim i drugim funkcijama koje traju cijelu godinu. Ruralne škole bi mogle u budućnosti bi mogle funkcionirati kao tradicionalni, prošireni, alternativni i obrazovni okoliš i društveno okupljanje. Ovi scenariji ukazuju na buduće izazove koji će zahtijevati dizajnerske i graditeljske strategije za transformiranje školskih objekata tako da se mogu širiti i sažimati prema potrebama obrazovnog procesa i lokalne zajednice. Tako će se osigurati da nijedna škola ne postane praznom ljušturom, već da bude ispunjena najprikladnijom formom obrazovnih sadržaja i aktivnosti u korist zajednice. Ključne riječi — ruralne škole, strategije, Makedonija

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Year

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

total

2,046,898

2,050,671

2,055,004

2,058,539

2,061,044

2,064,032

122,757

0-4

112,825

112,671

113,866

114,994

115,578

116,116

143,184

5-9

121,202

119,468

117,156

114,407

113,143

112,634

160,339

10-14

139,813

134,704

130,214

126,947

123,721

121,033

Year

1981

1981

1994

2002

total

1,909,136

2,033,964

1,945,932

2,022,547

0-4

191,642

154,549

152,456

5-9

184,854

167,433

163,546

10-14

178,681

165,970

167,921

Population according to age \ Censuses

Introduction — Public buildings in general and schools in particular have been among the most affected parts of the building stock in the period of transition. Almost echoing the fragility of their users, these buildings themselves have shown their fragile nature, acting as a seismograph that registers all misconceptions, imperfections and false priorities of the social and political agendas. The long period of economic decline in the 80’s left its mark on the condition of school buildings and their state of deterioration continued in the 90’s as other issues were held more urgent. The schools were trapped in the division of authority between the central government and the municipalities. According to the law on local self-government, schools are under the authority of local municipalities, but the long period of implementation of the fiscal decentralization and the overall financial condition of the municipalities did not support the faster improvement of working conditions in the schools. Number of actions of the central government have been taken, together with a substantial support of the international community, for improvement of the conditions in schools in general and also in schools in rural areas, but the fast changing circumstances affected by the economic and especially demographic trends call for a profound reconsidering of the priorities and the actual benefits of the implemented policies. Conditions — In order to grasp the situation with primary education in general one must start with the demographic trends in recent years. Despite the failure of the state to complete the census in 2011, the data supplied by the State Statistical Office show a constant decline in the number of children between the age of 5 and 14 from 1981 onwards.1 Only in a period of eight years, from 1994 to 2002 the number of children between the age of 5 and 14 has dropped from 331,467 to 303,523, which is a decrease of over 8 percent, The situation is even worse with the prospective pupils as in this period the age group of 0-4 has dropped from 152,456 to 122,757, which is a

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Population according to age \ Estimates

decrease of over 19 percent. The official population estimates for recent years show similar tendencies, Compared to the census data from 2002 in just over a decade the age group 0-4 has dropped from 122,757 to 116,116 (5.4% decrease), the age group 5-9 from 143,184 to 112,634 (21% decrease) and the age group 10-14 from 160,339 to 121,033 (24.5% decrease), It should be noted though that according to the population estimates the age group of 0-4 shows a gradual increase from 2010 onwards with approximately 0.5 to 1 percent per year. 2 When considering demographic data and the prospective influence on primary education one should also bear in mind the fact that in the last decades the Republic of Macedonia has experienced a strong outmigration affecting the potential cohort of future pupils, The World Bank estimated that the number of Macedonian citizens in the receiving countries all over the world in 2010 amounts to 447,138 persons, According to these data the emigration rate is about 21.8% revealing the fact that a considerable share of the total population of the country lives abroad, while it has been estimated that 200,000 Macedonian citizens have left the country in the last two decades. A more recent EUROSTAT report estimates even higher numbers and states that in the period from 1998 to 2011, 230,000 citizens have left the country and legally live abroad which is over 10 percent of the country’s total population.3 In this context indicative are the data on the migratory generation ratios, according to which the migrants were on average younger than the average total population in the country. The emigration rates of the age group 0-14 (the share of emigrants of this age group in the total population of the same age group) in 1981 and 1994 respectively amounts to 4.4% and 6.9%. The Eurostat data in 2010 show that 16.8% of the registered Macedonian migrants in the EU receiving countries were children (0-14) which will certainly have a bearing on the area of education in terms of capacities, distribution of facilities, etc. 4 The basic indicators in the last decade show a continuing decrease in the number of


Year

no. of schools

no. of class sections

no. of students

no. of teachers

no. of students no. of students in class section per school

no. of students per teacher

no. of teachers per school

2002\2003

1,015

10,062

237,581

13,590

234

24

17

13

2003\2004

1,015

10,200

231,868

13,733

288

23

17

14

2004\2005

1,012

9,953

227,254

13,972

225

23

16

14

2005\2006*

1,008

11,046

235,691

14,817

234

21

16

15

2006\2007

1,003

10,815

231,497

15,098

231

21

15

15

primary schools and students and a continuing increase in the number of class sections and teachers, which has a favorable effect on the number of students in class sections and number of students per teacher.5 However in the same period the net enrollment rates have been continually decreasing and there is a decrease of 2 percent between the school year 2002/03 and 2012/13.6 It is important to mention that the general picture rendered by the above data does not represent the actual condition of primary schools in rural areas. The lack of publicly available relevant data does not allow us to give an accurate picture, but in building the context for the condition of primary schools in rural areas it is important to consider the following facts: \ From the total number of municipalities in Macedonia - 80 (10 of which comprise the capital city of Skopje),37 municipalities have centers in rural settlements; \ The number of primary schools in urban areas amounts to approx. 17% of the total number of primary schools. These schools are the central schools for detached local schools in surrounding rural settlements, which amount to approximately 22% of the total number of primary schools; \ The number of primary schools in rural settlements which have the role of central schools with or without detached local schools is approx. 17% of the total number of primary schools. The detached local schools connected to these primary schools reach 44 % of the total number of primary schools; \ Thus, the total number of detached local schools reaches two thirds of the total number of primary schools; In four cases the central primary schools have 10 to 15 detached local schools in their organizational structure. It is obvious that the school buildings in rural areas represent a most important segment of the building stock for educational use in primary education and although

Basic indicators for regular primary schools at the beginning of the school year \ * The data on students in the school year 2005/2006 refer to enrolled students

in preparatory group: zero grade and from I to VIII grade according to the amendments to the Law on Primary Education (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No 63/2004)

their percentage of the total number of schools does not correspond to the percentage of pupils attending primary education, their condition affects a significant number of pupils in a crucial stage of their formative years. It is important to mention that in recent years the system of primary education has undergone important changes which have transformed the earlier system of eight years of primary education to a nine year system of compulsory primary education. According to the Law on Primary Education, starting from the school year 2007/2008, the primary education in the Republic of Macedonia is compulsory for all children at 6 years of age. The primary education is divided in three cycles each lasting three years. This division has a direct repercussion on the schools in rural areas as the vast majority of these schools offer education until sixth grade, while older pupils are transferred to full program primary schools, usually in the nearby towns or bigger villages which are the centers of municipalities. According to the data collected for the school year 2004/2005 most of the pupils or 61 % attended school in one shift, 38 % attended school in two shifts with alteration of shifts every two weeks, while 1 % still attended primary school in three shifts. The higher number of shifts is a result of the shortage of school space in some areas, which is not the case with most of the schools in rural areas where, because of the decreasing number of students, schools usually work in one shift. However, despite the fact that these schools do not suffer from space shortage, in many cases, there is no provision in the timetable for optional activities and a longer supervised stay at the school for different purposes such as completion of home assignments or additional tutorials when necessary. The excuse for these shortcomings is once too often the shortage of inadequate space, but especially in detached rural schools there are many cases where there is abundance of spare space albeit in need of improvement.

international symposium \ Schools in rural areas in Macedonia in the last decade — conditions, actions, challenges

25


Year

no. of schools

no. of class sections

no. of students

no. of teachers

no. of students per school

no. of students in class section

no. of students per teacher

no. of teachers per school

2007\2008** 2008\2009 2009\2010

996 993 989

10,647

222,359

15,330

223

21

14

15

10,692 10,716

216,180 210,381

15,930 16,144

218 213

20 20

13 13

16 16

2010\2011

990

10,720

204,439

16,703

207

19

13

17

2011\2012 2012\2013

986 991

10,713 10,684

198,856 195,311

17,129 17,193

202 197

19 18

12 12

17 17

Actions — Considering the deteriorating conditions of the school buildings both in urban and rural areas, in the last decade actions have been taken towards improvement of these conditions. Although local municipalities are responsible for primary education, due to their limited financial capacities these actions have been supported with funds from the central government, but also with foreign donations and the engagement of international organizations and the non-governmental sector. Two major areas have been prioritized: structural improvement of buildings and the conditions for their use including sanitary conditions, water and sewage systems, electricity and heating infrastructure etc., and upgrading of the educational infrastructure especially through the introduction of various ICT equipment and packages. In a number of cases the reconstructions were undertaken with a clear orientation towards implementing an energy efficient building strategy, initiating the implementation of the wider concept of green schools. According to the data supplied by the Ministry of education and science, from 2008 to 2012, over 300 schools have been partially or completely renovated, while 50 new primary and secondary schools have been built. The governmental program planned the building of 100 new schools through a public-private partnership, but due to the overall economic conditions there was no interest from the private sector to invest in this program.7 The second priority area, the introduction of ICT in the education process was widely known under the name of ‘computer for every child’ and did supply schools with computer equipment, but other circumstances prevented its full implementation, such as inappropriate electricity infrastructure in some schools, lack of inadequate space for their installation and similar obstacles. This priority area was also connected to the introduction of computer-aided packages for different courses or individual tasks. This was especially the case with courses in natural sciences and technical education where these new packages were put to full use. Other ‘soft’ actions implemented, aimed at both pupils and

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Basic indicators for regular primary schools at the beginning of the school year \ ** From the school year 2007/2008 the data on students refer to enrolled students from I to

IX grade according to the amendments to the Law onPrimary Education (Official Gazette of the Republic of MacedoniaNo 51/2007)

teachers, include improving math and science education, improving student assessment and increasing workforce skills in pupils through special emphasis on technology/technical education, entrepreneurial education and career education. However, beyond these actions other measures are taken on a regular basis in order to prevent the closure of existing schools and to provide pupils with a place to learn close to their homes. Thus actions have been taken for merging of schools, establishing combined classes, tolerating the number of pupils in a class below the established minimum etc. Challenges — The picture rendered so far shows that we as architects, but also educators, pedagogues, social workers and certainly parents, are faced with a challenging task of redefining an important segment of the educational system that should fulfil its primary role, but also supply wider social benefits and be adaptable to new social circumstances. This indeed is not an easy task. The immediate consequences of actions already taken did not reach behind the mere improvement of the physical condition of the buildings. Harvesting wider social benefits is a challenge for the future. The new role that schools could have in rural areas coupled with the demographic trends that show a constant decrease in the number of new first grade pupils will set the stage for future challenges. The question of what a ‘role model’ primary school should look like even in the immediate future is a legitimate question and not an easy one to answer. The answer to this question will in many aspects define the approach to possible adaptations and even the mere existence of some schools in rural areas. The types of schools in rural areas differ in greater extent than schools in urban areas. Furthermore, schools in rural areas are more often exposed to change than schools in urban areas. Because of the fact that most rural areas have been demographically stagnating or losing population, municipalities are being faced with the task of reconstructing or renovating existing school buildings, rather than building new ones.


In Macedonia the average size of local detached schools in rural areas is between eighteen and thirty pupils, but we also have schools with less than ten pupils and bigger ones with over hundred pupils. So we are actually talking, at least, about three different types in terms of size: big ones with over 100 pupils, average ones and the miniature type. Of course, the size itself will have a crucial bearing on the strategy employed. The bigger the school the more it will tend towards a traditional educational environment, although no school in a rural area should waste the possibility to benefit from assuming other wider social functions. The smaller the school in size the more it should welcome other complementary contents ensuring a livelier environment and alternative uses. In terms of space, we face three situations: insufficient, redundant and abandoned space. Detached local schools are seldom faced with insufficient space available. More often they have redundant space, albeit space which is in a state of neglect. Special cases are the schools that have been closed down, hence the abandoned space. In all three cases the applied strategies need to look beyond the immediate physical solution to the problem, like simple addition of new space or ‘exclusion’ of redundant space. Abandoned space needs special attention. There must be alternatives for its use as educational space on a temporary and recurring basis. Otherwise everything is possible as in an extreme case, when an old school building was turned into a prison. In terms of function we could consider conventional educational environments, extended education environments, education environments as social hubs and alternative education environments. By conventional education environments in terms of function we consider the vast majority of existing schools that don’t challenge the decades’ long school routine. By extended education environments we consider the functional enrichment of a school with an extended program of education opportunities for the pupils, but for the local inhabitants as well. Education environments as social hubs are a well-documented concept which aims at establishing a

fruitful relationship between the school and the local community which takes up varied forms. By alternative educational forms we consider the opportunity to extend the life of a school building by alternative uses which are of temporal and recurring nature, such are excursion, ‘classes in nature’, project assignments, etc. Other aspects might be introduced based on location, local tradition, available means of construction, etc. What is important is that the new typologies must stem from the local circumstances and needs and no general solution can be applied in all cases. However, certain elements of common solutions, based on best practice examples, could be of help as examples to be used as ready solutions or as a starting platform for further developments. Put in a nutshell, the essence of the future challenges will be to apply a design and construction strategy that would be capable of transforming the building or accommodating both shrinking and expanding the school building for needs recognized as important both for education process and for the local community. Concluding remarks — If we were to design simultaneously for conditions of shrinking and expanding, a possible strategy would be to go back and explore the advantages of prefabricated building elements and modules. In order to respond adequately, we might start with standardized design modules that should respond to the most immediate needs, at an acceptable cost and a fairly short period of construction. This does not mean that we should aim at big scale prefabrication. On the contrary, we should start with high quality working drawings for repeatable units of various sizes which could be implemented in different places, but to the same standard. In many cases the existing moderate size buildings could serve as the permanent core that gets modular classrooms and other standardized modules based on the criteria of suitability, robustness, sustainability and cost effectiveness. The use of typical elements and modules should provide for the development of flexible site and layout plans, which are

international symposium \ Schools in rural areas in Macedonia in the last decade — conditions, actions, challenges

27


school Year

age

enrolled students

pop. at corr. age*

net rate

school Year

age

enrolled students

pop. at corr. age*

net rate

2002\2003 2003\2004

7-14 7-14 7-14

230,579

248,538

92.77

2008\2009

224,931 220,411

243,080 237,087

92.53 92.97

2009\2010

6-14 6-14

213,253 208,039

234,449 227,588

90.96 91.41

6-14** 6-14

230,925 226,656 219,113***

255,085 248,352 241,474

90.53 91.26 90.74

2010\2011 2011\2012

6-14** 6-14

202,290 196,286

222,035 216,346

91.11 90.73

2012\2013

6-14

192,998

212,735

90.72

2004\2005 2005\2006* 2006\2007 2007\2008

6-14

based on the local topography, the local needs and the most efficient means of construction. In terms of organization each school building should have informal learning spaces open to the community after school hours, most suitably the permanent core, and formal learning spaces represented by the modular classrooms. This concept allows the school building to change with time in an efficient way, making its parts re-locatable and ensuring at the highest possible level that no school building becomes an empty shell, but always strives to be filled with the most appropriate form of educational substance according to the circumstances. References — 1Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia 2014 [internet]. Skopje: State Statistical Office; 2014 [cited 2014 Sept 27]. Available from: www.stat.gov.mk/Publikacii/godisnik2009/03.%20Naselenie.pdf 2 Data compiled from the following sources: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia 2010 [internet]. Skopje: State Statistical Office; 2010 [cited 2014 Sept 27]. Available from: http://www.stat.gov.mk/ PrikaziPublikacija.aspx?id=34&rbr=114; Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia 2012 [internet]. Skopje: State Statistical Office; 2012 [cited 2014 Sept 27]. Available from: http://www.stat.gov.mk/PrikaziPublikacija.aspx?id=34&rbr=338; Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia 2014 [internet]. Skopje: State Statistical Office; 2014 [cited 2014 Sept 27]. Available from: www.stat.gov.mk/Publikacii/godisnik2009/03.%20Naselenie.pdf 3 Marusic S J. Macedonia Population Drained by Emigration, Report Says. BalkanInsight [internet]. 2013 May 15 [cited 2014 Sept 18]. Available from: http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/report-macedonia-drained-by-migration; 4Social Impact of Emigration and Rural-Urban Migration in Central Europe. Final Country Report – The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia [internet]. On behalf of EC DG for Employment, Social affairs and Inclusion – GVG; 2012 Apr [cited 2014 Sept 12]. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/social/ BlobServlet?docId=8845&langId=en; 5Primary, Lower and Upper Secondary Schools at the Beginning of the School Year, 2012/2013 [internet]. Skopje: State Statistical Office; 2013 June 20 [cited 2014 Sept 18]. Available from: http://www.stat.gov.mk/PrikaziPublikacija_en.aspx?id=42&rbr=412: 6Ibid. 7 Поповска-Христов А. 3а пет години се затвориле 11 основни училишта во Македонија. Македон ија [internet]. 2013 Aug 20 [cited 2014 Sept 28]. Available from: http://novamakedonija.com.mk/NewsDetal.asp?ve st=820131023338&id=9&setIzdanie=22957

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Net enrollment rates total number of students \ *Situation as at 31 December; ** The data on students refer to enrolled students in preparatory group — zero grade and from I to VIII grade according to the amendments to the Law on Primary Education (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 63/2004), Therefore, the population data refer to the age group

from 5 to 17 years of age for gross enrollment rate and to the age group from 6 to 14 years of age for net enrollment rate in primary and lower secondary education, *** Starting from the school year 2007/2008, the data on students refer to enrolled students from I to IX grade according to theamendments to the Law on PrimaryEducation (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 51/2007)


international symposium

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Design Strategies for Future Rural Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Adnan Pašić Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo Nedim Sivčević Faculty of Pedagogic Sciences, University of Sarajevo Melvudin Zečević Faculty of Architecture, University of Sarajevo Corresponding email — adnanp@af.unsa.ba

30

Abstract — Bosnia and Herzegovina has a decentralized educational system that has been under the responsibility of entities and cantons since 1995. The educational system is coordinated by the Department of Education of B&H Ministry of Civil Affairs at the state level. This kind of organizational model produces numerous challenges such as fragmentation of curriculums and organizational models, existence of divided and mono-ethnic schools or lack of adequate institutional funding and coordination. According to UNESCO in B&H there are three main challenges to be addressed to achieve better living conditions for children: Poverty, Social Exclusion and System Gaps and Weaknesses. UNICEF estimates that 170.000 children or 18,56% of total population in B&H live in absolute poverty. Rural poverty is two times higher compared to urban areas. Contemporary school buildings infrastructure in B&H was mainly inherited from previous socialist period. In the second half of the 20th century rural areas were systematically equipped with small elementary schools which consist of few classrooms and necessary service space. They served for education of local children up to fourth or eighth grade, as a part of compulsory elementary school program. The role of the school building in rural areas has always been twofold. During the period of spring and autumn school terms they served as schools and during summer or winter or even out of

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

working hours and during weekend school buildings were used as community centers, a model not so often practiced in reality. Contemporary B&H educational system needs to be reconsidered in terms of innovation of positive strategies in educational programs which will be followed by appropriate design strategies for school facilities, especially in rural areas. Good examples already exist and they should serve as an initial model for further development. The article is focusing on positive examples of integration and inclusion through case study of Community Schools in rural area of Tuzla region. It will show how to overcome system gaps and weaknesses by initiative of school management and local community. Schools could be used as open platforms for advanced educational methodologies by transformation of existing rural school buildings into dynamic, sustainable and integrated community centers. Keywords — architecture, rural schools, design strategies, community schools


Arhitektonske strategije razvoja za ruralne škole u Bosni i Hercegovini

Sažetak — Bosna i Hercegovina ima decentralizirani obrazovni sistem koji je od 1995. godine odgovornost entiteta i kantona. Na državnom nivou obrazovni sistem koordinira Odjeljenje za obrazovanje pri Ministarstvu civilnih poslova Bosne i Hercegovine. Ovakva vrsta edukacijskog modela proizvodi brojne izazove kao što su fragmentiranost nastavnih programa i organizacijskih modela, razdvojene i monoetničke škole te nedostatak odgovarajuće institucionalne financijske podrške i koordinacije. Prema UNESCO–u Bosna i Hercegovina se suočava s tri osnovna izazova koja stoje na putu dostizanja boljih životnih uvjeta za djecu: siromaštvo; društvena isključenost; i sistemski nedostaci i slabosti. UNICEF procjenjuje da 18,56% ukupne populacije u BiH živi u apsolutnom siromaštvu, što se odnosi i na 170.000 djece. Siromaštvo seoskih područja prema ovim pokazateljima dvostruko je veće nego ono u urbanim područjima. Suvremena infrastruktura školskih zgrada u BiH uglavnom je naslijeđe iz prethodnog socijalističkog perioda. U drugoj polovini 20. stoljeća seoska područja BiH sistematski su opremana skromnim osnovnim školama koje su se sastojale od nekoliko učionica i neophodnih servisnih prostora. One su služile za obrazovanje djece do četvrtog razreda osnovne škole, a bile su dio obaveznog programa osnovnog obrazovanja. Uloga seoskih školskih zgrada od njihovog zasnivanja razumijevana je dvoznačno. Tijekom školskog polugodišta

international symposium \ Design strategies for future rural schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina

služile su za održavanje nastave, dok su za zimskih i ljetnih praznika, odnosno u vremenu izvan nastave i vikendima tijekom školskog polugodišta korištene kao lokalni društveni centri, što je model koji se u realnosti nije često primjenjivao. Suvremeni bosanskohercegovački obrazovni sistem zahtijeva ozbiljnu evaluaciju u smislu inoviranja i primjene pozitivnih strategija u edukacijskim programima što bi bilo praćeno odgovarajućim projektnim strategijama za školske zgrade, posebno za one u seoskim područjima. Dobri primjeri već postoje i mogu poslužiti kao inicijalni model za daljnji razvoj. Članak je fokusiran na pozitivne primjere integracije i inkluzije kroz studije slučaja u seoskim područjima Tuzlanske regije. Prikazano je kako i koji sistemski nedostaci mogu biti prevladani inicijativom školske uprave i lokalne zajednice i tako poslužiti kao otvorene platforme za primjenu naprednih obrazovnih metoda s ciljem transformacije postojećih seoskih školskih zgrada u dinamične održive društvene centre povezane s lokalnom zajednicom kojoj pripadaju. Ključne riječi — arhitektura, seoske škole, projektne strategije

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Figure 1. \ Fatima Kanita’s Mekteb next to Voloder Mosque, nearby Sarajevo4

Short Overview of Elementary Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina — First recorded data about systematic elementary education in Bosnia and Herzegovina originates from the period under the Ottoman Empire in 16th century. The most common and widely spread illustration of elementary schools during the Ottoman period was Mekteb, simple classroom(s) attached to mosques used for teaching basic literacy and religious knowledge (Figure 1). Similar developed curriculums for teaching elementary mathematics and mother languages in Bosnian in addition to Turkish language were established in the second half of 19th century as a part of educational reforms in the Ottoman Empire in B&H, consequently implemented under Vezir Sharif Osman Pasha’s reign from 1861 to 1869. This reform introduced four levels of education as well as compulsory elementary education for girls (ages 6 to 10) and boys (ages 7 to 11). However, in reality this reform was not widely applied because it appeared in the period of general decrease of the Ottoman Empire in this region. 1,2 Survey conducted by the Austro-Hungarians in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the end of the Ottoman era recorded 535 Mektebs or Muslim elementary schools, 56 Orthodox elementary schools and 54 Catholic elementary schools.3 Austro-Hungarian Empire conquered Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, and the country was re-introduced to the Western European cultural circles. This period is characterized by fundamental social, economic, technical and cultural reforms, all together followed by extraordinary infrastructure and construction activities (Figure 2). According to different sources in B&H, this period witnessed the establishment of between 200 and 370 new elementary school buildings, along with 3 high schools, 1 technical and 1 school for teachers. In 1909 compulsory elementary education was established. During the Austro-Hungarian rule literacy rate increased from 3% in 1878 to 12% in 1918.5 After World War I and until 1928, Bosnia and Herzegovina experienced a decrease in construction activities of school buildings. In between two World Wars in Bosnia and

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Figure 2. \ Typical architectural plan for rural elementary school, Mostar,1887 6

Herzegovina, as a part of Monarchy of Yugoslavia, the educational system mirrored wider political agenda of dissolution of Bosnia and Herzegovina with final dissolution of today’s B&H into 4 administrative units. Literacy rate decreased from 12% in 1918 to 6, 28% in 1941. During the World War II in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 39% of existing elementary schools were destroyed, while 20, 5% suffered heavy damage and 27% were slightly damaged. From 1945 to 1955, 587 new school buildings were built and 494 were reconstructed. During socialist period serious educational reforms along with intense construction activities of school network and buildings were undertaken. Strong political and construction initiative 1000 school buildings for B&H was introduced in the 1970s, and by the end of the 1980s it resulted in widespread elementary school network all over Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to 1991 Census, illiteracy rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina was 9, 9%. There was no general Census in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period between 1995 and 2013; the Census conducted in 2013 has not published any literacy results yet. According to B&H Ministry of Civil Affairs there were 1888 elementary school buildings in 2006. undp poll held in 2001 recorded 5% illiteracy rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Contemporary Elementary Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina — Outline Law on Elementary and High Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina7, enforced in 2003, introduced framework of changes in elementary education. In line with this Law, 9-year compulsory elementary education was introduced in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Implementation process was conducted in the Entity of RS and all B&H Federation Cantons in the period from 2003 to 2010. Agency for preschool, elementary and high school education of B&H Ministry of Civil Affairs has been conducting evaluation of the results since 2007. According to Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011-2012 for


Figure 3. \ Spatial-functional configuration of typical 2 classrooms rural elementary school

Bosnia and Herzegovina8, estimated school attendance rate for children ages 6 to 14 was 97, 6% in Bosnia and Herzegovina; namely 97, 2% for Entity FB&H and 98, 9% for Entity RS. Architecture of rural schools in contemporary B&H is based on standards established in former socialist Yugoslavia. Primary functional and spatial structure of contemporary rural elementary schools is developed on simple spatial configuration made of classrooms and corridors. Rural settlements in B&H are usually small and scattered, with a small number of inhabitants and out of reach of frequent roads, and substantial number of rural school buildings are usually small ones. Because of these circumstances it is not easy to develop rational school network. Rural schools, according to existing standards, are intended for education of pupils from 1st to 4th grade, and as administrative unit they belong to bigger central school which should not be over 4 kilometers distance. Rural school building in spatial terms is a simple structure that consists of classrooms, wardrobe and toilets, staff room, entrance room and service room (Figure 3). B&H Councils of Ministers announced Strategy for development of education in B&H 2008-20159 with emphases on two important goals — Increase average quality of education (for children as well as for active older population), and Achieve quality in education with as small as possible differences among children from different social and ethnic groups or from different parts of the state. In order to achieve these goals, it is necessary to harmonize educational conditions through optimization of elementary schools network. This will increase average level of education and decrease differences between schools and because of that, it is one of the most important aspects of ongoing educational reform. This process consists of many possible actions, e.g. continuous use of existing school buildings with constant improvement of educational conditions, expanding capacity of existing overcrowded schools, transportation of pupils from overcrowded schools to those with smaller

international symposium \ Design strategies for future rural schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina

numbers of pupils, construction of new school buildings if necessary, transportation of pupils from small rural schools with insufficient number of pupils, as well as extension of activities in existing rural school buildings towards local social and cultural centers. Case Studies of Rural Schools in Ljubače, Tuzla region — Rural school in Ljubače (Morančani, Tuzla region) was established during the Austro-Hungarian period in 1908 and it is among old rural schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Originally, this school covered/encompassed 9 surrounding villages; however, the same school area is now divided between 4 elementary schools. When first opened the school had 76 pupils from 1st to 4th grade; in 1941 it had 123 pupils, and today the school has 70 pupils in 9 grade school program. In terms of space, this school has more spatial capacity than it requires, given the ongoing trend of decreasing number of pupils in rural areas. This trend has been evident since the end of the last century and has resulted in closing down certain schools. (Figure 4) A characteristic of this school is that it has a very close relationship with local community and it is therefore, a center for various community activities. Since its establishment, the school has been sharing and extending its space to the local community. The total of 14000m² encompasses the following indoor and outdoor facilities: 1. School with indoor sport hall; 2. Post office; 3. Ambulance; 4. Scouts office and classroom ; 5. Bowling and bocce facilities; 6. Teacher apartment; 7. Local cultural center (local community office, folklore society, restaurant, conference room); 8. Outdoor parking spaces; 9. Outdoor sport facilities Contemporary role of school in local community since 2007 has been adjusted to contemporary concept of Community Centers which accept and apply principles of Interactive Open Schools. This program in Tuzla region of B&H is systematically applied by NGO MIOS, Tuzla (International Association ‘’Interactive Open School’’). 10 Teachers,

33


Figure 4. \ Three phases of development of rural elementary school in Ljubače from 1908 up to date

parents and pupils of the school in Ljubače have embraced the concept of Community Schools and collaboration between school and local community, since this concept is very close to the modes previously used during the socialist period11. According to data from 2011, there are 24 elementary schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina which participate in this program. In Croatia there are 7, in Serbia 8, and in former socialist countries Armenia 10, Chez Republic 100, Kazakhstan 10, Moldavia 83, Ukraine 550 and in Russia over 600. In developed Western countries like Germany, UK, USA and Canada, these schools are financed from the state budget. Although governmental policy supports community schools program in B&H, the program itself is not financially supported by any government institution. The application of positive experiences has led to the establishment of NGOs like MIOS with primary goal to introduce advanced methods of interactive education and inclusion of local communities and professionals into overall improvement of educational programs and living conditions in rural and urban communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This program includes permanent education of school management, teaching staff, pupils, parents and local communities in implementation of Community School standards. This primarily aims at changing the way people see school, its role as a constituent part of the community in which they exist, realistic assessment of the situation (SWOT analysis), efficient usage of all possibilities in local communities, improving communication skills, lobbying and public advocacy techniques, etc. In general, Community School potentials in Bosnia and Herzegovina have not been established in full, although there is an overall awareness of the possibilities they extend. Conclusion: Design Strategies for Future Rural Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina Existing trend in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as one on the global level, is continuous migration from rural to urban areas. Analysis made in this paper introduced us

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

to the contemporary trend of continuous decrease of pupils in rural area of Tuzla region, which has been symptomatic for Bosnia and Herzegovina in general since approximately year 2000. In this sense, sustainable strategy for improvement of rural schools network would be concentrated on transformation and improvement of existing rural school buildings to be followed by construction of new ones. In accordance with this strategy, application of positive advanced educational methods and their implementation in existing conditions in B&H demand application of new organizational, spatial and formal architectural modes on existing school buildings. In underdeveloped, usually rural areas of B&H, often equipped with no or low infrastructure, the existing natural settings could be potential for development of tourism or agriculture. These kinds of circumstances along with proactive involvement of local community have become potential which can establish rural school buildings into local centers. These community centers, besides their formal role of elementary schools, will be established into local community project and business incubators through additional spectrum of activities, places where the young and the adults will be trained and qualified, and where they can collaborate on activities to make better future for their community. Implementation of these principles could be presented through development of design strategies which will be focused on existing small and medium rural school buildings and transformation of their basic spatial units into more flexible ones which will be able to serve more different usage scenarios. New pedagogic and functional demands for new architectural responses in most cases will deal with improvement of existing architectural capacities. While looking for a design strategy for application of open school educational methodology which would allow usage of different modes of teaching and learning in existing social, economic and built context, we found proper architectural concept of ‘’home base’’.12 Application and superposition of basic ‘home base’ modules on typical 2 to 4 rural elementary school classrooms


Figure 5. \ Transformation modes of typical 2 classrooms rural elementary school

Figure 6. \ Transformation of typical 2 classrooms rural elementary school into open flexible mode

allow application of different scenarios for group and individual work as well as for free activities. Its application has allowed appropriate level of openness and flexibility among primary units as well as possibility of multiple activities on integral level with possibilities of proper differentiation between diverse activities. Spatial organization is subordinate along with particular activities by usage of equipment suitable for flexible and frequent modification and transformation. (Figure 5 and 6) It is impossible to separate architectural space from the activities it houses. The design process demands proper understanding and implementation of educational and pedagogical processes. Continuous process of development and change of nurture and educational methodologies induce consequent development and change of architectural spatial modes of school buildings. This points out how architecture of schools, by stimulating imagination and widening perception, could be turned into a teaching platform and a teaching medium itself. References — 1., 8. http://www.bhas.ba/ankete/MICS4_BiH_FinalReport_2011-12_Eng.pdf; 2., 4. Bećirbegović M., Prosvjetni objekti islamske arhitekture u Bosni i Hercegovini, Separat iz Priloga za orijentalnu filologiju XX-XI, Sarajevo; 1974.; 3. Madžar B., Razvoj osnovnog školstva u Tuzli za vrijeme Austro-Ugarske okupacije (1878-1918), Osnovno školstvo u Tuzli (Istorijski pregled), Tuzla; 1988.; 5. Korka J., Škole za obavezno školovanje u N.R. Bosni i Hercegovini, Savez društava arhitekata FNRJ: Savetovanje arhitekata po pitanju izgradnje osmogodišnjih škola u FNRJ; 1960.; 6. Bajbutović Z., Arhitektura školske zgrade, Sarajevo: Svjetlost; 1983.; 7. http://www.aposo.gov.ba/hr/files/2012/11/OZ-o-osnovnom-isrednjem-obrazovanju.pdf; 9. http://www.aposo.gov.ba/hr/files/2012/11/StrateL.ki_pravci_razvoja_obrazovanja_u_Bosni_i_Hercegovin.pdf; 10. http://www.ioskole.net/index.php/o-mios-u; 11. http://www.communityschools.org/; 12. Zečević M., Arhitektonska struktura suvremenih školskih zgrada, Magistarski rad, Sarajevo; 2004.

international symposium \ Design strategies for future rural schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Problems with Mould and Dampness in Schools:  Croatian Review on Parma Declaration Commitments

Dario Brdarić Institute of Public Health for the Osijek Baranja County, Osijek Andrey Egorov World Health Organization (WHO), European Centre for Environment and Health (ECEH), Bonn Krunoslav Capak Andrea Barišin Croatian National Institute of Public Health, Zagreb Jagoda Doko Jelinić Medical school, School of Public Health ‘A. Štampar’, University of Zagreb Elena Naumova Alexandra Kulinkina Michael Sellitto Tufts University, School of Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Corresponding email — dario.brdaric@zzjzosijek.hr

36

Abstract — The Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (Parma, Italy, 2010) adopted the Declaration and the Commitment to Act containing the set of targets for the environment and health process. The aim of Declaration was to reduce the harm to children’s health from specific environmental factors. One of the commitments is to provide each child by 2020 with healthy indoor environment in child care facilities, kindergartens, schools and public recreational settings, implementing WHO’s indoor air quality guidelines. In accordance with the WHO Guidelines on Indoor Air Quality — Dampness and Mould, exposures to mould and dampness are associated with asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, and general symptoms among children, and need to be eliminated. WHO has developed a standardized methodology for exposure assessment surveys in schools including mould and dampness inspections, monitoring of chemical air pollutants and assessment of ventilation rates in classrooms. A pilot project was implemented in two schools in Osijek, Croatia in April 2012 in order to test the methodology and Croatian language data collection tools. The results of pilot project demonstrated that exposure to mould and dampness was a serious problem in one of the inspected schools. Following the pilot project, Croatia implemented a national survey in schools in 2012-2014.

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Keywords — Parma Declaration, healthy indoor environment, mould, dampness problems, pilot project, special program


Problemi vlage i plijesni u školama: Hrvatski pregled obveza Parmske deklaracije

Sažetak — Na petoj Ministarskoj konferenciji o okolišu i zdravlju (Parma, Italija, 2010.) usvojena je deklaracija s obvezama koje sadrže niz ciljeva iz područja okoliša i zdravlja. Cilj Deklaracije je smanjiti štetan utjecaj čimbenika iz okoliša na zdravlje djece. Jedna od obveza je do 2020. osigurati zdrave zatvorene prostore u svim objektima za čuvanje djece, vrtićima, školama i javnim objektima za rekreaciju, provedbom vodiča Svjetske zdravstvene organizacije o kvaliteti zraka u zatvorenim prostorima. Prema vodičima szo-a o kvaliteti zraka — vlaga i plijesan, izloženost plijesni i vlazi povezana je s astmom, respiratornim simptomima i infekcijama, te općim simptomima kod djece koji bi trebali biti eliminirani. SZO je razvio standardiziranu metodologiju za određivanje procjene izloženosti u školama, koja uključuje inspekcije plijesni i vlage, nadzor kemijskih onečišćivača zraka i ventilacije u učionicama. U travnju 2012. godine proveden je pilot-projekt u dvije škole u Osijeku, s ciljem testiranja metodologije i alata za prikupljanje podataka na hrvatskom jeziku. Rezultati pilot-projekta pokazali su da je izloženost plijesni i vlazi ozbiljan problem u jednoj od promatranih škola. Nakon pilot-projekta u Hrvatskoj je provedeno nacionalno istraživanje u školama u razdoblju 2012.-2014.

international symposium \ Problems with mould and dampness in schools — Croatian review on Parma Declaration commitments

Ključne riječi — Parmska deklaracija, zdravi zatvoreni prostori, problemi plijesni\vlage, pilot-projekt, poseban program

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School id

number of pupils

percent pers-time exposed

equiv. no. fully exposed

total floor area inspected

total classrooms inspected

m2 total area per pupil

m2 of classrooms per pupil

total estimated area of classrooms

classroom inspected

1

835

29,8

249

1540

1200

2,25

1,44

1200

20

2

547

33,2

182

940

730

3,27

2,84

1551

8

total

1382

31

431

2480

1930

/

/

/

28

Introduction — The Fifth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health (Parma, Italy, 2010) adopted the Declaration related to protection of children’s health from environmental hazards and to protection of health and the environment from the effects of climate change. The Parma declaration specifically sets five commitments with deadlines for implementation. WHO formed and coordinated working groups of experts that have developed indicators methodologies. The standardized methodologies, and WHO technical support and training programs support the implementation and monitoring of Parma commitments in all Member States. Child care facilities, kindergartens, schools and public recreational settings are the places where children spend a substantial proportion of their time. Therefore, minimizing exposure to harmful factors in these environments is important for protecting children’s health. Indoor school spaces are a societal responsibility.1 The presence of mould in school buildings is associated with the relative humidity of indoor air. Mould/dampness problems in buildings are linked to characteristics of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system.2,3 Exposure to mould/dampness is as an event during which pupils come in contact with a pollutant at a certain concentration during a certain length of time.4 Moisture is a major cause of building damage and indoor dampness is associated with respiratory symptoms.5-7 The appearance of dampness and mould in schools are linked with elevated rates of asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections in children.8,11 According to estimates in 2010 about 15 % of new cases of asthma in the WHO European Region can be attributed to moisture and mould indoors.12 The classroom environment plays an important role in teaching and learning.13,14 Prevalence of dampness and mould in schools should be assessed with emphasis on classrooms, where the pupils spend most of their time while at school. In Croatia, a pilot survey regarding the implementation of the Parma Declaration was conducted in two schools in Osijek in the spring 2012. It was organized by the Institute of Public Health for the Osijek Baranja County

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Table 1 \ Exposure to mould and dampness in Osijek pilot project

and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, based in Bonn, Germany. One of survey’s targets was assessing pupil’s exposure to dampness and mould. The results of this small pilot survey demonstrated that exposure to mould and dampness was a serious problem in one of the schools. The pilot survey also involved adaptation of standard WHO data collection tools to the Croatian settings and evaluation of resources necessary for data collection. After the pilot survey, national wide program organized by the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, WHO, Croatian National Institute of Public Health and County Institutes of Public Health has been conducted in 18 counties of Croatia. Materials and methods — Visual observations of dampness and mould are commonly used as markers of exposure. School buildings have been inspected by trained survey personnel using standardized checklists and special surface moisture monitors. The proportion of classrooms affected was calculated based on the inspection data. The presences of mould/dampness in school building materials have been determined by the professional detector Tramex Moisture Encounter for rapid measurement of humidity. Microwave technology can detect the distribution of moisture to a depth of 300 mm. Inspections covered all classrooms, other indoor spaces, attics, and crawlspaces. The signs of dampness and mould problems in the buildings have been recognized. The signs were on walls, floors, ceilings, windows and plumbing. The signs included water leaks, condensation on surfaces, detached covering and finishing materials and discoloured materials as well as visible mould growth. Following on-site inspections, data have been entered into observation log sheets and standardized data entry forms. The estimated proportion of students exposed was based on proportion of classrooms affected by dampness and mould, taking into account dampness and mould in other indoor spaces and on number of children in the school.


Results — The proportion of students exposed to dampness and mould was estimated for the participating schools using standard data analysis tool developed by WHO. Weighted prevalence of exposure was calculated taking into account the total number of students at each school surveyed (835 students in first school and 547 students in second school). 1382 students total. Data analyses involved dichotomizing each indoor premise as ‘exposed’ or ‘not exposed’ and estimating the proportion of person-time pupils spend in exposed premises. Table 1 shows the results of students’ exposure to mould/dampness in two Osijek high schools. Inspectors found 7m2 of moisture damage/dampness in school 1 and 9 m2 in school 2. They also found 353 m2 of surface moisture in school 1 and 130 m2 in school 2. Conclusions — School 1 has the higher Percent person time exposed to mould and dampness. The potential source of exposure could be related to the moisture from the ground on the ground floor of the building. Since the affected school buildings are old (more than 50 years each) and there were no major repairs, overhauls or renovations during the past 5 years, recommendation is to make renovations aiming at reducing moisture in the buildings.

Rerences — 1 Jones SE, Fisher CJ, Greene BZ, Hertz MF, Pritzl J. Healthy and safe school environment, Part I: results from the school health policies and programs study 2006. J School Health. 2007;77:522–43.; 2 Mendell MJ, Smith AH. Consistent pattern of elevated symptoms in airconditioned ffice buildings: a reanalysis of epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Public Health. 1990;80:1193–1199.; 3 Seppanen O, Fisk W, Mendell M. Association of ventilation rates and CO2 concentrations with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings. Indoor Air.1999;9:226–252.; 4 Air quality guidelines global update 2005: particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2006 ; 5 Bomberg M, Brown W. Building envelope and environmental control: part 1 — heat, air and moisture interactions. Construction Canada.1993; 35:15–18.; 6 Ronald PT. Relevant moisture properties of building construction materials. In: Trechsel HR, ed. Moisture control in buildings. Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM manual series, MNL 18). 1994; 7 Mendell MJ, Mirer AG, Cheung K, Tong M, Douwes J. Respiratory and allergic health effects of dampness, mold, and dampness-related agents: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:748–56.; 8 Dales, R.E., Zwanenburg, H., Burnett, R., Franklin, C.A. Respiratory health effects of home dampness and molds amongCanadian children. American Journal of Epidemiology.1991; 134 (2): 196–203. 9 Brunekreef, B., Dockery, D.W., Speizer, F.E., Ware, J.H., Spengler, J.D., Ferris, B.J. Home dampness and respiratory morbidity in children. The American Review of Respiratory Disease. 1989;140: 1363–1367.; 10 Peat, J.K., Dickerson, J., Li, J. Effects of damp and mould in the home on respiratory health: a review of the literature. Allergy. 1998; 53: 120–128.; 11 Koskinen, O.M., Husman, T.M., Meklin, T.M., Nevalainen, A.I. Adverse health effects in children associated with moisture and mold observations in houses. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 1999; 9: 143–156.; 12 JJK Jaakkola, BF Hwang, MS Jaakkola. Home dampness and molds as determinants of allergic rhinitis in childhood: a 6-year, population-based cohort study. American journal of epidemiology. 2010; 172 (4): 451-459; 13 Eicker U. Cooling strategies, summer comfort and energy performance of a rehabilitated passive standard office building. 2010; 87(6): 2031–2039; 14 Puteh M., Mohd H. I., Mazlini A., Che N. C. A., Noraini M.N. Thermal Comfort in Classroom: Constraints and Issues. Procedia. 2012; 46: 1834–1838

international symposium \ Problems with mould and dampness in schools — Croatian review on Parma Declaration commitments

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Regional Schools and Water Supply in the County of Požega (Slavonija) and Sisak (Moslavina)

Ankica Senta Marić Medical School, School of Public Health ‘A. Štampar’, University of Zagreb Ivanka Petrović County Institute for Public Health, Požeško-slavonska County, Požega Damir Andabaka Medical School, School of Public Health ‘A. Štampar’, University of Zagreb Corresponding email — asenta@snz.hr

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Abstract — Regional schools in Croatia are more than educational institutions, because they very often bring together the entire community and are the reason people subsist in the countryside. They are ‘educational subsidiaries of the central school’ with which they are connected as regards curriculum and personnel. According to the State Pedagogical Standard schools have to satisfy hygienic-technical, basic ecological and esthetic criteria. Water supply of schools should be provided, through water-supply network, with safe drinking water. Water-supply coverage of the population in Croatia is 87,4% and the remaining 12,6% are supplied through various, often, unsecure sources. Unfortunately, this group of institutions not connected to public water-supply network also includes some schools and kindergartens. The paper presents water quality from 22 schools in the Požega-Slavonija county and 5 from the Sisak-Moslavina county. Data on the school and its water supply were obtained by conducting a survey. Water samples were analyzed according to analysis „A‘ and an analysis on seven metals was also made. In the Sisak-Moslavina county all water samples were in accordance with the „Rules on compliance parameters and methods of analysis of water for human consumption’ because all the examined schools were connected to the public water-supply network. In the Požega-Slavonija county regional schools got their

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

water from wells which were the reasons for the presence of microorganisms, and in some nitrate, ammonium, organic substances, iron and manganese. Keywords — district schools, wells, water quality, water and health, metals


Područne škole i vodoopskrba u Požeško-slavonskoj i Sisačko-moslavačkoj županiji

Sažetak — Školu ne čine samo djeca nego i učitelji, roditelji i drugi djelatnici. Škole u manjim mjestima ne služe samo za obrazovanje djece. Često su mjesto okupljanja cijele zajednice i razlog zašto ljudi ostaju na selu. Prema podacima Zavoda za statistiku, Hrvatska ima 1222 područne škole. Prema Državnom pedagoškom standardu škole moraju zadovoljiti higijensko-tehničke standarde koji se odnose na osvjetljenje, osunčanost, prozračivanje, toplinsku zaštitu, zaštitu od buke, akustičnost prostorija za nastavu, grijanje i hlađenje, opskrbu vodom, odvodnju otpadnih voda, električne instalacije, instalacije računalne opreme i zaštitu od požara. Prema Higijensko-tehničkim zahtjevima, uz ostalo, opskrba škole zdravstveno ispravnom vodom za piće trebala bi se obavljati vodovodnom mrežom. U mnogim područnim školama, na žalost, nisu zadovoljeni pedagoški, kao ni higijensko-tehnički standardi. U radu je ispitana vodoopskrba u odabranim područnim školama u Sisačko-moslavačkoj županiji koja ima 48 područnih škola, a Požeško-slavonska 59. U radu se razmatraju svi bakteriološki i kemijski pokazatelji, kao i njihov utjecaj na zdravlje. U Požeško-slavonskoj županiji analizirana je vodoopskrba i kakvoća vode u jednoj osnovnoj i 22 područne škole koje nisu priključene na javnu vodoopskrbu i voda nije u redovnoj kontroli. Voda se vadi iz vlastitih zdenaca koji su stari od 30 do 100 godina, a u jednoj iz lokalnog vodovoda. U tri škole voda se

international symposium \ Regional schools and water supply in the county of Požega  (Slavonija) and Sisak (Moslavina)

redovito klorira, u pet povremeno, a u ostalima nikada. Uzorci su poslani na analizu ‘A’, a osim bakteriološke i fizikalno-kemijske provedena je i analiza na sedam metala (željezo, mangan, cink, bakar, olovo, kadmij i živu). Prema rezultatima uzoraka, u svim školama voda je bakteriološki neispravna po ukupnim koliformima, a prema E. coli i enterokokima više od polovice uzoraka. Kemijska analiza pokazuje bolje rezultate jer je samo u nekoliko uzoraka izmjerena veća koncentracija amonija i nitrata. Od metala su ponegdje povišene koncentracije željeza, mangana, olova i cinka. U većini škola voda se koristi samo u sanitarnom čvoru i djeca piju vodu iz aparata, a u jednoj sami donose vodu u bočicama. Nasuprot tim primjerima, u područnim školama u Sisačko-moslavačkoj županiji ispitana je vodoopskrba u pet područnih škola koje su priključene na javnu vodoopskrbu i, kako se i očekivalo, je voda zadovoljavala po svim pokazateljima. Ključne riječi — područne škole, zdenci, kakvoća vode, voda i zdravlje, metali

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Introduction — Health of people is closely related to the quality and quantity of water we consume1. Water supply coverage of the population through public water-supply network in Croatia is still not satisfactory2. According to the Croatian Statistical 2013 Yearbook 87,4% of the population use public water-supply which means that these waterworks are under constant care and control3. The remaining 12,6% of the population are supplied through other sources: local water-supply 3,7%, and from dug, drilled and driven wells, cisterns, etc. 8,9%. Public water-supply in Croatia is under control and is considered perfect because only 14,6% of samples are health unsafe4. According to some results water from wells is often not satisfactory because of inadequately built wells, too shallow and with poor environment. Most often the result is microbiological contamination5. Microorganisms found in this water may cause different gastrointestinal disorders, problems of the urinary tract, disorders in substance exchange in body etc. Coliform bacteria are normal in our environment and are in general not harmful but are an indicator of possible contamination with bacteria which can cause diseases. Enterococci and Escherichia coli in water are indicators of contamination with human and animal waste. They can cause gastrointestinal and urogenital infections, mainly waterborne disease6,7. Chemical substances most often found in the Republic of Croatia as causes of poor water quality are nitrogen compounds, organic substance, iron, manganese and turbidity. Regional schools — Regional school by definition is an „educational subsidiary of the central school‘ and is located outside the headquarters of the central school with which it is connected as regards curriculum and personnel. It is founded only if the enrolment quota ensures the number of pupils for at least one class from the 1st to 4th grade, i.e. from 5th to 8th grade, and if it satisfies the Standard for performing activities. The distance of regional schools from the central school is often very big and the

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

suggestions that pupils be transferred to the central school represent both a risk and a burden for the children. Apart from their daily responsibilities the journey to school, for such small children, would be especially strenuous. School does not only consist of pupils but also of teachers, parents and other personnel. Schools in smaller communities mean much more than education of children. Very often they are gathering places for the entire community and are the reason for people to subsist in the countryside. According to standards, the school building should ensure the functional organization of the premises suitable for contemporary teaching forms, should satisfy all hygienic-technical requirements and basic ecological and esthetic standards7. According to the State Pedagogical Standard schools should satisfy hygienic-technical standards regarding illumination (lighting), insulation, airing (ventilation), thermal insulation, noise protection, class acoustics, heating and air cooling, water supply, liquid waste disposal, electrical installations, computer installation, and fire prevention8. Water supply of the school should be provided through water-supply network with safe drinking water. Illumination should be ensured through natural, daily light which is considered one of the most important psychological and physiological factors of working conditions in schools, and, depending on the form of teaching, it is essential to provide adequate and qualitative illumination. The quality of natural illumination in the classroom is determined by the orientation of the classroom, technical means for dispersal of daily illumination and control of inner surfaces reflection. Besides, all premises for work and dwelling should be naturally aired. In classrooms, four air exchanges per hour should be ensured with the speed of air circulation of 0,2m/s or 25-30 m3 of air per hour per pupil. Humidity in the classroom should be 45-55%. Thermal insulation, noise protection and the acoustics of wall and ceiling constructions of community rooms and classrooms should be according to valid standards and regulations. For heating and cooling of premises and hot water preparation all forms of the central system are used. The air in working and


dwelling premises should be heated to 20º C. In warm weather school premises should have an optimal temperature of 5º C lower than outside. These justified and desired requirements cannot be met even by the central school much less by the regional ones. Croatia and regional schools — According to data from the Institute of Statistics, Croatia has 2072 schools of which 1222 regional schools, 393 schools with 300 and 800 pupils, 324 schools with less that 10 pupils and about 70 schools with less than 5 pupils9. In 391 schools 20 to 50 pupils are enrolled. Due to economic reasons the plan is to close down schools with less than 150 pupils which mean 140 central schools. The survival of these small communities depends on many factors among which are the school itself. Although these schools do not meet all the requirements stipulated by „standards‘ their conditions could be improved with minor interventions. Materials and methods — Since schools are an important issue water-supply of regional schools was examined in the Požega-Slavonija and Sisak-Moslavina counties. A field survey of the school was conducted, water samples taken. Samples were analyzed on analysis „A‘, bacteriological, physical-chemical and 7 metals (iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and mercury) analysis10. Požega-Slavonija county — The Požega-Slavonija county has 59 regional schools of which 22 are not connected to public water-supply and are under study (Picture 1.) According to the survey in 22 schools water is used from wells, and in one from the local water-supply network. The age of the wells is between 30-100 years. Water is bailed mostly with well-pumps and in 3 with a can. Following recommendations, in most schools drinking water is provided from water machines and in one school they use bottled water. The depth of the wells is from 7-25 m and septic tanks are located

from 3-30 m from the wells. In 3 schools water is regularly chlorinated, in 5 occasionally and in the rest never11,12. The water-supply system of the county is deficient because there are no main pipelines which would connect the entire area and thus ensure water supply to all these settlements. The present water supply coverage of the population is 80% and the remaining 20% are using wells. Problems also occur due to the worn-out condition of the pipelines. By enlarging the water-supply network small regional schools could be connected to the system. Until then, the recommendation is to use water only for sanitary purposes but children often do not stick to rules and that is why safe drinking water should be provided. Fortunately, until now not a single case of water-born disease has been reported. Water-supply in the Sisak-Moslavina county is provided through 11 public and 24 local pipelines. A total of 72,6% of the population are connected to the public water-supply network. The rest are using wells and other means. In the Sisak-Moslavina county there are 48 regional schools and 5 schools have been taken under survey (Picture 1.) All of them are connected to the public water supply. Results — The paper presents water quality in 27 schools from 2 counties where samples were analyzed on analysis „A‘ and besides bacteriological and chemical indicators the 7 metals analysis was also conducted. In 2012 a total of 502 pupils were enrolled in regional schools and one primary school in the Požega-Slavonija county. In regional schools there are one to three classes with 4 to 35 pupils, in total 40 classes i.e. 311 pupils. According to results not a single water sample was according to the „Book of Regulation‘10. The cause of contamination of water from wells is bacteriological i.e. the water was contaminated by bacteria of fecal origin, especially in the first sampling. Of chemical parameters, nitrate, ammonium and organic substance were the most frequent. The reason for bacteriological impurity is the presence of overall coliform,

international symposium \ Regional schools and water supply in the county of Požega  (Slavonija) and Sisak (Moslavina)

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Picture 1. \ Position of regional school in the county of Požega-Slavonija

and in 13 water samples E.coli were found and in 16 samples entrococci. According to chemical analysis the concentration of organic substance (KMnO4) was elevated in 3 samples, ammonium in 3 samples and nitrate in 7 samples. As regards metals, contretations of iron and mangenese were elevated in 3 i.e. 2 samples, lead in 2 samples and zinc in 1 sample. In the majority of schools water is used only in sanitary facilities while children drink water from the water machines and in one school they consume bottled water. In the Sisak-Moslavina county in 2103 samples were taken on a one-time basis in regional schools from the toilets and the water was satisfactory by all indicators since they are connected to the public water-supply network. Conclusion — According to the Pedagogical Standard school have to satisfy hygienic-technical standards related to water supply, thermal insulation, illumination, isolation, wastewater disposal, etc. Very often these standards are not met for one of several reasons. Even the central schools cannot meet all the standards. The paper presents water supply in 27 regional schools in 2 counties. In schools which use water from dug wells, due to old age of the same, porosity of their walls, poor environment, insufficient depth, water samples were unsafe. The importance of schools for the community is unquestionable, especially the regional schools, so that every intervention/improvement on any of the segments from the Pedagogical Standard are more than welcome.

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Picture 2. \ Position of regional school in the county of Sisak-Moslavina

References — 1Rogan WJ, Brady MT. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children. Committee on Environmental Health, Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pediatrics; 2009 Jun;123(6):e1123-37.; 2Dadić Ž., Ambramec J., Cipriš R., i drugi. Studija o lokalnim vodovodima u Hrvatskoj. Zbornik radova sa XII znanstveno-stručnog skupa Voda i javna vodoopskrba, Pag 2008.; 3Croatian health service yearbook 2013. Hrvatski zavod za javno zdravstvo; 2013.; 4Gonzales TR. The effects that well depth and wellhead protection have on bacterial contamination of private water wells in the Estes Park Valley, Colorado. J Environ Health. 2008 Dec;71(5):1723.; 5Senta, Ankica; Marijanović-Rajčić, Marija. Bakteriološka kakvoća vode iz privatnih zdenaca na području Zagreba. Lječnički vijesnik. 2007; 129; 39-43. ; 6H. Leclerc, L. Schwartzbrod, and E. Dei-Cas. Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2002; 28(4):371–409. ; 7Njeze GE, Dilibe U, Ilo C. Nitrate and drinking water from private wells: will there be an epidemic of cancers of the digestive tract, urinary bladder and thyroid? Niger J Clin Pract; 2014 Mar-Apr;17(2):178-82.; 8Državni pedagoški standard Osnovnoškolskog sustava odgoja i obrazovanja NN 063/2008.; 9Popis osnovnih škola WWW.mzos.hr.datoteke7ustanove-OS.xls dostupno 12.09.2014.; 10Pravilnik o parametrima sukladnosti i metodama analize vode za ljudsku potrošnju (NN 125/2013).; 11Senta Marić, A, Petrović I, Andabaka D, Mikšik D, Penava A. vodoopskrba područnih škola u Požeško-slavonskoj županiji. XV Znanstveno – stručni skup voda i javna vodoopskrba. Vinkovci, 2011. 169-176.; 12Senta Marić A, Petrović I, Andabaka D, Mikšik D, Penava A, Nakić D. Područne škole u Požeško-slavonskoj županiji i vodoopskrba. IV. Hrvatski kongres školske i sveučilišne medicine i medicinskih sestara i tehničara. Split, 2012. 157-157.


international symposium

45


Impact of Energy Efficient Measures on Comfort in Schools in Kosovo

Kresnik Muhaxheri Kosovo, EU office Kosova: Energy Efficient Measures Project, Republic of Kosova Corresponding email — kmuhaxheri@gmail.com

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Abstract — Schools are the most suitable type of building for the application of energy efficiency and good indoor air quality measures. This is justified by the fact that such measures can promote sustainability to the future citizens, and even more, ensure a comfortable and healthy environment for educational purposes. Unfortunately, in practice school buildings face the same, or even more intense, energy performance and indoor air quality problems as any other building. The purpose of this study is to implement the energy efficiency measures which impact thermal environment and indoor air quality in 63 school buildings around Kosovo. Prior energy audit of these buildings shows problematic building envelope, lack and/or the improper control of heating and lighting systems, the absence of proper legislative measures and, above all, the lack of interest concerning the efficiency of such buildings are the main factors in the reported very low efficiency. The overall objective of this paper is to present detailed and comprehensive information regarding the efforts in implementation of EEM in above mentioned school buildings and expected savings, improvement of comfortable and healthy environment for educational purposes as well as CO2 emission reductions to be achieved through implementation of energy efficiency measures. A cost on carbon emissions from energy use increases the return on energy efficiency

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

investments because energy is more expensive, making some cost-ineffective projects economically feasible. This paper will contain comparison between EU legal framework and Kosovo legal policies for increasing energy efficiency in public buildings. Improvement or replacement of residential building outside doors & windows & thermal insulation, replacement of conventional incandescent light bulbs with energy efficient ones and refurbishment and/or fuel switching in heating systems will be highlighted comparing with other EE measures expected to be implemented in public building sector. Keywords — EU directives, schools, energy efficiency measures, health, energy consumption, CO2 emission reductions


Utjecaj mjera energetske učinkovitosti na udobnost škola na Kosovu

Sažetak — Škole su veoma pogodne za provođenje programa energetske efikasnosti i poboljšanja unutrašnje kvalitete zraka. Takve mjere i programi osiguravaju ugodan i zdrav okoliš za učenje, kao i održavanje škola za buduće naraštaje. Na žalost, u praksi škole se suočavaju s istim, ako ne i većim, problemom loše unutrašnje kvalitete zraka i loše energetske efikasnosti kao i ostale zgrade. Cilj ovog rada bio je provesti mjere energetske efikasnosti koje bi utjecale na temperaturu i unutrašnju kvalitetu zraka u 63 škole na Kosovu. Prijašnji rezultati pokazuju probleme s vanjskom izolacijom, nedostatak i/ili lošu regulaciju grijanja i osvjetljenja, nedostatak legislativnih mjera i, najviše od svega, nedostatak interesa za ove probleme. Rad prikazuje detaljne i sveobuhvatne informacije vezane za pokušaje implementacije mjera energetske efikasnosti u ispitivanim školama, očekivane uštede, poboljšanje udobnosti i postizanje zdrave unutrašnje atmosfere. Također pokazuje i mogućnost smanjenja emisije CO2 uvođenjem mjera energetske efikasnosti. Ako se uračunavaju troškovi cijene emisija CO2 i visoke cijene energenata, tada mjere uvođenja energetske efikasnosti zgrada postaju isplative iako segmentalno gledano te mjere mogu biti skupe. U članak se uspoređuju europski pravni okvir i legislativa Kosova vezana za provođenje energetske efikasnosti javnih zgrada. Poboljšanje ili zamjena vrata, prozora, toplinske izolacije, konvencionalnih žarulja i/

international symposium \ Impact of energy efficient measures on comfort in schools in Kosovo

ili promjena u sistemu grijanja u stambenim zgradama također će se raspraviti i usporediti s ostalim mjerama energetske efikasnosti za koje se očekuje da će biti implementirane i javnim zgradama. Ključne riječi — EU direktive, škole, energetska efikasnost, zdravlje, potrošnja energije, smanjenje emisije CO2

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Background — Kosovo Education Strategic Plan (KESP) 2011 -2016 1 provides an important tool for qualitative improvement of school infrastructure. The strategic priorities, issues that KESP addresses, and corresponds with the EU concepts of implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in schools, include: — Increase level of education infrastructure and improve quality of facilities. Kosovo schools are challenged by overcrowded, rundown infrastructure with limited sanitary and instructional facilities. Many primary schools teach in two shifts, shortening classes and limiting teachers’ ability to conduct quality curricular and extracurricular activities. — Improve sanitary facilities for all schools. Without basic sanitary conditions it is difficult to speak of a healthy physical environment in schools. School buildings are badly insulated in general and consequently are highly energy inefficient. — Introduce child-friendly schools. Many of the school classrooms look quite bare and uninviting. Since most single subject teachers (5th - 13th grade) move around from classroom to classroom during the school day, while students remain in one place, teachers do not have the space or motivation to make the classroom more inviting. If class scheduling were changed so that each teacher would have her/his own classroom space, teachers and students could better work together to make their space more pleasant and conducive to teaching and learning. Moreover, the international experience and literature 2,3 on aspects of school infrastructure which can influence non-cognitive outcomes as well-being and behaviour are linked between others on the following quality indicators: \ Criteria on the condition of school buildings, \ Criteria on the amenity and physical comfort of school buildings (temperature, acoustics, lighting and ventilation).

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Introduction — Schools are the most suitable type of building for the application of energy efficiency and good indoor air quality measures. This is justified by the fact that such measures can promote sustainability to the future citizens, and even more, ensure a comfortable and healthy environment for educational purposes. Unfortunately, in practice school buildings face the same, or even more intense, energy performance and indoor air quality problems as any other building. The purpose of this study is to implement the energy efficiency measures which impact thermal environment and indoor air quality in 63 school buildings around Kosovo. Prior energy audit of these buildings4,5 shows problematic building envelope, lack and/or the improper control of heating and lighting systems, the absence of proper legislative measures and, above all, the lack of interest concerning the efficiency of such buildings are the main factors in the reported very low efficiency. The building envelope should be efficient in keeping the building thermally stable and comfortable. Heat transfer through envelope components is quite involved and multifaceted. Depending on the use of these materials and their location, appropriate values of thermal resistance, heat capacity, and exterior surface condition should be considered to optimize the achievement of energy efficiency and thermal comfort6 The building envelope can contribute to energy savings and increased indoor environmental quality that may significantly heighten student and staff productivity, lower energy costs, allowing budget shifts toward other school needs. In addition, the shape of the building envelope has significant impact on the thermal comfort of the building. For example, window placement and direct sunlight infiltration affect the amount of heat that enters the building. The overall objective of this paper is to present detailed and comprehensive information regarding the efforts in implementation of EEM in above mentioned school buildings and expected savings, improvement of comfortable and healthy environment for


Figure 1 \ Thermograms by Thermal Imaging Camera

educational purposes as well as CO2 emission reductions to be achieved through implementation of energy efficiency measures. A cost on carbon emissions from energy use increases the return on energy efficiency investments because energy is more expensive, making some cost-ineffective projects economically feasible6. The applied energy efficient measures will focus on improving the thermal performance of the buildings’ fabric and heating system by installing air tight windows and doors with lower U values, improving roof and external wall insulation, as well as installing more efficient mechanical systems and controls. This paper summarizes outcomes of EEMK through energy and carbon savings as well as investment payback period. The results are presented in the following section. Methodology — A total of 63 schools and 2 in various regions of Kosova have participated in the project with the purposes of Energy Efficiency improvements in the retrofitted public buildings in Kosovo, by implementation of energy efficiency measures on building envelope, heating system and interior lighting, hence make heating more affordable and use of renewable energy resources that will reduce the harmful impact on environment. Data base of participating public buildings is compiled with respect to region, space heated area, energy consumption before and after implementation EEM and savings. Project strategy was, that the approach to verifying savings will be to carry out through the analysis on a ‘whole facility’ basis, i.e. rather than trying to isolate the savings from one individual measure, such as lighting improvements or improved U values. We have followed an approach that adheres to the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) as set out by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO 10000 – 1:1012). Furthermore, we have used as the basis document for building energy auditing EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive) 2002/91/

international symposium \ Impact of energy efficient measures on comfort in schools in Kosovo

EC, i.e. recast 2010/31/EU. Implementation of this document is based on respect of standards that define particular fields of interest and relevant technical characteristics. Likewise are used CEN (European Committee for Standardization), with produced standards supportive for the implementation of the EPBD. National Laws and Regulations were consulted as the relevant documents and important document, relevant to assessments, calculations and specifications in this project. For each school, we would seek to gather the following baseline data, over the last 12 months (to cover all four seasons), to be able to model the impact of driving factors on energy use. HVAC Measurements — During the measurements of the first group of the schools, we have used standard testing methods, according to procedures which are based on national or international standards, test procedures provided by the manufacturer, international recommendations and guidelines. Equipment and Instruments to be used — During the measurements, monitoring, verification and evaluation ‘before’ and ‘after’ implementation of energy efficiency measures in schools will be used different instruments and equipment which in different way support realization of the correct measurements and collecting of the results. For the measurement of the thermal flux and identification of the buildings structure U-value it will be used brand new instrument, measuring thermal flux in W/m2 and U-value in W/m2K using the multifunctional instrument and outdoor thermometric wireless probe to determine the coefficient of the thermal transmittance. The important tool in field measurements was Thermal imaging Camera, with Sensor system of Infrared radiation. This camera was intended to be used to identify areas of energy waste, through infrared imaging as a valued tool in identifying problems related to energy loss, missing insulation, inefficient HVAC systems,

49


450

429 356 276 184 172

153

before Figure 2 \ after Comparison of savings average annual consumption before and after retrofit and saving

\ kWh/m2

0 schools

26,881,686

13,266,989

13,614,697

Figure 3 \ Total measured energy consumption and achieved saving

300

276 205 172

144

225

Kosovo \ after Region UK \ Typical practice Germany

102 0

hospitals

radiant heating, water damage on roofs, and much more. A thermal imaging camera identifies patterns of heat loss that are invisible to the naked eye. Thermal imaging quickly indicates the air leaks within a building and measurement data are easily compiled into a report. Combustion analyzers are used to determine the composition of the flue gases in the flux duct. The flux duct is the large piping arrangement of circular configuration and is used to flush out the combusted gases to the chimney. The values for the different components of the flue gases are volume-based and used for analyzing of the boilers heating capacity. Developed model and experimental setup — Based on analysis of the baseline data, we will carry out a linear regression analysis to correlate energy use against the driving factors. Principally, this relationship is likely to relate to heating degree days, although may also include cooling degree days. From this, we will then develop a model for each school that will predict energy use, based on the driving factors. Indoor air temperature and humidity in a zone have been measured by a sensor. Measurements have been used to determine annual heating energy consumption, whether indoor set point conditions have been achieved or additional adjustments have been required e.g. regulation of TRV valves. These parameters have been measured before and after implementation of energy saving measures in buildings. Three zones per building have been selected for measurements. Sensors have been dismounted and reinstalled in other buildings, afterwards. Thus, two months of recorded data during heating season have been obtained. Measured energy consumption for these corresponding months have been extrapolated over the whole heating season and used for comparison analysis.

50

predicted after measures savings

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

0

\ kWh/m2 schools

hospitals

Results and Discussion: Energy savings — Analyzing results from the Audit Report, comparing with the preliminary field measurements after implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures we found significant discrepancies in foreseen savings. Therefore, all analysis regarding the comparison of average annual unit energy consumption before and after retrofit and achieved savings after retrofit are based in more realistic information collected during the intermediate control measurements realized on January 2014. The highest specific energy consumption is for four schools in range from 435 kWh/m2 up to 605 kWh/m2. The average of energy consumption for 63 schools is 355,66 kWh/m2 annually and is much higher compared with the specific consumption identified in schools in region. Average of energy savings is 183.55 kWh/m2 annually. This value will be finally verified after completion of implementation measures and surveys planned to be performed in winter 2014/2015. While average measured energy consumption for post retrofitted two and schools are around. 205 kWh/m2 and expected savings are 153 kWh/m2 respectively! Energy consumption reduction of around 50% for 63 schools is expected to be achieved by implementing of selected energy efficiency measures. Higher energy consumption of compared to that of schools was due to higher indoor set point temperatures and around the clock business hours. Expected energy consumption reduction is lower, approximately 35% after implementation of EEM. Detail breakdown of energy conserving measures applied per building along with energy consumed before and after refurbishments is presented in Figure 2 summarizes post retrofit total measured energy consumption over a heating season for all buildings and achieved savings. Amount of saved energy could cover heating needs of 16 refurbished schools for a 2 years period. Figure 4 shows clearly that even after implementation of energy efficiency measures results with higher values for both schools and comparing with achieved results in the regional projects6 and recommendation from German and UK standards, with 172


Figure 4 \ Comparison of building energy benchmarks in Kosovo, Region, UK and Germany (CIBSE TM 46, 2008), (EnEv, 2007)

556

600

Before Figure 5 \ Predicted Comparison of Savings average Annual CO2 emission

344

100% 51%

All buildings Schools Hospitals 5.4 5.1

Figure 7 \ SPP WHOLE PROJECT Simple Payback Period breakdown

49%

104 107

schools

5.8

5.8

212

211

0

Reduction Figure 6 \ After Total CO2 emission and achieved reduction

hospitals

kWh/m2a for schools, respectively 276 kWh/m2a for schools for in Kosovo. Carbon Emission Saving — For calculation of CO2 emission factor for external walls and ceiling presented through heating oil, value used in the calculation was 0.3kg/kWh, while value for CO2 emission factor for electricity used in the calculation was 1.5kg/kWh. Difference in average annual specific CO2 emissions pre and post retrofit follow is calculated based on annual energy savings7. Results indicate an average of 42% of carbon emission reductions for schools. Significant carbon emission reductions are achieved after retrofit and depicted in Figure 5. Amount of 6738t CO2 is saved over a heating season for all school buildings, while for we have savings of 423 t/a of CO2. Investment and Payback Period Analysis — Payback period for considered public buildings is depicted in Figure 7. While average SPP in is 5.05 years, SPP in schools is estimated to be cca.5.8. On average, total investment for the entire project is to be paid off in 5.4 years. This payback period fits very well with the results achieved in similar projects in the region but will be checked and adjusted after finalization of the projects, because some additional investments are required to complete in proper way energy efficiency measures. Conclusions — Energy efficiency measures implemented on building envelope and heating system in 63 schools as retrofitted public buildings in Kosovo, have been analyzed and presented. Replacement of existing windows has been the most frequent measure applied into buildings. The best results are identified in building with replacement of all windows, complete new building envelope and new heating system as schools with the savings between 250-350 kWh/m2. Significant energy savings and carbon emission savings of around 40% have been achieved. While measured average unit energy consumption for and schools has been found to be around 205 kWh/m 2 and 144 kWh/m2 respectively ‘after’ refurbishment, monitored energy consumption has

international symposium \ Impact of energy efficient measures on comfort in schools in Kosovo

0

4.6

\ Years

been found to be 339 kWh/m2 and 243 kWh/m2 respectively ‘before’ refurbishment. Carbon emissions are influenced by energy consumption and fuel type. The simple payback period on investment is found to be 5.05/5.8 years for /schools, respectively. Analysis of answers on questionnaires shows that there was a stark contrast in satisfaction levels between students attending schools with good quality infrastructure as compared with those in schools with poor infrastructure, before implementation of measures. Without a doubt, we were able to conclude that school infrastructure definitely contributes to the well-being of students. Referring back to the fundamental question raised during the investigations (‘Can differences in students’ well-being could be attributed to the quality of their school’s infrastructure?), the answer is yes3. Differences in students’ well-being can be linked to the quality of the infrastructure of the schools they attend. So, regardless of these criteria, the quality of school infrastructure definitely has a strong impact on an individual’s perception of his well-being. Acknowledgement — The project ‘Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Schools and in Kosovo’ is financed by The European Union Office in Kosovo. References — 1 Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Education‘Kosovo Education Strategic Plan 2011-2016’, June 2011; 2 Stankovic et al., Evaluation of energy efficiency measures applied in public buildings (schools & ) in Serbia, Spatium International Review, nr.20, September 2009, pp 1-9.; 3 Cuyvers K,, De Weerd G., Dupont S., Mols S., and Nuytten C.,, ‘Well-being at school: does infrastructure matter?’ Institute for Educational and Information Sciences, Instructional and Educational Science, University of Antwerp, OECD 2011; 4 ALAnet, 2011, Study on Energy Efficiency Measures in Public Buildings in Kosovo Municipalities, EU Project, FWC BENEF 2009 – EUROPEAID/127054/C/SER/MULTI; 5 Supervision of energy efficiency measures in schools and in Kosovo, Contract No .2012/302-059, Inception Report, 2013; 6 EN 15217 Methods of assessment for energy certification of buildings, guidelines for certification schemes; 7 EN 15603 Overall energy use, primary energy and CO2 emissions

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School as a Dangerous Place for Students

Aida Mujkić Medical School, School of Public Health ‘A. Štampar’, University of Zagreb Maja Miškulin Medical School, University of Osijek Julije Meštrović Medical School Split, University of Split Corresponding email — amujkic@snz.hr

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Abstract — As it is already well known injuries, as the consequences of accidents, are the leading cause of children’s death after the first year of life in the developed part oft he world and after the fifth year of life in the developing part. The threats for children are all around in the world made according to adult’s measures. Among other places injuries at school are an important public health issue but there is not lot of literature about this topic. The physical environments of the school, the psychological factors as well as the social conditions are contributing factors for injuries. Schools have a moral and legal responsibility for the pupils’ safety but also school can teach pupils the skills needed to promote safety and avoid unintentional injuries as well as intentional. Schools could be the model of safe and child friendly environment. Schools should have the guidelines regarding accidents and injuries. Of course that the situation is different in different schools but unique frame need to be developed and applied according to specific school situation. For example huge glass surfaces are probably good from the point of light and connection with surrounding but they are very dangerous in some very typical situation (children running through the halls, lot of children in the halls). Also sharp edges of furniture (desks and other items in the classroom) are dangerous especially for younger children when some edges are in the

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

level of their heads and eyes. Unfortunately in Croatia every several years a child dies due to the frazzled football goal on the school yard. Very often with some simple and cheap measures the school environment could be much improved from the point of safety preserving at the same time creative and stimulating environment. Discussing the burden of injuries we need to be aware that it is not only about injury itself, but also about psychological and social consequences such as absenteeism which interferes with child life in many ways. Because injuries are so common in the schools and their surrounding intensive research about the causes, prevention and on site management are required. Keywords — school, students, accident, injury, risks, safety


Škola kao izvor opasnosti za učenike

international symposium \ School as the danger for pupils’ safety

Sažetak — Ozljede, kao posljedica nesretnog slučaja, vodeći su uzrok smrtnosti djece nakon prve godine života u razvijenim zemljama i nakon pete godine u zemljama u razvoju. Opasnosti za dijete su posvuda u svijetu kreiranom prema mjerama odraslih. Među ostalim, ozljede u školi zauzimaju važno mjesto u javnom zdravstvu, ali nema baš mnogo istraživanja o toj temi. Fizičke karakteristike škole i njenog okoliša, te psihološki i socijalni čimbenici imaju značajnu ulogu u nastanku ozljede. Škole moralno i pravno odgovaraju za sigurnost djece, ali one su i mjesto koje može poslužiti za poučavanje djece vještinama potrebnim za unapređenje sigurnosti i prevenciju kako nenamjernih tako i namjernih ozljeda. U školama bi trebali postojati vodiči za prevenciju nesreća, kao i za postupanje u slučaju kada se nesreća dogodi. Svaka škola je slučaj za sebe, ali treba se uspostaviti jedan jedinstveni okvir preporuka. Na primjer, velike staklene površine su vjerojatno dobre s aspekta prirodnog svjetla, stapanja s okolišem i prozračivanja, ali su i vrlo opasne u nekim za školu tipičnim situacijama kao što je trčanje velikog broja djece po školskim prostorima, silazak niz stepenice i slično. Također, oštri uglovi namještaja (klupa i druge opreme) u školi, pogotovo u učionici, mogu biti jako opasni posebice za učenike nižih razreda kojima su ti oštri uglovi često u razini glave (npr. radijatori). U Hrvatskoj svakih nekoliko godina na školskom igralištu pogine učenik

kada na njega padne nepričvršćen gol. Vrlo se često jednostavnim, jeftinim mjerama značajno može unaprijediti škola i njen okoliš istovremeno zadržavajući kreativno i stimulativno okruženje. kada je riječ o ozljedama u školi i oko nje, treba imati na umu da se ne radi samo o ozljedi kao takvoj već također o psihičkim i socijalnim posljedicama koje mogu biti dugoročne i dalekosežne, da spomenemo samo izostanak s nastave kao čimbenik koji značajno utječe na školski uspjeh učenika, ali i na njegovu socijalizaciju u školi. Budući da su nesreće u školi i njenom okolišu vrlo učestale, potrebna su istraživanja o uzrocima, prevenciji i djelovanju na licu mjesta. Ključne riječi — škola, učenici, nesreća, povreda, rizik, sigurnost

53


As it is already well known injuries, as the consequences of accidents, are the leading cause of children’s death after the first year of life in the developed part of the world and after the fifth year of life in the developing part. The WHO mortality database was used to examine mortality from external causes for children aged 1–14 years between 1993 and 2008, by country, European sub region and cause and results show that deaths from external causes have fallen in all of Europe since 1993 but, a clear east– west divide persists with higher death rates in the Eastern part.1In Croatia injuries are the leading cause of death after the first year of life. In the last years we noticed decrease of absolute numbers of fatalities, in the 1995 there were 291 causalities among children 1-19 years and in 2012 82 cases. Among all causes of death for the age group 1-19 years injuries took highest proportion: in 1995 62%, and in 2012 53%. Despite the decrease in the absolute numbers, rates and proportion, Croatia still has worse indicators than other developed countries specially Netherland, England, Scandinavian countries. Additionally, for males 15-19 years in 1995 injuries took 72%, in 2012 76% which means that the proportion of injuries as a cause of death for male adolescents increased. The male adolescents are the most vulnerable groups because of injuries.2 The threats for children are all around in the world made according to adult’s measures. Among other places injuries at school are an important public health issue but there is not lot of literature about this topic. Despite the fact that injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools, school yards and surrounding are not very often in the centre of school injury research. The physical environments of the school, the psychological factors as well as the social conditions are contributing factors for injuries. Injury rates for schools, playground, summer camp and schools were comparable according to systematic review performed for the USA.3 How situation is complicated we can see through the connection of obesity and injuries. Different measures have

54

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been proposed as a measure to reduce childhood obesity, obviously huge public health problem. Physical activity has lot of positive influences on child physical, mental and social health but on other side it increases possibility of injuries. Initiatives to increase active transportation as walking to schools could increase the number of pedestrian traffic injuries. The research from Canada finds that pedestrian collisions are more strongly associated with built environment features than with proportions walking.4 In one research from Finland the physical environment was a contributory risk factor in over a third cases of injuries in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In 11,6% of all injuries the physical environment was evident, in further 28,1% was a contributory risk factor and the most frequently mentioned risk factor was ice. This study stresses the need to take into account the interaction between characteristics of different materials, weather conditions and maintaining of the school spaces.5 Comparing unintentional and intentional injuries in a school setting the analysis of Student Accident Report Forms from the USA found that the unintentional injury rate 1,74 per 100 students per year was almost five times the intentional injury rate 0,29 per 100 students per year. Intentional injuries were almost three times more likely to be associated with unstructured play or after school playground hours, were less likely to be witnessed events and were more likely to occur on the surrounding school grounds than unintentional injuries.6Schools have a moral and legal responsibility for the pupils’ safety but also school can teach pupils the skills needed to promote safety and avoid unintentional injuries as well as intentional. Schools could be the model of safe and child friendly environment. Schools should have the guidelines regarding accidents and injuries. Where the school nurses exist the most frequent reason for visit her is first aid because of injuries and it is important for nurses to be well educated and equipped for that situations.7 Also it is important to collect and analyze data about injuries connected with school environment because only with exact


insight about problems appropriate preventive measures could be tailored. Of course that the situation is different in different schools but unique frame need to be developed and applied according to specific school situation. For example huge glass surfaces are probably good from the point of light and connection with surrounding but they are very dangerous in some very typical situation (children running through the school halls, lot of children in the halls and so on). Also sharp edges of furniture (desks and other items in the classroom) are dangerous especially for younger children when some edges are in the level of their heads and eyes. Unprotected windows and doors represent also a possible risk for children. Unfortunately in Croatia each several years some child died because of the goal on the school yard and so on. Very often with some simple and cheap measures the school environment could be much improved from the point of safety preserving in the same time creative and stimulating environment. Discussing the burden of injuries we need to be aware that it is not only about injury itself but also about psychological and social consequences for example absenteeism which interferes with child life in many ways. Because injuries are so common in the schools and their surrounding intensive research about the causes, prevention and on site management are necessary. The cooperative programs involving schools, parents, and other agencies are needed. A proactive attitude joined with intensive research could impact this problem.8 For better understanding and tailoring preventive measures routine reporting, student supervision, treatment of injuries, communication with parents and legal responsibilities are necessary.9 As the conclusion we can say that the schools and school surrounding as well as built environment should be developed from evidence that more clearly addresses child safety. The guidelines developed by Centre for Disease Control from USA in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local and voluntary agencies and organizations stresses eight aspects of school health efforts to prevent unintentional injury, violence and suicide10:

international symposium \ School as the danger for pupils’ safety

\ A social environment that promotes safety \ A safe physical environment \ Health education curricula and instruction \ Safe physical education, sports, and recreational activities \ Health, counselling, psychological and social services for students \ Appropriate crisis and emergency response \ Involvement of families and communities \ Staff development to promote safety and prevent unintentional injuries, violence and suicide \ Child deaths from injuries are avoidable and measures to reduce them would have a significant impact upon the overall burden of child mortality. References — 1 Armour-Marshall J, Wolfe I, Richardson E, Karanikolos M, McKee M.Childhood deaths from injuries: trends and inequalities in Europe. Eur J of Public Health. 2012,22(1):61-5.; 2 Child Injuries in Croatia. Croatian Bureau of Statistics, data analysed be Croatian National Institute of Public Health, 2014.; 3 Hashikawa AM, Newton MF, Stevens MW, cunnigham RM. Unintentional injuries in child care centers int he United states:A systematic review. J Child Health Care. 2013 Oct 3. Available from www.ncbi.nml.nih.gov/pubmed. Cited 2014 June 13 ; 4 Rothman L, Macarthur C, To T, Buliung R, Howard A. Motor vehicle-Pedestrian Collisions and Walking to School: The role oft he Built Environment.Pediatrics 2014; 133 (5):776-84. ; 5 Salmine S, Kurenniemi M, Raback M, Markkula J, Lounamaa A. School environment and school injuries. Front Public Health 2014 Jan 13;1:76.; 6 Limbos MA, Peek-Asa C. Comparing unintentional and intentional injuries in a school setting. J Sch Health. 2003;73(3):101-6.; 7 Peterson BB.School injury trends. J Sch Nurs. 2002; 18(4):219-25.; 8 Haq SM, Haq MM. Injuries at school: a review. Tex Med. 1999;95(4):62-5.; 9 Gratz RR. School injuries:what we know, what we need. J Pediatr Health Care. 1992 Sep-Oct; 6 (5 Pt 1):256-62.; 10 Centers for Disease Control and prevention.School health guidelenes to prevent unintentional injuries and violence MMWR Recomm rep. 2001; 50 (RR-22):1-73.

55


Child Mortality in Serbia:  Shall We Improve Child Safety?

Predrag Đurić University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine Institute of public health of Vojvodina, Novi Sad Corresponding email — predrag.duric@izjzv.org.rs

56

Abstract — There were 1,033,950 children under 15 in Serbia in 2012. Mortality in this population was 54.8 per 100.000. All deaths in this age group represent only 0.6% of all deaths in Serbia, but the most of them is preventable. Almost 3/4 of all deaths in this group are deaths occur during first year of life, usually in neonatal period. But among pre-school children 17.7% dies due to injuries and poisoning and among school children injuries and poisoning are the leading cause of death, responsible for 51.3% deaths. The aim of this study was to analyze external causes of death in children in Serbia. Descriptive analysis of external causes of death of children under 15 in Serbia in 2012 was performed. Data were analyzed by age group (below 1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14) and gender and by different type of external cause of death. State Office of the Republic of Serbia data were used for the analysis. During 2012 fifty death caused by external causes were reported in the Republic of Serbia (80% males and 20% females). Almost half of all deaths (46%) were in children 10-14 years old and 88% in children 5-14 old. Leading external cause of death is drowning (38%), followed by traffic accidents (28%), accidental treats to breathing (10%), exposure to electric lines (6%), assault (4%) and self-harm (2%). More than a half of drowning traffic accidents victims are children 10-14 years old. External causes of death in children are important public problem

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

in Serbia. Despite drowning is a leading cause of death, there is a little if any public health effort to prevent it. Schools should play the most important role in prevention of injuries among children and more efforts should be made on the level of local community to raise awareness about importance of safe recreational waters, roads and prevention of exposure to electric lines. Keywords — children, injuries, drowning, traffic accidents, prevention


Mortalitet djece u Srbiji: Trebamo li unaprijediti sigurnost djece?

Sažetak — U Srbiji je 2012. godine živjelo 1,033,950 djece mlađe od 15 godina. Mortalitet u ovoj populaciji iznosio je 54,8/100.000. Sve smrti u ovoj dobnoj grupi činile su svega 0,6% svih smrti u Srbiji, ali mnoge od njih su se mogle spriječiti. Gotovo 3/4 svih smrti u ovom uzrastu dogodile su se u prvoj godini života, uglavnom u neonatalnom periodu. U predškolskom uzrastu 17,7% smrtnih ishoda bili su posljedica povreda i trovanja, dok su među školskom djecom povrede i trovanja vodeći uzrok smrtnosti, odgovoran za 51,3% smrti. Cilj rada je bio analizirati vanjske uzroke smrti djece u Srbiji. Provedena je deskriptivna analiza vanjskih uzroka smrti djece mlađe od 15 godina u Srbiji u 2012. godini. Podaci su analizirani u odnosu na uzrast (ispod jedne godine starosti, 5-9 godina, 10-14 godina) i spol, kao i u odnosu na vanjski uzrok smrti. Korišteni su podaci Republičkog zavoda za statistiku. Tokom 2012 godine prijavljeno je pedeset smrtnih slučajeva u Republici Srbiji (80% muški spol i 20% ženski spol). Gotovo polovina svih smrti (46%) javila se kod djece uzrasta 10-14 godina, dok je 88% bilo kod djece u uzrastu 5-14 godina. Vodeći uzrok smrti bio je utapanje (38%), praćeno prometnim traumatizmom (28%), zadesnim prijetnjama disanju (10%), izlaganjem izvorima električne energije (6%), nasiljem (4%) i samoozljeđivanjem (2%). Više od polovine žrtava utapanja i prometnih nesreća bilo je u uzrastu 10-14 godina. Vanjski uzroci smrti djece predstavljaju

international symposium \ Child mortality in Serbia — Shall we improve child safety?

značajan javnozdravstveni problem u Srbiji. Iako je utapanje vodeći uzrok smrtnosti, ono pobuđuje malo preventivnih napora javnozdravstvene službe. Škole bi morale igrati najvažniju ulogu u prevenciji povreda među djecom i više bi se napora moralo uložiti na razini lokalne zajednice kako bi se podigla svijest o važnosti sigurnih javnih vodenih površina. Ključne riječi — djeca, povrede, utapanja, prometni traumatizam, prevencija

57


age group

0

1-4

5-9

10-14

total

males

220

31

22

43

316

females

195

23

14

18

250

total

415

54

36

61

Table 1 \ Reported deaths in children in Serbia by age group and gender

age group

0

10-14

5-9

total

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

males

8

\

6

8.3

8

4.5

18

10.1

40

7.6

females

1

\

1

1.3

3

1.8

5

3.0

10

2.0

total

9

\

7

4.9

11

3.1

23

6.6

50

4.9

566

Introduction — Republic of Serbia is an upper middle-income country situated in South Eastern Europe. Since 2008 Serbian economy faced many problems, including GDP declining, increasing unemployment rate and budget deficit. At the same time public health spending hasn’t changed and it remained on around 6.5 % of GDP and 14% of government budget1. In 2004 National action plan for children was adopted in Serbia with children’s health as one of priorities2. National program for healthcare of women, children and youth, Strategy for health development of youth in Serbia, and Plan of healthcare as a part of mandatory health insurance are only some of the national documents emphasizing the importance of children health protection3-5. There were 1,033,950 children under 15 in Serbia in 20126. Mortality in this population was 54.8 per 100.000. All deaths in this age group represent only 0.6% of all deaths in Serbia, but the most of them is preventable. Almost 3/4 of all deaths in this group are deaths occur during first year of life, usually in neonatal period. But among pre-school children 17.7% dies due to injuries and poisoning and among school children injuries and poisoning are the leading cause of death, responsible for 51.3% deaths7. The aim of this study was to analyze external causes of death in children in Serbia. Methods — Descriptive analysis of external causes of death of children under 15 in Serbia in 2012 was performed. Data were analyzed by age group (below 1, 1-4, 5-9, 1014) and gender and by different type of external cause of death. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia data were used for the analysis. Results — In 2012 102,400 deaths were reported in Serbia, 566 in age 0-14 (table 1). During 2012 fifty death caused by external causes were reported in the Republic of Serbia (80% males and 20% females), (table 2). Almost half of all deaths (46%) were in children 10-14 years old and 88% in children 5-14 old. Leading external cause of death

58

1-4*

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Table 2 \ Reported external causes of deaths in children in Serbia by age group and gender *Data were available for 0-4 population only.

is drowning (38%), followed by traffic accidents (28%), accidental treats to breathing (10%), exposure to electric lines (6%), assault (4%) and self-harm (2%), (table 3). More than a half of drowning and traffic accidents victims are children 10-14 years old. Accidental treats to breathing as a cause of death is specific for children under 12 months. Discussion — According to WHO, child injuries are global problem, with more than 700,000 children under 15 affected worldwide8. Injury related mortality rates are much lower in Serbia than in European region, especially for under-5 children (mortality rates in European region are 41.4 per 100,000 children below 12 months and 20.2 per 100,000 children 1-4 years old and in Serbia mortality rate for children 0-4 is 4.9 per 100,000 populations). That difference decreases by age, so in 5-9 and 10-14 age groups the mortality rates are 60% and 50% higher in European region. This difference is less expressed in boys for whom the mortality rates are higher in European region for 30% (more than a double higher for girls). Road traffic injuries are the most common cause of death among unintentional injuries in the world with 23.6% of all unintentional injuries as a cause of death8. But in Serbia road traffic injuries are in the second place. At the same time road traffic injuries participate with almost 30% in all unintentional injuries. Age-specific mortality of road traffic injuries in Serbia is lower than in European region, but the difference is smaller for 10-14 old than for the younger. Drowning is the second leading cause of death among unintentional injuries in the world and the first one in Serbia – 40.4% of all unintentional injuries in Serbia and 19.2% in the world. Age specific incidences are lower in children below 10, but for the age group 10-14 age-specific incidence is 3.2 per 100,000, what is higher than 2.0 per 100,000 in European region. All other types of injuries are rare causes of deaths in children in Serbia. Burns, falls and poisoning, common causes of death worldwide were not reported in Serbia in 2012. Beside the importance of injuries as a cause of death among


5-9

10-14

age group

1-4*

total

age group

0 n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

n

inc

traffic

1

\

1

0.6

4

1.1

8

2.3

14

1.4

exposure to electric line

0

\

1

0.3

1

o.3

1

0.3

3

0.3

drowning

0

\

3

0.9

5

1.4

11

3.2

19

1.9

self harm

0

\

0

0

0

0

1

0.3

1

0.1

other

3

\

1

1.2

1

0.3

1

0.3

6

1.7

total

9

\

7

4.9

11

3.1

23

6.6

50

4.9

accidental

1-4*

\

1.2

threats to breathing

4

\

0

assault

1

\

1

0 0

0.6

0

total

0.3 1

0

0

0.5 5

0

2

0.2

children, they are also very important cause of morbidity. For every injured child who dies, several thousand more survive with varying degrees of disability.9 The reasons for high mortality rate due to drowning could be the absence of preventative programs, high number of recreational water resorts without any prevention measures and supervision applied and a lack of awareness about potential benefit of prevention. As the most of the victims are young males, some of the risk factors are swimming under the influence of alcohol, poor swimming abilities and underlying medical conditions.10 Swimming instruction and water-survival and CRP training could have a positive impact on drowning prevention. The most of the children dies in road traffic injuries as passenger of motor vehicles.11A lot of efforts have been made in past to prevent children as pedestrians, but in the same time efforts to prevent children in cars were minor and only the Traffic security law in Serbia defined more severe penalties for drivers who have children in a vehicle. In 2006 WHO released a plan for action for child and adolescent injury prevention12. This plan consists of six components \ data and measurement, research, prevention, services for children affected by injury and violence, capacity development and advocacy. In Serbia there were no much efforts to follow this action plan. Injury prevention and control was not mentioned in the National strategy for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases 13. In the Plan for healthcare development of the Republic of Serbia the need for development of the National strategy for prevention and control of injuries and poisoning is identified 14, but there was no further action. Public health institutes should play more important role in the injury prevention and they should be recognized and supported as prevention leaders and key partners for data collection and measurement. Universities should be encouraged to invest more in injury related trainings and research. Capacity development should be the first priority, not only for public health institutes and universities, but also for the community based healthcare institutions

international symposium \ Child mortality in Serbia — Shall we improve child safety?

0

5-9

10-14

Table 3 \ Reported external causes of deaths in children in Serbia by the type (in absolute numbers and incidence per 100,000) *Data were available for 0-4 population only.

(primary care centers) and NGOs. Injury prevention for children should become a routine program in elementary schools, which should be followed by appropriate training for teachers and capacity building for schools. Those programs should include trainings and development of personal skills of children important for the prevention of not only road traffic injuries, but also drowning, exposure to electric lines, and certainly self-related injuries and violence. Conclusion — External causes of death in children are important public problem in Serbia. Despite drowning is a leading cause of death, there is a little if any public health effort to prevent it. Schools should play the most important role in prevention of injuries among children and more efforts should be made on the level of local community to raise awareness about importance of safe recreational waters, roads and prevention of exposure to electric lines. References — 1 Institute of public health of Serbia ‘Milan Jovanović Batut’. Available from: www.batut.org.rs; 2 Council for children’s right of the Government of the Republic of Serbia. National action plan for children; Belgrade: 2004.; 3 Government of Serbia. Strategy for development of youth health in Serbia. Belgrade:2006.; 4 National programme for health protection of women, children and youth. Belgrade: 2009.; 5 National health insurance fund. Plan of healthcare as a part of mandatory health insurance in Republic of Serbia for 2012. Belgrade:2012.; 6 Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia. Available from: http://webrzs.stat.gov.rs/WebSite/; 7 Sokal-Jovanović Lj, Lozanović-Miladinović D. Zdravlje majke i deteta u Republici Srbiji. In: JUSAD studija 2008. Belgrade: Institute of public health of Belgrade;2008.; 8 WHO, UNICEF. World report on child injury prevention. Geneva:2008.; 9 WHO, UNICEF. Child and adolescent injury prevention – a global call for action. Geneva: 2005.; 10 Weiss J. Technical report – prevention of drowning. Pediatrics. 2010;126e:253-63.; 11 Đurić P, Miladinov Mikov M. Epidemiološke karakteristike saobraćajnog traumatizma u AP Vojvodini. Med Pregl. 2009;LXII(1-2):17-22.; 12 WHO. Child and adolescent injury prevention: a WHO plan for action 2006-2015. WHO: Geneva; 2006.; 13 Republic of Serbia. The Government. Strategy for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. Belgrade: The Government; 2009.; 14 Republic of Serbia. Ministry of Health. Plan of development of healthcare in the Republic of Serbia 2010-2015. Belgrade: Ministry of Health; 2010.

59


How Serbian Schools are Prepared for Child Safety Prevention Programs?

Anna Đurić Centre for education, tolerance and multiculturalism, Novi Sad Corresponding email — cetimoffice@gmail.com

60

Abstract — Recent data of Serbian Ombudsman have shown that 88% of primary school and 60% of secondary school students stated they witnessed some kind of violence in schools. Injuries among school children are also common. Despite the majority of teachers wants to contribute to improvement of child safety, it seems there are some barriers for that. The aim of this study is to describe how are Serbian primary schools are prepared for the implementation of prevention programs. Existing literature was reviewed, including existing legislation, reports and evaluations of preventative programs implemented in schools and published research papers. Primary school education in Serbia is regulated by two laws - Law on the Foundations of the Education System and Low on primary education. Beside them Serbia has adopted Educational strategy by 2020 and an Action plan for the Strategy implementation. The Law on the foundations of the Education System defines prohibition of violence, what is explained in detail in the Protocol of action at the facility in response to violence, abuse and neglect. The same law also defines school safety, but it is regulated by the internal acts of schools. In 2005/2006 UNICEF has started with the implementation of the project Schools without violence and the program currently involves 196 primary schools. The evaluation of this program showed program success in lower grades and the absence of success

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

in upper grades. Strategic approach and a complete legal framework for implementation of child safety programs in schools in Serbia is missing. Child safety is usually considered as absence of violence and there is a little attention paid to the prevention of injuries. Regional and international collaboration and implementation of good practices with the strategic approach could lead to improvement of child safety in Serbian schools. Keywords — schools, children, safety, violence, prevention


Koliko su škole u Srbiji spremne za provođenje programa unaprjeđenja sigurnosti djece?

Sažetak — Nedavni podaci Ombudsmana u Srbiji pokazali su da je 88% učenika osnovnih i 60% učenika srednjih škola izjavilo da su prisustvovali nekom obliku nasilja u školi. Povrede među školskom djecom su također česte. Iako većina nastavnika želi pridonijeti unapređenju sigurnosti djece, izgleda da postoje određene prepreke za provođenje preventivnih programa. Cilj ovog rada je opisati spremnost škola u Srbiji za implementaciju preventivnih programa. Pregledana je postojeća literatura, uključujući zakonske propise, izvještaje i evaluacije implementiranih preventivnih programa u školama, kao i publicirana istraživanja. Osnovno obrazovanje u Srbiji reguliraju dva zakona — Zakon o osnovama obrazovnog sistema i Zakon o osnovnom obrazovanju. Osim njih, u Srbiji je usvojena i Strategija obrazovanja do 2020. godine i Akcioni plan za provođenje Strategije. Zakon o osnovama sistema obrazovanja predviđa zabranu nasilja, što se definira detaljno u Radnom planu ustanove, kao odgovor na nasilje, zlostavljanje i zapostavljanje. Isti zakon definira i sigurnost u školama, ali se ona regulira internim aktima škole. U 2005/2006. godini UNICEF je započeo provođenje projekta Škole bez nasilja i ovaj program trenutno uključuje 196 osnovnih škola. Evaluacija ovog programa pokazala je uspjeh u nižim, a neuspjeh u višim razredima. Nedostaje strateški pristup i kompletiran pravni okvir za implementaciju programa sigurnosti djece u školama u Srbiji. Pod

international symposium \ How Serbian schools are prepared for child safety prevention programs?

sigurnošću djece često se podrazumijeva odsustnost nasilja i malo se pažnje posvećuje prevenciji povreda. Regionalna i međunarodna suradnja i primjena primjera dobre prakse sa strateškim pristupom mogle bi unaprijediti sigurnost djece u školama u Srbiji. Ključne riječi — škole, djeca, sigurnost, nasilje, prevencija

61


Introduction — Recent data of Serbian Ombudsman have shown that 88% of primary school and 60% of secondary school students stated they witnessed some kind of violence in schools1. At the same time, 66% of school children was at least once and 24% more times victims of violence2. Injuries and poisoning among school children are the leading cause of death for this population, making 51.3% of all deaths3. The Union of educational workers syndicates in Serbia estimates there are 3,578 elementary schools, with around 656,000 students and 70,236 employees4. It is still based on pre-1990 education system of former Yugoslavia5. Expenditure per primary student in Serbia is very high – 54.9% of GDP per capita, but it slightly decreases6. At this moment UNICEF supported ‘Schools without violence’ project is the only one long-term project related to injury prevention, followed by several campaigns aimed to prevent road traffic injuries, mainly provided by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and national associations and bodies responsible for road traffic safety. Despite the majority of teachers wants to contribute to improvement of child safety, it seems there are some barriers for that. The aim of this study is to describe how are Serbian primary schools are prepared for the implementation of prevention programs. Methods — Existing legislation relevant for primary education in Serbia was reviewed with the aim to identify prevention and child safety. Two laws and one strategy were identified. Results — Primary school education in Serbia is regulated by two laws - Law on the Foundations of the Education System and Low on primary education. Law on the Foundations of the Education System7 defines general principles of educational system in Serbia, including pre-school, primary and secondary schools. The law prohibits any kind of violence, torturing and neglecting. It also regulates the responsibility of a

62

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

school to regulate and conduct student safety, together with the local self-government, based on legislation adopted by the Minister of Education. The Law on primary education8 regulates the responsibility of schools to adopt development plan which should include measures for violence prevention and also to develop school programmes which should include programme for protection of violence, torture, neglecting, and programmes of prevention of other kinds of risk behaviour. The law also recognises the importance of sport activities for the prevention of violence. Further this law regulates more in detail the programme for protection of violence, torture, neglecting and programmes of prevention of other kinds of risk behaviour (using of alcohol, smoking, psychoactive substances and delinquency). The programme should be realised through partnership between employees, parents, and local self government, and also natural and legal persons educated for the prevention, according to the list adopted by the Minister. The same law also recognises the development and practicing the safe lifestyle including the importance of the safety as one of the aims of primary education. Beside them Serbia has adopted Educational strategy by 20209. The Strategy identified the need for the collaboration between educational system and police, judiciary, prosecution and ombudsman for risk prevention and safety environment, but now with healthcare and NGOs. The strategy recognises extended stay in school as a measure for the prevention of the risk behaviour and child safety. One of the defined national quality standards is ‘defining preconditions for health protection, quality food, and children safety’. But, the Strategy also admits that at this moment schools are not safety environments for children. Discussion — Reviewed legislation can make a good base for child safety programmes in schools. It identifies safety and prevention among the most important measures, but it stays too general. Decision making is much centralised, based on decisions of


the Minister and usually such decisions, or bylaws are missing, leaving the above mentioned commitments only declarative. The role of healthcare system, especially public health institutes, for which the well developed network in Serbia exist and also the role of primary care centres is not defined at all. Also, NGOs, who could play a significant role in child safety, are not recognised at all as partners for Serbian schools. One of the largest obstacles could be the lack of the public interest in school reform and modernisation (which also includes child safety), as the changes are mainly donor-driven, with the lack of managerial and institutional backing5. At the same time, 96-98% of the educational budget goes to salaries10. In 2005/2006 UNICEF has started with the implementation of the project Schools without violence and the programme currently involves 196 primary schools. The evaluation of this program showed programme success in lower grades and the absence of success in upper grades11. In the situation of centralisation of education system in Serbia, with the whole responsibility on the Ministry, and the lack of capacities of employees, low management performance and the lack of interest for reforms, and with the undeveloped legal framework, the improvement of child safety in schools would be difficult. Australian National Safety School Framework recognises nine essential elements12: leadership commitment to a safe school, a supportive and connected school culture, policies and procedures, professional learning, positive behaviour management, engagement, skill development, and safe school curriculum, a focus on student wellbeing, and student ownership, early intervention and targeted support, and partnerships with families and communities. It seems that in Serbia we have only partnerships in a declarative way and a legal framework for policies and procedures.

considered as absence of violence and there is a little attention paid to the prevention of injuries. Regional and international collaboration and implementation of good practices with the strategic approach could lead to improvement of child safety in Serbian schools. References — 1 Republic of Serbia. Ombudsman. Children protection of school violence. Beograd: Ombudsman; 2011.; 2 Institut za psihologiju; 3 Sokal-Jovanović Lj, Lozanović-Miladinović D. Health of mother and child (in Serbian). Republici Srbiji. In: JUSAD studija 2008. Belgrade: Institute of public health of Belgrade;2008.; 4 Responsible don’t know the number of schools in Serbia (in Serbian).. Politika 2011 Sep 1.; 5 Kovač-Cerović T. National report – Serbia. In: The prospects of teacher education in South-Eastern Europe (Zgaga P, ed). Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana; 2006.; 6 World Bank. Available from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/serbia; 7 Republic of Serbia. Parliament. The law on basis of educational system in Serbia. Belgrade: Parliament; 2009.; 8 Republic of Serbia. Parliament. The law on primary education. Belgrade: Parliament; 2013.; 9 Republic of Serbia. Parliament. Strategy of education development in Serbia by 2020. Belgrade: Parliament; 2012.; 10 Skrobonja M. Reality and perspectives in schools in Serbia (in Serbian). In: Education in Serbia today (Matijević D, ed). Belgrade: Union of education workers’ syndicates in Serbia; 2010.; 11 UNICEF. Schools without violence. Available from: http://www.unicef.rs/skola-bez-nasilja.html; 12 Ministerial council for education, early childhood, development and youth affairs. National safe schools framework. Carlton South: MCEECDYA Secretariat; 2010.

Conclusion — Strategic approach and a complete legal framework for implementation of child safety programmes in schools in Serbia are missing. Child safety is usually

international symposium \ How Serbian schools are prepared for child safety prevention programs?

63


Rural Schools in Ankara: Evaluating School Buildings in Context of Architectural Design

Hakan Saglam Faculty of Fine Arts, Design and Technology, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ancara Corresponding email — hsaglam@etu.edu.tr

64

Abstract — From the beginning of the Republic until today, the constructions via proto-type school projects have been used as a method for building schools built by the State in Turkey. Up to this time, almost all governments have adopted generating proto-type project as a government policy, and they have been continuously constructed. The easiness of production, controlling and shortness of time, limited personnel, financing problems have all contributed to the reasons why this method was favoured. However, they have been applied all around the country, regardless of diversities in climate, place, culture as well as context. Today, it is possible to refer to two different methods of producing new school buildings in Turkey. Building a small number of schools that have a huge capacity and are generally placed outside of the city, and constructing small-scale schools in the city. Due to the increasing population and urbanization prototype project had been criticized. Since 2013 new model named ‘Campus School Project’ was proposed aimed towards the abandoning of proto-type projects. Digital technologies have changed the relationship between education and space and this can provide a basis for alternative and flexible spatial organization. It is true that it also generates some new concerns about the detachment of the educational medium from the city and the monotony of education, but besides several problems,

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

this development plan also represents an opportunity and challenge for architecture. The new process of construction has prepared the basis for a new medium of research, discussion and application, aiming to abandon the stereotype approach to schools that ignores the diversities of climate, place, culture and context and functionalizes the contemporary requirements and approaches in the medium of architecture as well as the medium of education. Keywords — prototype school design, post-occupancy evaluation, user satisfaction, role of architects in rural schools.


Ruralne škole u Ankari: Evaluacija školskih zgrada u kontekstu arhitektonskog dizajna

Sažetak — Od nastanka Republike Turske do danas problem nedostatka školskog prostora rješavao se konstrukcijom i izgradnjom prototipova školskih zgrada. Do danas su gotovo sve vlade prihvatile stvaranje prototipova kao osnovne paradigme i takvi projekti se provode u kontinuitetu. Lakoća i kratko vrijeme izgradnje, kontrola, limitirani broj radnika, ali i financijski problemi, doprinijeli su implementaciji ove metode. S druge strane projekt se primjenjivao diljem zemlje bez obzira na klimatske, kulturološke i kontekstualne razlike. Danas u Turskoj razlikujemo dva osnovna tipa gradnje: izgradnja malog broja škola s velikim kapacitetom izvan gradova i izgradnja malih škola u gradovima. Ipak, uslijed velikog porasta broja stanovnika i nagle urbanizacije došlo je do kritika projekta izgradnje prototipnih škola. 2013. godine predložen je novi model nazvan ‘Campus School Project’ koji bi napustio prototipnu izgradnju i promovirao fleksibilnu organizaciju prostora, tim više što se i školski sustav okreće digitalnim tehnologijama. Novi model donosi i nove brige u smislu odvojenosti školskog prostora od grada i monotoniju edukacije, ali to ujedno predstavlja izazove i prilike za arhitekturu. Novi procesi u konstrukcijama mogu predstavljati i platformu za nova razmišljanja u arhitekturi te odustajanje od stereotipova koji ne uvažavaju razlike u klimi, geografiji, kulturi i općem kontekstu. Novi modeli bi trebali funkcionalizirati moderne zahtjeve i školstva i arhitekture.

international symposium \ Rural schools in Ankara: Evaluating school buildings in context of architectural design

Ključne riječi — prototipna konstrukcija škola, evaluacija prostora izvan edukacijskih procesa, zadovoljstvo korisnika, uloga arhitekata u izgradnji ruralnih škola

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The Turkish educational model has its roots in the Ottoman education system. Maktabs (primary schools) were located within mosque complexes, but isolated from mosques and located with a direct access from the street. The main aim of this way of planning was protecting the main structure from children’s noises and providing a quiet life in Madrasas. But separate Maktabs in neighborhood were also built, usually in central places. The Maktabs usually had two storeys and offices were located on ground floor. About 30 students were taught in each class. The sizes of Maktabs were usually 6.50x6.50 meters or 8.00x8.00 meters. The design of Maktabs aimed to be close to children’s scale. Classrooms often were shaped as a square. The Maktabs in the Ottoman Empire were public institutions. It is possible to say that those public schools were insufficient because of the social, economic and demographic transformations during the 19th century. The deficiency in the area of primary education made way for many laws and they spread throughout the country. In 1869, new regulations were created with the General Education Regulation (Maarif-i Umumiye Nizamnamesi) but the issue of primary education couldn’t be handled properly due to several reasons. Consequently, this issue had been transferred as an unsolved problem to the administration of the Republic. The first 10 years of Turkey were a preparatory and transition period. It was a fact that the internalization of the new regime would have been possible only by means of constructing new primary school buildings, which would spread all around the country.1 The problems of education in urban areas were different from the ones in rural schools. Two separate education systems for urban and rural areas were developed as a solution. But none of those networks were implemented properly and few high quality school buildings were built. The beginning of the 1930s was the period of formation of primary education policies. The problems of education in rural areas turned out to be a serious issue. In this

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respect, during the 1930s, an extensive school construction activity took place in rural areas. Due to financial and bureaucratic issues, building projects for primary education schools were considered. The variations of the prototype school buildings were developed with respect to number of students and the main construction materials. The materials were selected according to the most easily accessible construction material such as stone, brick and wood in villages. The main idea was to have no more than 60 students per classroom. In 1940 through Village Institutes (Köy Enstitüleri) the policies reached maturity and prevalence. Village Institutes were established to train villager boys and girls in various fields to be helpful in their home settlements. The main idea was to promote a sort of ‘life-long learning’ project. The students were gathered from the nearby villages. Their learning program was covering construction, masonry, farming, carpentry, tailoring, etc. The trained students were supposed to go back to their village and not only to teach in the school, but also transfer the knowledge they had acquired to the community. Despite their relatively short operational period, the village institutes helped to increase the number of primary schools in the country. Their ‘life-long learning’ approach which constitutes the focus point of today’s educational system is associated with some concepts like new basic skills for everyone, more investment in human resources, innovation in learning and teaching, supporting learning, rethinking guidance and counselling, making learning connected to daily practice. Unfortunately they had to be shut down due to conservative policies. After 1950, Turkey has been a land of massive migration from rural areas to the newly developing industrial zones. The increasing urban population demanded more schools that could not have been supplied on time. In the 1990s, the compulsory primary education period was set to eight years. Moreover, because of the demographic structure, political and economical reasons as well as the lack of students, many local schools


were closed. District schools which were supposed to cover nearby settlements were constructed and the so-called ‘transported education’ system was started. Children were transported by shuttles to elementary and primary schools which were outside the city. Therefore, children spent a lot of time travelling to school. Due to those changes, the number of school buildings decreased dramatically between 1991 and 2001. The insufficient number of schools in Turkey induced over-populated classrooms which created new problem areas in the quality of education. Although it was envisioned as an initial solution, the proto-type school buildings kept on being constructed. They were good enough to answer the increasing problems of education, particularly in rural areas. In the mean time, similar type of structures continued to be built all over the country despite being architecturally inappropriate, insensitive to the climate, culture and local characteristics.2 Today, it is possible to refer to two different methods of producing new school buildings in Turkey: \ Building a small number of schools that have a huge capacity and are generally placed outside of the city \ Constructing small-scale schools in the city.3 From the beginning of the Republic until today, the constructions via proto-type school projects have been used as a method for building schools built by the State in Turkey. Up to this time, almost all governments have adopted generating proto-type project as a government policy, and they have been continuously constructed. The easiness of production, controlling and shortness of time, limited personnel, financing problems have all contributed to the reasons why this method was favoured. However, because Turkey has varying geographical and climatic characteristics, configurations of spaces that are needed in different regions vary. When the education buildings of the last 20 years are analyzed, it can be seen that the State has tried to solve the lack of educational buildings by promoting and favouring these proto-type buildings.

Along with turning to a new regulatory system, the lack of educational buildings reached greater numbers because of increasing population and urbanization. Proto-type project implementation had been criticized over the years, but again became a current issue due to necessity (many needed projects, limited time and budgets for every building). To accelerate the development, the Ministry of Education began to produce sample projects in cooperation with universities. When we focus on the evaluation of a primary school carried out in Ankara, this proto-type project has been tested in nearly 450 places, in terms of building program and design decisions. The research revealed that the proposed design is highly adaptable for changes during occupancy; classrooms and corridors are properly planned and natural lighting is taken into consideration and implemented. There are only a few negative points, like narrowness of stairs and inadequate space for sport activities within the building. Also the importance of knowledge-based programming was underlined. 4 In 2005, 41 projects have been prepared by to the Ministry of Education. Under the title of ‘From Tradition to Future - Educational Buildings Architecture Project’, twenty-one projects were also exhibited. The aim of the projects was questioning the identity of the existing school structures, and the next step was to improve them. The State and local authorities demanded replicas of Ottoman and Suljuki façades in the school buildings. An urgent discussion is to be held, explaining how changes to the school building can affect the students only by changing the facade. Unfortunately, there is no architecture and design. The Ministry of Education is trying to bring an artificial identity with its laws and regulations. While the attempt to create cultural and historical references by a superficial application and pastiche of motives and figures on proto-type projects conflicts with contemporary architectural approaches, it also constitutes a reductive model for making references to history and tradition.5

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Another recent project is the ‘Campus School Project’ which was produced by the Ministry of Education in 2013, with the goal of closing a part of the enormous classroom gap (40.000 classroom) with a national architectural competition. The program prepared by the Ministry dealt with the following scope and goals; \ Locating academic units in close relationship, \ Training and teaching-related research and studies being carried out \ Courtyards and more open spaces to get more natural daylight \ Meeting the needs of human scale \ Physics - chemistry - biology, language labs, indoor and outdoor sports facilities \ Architectural solutions should allow the students to develop more social interactions, \ Student dormitories, \ Areas for social life (shopping, convention and cultural centre, nursery, etc)6 These projects were referred to as ‘education campuses’, while the design process prepared a basis for a more modern architectural language. These concepts are also generating radical criticisms directed against the architectural program. That program was developed with the projection that approximately 20 thousand students will be attending campuses outside the city centre; the essence of the model rests in the privatisation of educational buildings. While this model represents a new and positive beginning aimed towards the abandoning of proto-type projects, it also generates some new concerns about the detachment of the educational medium from the city and the monotony of education. Besides several educational problems, this development plan also represents an opportunity for architecture. The new process of construction has prepared the basis for a new medium of research, discussion and application, aiming to abandon the stereotype approach to schools that ignores the diversities of climate, place, culture and context and functionalizes the contemporary requirements and approaches in the medium of architecture as well as the medium of education.

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This competition is an opportunity to discuss the relation between architecture and education. This may be a turning point for education in Turkey. There are so many criticisms about the competition in various aspects, the most important one being their location, size and accessibility. These complexes are located close to highways, on stream beds, below air traffic corridors, in areas with dense air pollution, and lost spaces in general. As integrated and large facilities are in demand now, these places will be even more insufficient. Proposed sizes need to be discussed in terms of physical and social sustainability and operability of an educational facility. The Ministry of National Education has proposed mixed functional constructions of 5.000 and 10.000 students (100.000m2) as a new generation of education facilities. Fully loaded fields do not leave any levy to change the structural or functional flexibility in the future. Additionally, the transportation of 10.000 pupils must be discussed. Services buses, private cars or car parking produces big problems. The program of these campuses is so overloaded and because of this, many architectural defects exist in the projects from the beginning. Mainly, these mega structures lack flexibility and the human scale is lost. The spatial standards need to be re-written from today’s perspective.7 Those projects will organize new problems all around the country, though still there is no consensus on the education model. Architects were also lacking information on the character of schools, their spaces or educational systems. In nearly all examples of state schools we cannot talk about the quality of space. Today we are also witnessing the need for education beyond conventional methods. With digital technologies, the relationship between education and space is not the same anymore; there is a need to provide basic and flexible spatial organizations. This flexibility will result in richness of space. Within this interaction the institutional, official and traditional models of education acquire a different meaning and new functions; they should represent local diversity and


education based on place, geography, and cultural priorities within the global society of the present day. Especially during the primary and secondary schools, the spatial formation as well as the curriculum and habits of education transform the concepts of ‘school’ into an obligatory routine where individual preferences do not have priority; rather than defining the concept of school as a medium that establishes continuity with actual life and becomes a part of it. Instead, schools are turning into a field of conflict. The areas left vacant by the medium of education are rapidly filled by the immense communication resources and alternative cultural contexts, mostly with arbitrary priorities more compatible with popular culture.8 As a conclusion, the discussions about the education system in Turkey are ongoing. These discussions are invariably based on ideological and political issues rather than search for a new method for education. In our country schools are often represented by the government. The dominant typology, quality and standards of schools are determined by the government, whereas diverse examples can be found in private institutions. Because of this, all aspects of the school that have been on our educational agenda in the last several years are related to ideologies or politics. These various plans for school buildings or projects give us an opportunity to further discuss the relation between education and architecture.

References — 1Kul F.Nurşen. ‘ Erken Cumhuriyet Dönemi İlk okul Binaları’ Mimarlık, no.360 pp.67-71.; 2Çelik, Fethi., Önal, A. S., Yeler, M., ‘Developments and New Approaches in Primary Education’, The Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Institute of Education Sciences, no.1, 2012, pp.30-50.; 3Çabuk, Suat., Ünal,Yücel.,‘İstanbul’da Eğitim Donatımlarının Kent Dışı Kampusleşme Eğilimlerinin İncelenmesi,’ İTÜ dergisi /A Mimarlık, Planlama, Tasarım, vol. II, no.1, March 2003. pp.1-1; 5Dinç, Pınar, Esen Onat ‘Bir İlköğretim Yapısının Bina Programı ve Tasarımı Bağlamında Değerlendirilmesi’ Gazi Üniv. Müh. Mim. Fak. Der. Cilt 17, No 3, 35-55, 2002. pp.4055.; 6Ministry of education program available from. iegb.meb.gov.tr or http://iegb.meb.gov.tr/EgitimKampusleri.html; 7Karabey, Haydar. ‘Talking About Architecture’ Eğitim Yapıları, Vitra Çağdaş Mimarlık Dizisi 3.İstanbul 2014 Ed. Binat B.,Şık, N. İstanbul.2014.pp.14-28.; 8Güzer, C.Abdi. ‘Educational Buildings as a medium of Confilict and Continuity Between Globalism and Locality’ Eğitim Yapıları, Vitra Çağdaş Mimarlık Dizisi 3.istanbul 2014. Ed. Binat, B.,Şık, N. İstanbul.2014.pp.28-36

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LEARNING SPACES in TRANSITION

CURRENT SCHOOL CONDITIONS AND WORKSHOP PROPOSALS

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WORKSHOP

OCTOBER 23 - 26, 2014 Faculty of Architecture Kačić st. 26, Zagreb

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Mentor's Introduction

The first edition of the Learning Spaces in Transition workshop sought to find solutions for improving and enriching regular teaching in rural communities, whilst maintaining the importance of the school and creating a new focus for the local community. In its second edition, the Learning Spaces in Transition workshop workshop furthered the experience of the first collaboration between UNICEF, the School of Public Health Andrija Štampar, the School of Design and the Faculty of Architecture in developing methods and tools for solving specific local problems of educational spaces in Croatian rural environments. Learning about UNICEF’s experience of intervention in crisis contexts throughout the world, students of the Faculty of Architecture and the School of Design contributed to a collection of possible concepts for transitional learning spaces and doable solutions. The workshop explored possibilities of redefining the educational role and questions of social integration through four case studies of rural schools in the Sisačko-moslavačka region in Croatia. The depopulation of many rural areas in Croatia has brought about a lesser use of an array of spaces meant for primary education, many of which remain devoid of their primary content and subsequently abandoned. Still, the network of small rural schools presents a significant value and potential as an activator of rural community life. These are often the only social-standard buildings in many small communities and their desolation accelerates the social degradation. The subject of reactivating these schools presents itself as a possibility of injecting new educational meaning, adapted to the potential of creating new activities and life for these communities. Possibilities of architectural and design interventions which would aid social integration in schools, in our case a school with predominantly Roma children, where also explored. The beginning of the workshop was preceded by intense research: two field-trips were carried out, as well as lectures and discussions with students about the workshop topics. The first field trip was conducted by the workshop mentors accompanied by a

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Mentors

Consultants

Ivana Fabrio \ SD Romana Kajp \ SD Vanja Rister \ FA Mia Roth Čerina \ FA Tomislav Vlainić \ SD

Aleksandar Džakula \ SPH Toni Marušić Ksenija Vitale \ SPH

photographer and cinematographer in spring 2014. During two days they explored a number of schools and detected four which would become case-studies as representative examples for the workshop. They were rural schools in Graboštani, Donja Gračenica, Gradusa and Gornja Letina. The social, economical and educational context of these locations was explored, teachers, principals and pupils interviewed, and the potential of the discovered situations were evaluated. In the second field trip students have measured and documented the chosen schools in detail. Beside the introductory lecture given by the mentors about the schools and workshop topics, two additional lectures were presented to students: one by Aleksandar Džakula, PhD, about possible new lives for Croatian villages, and one by Toni Marušić, about his experiences as a teacher in a school with a large percentage of Roma children. Thirty students of both undergraduate and graduate levels from the fields of architecture, graphic and industrial design participated in the workshop, divided into five groups. Two teams dwelled on the problem of an empty school in Gradusa, and the rest of the teams were devoted to the other three schools. Together, they worked on conceiving possible solutions for specific situations and themes, and the projects integratively encompassed all participating disciplines. Experts from the School of Public Health Andrija Štampar were advisors in the health and ecological aspects of the specific problem areas.The schools differed in terms of circumstances in which they work or contexts in which they exist, and each one served as a case study of a specific problem for which new strategies of imprinting new meaning and educational purpose is to be devised. The subjects explored, depending on the school, were as follows \ Donja Gračenica — programmatic, spatial and design interventions which would facilitate the integration of children; upgrading the school as a platform for new activities within the community (or family).


Graboštani — testing possibilites of new functions for children on a regional and national level (open-air schooling, summer schools etc.) and its possible role in the local community. Gradusa, Gornja Letina — lifelong learning, educating children outside the regular curricular framework. As in the first workshop edition, three project levels were introduced. The first level addressed the basic, existential level of measures for spatial and infrastructural improvement – hygienic and health conditions, sustainability and technical infrastructure. The second, design level had to address solutions for actual situations and problems. These solutions had to be manageable, cheap, simple to carry out and adaptable. Finally, a methodology for integrating the community through educational and creative projects had to be devised. Application of a design methodology in facilitating cooperation with the community as well as improving the quality of learning and spatial conditions, and engaging the community in educating their next generation.

Sisak-moslavina county \ Donja Gračenica Gradusa Gornja Letina Graboštani

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District School Donja Gračenica

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Workshop team

Dorja Benussi \ Sd Anta Bučević \ Sd Hana Golubovac \ fa Tsvetan Sirakov \ fa Toni Šljaka \ Sd Irma Šmuc \ fa


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Analysis — Donja Gračenica elementary school building belongs to the well known village school type that consists of two classrooms and two school teachers' apartments. Currently, classes are held both in the morning and in the afternoon while the ground floor apartment is used to accommodate other necessary functions; kitchen, dining room, staff room...The first floor apartment is occupied by school staff. The construction of the building is in a satisfying condition. Besides the windows and doors that need replacement, only the kitchen and the lavatories might need to be repaired in the near future. The key spatial issues arise from the division of the building in two separate and really large classrooms and from the undefined relation between the building and its unused and overly large plot. Currently, there is a need for four smaller classrooms so the classes could all be held in the morning which would make the trip to and from the school much safer and would also facilitate better work organization and a higher quality of classes. The assumption is if we create better school conditions and the introduction of open-air classes and outdoor extracurricular activities could influence the prevailing disinterested attitude of both students and parents towards education. Classes held exclusively in the morning would make it possible for the school building to be used as a public building that could facilitate social cohesion and solidarity in a village in which the main issues is social deprivation stemming from poverty and ethnic divide between Roma and Croatian population.

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Analiza — Zgrada područne osnovne škole u Donjoj Gračenici slijedi poznatu tipologiju područne seoske škole s dvije učionice i dva stana za učitelje. Danas se nastava odvija dvosmjenski, a prizemni se stan koristi kako bi nadomjestio potrebu za ostalim nužnim sadržajima - u njemu su smještene zbornica, kuhinja i blagovaonica. Stan na prvom katu i dalje je u izvornoj namjeni, u njemu stanuje osoblje škole (trenutno čistačica zaposlena u matičnoj školi). Sama zgrada je u relativno dobrom građevinskom stanju, osim dotrajale stolarije i kuhinje koja ne ispunjava zakonske higijenske standarde, a jedino sanitarni čvorovi zahtijevaju skoriju intervenciju. Ključna prostorna problematika škole zapravo proizlazi iz njene funkcionalne podjele u dvije iznimno velike učionice i neartikuliranog odnosa prema vrlo velikoj i neiskorištenoj školskoj parceli. Danas postoji potreba za četiri manje učionice kako bi se nastava mogla održavati samo u jutarnjoj smjeni što bi pridonijelo većoj sigurnosti učenika pri dolasku u školu i odlasku iz nje te boljoj organizaciji rada i kvalitetnijoj izvedbi nastave. Pretpostavka je da bi kvalitetniji uvjeti održavanja nastave i uvođenje namjenskih izvannastavnih aktivnosti, djelomično i na otvorenom (uzgoj povrća, rad s drvom...) mogli promijeniti prevladavajući stav prema školovanju koji se uglavnom svodi na nezainteresiranost učenika, a još više njihovih roditelja. Jednosmjenska nastava osigurala bi i mogućnost poslijepodnevnog korištenja školske zgrade kao zgrade javne namjene što bi moglo pridonijeti formiranju veće socijalne kohezije i solidarnosti u selu, u kojem je ključni problem socijalna deprivacija što proizlazi iz ekonomskog siromaštva i etničke podijeljenosti zajednice na romsko i hrvatsko stanovništvo.


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\ first floor plan

6 1

7

5

4

3

1 hallway 2 kitchen and dining room 3 pantry 4 bathroom 5 livingroom 6 bedroom 7 loggia

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3

8 6

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\ east elevation

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\ ground floor plan

1 entrance hall 2 staff room 3 dining room 4 kitchen 5 pantry 6 hallway 7 bathroom 8 apartment stairway 9 storage 10 toilets 11 classroom

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11

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9 10

0 1 2

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Âą0,00 -1,00

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Project — The underlying analysis has indicated the necessity to conceptualize the project on two levels; the spatial level and the socio-programatic level. Program-wise, the unusually large school plot is inhabited by curricular and extracurricular activities that are partially linked to the school itself and partially serve as the activators for the community, e.g. various sports activities and small-scale agriculture might facilitate social and cultural solidarity. A more articulate link between the administrative and classroom wing is achieved by the transformation of the common spaces within the building. A reversible transformation of one classroom into two classrooms enables the desired multifunctional use of the building. The relocation of the inadequately positioned lavatories would open up the hallway and transform it into a new space for games, learning, making friends... The re-conceptualization of the administrative wing opens up the dining room to new functions; the dining room that is directly linked to the entrance hall obtains a more public character thus becoming a multifunctional space. All the aforementioned spatial transformations are to be undertaken with a minimum of construction work so, apart of the necessary demolitions, most of the ideas are to be implemented via furniture designed to fulfill not only its basic functions but also children's educational, social and developmental needs od children.

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Projekt — Prethodna analiza ukazuje na potrebu promišljanja projekta na dvije različite razine, prostornoj i socijalno-programskoj. Iznimno velika parcela škola u programskom smislu nastanjuje se nastavnim i izvannastavnim sadržajima koji su djelomice vezani za samu školu, a djelomice služe aktivaciji zajednice i izgradnji kulturne i socijalne solidarnosti (kroz poljoprivrednu proizvodnju manjeg opsega, sportske aktivnosti...). U školi se ostvaruje artikulirana veza učioničkog i administrativnog sklopa preoblikovanjem zajedničkih prostora boravka. Omogućavanjem transformacije jedne učionice u dvije postaje moguća jednosmjenska nastava, ali se ostavlja mogućnost korištenja cjelovitih učionica s obzirom na željenu multifunkcionalnost školske zgrade. Izmještanje neadekvatnih i loše smještenih sanitarija otvorilo je prostor hodnika novim namjenama poput igre, učenja, druženja... Modifikacija prostornih dispozicija administrativnog sklopa stvorila je nove funkcionalne mogućnosti prostora blagovaonice koja nadovezivanjem na ulazni hal sugerira javniji karakter i tako postaje polivalentnim prostorom. Sve navedene promjene pokušalo se izvesti uz minimalne građevinske zahvate pa je osim nužnih rušenja većina prostornih izmjena izvedena korištenjem namještaja koji je osmišljen kako bi osim svoje osnovne funkcije (pregrađivanje, sjedenje...) zadovoljio i edukacijske, socijalne i razvojne potrebe učenika.


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storage and toilets

entrance hall trensformed into a part of the dining room

Spatial development proposal — By putting in use the so far disregarded plot area, newly created activities could benefit the school, as well as the community, on a spatial and social level. Firstly, there is a definite lack of functional outdoor areas and facilities that could complete the educational experience; an adequate sports field, a designated outdoor classes area, a more safely positioned playground,... The rest of the vast school grounds could be used to upgrade the extracurricular programme. Furthermore, the new activities could present a platform for improving social integration of the school and community, motivation and work ethics of the students, ecological awerness,… Considering the disproportion of the school capacity and plot size,

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transformable divides separating one classroom into two transformable divides separating one classroom into two

Prijedlog — Aktivacijom zasad neiskorištene parcele moglo bi se istovremeno djelovati na nekoliko detektiranih prostornih i socijalnih problema, na razini škole, ali i zajednice. Prostorno gledano, školi nedostaje uređenih vanjskih prostora; nedostaje prostor za nastavu na otvorenom, asfaltirana površina straga nije adekvatni sportski teren, a pozicija dječjeg parka tik uz cestu nije preporučljiva. Iz socijalnog aspekta, velika otvorena površina mogla bi obogatiti nastavni i izvannastavni program, te postati platforma za rad na problemima socijalne integracije unutar škole (ali i same zajednice), problemima motivacije i stava prema učenika prema radu, suradnji s okolinom, ekološkoj svijesti, održivosti i sl. S obzirom na nesrazmjer veličine parcele i same škole,


proposed 'forest' zone

field

proposed 'garden' zone

field

'school zone'

School building Existing playground area 0 10

50

100m

Proposed continuation of the main axis

it is obvious that the mentioned school-related outdoor areas would occupy a rather small part of the total grounds area. Therefore, 3 different spatial systems/zones are proposed; the 'school', the 'garden' and the 'forest'. The area coverage ratio of these zones is not fixed, their spatial correlation depending on the current needs of the school and local community.

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Existing asphalt area (playground)

Derelict auxiliary buildings

očito je da će vanjske površine vezane uz uži nastavni program zauzimati samo manji dio parcele. Tako su zamišljene 3 glavne prostorno-programske cjeline; 'škola', 'vrt' i 'šuma'. Njihov prostorni međuodnos, tj. omjer površine pojedine cjeline unutar parcele, promjenjiv je i ovisi o trenutnim potrebama zajednice. Velika površina parcele zahtijeva osim prostorne podjele i faznost scenarija korištenja, kao i proširenje kruga korisnika na čitavu zajednicu.

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Forest pavillions storage

0

1o

50

Agricultural area

Storage

100m

\ scenario of development

Compost

Glasshouses, storage

Development scenario & possible outcomes — In the first phase the basic infrastructure should be laid out, so that the further development and use of the area would be possible. Beside the necessary paving for the playground area, paths could only be coverd by gravel or simply trodden in. The neccessary facilities like storage space, changing rooms, rest pavillions etc. would be provided by building and combining simple modular wooden sheds and placing them where needed. Students could participate in building and field work under the supervision of teachers or community volunteers, for example the local firefighters who already work with the school's students, or the local agricultural community that could provide educational classes,

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Outdoor classes & sports field area

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS

Relocated playground area

Changing rooms

Scenarij razvoja parcele i mogući ishodi — U početnoj fazi predviđa se postava osnovne infrastrukture, koja bi omogućila daljnji razvoj i korištenje pojedinog dijela parcele. Osim nužnog asfaltiranja/popločenja površina za sportski teren i nastavu na otvorenom, ostale komunikacijske površine (glavni put, šumski puteljci...) bile bi pošljunčane ili u nedostatku sredstava jednostavno utabani korištenjem. Gradnjom i grupiranjem jednostavnih montažnih drvenih modula - 'šupa', dobila bi se potrebna spremišta za opremu, svlačionice, staklenici, odmorišta... U radovima na parceli sudjelovali bi učenici pod vodstvom učitelja i volontera zajednice. Jednostavni DIY radovi na montažnim modulima traže samo osnovnu fizičku spremnost i spretnost, te volju za rad


\ POSSIBLE OUTCOMES 'GARDEN'

\ POSSIBLE OUTCOMES BALANCE

\ POSSIBLE OUTCOMES 'FoREST'

donate seeds and equipment… In further phases the zones develop simultaneosly, depending on the shifting of the school and local community. That's why there is no way to ascertain one final spatial outcome, only a few main possibilities.

workshop \ district school donja gračenica

s djecom, pa bi za te poslove bilo idealno pokroviteljstvo vatrogasnog društva koje je već aktivno u radu s učenicima. Rad na zemlji omogućuje suradnju škole i lokalne poljoprivredne zajednice kroz edukaciju, donaciju sadnica i opreme... U kasnijim fazama svaka od prostornih zona razvija se paralelno, ovisno o trenutnim potrebama zajednice, pa se zapravo ne može ponuditi fiksno krajnje prostorno rješenje, već samo pretpostaviti nekoliko mogućih varijanti ishoda.

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administration and service area

classrooms

School Building — Present State Analysis The elongated school building, which is parallel to the street, is divided into two parts; administration and service area and the classrooms. The two parts are mutually divided / connected by the void created by the entrance hall which marks the crossroads of the main axis of the plot and the main communication axis within the school.

0 1

5

10m

hallway

pantry bathroom

stairway

kitchen Administration And Service Area — Spatial Transformation Proposal Various functions conflict due to their positions, the main issue being the fact that the only way to the dinning room, both from the kitchen and from the classrooms, is through the staff room. Simply switching the positions of the dining room and the staff room would create a much more logical spatial relations. Additionally it would enable a multifunctional use of the dinning room.

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5

10m

dining \ staff room

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toilets + storage

toilets storage

hallway+work,play...

classroom

0 1

5

classroom classroom classroom

10m

entrance hall

toilets + storage

hallway + work,play...

0 1

5

Classroom Area — Spatial Transformation Proposal The badly needed possibility to hold classes only in the morning will be the key generator of spatial transformations in the school, primarily the flexible divides that will enable the 2 classrooms to become 4 when necessary. Considering that the classes consist of only 10 to 15 students smaller classrooms would not harm the learning process, but as the P.E. classes have been held in the spacious classrooms, a new space for P.E: will have to be created. A new storage space for classroom equipment will also have to be created and the common spaces will have to be transformed so they could accommodate all the students (around 50) at the same time. The potential to satisfy some of the newly created needs is found in the unnecessarily large corridors and hallways that will become new multifunctional areas.

Common Areas — Spatial Transformation Proposal The storage box in the entrance hall makes it impossible to use the back doors which in turn negates the central communication role of the hall. The removal of the box makes the movement through the hall more fluid, thus enabling the visual and the physical connection with the rest of the plot. The central position of the entrance hall points to its possible role as a gathering space as well as a multifunctional room as it is on the crossroads of the communication axis. It can also become an integrated part of other spaces that can be used for various activities, it can become a part of the multifunctional room / dining room or a part of the "enriched" hallway, in such a way integrating previously separated parts of the school.

10m

dining + sports, school plays...

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Furniture — Following the construction of the barrier, which is, due to simplicity and strength, based on a triangular crossroad plates, modules for sitting and playing are also triangular in shape. Made of lightweight, recycled and recyclable foam material (in this case; cork), modules provide intuitive vertical and horizontal adition. Add-ons such as holes for rope or rounded bottoms, allows kids and teachers to connect them in the seats, swings or mats on the floor. Open approach to usage of elements suggests alternative teaching, the possibility of personalization and targeted activity during the break. Not used to long, motionless sitting, active children with a lack of concentration, among other things, better

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Namještaj — Prateći konstrukciju pregrada, koja se zbog jednostavnosti i čvrstoće bazira na trokutastom ukrštavanju ploča, moduli za sjedenje i igranje također su trokutasti. Izrađeni od laganog, recikliranog i reciklabilnog, pjenastog materijala (u prikazu \ pluta), omogućuju intuitivno vertikalno i horizontalno adiranje. Pomoću dodataka kao što su rupe za konop ili zaobljeno dno (na nekima), moguće je povezati ih u sjedala, njihalice, ljuljačke ili prostirke na podu. Otvoreni pristup namjeni elemenata sugerira slobodnije provođenje nastave, mogućnost personaliziranja i usmjerenu aktivnost tijekom odmora. Nenavikla na dugotrajno, nepomično sjedenje, aktivnija djeca s manjkom koncentracije, između ostalog, bolje


respond to the moving elements for seating during classes. Standalone stacking and painting elements suggests connecting with objects and space, which indirectly leads to a greater sense of comfort. The possibility of extending the space, opening the barriers and converting modules in rugs and swings, encourages active breaks for more successful participation in the classes.

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reagiraju uz pomične elemente za sjedenje tijekom nastave. Mogućnost samostalnog slaganja i bojenja elemenata potiče povezanost s predmetima i prostorom, što posredno vodi do većeg osjećaja udobnosti. Mogućnost proširenja prostora, otvaranja pregrade i prenamjene modula u prostirke i ljuljačke potiče na maksimalno aktivno iskorištavanje odmora za što uspješnije praćenje nastave.

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Moodboard — The Moodboard is a toy and a tool for children to help them express their emotions in a visual manner. It is intended as a basic set of magnetic faces which can be broken apart into smaller pieces - eyes, mouths, hair and eyebrows of various shapes. Furthermore, there are additional pieces such as caps, glasses and earrings, which can be moved or rearranged in various way. Assembling these pieces, children build their own character which changes day to day, depending on their actual emotions. The idea of the Moodboard is to make it easier for them to communicate their emotions and the significant events of their day, since we can all relate to how difficult it can be for any of us to share what we think and feel. The Moodboard concept

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learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS workshop \ donja gračenica

Moodboard — Moodboard je svojevrsna igračka i pomagalo koje djeci pomaže izraziti emocije vizualnim putem. Zamišljen je kao osnovni set magnetiziranih lica koja se mogu razdvojiti na manje dijelove — oči, usta, kosu i obrve raznih oblika te dodatke poput kapa, naočala i mašnica, koje se mogu pomicati i preslagivati na različite načine. Slaganjem tih djelova djeca grade svoj lik, koji iz dana u dan poprima drugačiji izgled u skladu s njihovim osjećajima. Ideja Moodboarda je da djeci olakša razgovor o emocijama i onome što im se događa, jer nam je svima ponekad teško riječima izraziti što mislimo i osjećamo. U sam koncept Moodboarda također je uključen i dodatni sadržaj poput vremenske kapsule u obliku role papira, na koju se svakodnevno zabilježavaju


also includes additional content like a time capsule in a form of a paper roll, which records supplementary information about the created characters daily. Each day, the emphasis would be on a different pupil and the illustrated version of themselves (or their character) on the moodboard, allowing other children to leave comments and well meant wishes for their future. The goal of the Moodboard is to bring a class together into a small community which mutually supports itself, teaches themselves and grows up together.

workshop \ district school donja gračenica

dodatne informacije o stvorenim likova. Svaki dan naglasak bi bio na drugom učeniku i njegovoj ilustriranoj verziji na Moodboardu, te bi ostali učenici mogli ostaviti svoje komentare i dobre želje za budućnost. Cilj Moodboarda je povezati razred u jednu malu zajednicu koja se međusobno podupire, podučava i odrasta zajedno.

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District School Gornja Letina

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Workshop team

Matej Goreta \ Sd Dora Kasun \ Sd Dunja Lesar \ Sd Lucija Nićeno \ Sd Borna Pavičić \ fa Petra Radić \ fa Tamara Relić \ fa


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Analysis — The school in Gornja Letina was officially closed in 2011., although it wasn’t used as an educational institution since the 90s. The village consists of 20 households, used by older population and the school needs a new program. The village across the river Sunja is connected with important european bicycle routes, and connecting the two villages would bring more people to Gornja Letina. Since the village is placed in between of the two existing bridges across the river, creating a pass here would greatly shorten the time needed to get from one side to another for the locals. Wooden industry exsists around the village and locals could have opportunities to work there. Ground floor is in a good condition and has water, gas and electricity. Upper floor is in a bad condition: broken openings and garbage need to be removed. Ground floor consists of: 2 classrooms, kitchen and 2 toilets. Upper floor consist of one large classroom. A great potential for the school is a spacious backyard in the back of a site.

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Analiza — Škola u Gornjoj Letini službeno je zatvorena 2011., iako se kao obrazovna ustanova ne koristi od devedesetih. Selo se sastoji od 20-ak domaćinstava, pretežito starijeg stanovništva, te je školi potrebno naći novu namjenu. Selo preko puta rijeke Sunje povezano je s europskim biciklističkim rutama, te bi povezivanje tih dvaju sela dovelo više ljudi u Gornju Letinu. Selo je smješteno između dva postojeća prijelaza preko Sunje, a prijelaz na ovoj lokaciji uvelike bi skratio vrijeme potrebno lokalnom stanovništvu da prijeđu rijeku. U blizini škole nalazi se drvna industrija s kojom bi se lokalno stanovništvo moglo povezati u svrhu izrade namještaja i zapošljavanja. Prizemlje škole je u zadovoljavajućem stanju i ima električnu struju, vodu i plin. Kat je u lošem stanju: uništena stolarijase treba sanirati, a smeće ukloniti. U prizemlju škole nalaze se 2 učionice, kuhinja i 2 wc-a, dok je na prvom katu jedna veća učionica. Veliki potencijal škole predstavlja i prostrano dvorište u nastavku parcele.


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Current situation

Facts \ school closed in 2011 \ inner village – 20 houses \ locals oriented to Sunja

Possibilities \ bad connection with Gušća village (across Sava) \ 2 investors (wood & farming) \ natural park Lonjsko polje

cardo (raft)

Intervention living room + guestroom + classroom

forum (open school)

transition of knowledge

Result \ socialization \ interaction \ culture spreading \ working knowledge \ open classroom \ sports, arts, agriculture \ ...

Concept \ in an exchange for the accomodation, guests are encouraged to share knowledge with the locals

guest open school network

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decumanus (road)

hosts


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Project — Following the example of the radially organized villages in Dalmatia with defined center, we wanted to create a strong center in a linear village and reprogram school into the ‘living room’ for the village. Center is highlighted with the new axis vertical to the two parallel roads which would connect Gornja Letina and the village across the river. Axis continues across the road into the site and becomes an element which is: porch, bench, walkway and a balcony. One side of an element leads to the upper floor, while other spreads into the courtyard where gardens and spaces for socialization are planned. In an attempt of keeping the educational caracter of the building, we have created an exchange method. In return for the accomodation, the guest of the school is suggested to hold a presentation, an exhibition, a workshop, or just leave a small mark like a recipe in the kitchen. The workshops could also be held independently, in order to educate the locals about woodworks or in the purpose of the lifelong learning. Planned furniture would be assembled by locals or guests through workshops. The backyard is divided into the fields of various contents like a playgrounds and gardens. All interventions are made of wood, because it is material coming from the context. Constructions are reversible which is logical for the sanation of the old buildings.

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Projekt — Prateći primjer radijalno organiziranih dalmatinskih sela s jasno definiranim centrom, htjeli smo stvoriti snažan centar u linearnom selu, te školu pretvoriti u svojevrsni ‘dnevni boravak’ naselja. Centar naglašavamo uvođenjem osi okomite na dvije paralelne ceste, koja bi povezivala Gornju Letinu sa selom preko puta rijeke. Os se nastavlja preko ceste uz školu u element koji postaje trijem, klupa, šetnica i balkon. Element jednim dijelom vodi na kat, a drugim prema dvorištu škole u kojem su zamišljeni vrtovi i prostori za druženje stanovništva. U nastojanju da škola zadrži obrazovni karakter, osmislili smo princip razmjene. U zamjenu za smještaj, od gosta se očekuje da održi predavanje, izložbu, radionicu ili ostavi mali trag poput recepta u kuhinji. Radionice bi se mogle održavati i neovisno o gostima, kako bi se lokalno stanovništvo educiralo o obradi drva ili u svrhu cjeloživotnog učenja. Na radionicama bi lokalno stanovništvo i gosti mogli sastavljati predviđen namještaj za školu. Dvorište je podijeljeno u polja različitih sadržaja poput igrališta i vrtova. Sve intervencije su zamišljene u drvu, jer je to materijal iz tog konteksta. Sva izgradnja je reverzibilna što je u duhu sanacije starih građevina.


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0

20

50

10om

Platform — In order to connect the two villages, we designed a two-stop platform \ one stop is used in the rainy parts of the year when a part of the area is flooded, and the other one is placed across the school. The platform could be used as a fishing stop, or as a rowing station. The platform continues along the school, partially leading to the first floor, and partialy to the schoolyard.

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Platforma — Kako bismo povezali dva sela, osmislili smo platformu s dvije stanice \ jedna koja se koristi u kišno doba godine kada je dio područja poplavljen i druga koja je smještena preko puta škole. Platforma se može koristiti kao ribička postaja ili postaja za veslače na rijeci. Nastavlja se uz školu, djelomično vodeći na prvi kat i djelomično u dvorišta.


0

5

rowing fishing

10

open school gornja letina

outdoor games

auditorium

workshop \ district school gornja letina

gardening

grill

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first floor \ ‘living room’ for the locals

ground floor \ accomodation for guests

community garden

playground

barbecue \ socialization

platform \ connection with the village across the river

Open school — The ground floor is static zone serving the guests and consists of existing kitchen and two guestrooms. Upper floor is dinamic living zone for the activities of more people: presentations, exhibitions, workshops and other methods of exchange. Zones were created following the idea of minimal intervention and they are divided with the existing separated entrances.

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Otvorena škola — Prizemlje je zamišljeno kao statična zona za potrebe gostiju i sadrži postojeću kuhinju i dvije sobe za boravak gostiju. Kat je zamišljen kao dinamična boravišna zona za aktivnosti većeg broja ljudi: prezentacije, izložbe, radionice i druge načine razmjene. Zone su nastale iz želje za minimalnom intervencijom i odijeljene su postojećim zasebnim ulazima.


0

1

5m

\ ground floor

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\ first floor

\ cross section

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Furniture — Various activities planned for the school call for different furniture, so we designed an L-shaped module which can be assembled in different ways to become a chair, a table, a bed or a shelf. The ways in which it can be assembled are shown through pictograms on the walls, and by the lines on the furniture which suggest the ways to assemble it with shape and colour.

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Namještaj — Različite aktivnosti planirane za školu zahtijevaju različit namještaj, tako da je osmišljen modul L oblika koji se može sastaviti na različite načine pritom postajući stolac, stol, krevet ili polica. Načini slaganja prikazani su piktogramima na zidovima, te linijama na namještaju koje oblikom i bojom sugeriraju načine slaganja.


open school

grill

fishing

gardening

community

auditorium

lounge area

ladies toilet

rowing

lectures

gathering

men's toilet

cycling

dormitory

workshop \ district school gornja letina

Pictograms \ To mark the various contents of the school, we designed a pictogram system. This principle is used both outdoors and indoors.

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District School Graboštani

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Workshop team

Monika Prinčić \ fa Janja Roškar \ Sd Ana Somek \ Sd Karla Sršen \ fa Ana Šolić \ Sd Monika Tomić \ fa


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Analysis — The school was built in 1955. and USAID renovated it in 2002. without prior consulting about the purpose of renovation. It is located in Graboštani, linear village which is eight kilometers away from Hrvatska Kostajnica. In 2001. it had about 170 residents in 52 households but today that number is decreasing. When it was first built it had a large number of pupils so it was sized for 180 people. During the war it was closed and when it was reopened in 2002., it had only 27 pupils. It used to be eightyear school but today it has only 6 pupils attending four grades. They have classes held by one teacher and are all together in one classroom while the rest of the school isn’t actively used. Unused space is not cost-effective because of high heating expenses and maintenance. Despite the condition and the possibilities of the school, a lot of children from Graboštani travel to the main school in Hrvatska Kostajnica because of the better socialization with their peers. Over the years there were attempts of converting unused spaces to be used by local community but there was not enough interest for maintaining that kind of activities. One example of that kind was implementation of public computer classroom which was closed after two years because of the lack of interest. The school is located on a big parcel with a lot of unused space and there is also a renovated playground with lighting. The building has two floors and there are only few rooms being used on the first floor, including two classrooms, the gym, kitchen and dining hall, sanitary facilities and, from time to time used, staff room and headmaster’s office. The second floor has two larger classrooms and attic which are not being used, except for storing old books and furniture.

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Analiza — Škola je izgrađena 1955. godine, a obnovio ju je USAID-a 2002. godine bez prethodnog dogovora o potrebi obnove. Nalazi se u Graboštanima, linearnom selu udaljenom osam kilometara od Hrvatske Kostajnice, koje je prema popisu iz 2001. godine imalo 170 stanovnika (52 kućanstva), dok se danas evidentira pad u broju stanovnika. Kad je prvotno sagrađena, imala je velik broj učenika te je dimenzionirana za njih oko 180. Za vrijeme rata se zatvorila, a kod ponovnog otvorenja 2002. godine imala je 27 učenika. Nekad je bila osmogodišnja škola, a danas ima sveukupno 6 učenika u 4 niža razreda koji nastavu prate istodobno u jednoj učionici s jednom učiteljicom, dok se ostatak prostora škole ne koristi aktivno. Neiskorišten prostor nije financijski isplativ zbog velikih troškova grijanja i održavanja ostatka škole. Bez obzira na mogućnosti i stanje škole, i ono malo djece iz Graboštana radije svakodnevno putuje u Kostajnicu na nastavu zbog veće razine socijalizacije s vršnjacima. Tijekom godina je bilo pokušaja prenamjene neiskorištenih prostorija škole, no šira lokalna zajednica nije pokazala dovoljan interes za održavanje daljnjih aktivnosti takve vrste. Primjer takvog pokušaja bilo je uvođenje informatičke učionice koju bi koristilo lokalno stanovništvo, međutim funkcionirala je samo dvije godine te se zatvorila zbog premalog interesa. Škola se nalazi na velikoj parceli neiskorištenih kapaciteta na kojoj je smješteno i obnovljeno igralište s adekvatnom rasvjetom. Objekt ima dvije etaže, s tim da se na prvoj etaži intenzivno koristi svega nekoliko prostorija, što uključuje dvije učionice, dvoranu, kuhinju, blagovaonicu, sanitarije te povremeno korištenje zbornice i ravnateljevog ureda. Na drugoj etaži nalaze se dvije veće učionice i prostor tavana koji se uopće ne koriste. Jedina svrha gornje etaže je odlaganje starog namještaja i knjiga.


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01 5m

classroom

classroom

gym

classroom

teachers lounge stg director classroom stg

entrance

entrance

classroom

dining room

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kitchen


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The Project — Our main concept was focused on solving a problem of irrational usage of this big and newly renovated building. We came up with activities that would attract visitors from the wider area, and could also be interesting for the local community. Resarch of possible users and activities was happening simultaneously.. While we were analysing specialities of the area, we found out many historical and natural attractions as Una river, many nearby forts and castels, and the importance of wood industry. In our concept we defined school as a 'check point', were visitors can be informed of special characteristics of the wider area in interaction with local inhabitants and students. Different intensity of using this school, depending on season and local community needs has caused division of the building in few functional areas. The building is divided in two volumes, each of them has its own entrance, and can be used independently. Area of the space used in certain phase is proportional to number of users. Our goal was to create strong interaction of students, local community and visitors in creative and educational surroundings. During the first phase building still works as a regional school, with few students. This space contains one transformable classroom, that can be divided in 3 parts, depending on a number of students. Those spaces form the first functional unity. Classrooms that are used nowadays in association with entrance hall are becoming a multifunctional space, that can be used for local community needs (for example screenings, workshops...) This multifunctional area can be used in interaction with other spaces, as well as independently, for local community needs.

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Projekt — Osnovni koncept se bazirao na rješavanju problema neracionalnog korištenja velikog i u potpunosti obnovljenog objekta, zbog čega je bilo potrebno osmisliti aktivnosti koje bi privukle posjetitelje iz šireg područja i zainteresirale lokalnu zajednicu. Simultano se krenulo u istraživanje mogućih korisnika i aktivnosti. Analizirajući posebnosti županije, kao i obližnje Kostajnice, uvidjelo se da su kulturne i povijesne znamenitosti, kao što su rijeka Una i mnogobrojne utvrde, kao i važnost drvne industrije za područje, zapostavljene zbog neinformiranosti stanovništva. Kako bi se privukle razne skupine posjetitelja, od škola prirode do manjih skupina obitelji ili vikendaša, škola postaje 'check point' na kojem se posjetioci mogu kreativno informirati o specifičnim karakteristikama šireg područja u interakciji s lokalnim stanovništvom i učenicima. Zbog različitog intenziteta korištenja i broja korisnika, ovisno o godišnjem dobu i potrebama lokalne zajednice, bilo je potrebno prostor podijeliti na više funkcionalnih cjelina. Objekt je podijeljen na dva detektirana volumena, svaki sa svojim ulazom, s više funkcionalnih cjelina, koje se koriste neovisno jedna o drugoj, u kombinaciji ili kao cjelina. Površina prostora koja se koristi u određenoj fazi proporcionalna je broju korisnika. Cilj je bio stvoriti jaku interakciju učenika, lokane zajednice i posjetitelja u kreativnom i edukativnom okruženju.


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Current situation

Functional aspect

Social aspect

\ unused building, renovated at 2006. \ a lot of empty space \ irrational and expensive usage; heating of entire space \ number and size of classroms not propotional to number of pupils in the village

\ 6 pupils of different age using a classroom at same time \ only one teacher at a shift \ other children from the village are traveling to the 'main school' \ locals have no interest in the use of school and surrounding

Plan

Development strategy

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What we want to do

How we do it

Defining groups of people

Spaces and activities

\ rational usage of the building \ attract larger groups of users from the region and wider \ activate the building \ interact with locals \ encourage creativity by exploring and learning about the surrounding \ use the local wood for the furniture

\ divide the space so it can be used by a different number of people \ detect ativities that atract a wider group of visitors \ transform it to a 'check point' that gives information and directs visitors towards local atractions: river Una; castles; bike routs; home made products; park of nature \ its a meeting centre where we can learn from each other about the region and tradition \ visual design of a space that encourage interest for further research \ cooperate with the local industry ‘PPS Galeković’ from the nearby town Hrvatska Kostajnica (the locals and visitors can help by making the furniture)

1. pupils < 10 2. weekenders < 20 3. school of nature < 50 4. local comunity > 50

1., 3. smaller, flexible classrooms; gym; sanitary; outdoor space 2. bedrooms; sanitary; outdoor space; library 3. bedrooms; sanitary; gym; library; dinning room; classroom; multifunctional space; outdoor space 4. library; multifunctional space; dancing; exhibitions; events, outdoor space

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pupils

p < 15 pupils + weekenders

p < 15 + w < 4

1

3

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p < 15 pupils + weekenders + local comunity pupils + school of nature + local community

3 2 3

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1 classroom 2 cabinet / storage 3 bedroom 4 gym 5 library 6 workshop 7 multifunctional hall 8 bedroom + classroom

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+ sn < 50

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+ sn < 54

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w < 4 + p < 6 l + w > 50 3

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+ sn < 58 local community + visitors

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Phases of the usage of building — The first phase includes the building still functioning as a school but with small number of pupils. The school area is compressed to one transformable classroom which can be divided by sliding doors, depending on the number of students attending the school. Three-part classroom combined with the gym are one unit. Spaces of the previous classrooms are being connected with the hall and converted into multipurpose space depending on the needs of the local or wider community. It can be used like a projection room, reading room, playroom or workshop. This phase includes interaction between pupils and the community but they can use the space independent to one another. In the next phase one part of the

5

third stage of use \ the few remaining pupils of the district school use the needed space on the ground floor \ the open-air school uses the classrooms on the ground floor, sleeping rooms are on the second floor \ pupils use the multipurpose space

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first stage of use \ district school (<15 pupils) \ only the first floor of the first volume is in use

second stage of use \ district school (<15 pupils) \ uses spaces of the three-part classroom and the gym on the first floor \ pupils and the local community use the multipurpose space and the entire first floor is used  fourth stage of use \ the open-air school uses the classrooms on the groud floor \ sleeping rooms ar eon the second floor, weekend guests can sleep on the ground floor \ pupils and local community use the multipurpose hall

Faznost korištenja objekta — U prvoj fazi objekt će i dalje funkcionirati kao područna škola, no s malim brojem učenika. Prostor škole je komprimiran u jednu transformabilnu učionicu, koja se kliznim stijenama može podijeliti na tri dijela, ovisno o broju učenika koji pohađaju nastavu. Trodijelna učionica s dvoranom čini cjelinu. Prostori današnjih učionica se fizički i funkcionalno povezuju s halom te prenamjenjuju u višenamjenski prostor za potrebe lokalne ili šire zajednice, npr. održavanje projekcija, čitaonice, radionice. U ovoj fazi dolazi do interakcije zajednice i učenika, no oni ujedno mogu neovisno koristiti prostor. U sljedećoj fazi dio objekta postaje objekt hostelskog tipa, za veće ili manje skupine posjetitelja, te se koristi druga etaža u kojoj su smještene


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fifth stage of use \ the local community uses the multipurpose hall, classrooms and library \ only the first floor of the second volume is used

fourth and fifth stage of use \ the open-air school uses the ground floor classrooms \ sleeping rooms are on the second floor \ weekend guests can sleep on the ground floor or on the first floor

building becomes the hostel with the rooms on the second floor, for bigger or smaller groups of users. The visitors also have the possibility of using the multipurpose space in which they can actively interact with pupils and local community. In the last phase the building doesn’t function as a school anymore, it becomes full-time hostel for frequent visitors. Besides of the school building, the whole parcel is also being activated. The playground can be used by local community, visiting school in nature or for various manifestations organized by the local community. The rest of the parcel is filled with contents like seating areas and gardening areas for cultivating and learning, or it can be used by scouts or other activity groups.

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sobe. Posjetitelji ujedno imaju mogućnost korištenja višenamjenskog prostora, u kojem interaktivno sudjeluju s lokalnom zajednicom i učenicima. U posljednoj fazi objekt više ne funkcionira kao škola, nego postaje hostel za učestale posjete vikendaša ili škola u prirodi. Osim prostora škole, aktivira se i parcela. Igralište može služiti lokalnoj zajednici, školi u prirodi, ali i za održavanje različitih manifestacija županije. Ostatak parcele upotpunjen je sadržajima kao što su prostori za sjedenje, razne vrste sadnica koje posjetitelji mogu obrađivati i učiti o njima ili parcela može npr. postati prostor za izviđače.

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CAMPING ACTIVITIES setting up tents in the woods ORCHARD visitors and the locals can cultivate the orchard and use the products GARDENS AND CROPS creating a small summary of local farming cultures

EXISTING PLAYGRoUND except a playground it can be a platform for local events MAP OF CASTLES exploring the surrounding by creative learning about the history EXISTING BUILDING as a 'check point' were visitors can be informed of special characteristics of the wider area in interaction with local inhabitants and students

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Map — The school is designed as an information center for tourists and other school children from the rest of the country, and gives them information about the activities offered in Sisacko-Moslavacka county. From research of the county emerged a variety of activities and facilities that are located on a large map of the county in public space of the school -so all information could be available to anyone. In this sense, school could become a waypoint for a short break and offering information about the rest of the county. This principle can be applied to similar objects without function in the rest of the country. Map contains locations of a large number of castles and fortresses that are in the county, cycling routes, wine routes, parks, local domestic producers,

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Karta — Škola je osmišljena kao informativni centar za turiste i školarce iz ostatka zemlje, te im pruža informacije o sadržajima koji se nude u Sisačko-moslavačkoj županiji. Iz istraživanja o županiji proizašle su razne aktivnosti i sadržaji koji su ucrtani na velikoj karti županije u PVN-u kako bi te informacije bile svima dostupne. U tom smislu škola postaje usputna točka za kratak odmor i informiranje o ostatku županije, te se taj princip može primjenjivati za slične objekte bez funkcije u ostatku zemlje. Karta sadrži lokacije velikog broja dvoraca i utvrda koji se nalaze u županiji, biciklističke rute, vinske ceste, kupališta, parkove, lokalne domaće proizvođače itd. Tema lokalnih utvrda i dvoraca se također širi i na ostatak interijera i eksterijera škole pomoću


etc. The theme of local forts and castles is also expanding to the rest of the interior and exterior of school by various graphic solution on the walls and floors of the space. Castles located in the county are also located in a smaller scale on the ground of the school so children can search for it, also as adults. The game learns the children about the orientation in space, cartography and turbulent history that took place in this area. With each fort you can find some interesting stories and legends associated with that fort which are known only to local people. By using these interesting stories children learn history through the easiest way-play.

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različitih grafičkih rješenje na zidovima i podovima prostora. Dvorci koji se nalaze u županiji locirani su u manjem mjerilu na parceli škole kako bi djeca, ali i odrasli, kroz igru mogli učiti o snalaženju u prostoru, kartografiji i burnoj povijesti tog područja. Uz svaku utvrdu se nalaze posebne zanimljivosti i legende o njoj, poznate samo lokalnom stanovništvu. Pomoću tih zanimljivosti djeca na lakši način pamte povijesne događaje, a sama ih igra navodi u potragu za ostalim utvrdama i njihovim pričama.

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Furniture — Furniture for equipping school and transforming it into a facility for backpackers came from the typology of existing school equipment (desks, chairs, equipment for the gymnasium) and is based on a modular principles which allow stacking of the elements and saving space while not in use. From the analysis of the use of the space and its users conclusion was made that the basic functional requirements for our repurposed space are: sleeping, storage, dinning, disposal and separation of the space. For the purpose of sleep there were designed modular beds which can function independently or as bunk beds with the addition of the structure. Also their arrangement allows the generation of 'lounge areas’ in hallways and public areas

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Namještaj — Namještaj za opremanje škole i njezinu transformaciju u objekt hostelskog tipa proizašao je iz tipologije postojeće školske opreme (klupe, stolice, oprema za dvoranu) i temelji se na modularnom načinu slaganja koji omogućava višestruku funkciju elemenata i uštedu prostora kada se namještaj ne koristi. Iz analize korištenja prostora i korisnika škole proizašli su osnovni funkcionalni zahtjevi namještaja, a to su: spavanje, pohrana, blagovanje, odlaganje i odvajanje prostora. Za potrebe spavanja projektirani su modularni kreveti koji mogu funkcionirati samostalno ili kao kreveti na kat uz dodatak konstrukcije. Također njihovo slaganje omogućava i nastajanje tzv. ‘lounge zona’ na hodnicima i u javnim dijelovima škole (PVN-u). Javni (otvoreni)


of schools. Public (open) part of the school consists of a multifunctional space for various purposes (library, screenings, dinning, lectures, plays etc. for whose purposes were designed modules whose functions can be seating, storage or disposal, depending on how the elements are put into construction). All furniture is made from materials available in the region and can be produced in a nearby wood plant.

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dio škole se sastoji od multifunkcionalnog prostora za razne namjene (biblioteka, projekcije, blagovanje, predavanja, igra) za koje su projektirani moduli čija funkcija može biti sjedenje, pohrana ili odlaganje, ovisno o načinu slaganja elemenata u konstrukciju. Sav namještaj je izrađen od materijala dostupnih u regiji i može se proizvoditi u obližnjem drvnom pogonu.

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District School Gradusa

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Workshop team 1

Niko Crnčević \ Sd Maja Jandrić \ Sd Valentina Krekić \ fa Jere Kuzmanić \ fa Dominik Markušić \ Sd Antonija Vlašić \ fa

Workshop team 2 Slavica Farkaš \ Sd Sara Jurinčić \ fa Dino Mišković \ fa Laura Mrkša \ Sd Nataša Njegovanović \ Sd Sven Sorić \ fa


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Analysis— School in Mala Gradusa has been abandoned for years. Although it was used solely as a school building throught 20th century it's purpose changed during the War of Indipendence when it was used as a base for military. After the War it was unused. Such misuse led to the whole building being devastated, with holes starting to appear on walls, roof and floors subsequently allowing nature to penetrate the insides, damaging the infrastructure even more. School structural system is also compromised. Though nature took it's toll, most of the damages are product of unadequate interpolations made during it's function as a school. Because of a constant increase in number of pupils, it was upgraded 3 times. It left a fair amount of damage in building's structural system. Most recent interpolation, which was used as teacher's premises, is gravely damaged and it is suggested to remove it completely. Future purpose of the building isn't a typical school, but more of a workshop oriented platform with possibilities for interaction with nature and rural life, which should be taken in consideration in both architectural and design aspect.

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Analiza — Škola u Maloj Gradusi je napuštena godinama. Iako se koristila isključivo kao školska građevina tijekom 20. stoljeća, njezina namjena se promijenila u Domovinskom ratu kada se koristila kao vojna baza. Nakon rata zgrada nije bila iskorištena, što je dovelo do toga da je danas devastirana, s brojnim probojima na zidovima, krovu i podovima. To je naknadno omogućilo prodiranje prirode u njezinu unutrašnjost, oštećujući cjelokupnu infrastrukturu još više. Nosiva struktura je također oštećena. Iako je priroda i tu učinila mnogo štete, većina je oštećenja i pukotina nastala kao produkt neadekvatnih interpolacija. Zbog konstantnog povećanja broja učenika škola je nadograđivana čak tri puta, što je ostavilo i te kakvu štetu na zidovima i krovu. Najrecentnija takva nadogradnja, koja je korištena kao stan za učitelja, veoma je oštećena i predlaže se njezino potpuno uklanjanje. Buduća namjena zgrade nije tipično školovanje, već platforma orijentirana na interakciju s prirodom i ruralnim načinom života, što se treba uzeti u obzir pri projektantskim i dizajnerskim odlukama.


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Gradusa \ Workshop Team 1 \ Project — The guiding idea was set long before the start of this workshop as a part of long term plan of creating a new perspective on current spacial situation on an educational, recreational and social levels. The criteria are formed from enthusiasm of the local community in order to create a new rural paradigm free of common rural tourism stereotypes. A series of landscapes, starting with the Sjeverovac farm, and ending with the former school building becomes an ideal platform for reevaluation of different types of spending time in nature. It consists of a woodland landscape, grasslands, and elements of human intervention. In order to fully realise this way of perceiving the space, the visitor had to be diverted from a specified path allowing perception through exploring, collecting and games. Bivouac was introduced as a simple solution for all those needs. Wooden installations are set on 3 points serving as infrastructure for all the activities in surrounding environments. It consists of a closed and open space adapted for different types of it’s surroundings. Educational and less noticeable points of interest are color coded in a subtle way enhancing the experience of different types of users. The school building consists of multipurpose spaces, utility and residential spaces. Instead of redefining the functional scheme the intervention on the interior was specifically designed furniture installed in ex-classrooms turning them into multipurpose spaces. Over the walls a simple steel grid is set and filled with modular wooden shelves, boxes and panels. The rooms can be divided by full height panels transformable into tables, stands or exhibition panels. The idea of this multifunctionality in the school was ‘House of impressions’ where after a whole day spent in outdoors individuals and groups can take time to rest and exchange experiences creating together a true learning space in transition.

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Gradusa \ Projektni tim 1 \ Projekt — Ideja vodilja ovog projekta postojala je i prije početka radionice kao dio dugoročnog plana stvaranja nove perspektive za trenutnu prostornu situaciju na edukativnoj, rekreativnoj i društvenoj razini. Kriteriji formirani entuzijazmom lokalne zajednice upućuju prema stvaranju nove paradigme ruralnog prostora očišćene od uobičajenih stereotipa ruralnog turizma. Krajolik, s farmom Sjeverovac na samom početku, a starom zgradom škole na kraju, postaje idealna platforma za reevaluaciju različitih načina provođenja vremena u prirodi. Sastoji se od šumovitog područja, livada i elemenata ljudske intervencije. Kako bi u potpunosti percipirao prostor, posjetitelja se mora skrenuti s ucrtane staze i omogućiti mu da doživi prirodu kroz istraživanje, sakupljanje i igru. Bivak je uveden kao jednostavna i minimalna intervencija koja zadovoljava sve te potrebe. Drvena konstrukcija postavljena na tri točke služi kao infrastruktura aktivnostima u okolini. Edukativne i slabije primjetne točke interesa suptilno su kodirane bojom kako bi pridonijele iskustvu različitih korisnika. Školska zgrada sastoji se od multifunkcionalnih prostora, funkcionalnih prostorija i prostora za boravak. Umjesto redefiniranja funkcionalne sheme prostora intervencija u interijeru je provedena kroz niz specifičnih elemenata namještaja postavljenih u bivše učionice koji prostor čine multifunkcionalnim. Zidove prekriva metalna konstrukcija ispunjena modularnim drvenim policama, kutijama i panelima. Cilj ovakvih transformacija prostora je stvaranje ‘kuće dojmova’ u kojoj nakon dana provedenog u prirodi individualni posjetitelji i grupe mogu provesti vrijeme u odmoru i razmjeni i zabilježavanju iskustava, time stvarajući realan tranzicijski prostor učenja.


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Sjeverovac

woods grasslands intervention Gradusa

\ supposed areas of interest and activity

A series of landscapes, starting with the Sjeverovac farm, and ending with the former school building becomes an ideal platform for reevaluation of different types of spending time in nature. It consists of a woodland landscape, grasslands, and elements of human intervention. In order to fully realise this way of perceiving the space, the visitor had to be diverted from a specified path allowing perception through exploring, collecting and games.

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\ general idea

Krajolik, s farmom Sjeverovac na samom početku, a starom zgradom škole na kraju, postaje idealna platforma za reevaluaciju različitih načina provođenja vremena u prirodi. Sastoji se od šumovitog područja, livada i elemenata ljudske intervencije. Kako bi u potpunosti percipirao prostor, posjetitelja se mora skrenuti s ucrtane staze i omogućiti mu da doživi prirodu kroz istraživanje, sakupljanje i igru.


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\ bivouac variations

\ bivouac in woods area

\ bivouac in grassland area

\ bivouac in human intervantion area

Bivouac was introduced as a simple solution for all those needs. Wooden installations are set on 3 points serving as infrastructure for all the activities in surrounding environments. It consists of a closed and open space adapted for different types of it’s surroundings. Educational and less noticeable points of interest are color coded in a subtle way enhancing the experience of different types of users.

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Bivak je uveden kao jednostavna i minimalna intervencija koja zadovoljava sve te potrebe. Drvena konstrukcija postavljena na tri točke služi kao infrastruktura aktivnostima u okolini. Edukativne i slabije primjetne točke interesa suptilno su kodirane bojom kako bi pridonijele iskustvu različitih korisnika.


Educational and less noticeable points of interest \ color coded in a subtle way enhancing the experience of different types of users

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Multipurpose rooms

Residential space

Multipurpose rooms

communication space

Multipurpose rooms

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Utilities


bathroom

dining space

toilets

wardrobe

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kitchen

stg

common room

0 50

\ Floor plan of the adapted space \ Division of space with moving panels

pantry entrance

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\ Metal grid covering the walls and providing options for modular changes to the roomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s function.

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Gradusa \ Workshop Team 2 \ Project — Sjeverovac is a peculiar little village. It’s residents, primarily the Džakula family, developed a modern, mindful and sustainable approach with new sightings of the whole agricultural production. Through many workshops and events they activated and breathed life in to what once was a neglected rural area. Precisely this approach with just a hint of tradition in a functional way, the one that villagers cultivate, inspired our project. We noticed existing traditional elements in the area, and through a new and fresh architectural and design approach we made our interventions. Because of it’s practicality and mobility, the new element inspired by traditional cornhouses is used as the object where furniture and signage elements are being applicated on to. It becomes the main element of an educational route, and by need it turns into an info-point, a classroom in nature, a resting point, etc. A network of such movable edu-points leads us from the village of Sjeverovac to the school in Velika Gradusa. The concept of our intervention in the existing school building also comes from general idea - reacting to the situation existing in space. Decaying structure is to be repaired. Our answer is the use of vertical and horizontal wooden elements with two chores it’s main purpose is sanation of the building, however when we increase the density of wooden elements (after the sanation) it becomes an interactive surface on which furniture can be applicated on to (similar to edu-points). The wall that becomes an interactive surface can host different activities and scenarios, difference being made by applicating modular furniture and flexible dividers. The user decides which wall is to become an interactive surface, simply by adding or removing wooden elements. The whole school has a similar approach. It is flexible and it’s purpose depends on the needs and wanted scenarios.

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Gradusa \ Projektni tim 2 \ Projekt — Selo Sjeverovac je jedna vrlo neobična agrarna sredina. Njegovi stanovnici, ponajprije obitelj Džakula, razvili su izrazito suvremen, osviješten i samoodrživ pristup s potpuno novim viđenjem agrikulturne proizvodnje. Brojnim radionicama i događanjima aktivirali su i udahnuli život nekada zapuštenoj seoskoj sredini. Upravo taj potpuno suvremeni pristup s prizvukom tradicije u funkcionalnom smislu, koji sjeverovčani njeguju, inspirirao je naš projekt. Uočili smo postojeće tradicionalne elemente u prostoru, i kroz svjež arhitektonsko-dizajnerski pristup intervenirali u njih. Zbog svoje praktičnosti i mobilnosti, novi element inspiriran kuruzanom koristi se kao objekt na koji se apliciraju elementi namještaja i potrebne signalistike. Tako on postaje glavni element edukacijskog puta koji po potrebi biva učionica u prirodi, info punkt, odmorište i slično. Mreža pomičnih fleksibilnih punktova tako nas vodi iz Sjeverovca do škole u Velikoj Gradusi. Koncept naše intervencije u školi također proizlazi iz generalne ideje projekta - reakcije na zatečeno stanje u prostoru. Ruševno stanje građevine nalaže potrebu za sanacijom, stoga uvodimo elemente horizontalnih i vertikalnih drvenih letvica koji ujedno saniraju postojeću ruševnu zgradu, a progušćivanjem rastera letvica nakon sanacije dobiva se ‘interaktivni zid’ na koji se apliciraju elementi namještaja. Zid koji postaje interaktivna ploha udomljuje razne aktivnosti i scenarije aplikacijom modularnog namještaja i fleksibilnih pregrada. Korisnik sam odlučuje koji zid postaje interaktivna ploha, dodajući ili uklanjajući drvene letvice. Slično je i s kompletnim prostorom škole, fleksibilan je i njegova namjena ovisi o potrebama i željenom scenariju.


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educational center house of stories sauna house house of knowledge and games dormitories center of rural health edu point \ animal observation edu point \ classrooms in nature edu point edu point school

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quarry Educational route — The village Sjeverovac and village Velika Gradusa, where the school is located, are connected by a path trough nature. Walking down the path one can observe various beauties of nature: a stream, forests and meadows, animal feeders around which wild and domestic animals roam, beehives etc. As to ensure points of rest, entertainment, and learning, we decided to establish points which would adapt to various scenarios. These points would serve ether as equipment storages for open air classrooms, tool sheds, or to exhibit educative information about things present, or for anything else that would enhance the coexistence with nature. The points

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Edukacijski put — Selo Sjeverovac i selo Velika Gradusa, u kojem se nalazi škola, povezuje put kroz prirodu. U šetnji tim putem mogu se promatrati razne prirodne ljepote: potok, šume i livade kao prirodna staništa, hranilice kod kojih se skupljaju domaće i divlje životinje, košnice s pčelama itd. Kako bismo osigurali mjesta za odmor, zabavu i učenje po putu, odlučili smo postaviti punktove koji bi služili raznim scenarijima. Oni bi pružali mogućnost za spremanje opreme potrebne za učionicu u prirodi, spremanje alata za praktični rad, izlaganje edukativnih informacija o onome što je na tom mjestu prisutno, te sve ostalo što bi pridonosilo kvaliteti suživota s prirodom i učenju od nje.


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which are connected to interesting areas along the path are located on the map. The points would be located where needed, they would be mobile, and their usage would be easily adapted.

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Na kartama možete vidjeti prijedloge punktova čija se pozicija veže uz interesantna mjesta na putu. Punktovi bi se postavljali po potrebi i mogli bi se premještati, a njihova namjena i tema lako se prilagodi.

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traditional element

Education points concept — traditional element is defragmentet to it's basic architectonic forms, gaining different possible ways of use throughout educational route, depending on the needs of the user himself.

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Koncept edukacijskih punktova — tradicionalni element defragmentira se na svoje osnovne arhitektonske elemente, u skladu s čim se omogućuju i različiti režimi korištenja duž edukacijske rute, ovisno o potrebama korisnika na danom mjestu.

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The new elements are modular, they can be reassembled depending on the needs of the users. The scenarios this element can adapt to range from ‘micro’, ‘duo’ to ‘max’ structures, depending on the number of users and what they are used for. Their Usage is defined by choosing auxiliary furniture elements, adapted to the wooden framework of the module. In such a manner we can use the element walls as a shelf structure, thus turning it in to a tool storage, or store foldable chairs for an open air classroom. Built in wheels assure the mobility of the elements, as well as the adaptability to various scenarios along the educational route

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Novi elementi su modularni i preslaguju se ovisno o trenutnoj potrebi korisnika. Scenariji koje ovaj element može udomiti kreću se od ‘micro’, preko ‘duo’ do ‘max’ postava, ovisno o broju ljudi i zadanoj namjeni. Namjena im se definira odabirom dodatnih elemenata namještaja, prilagođenih letvičastoj konstrukciji modula. Na taj način zidove modula možemo pretvoriti u nosače polica i čitav elemet učiniti alatnicom, ili u njega pohraniti sklopive sjedeće garniture i načiniti učionicu u prirodi. Ugrađeni kotači omogućuju im mobilnost, a uz nju i brojne scenarije postava uzduž edukacijske rute.


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Layouts — designed space allows different varieties of spatial usage such as standard classroom, presentation space, individual or group work. It's flexibility is increased when double skin becomes interactive surface after applicating designed furniture. Parts of the facade that can be used as interactive surfaces are discerned by increasing the density of wooden elements

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Nacrti — prostor škole omogućava razne varijante korištenja prostora (standardna učionica, prostor za prezentacije, individualan rad ili rad u grupi). Fleksibilnost samog prostora pojačava se kada dvostruka ovojnica zgrade apliciranjem namještaja postaje interaktivna površina. Dijelovi fasade koji se koriste kao interaktivna površina raspoznaju se zbog povećane gustoće drvenih elemenata.


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EXISTING DECAYING STRUCTURE

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RECONSTRUCTION APPLYING DOUBLE SKIN

INTERVENTION USING RECONSTRUCTIVE ELEMENTS

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1. phase \ clearing the lot and removing the annex of the building

2. phase \ orchard planting and deck construction in front of the building, the "cornhouse" elements in use as toolsheds and workspaces.

3. phase \ removal of the roof structure

4. phase \ wall sanation by coupling elements in the interior and exterior of the building

5. phase \ the construction of the back deck and wall element adjecent to the orchard. The construction of a new roof, and equipping the space with the interactive elements

6. phase \ equipping the corridor, the classroom and toilets with the interactive elements. Equipping the second classroom, dressing rooms and kitchen with the interactive elements.

learning spaces in transition \ TYPOLOGY FOR HEALTHY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS


Furniture — The functionality and aesthetics of the furniture are based on the logic of the new element inspired by corn houses, they rely on the criteria of modularity, multifunctionality and foldability. A special kind of carrier is designed, which ensures stability by leaning on the vertical elements of the module. Various planks may be placed on the carrier, forming a shelf, a desk, a table or a chair. By combining similar self bearing carriers with the same planks, various furniture types may be assembled, independent of the modules.

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Namještaj — Funkcionalnost i estetika namještaja proizašle su iz logike novih elemenata ispiriranih kuruzanama, i počivaju na kriterijima modularnosti, multifunkcionalnosti i sklopivosti. Projektirana je posebna vrsta nosača kojom je moguće osigurati stabilnost zaklinjavanjem za vertikalne letve modula. Na taj nosač naliježu daske i novonastali sklop postaje polica, klupa, stol ili stolac. Od vrlo sličnih samostojećih nosača s istim daskama moguće je sklopiti iste tipove namještaja, neovisne o modulima.

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Signage — Singnange that is necessary for better orientation in Sjeverovac and the whole educational route to Velika Gradusa, uses the existing grid of cornhouse elements on which it simply applicates. That makes it flexible and we can easily change it depending on our needs. Outside of the Educational Centre in Sjeverovac, which is also used as a starting point when we first arrive there, stands the map of the whole area. The map consists of both wooden slats with the path drawn on them and the information panels which are then applicated on the grid. Panels differ in dimensions with the smaller ones carrying marks — pictogrammes for houses, edupoints and the school. The bigger ones are used to carry additional information. Same panels are also

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Signalistika — Signalistika koja je potrebna za lakše snalaženje na području sela Sjeverovac i puta do škole koja se nalazi u Velikoj Gradusi zamišljena je tako da koristi postojeći grid kukuruzana na koji se jednostavno aplicira. Na taj način signalistika je također fleksibilna i može se mijenjati prema potrebama. U samom Sjeverovcu ispred Edukacijskog centra, koji je ujedno i početna točka kada se dođe u ovaj kraj, nalazi se karta cijelog područja. Na letvicama grida karte ucrtan je put, a na pločama koje se apliciraju na grid nalazi se sadržaj i informacije. Ploče se razlikuju u dimenzijama, najmanje kvadratne ploče nose oznake — piktograme za kuće, punktove i školu, a veće pravokutne ploče namijenjene su za informacije. Takve ploče se koriste i za signalistiku


in use for signage on the educational route, where we can applicate them on cornhouse elements. The visual design of signage is minimal, with only it’s 'bounds' being set. The hosts themselves write the information manually and change it depending on the needs and scenarios. Beside the signage which follows existing cornhouse grid, we developed a system of guerilla signage. It’s function is to carry subtle message of our entire general concept - we take something existing and found in nature, adjust to it and design something new out of it, showing the constant change that happens in a natural environment. Three of those shown in the project \ planting edible mushrooms on laid trunk, fabricating bug hotels and planting moss.

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na putu do škole gdje se apliciraju na elemente kukuruzana. Vizualno oblikovanje signalistike je minimalno, postavljeni su samo ‘okviri’ u koje domaćini vlastoručno unose informacije i mijenjaju s obzirom na potrebe i scenarije. Uz signalistiku koja prati postojeći grid kukuruzana, osmišljen je sustav gerila signalistike. Njena je funkcija prenošenje suptilne poruke koja čini naš generalni koncept projekta: uzeti nešto postojeće iz prirode i zatečenog stanja, prilagoditi se tome te iz toga oblikovati nešto novo, prikazavši time promjenjivost koja se događa u prirodnom okruženju. Ilustrirana su tri primjera \ sadnja jestivih gljiva na položeno deblo, izrada hotela za kukce i sadnja mahovine.

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