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Facta Archi tecto nica 2 SveuÄ?iliĹĄte u Zagrebu Arhitektonski fakultet University of Zagreb Faculty of Architecture


Facta Architectonica 2

Facta Architectonica 2 Academic Volumes (2011 – 2013)

Zbornik stručnih radova nastavnika AF (2011. – 2013.)

 

 


Impresum / Impressum Facta Arhitectonica 2 zbornik stručnih radova nastavnika Af (2011.–2013.) / Academic Volumes (2011–2013)

Lektura / croatian language proofreading Suzana Szabo Korektura / Proof-reader Mirjana Šah

Nakladnik / published by Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Arhitektonski fakultet / University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture Kačićeva 26, Zagreb www.arhitekt.hr Za nakladnika / for the publisher prof.mr.sc. Boris Koružnjak dekan Arhitektonskoga fakulteta / Dean of Faculty of Architecture Glavna i odgovorna urednica / editor-in-chief prof.dr.sc. Vesna Mikić Uredništvo / editorial board prof.emer.dr.sc. Hildegard Auf-Franić v.pred. Ana Martina Bakić mr.sc. Dubravka Kisić pred. Luka Korlaet doc.dr.sc. Iva Muraj prof.dr.sc. Lenko Pleština zn.nov. Marina Smokvina Izvršni urednici / executive editors Mirna Javorović Pehar pred. Luka Korlaet Recenzenti / reviewers prof.dr.sc. Aleksandar Homadovski prof. emeritus, dr.sc. Vladimir Peter Goss

Prijevod / translation Klara Dokmanović Slavica Košća-Vrlazić Irina Krlić Jasna Mati Anđelka Polovina Suzana Szabo Dizajn i prijelom / design & layout doc. Damir Bralić Andrija Mudnić Luka Reicher Tipografija / typography Doc.dr.sc. Nikola Đurek, Typonine ISBN 978-953-8042-01-0 CIP zapis dostupan u računalnome katalogu Nacionalne i sveučilišne knjižnice u Zagrebu pod brojem 895298. napomena: Svi ilustracijski prikazi (fotografije, nacrti i crteži) dobiveni su iz osobne dokumentacije autora koji odgovaraju za pravo njihove objave. Tekstove i podatke navedene uz svako pojedino djelo također su pripremili autori, pa stoga ovi prikazi ne predstavljaju kritičku i valorizacijsku interpretaciju, već imaju karakter popratne informacije. / Note: All illustrations (photographs, designs and drawings) have been provided by authors (from their own documentation) who retain all publication rights to their work. Texts and data accompanying each individual work have also been prepared by authors; thus, those texts are not meant as critical evaluation and interpretation, but serve as background information. Zbornik je za objavu prihvatilo Povjerenstvo za nakladničku djelatnost Arhitektonskog fakulteta na sjednici održanoj 17.12.2014. / The publishing of collected papers has been approved by the Publishing Committee of the Faculty of Architecture at its session held on 17.12.2014. Zagreb, prosinac / December 2014 © Arhitektonski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu / University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture


Facta Architectonica 2

Facta Architectonica 2 Academic Volumes (2011 – 2013)

Zbornik stručnih radova nastavnika AF (2011. – 2013.)

Sveučilište u Zagrebu Arhitektonski fakultet University of Zagreb Faculty of Architecture



 


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sadržaj

Contents

Predgovor – Boris Koružnjak Uvodna riječ – Vesna Mikić

Foreword – Boris Koružnjak

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

Projects, Realizations and Competitions

Pješački most Lent-Tabor, Maribor Scenografija Zločin i kazna Trgovačko-poslovno-stambeni kompleks Gruž, Dubrovnik

Lent-Tabor Footbridge, Maribor

18

Andrić, Davor Bakić Ana Martina, Knez Ivana Barišić Marenić, Zrinka i Šmit, Krunoslav Braun, Alan

Obnova i rekonstrukcija Dominikanskog samostana, Rijeka

Renewal and Reconstruction of the Dominican Convent, Rijeka

20

Careva, Kristina

Zgrada SD2 u naselju Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb

SD2 Building in the Settlement of Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb

24 26 30 34 38 40

Poslovna građevina Vrbani, Zagreb 2 u 1, stambeno-poslovna zgrada, Velika Gorica Poslovni toranj Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb Restoran studentskog kampusa, Varaždin Trg pul Vele crikve, Rijeka Fakultet organizacije i informatike s pratećim sadržajima u Varaždinu Kuća M, Zagreb Jahalnica – manjež, Rakitna, kod Ljubljane, Slovenija

Vrbani Business Building, Zagreb

44 46

Duplančić, Vedran Ergić, Ivana Filep, Sanja i Mikić, Vesna Franić, Igor Franić, Igor Franić, Tin Sven i Rister, Vanja Teufik Galijašević Haiman, Miljenko

48

Jukić, Tihomir

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of the Presentation of the Republic of Croatia on the Int. Exhibition Expo 2012, Yeosu, Korea

52

Justić, Siniša i Korlaet, Luka

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinarno idejno rješenje nastupa Republike Hrvatske na međunarodnoj izložbi Expo 2012, Yeosu, Koreja Trg sv. Nikole sa zgradom društvene namjene, Kraljevica

54 56

Stambena zgrada, Petrine, Zagreb Novi putnički terminal Zračne luke Zagreb

Residential Building, Petrine, Zagreb

60 62

Kasun, Vladimir Kincl, Branko i Neidhardt, Velimir Koružnjak, Boris Koružnjak, Boris

Swimming Pool Town garden, Osijek

64 66 70 72 74 76 80 82 86

Krajnik, Damir Lisac, Rene Mikić, Vesna Miščević, Ljubomir Mišković, Petar Plavec Ivica Pleština, Lenko Rajčić, Branimir Rako, Goran

88 92

Rako, Goran Roth-Čerina, Mia

Bazen Gradski vrt, Osijek Rekonstrukcija, dogradnja i nadogradnja Osnovne škole Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete Trg kardinala Alojzija Stepinca u Jastrebarskom Kuća R, Kupinečki Kraljevec Sveučilišna Knjižnica, Osijek Od pasivne sunčane do energetski gotovo nulte arhitekture Kuće u nizu, Rukavac Poslovni centar Adris, Zagreb Kuća Déjà Vu Trg Vladimira Nazora, Ivanić Grad Centar za sprečavanje i proučavanje prirodnih katastrofa, Istanbul, Turska Sveučilišna Knjižnica, Osijek Centar za skrb o oboljeloj djeci, Zagreb

6 8

12 14 16

Sadržaj 

Editorial – Vesna Mikić

Stage Design Crime and punishment Commercial, Business and Residential Complex Gruž, Dubrovnik

2 u 1, Housing and Business Building, Velika Gorica Business Tower Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb University Campus Restaurant, Varaždin (Square) At the Big Church, Rijeka Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin, with Accompanying Facilities House M, Zagreb Manège Timber Construction in Rakitna near Ljubljana, Slovenia

St. Nicholas Square along with a Social Purpose Building, Kraljevica

Zagreb Airport New Passenger Terminal

Reconstr., Upgrade and Constr. Extension of the Primary School Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete Cardinal Stepinac Square in Jastrebarsko House R, Kupinečki Kraljevec University Library, Osijek From Passive Solar to Nearly Zero-Energy Arch. Terraced Houses, Rukavac Adris Business Complex, Zagreb House Déjà Vu Vladimir Nazor Square, Ivanić Grad Disaster Prevention and Education Centre, Istanbul, Turkey University Library, Osijek Care Center for Ill Children, Zagreb

Contents  


facta architectonica 2

96

Sokol-Gojnik, Zorana

98 100 104 106 110

Šimetin, Pavla; Tutek, Ivana Tadej, Sonja Virag, Nino Vulin Ileković, Dina Vulin Ileković, Dina

112 116

Waldgoni, Renata i Uchytil, Andrej Waldgoni, Renata

118

Žaja, Gordana

120

Žaja, Gordana

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Liturgijske građevine za susrete sa Svetim Ocem Benediktom XVI., Zagreb Trg poljana, Šibenik Plažno rekreacijski prostor uvale Sumartin, Dubrovniku Interijer odvjetničkog ureda G, Zageb 4 Box Tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb Adaptacija i rekonstrukcija zgrade za potrebe Hrvatskog sabora, Demetrova 9, Zagreb Postament za skulpturu kardinala Kuharića, Zagreb, Utrine Likovno i urbanističko-ahitektonsko rješenje spomen-obilježja za groblja žrtava Drugog svjetskog rata i poslijeratnog razdoblja Rekonstrukcija podruma Sanatorija u Klaićevoj 18 (arh. I. Fischer) – Klinika za dječje bolesti, Zagreb Prenamjena sklopa i gospodarskih zgrada za okupacijske i radne terapije, Klinička psihijatrijska bolnica Vrapče, Zagreb

Liturgical Construction for the Meeting of the Pope Benedict XVI., Zagreb

Crtež

Drawing

Poljana Square, Šibenik Beach and Rec. area of the Sumartin Bay, Dubrovnik Law Firm G Interior Design, Zagreb 4 Box Tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb Adaptation and Reconstr. of the Building for the Needs of the Cro. Parliament, Demetrova St. 9, Zagreb Pedestal for a Sculpture of Cardinal Kuharić, Zagreb, Utrine Visual and Urbanistic-Architectural Design of a Memorial to the Victims of Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes Reconstr. and Conversion of the Cellar of the Sanatorium, Clinic for Children's Diseases Zagreb Transformation of Purpose of the Complex of Utility Buildings for Occupational and Working Therapies, Clinical Psychiatric Hospital, Vrapče, Zagreb

124 134

Juras, Ivan Kisić, Dubravka

Arhitektonski crtež Avangardno slikarstvo Joa Kleka i arhitektura Josipa Seissela

Architectural drawing

146 160 162

Waldgoni, Renata Sudeta, Nikoleta Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci, Bojana Korlaet, Luka

Crtice o crtama, crtežu, crtanju... Geometrija – ‘nespecifičan softver’ 3D modeliranja Nulla Dies sine Linea

Through sketches about lines, drawings, drawing... Nulla Dies sine Linea

O crtežu u arhitekturi

On architectural drawing

168

Dodatak / Supplement

174 181

190 194

205

Jo Klek’s Avant-Garde Painting and Josip Seissel’s Architecture

Geometry – ‘non-specific software’ for 3D modelling

stručni radovi nastavnika u Koautorstvu sa studentom

Teachers' papers co-authored with students

Domjančić, Lidija i Homadovski, Aleksandar Dragčević, Katarina i Mikić, Vesna

Osnovna škola između standarda i poetike ambijenta

Primary School Between the Standard and Poetics of the Environment

Arhitektonsko-urbanistička intervencija u postindustrijskom krajoliku – nova vrijednost industrijskog naselja

Architectural and Urban Planning Intervention in Postindustrial Landscape – New Value of the Industrial Settlement

Maraković, Domagoj i Homadovski, Aleksandar Muža, Nikolina i Mikić, Vesna

Zračna luka Čakovec

Čakovec Airport

Informirani krajolici: Mreže i ruralni razvoj

Informed Landscapes: Networks and Rural Development

biografije

Biographies

Sadržaj 

Contents   


facta architectonica 2

dekan arhitektonskoga fakulteta u zagrebu / dean of faculty of architecture in zagreb prof.mr.sc. Boris Koružnjak

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Predgovor

Af – fA

Foreword

Af – fA

Ove akademske godine, 2014./2015., Arhitektonski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu bilježi devedeset i pet godina od svojeg utemeljenja. Tijekom svih proteklih godina, od početaka djelovanja Arhitektonskog odjela Tehničke visoke škole još 1919. sve do današnjih dana, Fakultet je prolazio kroz različite mijene u izobrazbi arhitektonske struke. Bogata povijest našeg Fakulteta obrađuje se relativno uspješno publiciranjem nastavne i znanstveno-stručne aktivnosti i procesa koji se na njemu odvijaju. Takvu tradiciju uz želju za stalnim unaprjeđivanjem i usklađivanjem s europskim i svjetskim stremljenjima Fakultet kontinuirano provodi. Iako rad prethodnih generacija nije bio dovoljno dokumentiran nego se posredno iščitavao kroz dosege arhitekture u Hrvatskoj i hrvatskih arhitekata u svijetu, izdavanje drugog broja Facte Architectonice trebalo bi omogućiti bolje razumijevanje kvalitete projekata izrađenih na Fakultetu ali i biti poticaj za svakodnevnu arhitektonsku praksu u Hrvatskoj. Duboka povezanost edukacije i stručnog rada na svim razinama jedno je od temeljnih metodskih opredjeljenja Fakulteta. Stručne studije, natječajni radovi kao i mnoštvo projekata od ideja do realizacije za koja su fakultetski djelatnici dobivali najviša priznanja, dokaz su da nastavnici ne poučavaju samo svojim predavanjima, nego i svojim projektiranjem, a što sve afirmira već potvrđeno usmjerenje. Arhitektonski fakultet predstavljaju, uz niz starijih, iskusnih i značajnih imena i mladi talentirani djelatnici koji se osim ispunjavanja svakodnevnih nastavnih i znanstvenih aktivnosti redovno i uspješno pojavljuju na arhitektonskoj sceni. Rezultati takvog rada nesporno se jednim dijelom temelje na lokalnim hrvatskim kontekstima kao i na međunarodnoj kulturološkoj razini, ali svakako i na znanju usvajanom i kultiviranom na ovom Fakultetu.

6

In the 2014/2015 academic year, the Faculty of Architecture of the Zagreb University marks its 25th anniversary. Over the past 25 years, and even since the foundation of the Department of Architecture at the High Technical School in 1919, the Faculty underwent many changes in the education of architecture-related professionals. The rich history of the Faculty of Architecture has been recorded relatively successfully in publications on teaching, scientific and professional activities and processes taking place at the Faculty. This tradition is continually maintained by the Faculty, with a wish for constant improvement and harmonisation with the European and global aspirations. The work of previous generations has not been sufficiently documented; rather, one could learn about it indirectly from architectural accomplishments in Croatia and projects of Croatian architects abroad. In this light, the publication of the second issue of Facta Architectonica should contribute to better understanding of the quality of projects designed at the Faculty, and also be stimulative for daily practice of architecture in Croatia. A deep connection between education and professional work on all levels is one of the fundamental methodical commitments of the Faculty. Expert studies, competition works and numerous projects – from the concept to the execution stage, for which the Faculty staff have gained highest praise, are proving that the teachers instruct not only through their lectures, but also through their own design work. The Faculty of Architecture is represented, by a series of senior, experienced and distinguished figures in architecture and talented young teaching staff, who, in addition to their daily teaching assignments and scientific duties, regularly and successfully appear on the architectural scene. The results of their work are undoubtedly based, in part, on the local Croatian contexts as well as on the international culturological level, but they are, indeed, also based on the knowledge adopted and cultivated at this Faculty. This second issue of Facta Architectonica is issued three years after the publication of the first one. Therefore, it contains, in addition to some works that were not presented in the first issue, the most recent works by the Faculty teachers designed at the demanding and challenging locations, works dealing with complex contents, attuned to actual possibilities of the construction industry practice, and frequently directed towards local issues and achievements. Some of those projects have received highest professional recognition.

Novi zbornik radova Facta Architectonica 2 izlazi tri godine nakon prvog broja. U njemu se stoga, uz dio radova koji nisu bili prikazani u prvom broju, pojavljuju i najnoviji radovi nastavnika Fakulteta koji su projektirani na izazovnim i zahtjevnim lokacijama, kompleksnih sadržaja, u komunikaciji s aktualnim mogućnostima građevinske operative, a vrlo često usmjereni prema lokalnim problemima i dosezima. Neki od njih dobili su i visoka stručna priznanja.

A separate part of Facta Architectonica is devoted this time to drawing discourse. In the

Predgovor 

Foreword 


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Poseban dio zbornika posvećen je ovaj put diskursu crtanja i crteža. U fazi kreativnog procesa arhitektonski crtež vezuje se na slikarsko tumačenje kao i na arhitektonsku definiciju prostora. Svojim teorijskim promišljanjima nastavnici arhitekti – vrsni crtači Arhitektonskog fakulteta podijelili su spoznaje i osobna iskustva o tome što proces crtanja znači danas u svijetu virtualne stvarnosti, u trenucima kada se vrlo često promatranje, doživljaj, koncentracija i redukcija nekog mjesta, prostora, mogu osjetiti na posebno intenzivan način isključivo putem crtanja.

creative process, architectural drawing is related to artistic interpretation and architectural definition of space. Through their theoretical reflections, architects-teachers of the Faculty of Architecture who are also splendid draftsmen – have shared their insights and personal experience about the meaning of the drawing process in today’s world of virtual reality, at the time when a site or space may often be observed, in its concentrated or reduced quality, and experienced in a particularly intense manner – exclusively through drawing.

Zajednički rad studenata i nastavnika ogleda se posljednjih godina u izradi projekata usmjerenih prema lokalnim problemima i dosezima. Ispituju se realni i društveno korisni zadatci. Treći dio zbornika prikazuje odabir projekata koji su nastali u suradnji – suautorstvu nastavnika i studenata. Oni potvrđuju spremnost Fakulteta da reagira na izazove koje donosi civilizacijski trenutak te da i u tom segmentu studentima prikažu realnosti procesa budućeg rada u struci. Zahvaljujemo svim sudionicima na izradi ovih materijala, a posebno donatorima koji su prepoznali vrijednost suradnje arhitektonske edukacije i arhitektonske prakse te omogućili izdavanje ovog zbornika. Njime prikazujemo dio ostvarenih rezultata koji sigurno nisu konačni, ali bi trebali biti jedan od smjerova budućeg, još aktivnijeg djelovanja Arhitektonskog fakulteta.

7

Predgovor 

The common work of students and teachers over the past years has been focused on projects dealing with local issues and achievements. Realistic and socially useful topics have been explored. The third part of Facta Architectonica presents a selection of projects designed in cooperation – co-authorship of teachers and students. These projects testify to the Faculty’s readiness to react to the challenges brought about by this civilizational moment, and acquaint students with – in this segment, too – the realities of their future professional work process. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants who have submitted their papers for this publication, and especially to donors who have recognised the importance of cooperation between architectural education and architectural practice, and who made the publication of this issue of Facta Architectonica possible. We present in it some of the results achieved – which are certainly not final, but should rather point to the directions of the future, even more vibrant activities of the Faculty of Architecture.

Foreword 


facta architectonica 2

Glavna urednica / editor-in-chief Prof.dr.sc. Vesna Mikić

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Uvodna riječ

Editorial Dear colleagues,

Poštovani, u drugom broju časopisa Facta Architectonica AF-a prezentiramo recentne radove nastavnika fakulteta, a kao temu broja nudimo vam nekoliko tekstova posvećenih crtežu kao sredstvu generiranja arhitektonske ideje. Naime, tematski dio ovogodišnje Facte Architectonice bavi se značenjem i dinamikom crteža u različitim fazama arhitektonskog procesa, razmatrajući složene odnose utjecaja crteža kao idejne skice i konačnog, završnog projekta. Posebnu cjelinu čine stručni tekstovi nastavnika u suautorstvu sa studentom, a koji za izvorište imaju diplomski ili završni rad. Publikacija je strukturirana kao pregled stručnog, nastavnog i istraživačkog rada nastavnika Arhitektonskog fakulteta. Pritom se tematiziraju dragocjena iskustva profesora sustvaratelja arhitekture 20. i 21. stoljeća i osnažuje slika o našem radu kao institucije. Stručni rad nastavnika zajedno s realizacijama, elaboriran je natječajnim projektima i studijama koji su aktivno vezani uz rad u nastavi te oni dijelom formiraju metodološka, projektantska i didaktička načela naše škole. Izborom samih autora predstavljeno je trideset projekata raznorodne arhitektonske tipologije: individualne obiteljske kuće, društveno usmjerena stambena izgradnja, uredske zgrade, institucije kulture i zgrade društvenog standarda, uređenja javnih gradskih prostora, interijeri itd. Brojni publicirani radovi realizirani su nakon dobivenih natječaja i visokih stručnih priznanja. Tema broja proteže se na tridesetak stranica časopisa i sastoji se od šest naslova koji odgovaraju na neka od navedenih pitanja: Koje je mjesto crteža u projektiranju danas? Je li crtež prevladan u procesu razvijanja projekta? Kako crtež kao alat pridonosi procesu razvoja ideje? Koji su oblici inovativnih praksi pod utjecajem crteža i dijagrama? Na koji način crtež funkcionira kao dio razumijevanja vizualnog prikaza arhitekture? Može li crtež u procesu razvoja ideje ukazivati na neistražene potencijale? Dubravka Kisić u tekstu ‘Avangardno slikarstvo Joa Kleka i arhitektura Josipa Seissela’ analizira paralelne korespondirajuće svjetove likovnosti i arhitekture. Autorica autentično iznosi nemogućnost izravnog prijenosa Seisselovih avangardnih iskustava, kojih je on svjestan, iz slikarstva u arhitekturu kao primarno graditeljsku disciplinu, pa se iskustvo i slikarska imaginacija povlače u drugi plan iz kojeg njegov opus crpi svoju individualnu autentičnost.

8

Uvodna riječ 

In the second issue of Facta Architectonica published by the Faculty of Architecture we have presented the recent works of the professors of the Faculty. The topic of this volume, expounded on in several articles, is drawing as the means of generating an architectural idea. The topic of this year’s Facta Architectonica is the significance and dynamics of the drawing in various phases of architectural process, and the complex relationship of the impact of the drawing, as a preliminary sketch, and the final completion of the project is considered. A separate section contains professional papers co-authored by professors and students which are based on graduation or final year theses. This publication is structured as a survey of professional, educational and research work of the professors at the Faculty of Architecture. It contains the analyses of the valuable experiences of important professors, co-creators of the 20th and 21st century architecture which reinforces the image of the work of our institution. The professors’ professional work and their architectural realisations are elaborated on through the competition projects and studies which are firmly related to the teaching engagements. They shape the methodological, project and didactic principles of our school. Twenty-seven projects falling under miscellaneous architectural typologies have been selected for the presentation: individual family homes, socially subsidized housing construction, office buildings, cultural institutions and, interiors etc. Many of the published works have been realized after they had won the competition and received high professional recognition. The topic of this issue is elaborated on some thirty pages and includes six titles which give answers to some of the questions that still interest us: What is today’s role of drawing in design process? Has the drawing lost its former role in the design development process? How does drawing as a tool contribute to the idea development process? Which types of innovative practices are influenced by drawings and diagrams? How does drawing function in understanding the visual presentation of architecture? Can a drawing point to the unexamined potentials in the idea development process? In her paper ‘Jo Klek's Avant-Garde Painting and Josip Seissel's Architecture’ Dubravka Kisić analyses the parallel and corresponding worlds of visual arts and architecture. The author gives an authentic account of Seissel’s inability to directly transfer his avant-garde experiences, that he is aware of, from painting into the architecture as primarily a building discipline. Thus the experience and painting imagination retreat into the background where his oueuvre finds the source of individual authenticity.

Editorial 


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Odgovornost prema disciplini arhitektonskog crteža elaborira Ivan Juras kroz vid stimulacije kreativnosti i provjeru arhitektove namjere, a kontrapunktirajući ga u kontekstu znanosti ili uloge računalnog crteža u arhitekturi kao raniji odnos fotografije i slikarstva. Na misaonost i sredstvo kreacije crteža ukazuje mladi arhitekt Luka Korlaet kroz postojeću literaturu o naslovnom mediju. Piše o crtežu kao krokiju, alatu u procesu projektiranja koji ilustrira prostorno oblikovne koncepte.

Ivan Juras elaborates on the responsibility to maintain the discipline of architectural drawing. He sees it as a stimulation of creativity and the examination of the architect’s intention, and counterpoints it in the context of science or the role of computer drawing in architecture with the previous relationship between photography and painting.

Tekst Renate Waldgoni, voditeljice Kabineta za crtanje i plastično oblikovanje ‘amalgam je pisanog i crtanog’ sloja, protkan sjećanjima autorice i svojevrsni je intimni dnevnik. Njezini priloženi crteži i skice izrađeni različitim sredstvima i medijima, svjedoče o osebujnosti autoričinog talenta i vještine. Profesorica Waldgoni ulaže disciplinu i visoku pozornost na crtež da ne bi skrenuo u opisivanje arhitekture čime svjedoči o njegovoj genezi u kreativnom arhitektonskom procesu. Navedenim senzibilitetom autorica je stvorila visoko kvalitetan arhitektonski opus te cjelinu takvog umijeća prenosi i na studente. Prikazani radovi u ove tri Factine podcjeline predstavljaju autonomni autorski glas. Međutim, njihovo supostavljanje u sklopu ove edicije omogućit će dodatno transverzalno i unakrsno čitanje te na taj način otvoriti priliku za otkrivanje sjecišta različitih ideja i tendencija koja oblikuju sadašnji trenutak Arhitektonskog fakulteta. Facta na taj način skuplja i pregledno predstavlja recentno kreativno, stručno i istraživačko arhitektonsko stvaralaštvo koje nastaje u sklopu našeg fakulteta. Time tematizira dragocjena iskustva profesora i sustvaratelja suvremene arhitekture te je na taj način ova publikacija svojevrsna platforma na kojoj se predstavljaju pedagoške i autorske prakse koje se profiliraju u školi.

9

Uvodna riječ 

Young architect Luka Korlaet points to drawings as the mental and creative means and refers to the existing literature on the topic. He writes about drawing, as a croquis, the tool in the designing process which illustrates the concepts of space and shape. The piece by Renata Waldgoni, who is the Head of the Freehand Drawing and Modelling Department, is an ‘amalgam of writing and drawing’ interspersed with her memories, a sort of an intimate diary. The author’s selection of drawings and sketches made by different materials exhibit her original talent and skill. Professor Waldgoni has invested discipline and paid great attention to drawings so as not to make them descriptive of architecture, thus bearing witness to the genesis of drawing in the creative architectural process. With that kind of sensibility the author has created a high quality architectural oeuvre and she conveys the totality of such a skill on her students. The works presented in these three chapters of Facta Architectonica are autonomous voices of their authors. Their juxtaposition in this edition will enable additional cross-reference reading thus offering the opportunity for discovering the intersection of various ideas and tendencies that shape the present moment of the Faculty of Architecture. Thus Facta Architectonica has collected and clearly presented the recent creative, professional and research production at the Faculty of Architecture. The analyses of valuable experiences of prominent professors and co-creators of contemporary architecture in this publication offer a platform for presenting educational and authorial activities practiced at the Faculty.

Editorial 


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Projects, Realizations and Competitions

#

Autor / author

projekt

project

12

Andrić, Davor

Pješački most Lent-Tabor, Maribor

Lent-Tabor Footbridge, Maribor

14

Bakić Ana Martina, Knez Ivana Scenografija Zločin i Kazna

Stage Design Crime and Punishment

16

Barišić Marenić, Zrinka i Šmit, Krunoslav

Trgovačko-poslovno-stambeni kompleks Gruž, Dubrovnik

Commercial, Business and Residential Complex Gruž, Dubrovnik

18

Braun, Alan

Obnova i rekonstrukcija Dominikanskog samostana, Rijeka

Renewal and Reconstruction of the Dominican Convent, Rijeka

20

Careva, Kristina

Zgrada SD2 u naselju Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb

SD2 Building in the Settlement of Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb

24

Duplančić, Vedran

Poslovna građevina Vrbani, Zagreb

Vrbani Business Building, Zagreb

26

Ergić, Ivana

2 u 1, stambeno-poslovna zgrada, Velika Gorica

2 u 1, Housing and Business Building, Velika Gorica

30

Filep, Sanja i Mikić, Vesna

Poslovni toranj Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb

Business Tower Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb

34

Franić, Igor

Restoran studentskog kampusa, Varaždin

University Campus Restaurant, Varaždin

38

Franić, Igor

Trg pul Vele crikve, Rijeka

(Square) At the Big Church, Rijeka

40

Franić, Tin Sven i Rister, Vanja

Fakultet organizacije i informatike s pratećim sadržajima u Varaždinu

Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin, with Accompanying Facilities

44

Teufik Galijašević

Kuća M, Zagreb

House M, Zagreb

46

Haiman, Miljenko

Jahalnica – manjež, Rakitna, kod Ljubljane, Slovenija

Manège Timber Construction in Rakitna near Ljubljana, Slovenia

48

Jukić, Tihomir

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinarno idejno rješenje nastupa Republike Hrvatske na međunarodnoj izložbi Expo 2012, Yeosu, Koreja

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of the Presentation of the Republic of Croatia on the Int. Exhibition Expo 2012, Yeosu, Korea

52

Justić, Siniša i Korlaet, Luka

Trg sv. Nikole sa zgradom društvene namjene, Kraljevica

St. Nicholas Square along with a Social Purpose Building, Kraljevica

54

Kasun, Vladimir

Stambena zgrada, Petrine, Zagreb

Residential Building, Petrine, Zagreb

56

Kincl, Branko i Neidhardt, Velimir

Novi putnički terminal Zračne luke Zagreb

Zagreb Airport New Passenger Terminal

60

Koružnjak, Boris

Bazen Gradski vrt, Osijek

Swimming Pool Town garden, Osijek

10


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

#

Autor / author

Tema

topic

62

Koružnjak, Boris

Rekonstrukcija, dogradnja i nadogradnja Osnovne škole Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete

Reconstr., Upgrade and Constr. Extension of the Primary School Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete

64

Krajnik, Damir

Trg kardinala Alojzija Stepinca u Jastrebarskom

Cardinal Stepinac Square in Jastrebarsko

66

Lisac, Rene

Kuća R, Kupinečki Kraljevec

House R, Kupinečki Kraljevec

70

Mikić, Vesna

Sveučilišna Knjižnica, Osijek

University Library, Osijek

72

Miščević, Ljubomir

Od pasivne sunčane do energetski gotovo nulte arhitekture

From Passive Solar to Nearly Zero-Energy Architecture

74

Mišković, Petar

Kuće u nizu, Rukavac

Terraced Houses, Rukavac

76

Plavec Ivica

Poslovni centar Adris, Zagreb

Adris Business Complex, Zagreb

80

Pleština, Lenko

Kuća Déjà Vu

House Déjà Vu

82

Rajčić, Branimir

Trg Vladimira Nazora, Ivanić Grad

Vladimir Nazor Square, Ivanić Grad

86

Rako, Goran

Centar za sprečavanje i proučavanje prirodnih katastrofa, Istanbul, Turska

Disaster Prevention and Education Centre, Istanbul, Turkey

88

Rako, Goran

Sveučilišna Knjižnica, Osijek

University Library, Osijek

92

Roth-Čerina, Mia

Centar za skrb o oboljeloj djeci, Zagreb

Care Center for Ill Children, Zagreb

96

Sokol-Gojnik, Zorana

Liturgijske građevine za susrete sa Svetim Ocem Benediktom XVI., Zagreb

Liturgical Construction for the Meeting of the Pope Benedict XVI., Zagreb

98

Šimetin, Pavla; Tutek, Ivana

Trg poljana, Šibenik

Poljana Square, Šibenik

100

Tadej, Sonja

Plažno rekreacijski prostor uvale Sumartin, Dubrovniku

Beach and Rec. area of the Sumartin Bay, Dubrovnik

104

Virag, Nino

Interijer odvjetničkog ureda G, Zageb

Law Firm G Interior Design, Zagreb

106

Vulin Ileković, Dina

4 Box Tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb

4 Box Tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb

110

Vulin Ileković, Dina

Adaptacija i rekonstrukcija zgrade za potrebe Hrvatskog sabora, Demetrova 9, Zagreb

Adaptation and Reconstr. of the Building for the Needs of the Cro. Parliament, Demetrova St. 9, Zagreb

112

Waldgoni, Renata i Uchytil, Andrej

Postament za skulpturu kardinala Kuharića, Zagreb, Utrine

Pedestal for a Sculpture of Cardinal Kuharić, Zagreb, Utrine

116

Waldgoni, Renata

Likovno i urbanističko-ahitektonsko rješenje spomen-obilježja za groblja žrtava Drugog svjetskog rata i poslijeratnog razdoblja

Visual and Urbanistic-Architectural Design of a Memorial to the Victims of Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes

118

Žaja, Gordana

Rekonstrukcija podruma Sanatorija u Klaićevoj 18 (arh. I. Fischer) – Klinika za dječje bolesti, Zagreb

Reconstr. and Conversion of the Cellar of the Sanatorium, Clinic for Children's Diseases Zagreb

120

Žaja, Gordana

Prenamjena sklopa gospodarskih zgrada za okupacijske i radne terapije, Klinička psihijatrijska bolnica Vrapče, Zagreb

Repurposing of the Complex of Utility Buildings for Occupational and Working Therapies, Clinical Psychiatric Hospital, Vrapče, Zagreb

11


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Davor Andrić Ivana Perić, Deana Matić status projekta / project status Natječajni rad / Competition Project investitor / client Grad Maribor / City of Maribor lokacija / location Maribor, Slovenija

2010.

projektirano / designed

situacija / site plan

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Pješački most Lent-Tabor, Maribor

Lent-Tabor Footbridge, Maribor

U sklopu pripreme za Europski grad kulture 2012. godine Grad Maribor raspisao je međunarodni natječaj za preuređenje prostora obale rijeke Drave. Predmet natječaja su tri sklopa koja se posredno ili neposredno nadovezuju na rijeku Dravu, a svaki predstavlja zaokruženu prostorno-funkcionalnu cjelinu: obala Drave planira se urediti kao pješačko-biciklistička zona i središte urbanih događanja, novi pješačko-biciklistički most Lent-Tabor treba omogućiti vezu desne i lijeve obale Drave i nova Mariborska umjetnička galerija treba postati kulturni centar i akcelerator urbanog pulsa i regeneracije. Povijesni razvoj Maribora usko je vezan uz rijeku i mostove preko nje. Srednjovjekovni drveni most koji je povezivao Lent i Tabor obilježio je povijest Maribora. Nakon gradnje Glavnog mosta 1913. i rušenja srednjovjekovnog drvenog mosta 1920-ih uništena je važna poveznica koja je stoljećima povezivala dvije obale, a sav pješački promet prebacio se na Glavni most na višoj razini, što je uzrokovalo odumiranje života i aktivnosti na obali. Ponovno povezivanje obala i uspostavljanje povijesne veze Lenta i Tabora treba pridonijeti njihovu oživljavanju i vratiti život na obalu Drave.

As part of preparations for the European Capital of Culture event in 2012, the city of Maribor launched an international competition for the arrangement of the Drava River embankment. The subject of the competition are three areas indirectly or directly connected to the Drava River, and each of them is an integral spatial and functional unit: the Drava River embankment is planned to be transformed into a pedestrian and bicycle zone and the vibrant urban core; a new Lent-Tabor footway-bicycle bridge should connect the right and the left banks of the Drava River; and a new Maribor Art Gallery should become a new cultural centre and an accelerator of the urban pulse and regeneration. The historical development of Maribor is closely tied to the river and the bridges spanning it. The medieval wooden bridge which used to connect Lent (waterfront district, former port) and Tabor was Maribor’s historical landmark. After the construction of the Glavni most (Main Bridge) in 1913, and tearing down of the medieval wooden bridge in the 1920’s, an important link which connected the two banks for centuries was destroyed. Moreover, all pedestrian traffic was transferred to the Glavni most at a higher lever, which resulted in gradual abandonment of the activities along the river bank. The renewed linking of the river banks and re-establishment of the historical

Tlocrt i presjeci / Floor plan and sections

Shema konstrukcije / Structural scheme

12

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Cilj natječaja je rješenje novog mosta na mjestu onog drvenog srednjovjekovnog, a koji će biti prepoznatljiva urbana pojava i obilježiti novo razdoblje u razvitku grada Maribora. Pritom će se uzeti u obzir postojeći ambijent povijesne urbane strukture, obale Drave te postojećeg kolnog Glavnog mosta. Predviđena je konstrukcija koja neće priječiti vizuru duž Drave, te će biti jednostavna, lako izvediva i ekonomična. Novi most treba osigurati siguran pristup i prijelaz za bicikliste i pješake te za osobe s invaliditetom i smanjenom pokretljivosti, a i omogućiti realizaciju plovne linije ispod mosta. Predviđena ukupna dužna mosta je 130 m, a minimalna svijetla visina 3,5 m.

connection between Lent and Tabor is meant to contribute to the revival of the area and should bring life back to the Drava embankment.

Koncept rješenja je transparentna konstrukcija koja će se nenametljivo uklopiti u postojeći ambijent, samim izborom lokacije održavati memoriju povijesnog mosta, a svojom konstrukcijom, materijalom i oblikovanjem obilježiti novo razdoblje Maribora. Rješenje predviđa metalni, blago zakrivljen gredni most na tri polja od 44 m raspona, koji će osigurati dovoljnu svijetlu visinu i širinu za prolazak brodova, kao i nagib koji će omogućiti prelazak mosta biciklistima i invalidima. Razlog za odabir čelika kao materijala za most jest blizina željezare, laka dostupnost poluproizvoda i mogućnost izrade u tvornici. Nosiva konstrukcija sastoji se od dvije sandučaste grede tetiva povezanih sekundarnim gredama i dijagonalnim ukrutama. Hodna ploha je stakleni pokrov na metalnim hodnim rešetkama što ostavlja dojam transparentnosti, a zbog metalne rešetke ispod stakla ulijeva dovoljno pouzdanja u hodanje po zraku iznad rijeke.

13

Pješački most Lent-Tabor, Maribor

The objective of the competition is a design solution for a new bridge at the location of the old, medieval wooden bridge, which will be a distinct urban construction and mark a new era in the development of the city of Maribor. In the process, the existing ambiance of the historical urban structure will be taken into account – the Drava River banks and the existing Glavni most. The foreseen construction will not obstruct the view of the river; it will be simple, feasible and economical. The new bridge should provide safe access and crossing for pedestrians and cyclists, and also for persons with a disability or reduced mobility; it should also ensure navigation under the bridge. The total foreseen length of the bridge is 130 m, and the minimum vertical clearance 3,5 m. The solution concept is a transparent construction that will unobtrusively blend into the existing ambiance, reflect the memory of the historical bridge at the selected location, and mark a new era for Maribor by its structure, material and design. The solution anticipates a metal, slightly curved beam bridge consisting of three sections of 44 meters span, which will provide sufficient horizontal and vertical clearance for the passage of vessels, and a slope which will enable cyclists and the disabled to cross the bridge. Steel has been chosen as the bridge material because of the vicinity of the ironworks, easy availability of semi-manufactured goods and the possibility of manufacture there. The load-bearing structure consists of two box beams, with tendons connected by secondary beams and diagonal stiffeners. The walkway is covered by glass blocks over the metal walking grating which creates an impression of transparency, yet the metal grid under the glass makes the walking in the air above the river feel – nevertheless – sufficiently safe.

Lent-Tabor Footbridge, Maribor


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Ana Martina Bakić, Ivana Knez suradnici / colaborators Dora Bilandžić, Natali Kasap status projekta / project status Realizacija / Realization investitor / client GK Gavella lokacija / location Zagreb

2013.

projektirano / designed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Scenografija Zločin i Kazna

Stage Design Crime and Punishment

Prostorni koncept scenografije inspiriran je fragmentiranim prostorom sjećanja i racijepljenosti glavnog lika, analogno dramatizacijskom scenariju postavljenom u flashback i ich formi. Tunel koji se sužava u dubinu pozornice sastavljen je od šest segmenata. Izlaskom na proscenij njegove se plohe rastvaraju i uvlače prostor gledališta, spajajući tako vrijeme /prostor predstave sa sadašnjim trenutkom. Već nakon prvog prizora raspada se duboki linearni prostor i cjelovitost pogleda. Segmenti se počinju transverzalno pomicati, ukidajući time jedinstvo perspektive. Sjećanje se pojavljuje kroz detalj, kao vizualna veza izmedu situacija kojih se sjećamo, stvarajući tako novo značenje doživljenog. Promjenom konfiguracije segmenata ostvaruje se istovremeno i realističan i psihološki prostor dramskog teksta. Tijekom izvedbe nastaje niz manjih kadrova i pojedinačnih perspektiva koje glavnom prizoru dodajuparalelne slike podsvijesti i/ili istovremenih događaja. Polazište scenografskog i dramaturškog pristupa bili su Risunki – bilježnice Dostojevskog u kojima je pisao na nelinearan, grafički složen način. Stranice ilustriraju način kojim je stvarao i konstruirao svoje romane – fragmentirano, kao kolaže dijelova romana pisanih u raznim smjerovima, isprepletenih portretima likova i detaljima arhitekture gradova u kojima su smještene fabule. Plohe tunela uvećane su stranice Risunki, gdje se isprepliću crteži i tekst pisan ćirilicom i latinicom u rukopisu. Prostorni koncept, zajedno s dramatizacijom i režijom, razvija istu ideju poliperspektivnosti i fragmentiranosti, a kao odjek načina razmišljanja i pisanja romana Dostojevskog.

Lijevi zid / Left wall

14

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

Strop / Ceiling

The spatial concept of stage design is inspired by the fragmented space of memory and the split-up of the main character, analogously, to dramatizing scenario set in flashback and Ich form. The tunnel, which narrows to the depth of the stage is made up of six segments. Coming out to the proscenium, its surfaces become open and draw auditorium space, combining both space/time of the performance with the present moment. As soon as the first scene ends, deep linear space and the integrity of views decompose. The segments start to move transversely, thereby eliminating the unity of perspective. Memories appear through the detail, as a visual link between situations which we remember, thus creating a new meaning of the experienced. By changing the configuration of segments, both realistic and psychological space of drama is achieved. During the performance a series of scenes and individual perspectives are created, and they add a parallel image of subconscious and/or concurrent events to the main scene. The starting point of stage design and dramaturgical approach were Risunki – Dostoevsky’s notebooks in which he wrote in a nonlinear and graphically complex way. The pages illustrate the manner in which he created and constructed his novels – fragmented, as parts of novels written in different directions, interwoven with portraits of figures and details of the architecture of the cities in which the plots take place. The sides of the tunnel are the enlarged pages of Risunki, which interweave drawings and text written in both Cyrillic and Latin script in the manuscript. The spatial concept, together with dramatization and directing, develops the same idea of poly-perspective and fragmentation, as an echo of the manner of thinking and writing of Dostoevsky’s novel.

Desni zid / Right wall

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

3.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

2.

1.

1.

15

2.

Scenografija Zločin i Kazna

3.

4.

5.

Stage design Crime and Punishment


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Trgovačko-poslovno-stambeni kompleks Gruž, Dubrovnik autori / authors Zrinka Barišić Marenić, Krunoslav Šmit Zrinka Grosek, Nataša Ivanišević status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (5. nagrada) / Competition Project (5th prize) investitor / client Radeljević d.o.o. lokacija / location Dubrovnik

2012.

projektirano / designed

situacija / site plan

Lokacija sklopa uz Gruški zaljev, između zapadnog prilaza Dubrovniku i Starog grada, istaknula je potrebu artikuliranja novog javnog gradskog prostora i žarišta ovoga, dugo vremena zapostavljenog gradskog prostora. Novi trgovačko-poslovno-stambeni kompleks osmišljen je na lokalitetu bivše Tvornice ulja Radeljević i Javnog prometnog poduzeća Libertas. Južnu zonu dvojne parcele heterogenog karaktera određuje zona zaštićenih građevina neujednačene dispozicije (ljetnikovci Gradi-Vuić i Bassegli-Gozze, bivša upravna zgrada Tvornice ulja Radeljević te secesijska zgrada ‘Dubrovačke električne željeznice’). Inicijalna ideja o protezanju javnog prostora cijelom površinom parcele ostvaruje se terasastom strukturom koja prati rast terena te se referentno veže na kaskadne strukture dubrovačkog područja, arhitektonski interpretirani kao krovni platoi. Trgovačko-poslovni prostori smješteni su podno platoa dok su rezidencijalne zgrade izdignute, a time se cijelom površinom dobiva kontinuitet javnog prostora. Kaskadnom strukturom javnog prostora formira se gradacija frekventnosti korisnika, a time i privatnosti, od najnižeg javnog platoa uz Vukovarsku ulicu do najvišeg stambenog platoa na sjeveru. Pješačka komunikacija polaganog uspinjanja prema modelu serpentine ostvaruje se bočnim rampama, a takva putanja tangira dugu frontu izloga, opnu trgovačkih sadržaja i javnog prostora. Karakteristične skale reinterpretiraju se dvama potezima, poveznicama javnih platoa i sjevernih prometnih pravaca, te upuštenog trgovačko-poslovnog centra.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Commercial, Business and Residential Complex Gruž, Dubrovnik

A structure location along the Gruž Bay, between the west access road to Dubrovnik and the Old Town, stressed the need to design a new public urban space and a focus of this town space neglected for a long time. A new commercial, business and residential complex was designed on the site of the former Radeljević Oil Factory and Libertas Public Transport Company. The southern area on a double land parcel of heterogeneous character is defined by the zone of protected buildings of distinct use and design (Villa Gradi-Vuić and Villa BassegliGozze, the former administrative building of the Radeljević Oil Factory and the secession building of the ‘Dubrovnik Electric Railway’). The initial idea of stretching the public space across the entire surface of the parcel is realized by making a terraced structure that follows the rise of the terrain and makes a reference connection to the cascade structure of the Dubrovnik area, architecturally interpreted as roof plateaus. The commercial and business premises are located at the foot of the plateau while the residential buildings are elevated thus enabling a continuation of the public space. The cascade structure of the public space enables gradation in frequency of users and thus the privacy from the lowest public plateau along Vukovarska Street to the highest residential plateau in the north. Pedestrian slow ascent following the serpentine model is realized by lateral ramps, and such trajectory touches a long shop-window front, a membrane between the shopping facilities and the public space. The characteristic stairs are reinterpreted in two strokes, the links between public plateau and the northern traffic routes and lowered commercial and business center.

Shema / Scheme

16

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Tlocrt +21,00 m / Floor plan +21,00 m

17

0 10

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Novoformirani javni gradski prostor sadržajno je oplemenjen predloženim mini-muzejima (ishodištima tematskih ruta obilaska), referentnim zatečenim i zaštićenim zgradama (ljetnikovci, sklopovi tehničke kulture, arhitektura XX. stoljeća) koji su osmišljeni s ciljem da se rastereti stara gradska jezgra i oblikuje novo, prepoznatljivo i sadržajno bogato gradsko središte.

The newly formed public space has been substantially improved by the proposed mini museums (starting points of thematic tourist routes), referential existing and protected buildings (villas, technical culture structures, the architecture of the 20th century) that are designed with the aim to disburden the old town nucleus and form a new, recognizable and eventful city center.

Konceptualna aksonometrija / Conceptual axonometry

50m

Trgovačko-poslovno-stambeni kompleks Gruž, Dubrovnik

Commercial, business and residential complex Gruž, Dubrovnik


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Obnova i rekonstrukcija Dominikanskog samostana, Rijeka

Renewal and Reconstruction of the Dominican Convent, Rijeka

autori / authors Alan Braun Mladen Cvitanović, Tomislav Vidović suradnici / collaborators Dubravko Vlahović, Stipe Mihotić, Melita Kanceljak Marelić status projekta / project status Idejni projekt / Conceptual Design investitor / client Grad Rijeka / City of Rijeka lokacija / location Rijeka

2010/11. projektirano/ designed

18

Samostan s crkvom sv. Jeronima osniva augustinski red 1315. godine. Izvorno građen u gotičkom stilu, više je puta tijekom povijesti značajno pregrađivan. Pored riječkog Kaštela najveći je arhitektonski sklop u gradu. Nakon ukidanja samostana 1788. zgrada mijenja namjene, a nakon II. svjetskog rata preuzimaju je dominikanci koji ju i danas koriste. Današnji izgled samostana potječe iz druge polovice XIX. stoljeća, dok je crkva sv. Jeronima posljednji put značajnije pregrađena u XVIII. stoljeću, u razdoblju baroka. No, treba napomenuti da u unutrašnjosti samostana nailazimo na jedine sačuvane gotičke prostore u Rijeci – kapelu Bezgrešnog začeća i kapelu Sv. Trojstva, datirane u xv. stoljeće.

The convent with the church of St. Jerome was found by the Augustan order in 1315. It was originally built in Gothic style and has been significantly partitioned on many occasions throughout history. Apart from Kaštel near Rijeka, it is the biggest architectonic complex in the city. After the closing of the convent in 1788, the building alternately changed purposes, and after WWII it was taken over by the Dominicans who are still using it today. Today's appearance of the convent originates from the second half of the 19th century, while the last time St. Jerome’s church was partitioned to a more significant extent was in 18th century, during baroque. However, it needs to be emphasized that within the convent we find the only preserved Gothic spaces in Rijeka – the Chapel of Immaculate Conception and the Chapel of Holly Trinity, dating back from the 15th century.

Idejnim projektom predviđa se obnova i djelomična rekonstrukcija samostana koji pored vjerske dobiva i javnu namjenu, kao prostor u kojem će naručitelj, Grad Rijeka, povremeno organizirati manje kulturne programe (izložbe, predavanja, koncerte) koji odgovaraju sakralnom karakteru sklopa. Unutarnjim prostorima kao i klaustru samostana vraća se barokni karakter (stubište i otvori kata na izvornoj poziciji), dok se gotička kapela Bezgrešnog začeća obnavlja ponovnom uspostavom trobrodne koncepcije.

The conceptual design anticipates renewal and partial reconstruction of the convent which beside religious obtains public purpose as well, as space in which the client, the City of Rijeka, will occasionally organize smaller cultural programs (exhibitions, lectures, concerts) which correspond with the sacral character of the complex. The internal spaces and the cloister of the convent are being given back baroque character (staircase and openings on the floor in the original position) while the Gothic Chapel of Immaculate Conception is to be renewed by the reestablishment of three-ship concept.

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Tlocrt prizemlja, idejni projekt / Ground floor plan, conceptual design

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Tlocrt kata, idejni projekt / 1st floor plan, conceptual design

Uzdužni presjek, idejni projekt / Longitudinal section, conceptual design

19

Obnova i rekonstrukcija Dominikanskog samostana, Rijeka

renewal and reconstruction of the Dominican convent, Rijeka


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Kristina Careva Azra Suljić suradnik / collaborator Dunja Pogačić status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Grad Zagreb – Zagrebački Holding / City of Zagreb – Zagreb Holding lokacija / location Zagreb

2003. 2011.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Zgrada SD2 u naselju Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb

SD2 Building in the Settlement of Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb

Zgrada SD2 projektirana je i izvedena u sklopu društveno poticane stanogradnje (POS) na lokaciji Sopnica Jelkovec. Urbanističko rješenje cijeloga naselja, također nastalo u okviru POS-a, jasno je odredilo mnoge parametre svih stambenih zgrada u naselju, od njihove geometrije preko broja stanova određene sobnosti do ograničene cijene izgradnje. Projektantski zadatak tako je bio osmisliti sklop poštujući pritom sve zadane elemente te pokušati domisliti kako tom sklopu dati karakter kojim nadilazi slagalicu. Zadana lamela tlocrtnih je dimenzija 75 × 15 m i orijentirana je dužim stranicama prema istoku i zapadu. Visina lamele nije kontinuirana već se zgrada sastoji od tri segmenta visina 22, 12 i 16 metara. U podrumskoj etaži s kolnim prilazom na jugu trebalo je organizirati garažni prostor stanara, prizemno smjestiti stanove i lokale, dok su ostale etaže (od prvog do šestog kata) isključivo stambene. U zgradi se ukupno nalazi 50 stanova ostvarenih kroz 11 tipova, od jednosobnog do peterosobnog.

The SD2 building was designed and constructed as a part of the subsidized housing (POS) at the location of Sopnica Jelkovec. Urban development plan of the whole settlement was also made within POS, clearly determined many parameters of all residential buildings in the settlement starting with the geometry, over the number of apartments with a certain number of rooms to the limited cost of building. The task was to design such a structure while respecting all required elements and trying to find a solution for giving this structure a character that transcends a construction toy. The default plan dimensions of the slice are 75 × 15 m and its longer sides are facing east and west. The height of the slice does not rise in a continuous way, but the building is composed of three segments – 22, 12 and 16 meters high. In the basement with a driveway to the south, a garage space for tenants, flats and premises for service activity should have been organized, while the other floors (from the first to the sixth floor) are exclusively residential. The building has a total of 50 apartments of 11 types, from one to five bedrooms.

Sheme stanova / Flat scheme

20

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Zgrada SD2 u naselju Sopnica Jelkovec, zagreb

SD2 building in the settlement of Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb

Tlocrt karakterističnog kata / Characteristic floor plan

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

21


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Karakterističan 3.5 sobni stan 15 Stanova u zgradi / TYPICAL 3.5-ROOM APARTMENT 15 apartments in the building

Karakterističan je dvostrano orijentiran troiposobni stan. Spavaće sobe i pripadajuća lođa orijentirane su na istočnu, a blagovaonica i dnevni boravak s lođom na zapadnu stranu. Stan je moguće razdijeliti na tri zone: ulaznu, spavaću i dnevnu. Dnevna zona sastoji se od kuhinje, blagovaonice, dnevne sobe i lođe. Velika klizna stijena između blagovaonice i boravka dopušta njihovo povezivanje odnosno odvajanje. U spavaću zonu ulazi se preko garderobnog prostora na koji su orijentirane velika i mala spavaća soba te kupaonica. Manja lođa smještena je i u spavaćoj zoni. Ulazna zona sastoji se od ulaznog prostora, sanitarnog prostora i sobe. Ovaj dio stana moguće je koristiti kao stambeni, ali i kao prostor rada odnosno kućne radinosti.

A typical apartment faces two opposite sides and has three and half rooms. Bedrooms and associated loggia are facing east, while the dining room and living room with a loggia face west. The apartment can be divided into three zones: an entrance, a bedroom and a living room. A daytime area consists of a kitchen, dining room, living room and a loggia. A large sliding wall between the dining room and the living room enables the areas to be connected or separated. One enters into the bedroom area through a wardrobe space and from there into a master bedroom, a small bedroom and a bathroom. There is a small loggia in the bedroom area, too. The entrance area consists of an entrance hall, sanitation facilities and a room. This part of the apartment can be used as a housing unit, but also as a work area or for a home industry activity.

Ulaz / Entrance: 7,20 m2 Kupaonica / Bathroom: 4,50 m2 WC / Toilet: 2,10 m2 Hodnik / Hall: 3,60 m2 Garderoba / Cloakroom: 3,20 m2 Kuhinja / Kitchen: 6,60 m2 Blagovaonica / Dining room: 6,00 m2 Dnevni boravak / Living room: 25,20 m2 Spavaća soba za roditelje / Bedroom for the parents: 13,90 m2 Spavaća soba za dvije osobe / Bedroom for two persons: 11,30 m2 Spavaća soba za jednu osobu / Bedroom for one person: 7,20 m2 Lođia / Loggia: 7,60 m2 Spremište / Store: 1,50 m2 ukupno / total: 99,90 m2

Bijele žbukane fasade karakteriziraju horizontalni potezi metalnih zasjenjivača u kombinaciji s lođama. Zasjenjivači, koji se na mjestima otvora mogu pomicati poput harmonike, blago su odmaknuti od vanjske plohe zida čime se nagovješćuje potencijalna reljefnost inače kontinuirane pune plohe lamele. Pomicanjem zasjenjivača stanari kontroliraju osvjetljenje i eksponiranost svog stambenog prostora, ali istim djeluju i na trodimenzionalnost fasade pri čemu suzdržana ravnina može zatitrati u dnevnom ritmu korištenja.

22

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

A white plastered facade is characterized by horizontal lines of metal sunshades in combination with loggias. The sunshades, which at some places can be opened like an accordion, are slightly away from the outer surface of the wall indicating a potential relief feature of otherwise continuous solid surface lamellae. By sliding sunshades, tenants can control the lighting and exposure of their living space, but they also affect the three-dimensionality of the façade where a restrained plane may vibrate in the daily rhythm of use.

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

23

Zgrada SD2 u naselju Sopnica Jelkovec, zagreb

SD2 building in the settlement of Sopnica Jelkovec, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Vedran Duplančić suradnik / collaborator Daniel Josip Bavčević (vizualizacije/visualizations) status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada) / Competition Project (1st prize) investitor / client Tehnomobil d.o.o., Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb

2011. projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

24

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Poslovna građevina Vrbani, Zagreb

Vrbani Business Building, Zagreb

Parcela nove poslovne zgrade nalazi se na južnoj strani Zagrebačke avenije. Neposredna blizina parka direktno je utjecala na koncept arhitektonskog rješenja čija je intencija bila sinteza arhitekture i prirode. Iako je natječaj bio organiziran za rješavanje samo poslovne građevine, prvonagrađeni rad ponudio je i projekt čitave zone parka koji povezuje sve urbanističke elemente lokacije u integralnu cjelinu.

The lot where the new business building is situated is on the southern side of the Zagrebačka Avenue. The immediate vicinity of the park had a direct impact on the architectural solution concept whose intention was a synthesis of architecture and nature. Even though the competition was organised to invite solutions for the business building, the concept which was granted the 1st award has also offered a project for the entire park zone which connects all urbanistic elements of the location into an integral whole.

Park je koncipiran na mreži pješačkih staza koje uokviruju zelene otoke s drvećem po čijim rubovima su smještene klupe s pogledom na tematska polja za različite korisnike: dječje igralište, kutak za starije sa boćalištem, minigolf, te skejt park. Zeleni otoci s drvećem razbacani su po čitavoj plohi parka i nastavljaju se vertikalno nizati po etažama nove poslovne zgrade.

The park is designed on the basis of a network of footpaths around green islands with trees; along the edges of green islands there are benches with a view of thematic fields for different users: children's playground, a ‘corner’ for elderly visitors with a bowling ground, minigolf and skate-park. The green spaces with trees are scattered all over the entire area of park and keep appearing vertically on the floors of the new business building.

Planirana poslovne zgrada ima 20,000 m2 nadzemne površine koju čine 11 etaža, te 5 etaža garažnog prostora ukupne površine 17,500 m2. Zgrada je postavljena na racionalnom

The planned business building has 20,000 m2 of above-ground surface area, consisting of 11 floors, and 5 levels of the garage space of the total surface of 17,500 m2. The building is set on

2. kat / 2nd floor plan

3. kat / 3rd floor plan

4. kat / 4th floor plan

5. kat / 5th floor plan

6. kat / 6th floor plan

7. kat / 7th floor plan

8. kat / 8th floor plan

9. kat / 9th floor plan

Potkrovlje / Attic floor plan

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

25

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

armiranobetonskom konstruktivnom rasteru stupova koji nose ploče različitih tlocrtnih gabarita čime je ostvarena mogućnost promjenljive tipologije korištenja unutrašnjeg prostora: individualni i grupni rad, sastanci, dvorane, itd. Izmicanjem i smanjivanjem gabarita stropnih ploča formirani su zeleni krovovi koji se ritmično nižu po etažama zgrade, te raščlanjuju i fragmentiraju njezin volumen. Zeleni krovni vrtovi stvaraju mikroambijente u kojima se prožimaju unutrašnji i vanjski prostor, a ujedno predstavljaju osnovni oblikovni element pročelja formirajući ideju poslovne zgrade kao svojevrsnog vertikalnog parka.

a rational reinforced concrete structural grid of columns bearing the slabs of different floorplan dimensions; thus, a changeable typology of the utilisation of internal space has been made possible: individual and group work, meetings, halls etc. Rhythmically tiered green roofs on all floors of the building are formed by moving and reducing the dimensions of the ceiling panels, thus breaking down and fragmenting the building’s volume. The green roof gardens create micro-environments where internal and external space interpenetrate each other, and at the same time present a basic designing element of the facade, forming the idea of business building as a sort of vertical park.

poslovna građevina Vrbani, Zagreb

Vrbani business building, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

2 u 1, stambeno-poslovna zgrada, Velika Gorica

2 u 1, Housing and Business Building, Velika Goricaa

autori / authors Ivana Ergić Vesna Milutin, Tomislav Rukavina suradnici / collaborators Damir Mance, Željka Vrček, Marija Babojelić status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Puteko d.o.o. lokacija / location Velika Gorica

2006. 2009.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

situacija / site plan

Zgrada se nalazi na ulazu u Veliku Goricu, na mjestu preklopa kontradiktornih kontekstualnih odrednica: ruralne stambene matrice i agrarne parcelacije s jedne strane te gradotvornih karakteristika, jake infrastrukturne mreže i velikog mjerila zgrada različitih namjena s druge strane. Uz to, niz zahtjevnih urbanih pravila dodatno pospješuje kakofoniju ulaznih parametara. Na preizduženoj parceli u skladu s programskim smjernicama, kuća je razdvojena na dvije. Mala kuća pozicionirana uz brzu prometnicu nastala po uzoru na robne kuće prošlog stoljeća, samo glumi da je velika zbog karaktera svijetlećeg repera na početku grada. Druga kuća ne želi biti velika, makar to zapravo jest. Negiranje njezine golemosti provodi se programski, kroz strukturu različitih profila korisnika i različitih tipova stanova (jednoetažnih ili višeetažnih, malih samačkih ili velikih obiteljskih) i formalno (usitnjavanjem plohe pročelja plastičnim ili grafičkim elementima). Praznina koja nastaje između kuća je tampon zona, ali ujedno i javni prostor.

The building is positioned at the entrance of Velika Gorica, on a spot where contradictory contextual determinants overlap: the rural housing matrix and agrarian parcelization on one hand and town-building, strong infrastructure network and considerable quota of buildings of similar purpose on the other. Also, a series of demanding urban rules additionally intensifies the cacophony of the entry parameters. On the extremely elongated plot, in accordance with the program guidelines, the house separated into two. The small house, positioned along the fast traffic route, built on the model of department stores of the previous century, only pretends to be big because of the character of the illuminating bench mark at the entrance of the town. The other house does not want to be big, although it actually is. The negating of its largeness is rendered systematically, through the structure of various profiles of users and differing types of apartments (one story or multi story apartments, small apartments for singles or big family ones) as well as formally (by fragmentation of the facade plane with plastic and graphic elements). The void emerging between the houses is a buffer area, but at the same time it is a public space.

0 1m

Tlocrti, poslovni dio / Floor plans, business part

Tlocrti, stambeni dio / Floor plans, housing part

26

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveuÄ?iliĹĄte u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

27

2 u 1, stambeno-poslovna zgrada, Velika Gorica

2 u 1, housing and business building, Velika Gorica


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions

Pročelje, stambeni dio / Facade, housing part

28


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

2 u 1, stambeno-poslovna zgrada, Velika Gorica

2 u 1, housing and business building, Velika Gorica

Pročelje, poslovni dio / Facade, business part

29


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Sanja Filep, Vesna Mikić suradnici / collaborators Martina Zeljko, Matija Cvetković, Dušan Tomaš (vizualizacije/visualizations) status projekta / project status Natječajni rad / Competition Project investitor / client Novi savski toranj d.o.o. lokacija / location Zagreb

2013. projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

0

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Poslovni toranj VukovarskaSavska, Zagreb

Business Tower VukovarskaSavska, Zagreb

Poslovni kompleks nalazi se na prostoru omeđenom ulicama Grada Vukovara, Savskom i željezničkom prugom. S obzirom na genezu zadana urbanistička točka značajna je za urbani razvoj Zagreba. Neposrednu kontaktnu zonu čine planirana prometnica uz željeznički kolosijek sa zapadne strane i javna zelena površina sa sjeverne strane, na što se kompleks poslovne građevine konceptualno veže. Predloženo rješenje predviđa spojni most zgrade i novopredložene željezničke postaje u osovini nebodera, na visini mezanina odnosno postojeće pruge. Zelenim ‘jezicima’, linearnim prodorima, atrijima i potpuno ozelenjenim krovom kompleks poslovne građevine potpuno je integriran sa planiranim javnim parkom sa sjeverne strane obuhvata. Kompleks je tretiran kao jedno skulpturalno tijelo, jer njegova visina, zbog urbanističkih ograničenih uvjeta, zahtijeva projekt ‘antinebodera’. Cijelo tijelo je kompaktno i sastoji se od 3 primarne cjeline: horizontalnog volumena ( u čijim se podzemnim etažama smještaju parkirališta, servis, skladišta) te vertikalni toranj, koji preko vezivnog elementa iz horizontale prelazi u vertikalu. Na taj način postignuta je dinamičnost i individualnost u kontekstu drugih zagrebačkih nebodera.

The business complex is positioned on the space bordered by the streets Grada Vukovara, Savska and the railway track. Taking into consideration the genesis, the default urbanistic point is significant for the urban development of Zagreb. The immediate contact zone is consisted of the planned traffic route along the rail track on the west side, public green surface on the north side, to which this business construction complex relates conceptually. The suggested solution anticipates connecting bridge between the building and the newly proposed railway station in the axis of the skyscraper, positioned on the same height as the mezzanine i.e. the existing railway track. The business construction complex is entirely integrated with the planned public park on the northern side of the comprised area through green ‘tongues’, linear breaches, atrium and roof completely covered in green surfaces. The complex has been treated as a sculptural body because its height, due to urbanistically limited conditions, requires a ‘anti-skyscraper’ project. The entire body is compact and consists of three primary integers: horizontal volume (its underground floors situate parking lots, service, and warehouses) and vertical tower which through the binding element transfers from horizontal into vertical. In that manner, dynamicity and individuality was achieved within the context of other Zagreb skyscrapers.

25m

Tlocrt prizemlja /Ground floor plan

30

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

0

12.5m

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Karakteristični tlocrti tornja / Characteristic tower floor plans

0

31

Poslovni toranj Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

12.5m

Business tower Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Kompleks tornja jasno komunicira sa obnovljivom energijom sunca, vode, čistoće održivosti, energetske efikasnosti, otvorenim rekreacijskim prostorima i inovativnom tehnologijom. Svi prirodni resursi u zajedničkom su međudjelovanju u smjeru stvaranja čistog i kreativnog okruženja. Projekt je arhitektonska i ekološka ikona u relaciji sa realiziranim socijalnim i ekološkim kvalitetama novog doba. Zaposlenici, stanari (hotelsko-apartmanska etaža) i posjetitelji u takvom okruženju osjećaju dodane vrijednosti ambijenta. Upravo oni traže inspirativnu okolinu koja potiče na održiva rješenja, s ciljem poticanja kreativnosti u radnom ambijentu.

The complex of the tower clearly communicates with renewable energy of the Sun, water, cleanness, sustainability, energetic efficiency, open recreational spaces and innovative technology. All natural resources are in mutual interaction in the direction of creation of pure and creative environment. The project is architectonic and ecologic icon in relation to the realized social and ecologic qualities of the new era. The employees, the inhabitants (on the hotel-apartment floor) and the visitors feel in such environment the added values of the ambient. They are the ones who seek an inspirational environment that incites to sustainable solutions, all with the purpose of inciting creativity in the working ambiance.

Stambeni prostori su za iznajmljivanje. Stalna promjena očituje se i u izmjeni korisnika što dodatno ukazuje na mobilnost koja se očituje u suvremenom svijetu. Zato su stanovi kao i poslovni prostori u horizontalnom tijelu, predviđeni za kratkoročno iznajmljivanje kako bi zadržali svježu energiju novih korisnika i inspirativno okruženje, da bi se osigurala ekonomičnost predloženog rješenja. Poslovni prostori za iznajmljivanje osmišljeni su u nekoliko principa: omogućuju cirkulaciju energije, znanja i svježih ideja što je važan čimbenik uspješnog razvoja tehnologije i kompetitivnosti.

The housing spaces are for rental. The permanent change is reflected in the alteration of users which additionally points out to the mobility of the contemporary world. That is why the apartments, as well as the business facilities in the horizontal body, are anticipated for short-term rental – in order to preserve the fresh energy of the new users and inspirational environment that is, to ensure economic costeffectiveness of the proposed solution. The business facilities are also for rental and are designed on basis on several principles: they enable circulation of energy, knowledge and fresh ideas in the high technology sector, which is an important factor of successful development of technology and competitiveness.

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

32

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Sjeverno i južno pročelje / North and south facade

0

33

Poslovni toranj Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

12.5m

Business tower Vukovarska-Savska, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Restoran studentskog kampusa, Varaždin

University Campus Restaurant, Varaždin

autor / author Igor Franić suradnici / collaborators Zorana Debeljuh, Tajana Derenčinović Jelčić, Andreja Dodig, Sonja Franić, Petar Reić, Simona Sović Štos status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (3. nagrada) / Competition Project (3rd prize) investitor / client Sveučilište u Zagrebu / University of Zagreb lokacija / location Varaždin

2012. projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

0 10 20 30

34

Nova građevina studentskog restorana po svojoj je osnovnoj strukturi paviljonski objekt. Jednoobrazna je sa svih strana i centralno naglašena. Svojom naglašenom dimenzijom u odnosu na veličinu predviđene parcele uspostavlja odnose rubnim doticanjima. Nalazi se na rubu parcele, uz ulicu, te više pripada gradu i prometnici. Prema studentskom parku okrenuta je ulazom i horizontalnošću formira trg, zelenu zonu glavnog ulaza. Paviljon se približio postojećoj građevini i na taj način formira uzak prolaz prema stražnjem dijelu kampusa. Svojom dimenzijom, bez obzira na to što je formiran kao paviljon, novi restoran na neki se način pretvara u urbani element što rubno razrješava odnos prema zatečenom ambijentu. Najvažniji je dio strukture građevine restorana njegov obodni pojas. Izmjenom punih elemenata i uvučenih trijemova jasnih dimenzija formira se odnos prema okolini. Na ovakav način ostvaruje se aktivan prostor koji pripada i građevini i javnom prostoru. To je zona boravka, susreta, objedovanja i zabave. Unutar zatvorenih jedinica ostvaruju se prostori koncentracije, mogućeg mirnog objeda uz knjigu i odmor od svakodnevne vreve studentskog života; takav je mir tijekom studentskih dana ponekad prijeko potreban.

In its basic structure, the new building of the student restaurant is a pavilion – with all sides being uniform, and an emphasized central part. With its prominent dimensions in relation to the size of allocated lot, it establishes relations through marginal contacts. It is positioned on the edge of the lot, along the street, and thus, ‘belongs’ more to the city and the road. Its entrance faces the student park; by its horizontal form it creates a square, a green area of the main entrance. The pavilion is close to the existing building, and thus, a narrow passage is being formed towards the rear of the campus. Regardless of the fact that it is formed as a pavilion, the size of the new restaurant, in a way, turns it into an urban element that marginally resolves the relationship to the existing environment. The most important part of the structure of the restaurant building is its peripheral area. The alternation of full elements and recessed porches of clear dimensions forms a relationship to the environment. In this way, an active space is created which belongs both the building and public space. This is a zone to stay, meet, have meals and fun. Within the closed units, there are areas for concentrating, a possible quiet meal with a book on the table and the rest from a hive of activity of everyday student life; such tranquillity is sometimes most necessary in students' lives.

50m

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

35

Restoran studentskog kampusa, Varaždin

University campus restaurant, Varaždin


facta architectonica 2

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Tlocrt krova / Roof plan

0

2

4

6

10m

Središnji je prostor podijeljen na zonu samoposlužnog restorana, restorana a la carte i komfornu, u potpunosti funkcionalno organiziranu kuhinju. Dodatni element koji građevini daje jedinstvenost horizontalni je rez u visini oka kod sjedenja. Na taj način građevina nije podijeljena na gornju i donju ploču sa zidovima između. Uz donju plohu jasno su povezani zidovi do visine 120 cm, a sastavni su dio stropne ploče nosive grede i ostale vertikalne pregrade više od 150 cm. Ovakvim horizontalnim potezom građevina se doima kao da je u pomaku, kao da se uspostavlja novi red, mirnoća koja se osjeti tek kad se sjedne.

The central space is divided into the areas of self-service restaurant, à la carte restaurant and a comfortable, fully functional kitchen. An additional element which makes the building unique is a horizontal cut at eye level when one is in a seated position. In this way, the building is not divided into an upper and lower part with walls in between. Along the bottom plane walls up to the height of 120 cm are clearly connected, and load-bearing beams and other vertical partitions higher than 150 cm are an integral part of the ceiling panel. This horizontal line makes the building look as if it were slightly shifted, as if a new order and tranquility were established, a tranquillity that one feels only when seated.

Vlastita je prostorna struktura prepoznatljiva, jednoobrazna sa svih strana, te je dosljedno provedena kroz konstruktivni sustav. Vremenske matrice i povijest kao smjenjivanje senzibiliteta, prostorne, tehnološke i sociopolitičke datosti lokacije, mogućnosti prilagodbe novim uvjetima, i još mnogi parametri, određuju silnice formiranja objekta. Vojarna postaje studentski kampus kao novo regrutiranje demokratskih težnji.

The building’s own spatial structure is recognizable; it is uniform on all sides and consistently implemented through the construction system. Temporal matrices and history in terms of alternation of sensibility, spatial, technological and socio-political givens of the location, possibilities of adjustment to new requirements and many other parameters, determine the forces forming the object. The barracks become a student campus – as a new recruitment of democratic aspirations.

Dobar studentski život sastoji se od manje-više rutiniranog kruga radnji i prostora. Osnovno je svojstvo takvog načina intenzivnost i privremenost. Ideja koherentnosti u privremenom boravištu je anakronizam, kanonizacija. Postojeći objekt strogošću i simetrijom diktira oblikovanje ‘služećih’ prostora. U zadanom okviru parcele ostvaruju se folies različitih namjena. Restoran je otvoren objekt poruka sa širokom lepezom inerpretativnih mogućnosti i iskazuje mnoge aspekte i rezonance multitaskinga, ne prestajući nikad biti ono što jest i što mu je osnovna namjena. Restoran je najvažnija socijalna komponenta u kampusu. Dimenzijama je najveći zajednički prostor, najvažnije mjesto susreta i prerasta puko zadovoljavanje egzistencijalne potrebe.

36

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

A good student life consists of a more or less routine circle of activities and familiar space. The basic feature of such a way of life is intensity and temporariness. The idea of coherence in a temporary place of residence is an anachronism, canonization. The strictness and symmetry of the existing building dictates the forming of ‘service’ spaces. In the given frame of the lot, the follies of various purposes are realized. The restaurant is an open object of messages, offering a wide range of interpretative possibilities; in addition, it demonstrates many aspects and resonances of multitasking, without ceasing to be what it is and what its basic purpose is. The restaurant is the most important social component in the campus. Its

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Pročelje je staklena membrana koja odjeljuje unutrašnji od vanjskog prostora, s različitim odnosima, ovisno o okolnom prostoru; prema ulici to je izlog uz šetnicu, dok s druge strane to je privatan dvorišni prostor. Translatirana livada krova, ortogonalna izohipsa postaje teren i gledalište. Streha naglašava karakter dnevnog boravka, verande. Slojevi prijelaza od unutra prema vani ili obratno, višestruki su, ovisno o mikrolokaciji. Lom u presjeku osviještena je promjena rakursa – sjedenjem (što je uobičajeni položaj) prostor se otvara, pomiče se suptilna granica, steinerovski odnos tijela u prostoru. Dinamika je ostvarena izmjenom ekstrovertirane staklene stijene i ‘zatvorenih’ kubusa, koji udomljuju drugačije načine blagovanja – muziku, internet, tišinu ili samo izolaciju, promjenu boje i atmosfere.

size makes it the largest common area, the most important meeting place; it exceeds the mere satisfaction of an existential need. The façade is a glass membrane which separates internal from external space, forming different relations, depending on the surrounding space; it is a shop window facing the street along the walkway; on the opposite side, it is a private courtyard space. A transferred meadow of the roof, orthogonal isoline, becomes a field and auditorium. The eaves emphasise the character of a living room, veranda. Layers of transition from inside towards outside, or vice versa, are multiple, depending on the micro-location. The break in the intersection is a conscious change of the angle of view – when one is seated (which is a usual position) the space opens up, a subtle borderline moves – the Steiner relationship of a body in space. The dynamics is achieved by alternating extroverted glass wall and ‘closed’ cubes, which accommodate different ways of eating a meal – music, Internet, silence, or just isolation, a change in colour and atmosphere.

Studentski dom s pratećim sadržajima smješten je u dvorišnom dijelu, a na sjeveru je otvoren prema prometnici. S obzirom na zatečenu dimenziju, svi novi smještajni kapaciteti organizirani su u jedinstvenom objektu. Otvorenost forme omogućuje jasnu organizaciju, ali i racionalnost dvotrakta koji u ravnim i zaobljenim otklonima ostvaruje prateće sadržaje. Urbana depresija ostvaruje kontakt i s parkirališnim prostorom te formira zajednički introvertirani trg buduće studentske aktivnosti.

The student dormitory with accompanying facilities is situated in the courtyard area; on the north side it opens up towards the road. In view of its existing dimensions, all new accommodation capacities are organised in a single building. The openness of the form enables clear organisation, but also the rationality of two wings – with straight and rounded deviations – for the accompanying facilities. A sunken section of the urban area establishes contact with the parking lot, too, and forms a common introverted square for future student activities.

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2

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Karakteristični presjek / Characteristic section

Pročelje / Facade

37

Restoran studentskog kampusa, Varaždin

University campus restaurant, Varaždin


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Igor Franić suradnici / collaborators Tajana Derenčinović Jelčić, Andreja Dodig, Sonja Franić, Petar Reić, Simona Sović Štos, Hrvoje Turkulin, Zorana Zdjelar status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada) / Competition Project (1st prize) investitor / client Grad Rijeka/ City of Rijeka lokacija / location Rijeka

2012. projektirano/ designed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Trg pul Vele crikve, Rijeka

(Square) At the Big Church, Rijeka

Gradeći, puneći prostor, krojeći grad prema potrebama, kroz duže vremensko razdoblje, gdje se u hodu nešto proširuje, prepravlja, dodaje, u pravilu se dogode prostorni restlovi, žmirje, prednost punog nad praznim, ali baš kao i u pričama o relikvijama, ruka sv. Marcijana ostaje pokazateljem i u vrednovanju zajednice važniji dio dvojstva. Tako i ovaj trg, intiman po dimenzijama, dinamičan kretanjem i nepravilnošću, predstavlja gotovo interijerski, teatarski, javni dnevni boravak kvarta u kojem se superpozicijom elemenata: drva, kamena, stakla i metala iščitavaju i postavljaju trajektorije vrednovanja povijesti. ‘Nadrealistički’ kosi zvonik pojačava dramatiku. Novi urbani prostor formiran je ne samo pročeljima zgrada i ulicama, koji ga okružuju, nego i pažljivim tretiranjem horizontale, poštujući zatečene vrijednosti, a izborom materijala ‘omekšan’ je i jedinstven u svojoj složenosti. Kao kalafati urbane promjene, otvaramo arheološke slojeve i dodajemo nova čitanja, sistemom punog i praznog, od prove do krme gradeći jedinstvenim sistemom, ali pritom suptilno varirajući temu prema specifičnostima i potrebama mikrolokacije. Na ‘morskoj’ strani alteracija je u metalu, na ‘gradskoj’ u kamenu. Oprema je napravljena kao varijacija, nenametljivim pomakom u elevaciji. Navigare necesse est. Ploviti se mora. Piazza pia mater, effectus, accumulare.

Building, filling up the space, tailoring the city to suit its needs over a long period of time, when something is expanded, repaired, added along the way, results in, as a rule, remnants of space, residue, the precedence of the full over the empty; but just as in the stories about relics, the hand of St. Marcian remains an indicator, and a more important part of the dichotomy in the valorisation by the community. Thus, this square – an intimate space in terms of its dimensions, and dynamic in terms of its irregularity and movement – presents an almost interior space, a theatrical, public living room of the neighbourhood, where the superposition of elements – wood, stone, glass and metal – reveals and sets trajectories for historical evaluation. The ‘surrealist’ leaning belfry intensifies the dramatic effect. The new urban space is formed not just by the facades of buildings and the surrounding streets, but also by a careful treatment of the horizontal plane and respect for the existing values; through the selection of materials it is ‘softened’ and made unique in its complexity. As artisans of urban change, we open archaeological layers and add new readings, looking into the full and the empty, from stem to stern, building in a unique manner, but, in doing so, subtly varying the topic according to the specific features and needs of the micro-location. On the side facing the sea, the alteration is in metal, on the side facing the city, it is in stone. The equipment is designed as a variation, with a subtle shift in elevation. Navigare necesse est. To sail is necessary. Piazza pia mater, effectus, accumulare.

Situacija / Site plan

38

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Trg pul Vele crikve, rijeka

(Square) At the Big church, Rijeka

Detalji / Details

39


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Fakultet organizacije i informatike s pratećim sadržajima u Varaždinu

Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin, with Accompanying Facilities

autori / authors Tin Sven Franić, Vanja Rister suradnici / collaborators Paula Žinić, Mateja Markešić, Andrea Šimić, Saša Relić status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada) / Competition Project (1st prize) investitor / client Sveučilište u Zagrebu / University of Zagreb lokacija / location Varaždin

2013. projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

Projektantski pristup sagledava hotel i fakultet kao nove elemente u središnjem gradskom tkivu koji su harmonizirani međusobno ali i sa siluetom grada. Urbanost se stimulira projektiranjem novog trga koji postaje nov gradski fokus i priključak na pješačku i biciklističku urbanu mrežu. Programski, oko trga su smješteni sadržaji od šire društvene važnosti poput velike djeljive predavaonice, knjižnice i hotelskog restorana dostupnog i široj publici. Novouspostavljena pješačko-biciklistička komunikacija na južnom obodu u posebnom je režimu: kolni promet rezerviran je za goste hotela, opskrbu hotela i interventna vozila. Ta nova komunikacija s novim fakultetskim trgom i postojećim (proširenim) pješačkim putom iz Preradovićeve tvori novu urbanu matricu (oblika Z) koja spaja Preradovićevu i Ulicu Petra Krešimira. Krećući se tom novom ‘alejom’ doživljavamo prostorne sekvence: uređeni perivoj Oršić, fakultetski trg s vodoskocima, dvorište predavaonica i studentske kafeterije.

The project design approaches the buildings of hotel and faculty as new elements in the central urban fabric - the elements in mutual harmony, and in harmony with the silhouette of the city. The project urban quality is stimulated by designing a new square which will become a new city focal point and will be linked with the pedestrian and cycling urban network. Facilities of general public importance are located around the square, such as the large lecture hall (that may be partitioned), library, and hotel restaurant which is open to general public as well. The newly-established pedestriancycling communication on the southern rim has a special regime: vehicular traffic is reserved for hotel guests, hotel supply vehicles and emergency vehicles. This new communication with the new faculty square and the existing (extended) pedestrian route from Preradovićeva Str. creates a new urban matrix (in the shape of Z), which connects Preradovićeva Str. and Petar Krešimir Str. Walking down this new ‘alley’, we experience spatial sequences: the well-tended Oršić Park area, the faculty square with fountains, the courtyard of the lecture halls and student cafeteria... The project further proposes the

Tlocrt prizemlja /Ground floor plan

40

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

U budućnosti se predlaže i produženje nove središnje osi kroz vrtove kako bi grad dobio novo šetalište čiji dio bi mogao postati središnji prostor Fakulteta. Čestice u produžetku prema istoku imaju međe točno na toj zamišljenoj osi, a sretna je okolnost i to da je čestica na kraju novozamišljene osi (na Ulici Julija Merlića) neizgrađena. Projekt predviđa i uspostavljanje nove osi od zapada prema istoku koja prolazi kroz središnji prostor Fakulteta. Nova os također ima logiku sekvenci ambijenata, a u skladu sa strukturom predloženog idejnog rješenja zgrade Fakulteta.

future extension of the new central axis through the gardens in order to create a new city promenade, a part of which could become the central faculty area. The boundaries of adjoining lots toward the east are exactly on that imaginary axis; another fortunate circumstance is that the lot at the end of the newly-imagined axis (in Julije Merlić Str.) is still not developed. The project also envisions the establishment of a new axis from the west towards the east which passes through the central area of the faculty. The new axis also follows the logic of the ambience sequences, in accordance with the structure of the proposed preliminary design for the faculty building.

Tlocrt prvoga kata / 1st floor plan

41

Fakultet organizacije i informatike s pratećim sadržajima u Varaždinu

Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin, with accompanying facilities


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Koncept zgrade Fakulteta temelji se na spajanju različitih funkcionalnih elemenata – traktova oko te nove zajedničke osi. Pojedini elementi odjeljivi su i mogu funkcionirati odvojeno. Takva kompozicija sklopa relativno je razvedena i niska, a radi uklapanja u širu situaciju i sliku grada. Svaki trakt koncentriran je i prilagođen njegovoj dominantnoj funkciji. Glavni ulaz u zgradu Fakulteta nalazi se na zapadnoj strani (s trga), a sekundarni na istoku, uz parkirališta za automobile i bicikle. Uz ova dva predviđaju se i dva dodatna ulaza: s trga u veliku dvoranu i knjižnicu (kada se one koriste autonomno, izvan radnog vremena Fakulteta). Ulazi afirmiraju longitudinalni i dvoetažni reprezentativni komunikacijski prostor s galerijama – ‘kopču’. ‘Kopča’ je prostor koji integrira sve funkcionalne elemente Fakulteta. Na trgu se pojavljuje kao urbani element – visoka nadstrešnica koja se pretapa u unutrašnji dvoetažni prostor knjižnice i ulazni prostor, a takva oblikovna logika zadržana je i na istočnom ulazu. U prizemlju je to vibrantna komunikacija među sadržajima kao što su referada, razne predavaonice i knjižnica, dok je galerijska komunikacija mirnija i tiša. Galerija je okomito povezana s prizemljem nizom od tri reprezentativna stubišta. U sklopu tog središnjeg prostora smješteni su zajednički prostori – studentska organizacija i kafeterija. Prostor je svijetao i ozelenjen, sa staklenim stijenama prema pripadajućim vanjskim prostorima na čestici Fakulteta.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

The faculty building concept is based on the joining of diverse functional elements – wings – around the new common axis. Individual elements are dissociable and may function as separate units. Such a composition of the whole is relatively outspread and low in order to better fit into the environment and the image of the city. Each wing is compact and adapted to its predominant function. The main entrance to the faculty building from the square is on the west side, and the secondary entrance is on the east, next to the vehicle and bicycle parking areas. In addition to these two entrances, another two entrances have been planned: both from the square - to the large hall and library (when they are not used as autonomous facilities, outside the faculty working hours). The entrances underline longitudinal, two-storey representative space of communication with galleries – a ‘buckle’. The ‘buckle’ is the area integrating all functional elements of the faculty. It is seen from the square as an urban element – the high eaves which blend into the internal two-storey area of the library and the entrance area; the same design logic has been repeated at the east entrance. The ground floor is a vibrant zone of communication between the facilities such as the student administration office, various lecture halls and library, whereas the communication with the gallery area is more tranquil, quieter. The gallery is vertically connected with the ground floor by a series of three representative stairways. Common areas – the student organization area and cafeteria are also located within this central area. It is a bright space with greenery, with glass walls facing the exterior area of the faculty lot.

Zapadno pročelje / West facade

Presjek zapadnog pročelja / West facade section

42

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Fakultet organizacije i informatike s pratećim sadržajima u Varaždinu

Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin, with accompanying facilities

Južno pročelje / South facade

Presjek južnog pročelja / South facade section

43


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Teufik Galijašević suradnik / collaborator Željko Suknaić status projekta / project status Konceptualni projekt / Conceptual design investitor / client Privatni / Private lokacija / location Zagreb

2013. projektirano/ designed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Kuća M, Zagreb

House M, Zagreb

Zgrada stambene namjene sastoji se od dvije stambene jedinice s odvojenim ulazima, samostojeća je i orijentirana dužom stranom sjeveroistok-jugozapad. Takvom postavom volumena u prostoru postignuta je transparentnost jugoistočnog pročelja i omogućeno je vizualno povezivanje interijera s otvorenom zonom planiranih zelenih površina. Pristupa joj se sa sjeveroistočne strane. Zgradu čine dva – u funkcionalnom i oblikovnom tretmanu – različita volumena: zatvoreniji sjeverozapadni s prostorima sanitarija i komunikacija, te potpuno otvoreni jugoistočni s prostorijama za boravak, rad i odmor. U tako postavljenoj organizaciji jasno se čitaju zone organizacije stana, koje se od ulaza i prostora sanitarija preko uzdužne komunikacije razvijaju do dnevnog boravka, radnog prostora, blagovaonice i kuhinje, odnosno soba na katu. Sve etaže povezane su okomitom komunikacijom stubišta i lifta.

situacija / site plan

Kontakt stana prema vanjskom prostoru ostvaruje se preko kontinuiranih ostakljenih fasadnih stijena, čime je ostvarena jednoobraznost strukture i dostatna fleksibilnost prostora. Arhitektonska interpretacija odlikuje se jednostavnošću s jasno naglašenom strukturom objekta. Konstruktivna visina nadzemnih etaža i podruma je 300 cm. Krov je riješen kao ravan i neprohodan.

44

The residential building consists of two residential units with separate entrances; the building is detached and its longer side has a northeast-southwest orientation. The placement of the building volume in space in this way has resulted in transparency of the south-east facade and has provided a visual connection between the interior and an open zone of the planned green surfaces. The access to the house is on the northeast side. The building consists of – in terms of function and design – two different volumes: the more closed north-western one with areas of sanitation facilities and communication, and the completely open south-eastern one with living rooms, working spaces and bedrooms. Such spatial organization makes the apartment zones easy to follow - from the entrance and the sanitation facilities area, via longitudinal communication area, to the living room, working room, dining room and kitchen, and bedrooms on the first floor. The levels are connected vertically by the stairway and elevator. The apartment makes contact with the exterior space through continuous glass façade walls; in this way, uniformity of structure and sufficient flexibility of space has been achieved. Architectural interpretation is distinguished by its simplicity, with clearly emphasised structure of the building. The construction height of the above-ground floors and basement is 300 cm. The roof is designed as flat and non-passable.

Zapadno pročelje / West facade

Sjeverno pročelje / North facade

Istočno pročelje / East facade

Južno pročelje / South facade

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Tlocrt prizemlja /Ground floor plan

Tlocrt prvoga kata / 1st floor plan

Aksonometrijski prikazi / Axonometry

45

Kuća M, Zagreb

house M, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Miljenko Haiman status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Mladinsko klimatsko zdravilišče Rakitna, Slovenija / Public Health Institution Youth-air Spa Rakitna, Slovenia

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Jahalnica – manjež, Rakitna, kod Ljubljane, Slovenija

Manège Timber Construction in Rakitna near Ljubljana, Slovenia

Radi se o trozglobnom okvirnom sustavu sa zategom. Konstrukcija je izvedena od ljepljenog lameliranog drva raspona 17,4 m. Neobično kosa krovna ploha projektirana je zbog nadmorske visine od oko 800 m i mogućnosti velikog opterećenja snijegom. Prikaz izvedene konstrukcije u prvoj je fazi bez dodatnog zatvorenog dijela objekta koji investitor namjerava naknadno izvesti unutar prostora, izvorno ‘jahalnice’.

It is a three-hinged frame system with a tie rod. The structure is made ​of glued laminated timber girder with the span width of 17,4 m. The unusually slant roof plane is designed because of the altitude of about 800 m and possible heavy snow loads. The display of the structure in the first phase is without additional closed facility that the investor intends to subsequently build within the space that was originally a ‘riding hall’.

lokacija / location Rakitna, Slovenija

2011. dovršeno / completed

Shema konstrukcije / Structural scheme

46

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

jahalnica – manjež, Rakitna, kod Ljubljane, Slovenija

Manège timber construction in Rakitna near Ljubljana, Slovenia

Detalj / Detail

47


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Tihomir Jukić Daniela Angelina Jelinčić, Željko Kovačić, Feđa Vukić suradnici / collaborators Marijana Burčul, Lana Krpina, Nikša Laušin (vizualizacija, 3D / Visualization, 3d) status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (3. nagrada) / Competition Project (3rd prize) investitor / client Republika Hrvatska, Ministarstvo vanjskih i europskih poslova / Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs lokacija / location Yeosu, Korea

2012.

projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinarno idejno rješenje nastupa Republike Hrvatske na međunarodnoj izložbi Expo 2012, Yeosu, Koreja

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of the Presentation of the Republic of Croatia on the International Exhibition Expo 2012, Yeosu, Korea

Nastup Republike Hrvatske na međunarodnoj izložbi Expo 2012, zamišljen je kao vizualizacija stvarnosti, istine, a bez posebnih montažnih zahvata u ono što život uz more doista jest u Hrvatskoj danas, upravo sada. Zato je moto i naziv nastupa Croatia Now, što komunikacijski sugerira nepatvorenu stvarnu činjenicu koja se događa u ovom trenutku. S obzirom na takav originalni karakter komunikacijske intervencije u kojem je zahvat u postojeću informaciju sveden na minimum, vizualni identitet nastupa Hrvatske temelji se na iskustvima pop arta: ‘Croatia’ je ispisana naglašenim slovima, a ‘Now’ crvenima poput linija na elektrokardiogramu. Koncepcija nastupa Hrvatske na EXPO-u 2012 zasniva se na prikazivanju realnih slika u stvarnom vremenu s desetak lokacija na obali Jadrana. Na njima su postavljene kamere koje telekomunikacijskom tehnologijom odašilju slike u hrvatski paviljon EXPO-a u Koreji. U paviljonu se slika sa stvarnih lokacija i u stvarnom vremenu prikazuje na glavnom ekranu, a uz stvarni zvuk i povremeno puštanje u prostor mirisa svojstvenih lokaciji.

The presentation of the Republic of Croatia at the international exhibition Expo 2012 has been envisioned as visualization of reality, truth, and without particular mounting interventions into which life by the seaside really represents in Croatia, as we speak... Hence the motto and the title of the presentation is Croatia Now, which in terms of communication suggests authentic real fact of life happening in this very moment. Considering the such original character of the communication intervention in which the grip in the existing information was reduced to minimum, the visual identity of Croatia’s presentation is based on the experiences of pop art: ‘Croatia’ is written in accentuated letters, and ‘Now’ in red letters resembling lines on electrocardiogram. The concept of Croatia’s presentation at EXPO 2012 is based on displaying realistic images in real time from some ten locations on the Adriatic coast. Cameras have been put on these locations, which via telecommunication technology send images to the Croatian pavilion of EXPO in Korea. In the pavilion images from real locations and in real time are shown on the main screen, with the actual sounds from those locations and with occasional discharge of scents typical for the particular location.

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

48

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

49

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinarno idejno rješenje nastupa Republike Hrvatske na međunarodnoj izložbi Expo 2012, Yeosu, Koreja

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of the Presentation of the Republic of Croatia on the International Exhibition Expo 2012, Yeosu, Korea


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Osim na velikom ekranu slike se, uz oznaku trenutne lokacije na Googleovoj karti i prikaz hrvatskog i lokalnog korejskog vremena, emitiraju i na manjem ekranu.

Apart from being displayed on a big screen, with designation of the current location on Google’s map and display of both Croatian and Korean local time, the images are also shown on a smaller screen.

Slike sa stvarnih lokacija izmjenjuju se na velikom ekranu svakih pedesetak sekundi što omogućuje pomalo meditativan doživljaj konkretnog prostora u konkretnom vremenu. Uz glavnu sliku postoje i manji ekrani na kojima se u ritmu izmjene glavne slike s lokacije izmjenjuju slike koje dodatno opisuju prirodne ljepote, kulturu, svjetonazor, proizvode i životne stilove vezane uz lokaciju. Za razliku od slike na glavnom ekranu ovdje se često emitiraju i umjetničke fotografije na kojima je bolje kadriran i zaustavljen trenutak. Naglasak je na slici, a svi prikazani proizvodi mogu se kupiti u trgovini kao suveniri. Iako je naglasak na vizualnom doživljaju, idejno rješenje hrvatskog nastupa podrazumijeva olfaktivne, taktilne i auditivne osjete kako bi se pojačao doživljaj Hrvatske u danom trenutku. Svi oni prate vizualne prikaze i na glavnom velikom i na malim ekranima. Olfaktivni osjeti temeljit će se na prirodnim mirisima koji predstavljaju ekološki očuvan hrvatski krajolik i tradicijske običaje. Taktilno će se doživjeti u rješenju poda paviljona kojim se simulira hod po plitkoj vodi odnosno žalu, a što istovremeno izaziva i auditivne osjete. Vodene kocke na kojima posjetitelji mogu sjediti, također simuliraju ‘boravak’ na morskoj površini. Auditivni osjeti prate sliku s ekrana (šum valova, cvrčanje cvrčaka, žamor splitskog pazara, kulturne izvedbe). U podlozi stvarnog zvuka čuje se i zvuk violončela koji, prema kraju ciklusa izmjene od petnaest slika sa stvarne lokacije, postaje sve glasniji. U posebno skladanoj kompoziciji koju izvode 2Cellos (Luka Šulić i Stjepan Hauser) cijeli ciklus kulminira u crescendu i završava se, nakon čega se prikazuje prazan ekran. S obzirom na vremensku razliku, dnevni program u paviljonu strukturno je podijeljen na dva dijela: Dreamtime i Realtime. U prvom dijelu, u Dreamtime-u, emitiraju se izabrane, pomalo fantazijske lokacije noći koja je u to vrijeme tada u Hrvatskoj, ali gdje svjetlo i zvuk stvaraju pomalo snovitu atmosferu koja se na manjim ekranima dodatno informacijski podupire elementima kulture. U Realtime-u, nakon što je svanula zora, prikazuju se slike dana sa svim tipičnim dnevnim aktivnostima.

50

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

Images from real locations alternate on the big screen every fifty seconds which provides slightly meditative experience of the concrete space in concrete time. Beside the main image, there are smaller screens where, following the rhythm of alternation on the big screen, different smaller images alternate which additionally describe the natural splendors, culture, worldview, products and lifestyles related to the location. Unlike the image on the big screen, here very often artistic photographs also alternate, which cadre and seize a moment in a much better and detailed manner. The emphasis is on the image, and all shown products can be bought in the shop as souvenirs. Although the emphasis is put on visual experience, the conceptual design of the Croatian presentation comprises olfactive, tactile and auditive senses in order to enhance the experience of Croatia in one particular moment. They all follow the visual displays both on the main and on the small screens. The olfactive senses are based on natural scents that represent the ecologically preserved Croatian landscape and traditional customs. The tactile experience lays in the design of the pavilion’s floor which simulates walking in shallow water i.e. beach, which simultaneously entices auditive senses. Water cubes where on which the visitors can seat also stimulate ‘repost’ on the sea surface. Auditive senses follow the image from the screen (sound of waves, chirring of crickets, murmur at the Split marketplace, cultural manifestations). In the background of the real sound, one can hear the sound of violoncello which, towards the end of the alteration cycle of 15 images from the real location, intensifies in sound. In the composition especially created for this occasion and performed by 2Cellos (Luka Šulić and Stjepan Hauser), the entire cycle culminates in crescendo and ends, after which there is an empty screen. The time difference taken into consideration, the daily program in the pavilion was divided into two parts: Dreamtime and Realtime. The first part, Dreamtime, shows selected, slightly fantasy-like locations in the night which enwraps Croatia at that time, but the light and the sound create somewhat dreamy atmosphere which in the little screens is being additionally and informatively supported by elements of culture. Realtime, on the other hand, shows daily images after dawn, with all typical daily activities.

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinarno idejno rješenje nastupa Republike Hrvatske na međunarodnoj izložbi Expo 2012, Yeosu, Koreja

Croatia Now – Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design of the Presentation of the Republic of Croatia on the International Exhibition Expo 2012, Yeosu, Korea

Situacija / Site plan

51


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Trg sv. Nikole sa zgradom društvene namjene, Kraljevica

St. Nicholas Square along with a Social Purpose Building, Kraljevica

autori / authors Siniša Justić, Luka Korlaet suradnici / collaborators Ariana Korlaet Katarina Luketina status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada); idejni projekt – lokacijska dozvola / Competition Project, (1st prize); Preliminary Design – Location Permit investitor / client Grad Kraljevica / City of Kraljevica

Potreba za rekonstrukcijom trošnog podzida stvorila je mogućnost urbane obnove, pa tako nastaje višenamjenski objekt čiji je krov javna pješačka površina, ‘gradski balkon’. Stubištem, rampom i dizalom unutar objekta uspostavlja se bolja povezanost između dviju kôta i osigurava kretanje osobama smanjene pokretljivosti te se sadržajno upotpunjuje centar grada. Spremnošću partnera u procesu projektiranja, nastojimo izbrisati oštru granicu urbanizma i arhitekture i sagraditi mimikrirani urbani ‘uređaj’ koji kao da je oduvijek ondje postojao.

A need for reconstruction of the dilapidated underpinning wall has created the possibility of urban refurbishement, so a multi-purpose facility which roof is a public pedestrian area, ‘a city balcony’ was formed. Stairs, ramps and an elevator inside the building establish a better connection between the two elevations and ensure the movement of persons with reduced mobility thus substantially completing the city center. By the willingness of the partners in the design process, we tried to erase a sharp boundary between urbanism and architecture and built a mimicked urban ‘device’ as it has always existed there.

lokacija / location Kraljevica

2008. 2012.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

Južno pročelje / South facade

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

Tlocrt drugoga kata / 2nd floor plan

52

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Crtež / Drawing: S. Justić

53

Trg sv. Nikole sa zgradom društvene namjene, Kraljevica

St. Nicholas Square along with a social purpose building, kraljevica


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Vladimir Kasun suradnik / collaborator Davor Plavšić status projekta / project status U izvedbi / Under construction investitor / client B4B d.o.o., Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb, Petrine bb

2014. projektirano/ designed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Stambena zgrada, Petrine, Zagreb

Residential Building, Petrine, Zagreb

Koncept stambene zgrade locirane u neposrednom okruženju Jarunskog jezera, u gusto izgrađenom građevnom području, razvija i potencira karakteristike individualnog stanovanja u kolektivnom. Ekstrovertirana građevina maksimalno koristi potencijal situacije i kvalitetu vizura na jezero, te se artikulacijom volumena po visini gabaritno mijenja formiranjem otvorenog prostora i modulira u sklop individualiziranih prostora koji čuvaju privatnost življenja. Izmicanjem i rotacijom osnovnih jedinica višekatne građevine stvaraju se otvorene terase koje diktiraju dispoziciju i organizaciju unutarnjeg prostora. Zgrada je sagrađena na građevnoj čestici jednostavne topografije (gotovo bez nagiba), središnjom postavom, i ima četiri etaže. Preko centralno postavljenog jednokrakog stubišta pristupa se u sve etaže odnosno stambene prostore, a preko pristupne rampe, u poluukopanom podrumskom prostoru, do garaža. Dispozicija prostora unutar stanova rezultat je funkcionalnih određenja prostora, iskorištenosti povoljnih orijentacija i oblika parcele. Zgrada je organizirana u osam stambenih jedinica, trosobnim, odnosno, četverosobnim stanovima neto površine 76 – 108 m². Krov zgrade će biti ravan, neprohodan, a pročeljâ zgrade će se riješiti kombinacijom žbukanog pročelja i pročelja obloženog drvenim letvama koje se mjestimice rastvara horizontalno preklopnim brisolejima. Konstrukcija zgrade riješena je nosivim ab zidovima. Ukupna GBP zgrade iznosi 1150 m².

The concept of a residential building located in the immediate surroundings of Lake Jarun in a densely built up urban area has developed and intensified the characteristics of living in individual housing units within a collective one. The extroverted building makes the maximum use of the potential of the situation and of the fine views of the lake; with the articulation of the volume in height, it changes so as to form an open space and an assembly of individualised spaces which protect the privacy of living. Dodging and rotating the base units of this multi-storey building created open terraces thus dictating interior space layout and organisation. The building is constructed on a simple topographic plot (almost no inclination) through acentral setup and it has four storeys. Via centrally mounted single-flight staircase, one has access to all storeys and living spaces and via access ramp to garages situated in the semi-embedded basement. The layout of flats is a result of the functional definition of space, utilisation of favourable orientation and the shape of the plot. The building consists of eight residential units, three- orfour-room flats; net area of 76–108 m². The roof of the building will be flat, impassable, and the façade of the building will be a combination of plaster façade and a façade coated with wooden rods, in places with horizontal, overlapping brise-soleils. Loadbearing walls of the construction are made of reinforced concrete. The total GCA (gross construction area) of the building is 1150 m².

Tlocrt podruma i prizemlja / Basement and ground floor plan

54

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

STAMBENA ZGRADA, PETRINE, ZAGREB

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING, PETRINE, ZAGREB

Tlocrt prvoga, drugog i trećeg kata / 1st, 2nd and 3rd floor plan

55


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Branko Kincl, Velimir Neidhardt Jure Radić Konzultanti / consultants Vladimir Bazjanac,Tonči Peović, Slavko Roguljić, Ante Stojan Suradnici / Collaborators Venko Ćurlin, Zvonimir Kralj, Ivan Ljubić, Boško Opalić, Luka Trkanjec vizualizacije / Visualizations GYF media konstrukcija / structural concept Nijaz Mujkanović, Ivan Špišić, Anđelko Vlašić Promet / traffic concept Stjepan Kralj Energetski concept / energetic concept Ognjen Bergam, Miodrag Drakulić, Nenad Ravlić Model / model Infodata d.o.o., Zagreb Fotografija / Photographs Studio HRG Zagreb status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada) / Competition Project (1st prize) investitor / client Zračna Luka Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Novi putnički terminal Zračne luke Zagreb

Zagreb Airport New Passenger Terminal

Projekt budućeg novog putničkog terminala u Zagrebu sudjelovao je 2008. na međunarodnom arhitektonskom natječaju na koji je pozvano deset međunarodnih arhitektonskih tvrtki, među njima Foster, Zaha Hadid i Shigeru Ban, kao i 10 hrvatskih timova. U programu natječaja tražila se zgrada veličine 70,000 m2 za prihvat pet milijuna putnika godišnje i s mogućnošću buduće nadogradnje. Idejno rješenje hrvatskih autora Kincl-Neidhardt-Radić, proglašeno je najboljim i dodijeljena mu je prva nagrada. Kompleks novog putničkog terminala Zračne luke Zagreb koji je u izgradnji, postaje prvorazredni faktor urbanog generiranja na području metropolskog Zagreba. Glavna odlika arhitektonskog projekta jest urbanost koja se manifestira kroz višedimenzionalne poveznice, okomite i vodoravne fizičke veze između komplementarnih objekata zračne luke i njezine neposredne okoline. Bogatstvo i raznovrsnost projekta izražava interaktivnu vezu između postojećeg i traženog – prirodnog i umjetnog – dinamičnu formalnu harmoniju volumena i površina kao jedan jasan i očit rezultat arhitektonskog procesa. Dinamična ovojnica koja se razmotava i lebdi iznad hale terminala stvara slobodnu dinamiku strukturne mreže – ikonski izraz krajolika i njegova reljefa kao izvornih atributa

The new passenger terminal project in Zagreb has been the entry of international architectural competition held in summer of 2008 with invitation to 10 international architectural offices including Foster, Zaha Hadid, Shigeru Ban, and to 10 Croatian teams. The competition program required a 70,000 m2 building for 5 million passengers a year, with a possibility of future extension. The Croatian competition entry designed by Branko Kincl, Velimir Neidhardt and Jure Radić has been selected the best and awarded the first prize. The new airport development, now under construction, emerges as the prime urban radiation factor of the Zagreb metropolitan area. The main feature of the architectural design is the urbanity, manifested through multidimensional connections, physical vertical and horizontal links between complementary facilities of the airport and its immediate surroundings. The wealth and diversity of the design expresses an interactive relationship of the existing and the required – of the natural and the artificial – a dynamic formal harmony of volumes and surfaces as clear and evident outcome of the architectural process. A dynamic envelope, which unwraps itself to levitate above the terminal hall generates the free dynamics of the structural net – an iconic expression of the landscape and its relief features as original attributions to the generated architectural form. The structural model as the essence of architectural form is represented

2008.

projektirano/ designed

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

56

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

NOVI PUTNIČKI TERMINAL ZRAČNE LUKE ZAGREB

ZAGREB AIRPORT NEW PASSENGER TERMINAL

Pročelja / Facades

57


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

stvorenom arhitektonskom obliku. Strukturni model kao bit arhitektonskog oblika predstavljen je kroz nosivu mrežu elemenata čelične strukture. Struktura pristaništa ujedinjuje funkcije krova i povišenja u jedinstven cilindričan presjek.

through a grid of load-bearing steel structure elements. The pier structure unites the functions of the roof and elevations in a unique cylindrical cross-section.

Krovna struktura dizajnirana je kao dvostruka ovojnica. Njezin veliki otvor za ventilaciju ima značajne ekološke dobrobiti. Upravljanje postraničnim otvorima i snaga povratnog mlaznog avionskog motora u dvostrukoj ovojnici mogu stvarati mikroklimu unutar krova koja dramatično može smanjiti potrošnju energije. Ova zelena zračna luka ujedno je i energana.

The roof structure is designed as double-skin. Its large ventilated cavity provides considerable ecological benefits. The manipulation of side openings and the power of reversible jet fans in the double-skin can create a microclimate inside the roof that can dramatically reduce energy consumption. This is a green airport and an energy-power house as well.

Poprečni presjek / Cross section

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

Fleksibilnost središnjeg dijela terminala ostvaruje se velikim slobodnim tlocrtnim planom s generalnim modularnim rasterom stupova. Svi fiksni servisni i prateći prostori (jezgre, instalacijski kanali, sanitarije) smješteni su obodno, uz istočni i zapadni perimetar. Dizajn uzdužnih putničkih komunikacija omogućuje fleksibilnost i širenje koji su neophodni za očekivani budući rast zračnog prometa. Terminal je projektiran tako da može podnijeti i velike energetske krize koje bi eventualno mogao izazvati nedostatak standardnih energenata. U tom slučaju važne djelatnosti i aktivnosti zgrade mogu se neko vrijeme pogoniti sunčevom energijom.

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

The flexibility of the terminal hall is achieved through an open space plan with a modular column grid at the base of the building. All, fixed service structures are positioned strictly at the building perimeter. The pier design allows for the flexibility and growth that is necessary to sustain the expected increase of air traffic in the future. The terminal is designed to sustain a major energy crisis possibly caused by a failure of all standard energy supply sources. In that case important building operations and activities can be powered for some time using solar energy.

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

59

NOVI PUTNIČKI TERMINAL ZRAČNE LUKE ZAGREB

ZAGREB AIRPORT NEW PASSENGER TERMINAL


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Boris Koružnjak Gordana Domić suradnici / collaborators Ivana Curić, Lucija Madiraca, Zoran Nikoloski, Tanja Nižetić, Vedran Orešić, Mario Peruzović konstrukcija / construction Juraj Pojatina instalacije / installations Erol Čičić, Ivan Vuković, Slavko Šimunović, Rok Pietri bazenska tehnika / Pool technology Dragan Zgaga zaštita od požara i zaštita na radu / Fire protection and protection at work Milan Carević fotografija / Photography Vedran Orešić status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (Idejni projekt) /Competition Project (Conceptual Design)

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Bazen Gradski vrt, Osijek

Swimming Pool Town garden, Osijek

Idejni projekt bazena u Osijeku izrađen je na temelju dobivenog natječajnog rješenja. Bazen se nalazi u središnjem dijelu sportskog kompleksa Gradski vrt, a u neposrednoj blizini nogometnog stadiona i nastavno-sportske dvorane. Kao jedan od glavnih sklopova na prostoru spomenutog sportsko-rekreacijskog kompleksa, svojim vanjskim i unutarnjim oblikovanjem građevina bazena zamišljena je kao novi vizualno-urbani element, ‘signum’, koji se svojim položajem i formom nastavlja na novoizgrađenu sportsku dvoranu te daje dodatnu vizualnu kvalitetu zoni ulaska u grad, a tako i cjelokupnoj slici grada. Građevina je zamišljena kao sklop bazena ponajprije prilagođen sportsko-natjecateljskim potrebama sportskih udruga i klubova koji se bave promicanjem i popularizacijom vodenih sportova. Unutar sklopa projektiran je veliki bazen (50 × 25 m), mali bazen (25 × 12,5 m), bazen za učenje plivanja (15 × 8 m) te ostali prateći sadržaji (svlačionice, dvorane za vježbanje, saune, caffe -bar...) ukupne bruto površine od 11.150,1 m2.

The conceptual design of the swimming pool in Osijek is constructed on basis of a winning competition solution. The swimming pool is situated in the central part of the sports complex Town garden and in immediate vicinity of the soccer stadium and the teaching-sports gymnasium. As one of the main compounds on the space of the mentioned sporting-recreational complex, with its outer and inner shaping, the construction of the pools is envisaged as new visual-urban element, ‘signum’ which with its position and shape is a continuation of the newly built soccer stadium and also adds to both the visual quality of the town entrance zone and of the entire image of the town. The construction is envisaged as complex of swimming pools primarily adjusted to the sportingcompetition needs of the sport associations and clubs that deal with promotion and popularization of water sports. Within the complex, a big pool was constructed (50 × 25 m), a small pool (25 × 12,5 m), a pool for teaching swimming (15 × 8 m) as well as other accompanying contents (locker rooms, gyms, saunas, coffee bars...) of total gross surface P=11.150,1 m2

investitor / client Grad Osijek / City of Osijek lokacija / location Osijek

2009/11. projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

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projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Pročelja (sjever, jug, istok, zapad) / Facade (north, south, east, west)

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Bazen Gradski vrt, Osijek

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

200m

Swimming pool Town garden, Osijek


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Rekonstrukcija, dogradnja i nadogradnja Osnovne škole Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete

Reconstruction, Upgrade and Construction Extension of the School, Primary School Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete

autori / authors Boris Koružnjak Gordana Domić koautor / coauthor Aneta Mudronja Pletenac Konstrukcija / construction Borivoj Pojatina instalacije / installations Miroslav Soukup, Ivan Vuković, Slavko Šimunović, Denis Paleka zaštita od požara i zaštita na radu / fire protection and protection at work Milan Carević suradnici / collaborators Ivana Curić, Lucija Madiraca, Marija Mihalić, Tanja Nižetić, Vedran Orešić, Mario Peruzović status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Grad Zagreb / City of Zagreb

Rekonstrukcija, dogradnja i nadogradnja postojećeg objekta osnovne škole ‘Vladimir Nazor’ u Remetama u Zagrebu izvedena je na temelju dobivenog natječaja (1999.). Isti projektanti su autori i prve faze dogradnje novih prostornih sklopova (5.– 8. razred i sportska dvorana) i adaptacije dijela postojećih prostora škole (realizirano 2003.). Druga faza, realizirana 2012. godine., predvidjela je rekonstrukciju, dogradnju i nadogradnju postojećeg objekta škole unutar gabarita starog krila škole, uz povećanje katnosti. Uvažavajući postojeći položaj zgrade osnovne škole, morfološke karakteristike terena, ambijent i postojeću izgradnju, novoplanirani sadržaji (katnost P+1), postavljeni su slobodno u prostoru u odnosu na regulacijske pravce obodnih prometnica na način da svojom pozicijom ne umanjuju vrijednost postojećih sadržaja na parceli i u njezinoj najbližoj okolini.

The reconstruction, upgrade and construction extension of the existing object of the primary school ‘Vladimir Nazor’ in Remete in Zagreb was conducted on basis of a competition that was won in 1999. The same designers are the authors of the first phase of the new spatial compounds (5th to 8th grade and gymnasium) as well as of the adaptation of part of the existing school spaces (completed in 2003). The second phase, completed in 2012, anticipated the reconstruction, upgrade and construction extension of the existing school object within the dimensions of the old school wing, with increasing katnosti. Taking into consideration the existing position of the primary school building, the morphologic characteristics of the terrain, the ambiance and the existing construction, the newly planned contents (number of floors P+1) are set freely in the space in relation to the regulation direction of the peripheral traffic routes in such a way that their position would not reduce the value of the existing contents on the plot and its immediate vicinity.

lokacija / location Zagreb

2008. 2012.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

Tlocrt prvoga kata / 1st floor plan

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Istočno pročelje / East facade

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Zapadno pročelje / West facade

Sjeverno pročelje / North facade

Južno pročelje / South facade

63

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Rekonstrukcija, dogradnja i nadogradnja Osnovne škole Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete

Reconstruction, upgrade and construction extension of the school, Primary school Vladimir Nazor, Zagreb, Remete


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Trg kardinala Alojzija Stepinca u Jastrebarskom

Cardinal Stepinac Square in Jastrebarsko

autori / authors Damir Krajnik Lea Petrović Krajnik status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Grad Jastrebarsko / City of Jastrebarsko lokacija / location Jastrebarsko

2011.

dovršeno / completed

Trg je projektiran tako da se arhitektonski i urbanistički maksimalno prilagođava okolnom ambijentu te istovremeno oblikuje nov prepoznatljivi element gradskog identiteta (znak u prostoru koji se doživljava kako iz vizure automobila i pješaka s glavne gradske ulice tako i iz pješačke vizure prostora ispred ulaza u crkvu sv. Nikole). S obzirom na kontinuirani nagib postojećeg terena, koncept trga temelji se na oblikovanju kaskada – platoa na različitim visinskim kotama, povezanima pješačkom rampom. Plato na najvišoj koti služi kao ulazni podest na koji se prilazi (stubama) s nogostupa Ulice braće Kazić te u nivou s nogostupa Trga Alojzija Stepinca. S ovog se platoa vizura usmjerava niz kaskade do najnižeg podesta. Najviši i najniži plato trga povezani su rampom čiji podesti prate visinu kaskada s klupama za sjedenje i odmor te zatravljenim plohama, a koje su također vizualno usmjerene prema najnižem platou. Najniži plato površinom je najveći te je predviđen kao glavni prostor na kojem se zadržavaju ljudi (prije i poslije mise, održavanje mise na otvorenom i sl.).

The square is designed so as to adjust the surrounding environment in the best architectural and urban ways and at the same time to form a new, distinctive element of a urban identity (a sign in the space that is seen from the perspective of both cars and pedestrians from the main street and from the perspective of pedestrians in front of the Church of St. Nicholas). Due to the continuous slope of the existing terrain, the concept of the square is based on the formation of cascades – plateaux at various altitudes connected by a pedestrian ramp. The plateau at the highest elevation serves as an entry to the platform which is approached (by stairs) from the sidewalk of Braće Kazić St and, at the same level, from the sidewalk of Alozije Stepinac Square. From this plateau, views are directed along the series of cascades to the lowest platform. The highest and the lowest plateau of the square are connected by a ramp whose landings follow the height of the cascades which have benches to sit and relax and grassy surfaces, which are also visually oriented towards the lowest plateau. The lowest plateau is also the largest one, designed as the main area where people linger (before and after mass, for open air masses, etc.). There is a plan to construct a low platform on its south-western

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

Plan uređenja površina / Surface plan

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Na njegovu jugozapadnom dijelu predviđena je izvedba niskog podesta za smještaj skulpture ili postavu oltara za misu na otvorenom, dok se na južnom dijelu stubama povezuje s kolnim prilazom župnom dvoru da bi se ostvarile najpovoljnije pješačke veze i tokovi u širem prostoru grada. Raster kaskada proizišao je (osim iz prilagodbe visinskim kotama postojećeg terena) iz geometrije drvoreda uz Ulicu braće Kazić, pri čemu trake koje razdvajaju pojedine nivoe kaskada prate pozicije postojećih stabala uklapajući se u geometriju zatečenog ambijenta.

part to be used as a plinth for sculptures or as an altar at open air mass; at the southern part of the steps it is connected to the driveway of the rectory in order to achieve the best pedestrian connections and flows in the wider area of the city. The structural pattern of cascades emerged (apart from adjustments to altitudes of the existing terrain) from the geometry of the line of trees along Braće Kazić St., and the lines that separate individual cascade levels follow the positions of existing trees, fitting into the geometry of the current environment.

Materijalizacija se temelji na inženjerskom pristupu, racionalnom i usklađenom kolažiranju materijala te na primjeni različitih konstrukcija iz čega se jasno može odčitati veza s kolegijem Primjena materijala i konstrukcija u perivojnoj arhitekturi u okviru Kabineta za pejzažnu arhitekturu Katedre za urbanizam.

65

Trg kardinala Alojzija Stepinca, Jastrebarsko

The materialization is based on the engineering approach , rational and coordinated collaging of materials and the application of different structures from which clearly suggests the connection with the course Use of Materials and Structures in Landscape Architecture within the Cabinet for Landscape Architecture of the Department of Urban Planning.

Cardinal Stepinac Square in Jastrebarsko


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Rene Lisac status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Privatni / Private lokacija / location Kupinečki Kraljevec

2008. 2010.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Kuća R, Kupinečki Kraljevec

House R, Kupinečki Kraljevec

House R is a project for a family house in Kupinečki Kraljevac, on the first slopes of Vukomeričke gorice. 40 m plot with a long street line goes down in a mild acclivity towards west, opening from the very top of the plot quality view towards Žumberačko gorje (northwest) and towards Medvednica (north-northeast). The basic and specific goals which are established for projecting are: 1. contemporary and unique shaping of the volume, 2. supporting the low energy standard of the house, 3. unobtrusive and restrained shaping from the street facade, 4. opening to most quality views and 5. dynamic and open spaces in the interior. The house is positioned in the northeast corner of the plot and is a three-story (embedded basement, ground floor and first floor). The 333 m2 situate five rooms, two bedrooms, kitchen, dining room, living room and basement.

Kuća R projekt je za obiteljsku kuću u Kupinečkom Kraljevcu, na prvim obroncima Vukomeričkih gorica. Parcela 40 m duge ulične linije spušta se u blagom nagibu prema zapadu, otvarajući sa samog vrha parcele kvalitetne vizure prema Žumberačkom gorju (sjeverozapad) i prema Medvednici (sjever-sjeveroistok). Osnovni i specifični ciljevi koji su postavljeni za oblikovanje su: 1. suvremeno i unikatno oblikovanje volumena, 2. podržavanje niskoenergetskog standarda kuće, 3. nenametljivo i suzdržano oblikovanje s ulične fasade, 4. otvaranje najkvalitetnijim vizurama te 5. dinamični i otvoreni prostori u interijeru. Kuća je pozicionirana u sam sjeveroistočni ugao parcele i na tri etaže (ukopani podrum, prizemlje i kat). U 333 m2 nalazi se pet soba, dvije spavaće sobe, kuhinja, blagovaoinica i boravak te podrum.

situacija / site plan

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facta architectonica 2

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Volumen kuće oblikovan je poput peterokuta, tlocrtno izlomljenog pravokutnog oblika, s namjerom da maksimalna površina fasada bude orijentirana prema kretanju sunca. Krovna ploha također je izlomljena u tri kose krovne plohe, orijentirane oko središnje trokutaste plohe ravnog krova, kako bi objekt svojim oblikovanjem istovremeno pratio liniju terena i otvorio zabat prema uličnoj strani. Centralni natkriveni uvučeni staklenik svojim trapeznim oblikom na južnom pročelju hvata maksimum zimskih zraka i uvodi ih u samo središte kuće, dok strme ljetne zrake ostaju nadstrešnicom zadržane izvan njegova volumena. Prilično zatvoreno sjeverno pročelje se svojim uskim, vertikalnim i ponekad bočnim otvorima izogiba pogledima susjeda kao i hladnim zimskim utjecajima, dok se ostala četiri pročelja, prateći kretanje sunca, otvaraju i nizu različitih i kvalitetnih vizura, od Medvednice, velikog vrta s južne strane objekta, do pošumljene udoline na JZ i vizura prema Žumberačkom gorju.

The volume of the house is pentagonal, with broken layout of square shape, with the intention to orient the maximum of the facade surfaces towards the movement of the Sun. The roof plane is also broken into three askew roof planes, oriented around the central triangular plane of the flat roof in order to enable the object to simultaneously follow the terrain line and open the gable toward the street side. The central roofed indented greenhouse, with its trapezoidal shape on the south facade catches maximum of winter sun rays and introduces them to the center of the house, while the perpendicular summer sun rays remain kept outside its volume with an overhang. The fairly closed northern facade, with its narrow, vertical and sometimes sidewise apertures eludes the views of the neighbors as well as the cold winter influence, while the remaining four facades, following the movement of the sun, open in a row of various and quality views, from Medvednica, the great garden on the southern side of the object to the forested valleys on the southwest and the view towards Žumberačko gorje.

kuća R, Kupinečki Kraljevec

House R, Kupinečki Kraljevec


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Uz kompaktnost oblika i solarnu orijentaciju, niskoenergetski standard osiguran je kvalitetnom izolacijom i sustavima poput toplinske crpke i solarnih kolektora za PTV. Unutarnji prostori povezani su bez hodnika, dijagonalnim pretapanjem ulaznih hala u prostore blagovanja i boravka, kao i dvjema vertikalama dvoetažnog prostora. Spiralna komunikacija stepenica i galerije obavija ulaznu halu i povezuje privatne prostorije locirane u istočnom dijelu kuće, dok se dvoetažni prostor blagovanja pred velikom staklenom stijenom povezuje tek vizualno s galerijom za čitanje smještenom iznad nje.

With the compactness of shapes and its solar orientation, the low energy standard is secured by quality insulation and systems such as heat pumps and solar collectors for PTV. The inner spaces are connected without corridors, with assimilation of the entrance halls with the living and dining spaces, as well as with two verticals of the two-story space. The spiral communication of the staircase and the gallery wraps the entrance hall and links the private premises located in the east part of the house, while the two-story space for dining before the great glass wall is linked only visually with the reading gallery positioned right above it.

Kako bi se, uz zahtjeve uobičajene za projektantsku praksu, ostvarili u najvećoj mjeri i specifično postavljeni ciljevi te paralelno očuvao integritet oblikovanja u projektu, proces projektiranja u velikoj mjeri su potpomogle računalne tehnologije virtualnog 3D modeliranja i vizualizacije. Računalno potpomognuto arhitektonsko oblikovanje (CAAD) očitovalo se na tri razine: prostorno-oblikovnoj, konstruktivnoj i klimatskoj. Kvalitetan odnos vanjskih oblikovnih i unutarnjih prostornih karakteristika tog složenog izlomljenog volumena kontinuirano se provjeravao kroz niz 3D modela, od konceptualnog u programu SketchUP, oblikovnog iz programa Rhinoceros, sve do detaljnog izvedbenog modela u programu ArchiCAD. Precizno modeliranje omogućilo je i provjeru kompleksnih trodimenzionalnih konstruktivnih detalja, posebno prisutnih u spojevima etaže s trostruko zakošenim krovištem. Simulacije smjera kretanja sunca prema kojem su oblikovane dimenzije uvučenog staklenika kroz izvedbu i današnje korištenje pokazale su se točnima.

Presjek A-A / Section A-A

In order to also accomplish to the biggest extent possible the specifically set goals, in conjunction with the requests that are usual for designing practice, and at the same time in order to preserve the integrity of shaping within the project's framework, the designing process was greatly assisted by computer technologies of 3D modelling and visualization. The computer assisted architectonic design reflected on three levels: spatial shaping, constructive and in terms of climate aspects. The quality relation of the external shaping and internal spatial characteristics of that complex broken volume had been continually checked through a series of 3D models, from conceptual – in the program SketchUP, through the Rhinoceros program, and all the way to the detailed design model in the program ArchiCAD. The precise modeling enabled check up of three dimensional constructive details, particularly present in the junctures of the floor with the three-fold beveled roof. The simulation of the sun movement towards which the dimensions of the indented greenhouse were shaped, proved to be correct both through the conceptual design and present day's usage.

Presjek C-C / Section C-C

Presjek B-B / Section B-B

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

69

kuća R, Kupinečki Kraljevec

House R, Kupinečki Kraljevec


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Vesna Mikić suradnici / collaborators Ivan Bekavac, Kristina Bišćan, Ana Blagus, Mirna Javorović Pehar, Nikolina Muža, Miroslav Posavec konzultant / consultant Prof. dr. sc. Aleksandar Homadovski status projekta / project status Natječajni rad / Competition Project investitor / client Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku / Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sveučilišna knjižnica, Osijek

University Library, Osijek

Suvremene knjižnice primjeri su novog vala modernizacije u drugoj polovici 80-ih godina prošlog stoljeća kada suvremene javne građevine doživljavaju kapitalne promjene, postavljaju paradigmu kako kulturološkog tako i arhitektonskog aspekta unutar novog vala modernizacije. U suvremenoj arhitekturi knjižnice su nosioci ideja i otvaraju kompleksna pitanja urbaniteta i grada kao cjeline. Kao generatori urbanog života s izvorištima u povijesnoj ulozi temeljnih institucija kulture kao i njenih vremenskih modifikacija, biblioteke zrcale slojevita značenja od individualnih intelektualnih naziranja do osebujnosti suvremenih kulturnih politika. Na prijelazu milenija informatika dobiva zamahe, te u tom kontekstu i biblioteka ne može biti samo mjesto odlaganja knjiga, već mora biti premreženi rezultat projektiranja, informatike i novih tehnologija.

Modern libraries are the example of the new wave of modernisation in the second half of the 1980s when contemporary public buildings underwent capital changes, setting both the cultural and architectural paradigms within the new wave of modernisation. Libraries in contemporary architecture are the generators of ideas opening up complex issues of urbanity and the city as a whole. As generators of urban life, originating from their historical role of fundamental cultural institutions and their temporal modifications, libraries reflect layered meanings ranging from individual intellectual perceptions to the idiosyncrasy of modern cultural policies. At the turn of the millennia the informatics is gaining momentum and in this context libraries cannot only be the repositories of books, but rather a networked result of design, information sciences and new technologies.

projektirano/ designed

U ponuđenom rješenju odustaje se od ukopanog podruma (8,000 m2 spremišta knjiga) te se taj sadržaj podiže u višeetažni silos na nivo partera. Odustaje se od gradnje pod zemljom zbog izrazito nepovoljnih geotehničkih uvjeta, visokog pritiska podzemnih voda, koji bi trajno mogli ugroziti bibliotečni fond i rezultirati visokim troškovima gradnje adekvatne nepropusne zaštite i poskupiti održavanje takvog tehničkog rješenja u životnom vijeku zgrade. Dugoročna optimalna održivost gradnje, upotrebe i održavanja zgrade tako postaje jedan od osnovnih koncepata projekta. Linearni koncept nove biblioteke sastoji se od volumena s knjigama (silosi kompaktusa) i biblioteke koji su međusobno funkcionalno povezani na nivou mezanina. Javni prostor Sveučilišne knjižnice kao i glavni ulaz postavljeni su s južne strane zgrade, a vežu se na pješačku os kampusa.

The offered solution has abandoned the idea of a cellar dug in the ground (8,000 m2 storage), and this facility has been elevated into a multi-storey silo at the ground-floor level. The underground construction has been abandoned due to the exceptionally unfavourable geo-technical conditions i.e. the high-pressure underground waters which might permanently jeopardize the library book collection and entail the costly construction of an adequate watertight barrier. This, in turn, may increase the overall maintenance costs of such a technical solution during the building's lifespan. The long-term and optimal sustainability of the building construction, use and maintenance thus becomes one of the project's basic concepts. The linear concept of the new library comprises a book storing volume (compactus silos) and the library, which are functionally connected at the mezzanine level. The public area of the University Library and the main entrance are on the southern side of the building, and are connected to the campus pedestrian axis.

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions

lokacija / location Osijek

2012.


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Tlocrt prvoga kata / 1st floor plan

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

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Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

20m

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20m

Južno pročelje / South facade

Sjeverno pročelje / North facade

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Istočno pročelje / East facade

Sveučilišna knjižnica, Osijek

University Library, Osijek


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Ljubomir Miščević

projekt / project Pasivna obiteljska kuća V2 Strizivojna / Passive Family House V2 Strizivojna suradnici / collaborators Ana Šimić, Jadranko Major, Ivana Koretić status projekta / project status U izvedbi / Under construction investitor / client Mihaela i Renato Volpe lokacija / location Strizivojna

2011/12. projektirano/ designed

projekt / project Višenamjenska javna pasivna zgrada Sunčica / Multi-functional Public Use Passive Building Sunny suradnici / collaborators Jadranko Major, Goran Obranović status projekta / project status Idejni projekt druge faze / Conceptual second phase design investitor / client Grad Zagreb / City of Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb, Park Bundek

2009. projektirano/ designed

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Od pasivne sunčane do energetski gotovo nulte arhitekture

From Passive Solar to Nearly ZeroEnergy Architecture

Sedamdesetih godina xx. stoljeća svjetska energetska kriza je rezultirala globalnim političkim i teritorijalnim sukobima. Potakla je iznalaženja raznih rješenja za smanjenje energetske potrošnje izgrađene okoline. Prostorno planiranje i urbanizam daju odgovore energetski i ekološki koncipiranim sunčanim naseljima i gradovima. Arhitektura odgovara ‘pasivnom sunčanom’ i(li) ‘bioklimatskom’ arhitekturom koja uz pretpostavku napredne građevinske fizike za intenzivno rabi obnovljive izvore energije. To je poglavito sunčevo zračenje koje se pomoću pasivnih i aktivnih sustava integriranih u arhitektonski omotač pretvara u toplinsku energiju ili električnu struju. Iako relativno malobrojni, usprkos ogromnom potencijalu sunčeve energije u Hrvatskoj, projekti i ostvarenja pasivne sunčane arhitekture značajan su prinos arhitektonskoj misli i praksi u području energetski učinkovite i održive arhitekture koja se kontinuirano od početka osamdesetih godina razvija usporedo sa sukladnim etičkim opredjeljenjima današnje civilizacije. Usporedo s projektima i ostvarenjima prvih obiteljskih kuća, 1985. godine proveden je jedan od međunarodno najviše ocjenjivanih projekata energetske i ambijentalne obnove na primjeru naselja Trnsko u Zagrebu, ujedno kao prvi međunarodni znanstveno-istraživački projekt našeg Arhitektonskog fakulteta pod vodstvom prof.dr.sc. Grozdana Kneževića, uz suradnike Ljubomira Miščevića i Bojana Baletića i supervizora s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, prof.dr.sc. Vladimira Bazjanca. Početak ovog stoljeća i tisućljeća obilježavaju globalne konvencije o zaštiti i unaprjeđivanju stanja okoliša uz odgovarajuće lokalne aktivnosti na implementaciji raznih sporazuma i direktiva, a posebice u području energetske učinkovitosti kao temeljne sastavnice koncepta smanjenja emisija i globalnog zatopljenja kako bi se ostvario održivi razvitak. Sam kraj prošlog stoljeća definira ‘niskoenergetsku arhitekturu ’ kao ‘trolitarsku kuću’ i tzv. ‘pasivnu kuću’ ili ‘jednolitarsku kuću’, odnosno energetski standard potrošnje ekvivalenta jedne litre loživog ulja po m2 godišnje za zagrijavanje prostora. Na prijelazu stoljeća i u Hrvatskoj se počinju projektirati i izvoditi pasivne ili vrlo niskoenergetske zgrade, jer projektiranje i izvedba takve arhitekture novogradnje i obnove svih namjena postaje standard u Europskoj uniji. Na temelju dugogodišnjeg istraživačkog i stručnog iskustva autor je prije petnaestak godina iskazao ideju o potrebi redefinicije arhitekture, koja uz sve dosadašnje prostorne, funkcionalne, oblikovne i konstrukcijske odrednice postaje

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

In 1970s, the global energy crisis resulted in political and territorial conflicts worldwide. It spurred the search for different solutions to reduce energy consumption in the built environment. Spatial planning and urbanism provide answers for energy efficient and environmentally designed solar settlements and towns. Architecture responds by ‘passive solar’ and/or ‘bioclimatic’ architectural design which, assuming that advanced engineering physics is applied makes extensive use of renewable energy sources. The most used source is solar radiation which is converted into thermal or electrical energy through passive and active systems integrated into the architectural envelope. There are relatively few architectural projects of passive solar design despite Croatia’s huge potential for the use of solar energy. Nevertheless, those projects contribute in a significant way to architectural theory and practice in the field of energy efficient and sustainable architecture which has been continually developing since the early 1980s alongside the corresponding ethical commitments of today’s civilization. Along with projects and first family houses that were built, in 1985, the implemented project of energy and environment renovation of the Trnsko neighbourhood in Zagreb was one of those that received the highest international praise. At the same time, it was the first scientific international research project conducted by the Faculty of Architecture led by Prof. Grozdan Knežević, PhD, and his associates Ljubomir Miščević and Bojan Baletić, under supervision of Prof. Vladimir Bazjanac, PhD, from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. The beginning of this century and millennium have been marked by global conventions on the protection and improvement of environment, followed by appropriate local activities directed at implementation of various agreements and directives – especially in the field of energy efficiency as a basic component of the concept of reducing emissions and global warming with the aim of achieving sustainable development. At the end of the past century, ‘low energy architecture’ was defined as ‘three-litre houses’, and the so-called ‘passive houses’ as ‘one-litre houses’, i.e. the houses having annual energy consumption for the provision of space heating equivalent to one litre of fuel oil per square metre. At the turn of century, passive or ultra-low energy houses also began to be designed and built in Croatia, as designing and building of such houses, including new building projects as well as renovation projects of various purposes have become standard practice in the European Union. On the basis of long-standing research and professional experience, about fifteen years ago the author expressed the idea that what was necessary was a redefinition of architecture, which, in addition to its former spatial, functional, design and construction determinants, was becoming an energy medium par excellence. Based on his

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

izraziti energetski medij. Brojnim stručnim i znanstvenim radovima, prvim ostvarenjima pasivnih sunčanih obiteljskih kuća, autor u daljnjem radu koncipira ‘arhitekturu energetskog funkcionalizma’, ‘arhitekturu kao energanu’, ‘energetski samodostatnu i bezemisijsku’ arhitekturu, a konačno, daljnjim tehnologijskim razvojem ‘plus energetsku’ arhitekturu koja proizvodi i veću količinu energije od vlastitih potreba.

numerous professional and scientific works, first realised passive solar family houses, the author in his further work has conceptualized ‘architecture of energy functionalism’, ‘architecture as power plant’, ‘energy self-sufficient and emission-free’ architecture, and finally, through further development of technologies, ‘plus energy’ architecture which produces a quantity of energy that surpasses its own needs.

Energetski model pasivne kuće s već četvrt stoljeća iskustva u desetcima tisuća primjera novogradnje i obnove do ‘faktora 10’ postao je realna podloga za ostvarenje scenarija EU za energetsku učinkovitost i održivost ‘3 × 20’ do 2020. godine. To je model koji osigurava visoke zahtjeve zdravstvene, toplinske, svjetlosne i zvučne udobnosti te stalnu vrhunsku kakvoću zraka unutarnjeg prostora. Od 2012. godine EU vrlo niskoenergetsku arhitekturu naziva ‘energetski gotovo nultom’ što svjedoči o današnjem realitetu donedavnih vizija.

With a quarter century of experience in dozens of thousands of new building and renovation projects up to ‘factor 10’, the energy model of a passive house has become a realistic basis for realising the EU energy efficiency and sustainability scenario of ‘3 × 20’ until 2020. It is a model which meets demanding requirements of health, thermal, light and sound comfort and constant top indoor air quality. As of 2012, ultra-low energy architecture has been termed by the EU ‘nearly zero-energy’ architecture, which bears witness that recent visions have turned into today’s reality.

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan (Sunčica)

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Detalj vijenca i temelja / Detail of the cornice and the foundation (Kuća V2 / House V2)

Južno i sjeverno pročelje / South and north facade (Sunčica)

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Od pasivne sunčane do energetski gotovo nulte arhitekture

From Passive Solar to Nearly Zero-Energy Architecture


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Petar Mišković Tomislav Pavelić suradnik / collaborator Miro Roman status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Privatni / Private lokacija / location Rukavac

2007. 2012.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

situacija / site plan

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Kuće u nizu, Rukavac

Terraced Houses, Rukavac

‘Kuće se kaskadno nižu hrptom brda. Uzdužni presjek ponavlja nagib terena, pročelje pokazuje presjek. Svaka kuća spiralno izrasta iz tla – od konobe do vidikovca, od potpunog mraka do krošanja stabala – sve su domaće aktivnosti usput obuhvaćene. Šuma je izbor, zato je stalno prisutna u kući – ovisno od prirode pojedinačnog prostora: jednom je u naznaci, drugi put u širokoj panorami.’ Kuće su projektirane za poznate naručitelje. Inicijalni zahtjev naručitelja bila su dva samostojeća objekta s po dvije stambene jedinice, uz uvjet njihove ravnopravnosti i upotrebu standardnih konstrukcija i materijala. Rješenje uzdužnog nizanja stambenih jedinica hrptom brda predloženo je kako bi što veći dio specifičnog šumskog krajolika, izrazito strmog i stjenovitog, ostao netaknut. Uređuje se tek uzak pojas između ceste i kuća – kolni prilazi i predvrtovi. Nedostatak stražnjih vrtova nadoknađuje se korištenjem krovnih terasa i vidikovaca. Jedinice su longitudinalna oblika i orijentirane su na jugoistok – prema cesti i na sjeverozapad – prema šumi. Rješenje ne preferira krajnje jedinice niza. Zbog prilagodbe zatečenom terenu primijenjeno je kaskadno rješenje, i na čitav niz i na svaku pojedinačnu stambenu jedinicu. Orijentacija na šumu maksimalno se potencira, bez obzira na nedostatak osunčanja. Boravišne prostorije su dignute na kat zbog pogleda na šumu i dojma ‘boravka u krošnjama’, veze s krovnim terasama te osunčanja odozgo – preko ostakljenog povišenog dijela boravka.

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The houses are designed for the known clients. The clients initially ordered two detached buildings with two residential units each, with a requirement that they be equivalent and that standard structures and materials be used. The solution anticipating longitudinal placement of residential units along the ridge has been proposed in order to keep intact as much of the specific forest landscape as possible – which is distinctly steep and rocky. Just a narrow strip between the road and the houses is to be developed – driveways and front gardens. The nonexistence of back gardens is compensated with roof terraces and belvederes. The units are of a longitudinal shape and oriented towards the southeast – i.e. the road, and towards the northwest – i.e. the forest. The solution does not give priority to the outmost units in a row. Due to the adjusting to the existing terrain, a cascade solution has been applied – to the entire row of houses and to each separate residential unit. Orientation towards the forest is maximally emphasized, regardless of the absence of insolation. Living rooms are situated on the first floor to provide them with the view of the forest and the impression of ‘staying in the treetops’, connection with roof terraces and exposure to the sun from above – through the glass-covered elevated part of the living rooms.

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Integralni tlocrt / Integral floor plan

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‘The houses are located in a cascading manner along the ridge. The longitudinal section mirrors the slope of the terrain, and the facade demonstrates the cross-section. Each house arises spirally from the ground – from the cellar to the belvedere, from the pitch darkness to the treetops – with all domestic activities encompassed. The forest is a choice; this is why it is constantly present in the house – depending on the nature of individual space: once it is there just as an indication, another time as a wide panorama.’

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

75

kuće u nizu, Rukavac

Terraced Houses, Rukavac


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Ivica Plavec Žanet Zdenković Gold, Ivan Zdenković status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Adris grupa d.d., Rovinj lokacija / location Zagreb

2007. 2014.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Poslovni centar Adris, Zagreb

Adris Business Complex, Zagreb

Projekt se temelji na postavkama atraktivne pojavnosti, vizualne dinamičnosti i suvremene prostorne organizacije, a odabirom materijala nastoji se postići visoka razina arhitektonskog oblikovanja i trajna kvaliteta. Prostoru rada dane su nove mogućnosti: komotni radni prostori zanimljivih prostornih sklopova i vizura, prozračnost, fluidnost, ležernost, blizina katnih terasa koje su pogodne za druženje, razgovore i rad na otvorenom u prirodnom i ozelenjenom, a ponegdje i gotovo vrtnom ambijentu. Sve to doprinosi osjećaju sklada i zadovoljstva tijekom boravka. Prostorna kompozicija slaganja po vertikali uzdužnih, poprečnih i atrijskih oblika osigurava dinamičnost unutrašnjeg prostora, a doprinosi i atraktivnosti objekta što smo dodatno nastojali naglasiti naizmjeničnim ‘izbacivanjem’ poprečno postavljenih volumena prema ulici i prema dvorištu.

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The project was conceived to meet the requirements of attractive appearance, visual dynamics and modern spatial organisation; the materials were chosen with aim of achieving a high level of architectural design and lasting high quality. Work areas have been provided with new possibilities: comfortable work spaces of interesting spatial arrangements and views, transparency, fluidity, casualness, vicinity of terraces suited for socializing, conversations and work in the open, in natural and green space, and in some places – in an almost garden-like environment. All this contributes to a feeling of harmony and satisfaction during stay there. The spatial composition of vertical arrangement of longitudinal, transverse and atrial forms creates dynamic internal space, and contributes to the attractive appearance of the building, which we additionally tried to emphasise by alternately ‘projecting out’ transversally set volumes facing the street and the courtyard.

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

77

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Nova građevina svojim volumenom sudjeluje u aktivaciji unutrašnjosti bloka formirajući unutrašnji trg. Povećanje slobodnog prostora kao javnog, hortikulturno i parterno riješenog trga omogućava slobodan pristup budućem Hrvatskom povijesnom muzeju i afirmativno se odnosi prema zgradi pod zaštitom. U zoni prizemlja nove zgrade nalaze se javne namjene, a njezina transparentnost omogućava vizualnu povezanost novog trga s Jagićevom ulicom.

The volume of the new building takes part in the activation of the interior of the block by forming an inner square. Expanded free space designed as a public square with a fully resolved landscaping and floor design provides a free access to the future Croatian Historical Museum, and has an affirmative relation towards the protected building. At the ground floor zone of the new building there are public purpose areas, and the transparency of the zone enables a visual connection of the new square with the Jagićeva street.

Poslovni centar Adris, Zagreb

Adris Business Complex, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

Tlocrt drugoga kata / 2nd floor plan

Tlocrt petoga kata / 5th floor plan

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

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Tlocrt osmoga kata / 8th floor plan

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

79

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Nova zgrada kompleksa Adris grupe kvalitetno se oblikovno uklapa u postojeće tkivo donjogradskog bloka i afirmira staru tvornicu u kontrastu sa svojim suvremenim oblikovnim jezikom. Ujedno ima ulogu novoga prostornog repera zapadnog dijela grada u prostoru naglašenih povijesnih i urbanih vrijednosti. Arhitektonska artikulacija punih, šupljih, ozelenjenih i transparentnih dijelova realiziranog programa zgrade predstavlja dinamični događaj vidljiv u osi Primorske ulice.

The new building of the Adris Group complex harmoniously blends – in terms of design – into the existing tissue of the downtown block and affirms the old factory in contrast to its own contemporary design language. At the same time, it plays the role of a new spatial benchmark of the western part of the city – in an area of pronounced historical and urban values. Architectural articulation of full, hollow, green and transparent segments of the constructed building programme results in a dynamic presence visible along the Primorska street axis.

Poslovni centar Adris, Zagreb

Adris Business Complex, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Lenko Pleština suradnik / collaborator Vjekoslav Žele status projekta / project status Studija / Study investitor / client Vlastito istraživanje / Personal research lokacija / location Nije definirana / Undefined

2012.

projektirano/ designed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Kuća Déjà Vu

House Déjà Vu

Ova utvrđena atrijska kuća zasniva se na matrici dva kvadrata: vanjskoga, veličine 12 × 12 metara i zakrenutog unutrašnjega, 6 × 6 metara kojim je postignuta rotaciona simetrija. Dva su kata povezana četirima ugaonim stubištima, a na svakom od četiri međupodesta nalaze se ulazi u kuću. Donji nivo (napola ukopan iako se to ne doživljava ni kada ste unutra, a niti izvana) koncipiran je kao rastvoren prostor (open space, total raum) i u potpunosti služi za zajednički boravak. Gornji kat ima četiri identične spavaće sobe s kupaonicama – intimni prostori koji se mogu zatvoriti u sebe, ali mogu biti otvoreni za kružnu cirkulaciju poput ‘kružne anfilade’. Posebna senzacija ove kuće-utvrde jest voda u njezinu središtu. Atrij je zapravo bazen za plivanje jer se voda grije tijekom cijele godine, a ljeti su u njemu i zračni madraci. Svjetlo, sunce i svjež zrak ulaze preko atrija. Osim ta četiri ulaza, prema van drugih otvora nema pa je, uz čvrsta vrata, kuća prava tvrđava. Prikladna je za posve malu parcelu, a pogotovo u gusto izgrađenom ambijentu, za tijesno gradsko dvorište ili kao jedinica za multiplikaciju nekog urbanog tepiha. Za koga je ova kuća složena? Može li konvencionalna obitelj, roditelji s djecom, obitavati u njoj ili je to prostor za neke druge nekonvencionalne oblike življenja i za vanstandardne obitelji? Procjenjujem da je ova ‘već viđena kuća’ višestruko upotrebljiva. Ako vam se čini da ste ovakvu kuću već negdje vidjeli – moguće je. I meni se učinila poznatom, pa sam krenuo istraživati. Očito je da je ovo jedna od kuća s konceptom središnjeg hala, odnosno središnjeg prostora. Među mnogobrojnim primjerima neki su pažljivije osmotreni. Moguće je da je House am Horn (1923., Georg Muche, Adolf Meyer / Weimar), prototip iz Bauhausa, bio polazište, baza projekta i podsticaj. Nije li vanjska mjera 12 × 12 m i unutrašnja mjera 6 × 6 m identična? Odlazak dnevnog boravka s pročelja u unutrašnjost kuće otvara mnoge mogućnosti. Pročelje nije više tako važno i kada smo ga jednom napustili s glavnom prostorijom, unutar kuće počinje se odvijati igra i mogu se vući raznovrsni potezi. Prvi, središnji prostor postaje atrij, a boravak se vraća prema periferiji kuće, ali sada već ‘kuće izgubljenih prozora’, a potom drugi potez: čvrsto tlo, zemljano, travnato, neznatno ili nimalo popločano, postaje voda i to voda za plivanje. Kod ove ‘već viđene kuće’ nije teško prepoznati najslavniju rezidenciju s četiri istovjetna pročelja, jednake fasade bez nekih funkcionalnih ili orijentacijskih diferencijacija. Vrlo slična ideja Rotondi (Andrea Palladio, 1567.) prisutna je u svojevrsnoj replici teorijskog projekta C. N. Duranda. U oba projekta četiri pristupna stubišta idu prema centralnom prostoru.

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

This fortified atrium house is based on the matrix of two squares: the outer one, 12 × 12 metres, and the inner rotated one, 6 × 6 metres, which allowed for rotational symmetry. Two storeys are connected by four corner staircases, and entrances into the house are positioned on each of the four intermediate landings. The lower level (half buried in the ground, even though one does not perceive it as such neither when one is inside, nor when one is outside) is designed as an open space (total raum) and it serves as a common living area in its entirety. There are four identical bedrooms with bathrooms on the upper storey – intimate spaces that may be closed, but may also be open allowing circular movement such as ‘circular enfilade’. What is especially remarkable about this house-fort is water in its centre. The atrium is in fact a swimming-pool since the water is heated throughout the year, and air mattresses float in it in summer. The light, sunshine and fresh air enter through the atrium. Except for these four entrances, there are no other openings towards the outside; thus, with its strong doors, the house is a true fortress. The house is suitable for quite a small plot, especially in densely developed areas, or for a narrow city backyard, or as a unit for multiplication of an? urban carpet. For whom is this house designed? Can a conventional family, parents with children, live in it, or is it a space meant for some other nonconventional forms of life and non-standard families? In my opinion, this ‘Déjà vu house’ is a multiple usage house. If it seems to you that you have already seen a house like this one – it is possible. It seemed familiar to me, too, so I did some research. This is obviously one of the houses with a concept of the central hall, i.e. central space. Among numerous examples, some were observed more closely. The House am Horn (1923, Georg Muche, Adolf Meyer / Weimar), a prototype from Bauhaus, was possibly a point of departure, the project basis and incentive. The outer dimensions of 12 × 12 m and the inner ones of 6 × 6 m are identical, are they not? The dislocation of the living room from the façade into the house interior opens numerous possibilities. The façade no longer matters so much, and once the main room abandoned it, a game starts within the house and various moves can be made. The atrium becomes the first, central space, and the living-room area returns towards the periphery of the house, that is now already a ‘house of lost windows’. Then comes a second move: firm ground, earth, grass, paved here and there, or not paved at all, becomes water, i.e. water to swim in. In this ‘Déjà vu house’ the most famous residence is easily recognisable with four identical façades without any functional or orientational differentiations. A very similar idea to the one of Andrea Palladio’s La Rotonda (1567) visible in the sort of a replica of a C. N. Duranda’s theoretical project. In both projects the four access staircases lead towards the central space. There

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Dvostruka simetrija je uspostavljena, a na paladijskom brijegu pored Vicenze vila je jednako postavljena prema svakoj od polustrana svijeta, sjeveroistoku, sjeverozapadu, jugozapadu i jugoistoku. Rješava li to njezin insolacijski problem? Donekle, ali da je barem centralni hal osvijetljen (i osunčan) i odozgo. Da bi se ovaj projekt dogodio, bio je potreban još jedan sastojak, a tu je pomogao Kazimir Maljevič. Ništa na ničemu, bijelo na bijelom, odnosno dva kvadrata, veći vanjski u ortogonalnoj, horizontalno-vertikalnoj poziciji i manji unutarnji u pokretu, u rotaciji. U ‘ništavilu’ bijele boje, u ‘siromaštvu’ oblika, tek u obrisima jednostavnih kvadrata rađa se ideja zakretanja. Ovi kvadrati pokrenuli su kompoziciju duple paladijske simetrije i nastala je rotacijska simetrija.

is double symmetry, and the Palladio’s villa on the hilltop outside Vicenza was rotated degrees from each cardinal point of the compass. Does this resolve the issue of insolation? It does, to a degree. Yet, if only the central hall were lit and insolated from the top. For such a project to take place one more ingredient was necessary, and this is where Kazimir Malevich came to help. Nothing on nothing, white on white, i.e. two squares, a bigger external one in the orthogonal, horizontal and vertical positions, and the smaller interior one in motion, rotated. In the ‘nothingness’ of the white colour, in the ‘scarcity’ of shapes, the idea of rotation is born only in the contours of simple squares. These squares have moved the composition of double Palladian symmetry and creating rotational symmetry.

Ne bih želio zaobići još dvije reference. Jednom u prošlosti, 1956. godine, Alison i Peter Smithson izradili su model kuće za budućnost, ‘House of the Future’, a što bi moglo značiti upravo kuću za ovo naše današnje vrijeme. I ta, sada već ‘kuća naše sadašnjosti’ uglavnom je orijentirana prema unutrašnjosti, više prema atriju, a manje prema eksterijeru. Kao da je ta orijentacija prema unutrašnjosti bila vodilja Campu Baezi i njegovim dvjema kućama jake, totalne introvertiranosti (Casa Gaspar, 1992. i Casa Guerrero, 2005.) Gledajući fotografije bijelih utvrda u izazovnom ozelenjenom pejzažu, postavlja se pitanje, što je navelo arhitekta na ovakva rješenja? Kao da je u korisnika prisutan neki strah, a mi ne znamo o čemu se radilo i zbog čega su se oni povukli doslovno unutar svoja četiri visoka zida. Osjećamo samo snagu minimalističke ekspresije čistog geometrijskog volumena i zacijelo jednu enigmu te stoga rado gledamo tu arhitektonsku dogodovštinu koja može poslužiti kao referenca, alibi, excuse, ako je nešto krivo ili ekstremno defanzivno postavljeno u ‘već viđenoj kući’.

There are two more references that I would like to note. Once, in the past, in 1956, Alison and Peter Smithson designed a model of ‘House of the Future’ which could be just the house for these contemporary times. Then future and now contemporary house is mostly oriented towards the interior, the atrium, rather than the exterior. As if this orientation towards the interior guided Campo Baeza and his two houses that are intensely, totally introverted (Casa Gaspar, 1992, and Casa Guerrero, 2005). As we look at the photographs of the white forts in the challenging green landscape, the question arises as to what made the architect come to such solutions. As if there was some kind of fear in the user, and we do not know what it was about and why they literally retreated behind their tall walls. We only feel the strength of the minimalist expression, and certainly the enigma, of the pure geometrical volume; we therefore love watching this architectural adventure which may be used as a reference, an alibi, an excuse, if something is mistakenly or extremely defensively positioned in the déjà vu house.

Zaključak je da je ovaj projekt nastao na referencama, baš kao i mnogi drugi. Je li to svjesno ili nesvjesno uzimanje, kopiranje, prerađivanje, posuđivanje ili potkradanje? Kuća déjà vu – posudba ili krađa iz nehata? ‘Good artists borrow! Great artists steal’ (rekli su navodno i T. S. Eliot, i Pablo Picasso, i Igor Stravinski, moguće i Steve Jobs).

In conclusion: this project has originated from the references, just like many others. Was this a conscious or unconscious taking, copying, reworking, borrowing or stealing? The Déjà vu house – a case of borrowing or unintentional theft? ‘Good artists borrow! Great artists steal’ (allegedly said by T. S. Eliot, and Pablo Picasso, and Igor Stravinsky, and possibly Steve Jobs).

Kuća Déjà Vu

house Déjà Vu

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

Tlocrt prvoga kata / 1st floor plan

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facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Branimir Rajčić Branka Levačić, Domagoj Maraković status projekta / project status Natječajni rad / Competition Project investitor / client Grad Ivanić Grad / City of Ivanić Grad lokacija / location Ivanić Grad

2009.

projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Trg Vladimira Nazora, Ivanić Grad

Vladimir Nazor Square, Ivanić Grad

Osnovne su karakteristike projektnog prijedloga uređenja Trga Vladimira Nazora kontekstualnost i afirmativnost. Prostorni kontekst analizira se kroz promjene načina korištenja i promjene oblikovanja. Promišljajući sadašnjost i pokušavajući zamisliti buduće događaje, odredili smo se prema vremenskom kontekstu. Zaključili smo da na prostoru obuhvata nema neprihvatljivih elemenata, pa se predloženo rješenje prema postojećim elementima odnosi pozitivno, čuvajući ih i potvrđujući. Na širem su području obuhvata do prve trećine 19. stoljeća postojali Tvrđava (okružena grabištem) i Podgrađe. Nakon 1827. godine postupno se ruše zemljani nasipi utvrde, zasipava grabište i odvodni kanal, a na sjeveroistočnom dijelu uređuje se gradski perivoj. Do 1920. godine izgrađena je većina zgrada koje definiraju rubove trga. Po dimenzijama i načinu korištenja (prostor trženja) trg je još uvijek ‘proširena komunikacija’ između Podgrađa i novih reprezentativnih zgrada u gradskom perivoju. Tržnica se sa prostora trga izmješta 1955. godine, a na sjevernom rubu sade se stabla. Od 1970. godine zgrada županije, Dom umirovljenika i ‘Ivanićanka’ programski i mjerilom dijele trg u dva dijela (sjeverni i južni), povećavaju mjerilo sjevernog dijela i zaklanjaju pogled prema župnoj crkvi. Sadašnje prometno rješenje negira trg kao mjesto (parkiranje) ili ga dijeli na istočni i zapadni dio. Trg je asimetričan po obliku i načinu korištenja. Istočni rub sastoji se od nižih i manjih kuća, dok su prostori između kuća zapunjeni dogradnjama. Zapadni rub ima veće i više kuće, a prostori između njih koriste se kao gospodarska dvorišta (klesar, automehaničar...). Na sjevernom dijelu s obje strane nalaze se više kuće. Prema intenzitetu događaja, šire područje obuhvata možemo podijeliti na četiri dijela: dinamični Trg Svetog Jurja, mirni glavni trg, dinamični Trg Vladimira Nazora i mirni Park Stjepana Posezija. Idući prema sjeveru trg se širi na zapad prema perivoju i župnoj crkvi, a prema jugu na istok prema Savskoj ulici. Visoko zelenilo prati postojeću prometnu shemu ili drži sjeverni i jugoistočni rub trga. Radi svega navedenog trg smo očitali kao cjelinu velikog mjerila ali i kao niz manjih trgova različitih karaktera, što smo pokušali očuvati ili naglasiti novim intervencijama.

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The basic characteristics of the project proposal for the design of Vladimir Nazor Square are contextuality and affirmation. The spatial context is analyzed through changes in the way of using is rendered as well as through changes in the way of shaping. Pondering upon the present and trying to imagine future events, we decided in favor of the temporal context. We concluded that there are no unacceptable elements on the comprised area, hence the proposed design relates positively towards the existing elements, preserving them and confirming them. Until the first third of the 19th century there was a citadel (surrounded by grabište) and Podgrađe on the wider area of the space comprised with this design. After 1827, the citadel’s trench ramparts were gradually demolished, the grabište was covered, the precipitation canal was also covered, while in the north-eastern part of the area, city gardens were designed and formed. By 1920 the majority of the buildings defining the edges of the square were built. By the dimensions and manner of usage (marketplace), the square remains to be ‘expanded communication’ between Podgrađe and the new representative buildings in the city gardens. The market was displaced in 1955, and trees were planted on the northern edge. Since 1970, the County building, the Residential Care Home and ‘Ivanićanka’ in program and in scale separate the square into two parts (northern and southern), enlarge the scale of the northern part and hide the view on the county church. The current traffic design negates the square as a place (parking) or divides it into eastern and western part. The square is asymmetric by its shape and manner of usage. The east edge consists of lower and smaller houses while the spaces between the houses are filled with additional constructions. The west edge has more houses which are also bigger and the spaces between them are used as economy backyards (carver, auto repair shop...). There are higher houses in the northern part from both sides. According to the intensity of events, the wider comprised area can be divided into four parts: the dynamic square of St. George, the peaceful main square, the dynamic Vladimir Nazor Square and the peaceful park of Stjepan Posezi. Going northwards, the square expands on the west in the direction of the gardens and the county church, and in the south, towards Savska Street. High greenery goes along the existing traffic scheme or holds the northern and the south-eastern edge of the square. Due to everything stated above we read the square as an integer of great scale, but also as row of smaller squares of different characters, which we tried to preserve and accentuate with new interventions.

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Predlaže se ukidanje prometa na cijelom trgu (osim interventnog i servisnog) i usporavanje prometa u Ulici kralja Tomislava. Ostale varijante prometa u Tomislavovoj ulici (dvosmjerni, jednosmjerni, ukidanje) treba provjeriti prometnom studijom. Po rubu trga uz pristupne ceste predlaže se postavljanje stalaka za bicikle. Jedinstveni materijal plohe potvrđuje trg kao cjelinu, a denivelacije ga interpretiraju kao niz manjih trgova. Pozicije nagnutih ploha potvrđuju glavne pješačke tokove i ne ometaju gospodarski i interventni promet. Nagib ploha je blag pa se ne osjeća hodanjem nego se percipira kao promjena horizonta. Nasuprot nagibu su denivelacije koje izdvajaju trgove, napinju plohu i služe kao dio urbane opreme (velike klupe). Upuštanje na zapadnom rubu glavnog trga naglašava smjer prema Župnoj crkvi, izdvaja kuće i gospodarska dvorišta i podsjeća da se na toj strani nalazio odvodni kanal. Izdizanje na istočnoj strani Trga Vladimira Nazora odvaja glavni trg od buke Ulice kralja Tomislava i gužve ispred ‘Ivanićanke’, a trg fokusira prema zgradi Županije. Ploha dječjeg trga se izravnava sa višom kotom Podgrađa, a ploha tihog trga blago diže prema Podgrađu.

We suggest that the traffic on the entire square is dislocated (except for the emergency and service vehicles) and slowing of traffic in Kralja Tomislava Street. All other variants of traffic in Tomislavova street (one way traffic, two way traffic, removal of traffic) need to be verified with a traffic study. Bicycles stands can be set up along the edge of the square, along the access roads. The unique material of the plain confirms the square as a whole, and the denivelations interpret it as series of smaller squares. The positions of the slant plains confirm the main pedestrian flows and do not interfere with the economy and emergency traffic. The slope of the plains is mild and it cannot be felt when walking. It is rather perceived as change of horizon. Across the slope there are denivelations separating the square, create tension in the plain and serve as part of the urban equipment (big bench). The sloping on the western edge of the main square accentuates the direction towards the county church, separates houses and economy backyards and reminds that a precipitation canal used to be on that side. The erection on the east side of the Vladimir Nazor Square isolates the main square from the noise on Kralja Tomislava Street and the hustle in front of ‘Ivanićanka’, while the square focuses on the County building. The children's square plain levels with the highest point of Podgrađe, and the plain of the quiet square rises towards Podgrađe.

Popločenje je u mjerilu trga i koraka, od kamenih ili betonskih ploča dimenzija 60 × 30 / 60 / 90 cm. Na dijelu trga na kojem će se nalaziti ljetne terase kafića ploče su brušene ili glatke brušenjem, dok su ostale ploče paljene. Uzdužne reške su vidljive, a poprečne izmaknute radi perspektivnog skraćenja. Na upuštenom dijelu glavnog trga, dijelu Trga Vladimira Nazora i dijelu dječjeg trga poprečne reške se šire kako bi propustile travu koja omekšava površinu i ‘pikselizira’ trg. Uzdužna os trga se savija pa se proporcionalno mijenja i smjer poprečnih reški.

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Trg Vladimira Nazora, Ivanić Grad

The tessellation is in scale of the square and step, made of stone or concrete panels dimensioned 60 × 30 / 60 / 90 cm. On the part of the square where summer terraces of coffee shops are going to be set, the panels are finished by grinding or are smoothed by grinding, while the rest are burned. Longitudinal seams are visible; the crosswise ones are dislocated with the purpose of shortening perspective. On the slope of the main square, on part of the Vladimir Nazor square and part of the children's square, crosswise seams spread in order to pass the grass which softens

Vladimir Nazor Square, Ivanić Grad


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Niz trgova počinje Trgom Svetog Jurja. Visinska razlika između Savske ulice (viša kota) i križišta rješava se plitkim stepenicama koje se na prostoru trga šire u terase s kojih se pregledno vidi cijeli trg. Radi toga se dio može koristiti kao ljetna terasa za obližnje kafiće. Ostatak je namješten drvenim klupama. Pod je izrađen od tenisita oker boje, u svijetlim tonovima. Rubovi stuba su od masivnih ipe profila, a rubnjaci oko stabala od kortenske pločevine. Prema Savskoj ulici su očuvani postojeći i zasađeni novi borovi.

the surface and pixelates the square. The longitudinal axis of the square bends thus proportionally changing the direction of the crosswise seams. Row of squares begins with the St. George Square. The difference in altitude between Savska Street (highest parameter) and the crossroad is resolved with shallow staircase which on the square expands into terraces with clear overview of the entire square. Hence, part of it can be used as summer terrace for the nearby coffee shops. The rest is fitted out with wooden benches. The floor is made of ochre tenisite in bright tones. The edges of the pillar are made of massive e-p profiles and the curbstones around the trees are made of corten plates. The old pine trees facing Savska Street have been preserved and new ones were also planted.

Dječji trg je niša izdignuta iz prostora Trga Svetog Jurja, a u nivou Podgrađa. Živih je boja: meki pod od EPDM-a i reciklirane gume, crvenolisni javori, igračke (tobogan, ljuljačke, cijev...) i žuta ograda s vratima. Križište je mjesto na kojem trg još uvijek govori da je nekada bio proširena ulica. To je dodatno naglašeno mimosmjernim ‘križanjem’ drvoreda (koji ‘u zraku’ prelazi sa zapadne na istočnu stranu) i trake u popločenju od brušenog kamena (koja na tlu prelazi s istočne na zapadnu stranu). Idući prema glavnom trgu, križište se širi ali i izdvaja od dječjeg trga prijelazom koji je riješen kao stepenasta denivelacija – klupa. Glavni trg je mjesto za druženje i najmirniji je i najveći od svih trgova. Koridori komunikacija izuzeti su iz plohe trga tako da ju tangiraju, a u slučaju velikog događaja povećavaju. Komunikacija na zapadnom rubu izdvojena je denivelacijom i drvoredom, a na istočnom rubu različitom obradom plohe – brušenjem. Stepenasta denivelacija – klupa usmjerava trg prema istoku i omogućuje ugodno popodnevno sjedenje. Pozornica za velike događaje može biti na južnom vrhu trga ili na sjeveru – najvišem dijelu Trga Vladimira Nazora.

Detalji / Details

Izdizanje plohe Trg Vladimira Nazora usmjerava prema zapadu, zgradi Županije i spomeniku. Kraj izdizanja prema istoku i ‘Ivanićanki’ stvara stepenastu denivelaciju – klupu. Izdizanje plohe omogućuje da se u slučaju većih događaja pola trga pridruži glavnom trgu ili Ulici kralja Tomislava. Na ravnom dijelu i najvišoj koti nalazi se fontana koja proizvodi nježnu izmaglicu, a vizualno i akustički izdvaja trg od Ulice kralja Tomislava i pod određenim kutom svjetla stvara dugu. Postojeće visoko zelenilo na sjeveru učvršćuje rub trga i najavljuje Park Stjepana Posezija. Visoko zelenilo na sjevernom i jugoistočnom rubu i rasvjetni stupovi određuju vertikalnu dimenziju trga.

The children's square is a niche risen from St. George square, leveling Podgrađe. It employs bright colors: soft floor made of EPDM and recycled rubber, read-leaf maple trees, toys (toboggans, swings, pipe...) and yellow fence with doors. The crossing is a place where the square still speaks of once being an expanded street. It is being additionally emphasized with bidirectional ‘crossing’ of the tree-lined path (which ‘in the air’ transverses from the west to the east side) and the line in the tessellation, made of stone finished by grinding (which on the ground transverses from the east to the west side). Going towards the main square, the crossing expands but it also splits from the children’s square with a pathway that is solved as gradual denivelation – bench. The main square is place for hanging out and it is the most peaceful and the biggest of all squares. The communication corridors are exempted from the square’s plain in a way they act as its tangents, and in case of a big event they increase it. The communication in the western part is separated by denivelation and alley and in the eastern part by various surface treatments of the plain – grinding for example. The gradual denivelation – bench directs the square towards east and enables pleasant afternoon sitting. The stage for big events can be positioned either on the southern end of the square or in the north – the highest part of the Vladimir Nazor square. The rising of the plain of Vladimir Nazor Square leads towards west, the County building and the monument. The end of the rising leads towards east and ‘Ivanićanka’ creating a denivelation – bench. The rising of the plain enables that in case of bigger events half of the square adjoins the main square or the King Tomislav Street. On the flat part and the highest level baseline there is a fountain that produces gentle mist, visually

Shema popločenja / Tesselation pattern

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Tihi trg nastao je u niši između sjeveroistočnog ruba Podgrađa i stražnje strane zgrade Županije, u blizini živosti Trga Vladimira Nazora i mira Podgrađa. Trokutasta ploha trga se penje prema Podgrađu, a završava dugačkom klupom. Na ravnom dijelu plohe nalaze se humci zasađeni sezonskim cvijećem.

and acoustically separating the square from King Tomislav Street. Under certain angle of light, it creates a rainbow. The existing high greenery on the north solidifies the edge of the square and announces the Stjepan Posezi Park. The high greenery on the northern and the southeastern part and the lightening pillars determine the vertical dimension of the square. The silent square emerged in the niche between the northeastern edge of Podgrađe and the back side of the County building, near the vivacity of the Vladimir Nazor Square and the peace of Podgrađe. The triangular plain of the square rises towards Podgrađe, and ends with a long bench. On the flat part of the plain there are barrows planted with seasonal flowers.

Zapadno pročelje / West facade

Plan uređenja površina / General layout

Istočno pročelje / East facade

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Trg Vladimira Nazora, Ivanić Grad

Vladimir Nazor Square, Ivanić Grad


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Centar za sprečavanje i proučavanje prirodnih katastrofa, Istanbul, Turska

Disaster Prevention and Education Centre, Istanbul, Turkey

autori / authors Goran Rako Sara Jurinčić, Iva Pejić, Iva Peručić, Ana Rako, Josip Sabolić status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada) / Competition Project (1st prize) lokacija / location Istanbul, Turska

2011.

projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

Kontekst u kojem će biti smješten istanbulski Centar za sprječavanje i proučavanje prirodnih katastrofa (Disaster Prevention and Education Centre), za razliku od mnogih nevjerojatnih mjesta u gradu Istanbulu, nije vrijedan prevelikog uvažavanja. Zato se ne mučimo s nepotrebnim uklapanjem u okolinu. Umjesto ‘natjecanja’ s velikim i arhitektonski neartikuliranim građevinama kojima je okruženo mjesto za gradnju, biramo ‘ignoriranje’. Zatim formiramo novi mikrosvijet, podjednako tradicionalan i suvremen. Među visokim zgradama, gradimo prizemnicu. Uspostavljamo nova /stara pravila te predlažemo prostor u kojem će posjetitelji i zaposlenici imati komadić drugačijeg, boljeg svemira. Nov urbani element u stvari je vrlo star, te stoljećima potvrđivana vrijednost tradicionalne lokalne arhitekture. Kako Centar ne bi bio neuočljiv dok ne dođemo u njegovu neposrednu blizinu, u jednom jezeru vrta postavljamo vodoskok koji ga već izdaleka čini posebnim i prepoznatljivim. Vrt formira komunikacija duljine atletske staze koja ga okružuje. Na njoj se ritmički izmjenjuju pojedini specifični prostori: oni koji trebaju više mira za učenike po vanjskom rubu, a oni drugi na unutarnjem, uz park. Ovaj je prostor istovremeno park, vrt i oaza, dvorište i igralište za djecu i odrasle, hladovina ispod krošanja stabala, zatim voda u jezeru, ribe, vodoskok. Park je hol za lijepog vremena, a u Istanbulu je to veći dio godine. Učionice su različite, ovisno o programu koji se u njima održava. Iznad svake jedinice nalazi se kupola, još jedan tradicionalni, a ujedno i suvremeni element iskorišten za postavu sunčevih kolektora na osunčanoj strani. Vanjski rub kuće zaštićen je staklenim brisolejima, a potreban mrak osigurava se sustavom zavjesa s vodilicama na stropu. S unutarnje strane je nadstrešnica koja smanjuje preveliki upad zraka sunca. U istu svrhu služe i stabla koja će biti posebno gusto posađena na sjevernom rubu parka.

The context in which the Istanbul Disaster Prevention and Education Centre is going to be situated, unlike many incredible places in the city of Istanbul, is not worthy of too much appreciation. That is why we do not torment ourselves with unnecessary efforts to fit it in the environment. Instead of ‘competing’ with huge and architecturally unarticulated constructions by which the construction site is surrounded, we choose to ‘ignore’ them. Then we form our own micro world, equally traditional and contemporary. The new urban element is actually very old, and represents a value of the traditional local architecture that has been confirmed for centuries. In order to avoid making the Centre inconspicuous until one reaches its immediate vicinity, we set up a fountain in one of the lakes of the garden, which makes it special and recognizable even from a greater distance. The garden is formed by the communication of the length of the athletic track which surrounds it. Specific spaces alternate rhythmically on it: those that need to provide more peace for the students, on the outer edge, and the other ones on the inner edge, along the park. This space is at the same time a park, a garden and oasis, backyard and playground for both children and adults, cool shadowy place under the tree tops, then water in the lake, fish, and fountain... The park is a hall during beautiful weather, and in Istanbul, it is the larger part of the year. The classrooms are various, depending on the program for which they are reserved. Above each unit there is a cupola, another traditional, yet contemporary element used for setting up sun collectors on the sunny side. The outer edge of the house is protected with glass Venetian blinds, and the necessary dimness is secured with a system of curtains with guides on the ceiling. On the inner side there is a canopy which prevents excessive entrance of sun rays. The trees which are going to be planted particularly closely will have the same purpose. The construction consists of steel pillars that follow the facade line and bear a steel barbecue, and all this in low-tech mode. The building will use all available systems of sustainability and we believe in its pioneer role in that area.

Konstrukcija su čelični stupovi koji prate crtu pročelja i nose čelični roštilj, a sve to vrlo low-tech. Zgrada će koristiti sve moguće dostupne sustave održivosti, i mi vjerujemo u njezinu pionirsku ulogu na tom području.

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Pročelje prizemlja / Ground floor facade

Uzdužni presjek prizemlja / Ground floor longitudinal section

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

87

Centar za sprečavanje i proučavanje prirodnih katastrofa Istanbul, Turska

Disaster Prevention and Education Centre, Istanbul, Turkey


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Goran Rako Martina Babić, Fani Frković, Vedrana Ivanda, Domagoj Ivanović, Iva Pejić, Josip Sabolić status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (2. nagrada) / Competition Project (2nd prize) investitor / client Josip Juraj Strossmayer Sveučilište u Osijeku / Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek lokacija / location Osijek

2012. projektirano/ designed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sveučilišna knjižnica, Osijek

University Library, Osijek

Urbanistički elementi na kojima se temelji arhitektura naše zgrade Sveučilišne knjižnice u Osijeku vrlo su određeni. Oni su u stvari nastavak afirmiranja postojećeg urbanističkog rješenja sveučilišnog kampusa. U tom ‘izdvojenom’ prostoru, smještenom istočno od središta Osijeka i nedaleko od obale rijeke Drave, nova zgrada knjižnice zauzet će važno, a možda najvažnije polje ove urbanističke ‘šahovske ploče’. ‘Oslobađajući’ prizemlje, podižući čitaonicu u zrak, dopuštamo svim putevima kampusa da se križaju u holu knjižnice. Hol tako postaje ‘grijani’ dio trga, mjesto ‘muvanja’, prostor onih funkcija koje nisu čitaonica (kongresna i mala dvorana, izložbeni prostori, knjižara, kafić i drugo). Površina hola postala je dio samog kampusa i pritom se povećala dominacija pješaka.

Tlocrt prvoga kata / 1st floor plan

88

The urban elements on which the architecture of our University library building in Osijek is based are very specific. They are actually continued affirmation of the existing urban solution of the university campus. In that ‘separated’ space, positioned on the east from the center of Osijek and not far from the bank of Drava River, the new library building will appropriate an important, or maybe even the most important field of this urban ‘chess board’. By ‘freeing’ the ground floor and lifting the reading room in the air, we allow that all campus roads cross in the library hall. The hall thus becomes the ‘heated’ part of the square, place for ‘hanging out’, space of all those functions that do not fall into the scope of the library (congress and small hall, exhibit spaces, book store etc.). The surface of the hall became part of the campus itself and at the same time the domination of the pedestrians is increased.

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sveučilišna Knjižnica, Osijek

University Library, Osijek

Poprečni presjek / Cross section

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

89


facta architectonica 2

90

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Nakon što smo ‘oslobodili’ prizemlje podizanjem čitaonice ‘u zrak’, gore radimo prostor suprotnih osobina koji je, za razliku od onog u holu, prostor okrenut samom sebi. Čitaonica, dakako, nije zatvorena doslovno, već je okružena ‘zidom’ knjiga koje su pak okružene uredima. Brisoleji štite sve od previše sunca, a mjestimično su otvoreniji ili zatvoreniji, ovisno o namjeni prostora neposredno iza njih. Kako bi se osvijetlio dominantno introvertni prostor čitaonice, uvodimo sustav atrija koji osiguravaju prirodno osvjetljenje i prozračivanje. Oni ujedno dijele veliki čitaonički prostor na manje cjeline. Krovovi atrija su ozelenjeni, i svojevrsne su ‘livade’ u ‘šumi’ knjiga.

After we had ‘freed’ the ground floor by lifting the reading room ‘in the air’, we made upstairs a space of opposing characteristics, which, unlike the one in the hall, is a space turned toward itself. The reading room is, naturally, not closed literally, but it is surrounded with a ‘wall’ of books which are surrounded by offices. The Venetian blinds protect everything from exposure to too much sun, and they are in some places more opened or more closed, depending on the purpose of the space which is immediately behind them. In order to illuminate the dominantly introvert space of the reading room, we introduced a system of atriums that secure natural lightening and air conditioning. At the same time they separate the big reading space into smaller entireties. The roofs of the atriums are green spaces and they represent ‘meadows’ of their own kind in the ‘forest’ of books.

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

91

Sveučilišna Knjižnica, Osijek

University Library, Osijek


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Centar za skrb o oboljeloj djeci, Zagreb

Care Center for Ill Children, Zagreb

autori / authors Mia Roth-Čerina Tonči Čerina suradnik / Collaborator Danko Balog status projekta / project status Natječajni rad / Competition Project investitor / client Grad Zagreb / City of Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb

2011.

projektirano/ designed

92

Priroda programa obiteljskog humanitarnog centra za skrb o oboljeloj djeci usmjerava pozornost na formiranje niza toplih unutarnjih situacija koje se fluidnim putanjama nadovezuju jedna na drugu. Izvana je kuća čvrsta, omotana kontinuiranom ovojnicom koja je ispuštena na mjestima uvučenih trgova, trijemova i vrtova/terasa i zaštitnička je. Iznutra je pak razvedena ambijentima 'doma daleko od doma'. Kuća se odnosi prijateljski prema korisnicima i omogućava im da pronađu svoj kutak. Različita ali i kontrolirana mjesta za igranje, razgovore, učenje, šetnju ili odmor granaju se kroz unutrašnji prostor centra i prate dnevne potrebe djece i roditelja. Mjerilo kuće usitnjeno je nizom situacija koje nude empatičan odgovor na svakodnevicu korisnika. Kuća je pregledna u svakom trenutku iz raznih smjerova, a istovremeno omogućava povlačenje od zajedničke igre do mirnog i tihog kutka ili sobe. Vanjski prostor se u prizemlju preko glavnog ulaznog trga uvlači u središte, a sjeverni trijem uz alternativni ulaz u lječilišni dio nastavlja se na manji trg kojim se ostvaruje veza s domom zdravlja. Atrij, ozelenjene terase i krovni vrt stvaraju dodatne nanourbane situacije, isječke uređene prirode nadohvat svakodnevice u centru.

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

The programmatic nature of the humanitarian family center for caring of ill children directs the attention to creating warm interior situations which interconnect along fluid trajectories. On the outside, the house is firmly wrapped in a continuous brick envelope which breathes where squares, porticos and gardens/ terraces perforate it. On the inside, it diverges through ambiences providing ‘a home away from home’. The building is friendly toward its users and enables them to find a nook of their own. Various but controlled spaces for play, talk, study, walk or rest branch out through the interior of the center and follow the daily needs of the children and their parents. The scale of the building is reduced by means of small, specific situations which offer an empathic answer to the users’ daily routines. The common space is legible from various places and directions, at the same time offering the possibility of retreat to a quiet corner or room. The atrium, green terraces and roof garden create added nano urban conditions, fragments of a regulated nature within reach of the center’s everyday life.

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Centar za skrb o oboljeloj djeci, Zagreb

Care Center for Ill Children, Zagreb

Poprečni presjek / Cross section

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

93


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Liturgijske građevine za susrete sa Svetim Ocem Benediktom XVI., Zagreb

Liturgical Construction for the Meeting of the Pope Benedict XVI., Zagreb

autori / authors Zorana Sokol-Gojnik Igor Gojnik suradnici / Collaborators Pavao Kosturin, Krešimir Kolaković konstrukcija / construction Željko Frančišković, Mladen Meštrović status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Hrvatska biskupska konferencija i Vlada Republike Hrvatske / Croatian Bishops’ Conference and Government of the Republic of Croatia lokacija / location Zagreb

2011. 2011.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

Prvi arhitektonski zadatak bio je projekt liturgijske građevine za susret pape Benedikta XVI. s mladima na Trgu bana Jelačića. Budući da je riječ o snažno definiranom urbanističkom kontekstu, zadatak je bio složen. Arhitektonskim pristupom koristila se metoda kontrasta prema zatečenom kontekstu. Kontrast je postignut bijelom i dinamičnom formom. Međutim, prostornom dispozicijom građevine uspostavljen je odnos Kaptola – Katedrale i Trga bana Josipa Jelačića. Prostor bdijenja bio je smješten na istočnoj strani Trga čime se otvorila vizura prema Katedrali. Na taj je način misaono i prostorno povezan sakralni prostor grada (zagrebačka Katedrala) s profanim prostorom grada (glavnim gradskim trgom). Arhitektonskim rješenjem liturgijskog prostora za bdijenje pape Benedikta XVI. s mladima pokušalo se izraziti osnovni teološki koncept kršćanstva – čovjekov život kao kompleksnu egzistenciju onkraj samo konkretnosti svakodnevnog. Tako je tijek čovjekovog života u njegovoj bremenitosti i nepredvidljivosti simbolički prikazan krivudavom uzdižućom i ponirućom rampom, a vertikalnom izlomljenom masom simbolički je prikazana težina da se u svakodnevnom ophođenju sa svijetom dosegne čovjekova autentična ontološka mogućnost zakretanja horizontalne egzistencijalne ravnine u vertikalnu. Duh Sveti, u kršćanstvu shvaćen kao preobražavajuća snaga na čovjekovom životnom putu, tradicionalno prikazan bijelom golubicom, ovdje je oblikovan ‘lebdećim’ konzolnim elementom.

The first architectural assignment was the project of liturgical construction for the meeting of the Pope Benedict XVI. with the youth on Ban Jelačić Square. Since this is urbanistically a strongly defined context, the assignment was complex. The architectonic approach used the contrasting method in keeping with the default context. The contrast was achieved with white and dynamic shape. However, the spatial disposition of the construct established the relationship Kaptol – Cathedral and Ban Jelačić Square. The space for the watch was positioned on the eastern part of the Square which opened a view toward the Cathedral. In that way the sacral space of the city (Zagreb Cathedral) were contemplatively and spatially connected with the profane space of the city (the main city square). The architectonic solution of the liturgical space for the watch of Pope Benedict XVI with the youth tried to express the basic theological Christian concept – human life as complex existence beyond the exclusive concreteness of everyday life. Thus the flow of a person’s life with its weight and unpredictability is symbolically showed with anfractuous rising and descending ramp, and the vertical broken mass symbolically shows the aspiration in a person’s everyday conduct with the world to attain authentic ontological possibility of rotating the horizontal existential plane into a vertical one. The Holy Spirit, in Christianity perceived as transforming force on a person’s life path, is traditionally shown with white dove, and it was here shaped with a ‘floating’ console element.

Tlocrt krova / Roof plan

94

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Ovim projektom pokušalo se sažeti i svu bremenitost simbolike pojedinih liturgijskih mjesta. Tako je oltar kao središte liturgijskog u linearnoj dinamici povezan s ambonom – oltarom Riječi, svjetlom Uskrsne svijeće i zdencem Manduševcem kao izvorom žive vode. Linearni slijed s jasnom prostornom hijerarhijskom diferenciranošću: Voda, Svjetlo, Riječ i Oltar završava ‘golubicom’ simbolom Duha Svetoga po kojem svi elementi dobivaju puninu simboličkog značenja. Usmjerenost prema oltaru naglašena je prilaznim stubištem. Ideja puta artikulirana je po uzdužnoj osi kompozicije, dok je povezivanje liturgijskih mjesta artikulirano po poprečnoj osi arhitektonske kompozicije. Predmet arhitektonskog oblikovanja bio je i dizajn liturgijskog namještaja koji je izveden prema projektu arhitekata.

95

Liturgijske građevine za susrete sa Svetim Ocem Benediktom XVI., Zagreb

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

This project tried also to resume the entire encumbrance of the symbolism of certain liturgical places. Thus the altar, as the center of the liturgical, in linear dynamics related to the altar of the Word, the light of Eastern candle and the Manduševec fountain as spring of life water. The linear order with clear spatial hierarchical differentiation: Water, Light, Word and Altar ends up with ‘dove’, symbol of the Holy Spirit, according upon which all elements receive richness of symbolic meaning. The direction towards the altar is emphasized by the access staircase. The idea of road is articulated on the longitudinal axis of the composition, while the linking of liturgical places is articulated by the transversal axis of the architectonic composition. Subject of architectonic shaping was also the design of liturgical furniture that was made in line with the architectural design.

Liturgical construction for the meeting of the Pope Benedict XVI., zagreb


facta architectonica 2

96

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Drugi projekt bio je projekt liturgijske građevine za središnje misno slavlje pape Benedikta XVI. na Hipodromu. Arhitektonskim konceptom liturgijskog prostora na Hipodromu pokušalo se izraziti ideju vodilju susreta s papom čiji je moto ‘zajedno u Kristu’. Arhitektonskim oblikovanjem pokušalo se stilizirano interpretirati temu ruku kao simbola zajedništva. Tako je jedna ‘ruka’ položena vertikalno, a druga horizontalno. Stilizirano interpretirane ‘ruke’ oprostoruju ideju zajedništva, ali i funkcionalno formiraju liturgijska mjesta. Vertikalna ruka povezuje križ, katedru i oltar naglašavajući ova liturgijska mjesta, a horizontalna ruka koja ‘lebdi’ ima funkciju nadstrešnice biskupima koji sudjeluju u misnom slavlju, a položena, simbolički izražava liturgijsku epikletsku gestu parafrazirajući kršćansku temu silaska Duha Svetoga. U svojoj kompozicijskoj napetosti i dinamici ‘ruke’ formiraju oltarni prostor te usmjeravaju vjernike prema oltaru stvarajući žarišnu točku u prostranom prostoru Hipodroma. Kao kontrapunkt vodoravnoj kompoziciji postavljen je visok bijeli križ. I u ovom je projektu predmet arhitektonskog oblikovanja bio i liturgijski namještaj: oltar, ambon i sedesi.

The second project was project of liturgical construction for the central jubilation mass of Pope Benedict XVI at the hippodrome. The architectonic concept of liturgical space at the hippodrome tried to express the principal idea for the meeting with the Pope, the motto of which was ‘together in Christ’. The architectonic shaping tried to stylistically interpret the theme of hands as symbol of communion. Thus one ‘hand’ is positioned vertically, and the other horizontally. The idea of communion comes into being through the stylistically interpreted ‘hands’, but the hands also functionally shape the liturgical places. The vertical hand connects the cross, the cathedra and the altar, emphasizing these liturgical places, and the ‘floating’ hand functions as an overhang for the bishops who participate in the jubilation mass. It symbolically expresses the liturgical epicletic gesture paraphrasing the Christian theme of the Descent of the Holy Spirit. With both their compositional tension and dynamics, the ‘hands’ shape the altar space and direct the believers towards the altar, creating the focal point in the wide space of the hippodrome. Contrapuntal to the horizontal composition is the tall white cross. In this project the liturgical furniture was also subject to the architectonic shaping: the altar, the ambone and sedesi.

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Tlocrt i pogledi / Floor plan and views

97

Liturgijske građevine za susrete sa Svetim Ocem Benediktom XVI., Zagreb

Liturgical construction for the meeting of the Pope Benedict XVI., zagreb


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Pavla Šimetin, Ivana Tutek Iva Dubovečak, Izvor Simonović-Majcan status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada) / Competition Project (1st prize) investitor / client Grad Šibenik / City of Šibenik lokacija / location Šibenik

2011.

projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Trg Poljana, Šibenik

Poljana Square, Šibenik

Trg Poljana, koji se nalazi u već ustaljenom sustavu objekata, parkova i arheološkog nalazišta, zamišljen je kao veliko polje koje se svakodnevno mijenja kroz život gradskog središta. Tako se ploha i prostor trga redefiniraju u aktivan gradski prostor namijenjen pješacima. Horizontalna usmjerenja na plohi trga uspostavila su ponavljanja i uhodane rute iz svakodnevice građana. Novostvoreno kvadratno polje točaka usmjereno logikom bedema i Vitićeve biblioteke definira prostor fleksibilne organizacije. Na plohi se tako preklapaju dvije matrice: klasični raster i polje. Očuvani izvorni oblik, format i dimenzije trga omogućili su uspostavljanje optimalnog odnosa između dinamike prometa i pronalaženja vizura koje mjestu daju dodatni značaj. Poljana je poljana. Crtež je prisutan u svim fazama razvoja projekta: od analiza postojećeg stanja i smjerova u prostoru koje nas vode do definiranja koncepta te položaja rastera i gustoće polja, preko skica i perspektiva što propituju prostorne odnose i oblikovna rješenja, pa sve do završne prezentacije.

Poljana Square, which is located in an already settled system of objects, parks and an archeological site, is conceptualized as great field which changes daily through the life of the town center. Thus the plane and the square space are redefined in the active city space intended for pedestrians. Horizontal directions on the square plane established repetitions and well-trodden routes from the citizens' everyday life. The newly created square field of dots directed with the logic of town walls and Vitić's library defines the space of flexible organization. The plane thus becomes a space where two matrices overlap: classic raster and field. The preserved original form, format and dimensions of the square enabled establishment of the optimal relation between the dynamics of the traffic and finding views which give the place additional significance. Poljana is poljana. The drawing is present in all developmental phases of the project: from the analysis of the existing condition and the directions in space which lead us to the definition of the concepts and position of raster and density of fields, through sketches and perspectives that reexamine the spatial relationships and shaping solutions, all the way to the final presentation.

Presjeci / Cross sections

98

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Trg poljana, Šibenik

Poljana square, Šibenik

Plan uređenja površina / General layout

99


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Plažno rekreacijski prostor uvale Sumartin, Dubrovnik autori / authors Sonja Tadej Marija Grković, Zvonimir Pavković suradnici / Collaborators Marija Rupa, Ivan Škugor status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (1. nagrada) / Competition Project (1st prize) investitor / client Dubrovačko-neretvanska županija / Dubrovnik-Neretva County lokacija / location Dubrovnik

2012. projektirano/ designed

Prostor obalnog pojasa uvale Sumartin na Lapadu, jedan od rijetkih područja sačuvanih kao javna gradska plaža u Dubrovniku, nastojalo se sagledati slojevito i unutar njega ostvariti primjeren i stimulativan javni prostor, formiran i programiran, kako u odnosu na uži, tako i na širi kontekst, te uvažiti njegove kulturno-povijesne i hortikulturne vrijednosti. Topografski zahtjevan teren, tijekom vremena neplanski i parcijalno uređivan, rezultirao je nizom nepovezanih i nedefiniranih cjelina. Stoga se kao osnovna misao predloženog rješenja definirala potreba za uspostavljanjem jedinstva prostora obuhvata i kontinuiranog pješačkog povezivanja.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Beach and Recreational area of the Sumartin Bay, Dubrovnik

The area of the coastal strip of the Sumartin Bay on the Lapad Peninsula, one of a few areas preserved as public beaches in the city of Dubrovnik, was considered in a stratified manner: an endeavour was made to create within the area a suitable and stimulating public space, formed and programmed in both the narrow and the wider context, taking into account its cultural, historical and horticultural importance. This topographically demanding terrain which has been developed partially and in an unplanned manner over the years has turned into a series of unconnected and undefined zones. Thus, the need to establish an integral zone and continuous pedestrian area was defined as the basic idea of the proposed solution.

Istovremeno je prepoznata potreba za uspostavom različitih režima korištenja prostora, kako u kontrastu sezonskog i vansezonskog, tako i u smislu definiranja različitog karaktera formiranih prostornih cjelina. Kao prioritet postavljeno je očuvanje autohtone kvalitetne vegetacije, a izgradnja je svedena na minimum: prenamjenu i adaptaciju postojećih objekata (poluukopana spremišta na istočnom rubu parcele i objekt svlačionica i tuševa uz more). Predviđeno je rušenje neadekvatno pozicionirane i nekvalitetne postojeće građevine, restorana na plaži, a s ciljem proširenja plaže i bolje prostorne povezanosti cjeline.

At the same time, the need has been recognized to establish different regimes of the utilisation of space, such as – in season vs. out of season regimes, and also to define a different character of the formed spatial units. The preservation of autochthonous vegetation has been set as a priority, and new construction has been reduced to the minimum: redevelopment and adaptation of the existing facilities (half-buried storages at the eastern edge of the lot and the changing rooms and showers facility by the sea). The tearing down of the inappropriately positioned and low quality existing restaurant building at the beach has been envisaged with the aim to augment the beach area and better connect spatial units into a whole.

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions

Tlocrt gornjega nivoa / Upper level floor plan

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

plažno rekreacijski prostor uvale Sumartin, Dubrovnik

beach and recreational area of the Sumartin Bay, Dubrovnik

Tlocrt donjega nivoa / Lower level floor plan

101


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions

Uzdužni presjek / Longitudinal section

Poprečni presjek / Cross section

102


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

103

plažno rekreacijski prostor uvale Sumartin, Dubrovnik

beach and recreational area of the Sumartin Bay, Dubrovnik


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Nino Virag status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Odvjetnički ured G / Law Firm G lokacija / location Zagreb

2011. 2012.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Interijer odvjetničkog ureda G, Zagreb

Law Firm G Interior Design, Zagreb

Buduća namjena prostora predviđala je da se u njega smjesti odvjetnički ured i bilo je važno da se unutarnjim uređenjem kod budućih klijenata postigne osjećaj stabilnosti tvrtke te povjerenja i sigurnosti. Prostorne potrebe odvjetničkog ureda bile su: četiri ureda, soba za sastanke i arhiv. Jedan od ureda morao je biti dovoljno prostran za sastanke većeg broja ljudi. Prostor pravokutnog tlocrta s duljim fasadnim zidovima i površine 270 m2 sadržavao je ‘samo’ 6 stupova i obodne zidove. Takav slobodan prostor pokušalo se zadržati. Dani prostor nametnuo je rješenje središnjeg hodnika s radnim prostorima s lijeve i desne strane, uz prozore. Veći ured nalazi se na kraju hodnika i proteže se od fasade do fasade. Način rada odvjetničkog ureda zahtijevao je odvojene urede te ormare za spise uz svaki stol. Zato se na mjestima postojećih stupova nalaze ormari za spise koji dijele radne prostore. Kako bi se zadržao dojam slobodnog prostora, ormari su niži od visine stropa, prostori se dijele staklenim stijenama, a drveni strop kontinuirano prolazi kroz čitav prostor. Izmedu stropnih lamela ‘skriveni’ su sprinkleri, lampe, zvučnici i ventilacija, a između njih prolaze staklene pregrade. Svi ormari izrađeni su po mjeri, sadrže otvorene police za pisače, telefone i slično, te se u njima nalaze upravljački paneli za svjetlo, zaštitu od sunca, zaštitu od pogleda i audiosustav. Na radnim stolovima tako ostaju samo računala i hrpe papira.

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The future use of the area anticipated housing of a law firm and it was important that the interior design gives future clients a sense of stability, trust and security. The space requirements of the law firm were: four offices, a meeting room and an archive. One of the offices had to be roomy enough to accommodate a large number of people at meetings. The space of rectangular layout with long façade walls and the area of 270 m2 had ‘only’ six pillars and perimeter walls. So, we tried to keep it open. The given space imposed the solution for the central hallway with workspaces to the left and to the right, next to the windows. The large office is located at the end of the corridor extending from one façade to another. The type of work in a law firm demanded separate offices and file cabinets with each desk. Therefore, in the areas of the existing pillars, we put filing cabinets thus deviding the workspace. In order to maintain the impression of the open space, the cabinets are lower than the height of the ceiling, the areas are divided by glass walls and the wooden ceiling continuously runs throughout the entire space. Between the ceiling slats, we ‘hid’ sprinklers, lights, speakers and ventilation system, and glass partitions go through them. All cabinets are made to measure, they have open shelves for printers, phones and the like, and they have control panels for lighting, sun protection, protection from being seen by others and audio system. So, all that is left on the desks are computers and stacks of paper.

5m

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

105

interijer odvjetničkog ureda g, Zagreb

Law Firm g Interior Design, zagreb


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Dina Vulin Ileković Boris Ileković, Ante Vulin status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (2. nagrada) / Competition Project (2nd prize) investitor / client Autoservis savska d.o.o., Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb

2008.

projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

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50

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

4 Box Tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb

4 Box Tower Savska - Zagrebačka, Zagreb

Kompozicijom oblikovne cjeline, koju čine volumen tornja i volumen nižeg objekta, pokušalo se pronaći formu novog urbanog artefakta u Zagrebu. Niži dio kompleksa percipira se kao postament tornja. Parter i krovne plohe sadrže vodene površine, zelenilo i skulpture. Volumen tornja 4 Box Tower iznad postamenta koncipiran je kao vertikalni niz od četiri identična kubusa visine 6 etaža razdvojena terasama te petog, završnog istaknutog volumena iznad kojeg se nalazi tehnička etaža, vjetroelektrane i na vrhu heliodrom. Natkrivene terase ili međuprostori su mjesta različitih karaktera (sadržaji, oblikovanje, materijali, boje), a namijenjena su odmoru, susretima i rekreaciji na otvorenom. Terase također služe kao orijentacijske točke u strukturi objekta i prema smještaju u gradu s atraktivnim vizurama te stvaraju povoljnu mikroklimu i izvor su svježeg zraka koji se dovodi do centralnog atrija. Žarišnu točku fleksibilne tlocrtne površine između jezgri i vizualnu vezu između katova predstavlja ostakljen zeleni atrij natkriven staklenim lamelama (otvorene ljeti, a zatvorene zimi) i prirodno osvijetljen reflektiranim dnevnim svjetlom (refleks vodene površine na terasi i visokosjajnog inoksa na pogledu terase).

The lower part of the complex is perceived as base for the tower. The ground floor and the roof sheets encompass water surfaces, green surfaces and sculptures. The volume of the 4 Box Tower above the base is conceptualized as vertical row made of four identical cubes, six floors in height, separated with terraces and fifth, final cube with emphasized volume above which there is technical floor, wind power plants and landing stage at the top. The roofed terraces or interim spaces are places of different character (contents, shaping, materials, and colors) and are intended for rest, meetings and recreation in open space. The terraces also serve as orientation points in the structure of the object also towards the position in the city with attractive view; they also create favorable microclimate and are source of fresh air brought in to the central atria. Focal point of the flexible layout surface between the cores and visual connection between the floors is the glassed green atrium roofed with glass laminas (opened in the summer, and closed in the winter). It is lighted with natural, reflecting daylight (reflex of water surface on the terrace and high-luster inox steel on the soffit of the terrace.

100m

Karakteristični kat / Typical floor plan

106

The composition of the shaping integer, consisting of the tower's volume and the volume of the lower object, seeks to find shape for the new urban artifact in Zagreb.

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

0 1

5

10m

Tlocrt terase / Terrace floor plan

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

107

4 box tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb

4 box tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Energetskim konceptom predložen je decentraliziran sistem ventilacije i klimatizacije uz mogućnost prirodne ventilacije (korištenje dvostrukog pročelja i krova atrija) i s visokim udjelom dnevnog osvjetljenja.

The energy concept proposes decentralized ventilation and air conditioning system with the option of natural air conditioning (using the double facade and the roof of the atrium) with high share of daylight.

Za temeljno grijanje i hlađenje koristi se akumulacija betonske jezgre objekta, zahvat svježeg zraka je iz međuprostora dvostrukog pročelja, a odsis je omogućen prestrujavanjem preko unutarnjih prostora do atrija i dalje mehanički u slobodni prostor. Atriji zimi akumuliraju toplinsku energiju, a ljeti je moguće noćno provjetravanje objekta kada su atriji hladna jezgra zgrade. Na horizontalnim plohama s plitkim vodenim površinama prikuplja se kišnica koja se akumulira u podzemnim spremnicima i koristi za cirkulaciju tzv. sive vode. Dodatni izvor električne energije su turbinske vjetroelektrane na vrhu tornja.

The accumulation in the concrete core of the object is used for fundamental heating and cooling; fresh air is gripped from the interspace of the double facade, and aspiration is enabled with redirected air streaming through the inner spaces to the atrium and further mechanically in the free space. During winter, atriums accumulate heat energy, and during summer, when the atria are the cold core of the building, night venting of the object is possible. The horizontal planes with shallow water surfaces collect rain water which is accumulated in underground containers and is used for circulation of the so-called grey water. Additional source of electric energy are turbine wind power plants on the top of the tower.

Detalj presjeka / Section detail

108

Detalj pročelja / Facade detail

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

4 box tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb

4 box tower Savska-Zagrebačka, Zagreb

Presjek / Cross section

109


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Adaptacija i rekonstrukcija zgrade za potrebe Hrvatskog sabora, Demetrova 9, Zagreb

Adaptation and Reconstruction of the Building for the Needs of the Croatian Parliament, Demetrova Street 9, Zagreb

autori / authors Dina Vulin Ileković, Boris Ileković, Ante Vulin status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Hrvatski sabor / Croatian Parliament lokacija / location Zagreb

2005. 2010.

projektirano/ designed dovršeno / completed

situacija / site plan

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10

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50m

Tlocrt prizemlja / Ground floor plan

110

Zadatak projekta bio je interpolirati nove sadržaje u povijesnu zgradu najviše kategorije zaštite kulturne baštine. Namjeravalo se stvoriti nove ambijente za predviđena događanja unutar postojećeg prostornog okvira, čiji identitet ostaje prepoznatljiv i valoriziran, a pritom održati jasnu distinkciju između novog i starog. Interpretacijom vrijednih spomeničkih detalja koji postaju eksponati unutar novog funkcionalnog konteksta, diskretnom primjenom suvremenih materijala, boja i likovnih elemenata pokušalo se uspostaviti dijalog novog s prepoznatljivim karakterom povijesnog. Novi oblikovni sloj ne bi trebao konkurirati povijesnom, već ga obogatiti novim senzibilitetom te ga tako nedvosmisleno smjestiti u vremenski okvir u kojem je nastao.

The project assignment was to interpolate new contents in the historical building of highest category of protection of cultural heritage. The intention was to create new ambients for events planned within the existing spatial work frame, the identity of which remains recognizable and valorized, and at the same time to maintain clear distinction between the new and the old. The interpreting of valuable monument details which become exhibits within the new functional context, and the discrete application of contemporary materials, colors and art elements aimed to establish dialogue of the new with the recognizable character of the historical. The new shaping layer should not compete with the historical one, but it should rather enrich it with new sensibility and thus situate it unequivocally in the timeframe in which it was created.

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

10m

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Presjek / Cross section

111

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveuÄ?iliĹĄte u zagrebu

0

2

5

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

10m

Adaptacija i rekonstrukcija zgrade za potrebe Hrvatskog sabora, Demetrova 9, Zagreb

Adaptation and reconstruction of the building for the needs of the Croatian parliament, Demetrova street 9, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Postament za skulpturu kardinala Kuharića, Zagreb, Utrine

Pedestal for a Sculpture of Cardinal Kuharić, Zagreb, Utrine

autori / authors Andrej Uchytil Renata Waldgoni status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Rkt. župa Zagreb – Utrina, Sv. Ivan apostol i evanđelist / Parish of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist lokacija / location Zagreb

2012.

dovršeno / completed

Postament za skulpturu prva je realizacija ideje iz 1991. godine: diptih otiskom u d =3m (projekt za 900. obljetnicu Zagreba). Skupina građana naručila je od akademskog kipara Ante Jurkića skulpturu kardinala Kuharića. Zaključilo se da je postav u Novom Zagrebu optimalan: tu je kardinal Kuharić osnivao nove župe, a najstarija je Župa svetoga Ivana apostola i evanđelista (za Utrinu, Zapruđe i Središće). Zadatak arhitekata bio je odrediti poziciju skulpture u prostoru župskog kompleksa, te oblikovati podnožje, postament. Smještaj Jurkićeve stojeće figure u suzdržanom pokretu, rasplesane halje i raskriljenih ruku, te oblikovanje postamenta pronašli smo u osobnosti kardinala i određenju ‘potrebite’ točke. ‘Potrebita’ točka je na pristupnom trgu istovremeno pješački vidljiva iz prolaza župne kuće, ulaznog prostora crkve i mosta nad ozelenjenom polujavnom površinom. Osobnost kardinala sveli smo na tri nama zanimljive karakteristike: blizak narodu i obljubljen u njemu, ponikao iz hrvatskog kontinentalnog tla, uporan u namjeri bez obzira na teškoće. Kružna plitica promjera 3 m ‘lebdi’ nad bijelom i zelenom površinom, ispunjena zemljom na kojoj je otežan hod. Figura je smještena u jugozapadni kvadrant, rukama je okrenuta na prolaz župne kuće i ulaz crkve.

Pedestal for a sculpture is the first implementation of the idea from 1991: a diptych print in d=3m (project for the 900th anniversary of Zagreb) A group of citizens has commissioned a sculpture of Cardinal Kuharić from the academic sculptor Ante Jurkić. It was decided that the setting in Novi Zagreb is the optimal one: Cardinal Kuharić had founded new parishes all over and the oldest one is the parish of St. John the Apostle and Evangelist (for Utrinu, Zapruđe and Središće). The task of the architects was to determine the position of the sculpture in the parish complex space and design a base, a pedestal. The inspiration for the location of the Jurkić’s standing figure in a restrained movement, dancing robes and outspread arms and for the pedestal, we found in the Cardinal's personality and in the definition of a ‘needy’ point. The ‘needy’ point is located on the access square which is at the same time visible for pedestrians from the parish house passage, the entrance area of the church and the bridge over the green semipublic area. We reduced the Cardinal's personality to three features interesting for us: he was close to people and people loved him; he sprouted from the Croatian continental soil and he was persistent in his intentions despite the difficulties. About the project a 3m diameter circular plate ‘floats’ over the white and green space, filled with soil on which the walk is somewhat difficult. The figure is located in the southwest quadrant, hands facing the passage of the parish house and church entrance.

Tlocrt postamenta / Pedestal floor plan

112

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

113

Postament za skulpturu kardinala Kuharića, Zagreb, Utrine

Pedestal for a sculpture of Cardinal Kuharić, Zagreb, Utrine


facta architectonica 2

autori / authors Renata Waldgoni Damir Bralić, Nikola Bojić status projekta / project status Natječajni rad (2. nagrada) / Competition Project (2nd prize) investitor / client Ministarstvo branitelja Republike Hrvatske / Ministry of Veterans' Affairs of the Republic of Croatia lokacija / location Nije definirana / Undefined

2013. projektirano/ designed

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Likovno i urbanističko-ahitektonsko rješenje spomen-obilježja za groblja žrtava Drugoga svjetskog rata i poslijeratnog razdoblja

Visual and Urbanistic-Architectural Design of a Memorial to the Victims of Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes

Ovo spomen-obilježje odbija služiti kao repozitorij povijesti, kolektivne patnje i smrti. Ono funkcionira kao refleksija sadašnjosti, kao subjektivan trenutak koji redefinira pojam povijesnog, pretvarajući kolektivnu topografiju smrti i konflikta u osobnu topografiju sjećanja i pomirenja. Koristeći horizontalnu zrcalnu plohu kao središnji element prostornog izraza, ovo spomen obilježje uvlači krajolik u svoju vizualnu pojavnost te na taj način postaje potpuno prilagodljivo bilo kojem okruženju. Promišljenim korištenjem motiva refleksije ovaj prijedlog smješta memoriju u sjecište triju lokusa: osobnog, teritorijalnog i socijalnog. Memorija kao lokus osobne reflesije (Arhitektura) Lišeno suvišnih povijesti, spomen-obilježje u perimetru zadržava činjenične podatke o broju i okolnostima stradanja žrtava kao i informacije o žrtvi, zločinu i počinitelju, dok se u samo središte pozicionira kružna reflektivna ploha koja zrcali nebo i krajolik. Reflektivna se ploha postavlja iznad udubine u koju je prodiranje svjetla svedeno na minimum. Na taj se način između tamne praznine u perimetru i pune svjetline centralne kružne plohe, razvija snažan vizualni, emocionalni i simbolički kontrast. Jasno oblikovana zrcalna slika neba i krajolika tako istovremeno označava specifično mjesto stradanja, ali se pritom sam lokus memorije izmješta sugerirajući da je memorija simbolička, osjetilna i materijalna refleksija osobnog trenutka prisjećanja. Sjećanje dakle više nije u samom spomeniku, već u ljudima, ne u kolektivu, već u pojedincu. Memorijalni prostor stoga je refleksivan, razvijen između posjetitelja i spomenika uronjenog u različite prostorne ambijente. Memorija kao lokus teritorijalne markacije (Urbanizam / krajolik / kartografija) Zbog naglašene zrcalne površine kružnog tlocrta, spomenobilježje lako se može uklopiti u urbani ili prirodni krajolik. U urbanom krajoliku, ono predstavlja prostorni reper, cezuru u dinamici standardnih gradskih tokova. Navodeći na veliku površinu o koju se reflektira nebo, spomen-obilježje služi kao zaustavna točka koja okuplja prolaznike. U prirodnim krajolicima, bili oni kamenjar Dalmatinske zagore ili zeleni krajolici Zagorja i Slavonije, obilježje spušta nebo na tlo te postaje točka koja sažima prostorne silnice. Istaknuto, ali

114

Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

This memorial refuses to be the repository of history, collective suffering and death. Rather, it functions as a reflection of the present, a subjective moment that redefines the notion of the historical turning the collective topography of death and conflicts into a personal topography of memory and reconciliation. By using the horizontal mirror surface as a central element of spatial expression, the memorial thus draws the landscape into its visual appearance. In this manner it becomes thoroughly adaptable to any environment. The clever use of the motives of reflection positions memory into the converging point of the three loci: personal, territorial and social. Memory as the Locus of Personal Reflection (Architecture) Stripped off of superfluous histories, the memorial site maintains at its perimeter factual data regarding the number of victims and the circumstances of their death as well as the information on the victims, crimes and perpetrators. In its very centre a circular reflective surface is positioned which mirrors the sky and the landscape. The reflective surface is placed atop a hollow into which the penetration of light is reduced to minimum. A strong visual, emotional and symbolic contrast is thus developed between the dark emptiness in the perimeter and full lightness of the central circular surface. In this way a clearly shaped mirror image of the sky and landscape marks at the same time a specific place of suffering whereby the very locus of the memory is removed by suggesting that the memory is a symbolic, sensory material reflection of a personal moment of recollection. The memory is no longer in the very memorial but rather in people; not in the collective but in an individual. The memorial space is therefore reflexive and it unfolds between the visitor and the monument immersed in different spatial ambiences. Memory as a Locus of Territorial Marking (Urbanism / Landscape / Cartography) The marked mirror surface of the circle-shaped ground-plan of the memorial makes it easy to fit it into an urban or natural landscape. In the urban landscape, the memorial presents a spatial benchmark, a caesura in the dynamics of standard urban flow. As an attractive big surface reflecting the sky, the memorial serves as a stopping point which gathers the passers-by. In natural landscapes, whether they are the karst terrain of Dalmatinska zagora/ the Dalmatian hinterland or the green hills of the Zagorje and Slavonia regions, the memorial grounds the sky/ brings the sky down to earth/ and becomes the point which epitomises the spatial determinants. Salient, but non-invasive

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Obitelj Budimir, 1939. Mama im je u prizemlju napravila krevete, a mi smo se, kao uvijek, popeli u spavaonice na katu. Nitko od nas naravno nije mogao spavati te se jasno sjećam da se nekako oko pola noći čulo da partizani viču: ‘Pokret! Idemo!’. Nastala je gužva i čulo se da kola i konji odlaze s našeg imanja. Zatim je zavladala potpuna tišina. Pomno smo osluškivali jesu li stvarno otišli, a tata je rekao: ‘Otišli su. Idem zatvoriti velika vrata.’ Spustio se u dvorište u pidžami i papučama. I nikada se više nije vratio...

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Idejno likovno i urbanističko-ahitektonsko rješenje spomen-obilježja za groblja žrtava Drugoga svjetskog rata i poslijeratnog razdoblja

Conceptual visual and urbanisticarch. design of a memorial To the Victims of Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

neinvazivno u svojoj vizualnoj pojavnosti, ovo rješenje prati logiku prirodnih fenomena kao što su jezera u krajoliku koja reflektiraju nebo ili dnevnu svjetlost te služe kao važni atraktori koji u svom perimetru kreiraju poseban ambijent.

in its visual appearance, this solution follows the logic of natural phenomena such as lakes in the landscape which reflect the sky or daily light and serve as important attractors creating a specific ambience within its perimeter.

Centralni odbljesak nove teritorijalne markacije postaje vidljiv ne samo s velike udaljenosti u stvarnom krajoliku, već i na javno dostupnim satelitskim snimkama poput Google mapa. Jednom kada budu postavljeni, svjetlosni odbljesci ovog spomen-obilježja stvorit će sasvim novu memorijalnu topografiju. Na konfliktnom teritoriju konstantno prekrajanom osudama i mržnjom, pomirenje se može razviti kao nova topografija odbljesaka prizemljenih zvijezda među kojima više nema nikakvih razlika. Memorija kao socijalni lokus pomirenja (Socijalni dizajn) Projekt predviđa izradu internetske stranice koja u središte postavlja kartu sa spomenutom topografijom odbljesaka. Svjetlosni odbljesci točnih lokacija gdje su spomen-obilježja postavljena u stvarnom prostoru, na kartama poput Googleovih otvaraju novu mogućnost sjećanja na stradale. Na taj način obitelji suočene s memorijalnim refleksijama mogu se prisjetiti svojih bližnjih i izvan onih udaljenih ili teže dostupnih lokacija, te izvan službenih datuma predviđenih za komemoraciju, a koji su danas često povod novih prijepora i dnevno-političkih nadmetanja. Isključivo priča o pojedincu, njezini ili njegovi osobni podaci, stare obiteljske fotografije i priče postaju materijali koji se digitalno mogu unijeti i pridružiti konkretnom odbljesku na mapi. Ne skrivajući povijesne brojeve ili kontekst stradavanja, nova topografija sjećanja sazdana od istih i jednakovrijednih odbljesaka, gubi religijske i ideološke simbole te nanovo dobiva izgubljena ljudska lica.

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

The central reflection of a new territorial marker becomes visible not only from far away in the actual landscape but also in publicly accessible satellite images such as those provided by Google maps. Once they have been placed, the light reflections of this memorial will create completely new memorial topography. In an area marked by conflicts, constantly re-drawn through condemnations and hatred, reconciliation can be developed as a new topography of the reflections of grounded stars among which there is no longer any difference. Memory as a Social Locus of Reconciliation (Social Design) The project anticipates the creation of at a website with a focus on a map with the mentioned topography of reflections. Reflections of light of the exact locations where the memorials have been erected in actual space – on the maps such as the Google ones – provide a new possibility to commemorate the victims. In this way, families seeing the memorial reflections may remember their loved ones even when they are away from some of the distant and less accessible locations and regardless of the dates officially envisioned for commemoration – which, these days, often give rise to new controversies and struggles of daily politics. It is exclusively a story of individuals, their personal data, old family photographs and memories, i.e. materials which can be digitalised and joined to a specific reflection on the map. Without hiding the figures of victims or the context of their suffering, the new topography of remembrance is created from the same and equivalent reflections; it is free from religious and ideological symbols, yet it regains lost human faces.

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

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Idejno likovno i urbanističko-ahitektonsko rješenje spomen-obilježja za groblja žrtava Drugoga svjetskog rata i poslijeratnog razdoblja

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Conceptual visual and urbanisticarch. design of a memorial To the Victims of Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Rekonstrukcija podruma Sanatorija u Klaićevoj 18 (arh. I. Fischer) – Klinika za dječje bolesti, Zagreb

Reconstruction and Conversion of the Cellar of the Sanatorium in Klaićeva 18 (arch. I. Fischer), Clinic for Children's Diseases Zagreb

autor / author Gordana Žaja status projekta / project status Izvedeno / Built investitor / client Klinika za dječje bolesti, Zagreb / Clinic for Children's Diseases Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb

2010.

dovršeno / completed

Zgrada je projektirana kao soliter u parku između Jelisavine i Prilaza, u rubnom dijelu šireg centra Zagreba. Danas je Sanatorij dio kompleksa Klinike za dječje bolesti Zagreb, smještena tamo nakon ii. svjetskog rata. Čine ga uz Fischerovu dvokatnicu i peterokatnica u Deželićevoj arhitekta Slobodana Jovičića (1965.), jednokatnica arhitekta Vladimira Turine (1954.) i četverokatno dvorišno krilo arhitekta Mladena Vodičke, projektirano uz sjeverni zabat zapadnog krila Sanatorija (1981.). Ukupna površina kliničkog kompleksa danas prelazi 16.000 m2. Sanatorij je projektiran kao ‘Zavod za sve operativne i unutarnje očne, kožne i živčane bolesti’ uz ‘predviđenu skrb za stare i palijativnu skrb’ (na liječenje se nisu primali samo oboljeli od zaraznih i duševnih bolesti). Zgrada je projektirana kao asimetrična dvokatnica potkovasta tlocrta. Istočni krak završava operacijskim traktom, dok zapadno krilo završava zabatom uz koji se kasnije dogradilo dvorišno krilo arhitekta Vodičke. U centralnom dijelu zgrade je kružni foaje oko kojeg se, od prizemlja do 2. kata, grupiraju glavni sadržaji bolnice: luksuzne sobe za pacijente, ambulante i upravni dio. Operacijski blok tehnološki parira tadašnjim rješenjima europskih dječjih bolnica i izoliran je od ostatka zgrade. U podrumu zgrade bio je smješten dio odjela fizioterapije te pomoćni i tehnički sadržaji – kotlovnica sa spremištem krutog goriva, strojarnica, praonica, prostori za pomoćno osoblje. Dok su prostori gornjih katova projektirani vrlo bogato i luksuzno, podrumska etaža projektirana je skromno i racionalno.

Tlocrt rekonstrukcije podruma / Cellar reconstruction floor plan

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

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The building was designed as solitaire in the park between Jelisavina Street and the Đure Deželića Avenue of Approach, in the fringe part of the wider center of Zagreb. Today the Sanatorium is part of the complex of the Clinic for Children's diseases Zagreb, situated there after the WWII. Along with the Fischer's two-story building, it is consisted of a five-story in Deželićeva Street, designed by the architect Slobodan Jovičić (1965), by a one-story designed by the architect Vladimir Turina (1954) and four-story backyard wing designed by the architect Mladen Vodička, designed along the north gable of the western wing of the Sanatorium. The total surface of the clinical complex today surpasses 16,000 m2. The Sanatorium was designed as ‘Institute for all surgical andinternal eye, skin and nervous diseases’ with ‘anticipated care for older people and palliative care’ (only people diseased from contagious and mental illnesses were not received for treatment). The building was designed as asymmetric two-story building of a horseshoe-like layout. The east boom ends with surgery tract; the west wing ends with gable upon which architect Vodička's backyard wing was later built. There is a circular foyer in the central part of the building around which the main contents of the hospital are grouped, from the ground floor to the second floor: luxury rooms for the patients, dispensaries and administration section. The surgical block technologically parallels the then solutions for European children hospitals and is isolated from the rest of the building. The section for physiotherapy as well as the supporting and technical contents were situated in the building's basement – boiler room with storage for solid fuel, engine room, washing room, spaces for assisting personnel. While the spaces of the upper floors are designed in a rich and luxurious manner, the basement story is designed modestly and rationally.

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projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Velike probleme u korištenju prostora stvarala je stalna prisutnost vlage zbog nedostatka horizontalnih i vertikalnih hidroizolacija podrumskih zidova. To je rezultiralo izmještanjem svih radnih prostora iz podrumske etaže, a nakon izgradnje dvorišnog krila arhitekta Vodičke 1985. tu su smješteni pomoćni sadržaji, tj., skladišta i spremišta.

The constant presence of moisture created great problems in the usage of the space, due to lack of horizontal and vertical hydro insulations of the basement walls. It resulted with dislocation of all working spaces from the basement story, and after the construction of the backyard wing of architect Vodička in 1985, supporting contents were put there, such as storages and depositories.

Vrlo opsežnom rekonstrukcijom koja je završena 2010., podrum zgrade Sanatorija dobio je novu namjenu i u njemu je smješten tehnološki zahtjevan prostor dječjeg radiološkog centra (dva RTG uređaja, UZV dijagnostika, CT i MR dijagnostika). Radikalni građevinski i zanatski zahvati obuhvatili su sanaciju zgrade od vlage, konstruktivnu sanaciju, zamjenu svih instalacijskih sustava (vodovod i odvodnju, elektroinstalacije, sustav grijanja, klimatizaciju i ventilaciju). Svi prostori projektirani su prema posebnim uvjetima za smještaj sofisticiranih dijagnostičkih uređaja (UZV, RTG, CT, MR).

With the very comprehensive reconstruction that ended in 2010, the basement of the Sanatorium got new purpose and now it situates the technologically demanding space for the children's radiology center. The radical construction and craftsmanship interventions comprised the sanation of the moisture in the building, constructive sanation, replacement of all installation systems (water supply pipeline and drainage, electro installation, heating system, air conditioning system and ventilation system). All spaces were designed in line with the particular condition for accommodation of sophisticated diagnostic devices.

Rekonstrukcija podruma Sanatorija u Klaićevoj 18 (arh. I. Fischer) – Klinika za dječje bolesti, Zagreb

Reconstruction and conversion of the cellar of the Sanatorium in Klaićeva 18 (arch. i. fischer), Clinic for children's diseases Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

autor / author Gordana Žaja status projekta / project status Idejni projekt / Conceptual Design investitor / client Klinička psihijatrijska bolnica, Vrapče, Zagreb / Clinical Psychiatric Hospital, Vrapče, Zagreb lokacija / location Zagreb

2010.

projektirano/ designed

situacija / site plan

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Prenamjena sklopa gospodarskih zgrada za okupacijske i radne terapije, Klinička psihijatrijska bolnica Vrapče, Zagreb

Repurposing of the Complex of Utility Buildings for Occupational and Working Therapies, Clinical Psychiatric Hospital, Vrapče, Zagreb

Povijest psihijatrijskih bolnica i prostora čvrsto je povezana s odnosom društva prema duševno poremećenim osobama i s razumijevanjem etiologije duševnih poremećaja. Jedan od najčešćih društvenih odgovora na duševne poremećaje bila je prostorna izolacija i separacija takvih pacijenata. Prostorni i arhitektonski kontekst psihijatrije i mentalnih bolesti povezuje se na mnogo načina s formiranjem novih bolničkih modela i s novim metodama u području medicine. Odgovor i moderne medicine i moderne arhitekture jest projektiranje i stvaranje alternativnih prostora, bilo da se radi o kurativnim, terapijskim ili smještajnim oblicima. U fokus je potrebno postaviti: 1. Ispitivanje psihijatrijskih prostora i mogućnosti njihove preobrazbe te integracije u društvenu sredinu. 2. Svijest da su izgrađeni prostori i način njihova korištenja važan formativni faktor u promjeni načina njege i liječenja psihičkih bolesnika.

The history of psychiatric hospitals and spaces is tightly linked to the relationship of the society towards mentally disturbed persons and with the etymology of mental illnesses. One of the most common responses of the society to mental illnesses is spatial isolation and separation of such patients. The spatial and architectonic context of psychiatry and mental illnesses is in many ways related to forming new hospital models and new methods in the medical field. The response of modern medical science and modern architecture is designing and creating alternative spaces, regardless if they are curative, therapeutic or accommodation forms. The focus needs to encompass: 1. Examination of psychiatric spaces and possibilities of their transformation as well as integration in the social environment, and 2. Awareness that the built spaces and the manner of their usage is an important formative factor in the change in the manner of care and curing psychiatric patients.

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Tlocrt, presjeci i pročelja / Ground floor plan, cross sections and facades

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Projekti, realizacije i natječaji

projects, realizations and competitions


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Klinička psihijatrijska bolnica Vrapče najveća je i najstarija psihijatrijska ustanova, sa stotridesetogodišnjom povijesti i tradicijom i jedina koja je građena isključivo za psihijatrijske bolesnike. Glavnu zgradu i paviljone projektirao je 1879. arhitekt Kuno Waidman za otprilike 300 pacijenata. Broj pacijenata ubrzo se povećao na više od 1000, a to je rezultiralo dogradnjama još nekoliko paviljona i pomoćnih zgrada. Bolnica je projektirana prema standardima tog vremena, ali uskoro se javila potreba za promjenama, za smanjenjem broja pacijenata u sobama, povećanjem sanitarnog standarda i formiranjem dodatnih terapijskih sadržaja.

The clinical psychiatric hospital Vrapče is the biggest and oldest psychiatric institutions, with 130 years-long tradition and the only one that was built exclusively for psychiatric patients. The main building and the pavilions were designed in 1879 by the architect Kuno Waidmann for some 300 patients. The number of the patients soon increased to over 1000 which resulted in construction of several additional pavilions and secondary buildings. The hospital was designed according to the standards of that time, but soon a need for change occurred, a need for decrease in the number of patients per room, for raising the level of sanitary standard and for forming additional therapeutic contents.

Uz kontinuirano ‘osuvremenjivanje’ bolničkih odjela provode se analize i traže mogućnosti da se pojedini prostori prenamijene te da se formiraju nove cjeline koje bi kroz određeni ‘izvanbolnički’ identitet pomogle integraciji same ustanove i pacijenata u društvo. U tu svrhu na sjeveroistočnom dijelu kompleksa, uz vanjski ulaz iz područja Gornjeg Vrapča, izgrađena je nova galerija s manjim prostorom za likovne radionice ‘Slava Raškaj’ (autor D. Juračić, 2009.) i nova kapelica (autor B. Magaš, 2010.) s vanjskim ulazom iz područja Gornjeg Vrapča. Na tom potezu nalazi se i sklop gospodarskih zgrada, izgrađenih 1900. u tradicionalnom stilu od opeke, otvorenog prizemlja i s tavanskim prostorom predviđenim za sušenje šiblja. Bolesnici su u sklopu radnih terapija izrađivali košare a danas, iako su u izrazito lošem građevnom stanju, koriste se kao bolničke radionice.

Along with continuing ‘modernization’ of the hospital departments, different analyses are being conducted and options are sought in order to transform the purpose of certain spaces and in order to create new units which would, through certain ‘community health’ identity, assist the integration of the institution and the patients into the society. In that purpose, the northeastern part of the complex, along the external entrance from the area of Gornje Vrapče, a new gallery was built, containing a smaller space for art workshops ‘Slava Raškaj’ (author D. Juračić, 2009) and a new chapel (author B. Magaš, 2010) with external entrance from the area of Gornje Vrapče. On that trajectory, there is also a complex of outhouses, constructed in 1900 in traditional style, made of bricks, with open ground floor and ceiling space anticipated for drying collect brushwood. The patients used to create baskets as part of their working therapies, and today, although these outhouses are in particularly bad condition, they are used for various hospital workshops.

Idejnim projektom, 2010. predviđena je prenamjena cijelog sklopa gospodarskih zgrada za okupacijske i radne terapije (kiparski atelje, stolarske radionice, prostor za okupljanje – uređenje trga unutar sklopa).

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Prenamjena sklopa gospodarskih zgrada za okupacijske i radne terapije, Klinička psihijatrijska bolnica Vrapče, Zagreb

The main design from 2010 anticipated change in purpose for the entire complex of outhouses into spaces for occupational and working therapies (statuary atelier, carpenter's workshops, gathering space – arrangement of the square within the complex).

repurposing of the complex of utility buildings for occupational and working therapies, Clinical psychiatric hospital, Vrapče, Zagreb


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Crtež

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Drawing

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Autor / author

Tema

topic

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Juras, Ivan

Arhitektonski crtež

Architectural drawing

134

Kisić, Dubravka

Avangardno slikarstvo Joa Kleka i arhitektura Josipa Seissela

Jo Klek’s Avant-Garde Painting and Josip Seissel’s Architecture

146

Waldgoni, Renata

Crtice o crtama, crtežu, crtanju...

Through sketches about lines, drawings, drawing...

160

Sudeta, Nikoleta

Geometrija – ‘nespecifičan softver’ 3D modeliranja

Geometry – ‘non-specific software’ for 3D modelling

162

Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci, Bojana Nulla Dies sine Linea

Nulla Dies sine Linea

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Korlaet, Luka

On architectural drawing

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O crtežu u arhitekturi


facta architectonica 2

123

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Prof.emeritus Nikola Filipović: Duke Ellington, crtež olovkom, dim: 14,70 cm × 8,00 cm

Professor Emeritus Nikola Filipović: Duke Ellington, pencil drawing, dim: 14,70 cm × 8,00 cm

‘Crtež je nastao početkom devedesetih, kao priprema za grupni portret velikana jazza. Jazz je oduvijek igrao važnu ulogu u mom životu.’

‘The drawing originated in early 1990s, as a preparation for a group portrait of jazz giants. Jazz has always played a big role in my life.’


facta architectonica 2

Autor

Ivan Juras

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Arhitektonski crtež

Architectural drawing

Mnogi arhitekti, poput Asplunda, Behrensa, Van Doesburga, Van der Veldea, Leonidova, Melnikova i drugih, započeli su svoj rad kao slikari ili su slikali iz osobnog zadovoljstva. Pojedini, a među njima su Aalto, Le Corbusier, Saarinen, Scarpa, Rašica, nosili su slikarstvo cijeli život, a na arhitektonski izraz utjecali su Art Nouveau, kubizam, purizam, suprematizam, neoplasticizam… Ezoterične forme iz slika i skulptura De Chiricoa, Mondriana, Cezannea, Giacomettija i drugih utjecale su na čistoću crteža arhitektonskih oblika. Neki su arhitekti surađivali s Miróom, Legerom, Calderom, a kod nas s Murtićem, Tomaševićem, Bakićem, Drinkovićem, Janešom, Kuduzom. Kasnije, građenje kuće postaje suviše

A drawing reveals a system of opinions, fixates or completes a position towards a specific topic and calls attention to the range of connections between watching and knowing. The architect has the ability to create his own visual logics based on deep understanding of traditional forms that create his criterion of choice – inventory of forms. At the beginning of the 20th century, although later as well, many architects entered modern architecture through secession forms, bearing imminent classicity through simplicity and unambiguity of the important (inner constructiveness of space, inherited social symbolic conventions, creativity in the irrational unconscious fantasy and imagination which is appropriately mediated by reason). At the same time, integrity has to be permanent constant which will serve to separate the artistic, the architectonic and the moral issues from all technical simplifications and aesthetic superficialities. The rest is permanent sacring: a talented architect creates what the public is yet to fall in love with. Others, unburdened, demonstrate bacchanalian expressiveness with their drawings – explosiveness of protuberance in forms, emphasizing and initiating more their opinion than the physical structure of the space. Hence they free themselves from imposed limitations through their internal charges, in order to guide the process of projecting and construction through emotionality to the level of biological process. Or, in the projecting process, they reject the subjectivist understanding that the thinking process should strictly follow defined and logical methods in order to avoid being in the mercy of intuition. In any case, the line of a drawing is transport means between the mind, the drawing and the house, while the trajectory is not rectilinear but complicated and with many whirls and turnings. The drawing is language but it also represents the architect’s memory (A. Siza, H. Tesar et al.). ‘I draw because I want to see’, Carlo Scarpa would say. New generations of architects like Junya Ishigami do not quite find poeticism of space in perspective drawing i.e. sketch; hence they do not use computer drawings, breadboards and photographs of the latter taken from different angles. Many architects, like Asplund, Behrens, Van Doesburg, Van der Velde, Leonidov, Melnikov and others have started their work as painters or they painted for their own pleasure. Some of them, and Aalto, Le Corbusier, Saarinen, Scarpa, Rašica are among those ones, conveyed painting their whole lives, and their architectonic expression was influenced by Art Nouveau, cubism, purism, supremacism, neoplasticism… The esoteric shapes of the paintings and the sculptures of De Chirico, Mondrian, Cezanne, Giacometti and others influenced on the purity of drawings of architectural shapes. Some architects cooperated with Miró, Leger, Calder, and with us, with Murtić, Tomašević, Bakić, Drinković, Janeš, Kuduz. Later, the construction of a house becomes too complex assignment so the architect assumes the inappropriate role of organizer. The links between the architects

Crtež

Drawing

Crtež otkriva sustav mišljenja, fiksira ili upotpunjava stav prema određenoj temi i ukazuje na doseg veza između gledanja i znanja. Arhitekt ima sposobnost stvarati vlastitu vizualnu logiku temeljenu na dubokom poznavanju tradicionalnih oblika koji stvaraju njegov kriterij izbora – inventar oblika. Početkom 20. stoljeća, ali i kasnije, mnogi su arhitekti preko secesijskih oblika ušli u modernu arhitekturu noseći imanentnu klasičnost kroz jednostavnost i jednoznačnost bitnog (unutrašnju konstruktivnost prostora, naslijeđene društvene simboličke konvencije, kreativnost u iracionalnoj nesvjesnoj fantaziji i mašti koja je na ispravan način posredovana razumom). Istovremeno, integritet mora biti trajna konstanta kojim će se ono umjetničko, arhitektonsko i moralno odijeliti od tehničkih pojednostavljenosti i estetskih površnosti. Ostalo je trajna popudbina: darovit arhitekt stvara ono što publika tek treba zavoljeti. Drugi, neopterećeni, s naglašenom subjektivnošću pokazuju svojim crtežima razuzdanu ekspresivnost – eksplozivnost protuberanci forme, potencirajući i inicirajući više svoje mišljenje nego fizičku strukturu prostora. Tako se unutrašnjim nabojima oslobađaju nametnutih ograničenja kako bi se emocionalnošću sam proces projektiranja i građenja doveo do razine biološkog procesa. Ili se u procesu projektiranja odbacuje subjektivističko shvaćanje da bi proces razmišljanja striktno slijedio definirane i logične metode kako ne bi bio u milosti intuicije. Kako bilo, linija crteža transportno je sredstvo između uma, crteža i kuće, a putanja nije pravolinijska već složena s puno vrtloga i okuka. Crtež je jezik, ali također predstavlja pamćenje arhitekta (A. Siza, H. Tesar i drugi). ‘Crtam jer želim vidjeti’, rekao bi Carlo Scarpa. Nove generacije arhitekata poput Junyaa Ishigamija ne pronalaze baš poetičnost prostora u perspektivnom crtežu, odnosno skici, pa radije koriste računalne crteže, makete i fotografije maketa iz različitih položaja.

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

složen posao pa arhitekt preuzima neprimjerenu ulogu organizatora. Gube se veze arhitekta sa svijetom umjetnosti i njegova djela pate od ograničene ekspresivnosti. Zbrku i kaos kroz fragmentaciju pokazuju djela Gehrya, Libeskinda i Hadid, a primjena instalacija, ready madea, računalne i video slike naznačavaju nestanak granice između umjetnosti i života. Romantično zvuči tvrdnja Ericha Mendelsohna: ‘Umjetnost je najveća ekspresija života, u stvari sam život.’

and the art world are lost and their works start suffering from limited expressiveness. The works of Gehry, Libeskind and Hadid show the confusion and the chaos through fragmentation, while the application of installations, ready mades, computer and video images denote the disappearance of the limit between art and life. Erich Mendelsohn’s statement: ‘Art is the highest expression of life, in fact life itself’, sounds romantically.

Međutim, nas ne zanima primarno ljepota crteža ili posljedice psiholoških projekcija (nervne frekvencije) na formu kuće već način na koji arhitekt u postupku projektiranja koristi crtež, da bi se otvorio pogled na dimenziju njegove svijesti, stvarnosti, mašte pa i snova. Crtežom se ne može potpuno procijeniti kuća već samo ideja, odnosno koncept, i to radnim, a ne konačnim crtežom. Crtežom istražujemo misaone koncepte u kojima je svijest usidrena u dva odvojena područja koja se ne mogu čvrsto obuhvatiti frazama ‘iz unutrašnjeg’ i ‘iz izvanjskog’. Arhitekta ne zanima koliko je unutrašnja slika duboko postavljena u pozadinu svijesti i kakav je odnos opipljivog i neopipljivog. Njega zanima red slika proizašao iz logike građenja kako ih je zamišljao. Nije bitno ide li misao po trajektorijskom navođenju, posrednom ili neposrednom slijedu. Pojam ‘unutrašnje slike’ ionako vodi u zabludu jer model za taj pojam opet je ‘vanjska slika’. To otvara složenu temu sličnosti i značaj vizualnog utiska s odslikavajućim unutrašnjim odnosima, a čine ju koordinacija elemenata slike i stvari. Notno pismo ne izgleda kao slika glazbe, a ipak se koristimo dogovorom i pravilom zakona projekcije. Tako je i s planom oplate bez kojeg se kuća ne gradi, a koji nosi posebnu vrstu projekcije koja i nije svima razumljiva ili je potpuno nerazumljiva. U arhitekturi ne postoje različiti aspekti osnovne ideje niti dodatni razlozi zbog kojih bi se jedan od njih mogao nazvati njezinom osnovom. Postoje varijante istog ili nekog drugog koncepta. Kako bismo utvrdili stvaralačko podrijetlo ideje, odnosno koncepta te koliko je linija upila sadržaj ideje, koristimo se analizirajućim mehanizmom radnog crteža. Ponekad linija nije jednoznačno određena jer su forme zamršene, zapletene, a linija može biti ispred misli, pa se naglašava konflikt između stvarnog i mogućeg. Crtež može pokazati različite tokove ideje ali ipak je prepoznatljiva spona između konačnog dizajna i mogućeg spektra varijanti u kojima misli dozrijevaju. U biti, crtanje je uvijek metoda kojom se sugerira realnost arhitektove ideje i pouzdano dokazuje povod izbora za neku odluku, posebno kad se pojavljuje intuicija koja uvijek mora nedvosmisleno voditi krajnjem cilju – shvaćanju problema prostora a ne primarno njegovoj vizualizaciji. U trenutku kada se kuća realizira, crtež gubi na svom značenju i postaje tek dokument autentičnosti arhitektove ideje i prilog gra-

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However, we are not interested primarily in the beauty of a drawing or the impacts of psychological projections (nervous system frequencies) on the shape of the house but more in the manner in which an architect during the projection procedure uses drawing since we wish to open view on the dimension of his consciousness, reality, imaginations, and dreams even. A house cannot be completely valued by the drawing but only through the idea i.e. the concept and it can be done only through the working and not through the final drawing. Through the drawing we research contemplative concepts in which consciousness is harbored, in two separated areas which cannot be firmly comprised with the phrases ‘from the inner’ and ‘from the outer’. Architects are not interested in the extent to which inner image is deeply set in the background of consciousness and in the relationship between the tangible and intangible. They are interested in the order of images emanating from the logic of construction according to the way in which they imagined them. It does not matter if the thought follows trajectorial guidance, indirect or direct order. The idea of ‘internal image’ leads to delusion anyhow because the model for that concept is again ‘outer image’. It opens the complex topic of similarities and the significance of the visual imprint with reflecting internal relations, and it consists of coordination of the elements of image and things. Sheet music does not look like image of music and yet we use consensus and the rule of law of projection. That is how it is with the coating plan without which a house is not built, and which bears a special kind of projection not comprehensible to everyone or sometimes even completely incomprehensible. There are neither different aspects of a basic idea in architecture nor additional reasons for which one of them could be labeled as its basis. There are variances of the same or of some other concept. In order to establish the creative origin of the idea i.e. the concept i.e. to which extent the line has embedded the content of the idea, we use analyzing mechanism of the working sketch. Sometimes the line is not unambiguously determined because the shapes are complex, entangled, and the line can precede the thought so the conflict between the real and the possible is emphasized. A drawing can show different flows of the idea; however, the link between the final design and the possible spectrum of variants in which thoughts ripen is still recognizable. Basically, drawing is always a method which suggests the reality of the architect’s idea and reliably proves the reason behind a choice for some decision, especially when intuition has to be dealt with, which always must unambiguously lead toward the end goal – understanding the problem of space and not primarily its visualization. The moment

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

đenju arhitektonske kulture u nekom vremenu. Arhitekti nerado objavljuju svoje skice, odnosno radne crteže, pa po onima koji su dostupni i objavljeni nije uvijek lako utvrditi povod za neku odluku. Crteži uglavnom pokazuju dva postupka u procesu projektiranja: anticipativni i postupni.

the house is visualized, the drawing loses some of its meaning and becomes merely a document of the authenticity of the architect’s idea and contribution to the construction of an architectural culture of some period.

Anticipativni postupak Crteži su samosvojni, ali ih nije moguće redom posložiti po nekoj uzročno-posljedičnoj vezi što ukazuje da je arhitekt krenuo od praforme tj. prapodloge i da je zadani koncept prilagođavao drugačijoj situaciji. Tu nema inicijalne prostorne ideje – skice, već gotov predložak (izvedene ili gotove projektirane kuće) kojem se sad mora prilagoditi – ‘utrpati’ zadani program. Brojne skice pokazuju arhitektovo povremeno udaljavanje i približavanje samonametnutom predlošku. On je više zaokupljen tlocrtnom dispozicijom sadržaja i tlocrtne veličine ne odgovaraju onima u nametnutom predlošku pročelja. Linija je nesigurna i ‘nečista’, a ruka ne može pratiti napetosti koje proizlaze iz nametnutog okvira višeslojnog razmišljanja. Ponekad je teško sagledati ideju samo iz jedne projekcije te se koriste tlocrt i pogled iako svaka projekcija traži i nudi svoje distance. I slikar postavlja platno na pod i nalijeva boju (J. Miró), pa ga podiže okomito da utvrdi nedostatke, a onda opet horizontalno da izvrši korekciju. Nepokretnost sasušene boje ili fiksiranih linija iz obiju projekcija (horizontalne i vertikalne) pokreću slikarev i arhitektov um i razbuđuju njihov duh. Ovakav crtež nije namijenjen za prezentaciju već je dio arhitektove intime. Polazna pretpostavka kao kulturno nasljeđe može sputati i opteretiti slikara i arhitekta, pa se inzistiralo na stvaralačkom procesu koji crtežom polazi od bjeline papira, kako je to tumačio Gropius. Manet je otklonio naslijeđenu povijesnu zbilju, želio je krenuti od tabule rase i žalio je što se nije rodio slijep, dok je Pissarro želio porušiti Louvre. Degas je bio oduševljen samo izumom fotografije, a ne doslovno bogatim kulturnim nasljeđem. Fotografija mu je bila nadahnuće i njome je želio oživjeti vlastite predodžbe o spontanom, fragmentarnom i neposrednom.

Postupni postupak Arhitektova imaginacija obično je sputana postojećim stanjem: prirodnim ili urbanim krajobrazom. Stoga nametnuta ograničenja proizlaze iz prirodnih elemenata (morfologije okoliša) ili iz urbanih elemenata (postojeća izgradnja, kolni i pješački promet, pješački i kolni pristup). Arhitekt je uglavnom oslobođen polazne ideje pa crtežima analizira postojeću situaciju, opipava titraje i trajektorije napona zadanog prostora. Po skicama se točno mogu utvrditi tri razvojne faze.

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Architects reluctantly publish their sketches i.e. working drawings. Hence, it is not always easy to establish the reasoning behind some decision judging only by the drawings that are available and that were published. The drawings mostly show two procedures in the projecting process: anticipative and gradual.

Anticipative procedure The drawings are self-determining, but it is not possible to order them by some causalconsequential relation which itself indicates that the architect started from a primeval form i.e. primeval basis and that the default concept was adjusted to a different situation. There is no initial spatial idea here – sketch, but a ready template (of constructed or completed projected house) to which the given program has to be adjusted, ‘fitted in’. Numerous sketches show the architect’s occasional distancing and again approaching to the self-imposed template. He is more occupied with the layout disposition of the content and the layout dimensions do not correspond with the ones in the imposed template of facade. The line is insecure and ‘impure’ and the hand cannot follow the tensions that emanate from the imposed framework of multilayered thinking. Sometimes it is difficult to perceive the idea from only one projection and then layout and perspective are used although each projection seeks and offers its distances. The painter puts the canvas on the floor and pours color on it (J. Miró), then he lifts it up to determine its defects, and then again horizontally, to do correction. The immobility of the dried color or fixated lines from both projections (horizontal and vertical) mobilizes the painter’s and the architect’s mind and wakens up their spirit. This type of drawing is not intended for presentation but it is part of the architect’s intimacy. The initial assumption as cultural heritage can constrain and burden both the painter and the architect, so there was insisting on creative process which starts as a drawing stemming from the paper’s whiteness, as Gropius interpreted it. Manet removed the inherited historical reality; he wanted to start from tabula rasa and had remorse for not being born blind, while Pissarro wanted to demolish Louvre. Degas got thrilled with the invention of the photography but not by the literally rich cultural heritage. The photograph was his inspiration and he wanted to use it to revive his own personal concepts of the spontaneous, fragmentary and indirect.

Gradual procedure The architect’s imagination is normally restricted by the existing condition: natural or urban landscape. Hence the imposed limitations emanate from natural elements (the environment’s morphology) or from

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

U prvoj su fazi linije crteža neobvezujuće i neprecizne što ne znači da su misli još uvijek neprepoznatljive. Nepreciznost nije trajni nedostatak već je prijelaz prema cilju, poput mosta ‘nepreciznog raspona’ koji spaja dvije obale s fiksnim i kliznim ležajem. Ta su razmišljanja vezana na tlocrtne analize bez primjerenog mjerila i razumljivih oznaka. U drugoj fazi određeni su svi tlocrtni sadržaji i pravilno pozicionirani, a zidovi već aproksimirani s dvije linije. Skice pročelja korespondiraju s tlocrtima koji su usklađeni po svim katovima jer je već postavljena osnovna konstrukcija s upisanim materijalima. U trećoj fazi ideja se potpuno kristalizirala kroz tlocrte s horizontalnim i vertikalnim komunikacijama, pročelja i presjeke s naznačenim visinskim kotama. Crtež je potpuno čitljiv i prostoručne crteže potrebno je tehničkim pomagalima ili digitalnim modelom dovesti do razine tehničke dokumentacije. Pritom primijenjena geometrija nije samo organizirana konstrukcija u sređenju kuće, već najapstraktniji supstrat ljudskog uma kojim se pokazuje i način čovjekova duhovnog odnošenja prema sveukupnosti. Ona, dakle, ne pripada svijetu prirode već racionalnosti moćnog uma koji ima trajnu želju i za dohvatljivom i za nedohvatljivom idejom.

urban elements (existing construction, roadway or pedestrian traffic, pedestrian and roadway access). The architect is mostly unconstrained by the initial idea so he analyzes the existing situation with drawings, feels in tactile manner the oscillations and trajectories of strain in the default space. According to sketches three developmental phases can be established.

Arhitekt u tom procesu stalno manipulira postojećim sređenim i nesređenim elementima prostora i unosi nove elemente tražeći nužan sklad u brojnim kombinacijama pojedinog sustava. U početku crtežima pokazuje slobodu izbora koju kasnije mora sužavati na granice egzistencijalnih potreba korisnika. Granice mogućnosti mogu se pomicati i do apsurdnih rješenja koja sigurno pomažu arhitektu u određenju spektra mogućnosti, a izvan kojih više ne pokazuje znatiželju. U Hilberseimerovim crtežima može se prepoznati koncept kuća – blok – grad, a u recipročnoj planimetrijskoj strukturi grada imat će bitan utjecaj na projektiranje stana – sobe. Najopćenitije, prepoznatljive kubične forme kroz geometrijsku redukciju predstavljaju fundamentalne elemente svake kuće – grada. Njemački, francuski i nizozemski arhitekti svojim crtežima nisu ostvarili cjelinu urbane slike predložene metaforom ‘nove sinteze’ već su ostali na razini ljudske utopije. Odnos prema tako nacrtanoj, zamišljenoj arhitekturi posebno je uzbudio slikara Salvadora Dalija koji u otvorenom pismu dragom Salvadoru Daliju, izražava radost koja ga je obuzela viješću o smrti Le Corbusiera koji se utopio pod težinom armiranog betona švicarskog, protestantskog, mazohističkog i posve neosobnog sira njegove arhitekture. Mjesec i prostranstva bliskih planeta nastanit će ultralagane zupčaste i uskoro antigravitacijske, a zasad crtežom predviđene Fullerove strukture. Pedesetak godina kasnije Michel Houellebecq u romanu ‘Karta i teritorij’ kroz usta oca slikara Jeda, pomalo začudno, zamjera modernoj arhitekturi što je čovječanstvo ograničila na omeđene stambene module, a Le Corbusierove crtačke vizije pokazale su

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The first phase is represented by lines of drawing which are unbinding and imprecise which does not mean that thoughts are yet unrecognizable. The imprecision is not permanent defect but transition towards the goal, like a bridge of ‘imprecise range’ which connects two coasts with fixated and sliding bed. Those considerations are related to layout analyses without appropriate scale and intelligible designations. In the second phase all layout contents are determined and properly positioned, and the walls are approximated with two lines. The facade sketches correspond with layouts that are harmonized by all floors because the basic construction with written materials is already set up. The third phase crystalizes the idea through layouts with horizontal and vertical communication, facades and cross-sections with marked level baselines. The drawing is entirely readable and freeform drawings need to be brought up to level of technical documentation with technical aids or with a digital model. The then applied geometry is not only organized construction in the arrangement of the house, but the most abstract substrate of human mind which also demonstrates the manner of human spiritual positioning towards universality. Therefore, it doesn’t belong to the world of nature but to the rationality of the powerful mind which has permanent desire both for reachable and unreachable idea. In that process the architect constantly manipulates the existing arranged and unarranged elements of space and introduces new elements searching for the necessary harmony in numerous combinations of a certain system. Initially, he shows with his drawings the freedom of choice that he later has to reduce to the limitations of the user’s existential needs. The limits of possibilities can be moved to absurd solutions which surely assist the architect in determining the spectrum of possibilities, outside of which he does not show curiosity. The concept of house – block – city can be recognized in Hilberseimer’s drawings, and in the reciprocal planimetric structure of city, it will have significant influence to the projection of apartment – room. Most generally speaking, the recognizable cubic shapes through geometric reduction represent fundamental elements of every house – city. German, French and Dutch architects with their drawings did not manage to encompass the entirety of the urban image suggested with the metaphor of ‘new synthesis’ but they remained on the level of human utopia. The relation towards the thus imagined architecture drawn in such way particularly excited the painter Salvador Dali who in his open letter to the dear Salvador Dali expresses the joy he felt upon receiving the news of Le Corbusier’s death who had drowned under the weight of armed concrete of the Swiss, protestant, masochistic and entirely impersonal cheese of his architecture. The Moon

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

brutalnost i totalitarni duh kojim je prevladala sklonost prema ružnom – izgradnji konclogorskih prostora. Posebno zamjera Gropiusu koji je u svojim proklamacijama inicijalno podržavao program Williama Morrisa (premostiti suprotstavljenost između umjetnosti i obrta) da bi kasnije prešao u službu kapitalističke industrijske proizvodnje kojom je osporio početne proklamirane ideje.

and the breadths of the nearby planets will be inhabited by ultralight, denticulated and soon antigravitational – for now, only by drawing anticipated – Fuller’s structure. Fifty years later, Michel Houellebecq in his novel ‘The Map and the Territory’ through the mouth of the painter Jed’s father, slightly astonishing, resents modern architecture for limiting the humankind to delimited housing modules, while Le Corbusier’s drawing visions showed brutality and totalitarian spirit overwhelmed by inclinations towards the ugly – construction of concentration camps spaces. He particularly resents Gropius who in his proclamations initially supported William Morris’s program (to bridge the opposition between art and craft) in order to wade off later to serve capitalist industrial production by which he disputed the initially proclaimed ideas.

Crtež namijenjen radnom modelu Uobičajen je postupak da se definiranim nacrtima nastoji zamišljeni projekt prezentirati finalnim modelom da bi se ideja mogla predstaviti naručitelju ili stručnim procjeniteljima. Međutim, u postupku projektiranja često je crtež namijenjen samo provjeri prostora na radnim modelima pa se ideja ili neki njezini dijelovi vraćaju u radni crtež da bi se promijenili. Crtež je u ovom slučaju namijenjen posredniku između zamišljene ideje i zbilje – stvarnog i mogućeg. Odatle i, u početku, nastaje dvostruka struktura zamišljene kuće koja proizlazi iz stalnog gledanja s jednakom pažnjom: trenutak na izvjesnoj ali nestalnoj zbilji, a zatim na neizvjesnom ali i na onom stalno mogućem. Za crteže Borrominija koji su bili namijenjeni gipsanom modelu zbog ispitivanja proporcijskih veličina kuće Fillipini u Rimu, Bruno Zevi kaže: ‘Sjajni crteži, ali ne i lijepi u uobičajenom smislu. Služe nam da shvatimo ideju, a ne da nas zadivi samozadovoljstvo arhitekta.’ I Frank Gehry izrađivao je skice za radni model, a ono što je na modelu definirao, prenio je u digitalni model. Eero Saarinen za projekt aerodroma TWA u New Yorku koristio je crteže za ispitivanja na radnom modelu jer je meke zaobljene forme bilo teško predočiti crtežom. I dizajner George Nelson, kao i drugi dizajneri, koristio je crtež u istraživanju veličina i proporcija na radnom modelu.

Samoorganizirajući sustavi Kuća je jedinica jednog sustava grada, ali nije a priori sastavni dio, već je uvijek bitan odnos i ‘ponašanje’ kuća. Misli se na samoorganiziranje u kojem svaka kuća manje ili više odražava neku vrstu individualnosti odnosno autonomije. O gradu se oduvijek govori kao o živom biću – sistemu – organizmu i prati se način na koji on pulsira. P. Bruckner (‘Kradljivci ljepote’) osjeća grad kao golemi mozak iz kojega milijuni stanica danonoćno zrače svojim plimama i osekama u razdobljima spokoja ili uzbuđenja. Kompleksnost grada koju čine elementi fizičke strukture mogu se, dakle, podvesti pod biologijsku teoriju. Moguće je govoriti i o paralelizmu jer ono što određuje jednu kuću to je i razlikuje od ostalih – ono što ona nije. Stvara se tako vlastita cirkularna organizacija pojedinih dijelova grada.

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Drawing intended to working model Defining sketches and thus presenting the imagined project as final model in order to present the idea to the client or to expert assessors is a usual procedure. However, in the projecting process, the drawing is often intended only to testing space on working models so the idea or some of its parts are returned to the working drawing in order to be changed. In this case, the drawing is intended for the mediator between the imagined idea and the reality – the real and the possible. Hence, in the beginning there is a two-fold structure of imagined house stemming from the constant viewing with equal attention: moment spent in axiomatic but instable reality, and then on the uncertain but also on the constantly possible. For Borromini’s drawings which were intended for gypsum model designed with the purpose of examining the proportional dimensions of the Fillipini house in Rome, Bruno Zevi says: ‘Great drawings; but not beautiful in the common sense. They serve us to comprehend the idea and not to be impressed by the architect’s complacency.’ Frank Gehry also created sketches for the working model and the things he defined on the model he later transferred to the digital model. Eero Saarinen, for the project of the airport TWA in New York, used drawings for examinations on the working model because the soft rounded shapes were too difficult to be visualized with a drawing. The designer George Nelson, as well as other designers, used the drawing in examining the dimensions and proportions on the working model.

Self-organizing systems House is a city’s system unit but it is not a priori its constituent part; what remains relevant is the attitude and the ‘behavior’ of a house. Here we think of self organizing in which every house more or less reflects some kind of individuality i.e. autonomy. A city is always spoken of as of a living being – system – organism, and the way it pulsates is followed. P. Bruckner (‘Thieves of beauty’) feels the city as huge brain from which millions of cells radiate all night and day, with their high tides and low tides in periods of tranquility of excitement. The complexity of the

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

U crtežima natječajnih projekata i realizacijama diljem svijeta neki arhitekti dolaze do istih ili sličnih rješenja. Primjer takve sličnosti je projekt za stadion na Kajzerici u Zagrebu arhitekta Hrvoja Njirića te projekt stadiona vulkanskog oblika iz 2003. godine Jean-Marie Massouda i Daniela Pouzeta u Guadalajari u Meksiku. Začuđuje sličnost ideja nastalih na tako udaljenim geografskim širinama. Na prvi pogled ne čini se da je riječ o izvantjelesnom iskustvu već o kolektivnom nesvjesnom, a onda se istraživanjima utvrdilo da svijest kao nematerijalna supstanca doista postoji izvan našeg biološkog sustava i određuje koji će se neuroni ‘paliti’ ili ‘gasiti’. Ti otvoreni fluktuirajući sustavi stalno izmjenjuju tvar, energiju i informacije o onome što rade. Kristalni oblik anhidrata proizveden u većim količinama i uskladišten na različitim mjestima, na jednom je mjestu započeo proces kristalizacije stvarajući monohidratni oblik. Isto se dogodilo i na drugim mjestima, a to se moglo objasniti putovanjem mikroskopskih veličina kristalnih zametaka koji nošeni zrakom inficiraju ostale kristale.

city is made of elements of physical structure and it can be hence subsumed under biological theory. It is possible to speak of parallelism because what determines one house also differentiates it from the others – by what it is not. Hence certain parts of the city create their own circular organization.

Istinska svijest nalazi se, dakle, u prozračnom izvantjelesnom svijetu kvanta, a u živih bića na djelu je efekt modela ‘stotog majmuna’. Daljnja istraživanja pokazala su da sve ono što vrijedi za nežive vrijedi i za žive sisteme koji govore o proizvoljnosti života. Satyendra Nath Bose utvrdio je da svaka živa stanica i svaka atomska čestica u sebi posjeduju neku vrstu primopredajnika još neidentificiranih zraka kojima se prenose makroskopski impulsi sve do beskonačno malih mikroskopskih jedinica koje iniciraju misao, to jest u našem slučaju crtež. Tako se može objasniti i pojava na jednom dijelu udaljenog sjevernonorveškog otoka Spitzbergena gdje se kamenje na plaži samoorganizira u nevjerojatnu mrežu u obliku saća. Nakon što plima ili navala visokih valova poruši tako raspoređeno kamenje, ono se iznova samoorganizira u istu pravilnu mrežu. Isto je i s gradom, pa i nakon elementarnih nepogoda, kada morfologiju samoorganizirajućeg sustava može odrediti odnos veličina i funkcija pojedinih parcela gradskim statutom ili urbanističkim planom, što se posebno prepoznaje kod naselja smještenih na brežuljcima u obliku trokutaste kompozicije. Sve to pretpostavlja da arhitekti mogu doći do sličnih ili istih rješenja zahvaljujući fluktuirajućim sistemima čiji se rezultati ne mogu tek podvesti pod tezu ‘pravo na neoriginalnost’ (Leon Gisch) ili na originalnost. Odatle bi se mogla objasniti sličnost ili identičnost crteža i slika Picassa i Braquea u njihovoj kubističkoj fazi.

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Some architects reach the same or similar solutions in their drawings for tender projects and realizations throughout the world. An example of such similarity is the project for a stadium in Kajzerica in Zagreb projected by the architect Hrvoje Njirić and the project of stadium of volcanic shape from 2003 projected by Jean-Marie Massoud and Daniel Pouzet in Guadalajara, Mexico. The similarity of ideas materialized on such distanced latitudes is amazing. At first glance, it doesn’t seem that it is an out-of-body experience but it rather resembles collective unconscious. Then research showed that consciousness, as immaterial substance, really exists outside our biological system and determines which neutrons will be ‘ignited’ ad which ‘extinguished’. Those open fluctuating systems constantly exchange matter, energy and information about what they do. The crystal shape of anhydrate produced in bigger quantities and stored at different locations started crystallization process by creating monohydrate form. The same happened on other locations, and it was explained by the travelling of crystal seeds of microscopic dimensions which were borne by air and which then infected other crystals. True consciousness is, therefore, in the transparent out-of-body world of quantum, while living beings are subjected to the effect of the ‘hundredth monkey model’. Further research has shown that everything that affects living also affects non-living systems which manifest the arbitrariness of life. Satyendra Nath Bose established that every living cell and every atomic cell in itself owns some kind of transmitter of yet unidentified beams which transfer macroscopic impulses all the way to the infinitely small microscopic unit initiated by thought, that is, in our case, drawing. This is how a phenomenon in one part of a far away northern Norway island, Spitzbergen, can be explained – where rocks on a beach self-organize in an incredible network in the shape of a honeycomb. After a high tide or low tide (of high waves) demolishes the distributed rocks, they self-organize in the same regular network all over again. It is the same with the city, even after elementary disasters, when the city statute or urban plan can determine the morphology of the self-organizing system through the bearing of certain plots’ dimensions and functions, which is particularly obvious with settlements positioned on hills in the form of triangular composition. It all presupposes that architects can come to similar or identical solutions due to fluctuating systems the results of which cannot be subsumed under the thesis ‘right to unoriginality’ (Leon Gisch) or right to originality. Hence, the similarity or the sameness of the drawings and paintings of Picasso and Braque in their cubist phase can be explained.

Danas arhitekti s tom sviješću pozivaju stanovnike grada da sudjeluju u planiranju jednog kompleksa ili jedne kuće na osjetljivoj lokaciji jer ne žele subjektivne forme proglasiti apsolutnim vrijednostima. Primjer je zgrada hotela na lijevoj obali rijeke Garonne u Bordeauxu (gradonačelnik Alain

Nowadays, architects with such consciousness invite city inhabitants to participate in the planning of a complex or one house on a sensitive location because they do not wish to proclaim subjective

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Juppe). Projektirao ju je arhitektonski ured King Kong, i začuđujuće zvuči izjava njihovog arhitekta Paula Mariona da se takvim projektom tj. kućom može povezati prošlost s današnjim izrazom ‘nove arhitekture’. Ta kuća se ne doživljava kao izolirana nepokretna kutija, a funkcija stvarnog može opčarati i uznemiriti poput funkcije nestvarnog. Hotel na uglu bloka predvidljive je forme, poput čestitke i po utvrđenoj tarifi sastavljen je po banalnim pravilima i može biti lišen dodatne informacije. Međutim, svaka inovacija u smislu provokacije teško je prihvatljiva. Arhitektonski jezik je poput glazbenog: sustav probabiliteta u koji je nerazumno uveden improbabilitet, da parafraziramo Umberta Eca. Christian Keres, iako pripada mlađoj generaciji arhitekata, distanciran je i ironičan prema prisili inovacije, inovacije pod bilo koju cijenu s kojom se arhitekti danas suočavaju. Kuća bi morala proizići upravo iz oblika modela participacije koji bi mogao biti drugo ime za model ‘kolektivnog uma’.

forms as absolute values. The building of a hotel on the left coast of the river Garonne in Bordeaux (Mayor Alain Juppe) is such an example. It was projected by the architectural bureau King Kong and the statement of their architect Paul Marion that such project i.e. house can connect the past with today’s expression of ‘new architecture’ sounds astounding. That house is not perceived as isolated immobile box and the function of the real can bewitch and upset like the function of the unreal. The hotel at the corner of the block is of predictable shape, looks like a postcard; it was composed by established tariff, following banal rules and can be bereft of additional information.

Crtež u znanosti Teško je prihvatiti da likovne umjetnosti i arhitektura pripadaju istinskom znanstvenom području, ako ih se ograniči na doslovnu primjenu znanstvene metode, tj. na postavljanje hipoteza koje su manje-više provjerljive na temelju objektivnog promatranja. Znanost i znanstvena objektivnost ne mogu biti proizvod pokušaja pojedinog znanstvenika jer on ne može biti objektivan. Ona može biti rezultat prijateljsko-‘neprijateljske’ suradnje znanstvenika, pa se takva znanstvena objektivnost može nazvati proizvodom intersubjektivne znanstvene metode. Kako znanstvene teorije mogu biti pogrešne, a istinite teorije ne moraju biti znanstvene, tako istina može biti tek sporedan proizvod znanstvene aktivnosti. Spoznaja se otvara u spoju ili naboru logički proturječnih načela i u sve većoj nejasnoći do nezamislivog, neshvatljivog i neizrecivog. Stoga nije moguće zaobići utjecaj subjektivnog na ishod znanstvenog postupka. Tako se afirmira ‘načelo nepostojanosti’ potvrđujući da je svijet onakav kakav je sam po sebi, a ne onakav kakav nam se čini da jest. Raspravu o primjeni znanosti u arhitekturi započeli su početkom 20. stoljeća ruski konstruktivisti koji su odbacili subjektivno shvaćanje procesa projektiranja i vjerovali da se znanost i umjetnost razvijaju iz tehnologije i inženjerstva, te dalje prema organizaciji i konstrukciji. Uloga arhitekta postala je složenija jer se morala prilagoditi socijalnoj revoluciji i odgovoriti na nju. Nisu bili toliko zaokupljeni oblikovnim rješenjem kuće koliko primjenom minimalnih dimenzija u crtanju ‘dinamičkih dijagrama’ pojedinih funkcionalnih grupa kuće. Ti grafikoni su, po njima, proizlazili iz primjene znanstvenih metoda, a zapravo se primjenjivala uobičajena analitička geometrija i matematička statistika. Težilo se optimizaciji dnevnog svjetla, ventilaciji, prostornoj vezi između pojedinih kuća i odnosu kuće prema gradu. Kako je forma svake kuće funkcija mnogih varijabli, tako kvantita-

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However, every innovation in terms of provocation is hard to accept. Architectonic language is like the language of music: system of probability which irrationally introduces improbability, to paraphrase Umberto Eco. Christian Keres, although belonging to a newer generation of architects, is distanced and ironic towards the coercion of innovation, innovation at any cost, which architects face today. The house should stem precisely from the shape of the model of participation which could be another name for the model of ‘collective mind’.

The drawing in science It is hard to accept that fine arts and architecture belong to a real scientific field, if they are to be limited to the literate application of scientific method i.e. to setting hypotheses which are more or less verifiable on basis of objective observation. Science and scientific objectivity cannot be product of the attempt of one scientist because he cannot be objective. It can be a result of friendly-‘unfriendly’ cooperation of scientists; hence such scientific objectivity can be called product of intersubjective scientific method. Since scientific theories can be erroneous, and true theories do not have to be scientific, truth can be just a by-product of scientific activity. Knowledge opens in the unification or pleat of logically opposing principles and in ever growing obscurity until the unimaginable, incomprehensible and unutterable. Therefore, it is not possible to circumvent the influence of the subjective to the outcome of the scientific procedure. Thus the ‘principle of volatility’ is affirmed, confirming that the world is the way it is in its own right and not how it seems to us. The discourse about the implementation of science in architecture was initiated in the beginning of 20th century by the Russian constructivists who rejected the subjective understanding of the process of projection and believed that science and art develop from technology and engineering, and further towards organization and construction. The role of the architect became more complex because it had to adjust to the social revolution and to respond to it. They were not so much occupied with the solution of how to shape a house as they were occupied with the application of minimal dimensions in drawing ‘dynamic diagrams’ of certain functional groups of house. Those graphic charts, according to them, stemmed from the implementation of scientific

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

tivne promjene u dijalektičkom procesu moraju dovesti do kvalitativnih razlika u formi kuće.

methods but in fact the usual analytic geometry and mathematic statistics were applied. They were striving towards optimization of daylight, ventilation, spatial connection between separate houses and the relation of the house towards the city. Since the shape of a house is a function of many variables, thus the quantitative changes in the dialectical process have to lead to qualitative differences in the shape of the house.

Najuporniji u scientiziranju arhitekture bio je Hannes Meyer koji je vjerovao u socijalnu misiju arhitekta koji mora slijediti otkrića egzaktnih nauka i pritom obuzdavati slikarski utjecaj (‘slikarske razularenosti’). Tako bi ‘proleterska umjetnost’, kako ju Meyer naziva, bila određena dimenzijama i funkcijama njezinog programa. Kuća u socijalističkom društvu nije ni lijepa niti ružna jer lenjinistički arhitekt nije sluga estetike. Arhitektura više nije umjetnost građenja i građenje postaje znanost. Meyerove su skice beskrajne analize različitih dijagrama na standardnoj veličini papira i sa standardnim arhitektonskim elementima. Primjena standardizacije kao univerzalne vrijednosti dovela je 1914. do žučne i ne baš bezazlene rasprave između Muthesiusa i Van der Veldea. Međutim sve te rasprave o znanstvenom pristupu ostale su na pukim snovima, a njihove zamišljene ideje osporila je svakodnevna praksa. Ni do današnjih dana u istraživanju odnosa između umjetnosti, znanosti i arhitekture gotovo se ništa nije promijenilo. Edward O. Wilson (‘Pomirenje – jednostavnost znanja’) drži da postoji zajedničko svojstvo znanosti i umjetnosti. To je ‘pismo uma’ kojim bi se razvijenijom vještinom omogućilo direktno čitanje iz moždanih vizualizacija, a uz testiranje svake teze Occamovom britvom i u kiselim kupkama skepticizma. Dok Terry Eagleton (‘Teorija i nakon nje’) naglašava da se znanost i umjetnost ne mogu podvesti jedno pod drugo jer su umjetnička djela ujedno i kulturalna djela, a ne apstraktne doktrine. Senzualna su, delikatna i jedinstveno individualna. U traženju ‘formule optičkog slikanja’ iz promatranja boje i svjetla jedino se Seurat približio hipotetsko-deduktivnim metodama prirodnih znanosti. Mondrian je bio hrabar kad je svojom slikom odredio grad kao finalni objekt s neoplastičnom kompozicijom. Kada se čudnim spojem umjetnosti i ‘znanosti’ prisilno zaranja u strukturu grada, moraju se pokazati protuslovlja i idealiziranje iracionalnog jer se grad stalno mijenja. Moglo bi se reći da je u arhitekturi Jean Nouvel deduktivnom metodom, poput Seurata, ‘oslikao’ dinamizirajuće pročelje zgrade Institute du Monde Arabe u Parizu, promatrajući njezine boje i svjetla, ali je i u interijeru postigao izuzetnu svježinu u svjetlosnom doživljaju. Daroviti Peter Eisenman na svom je projektu Bio-centra u Frankfurtu na Maini za Goethe sveučilište primijenio znanstvenu metodu u projektiranju (nacrte je rukom izradio Greg Lynn, a kasnije ih digitalizirao) i njome je, kako tvrdi, omekšao granice između biologije i arhitekture istražujući nove formalne opcije. U crtačkom procesu, odnosno projektiranju odbacuje Euklidovu, a favorizira fraktalnu geometriju nalazeći analogiju između bioloških i arhitektonskih formi, odnosno vezu između fraktalne geometrije i DNK strukture.

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The most persistent ones in scientification of architecture was Hannes Meyer who believed in architect’s social mission who has to follow the discoveries of exact sciences and at the same time constrain the painters’ influence (‘painters’ extemporaneity’). In that way, ‘proletarian art’, as Meyer calls it, would be determined by its program’s dimensions and functions. A house in socialist society is neither beautiful nor ugly because the Leninist architect is not servant to aesthetics. Architecture is no longer art and construction becomes science. Meyer’s sketches are open-ended analyses of different diagrams on standard size of paper and with standard architectonic elements. The application of standardization as universal value lead in 1914 to fierce and not quite innocent discussion between Muthesius and Van der Velde. However, those discussions on scientific approach remained just dreams, and their imagined ideas were disputed by everyday practice. Nothing has changed since then until today in the research of the relation between art, science and architecture. Edward O. Wilson (‘Reconciliation – simplicity of knowledge’) believes that science and art have a common feature. That is the ‘epistyle of mind’ which through more developed skill could enable direct reading from brain visualizations, by testing every thesis by Occam’s razor and in sour bathes of skepticism. Terry Eagleton (‘After theory’) on the other hand emphasizes that science and art cannot be subsumed under one another because artistic deeds are at the same time cultural deeds and not abstract doctrines. They are sensual, delicate and uniquely individual. In searching for the ‘formula of optical painting’ from observations of color and light only Seurat came close to the hypothetic-deductive methods of natural sciences. Mondrian was courageous when with his painting he determined the city as final object with neoplastic composition. When the awkward combination of art and ‘science’ coercively dive into the structure of a city, its contradictions and idealization of the irrational have to be shown because the city is constantly changing. It could be said that in architecture Jean Nouvel, with deductive method, like Seurat, ‘painted’ a dynamizing facade of the building of Institute du Monde Arabe in Paris, by observing its color and lights. However, in the interior he achieved extraordinary freshness in the experience of light. The talented Peter Eisenman on his project of Bio Centre in Frankfurt on Main for the Goethe University applied a scientific method in projection (Greg Lynn drew the sketches by hand and were later digitalized) and with it, he claims, he softened the boundaries between biology and architecture by researching new formal options. In the drawing process i.e. projecting, he rejects Euclid’s geometry and favorizes fractal geometry finding at the same time analogy between bio-

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Bitno je da su sve arhitektonske teorije retrospektivno rekonstruirane na osnovi izvedenih, neizvedenih ili neizvedivih, a nacrtanih kuća pa bi se tek s te pozicije mogao prepoznati značaj crteža u području znanosti. Teško bi bilo po arhitektonskoj teoriji bilo što predvidjeti ili razriješiti. Predmet teorije arhitekture pluta na brzacima povijesti i nema onu težinu kakvu imaju teorija relativnosti ili teorija kvantne fizike.

logical and architectural forms i.e. connection between fractal geometry and DNA structure.

Računalni crtež Arhitektonski crtež skoro je nestao prije dvadesetak godina jer je cijeli postupak razvoja i prezentacije ideje preuzelo računalo. Crtanje je bilo plodonosno za istraživanje slojevitosti arhitekture, formalnih izraza kroz odnos interijera i eksterijera. U intervjuu iz 2003. Zaha Hadid izražava žaljenje što je računalo preuzelo projektantski posao te iako u posljednje vrijeme ne koristi crtež izrađen rukom, ipak inzistira na ‘ravnoteži između ručnog crteža i računalne tehnike’. Za Steven Holla realna vrijednost umjetnosti u arhitekturi leži upravo u crtežu kao ‘analognom procesu’. Mišljenje povezuje mozak, misao, oko, ruku i srce, pa zato homoseksualac ne može nacrtati ženski akt, za razliku od muškog. Skicom se možda ne raspoznaje mjerilo, ali se vide odnosi. Holl je u početku svoje crteže opsesivno detaljirao olovkom ali se kasnije prepustio više impresionističkom i intuitivnom akvarelu koji odmah digitalizira (nervozni mistik). Frank Gehry oduševljen je digitalnim modelima jer se prije u mnogo crtačkih faza gubio projektantski libido, a i obrtnici su ga s čuđenjem gledali kad je tumačio svoj projekt, kao da govori strani jezik. Sada ga razumiju svi! Računalnim softverom mogu se izvesti najkompliciranije forme pa je napustio ortogonalne projekcije. Montažom virtualnih slika poput neprozirnog omotača prekrivamo izvornu zbilju, a slobodan odnos spram tehnike oslobađa nas slijepe prisile mada je se istovremeno pribojavamo zbog mogućeg pustošenja. Nije li Hans Scharoun sagradio vrlo složenu zgradu Berlinske filharmonije bez digitalnog modela?! Holl izjavljuje: ‘Zapravo se ne radi u uporabi arhaičnog modela jer mogu nacrtati bilo koji od ovih crteža i zapisati koncept puno brže nego što bih to napravio na računalu. I to mogu skenirati i poslati.’ Ili ‘Bitno je povezati ono što radite sa svime što se događa u sinapsama u mozgu. To se treba učiniti rukom, kako bi bio duboko povezan s onim što osjećate unutra i kako biste bili potpuno slobodni’... Da nije sve beznadno uputio nas je Luca Molinari na simpoziju ‘Is drawing dead?’, održanom od 9. do 12. veljače 2012. na Yale School of Architecture. Na značenje teme svo-

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It is important that all architectonic theories have been retrospectively reconstructed on basis of derived, underived or impossible to derive, and yet drawn houses so only from that position one can recognize the meaning of the drawing in the field of science. It would be very difficult to anticipate or resolve anything by architectural theory. The subject of the theory of architecture floats on the rapids of history and does not have weight as the theory of relativity or the theory of quantum physics.

Computer drawing Architectonic drawing almost disappeared some twenty years ago because the entire procedure of development and presentation of idea was taken over by computers. Drawing was rewarding for researching layers of architecture, formal expressions through the relation between interior and exterior. In a 2003 interview, Zaha Hadid expresses regret for the computer having taken over the projecting work and although she does not use hand-made drawing, she still insists on ‘the balance between hand drawing and computer technique.’ For Steven Holl, the real value of art in architecture rests specifically in drawing as an ‘analogous process’. Thinking connects brain, thought, eye, hand and heart and that is why a homosexual cannot draw a female nude, whereas he can do a male’s nude. A sketch perhaps does not discriminate the scale, but the relations can be clearly seen. In the beginning, Holl detailed his drawings obsessively with pencil but later he conceded to more impressionist-like and intuitive aquarelle which he immediately digitalizes (nervous mystic). Frank Gehry is exhilarated with digital models because before, in the numerous drawing phases, the projector’s libido got lost, and craftsmen looked at him with disgust while he explained his project, as if he was speaking a foreign language. Now everyone understands him! Computer software can perform the most complicated shapes so he abandoned orthogonal projections. By mounting virtual images we cover the original reality like non-transparent cover, and the free relation towards technique frees us of blind coercion although at the same time we are scared of the potential depredation. Didn’t Hans Scharoun build the very complex building of the Berlin Philharmonic without a digital model?! Holl states: ‘It’s really not about using an archaic method, because I can make any of these drawings and write concept a lot quicker than I could if I was doing it on a computer. And I can just scan it and send it.’ Or ‘It’s important to connect what you’re doing to everything going on in the synapses of your brain. It needs to be done by hand, to be deeply connected to what you’re feeling internally and to be completely free’... Luca Molinari, at the symposium ‘Is drawing dead?’ held from 9th to 12th February 2012

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

jom su prisutnošću ukazali Juhami Pallasma, Peter Cook, Patric Schumacher, Steven Holl, Michael Graves, Greg Lynn i brojni drugi, a uz izložbu crteža Massima Scolarija (‘Representations’). Iako su mišljenja bila podijeljena, ipak je prevladavao stav o važnosti crteža u postupku projektiranja s napomenom da je računalni crtež arhitekturi ono što je fotografija bila slikarstvu, pa time ništa nije bilo niti osporeno, niti onemogućeno.

at the Yale School of Architecture, implied that not everything was so hopeless. The significance of the topic was emphasized by the presence of Juhami Pallasma, Peter Cook, Patric Schumacher, Steven Holl, Michael Graves, Greg Lynn and many others, as well as with the exhibition of drawings by Massimo Scolari (‘Representations’). Although opinions were divided, the attitude about the importance of the drawing in the projecting process was overpowering, accentuating that computer drawing is to architecture what photography used to be to painting, and that regardless of that, nothing was either disputed or disabled.

Greg Lynn ne pruža takvu nadu jer predviđa da će pismo arhitekture biti geometrija u obliku Möbiusove trake ili u blob-geometriji (upravo je kurator izložbe ‘Archaeology of the Digital’). Nažalost, naprasno se pojavljuju modularne i nemodularne, reverzibilne i nereverzibilne strukture koje, kolikogod se one escherovski izvijale poput Möbiusove vrpce, ne bi smjele negirati unutrašnji i vanjski prostor ili nezadrživo konvergirati vrtlogu bez ishodišta. Slike takve arhitekture bile lascivne, frivolne ili putene mogu otkriti samo laminirane konstrukcije nulte debljine ili uglavnom loše odabrane tonove sintetičkih boja poput digitalnog ruža za usne. Karrie Jacobs upozorava da u interijerima prevladavaju monitori i računalni zasloni kao ornamenti našeg vremena. Sobe su pune ekrana kao Versailles zrcala, a riječi poput autentično i udobno zamijenjene su riječima wired i smart. Začudo, grupa nizozemskih arhitekata (Universe Architecture) projektirala je kuću u obliku Möbiusove vrpce i gradnja je predviđena kroz 3D printer sljedeće godine u Brazilu. Od Šangaja i Pekinga pa do Műnchena konstrukcije kuća i sportskih sadržaja oblažu se staničnim mjehurastim oblogama u obliku reklamnih panoa sponzora, tvoreći tako arhitekturu spektakla i traume. To je arhitektura Las Vegasa, rapsodija svjetla i boje, arhitektura za senzaciju ugode. Računalni ekran samo nam zarobljava stvarnost i ne bi trebao potpuno, zamijeniti crtež. Računalo uspostavlja distancu između arhitekta i ideje kuće, dok je crtež napravljen rukom poput modela jer omogućuje projektantu haptički kontakt s kućom i prostorom (Jurij Kobe). Dakle, proces projektiranja obrće se u pasivnu vizualnu manipulaciju i ne dopušta se projiciranje svjesnih ili podsvjesnih ideja, kreativna nedovršenost s usputnim asocijacijama. Prisilno nam se ‘nudi’ samo ono što je u njemu programirano. Nijedan crtež ne može predvidjeti konačni izgled kuće već služi stimuliranju kreativnosti i registrira arhitektove namjere. Živimo u iluziji, a naša svijest dodiruje njezinu površinu. Razum nam je plošna sila, površan i ponekad bezuman u neuspjeloj patničkoj potrazi za pravom idejom. Tada je teško pronaći utjehu. Alvaro Siza kao da proklinje dok šapuće: ‘Arhitektura će nestati tek kad čovječanstvo postane sretno, ali već se gubi taj svijet sitnih udobnosti i perverzni šarm rutine.’

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Greg Lynn does not offer that kind of hope because he anticipates that the epistyle of architecture will be geometry in the form of Möbius band or in Blob-geometry (he is at the present curator of the exhibition ‘Archaeology of the Digital’). Unfortunately, modular and non-modular, reversible and non-reversible structures appear suddenly, which, regardless of their Escher-like tessellations characteristic of Möbius band, they should not negate the internal and external space or unstoppably converge into a whirl without starting point. Whether lascivious, frivolous or salacious, images of such architecture can only reveal laminated constructions of zero width or they can, with poorly chosen tones of synthetic colors, like digital lipstick. Karrie Jacobs warns that today interiors are dominated by displays and computer screens as ornaments of our time. Rooms are full with screens like Versailles is full of mirrors and words like ‘authentic’ and ‘comfortable’ are replaced with the words wired and smart. Amazingly enough, a group of Dutch architects (Universe Architecture) projected a house in the form of Möbius band and the construction is anticipated for next year in Brazil, through a 3D printer. From Shanghai to Beijing and all the way to Munich construction of houses and sport contents are coated with cellular, bubbling coatings in the form of advertising billboards of sponsors, thus creating architecture of spectacle and trauma. It is the architecture of Las Vegas, rhapsody of light and color, architecture for sensation of pleasures. A Computer screen only arrests reality and should not entirely replace drawing to us. Computers establish distance between architect and the idea of a house, while a hand drawing is like a model because it enables the designer to establish haptic contact with the house and space (Jurij Kobe). Therefore, the process of projecting is turned into passive visual manipulation and does not allow projection of conscious or subconscious ideas, creative incompleteness with peripheral associations. We are forcefully being ‘offered’ only what is programmed in it. No drawing can anticipate the final look of a house. It only serves to stimulate creativity and to register the architect’s intentions. We live in illusion, and our consciousness* touches its surface. Our reason is flat force, superficial and sometimes mindless in an unsuccessful sufferer’s search for the right idea. Then it is difficult to find consolation. Alvaro Siza seems to curse while he whispers: ‘Architecture will disappear only when humankind becomes happy, but that world of petty commodities and the perverse charm of routine is already being lost’.

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Autorica

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Dubravka Kisić

Avangardno slikarstvo Joa Kleka i arhitektura Josipa Seissela Josip Seissel uključuje se u avangardne tijekove 1920. u đačkom, gimnazijskom razdoblju. Najprije se iskušao u slikarstvu, a potom i u kazališnim izvedbama inspiriranim dadaističkim, nadrealističkim i konstruktivističkim nazorima koje dijeli sa skupinom istomišljenika i prijatelja u Akademičkom društvu Travelleri.1 Njegova veza s avangardnim umjetničkim pravcem zenitizmom2 čije se djelovanje veže uz osnivača i glavnog pobornika Ljubomira Micića i izdavanje časopisa Zenit, počinje izvedbom predstave Oni će doći koja je odigrana u sklopu školske proslave u gimnastičkoj dvorani Realne gimnazije u Zagrebu 16. 12. 1922. godine. Predstava je nastala kao kolaž tekstova Ljubomira Micića, Ivana Golla i Filippa Tommasa Marinettija, koji su bili recentno prevedeni i objavljeni u Zenitu, zbog čega je skupina učenika koja je predstavu priredila i izvela pod vodstvom J. Seissela dobila epitet mladi zenitisti.3 Izvedba je, međutim, prepoznata kao avangardno-anarhoidna provokacija pa se Seissel, zajedno s ostalim ‘kazališnim zenitistima’, prisilno ispisao iz gimnazije. Radi završetka školovanja otišao je u Beograd i maturirao u lipnju 1923. godine. O Seisselovim aktivnostima u ovom burnom trenutku života doznajemo iz njegove korespondencije s Ljubomirom Micićem.4

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Jo Klek’s Avant-Garde Painting and Josip Seissel’s Architecture Josip Seissel joined the avant-garde movements in 1920 while he was still a gymnasium student. First, he tried to paint, and then got engaged in theatrical performances inspired by Dadaist, Surrealist and Constructivist viewpoints that he shared with a group of like-minded people and friends from the Travelleri (Travellers) Academic Society1. His relationship with the avant-garde artistic direction of Zenithism2 whose activity is associated with the founder and the main proponent Ljubomir Micić and publishing of the Zenit magazine, starts with the performance of the play They will come as a part of a school celebration in the Realgymnasium in Zagreb on 16 December 1922. The play was set as a collage of texts by Ljubomir Micić, Ivan Goll and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who were recently translated and published in the Zenit magazine and that is why a group of students who had staged the play and performed under the direction of J. Seissel got the epithet the young Zenitists3. The performance, however, was recognized as an avant-garde anarchoid provocation so Seissel, along with other ‘theater Zenitists’

1, Akademičko društvo Travelleri neformalna je umjetnička skupina istomišljenika i prijatelja. Skupinu je početkom dvadesetih okupio Josip Seissel, a članovi su se sastajali u vrtnoj kući doma Čede Plavšića u Rokovoj 9, u Zagrebu. Inspirirali su se novim medijima: filmom, fotografijom i jazzom te prakticirali dadaističke, nadrealističke i konstruktivističke umjetničke forme djelovanja. Članovi skupine bili su: Josip Seissel, Dragutin Herjanić, Vlado Pilar, Zvonimir Megler, Miho Šen, Dušan Plavšić, Čedomil Plavšić, Miloš Somborski i Višnja Kranjčević. 2, Zenitizam je utemeljen u Zagrebu u veljači 1921. pojavom Manifesta zenitizma i časopisa Zenit ‘internacionalne revije za novu umjetnost’. Časopis je izlazio od veljače 1921. do 1923. godine u Zagrebu, a potom do prosinca 1926. u Beogradu. Rezultat je suradnje trojice autora – Ljubomira Micića, Ivana Golla i Boška Tokina, u to vrijeme nastanjenih u Zagrebu, Parizu i Beogradu. Tipičan je primjer skupnog djelovanja avangardnih umjetnika koji uspostavljaju komunikacijske tijekove između lokalnih kulturnih središta poput Varšave, Krakova, Praga, Budimpešte, Zagreba, Bukurešta i velikih centara poput Pariza, Berlina i Moskve. Cjelokupnu izdavačku produkciju skupine čine časopisi Zenit, Dada jok, Dada tank i Dada Jazz u kojima je plasirana produkcija umjetničke mreže srednjoeuropskih umjetničkih avangardi. Najcjelovitija referencija Zenita i zenitizma jest monografija autorica Vidosave Golubović i Irene Subotić Zenit 1921. – 1926. Beograd, 2008. 3, Više o predstavi Oni će doći i slikarskom opusu Josipa Seissela u gimnazijskom razdoblju u: Vlado Bužančić, Josip Seissel, Galerija umjetnina Branko Dešković, Bol, str. 17. – 18.; Marijan Susovski, Josip Seissel, Razdoblje 1918. – 1924., Zagreb, 1997., str. 13. – 20.; Vera Horvat Pintarić, Tradicija i moderna, Zagreb, 2009., str. 383. – 418. 4, Korespondencija je pohranjena u Narodnoj biblioteci Jugoslavije, a

1, Travelleri Academic Society is an informal artistic group of like-minded people and friends. In early twenties, Josip Seissel gathered the group and they used to meet in the garden house of Čedo Plavšić in Zagreb, 9 Rokova St. They found the inspiration in the new media: film, photography and jazz, and they practiced Dadaist, Surrealist and Constructivist art forms of action. The members of the group were: Josip Seissel, Dragutin Herjanić, Vlado Pilar, Zvonimir Megler, Miho Šen, Dušan Plavšić, Čedomil Plavšić, Milo Somborski and Višnja Kranjčević. 2, Zenithism was founded in Zagreb, in February 1921 by Manifesto of Zenithism and the Zenit magazine, ‘an international magazine for new art.’ It was published from February 1921 to 1923 in Zagreb, and then in Belgrade until December 1926. It was a result of the collaboration of three authors – Ljubomir Micić, Ivan Goll and Boško Tokin, at that time living in Zagreb, Paris and Belgrade, and by that pure fact it was a typical example of a group action of avant-garde artists who set up the communication flows between local cultural centers such as Warsaw, Krakow, Prague, Budapest, Zagreb, Bucharest and major centers such as Paris, Berlin and Moscow. The entire publishing production of the group consists of magazines Zenit, Dada jok, Dada tank and Dada Jazz in which an art production network of Central European artistic avantgardes was launched. The most complete reference of Zenit and Zenithism is the monograph by Vidosava Golubović and Irena Subotić: Zenit 1921 – 1926, Belgrade, 2008 3, More about the play They will come and Josip Seissel’s painterly oeuvre in the gymnasium period: Bužančić, Vlado: Josip Seissel, Branko Dešković Art Gallery, Bol, pp. 17 – 18; Susovski, Marijan: Josip Seissel, The Period 1918 – 1924, Zagreb, 1997, pp. 13 – 20; Horvat Pintarić, Vera: Tradition and Art Nouveau, Zagreb, 2009, pp. 383 – 418

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Dopisivanje se odvija na relaciji Zagreb – Beograd kamo se Lj. Micić preselio 1923. godine nakon što je izgubio posao profesora u Učiteljskoj školi u Zagrebu zbog neodobrenoga korištenja studijskog dopusta i neprihvaćanja premještaja na gimnaziju u Mitrovici5 te zbog, za preseljenje presudne, zabrane Zenita u Zagrebu.6 U pismima s nadnevkom ‘Zagreb 1. juni 1923.’ i ‘10. juni 1923.’ godine Seissel izvještava da je ljeto proveo s Travellerima u Novom Vinodolskom kod obitelji Plavšić, te da po povratku u Zagreb skupina ‘korporativno pravi zenitistički humbug’ u Samoboru i organizira ‘malene Zenit seanse’ u jednom klubu. J. Seissel, M. Šen i Z. Megler izvode svojevrsni višednevni performans po bankama i poduzećima prodajući roman 77 samoubica Branka Ve Poljanskog koji je upravo bila objavila Naklada Reflektor iz Zagreba ‘za bagatelnu cijenu od 100 dinara’. U to vrijeme Seissel izrađuje i plakat Pomozite studentima. Prinose prima Jug. Akademsko potporno društvo, Zagreb – Universa na kojem, iz povijesne perspektive, možemo očitati početne naznake preusmjerenja njegovog slikarstva prema arhitekturi. Odnos Seissela i Micića osobito se učvršćuje u okolnostima Seisselove krize vlastitog identiteta i nestabilnosti isprovociranih konfliktom s neposrednom okolinom.7 Štoviše, jedan gimnazijski eksces koji ga ekskomunicira iz mainstreama zagrebačke kulture u Micićevom ambijentu, donosi mu auru autentičnog avangardnog umjetnika i katapultira ga u međunarodnu avangardnu mrežu u kojoj Zenit sve uspješnije sudjeluje. Međutim, već u ovoj ljetnoj pauzi nakon beogradske mature, Seissel osjeća promjenu vlastitog umjetničkog interesa o čemu također u pismu obavještava Micića:

forcibly dropped out of high school. In order to complete his education, he went to Belgrade and graduated in June 1923. About Seissel’s activities in this tumultuous time of life we can read in his correspondence with Ljubomir Micić4. The correspondence took place between Zagreb and Belgrade where the Lj. Micić moved in 1923 after he had lost his job as a professor at the Teachers Training College in Zagreb due to an unauthorized use of study leave and non-acceptance of transfer to secondary school in Mitrovica5 and because of the ban of the Zenit in Zagreb6 which was a crucial reason for the relocation. In letters dated ‘Zagreb, 1 June 1923’ and ‘10 June 1923’ Seisel reports that he spent the summer with the Trevelleri in Novi Vinodolski with the Plavšić family and that upon his return to Zagreb, the group ‘created a real Zenitist humbug’ in Samobor and organized ‘small Zenit sessions’ in a club. J. Seissel, M. Šen and Z. Megler prepared a kind of multi-day performance at banks and companies, selling, for minimal price of 100 dinars, a novel 77 suicides by Branko Ve Poljanski who had been recently published by Naklada Reflektor from Zagreb. At that time Seissel also made the poster Help the students. Contributions receives South – Academic Support Society, Zagreb – University in which, from a historical perspective, we can see the initial indications of diversion of his painting to architecture. The relationship between Seissel and Micić particularly reinforces under the circumstances of Seissel’s identity crisis and instability provoked by a conflict with the immediate surrounding7. Moreover, an excess

objavljena u: Golubović Vidosava, Iz prepiske oko Zenita i zenitizma, Jo Klek – Ljubomiru Miciću, u: Ljetopis, Srpsko kulturno društvo Prosvjeta, br. 3., 1998., Zagreb, str. 197. – 209. 5, O tome nas obavještava sam Ljubomir Micić u: Prosvetna politika i progon Ljubomira Micića, Zenit. br. 15., 1922., Zagreb, str. 40. 6, Zadnji broj Zenita objavljen u Zagrebu i otisnut u Štampariji Gaj ima dataciju maj 1923. 7, Ovaj je odnos osobito vidljiv u pismu Jo Kleka – Ljubomiru Miciću s nadnevkom Zagreb, 24. 8. 1923.: ‘Veoma poštovani i dragi gospodine, iako sam duhom vrlo često uz Vas, ja Vam toliko malo pišem, da se upravo stidim. No valjda i ne može drugačije da bude, jer pišu si samo stabilizovani ljudi, a mi to nažalost nismo nimalo. /../Verujte da bih voleo nego ne znam što, da se rešim ove idiotske sredine, tog prokletog Zagreba i da dođem k Vama u Beograd. Sada sam uistinu upoznao, kako je tip Hrvata a specijalno Zagorca pa bio on i najdobrodušniji i najbolji čovjek kako je on duševni i telesni kripl, koji nikako ne može zrelo da misli, i koji nije sposoban za život. To vam pišem zato, jer treba da priznam kako sam do sada, makar pridušeno i prikriveno, cenio njegovu glupu sentimentalnost držeći da je slavenska.’ Citirano prema: Golubović, nav. dj. u 4., str. 202. Ova kriza identiteta devetnaestogodišnjeg J. Seissela bila je prolazna. U radijskom intervjuu s Milošem Jevtićem (Gost Drugog programa Radio Beograda: akademik, arhitekta Josip Seissel, 13. 4. 1980.) o svom krapinskom razdoblju (1904. – 1919.) i osjećaju zavičajnosti J. Seissel kaže: ‘Izvan svake sumnje godine djetinjstva, veselje, mladost, način života i reagiranja, pejzaži, mišljenja i običaji, smisao za humor, jednom riječju sve što daje zavičaj, je prva škola života i ostaje neizbrisiva. Ona je i kasnije kao neka potka na koju se pletu niti života, te odatle dobivamo i žig specifičnosti.’ Citirano prema: Bužančić, nav. dj. u 3., str. 12. 8, Golubović, nav. dj. u 4., str. 202.

4, The correspondence is in the archive of the National Library of Yugoslavia and published in the text by Golubović, Vidosava: Iz prepiske oko Zenita i zenitizma, Jo Klek – Ljubomiru Miciću /From the Correspondence about Zenit and Zenithism, Jo Klek to Ljubomir Micić/, in the Ljetopis /Chronicle/, Prosvjeta Serbian Cultural Society, No.3, 1998, Zagreb, pp. 197 – 209 5, Micić himself informs us about this in: Prosvetna politika i progon Ljubomira Micića / Educational Policy and Persecution of Ljubomir Micić/, Zenit, No.15, 1922, p. 40 6, The last issue of the Zenit magazine which was published in Zagreb and printed in the Štamparija Gaj is dated May 1923 7, This relationship is particularly evident in the letter by Jo Klek to Ljubomir Micić dated in Zagreb 24 August 1923. ‘Dear Sir, though I am most often with you in my spirit, I do so little writing that it makes me ashamed. But I guess it cannot be otherwise, because only stabilized people write to each other, and we are not among those, unfortunately. /.. / I would really like more than anything to get rid of this idiotic surrounding, of damn Zagreb and to come to you in Belgrade. Now I have truly learnt that special type of Croats, especially those coming from Zagorje, a person who can be even the most kind-hearted and the best of men, but he is also a mental and physical cripple not capable of mature thinking or living. I write to you about it, because I need to admit that by now, even though muffeldly and covertly, I admired his stupid sentimentality considering it to be a Slav characteristic.’ Cited by: Golubović, source previously mentioned in footnote 4, p. 202 This identity crisis of the nineteen-year old J. Seissel was a fleeting thing. In a radio interview with Miloš Jevtić (Guest of the Radio Belgrade

Crtež

Drawing

‘Radim veoma malo, bolje: ništa. Tako kista nisam imao u rukama već veoma davno, a i nemam nikako volje. Nego sam našao jednu novu stvar da pravim iz papira modele za kuće. Načinio sam do duše svega jednu takvu kuću, ali znam da bi se dalo načiniti sila sjajnih modela.’8

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

U tom trenutku, u neposrednoj okolini, pa ni onoj zenitističkoj, ne postoji ambijent u kojem bi Seissel mogao nastaviti svoj eksperimentalni rad na izravnoj građevinsko-tehničkoj primjenjivosti svojih ideja. Stoga se odlučuje, uz osobne krize i brojne kompromise, na stjecanje zvanja inženjera arhitekture koja će mu omogućiti uključivanje u arhitektonsku produkciju:

gymnasium play for which he was excommunicated from the mainstream Zagreb culture in a Micić’ ambience, gives him an aura of an authentic avant-garde artist and catapulted him into the international avant-garde network in which Zenit participates ever more successfully. However, even during the summer break after the graduation in Belgrade, Seissel feels the change of his own artistic interest about which he also informs Micić in his letter: ‘I work very little, almost nothing. So, I did not have a brush in my hands for a long time and somehow I have no desire for it. But, I found a new thing and that is making paper models of houses. Truthfully, I made only one such house, but I know that it is possible to make a myriad of brilliant models.8’

‘Dosta težak je bio za mene izbor studija i odluka o budućem zvanju. Instinkt je vukao na slikarstvo, ali je i želja za arhitekturom bila prisutna. Prevagnuli su argumenti za arhitekturu koju su zastupali svi oko mene. Moj djed sa očeve strane, moj otac i moj brat bili su geometri, i ova tradicija vukla je na tehniku na arhitekturu. No nisam mogao slutiti da će se ta podvojenost nastaviti ni da slikarstvo neće nikada izčeznuti.’ 9 Na izbor zvanja inženjera motivirala ga je i nada da će kao arhitekt moći i sam inicirati poželjne promjene. Prema Knjizi upisanih arhitekata Tehničkog fakulteta u Zagrebu, Seissel pristupa na studij arhitekture odmah po završetku ovih burnih ljetnih praznika početkom školske godine 1923./24. Tijekom prvih semestara i dalje se bavi slikarsko-arhitektonskim istraživanjima. Dio radova šalje Miciću koji ga plasira kao ‘prvog i najboljeg’ predstavnika zenitističkoga slikarstva. Djela izrađuje pod pseudonimom Jo Klek, a na stranicama Zenita objavljeni su i Seisselovi arhitektonski eksperimentalni radovi: fantazmagorične utopijske vizije Zeniteuma iz 1924. i 1925. godine (sl. 1., sl. 2.) te kolaži u kojima se sabiru tendencije različitih geometrijskih i konstruktivnih pravaca. Seissel

Sl. 1. / Fig. 1.

Sl. 2. / Fig. 2.

sudjeluje i u izložbenim aktivnostima Zenita. Šest njegovih radova izloženo je 1924. godine na Izložbi Zenita u Beogradu, koju je publika unatoč izvrsnosti i senzacionalnosti potpuno ignorirala.10 U prigodi ove izložbe, Micić je Seisselovo slikarstvo predstavio kao zenitističku umjetnost pod akronimom

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At that moment, not in his immediate surrounding nor in the Zenit one, an ambiance for Seissel to continue his experimental work on direct construction and technical applicability of his ideas did not exist Therefore, he decides, burdened with personal crises and numerous compromises, to gain qualifications to become an architect that will enable him to be engaged in architectural production: ‘The choice of the study and the decision about the future profession have been rather difficult for me. The instinct was dragging to the painting, but there was a desire for the architecture. The arguments for architecture represented by everyone around me overweighted. The grandfather from my father’s side, my father and my brother were surveyors, and this tradition has dragged to engineering, to architecture. But I could not have guessed that this division would continue and that the painting would never vanish.9’ A hope that, as an architect, he himself would be able to initiate the desired changes influenced his choice of profession as an engineer. According to the Book of Registered Architects of the Faculty of Engineering in Zagreb, Seissel joined the study of architecture immediately after the end of the tumultuous summer holidays at the beginning of the school year 1923/24. During the first semesters, he continues to be engaged in painting and architectural researches. A part of his works he sents to Micić who launches him as ‘the first and the best’ representative of the Zenit painting. He creates works under the pseudonym Jo Klek and Seissel’s experimental architectural works: phantasmagorical utopian vision Zeniteum from 1924 and 1925 (fig. 1, fig. 2) were published on the pages of Zenit together with collages which gather tendencies of various geometric and constructive direc-

9, Josip Seisell, Radio intervju, Gost drugog programa Radio Beograd: akademik, arhitekta Josip Seisell,13. 4. 1980., radio novinar Miloš Jevtić. Citirano prema: Bužančić, nav. dj. u 3., str. 34. 10, Izložba je od 9. do 19. travnja 1924. godine održana u Sali muzičke škole Stanković u Beogradu. Prema katalogu izložbe (Zenit, br. 25., 1924.) na popisu dvadeset pet izlagača nalaze se i opće poznata imena: Vasilij Kandinsky, El Lissitzky, László Moholy – Nagy, Robert Delaunay, Alexander Archipenko i Ossip Zadkin. O izložbi piše Zenit u rubrici Makroskop ( Zenit, br. 26. – 33., 1924., bez paginacije) i u članku Nova umetnost (Zenit, br. 34. i 35., 1924., bez paginacije).

Second Programme: academician, architect Josip Seissel, 13 April 1980) about his Krapina period (1904 – 1919) and feeling of homelandness, J. Seissel says: ‘Beyond any doubt, the childhood, happiness, youth, lifestyle and responses, landscapes, views and traditions, sense of humor, in a word, everything that homeland gives is the first school of life and remains ineradicable. Later it remains as a weft around which the threads of life are weaving and from which we get our specific mark.’ Cited by: Bužančić, source previously mentioned in footnote 3, p.12 8, Golubović, source previously mentioned in footnote 4, p. 202 9, Bužančić, source previously mentioned in footnote 3, p. 34

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

ARBOS (h-Artija, Boja, Slika) prema Seisselovoj slici PAFAMA (Papier, Farben, Malerei) iz 1922. godine (sl. 3.). Akronim upućuje na nereferencijalnu, bespredmetnu umjetnost i konstruktivistički odnos prema materijalu i tehnici. Seissel potom zastupa zenitističku umjetnost na izložbi avangardnog časopisa Contimporanul u Bukureštu i Bielefeldu 1924. godine te na izložbi Revolucionarna umjetnost Zapada u Moskvi 1924. godine11 (sl. 4.). Ove su izložbe, za razliku od beogradskog nastupa, pobudile velik interes i imale znatan odjek u javnosti.12 Ubrzo nakon tih međunarodnih iskustava,

Sl. 3. / Fig. 3.

Sl. 4. / Fig. 4.

Seissel se distancira od političke sastavnice zenitizma i odlučuje se baviti prvenstveno arhitekturom. Svoju suradnju sa Zenitom i motive razlaza s Lj. Micićem Seissel je ‘skicirao’ u svom odgovoru redakciji Vjesnika u povodu članka Vladimira Malekovića pod naslovom Europska ilustracija balkanskih ideologija objavljenom u Vjesniku 24. travnja 1983.: ’... izjavljujem da se fotografija otisnuta u članku, pod nazivom ‘zagrebački zenitisti’, sa imenima, odnosi na grupu gimnazijalaca, koji su zajedno sudjelovali na tzv. ‘zenitističkoj predstavi’ 1922. godine, održanoj pred maturu na II. zagrebačkoj realnoj gimnaziji. Danas su sve osobe s fotografije mrtve, osim mene, a poslije predstave nisu ni u kakvom vidu surađivale u ‘Zenitu’. Ja sam međutim slao svoje kolaže i grafičke priloge ‘Zenitu’, koji su bili artističke prirode još jedno izvjesno vrijeme, da bih se zatim povukao iz Zenita (pismo upućeno Lj. Miciću, koje je vjerojatno i sačuvano u arhivu Lj. Micića), zbog nacionalističkih zastranjenja, a i zbog utjecaja i na nagovor Augusta Cesarca, s kojim sam se povremeno sastajao.’13

tions. Seissel also participates in the exhibition activities of Zenit. In 1924, six of his works were exhibited at the Zenit Exhibition in Belgrade, which the audience completely ignored despite their excellence and sensationalism.10 At this exhibition, Micić presented Seissel’s painting as the Zenitist art under the acronym of ARBOS (hArtija /paper/, Boja /colour/, Slika /painting/) according to the Seissel’s painting PAFAMA (Papier, Farben, Malerei) from 1922 (fig. 3). The acronym refers to the non-referential, objectless art and constructive attitude toward the material and technique. Later, Seissel represents Zenitist art at the exhibition of the avant-garde magazine Contimporanul in Bucharest and Bielefeld in 1924 and at the exhibition Revolutionary Art of the West in Moscow in 1924 (fig. 4)11. Unlike the Belgrade performance, these exhibitions attracted great interest and had considerable response in public12. Shortly after these international experiences, Seissel distanced himself from political components of Zenithism and decided to deal primarily with architecture. His collaboration with Zenit and motives of parting with Lj. Micić, Seissel ‘sketched’ in his response to the Vjesnik editorial staff on the occasion of the article by Vladimir Maleković titled European Illustration of Balkans’ Ideologies published in Vjesnik on 24 April 1983: ’... I declare that the photograph printed in the article titled ‘Zagreb Zenitists’, along with the names, refers to a group of gymnasium students who all participated in the so-called. ‘Zenitist play’ in 1922 held before graduation at the Zagreb II Realgymnasium. Today, all the people from the photograph, except me, are dead and after the show they did not cooperate in ‘Zenit’ in any way. I did, however, send my collages and illustrations to ‘Zenit’ who were of artistic nature for some time, but then withdrew from Zenit (letter to Ljubomir Micić, which is probably preserved in the archives of Ljubomir Micić), due to nationalist deviations, and due to the influence and persuasion of August Cesarac, with whom I met from time to time.13’

11, Izložba u Bukureštu održana je od 30. studenog do 30. prosinca 1924. godine u Sali Sindikatului artelor frumoase; u Bielefeldu je trajala tijekom cijelog prosinca 1924. godine, a odvijala se u Städtisches Museumu; na moskovskoj izložbi Seisell je zastupljen plakatom Zenit Exposition – Zenit izložba i ilustracijama knjige Marijana Mikca. 12, Više o izložbama istočnoeuropskih avangardi i njihovim odjecima u: Krisztina Passuth, The Exhibition as a Work of Art / Avant – garde Exhibitions in East Central Europe, objavljeno u Central European Avant-gardes: Exchange and Transformation 1910. – 1930., str. 226. – 246. 13, Susovski, nav. dj. u 3., str. 60.

10, The exhibition was held from 9 to 19 April 1924 in the hall of the Stanković Music School, Belgrade. According to the exhibition catalog (Zenit, no. 25, 1924) on the list of twenty-five exhibitors there were well-known names: Wassily Kandinsky, El Lissitzky, László Moholy-Nagy, Robert Delaunay, Alexander Archipenko and Ossip Zadkin. Zenit writes about the exhibition in its section Makroskop / Macroscope/ (Zenit, no. 26 – 33, 1924) and in the article Nova umetnost /New Art/ (Zenit, no. 34 and 35, 1924, without pagination) 11, The exhibition was held in Bucharest from 30 November to 30 December 1924 in the hall Sindikatului artelor frumoase; in Bielefeld it was open during all of December 1924 in the Städtisches Museum and at the Moscow exhibition Seissel was represented by the poster Zenit Exposition – Zenit izložba and by the illustrations of the book by Marijan Mikac. 12, More about Eastern European avant-garde exhibitions and their echoes in Passuth, Krisztina.: The Exhibition as a Work of Art / Avantgarde Exhibitions in East Central Europe, published in the Central European Avant-Gardes: Exchange and Transformation 1910 – 1930, pp. 226–246 13, Susovski, source previously mentioned in footnote 3, p. 60

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Korespondencija Seissel – Micić na koju se referira Seissel u svojem obraćanju Vjesniku objavljena je u već spomenutom radu Vidosave Golubović ‘Iz prepiske oko Zenita i zenitizma’.

137

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

U donesenim pismima nema pobližih objašnjenja razloga raskida koje Seissel navodi u Vjesniku. U pismu od 8. 12. 1923. (posljednjem pismu sačuvanom u kolekciji) Seissel izražava tek svoje nezadovoljstvo i neslaganje što su mu Poljanski i Micić često naglašavali ‘kako je, doći do glasa, ili dati se zapaziti, moguće jedino u Zenitu ili preko Zenita’, pa im odgovara: ‘Nikako neću, da i na čas mislite, kako sam ja zenitist zato, jer mislim kroz njega nešto postići. Ili da sam, što je još gore, pokušao negde nešto drugo, pa uvidevši da neide, da sam se vratio Zenitu. Ne nikako.’ U nastavku apostrofira Micićev stav prema njemu:

The correspondence between Seissel and Micić to which Seissel referres in his address to Vjesnik was published in the paper by Vidosava Golubović From the Correspondence about Zenit and Zenithism (Chronicle, Prosvjeta Serbian Cultural Society, Zagreb, 1998, vol. 3, pp. 197 – 209). In the presented letters there is no detailed explanation of the reasons for the breakup Seissel mentioned in Vjesnik. In the letter dated 8 December 1923 (the last letter preserved in the collection)14, Seissel expresses merely his displeasure and disapproval with what Polyansky and Micić often emphasized to him ‘that to be heard or get attention is possible only in Zenit or through Zenit’ so he answers: ‘I do not want you to think, not even for a moment, that I am a Zenitist because I plan to accomplish something through it. Or, even worse, that I tried something somewhere else and I returned to Zenit when realized that it would not work out. Not at all.’ He contiues to stress Micić’s attitude towards him: ‘If you, Mr Micić, consider me a frivolous Zenitist, then I know that you have a reason for it, therefore you are in the right.’ But despite it, he continues: ‘There is one thing though that I need not and can not give up. To paint Zenit paintings. So, I’m going to work (I re-empahsize, for me it is the mere need) and I will be much obliged if you will want to see and correct my paintings as you did before.’

‘Ako me Vi, g. Miciću smatrate neozbiljnim zenitistom, onda znam, da Vi za to imate razloga, pa stoga imate i pravo.’, ali uprkos tome nastavlja: ‘Jednoga se ali netrebam i nemogu odreći. Da radim zenit. slike. Tako, ja ću radit (za mene je to ponovo naglašavam jedina potreba) i bit ću Vam mnogo zahvalan ako će te hteti videti i ispraviti moje slike kao i dosada.’ 14 Mogući dublji motivi nesuglasica uočljivi su, međutim, već i u ranijim pismima poput onog datiranom 24. 11. 1923. u kojem čitamo Seisselovo objašnjenje zašto se upisao na Tehnički fakultet: ‘Samo volja za realizaciju zenit. balk. arhitekture i slikarstva vodila me na tehniku (to nije bilo za mene lako, i bilo je pod stanovitim uslovima) a krivo me se onda zato nazivalo karijeristom ako sam odlučio da radim med onim ljudi’ koji to jesu. Sasvim poslednji slučajni naš susret, sasvim me razočarao. Svejedno, neverujem gosp. Miciću, da ste Vi i načas posumnjali u mene. Primite mnogo srdačnih pozdrava od sasvim Vašeg zenitiste.’15 U nepravednoj kvalifikaciji da je, ‘zbog upisa na Tehnički fakultet, karijerist’, Seissel, iako ‘neveruje’, kao da već naslućuje moguće razloge ozbiljnijeg razlaza. Vjerojatno već tada razabire da sasvim Micićev zenitista nije moguće biti odustajući od prevratničkog radikalizma te od političke i utopijske sastavnice zenitizma, a upravo to će se uskoro dogoditi kao nužna posljedica izbora zvanja inženjera arhitekture i ljevičarskih političkih uvjerenja koje je Seissel prihvatio u krugu oko Augusta Cesarca s kojim je bio tazbinski povezan (brat Augusta Cesarca, Rudolf, bio je oženjen Seisselovom sestrom Idom).16 Osim na političke nazore Cesarec je najvjerojatnije utjecao i na Seisselove poglede na umjetnost, osobito svojim stavovima o avangardnoj ruskoj umjetnosti i o odnosu umjetnosti i revolucije poput onih koje je zastupao u članku Suvremeni ruski slikari napisanom povodom izložbe slikarskog odjela Muzeja tehničke kulture u Petrogradu krajem 1922. u vrijeme istupanja ruskog predmetno-realističkog slikarstva.17 Prihvaćanje ovih nazora nužno je vodilo napuštanju zenitističkog balkanskog tabora. Međutim, Seisselova osobna

138

Possible deeper motives of disagreements are noticeable also in earlier letters like the one dated 24 November 1923 where we can read Seissel’s explanation why he enrolled at the Faculty of Engineering: ‘Only the will to implement the Zenit Balkans architecture and painting led me to the enginering (it was not easy for me, and it was under certain conditions) and I was then wrongly called a careerist because I decided to do work among the people who were careerists. Our last, quite coincidental meeting, left me totally dissapointed. Anyway, I do not believe that you, Mr Micić, doubted me even for a moment. Receive many cordial greetings from totally yours Zenitist.15’ In the unjust qualification of being a careerist because of his enrollment at the Faculty of Engineering, Seissel, although ‘do not believe’, already senses possible reasons for a more serious split up. Probably, even then he sees that it is not possible to be a totally Micić’s Zenitist and give up the subversive radicalism and the political and utopian elements of Zenithism, which will happen soon as a necessary consequence of choice of occupation as an architect and the leftist political beliefs that Seissel accepted in a circle around August Cesarec with whom he was connected by marriage (August Cesarec’s brother, Rudolf, was married to Seissel’s sister Ida)16. In addition to the political views, Cesarec most likely influenced the Seissel’s views on art, particularly his views on the Russian avantgarde art and the relationship between art and revolution such as those represented in the

14, Golubović, nav. dj. u 4., str. 209. 15, Golubović, nav. dj. u 4., str. 203. 16, Susreti Seissela i Cesarca spominju se i u: Bužančić, nav. dj. u 3., str. 19., 154. i 162. – 163. 17, Članak je objavljen u: Književna republika, br. 9., 1923./24., str. 347. – 361.

14, Golubović, source previously mentioned in footnote 4, p.209 15, Golubović, source previously mentioned in footnote 4, p.203 16, Meetings between Seissel and Cesarec are mentioned by Bužančić, source previously mentioned in footnote 3, pp 19, 154, 162 and 163

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

vizija ‘zenit. balk. arhitekture i slikarstva’ kao glavna motivacija za studij na tehničkom fakultetu izrečena u rečenici: ‘Samo volja za realizaciju zenit. balk. arhitekture i slikarstva vodila me na tehniku’ i dalje je ostala aktivna.

article Contemporary Russian Painters written on the occasion of the exhibition of the painting department of the Museum of Technical Education in St. Petersburg at the end of 1922 at the time of stepping up of the Russian realist painting17. Acceptance of these views necessarily led to the abandonment of the Zenit Balkans camp. However, Seissel’s personal vision of the ‘Zenit Balkans architecture and painting’as the main motivation for studying at the Faculty of Engineering, one can find in the sentence:‘Only the will to implement the Zenit Balkans architecture and painting led me to the technical studies’ still remained active.

Seissel dolazi na zagrebački Tehnički fakultet u trenutku kada značajne promjene koje će se dogoditi na prijelazu iz treće u četvrtu dekadu stoljeća već ‘vise u zraku’, ali još ne utječu vidljivo na uspostavljenu rutinu tehničkog obrazovanja. U tim okolnostima njegov avangardni ego, Jo Klek, živi život ‘samostalnog lutalice’ nepoznat kolegama i profesorima. Kao jedini avangardni ‘spavač’ u ambijentu fakulteta, aktivirat će se tek u prijelomnom trenutku kojeg arhitekt Hugo Ehrlich, iz perspektive profesora i s iskustvom trajnoga preformuliranja vlastitoga djelovanja, u opisu svoje stolice (katedre) za arhitektonske kompozicije definira kao trenutak kada je akademski način stare škole pomalo sam od sebe izčeznuo.18 Taj se trenutak, međutim, u atmosferi i načinu rada studenata, osjeća vrlo intenzivno, gotovo grčevito, o čemu nam svjedoče sjećanja generacije studenata i mlađih nastavnika koja ga je proživjela. Ključno obilježje razdoblja, s njihove strane gledišta, jest da su studenti vrlo intenzivno sudjelovali u toj tranziciji i bili njezin glavni motor, štoviše, prema nekima, na djelu je bila svojevrsna normativna inverzija u kojoj su studenti poučavali, a profesori bili poučavani. Dosljedno svojim opredjeljenjima i temperamentu, to je stajalište najizravnije zastupao Josip Seissel, koji je na Školu došao s avangardnim zenitističkim iskustvom i željom da prokrči put svojim idejama u arhitekturi. Naišao je na izravan i obeshrabrujući otpor: ‘Atmosfera prvih godina studija arhitekture bila je mučna. Vodeći profesor Hugo Ehrlich bio je, može se reći, antipedagog: sarkastičan, ironičan do poniženja, uvredljiv u kritikama. Eklektik u arhitekturi, elegantan, vanredna pojava, bio je poništavajući autoritet. U projektiranju vladala je klasika. Došao sam na arhitekturu oduševljen ruskim konstruktivizmom, a i sam u pokušajima te vrsti. Kao prvi program kompozicije dobio sam zadatak da projektiram ulazni portal u park i pokušao ga riješiti u tom smislu. Kao protuljek dat mi je zadatak da studiram Paladija! To je bio nezaboravni udarac. Dolazilo je do intimnog očaja studenata, koji su se pretvorili u samostalne lutalice i vodili dvostruki život skučenog studenta i slobodnog samouka.’19 Za arhitektonski kontekst, međutim, važno je da se gotovo svi radovi samostalnog lutalice Seissela, kako oni za Zenit tako i oni nastali u ambijentu skupine Travelleri: slike, kolaži, fotomontaže, skice za kazališne kostime, zavjese i scenografiju, reklame i plakati pa i tipografski radovi za zenitističke knjige Efekt na defektu i Fenomen majmun Marijana Mikca, a pretpo-

19, Josip Seissel: Josip Pičman (1904. – 1936.), Forum, br. 1. – 2., Zagreb, 1956., str. 40. – 44.

17, The article was published in Književna republika /Literary Republic/, No. 9, 1923/24, pp. 347 – 361 18, Faculty of Engineering of the University of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Zagreb 1919 – 1929; Faculty Board Commemorative Book, p. 897 19, Josip Seissel: Josip Pičman (1904 – 1936), Forum, Zagreb, 1956, No. 1 – 2, pp. 40 – 44

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18, Tehnički fakultet Sveučilišta Kraljevine Jugoslavije u Zagrebu 1919 – 1929 Spomenica fakultetskog savjeta, str. 897.

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Seissel comes to the Faculty of Engineering in Zagreb at the time when significant changes that will occur at the transition from the third to the fourth decade of the century are already ‘in the air,’ but still have no visible impact on the established routine of technical education. In these circumstances, his avant-garde ego, Jo Klek, lives a life of an ‘autnomous wanderer’, unknown to his colleagues and professors. As the only avantgarde ‘sleeper’ in the atmosphere of the faculty, he will activate only in a decisive moment, which the architect Hugo Ehrlich, from the perspective of a professor and a person with experience of lasting reformulation of his own actions when describing his chair (cathedra) for architectural compositions defined as the moment when the academic way of the old school faded away.18 However, in the atmosphere and the students’ way of working that moment is felt very intensivly, almost frantically, as testified by memories of generations of students and young teachers who had lived through it. A key feature of the period, from their point of view, is that students were very intensely involved in the transition and presented its main engine, moreover, according to some, it was a kind of normative inversion, in which the students taught and the teachers were taught. Consistent with his commitments and temperament, the position was most directly advocated by Josip Seissel, who came to the School with the avant-garde Zenitist experience and the desire to clear the way for his ideas in architecture. He encountered a direct and discouraging resistance: ‘The atmosphere of the early years of the study of architecture was excruciating. The leading Professor Hugo Ehrlich was, one might say, an anti-pedagogue: sarcastic, ironic to the point of humiliation, offensive in criticism. An eclectic in architecture, an elegant, extraordinary phenomenon, he was an obliterating authority. In designing classics ruled. I came to the architecture enthusiastic about Russian constructivism, but also with my own attemps in the field. As the first programme of composition I got the task to design the entrance portal to a park and I tried to solve it in that regard. As an antidote, I was given a task to study Palladio! That was an unforgetable blow. There has been an intimate despair among students who have turned into autonomous wanderars and led a double life of a parochial students and a free self-taught persons.19’


facta architectonica 2

Sl. 5. / Fig. 5.

Sl. 10. – 16. / Fig. 10. – 16.

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

stavljamo i modeli o kojima piše Miciću, mogu promatrati i kao svojevrsna pred-arhitektura (sl. 5., 6., 7.). Zbog tog svojstva

For architectural context, however, it is important that almost all the works of the autnomous

Sl. 6. / Fig. 6.

Sl. 7. / Fig. 7.

Sl. 8. / Fig. 8.

Sl. 9. / Fig. 9.

oni su jedinstven i autentičan avangardni doprinos našem arhitektonskom modernizmu i to u njegovom prijelomnom stadiju u kojem se, krajem dvadesetih godina, turbulentni tranzicijski procesi prethodnih desetljeća stabiliziraju u norme internacionalnog, funkcionalističkog modernizma. Taj se doprinos naročito odnosi na onaj aspekt tranzicije koji proizlazi iz pokušaja asimilacije avangardnih postavki formiranih unutar slikarskih disciplina poput kubizma, neoplasticizma, konstruktivizma, suprematizma itd. u glavni modernistički tijek. Citirajući El Lissitzkog, možemo ga opisati kao ‘postaju na kojoj se slikarstvo preusmjeruje na arhitekturu’. Taj proces u Seisselovom kreativnom postupku najpreciznije možemo pratiti kroz promjenu protokola konstrukcije njegovih slika. U radovima kao što je Kokot na krovu (1922.) i Balkanac mirno (1922.) (sl. 8., 9.) Seissel primjenjuje postupak superponirane konstrukcije slike svojstven analitičkom kubizmu. Obojene pravokutne površine na ovim su slikama kolažirane sa slikovnim i slovnim fragmentima. Međutim, u radovima koji su uslijedili: Bajadera (1923.), MAV (1923.), Kino (sačuvane su dvije fotografije rada istog naslova), Reklame (1923.), Vila Zenit (1924. – 1925.), Plakati (1925.) konstrukcija slike upućuje na drugačiji kreativni postupak (sl. 10., 11., 12., 13., 14., 15., 16.). Teoretske postavke koje najpribližnije karakteriziraju taj postupak nalazimo u konstruktivističkom

wanderer Seissel, both those for Zenit and those incurred in the ambience of the Travelleri group: paintings, collages, photomontages, drawings for theatrical costumes, curtains and stage design, advertisements and posters and even typographic works for the Zenitist books Effect on Defect and Monkey Phenomenon by Marijan Mikac, and we assume the models on which he writes to Micić, can be viewed as a kind of prearchitecture (fig. 5, 6, 7). Because of this feature they are a unique and authentic avant-garde contribution to our architectural modernism which happened in its decisive stage when, in the late twenties, turbulent transitions from previous decades got stabilized as the norms of international functionalist modernism. This contribution especially relates to the aspect of the transition arising from attempts to assimilate the avantgarde settings established within the painting disciplines such as Cubism, Neoplasticism, Constructivism, Suprematism, etc. into the main modernist flow. Quoting El Lissitzky, we can describe it as ‘the station where one changes from painting to architecture.’ In Seissel’s creative procedure, this process can be traced most precisely through the change of his construction protocol of his paintings. In the works such as Rooster on the Roof (1922) and You Balkanite, Stand Still (1922) (fig. 8, 9), Seissel applied a method of superimposed construction of the painting inherent to Analytical Cubism. Colored rectangular areas in these paintings are collaged with fragments of

manifestu Lajosa Kassáka Arhitektura slike koji je u prijevodu Ljubomira Micića objavljen u Zenitu neposredno nakon obznanjivanja 1922. godine: ‘Dok je futurizam otkrio pokret kao element koji hrani život, a ‘Proun’ konstruktivnost pokreta, kubizam je značio mogućnost stabilnosti i

images and letters. However, in the works that followed: Bayadere (1923), MAV (1923), Cinema (two photographs of the work with the same title are preserved), Commercials (1923), Villa Zenit (1924 – 1925), Posters (1925) the paining construction suggests a different creative process (fig. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16). Theoretical settings that most closely characterize this process can be found

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pokazivao na novu arhitekturu. Na onu arhitekturu, koja počiva na konstruktivnoj bazi, kao sintetička mogućnost umetničkog traženja naših dana. Borba za novu konstruktivnu arhitekturu krenula je u dva pravca: u prostoru i na površini. Prva je umetnost građenja, druga arhitektura slike. Suprematizam je stavio u slikarstvu ‘zadnju točku na slovo i’. I arhitektura slike pokušava, sa poletnom snagom ‘prouna’, svoje prve korake ka arhitekturi kao jedinoj stvarnoj i duhovnoj konstruktivno-kolektivnoj umetnosti’.20 Seisselov postupak konstrukcije započinje elementom koji hrani život – pokretom linija i ploha. Ovaj se pokret odvija u smjerovima različitih perspektivnih nedogleda i očišta, aksonometrijskih i izometrijskih kutova pa i središta rotacije. Suptilnom i usklađenom manipulacijom ovih pokreta on podiže stabilan kubistički prostor. Za razliku od proun radova koje istim kreativnim postupkom proizvodi uža konstruktivistička mreža oko El Lissitzkog, Seisselovi prostori su pretežno nastanjeni ljudima i njihovim životnim narativima. Savladavši arhitekturu slike kao slobodni samouk, Seissel, poput ostalih konstruktivista, kreće i u eksperimentiranje u treću dimenziju izrađujući papirnate modele o kojima izvještava Micića, a koji na žalost nisu sačuvani. Pretpostavljamo da su to radovi slični onima koje gledamo na stolovima studenata moskovskog VKhUTEMAS-a jer je pedagoška metoda u kojoj oni nastaju, a koju je formirao El Lissitzky, usporediva s genezom i konceptom Seisselovog kreativnog postupka (sl. 17.). U tu kategoriju radova vjerojatno pripada i njegov konstruktivistički portal izrađen na vježbama arhitektonskih

Sl. 17. / Fig. 17.

Sl. 19. / Fig. 19.

Sl. 18. / Fig. 18.

kompozicija kod profesora Huga Ehrlicha za koji je bio sankcioniran dodatnim studiranjem Palladija. Dok Seissel prve godine studija provodi pod pritiskom konzervativnog odgoja tipičnog za tadašnje inženjerske obrazovne institucije, njegov plakat iz 1923. godine izrađen za Akademsko potporno društvo Zagrebačkog univerziteta21 s uočljivim karakteristikama arhitektonskog ideograma, kao poticajna referenca, nalazi se u posve drugom ambijentu. Na fotografiji iz 1924. godine vidimo ga na zidu pariškog ateljea u Rue du Moulin Vert u kojem Theo van Doesburg, Nelly van Doesburg i Cornelius van Eesteren proizvode neoplasticističke makete koje će iste godine biti prikazane na izložbi Les Architectes du Groupe De Stijl u Galerie de l’Effort Moderne u Parizu (sl. 18., 19.).

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in the Image Architecture, the constructivist manifesto of Lajos Kassák, translated by Ljubomir Micić and published in Zenit immediately after it was made known in 1922: ‘While Futurism discovered a movement as an element that nourishes life and ‘Proun’ the constructivity of movement, Cubism meant the potential for stability and pointed to the new architecture. To the architecture that is founded on a constructive basis, as a synthetic option of artistic search of our days. The struggle for a new constructive architecture started in two directions: in space and on the surface. The first is the art of building, the other is picture architecture. Suprematism placed ‘the last dot on the i’s’ in the painting. The Picture Architecture also tries to make, with a spirited power of ‘Proun’, its first steps towards the architecture as the only real and spiritual constructive and collective art.20’ The Saissel’s construction process begins with the element that nourishes life – the movement of lines and surfaces. This movement takes place in directions of different perspective of infinities and viewpoints, axonometric and isometric angles, even of the center of rotation. By a subtle and concerted manipulation of the movements, he builts a stable Cubist space. Unlike proun works made by a narrow constructivist network around El Lissitzky in the same creative process, Seissel’s areas are predominantly inhabited by people and their life narratives. Mastering the image architecture as a free selftaught person, Seissel, like other constructivists, starts experimenting in the third dimension by making paper models on which he informs Micić, but those models, unfortunately, were not preserved. We assume that these works are similar to the ones we can see on the desks of students of the Moscow VKhUTEMAS, because the pedagogical method in which they are made and which is created by El Lissitzky, is comparable to the genesis and the concept of the Seissel’s creative process (fig. 17). In this category of works probably falls his constructivist portal created at exercises of architectural composition of Professor Hugo Ehrlich for which he was sanctioned by additional studying of Palladio. While Seissel spent his first years of studies under the pressure of conservative upbringing, typical for the then technical educational institutions, his poster from 1923, developed for the Academic Support Society of the University of Zagreb,21 with distinct features of architectural ideograms, was exposed as an inspiring reference in a completely different environment. At the photograph from 1924 we can see it on the wall of a Parisian atelier in Rue du Moulin Vert in which Theo van Doesburg, Nelly van Doesburg and Cornelius van Eesteren produce neoplastic models, which will be shown the same year at the exhibition Les Architectes du Groupe De Stijl in the Galerie de l’Effort Moderne in Paris (fig. 18, 19). The deep frustration caused by this situation has not faded from Seissel’s memories even in his adulthood. In a radio interview with Miloš

20, Kassák, Lajos, Arhitektura slike, Zenit, br. 19./20., Zagreb, 1922., str. 67. 21, Vrlo sličan plakat Seissel je izradio i za Moskovsku izložbu 1924.

20, Kassák, Lajos: Arhitektura slike /Picture Architecture/, Zenit, No. 19/20, Zagreb, 1922, p. 67 21, Very similar poster Seissel made for the Moscow exhibition in 1924

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Duboka frustracija izazvana ovom situacijom nije izblijedjela iz Seisselovog sjećanja ni u zreloj dobi. U radijskom razgovoru s Milošem Jevtićem 1980. godine ponovo se prisjeća ovih događaja: ‘Studij arhitekture, osobito u prve dvije godine bio je u stvari tek priprema, i bez arhitekture i suhoparan, pa sam da bi zadovoljio svoju fantaziju nastavio slikati. Nastale su slike kao ‘Vila Zenit’, ‘MAV’, ‘Zeniteum’, ‘Bajadera’, ‘Balkanac mirno’, ‘Ruž noar’, ‘Vinotočje’ i druge, naravno sve u duhu Zenita. Slao sam ih Ljubomiru Miciću, koji je u međuvremenu preselio u Beograd, te su bile reproducirane u narednim brojevima Zenita pod pseudonimom Jo Klek, a bile su izložene i na izložbi u Beogradu, Bukureštu i Moskvi. U tom razdoblju te slike imaju većinom arhitektonsku tematiku. To je teklo bez konflikta sve do treće godine studija. Tek tada je po nastavnom planu bio stavljen akcent studija na arhitektonske discipline, a te su vodili prof Hugo Erlich, i prof. Edo Schön. Vrhunski autoritet je ipak bio Hugo Erlich koji je u to doba zastupao klasicizam. Pokušat ću da umjesto rasprave o stilovima ilustriram tadašnju situaciju jednom anegdotom. U predmetu ‘kompozicija’ kojeg je prof Erlich predavao, bilo je težište na komponiranju, tj. projektiranju. Prvi program iz projektiranja imao je za temu ‘portal u parku’. Donosile su se skice na korekturu, koju je profesor obavljao pred skupljenim auditorijem studenata i asistenata. Koncipirao sam svoj projekt u konstruktivističkom duhu – moj pseudonim Klek bio je nepoznat na fakultetu. Profesor je bio šokiran tim skicama, proglasio me bolesnim i zahtijevao da odmah studiram Paladija. Morao sam se povinuti tom zahtjevu iako sa mukom i protestom. Malevičeva zaštita i Tatlinova škola bile su daleko.’22 S mukom i protestom Seissel postaje sve više svjestan nemogućnosti izravnog prijenosa svojih avangardnih iskustava koji proizlaze iz slikarstva u arhitekturu kao primarno graditeljsku disciplinu. Po vlastitom svjedočenju, ambijent u kojem će moći pomiriti svoje avangardno iskustvo sa stvarnim projektiranjem pojavit će se tek krajem studija školske godine 1927./1928. kada u crtaonicu završnih godina stižu mlađi kolege među kojima će biti i poticajni istomišljenici Josip Pičman i Milovan Kovačević, a koji će svi zajedno, činiti kritičnu masu potrebnu za stvarne promjene. U tom ambijentu Seissel će postepeno svoju travellersku i zenitističku poetiku osporavanja, privrženost eksperimentu i fantazy-konstruktima prefigurirati u projektantske postupke usklađene s načelima internacionalnog modernizma. Oni će postati osnovni, ali ne i jedini oslonac njegovom urbanističkom planiranju, projektantskom i pedagoškom radu s kojima će se u budućnosti baviti u okviru institucija. Avangardno iskustvo i vlastita slikarska imaginacija povući će se u, ne manje djelotvoran, drugi plan iz kojeg će njegov opus crpsti svoju individualnu autentičnost. ‘Gola pročelja i jasno izražena građevna tijela’ početkom tridesetih u Zagrebu, o kojima nas izvještava arhitekt Stjepan

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Jevtić in 1980, he recalls these events: ‘The study of architecture, especially during the first two years was in fact just a preparation, tedious and with no architecture at all, so in order to satisfy my fantasy I continued to paint. The resulting paintings are ‘Villa Zenit’, ‘MAV’, ‘Zeniteum’, ‘Bayadère’, ‘You Balkanite, Stand Still’, ‘Rouge noir’, ‘Wine Tasting Shop’ and others, all in the spirit of Zenit, of course. I used to send them to Ljubomir Micić, who moved to Belgrade in the meantime, and they were reproduced in the next issues of Zenit under the pseudonym of Jo Klek and also exposed at the exhibition in Belgrade, Bucharest and Moscow. During this period, these pictures have mostly architectural themes. It went without a conflict until the third year of the study. Only then the emphasis in the curriculum was placed on the study of architecture disciplines, and these were taught by Professor Hugo Erlich and Professor Edo Schön. The supreme authority was nevertheless Hugo Erlich, who at that time advocated classicism. Instead of discussion about styles, I’ll try to illustrate the situation by an anecdote. Under the subject of ‘composition’ taught by Professor Erlich, the focus was on composing or designing. The first programme in design had as its theme ‘a portal in a park’. Sketches were brought for corrections to Professor who made them in front of an audience of gathered students and assistants. I have conceived my project in a constructive spirit – my pseudonym Klek was not known at the faculty. The Professor was shocked by these sketches, declared me sick and demanded that I immediately study Palladio. I had to comply with this requirement, although with difficulty and protest. Malevič’s protection and Tatlin school were far away.22’ With difficulty and protest Seissel becomes more and more aware of the impossibility of a direct transfer of his avant-garde experiences stemming from painting to architecture as a primary building and constructing discipline. According to his own testimony, the environment in which he will be able to reconcile his avant-garde experience with the actual design will appear at the end of the study in the school year 1927 – 1928 when younger colleagues came to the drawing sessions of the senior years, among whom there were encouraging like-minded Josip Pičman and Milovan Kovačević, who would together make a critical mass necessary for the real changes. In this atmosphere, Seissel will gradually alter his Travellers and Zenitist poetics of contestation, commitment to experiment and fantasy-constructs into planning procedures to comply with the principles of international functionalist modernism. They will become the primary, but not the only support to his urban planning, design and pedagogical work which he will do in the future within the institutions. The avant-garde painting experience and his own imagination will pull back to, no less effective, background from which his work will draw its individual authenticity. ‘Naked façades and distinct bodies of buildings’ in early thirties in Zagreb, on which reports architect Stjepan Planić23, are a compelling sign

22, Seissel, nav. dj. u 9., str. 34.

22, Seissel, source previously mentioned in footnote 9, p. 34 23, Planić, Stjepan: 50 godina arhitekture u Hrvatskoj /50 Years of Architecture in Croatia/, Književnik /Writer/, No. 2, Zagreb, 1939, p. 61

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Planić,23 uvjerljiv su znak da se od tada duh vremena u potpunosti identificirao s internacionalnim funkcionalističkim modernizmom koji je odbacio ili apsorbirao mnoga individualna ulaganja, motivacije i arhitektonske teme s početka dvadesetih. Brojni rezultati istraživanja razvijenih u slikarstvu (ekspresionizmu, kubizmu, suprematizmu, konstruktivizmu, neoplasticizmu itd.) uključeni su u novu modernističku paradigmu samo kao sekundarne zamisli. S obzirom na svoju početnu poziciju Seissel je autor koji je najoštrije iskusio isključivost internacionalnog modernizma koji se usredotočio na izabrane, to jest funkcionalne i racionalne probleme arhitekture. Posredno, to je i posvjedočio opisujući svoje iskustvo u Radnoj grupi Zagreb: ‘Kada smo stupili u zajednicu arhitekata ‘Radna grupa Zagreb’, problemi i područje rada znatno su se proširili. Grupa je radila puna oduševljenja i predanosti. Žar pojedinaca unošen je u skupne napore. Grupa je ulazila u područje arhitekture i urbanizma na sasvim nov način, nastupala na natječajima, izložbama, anketama i diskusijama u javnosti i društvima, zastupajući napredan stav. Ipak glavna preokupacija u radu grupe bio je projekt Poljoprivredno-šumarskog fakulteta koji je upravo Pičman donio i vodio. Postepeno su se sukobili nazori, ispriječio se funkcionalistički stav kao doktrina, došlo je do potkožne borbe i do zaoštrenih ličnih odnosa. Iako smo svi težili za modernim izrazom arhitekture, grupa se nije mogla dalje održati.’24 Ovo Seisselovo iskustvo usporedivo je s teoretskim razmatranjem o istom arhitektonskom trenutku njegovog suvremenika, povjesničara umjetnosti i teoretičara Josipa Knolla. Iako se prividno nalaze na suprotnim stajalištima u odnosu na internacionalni funkcionalistički modernizam (Seissel pobornik, a Knoll kritičar) obojica procjenjuju suvremena zbivanja u arhitekturi, kao svojevrsno krizno stanje, anticipirajući tako potrebu daljnjih promjena i rekonceptualizacije tek uspostavljenih normi aktualne faze arhitektonskog modernizma. Točku na kojoj se njihova stajališta najviše približavaju sažeto ilustrira Knollova rečenica: ‘Kako je međutim pojedinačna arhitektura danas podređena kolektivnoj stvaralačkoj ideji, zato su i njeni oblici zadobili neindividualni, homogeni karakter, a to vodi u zadnjoj konzekvenciji do šablone.’25. Jedini do sada poznati Seisselov arhitektonski projekt koji je izravni potomak njegova eksperimentalnog avangardizma je skica ‘Putujućeg grada’ za 50 000 stanovnika iz 1932. godine26 (sl. 20.). Zamišljen je kao pet arhitektonskih volumena 23, Stjepan Planić, 50 godina arhitekture u Hrvatskoj, Književnik, br. 2., Zagreb, 1939., str. 61. 24, Seissel, nav. dj. u 19., str. 42. 25, Petar Knoll, Ideologija moderne arhitekture, Arhitektura, br. 9, Ljubljana, 1933., str. 140. 26, Skicu je pronašla, interpretirala i objavila Vesna Mikić u: Zajednički projekti arhitekta Seissela i Pičmana, uz Seisselovu skicu ‘Putujući grad’ iz 1932. godine, Prostor, br. 18., Zagreb, 2010., str. 349. – 357.

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that the spirit of the time since then completely identified with international functionalist modernism which rejected or absorbed many individual investments, motivations and architectural themes from the early twenties. Numerous research results developed in painting (Expressionism, Cubism, Suprematism, Constructivism, Neoplasticism etc.) are included in the new modernist paradigm only as secondary ideas. Due to its starting position, Seissel is an author who has experienced the sharpest exclusiveness of international functionalist modernism that focused on selected, i.e. on functional and rational architecture problems. Indirectly, he testified about this describing his experience in the Zagreb Working Group: ‘When we joined the community of architects called ‘Zagreb Working Group’, problems and work area significantly expanded. The Group was full of enthusiasm and commitment. Zeal of individuals applied on the group’s efforts. The Group has entered into the realm of architecture and urbanism in a completely new way, participated in competitions, exhibitions, surveys and discussions in public and in societies, representing progressive attitude. However, the main concern of the Group was a project of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, which Pičman himself brought and ran. Gradually the views clashed, the functionalist stance as a doctrine stood in the way, there was a hypodermic struggle and tense personal relationships. Although we all aspired to the modern expression of architecture, the Group could not continue to exist.24’ This experience of Seissel’s is comparable to the theoretical consideration of the same architectural moment of his contemporary, an art historian and theorist Josip Knoll. Although ostensibly located at opposite positions in relation to the international functionalist modernism (Seissel as a supporter and Knoll as a critic) they both assessed contemporary developments in architecture as a sort of a crisis situation, anticipating the need for further changes and reconceptualization of newly established norms of the current phase of architectural modernism. The point at which their views are the closest concisely illustrates the Knoll’s sentence: ‘However, as the single architecture today is subordinated to the collective creative idea, that is why its forms got non-individual, homogeneous character, and this, in the last consequence, leads to a pattern.25’ The only Seissel’s architectural project known so far that is a direct descendant of his experimental avant-gardism is the scatch ‘Travelling City’ for 50,000 inhabitants from 193226 (fig. 20). It is concieved as five architectural volumes suspended on the ‘bubble’ that float above the ground binded to it only by a connection to the power source. More than just architectural 24, Seissel, source previously mentioned in footnote 19, p. 42 25, Knoll, Petar: Ideologija moderne arhitekture / Ideology of Modern Architecture/, Arhitektura / Architecture/, No 9, Ljubljana, 1933, p. 140 26, The sketch was found, interpreted and published by Vesna Mikić in Joint projects of architects Seissel and Pičman. With Seissel’s sketch ‘Travelling city’ from 1932, magazine Prostor / Space/, Zagreb, 2010, vol. 18, pp. 349 – 357

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

ovješenih na ‘balon’ koji lebde iznad tla s kojim ga veže samo priključak na energetski izvor. Više od samog oblikovanja arhitektonske teme, avangardnost ovog projekta očituje se u radikalnosti samog arhitektonskog zadatka (programa) u kojem su nagoviještena buduća arhitektonska istraživanja koja pokušavaju štititi površinske resurse tla i pomiriti kontradiktorne čovjekove potrebe: za domom i za stalnim kretanjem. Bilješka na poleđini crteža27 upućuje da je projekt vjerojatno nastao kao Seisselova studija grada budućnosti u sklopu priprema Radne grupe Zagreb za nastup na četvrtom kongresu CIAMA 1933. godine. Rad kongresa bio je, međutim, fokusiran na novi funkcionalni grad i redefiniciju urbanizma kao discipline, pa je skica svoje mjesto našla tek među dnevničkim bilješkama prijatelja Josipa Pičmana. Problemi koje dotiče Seissel u ovoj maloj skici, pa ni ‘mogućnost realizacije danas i sada’ koju spominje u bilješci na njezinoj poleđini, danas više nisu futuristička tema.

design themes, avant-garde of this project is reflected in the radicalism of the architectural task (programme) itself in which future architectural studies are presaged that attempt to protect the land surface resources and to reconcile contradictory human needs: to have a home and to be on constant move. The note on the back of the sketch27 indicates that the project probably emerged as a Seissel’s study of the future of the city within the preparation of the Zagreb Working Group to perform at the CIAM Fourth Congress in 1933. The Congress, however, was focused on new Functional City and redefinition of urbanism as discipline, so the sketch found its place only among diary notes of his friend Josip Pičman. Problems that Seissel touches in this little sketch today are no longer a futuristic theme. A personal experience of a moving home theme, Seissel refigured in an intimate painting, a drawing Nöel painted in 1938 during a study visit to Paris (fig. 21). The inspiration is the same, but not the media of creation, and while the project provides a home in real movement, in the picture it is only a nest on high branches in which a dynamic life takes place about which we get the information from lyrics of multicolored letters incorporated into the painting.

Osobno, iskustvo teme doma u pokretu, Seissel je prefigurirao i u jedno intimno slikarsko djelo, crtež Nöel naslikan 1938. za vrijeme studijskog boravka u Parizu (sl. 21.). Inspiracija je ista, ali ne i medij kreacije, pa dok projekt predviđa dom u stvarnom pokretu na slici, on je tek gnijezdo na visokim granama u kojem se odvija dinamičan život o kojem nas izvještavaju i stihovi od raznobojnih slova ukomponirani u sliku.

Sl. 20. / Fig. 20.

Sl. 24. / Fig. 24.

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Sl. 21. / Fig. 21.

Sl. 22. / Fig. 22.

U nadolazećim Seisselovim arhitektonskim radovima, kao što je Jugoslavenski paviljon za Svjetsku izložbu u Parizu iz 1937. godine (sl. 22., 23.). ili, još kasnije, mrtvačnica na groblju Miroševac iz 1951. (sl. 24.), pratimo smirenje njegove fantazije u granice mogućeg, ali ne i nestanak njegovog radikalizma. On se pretočio u rigoroznu oblikovnu elementarnost njegovih projekata i ostvarenja. Sinteza umjetnosti te konstruktivističko i konkretističko shvaćanje sredstava plastičkog oblikovanja kojima se bavio u zenitističkoj fazi bit će revalorizirani tek u novim umjetničkim praksama poslije 1968. godine.28

In the futher Seissel’s architectural works, such as the Yugoslav Pavillion made for the World Exhibition in Paris in 1937 (fig. 22, 23), or even later, the morgue at the Miroševac Cemetery in 1951(fig. 24), one can follow an appeasement of his fantasy into the limits of possible, but not

Sl. 23. / Fig. 23. the disappearance of his radicalism (fig. 22, 23). It turned into a rigorous formative elemental of his projects and achievements. Synthesis of art and constructive and concretistic understanding of means of plastic with which he dealt with in the Zenitist phase will be revalued only in the new artistic practices after 1968.28

27, Transkripcija Seisselove bilješke na poleđini projektne skice Putujući grad: Vrlo poštovani prijatelju, nadam se, da ćete u interesu C.I.R.P.A.C-a pristati na ovaj prijedlog. Kojemu doduše i sam priznajem osobine kompromisa. Poznavajući Vašu svjest kao pripadnika K. L. – računam na Vašu popustljivost kad ćete uzeti u račun mogućnosti realizacije danas i sada. 4 aprila 32. Vaš J. S. 28, Više o prijenosu koncepata prijeratnih avangardi u: Ješa Denegri, Razlozi za drugu liniju – Za novu umjetnost sedamdesetih, Zagreb, 2007.

27, Transcription of Seissel’s note on the back of the design sketch ‘Travelling city’: ‘My very dear friend, I hope that in the interest of the CIRPAC /Comité International pour la Réalisation des Problèmes d’Architecture Contemporaine i.e. International Committee for the Realization of Problems of Contemporary Architecture/ you will agree with this proposal. In which I also find some traits of compromise. Knowing your conscience as a member of the KL – I count on your permissiveness when reviewing the possibility of the realization today and now. 4 April 32, Yours, J. S.’ 28, More on the transfer of pre-war avant-garde concepts in: Denegri, Ješa: Razlozi za drugu liniju –

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Retrospekcija Seisselova opusa pokazuje da se avangardno slikarstvo Jo Kleka i arhitektura Josipa Seissela radikalno suočavaju, gotovo suprotstavljaju, upravo u Seisselovom formativnom razdoblju, da bi kasnije nastavili živjeti u nekoj vrsti paralelnih korespondirajućih svjetova. Naporan, frustrirajući karakter toga formativnog suočavanja koje nije donijelo očekivane neposredne rezultate upućuje nas na zaključak da se i Seisselovo iskustvo upadljivo uklapa u tezu Giorgia Grassia: ’... što se tiče preteča Modernog pokreta, oni nadolaze buđenjem figurativnih umjetnosti ... Kubizam, suprematizam, neoplasticizam, itd., sve su to oblici istraživanja koji su nastali i razvijali se u području figurativne umjetnosti, tek naknadno prešavši u arhitekturu. Zapravo je pomalo jadno vidjeti arhitekte ‘herojskog’ razdoblja i najbolje među njima koji se s teškoćom pokušavaju prilagoditi ovim ‘izmima’; zbunjeno eksperimentirajući zbog svoje fascinacije novim učenjima i mjereći sami sebe prema njima da bi tek kasnije shvatili svoju neučinkovitost. To je slučaj Ouda kad je suočen s ‘De Stijlom’. Isto vrijedi i za Miesa. Rijetki su na to imuni: Loos, Tessenow, Hilberseimer.’29

29, Giorgio Grassi, Avant-Garde and Continuity, u: Oppositions, no. 23, winter 1981, str. 148. – 150., prevedeno i citirano prema Oppositions reader (1973 – 1984), urednik K. Michael Hays, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 1998, str. 393.

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Seissel’s opus, in retrospect, reveals that avantgarde painting of Jo Klek and architecture of Josip Seissel are radically confronting, almost opposing, precisely in Seissel’s formative period, and later continued to live in some kind of corresponding parallel worlds. Tiring, frustrating character of formative confrontation that did not bring the expected immediate results leads us to the conclusion that the Seissel’s experience strikingly fits into the Giorgio Grassi’s thesis: ’... as far as the vanguards of the Modern are concerned, they invariably follow in the wake of the figurative arts… Cubism, Suprematism, Neoplasticism, etc., are all forms of investigation born and developed in the realm of the figurative arts, only as a second thought carried over into architecture as well. It is actually pathetic to see the architects of the’ heroic’ period and the best among them, trying with difficulty to accommodate themselves to these ‘isms’; experimenting in a perplexed manner because of their fascination with the new doctrines, measuring themselves against them, only later to realize their ineffectuality. This is the case of Oud when faced with’ De Stijl’. It is the same for Mies. Few are immune to it: Loos, Tessenow, Hilberseimer.29’

Za novu umjetnost sedamdesetih /Reasons for the Other Line – For the New Art of the Seventies/, Zagreb, 2007 29, Giorgio Grassi, Avant-Garde and Continuity, in: Oppositions, no. 23, winter 1981, pp 148 – 150, translated and cited by Oppositions reader (1973 – 1984), editor K. Michael Hays, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 1998, p. 393

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facta architectonica 2

Autorica

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Renata Waldgoni

Crtice o crtama, crtežu, crtanju... Kabinet za crtanje i plastično oblikovanje Urednička ideja da za drugi broj Facte napišem nešto o crtežu i crtanju došla je u rekonvalescenciji, u dobi od 55+, u 32 godine nastave crtanja, u prebrojavanju i rezimiranju prošlosti, u budućnost gledajući… u nijansama sive! Počašćena sam, zabrinuta, euforična i sentimentalna što sam pozvana da kažem nešto o temi ovog broja. Tekst je nastajao u oklijevanju, sporo i dugotrajno. Odgovornost je trostruka: nastavnik sam crtanja, arhitekt i danas voditelj Kabineta za crtanje i plastično oblikovanje. Valja upoznati i jučer da bi se bolje razumjelo danas1 i stvaralo sutra.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Through sketches about lines, drawings, drawing... Section of Drawing and Visual Design The request of the editorial board of the second issue of Facta Architectonica to write a text about drawing and drawings reached me while I have been convalescing, at the age of 55+, after teaching drawing for 32 years, at the time of reckoning and the time of summing up the past, and looking towards the future… in the shades of grey! I am honoured, concerned, euphoric and sentimental to be invited to say something about the topic of this issue. This text was written with hesitation, lingeringly and took a long time to be completed. The responsibility is triple: I am a teacher of drawing, an architect and the Head of the Section of Drawing and Visual Design. One needs to learn from yesterday to better understand today1 and create tomorrow.

Section of Drawing and Visual Design

O Kabinetu za crtanje i plastično oblikovanje Od 1963./64. postoje bilježnice – tvrdog uveza, s fotografijama, ocjenama i opaskama – svih mladih ljudi upisanih na kolegije Crtanje i Plastično oblikovanje. Vaništine opaske (senzibilno, tvrdo, trud…) ili pak Jurasovo B. K. (bez korekcija) s pripadajućim brojkama, sažetak su i anticipacija arhitektonske budućnosti studenta. Zanimljivo je vidjeti gdje su danas daroviti (i oni manje daroviti). U mojih 30 godina Kabinet od pet članova (Vaništa, Vulin, Juras, Rendić-Miočević, Waldgoni, Justić2 ) iznjedrio je dva akademika i dva dekana. Mogao bi se izračunati postotak. Šefovi su mi bili dekani i akademici! Oblikujemo čovjekovu potrebu da svoje mišljenje i ideju o prostoru studenti pokažu i crtežom a ponekad i modelom. Cilj nam je studentima osvijestiti kritičko razlikovanje estetskih vrijednosti. …posebnost Kabineta Jedino Kabinet iz Katedre za projektiranje ne raspodjeljuje grupu studenata za određenog nastavnika. Student je u prednosti: može uočiti nastavnikove različitosti i posebnosti u komunikaciji, u pristupu materiji, načinu izlaganja… Izbjegava se ‘ne/sreća’ dodijeljenosti ‘lošijem/boljem’ nastavniku. Udaljava se od akademskog načina poučavanja ‘crtanje u klasi’, a potiče se studentovo brže sazrijevanje pa i osamostaljenje. Nastavnik našeg Kabineta je u prednosti

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Since 1963/1964, hardbound notebooks have been preserved, with photographs, grades and notes – that belonged to all young people who attended the Drawing and Visual Design courses. The notes by Josip Vaništa (sensitive, stiff, effort etc.) or, for example, Prof. Juras' W.C. (without corrections), with accompanying figures, summarize and anticipate students’ architectonic future. It is interesting to see where today the talented ones (and those less talented) are. In the 30 years I have been with the Section, two academicians and two deans came from the ranks of the five-member Section (Vaništa, Vulin, Juras, Rendić-Miočević, Waldgoni, Justić2). One might calculate the percentage. My bosses were deans and academicians! We teach students to show the human need to express opinion and idea of space through drawings, and sometimes through visual design, too Our goal is to make students aware of critical appraisal and differentiation of aesthetic values. …Uniqueness of the Section This is the only Section of the Department of Architectural Design which does not assign a group of students to specific teachers. Thus, a student is in an advantageous position: s/he may discern the teachers’ specificities and particularities in communication, in their approach to the subject matter, the manner of presentation… Thus, the ‘mis/fortune’ of being assigned to a ‘better/not so good’ teacher is avoided. There is a distancing from the academic way of teaching, ‘drawing in the art class’; rather, students are encouraged to develop faster and become inde-

1, Danas Kabinet organizira ciklus predavanja za studente i profesore: ‘Arhitekt o crtežu arhitekta’ što je na tragu ideje da se o materiji (crtanje i oblikovanje) govori i da ju se gleda s različitih arhitektonskih stavova i mišljenja. 2, Sedamnaest godina kasnije dolazi Justić.

1, Today the Section organizes a series of lectures for students and professors ‘An Architect about the Architect’s Drawing’ – in keeping with the idea that the subject matter (drawing and forming), needs to be discussed and observed from various architectural points of view and opinions. 2, Justić came seventeen years later.

Crtež

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

jer se tijekom četiri semestra odlično upozna sa svakim studentom iz pojedine generacije, a sve kroz neposredan rad, razgovor i tumačenje zadataka i crteža obavljenih na satu, kod kuće ili na terenu. Tijekom prva četiri semestra pratimo odrastanje, napredak ili pak stagnaciju (ne samo na našim kolegijima) cijele generacije, 40-ak studenata na izbornom, a poneke i na diplomi. Veselimo se kad uočimo napredak (i čudimo kad nas se izbjegava u povjerenstvima i komisijama)!

pendent. A teacher from our Section has the advantage of being able to get to know well each student from a certain generation over the four semesters – and do so directly through work, talks and the interpretation of tasks and drawings made during the classes, at home or in field work. During the first four semesters we follow the development, progress, or stagnation in some cases (not just in our courses), of the entire student generation, i.e. of some 40 students attending an elective course, and some during their graduation. We are happy when we spot progress (and we wonder when we are being avoided in committees and commissions)!

… posebnost Kabineta Jedini smo kabinet na Katedri za projektiranje koji studente drugih fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu educira crtanju: primjenjuje se načelo da se crtež slikara razlikuje od crteža arhitekta, dizajnera, agronoma, šumara… Poučavanje crtanja na studiju arhitekture razlikuje se od onoga u drugih likovnih visokoobrazovnih institucija i specifično je, a polazi od pretpostavke da slikar pojavu i prostor interpretira, dok ih arhitekt definira. Slikar je odgovoran sebi i dragome Bogu, a arhitekt sebi, dragome Bogu i društvu. Ovakav stav podrazumijeva da će pojavu koju gleda ili zamišlja arhitekt uvijek crtati svim svojim znanjima i sposobnostima koje je stekao arhitektonskim obrazovanjem. Od osnutka Studija dizajna 1989. godine vodili smo kolegije ‘Osnovi kompozicije’ i ‘Plastično oblikovanje’ pet sati tjedno tijekom tri semestra. S vremenom je ‘Plastično oblikovanje’ svedeno na dva sata tjedno tijekom dva semestra. A sutra? Možda ni to!3 Od osnutka smjera ‘Uređenje krajobraza’ na Agronomskom fakultetu (danas ‘Krajobrazna arhitektura’) vodimo kolegije ‘Crtanje 1’, ‘Crtanje 2’ i ‘Plastično oblikovanje i likovna analiza’ po četiri sata tjedno tijekom tri semestra. Od osnutka smjera ‘Urbano šumarstvo’ na Šumarskom fakultetu, kolegij ‘Kultura likovne misli’ traje jedan semestar, po dva sata tjedno. U svakoj novoj akademskoj godini upoznajemo novih 250 mladih osoba (120 arhitekata i 130 ostalih)! … posebnost Kabineta Prostori Kabineta su od 70-ih godina na južnom kraju trećeg kata, kraj pomoćnog stubišta. Do 2009. staklena vrata (‘sakrosanktna’) odvajala su od bučnog hodnika i pripremala za ulaz u ‘naše’ crtaonice s gipsanim odljevima i za predavanja te u kabinete nastavnika, uspješno stvarajući miran, kontrolirani prostor (foyer) za stalne i povremene izložbe originalnih radova. Danas je to nažalost samo prolaz do nesretno oformljene maketarnice/strojarnice za bučnu proizvodnju ‘šarenih’ kompjutorskih maketa raznih namjena. Nisu više vremena za studijski rad na vlastitom modelu u maketarnici ateljerskog tipa (‘…i molim vas skinite mi još za pola milimetra ovu plohu...’). Nisu više vremena za stvaranje/ izlaganje originalnih studentskih/arhitektovih crteža/slika?! Dominacija je reprodukcije.

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…Uniqueness of the Section This is the only Section of the Department of Architectural Design which teaches drawing to students attending other faculties of the University of Zagreb: the principle applied is the one that a painter’s drawing differs from an architect’s drawing, or a designer’s, agricultural or forestry engineer’s… The drawing classes at the Faculty of Architecture differ from such classes at other faculties and art academies; it is specific and starts from the assumption that a painter interprets phenomena and space, whereas an architect defines them. The painter answers to himself and the Lord Almighty, and the architect answers to himself, the Lord Almighty and the society. Such an attitude implies that the architect will always draw a phenomenon, which he watches or imagines, using all his knowledge and skills acquired through his architectural education. When the School of Design was founded in 1989, we had courses of ‘Composition Basics’ and ‘Visual Design’ – five hours a week during three semesters. In time, the duration of ‘Visual Design’ course was reduced to two hours a week during two semesters. And what does tomorrow bring? Perhaps not even so few classes!3Since the graduate program in ‘Landscape Design’ has been introduced at the Faculty of Agriculture (at present called ‘Landscape Architecture’), we have had the following courses for their students: ‘Drawing 1’, ‘Drawing 2’ and ‘Visual Design and Visual Analysis’ in the duration of four hours a week during three semesters. Since the founding of the graduate program ‘Urban Forestry’ at the Faculty of Forestry, the course ‘Culture of Visual Thinking’ has lasted for one semester, two hours a week. In each new academic year, we meet 250 young people (120 architects and 130 of others)! …Uniqueness of the Section Since the late 1970's, the premises of the Section have been located at the southernmost part on the third floor, next to the backstairs. Until 2009, the glass (‘sacrosanct’) door separated the premises from the noisy corridor and prepared for the entry into ‘our’ drawing rooms with plaster casts, prepared for lectures, and for the entry into the teaching staff offices, successfully creating a quiet, controlled space (foyer) for permanent and occasional exhibi-

3, Od 2013./14. ne držimo nastavu na Studiju dizajna.

3, We have not taught at the School of Design since 2013/2014.

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

O prijemnom ispitu i studentima

tions of original works. At present, this is, alas, just a passage towards an ill-conceived modelling room/engine room for the noisy and stinking production of ‘multi-coloured’ computer models of various purposes. These are no longer the times for studious work on one’s own model in a modelling room of the atelier type (‘… and, please, remove another half a millimetre from this surface…’). These are no longer the times for creating/exhibiting original students’/architects’ drawings/paintings! Reproductions predominate.

Kabinet za crtanje i plastično oblikovanje redovito je prisutan na prijemnim, klasifikacijskim ispitima odnosno na provjerama znanja, vještina i sposobnosti iz likovne i grafičke kulture na Arhitektonskom fakultetu. Vidne su razlike između crteža nepripremljenih kandidata (u zanemarivom postotku) od onih instruiranih, a razlikuju se i instruktorske škole u pristupu i kvaliteti. Zajedničko im je da za svoju često neprovjerenu, a dobro plaćenu edukaciju, nemaju odgovornosti4 prema crtačkoj budućnosti mladog čovjeka. Ako kandidat i prođe, sretan brucoš pomisli da zna (dovoljno) crtati te zaokupljen novim nastavnim fakultetskim sadržajima zapostavlja crtanje. Takav student kod nas se provlači kao osrednji ne razumijevajući složenost materije koju tumačimo i u dragocjenom neposrednom kontaktu vježbamo četiri semestra. Mnogi takvi, do diplomskog studija ohrabreni, upisuju izborni kolegij ‘Crtanje i arhitektonska grafika’. Kada pitam za razlog zainteresiranosti, saznajem ‘Sada smo shvatili što smo propustili’. No, to se teško nadoknađuje. Druga krajnost su daroviti studenti i/ili oni s više samopouzdanja kojima je nedostatna ovakva ‘bolonjska’ satnica. Oni pak traže ‘akciju’ izvan fakulteta (Akademija, razne likovne škole…) ni ne shvaćajući da se miljama udaljavaju od arhitektonskog crteža, odnosno od arhitektonskog prikaza prostora pa tako i same arhitekture (bilo kojeg mjerila)! Tada se zateknu u rascijepu između ‘nedjeljnog’ slikara i onoga za što su se obrazovali. Kada se jednom u mladosti prođe neka škola, fakultet, zauvijek i neizbrisivo ostaje to znanje i nesvjesno je prisutno u svakoj novoj djelatnosti (slikar, dizajner, karikaturist… ili – političar). Tehnološka revolucija omogućuje svakom nastavniku i studentu da posjeduje taj alat, osobno računalo. Novi svjetovi upotrebljavaju se na razne načine, uvijek prema osobnom izboru. Netko će igrati igrice, netko tražiti recepte, a netko stvarati nove prostore (upitne kvalitete) koje sami, bez računala ne mogu ni zamisliti. Usporedba iz glazbenog svijeta: 'obožava glazbu' pa kupuje sve novije i novije strojeve za reprodukciju. Poput slikara koji ima najbolji štafelaj, najfinije kistove i boje pa na platnu isprobava što se sve može raditi tim materijalima i alatima. No, slikar sam po sebi nema što za reći! Vidljiva je površnost u povezivanju naoko različitih područja usvojena prethodnim školovanjem. Ta se površnost kod neosjetljivih studenata pokazuje i ovako: radni naziv za motiv crteža na terenu je 'mala kuća'. Objasni se da je to

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On entrance examinations and students The Section of Drawing and Visual Design is regularly present during entrance and classification examinations at the Faculty of Architecture, i.e. in testing knowledge, skills and competences relating to visual and graphic culture. The differences between the drawings by unprepared candidates (a negligible percentage) and the prepared ones are obvious; the instruction approaches of schools preparing students also differ in style and quality. What they have in common is that such educators – often unverified, yet well-paid – bear no responsibility4 for the drawing future of a young person. When the candidates pass the examination, lucky freshmen often think they know how to draw (sufficiently well) and, preoccupied with new curriculum contents at the Faculty, they neglect drawing. Such students muddle through as mediocre ones failing to understand the complexity of the subject matter which we teach, and, in a valuable direct contact, exercise during four semesters. Many such students, later on, nearing the graduation stage, take ‘Drawing and Architectural Graphics’ as an elective course. When I ask them why they are interested in it, I learn the following: ‘We have now realized what we missed out’. But it is hard to catch up. On the other hand, there are talented students and/or the more self-confident ones who find the ‘Bologna’ class-scheduling insufficient. They look for ‘action’ outside the Faculty (at the Art Academy, different art schools…) without realizing that they are moving miles away from the architectural drawing, i.e. from the architectural presentation of space, and, thus, from architecture itself (of any scale)! Then they find themselves in a gap between being ‘Sunday’ painters and what they were educated for. The education acquired in youth at a college or university leaves and indelible mark and remains present at an unconscious level in any new profession (painter, designer, caricaturist… or – politician). The technological revolution enables each teacher and student to possess that tool – personal computer. New worlds are used in different ways, always based on personal choice. Some will play the games, some search

4, Suočeni s nekontroliranim bujanjem samozvanih instruktora, organizirana je edukacija edukatora. Pokazala se veoma uspješnom: nastavnicima crtanja, nažalost samo u arhitektonsko-građevinskim školama, bilo je dovoljno 15 sati predavanja i vježbi da osvježe i poboljšaju stara znanja i vještine te da nauče i primijene nove!

4, Faced with the uncontrolled increase of the self-proclaimed instructors, a training of educators was organized. It proved very successful, although, regrettably, it was held only at the architectural and civil-engineering schools. The teachers of drawing needed only 15 hours of lectures and exercises to refresh and improve their old knowledge and skills and learn and apply new ones.

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

1. Inicijalna skica; 30 × 21; bezdrvna olovka u boji; bankpost 80 g/m2 ; 1995.; Salon automobila, Sesvete, neprojektirano / 1. Initial sketch; 30 × 21; coloured wood-free pencil; bankpost (bond-paper) 80 g/m2; 1995; Car dealership, Sesvete, not designed

2. Skica stubišta, boje (za mene); 21 × 30; bezdrvna olovka u boji; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1995.; Interijer stana na Ksaveru, realizirano / 2. Sketch of the stairway, colours (for myself); 21 × 30; Coloured wood-free pencil; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1995; Interior of an apartment in the Ksaver neighbourhood, realised project

3. Skica prostora za informacije, boje (za mene i naručitelja); 42 × 30; tehnička olovka 0,5, olovka u boji; bankpost 80 g/ m2; 1996.; Interijer poslovne kuće ‘Blitz’, realizirano u potpunosti

/ 3. Sketch of the information area, colours (for myself and the client); 42 × 30; technical drawing pen 0,5, coloured pencil; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1996; Interior of the ‘Blitz’ business building, fully realised project

5. Kolaž perspektive i teksta na karti (dio elaborata); 30 × 42; tuš 0,5, olovka u boji; paus papir na fotokopiji; 2003.; Campus Hrvatskih studija, Samobor / 5. Collage, initial sketches of the crosssection and façade in the environment (for the client); 30 × 42; technical drawing pen 0,5, coloured pencil; sketch paper, photography, bankpost; 1997; Family house, Sv. Nedjelja, realised

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4. Prezentabilni crtež (za naručiteljicu); 42 × 30; tehnička olovka 0,5, olovka u boji; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1995.; Uređenje kuhinje, nerealizirano / 4. Presentable drawing (for the client); 42 × 30; technical drawing pen 0,5, coloured pencil; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1995; Kitchen design, not realised

Crtež

6. Kolaž inicijalne skice, presjeka i pročelja u okolišu (za naručitelja); 30 × 42; tehnička olovka 0,5, olovka u boji; skicen papir, fotografija, bankpost; 1997.; Obiteljska kuća, Sv. Nedjelja, realizirano / 6. Collage of the perspective and text on the map (a part of the study); 30 × 42; ink 0,5, coloured pencil; tracing paper on the photocopy; 2003; Campus of the University Centre for Croatian Studies, Samobor

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

slobodnostojeća, skromna, periferijska kućica kojih i danas još uvijek ima u blizini fakulteta. Ideja je ne samo crtežom svladati smještaj i veličinu jednostavnog volumena na papir, vidjeti bitno, izostaviti suvišno, već i osjetiti atmosferu, duh prolaznosti... Dolazi studentica IV. semestra arhitekture s isprikom: ‘Nisam donijela ‘seljačku kuću’.’ Kako mislite seljačku? ‘Meni su tako rekli.’

for recipes, and some will create new spaces (of questionable quality) which they themselves – without a computer – cannot even imagine. You may have a comparison from the world of music: he ‘adores music’, so he buys all the latest reproduction systems. Or like a painter who has the best easel, the finest brushes and paints, and tests these materials and tools on the canvas, but, he himself has nothing to say!

Bologna Mnogim segmentima arhitektonske edukacije, a posebno našim kolegijima ‘Bologna’ nije pogodovala! Oponašanje i prenošenje s europskih (i američkih) fakulteta, a nedostatno poznavanje i isticanje usporedbenih kvaliteta domaćeg, ‘zagrebačkog’ te bespogovorna poslušnost Ministarstvu i Sveučilištu dovelo je do snižavanja obrazovnog standarda. Od relativno kreativnog i kvalitetnog prisilno je prihvaćeno ubrzano, menadžersko, površno, efikasno, sposobno, ekskluzivno, pojedinačno. Skromno, suzdržano, promišljeno, sumnjajuće, izgubilo je pred bahatim, glasnim, nesmotrenim i samouvjerenim. Potrebna je priča, scenarij, prezentacija, kako bi se lakše progutao sadržaj. Brzo, kvalitetno i jeftino poznato je trojstvo kojem se nedostižno stremi. U takvom duhovnom i vrijednosnom okruženju naš Kabinet (prostor, ljudi, nastava) propada (iako je to teška riječ) i ne nailazi na razumijevanje. Da bi se čovjeka iskoristilo, potrebno je da on bude usko specijaliziran, a ne multifunkcionalan. Tako ga je lakše ukalupiti, dati brojku, koeficijent i plaću, potrošiti. I studenti to već osjećaju. Svaka nova uprava spotakne se o nas! Jednima smo prostorna smetnja, drugima začudan odabir personala, treći bi se najradije prebacili k nama i preuredili nas u svoj ustroj, a neki nas ostavljaju na miru. Najradije bi nas ukinuli5, no teško je za to naći opravdanje jer svaki arhitektonski fakultet ima neko crtanje. Budući da ne razumiju o čemu se kod nas radi (a očito nisu ni kada su bili studenti), onda sputavaju i administrativnim putevima (Bologna) pa i grupiranjem s naoko sličnim kolegijima: Nacrtnom geometrijom i Računalima.

What is visible is superficiality in the connecting of apparently different areas that was adopted during previous schooling. This superficiality may bee seen in less sensitive students, for example, in this way: the working title for the drawing motive to be made in the field work is a ‘small house’. The students receive an explanation that this is a small, detached, modest house on the outskirts of the city, which can still be seen today in the vicinity of the Faculty. The idea is not just to master the position and size of a simple volume on the paper through a drawing, to see the essential and omit the superfluous, but also to sense the atmosphere, the spirit of transience... Then a student of the fourth semester of architecture comes up with an apology: ‘I did not bring the drawing of a ‘rural house’.’ What do you mean by ‘rural’? ‘This is what I was told’, she replies. Bologna Process The Bologna process was not beneficial for many segments of architectural education, and especially for our courses! Imitating and carrying over procedures from the European (and US) faculties, with insufficient knowledge of, and emphasis on comparative qualities of the local, ‘Zagreb-based’ system, along with submissiveness to the Ministry and the University has resulted in degrading of the educational standards. What used to be relatively creative and of good quality, has been compulsorily replaced by what is accelerated, managerial, superficial, efficient, capable, exclusive, and individual. The modest, restrained, well thought out, doubting has been defeated by the arrogant, loud, reckless and self-confident. A story, scenario, presentation is necessary in order to easily sell the content. A well known, yet unattainable trinity of the fast, good and cheap is being aspired to. In such a spiritual environment and value system, our Section (space, people, teaching) is decaying (even though it is a strong word) and is not met with understanding. In order to utilise a man, he needs to be narrowly specialized, rather than multi-functional. Thus, it is easier to make him conform to the mould, assign a figure to him, a coefficient and salary, and use him up. Even students are beginning to realise this. Each new management board trips over us! To one we are a spatial obstacle, to another – a surprising selection of staff, yet another would prefer to join us and then reorganise us to fit their system, and some leave us alone. They would prefer to do away with us5, but this would be hard to justify as every school of architecture does have some drawing courses. Since they do not comprehend what this Section is about

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5, Postoji i opcija: samo bih se htio upoznati s onim što radite.

5, There is also another option: I only want to find out what it is that you do.

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

8. Skica/studija rješenja apside (za autore); 21 × 30; tehnička olovka 0,5 u boji; skicen papir 10 g/m2; 1995.; Interijer crkve sv. Blaža, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 8. Sketch/study – the solution for the apse (for the authors); 21 × 30; coloured technical drawing pen 0,5; sketch paper 10 g/ m2; 1995; Interior of the St. Blaise church, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil)

7. Prezentabilna perspektiva (za javni natječaj); 50 × 30; voštane pastele; sjajni ozalid papir; 1987.; Nova župna crkva sv. Mihajla na Lapadu, Dubrovnik (s A. Uchytil) / 7. Presentable perspective (for a competition); 50 × 30; wax crayons; glossy blue-line (ozalid) paper; 1987; New parish church St. Michael on the Lapad peninsula, Dubrovnik (together with A. Uchytil)

10. Prezentabilna perspektiva (za pozivni natječaj); 60 × 60; voštane pastele; foto-papir, mat, 180 g/m2; 1995.; Interijer crkve sv. Blaža, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 10. Presentable perspective (for an invited competition); 60 × 60; wax crayons; photo-paper, matte, 180 g/m2; 1995; Interior of the St. Blaise church, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil)

9. Skica ideje (za autore); 8 × 8; flomaster u boji; hamer papir 180 g/m2; 1989.; Župna crkva sv. Ivana evanđeliste, Utrina, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 9. Idea sketch (for the authors); 8 × 8; coloured marker; cartridge paper 180 g/m2; 1989; St. John Evangelist parish church, Utrina, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil) 11. Prezentabilna aksonometrija (za drugu fazu natječaja); 70 × 100; kemijske olovke u boji; masni papir 80 g/m2; 1990.; Župna crkva sv. Ivana evanđeliste, Utrina, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 11. Presentable axonometric drawing (for the second stage of the competition); 70 × 100; coloured ball-point pens; wax paper 80 g/m2; 1990; St. John Evangelist parish church, Utrina, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil)

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Crtež

12. Crtež rješenja u okolišu (za naručitelja); 20 × 30; tehnička olovka 0,5; blok br.5; 1995.; Memorijalni spomenik palim hrvatskim braniteljima, Livno (s A. Uchytil)

Drawing

/ 12. Drawing – solution in the environment (for the client); 20 × 30; technical drawing pen 0,5; pad no.5; 1995; Memorial to Croatian defenders, Livno (together with A. Uchytil)


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Crticama o crtama, crtežu, crtanju …6

(and obviously they failed to grasp it when they were students, too), they cramp our style in administrative ways (Bologna process) as well as by grouping us with apparently similar courses: Descriptive Geometry and Computers.

Generacija sam 1975. koja na prijemnom nije imala test iz crtanja. Oslobođena mature u IV. gimnaziji, odlazila sam na tečaj crtanja na Pantovčak te imala izlagane radove (‘Kao Rouault!’ uzviknuo bi učitelj. Sva sreća da sam tada čitala Jansona pa sam razumjela o kome govori.) Fascinirana sam bila crtanjem i još više Vaništinim ‘Plastičnim oblikovanjem’. Nekidan na otvorenju Vaništine izložbe kaže mi D. K., dvije-tri generacije starija kolegica, kako me je upoznala: ‘…i ugledala sam studenticu koja s velikom pažnjom nosi svoju 'maketu' u bojama svoje odjeće…’ Od obveznih crtačkih zadataka pamtim skice s Inter-Rail putovanja po Skandinaviji: Kopenhagen, Luisiana, Skagen, Aalto, Lofoti, Beaubourg… iz ljeta 1977. Prije nekoliko godina mlađe kolege rekoše mi da im je ‘bilo muka od količine mojih radova’ koji su pokazivani kao primjeri kako bi nešto trebalo napraviti. Ne sjećam se da sam tijekom studija za svoje programe crtala završne7 perspektive projektiranog prostora. Bilo je mnogo radnih skica, a ‘perspe’, kao kampanjac, nisam stigla nacrtati! Ipak, jedne se sjećam: strukturna ploča kao strop sportske dvorane u gornjem dijelu crteža, a u donjem crtač-promatrač u tamnoj masi gledatelja. Profesor R. bio je ganut (susretao se isključivo s brojkama i jednostavnim shemama konstrukcije!). Zbog toga sam dobila ocjenu više! Godina 1981. bila je za mene znakovita: diplomiravši u veljači, u jesen se kao pripravnik uključujem u znanstveni rad8, upisujem postdiplomski studij ‘Graditeljsko nasljeđe’ i, što je najznačajnije, prof. Vaništa poziva me u nastavu crtanja kao honorarnog asistenta na tri godine. Ugodno iznenađena, počašćena i sretna prihvaćam i sljedećih se 14 godina, gotovo svakodnevno u njegovom kabinetu (tada soba 312) družimo, razgovaramo, slušamo, šutimo…

6, crta(ti) (stsl., urezati)  1. ostvaren ili zamišljen trag koji ostavlja sredstvo za pisanje; kroki (fr. croquis)  1. crtež izveden povlačenjem osnovnih crta, skica; 2. ono što je nabačeno u osnovnim crtama (to je samo ~); perspektiva 2. lik. umijeće prikazivanja trodimenzionalnih predmeta na ravnoj plohi, pri čemu se uspostavlja odnos između udaljenosti predmeta i veličine njegova prikaza; ukupnost pravila o prikazivanju tijela itd. gledanih s jedne određene točke ili mjesta.; skica (tal. schizzo, njem. Skizze) 1. grafički prikaz, crtež, nacrt izveden u glavnim crtama, ob. kao predradnja nekog većeg rada (napraviti ~ u), skicozan. koji je u skici, koji ima preciznost koliko može imati skica; ovlašan, nabačen, naznačen, grubo zacrtan. Hrvatski enciklopedijski rječnik, Novi Liber, Zagreb, 2003. 7, U žargonu smo zvali ‘perspa’. Danas bismo rekli prezentacijska perspektiva. 8, Voditelji N. Filipović, B. Kincl; ‘Tipološke sheme organizacije naselja i stambenih zgrada, struktura stambenih i zajedničkih prostora’ i ‘Analiza posebnih tipova stanovanja na primjerima individualne obiteljske izgradnje u Zagrebu od 1900. do 1985. godine’.

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Crtež

Through sketches about lines, drawings, drawing...6 I am the generation of 1975 that did not have a drawing test at the entrance examination. As I did not have to take the high-school exit exam in the 4th Gymnasium, I took drawing lessons in Pantovčak School and had my works exhibited (‘Just like Rouault!’ my teacher would exclaim. Fortunately, I read Janson at the time, so I knew whom he talked about.). I was fascinated by drawing and even more so by Vaništa’s course in Visual Design. It was just the other day at the opening of Vaništa’s exhibition that my colleague D. K. – who is two or three years older – recounted how she had met me: ‘...I saw a student carrying with great care her ‘model’ in the colours of her clothes...’ Out of my obligatory drawing tasks I recall the sketches made during the InterRail travels in summer 1977 through Scandinavia: Copenhagen, Luisiana, Skagen, Aalto, Lofoti, Beaubourg... Several years ago my younger colleagues told me that they were ‘sick of the number of my works’ that were presented as exemplary, how something should be done. I cannot recall ever drawing final7 perspectives of the designed space during my studies. There used to be numerous working sketches, but having been the last-minute student I never had time to do the actual perspectives. However, I do remember one: a structural plate as a ceiling of a sports hall in the upper part of the drawing, whereas in the lower part was the author – drawer and observer in the dark mass of the viewers. Professor R. was moved (he only ever came across figures and simple construction schemes!). That is why I got a higher grade! The year 1981 was an important one: I graduated in February and in the autumn I became part of scientific work8 as a trainee, started a post-grad6, line (the Croatian term ‘crta’ originates from the Old Church Slavonic term for engraving) / to draw, drawing: a realised or imagined trace left by a writing tool; croquis (French croquis) 1. a drawing made with basic lines, a sketch; 2. a rough draft, elementary; perspective The art of presenting three dimensional objects on a plain surface whereby the relationship is established between the distance of the object and the size of its presentation; the totality of the rules of the presentation of bodies etc. viewed from a specific point or place.; sketch (Italian schizzo, German Skizze) a graphic presentation, a rough drawing giving outlines or essential features; preliminary task as part of the larger work to be executed; sketchy: as precise as a sketch can be; rough, provisional, cursory, outlined. Hrvatski enciklopedijski riječnik (Croatian Encyclopaedic Dictionary), Novi Liber, Zagreb, 2003. 7, Nowadays it would be called presentation perspective. 8, Managers – N. Filipović and B. Kincl;

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

13. Skica/provjera rješenja u okolišu (za autore); 70 × 30; voštane pastele; sjajni ozalid papir; 1986.; Trg revolucionara i spomenik Titu, Trnje, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 13. Sketch/solution check in the environment (for the authors); 70 × 30; wax crayons; glossy blueline (ozalid) paper; 1986; Revolutionaries Square and a monument to Tito, Trnje, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil)

14. Skica ideje (za natječaj); 23 × 32; voštane pastele; karton; 1993.; Poslovna zgrada, Petrinjska ulica 42, Zagreb, (s A. Uchytil) / 14. Idea sketch (for the competition); 23 × 32; wax crayons; cardboard; 1993; Business building, Petrinjska Street 42, Zagreb, (together with A. Uchytil)

15. Prezentabilna perspektiva (za natječaj); 23 × 32; voštane pastele; karton; 1993.; Poslovna zgrada, Petrinjska ulica 42, Zagreb, (s A. Uchytil) / 15. Presentable perspective (for the competition); 23 × 32; wax crayons; cardboard; 1993; Business building, Petrinjska Street 42, Zagreb, (together with A. Uchytil)

17. Skica ideje (za natječaj); 30 × 21; tehnička olovka 0,8; bankpost 80 g/m2; 2008.; Pastoralni centar i župna crkva Krista Kralja, Trnje, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 17. Idea sketch (for the competition); 30 × 21; technical drawing pen 0,8; bankpost 80 g/m2; 2008; Pastoral Centre and Christ the King parish church, Trnje, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil)

16. Prezentabilna perspektiva, fotomontaža (za natječaj); 30 × 42; fotokopija, tehnička olovka 0,5; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1989.; Stambeno poslovna zgrada, Petrinjska ulica 31, Zagreb, (s A. Uchytil) / 16. Presentable perspective, photomontage (for the competition); 30 × 42; photocopy, technical drawing pen 0,5; bankpost 80 g/ m2; 1989; Residential and business building, Petrinjska Street 31, Zagreb, (together with A. Uchytil)

153

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

O mojem profesoru

uate course Architectural Heritage and, most importantly, Prof. Vaništa asked me to work for three years as a part-time assistant in drawing education. I was pleasantly surprised, honoured and happy. During the next 14 years we met almost every day in his office (then room 312), talked, listened to each other, sat in silence...

Učio me je i šutnjom. Šutnjom sam učila. Ovih me dana jedna studentica pita o Vaništinom pedagoškom radu. Studentica arhitekture i diplomantica povijesti umjetnosti! O Vaništi slikaru, piscu, Gorgoni mnogo se zna, a vrlo malo, gotovo ništa nije napisano o njegovih 40 godina rada na AF-u! Glasno je zazvučalo u jednom intervjuu o 40 godina izgubljenog svjetla. Uzimam si slobodu i koristim priliku zapisati nekoliko crtica o Vaništi u crtaonici/predavaonici i o Vaništi u kabinetu. O doživljaju Vanište kao profesora mnogi bi studenti mogli nešto reći, najviše pozitivno, u superlativima. Uvijek postoji grupa pragmatičnih: zvali su ga profesor Zaništa! Profesor je te jeseni 1975. godine strpljivo intervjuirao nas stotinjak brucoša. Jedan po jedan ulazili smo u kabinet: ‘...Crtate li? Koju školu ste završili? Što vas inače zanima? Zašto ste upisali arhitekturu? Što očekujete?...’ Želio se s nama osobno upoznati, a ja sam se pitala kako li nas može razaznavati. Pratio je rad studenata i na drugim kolegijima. Nastojao je spriječiti da daroviti studenti zbog nesnalaženja s tehničkim predmetima gube godine i budu stoga izbačeni s fakulteta. Na drugoj godini iznenadili smo se da je (izvan nastave) otišao studentu doma da mu ovaj nešto pokaže (maketu, crteže ili slično). Kada smo ga nas troje zapitali što nam preporučuje posjetiti na putu po Skandinaviji, pozvao nas je na razgovor u svoj atelieur! Predavanja koja smo slušali trebali smo bilježiti, a na kraju godine na razgovoru s profesorom, bilježnice predati.9 Imena koja je spominjao zapisivao bi na ploču, uvijek s godinama rođenja i smrti. Predavanja s uputama za zadatak posebno smo voljeli. Primjere (fotografije, reprodukcije slika, uspješne programe) na ploču pričvršćivao je ‘rajsnedlima’. Objašnjenja kredom bila su jasna, elementarna, pamtljiva. O svojim radovima nije govorio niti ih pokazivao. Predavanja uz dijaprojekcije nikad nisu bila u potpunom mraku i stoga što je volio vidjeti naše reakcije. Ako bi nam tada i postavljao pitanja, nisu se odnosila na poznavanje činjenica već na osobno mišljenje ili stav. Uvijek u tamnoplavom sakou, sivim hlačama i bijeloj košulji nezakopčanih rukava. U džepu mu je bio manji karton, kratka olovka i sitna gumica, sve u čestoj upotrebi. U crtaonici bi zastajao kod zanimljivih rješenja, sjedao na stolac u blizini studenta te pitanjem, pokretom ruke ili potezom olovke uputio na ispravnije traženje. Bilo je to dragocjeno jer ostavljao je i slobodu da se radi i na drugi način.

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About my professor He taught me with silence as well. I learned by silence. A student has recently asked me about Vaništa’s work as an educator. She is an architecture and art history student! A lot is known about Vaništa as a painter and writer, about the Gorgona group. At the same time very little, almost nothing has been written about the 40 years of his work at the Faculty of Architecture. His mention of 40 years of lost light in an interview had a loud impact. I will take the liberty to note down a few things about Vaništa in the drawing room/lecture theatre and in his office. Many students could say something about Vaništa as a professor, and mostly in positive terms, in lavishing superlatives. However, there has always been a gang of pragmatic ones who called him professor No-Good [rhyming play on words] In the autumn of 1975, the professor patiently interviewed about one hundred freshmen. We would enter his office one by one: ‘Do you draw? Which school have you completed? What are your interests? Why did you decide to study architecture? What do you expect?...’ He wanted to get to know us personally, and I wondered how he was able to tell us apart. He tried to protect talented students – who could not pass the technical courses – from failing the year and being kicked out of the Faculty. During the second year, we were surprised to learn that he visited one student at his home (outside the working hours) to see some work of his (a model, drawings or something similar). When the three of us asked him to recommend the sights to be seen in Scandinavia, he invited us to his atelier for a chat! We were supposed to take notes at the lectures we listened to, and hand over the notebooks at the end of the year during the talk with the professor9. He would always write down on the blackboard the names he mentioned along with the years of birth and death. We especially loved the lectures where he gave us instructions for the task. He would attach the examples (photographs, prints of paintings, successful programmes) to the board with pins. The explanations noted down with the chalk were clear,

9, Kada sam počela asistirati, ‘radno mjesto’ mi je bilo u sobi 312 u kabinetu profesora Vanište: bilježnice nekoliko generacija bile su posložene duž zida sve do visine stola! Moj prvi zadatak bio je pregledati ih i odabrati nekoliko za arhivu!

‘Typological Schemes of Organisation of Estates, Residential Buildings and Communal Spaces’ and ‘Analysis of Special Types of Housing in Cases of Detached Housing in Zagreb from 1900 to 1985’. 9, When I became the assistant, I worked in room 312 in professor Vaništa’s office: the notebooks of several generations of students were lined up along the wall at the desk height. My first task was to peruse them and select several for the archive!

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

18. Prezentabilna perspektiva (za natječaj); 42 × 30; tehnička olovka 0,5 u boji; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1995.; Dogradnja samostana crkve Majke Božje lurdske, Zvonimirova ulica, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 18. Presentable perspective (for the competition); 42 × 30; coloured technical drawing pen 0,5; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1995; Annex to the monastery of the Our Lady of Lourdes church, Zvonimirova Street, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil) 20. Prezentabilna perspektiva (za naručitelja); 21 × 30; tehnička olovka 0,5; skicen papir 10 g/ m2; 1993.; Nova sakristija župne crkve sv. Marije, Kloštar Ivanić, (s A. Uchytil) / 20. Perspective section drawing (for the competition); 42 × 30; coloured technical drawing pen 0,5; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1996; Interior of Our Lady of Lourdes church, Zvonimirova Street, Zagreb (together with A. Uchytil)

19. Perspektivni presjek (za natječaj); 42 × 30; tehnička olovka 0,5 u boji; bankpost 80 g/m2; 1996.; Interijer crkve Majke Božje lurdske, Zvonimirova ulica, Zagreb (s A. Uchytil) / 19. Presentable perspective (for the client); 21 × 30; technical drawing pen 0,5; Sketch paper 10g/m2; 1993; New vestry of the St. Mary parish church, Kloštar Ivanić, (together with A. Uchytil)

155

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Držanjem, načinom i naravno sadržajem govora plijenio je našu pažnju, upućivao na potrebu za širenjem znanja, na značenje misaonog i potrebu senzibilnog. Cijenio je sposobnost stvaranja sinteze. Tražio je ozbiljnost i studioznost, suzdržanost, a ne razmetanje, suštinu, a ne opis. Od kada mi je radno mjesto postalo kabinet 312, potvrđivalo se ono poznato još iz studentskog doba: gospodin, pravedan, širokogrudan, dosljedan, mudar, erudit, brižan, duhovit, dobar… sve to ne nužno ovim redoslijedom! Početkom asistenture novost su mi bile svakodnevne priče o ljudima i događanjima, običnim i neobičnim, dnevnim i prošlim. Sjećam se Erasmusa, Magdića, Žukine, Bosanske, Pariza, Beograda, glasovanja, uzbuna, prvih Zapisa i na kraju gospođe R. Često su mu dolazili drugi profesori, no nije mi dopuštao da napustim kabinet! Jednom je pozvao R. P.: razgovarali smo o dvorcima10! Nije ga zanimala uprava, birokaracija: prisustvovao je Vijećima, nikad nije raspravljao. Svoje mišljenje pismom bi dostavio odgovarajućem.

elementary and easy to remember. He never talked about his works nor did he ever show them. The lectures with slide projections were never held in full darkness because, inter alia, he wanted to see our reactions. If he asked us questions, they were not about factual knowledge but rather about our personal opinion or attitude. He would always wear a dark blue blazer, grey trousers and a white shirt with unbuttoned sleeves. A small piece of card board, short pencil and tiny eraser in his pocket were often in use. In the drawing room he would take time to look at interesting solutions, sit by a student and make lead him towards a more accurate direction by asking a question, a hand gesture or pencil stroke. That was invaluable because he would also leave it to us to work differently.

O mojem crtežu Kao dugogodišnjem nastavniku kolegija Crtanje i Plastično oblikovanje na Arhitektonskom fakultetu, velika mi je odgovornost odabrati i pokazati vlastite crteže. Kao dugogodišnjem projektantu kuća i njihovih interijera teško mi je odlučiti se i odabrati crtež: edukativan za studente, reprezentativan za fakultet, pravi za vas ili najdraži meni. A najteže je pronaći ih u raspr(a)šenoj arhivi! Promatrati mnogo raznorodnih arhitektonskih crteža na istom mjestu, a bez poznavanja ostalih činjenica o projektu promatraču je zahtjevno. Često se inicijalne skice bace ili zametnu. Često su crteži, prikazi prostora i/ili koncepcije, onaj međukorak u nastajanju projekta (jedna od skica). Često su pak risani na meni blizak način; dok drugima djeluju reprezentativno, meni je to inicijalan crtež. Često inicijalni crtež prostora završava realizacijom. Često inicijalni crtež prostora ne završava ni realizacijom projekta ni izvedbom. Ponekad crtež nastaje na temelju fotografije, podsjetnika na činjenicu prostora. Ponekad crtež prostora nastaje prvi te se fotografijom provjerava. Ponekad bojom pokazuju atmosferu prostora kojoj se teži u projektantskoj realizaciji i izvedbi. Ponekad, s većim iskustvom doživljavanja prostora, crteži prostora izostaju te se projektantska misao provodi istomjesnim tlocrtom i presjekom (rukom, olovkom)11.

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His demeanour, what he said, and of course how he said it, kept our attention. He insisted on erudition, on the significance of the mental and the need for the sensitive. He appreciated the ability to synthesize and demanded seriousness and a deep study, restraint and not flashiness, essence instead of description. Ever since Room 312 became my workplace, what I had known from the student days has been proven again and again: he was a gentleman, honourable, magnanimous, consequent, wise, intellectual, erudite, caring, witty, kind... not necessarily in this order. When I started working as an assistant, it was news to me to listen daily about people and events, usual and unusual, present and past. I remember the topics of ‘Erasmus’, Magdić, Žukina, a Bosanska street apartment, Paris, Belgrade, elections, sounded alarms, the first Writings and finally Madam R. He was often visited by other professors but he would not let me leave the room. He once called R. P. and we talked about castles10! He was not interested in administration or bureaucracy; he was present at the meetings of the Council, but he never took the floor. He would provide his opinion in writing to the person in charge.

About my drawing

Literatura o arhitektonskom crtežu često je amalgam pisanog i crtanog. Teško mi je misli bilježiti jer riječi nisu moje

As a long-time teacher of the courses Drawing and Visual Design at the Faculty of Architecture I have a great responsibility to select and present my own drawings. Having been a designer of houses and their interiors for a long time, I find it difficult to decide and select a drawing: educational one for students, representative one for the Faculty, the right one for you or the one I like the best (and the dearest one to me). The most difficult thing, however, is to find these drawings in the dusty scattered archive. There are many diverse architectural drawings in the same place, but without knowing other accompanying facts about a project, the viewer may find it demanding. The initial sketches often get misplaced. The drawings, presentations of space and/or the concepts are often the interim steps in the creation of an architectural project (one of the sketches). Often they are drawn in a specific manner: others find them representative, and to me it is an initial drawing.

10, Tema mojega magistarskog rada bila je ‘Odnos dvorca grofa Jankovića i arhitektonske sredine Daruvara’. 11, Pisano jednom uredništvu 5. 5. 2003. u Zagrebu! Vrijedi i 5. 5. 2013.

10, The topic of my master thesis was: ‘The Correlation between the Count Janković Manor House and the Architecture of Daruvar’.

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

21. Prezentabilni crteži atmosfere prostora; 65 × 65; tuš 0.3; voštane pastele; paus papir, fotografski papir; 1984.; I Giardini di Tempesta, Noale, Biennale – III mostra internazionale d’architettura, Venacija, (s A. Uchytil) / 21. Presentable drawings of a space atmosphere; 65 × 65; ink 0.3; wax crayons; tracing paper; photographic paper; 1984; I Giardini di Tempesta, Noale, Biennale – III mostra internazionale d’architettura, Venice, (together with A. Uchytil)

23. 30 × 40; voštane pastele za tekstil; tkanina; papir; fotokopija. / 23. 30 × 40; wax crayons for textiles; fabric; paper; photocopy

22. Rad za prezentaciju prijedloga; 50 × 70; voštane pastele za tekstil; olovka, srebrni flomaster; tkanina; papir (35 × 50 cm); 1991.; Diptih otiskom u ‘d = 3 m’, Projekt za 900 obljetnicu Zagreba ‘12 prijedloga zagrebačkih arhitekata’, (s A. Uchytil) / 22. Work produced for the presentation of the proposal; 50 × 70; wax crayons for textiles;

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Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

primarno izražajno sredstvo, a nije ni crtež u klasičnom smislu. Moj crtački ‘slučaj’ možda (ah, te sumnje) najbolje prikazuje mentalna mapa: kompozicija, kolaž raznolikih i raznovrsnih sličica. Pokazivati svoje ‘perspe’ odvojeno od projekta ili realizacije po meni (i svakom osjetljivom) isuviše je osobno. Nelagoda raste tim više što pokazivanje nosi i odgovornost nastavnika (‘Jedno priča, drugo radi.’). Svi natječajni projekti12, kao i neke male i velike realizacije, ‘opskrbljeni’ su crtežima (od idejnog šaranja do prezentacijske realnosti). Kako drugima prikazati meni jasan prostor, a da u njemu iščitaju isto ili slično, teška je odluka. Kada prikazujem sebi, šare nastaju i nesvjesno i ne postoji problem odlučivanja. Najbrže bilježenje pojave iskusila sam pri postavljanju izložbe ‘Ratnici na razmeđu Istoka i Zapada’. Arheologinja dr. D. B.-L. prikazivala mi je oko 750 fotografija artefakata i pratila ih opisima i objašnjenjima. Brzom skicom bilježila sam bitne, razlikovne stvari. Međutim, skice sam spremila i ne mogu ih pronaći.

Often the initial drawing of the space results in the project realisation. Often the initial drawing of the space does not end in realisation or construction. Sometimes the drawing is based on a photograph and is a reminder of the actual space. Sometimes the space is first drawn and is then examined in a photograph. Sometimes the colour shows the atmosphere of space that is aspired to in the designer’s realisation and construction. Sometimes, as the experience of the space increases, the drawings are absent and the designer’s idea of the layout and cross-section is presented by pencil on the spot11.

Svaki autor koristi ‘tehnologiju’ koja najbolje odgovara osobnom izričaju. Što koristim za crtanje? Sve što mi dođe u ruku ili kad otkrijem nešto novo ili me nešto ‘drži’ sezonski: odgovaraju mi olovka i pastele, rjeđe tuš i flomaster. Neki crteži nastaju na ostacima papira za kopiranje nacrta velikih formata. Najčešće crtam na A4, maksimalno na A3 formatu (veličine koje odgovaraju mojem ‘stasu’), a papir je bankpost, hamer, pelir-papir, paus. …o boji Arhitektonski crteži (i 2D i 3D) morali su se moći jednostavno umnožavati, reproducirati: crtalo se tušem po pausu, pa se ozalid-kopija c/b (ako se želi boja) ručno doradila u jednom primjerku! Osamdesetih se razvila tehnologija kopiranja u boji isprva manjih, a kasnije većih formata, a kopije su, iznenađujuće, znale biti bolje od originala: moglo se eksperimentirati! …o boji u crtežu Boja, svjetlo/sjena i crta redoslijed je kojim postižem željenu atmosferu i u arhitekturi i u prikazu arhitekture. Boje i bojice biram prema feelingu. Ponekad su to smjele, neuobičajene kombinacije boja, no i c/b kopija svojim sivim tonovima može pokazati što se htjelo. Pazim da crtež ne skrene u opisivanje arhitekture, u ilustraciju! Devedesete su počeci upotrebe osobnih računala. Bilo je mučno, možda zato što je bilo prerano. Početni entuzijazam je splasnuo, ohladilo me je i do danas, moram priznati, temperatura nikako da poraste. Moja studentska generacija imala je sreću da u arhitektonski formativnim godinama istovremeno sluša Vaništu slikara, Šegvića akademskog arhitekta, Dragomanovića i Filipovića diplomirane inženjere arhitekture. Ti vrsni umjetnici i pe-

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The literature about the architectural drawing is often an amalgam of the written text and drawings. I find it difficult to record my thought because words are not my primary means of expression, and neither is the drawing in the classical sense. My drawing ‘case’ may (oh, these doubts...) best be presented by a mind map: composition, collage of miscellaneous pictures. To exhibit my perspectives separated from the project or realisation is too personal for me (and for anyone who is sensitive). The uneasiness grows because there is the educator’s responsibility, too (one has to ‘walk it as they talk it’). All competition projects12, just like some small and big realisations are supported by drawings (ranging from concept scribbling to the presentation of reality). How to show others what, to me, is a comprehensible space, and have them see what I see, is a difficult decision. When I make a drawing for myself, the scribbling is often unconscious and making a decision does not pose a problem. The time when I made sketches the fastest was when the exhibition ‘Warriors at the Crossroads between the East and West’ was set up. The archaeologist D. B. L. was showing me some 750 photographs and supported them by descriptions and explanations. I quickly sketched the important and distinctive points. However, I have filed the sketches away and cannot find them. Every author uses the ‘technology’ best suited to his personal expression. What do I use to draw? Everything I get hold of or something new when I find it; or something ‘seasonal’ that I come across. I fancy pencil and pastels, and on occasions ink and felt-tip pens. Some drawings are made on pieces of scrap paper for photocopying big format drawings. I most often draw on A4 or A3 formats (the sizes that match my ‘size’) and use bank post, cartridge, onionskin or tracing papers. ...About colour Architectural drawings (and 2D and 3D) had to be easily multiplied and reproduced: ink drawings were made on tracing paper, and then a single ozalid copy b/w (if colour is desired) would be hand-finished. The 1980s saw the de-

12, Obveza da u natječajnom radu bude prostorni prikaz i činjenica da sam natječaje radila u koautorstvu s kolegom i prijateljem A. U., razlog je sačuvanosti i prezentabilnosti svih natječajnih perspektiva.

11, A letter written to an editorial office on 5 May 2003 in Zagreb. This is still applicable on 5 May 2013. 12, The reason why all perspectives for competitions have been preserved and presentable is that all the works for competitions were done in collaboration with my colleague and friend A. U.

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

dagozi preko nas13 utječu i na današnje generacije studenata! Strukturiranje kao mentalni i fizički postupak u mene je ugrađen. Znanstveni pristup (‘graditeljsko naslijeđe’) naslijeđen, stečen i razvijan. Težim jednostavnom, bez ‘visokointelektualnih’ izraza: mnogo jednostavnih misli kojima se, poput strukture, stvara nešto novo. O složenosti jednostavno, od cjeline k detalju! Učili su nas ravnopravnosti inženjerskog i umjetničkog, korištenju sredstava reduciranjem i oduzimanjem, a ne gomilanjem i opisivanjem. Učili su nas ponašanju u prostoru: ne dominirati već poboljšavati i oplemenjivati. Učili su nas biti suvremenima: vrijeme u kojem djelujemo i portretirati i svjedočiti. Nikad nam nisu rekli, no tada smo slutili, a danas smo svjesni: pohađali smo Zagrebačku školu arhitekture!

velopment of colour copies, at first small and then large formats where, surprisingly, copies could be better than the originals: room for experimentation was provided! ...About colour in drawings Colour, light/shade and line – this is the order in which I achieve the desired atmosphere both in architecture and in the presentation of architecture. I select colours and colour pencils following an inner feeling. Sometimes they are bold, unusual combination of colours, but a b/w copy with all its grey shades can also show what is desired. I make sure that the drawing does not become descriptive of architecture, a mere illustration. Personal computers started being used in 1990s. That was tough because it may have been too early. The initial enthusiasm deflated, I have cooled off to this day and, I must say, the temperature just won’t go up. My student generation was lucky to have had as lecturers in their architecturally formative age, Vaništa the painter, Šegvić the architect academician, Dragomanović and Filipović, architectural engineers. These eminent artists and educators still influence today’s generations of students through us13! Structuring, as a mental and physical procedure, is ingrained in me. The scientific approach (‘architectural heritage’) is inherited, acquired and developed. I am inclined towards the simple without any highbrow expressions: many simple thoughts which, just like a structure, create something new. Complexity via simplicity, from the whole towards the detail! Our educators taught us the equality of the engineering and artistic approach, how to reduce and deduct rather than amass and describe. They taught us how to behave in the space: not to domineer but to improve and honour. They taught us how to be modern in the times we work in, and how to portray and bear witness. They had never told us – although we had an inkling of it and now we are aware of it – we attended the Zagreb School of Architecture.

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13, Popić, Uchytil, Waldgoni, Žarnić

13, Popić, Uchytil, Waldgoni, Žarnić

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Autorica

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Nikoleta Sudeta

Geometrija – ‘nespecifičan softver’ 3D modeliranja Geometrija pokriva ‘nespecifičan softver’ 3D modeliranja te je neovisna o sredstvu kojim se izražava. Zahtjevni softveri za modeliranje traže sve više geometrijskih znanja za korisnike. U pouci studenata, nastojimo teorijskim znanjem nadopuniti njihove vještine koristeći snagu i ljepotu geometrije. Kolegiji Osnove nacrtne geometrije (ONG) i Nacrtna geometrija i perspektiva (NGiP) služe kao mediji komunikacije u projektiranju i planiranju (skice, crteži, modeli). Od studenta se očekuje da usporedi poglede nekog objekta s različitih strana, da ga može virtualno rotirati, presjeći i povezati prostorne odnose različitih objekata (u aksonometriji, perspektivi, ortogonalnoj i kotiranoj projekciji). Ta znanja pomažu studentima u radu na arhitektonskom i urbanističkom projektiranju, arhitektonskim i nosivim konstrukcijama. Ishodi poučavanja su tehničko, geometrijsko i konstruktivno razmišljanje u svrhu rješavanja zadataka iz arhitekture i urbanizma, kao i razvoj prostornog predočavanja uz mogućnost njegove valorizacije, te poticanje kreativnosti i načina izražavanja u terminima geometrije u arhitekturi. Za provjeru učenja koriste se metode preslikavanja prostornih objekata na ravninu, rekonstrukcija geometrijskih svojstava iz slike objekta i njegovih sjena, treniranje sposobnosti predočavanja prostora i ‘prostornog’ razmišljanja. Dodatni materijali i svi zadaci dostupni su na http://virtual.arhitekt. hr/I/ONG/ i http://virtual.arhitekt.hr/I/NGP/ Osim tlocrta i nacrta u arhitektonskom crtežu najčešće se koriste kao 3D prikazi linearna perspektiva i različite aksonometrije. Zanimljiva je veza među njima, odnosno kako se iz perspektivnog crteža nekog objekta može dobiti njegov aksonometrijski crtež i obratno. To se postiže projiciranjem točke prostora na jednu ravninu iz dva različita centra. Veza među tako dobivenim projekcijama daje nam zakonitosti kojima ostvarujemo potrebna preslikavanja. Na taj način konstruiramo tražene prikaze na istom crtežu.

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Crtež

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Geometry – ‘non-specific software’ for 3D modelling

Geometry covers ‘non-specific software’ for 3D modelling, and it is independent of the means it uses to express itself. The demanding software applications for modelling require their users to acquire an ever-increasing knowledge in geometry. In teaching our students, we endeavour to supplement their skills by theoretical knowledge, using the strength and beauty of geometry. The courses The Bases of Descriptive Geometry and Descriptive Geometry and Perspective serve as communication media in designing and planning (sketches, drawings, models). The students are expected to compare the views of an object from various sides, to be able to visually rotate it, cross-sect it and connect spatial relationships of different objects (in axonometry, perspective, orthogonal and elevational projection). This knowledge assists students in their work on architectural and urban design, and architectural and bearing structures. The learning outcomes are technical, geometric and constructive consideration required for solving architectural and urban planning tasks, the development of spatial representation with a possibility of its valorisation, and stimulation of creativity and the ways of expression in geometrical terms in architecture. To check what has been learned, the following methods are used: mapping of spatial objects to a plane, reconstruction of geometric properties from the image of an object and its shadows, training of the ability to represent space and to think in ‘spatial terms’. Additional materials and all exercises are accessible on http://virtual.arhitekt.hr/I/ ONG/ and http://virtual.arhitekt.hr/I/NGP/ . In addition to a ground plan and drawing, the architectural drawing most often uses linear perspective and various axonometric mapping as 3D presentations. The relation between them is interesting, i.e. how an axonometric drawing can be obtained from a perspective drawing of an object and vice versa. This is achieved by projecting a point in space to a plane from two different centres. The relation between the projections obtained in this way provides us with rules for the required mappings. In this manner, we construct the required presentations on the same drawing.

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Crtež

Drawing

Na prvom crtežu konstruirana je perspektiva s horizontalnom osi pogleda dvokrake rampe iz koje je dobivena vojna aksonometrija te iste rampe. / First drawing – the perspective is constructed with a horizontal axis of the view on the bifurcated ramp which resulted in obtaining the axonometric military projection of the ramp.

Na drugom crtežu za konstrukciju ortogonalno aksonometrijske slike ‘fotelje’ proizvoljno su odabrani ishodište i smjerovi koordinatnih osi. Perspektivna slika s nagnutom osi pogleda te iste fotelje konstruirana je tako da je odabran nedogled jednog smjera, a ostali elementi su dobiveni pravilima preslikavanja. / Second drawing – for the construction of orthogonal axonometric image of an ‘armchair’ the origin and directions of axes of the coordinate system have been arbitrarily chosen. The perspective image with a tilted axis of the armchair view is constructed by selecting an infinite point of one direction, whereas other elements are obtained using the mapping rules.

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facta architectonica 2

Autorica

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci

Nulla Dies sine Linea

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Nulla Dies sine Linea One must always say what one sees, but above all – and this is far more difficult – see what one sees. Le Corbusier An attempt to use a drawing which mediates and interprets, which becomes a communication agent is the manner in which we reflect on the work in the courses on landscape architecture (Landscape Design, Landscape Architecture Workshop, Graduation Thesis Workshop).

One must always say what one sees, but above all – and this is far more difficult – see what one sees. — Le Corbusier Pokušaj korištenja crteža koji posreduje i interpretira, koji postaje komunikacijski posrednik jest način na koji promišljamo rad na kolegijima pejsažne/perivojne arhitekture (Perivojno oblikovanje, Radionica Pejsažne arhitekture, Diplomska radionica). Konvencionalni način razmišljanja o arhitektonskom crtežu jest paradigma arhitektonskog znanja baziranog na vizualnom odnosu između ideje i izgrađene zgrade gdje crtež djeluje kao neutralni i pasivni način transformacije arhitektonske misli u arhitektonsku praksu. Rad u sklopu kolegija je potaknut te ostvaren i kroz sudjelovanja na znanstvenim skupovima, čime je postignut doprinos prezentaciji radova i perivojno-pejsažnog naslijeđa Hrvatske u svijetu, a potvrda je to aktualnosti teme pejsaža (landscape arhitekture) u suvremenom urbanističko-arhitektonskom diskursu. Ovi radovi dio su znanstvenoistraživačkog projekta ‘Urbanističko i pejsažno naslijeđe Hrvatske kao dio europske kulture’ koje se provodi na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu pod vodstvom prof. dr.sc. Mladena Obada Šćitarocija uz potporu Ministarstva znanosti, obrazovanja i sporta Republike Hrvatske. Pod mentorstvom prof. dr.sc. Bojane Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci u akademskoj godini 2011. – 2012. sudjelovalo se s radovima na međunarodnim skupovima u Bariju i Barceloni, te su prihvaćeni sažetci za IFLA WORLD CONGRESS u Cape Town-u, dok su u akademskoj godini 2012. – 2013. prihvaćeni radovi i prezentacije na skupovima u Pragu i Rimu.

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A conventional manner to think about the architectural drawing is a paradigm of architectural knowledge based on the visual relationship between an idea and a constructed building, where the drawing has a neutral and passive effect on the transformation of architectural thought into architectural practice. The work in this course was inspired and carried out through participation in conferences, which contributed to the presentation of papers and the Croatian legacy in landscape architecture. Thus, the topicality of landscape (landscape architecture) has been confirmed in the contemporary urban architectural discourse. These papers are part of the scientific research project entitled ‘Croatian urbanistic and landscape legacy as part of the European culture’ which is being implemented at the Zagreb University Faculty of Architecture under guidance of Prof. Mladen Obad Šćitaroci, D.Sc., with support of the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. Under the mentorship of Prof. Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci, D.Sc., in the academic year of 2011 – 2012, students participated – with their papers – in the international conferences in Bari and Barcelona, and abstracts were accepted at the IFLA World Congress in Cape Town. In the academic year of 2012 – 2013, papers and presentations were accepted at the conferences in Prague and Rome. The article entitled Allusions and Illusions of Landscape Architecture – Form, Meaning and Expression of Emotion, by Prof. Bojana Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci, D.Sc., and Dunja Naerlović, (illustrations – by students), was published in the proceedings of the international conference entitled Il Paesaggio – Architettura del Paesaggio – Teoria, organised by the Faculty of Architecture, the Polytechnic University of Bari (Politechnico di Bari).

Allusions and Illusions of Landscape Architecture – Form, Meaning and Expression of Emotion, autorica prof. dr.sc. Bojane Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci i Dunje Naerlović (ilustracije-stu-

Works presented at the international conference on Architecture, Education and Society held in Barcelona consisted of presentations and abstracts of two or three pages, accompanied by posters. The abstracts and posters were published on the conference website. The topic of the relationship between culture and history was presented in five articles dealing with various Croatian towns and areas. Osijek was the topic dealt by Ksenija Radić in her paper Osijek – The City on Only One Riverbank. How to Cross the River? Landscape as a Continuity of

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

dentski rad), je rad koji je objavljen u međunarodnom zborniku znanstveno-stručnog skupa u organizaciji Arhitektonskog fakulteta, Politechnico di Bari: Il Paesaggio – Architettura del Paesaggio – Teoria. Prezentirani radovi na međunarodnom znanstvenom skupu Architecture, Education and Society u Barceloni sadržavali su uz prezentaciju i sažetak od 2 ili 3 stranice te su bili popraćeni s plakatima. Sažetci i plakati objavljeni su na internetskim stranicama skupa. Ukupno je 5 radova prezentirano pod temom odnosa kulture i povijesti, kroz što su obrađeni različiti gradovi i prostori Hrvatske od Osijeka (Ksenija Radić: Osijek – The city on the only one Riverbank. How to cross the River? Landscape as a Continuity of the Urban Indentity), Donje Stubice (Tina Lacković: Preservation of Inherited Landscape In-between – Paradigm for Urban Development), Starigrada-Paklenice (Ana Sopina: Landscape gives the community a context – and thus also an identity – Finding the identity of Starigrad-Paklenica through a network of public spaces), Splita (Tamara Marić: The City of Split and Marjan Peninsula Interaction Connecting Roman Diocletian’s Palace with its history core, the Greek and Roman city of Salona, by the Mediterranean city landscape of history, urbanism, society and culture) i otoka Visa (Ana Mrđa, Tin Oberman, Marko Rukavina: Vis – Spatial Development of the Town and the Island through the Enhancement of the Issa Archaeological Site). Međunarodni znanstveni skup u Pragu održava se po 3. put na temu Urban Popcultures, te unutar podteme Urban Space and the Landscape of the City bit će prezentiran rad o korištenju suvremene tehnologije u urbanoj reaktivaciji šetnica grada Samobora, pod nazivom: Reinventing Urban Landscape – 21st Century Datascape Alteration, autorice zn.nov. Tamare Marić i stud. Marine Tolj, univ.bacc.ing. arch. Međunarodni znanstveni skup, koji je od 1996. godine u organizaciji REAL CORP-a, 2013. godine u Rimu postavio je temu pod naslovom Planning Times. Autori zn.nov. Tamara Marić i Josip Zaninović, mag.ing.arch. sudjeluju i prezentiraju rad Landscape as a Connection – Beyond Borders u kojem je postavljen pregled studentskih radova Radionice pejsažnog planiranja i Diplomskih radova na Kabinetu za pejsažnu arhitekturu u okviru suvremenih tema i projekata planiranja gradova 21. stoljeća.

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Crtež

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

the Urban Identity; Tina Lacković presented Donja Stubica in Preservation of Inherited Landscape In-Between – Paradigm for Urban Development ; Starigrad-Paklenica appeared in Ana Sopina’s Landscape gives the community a context – and thus also an identity – Finding the identity of Starigrad-Paklenica through a network of public spaces; Split featured in Tamara Marić’s The City of Split and Marjan Peninsula Interaction Connecting Roman Diocletian’s Palace with its History Core, the Greek and Roman City of Salona, by the Mediterranean City Landscape of History, Urbanism, Society and Culture; and the island of Vis appeared in the paper by Ana Mrđa, Tin Oberman and Marko Rukavina Vis – Spatial Development of the Town and the Island through the Enhancement of the Issa Archaeological Site. The international conference in Prague was dealing for the third time with the topic of Urban Popcultures; as a part of the subtopic Urban Space and the Landscape of the City the paper was presented on the use of contemporary technology in the urban re-activation of walk spaces of the City of Samobor, entitled Reinventing Urban Landscape – 21st Century Datascape Alteration, by Tamara Marić, junior researcher, and student Marina Tolj, B.Sc. in architectural engineering. An international conference organised by REAL CORP, which has been held annually since 1996, in 2013 in Rome discussed the topic entitled Planning Times. Tamara Marić, junior researcher, and Josip Zaninović, M.Sc. in architectural engineering, participated in the conference and presented their paper Landscape as a Connection – Beyond Borders giving an overview of student works produced in the Landscape Planning and Graduation Thesis Workshop at the Landscape Architecture Department, as part of contemporary topics and 21st century town planning projects.

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Landscape architecture needs allusions and illusions to bring form and meaning and to express emotion within a space that may be geographical, economic, social, and functional and in the place a phenomenological, symbolic, sensemaking. Places are experienced and understood differently by different people; they are multiple and fluid, landscape architecture dwells within a humanspace creating a humanplace. — Bojanić Sl. 1. Vis / Fig. 1. Vis

Aluzije i iluzije, dakle igra i šala su uvijek na početku tok dugog puta promišljanja zadatka, traženja problema u prostoru i na kraju njegovo rješenje koje nudi prostor doživljaja. 

Allusions and illusions, i.e. playing and joking are always at the beginning of a long journey of considering the task, identifying a problem in space, and, ultimately, finding its solution, which, then, offers a space to be experienced.

Differences – Different cultures have shaped different minds and different landscapes. Every landscape has two languages, one is its own and the other is ours. Both languages use elements of description: the language that the landscape speaks is a language of elements and forms; the language that we use is a language of words for its description and for understanding. — Bojanić

Sl. 2. Starigrad Paklenica / Fig. 2. Starigrad Paklenica

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Međutim, posjedujemo još jedan jezik, onaj koji će nam uvijek moći sve objasniti, onaj koji će biti razgovijetan iako je bez tona, onaj kojemu je potreban pogled i govori sve – crtež.

However, we know yet another language, the one that will always be able to explain everything to us, the one that will be clear, even though it is soundless, the one that needs a look and which says everything – a drawing.

Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

... what is crucial in the consideration of architecture is not seeing but the apprehension of structures. The objective effect of the buildings on the imaginative being of the viewer is more important than their ‘being seen.’ 1988, — Walter Benjamin

Sl. 3. i 4. Split / Fig. 3 & 4. Split

Komunikacijski elemente, postaje i način prevođenja koji nam omogućava da vidimo i iza onog likovnog na površini prikaza.

A communication element becomes a manner of translation which makes it possible for us to see beyond the artistic on the surface of representations.

When I am given a task, I am in the habit of tucking it away in my memory, that is, of not allowing any sketch to be done for several months. The human head is so made that it maintains a certain independence: it’s a box into which you can pour helter-skelter the elements of a problem . . . then one day, a spontaneous initiative of the inner being takes place, everything falls into place; one takes a pencil, a bit of charcoal, some colored pencils (color is the key to the process) and one gives birth right there on the paper: the idea comes forth, the child comes forth, it has come into the world, it is born. — Le Corbusier

Sl. 5. Rijeka / Fig. 5. Rijeka

Proces komunikacije, prevođenja i interpretacije projekta olakšava nam uporaba boja koje nas vode i sprečavaju u krivoj interpretaciji prikazanoga.

The process of project communication, translation and interpretation is facilitated by the use of colours which guide us and prevent the misinterpretation of the representations.

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Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

The representation of architecture necessitates an effort of geometrical imagination, a mental and intellectual projection, like the reading of musical notation, which might synthesize the always incomplete representations. The active intervention of the interpreting subject is required to supply ‘what is lost in the translation’. — Stan Allen

Sl. 6. Zadarski Urboarhipelag / Fig. 6. Zadar urban archipelago

Ukoliko nam se željeno objašnjenje projekta ‘izgubi u prijevodu’ crtež je onaj koji nas vraća u srž problema i rješenja, ne izbjegavajući zadatak da nam objasni i kontekst prostora i koncept našeg stava.

If the desired project explanation ‘is lost in translation’, the drawing will bring us back to the core of the problem and solution, without avoiding to explain to us both the context of space and the context of our position.

By definition the architectural drawing, regardless of its degree of autonomy from any real or possible space, can never completely escape a reference to external conditions. — Edward Wendt

Sl. 7. Starigrad Paklenica / Fig. 7. Starigrad Paklenica

Kontekst prostora u kojem se zbiva naše rješenje je ono što ne smije nikada nedostajati našem crtežu, poput malih podnaslova koji nas vode kroz komplicirane scenarije jednog doživljaja.

The context of space in which dwells our solution is what should never be missing from our drawing, like small captions which guide us through complicated scenarios of an experience.

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Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

I have no need whatsoever to draw my designs. Good architecture, how something is to be built, can be written. One can write the Parthenon. — Adolf Loos

Sl. 8. Osijek / Fig. 8. Osijek

Prevođenje misli u akciju, put od ideje do rješenja put je kojim nas ponovno vodi crtež koristeći različite medije svog izražavanja.

Translation of thoughts into acts, the path from an idea to the solution is the path on which are again taken by the drawing, using different media of its expression.

The drawing is a substitute, partial record of the absent, desired thing. This story of origins is consistent with classical theories of mimesis, but is problematic from the point of view of architecture. In architecture, the object does not proceed [sic] its representation in drawing. Rather, the built reality is both imagined and constructed from accumulated partial representations. — Stan Allen, 1998

Sl. 9. Osijek / Fig. 9. Osijek

Zaključak svakog našeg rada je da bez pogleda unatrag ne možemo ići naprijed, zato nam treba niz prikaza koji nas čvrsto vode od problema do rješenja.

The conclusion of each of our works is that without looking backwards we cannot go forward; therefore, we need a series of representations which will firmly guide us from a problem to the solution.

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Crtež

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Autori

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Luka Korlaet

O crtežu u arhitekturi

Problem crteža u arhitekturi možemo sagledavati iz različitih aspekata: crtež je moćno sredstvo analize arhitektonskog djela, on je neprijeporni projektantski alat i može biti ilustrativni prezentacijski medij.

Prilozi razumijevanju uloge crteža u arhitekturi: Peter Cook, Michiel Riedijk, Luca Molinari, Emma Dexter, Juhani Pallasmaa / Works contributing to the understanding of the role of architectural drawing: Peter Cook, Michiel Riedijk, Luca Molinari, Emma Dexter, Juhani Pallasmaa

Brojni autori pisali su o arhitektonskom crtežu. Čuveni arhitekt Peter Cook u knjizi Drawing – Motive Force of Architecture (2008.) zaokupljen je kreativnim i inventivnim značenjem crteža u arhitekturi, predstavljajući rad ključnih figura suvremene arhitektonske scene koji su svojim crtežima utjecali na arhitektonsku misao. Autor ekstenzivno obrađuje razvoj crtačke ikonografije, tehnika i metoda, od viktorijanskog romanticizma, preko heroizma moderne, ‘minimalizma’ i dijagramizacije arhitektonskog prikaza, do načina prezentacije kretanja. Jedan od najvažnijih suvremenih nizozemskih arhitekata, Michiel Riedijk, u svojoj knjizi De Tekening / The Drawing (2008.), brojnim primjerima iz povijesti arhitekture nastoji ukazati na neraskidivu vezu crteža i kvalitete/slojevitosti arhitektonskog djela. U jednom od recentnih izdanja (956/2012.) uglednog strukovnog časopisa Domus, u članku indikativno naslovljenom Drawing is Dead. Long Live Drawing! Luca Molinari raspravlja o ulozi crteža u procesu projektiranja. U knjizi Vitamin D – New Perspectives in Drawing (2005.) problemskom zborniku crteža stotinu suvremenih umjetnika, Emma Dexter osvrće se na recentni razvoj i ulogu crteža u umjetnosti, definirajući trendove i metode koje prezentirani umjetnici koriste. U svojoj poetičnoj knjizi The Thinking Hand (2009.), kroz niz primjera iz raznih područja/disciplina cijenjeni finski arhitekt Juhani Pallasmaa opisuje vezu ruke i uma. Sve spomenute knjige pledoajei su nezamjenjivosti crteža i ruke kao projektantskog/ kreativnog medija/alata. S proliferacijom upotrebe računala uloga crtanja i crteža se relativizira, no ovaj broj časopisa Facta Architectonica nastoji ga rehabilitirati. Autori su zamoljeni da prilože crtež koji će pojasniti projektantski proces ili, pak, podcrtati prostorno-oblikovnu zamisao.

168

Crtež

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

On architectural drawing The issue of drawing in architecture may be considered from different perspectives: the drawing is a powerful means of analysis of an architectural work, it is an undisputable design tool, and it can be an illustrative presentation medium. Numerous authors have written about architectural drawing. Famous architect Peter Cook – in his book Drawing – Motive Force of Architecture (2008) – is preoccupied with the creative and inventive meaning of architectural drawing, and presents the work of key figures of contemporary architectural scene whose drawings exerted influence on architectural thought. The author elaborates extensively on the development of the drawing iconography, techniques and methods, starting with Victorian romanticism, through heroism of Modern Art period, ‘minimalism’ and diagramization of architectural presentation, to the ways of capturing movement. One of the most important contemporary Dutch architects, Michiel Riedijk, in his book De Tekening / The Drawing (2008), used numerous examples from the history of architecture in his endeavour to demonstrate a permanent relationship between drawing and the multi-layered nature/quality of a work of architecture. One of the recent issues (956/2012) of notable architecture and design magazine Domus carried an article by Luca Molinari under a telling title: Drawing is Dead. Long Live Drawing! in which he discusses the role of drawing in the design process. In her book Vitamin D – New Perspectives in Drawing (2005) – a survey of drawing featuring over 100 contemporary artists, Emma Dexter reflects on the recent developments and the role of drawing in art, defining the trends and methods used by the presented artists. Distinguished Finnish architect Juhani Pallasmaa, in his poetic book The Thinking Hand (2009), describes the connection between the hand and mind through a series of examples from various areas/disciplines. All mentioned books are a plaidoyer for the irreplaceability of drawing and the hand as a design/creative medium/tool. Due to the proliferation of computers, the role of drawing is being relativized; however, this issue of the Facta Architectonica magazine will endeavour to rehabilitate it. The authors have been asked to contribute a drawing which will elucidate design process, or underscore a spatial design concept.

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Crtež kao sredstvo analize arhitektonskog djela

Drawing as a means of analysis of a work of architecture

‘Crtati, povlačiti linije, organizirati volumene, pročelja... sve ovo podrazumijeva prethodno gledati, pa vidjeti, pa eventualno otkriti nešto... i tek tada može doći inspiracija.’ Le Corbusier: Moj rad

Le Corbusier: skice iz Putovanja na istok, 1911. / Le Corbusier: sketches from Journey to the East, 1911

Kako bi podcrtali tezu o crtežu-krokiju kao osnovnom sredstvu arhitektonske analize, višestruko moćnijem od profanirane fotografije, dovoljno je osvrnuti se na Le Corbusierove skice i bilješke s poznatog Putovanja na istok iz 1911. godine na kojem je znameniti arhitekt skicirao brojne ambijente od kojih je neke – kreativno izmijenjene – transponirao i u vlastiti opus (poput igre svjetla i sjene na atenskoj akropoli ili principa prostorne organizacije toskanske kartuzije u Emi koji će utjecati na poznati projekt La Tourette).

Fotografsko bilježenje površno je i trenutno, a mnogi vidovi arhitekture na taj način bivaju izostavljeni. Nasuprot tome, skiciranjem bolje opažamo proporcije i detalje; crtežom je moguće zabilježiti i ono nevidljivo, i sintetizirati sliku koja nastaje kretanjem kroz prostor. Crtež, nadalje, može biti derivat opaženog, tj. može se svesti na dijagram/shemu. Važnost crteža kao sredstva analize arhitektonskog djela već je godinama prepoznat i u nastavi na Arhitektonskom fakultetu. Kolegiji Crtanje, Povijesni oblici i Hrvatski prostor i arhitektura / Terenska nastava, potiču studente na istraživanje kroz crtež.

‘To draw oneself, trace the lines, handle the volumes, organize the surface… all this means first to look and then to observe and finally perhaps to discover… and it is then that the inspiration may come.’ Le Corbusier: Creation is a Patient Search, 1960 In order to emphasise the proposition about a drawing-croquis as a basic means of architectural analysis, much more powerful than a profaned photograph, it may suffice to bring to mind Le Corbusier’s sketches and notes from the widely known Journey to the East from 1911, when the famous architect drew sketches of numerous environments, some of which he had transposed – creatively altered – into his own opus (for example, a play of light and shadows on the Acropolis of Athens or the principle of spatial organisation of the Charterhouse of Ema in Florence which has influenced his wellknown La Tourette project). Photographic recording of images is superficial and momentary, and results in many aspects of architecture being left out. By contrast, when making a sketch, one observes proportions and details more clearly; a drawing may record even what is invisible, and synthetize the image which is created by moving through space. Moreover, a drawing can be a derivative of the observed, i.e. it can be reduced to a diagram/scheme. The importance of drawing as a means of analysis of a work of architecture has been long recognised in the teaching approach at the Faculty of Architecture. The courses – Drawing, Historical Forms and Croatian Space and Architecture / Field Courses – encourage students to explore through drawing.

Crtež kao projektantski alat Studentske bilješke s terenske nastave Hrvatski prostor i arhitektura – sjeverozapadna Hrvatska, 2013. / Student notes taken during the field course – Croatian Space and Architecture – north-western Croatia, 2013

Rem Koolhaas / OMA: konceptualne skice za Nizozemsku ambasadu u Berlinu, kompleks Euralille i biblioteku Jussieu / Rem Koolhaas / OMA: conceptual sketches for the Dutch Embassy in Berlin, the Euralille complex and the Library at Jussieu

169

Drawing as a design tool

‘Odjednom se našao u ostakljenom uredu, buljeći u prazan list papira – sam. Nešto mu se – hladno i prazno – skotrljalo niz grlo... Nadvio se nad stol, zatvorenih očiju. Nikada prije nije mu bilo potpuno jasno da se upravo ovo očekivalo od njega – da ispuni list papira, da stvori nešto na listu papira.’ Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead Crtež je nezamjenjiv projektantski alat. Kompleksni i sugestivni prostori ne mogu nastati korištenjem računala od samog početka procesa projektiranja. Kao što kaže arhitekt Hrvoje Njirić: ‘Danas mladi arhitekti prebrzo sjedaju za kompjutor. Čini mi se da bi trebalo koristiti više analognih medija u procesuiranju ideja. Razmišljam često o spoju ruke i misli… Ruka je direktan produžetak mentalnog. Protok misli prema potezu rukom je direktan. Treba svakako demistificirati predodžbu o arhitektu koji crta rukom kao nostalgičnu.’ Svjedočimo trendu dijagramizacije crteža, svođenja na bitno, nastojanja da se sublimira bitak projekta, da bi se pospješilo njegovo razumijevanje. Ovakav je pristup čest kako u

Crtež

‘Then he found himself suddenly in his glass-enclosed office, looking down at a blank sheet of paper--alone. Something rolled in his throat (…) He leaned against the table, closing his eyes. It had never been quite real to him before that this was the thing actually expected of him – to fill a sheet of paper, to create something on a sheet of paper.’ (Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead) A drawing is an irreplaceable design tool. Complex and suggestive spaces cannot be created using a computer from the very start of design process. In this context, architect Hrvoje Njirić said: ‘These days young architects start sitting in front of a computer too soon. It seems to me that more analogue media should be used in processing the ideas. I often think about a connection between the hand and the thought… The hand is a direct extension of the mental. The flow of thoughts towards a line made the hand is direct. The idea of an architect drawing by hand – perceived as a nostalgic one – should certainly be demystified.’ We bear witness to the trend of diagramization of drawing, the reduction to essentials, an

Drawing


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

procesu projektiranja, tako i u prezentacijskoj/komunikacijskoj fazi.

endeavour to sublimate the being of the project in order to enhance its understanding. This kind of approach is frequent both in the design process and during the presentation/communication stage.

Kako crtež kao alat pridonosi procesu razvoja ideje? Arhitekt Goran Rako poznat je po minuciozno iscrtanim notesima s bezbrojnim varijacijama teme: ‘Skica mi je sve. Kad je gotova skica, gotova je i kuća. U toj skici već vidim cijeli projekt… Nekad tražim skicu mjesecima, a nekad je nažalost i ne nađem… A vrijeme dok tražim skicu, odnosno koncept, traje nekad neizmjerno dugo, a nekad 15 minuta.’

Goran Rako: skice za Kongresni centar u Nari i Europan Den Bosch, te trgovački centar u Tkalčićevoj ulici / Goran Rako: sketches for the Congress Centre in Nara, Europan Den Bosch, and a shopping mall in Tkalčićeva str., Zagreb

Može li crtež u procesu razvoja ideje biti pokazatelj neistraženih potencijala? Može li neka ‘pogreška’ otvoriti nove horizonte? Svakako. Drugim riječima – da parafraziramo dizajnera Tibora Kalmana – pogreške, nesporazumi i devijacije proizvode svježa značenja. Crtež kao uređaj za propitkivanje mogućnosti.

Crtež kao prezentacijski medij Kada govorimo o crtežu, posebno mjesto zauzima konceptualizacija prostornog prikaza. Uspjeli prostorni prikaz uvijek je u funkciji ilustracije prostorno-oblikovnog koncepta. Kroz niz primjera, od povijesnih preko suvremenih do studentskih, možemo se uvjeriti kako izbor kadra, vizure, načina prikaza (rastavljena aksonometrija, perspektivni presjek, presjek s više očišta) značajno utječe na razumijevanje i recepciju arhitektonskog djela.

K. F. Schinkel: Altes Museum, Berlin; S. Holl: Memorijalna knjižnica, Berlin; B. Tschumi: park La Villette; Querkraft: kuća DRA / K. F. Schinkel: Altes Museum, Berlin; S. Holl: Memorial Library, Berlin; B. Tschumi: La Villette Park; Querkraft: DRA family house

Crtež ima vlastiti život; on je samostalno djelo. Uvijek je ideološki obojen i kao takav ostavlja trag na generacije koje ga gledaju i iz njega uče.

Crtež u nastavi Arhitektonskog fakulteta u Zagrebu Od samog osnutka Tehničke visoke škole 1919. crtežu se pridaje adekvatna pažnja. Doajen hrvatske protomoderne, Viktor Kovačić, držao je tako kolegij Perspektivno risanje kojim je nastojao sintetizirati crtački opažaj (crtanje po gledanju/ modelu) i metode deskriptivne geometrije (prije svega konstrukciju perspektivne slike). Nakon Drugoga svjetskog rada oformio se Kabinet za prostoručno i tehničko crtanje, čiji je pročelnik bio vrsni projektant i crtački virtuoz Mladen Kauzlarić. Za crtačko širenje vidika zaslužni su i akademski slikari Kamilo Tompa te napose akademik Josip Vaništa, čiji je rad trajno obilježio Kabinet za crtanje i plastično oblikovanje (kako se danas službeno zove).

How does a drawing – as a tool – contribute to the process of idea development? Architect Goran Rako is known for his notebooks filled with meticulously detailed drawings, with countless variations of a topic: ‘A sketch means everything to me. When the sketch is done, the house is done, too. In that sketch I see the entire project… Sometimes I search for the sketch for months, at other times, unfortunately, I cannot find it… And when I am looking for the sketch, i.e. concept, sometimes it seems to be taking an infinitely long time, and sometimes it takes 15 minutes.’

Can a drawing be an indicator of unexplored potentials in the process of idea elaboration? Can, perhaps, a ‘mistake’ open new horizons? It can, indeed. In other words – to paraphrase designer Tibor Kalman – mistakes, misunderstandings and deviations produce fresh meanings. A drawing thus can be seen as a device for examining possibilities.

Drawing as a presentation medium When speaking about a drawing, the conceptualization of spatial presentation has a special importance. A successful spatial presentation always has a purpose of illustrating spatial design concept. One can see for himself – through a series of historical, contemporary and student examples – that a choice of frame, view, the manner of presentation (exploded axonometric, section perspective, multiviewpoint section) has considerable impact on the understanding and reception of a work of architecture. A drawing has its own life; it is an independent work. It is always ideologically coloured and leaves its mark on the generations watching it and learning from it.

Drawing in the teaching programme of the Zagreb Faculty of Architecture

V. Kovačić: skica interijera crkve sv. Blaža; M. Kauzlarić: interijer; J. Vaništa: Stara Vlaška / Katedrala / V. Kovačić: sketch of the interior of the Church of St. Blaise; M. Kauzlarić: the interior; J. Vaništa: Stara Vlaška str. / Cathedral

Dugogodišnji nastavnik Kabineta prof. Ivan Juras posvetio je temi crteža rado čitanu disertaciju (Primjena i razvoj crteža u procesu arhitektonskog projektiranja, 1990.). Profesori Ante Vulin i Renata Waldgoni, kao i najmlađa garnitura nastavnika

Drawing has been paid adequate attention ever since the High Technical School was founded in 1919. The doyen of the Croatian proto-modernist era Viktor Kovačić taught the course Perspective drawing, in which he endeavoured to synthesize perceptual drawing (drawing from observation/ model) and the method of descriptive geometry (primarily the construction of perspective images). After the World War II, the Section of Hand Drawing and Technical Drawing was founded. It was chaired by was an excellent designer and a drawing virtuoso Mladen Kauzlarić. Credit for expanding the drawing horizons should also be given to academy-trained painters Kamilo Tompa, and especially Josip Vaništa whose work has left a permanent mark on the Section of Drawing and Visual Design (the official name of the Section today).

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Kabineta (predvođena doc. Sinišom Justićem) kroz edukaciju, ali i kroz praksu, dokazuju tezu o nezamjenjivosti crteža u procesu analize, stvaranja i prezentacije arhitektonskog djela. Njihov cilj – kako je navedeno u silabusu kolegija Crtanje – jest ‘razvoj sustava mišljenja, te vizualne inteligencije i grafičke kulture’.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Long-time member of the Section, Prof. Ivan Juras, dedicated his widely read dissertation to the topic of drawing (Primjena i razvoj crteža u procesu arhitektonskog projektiranja /Application and evolution of drawing in the process of architectural design, 1990). Professors Ante Vulin and Renata Waldgoni, and the youngest group of the Section’s teaching staff (led by assistant professor Siniša Justić) are proving – through education and practice equally – the thesis of irreplaceability of drawing in the process of analysis, creation and presentation of an architectural work. Their aim – as stated in the syllabus of the course Drawing – is to ‘develop thinking skills, visual intelligence and graphic culture’.

A. Vulin: Motovun; I. Juras: Šibenik / A. Vulin: Motovun; I. Juras: Šibenik

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students

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Osnovna škola između standarda i poetike ambijenta

Primary School Between the Standard and Poetics of the Environment

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Dragčević, Katarina Mikić, Vesna

Arhitektonsko-urbanistička intervencija u postindustrijskom krajoliku – nova vrijednost industrijskog naselja

Architectural and Urban Planning Intervention in Postindustrial Landscape – New Value of the Industrial Settlement

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Zračna luka Čakovec

Čakovec Airport

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Muža, Nikolina Mikić, Vesna

Informirani krajolici: Mreže i ruralni razvoj

Informed Landscapes: Networks and Rural Development

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Lidija Domjančić

Osnovna škola između standarda i poetike ambijenta

Državni pedagoški standard i alternativni programi Državni pedagoški standard osnovnoškolskog sustava odgoja i obrazovanja donesen je 2008. godine ‘Državnim pedagoškim standardom osnovnoškolskog sustava odgoja i obrazovanja u Republici Hrvatskoj (u daljnjem tekstu: Standard) utvrđuju se minimalni infrastrukturni, financijski i kadrovski uvjeti za ostvarivanje i razvoj djelatnosti i podjednaki uvjeti za ujednačeni razvoj osnovnog školstva na čitavom području Republike Hrvatske. Standard se primjenjuje na sve osnovne škole u Republici Hrvatskoj, osim škola koje rade po alternativnome programu.’ 1

Na području Republike Hrvatske u trenutku pisanja ovoga članka2 po alternativnome programu rade tri osnovne škole: Osnovna Montessori škola Barunice Dédée Vranyczany u Zagrebu, osnovana 2003. građanskom inicijativom od strane Udruge roditelja ‘Maria Montessori’ Zagreb, čija su djeca pohađala Montessori vrtiće, a koji su željeli da djeca nastave osnovnoškolsko obrazovanje po istoj pedagoškoj metodi. Waldorfska škola u Zagrebu, osnovana 2004. od strane Udruge roditelja i učitelja waldorfske škole u Zagrebu kao sljedbenica Osnovne waldorfske škole Sv. Jurja u Zagrebu, osnovane 1993. kao prva osnovna škola u Hrvatskoj koja je radila po alternativnome programu. Osnovna waldorfska škola u Rijeci, osnovana 2000. građanskom inicijativom od strane Društva prijatelja waldorfske pedagogije. Ono što alternativni programi nude jedan je humaniji, a time i suvremeniji pristup obrazovanju. Temelji se na individualnom radu s djetetom, usmjeren je stjecanju šireg znanja koje nije isključivo poznavanje faktografije i opće kulture, već je

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Primary School Between the Standard and Poetics of the Environment Croatian National Educational Standard and Alternative Schools The Croatian National Educational Standard for Primary Schools was adopted in 2008. ‘The National Educational Standard for Primary School Education in the Republic of Croatia (hereinafter: Standard) determines the minimal infrastructure, financial and human resources requirements for the pursuit and development of primary education, and uniform requirements for standardized development of primary education on the entire territory of the Republic of Croatia. The Standard shall apply to all primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, with the exception of schools with alternative programs.’ 1 At the time when this article is being written,2 there are three primary schools with alternative programs on the territory of the Republic of Croatia: • Montessori Primary School ‘Barunice Dédée Vranyczany’ in Zagreb, founded in 2003 through civic initiative by the Association of Parents ‘Maria Montessori’ in Zagreb, i.e. the parents whose children attended Montessori kindergarten, and who wished that their children’s primary school education be based on the same educational method. • Waldorf School in Zagreb, founded in 2004, by the Association of Parents and teachers of the Zagreb Waldorf School in Zagreb, as a successor of the ‘Sv. Juraj’ Primary Waldorf School in Zagreb, which was founded in 1993, as the first primary school in Croatia that had an alternative programme. • Primary Waldorf School in Rijeka, founded in 2000, through civic initiative by the Society of Friends of Waldorf Education. What the alternative programs offer is a more humane and contemporary approach to education. They are based on individual work with a child directed towards the acquisition of wider knowledge which is not limited just to the learning of facts and acquisition of general knowledge; rather it is learning to synthesize, think, draw conclusions and make independent judgments. Alternative schools also offer an additional educational dimension through practical application of acquired knowledge; they offer learning through practice and crafts, a kind of learning almost forgotten in the classical method of primary level education3.

1, ‘Temeljne odredbe’, Članak 1. stavka 1 i 2. Državni pedagoški standard osnovnoškolskog sustava odgoja i obrazovanja; državni pedagoški standardi, Republika Hrvatska, Ministarstvo znanosti, obrazovanja i športa, Zagreb, 2008. 2, Svibanj 2012.

1, ‘Basic provisions’, Art. 1, par. 1 and 2. Croatian National Educational Standard for Primary Schools; National Educational Standard, Republic of Croatia, Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, Zagreb, 2008. 2, May 2012 3, The term ‘classical method of primary school education’ means the form of teaching organised in school classes for groups of students which is usual in the school practice of the Republic of Croatia; for this reason and

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znanje sinteze, razmišljanja, donošenja zaključaka i samostalnog prosuđivanja. Alternativni programi nude i dodatnu dimenziju obrazovanju kroz praktičnu primjenu znanja, nude učenje kroz praksu i zanatski rad, a koje je u klasičnoj metodi osnovnoškolske naobrazbe3 gotovo zaboravljeno. ‘Naš cilj je omogućiti svakom djetetu da unaprijedi i razvije svoje prirodne kapacitete u najvećoj mogućoj mjeri, pri čemu se posebna pažnja pridaje razvoju unutarnje motivacije te poštivanju rada drugih. Nastojimo pružiti djeci pozitivno i inspirativno obrazovno iskustvo, prilagođeno djetetu i njegovim potrebama, dobi i razvojnim mogućnostima. Pristupamo djetetu kao cjelovitom biću koje osim intelektualnih, ima i emocionalne, tjelesne, socijalne i duhovno-duševne potrebe. Kurikulum, program i nastava usmjereni su prema ispunjenju tih potreba. Roditelji su aktivno uključeni u sve aspekte školskog života.’4 Ako alternativni programi zaista nude šire obrazovanje, bolje od klasičnog, postavlja se pitanje zašto tu alternativu u Hrvatskoj čine svega tri osnovne škole? Situacija se jasnije definira uz statističke podatke: Waldorfska škola u Zagrebu, šk. god. 2010./2011. broji 93 učenika5 dok npr. Osnovna škola Brestje u Sesvetama koja radi po klasičnom programu osnovnoškolskog obrazovanja, šk. god. 2011./2012. broji 1043 učenika.6 Kada se pogleda broj učenika obuhvaćenih alternativnim programom osnovnoškolskog obrazovanja i usporedi s brojem učenika koji osnovnoškolsko obrazovanje stječu u klasičnom programu, može se zaključiti da prava alternativa klasičnoj pedagoškoj metodi u Hrvatskoj ne postoji. Istovremeno: ‘U Norveškoj danas radi 36 osnovnih i srednjih waldorfskih škola. U velikoj većini tih škola učenici dobivaju jedino opisne ocjene. Unatoč tome, svakome tko uloži trud, slobodan je put do visokog obrazovanja. Za upis na fakultete dobivaju opisne svjedodžbe u kojima su detaljno izložena njihova znanja i sposobnosti, a pred kraj srednje škole rade i projekt, neku vrstu maturalnog rada, iz predmeta koji ih osobito zanima. Taj projekt mentorski supotpisuju stručnjaci koji nisu vezani uz waldorfske institucije.’7

‘Our objective is to make it possible for any child to advance and develop his/her natural capacities to the highest possible degree; special attention is paid to the development of internal motivation and the respect for the work of others. We endeavour to provide a positive and inspirational education experience, adjusted to children and their needs, age and developmental capacities. We approach a child as an integral being who has, in addition to intellectual needs, emotional, physical, social, mental and spiritual needs, too. The curriculum, program and teaching are directed towards the fulfillment of those needs. Parents are actively involved in all aspects of school life.’ 4 If alternative programs really provide wider education, better than the classical one, the question arises why this alternative approach is implemented by only three schools in Croatia? The situation can be more clearly presented through statistical data: the Waldorf School in Zagreb had, in the school year 2010 – 2011, 93 students,5 whereas, for example, Primary School Brestje in Sesvete, using the standard primary school education curriculum, had, in the school year 2011 – 2012, 1043 students.6 When the number of students attending primary schools with alternative curriculum is compared with the number of students who acquire primary school education through the classical curriculum, the conclusion to be drawn is that a genuine alternative to the classical educational method in Croatia does not exist. At the same time,’(I)n Norway, there are presently 36 primary and secondary Waldorf schools. In most of those schools, the students are given just descriptive grades. In spite of that, whoever invests some effort has a free path to a higher education. To be able to enrol at universities, students are given descriptive school reports which present in detail their knowledge and abilities; towards the end of the secondary school they work on a project, a kind of a baccalaureate thesis, related to the subject they are particularly interested in. This project is co-signed by mentors who are not related to Waldorf institutions.’ 7

3, Pod ‘klasična metoda osnovnoškolske naobrazbe’ podrazumijeva se oblik nastave organizirane prema školskim satima i razrednim odjelima koji je uobičajen u školskoj praksi Republike Hrvatske, iz kojeg se razloga a za potrebe ovog teksta, ta metoda naziva ‘klasičnom’. 4, http://waldorfska-skola.com 5, http://drumtidam.info/200911022079/Waldorfska-pedagogija-Razgovor-saLadom-Pekotom-Senjug-ravnateljicom-Waldorfske-skole-u-Zagrebu-2079. html – Waldorfska pedagogija – razgovor s Ladom Pekotom Šenjug, ravnateljicom Waldorfske škole u Zagrebu, razgovarao: Nenad Kobasić, razgovor izvorno objavljen u časopisu Svjetlost. 6, Školski kurikulum osnovne škole Brestje za školsku godinu 2011./2012., Školski odbor Osnovne škole Brestje Sesvete, Sesvete, 13. rujna 2011. 7, http://drumtidam.info/200911032090/Waldorfska-pedagogija-intervju-sDavid-Brierleyem-2090.html – Waldorfska pedagogija – intervju s David Brierleyem, autor: Karmela Devčić, izvor: www.jutarnji.hr

for the purpose of this paper, this method is called ‘classical’. 4, http://waldorfska-skola.com 5, http://drumtidam.info/200911022079/ Waldorfska-pedagogija-Razgovor-sa-LadomPekotom-Senjug-ravnateljicom-Waldorfskeskole-u-Zagrebu-2079. html – Waldorf education – interview with Lada Pekota Šenjug, Headmistress of the Waldorf School in Zagreb, interview conducted by: Nenad Kobasić; interview was originally published in the magazine ‘Svjetlost’ 6, School curriculum of the Primary School Brestje for the school year 2011 – 2012, School Board of the Primary School Brestje Sesvete, Sesvete, 13 September 2011. 7, http://drumtidam.info/200911032090/ Waldorfska-pedagogija-intervju-s-DavidBrierleyem-2090.html – Waldorf education – interview with David Brierley; author: Karmela Devčić; source: www.jutarnji.hr

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Zašto je situacija takva? Zašto u Hrvatskoj svega tri škole, od kojih samo jedna izvan Zagreba, nude mogućnost obra-

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

zovanja po alternativnome programu? Pritom je u nekim europskim zemljama ta brojka čak 12 puta veća, a naveden je primjer Norveške koja je brojem stanovnika približno jednake veličine kao Hrvatska. Zašto je, nadalje, sudeći prema broju djece uključene u alternativne programe, zanimanje roditelja za takvu vrst obrazovanja njihove djece u Hrvatskoj još uvijek mala?

Why do we have such a situation? Why there are only three schools in Croatia, one of which is located outside Zagreb, that offer a possibility of education based on an alternative program? It should be noted that in some European countries, the number of such schools is as much as 12 times higher; the example of Norway is mentioned because in terms of population, Norway is approximately of the same size as Croatia. Furthermore, judging by the number of children included in alternative programs, why is the parents’ interest in such an education in Croatia still low?

Neravnopravan položaj alternativnih programa i na kraju samih alternativnih škola u prvome redu proizlazi iz nedefinirane zakonske regulative i minimalne ili čak nepostojeće financijske potpore države uslijed čega su takve škole prisiljene same se financirati tj. financijsku potporu tražiti od svojih korisnika – roditelja djece koja školu pohađaju. Postojanje školarine automatski smanjuje krug potencijalnih korisnika te istovremeno u društvu naviknutom na besplatno školovanje na svim razinama, takvim školama daje prizvuk elitističkih škola namijenjenih uskom krugu stanovništva visokog socijalno-ekonomskog statusa. Situaciju dodatno pogoršava činjenica da mogućnost obrazovanja po alternativnome programu u Hrvatskoj trenutno postoji isključivo na predškolskoj i osnovnoškolskoj razini što znači da su djeca u određenom trenutku primorana prijeći iz jednog sustava u drugi. Pritom se mnogi od njih susreću s problemima prilagodbe na klasičnu pedagošku metodu koja je u velikoj mjeri nefleksibilna i nedovoljno orijentirana na individualne potrebe učenika. Bez dubljeg ulaženja u problematiku (alternativnog) školstva u Hrvatskoj, nameće se zaključak: alternativne pedagoške metode u Hrvatskoj još uvijek ne pružaju alternativu u pravom smislu riječi, što upućuje na klasičnu pedagošku metodu kao jedinu realnu opciju školovanja djece u Hrvatskoj te na nju vezani Državni pedagoški standard. ‘Mreža osnovnih škola na područjima županija obuhvaća ustanove koje obavljaju osnovnoškolsku djelatnost, sa svim objektima matičnih i područnih škola kao i izmještenim objektima, u kojima se provodi obvezno osnovno školovanje, uz određivanje pripadajućeg upisnog područja s kojega je djeci omogućeno pohađanje osnovne škole. Mreža osnovnih škola ustrojava se na način da zadovoljava iskazane potrebe utvrđene sustavnim praćenjem i predviđanjem demografskih, gospodarskih i urbanističkih kretanja na području županije, udovoljava zahtjevima dostupnosti i racionalnog ustroja upisnih područja te ispunjava uvjete i mjerila propisana ovim Standardom. Pod dostupnosti se podrazumijeva da je mrežom osnovnih škola, svakome osnovnoškolskom obvezniku dana mogućnost redovitoga osnovnog školovanja u osnovnoj školi, ili drugoj ovlaštenoj ustanovi, ili objektu škole uz primjerenu udaljenost od mjesta stanovanja i prometnu povezanost koja ne ugrožava sigurnost učenika. Racionalnim ustrojem upisnih područja podrazumijeva se takav ustroj upisnih područja koji omogućuje optimalno zadovoljavanje potreba učenika vodeći računa o postojećim školskim kapacitetima.’8 8, vidi 1, II. Mjerila za ustroj mreža škola na područjima županija, Članak 3.

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An unequal position of alternative programs and alternative schools primarily results from non-defined legal regulations and minimal or even non-existent financial support by the state due to which such schools have to resort to selffinancing, i.e. seeking financial support from its users – parents of the children attending the schools. The existence of a school fee automatically reduces a circle of potential students, and, at the same time, in a society used to free education on all levels, gives those schools an elitist ring, and creates a prejudice that they are meant just for a narrow circle of people of high socio-economic standing. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that the possibility of education based on an alternative program in Croatia currently exists exclusively on pre-school and primary education levels, which means that at a certain stage children are compelled to move from one system to another. In doing so, many of them face the problems of adjustment to the classical educational method which is highly inflexible and insufficiently oriented to individual student needs. Even without a deeper insight into the (alternative) educational problems in Croatia, one comes to a conclusion that alternative educational methods in Croatia still do not provide a genuine alternative, which results in the fact that the classical educational method (and the National Educational Standard related to this method) is the only realistic educational option for children in Croatia. ‘The primary school network in the counties comprises institutions which provide primary school education, with all the buildings of central and branch schools and dislocated schools, where compulsory primary education is implemented; an enrolment area is also determined wherefrom the children can attend primary schools. The primary school network is organised in such a way to meet expressed needs determined through systematic monitoring and forecasting of demographic, economic and urbanistic trends on the county territory; to meet requirements of accessibility and rational organisation of enrolment areas; and to meet requirements and criteria prescribed by this Standard. The accessibility implies that the primary school network provides any child with a possibility to receive regular primary education in a primary school or other authorized institution, or a school facility – at an appropriate distance from the place of residence and with transportation connections which do not jeopardize students’ safety. Rational organisation of the enrolment areas means that the enrolment areas are organised in such a manner to enable optimal fulfilment of stu-

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Ono što je, dakle, još uvijek osnovni cilj odnosno razlog planiranja novih školskih zgrada u Hrvatskoj jest stvaranje mreže osnovnih škola kojom će se u potpunosti ‘pokriti’ područja županija i koja će svakome djetetu osnovnoškolskog uzrasta omogućiti redovito osnovno školovanje uz uvjet primjerene udaljenosti škole od mjesta stanovanja djeteta, kako je navedeno u Standardu i, jednako bitno, uz uvjet da se školovanje provodi u prostoru primjerenom za održavanje nastave i svih popratnih aktivnosti.

dents’ needs, while taking into account the existing school capacities.’8

‘Osnovne škole grade se i opremaju prema ovome Standardu, normativima za izgradnju i opremanje prostora osnovnih škola te svim zakonima, pravilnicima i tehničkim propisima u građenju i drugim područjima važnima za rad i boravak u školskom prostoru. Školska zgrada treba osigurati funkcionalnu organizaciju prostora primjerenu suvremenim oblicima nastave, zadovoljiti sve higijensko-tehničke zahtjeve i osnovna ekološka i estetska mjerila. Normative za izgradnju i opremanje prostora osnovnih škola u skladu s ovim Standardom donosi ministarstvo nadležno za obrazovanje.’ 9 Nove školske zgrade planiraju se i kao dopuna postojećoj preopterećenoj mreži osnovnih škola u područjima veće gustoće stanovništva. Problem preopterećenosti postojećih škola posebno je izražen u većim gradovima, ponajviše u rubnim zonama gradova u kojima su u proteklih desetak godina izgrađeni nizovi stambenih naselja ili dijelova naselja. Postojeća naselja proširena su višestambenom izgradnjom, a u kojima izgradnja javnih objekata, među njima i osnovnih škola, ponajviše iz financijskih razloga, nije u dovoljnoj mjeri pratila stambenu izgradnju. U takvim su gradskim zonama postojeće škole primorane prihvatiti novonaseljenu djecu te se nerijetko događaju situacije u kojima se nastava odvija u dvije ili čak tri smjene u neadekvatno opremljenim i površinom premalim prostorima. Povećani broj učenika u odnosu na prostorne kapacitete škola povlači za sobom brojne probleme koji se odražavaju na način funkcioniranja školstva u Hrvatskoj i zapravo ga u velikoj mjeri određuju. Tako u razredima često ima 30 i više učenika što stvara radnu atmosferu u kojoj se učitelj ne može dovoljno posvetiti svakome pojedinom djetetu, a to nije slučaj u školama koje rade po alternativnom programu. Osim toga, škole koje nastavu održavaju u tri smjene zbog prevelikog broja učenika i rasporeda u potpunosti ispunjenog klasičnom razrednom nastavom nisu u mogućnosti učenicima osigurati dovoljno raznovrsne dodatne aktivnosti koje su, ili bi barem trebale biti, sastavni dio obrazovanja djeteta, a koje međutim alternativni programi pružaju. Ono što je ipak pozitivno jest da je problem preopterećenosti sustava prepoznat te da je novi pedagoški standard makar u tom smjeru unio određene promjene. stavka 1, 3, 4 i 8. 9, vidi (1), IX. Mjerila za prostor i opremu u osnovnoj školi, Članak 21. stavka 1, 3 i 6.

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Thus, what remains a basic objective, i.e. the reason for planning new school buildings in Croatia is the creation of the primary school network which will fully cover the county areas and which will provide every child of primary school age with regular primary education, under condition that the school is at an appropriate distance from the child’s place of residence, as stated in the Standard, and, equally important, under condition that education is carried out in a space appropriate for teaching and all supporting activities. ‘Primary schools are built and equipped according to this Standard, the standards for the construction of primary school premises and their equipping, and any building and other laws, rules and technical regulations related to school operation and staying on the school premises. The school building has to provide functional spatial organisation appropriate to contemporary teaching forms, meet all hygienic and technical requirements and basic ecological and aesthetic standards. Standards and norms for the construction and equipping of primary school buildings shall be adopted, in accordance with this Standard, by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports.’ 9 New school buildings are being planned with the aim to supplement the existing overcrowded network of primary schools in the areas of high population density. The problem of overcrowded existing schools is evident especially in larger towns, mostly in the suburban areas of towns where numerous residential settlements or parts of settlements were built over the past dozen years. The existing settlements were expanded by the construction of a number of buildings, where the construction of public buildings, including primary schools – mostly for financial reasons – failed to accompany the residential construction to a sufficient degree. In those town districts, existing schools have to accept the newly-settled children and, not infrequently, the classes in some schools are held in two or even three shifts in non-adequately equipped and too small spaces. An increased number of students – in relation to capacity of schools in terms of space – entails a number of problems which affect the functioning of the education system in Croatia and, in fact, largely determine it. Thus, there are often 30 or more students in a class, which creates a work atmosphere in which the teacher cannot devote sufficient attention to every child; however, this is not the case schools with alternative programs. In addition, schools where classes are held in three shifts due to a too large number of students and the schedule fully based on class teaching are not able to provide students with sufficient various additional activities which are, or should be, an integral part of the children’s education; however, alternative programs do provide those activities. On the 8, See 1, II. Criteria for the establishment of a school network on the territory of counties, Art. 3, par. 1, 3, 4 and 8 9, See (1), IX. Space and equipment criteria for primary schools, Art. 21, par. 1, 3 and 6.

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students


facta architectonica 2

sl. 1. Osnovna škola Delec, prostorni prikaz, pogled s jugozapada / Fig. 1. Primary school Delec, spatial representation, view from the south western side

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

‘Osnovni standard školskog prostora u pravilu treba osigurati rad škole u jednoj smjeni do stvaranja potrebnih uvjeta, a iznimno u dvije smjene. Optimalna škola koja radi u jednoj smjeni prema ovome je Standardu osnovna škola od 16 do 20 razrednih odjela s podjednakim brojem razrednih odjela svakog razreda. Škola u kojoj se odgojno-obrazovni rad ostvaruje u dvije smjene može imati najviše 32 razredna odjela. Optimalan je broj učenika u razrednom odjelu 20, a najmanji 14, najviši 28 učenika.’ 10

other hand, what is positive is that the problem of overcrowding has been acknowledged, and the new educational standard has brought about – at least in this respect – certain changes.

Pitanje koje se nameće o pedagoškom standardu jest: može li arhitektura na svojstven način intervenirati u jednom strogom, nefleksibilnom pedagoškom sustavu i može li ‘radeći iznutra’, krećući od samog sustava, taj sustav poboljšati?

Između standarda i poetike ambijenta Herman Hertzberger u ‘Lessons for Students in Architecture’ (‘Predavanjima za studente arhitekture’) kaže: ‘Pitanje o tome ima li arhitektura društvenu funkciju potpuno je irelevantno jer društveno indiferentna rješenja jednostavno ne postoje. Drugim riječima, svaka intervencija u ljudski okoliš, bez obzira na arhitektove konkretne ciljeve, ima društvenu implikaciju. Stoga, mi, zapravo, nemamo slobodu da krenemo i projektiramo baš ono što nam je volja – sve što činimo ima posljedice za ljude i njihove odnose.’ 11 Upravo se ovdje krije odgovor na pitanje postavljeno u uvodu: može li arhitektura intervenirati u jednom takvom strogom pedagoškom sustavu? Arhitektura ne može ne intervenirati, jer ono što je njoj svojstveno jest da upravo preispituje sustav od kojega kreće i da traži rješenja koja će biti s njim u skladu, ali će ga istovremeno mijenjati, nadajući se nabolje. Pitanje, dakle, nije može li ona intervenirati nego kako će to učiniti. U nastavku teksta stoji: ‘Ono što arhitekt može učiniti nije mnogo, te je stoga još važnije potruditi se da one prilike koje postoje ne budu propuštene. Mislite li da svojim radom svijet ne možete učiniti boljim, potrudite se barem da ga ne učinite gorim. Umjetnost arhitekture nije samo stvaranje lijepih stvari – niti je samo stvaranje korisnih stvari, već je stvaranje i jednih i drugih istovremeno – poput krojača koji izrađuje odjeću koja i dobro izgleda i dobro pristaje. I ako je to ikako moguće, odjeću koju mogu nositi svi, a ne samo Car. Sve što projektiramo mora odgovarati svakoj situaciji koja se može pojaviti, drugim riječima, arhitektura mora ne samo zadovoljavati već i stimulirati – i upravo tu fundamentalnu i aktivnu adekvatnost želio bih nazvati ‘formom koja privlači’: formom s više simpatije prema ljudima.’ 12

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‘The basic standard in terms of school space, as a rule, means that classes should be held in one shift until necessary conditions have been created, or exceptionally in two shifts. An optimal school with classes held in one shift, according to this Standard, is a primary school with 16 to 20 classes, with an even number of classes for each grade. The schools where the classes are held in two shifts can have 32 classes at the most. The optimal number of students in a class is 20, the lowest number is 14, and the highest is 28 students.’ 10 The question that arises with regard to the educational standard is the following: can architecture intervene in a strict, inflexible educational system, and, operating ‘from inside’ the system, can it improve this system starting from the system itself?

Between the standards and poetics of the environment Herman Hertzberger says in ‘Lessons for Students in Architecture’: ‘The question whether architecture has a social function is totally irrelevant, because socially indifferent solutions simply do not exist; in other words, every intervention in people’s surroundings, regardless of the architect’s specific aims, has a social implication. So we are not in fact free to go ahead and design exactly what we please – everything we do has consequences for people and their relationships.’ 11 This is where the response is to the question raised in the introduction: can architecture intervene in such a strict educational system? Architecture cannot fail to intervene, because what is inherent to architecture is to question the system which is its starting point and to seek solutions which will be in harmony with it, but will, at the same time, change it, hopefully for the better. Thus, the question is not whether architecture can intervene, but how it will do so. The text further reads: ‘There is not much an architect can do, which makes it all the more important to make sure that few opportunities there are are not missed. If you think you can’t make a world a better place with your work, at least make sure you don’t make it worse. The art of architecture is not only to make beautiful things – nor is it only to make useful things, it is to do both at once – like a tailor who makes clothes that both look good and fit well. And, if at all possible, clothes that everyone can wear, not just the Emperor. Everything we design must be adequate for every situation that arises, in other words, it must not only be accommodating but also stimulating – and it is

10, vidi 1; IX. Mjerila za prostor i opremu u osnovnoj školi, Članak 21. stavka 2; IV. Mjerila za broj razrednih odjela u osnovnoj školi kao samostalnoj ustanovi, Članak 6. stavka 3 i 5; V. Mjerila za broj učenika u razrednome odjelu i odgojno-obrazovnoj skupini, Razredni odjel, Članak 8. stavka 1 11, Hertzberger, Herman: Lessons for Students in Architecture 1 (4. izdanje), Rotterdam, 2001., str. 174. 12, vidi 11

10, See 1; IX. Space and equipment criteria for primary schools, Art. 21, par. 2; IV. Criteria for a number of classes in a primary school as an independent institution, Art. 6, par. 3 and 5; V. Criteria for a number of students in a class and educational group, Class, Art. 8, par. 1 11, Hertzberger, Herman: Lessons for Students in Architecture 1 (4th edition), Rotterdam, 2001, p. 174.

DODATAK: Stručni radovi nastavnika u koautorstvu sa studentom 

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Ono što Hertzberger zove ‘inviting form’, tj. ‘forma koja poziva’, koja privlači i potiče na korištenje, ne treba shvatiti doslovno kao oblik, fizičku supstancu arhitekture, već nešto što bismo mogli nazvati njezinom metafizičkom manifestacijom. Cilj je oblikovati ambijente koji će ne samo zadovoljiti normativima zadane parametre, već će istovremeno poticati korisnike, tj. učenike na inovativno korištenje ambijenta, odnosno na razmišljanje o mogućim načinima upotrebe tako da će i oni sami u određenoj mjeri aktivno sudjelovati u oblikovanju. ‘Ako je nešto vrlo konkretno prilagođeno određenom cilju, to funkcionira na način na koji je programirano da funkcionira, tj. kao što se očekuje da funkcionira. To je vrsta funkcionalnosti o kojoj su funkcionalisti govorili, ali to je također i minimalna korisnost koja se može očekivati od arhitekture. Kako bi se postiglo više od tog minimuma u raznolikim situacijama koje se pojavljuju, zalažem se za formu i prostor s većim potencijalom ‘zadovoljavanja’, poput glazbala koje zvuči onako kako glazbenik želi da zvuči. Radi se o tome da se taj ‘potencijal zadovoljavanja’ poveća i tako prostor učini prijemljivijim za razne situacije.’ 13

this fundamental and active adequacy that I would like to call ‘inviting form’: form with more sympathy for people.’ 12

Način na koji arhitektura može intervenirati u strogom pedagoškom sustavu jest da ona sama bude fleksibilnija i da omogući varijabilno korištenje. To naravno ne znači da će i pedagoški sustav automatski postati fleksibilniji, ali će arhitektura posredno, potičući korisnike na aktivnosti, poticati i sustav na promjenu. Osim PVN-a koji je pedagoškim standardom propisan kao obavezan sadržaj osnovne škole, u Osnovnoj školi Delec povećana je i fleksibilnost nekih drugih prostora. Prostor za produženi boravak, umjesto u klasičnoj varijanti jedne ili više učionica razredne nastave, izveden je kao otvoreni prostor s fiksnom pozicijom ulaza/ izlaza, sanitarnog čvora i garderobe učenika. Učionica izborne nastave, smještena na katu iznad prostora produženog boravka, također je zamišljena kao otvoren prostor koji se može koristiti za istovremeni rad više manjih skupina učenika. Učionica za likovnu i glazbenu kulturu dimenzionirana je i opremljena tako da se može koristiti i kao manja koncertna dvorana. Komunikacijske zone dimenzionirane su tako da omogućuju varijabilno korištenje. Glavna komunikacija razredne nastave s 4,5 m širine postaje ‘mali PVN’ učenika razredne nastave te svojim specifičnim oblikovanjem potiče stvaranje mikroambijenata unutar većeg prostora. U prostoru komunikacije na katu, neposredno ispred ulaza u BIC, formiran je izložbeni zid koji također poziva učenike na aktivno oblikovanje. Elementi zida mogu se uvlačiti i izvlačiti, koristiti kao police, tj. niše za izlaganje radova ili mjesta za sjedenje. Arhitektura, osim što mora biti dovoljno fleksibilna, neutralna u smislu da ne ograničava nego da potiče na raznolikost aktivnosti, mora biti oblikovana po mjeri korisnika, ne samo dimenzijom – fizičkom supstancom nego i metafi-

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What Hertzberger calls an ‘inviting form’, i.e. ‘form which invites’, which attracts and encourages one to use it, should not be understood literally as a form, physical substance of architecture, but something we could call its metaphysical manifestation. The objective is to form environments which will meet parameters set by norms and standards, but will, at the same time, stimulate its users, i.e. students, to use the environment in innovative ways, i.e. to think about possible ways to use it, so that they themselves will take an active part, to a certain degree, in its forming. ‘If something is geared very specifically to a certain aim it functions in the way it has been programmed to function i. e. as it was expected to function. This is the sort of functionalism that the functionalists talked about, but it is also the minimum of utility that can be expected of architecture. And in order to achieve more than that minimum in the diversity of situations as they arise I am pleading for form and space with a greater ‘accommodating’ potential, like a musical instrument that sounds the way the player wants it to sound. The point is to increase this ‘accommodating potential’ and thus to make space more receptive to different situations.’ 13 The way in which architecture can intervene in a strict educational system is by becoming more flexible itself and allowing variability in utilization. This, of course, does not mean that the educational system will automatically become more flexible, but architecture will indirectly, by encouraging the users to take part in activities, incite the system to change. In addition to multipurpose spaces, which are laid down by the educational standard as obligatory spaces in primary schools, the flexibility of some other spaces in the Primary School Delec has been increased, too. The space for after-school care, instead being designed in a classical manner, i.e. in form of one or more classrooms for general class teaching, in this case has been designed as an open space with the fixed position of entrance/exit, sanitary block and students’ cloak-room. The classroom for elective courses is located on the first floor above the space for after-school care; it has also been designed as an open space which can be used for simultaneous work of several smaller groups of students. The size and equipment of the classroom for art and music culture courses are such that it can also be used as a smaller concert hall. The size of communication zones allow for their varied utilization. The main communication zone in the area where general classes are held, 4.5 metres wide, becomes a ‘small multipurpose space’ for students, and its specific form inspires the creation of a micro-environment within a larger space. In the communication space on the first floor, immediately in front of the entrance to the Library Information Centre, there is an exhibition wall which also invites the students to take part in active design. The wall elements can be pulled in and out, used as shelves, i.e. niches for exhibiting works or as a sitting area.

13, vidi 11, str. 176.

12, See 11 13, See 11, p. 176

DODATAK: Stručni radovi nastavnika u koautorstvu sa studentom 

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

zičkom manifestacijom fizičkog. Korisnik se mora osjećati ugodno kao da je prostor oblikovan po njemu i njegovim potrebama, čak i onda kada je korisnika više i kada su njihove potrebe različite. Osnovna škola Delec projektirana je tako da omogući ugodan rad i boravak svim svojim korisnicima – i učenicima i učiteljima i gospodarskom osoblju. U jednome trenutku učitelj je taj koji nadzire situaciju (dobiva ‘najbolja’ mjesta za sjedenje u blagovaonici s kojih kontrolira stanje u prostoriji), dok se u drugome trenutku pozicija okreće pa je sada učitelj taj kojeg učenici nadgledaju preko vertikalnog, povezanog ambijenta. Staklena stijena u zidu između PVN-a i prostora za organizaciju i koordinaciju rada osim što je tu iz higijensko-tehničkih razloga (potrebe za sekundarnim osvjetljenjem) također omogućuje vizualnu vezu, kontakt između učenika na galeriji PVN-a i učitelja u zbornici gdje opet i jedni i drugi imaju osjećaj aktivnog sudjelovanja.

Architecture needs to be not only sufficiently flexible, and neutral – meaning that it does not limit various activities, but rather inspires them – but its design has to suit the user, not just in terms of dimensions – physical substance – but also in terms of metaphysical manifestation of the physical reality. The user needs to feel comfortable, experiencing the space as if it was formed to suit him and his needs, even when there are more users and their needs are different. The Primary School Delec is designed in such a way to make all the users’ working and staying there comfortable – i.e. to accommodate students, teaches and other staff. At times, a teacher will be the one who supervises the situation (and gets the ‘best’ seat in the dining room from which he controls the situation in the room), whereas at other times the situation turns around and now the teacher is the one who is supervised by students through vertical, interconnected ambiance. The glass wall between the multipurpose space and the space for organisation and coordination of work, in addition to having been designed for hygienic and technical reasons (the need for secondary source of light), also provides visual connection and contact between the students on a gallery of the multi-purpose space and teachers in a staff room where again students as well as teachers have a feeling of active participation.

‘Istina je da smo dosad govorili samo o detaljima, ali u svakoj zgradi ima tako neizmjerno mnogo detalja da bi doista svi zajedno mogli biti jednako važni kao i velika gesta arhitekture u cijelosti. Za nas je zgrada zbroj svih onih malih gesta koje, poput tisuća mišića u tijelu plesača baleta, zajedno tvore jedinstvenu cjelinu. Upravo taj ukupni zbroj odluka, pod uvjetom da su donesene uz odgovarajuće promišljanje i dužnu brižnost, može rezultirati istinski dobrodošlom arhitekturom.’ 14 ‘Škola za koju trebamo naći oblik – škola je manje obrazovanja, a više učenja. Ono što je potrebno jest okoliš koji potiče i stimulira učenje kao postavljanje pitanja, atmosfera koja pridonosi razmjeni i konfrontaciji, na intelektualnoj, kulturnoj i političkoj razini. Kad obrazovanje nadilazi granice tzv. obveznog školskog predmeta kako bi postalo šire, ako ne i sveobuhvatno, učenje više nije ograničeno zidovima učionice, već će se proširiti na cjelokupni prostor zgrade. To će promijeniti položaj i dužnosti i nastavnika i učenika, stvarajući nova područja odgovornosti koja će se trebati izraziti u prostornom sustavu škole.’ 15 Krenuti od detalja da bi se došlo do cjeline koja će biti fleksibilnija od samog pedagoškog sustava – to je ono što arhitektura može učiniti u ovome vremenu ‘između’ u kojemu se optimalne pedagoške metode još uvijek ispituju i traže.

‘Admittedly we have only talked about details up to now, but there are so infinitely many details in every building that they might well all together be just as important as the grand gesture of the architecture in its entirety. For us a building is the sum of all those small gestures which, like the thousands of muscles in a ballet dancer’s body, together create a unified whole. It is this grand total of decisions, provided they are taken with proper consideration and due care, that can result in a truly welcoming architecture.’ 14 ‘The school for which we are to find a form is one of less education and more learning. What is needed is an environment that stimulates and incites learning as asking questions, a climate that provokes exchange and confrontation, intellectually, culturally and politically. When study goes beyond the limits of so-called compulsory subject matter to become more, if not all-embracing, learning is no longer restricted by the classroom walls but will claim the entire space of the building. This will change the position and duty of teachers and pupils alike, creating new fields of responsibility which will need expressing in the school’s spatial order.’ 15 Starting from details in order to reach the entirety which will be more flexible than the educational system – this is what architecture can do in this ‘in-between’ time when optimal educational methods are still examined and sought after.

14, vidi 11, str. 214. 15, Hertzberger, Herman: Space and learning – Lessons in architecture 3, Rotterdam, 2008., str. 70.

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DODATAK: Stručni radovi nastavnika u koautorstvu sa studentom 

14, See 11, p. 214 15, Hertzberger, Herman: Space and learning – Lessons in architecture 3, Rotterdam, 2008, p. 70.

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students


facta architectonica 2

Vesna Mikić

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Katarina Dragčević

Arhitektonsko-urbanistička intervencija u postindustrijskom krajoliku – nova vrijednost industrijskog naselja Promišljanje prostorne intervencije kroz fenomen brownfielda

Sl. 1. Zračna snimka zaštićenog povijesnog industrijskog sklopa tvornice crijepa u Bedekovčini, s pogledom na jezera nastala eksploatacijom gline za potrebe tvornice, 2008. / Fig. 1. Aerial photograph (2008) of the protected historical industrial compound, the roof tile factory in Bedekovčina, also showing the adjacent lakes, the by-product of the clay excavation pits

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Napušteni prostori industrijske proizvodnje i eksploatacije postali su kritične točke suvremenog urbanog pejzaža. Svojim mjerilom i smještajem, često unutar urbanih cjelina, ti rudimenti industrijskog društva danas su problematična mjesta unutar urbane matrice i prepreka njenom daljnjem razvoju. Posljednjih desetljeća, tema prenamjene i sanacije takvih prostora postala je aktualna, osobito po pitanju ekološke, sociološke i ekonomske održivosti. Osim evidentnih ekoloških prijetnji, postavlja se pitanje adekvatne zaštite industrijske arhitekture koja je svojom pojavnošću obilježila ovdašnji prostor i jedno razdoblje, zbog čega nedvojbeno spada u naše kulturno nasljeđe, a istovremeno u najugroženiju i najzanemarivaniju kategoriju graditeljske baštine.1 Takav prostor prepoznat je u općini Bedekovčina nedaleko grada Zaboka, u još aktivnom industrijskom predjelu. U prostoru poljoprivrednih površina između obronaka Medvednice na jugu i Ivančice na sjeveru, u plodnoj dolini rijeke Krapine i njezinom prirodnom okolišu bogatom nalazištima kvalitetne građevinske gline, a južno od današnjeg središta naselja, razvila se još u 19. st. tvornica glinenih proizvoda Zagorka koja je za sobom ostavila postindustrijski krajolik – skupinu umjetnih jezera nastalih eksploatacijom glinenog materijala za potrebe proizvodnje crijepa, opeke i šamota, te zaštićeni prostor povijesnog industrijskog postrojenja.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Architectural and Urban Planning Intervention in Postindustrial Landscape – New Value of the Industrial Settlement Considerations on spatial interventions through brownfield phenomenon

Abandoned facilities and spaces of industrial production and exploitation have become critical points of contemporary urban landscape. With their size and location, frequently within urban wholes, these rudiments of the industrial society are now problem places within the urban matrix and an obstacle to its further development. In the past decades the repurposing and repair of such spaces have drawn interest, especially in terms of ecological, sociological and economical sustainability. In addition to obvious threats to environment, another issue is raised of adequate protection of industrial architecture whose phenomenon characterizes the local space and an entire era. This undoubtedly makes it part of our cultural heritage, but also one of the most endangered and neglected category of construction heritage.1 One such space has been identified in the municipality of Bedekovčina, close to the town of Zabok, in the area which is still industrially active. The clay products factory Zagorka was developed in 19th century on the agricultural land between the slopes of Mt Medvednica in the south, Mt Ivančica in the north and the fertile valley of the Krapina river, the area rich in construction clay deposits. Located south of today’s town centre, it has left behind a post-industrial landscape: several artificial lakes, previously clay pits where material was excavated for tiles, bricks and fire clay, and a protected industrial facility of historical importance. Since there is no awareness about the value of local examples of the industrial heritage, it has not been properly protected, and a great number of buildings of historical importance have been destroyed by reconstructions or completely torn down. Still, the question is raised about the parameters that make a certain compound of architectural heritage worth preserving,2 and, in line with the answer, what can be done to sustainably preserve the identified heritage. This graduation thesis is an attempt to answer these questions on the example of the clay products factory Zagorka, and its previous analysis is focused on

1, NEIDHARDT (2000.)

1, Neidhardt (2000) 2, We should be guided by the principle of sustainable protection in cases of the construction heritage that marks a significant turning point in the course of history, or a change of paradigm (production of the initial version of a certain product, the first application of a new technology, innovation in designing the facilities, etc.). Thus, after it is included in the network of similar subjects, it is possible to construct the course of the story that may be of interest for history, science, technology, tourism.

DODATAK: Stručni radovi nastavnika u koautorstvu sa studentom 

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Kako se zbog nedostatka svijesti o vrijednosti domaćih primjera industrijske baštine oni nisu adekvatno štitili velik broj je devastiran rekonstrukcijama ili potpunim rušenjem. Ipak, postavlja se pitanje koji su to parametri koji određeni kompleks arhitektonskog nasljeđa čine vrijednim očuvanja2, te sukladno odgovoru – što je moguće poduzeti da se prepoznata baština na održiv način sačuva? Pokušajem da se na primjeru tvornice glinenih proizvoda Zagorka odgovori na postavljena pitanja bavi se diplomski rad: Kompleks znanstvenog parka tvornice Tondach, Bedekovčina čija se prethodna analiza fokusira na traženje prikladne urbanističke i arhitektonske forme za intervenciju u prostoru djelomično ugaslog industrijskog sklopa. Kao finalni element diplomskog rada odabrana je arhitektonska razrada idejnog projekta zgrade Muzeja industrijske arheologije, unutar navedenog sklopa.

finding an appropriate urbanistic and architectural form to intervene into the partly closed down industrial compound. The final element of the thesis is the architectural elaboration of a preliminary design of the Industrial Archaeology Museum, within the mentioned compound.

STATUS INDUSTRIJSKE ARHITEKTURE Industrijski objekti, vojni-stambeni i radni kompleksi, pripadaju utilitarnoj europskoj arhitekturi kraja 18. i 19. stoljeća. Tehnička baština utilitarne arhitekture toga razdoblja, zbog primjene novih tehnoloških i konstrukcijskih rješenja vrjednija je stilskih odrednica iste.3 Oblikovanje, tada nove tipologije, industrijskih objekata u nedostatku stilskih presedana vođeno je prvenstveno funkcionalnim zahtjevima. Zbog primjene tada avangardnih inženjerskih dostignuća te oslobođenosti stila kao svojevrsnog nagovještaja moderne4 industrijski objekti toga razdoblja zaslužuju posebnu pozornost. Dok u zapadnoeuropskim zemljama postoje primjeri, pa i modeli prenamjene industrijskih kompleksa i zona u javne, višenamjenske sklopove5, u Hrvatskoj ima tek nekoliko takvih primjera koji su većinom ostali u domeni projekta.

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Industrial facilities, military, residential and working quarters, belong to the European utilitarian architecture of the late 18th and 19th centuries. The technical heritage of the utilitarian architecture of that period is more valuable than its stylistic determinants, which is due to the application of new technological and construction solutions.3 For the lack of a precedent, the shaping of the then new typology of industrial facilities was primarily guided by functional requirements. Since the advanced engineering achievements were applied and the style was liberated as a foresight of the Modernism,4 the industrial buildings of that period deserve special attention. There are numerous cases, and even models, of industrial facilities and areas repurposed into public multi-purpose compounds5 in west European countries, whereas Croatia has only several such examples, most of which have remained at a project level. Picture 2 shows the industrial facilities of the former ZIVT textile factory in Zabok. This is one of the first accomplished investments into brownfield sites in Croatia.6 The factory halls with arching support structures, built immediately after World War ICTY, in 1947, and the halls with shed roofs are interesting and valuable solutions of the Croatian architectural history, and therefore it was only logical to preserve them. Bearing in mind that Zabok, being a relatively small town, was developed thanks to the textile industry, this compound not only has the urbanistic and architectural value, but also a considerable sociological value, as an important element of the inhabitants’ identification and

2, Trebalo bi se voditi održivo usmjerenim principom zaštite one graditeljske baštine koja predstavlja bitnu prekretnicu u toku povijesti ili naročito označava trenutak promjene paradigmi (proizvodnja prvotne verzije nekog proizvoda, početak primjene nove proizvodne tehnologije, primjena inovacija u oblikovanju pogona i sl.) te je pomoću uvrštavanja iste u mrežu ostalih sličnih subjekata, moguće rekonstruirati tijek priče zanimljive ili važne za povijest, znanost, tehnologiju, turizam. 3, KNEŽEVIĆ (2007.) 4, ‘Industrijska arheologija, u domeni unaprjeđenja i inovacije arhitektonske forme i njezinog značenja, dotiče se i miješa s ideologijom nove moderne oštrih kubičnih formi, visokokvalitetnih čelika i stakla, radikalnog otklona od regionalnog tla i iznova aktualiziranog internacionalnog stila. Na taj način uspostavljena arhitektura ukida granicu između procesa kulturne reanimacije i autorskih istraživanja novih tipologija.’ A. Milić, V., Izazovi industrijske arheologije 5, London, Barcelona, Berlin i Amsterdam, gradovi su koji su krajem 20. stoljeća započeli s velikim urbanim preobrazbama koje su pretežno uključivale poboljšanje prometne infrastrukture, pojačanje i formiranje javnih ozelenjenih površina i poteza, te preseljenje industrijskih pogona koji su se zatekli u nabujalom tkivu grada, urašteni u novonastale predjele stambene i javne namjene, te njihovu zamjenu novim, prikladnijim sadržajima.

3, KNEŽEVIĆ (2007) 4, ‘Industrial archaeology, in the field of advancing and innovating architectural forms and its meaning, touches upon and mixes with the ideology of new Modernism of sharp cubic shapes, high quality steel and glass materials, of radical drifts from regional territories and revitalized International Style. Such architecture removes the barrier between the process of cultural revival and authorial research of new typologies.’ A. Milić, Izazovi industrijske arheologije 5, London, Barcelona, Berlin and Amsterdam started with large scale urban transformations in the late 20th century, which mostly included the improvement of traffic infrastructure, enlargement and creation of public green areas and transfer of industrial facilities from the overgrown tissue of the cities surrounded by the newly created residential areas and public areas, and their replacement by new, more appropriate services and facilities. 6, ‘Urban transformation the ZIVT factory, where old industrial buildings have been preserved, is rare in Croatia, whereas in Europe such cases have become common.’ B. Biliušić Dumbović, in the interview with S. Fuština for Zagorje.com web portal.

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Na Slici 2. prikazan je tvornički kompleks nekadašnje tekstilne industrije ZIVT u Zaboku. To je jedan od prvih reali-

Sl. 2. Tvornički kompleks ZIVT u Zaboku, prije i nakon izvršene prenamjene 2012. godine / Fig. 2. ZIVT industrial facilities in Zabok, before and after repurposing in 2012

STATUS OF INDUSTRIAL ARCHITECTURE


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sl. 3. 22@ Barcelona Project, plan urbane obnove industrijskog područja Poblenou, uz istočnu obalu Barcelone. Četvrt Poble Nou prepoznata je kao lokacija velikog razvojnog potencijala. Uložilo se u izgradnju infrastrukture i kulturne ponude (revitalizacijom i čuvanjem vrijedne industrijske arhitekture i baštine kroz novu namjenu – muzeje, galerije…)i inkorporaciju sadržaja znanstveno-tehnološke namjene (sveučilišta, kampusi, sjedišta tvrtki, znanstveni i istraživački parkovi različitih grana...)s ciljem da takva ponuda privuče talentirane mlade pojedince i poveća razinu znanja i broj stručnjaka. / Fig. 3. 22@ Barcelona Project, urban renewal plan of the Poblenou industrial area, along the eastern coast of Barcelona. The Poble Nou area has been recognized as a site of great developmental potential. Considerable investments have been made into infrastructure and the creation cultural offer by revitalizing and preserving valuable industrial architecture and heritage through repurposing them into museums, galleries, etc., and into incorporating the science and technology facilities (universities, campuses, company headquarters, various science and research parks, etc.). This was done with the objective that this offer would attract talented young individuals, and increase the level of knowledge and number of experts.

ziranih domaćih primjera investiranja u brownfield lokacije.6 Tvorničke hale s lučnim nosačima građene odmah nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata (1947.) kao i hale s betonskim ‘šed’ krovovima, zanimljiva su i vrijedna arhitektonska rješenja iz povijesti hrvatske arhitekture, pa ih je bilo logično zaštititi. S obzirom da se Zabok, kao relativno mlad grad, razvio upravo zahvaljujući tekstilnoj industriji, ovaj sklop osim urbanističke i arhitektonske vrijednosti ima i znatnu sociološku vrijednost, kao važan element identifikacije i povezanosti stanovnika s gradom. Budući da je Zabok karakterističan industrijski grad svog razdoblja, na tom je primjeru uočljiva specifičnost prisutna i u drugim industrijskim gradovima i mjestima, uključujući i Bedekovčinu: željeznička povezanost bila je primarni faktor pri lociranju industrijskih objekata. Industrijski pogoni su u vrijeme nastanka u pravilu zauzimali rubne dijelove naselja. Kasnijim ekspanzijama naselja takvi prostori postaju dio urbanog tkiva te danas kada gube svoju prvotnu funkciju postaju vrijedan prostorni resurs, poznat pod pojmom brownfield.7

connection with the town. Since Zabok is a characteristic industrial town of its period, it has specific features as other industrial towns, such as Bedekovčina: railway was the primary factor for establishing industrial facilities. Initially, at the time of their construction, they were located on the edges of the town. During subsequent expansions these facilities become part of the urban tissue. Nowadays, as they lose their original functions, they are becoming a valuable spatial resource known as brownfield sites.7

Osim industrijskih prostora naselja su svojim širenjem obuhvatila i željezničke koridore koji danas predstavljaju barijere njihovom racionalnom širenju i povezivanju. Potrebno je uspostaviti snažniju povezanost obje strane željezničke pruge suvremenim tehničkim rješenjima (denivelacijom jednog od slojeva komunikacije nadzemno ili podzemno), 6, ‘Urbana transformacija ZIVT-a u kojoj se čuvaju stare tvorničke zgrade u hrvatskim je okvirima rijetkost, za razliku od europskih iskustava gdje su takvi primjeri postali opća mjesta.’ B. Biliušić Dumbović, u intervjuu sa S. Fuštinom za internetski portal Zagorje.com 7, ‘Brownfields’ – područja napuštenih i neiskorištenih industrija, vojnih baza, odlagališta otpada i sličnih područja s mnogim zajedničkim negativnim obilježjima, koja istodobno predstavljaju potencijal u smislu dobrog položaja i prostornog resursa za budući razvoj novog korištenja. Velik izazov su projekti oporavka nekadašnjih industrijskih područja – saniranja onečišćenja, stvaranja parkovnih površina i vraćanja prirodnih staništa te revitaliziranja zajednice stvaranjem novih namjena i radnih mjesta.

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As towns expanded, they encompassed railway corridors which are now, in addition to the industrial facilities, barriers to the rational expansion and connection of parts of the town. It is necessary to establish firm connections of both sides of the railway tracks implementing modern solutions (traversing different levels either by underground or aboveground communications), as it was foreseen in the first award-winning preliminary design of the architectural and urbanistic contest – for the 2008 preliminary design of ‘Centar 3’ zone in Zabok.8

7, Brownfield sites are areas of abandoned and unused industrial sections, military bases, landfills and similar areas with that have in common many negative features. At the same time they have the potential in terms of good location and spatial resource for future development and new use. The major challenge are the projects of recovering previous industrial areas, cleaning the pollution, creation of parks and restoring the natural habitats and revitalisation of communities by repurposing the area and creating new jobs. 8, The authors of the first-prize work are Ivona Jerković, B.S.A.E; Morana Manger, B.S.A.E; Damir Petric, B.S.A.E; Hrvoje Vidović, B.S.A.E; Petra Galić, B.S.A.E and Samel Ivanov, B.A. Design.

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sl. 4. Smještaj Bedekovčine u užem prostoru Krapinsko-zagorske županije – uočava se klasičan razvoj naselja uz tok rijeka, odnosno željeznički pravac / Fig. 4. Bedekovčina is located in the specific area of Krapina-Zagorje County, and its development follows a typical pattern along the river, i.e., railway tracks

kako je predviđeno i u prvonagrađenom idejnom rješenju arhitektonsko-urbanističkog natječaja za izradu idejnog rješenja zone ‘Centar 3’ u Zaboku, iz 2008.8

BROWNFIELD AND GREENFIELD INVESTMENTS

BROWNFIELD i GREENFIELD INVESTICIJE Racionalno gospodarenje zemljištem bitan je faktor pri održivom razvoju. Tema podrazumijeva dva ključna pojma za koja ne postoji uvriježen prijevod. Pojam Greenfield investicije podrazumijeva razvoj na dotad neizgrađenom području. Takav model se koristi u nedostatku prostora pogodnih za prenamjenu te iziskuje uređenje potrebne infrastrukture. Ipak, takav model se ponekad koristi i kada postoji mogućnost prenamjene već korištenog prostora što rezultira bespotrebnom uzurpacijom dotad neizgrađenih prirodnih prostora. Brownfield investicija pak podrazumijeva investiciju u prostor na kojem je prisutna postojeća izgradnja, ali koja je određenim povijesnim ili ekonomskim tokom postala neisplativa i nepotrebna. To su područja napuštenih i neiskorištenih industrija, vojnih baza, odlagališta otpada i sličnih područja s mnogim negativnim obilježjima, a koja kao prostorni resurs predstavljaju potencijal za budući razvoj. Po svome urbanističkom položaju i prostornim potencijalima industrijski bi ‘ostatci’ trebali postati fokusi re-urbanizacije nekonsolidiranih područja i nositelji njihova novog identiteta. U protivnom će takvi prostori potisnuti život u nova područja zbog nemogućnosti da pruže kvalitetan i

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Rational land management is an important factor in sustainable development, and involves two key notions. Greenfield investments use undeveloped land. Such a model is used in cases of insufficient spaces suitable for repurposing, and calls for building necessary infrastructure. However, sometimes it is used even when there is a possibility to repurpose the already used space, which results in needless usurpation of the previously undeveloped spaces. Brownfield investment is an investment into the developed land which became unprofitable or useless in the course of history or economic circumstances. This may be abandoned and unused industries, military bases, landfills and similar spaces with a lot of negative attributes which, however, as a spatial resource have the potential for future development. The industrial residues, in terms of their urbanistic and spatial potentials, should become the focal points to re-urbanise nonconsolidated areas in order to create their new identity. Otherwise such spaces will displace life into new areas due to their inability to provide quality and sustainable urban living, and other contents that an urban structure needs to provide. It is somewhat disappointing that in spite of numerous worldwide examples of realized urban renewals of brownfield sites,9 our local policies shun them. Instead of wasting time on speculations, we could learn from examples in other countries and invest in the improvement of the acquired knowledge. In view of the fact that brownfield investments have been accepted as a rational method of space man-

8, Autori prvonagrađenog rada su: Ivona Jerković, dia., Morana Manger, dia., Damir Petric, dia., Hrvoje Vidović, dia., Petra Galić, dia. i Samel Ivanov, dipl. diz.

9, The most extensive project of such an urban renewal 22@ Barcelona Project – Picture 3.

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

održiv oblik urbaniteta i ostale sadržaje koje urbana struktura treba omogućiti.

agement, the question is raised as to why such a practice is not more common in Croatia. Excessive protection of any old industrial building, regardless of its real value, is the consequence of the need to protect such facilities from demolition, which would in turn create space for new buildings. That, namely, is an easier option arising from constraining regulations in overlapping spheres of fire protection, environmentally acceptable building and life safety regulations. However, they do not guarantee the prospects of revitalising the existing buildings within the framework of the protection of cultural monuments. There are numerous cases where rigid regulations in the protection of cultural monuments make it difficult to achieve the sustainability through continued use, economic cost-effectiveness, and the protection of both users and environment. The ethical responsibility and legal obligations require the observance of all rules in order to protect the users, along with the protection of the cultural monument, but all this at the high price of investment. It is for these reasons that brownfield investments are a longer and costlier option than the greenfield ones, and are therefore avoided. If this trend is not halted, a chain reaction will follow: urban areas are emptied, the cities expand, and the carbon footprint increases,10 city centres are vacated and they physically deteriorate. This course of events indicates the detriments of such a trend. What is to be done?

Pomalo razočarava činjenica da iako u svijetu postoje brojni primjeri realiziranih urbanih obnova korištenjem brownfield lokacija9, mi ih domaćom politikom zanemarujemo. Na stranim primjerima mogli bismo učiti i ne gubiti vrijeme na spekuliranje, već ga uložiti u usavršavanje apsolviranog znanja. S obzirom da je korištenje Brownfield investicija prihvaćeno kao racionalan način gospodarenja prostorom, postavlja se pitanje zašto takva praksa nije zastupljenija i na našim prostorima. Problematika pretjeranog štićenja svake starije industrijske građevine bez obzira na njezinu stvarnu kulturnu vrijednost posljedica je potrebe da se takvi objekti zaštite od rušenja kojim bi se ustupilo mjesto za novogradnje kao povoljnije opcije uslijed ograničavajućih propisa iz preklapajućih sfera protupožarne zaštite, ekološki prihvatljive gradnje, propisa koji štite korisnika od mogućih ozljeda ili gubitka života, a koji ne jamče mogućnost revitalizacije postojeće građevine u okvirima zaštite kulturnog spomenika. Brojni su primjeri rigidnih propisa o zaštiti kulturnog spomenika koji otežavaju postizanje održivosti kroz nastavak korištenja, ekonomsku isplativost, te zaštitu korisnika i okoliša. Etička odgovornost i zakonska obveza, nalažu poštivanje svih propisa u svrhu zaštite korisnika i uz zaštitu kulturnog spomenika, no uz visoku cijenu investicije. Zbog tih se razloga Brownfield investicije pretvaraju u dugotrajniju i skuplju opciju onima Greenfield tipa te se od njih zazire. Ukoliko se takav trend ne zaustavi pokrenut će se lančana reakcija: gradska područja se prazne, grad se širi obodno, uzurpiraju se prirodne površine te se povećava stopa ugljičnog otiska10, središte grada se ispražnjava i fizički propada. Kroz navedeni slijed događaja prepoznaje se štetnost takvog trenda. Pitamo se što treba poduzeti?

Sl. 5. Razglednica s prikazom povijesnog dijela sklopa tvornice oko 1900. g. / Fig. 5. Postcard showing part of the factory compound, around 1900

PLAN In his review of brownfields in Croatia, architect Hrvoje Hrabak pertinently calls for devising an action plan11 which briefly makes the following recommendations: • • • •

PLAN U svojem osvrtu na temu brownfielda u Hrvatskoj, arhitekt Hrvoje Hrabak primjereno poziva na osmišljanje akcijskog plana11 koji, ukratko, preporučuje: • • •

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formiranje interdisciplinarnih stručnih tijela, evidentiranje lokacija s potencijalom za brownfield razvoj uz regulaciju posebnim aktima, javne pozive na građanske inicijative, gospodarske subjekte i ostale zainteresirane,

• • • •

Setting up interdisciplinary expert bodies, Making an inventory of sites with brownfield potential along with special regulations, Public calls for civic initiatives on economic subjects and other interested, Conducting a broad public discussion on potential projects, Selection of sites with greatest development potential, Setting up a managing council for each project a responsible development body consisting of all stakeholders, Applying transparent methods – applications and workshops.

IDENTIFYING THE LOCATION The town of Bedekovčina nestled in the Krapina river valley, in the very hub of the County’s economic area. It developed along

9, Možda je najobuhvatniji projekt takve urbane obnove 22@ Barcelona Project – Slika 3. 10, WIEDMANN (2008.), ugljični otisak podrazumijeva ukupnu količinu emisije stakleničkih plinova koji utječu na klimatske promjene, a nastaju kao direktna ili indirektna posljedica ljudskih aktivnosti (uključujući i korištenje i proizvodnju koja sudjeluje u istima), obično mjerena u tonama ugljičnog dioksida. 11, HRABAK, 2011.

10, WIEDMANN (2008), Carbon footprint is the amount of greenhouse gases that affect the climate changes, and which originate as a direct or indirect consequence of human activities (as a person’s activities or a product’s manufacture and transport), usually measured in tons of carbon dioxide. 11, HRABAK, 2011

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facta architectonica 2

• • • •

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

provođenje opširne javne rasprave o potencijalnim projektima, odabir lokacija s najvećim razvojnim potencijalom, formiranje upravljačkog vijeća za svaki projekt – odgovornog razvojnog tijela sastavljenog od svih zainteresiranih strana, korištenje transparentnih metoda – natječaja i radionica.

the road and railway tracks. The town is positioned north of the railway corridor, while the industry and agriculture developed in the area between the railway corridor and the river. The abundance of resources, construction clay and stone for exploitation led to the development of manufacture and trade, mostly in construction business. This area has long been known for clay deposits used locally for small historical settlements that preceded today’s Bedekovčina (Komor, Kebel).

PREPOZNAVANJE LOKACIJE

Sl. 6. Samim pogledom na centar Bedekovčine, jasno se razaznaje njezina čvrsta podjela pravcem željeznice na sjeverni i južni dio, što je uz povijesni razvoj specifičan za industrijska naselja, pridonijelo formiranju triju fizičko-tematskih cjelina: centralno naselje koje čini stambeno-poslovni dio sjeverno od pruge, industrijsko-proizvodni predio južno od pruge, skup umjetnih jezera ‘Bajera’ jugoistočno od centra, neposredno uz industrijski predio. Iako su te tri zone komunikacijski odijeljene pravcem željeznice i udaljenim pristupima, u fizičkom smislu tvornički sklop s naseljem čini nedjeljivu vizualnu cjelinu, naselje s jezerima funkcionalnu cjelinu, dok jezera i tvornica čine povijesnu egzistencijalnu cjelinu. / Fig. 6. The view of the centre of Bedekovčina shows the railway tracks strictly dividing it to the south and north part. Along with the specific development of the town, this has contributed to forming three units: central residential part north of the railway tracks, industrial manufacturing part south of the tracks, and a group of artificial lakes, southeast of the centre, immediately next to the industrial section. Although they are kept apart by the railway tracks and distant accesses, the factory and the residential area are a physically inseparable visual unit, the residential area and the lakes make a functional unit, whereas the factory and the lakes make up a historical existential unit.

Bedekovčina se smjestila u dolini rijeke Krapine, u samom zamašnjaku gospodarskog predjela županije. Razvija se linearno uz prometnicu i prugu. Naselje se smješta sjeverno od željezničkog koridora dok su se industrija i poljoprivreda razvile u prostoru između željezničkog koridora i rijeke. Prostor obiluje resursima građevinske gline i kamena za eksploataciju, zbog čega ima razvijenu proizvodnu i obrtničku djelatnost – ponajviše u poslovima vezanim za građevinu. Odavno je već bilo poznato da je ovo područje obilovalo glinom koja se koristila za lokalne potrebe manjih povijesnih mjesta koja su prethodila današnjoj Bedekovčini (Komor, Kebel). Kvalitetna glina i prisutnost željezničke pruge bile su predispozicije koje su omogućile graditelju Ferdu Stejskalu da 1889. u Bedekovčini osnuje tvornicu glinenih proizvoda koja se održala sve do danas, uz promjene vlasnika i proizvodnog programa.12 Zagorka je na svom vrhuncu zapošljavala oko tisuću radnika, a to je i utjecalo na nastanak i razvitak naselja uz tvornicu. Sam prostor koji je prepoznat kao potencijalni brownfield, a koji sačinjava povijesni građevni sklop nekadašnje tvornice opeke i šamota Zagorka smješten je u središtu naselja, neposredno uz željezničku stanicu. Jezgru povijesne arhitekture tvorničkog sklopa čine zgrada stare ciglane iz 1889. te pomoćne zgrade i skladišta podignute 1920-ih, smješteni unutar kompleksa koji se prostire na oko 60000 m2. Povijesnu arhitekturu danas okružuje recentna izgradnja proizvodnih hala i nove upravne zgrade, sagrađene na mjestu nekadašnjih tvorničkih dimnjaka. Taj sklop ‘svojim tipološkim i morfološkim obilježjima predstavlja vrijedan primjer industrijske arhitekture s kraja 19. i početka 20. st. Zahvaljujući dobroj očuvanosti građevnih i proizvodnih struktura, na povijesnim objektima se jasno iščitava dokumentarni sloj o gospodarskim prilikama na prijelazu stoljeća te između dva rata. Na tragu revalorizacije i prenamjene objekata industrijske arhitekture, otvara se mogućnost revitalizacije zgrade ciglane u Bedekovčini u kontekstu suvremenih društvenih, gospodarskih ili kulturnih prilika.’13

Bearing in mind numerous clay pits in the area observed – both the future and the abandoned ones, there is a chance that after the adaptation of the factory facilities, the ‘clay routes’ may connect similar industrial sites in the County, e.g. ‘Zagorje’s Industrial Heritage route.’14 High school education offers quality training in construction, agriculture and medical jobs. The construction school was founded by the Zagorka factory to train the staff needed, and there used to be ambitious plans to set up an institution of higher learning in civil

12, Danas je promatrani povijesni dio sklopa ‘Zagorke’ u vlasništvu austrijske tvrtke ‘Tondach’ i bavi se isključivo proizvodnjom glinenog crijepa, dok je preostali noviji dio ‘Zagorke’ fokusiran na proizvodnju kaljevih peći i kamina. 13, Izvod iz opisa prema Konzervatorskom zavodu KZŽ.

12, The historical part of the Zagoka factory is now owned by the Austrian company Tondach, and manufactures only clay roof tiles. The remaining, newer part of Zagorka has focused on manufacturing tile stoves and fireplaces. 13, Extract from the Conservation Institute description (Konzervatorski zavod KZŽ). 14, Following the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH).

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S obzirom na brojne glinokope na užem promatranom po-

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High quality clay and the existence of the railway were the predispositions that made it possible for constructor Ferdo Stejskal to set up in 1889 a clay factory in Bedekovčina which has worked ever since, although the owners and the products manufactured have been changing.12 At its height the Zagorka factory employed about a thousand workers, which affected the development of the town adjacent to the factory. The space that has been identified as a potential brownfield, consisting of the historical compound of the erstwhile brick and fire brick factory, is located in the centre of the town, immediately next to the railway station. The nucleus of the historical architecture, i.e. the 1889 clay factory and its auxiliary buildings and warehouses erected in 1920’s, are located within the compound stretching on about 60,000 m2. The historical architecture is now surrounded by recent developments, manufacturing halls and a new administrative building, built in the place of former factory chimneys. This compound ‘by its typological and morphological features is a valuable example of industrial architecture of the late 19th and early 20th century. Since the construction and manufacturing structures are well preserved, this allows for the economic situation of that period to be read as a documentary layer from these historical buildings. In view of the re-evaluation and repurposing of the industrial heritage buildings, revitalisation of the clay factory building has become possible in Bedekovčina, in the context of current social, economic and cultural circumstances.’13


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

dručju – i one buduće i one napuštene, postoji mogućnost lokalnog povezivanja ‘putovima gline’, a u županijskom obuhvatu, po adaptaciji tvorničkog prostora, slične industrijske lokacije mogle bi se povezati npr. ‘Rutom industrijskog naslijeđa Zagorja’ 14.

engineering, but they were not realized. The educational curriculum has now been expanded to encompass all vocational trainings in the construction sector. The school has a construction materials testing laboratory for the requirements of the local industry.

Kvalitetno srednjoškolsko obrazovanje nude graditeljsko, poljoprivredno i medicinsko učilište. Navedenu graditeljsku školu osnovala je još Zagorka radi potrebe za obrazovanim kadrom, a svojevremeno su postojale ambicije za osnivanjem višeškolskog graditeljskog obrazovanja koje nisu ostvarene. Danas je program obrazovanja proširen na sva zanatska graditeljska zanimanja. U sklopu škole djeluje laboratorij za atestiranje građevinskih materijala za potrebe lokalne industrije. Na užem i širem području Bedekovčine nalaze se brojne kurije i dvorci s perivojima koji spadaju u kulturna dobra i od značaja su za zagorski kulturni turizam. Međutim, ne postoji mreža koja bi ih povezala u rutu turističkih i kulturnih atrakcija Hrvatskoga zagorja. Da bi ista funkcionirala i bila atraktivna potencijalnim korisnicima, potrebno ju je dopuniti i ostalim turističkim i drugim uslužnim sadržajima koji bi se međusobno nadopunjavali i istovremeno služili lokalnoj zajednici. Osim što je postojanje uvjetovalo nastanak tvornice, industrija je uzrokovala nastanak jezera, te su jezera postala sastavni dio naselja. Naselje se razvilo zbog doseljenja radnika za potrebe tvornice obuhvativši pojas sjeverno od pruge, nakon čega se počelo širiti linearno na istok i zapad. Nakon što je ovaj eksploatacijom degradirani prostor, po njenom završetku prepušten prirodnom obrastanju u divlju vegetaciju, počeo se javljati interes za uređenjem prostora. Izgrađene su staze, ribički dom i dva ugostiteljska objekta, a uređeno je i kupalište. Međutim, nakon povratka vlasništva općini, zbog nedostatka sredstava i ponude, održavanje kupališta je zapostavljeno. Iako prostor ima neadekvatnu fizičku vezu s centrom ljudi su zadržali pozitivnu naviku dolaska u prirodni krajolik. Međutim, zbog nedovoljnog održavanja, taj prostor predstavlja opasnost za korisnike, a njegov potencijal je zapostavljen. Uređenjem jezera taj prostor trebao bi zaživjeti kao funkcionalni dio naselja namijenjen zabavi, odmoru i rekreaciji te bi nadopunio ponudu kupališnog turizma u Hrvatskom zagorju.

ODABIR INTERVENCIJE Nekoliko je životnih faza promatranog prostora: početak korištenja, završetak eksploatiranja područja, završetak korištenja pogona, a upravo zadnjom fazom taj prostor postaje potencijalni brownfield. Na promatranom prostoru

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The specific and general area of Bedekovčina is abundant in manor houses and mansions, gardens and parks which are culture goods of significance for cultural tourism in the Zagorje region. There is, however, no network that would link them all into a single route of tourist and cultural attractions of Zagorje. In order to make it functional and attractive, the route would have to include other complementary tourist and service facilities that would also be of use to the local community. The resources gave rise to the setting up of the factory, and the industrial activities created the lakes which became integral part of the town. The town started growing after the arrival of factory workers, and it encompassed the area north of the railway tracks, and then it started spreading lengthwise to the east and west. The area was devastated by the exploitation, and upon its completion the land was overgrown by the vegetation, which was followed by public interest to cultivate it. Bicycle tracks, fishing centre and two restaurants were built, and a swimming area was made available. However, this property was returned to the Municipality, and due to the lack of funds and offer, the swimming area was no longer maintained. Although this area is not adequately connected with the town centre, people have kept the habit of spending time in the natural environment. On the other hand, due to insufficient maintenance, this area poses a danger to its users, and its potential has been neglected. After the lake area is developed, it should become a functional part of the town intended for entertainment, leisure and recreation, thus complementing swimming tourism in the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje.

CHOICE OF INTERVENTION The life cycle of the examined area has several phases, beginning of exploitation, end of resource exploitation, end of use of the facilities, and it is the final phase that gives rise to the brownfield potential. Clear targets for potential repurposing need to be defined and elaborated in the examined area bearing in mind the real needs of the inhabitants in the surrounding area. A context analysis of the Bedekovčina’s historical and industrial compound was carried out, and its objective was to implement architectural and urbanistic interventions that would advance the life of the community, respecting and healing the nature, in an economical manner. The analysis results are categorized according to these factors: Situation found + Needs = Potentials

14, Po uzoru na europski ERIH – European Route of Industrial Heritage.

The absence of a quality public space in the town and of an appropriate space for cultural events are the primary shortcomings of the

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

potrebno je jasno odrediti i elaborirati ciljeve potencijalne prenamjene vodeći računa o stvarnim potrebama stanovnika okolnog područja.

surrounding area. The undeveloped swimming area around the lakes is a potential danger because they are cut off from the town centre by the railway tracks, and the unused decaying factory compound visible from town centre spoils the vista and does not meet the hygienic standards.

Na primjeru bedekovčanskog povijesnog industrijskog sklopa, provedena je analiza konteksta, s ciljem da se u ovom prostoru intervenira arhitektonskim i urbanističkim zahvatima koji bi unaprijedili život zajednice, uz poštivanje i liječenje prirode, a na ekonomski isplativ način. Rezultati te analize kategorizirani su prema sljedećim faktorima: Zatečeno stanje + Potrebe = Mogućnosti Nepostojanje kvalitetnog otvorenog javnog prostora u sklopu naselja i kvalitetnog prostora za održavanje kulturno-umjetničkih manifestacija prepoznati su kao primarni nedostatci okolnog prostora. Potencijalna opasnost je neuređeno kupalište na jezerima koja su zbog pruge loše povezana sa samim središtem naselja, a neiskorišten i zapušten tvornički prostor u vizualnom perimetru centra naselja nagrđuje vizure i ne zadovoljava higijenske standarde.

Sl. 7. Shema funkcionalnih dijelova Bedekovčine / shema povezivanja funkcionalnih dijelova / Fig. 7. Layout of Bedekovčina's functional parts / connecting of functional parts

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Prepoznati razvojni potencijali u promatranom području su prostorni resursi za širenje i povezivanje naselja – prostor stare Zagorke (današnjeg Tondacha) i prostora jezera, kao i bogatstvo prirodnih resursa – vode i gline, te jaka tradicija proizvodnje proizvoda od gline nastavljena od strane ugledne tvrtke Tondach. Također, Bedekovčina je dom mnogim zaštićenim kulturnim dobrima, ugošćuje mnoge kulturno-umjetničke manifestacije i ima ugled u obrazovanju na području graditeljstva i poljoprivrede. Na temelju prepoznatih potencijala i potreba, ustanovljene su sljedeće mogućnosti arhitektonsko-urbanističke intervencije u naselju, koje maksimalno iskorištavaju potencijalna brownfield područja: Nedostatak uređenog i dovoljno velikog javnog prostora moguće je riješiti uređenjem periferno smještenih postojećih jezera u veliku parkovnu površinu za rekreaciju i odmor. Iskoristiti prostorni resurs tvorničkog kompleksa za povezivanje budućeg parka za odmor i rekreaciju s naseljem koje dosad nije imalo prihvatljiv parkovni javni prostor. Očuvati nepokretna kulturna dobra u vlasništvu tvornice crijepa Tondach, koja su dio inventara prepoznatog brownfielda umetanjem potrebnih sadržaja i polivalentnih prostora za promicanje kulture, znanosti i tradicije (dvorane, radionice tradicionalnih obrta, projekcije, predstave, izložbe itd.), na razini lokalne zajednice kao i za potrebe vlasnika, na obostranu dobit. Svladati prostornu barijeru pruge denivelacijom postojećeg javnog prostora u središtu na etažu -1, uz uređenje protočnog linearnog parka uz prugu kojim bi se povezao perivoj dvorca sa sjeverne strane pruge i budući ŠRC s južne strane pruge i stvorila tampon zona prema stambenoj zoni. Na tragu ostvarivanja komunikacijskih pravaca produžiti aleju kestena koja vodi prema dvorcu, do linearnog parka. U svrhu otvaranja posjetiteljima, obnoviti perivoj i dvorac.

DODATAK: Stručni radovi nastavnika u koautorstvu sa studentom 

The development potentials identified of this area are spatial resources for further growth and connection with the town. They include the facilities of the former Zagorka factory (now Tondach), lake area, abundance of natural resources, and water and clay resources, as well as the strong tradition of clay products now continued by the reputable company Tondach. Bedekovčina is also a home to many protected cultural goods, host to arts and culture events, and is renowned for education in the field of construction and agriculture. Based on the recognized potentials and needs, the possible architectural and urbanistic interventions have been established that would fully utilize the potential brownfield areas: Make us of the spatial resources of the factory compound to connect the future recreational and leisure park with the town that has never had a quality public park. Preserve immobile cultural goods, owned by the Tondach roof tile factory, which are part of the recognized brownfield inventory by including necessary facilities and polyfunctional spaces to promote culture, science and tradition (halls, traditional crafts workshops, film and theatre plays, exhibitions etc.) to the mutual benefit of both the local community and the owner. Traverse the different levels of railway tracks by lowering the existing public space to -1 level, and develop the park lengthwise along the tracks that would connect the public park of the manor house north of the tracks with the future recreation park south of the tracks; this would create a buffer zone towards the residential area. In line with building the communications, the chestnut alley is to be extended to lead towards the manor house all the way to the longitudinal park. Renew the public park and the manor house, and open them for the public.

SUSTAINABLE MATERIALISATION – NEW VALUE OF THE SPACE In the context of sustainability, a mutual benefit for the local community and the adjacent industry needs to be established. The Austrian Tondach company is the largest manufacturer and distributor of clay roof tiles in the region, and being a very advanced company, it cares for its employees and adjoining local communities by promoting culture, science and sustainability. Therefore, architectural intervention needs to, inter alia, offer the programme and form based on the modern interpretation of the on-site tradition. Such architecture should connect the qualities of the local, and thus give the new value to the town through aesthetics, science, culture, affirmation of tradition, respecting the needs of local population and the principles of sustainability.

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facta architectonica 2

Sl. 8. Prikaz urbanističkog rješenja u sklopu diplomskog rada – Kompleks znanstvenog parka tvornice ‘Tondach’ u Bedekovčini / Fig. 8. Urbanistic solution, as part of the graduation thesis Tondach factory Science Park in Bedekovčina

Sl. 9. Maketa idejnog arhitektonskog rješenja Muzeja gline u sklopu Diplomskog rada – Kompleks znanstvenog parka tvornice Tondach, Bedekovčina / Fig. 9. Preliminary design model of the Clay Museum being part of the graduation thesis Tondach Factory Science Park, Bedekovčina

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

ODRŽIVA MATERIJALIZACIJA – NOVA VRIJEDNOST PROSTORA

Based on the analysis, I have come to the conclusion that this brownfield space, along with the operating part of the factory owned by Tondach, has all the potentials to integrate the mentioned principles. Therefore, the key architectural intervention proposed (in terms of content and form) is reshaping the entire site into Tondach factory Science Park consisting of the operating factory facilities and administrative building, and its closed parts reshaped by incorporating the scientific and research centre in it. It would serve not only the needs of the Tondach concern, but also the local community to educate miscellaneous age groups in the fields of technical sciences and ecology. In addition to this, it is suggested that the industrial archaeology and tradition be preserved by opening a clay museum, where the old factory building itself would be an exhibit. Bedekovčina’s history and industrial tradition, and the past and contemporary manufacturing processes would be on display. Bearing in mind that the museum (although of modern origin) would be a place of remembering the past times, it would be built of modern materials, in contrast to the existing old ones.

U kontekstu održivosti, potrebno je uspostaviti uzajamnu dobrobit lokalne zajednice i njoj pripojene industrijske grane. Austrijska tvrtka Tondach najveći je proizvođač i distributer glinenog crijepa u regiji, te kao vrlo razvijena tvrtka drži do svojih zaposlenika i pripadajućih lokalnih zajednica, promičući kulturu, znanost i održivost. Stoga, između ostalog, arhitektonska intervencija u ovom prostoru treba ponuditi program i formu temeljenu na suvremenoj interpretaciji zatečene tradicije. Takva arhitektura trebala bi povezati kvalitete zatečenog i na taj način dati novu vrijednost naselju, kroz estetiku, znanost, kulturu, afirmaciju tradicije i poštivanje lokalnih potreba stanovništva i načela održivosti. Na temelju analize došla sam do zaključka da prepoznati prostor kao potencijalni brownfield uz još budni tvornički dio u Tondachovom vlasništvu ima sve predispozicije za integraciju navedenih načela. Stoga je kao ključna arhitektonska intervencija (sadržajno i formalno) predloženo preoblikovanje čitave lokacije u Znanstveni park tvornice Tondach, sastavljen od aktivnog tvorničkog pogona s upravom, te njegovih ugaslih dijelova preoblikovanih inkorporiranjem znanstveno-istraživačkog centra (ZIC-a) koji bi osim za potrebe koncerna Tondach služio i lokalnoj zajednici kao poligon za edukaciju najrazličitijih dobnih skupina na poljima tehničkih znanosti i ekologije. Osim toga, predlaže se očuvanje industrijske arheologije i tradicije otvaranjem muzeja gline, u kojem bi sama stara tvornička zgrada bila eksponat, uz postav o povijesti i tradiciji bedekovčanske industrije, s prikazima tehnoloških procesa proizvodnje nekad i danas. S obzirom da bi muzej (iako nastao u sadašnjosti), bio mjesto prisjećanja na prošlo vrijeme, njegovo novo ruho je zamišljeno u suvremenim materijalima kao kontrast onome što je postojeće i staro. U jednakom izrazu ostvaruju se vizure iz galerije prema naselju i prema unutarnjem dvorištu. Prizemno se događa oslobađanje od ovojnice radi komunikacije javnog s parterom, a ulazna točka nalazi se na pravcu koji proizlazi iz urbanističkog uređenja kompleksa tvornice. Taj pravac povezuje muzej s isto tako planiranim znanstvenoistraživačkim centrom, nadstrešnicom u organičkoj formi koja je kontrast ortogonalnoj organizaciji tvorničkog sklopa. Prostori muzeja trebali bi poslužiti i zajednici kao galerija za povremene izložbe, promocije, kulturne događaje, projekcije i slično.

The town vistas as seen from the gallery and those of the inner courtyard are expressed in the same way. The shells of the ground floor are opened to enable the communication with the public, and the point of entry is on the route originating from the urbanistic development of the factory compound. This route connects the museum with the equally planned science and research centre, canopy in the organic form contrasting the orthogonal organisation of the factory compound. The museum spaces are to serve the community for periodic exhibitions, presentations, cultural events, films and the like. This is how the local community receives numerous benefits: the space to promote culture and education among all generations in the field of technology and ecology, expanded town centre, easier connection with the lakes, new jobs and recognisability in the region. The factory, at the same time, gets profit from commercial contents. The success in this kind of enterprise would contribute to the progress of the community and make it recognizable in the general region. The architectural intervention would therefore set off a chain reaction whose results could then inter-connect after the example of European programmes.

Na taj način lokalna zajednica dobiva prostor za promicanje kulture i obrazovanje svih naraštaja u aspektima tehnologije i ekologije, prošireni centar i kraću vezu s jezerima, nova radna mjesta i prepoznatljivost u regiji, a tvornica kao vlasnik profit od komercijalnih sadržaja. Uspjeh u takvom pothvatu pridonio bi revitalizaciji i napredovanju zajednice, te bi otvorio vrata prema prepoznatljivosti i izvan zajednice. Prema tome, arhitektonska intervencija pokrenula bi svojevrsni lančani efekt čiji bi se produkti mogli tada međusobno povezati po uzoru na europske programe.

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facta architectonica 2

Aleksandar Homadovski

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Domagoj Maraković

Zračna luka Čakovec ICAO1 : LDVC

Zračni promet, za razliku od ostalih putničkih infrastrukturnih sustava, načelno nema većih tehnoloških ograničenja u povećanju broja novih linija, uključujući i nove postaje. Koridori leta postojećih linija u stalnoj su promjeni pa je stoga od velikog značenja za nadogradnju zračnog prometa upravo ta sposobnost prilagodbe svakoj novonastaloj situaciji. Prednost zračnog prometa je brzina putovanja, a to pozitivno utječe ne samo na promet putnika već i na promet tereta, čiji je zračni prijevoz u stalnom porastu.2

Povijest lokacije Letjelište Pribislavec svoje prve letove primilo je već 1940-ih godina, a 1954. otvoren je novoizgrađeni hangar i priređen prvi organizirani aeromiting. Između 1960-ih i 1980-ih godina u suradnji s aeroklubom Čakovec organizirana su mnoga natjecanja, i to ne samo motornim letjelicama, već i jedrilicama, zmajevima, kao i natjecanja u padobranskim skokovima (Slike 1., 2., 3.). Na letjelištu Pribislavec aktivno djeluje škola zračnog jedriličarstva i padobranstva. Usto, jednom ili dva puta godišnje održavani su izrazito posjećeni aeromitinzi čiji se broj u posljednjih nekoliko godina ipak, zbog lošeg upravljanja letjelištem i čestih promjena voditelja, smanjio. Unatoč dugoj povijesti letjelište je stoga ostalo unutar svoje prvotne kategorije i namjene.3 Putničkim terminalom na odabranoj lokaciji istražuje se mogućnost iskorištavanja snažne postojeće prometne infrastrukturne mreže, kao i postojeće lokacije aerodroma (letjelišta) Pribislavec. Nova zračna luka bila bi ponajviše orijentirana, zbog prostornih ograničenja4 i ograničenja vezanih uz utjecaje na okoliš, na niskobudžetne letove kraćih dometa. Pod kraćim dometom podrazumijevaju se udaljenosti

Sl. 1. – 3. / Fig. 1 – 3

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Čakovec Airport ICAO1: LDVC

Unlike other traffic infrastructural systems, the air traffic system generally has no major technological limits to increase of the number of flights or new terminals. Given that air corridors of the existing flight routes are constantly changing, it is precisely the adaptability to every new situation that is of great importance when it comes to the upgrading of air traffic. The advantage of air traffic is in the speed of transportation, which positively impacts not just the passenger transport, but also the ever growing air carriage of goods2.

History of location The first landing at Pribislavec Airfield took place as early as the 1940s and 1954 saw the opening of the newly built hangar and an air show put up for the first time. In the period between 1960 and 1980, the town of Čakovec, together with the Čakovec Aero Club, organized a number of competitions not only of powered aircrafts but also of gliders, kites, and competitions in skydiving (Figs 1, 2 and 3). Pribislavec Airfield also houses a school for gliding and skydiving. In addition, the air shows, organized once or twice a year, were extremely well attended. However, due to poor management of the airfield and frequent fluctuation of managers, the air shows declined in number. As a result, albeit its long history, this airfield has retained only its initial category and purpose3. The investigation into a passenger terminal at the selected location is aimed at seeking possibilities of using the existing strong traffic infrastructural network and the convenient location of the Pribislavec Airport (Airfield). In view of the spatial limitations4 and those related to the impacts on the environment, the new airport would be predominantly used for low-budget and short-range flights. The latter refers to ranges up to 2,000 kilometres, thus covering most of the European destinations. In addition to being used for public transport, the airport will be used for the transport of cargo and mail, but also for police, medical and fire-fighting rescues, following the example of the German ADAC5. Besides, the airport

1, ICAO – International Civil Aviation Organization (Organizacija međunarodnog civilnog zrakoplovstva) 2, Globalni zračni promet porastao je za 26,5% u lipnju ove godine, za razliku od prošle godine, te ostaje 8% viši od vrhunca prije recesije 2008. godine. Izvor: IATA (International Air Transport Association) 3, Postojeća kategorija je pristanište za povremeni zračni prijevoz, školovanje i sport, duljine travnate uzletno-sletne staze 1100 m, kategorije 2B. 4, Površina infrastrukturne zone određene prostornim planom uređenja općine Pribislavec ne dopušta uzletno-sletnu stazu dužu od 1600 m, što ograničava zrakoplove na raspon krila do 30 metara.

1, ICAO – International Civil Aviation Organization 2, Global air traffic showed a 26.5% improvement in June of this year, as compared with 2009, and is now 8% above the pre-recession peak in 2008. Source: IATA (International Air Transport Association). 3, Under its current category, it is an airport used for occasional air transport, trainings and sport. Its runway is 1,100 m long, classified under 2B category. 4, The surface of the infrastructural zone defined by the zoning plan of Pribislavec Municipality does not allow a runway in excess of 1,600 m, with the aircraft wingspan to 30 m. 5, ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

do 2000 kilometara, što obuhvaća većinu europskih odredišta. Osim za javni zračni promet, zračna bi se luka koristila i za prijevoz tereta, poštanskih pošiljaka, kao i za letove policijskih, bolničkih i vatrogasnih službi po uzoru na njemački sustav ADAC.5 Usto zračna bi luka djelomično zadržala i sportski karakter. Proširila bi se postojeća obuka pilota i padobranaca u učionicama i kabinetima u zgradi putničkog terminala, a s funkcijama neovisnima o radu terminala.

would partly maintain its sporty character. It is planned to improve the existing training courses for pilots and parachutists in the classrooms and demonstration rooms located on the premises of the passenger terminal and independently of the latter’s operation.

Programiranje i projektiranje male zračne luke Kod planiranja novih zračnih luka, odnosno putničkih terminala, većina literature govori o brojkama koje godišnje premašuju milijun putnika. U okvirima Hrvatske, koja ima mali broj stanovnika i tek posljednjih godina bilježi povećanje broja putnika, dobivamo mnogo manji broj putnika od milijun. Zračne luke Zagreb i Dubrovnik jedine imaju godišnji promet veći od milijun putnika, dok ostale zračne luke ne dosežu niti 500 tisuća putnika godišnje.6 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7. 

Zračna luka Zagreb Zračna luka Dubrovnik Zračna luka Zadar Zračna luka Čakovec Zračna luka Pula Zračna luka Rijeka Zračna luka Split

Broj letova 2010. god. 20 400 14 500 3300 3000 (očekivano) 1040 Podaci nedostupni* Podaci nedostupni**

Vidi: * http://www.aztn.hr/uploads/documents/odluke/DP/UPI-430-01201004001.pdf.  Vidi: ** Prilog strategiji razvoja zračnog prometa u Hrvatskoj do 2030. godine.

U literaturi koja obrađuje planiranje i projektiranje zračnih luka, izračuni redovito počinju s milijun putnika godišnje naviše7 (Slike 4. i 5.). Primjeri novo planiranih zračnih luka s prometom manjim od milijun putnika godišnje time su izrazito oprečni. Ne samo da u njima varira broj gatova, već variraju i njihove površine, omjer dolaznih i odlaznih, kao i omjer međunarodnih i domaćih gatova. To pokazuje da se planiranje manjih zračnih luka zapravo više prilagođava lokalnoj situaciji nego projektiranju prema prethodno određenim statističkim parametrima. Osim toga, male zračne luke imaju u potpunosti drugačiji omjer javnih i putničkih prostora te tehničkih prostora. Taj omjer izraz je lokalnih zahtjeva i prilika, kao i načina disponiranja funkcionalnih cjelina unutar zračne luke.

Sl. 4. i 5. / Fig. 5 & 6

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Planning and design of small airports Most of the literature about the planning of new airports and passenger terminals mentions figures in excess of one million passengers a year. Given Croatia’s small-sized population and the fact that the number of passengers has increased only recently, Croatian airports admit far fewer than one million passengers. Only the airports in Zagreb and Dubrovnik have a turnover that exceeds one million, whereas other airports have less than 500,000 passengers per year6. 1  2  3  4  5  6  7 

Number of flights in 2010 Zagreb Airport 20400 Dubrovnik Airport 14500 Zadar Airport 3300 Čakovec Airport 3000 (expected) Pula Airport 1040 Rijeka Airport n/a* Split Airport n/a**

See: * http://www.aztn.hr/uploads/documents/ odluke/DP/UPI-430-012010-04001.pdf. See: ** Prilog strategiji razvoja zračnog prometa u Hrvatskoj do 2030. godine. /Contribution to the Strategy of Development of Air Transport in Croatia until 2030/ As a rule, the calculations found in the literature on the planning and design of airports start with a figure of one million passengers and up7 (Figs 4 and 5). The examples of the newly planned airports with more than a million of passengers per year are quite divergent. Not only do they vary in the number of gates, but also in the sizes of surfaces, the arrivals-departures ratio and the international-domestic gates ratio. This indicates that the planning of smaller airports takes into account local circumstances rather than preliminary collected statistical parametres. Besides, the comparative size of public, passenger and technical areas are entirely different at small airports. These ratios reflect local needs and circumstances and also the manner in which the functional units are arranged within an airport.

5, ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil Club) posjeduje 44 helikoptera za hitne medicinske slučajeve i u Njemačkoj je postavljen tako da se do svake lokacije može stići za 15 minuta. 6, Usporedni broj letova 2010. godine svih zračnih luka za prihvat zrakoplova u javnom zračnom prometu u Republici Hrvatskoj, uključujući i očekivani promet zračne luke Čakovec. (Iako se prilikom projektiranja govori o broju putnika, za usporedbu je mnogo značajniji godišnji broj letova.) Izvor: web stranice zračnih luka Zagreb, Dubrovnik, Zadar i Pula. 7, Horonjeff, McKelvey, Sproule, Young, Planning & Design of Airports, Fifth Edition, McGraw Hill, 2010., str. 397.

Club) has 44 helicopters for emergency medical rescue, which are stationed in such a way that each location can be reached within 15 minutes. 6, Comparative number of flights in 2010 at all airports for admission of aircraft in the public air transport in the Republic of Croatia, including the expected traffic at Čakovec Airport. (Although the designing of the airport is focused on the number of passengers, the number of flights is more significant.) Source: web sites of the airports in Zagreb, Dubrovnik, Zadar and Pula. 7, Horonjeff, McKelvey, Sproule, Young, Planning & Design of Airports, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2010, p. 397.

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Projekt zračne luke Čakovec

Design of Čakovec Airport

Unatoč velikoj površini (80 ha), radi optimalnog korištenja potrebno je izmijeniti površinu infrastrukturne zone da bi se omogućila dovoljna duljina uzletno-sletne staze (na 84 ha). Isto tako, potrebno je izmijeniti granicu između općina Pribislavec i Belica budući da se infrastrukturna zona planirana za izgradnju zračne luke nalazi u obje općine te u obje uskladiti prostorne planove njihova uređenja. Nova uzletno-sletna staza bila bi dugačka 1600 metara, što odgovara zračnoj luci kodnog broja 3, s duljinom staze između 1200 i 1800 metara, te kodnog slova C8 s maksimalnim rasponom krila od 24 do 36 metara, što odgovara većini današnjih zrakoplova kapaciteta do 60 putnika.9 Nova zračna luka imala bi dva odlazna i jedan dolazni gat, a sva tri mogu se koristiti i za domaće i za međunarodne letove. Putnički terminal primao bi u prosjeku osam letova dnevno10 tj. do 3000 letova godišnje, a to se može usporediti s prometom Zračne luke Zadar 2010. godine od 3328 letova. Predloženi kapacitet stajanke bio bi sedam zrakoplova raspona krila do 28 m, te šest zrakoplova raspona krila do 12 m. Helidromi bi primali do 6 helikoptera, dok bi hangari za male letjelice primali do osam zrakoplova raspona krila do 12 m (sveukupno 24 zrakoplova u tri hangara).

Sl. 1. Zračna luka Čakovec / Fig. 1. Čakovec Airport

Ti kapaciteti mogli bi se koristiti i kao najam stajanke za privatne zrakoplove. Oblik zgradâ formira prostore koji stvaraju dva osnovna ambijenta: konkavni prostor na zapadnoj strani koji zaokružuje pristup putnika, te konkavni prostor na istočnoj strani koji stvara cjelinu formiranu hangarima za male letjelice aerokluba Međimurje. Pristup vozila zgradi terminala odvija se kruženjem koje završava ili kratkim stajanjem uz zapadnu stranu zgrade ili na parkiralištu na sjeveru. Jasnoća kretanja po terminalu postiže se linearnim prostornim autoritetom glavne hale koja se sužava kako se smanjuje broj korisnika/putnika. Na tim ‘prekidima’ formiraju se atriji i pojavljuju se oznake gatova.11 Unatoč tome što većina zračnih luka ima jasno definirane podjele između domaćih i međunarodnih dolazaka i odlazaka, u zračnoj luci Čakovec, zbog ograničenog broja letova, a time i putnika, gatovi mogu funkcionirati kao domaći, ali i kao međunarodni. Otvaranjem i zatvaranjem pokretnih paravana postiže se kretanje s carinom ili bez nje.

Regardless of the sizeable surface (80 hectares), it is necessary to extend the infrastructural zone in order to ensure long enough runways (84 hectares) and thus obtain optimal operation. Also, the border between the municipalities of Pribislavec and Belica must be changed, since the infrastructure zone extends over those two municipalities and the zoning plans for both must be harmonized accordingly. The new runway will be 1,600 m long, which is equivalent to an airport classified under number 3, where a runway is 1,200 – 1,800 m long, and by letter C 8 for the maximum wingspan from 24 to 36 metres, which is equivalent to the majority of the present-time aircraft with a capacity of up to 60 passengers9. The new airport will have two departure gates and one arrival gate, all of them envisaged for both international and domestic flights. The passenger terminal will admit eight flights a day in average,10 i.e. up to 3,000 a year, which is close to the traffic at Zadar Airport with 3,328 flights in 2010. The proposed capacity of the apron is seven aircraft with wingspan up to 28 m, and six aircraft with wingspan up to 12 m. Heliports will have a daily capacity of up to six helicopter, and hangars up to eight small aircraft with maximum wingspan of 12 m (in total, 24 aircraft in three hangars). In addition, those facilities could also be used as aprons for private airplanes. The bodies of the buildings shape the space, which creates two major settings: a concave space on the west side which encloses the passenger access, and the concave space on the east side which creates a complex formed by the hangars for the small aircraft of Međimurje Aero Club. Access of vehicles to the terminal building is organised in a circle, which ends up either with a stopover zone along the west side of the building or at the parking lot on the north side. The simplicity of movement at the terminal is achieved through the linear spatial domination of the main hall, which gradually tapers with fewer users/passengers. At those ‘points of interruption’ atriums are formed and that is where designations of the gates appear.11 Although most of airports have a clearly defined division between international and domestic arrivals and departures, the gates at Čakovec airport function as both international and domestic given the limited number of flights and, consequently, passengers. Movement of passengers through or past the customs control is achieved by opening or closing a movable divider.

Referentni projekti – komparativna analiza: •

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Zgrada Akademije znanosti u San Franciscu arhitekta Renza Piana nalazi se unutar Golden Gate parka u sjeverozapadnom dijelu grada. Projektom niske građevine s travnatim krovom ublažava se negativni utjecaj izgradnje unutar pri-

Reference projects – a comparative analysis: • The Academy of Sciences building in San Francisco created by architect Renzo Piano is located in the Golden Park in the north-west

8, Kategorizacija prema ICAO. 9, Primjeri najčešće korištenih zrakoplova kategorije 3C – Bombardier Dash 8-Q100 i Q200, DC 9-20, Fokker F28, SAAB SF-340. 10, Računajući 4 odlazna leta s periodima od 3 sata, te 4 dolazna leta s periodima od 1 sat. 11, Shema terminalskih cjelina s atrijima i oznakama gatova (ilustracija napomene 11)

8, Classification according to the ICAO. 9, Examples of most frequently used 3C-category aircraft – Bombardier Dash 8-Q100 and Q200, DC 9-20, Fokker F28, SAAB SF-340. 10, Counting four departures in three-hour periods and four arrivals in a 1-hour period. 11, An outline of terminal sections with atriums and gates designation (illustration of note n. 11)

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

rodnog okoliša. Kompaktni volumen pažljivo je položen u već formiranu strukturu. Zračna luka Prince George ureda McFarlane, Green & Biggar u Kanadi, primjer je kompaktnog putničkog terminala u kojem je već iz tlocrta vidljivo minimaliziranje tehničkih prostora u odnosu na prostore za putnike, što je inače naglašen problem kod projektiranja malih zračnih luka. Istraživački centar IBM-a Eera Saarinena u Yorktownu u državi New York svojim zakrivljenim oblikom pokazuje rafinirani odnos komunikacijskih (dinamičnih) i zatvorenih (statičnih) dijelova. Blaga zakrivljena opna time je postavljena u kontrast sa segmentnim prostorom interijera. Dizajnom opne zgrade Columbia Business School UN Studija vidljiva je diferencijacija prostora kojima je potrebno jače dnevno osvjetljenje, za razliku od prostora kojima je potrebno manje, s izrazito blagim prijelazima. Otvori u perforiranoj vanjskoj opni nižu se u rasteru, a variraju samo svojom veličinom.

Animacija destinacije – prednost i potreba malih zračnih luka S obzirom da je zračna luka, unatoč malom broju letova, snažan infrastrukturni element, njezino pozicioniranje unutar ruralne cjeline traži dodatne sadržaje. Kao element destinacije, u fokus ispred zgrade terminala programiran je tehnološki park. Mreža pješačkih puteva te nasadi u dva sloja s različitim podvrstama drveća12 oblikuju punktove sa sadržajima unutar zaštićenih zona zelenila (izlošci starih zrakoplova), ali i dječja igrališta, mjesta za odmor, kao i ugostiteljski paviljon ili amfiteatar na otvorenom. Usto, sadržaji i prostori unutar parka koristili bi se za događanja koja su već tradicionalna za lokaciju predložene zračne luke Čakovec. Modelarska škola koja već djeluje unutar aerokluba Međimurje također bi sadržajima parka dobila prostor za upoznavanje s povijesti letenja, kao i s letenjem općenito. Zračna luka osigurava sezonski najam stajanke civilnom zrakoplovstvu uz izrazitu konkurentnost u cijeni pruženih usluga. Važnost projekta ponajviše leži u iskorištavanju postojećih resursa i infrastrukture koji uz određena ograničenja imaju velik potencijal izrazito regionalnog karaktera. Pojavom ovakvih manjih zračnih luka rasterećuje se zračni promet velikih, te se postiže regionalna prometna povezanost koja se danas ostvaruje jedino cestovnim ili željezničkim linijama. Male zračne luke imaju potencijal da povećavaju mobilnost, a pritom izrazito malo utječu na okoliš. Programiranjem unutar konteksta najrazvijenije regije u Hrvatskoj potvrđuje se potencijal gospodarskog i ekonomskog razvoja, a također se vraća i podupire specifično turističko značenje Međimurske županije.

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

part of the town. The low-rise project with a green roof takes the edge off the negative impact of building in the natural environment. The compact volume was carefully laid onto an already formed structure. • Prince George Airport designed by the Office of McFarlane, Green & Biggar in Canada is an example of a compact passenger terminal. Just by looking at the ground plan it is evident that the technical area has been minimized in favour of the passenger area, which is generally a considerable problem when designing small airports. • IBM Research Center in Yorktown, NY designed by Eero Saarinen, owing to its crescent-shaped structure, it represents a refined rapport between the communication/dynamic and closed/ static sections. The mildly curved shape creates a contrast with the segmented interior area. • The design of membrane of the Columbia Business School UN Study clearly shows the differentiation of the areas that need more daily light and those that need less of it, as well as the smooth transition from one to another. The openings in the perforated exterior membrane extend in a sequence and differ from one another only in size.

Animation of destination – advantages of and need for small airports Given that an airport, however scarce flights may be, is a strong infrastructural component, its positioning within a rural environment requires certain additional facilities. As an element of the final destination, a technology park is planned to be set up in the central area outside the terminal building. A network of footpaths with various subspecies of trees 12 form focal points with various contents within the protected green zones (displays of aircraft old-timers), but also children playgrounds and a catering pavilion or an open-air amphitheatre. In addition, the facilities and spaces in the park are intended for various events traditionally held at the location of the proposed Čakovec Airport. A model aircraft constructor school, which is already in operation, would be enlarged by an area providing an insight into the history of flying and flying in general. The airport provides the civil aviation with seasonal rental of an apron at highly competitive prices of offered services. The greatest significance of the project is in the exploitation of the existing resources and infrastructure which, limited as they are, have a great potential of pronounced regional character. The emergence of such small airports unburdens large airports and improves the quality of regional traffic communication, which is presently available only by road and railway. Small airports have a potential to increase mobility which has an extremely low impact on the environment. The planning in the context of the best developed region in Croatia substantiates the potentials for the economic growth, but also restores and supports the specific relevance of the Međimurje County in terms of tourism.

12, Acer Platanoides, Acer Campestre ‘Postelense’

12, Acer Platanoides, Acer Campestre ‘Postelense’

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facta architectonica 2

Vesna Mikić

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Nikolina Muža

Informirani krajolici: Mreže i ruralni razvoj

UVOD

Sl. 1. Analiza nagiba/strmosti cesta u Općini Skrad; Izvor podataka: PPUO Skrad (2007.) / Fig. 1 Analysis of slope/steepness of roads in Skrad municipality; Data source: PPUO / Municipal Spatial Plan/ Skrad (2007)

Diplomski rad, uže kvalificiran kao projekt za sportski centar ‘Veliko Selce’ u Skradu, bavi se širim pitanjima regionalnog razvoja Hrvatske, mogućim načinima pristupa topografski izazovnim lokacijama1 te traženjem arhitektonskog odgovora na problem interpolacije u gusto prirodno tkivo goranskih prostora. Samom arhitektonskom produktu prethodila je iscrpna urbanistička analiza u kojoj je bilo potrebno razumjeti karakteristike i slojeve prostora te njihov kontekst unutar, ali i izvan, same regije. Tek kada se shvati puna teritorijalna dinamika prostora poput Gorskog kotara, moguće je djelovati unutar njegovih ograničenja i potencijala. U daljnjem tekstu gledat ćemo kako se institucije poput Ministarstva poljoprivrede RH i Zavoda za prostorno uređenje kroz dokumente Strategije ruralnog razvoj RH i prostorne planove2 bave zadanim problemima, kako definiraju bazične pojmove te koje metode primjenjuju za mapiranje prostora. Za komparativnu analizu gledat ćemo alate kojima se koriste institucije Europske unije, kako druge države definiraju pojmove poput urbanog i ruralnog te problematiku mreža kroz suvremeni arhitektonski diskurs.

PROBLEM DEFINIRANJA URBANOG I RURALNOG

Sl. 2. Grad vs. krajolik Izvori podataka: PPUO Skrad (2007.), GUP Grada Zagreba (2007.) / Fig. 2 Town vs. landscape
 Data sources: PPUO Skrad (2007), GUP /General Urban Plan/ of the City of Zagreb (2007)

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Kako bismo uopće mogli započeti ikakvu urbanističku analizu prostora poput Općine Skrad, potrebno ga je klasificirati u jednu od dvije zadane kategorije: urbano ili ruralno. Ovo je važno zbog kalibriranja razmišljanja o prostoru i načinu kako ga razvijati. Kao što možemo vidjeti na slici 2. ‘Grad vs. krajolik’ na prvi pogled je jasno da je količina prirodnog krajolika3 (šume, parkovi, poljoprivredna zemljišta itd.) obrnuto proporcionalna na primjerima Zagreba i Skrada.

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Informed Landscapes: Networks and Rural Development INTRODUCTION The graduation thesis, more narrowly defined as a project for the sports centre called Veliko Selce in Skrad deals with broader issues of the Croatian regional development, possible ways to approach topographically challenging locations1 and the search for an architectural response to the problem of interpolation in dense natural tissue of Gorski kotar area. The architectural product was preceded by a detailed analysis of urban planning in which it was necessary to understand the characteristics and layers of the premises, and their context within, and outside, the region itself. Only when we understand the full dynamics of territorial space like Gorski kotar, it is possible to operate within its limitations and potential. In the hereafter we will see how institutions like the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Croatia, and the Bureau for Physical Planning, deal with the problem through documents like the Rural Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and spatial plans2. We will also see how they define the basic concepts and methods that are applied to map the area. For comparative analysis we will see the tools used by the institutions of the European Union, how other states define terms such as urban and rural, and the problematics of networks through contemporary architectural discourse.

THE PROBLEM OF DEFINING URBAN AND RURAL In order to even just begin any kind of urban analysis of the area like Skrad municipality, it must be classified into one of two default categories: urban or rural. This is important for the calibration of thinking about space, and about the way to develop it. As we can see in Figure 2 ‘Town vs. landscape’, at first glance it is clear that the amount of natural landscapes3 (forests, parks, agricultural land, etc.) is inversely proportional to the examples of Zagreb and Skrad. From the given examples it would be easy to conclude that Skrad, as opposed to Zagreb which is the capital city and the Croatian urban center, logically must be a rural area. Because of the relativity of this comparative method, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery and Rural Development in the Rural Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia adopted more precise criteria for the

1, Definirane kao goranski, brdski prostori gdje se na km² odvija visinska razlika već od 100 m. 2, PPUO Skrad (2007.) i PROSTORNI PLAN PRIMORSKO-GORANSKE ŽUPANIJE (1998.) 3, Možda bi točnije bilo reći ‘neizgrađenog’ prostora.

1, Defined as hilly, Gorski kotar area where there is an altitude difference of already 100 m per square kilometre. 2, PPUO Skrad (2007) and the Spatial plan of Primorje-Gorski kotar County (1998) 3, Maybe it would be more accurate to say ‘unsettled’ area.

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Iz danog primjera bilo bi lako zaključiti da, budući da je Zagreb glavni grad i urbano središte Republike Hrvatske, po logici stvari, Skrad, kao opreka Zagrebu, mora da je ruralna sredina. Zbog relativnosti ove komparativne metode Ministarstvo poljoprivrede, ribarstva i ruralnog razvoja je u Strategiji ruralnog razvoja RH donijelo preciznije kriterije klasifikacije urbanog i ruralnog.4 Po kriteriju gustoće naseljenosti od 150 stanovnika/km² općina Skrad sa svojih 1333 stanovnika na 53,1 km² tj. gustoćom naseljenosti od 25,1 stanovnika/km² spada pod ruralna područja Republike Hrvatske. Problem takvog kvantifikacijskog pristupa definiranju urbanog i ruralnog, proizvodi u najmanju ruku čudne rezultate gdje se npr. Uppsala, četvrti najveći grad u Švedskoj, zbog jako niske gustoće naseljenosti klasificira kao ruralno područje.5

classification of urban and rural.4 According to the criterion of population density of 150 inhabitants/km², Skrad municipality with its 1,333 inhabitants to 53.1 square kilometers, i.e. population density of 25.1 inhabitants/ km², falls under rural areas of the Republic of Croatia. The problem of such a quantification approach to defining urban and rural creates, at the very least, strange results where, for example, Uppsala, the fourth largest city in Sweden, due to the very low population density is classified as a rural area.5

Različite zemlje imaju različite kriterije za definiranje urbanih tj. ruralnih područja. Engleska vlada je 2001. godine naručila studiju koja se bavila upravo definicijama ruralnog i urbanog s ciljem da se identificira najbolji mogući način određivanja istih. Studija je pronašla da u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu postoje tri glavna pristupa te tri prevladavajuća kvantifikacijska kriterija za definiranje urbanog i ruralnog. Pristupi su se dijelili po načinu korištenja zemljišta (identificiraju se područja koja imaju pretežnu namjenu zemljišta koje je po karakteru nepovratno urbano), po funkcionalnim područjima (identificira se zaleđe nad kojima grad ima važnu ulogu u osiguranju radnih mjesta, usluga i ustanova) te po gustoći (najčešće po gustoći stanovnika, ali moguće i po gustoćama kućanstava, izgrađenosti itd.). Kvanitifikacijski, urbana područja su se definirala kao svako naselje s više od 10 000 stanovnika, područje veličine 20ha s najmanje 1000 stanovika ili kao svako naseljeno područje čije građevne čestice nisu udaljene više od 200 m. Pluralitet mogućih kriterija i pristupa doveo je do velikih diskrepancija u statistici urbanih i ruralnih područja ovisno na kojoj su razini rađene (državnoj, županijskoj ili lokalnoj razini) i po kojim kriterijima. Zaključak studije bila je preporuka da se kao glavni kriterij uzima kvantifikacijski pokazatelj od 10 000 stanovnika.

In 2004 an agency called DG Agriculture developed a method of classifying urban and rural areas depending on the soil cover. Information about the types of vegetation/soil is collected via satellites (such as Landsat-7, which is used

4, U administrativne svrhe u Republici Hrvatskoj razlika između ruralnih i urbanih područja temelji se na teritorijalnoj podjeli gdje se manje administrativne jedinice, općine, smatraju ruralnim, dok se gradovi smatraju urbanim područjima. Međutim, u svrhu provedbe politike ruralnog razvoja, kao najčešći međunarodno priznat i korišten kriterij za razlikovanje ruralnih i urbanih područja koristi se definicija OECD-a koja se temelji na gustoći naseljenosti stanovništva. Na lokalnoj razini (LAU 1/2 – općine, gradovi u Republici Hrvatskoj), područja se klasificiraju kao ruralna ili urbana temeljem praga od 150 stanovnika na km2. 5, F. J. Gallego; Mapping rural/urban areas from population density grids, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, JRC, Ispra (Italy) 6, http://zulu.ssc.nasa.gov/mrsid/tutorial/Landsat%20Tutorial-V1.html

4, In the Republic of Croatia, for administrative purposes, the difference between rural and urban areas is based on the territorial division where the smaller administrative units, municipalities are considered rural, while cities are considered urban areas. However, for the implementation of rural development policy as the most frequent internationally recognized and used criterion for distinguishing between rural and urban areas, we are using the definition of the OECD /Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/, which is based on population density. At the local level (LAU 1/2/land application unit/ – municipalities, towns in the Republic of Croatia), the area is classified as rural or urban based on a threshold of 150 inhabitants per square km. 5, F. J. Gallego Mapping rural/urban areas from population density grids, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, JRC, Ispra (Italy)

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Agencija DG Agriculture 2004. godine razvila je metodu klasificiranja urbanog i ruralnog ovisno o pokrovu tla. Podatci o vrsti pokrova/tla prikupljaju se satelitskim putem gdje sateliti (poput Landsat-7 koji koristi NASA6) skeniraju površinu

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Different countries have different criteria for defining urban as opposed to rural areas. In 2001, the government of England commissioned a study that dealt exactly with the definitions of rural and urban in order to identify the best way of determining them. The study found that in the United Kingdom there are three main approaches and three predominant quantification criteria for defining urban and rural. The approaches were divided by land use (to identify areas that have the prevailing land use which is irreversibly urban in character), by functional areas (identify the background over which the town has an important role in providing jobs, services and facilities), and by density (usually by the density of the population, but it is also possible by the densities of households, the land development level, etc.). According to quantification, urban areas are defined as any hamlet with more than 10,000 inhabitants, an area the size of 20 hectares with a minimum of 1,000 citizens, or as any populated area whose construction units not more than 200 meters apart. The plurality of possible criteria and approaches has led to large discrepancies in the statistics of urban and rural areas depending on which level they were built (state, county or local level), and by what criteria. The conclusion of the study was the recommendation that the main criterion is the quantitative indicator of 10,000 inhabitants.


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Zemlje te pomoću različitih valnih duljina mogu razlikovati umjetnu od prirodne površine tla. Područje se prema tim podatcima može kvalificirati kao urbano ili ruralno ovisno o zastupljenosti umjetnog tla gdje prag može varirati od 10 – 30% ukupne promatrane površine.

by NASA6) that scan the surface of the Earth using different wavelengths that can distinguish the artificial from the natural ground surface. The area under these data can qualify as urban or rural depending on the presence of artificial soil, whereas the threshold can vary from 10–30% of the observed surface.

Ono što je zanimljivo u kontekstu ovoga članka jest činjenica da je ‘područje’ (u oba primjera, i kod mjerenja gustoće naseljenosti i kod mjerenja količine umjetnog tla) definirano kao površina 100  ×  100 m. Takva čvrsta geometrijska forma znači da se prije ikakve statističke obrade na prostor postavila apstraktna matematička mreža kao matrica za prikupljanje podataka.

What is interesting in the context of this article is the fact that the ‘area’ (in both cases, and in the measurement of population density and with the measurements of the amount of artificial soil) is defined as an area of ​​100  ×  100 meters. Such solid geometric form means that an abstract mathematical space network was set as a matrix for data collection before any kind of statistical processing.

MREŽA

Sl. 3. Tipovi rešetaka Izvor podataka: Liseikin, V. D.: Grid Generation Methods. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1999. / Fig. 3: Types of grids Data source: Liseikin, V.D.: Grid Generation Methods, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1999

Mreža je izuzetno koristan matematički alat kada treba izmjeriti, rasporediti, urediti i postaviti u odnos podatke, pojave, predmete. ‘Mreža je lokacijska karta gustoća’, rekao je Cecil Balmond. No u pojam ‘mreža’ često svrstavamo i pojmove poput rešetke i rastera. Rasterom se teoretski označava ‘nešto što je načinjeno od više elemenata u nekom vidljivom dvodimenzionalnom sustavu’. Taj vidljivi dvodimenzionalni sustav je rešetka. Postoje pravilne i nepravilne rešetke. Pravilna rešetka je mozaik u euklidskom prostoru sačinjen od identičnih paralelotopa.7 Nepravilna rešetka puno je fleksibilnije strukturirana jer je načinjena od jednostavnih elemenata poput trokuta i tetraedara složenih u nepravilan uzorak. Zbog toga je za nepravilnu rešetku od vitalne važnosti lista povezivosti koja specificira način na koji dani set točaka uobličava određeni element rešetke. Povezivost se u matematici i informatici definira kao zahtjev za minimalnim brojem točaka/čvorova ili rubova koji trebaju biti maknuti da bi prekinuli vezu između ostalih točaka. Povezivost je važna mjera robusnosti i usko je povezana s problemom protočnosti mreže tj. kapacitetom čvora ili točke da prima nove veze. Mreže kanaliziraju protok (informacija).

MAPIRANJE POMOĆU MREŽA Najpoznatiji alat za mapiranje prostora je tzv. GIS8 – Geographic Information System tj. geo-informacijski sustav. GIS je prema definiciji sustav dizajniran za snimanje, pohranu, manipulaciju, analizu, upravljanje i predstavljanje sve vrste zemljopisnih podataka. ‘Zemljopisni’ podatci je pojam koji treba uzeti relativno jer GIS nije sposoban mapirati samo podatke kao udaljenosti na površini zemlje, sastav tla i količinu padalina već sve podatke vezane za zemljopi-

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GRID The grid is an extremely useful mathematical tool when you need to measure, distribute, arrange and set the relationship data, phenomena, and objects. ‘The grid is the density location map,’ said Cecil Balmond. Under the term ‘grid’ we often classify terms such as bars and screens. Screen theoretically means ‘something that is made up ​​ of several elements in a visible two-dimensional system.’ This apparent two-dimensional system is the grid. There are regular and irregular grids. A regular grid is a mosaic in the Euclid space that is made of identic paralelotops.7An irregular grid is a much more flexible structure as it is made ​​of simple elements such as triangles and tetraedres arranged in an irregular pattern. Therefore, the list of connectivity that specifies the way the set of dots shapes a certain grid element is of vital importance for an irregular grid. Connectivity in mathematics and computer science is defined as a requirement for a minimum number of dots/knots or edges that need to be removed in order to break the connection between other dots. Connectivity is an important measure of robustness, and is closely connected with the problem of grid fluidity i.e. of the knot or dot capacity for accepting new connections. Grids channeled the flow (information). GRID ASSISTED MAPPING   The most famous tool for mapping the area is the so-called GIS8 – Geographic Information System. GIS is by definition a system designed to record, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and represent all types of geographical data. ‘Geographical’ data is a relative term because GIS is capable of mapping not only data like land distances, soil composition and precipitation quantity, but also all data related to

7, Paralelotop je paralelopiped u višoj dimenziji, npr. u trodimenzionalnom prosotru. 8, GIS je termin skovan od strane Rogera Tomlinsona 1968. godine u njegovom radu ‘Geografski informacijski sustava za prostorno planiranje’. Tomlinson je također priznat kao ‘otac’ GIS-a.

6, http://zulu.ssc.nasa.gov/mrsid/tutorial/ Landsat%20Tutorial-V1.html 7, Paralelotop is a parallelepiped in higher dimension, for example in three-dimensional space. 8, GIS is a term coined by Roger Tomlinson in 1968 in his ‘Geographic Information System for Urban Planning’. Tomlinson is also recognized as the ‘father’ of GIS.

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facta architectonica 2

Sl. 5. Karta okruga Athens, Ohio izrađena pomoću programa ArcView GIS 3.3 / Fig. 5 A Map of Athens County, Ohio
 Designed using ArcView GIS 3.3

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

snu poziciju točke podataka u prostoru tj. može sadržavati podatke kao broj i sastav stanovništva te čak podatke u vremenskoj dimenziji poput količine potresa u zadnjih 100 godina. GIS se može shvatiti kao sustav koji je digitalno stvara i ‘manipulira’ prostorna područja koja mogu biti pravno (legislativno), svrhovito ili aplikacijski orijentirana. GIS je relativno širok pojam koji se može odnositi na nekoliko različitih tehnologija, procesa i metoda. Njegova primjena je vezana za razne operacije i ima mnoge aplikacije za inženjering, (urbanističko) planiranje, upravljanje, prijevoz/ logistiku, osiguranje, telekomunikacije i posao. Iz tog razloga, GIS može biti temelj za mnoge lokacijski vezane usluge koje se oslanjaju na analizu, vizualizaciju i distribuciju podataka potrebnih za grupno, kolaborativno, donošenje odluka (npr. urbano planiranje i državne prostorne strategije).

the geographical position of the data point is space, i.e. it can contain data like the number and composition of the population. It can even contain data on time dimension such as the amount of earthquakes in the last one hundred years. GIS can be understood as a system that is created digitally, and that ‘manipulates’ spatial areas that may be legally (legislatively), purposefully or application oriented. GIS is a relatively broad term that can refer to several different technologies, processes and methods. Its application is related to various operations, and has many applications in engineering, (urban) planning, management, transportation/ logistics, insurance, telecommunications and business. For this reason, GIS can be the basis for many location-based services that rely on the analysis, visualization and data distribution necessary for the group and collaborative decision-making (for example urban planning and national spatial strategies).

Ono čime se arhitekti i planeri koriste u svojem svakodnevnom radu a uzima se ‘zdravo za gotovo’ je zapravo izum ranog 20-og stoljeća; tzv. fotozinkografija koja je omogućila da se karte (skup podataka) podijele u slojeve, primjerice, jedan sloj (‘layer’) za vegetaciju i drugi za vodu.

Sl. 6. Prikaz slojeva koje jedan GIS sustav može sadržavati (korisnici, ulice, parcele, topografija, namjena/korištenje postora) Izvori podataka: Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) / Fig. 6 Showing layers a GIS system can contain (users, streets, lots, topography, zoning/ land usage)
 Data sources: Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS)

Sl. 7. Trodimenzionalan prikaz intenziteta korištenja javnih usluga unutar zadanog urbanog područja Izvori podataka: Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) / Fig. 7 Three-dimensional display of the intensity of the public services use within a given urban area
 Data sources: Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS)

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No ovaj način kartografskog prikaza nije sam po sebi GIS. GIS koristi prostorno-vremenske (prostor-vrijeme) pozicije/ lokacije kao ključni indeks varijable za sve ostale informacije. Baš kao što relacijska baza podataka koja sadrži tekst ili brojke može dovesti u odnos mnoge različite tablice pomoću zajedničkih ključnih indeksa varijable, GIS dovodi u odnos naizgled nepovezane informacije pomoću lokacije kao ključnog indeksa varijable. Ključ je mjesto i/ili obujam (protežnost) u prostoru-vremenu. GIS podaci predstavljaju stvarne predmete (kao što su ceste, korištenje zemljišta, nadmorska visina, drveće, putovi, itd.) gdje implementirani digitalni podaci određuju njihovu mješavinu. Stvarni objekti mogu se podijeliti u dvije apstrakcije: diskretni objekti (npr. kuća) i kontinuirana polja (poput količine padalina ili topografije). Mnoge sofisticirane metode mogu procijeniti karakteristike površine s ograničenim brojem točaka mjerenja. Dvodimenzionalna karta kontura (izohipse, izofone, izokrone, izo-) stvorena iz površinskog modeliranja mjernih točaka količine oborina mogu se prikazivati i analizirati komparativno s bilo kojim drugim slojem tog područja koje pokriva GIS. Tako generirana karta sada može pružiti nove, dodatne informacije kao što su održivost vodnog potencijala kao obnovljivog izvora energije. Isto tako, GIS se može koristiti za usporedbu ostalih obnovljivih izvora energije kako bi se pronašla točka najboljeg zemljopisnog potencijala za regiju. Važno je naglasiti da GIS sustavi imaju jaku trodimenzionalnu komponentu te su u mogućnosti u svakom trenutku generirati 3D prikaz traženih podataka kao što je vidljivo na slici 7.

So-called photozincography that was invented in the early 20th century is something that architects and planners use in their everyday work, and ‘take it for granted’. It enabled maps (data set) to be divided into layers, such as one layer for vegetation, and another for water. But this way of cartographic representation is not in itself a GIS. GIS uses spatial-temporal (space-time) positions/locations as the variable key index for all other information. Just as a relational database that contains a text or numbers can make many different tables relate using variable key indexes, so can GIS make seemingly unconnected information relate using a location as the variable key index. The key is the place and/or volume (the prevalence of) in space-time. GIS data represents real objects (such as roads, land use, elevation, trees, roads, etc.) where implemented digital data determine their mix. Real objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete objects (for example a house) and continuous fields (such as the amount of rainfall or topography). Many sophisticated methods can estimate the characteristics of surfaces from a limited number of measurement points. A two-dimensional contour map (contour lines, isophone, isochrone, iso-) created from the surface modeling of precipitation measuring points can be displayed and analyzed comparatively with any other layer of that area covered by the GIS. That generated map can now provide new, additional information, such as sustainability of water resources as a renewable energy source. Likewise, GIS can be used for comparison to other renewable energy sources in order to find the point of the best geographical potential for the region. It is important to stress that GIS systems have a strong three-dimensional component and are able, at any time, to generate a 3D representation of the requested data as shown in Figure 7

Rezultat primjene GIS sustava je nova praksa koja se primjenjuje u urbanističkim kao i arhitektonskim istraživa-

The result of the application of the GIS system is a new practice, the so-called data mining, to be applied in urban as well as in architectural research and studies such as at the Dutch Delft University of Technology. Data mining mining is a partially automated search for hidden patterns in large databases.

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facta architectonica 2

Sl. 8. Sustav središnjih naselja Izvor podataka: PPUO Skrad (2007.) / Fig. 8 The system of central hamlets Data source: PPUO Skrad (2007)

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

njima te studijima poput nizozemskog TU Delfta, tzv. ‘data mining’ (rudarenje podataka). Data mining je djelomice automatizirana potraga za skrivenim uzorcima u velikim bazama podataka te pokazuje veliku potencijalnu korist za primijenjenu upotrebu kod odlučivanja /projektiranja pomoću GIS modela.

It shows great potential benefits for applied use in decision-making/designing using the GIS model. The data from spatial plans available to architects are often based on outdated forms of perceiving space, and thus their information potential is limited. It is therefore important that architects apply a similar way of thinking to the functioning of the GIS systems that are able to consider an area both in space and time, and create new data sets that will be the source of new and sometime unexpected information.    

Podatci koji su dostupni arhitektima iz prostornih planova često se baziraju na zastarjelim formama sagledavanja prostora te je njihov informacijski potencijal ograničen. Zato je važno da arhitekti primijene način razmišljanja sličan funkcioniranju GIS sustava koji su u mogućnosti prostorno-vremenski sagledati neko područje i stvarati setove podataka iz kojih proizlaze nove, katkad neočekivane, informacije.

INFORMIRANI KRAJOLICI ‘Informirati doslovno znači dati formu, generirati odnose između točaka/trenutaka u prostoru.’ Maurizzio Bonicci, Giovanni Franceschelli, Silvia Banchini U skladu s navedenim citatom postavljaju se dvije važne zadaće. Prva je nalaženje vitalnih točaka, polarizatora u prostoru koji trenutno nose funkciju važnu za okolni prostor te definiranje njihovog radijusa značaja, prostornog dometa u kojem ispunjavaju svoju ulogu. Uz vitalne moguće je naći i mrtve te potencijane točke. Mrtve točke su sadržaji i mjesta koji su nekada bili aktivni ali su tijekom vremena izgubili na značaju. Tu je od najveće važnosti naglasiti analizu i razumijevanje koji to točno procesi i događaji su doveli do tog stanja. Identifikacija potencijalnih točaka u prostoru je najteži dio zadaće te se savjetuje da se izvrši tijekom ili nakon analize prostornih veza vitalnih i mrtvih točaka. Kada se mapiraju te veze dobiva se uzorak, ili mreža, iz koje je sada moguće iščitati da li se logičke veze poklapaju sa stvarnim fizičkim te ocijeniti stupanj protočnosti same mreže. Već i ovaj dio analize, komparacija stvarnog i apstraktnog stanja veza, može pridonijeti zaključku zašto su neke točke postale ‘mrtve’ u prostoru. Iz takve analize i njezinih grafičkih predočenja mogu se pronaći i moguće nove točke, potencijali u prostoru oko kojih se počinju formirati čvorišta veza ili točke koje su dovoljno blizu jednog takvog čvorišta (ili čak više njih). Pošto je infrastruktura uvijek najkritičniji čimbenik svakog projekta/sustava/grada/regije imperativno je mapirati njihov fizički izgled ali i ustanoviti njihovu ‘prokrvljenost’, njihovu sposobnost prenošenja informacija.

Since the infrastructure is still the most critical factor in any project/system/town/region, it is imperative to map their appearance, but also to establish their ‘fluidity’, their ability to convey information.

Explore the nature

Hrvatska kao zemlja svoju specifičnost crpi iz činjenice da u svojih skromih 56 542 km² teritorija obuhvaća tri veoma dis-

Croatia as a country derives its specificity from the fact that in its modest 56,542 km2 of territory there are three very distinct natural zones: the Pannonian or lowland, Adriatic or coastal, and Dinaric region, better known as Gorski kotar region. While the first two regions reflect the proportionality of the occupation of the territory and the amount of

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UPOZNAVANJE KRAJOLIKA

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INFORMED LANDSCAPES ‘To inform literally means to give form, generate relationships between points/moments in space.’ Maurizzio Bonicci, Giovanni Franceschelli, Silvia Banchini   In accordance with the above quote, there are two important tasks. The first is to provide vital points, the polarizers in the area that currently carry an important function for the surrounding area. The second is to define the radius of their importance, the spatial range in which they fulfill their role. Besides vital points, it is also possible to find the dead and prospective points. Dead spots are contents and places that were once active, but over time lost their significance. It is of utmost importance here to stress the analysis and the understanding of exactly which processes and events lead to that state. Identification of potential points in space is the most difficult part of the task, and you are advised to perform it during or after the analysis of the spatial relationship of viable and dead spots. When mapped these links provide a pattern, or a grid, from which it is now possible to read out whether the logical connections correspond to the actual physical connections, and evaluate the degree of the grid’s flow rate. For this part of the analysis, the comparison of actual and abstract connection status, may contribute to the conclusion of why some points become ‘dead’ in space. From such analysis, and its graphical presentation, you could possibly also find new points, potentials in space around which the nodes begin to form a bond, or points that are close enough to one of those nodes (or even more of them).


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Sl. 9. Prikaz prostora Gorskog kotara koji je nova A6 autocesta ‘zaobišla’ te ‘izbrisala’ Izvori podataka: PPUO Skrad (2007.), PROSTORNI PLAN PRIMORSKO-GORANSKE ŽUPANIJE (1998.) / Fig. 9 Display of ​​Gorski kotar area that the new A6 motorway ‘bypassed’ and ‘wiped out’
 Data sources: PPUO Skrad (2007), Regional plan of Primorje-Gorski kotar County (1998)

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

tinktivne prirodne cjeline: panonsku ili nizinsku, jadransku ili primorsku te dinarsku regiju, bolje poznatu pod nazivom goranska. Dok prve dvije regije odražavaju proporcionalnost u zauzeću teritorija i količini stanovništva, goranska regija pokazuje neravnotežu u tom odnosu gdje u svojih 14% teritorija udomljava tek 3% stanovništva. Tražeći prostornu strategiju za razvoj takvih predjela treba se odmaknuti od dvodimenzionalnih podataka te pomnije gledati samu topografiju prostora. Visinske razlike koje se mjere u stotinama metara nikako nisu pogodne za nastanak velikih gradova, ali su itekako povoljne za nastanak velikih mreža. Geografski gledano goranska regija nalazi se u centralnoj Hrvatskoj; ona je vezivno tkivo koje spaja primorsku i nizinsku Hrvatsku. Njezina ‘prokrvljenost’ od vitalne je važnosti za integralno sudjelovanje sve tri prirodne cjeline koje sačinjavaju teritorij i karakter Republike Hrvatske.

the population, Gorski kotar region shows an imbalance in the relationship, where 14% of its territory is home to only 3% of the population. Seeking a spatial strategy for the development of such regions, one should move away from the two-dimensional data, and take a closer look at the very topography of the area. Altitudes measured in hundreds of meters are certainly not suitable for the development of large towns, but are very favorable for the formation of large grids. Geographically Gorski kotar region is located in central Croatia; it is the connective tissue that connects the coastal and lowland Croatia. Its ‘fluidity’ is vital for the integral participation of all three natural zones that make up the territory and the character of the Republic of Croatia.

Za točku intervencije odabrana je općina Skrad. Sam prostor općine nalazi se na sjeveroistoku Primorsko-goranske županije, unutar koje graniči s nekoliko jedinica lokalne samouprave iz iste županije. Na sjeverozapadu samo uzak pojas od nekoliko naselja, koji po najnovijem prostornom planu županije spadaju u administrativnu općinu Delnice, dijeli prostor općine Skrad od Republike Slovenije te se u tom pogledu prostor općine može smatrati širim hrvatskim pograničnim područjem. Osim blizine granice, prostor Skrada se geoprometno odlikuje činjenicom da se nalazi ‘na pola puta’ između Rijeke i Zagreba (sat i pol vožnje automobilom od Zagreba tj. sat vremena od Rijeke) pa tako dobiva na važnosti u smislu povezivanja ta dva regionalna centra. On, međutim, zahtijeva i određen stupanj neovisnosti u smislu ispunjavanja potreba stanovništva koje nastanjuje prostor Gorskog kotara. Unutrašnjost županije ispražnjena je od važnijih javnih sadržaja te je nakon izgradnje autoceste A6 Bosiljevo – Rijeka zabilježila znatan pad broja stanovnika ali i smanjenje turističkih aktivnosti. Zbog blizine Republike Slovenije i državne strategije decentralizacije potrebno je ponovno fiksirati prostore poput općine Skrad kao nositelje vrijednosti Primorsko-goranske županije.

Sl. 10. Općina Skrad u kontekstu Primorsko-goranske županije Izvori podataka: PPUO Skrad (2007.), PROSTORNI PLAN PRIMORSKO-GORANSKE ŽUPANIJE (1998.) / Fig. 10 Skrad municipality in the context of Primorje-Gorski kotar County Data sources: PPUO Skrad (2007), Spatial plan of Primorje-Gorski kotar County (1998)

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The municipality of Skrad was selected for a point of intervention. The municipality itself is located in the northeast of the PrimorjeGorski kotar County, within which it borders with several local self-management units from the same county. In the northwest, only a narrow strip of several settlements, which by the latest county spatial plan belongs to the administrative municipality of Delnice, separates the space of Skrad municipality from the Republic of Slovenia, and in this respect the municipal area may be considered broader Croatian border area. Besides the proximity of the border, Skrad area, in a geo-traffic sense, is characterized by the fact that it is ‘halfway’ between Zagreb and Rijeka (an hour and a half from Zagreb, and an hour from Rijeka), thus gaining in importance in terms of connecting the two regional centers. It, however, requires a certain degree of independence in terms of meeting the needs of the population that inhabits the area of Gorski kotar. The inland of the county is depleted of important public facilities, and after the construction of the A6 motorway Bosiljevo-Rijeka, a significant decline in population was recorded, as well as a reduction in tourism activities. Due to the proximity of the Republic of Slovenia and the national strategy of decentralization, it is necessary to re-fix the areas like Skrad municipality as holders of these Primorje-Gorski kotar County’s values.

U 19. i 20. stoljeću prostor općine Skrad bio je poznat po svom zdravstvenom turizmu. Nakon Domovinskog rata i

Skrad municipality consists of 32 separate hamlets from which Skrad itself is the largest by size and population. The most distinctive feature of Skrad municipality is the fact that within its borders topography evolves from 302 m till 1043 m above sea level, which means that an area of only 53 square kilometers we gain an altitude difference of 750 m. Besides the fact that such extreme topography conditioned the specificity of built-up areas, in the sense of identity it enriched the municipality with natural phenomena such as canyon called Devil’s passage, and Skradski top which is challenging for hiking. In the 19th and 20th century the area of Skrad municipality was known for health tourism. After the Homeland War and the construction of the new highway, the municipality experienced a drastic drop in visitors in conjunction with the closure of both, the hotel in the

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Općina Skrad sastoji se od 32 samostalna naselja od kojih je površinom i brojem stanovnika najveće samo mjesto Skrad. Najosebujnija značajka općine Skrad jest činjenica da se unutar njenih granica razvija topografija od 302 m do 1043 m nadmorske visine što znači da na površini od svega 53 km² dobivamo visinsku razliku od 750 m. Osim što je takva ekstremna topografija uvjetovala specifičnost izgrađenih područja, ona je u smislu identiteta obogatila općinu prirodnim fenomenima poput kanjona Vražji prolaz i planinarski izazovnog Skradskog vrha.


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Sl. 11. Mogućnost pozicioniranja Općine Skrad u sklopu projekta ‘Lujzijana i ravnomjerni regionalni razvoj Hrvatske’ Izvori podataka: http://lujzijana.com / Fig. 11 The possibility of positioning Skrad municipality within the ‘Louisiana and balanced regional development of Croatia’
 project Data Sources: http://lujzijana.com

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

izgradnje autoceste općina je doživjela drastičan pad posjetitelja u kombinaciji sa zatvaranjem hotela u centru samog mjesta Skrad i turističko-rekreacijskog kompleksa ‘Šiljar’. Danas je hotel u fazi obnove i čeka ponovno otvorenje, a za kompleks ‘Šiljar’ postoji idejni projekt obnove i proširenja smještajnih kapaciteta (I. Ergić i V. Milutin, 2003.). Osim postojećih, poput izletišta ‘Zeleni vir’ i turističko-rekreativnog kompleksa ‘Šiljar’, planiraju se golfsko igralište ‘Hlevci’ na jugu općine, centar za zimske sportove ‘Veliko Selce’ te sportski centar ‘Veliko Selce’ u podnožju Skradskog vrha. Zbog potreba održivog razvoja i prostornih specifičnosti općine potrebno je sinergijski pristupiti zadatku razvijanja turističko-rekreacijske ponude tj. svi navedeni kompleksi ne smiju postati zatvorene cjeline već se trebaju povezati u fleksibilan sustav koji će turistima otvarati različite fenomene Skrada, a stanovnicima ponuditi kvalitetne javne sadržaje koji će povećati kvalitetu života u općini.

center of the town, and tourist-recreational facilities ‘Šiljar’. Today, the hotel is being renovated and is expecting re-opening, and for ‘Šiljar’ facilities there is a designing project of renovation and expansion of accommodation (I. Ergić and V. Milutin, 2003). In addition to the existing ones, such as picnic area ‘Zeleni vir’ (‘Green vortex’), tourist and recreational facilities ‘Šiljar’, there are also plans for a golf course called ‘Hlevci’ in the south of the municipality, a center for winter sports ‘Veliko Selce’, and a sports center ‘Veliko Selce’ at the foot of Skadarski vrh. Due to the needs of sustainable development and spatial specificity of the municipality, a synergetic approach is required to the task of developing tourism and recreation facilities, i.e. all these facilities may not be sealed units but should be linked into a flexible system that will open different Skrad phenomena to tourists, and residents should be offered quality public facilities that will enhance the quality of life in the municipality.

Kada se na sloj naseljenih prostora preklopi sloj postojeće prometne infrastrukture, uočava se da općina već posjeduje podosta razgranat sustav veza. Dok je većina veza protočna tj. ne spaja samo točku A i B već ide i dalje i ranije, trenutno određen broj ogranaka tog sustava završava u naseljenim mjestima u obliku slijepih cesta. Prvi korak prema formiranju funkcionirajućeg umreženog sustava jest dogradnja i upotpunjavanje tih ‘mrtvih točaka’. Lociraju se potencijalne

NEW LAYER = NEW GRID The first part of the task was fixing the grid on the territory of Skrad municipality. The municipality is, according to its size, relatively small (only one quarter of the City of Zagreb territory), but because of its height difference, it is characterized by a high density. When you approach this area, it is important to recalibrate the understanding of the relationship of a town and its surroundings. While the nature of in a big city like Zagreb is perceived as a ‘landscape in the city’ (urban parks, forests, etc.), the area of Skrad municipality could be seen as a ‘twon in the landscape.’ A supposition set this way allows us to twist our view, and that, instead of looking for ways to expand urban tissue by moving from its current edges, in fact we are looking for open spots in the landscape that can accept human activities. A similar method of settling is already present in the Skrad municipality.   By mapping the constructed structure we get a dispersed, dotty pattern that testifies to the potential for decentralization of the space. The tradition of dotted interventions in space is worthy keeping because of their nonintrusive relationship to the landscape and their sustainability in the economic (they can build where they do not require large reconstruction of the existing topography), environmental (they are building where already there were ‘holes’ in the landscape already without clearing protected forest areas), and in sociological sense (the establishment of smaller communities and their places of exchange).   When the layer of existing transport infrastructure overlaps with the layer of populated areas, it is evident that the municipality already has quite a branched out system of connections. While most of the connections flow, that is do not only connect point A and B only, but go further and earlier, currently a certain number of branches of the system ends up in populated areas in the form of a blind road. The first step towards the formation of a functioning network system is the

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Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students

NOVI SLOJ = NOVA MREŽA Prvi dio zadatka je bio fiksiranje mreže na prostoru općine Skrad. Općina je svojom površinom relativno mala (tek jedna četvrtina površine Grada Zagreba), no zbog svojih visinskih razlika odlikuje se velikom gustoćom prostora. Kada se pristupa takvom prostoru, važno je rekalibrirati shvaćanje odnosa grada i njegovog okoliša. Dok se priroda u velikom gradu poput Zagreba shvaća kao ‘krajolik u gradu’ (gradski parkovi, šume itd.), prostor općine Skrad moglo bi se shvatiti kao ‘grad u krajoliku’. Tako postavljena pretpostavka omogućava nam da izokrenemo naše gledište te umjesto da tražimo način kako širiti gradsko tkivo krećući od njegovih trenutnih rubova, zapravo tražimo otvorene točke u krajoliku koje mogu prihvatiti ljudske aktivnosti. Sličan način naseljavanja prostora već je prisutan u općini Skrad. Mapiranjem izgrađene strukture dobivamo disperziran točkasti uzorak koji svjedoči o potencijalu za decentralizaciju prostora. Tradiciju točkastih intervencija u prostoru vrijedno je zadržati zbog njihovih neintruzivnih odnosa prema krajoliku te njihove održivosti u ekonomskom (gradi se gdje nije potrebna velika rekonstrukcija postojeće topografije), ekološkom (gradi se gdje već postoje ‘rupe’ u krajoliku bez krčenja zaštićenog šumskog područja) i sociološkom smislu (stvaranje manjih zajednica i mjesta njihove razmjene).

Sl. 12. Slojevi prostora Izvori podataka: PPUO Skrad (2007.) / Fig. 12 Layers of space
 Data sources: PPUO Skrad (2007)

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

‘žive točke’ i predlaže se njihovo spajanje na jedan od sljedeća tri načina: saniranje postojećih bijelih puteva te, gdje je to zbog strmovitog terena moguće, prenamjena u lokalne ceste s time da se prednost daje putevima koji mogu zatvoriti prometni čvor i povezati više aktivnosti u prostoru, izgradnja sustava žičara čije naznake već postoje u prostornom planu općine te trasiranje novih planinarskih puteva radi podizanja kvalitete izletničkog turizma.

upgrade and expansion of these ‘dead spots’. Potential ‘live points’ need to be located, and it is suggested that they should be connected in one of the following three ways: rehabilitation of existing white roads, where it is, because of the steep terrain, possible, a conversion into local roads provided that advantage is given to the roads that can close the traffic node and link more activities in the area, the construction of ski lifts whose indications already exist in the spatial plan of the municipality, and the tracing of new mountain routes to improve the quality of excursion tourism.

Važno je primijetiti da sustav zapravo umrežuje dva sloja naseljenih prostora: trajno naseljeni prostori (stambena namjena) i povremeno naseljeni prostori (javna, društvena, rekreacijska, turistička namjena). Za ekonomsku i gospodarsku budućnost općine od vitalne je važnosti da sloj povremeno naseljenih prostora bude besprijekorno umrežen u dva ključna aspekta. Prvi aspekt je međusobna umreženost u smislu stvarne fizičke povezanosti lokacija koja omogućava sinergijsko funkcioniranje njihovih sadržaja umjesto dupliranja namjena. To znači da turisti npr. mogu spavati u hotelu u ‘Šiljaru’, ručati u ‘Zelenom viru’ i planinariti do Skradskog vrha. Poanta takve disperzije sadržaja jest otvaranje cijelog teritorija općine posjetitelju i sprečavanje stvaranja ekskluzivnih spa resortova gdje gost cijeli boravak provodi unutar granica hotelskog kompleksa. Drugi aspekt mreže povremeno naseljenih prostora jest zahtjev da svaki od novih programa sadrži komplementarnu namjenu koja je od koristi i za lokalno stanovništvo. Teretana i igralište u sportskom centru ‘Veliko Selce’, fizikalna terapija u Centru za zimske sportove, tehnološki park uz golfsko igralište ‘Hlevci’, kino dovrana u ‘Zelenom viru’. Najambiciozniji od tih projekata svakako je sportski centar ‘Veliko Selce’. Njegova specifična lokacija daje mu potencijal da se razvije u program od državne važnosti. Istovremena blizina centra Skrada i smještajnih kapaciteta kao i dovoljna udaljenost od naseljenih dijelova općine pruža povoljne uvjete za smještaj programa poput visinskih priprema nacionalne nogometne momčadi. Sam nogometni teren unutar sportskog centra nalazi se na 800 m nadmorske visine, sa svih strana okružen je gustom skradskom šumom i idealno je mjesto za navedeni tip aktivnosti. Uz Hrvatski olimpijski centar na Bjelolasici, skijaški centar Platak i automotodrom na Grobničkom polju, takav program upotpunio bi sportsko-rekreacijsku ponudu županije i bio dovoljno jak početni impuls za reaktiviranje prostora općine Skrad.

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It is important to notice that the system actually crosslinks two layers of the populated area: permanently inhabited areas (residential) and occasionally inhabited areas (public, social, recreational, tourism purpose). For economic future of the municipality it is vital that the layer of occasionally inhabited areas is perfectly networked into two key aspects. The first aspect is the mutual help in terms of actual physical connection of locations that allows synergistic function of their content instead of the duplication of purposes. This means that tourists for example, can sleep in a hotel in Šiljaru, dine at ‘Zeleni vir’ and hike to Skradski top. The point of such a dispersion of content is to open the entire territory of the municipality to a visitor, and to prevent the creation of exclusive spa resorts where a whole stay is taking place within the boundaries of the hotel complex. Another aspect of the grid of the periodically populated area is a requirement that each of the new programs includes a complementary purpose that is of benefit to the local population as well. The gym and the playground at the sports center ‘Veliko Selce’, physical therapy at the Center for winter sports, technology park with the golf course ‘Hlevci’, cinema in ‘Green vir’. The most ambitious of these projects is definitely a sports center ‘Veliko Selce’. Its specific location gives it the potential to develop into a program of national importance. Concomitant proximity to the center of Skrad and accommodation facilities, as well as a sufficient distance from the inhabited parts of the municipality, provide favorable conditions for accommodation programs such as the national football team’s altitude preparations. The football field inside the sports center is located at 800 m of altitude. It is surrounded by a dense Skrad forest and is ideal for this type of activity. Besides the Croatian Olympic Centre on Mount Bjelolasica, the ski center on Platak and the racing track for cars in the Grobnik field, such a program would complement the sports and recreational facilities in the county, and would be a strong enough initial impulse for reactivating the area of Skrad municipality.

Izbor lokacije, kao što je dosad objašnjeno, nije bio proizvoljan već određen postavkama nove mreže. Program sportskog centra ‘Veliko Selce’ nastanjuje prazni plato u šumi, čistinu koja se, koliko današnje stanovništvo dugo pamti, koristila kao nogometni teren. Činjenica da zaravan, jedan od rijetkih fenomena u strmovitom goranskom

POSITIONING THE NEW POINT IN THE GRID The choice of location, as previously discussed, was not arbitrary. It was determined by the settings of the new grid. The program of the sports center ‘Veliko Selce’ inhabits the empty plateau in the forest, a clearing that, as the present population remembers today, was

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facta architectonica 2

Sl. 13. Fotografija makete Izvori podataka: vlastita arhiva / Fig. 13 Photo of the model Data sources: own archive

Sl. 14. Koraci: intervencija, interpolacija i interpretacija Izvori podataka: vlastita arhiva / Fig. 14 Steps: Intervention, interpolation and interpretation
 Data sources: own archive

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

krajoliku, nije bila dosad okupirana izgradnjom svjedoči o važnosti ovog sporta za tamošnje stanovništvo. Takva lokacija par excellence najvjerojatnije je prije nogometnog terena bila poljoprivredno zemljište, kao što se može razabrati iz parcelacije sa starih katastarskih planova. Iako je program sportskog centra već predložen u samom prostornom planu općine, ono što je bilo najvažnije jest zadržati karakteristike i produktivnost prostora. Kako je teren nekada bio korišten za gospodarske svrhe i time sudjelovao u ekonomiji općine, ideja izgradnje novog sportskog centra treba služiti kao atraktor novih ulaganja i pomoći općini u profiliranju turističke ponude.

used as the football field. The fact that the plateau, a rare phenomenon in steep highland landscape, has not so far been occupied by construction testifies to the importance of this sport for the local population. Such location par excellence was likely farmland before it became the football field, as can be discerned from the land subdivision in the old cadastral maps. Although the program at the sports center has been proposed in the spatial plan of the municipality, what was the most important thing is to keep the performance and productivity of the area. As the terrain was once used for commercial purposes and thus participated in the economy of the municipality, the idea of building ​​ a new sports center should serve as an attractor of new investments and as assistance to the municipality in the defining of tourist services.

Osim što je sam program sportskog centra modificiran kako bi bio u skladu sa zahtjevima nove mreže (singularnost namjene, stvaranje prometnog čvorišta i javljanje komplementarnog sadržaja koji obogaćuje svakodnevni život lokalnog stanovništva) posebnost novog sportskog centra jest njegova pojavnost u prostoru. On je neočekivan akt, pomalo bajkovit, poticaj za maštu i modifikator razmišljanja o mogućim intervencijama u goranskom prostoru. Glavna postavka za izgradnju arhitekture bila je potreba za održavanjem postojećeg karaktera prostora, njegove glavne osobine – praznine, čistina u šumi, plato koji omogućuje ljudsku aktivnost. Proces se sastoji od tri koraka: intervencija, interpolacija i interpretacija. Prva intervencija je u činu apstrahiranja ruba šume koji čini granicu između šume i nešume, praznine i punine. Apstrahiran matematički oblik postavlja se na teren te utiskuje kako bi se ponovio rub šume na novoj visinskoj koti. Čin interpolacije sastoji se u umetanju novog programa, modernog nogometnog terena, u visinsku denivelaciju. Zadnji korak je građenje same kuće koja u svojem obliku prati novi rub šume, ali u svojoj ‘šupljini’ održava memoriju praznine. Zgrada je tanka i udomljava tek najnužnije potrebe programa. Ona postaje samo infrastruktura koja omogućava ljudsku aktivnost. Spektakl nogometa i igara interpoliran je u spektakl praznine u šumi.

S pojavom modernih tehnologija, a s posebnim naglaskom na digitalnu revoluciju u zadnjh 50-ak godina, arhitektima i urbanistima su se otvorili cijeli novi krajolici informacija. Radi postizanja boljih i kvalitetnijih rezultata naša je zadaća koristiti se svim mogućim alatima koji su nam na raspolaganju. Prostorni planovi i statistički podaci nisu dovoljni da bi se razumio prostor a genuis loci je taj vječno nedotižan i mističan pojam koji kao da se može samo osjetiti. Zahvaljujući sustavima poput GIS-a te pomoću novih metodika rada kao što je data miningamoguće je približiti se tom pojmu, doseći znanja koja su prije digitalnog doba bila nezamisliva. Mapiranjem, preslagivanjem, interpoliranjem, analiziranjem danas nam je uz beskrajne baze podataka o stvarnom svijetu

In addition to the program of the sports center being modified in order to comply with the requirements of the new grid (singularity of purpose, creating of a traffic junction and surfacing of the complementary content that enriches the daily lives of the local population), the uniqueness of the new sports center is its prevalence in the area. It is an unexpected act, somewhat amazing, a stimulus for imagination and a modifier for thinking about possible interventions in the highland area. The main setting for the construction of architecture was the need to maintain the existing character of the area, its main features – the gaps, the opening in the woods, the plateau that allows human activity. The process consists of three steps: intervention, interpolation, and interpretation. The first intervention was in the act of abstracting the edge of the forest, which forms the border between the forest and the area without it, between voids and fullness. An abstract mathematical form is placed on the ground and pressed to repeat the forest edge at the new height elevation. The act of interpolation consists in inserting a new program, the modern football field, in the high altitude denivelation. The final step is the construction of the house itself, which in its new form follows the edge of the forest, but in its ‘cavity’ keeps the memory gap. The building is thin and is home to only the most essential needs of the program. It becomes only the infrastructure that enables human activity. The spectacle of football and games is interpolated in the spectacle of the gap openings in the forest.   CONCLUSION   With the advent of modern technology, and with particular emphasis on the digital revolution in for last 50 or so years, a whole new landscape of information has opened up to architects and urban planners. In order to achieve better and more quality results, our task is to use all possible tools that are at our disposal. Spatial plans and statistical data are not sufficient to understand the space, and genuis loci is the eternally unattainable and mystical notion that can only be felt. Thanks to systems like GIS, and using the new methodology of work such as data mining, it

DODATAK: Stručni radovi nastavnika u koautorstvu sa studentom 

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students

ZAKLJUČAK

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facta architectonica 2

203

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

moguće prodrijeti dublje u problematiku regije i regionalnog planiranja te informirano ući u strategije razvoja za krhke prostore duboko u ruralnim predjelima koji u nemilosrdno rastućem i urbaniziranom svijetu predstavljaju jedne od zadnjih i rijetkih oaza s potencijalom za održiv razvoj i odgovorno baratanje prostornim resursima.

is possible to get closer to that notion and to reach for knowledge that, before the digital age, would have been unthinkable. Today with the use of mapping, rearranging, interpolation and analysis, and with our endless database about the real world, it is possible to penetrate deeper into the issues of the region and regional planning. It is thus possible to be informed when entering into a development strategy for fragile areas deep in the rural areas that in a relentlessly growing and urbanized world represent one of the last and rare oasis with the potential for sustainable development and responsible handling of spatial resources.

DODATAK: Stručni radovi nastavnika u koautorstvu sa studentom 

Supplement: Teachers' papers co-authored with students


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Biografije

205

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Biographies  


facta architectonica 2

Andrić, Davor

Ana Martina Bakić, Ivana Knez

206

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Biografske podatke ustupili su autori sami ili su korišteni podaci na internetskim stranicama Arhitektonskoga fakulteta u Zagrebu.

Biographical information was provided by the authors or taken from the website of the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb.

Rođen u Konjicu 1980. Obrazovanje: gimnazija ‘Fra Dominik Mandić’ u Mostaru, 1995. – 1999. i Arhitektonski faultet u Zagrebu, 1999. – 2005. Radno iskustvo: Villa International, Budimpešta, 2005.; Odak i Silađin d.o.o., Zagreb, 2006. – 2008.; U.O.A. Gordana Šiško, 2008. – 2009., Arhitektonski fakultet u Zagrebu, 2009. do danas. Stručni, znanstveni i umjetnički interesi: lagane konstrukcije, privremene građevine, kinetička i bionička arhitektura, računalna grafika, tempera.

Born in Konjic in 1980. Education: high school ‘Fra Dominic Mandić’ in Mostar, from 1995 to 1999; Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb, from 1999 to 2005. Work experience: Villa International, Budapest, 2005; Odak i Silađin Ltd, Zagreb, 2006 – 2008; Office of the licensed architect Gordana Šiško, 2008 – 2009; since 2009, Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. Professional, scientific and artistic interests: lightweight construction, temporary structures, kinetic and bionic architecture, computer graphics, tempera.

Izložbe: 47. ZAGREBAČKI SALON arhitektura i urbanizam. Juračić, Dražen; Skorup Juračić, Jelena; Andrić, Davor, Prijedlog razumnog načina izgradnje turizma, 2008. – 2012. Članci: Andrić, Davor; Careva, Kristina; Štulhofer, Ariana: Primjena aluminijskih konstrukcija u gradnji obiteljskih kuća. // Prostor: znanstveni časopis za arhitekturu i urbanizam. 21 (2013.), 1; 171 – 181 (pregledni rad, znanstveni). Andrić, Davor; Mandić, Dunja; Protić, Zorana: Concept for Lightweight Structures Using Climbing/Caving Equipment // SMART’13: Smart Materials and Structures / Carrera, Erasmo; Cinefra, Maria; Miglioretti, Federico; Petrolo, Marco (ur.). Torino, 2013. Javna izlaganja: Biomimetičke pneubotske konstrukcije na konferenciji ‘Kinetička arhitektura’ u organizaciji udruge Kinetika – Kinetics Association, 2013. Sudjelovanje na ljetnoj školi: Radionica arhitekture Široki Brijeg, 2013.

Exhibitions: 47th Zagreb Salon of Architecture and Urbanism. Juračić, Dražen; Skorup Juračić, Jelena; Andrić, Davor: Proposal for Reasonable Methods of Construction for Tourism, 2008 – 2012. Articles: Andrić, Davor; Careva, Kristina; Štulhofer, Ariana: Use of Aluminium Structures for the Construction of Family Houses //Prostor: Scholarly Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning. 21 (2013), 1; pp. 171 – 181 (review paper, scientific); Andrić, Davor; Mandić, Dunja; Protić, Zorana: Concept for Lightweight Structures Using Climbing/Caving Equipment // SMART’13: Smart Materials and Structure, Carrera, Erasmo; Cinefra, Maria; Miglioretti, Federico; Petrolo, Marco (editor), Torino, 2013) Public presentations:‘Biomimetic pneubotic constructions’ at the conference ‘Kinetic architecture’ organised by the Kinetics Association, 2013. Summer schools:Architecture Workshop in Široki Brijeg, 2013.

Ana Martina Bakić (1974.) i Ivana Knez (1974.) diplomirale su na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu.

Ana Martina Bakić (born 1974 ) and Ivana Knez (born 1974) both graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Zagreb.

Ana predaje Crtanje i plastično oblikovanje na Arhitekton­ skom fakultetu, na kojem je i doktorand.

Ana teaches Architectural Drawing and Spatial Modeling at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb, where she is currently undertaking her PhD thesis research on the subject Notation of Space. Ivana teaches scenography at School of Design at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb. In 2011 she completed her doctorate at the University of Arts in Belgrade – Interdisciplinary Studies of Scene Design, with doctoral artistic project Temporary Architecture as Critical Rethinking of Urban Space.

Ivana predaje scenografiju na Studiju dizajna Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, a doktorirala je 2011. godine na Doktorskim interdisciplinarnim studijama za Scenski dizajn Univerziteta umetnosti u Beogradu na temu Privremena arhitektura kao kritičko promišljanje urbanog prostora. Godine 2008. osnivaju diaprojektor – studio u kojem se bave suvremenom arhitekturom i scenografijom te istražuju odnose prostora i događaja u svim njihovim pojavnostima i kontekstima.Ostvarile su niz projekata i realizacija arhitekture, interijera, postava izložbi i scenografije. Profesionalno su aktivne izlaganjem radova na izložbama u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu, publikacijama u stručnim časopisima, javnim predavanjima i u edukaciji.

In 2008 they established diaprojektor – architectural studio that works on contemporary architecture, scenography and projects that focuse relations of space and performance. They are interested in interdisciplinary discourse about the concept of scenography and temporary architecture, both as means of its critical rethinking of space and a tool of proactive architectural position in contemporary society. Amongst their works and projects in the field of architecture, interior and exhibition design and scenography, they are active in presenting their work in exhibition and public lectures, also participating in and mentoring artistic workshops.

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Diplomirala je 1996., magistrirala 2002. i doktorirala 2007. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, gdje radi od 1997. godine. Između 1994. i 1998. pohađala je niz usavršavanja u inozemstvu. Nositeljica je kolegija Industrijska arheologija, Hrvatski prostor i arhitektura – Zagreb, i Sjeverozapadna Hrvatska.

In 1996, Zrinka Barišić Marenić graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb where she earned a Master’s Degree in 2002 and a Doctorate Degree in 2007 and where she has been working from 1997. Between 1994 and 1998, she attended a series of trainings abroad. She has been lecturing Industrial archaeology, Croatian space and architecture – Zagreb, and Northwestern Croatia. Her professional body of work encompasses the design of houses in Samobor, Odra and Čazma and several competition works. She has written 76 professional and scientific papers on the topic of Croatian architecture in the 20th century, published by the Faculty of Architecture, HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts), the Institute of Art History, the Miroslav Krleža Institute of Lexicography, as well as other local and foreign publishers. Barišić Marenić is the laureate of the Annual Award for Science presented by the Croatian Parliament (2009) along with A. Uchytil and E. Kahrović. She is a member of the team of authors who represented Croatia at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice in 2014 with the theme Culture of abstraction: Croatian architectural modernism 1914 – 2014.

Barišić Marenić, Zrinka

  Stručni opus čine izvedbe kuća u Samoboru, Odri i Čazmi, te nekoliko natječajnih radova. Objavila je 76 znanstvenih i stručnih radova s tematikom hrvatske arhitekture XX. st. u izdanjima matične ustanove, HAZU-a, Instituta za povijest umjetnosti, Leksikografskog zavoda M. Krleža u Zagrebu, te drugih domaćih i inozemnih izdavača. S A. Uchytilom i E. Kahrovićem laureat je Godišnje državne nagrade za znanost Hrvatskog sabora (2009.). Član je autorskog tima, predstavnika Hrvatske na 14. Međunarodnoj izložbi arhitekture u Veneciji 2014. s temom Kultura apstrakcije: hrvatski arhitektonski modernizam 1914. – 2014.

Bojanić Obad Šćitaroci, Bojana

207

Diplomirala je 1980. na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Tijekom 1982. godine boravila je u Montrealu i Quebecu (Kanada) na znanstvenom i stručnom usavršavanju. Magistrirala je 1986. na poslijediplomskom studiju Graditeljsko naslijeđe (Arhitektonski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu), a doktorsku disertaciju Istraživanje kontinuiteta graditeljstva na prostoru središnjega dijela otoka Hvara obranila je 1990. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu pod mentorstvom prof. dr. sc. Brune Milića. Nakon što je diplomirala, radi kao arhitektica i urbanistica u Urbanističkom institutu Hrvatske, a od 1991. godine kao samostalni znanstveni istraživač i kao projektant i urbanist u vlastitoj tvrtki Šćitaroci d.o.o. Autorica je i suautorica osam znanstvenih knjiga, tridesetak znanstvenih članaka, desetak znanstvenih studija o perivojnoj arhitekturi, četrdesetak urbanističkih planova i studija kao i tridesetak projekata iz područja vrtne i pejzažne arhitekture. Aktivno sudjeluje u domaćim i inozemnim znanstvenoistraživačkim projektima, pretežito iz područja perivojne arhitekture. Izabrana je u znanstveno zvanje znanstvenog savjetnika 2005. godine. Recenzentica je znanstvenih projekata i znanstvenih članaka. Sudjelovala je na nacionalnim i međunarodnim znanstveno-stručnim skupovima s temama iz područja zaštite tradicijske arhitekture i perivojne arhitekture. Radi kao nastavnica na svim vježbovnim kolegijima Katedre za urbanizam, prostorno planiranje i pejzažnu arhitekturu na preddiplomskom i diplomskom studiju arhitekture i urbanizma. Na preddiplomskom studiju nositeljica je kolegija Perivojna arhitektura i koordinatorica je vježbovnog kolegija Perivojno oblikovanje. Na diplomskom studiju nositeljica je kolegija Suvremena perivojna arhitektura te Radionice pejzažne arhitekture i mentor icadiplomskoga semestra. www.scitaroci.hr

She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1980. She spent the year of 1982 in Montreal and Quebec (Canada) receiving further expert training. She earned her Master’s degree in 1986 from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, at the postgraduate study program Architectural Heritage, and in 1990 she obtained her doctorate degree with the dissertation entitled: Research of the Continuity of Architecture on the Territory of the Central Part of the Island of Hvar, also at the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, under the mentorship of Prof. Bruno Milić, PhD. Upon graduation, she worked as an architect and town-planner at the Croatian Urban Planning Institute. Since 1991, she has worked as an independent research scholar, architect and town-planner, managing her own company ‘Šćitaroci’, d.o.o. She is the author/ co-author of eight books, about thirty scholarly articles, a dozen scientific papers dealing with the topics of landscape architecture, about forty urban plans and studies and some thirty garden and landscape architecture design projects. She has actively participated in scientific research projects in Croatia and abroad mainly in the field of landscape architecture. In 2005, she was conferred the title of a senior research scientist. She is a reviewer for scientific research projects and articles. She has taken part in local and international scientific and expert conferences on the protection of traditional architecture and landscape architecture. She teaches all practical courses at the Department of Urban and Physical Planning and Landscape Architecture – in under-graduate and graduate programs in architecture and urban planning. She is the Head of the under-graduate course Landscape Architecture and coordinator of the practical course Landscape Design. She is also the Head of the graduate program course Contemporary Landscape Architecture and Landscape Architecture Design Studio. In addition, she mentors students of the graduation semester. www.scitaroci.hr

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Rođen je 1986. godine u Splitu. Na Filozofskom fakultetu u Zagrebu magistrirao je upravljanje baštinom i povijest umjetnosti nakon čega kao stipendist zaklade Baloković (HAZU) završava poslijediplomski studij na Sveučilištu Harvard u SAD-u. Tamo specijalizira područje dizajna u javnom prostoru čime nadograđuje ekspertizu za pitanja revitalizacije i inovativnih koncepata razvoja zapostavljenih kulturnih resursa. Kao voditelj i stručni suradnik dosad je bio uključen u nekoliko međunarodnih projekata (Kina, Alžir, SAD, Hrvatska), a njegov rad prezentiran je na više svjetskih konferencija (Creative Clusters u Glasgowu, Designing the Hybrid City u Šangaju, Writing Cities na Sveučilištu Harvard, Art, Culture and Technology Conference na MIT-u u Cambridgeu u Massachusettsu).

Born in 1986, in Split. He earned his MA degree in Heritage Management and Art History from the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb University. After that, as a recipient of the Baloković Foundation Scholarship (awarded by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts), he completed postgraduate Master program at Harvard University, USA. At Harvard, he specialized in public space design, thus further developing his expertise in the field of revitalization and innovative concepts of development of neglected cultural resources. In the capacity of team leader and expert associate, he has been involved in several international projects so far (China, Algeria, USA, Croatia), and his work was presented at several international conferences (Creative Clusters, Glasgow; Designing the Hybrid City, Shanghai; Writing Cities, Harvard University; Art, Culture and Technology Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA). In cooperation with the City of Solin and the Public Institution for Coordination and Development of the Split-Dalmatia County he designed the project Connecting Separated focused on cultural redefinition of industrial and transport infrastructure in the Split surroundings (IPA Component II, Cross-Border Cooperation, EU). This project is part of Nikola’s recent interests directed to more efficient management and sustainable development of complex urban and infrastructure systems by employing the techniques of space mapping and data visualisation.

Bojić, Nikola

U suradnji s gradom Solinom i Javnom ustanovom za koordinaciju i razvoj Splitsko-dalmatinske županije koncipira projekt Connecting Separated fokusiran na kulturno redefiniranje industrijske i prometne infrastrukture u splitskoj okolici (IPA Component II, Cross-Border Cooperation, EU). Ovaj je projekt dio Nikolinih recentnih interesa usmjerenih na efikasnije upravljanje i održivi razvoj složenih urbanih i infrastrukturnih sustava korištenjem tehnika prostornog mapiranja i vizualizacije podataka.

Bralić, Damir

Braun, Alan

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Rođen je 1978. godine u Rijeci. Diplomirao je vizualne komunikacije na Studiju dizajna pri Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Samostalno ili kao suradnik radi na projektima dizajna vizualnih komunikacija (Vizualni identiteti izložbi: Europa 2020., Izložba hrvatskog dizajna 040506, 37. zagrebački salon, Zgraf 11; dizajn časopisa Oris, Up&Underground, Concilium i tjednika Novosti; sustavi signalizacije: centar Zamet, zagrebačka gradska signalizacija i dr.). Od 2006. do danas predavao je na Studiju dizajna (Arhitektonski fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu), Umjetničkoj akademiji Sveučilišta u Splitu (Odsjek za dizajn vizualnih komunikacija) i Sveučilištu Sjever (Koprivnica/Varaždin – Odjel za medijski dizajn). Na obrazovnim institucijama u Zagrebu, Splitu i Koprivnici pionirski u hrvatski obrazovni sustav uvodi kolegije i piše programe iz područja informacijskog dizajna.

Born in 1978, in Rijeka. He earned his Bachelor’s degree in visual communications from the School of Design, Faculty of Architecture, at the University of Zagreb. He works independently or as a co-author on visual communications design projects (Visual Identities of Exhibitions: Europe 2020; Croatian Design Exhibition 040506; 37th Zagreb Salon, Zgraf 11; design of the journals: Oris, Up&Underground, Concilium, and the weekly Novosti; signalization systems: the Zamet Centre, the City of Zagreb signalization system etc.). Since 2006, he has been a lecturer at the School of Design (Faculty of Architecture at the University of Zagreb), Art Academy of the University of Split (Department for Visual Communications Design) and University North (Koprivnica/ Varaždin – Media Design Department). He has been pioneering new courses in the Croatian educational system – at the educational institutions in Zagreb, Split and Koprivnica – and developing information design programs.

Rođen je 1966. godine u Rijeci. Diplomirao je 1994. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu od kada je zaposlen pri Katedri za teoriju i povijest arhitekture. Magistrirao je 2001. godine na istom fakultetu radom ‘Zagreb – grad i arhitektura osamdesetih godina XIX. stoljeća’. Predstojnik je Zavoda za graditeljsko naslijeđe Arhitektonskog fakulteta. Predsjednik je Kulturnog vijeća za zaštitu i očuvanje kulturnih dobara grada Rijeke i povjerenstva Ministarstva kulture za dodjelu dopuštenja za obavljanje poslova na zaštiti i očuvanju kulturnih dobara. Projekti i realizacije: obnova kurije Hrašće pokraj Ozlja, 1997. – 2000.; obnova mauzoleja Gorup, 2003. i mauzoleja

Born in 1966, Rijeka, graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb where he has been working at the Department of Theory and History of Architecture. He got his masters degree in 2001 at the same faculty. His thesis was Zagreb – the City and its Architecture in the Eighteen Eighties. Braun is the Head of the Institute for Built Heritage of the Faculty of Architecture; President of the Cultural council for protection and preservation of cultural heritage of the city of Rijeka and the Commissioner of the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia for allocation of permits for conducting conservation and preservation of cultural assets. Projects and implemented projects: renovation of the Hrašće curia ear Ozalj, 1997 – 2000; renova-

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Careva, Kristina

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Kopaitić-Battagliarini, 2008. – 2009., groblje Kozala u Rijeci, obnova pravoslavne crkve u Plaškom, 2004. – 2007.; obnova benediktinskog samostana na Mljetu, 2005. – 2010.; franjevačkog samostana u Poratu na Krku, 2007. – 2008.; dominikanskog samostana u Rijeci 2010. – 2011.; obnova Francuskog paviljona u sklopu Studentskog centra u Zagrebu, 2008. – 2013., obnova patricijske gradske kuće Moise u Cresu, 2011. – 2012., obnova pročelja stambenog sklopa arhitekta Ivana Vitića u Laginjinoj ulici u Zagrebu, 2011. – 2012.

tion of the Gorup Mausoleum in 2003 and the Kopaitić-Battagliarini mausoleum at the Kozala cemetery in Rijeka, 2008 – 2009; renovation of the orthodox church in Plaški, 2004 – 2007; renovations of the Benedictine monastery on the island of Mljet, 2005 – 2010, the Franciscan monastery in Porat, island of Krk, 2007 – 2008 and the Dominican monastery in Rijeka 2010 – 2011; reconstruction of the French pavilion at the Student Centre in Zagreb, 2008 – 2013; renovation of the Moise palace in Cres, 2011 – 2012; renovation of the residential complex in Laginjina street in Zagreb (Ivan Vitić), 2011 – 2012

Rođena je 1976. u Zagrebu. Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu diplomirala je 2002. nakon čega je radila u ASK Atelieru u Zagrebu te u birou dr. Antti Ahlave u Helsinkiju. Krajem 2004. postaje znanstvena novakinja na projektu prof.dr.sc. Bojana Baletića u Kabinetu za primjenu računala u arhitekturi. Doktorski studij ‘Arhitektura’ upisala je 2007., a 2012. obranila temu doktorskog rada pod naslovom ‘Arhitektonski model prostora za interdisciplinarna istraživanja u umjetnosti i tehnologiji’.

Born in 1976, Zagreb. She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in 2002 and started working at the ASK Atelier in Zagreb and at the office of Antti Ahlave, Ph.D., Helsinki. In late 2004, she became a research assistant on the project led by Bojan Baletić, Ph.D., Cabinet for the use of computers in architecture. In 2007, she enrolled to study a doctorate ‘Architecture’ and in 2012 defended her doctorate thesis entitled ‘Architectural Model of Space for Interdisciplinary Research in the Arts and Technology.’ Careva authored several scientific articles and participated in a number of international conferences, summer schools and exhibitions. She successfully took part in many national and international architectural and urban design competitions and won 12 prizes so far, alone or as a part of a team. In collaboration with Rene Lisiac, she authored the interdisciplinary project ‘Acupuncture of the City.’ She is an active member of DAZ (Zagreb Society of Architects) and the CCA (Croatian Chamber of Architects). In 2010 she became a licensed architect.

Autorica je nekoliko znanstvenih članaka i sudionica više međunarodnih konferencija, ljetnih škola i izložaba. Uspješna je sudionica mnogih domaćih i međunarodnih arhitektonsko-urbanističkih natječaja te do sada, samostalno ili u timu, osvaja 12 nagrada. Uz Renea Lisca, autorica je interdisciplinarnog projekta ‘Akupunktura grada’. Aktivna je članica DAZ-a i HKA-a, a ovlaštena arhitektica od 2010.

Domić, Gordana

Dubovečak, Iva

Rođena je 1957. godine. Nakon završene arhitektonske tehničke škole studira na Univerzitetu u Stuttgartu i na Višoj arhitektonskoj školi u Zagrebu, gdje je diplomirala 1979. godine. Od 1980. do 1987. godine radi u arhitektonskom birou Konstruktor-inženjering, te u Urbanističkom zavodu Dalmacije u Splitu. Od 1991. do 1992. godine radi u arhitektonskom birou ARC u Splitu. Od 1992. do 1995. godine radi na više projekata i natječaja u arh. biroima Laage & Partner i Behnisch & Partner u Stuttgartu. 1993. godine osniva arh. biro ARK s Borisom Koružnjakom. Sudjeluje na godišnjim izložbama ostvarenja hrvatskih arhitekata i na zagrebačkim salonima. Autorica je i koautorica više nagrađenih arhitektonskih natječaja i realizacija stambenih, poslovnih, zdravstvenih, sportskih i školskih građevina te interijera.

Born in 1957. After graduating from the Architectural Technical High School, she studied at the University of Stuttgart and the Architectural College in Zagreb, graduating in 1979. From 1980 until 1987 she had been working at the Konstruktor Engineering Architectural Bureau and the Planning Institute of Dalmatia in Split. During 1991 and 1992 she worked at the ARC Architectural Bureau in Split, and from 1992 until 1995 she took part in several projects and competitions as part of the Architectural Bureaus Laage & Partner and Behnisch and Partner in Stuttgart. In 1993 she formed an architectural design studio, ARK, with Boris Koružnjak. She participated in the annual exhibitions of Croatian Architects and the Zagreb Salons. She has authored or co-authored several award-winning architectural competitions and implementations of residential, commercial, medical, sports and school buildings and interiors.

Rođena je u Šibeniku 1985. Diplomirala je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu 2011. Radi u uredu Menis Arquitectos na Tenerifima. Surađuje sa Šimetin-Tutek od 2007.

Born in Šibenik, in 1985. She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb in 2011. She has worked at the office ‘Menis Arquitectos’ in Tenerife. Since 2007, she has collaborated with Šimetin and Tutek.

Biografije

Biographies

  209


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Duplančić, Vedran

Ergić, Ivana

Diplomirao je 1998. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu gdje je zaposlen od 2000. godine. Radi na znanstvenim projektima: Atlas arhitekture Republike Hrvatske – 20. i 21. vijek (2000. – 2002.), Arhitektonske konstrukcije u funkciji zaštite okoliša (2002. – 2007.) i Arhitektura i održiva gradnja – prostor, materijali i fizikalna svojstva (od 2007.). Poslijediplomski znanstveni studij Graditeljsko naslijeđe apsolvirao je 2002. Sudjelovao je s izlaganjima na četiri međunarodne znanstvene konferencije. Realizirane arhitektonske projekte izlagao je u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu i dva puta je nominiran za godišnju Nagradu Viktora Kovačića za najuspješnije arhitektonsko ostvarenje, 2007. godine (Osnovna škola ‘Sesvetska Sopnica’ u Zagrebu, 2005; Dječji vrtić i jaslice ‘Malešnica’ u Zagrebu).

He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1998. Since 2000, he has worked at the Faculty of Architecture on the following projects: Atlas of Croatian Architecture – 20th and 21st century (2000 – 2002), Architectural structures with the purpose of environment protection (2002 – 2007) and Architecture and sustainable building – space, materials and physical characteristics (since 2007). In 2002, he completed the post-graduate study program Architectural Heritage. He gave presentations and took part in four international professional conferences. He exhibited his realized architectural design projects in Croatia and abroad. On two occasions, he was nominated for the annual Viktor Kovačić Award for the best architectural achievement (in 2007, for the Primary School ‘Sesvetska Sopnica’, Zagreb; in 2005, for the ‘Malešnica’ kindergarten and nursery, Zagreb).

Rođena 1972. u Zagrebu. Diplomirala 1998. na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, kad započinje djelovati kao free lance arhitekt. 2000. godine aktivirala arhitektonski studio Capsula s partnericama. Od 2003. do 2007. član Stručnog savjeta Udruženja hrvatskih arhitekata, od 2007. do 2009. članica Stručnog savjeta Društva arhitekata Hrvatske. Od 2006. do 2008. članica Hrvatske zajednice samostalnih umjetnika. Od 2005. radi na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, na katedri za Arhitektonsko projektiranje, Kabinet za stambene zgrade. Simultano vodi samostalni arhitektonski ured BIJELA.

Born in 1972 in Zagreb. Graduated in 1998 from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb and started working as a free lance architect. In 2000, with partners started the Capsula architectural firm. From 2003 to 2007 she was a member of the Croatian Architects Association Expert Council, and from 2007 to 2009 she was a member of the Croatian Society of Architects Expert Council. From 2006 to 2008, she was a member of the Croatian Freelance Artists’ Association. Since 2005, she has been working at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb, at the Department of Architectural Design, Cabinet for Residential Buildings. At the same time, she has run the independent architectural firm BIJELA. She is actively present on the architectural scene with a range of architectural projects and implementations thereof. She participated in exhibitions in Croatia and abroad. She also participated in the work of professional bodies and panels of judges at urban and architectural competitions. Her papers have been published in professional journals, as well as periodicals and daily newspapers. She has got awards in Croatia and abroad for winning at urban and architectural competitions.

Na arhitektonskoj sceni aktivno prisutna s nizom arhitektonskih realizacija i projekata. Sudjeluje na izložbama u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu. Sudjeluje u radu stučnih tijela i ocjenjivačkih sudova arhitektonsko-urbanističkih natječaja. Radovi joj se objavljuju u stručnoj periodici, te periodnom i dnevnom tisku. Dobitnica nagrada u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu, nagrađivana na urbanističko-arhitektonskim natječajima.

Filep, Sanja

210

Stručni radovi – natječaji (odabir): Studentski dom i sportska dvorana u Mostaru, internacionalni javni natječaj, 3.

Graduated in 1987 from the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Zagreb and in 1999 she defended her doctoral degree at the University of Stuttgart in the class of Professor Podrecca with the thesis Influence of Austrian and German Arhitecture on the Croatian Moderna between the Two World Wars– Detail: Novakova Street. She has served as Assistant Professor since 2001. Since 1987 she has worked independently or in the team with V. Mikić on a number of architectural projects, some of which won prizes. She participates in scientific gatherings and is a member of several professional associations and organizations. Major professional works and implemented projects (selection): Interior of the ‘villa’ on the roof of the ‘Cvjetni prolaz’ (Flower Passage), Zagreb (in collaboration with L. Pašalić); Residential villas in Graščica and in Mlinovi, Zagreb; Family house in Horvatovac, Zagreb; Subsidized housing in Špansko, Zagreb; Showroom ‘Bivita’ in Lupoglav (in collaboration with B. Podrecca); Njavro family house in Podgaj, Zagreb; Urban villa in Zelengaj, Zagreb (in collaboration with V. Mikić)Major tenders (selection):

Biografije

Biographies

Diplomirala je 1987. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Doktorirala je 1999. na Sveučilištu u Stuttgartu kod prof. Podrecce s temom ‘Utjecaji austrijske i njemačke arhitekture između dva svjetska rata na hrvatsku modernu – detalj Novakova ulica’.Docentica je od 2001. godine. Od 1987. radi samostalno ili u timu s V. Mikić na nizu arhitektonskih projekata od kojih su neki nagrađeni. Sudjeluje na znanstvenim skupovima i članica je nekoliko strukovnih udruga i organizacija. Stručni radovi i realizacije (odabir): Interijer ‘vile’ na krovu kompleksa ‘Cvjetni prolaz’, Zagreb (s L. Pašalić); dvije stambene vile, Graščica, Mlinovi, Zagreb, realizirano; obiteljska kuća, Horvatovac, Zagreb; POS Špansko Zagreb; prodajni salon ‘Bivita’, Lupoglav (s B. Podrecca); obiteljska kuća Njavro, Podgaj, Zagreb; Urbana vila Zelengaj, Zagreb (s V. Mikić).


facta architectonica 2

Filipović, Nikola

211

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

nagrada (s Pero Češkić i Boris Soldo); javni arhitektonski natječaj za stambeno-poslovnu kuću u Dalmatinskoj, Zagreb, 3. nagrada; Javni arhitektonski natječaj za stambeno-poslovnu kuću u Dalmatinskoj, 2. krug, Zagreb 3. nagrada (s S. Justić, D. Latin); Javni internacionalni natječaj za hotel Igalo, Igalo, Crna Gora, 2. nagrada (s L. Pašalaić); Javni arhitektonski natječaj za dom za starije i nemoćne, Senj, 3. nagrada, (s H. Knifić Schaps); Javni arhitektonski natječaj za crkvu u Španskom, otkup; Javni arhitektonsko-urbanistički natječaj za južnu Sopnicu, otkup; Javni arhitektonski natječaj za vrtić Zvončić, Voltino, Zagreb, 3. nagrada; Pozivni arhitektonski natječaj za ‘Sigurnu žensku kuću Duga’, Zagreb, 2. nagrada; Stambeno naselje Solitudo u Dubrovniku, 2. nagrada, (s J. Horvat); POS Ogulin, 1. nagrada; POS Delnice, 2. nagrada; POS Špansko, Zagreb, 1. nagrada; POS Zadar, 2. nagrada; Nova zagorska kuća, otkup (s V. Mikić); Stambeno naselje na Kajzerici, Zagreb, 1. nagrada (s V. Mikić).

Student dormitory and gymanstic hall in Mostar, International public tender, 3rd prize (in collaboration with Pero Češkić and Boris Soldo); Public architectural tender for residential and business house in Dalmatinska Street, Zagreb 3rd prize; Public architectural tender for residential and business house in Dalmatinska Street, Zagreb, second round, 3rd prize (in collaboration with S. Justić and D. Latin); International public tender for Igalo Hotel, Igalo, Montenegro, 2nd prize (in collaboration with L. Pašalić); Public architectural tender for a home for the elderly and disabled in Senj, 3rd prize (in collaboration with H. Knifić Schaps); Public architectural tender for a church in Špansko, accepted; Public architectural tender for Sopnica South, accepted Public architectural tender for Zvončić Kindergarten in Voltino, Zagreb, 3rd prize; Architectural Competition by invitation for ‘Duga’ Women’s Safe House in Zagreb, 2nd prize; Solitudo housing project in Dubrovnik, 2nd prize (with J. Horvat); Subisided housing in Ogulin, 1st prize; subsidised housing in Delnice, 2nd prize; Subsidised housing in Špansko, Zagreb, 1st prize; subsidised housing in Zadar, 2nd prize; Nova Zagorska kuća (New Zagorje House), acccepted, (in collab. with V. Mikić); Housing project at Kajzerica, Zagreb, 1st prize (in collaboration with V. Mikić).

Rođen je u Zagrebu 1934. godine. Diplomirao je 1958. godine na AGG fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Suradnik je Majstorske radionice akademika Drage Galića od 1965. do 1967. Djeluje u APZ-u od 1954. do 1956., u APB Geršić od 1956. do 1960. te u APB Osnova od 1960. do 1966. Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu izabran je za asistenta 1966., a u periodu od 1987. do 2004. redoviti je profesor kolegija Suvremena svjetska arhitektura, Suvremena hrvatska arhitektura, Arhite-ktonsko projektiranje VIII, Integralni rad i Diplomski rad. 2005 izabran u zvanje profesor emeritus. Habilitirao je s temom ‘Interpolacija i adaptacija – specifični arhitektonski zadaci’ 1974. Doktorirao je 1980. s disertacijom ’Obiteljska kuća – značaj, ideje, stvarnost’ na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Sudjeluje u nastavi poslijediplomskog studija ‘Arhitektura u turizmu i slobodnom vremenu’ te ‘Graditeljsko naslijeđe’. Osnovao je studentsku nagradu za najbolji projekt obiteljske kuće koja se dodjeljuje svake školske godine. Predstojnik je Katedre za arhitektonsko projektiranje od 1978. do 1980. i u periodu od 1985. do 1987.; dekan je Arhitektonskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu u periodu 1987. – 1989., predstojnik je Katedre za teoriju arhitekture 1997. – 2004., te je predsjednik diplomske komisije 1990. – 2004. Voditelj je i glavni istraživač znanstvenih istraživačkih projekata: Atlas suvremene svjetske arhitekture – kraj stoljeća 1991. – 1993., Atlas hrvatske arhitekture 1992. – 1999., te Sistematizacije tipova obiteljske izgradnje 1997. – 2000. Profesor Filipović svojom je komunikativnošću, znanjem i poletom snažno utjecao u profiliranju budućih arhitekata. Od stručnih ostvarenja od posebnog značaja su zagrebačke realizacije: Poslo-vna zgrada “INA-Naftaplin“, Šubićeva ulica, 1974. – 75. (s: I. Filipović); Stambena zgrada, Zamenhoffova ulica, 1976. (s: I. Filipović); te Sjeverna tribina i stadion Maksimir, 1996. (s: B. Kinclom).

Born in Zagreb in 1934. In 1958 graduated from the School of Architecture, Geodesy and Civil Engineering, the University of Zagreb. From 1965 till 1967 worked as a collaborator on a Master workshop of Academician Drago Galić. From 1954 till 1956 worked at APZ (Architectural Design Institute); from 1956 till 1960 at APB Geršić (Architectural Design Bureau), and from 1956 till 1960 at APB Osnova (Croatian for foundation). In 1966, he was appointed a Teaching Assistant at the Faculty of Architecture, the University of Zagreb. From 1987 till 2004 he worked as a full-time professor teaching Contemporary World Architecture, Contemporary Croatian Architecture, Architectural Design VIII, Integral work and Graduation Thesis. In 2005 he was elected to the position of Professor Emeritus. He habilitated with a subject ‘Interpolation and Adaptation – Specific Architectural Tasks’ in 1974. In 1980 he earned a PhD at the Faculty of Architecture with his thesis ‘A Family House – Significance, Ideas, Reality’. He also taught graduated courses ‘Architecture in Tourism and Leisure Time’ and ‘Construction Heritage’. He founded a student award for the best project of a family house which is awarded every school year. From 1978 till 1980 and from 1985 till 1987, he was the Head of the Department of Architectural Design; from 19871989 he was the Dean of the Faculty of Architecture, the University of Zagreb; from 1997 till 2004 he was the Head of the Department of Architectural Theory and from 1990 – 2004 he was the Chairman of the Graduation Commission. He was the Project Manager as well as the Head Researcher on the following projects: The Atlas of Contemporary World Architecture – the end of century 1991 – 1993, The Atlas of Croatian Architecture 1992 – 1999 and The Systematization of Family Construction Types 1997 – 2000. Professor Filipović used his good communication skills, knowledge and enthusiasm to have a strong influence on shaping the identity of future architects. In the professional sphere, the following projects in Zagreb are of particular importance: ‘INA-Naftaplin’ business building in Šubićeva Street, 1974 – 1975 (in collaboration with

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Franić, Igor

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Dobitnik je godišnje nagrade ‘Viktor Kovačić’ 1982. s Ines Filipović za Hotel Dubrovnik II u Zagrebu. Laureat je nagrada za životno djelo ‘Viktor Kovačić’ 2003. i ‘Vladimir Nazor’ 2008. godine.

I. Filipović); Apartment Complex, Zamenhoff Street, 1976 (in collaboration with I. Filipović) and the North Stand and Maksimir Stadium, 1996 (in collaboration with B. Kincl). In 1982, together with Ines Filipovć, he won the annual award ‘Viktor Kovačić’ for Hotel Dubrovnik II in Zagreb. He was the laureate of the Lifetime Achievement Award ‘Viktor Kovačić’ in 2003 and ‘Vladimir Nazor’ award in 2008.

Rođen u Zagrebu 22. 11. 1963. godine. Diplomirao je 1989. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Izabran je 1996. godine za honorarnog asistenta, a 2003. godine za docenta. Dobitnik je više nagrada na arhitektonskim natječajima i priznanja 35. zagrebačkog salona za natječajni rad Farmaceutsko-biokemijskog fakulteta u Zagrebu 2002. godine. Nominiran je za nagrade godišnjih realizacija Udruženja hrvatskih arhitekata 2005., 2006. i 2007. godine.

Born on 22 September 1963, in Zagreb. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1989. In 1996, he was appointed part-time assistant, and in 2003, assistant professor at the Faculty of Architecture. He won several awards in architectural competitions and received recognition for his competition project of the Pharmaceutical and Biochemical Faculty in Zagreb at the 35th Zagreb Salon in 2002. He was nominated for the Croatian Architects’ Association annual awards in 2005, 2006 and 2007. His executed projects include: 2007 – Residential and Business Centre Mercator, Zagreb; 2004 – Extension of the ‘Vugrovec’ Elementary School; 2006 – Sports Hall of the ‘Gruda’ Elementary School; 2006 – Dubrava Elementary School Sports Hall; 2005 – ‘Putnikovići’ Elementary School, Pelješac; 2004 – Residential and Business Complex (part of the Governmentsupported Social Housing Construction Program (POS)), Nin; 2003 – POS Gospić, 1st prize; 2003 – design of the Zagreb Museum of Contemporary Art, 1st prize, built.; 1995 – a kindergarten, Ston. Works submitted to the competitions (selection): 2008 – Autocommerce Residential and Business Centre, Zagreb, 1st prize; 2007 –Adris Group Business Centre, Zagreb, purchase; 2004 – Music Academy, Zagreb, 2nd prize; 2003 – Pila Plateau, Dubrovnik, 1st prize.

Stručni radovi – realizacije (odabir): 2007. stambeno-poslovni objekt Mercator, Zagrebačka avenija, Zagreb; 2006. dogradnja Osnovne škole ‘Vugrovec’; 2006. sportska dvorana uz Osnovnu školu ‘Gruda’; 2006. sportska dvorana, Dubrava; 2005. Osnovna škola ‘Putnikovići’, Pelješac; 2004. stambeno-poslovna građevina POS-a, Nin; 2003. POS, Gospić, 1. nagrada; 2003. MSU, Zagreb, natječaj, 1. nagrada, izgrađeno; 1995. vrtić, Ston. Stručni radovi – natječaji (odabir): 2008. stambeno-poslovna zgrada Autocommerce, Zagreb, 1. nagrada; 2007. poslovna zgrada Adris, Zagreb, otkup; 2004. Muzička akademija, Zagreb, 2. nagrada; 2003. plato Pila, Dubrovnik, 1. nagrada.

Franić, Tin Sven

212

Rođen 1970. godine u Zagrebu. Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu diplomirao je 1996. godine. Od 2000. godine nastavnik je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. 2009. izabran je u zvanje docenta.

Born in 1970 in Zagreb. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb in 1996. Since 2000 he has been teaching at the Faculty of Architecture of the University in Zagreb. In 2000 he was appointed assistant professor.

Radovi (izbor): Fakultet organizacije i informatike (s V. Risterom), 2013.; kompleks studentskog doma Sveučilišta u Dubrovniku (s V. Risterom i A. Martinčić), 2009.; zgrada uprave gradskih groblja i pomoćnih radionica na Mirogoju (s V. Risterom), 2007.; Filozofski fakultet i Učiteljski fakultet Sveučilišta u Rijeci (s H. Auf-Franić, V. Risterom), 2011., izvedeno; Osnovna škola ‘Sopnica-Jelkovec’ u Sesvetama (s H. Auf-Franić, L. Korlaetom, V. Risterom), 2006., izvedeno; Osnovna škola ‘Borovje’ u Zagrebu (s H. Auf-Franić,) 2005., izvedeno; Dječji vrtić i jaslice Markuševac (s H. Auf-Franić), 2006., izvedeno; dvije stambene zgrade u programu POS-a u Rijeci (s D. Gabrićem), 2004., izvedeno; stambena zgrada u programu POS-a u Labinu (s D. Gabrićem), 2003., izvedeno. Nagrade: Nagrada 47. zagrebačkog salona za zgradu Filozofskog i učiteljskog fakulteta u Rijeci.

Works (selection): Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin (with V. Rister), 2013; Student dormitory compound of the University in Dubrovnik (with V. Rister and A. Martinčić), 2009; Management building for City Cemeteries and subsidiary workshops in Mirogoj cemetery (with V. Rister), 2007; Faculty of Philosophy and Faculty of Teacher Education in Rijeka (with H. Auf-Franić and V. Rister), executed, 2011; Elementary school Sopnica-Jelkovec in Sesvete (with H. Auf-Franić, L. Korlaet and V. Rister), 2006, executed; Elementary school Borovje in Zagreb (with H. Auf-Franić), 2005, executed; Kindergarten and crèche Markuševac (with H. Auf-Franić), 2006, executed; two POS residential buildings (POS – the Government-supported Social Housing Construction Program) in Rijeka (with D. Gabrić), 2004, executed; a POS residential building in Labin (with D. Gabrić), 2003, executed. Award of the 47th Zagreb Salon for the building the Faculty of Philosophy and Teacher Education in Rijeka.

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Galijašević, Teufik

Haiman, Miljenko

Diplomirao je 1977. na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Izabran je 1989. za stručnog suradnika u nastavi, 1994. za višeg predavača, a 1996. za docenta. Izvanredni profesor postaje 2002., a redoviti 2007. godine. Autor je desetak izvedenih arhitektonskih projekata i natječajnih radova iz stambeno-poslovne i višestambene arhitekture. Dobitnik je nekoliko nagrada i priznanja. Stručni radovi: realizacije (odabir): 2000. urbana vila, Vramčeva 25a, Zagreb (s M. Jošićem); 1999. stambeno-poslovna zgrada, Vlaška 79, Zagreb (s M. Jošićem); 1996. poslovna zgrada Raiffeisenbank, Zagreb (sa Z. Hanžekom i M. Jošićem), Nagrada grada Zagreba, Nagrada zagrebačkog salona 1997.; 1981. – 1999. naselje Andrije Hebranga, blok 6 i 7, Slavonski Brod (s M. Jošićem i Z. Hanžekom); 1981. – 1999. Stadion ‘Inker’, Zaprešić (s M. Čankovićem, M. Jošićem, i I. Valekom). Natječaji (odabir): 1988. blok Pustijerna, Dubrovnik, otkup (s M. Jošićem i B. Podreccom); 1985. blok ‘Centar’, Osijek, 1. nagrada (s M. Jošićem); 1981. Krematorij na groblju Mirogoj, Zagreb, 3. nagrada (s M. Jošićem i Z. Hanžekom); 1980. blok Petrinjska/ Mrazovićeva/ Palmotićeva/ Boškovićeva, Zagreb, 1. nagrada (s M. Jošićem i Z. Hanžekom).

He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1977. In 1989, he became a professional teaching assistant; in 1994, senior lecturer, and in 1996, assistant professor. In 2002, he was appointed associate professor, and in 2007 full professor. He is the author of a dozen executed architectural projects and competition works, namely residential-commercial and multi-apartment buildings. He was awarded several prizes and recognitions. Realised design projects (selection): 2000 – urban villa in Vramčeva Str. 25a in Zagreb (with M. Jošić); 1999 – residential-commercial building, Vlaška Str. 79, Zagreb (with M. Jošić); 1996 – Raiffeisenbank commercial building, Zagreb (with Z. Hanžek and M. Jošić), the City of Zagreb Award, Zagreb Salon Award in 1997; 1981 – 1999 – Andrija Hebrang city block, housing blocks 6 and 7, Slavonski Brod (with M. Jošić and Z. Hanžek); 1981 – 1999 – ‘Inker’ Stadium, Zaprešić (with M. Čanković, M. Jošić, and I. Valek). Competition works (selection):1988 – Pustijerna housing block, Dubrovnik, purchase (with M. Jošić and B. Podrecca); 1985 – housing block ‘Centre’, Osijek, 1st prize (with M. Jošić); 1981 – Mirogoj Cemetery Crematorium, Zagreb, 3rd prize (with M. Jošić and Z. Hanžek); 1980 – housing block between Petrinjska Str., Mrazovićeva Str., Palmotićeva Str. and Boškovićeva Str. in Zagreb, 1st prize (with M. Jošić and Z. Hanžek).

Rođen, 1953. god. u Zagrebu; diplomirao na Građevinskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 1978. god. Magistrirao 1993. god. i doktorirao 2001. god. na Građevinskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, mentor prof. dr.sc. Zvonimir Žagar. Zaposlenja: 1978. do 1980. u RO Montprodukt; 1980. do 2006. asistent i viši asistent na Građevinskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu; 2006. do danas docent i izvanredni profesor na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sv. u Zagrebu, nastavnik za područje tehničke mehanike i posljednjih godina za drvene i čelične konstrukcije. Godine 2007./08. obavljao dužnost prodekana za poslovanje, na kojoj dužnosti je i danas od 01.10.2011.

U području projektiranja drvenih konstrukcija sudjelovao na projektiranju preko 220 lameliranih drvenih konstrukcija u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu. Član je odbora za izradu novih propisa za drvene konstrukcije pri Ministarstvu

Born in 1953 in Zagreb; graduated from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb in 1978. Earned his master’s degree in 1993 and doctorate degree in 2001 at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb under the mentorship of prof. Zvonimir Žagar, Ph. D. Work experience:1978 – 1980; Montprodukt); 1980 – 2006; assistant and senior assistant at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb; Since 2006, he has been working as a lecturer and as an associate professor at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb, a teacher in the field of engineering mechanics and in recent years he has been teaching courses in timber and steel constructions. From 2007 to 2008 he was the assistant dean of business operations and has been performing the same duties since 01.10.2011. He participated in eight scientific topics in the area of support structures and biomechanics. From 2002 to 2005, he independently conducted science researches on the ‘Timber Structures – Safety Analysis and Improvement’. He participated in several scientific conferences at home and abroad, especially at the last eight World Conferences on Timber Engineering (WCTE). He has been researching the use of carbon fibber strips (FRP or CFK) in reinforcement of timber structures and engaged in numerical modelling of timber structures especially in analyses of COSMOS/M software. He is a member of IABSE (International Organization for Bridge and Structural Engineering), HKAIG (Croatian Chamber of Architects and Engineers in Construction Industry), DHGK (Croatian Society of Structural Engineers) and a licensed civil engineer. In the area of design of timber structures, he participated in designing over 220 important or less important laminated timber structures in Croatia and abroad. He is a member of the committee for drafting new regulations on timber structures of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction,

Biografije

Biographies

Tokom niz godina sudjelovao na 8 znanstvenih tema iz područja nosivih konstrukcija i biomehanike. Samostalno vodio istraživanja na znanstvenoj temi ‘Analize sigurnosti i unapređenje drvenih konstrukcija’ od 2002. do 2005. Sudjelovao na nizu znanstvenih skupova u zemlji i inozemstvu, a posebno na posljednjih 8 svjetskih konferencija o drvenim konstrukcijama (WCTE, World Conference on Timber Engineering). Bavi se istraživanjima upotrebe traka od karbonskih niti (FRP ili CFK) za ojačanja drvenih konstrukcija. Bavi se numeričkim modeliranjem drvenih konstrukcija posebno analizama COSMOS/M programskom podrškom. Član je IABSE međunarodne organizacije za mostove i konstrukcije, HKAiG, DHGK, ovlašteni inženjer građevinarstva.

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facta architectonica 2

Homadovski, Aleksandar

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

zaštite okoliša, prostornog uređenja i graditeljstva, te odbora za prihvaćanje novih normi Eurocode 5 pri HZN, kao i odbora za sve Eurokodove TO 0548. Bavi se projektiranjem i nadzorom izvedbe posebnih spregnutih konstrukcija u kombinaciji drvo – beton kao i laganih konstrukcija u kombinaciji drvo – PVC trevire. Nagrade: najuspješniji poduzetnik 2005. i 2006. godine u tvrtki u kojoj je suvlasnik. Godinama sudjeluje u popularizaciji gradnje drvom kroz članke i predavanja u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu.

the committee for adoption of new Eurocode 5 standards at the CSI (Croatian Standards Institute) and the committee for all Eurocodes TO 0548. He has been engaged in design and supervision of constructions of specific composite structures in combination of timber and concrete as well as of lightweight constructions made in combination of timber and PVC-trevira. Awards: most successful entrepreneur in 2005 and 2006 as a co-owner of the awarded company. Through his lectures in Croatia and abroad, for many years he participated in popularisation of timber as a construction material.

Zaposlen je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Doktorira disertacijom ‘Simultane interakcije u fundusu arhitektonskog stvaralaštva: integracioni procesi u znanosti, umjetnosti i tehnologiji’.  Završio je poslijedoktorski studij u Ljubljani s tezom ‘Virtual University Case Study – with the application on vernacular architecture’. Voditelj je kolegija Suvremena svjetska arhitektura, paralele kolegija Arhitektonsko projektiranje VIII, Arhitektonske i urbanističke radionice, Unikatne posebnosti suvremene arhitekture. Voditelj je doktorskog znanstvenog studija Arhitektura i urbanizam. Član je Katedre za  arhitektonsko projektiranje i Katedre za teoriju i povijest arhitekture. 

He has been working at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. His doctorate thesis was ‘Simultaneous interactions in the fund of architectural creation: integration processes in science, art and technology.’ He completed his postdoctorate studies in Ljubljana with the thesis ‘Virtual University Case Study – with the application on vernacular architecture.’ He is a head of the course ‘Contemporary World Architecture’, a parallel of the courses ‘Architectural Design VIII’, ‘Architectural and Urban Design Workshops’, ‘Unique Specialties of Modern Architecture’. He is the head of the doctorate research study ‘Architecture and Urbanism’. He is a member of the Department of Architectural Design and the Department of Theory and History of Architecture.

Objavio je tridesetak znanstvenih radova. Recenzent je međunarodnih i domaćih znanstveno-istraživačkih projekata. Član je uredništva znanstvenog časopisa ‘Prostor’. Autor je i koautor tridesetak arhitektonskih natječaja te četrdesetak programskih studija i izvedbenih projekata.

Ileković, Boris

Rođen je u Zagrebu 1965. godine. Diplomirao na AF u Zagrebu 1990. godine. Zaposlen 1992. – 1999. u Zavodu za arhitekturu na AF u Zagrebu. 1995. osnovao arhitektonski ured Vulin i Ileković. Sudjelovao kao autor ili koautor na tridesetak domaćih i međunarodnih natječaja te dvadesetak domaćih i međunarodnih izložbi (arhitektura i dizajn). Od 1995. honorarno je zaposlen kao asistent, viši predavač, docent, izvanredni profesor na Studiju dizajna pri Arhitektonskom fakultetu. Autor dvadesetak realizacija i pedesetak projekata te dobitnik više domaćih i međunarodnih nagrada i priznanja. Najznačajnije realizacije: Sklop benzinske postaje Rox-sjever, Zagreb, 2002.; novi Šumarski fakultet u Zagrebu, 1992. – 2006.; Adaptacija i rekonstrukcija zgrade za potrebe Hrvatskog sabora, Zagreb, 2008. – 2010.; nova knjižnica Filozofskog fakulteta u Zagrebu, 1994. – 2009.

214

Biografije

He has published about thirty scientific papers. He does reviews for international and national research projects. He is a member of the editorial board of the scientific journal ‘Space’. He has authored or co-authored about thirty architectural competitions and forty programme studies and implemented projects.

He was born in 1965 in Zagreb. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb in 1990. From 1992 to 1999 he worked at the Institute of Architecture at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. In 1995 he established the Vulin and Ileković architectural office. He participated as an author or a co-author in about thirty competitions and about twenty exhibitions in the country and abroad (architecture and design). Since 1995 he has been employed as an adjunct Assistant, Senior Lecturer, Assistant Professor and Associate Professor in the Department of Architectural Design at the Faculty of Architecture. He authored about twenty implemented projects and about fifty that have not been implemented, and won a number of Croatian and international awards and recognitions. Major implemented projects: the ROX-North petrol station, Zagreb, 2002; the new Faculty of Forestry building in Zagreb, 1992 – 2006; adaptation and reconstruction of a building for the needs of the Croatian Parliament, Zagreb 2008 – 2010; the new library of the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb, 1994 – 2009.

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Jukić, Tihomir

Završio je dva poslijediplomska studija, u Zagrebu i u Enschedeu u Nizozemskoj, a doktorirao 1998. godine. Predaje na Arhitektonskom fakultetu, doktorskom studiju ‘Arhitektura i urbanizam’ i Sveučilišnom poslijediplomskom studiju ‘Upravljanje gradom’. Objavio je veći broj stručnih i znanstvenih članaka. Samostalno ili u timu sudjeluje na izradi urbanističkih studija, planova i urbanističkih projekata, te na arhitektonsko-urbanističkim natječajima na kojima dobiva veći broj nagrada, od toga šest prvih. Dobitnik je nagrade za arhitekturu i urbanizam ‘EX AEQUO’ na 16. slavonskom biennalu (s J. Horvatom) 1998. godine. Član je Hrvatske akademije tehničkih znanosti. Stručni radovi – realizacije (odabir): 1998. Uređenje Trga A. Stepinca, Krašić (s J. Horvat); 1996. Uređenje Trga A. Mihanovića, Klanjec (s J. Horvat). Stručni radovi – prostorni planovi (odabir): 2003. Prostorni plan Srednjobosanskog kantona, BiH (jedan od autora međunarodnog tima); 2005. Generalni urbanistički plan Slavonskog Broda; 2006. Prostorni plan grada Senja. Stručni radovi – natječaji (odabir značajnijih radova): 1997. Uređenje Britanskog trga, Zagreb, 1. nagrada (s J. Horvat, A. Suljić i K. Šmit); 1999. Projekt uređenja trga u Dubravi, 1. nagrada (sa Ž. Aladrović i S. Aladrović); 2004. Urbanistički plan uređenja naselja Vrbani III, 1. nagrada (s D. Užarević i J. Ahel).

Juras, Ivan

215

Rođen je 1941. godine u Šibeniku. Diplomirao je na Arhi­ tektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu 1967. Tijekom studija 1964. – 1967. demonstrator je kolegija Crtanje i Plastično oblikovanje. Djeluje u građevinskom poduzeću ‘Tehnika’ 1967. – 1968., a u Urbanističkom institutu SR Hrvatske 1968. – 1971. Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu zaposlio se 1971. godine kao asistent kolegija Crtanje i Plastično oblikovanje. Nakon apsolviranog poslijediplomskog studija ‘Urbanizam i prostorno planiranje’, magistrirao je 1981. godine s temom ‘Formiranje i funkcija prostora trga na našoj obali’. Doktorirao je 1990. obranivši disertaciju ‘Primjena i razvoj crteža u postupku projektiranja’.

He completed two postgraduate studies in Zagreb and in Enschede, the Netherlands, and got a Ph.D. in 1998. He has been teaching at the doctorate programme ‘Architecture and Urbanism’ at the Faculty of Architecture and the University postgraduate study ‘Management of a City.’ He has published a number of expert and scientific papers. Independently or as a member of a team, he has taken part in urban studies, planning and urban development projects, as well as at the architecture and urban planning competitions and received many awards including six first prizes. He has won the ‘EX AEQUO’ award for architecture and urbanism at the 16th Slavonian Biennale (in collaboration with J. Horvat) in 1998. He is a member of the Croatian Academy of Engineering. Professional works – implemented projects (selection): 1998 – Development of A. Stepinac Square, Krašić (in collaboration with J. Horvat); 1996 – Development of A. Mihanović Square, Klanjec (in collaboration with J. Horvat). Professional works – special plans (selection): 2003 – Spatial plan of the Central Bosnian Canton, BiH (one of the authors of the international team); 2005 – General Urban Plan of Slavonski Brod; 2006 – Spatial plan of the city of Senj. Professional works – tenders (selection of major works); 1997 – Development of Britanski Square, Zagreb, 1st prize (in collaboration with J. Horvat, A. Suljić and K. Šmit); 1999 – Development project for a square in Dubrava, 1st prize (in collaboration with Ž. Aladrović and S. Aladrović); 2004 – Urban development plan for the settlement Vrbani III, 1st prize (in collaboration with D. Užarevic and J. Ahel)

Od 2000. godine redoviti je profesor Arhitektonskog fakulteta. Od 2000. godine predaje na Agronomskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu na kolegiju Uređenje krajobraza, od 2004. do 2006. predaje na Šumarskom fakultetu ‘Kultura vizualne misli’ ( s prof. Renatom Waldgoni), te na Studiju dizajna na kolegijima Crtanje I, II i Likovne vježbe. Predstojnik je Zavoda za arhitekturu 1992. – 2000., te je izabran za dekana Arhitektonskog fakulteta 2001. – 2003. Član je redakcije časopisa ‘Arhitektura’ 1997. – 1998. Uz arhitektonska ostvarenja izlagao je crteže i akvarele (Dubrovnik 1990. i Zagreb 1992. i 1993.). Autor je knjiga ‘Utopijske vizije arhitekture grada’ 1997. i ‘Arhitektura između verbalnog i vizualnog’ 2008., ‘Architecture between verbal and visual’ 2011., ‘Smjernost arhitektonske kritike’ 2012. Voditelj je znanstvenog projekta ‘Atlas arhitekture XX. i XXI. stoljeća’ 1993. – 2004.

Born in 1941 in Šibenik. Graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb in 1967. During his studies from 1964 till 1967, he worked as a Student Assistant for Drawing and Plastic Shaping. From 1967 till 1968, he worked at ‘Tehnika’ Construction Company and from 1968 till 1971 at the Urban Institute of the Socialist Republic of Croatia. In 1971 he started working at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb as an Assistant for Drawing and Plastic Shaping. After he graduated with thesis in ‘Urbanism and Spatial Planning’, he earned his master’s degree in 1981, his topic being ‘Shaping and the Function of a Square on the Adriatic Coast’. He earned his Ph.D. in 1990 defending his dissertation called The Implementation and the Development of a Drawing in the Designing Procedure. From the year 2000 he has been a full-time professor at the Faculty of Architecture. From 2000 he has also been teaching at the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb where he teaches Landscape Design, and at the School of Design he teaches Drawing I, II and Art Exercises. He was the Head of the Architecture Institute from 1992 till 2000. He was appointed a dean of the Faculty of Architecture from 2001 till 2003. He was a member of the editorial board of magazine ‘Architecture’ from 1997 till 1998. Besides his architectural accomplishments, he also exhibited his drawings and watercolors (Dubrovnik 1990 and Zagreb 1992 and 1993). In 1997, Ivan Juras wrote ‘Utopian Visions of a Town’s Architecture’ and ‘Architecture between Verbal and Visual’ in 2008, and ‘Modesty of Architectural Criticism’ in 2012. From 1993 till 2004 he was the Head of a scientific project ‘The Atlas of the 20th and 21st Centuries’ Architecture’. As far as professional

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Justić, Siniša

Kasun, Vladimir

216

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Od stručnih ostvarenja za izdvojiti su realizacije fakultetskih zgrada aneksa Ekonomskog fakulteta 1988. (s: E. Špirić, izvedba E. Šmit) i Studija informacijskih znanosti za invalide Domovinskog rata u Zagrebu 1994. – 2000., Krešimirov dom u Šibeniku 1987., obnova Biskupske palače u Dubrovniku, Interijer samostana ‘Male braće’ – zapadno krilo (Lokošek, Vetma, Bobanović) 2002. – 2003., te zgrade poticane stanogradnje u Novom Vinodolskom 1998. – 2003. i Omišlju 2004., te stambene zgrade u Zlataru 2001. i Pločama 2005. Dobitnik je godišnje nagrade ‘Vladimir Nazor’ 1987. za Dom boraca i omladine (Krešimirov dom) u Šibeniku (sa: E. Špirić), te nagrade ‘Neven Šegvić’ za znanost, teoriju, promicanje teorijske misli i publicistiku 2000. godine.

projects are concerned, we should stress the Faculty Buildings which are an annex of the Faculty of Economics in 1988 (in collaboration with E. Špirić; construction by E. Šmit); the Computer Science Studies for the Croatian Home War invalids in Zagreb 1994 – 2000; the Krešimir’s Centre in Šibenik 1987; the reconstruction of the Bishop’s Palace in Dubrovnik; the interior of the ‘Little Brothers’ monastery – West Wing (Lokošek, Vetma, Bobanović) 2002 – 2003; subsidized housing construction in Novi Vinodolski 1998 – 2003 and in Omišalj in 2004 and apartment buildings in Zlatar in 2001 and in Ploče in 2005. He won the annual award ‘Vladimir Nazor’ in 1987 for the Home of Fighters and Youth (so-called Krešimir’s Centre) in Šibenik (in collaboration with E. Špirić), as well as ‘Neven Šegvić’ Award for Science, Theory, the Promotion of Theoretical Thought and Publicist Writing in 2000.

Diplomirao je 1996. na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Od 1997. je asistent, od 2003. predavač, a od 2009. docent na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu kao nastavnik kolegija Crtanje I i II, i Plastično oblikovanje. Od 2002. do 2013. na studiju dizajna pri Arhitektonskom fakultetu honorarni je nastavnik kolegija Elementi arhitektonskog projektiranja. Izbor projekata: 2001. natječaj za idejno urbanističko-arhitektonsko rješenje stambene zgrade iz programa POS, Krapina, 2001. prva nagrada; izvedeno 2003.; 2003. natječaj za idejno urbanističko-arhitektonsko rješenje stambene zgrade iz programa POS, Konjščina, 2003., druga nagrada; 2004. natječaj za idejno urbanističko-arhitektonsko rješenje zgrade Muzičke akademije u Zagrebu, otkup; 2004. natječaj za idejno urbanističko-arhitektonsko rješenje polivalentne rukometne dvorane u naselju Špansko, Zagreb, 3. nagrada; 2005. natječaj za Idejno urbanističko-arhitektonsko rješenje Zgrade za stare i nemoćne osobe u naselju Sloboština, Zagreb, otkup; 2006. natječaj za Idejno urbanističko-arhitektonsko rješenje Osnovne škole s trodijelnom sportskom dvoranom u Ivanjoj Reci, s M. Mrduljaš, otkup; 2008. natječaj za idejno urbanističko-arhitektonsko rješenje Trga sv. Nikole u Kraljevici, s L. Korlaet i A. Korlaet, 1. nagrada; 2011. natječaj za izradu idejnog arhitektonsko-urbanističkog rješenja crkve i pastoralnog centra s dječjim vrtićem u Trogiru, s D. Latin, 1. nagrada

He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb in 1996. From 1997 he was an assistant lecturer, became a lecturer in 2003 and in 2009 assistant professor at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb lecturing at the courses Drawing I and II and Plastic Moulding. From 2002 to 2013, Justić worked part time as a lecturer of Architectural Design Elements course at the Design Studies at the Faculty of Architecture. Selection of projects: 2001. Tender for architectural and urban design of the POS programme (subsidised housing), Krapina; 1st prize in 2001, project implemented in 2003; 2003. Tender for architectural and urban design of the POS programme, Konjščina, 2nd prize; 2004 – Tender for architectural and urban design of the Music Academy building in Zagreb, bought out;2004. Tender for architectural and urban design of a handball court in Špansko, Zagreb, 3rd prize; 2005. Tender for architectural and urban design of the Home for the elderly and infirm in the Sloboština settlement, Zagreb, bought out; 2006. Tender for architectural and urban design of the elementary school with a three court sports hall in Ivanja Reka, (in collaboration with M. Mrduljaš), bought out; 2008. Tender for architectural and urban design of St. Nicholas Square in Kraljevica, (in collaboration with L. Korlaet and A. Korlaet), 1st prize; 2011 tender for architectural and urban design of the church, pastoral centre and kindergarten in Trogir, (in collaboration with D. Latin), 1st prize.

Rođen je u Zadru 1963. godine. Nakon diplomiranja na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu 1988. godine, radio je kao projektant u tvrtki APZ – Zagreb. 1992. godine osnovao projektni ured Studio Urbana u kojem autorski djeluje i danas. Od akademske godine 2002./2003. radi i na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, a od 2010. godine kao docent na Katedri za arhitektonsko projektiranje. Ostvario je niz projekata unutrašnjeg uređenja prostora i arhitekture i izlagao na autorskim i skupnim izložbama u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu. Dobitnik je Nagrade Udruženja hrvatskih arhitekata za interijer – Bernardo Bernardi 1994. godine, Priznanja Salona mladih 1996. godine

Born in 1963 in Zadar. After graduating from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1988, he worked as an architect for the APZ Company in Zagreb. In 1992, he established his architectural design office Studio Urbana where he continues to practise. In the academic year 2002 – 2003, he joined the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb; since 2010, he has been assistant professor at the Department of Architectural Design. A large number of his projects of interior space and architecture design has been realised; he has exhibited his works in individual and group exhibitions in Croatia and abroad. In 1994, he won the Bernardo Bernardi Award for interior design – awarded by the Association of Croatian Architects; in 1996, he received the Youth Salon recognition, and in 2004,

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Kisić, Dubravka

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

i Priznanja Piranesi 2004. godine. Značajnije realizacije: interijer cafea Donna – Zagreb; samostan – Kloštar Ivanić; samostan – Livno; višestambena zgrada POS-a – Delnice; kuće za odmor – Ugljan, višestambena zgrada Lašćinska – Zagreb; stambeno naselje Habitus – Zagreb; ugostiteljski paviljon Kira – Kutina. Značajniji natječaji: 1. nagrade: poslovna zgrada Astra – Zagreb; crkva Gospe od Zdravlja – Smilčić; poslovni kompleks uz crkvu Majke Božje Lurdske – Zagreb; POS – Delnice; gradska tržnica – Kutina. 2. nagrade: sportska dvorana – Novska; Sveučilišna knjižnica Split; poslovna zgrada Ingra – Zagreb; centar Draga – Šibenik; poslovni komplex Crodux – Jankomir, Zagreb.

the Piranesi recognition. Selected realised design projects: interior of the coffee bar Donna, Zagreb; monastery – Kloštar Ivanić; monastery – Livno; apartment building, POS program, Delnice; holiday residences, Ugljan; apartment building, Laščinska Str., Zagreb; residential complex Habitus, Zagreb; catering pavilion Kira, Kutina. Selected competition entries:1st prizes: Astra administration building, Zagreb; Church of Our Lady of Good Health, Smilčić; business complex next to the Church of Our Lady of Lourdes – Zagreb; POS – Delnice; city market, Kutina; 2nd prizes: sports hall, Novska; University Library, Split; Ingra Company office building, Zagreb; Draga residential-commercial complex, Šibenik; Crodux business complex, Jankomir, Zagreb.

Diplomirala je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu sveučilišta u Zagrebu 1976. godine. Poslijediplomsko obrazovanje u području povijesti arhitekture i konzervatorske struke stjecala je u Yorku (Velika Britanija) 1980., Egeru (Mađarska) 1986., Rimu (Italija) 1989., Gdanjsku (Poljska) 1990. Znanstveni stupanj magistra arhitektonske znanosti obranila na Katolieike Universiteit Leuven – Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation u Leuvenu (Belgija) 1993. godine. U razdoblju od 1976. do 1978., a povremeno i kasnije, radila je kao suradnica Zavoda za arhitekturu Arhitektonskog fakulteta u Zagrebu u projektantskoj grupi arhitekta Miroslava Begovića na projektu obnove i rekonstrukcije Tkalčićeve ulice i poslovnog objekta ‘Poljoopskrba’ u Zagrebu. Pripravnički staž za polaganje stručnog ispita odradila je u projektnom birou ‘Pakrac’ u Zagrebu. Od 1978. do 1997. godine zaposlena je u Regionalnom zavodu za zaštitu spomenika kulture u Zagrebu u zvanju arhitekt konzervator – viši savjetnik. Ostvarila je brojne projekte i realizacije obnova povijesnih objekata. Za obnovu zagrebačkih fasada dobila je priznanje Zagrebačkog salona arhitekture 1988. godine. Autorica je nekoliko nagrađenih i objavljenih arhitektonskih natječajnih projekata. Od 1997. godine upraviteljica je i voditeljica zbirke Hrvatskog muzeja arhitekture Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti. Sustavno radi na prikupljanju gradiva za zbirku i specijaliziranu biblioteku Muzeja u kojem je do sada prikupljeno 47 osobnih arhivskih fondova hrvatskih arhitekata. Organizirala je 87 izložbenih programa u kojima je sudjelovala i kao autorica koncepcije i postava, urednica kataloga i autorica pratećih tekstova. Bila je dugogodišnja članica Savjeta galerije ‘Zagreb’ i galerije ‘Milan i Ivo Steiner’. Od 2005. do 2009. godine uređivala je emisiju Trećeg programa Hrvatskoga radija ‘Život prostora’. Od 1997. do danas članica je uredništva i urednica za teme arhitekture, urbanizma i vizualnih medija u časopisu ‘Europski glasnik’. Povremeno objavljuje članke iz područja suvremene i povijesne arhitekture u časopisima ‘Čovjek i prostor’, ‘Arhitektura’ i ‘Oris’. Bila je članica većeg broja žirija i komisija za nagrade te članica Stručnog savjeta Udruženja hrvatskih arhitekata.

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Biografije

She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Zagreb in 1976. Postgraduate education in the field of history of architecture and conservation she gained in York (UK) in 1980, Eger (Hungary) in 1986, Rome (Italy) in 1989, Gdansk (Poland) in 1990. The thesis of her Master’s Degree in architectural science she defended at the Katolieike Universiteit Leuven – Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation in Leuven (Belgium) in 1993. From 1976 to 1978 and periodically thereafter, she was engaged as an associate at the Institute of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb working on the project of rehabilitation and reconstruction of Tkalčićeva Street and ‘Poljoopskrba’ business premises in Zagreb as a member of the design group of the architect Miroslav Begović. In preparation for the professional exam, Kisić completed her internship at the Design Bureau ‘Pakrac’ in Zagreb. From 1978 to 1997 she was at the position of the architectural conservator and senior adviser at the Regional Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments in Zagreb. She carried out numerous projects and project implementations on restoration of historic buildings. At the Zagreb Salon of Architecture she received the recognition for façade restoration in Zagreb. She is the author of several award-winning architectural design projects that have been published as well. Since 1997, Kisić has been the director of the Croatian Museum of Architecture of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. She systematically works on gathering material for a specialized library collection of the Museum and so far collected 47 personal archive holdings of Croatian architects. She organized 87 exhibitions in which she participated as the author of the concept and design, catalogue editor and author of accompanying texts. She was a long-time member of the Council of the Zagreb Gallery and ‘Milan and Ivo Steiner’ Gallery. From 2005 to 2009 she edited a radio show ‘The Life of the Space’ on the Croatian Radio Third Channel. Since 1997 she has been a member of the editorial board of the journal ‘European Messenger’ and has edited topics related to architecture, urbanism and visual media Occasionally, she publishes articles on modern and historic architecture in the magazines ‘Čovjek i prostor’ (Man and Space), ‘Arhitektura’ (Architecture) and ‘Oris’. She was also a member of a large number of awards committees and a member of the Croatian Architects Association Expert Council.

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Rođen je 1974. u Zagrebu. Diplomirao je 2001. Apsolvirao je poslijediplomski doktorski studij (disertacija s temom društveno poticanih programa stanogradnje). Stručni ispit položio 2007. godine. Od 2009. predavač je četiriju kolegija pri Katedri za projektiranje – Kabinetu za stanovanje, a sudjeluje i u terenskoj nastavi. Član je povjerenstva za mobilnost studenata i nastavnika u okviru programa Erasmus+. Izradio je niz idejnih, glavnih i izvedbenih projekata. Sudjelovao na više arhitektonskih natječaja na kojima je osvojio i nekoliko nagrada. Od 2009. do 2013. bio je član Izvršnog odbora Društva arhitekata Zagreba.

Born in 1974 in Zagreb. He graduated in 2001, and completed his post-graduate doctoral studies with the dissertation on socially-supported housing programs. In 2007, he passed the architectural licensing examination. Since 2009, as a lecturer, he has been teaching four courses at the Department of Architectural Design – Section of Residential Buildings, and has also taken part in the field studies. He is a member of the Student and Teacher Mobility Commission within the framework of the Erasmus+ programme. He is the author of a series of conceptual, main and construction design projects. He participated in a number of architectural competitions in which he won several prizes. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Zagreb Society of Architects (2009 – 2013).

Korlaet, Luka

Rođen je 1955. godine u Zagrebu. Diplomirao je 1979. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, gdje je od tada kontinuirano zaposlen. Magistrirao 2000. godine s temom ‘Stanovanje za starije na primjeru analize zagrebačkih domova umirovljenika’. Stručno se usavršavao tijekom 1989.,1992. i 1993. godine u Beču (ILBAU – G.m.b.H.) i Stuttgartu (Biro Laage & Partner, Biro Behnisch & Partner).

Koružnjak, Boris

1993. godine s Gordanom Domić osniva arh. biro ARK. Od 1999. godine ovlašteni arhitekt i član HKAIG (od 2008. HKA). Od 2008. godine izv. profesor na Arhitektonskom fakultetu. Od 2007. do 2008. član Odbora za upis Razreda arhitekata HKAIG. Od 2003. do 2007. prodekan za poslovanja na Arhitektonskom fakultetu. Od 2007. godine predstojnik Zavoda za arhitekturu. Od 2011. godine dekan Arhitektonskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Višestruko izlagao radove na autorskim i skupnim izložbama. Kao predavač sudjelovao na stručnim i znanstvenim skupovima. Uz pedagoški te znanstvenoistraživački rad usmjeren k istraživanju modela stanovanja za starije i tipskih modela sportskih građevina, autor je i koautor više nagrađenih arhitektonskih natječaja i realizacija stambenih, poslovnih, zdravstvenih, sportskih, te školskih građevina i interijera.

Krajnik, Damir

218

Docent je na Katedri za urbanizam, prostorno planiranje i pejsažnu arhitekturu Arhitektonskog fakulteta u Zagrebu. Nositelj je kolegija Primjena materijala i konstrukcija u perivojnoj arhitekturi na Arhitektonskom fakultetu te kolegija Pejsažno oblikovanje i planiranje na Šumarskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Bavi se znanstvenoistraživačkim i stručnim radom u području arhitekture, urbanizma i pejsažnog planiranja.

Biografije

He was born in 1955, in Zagreb. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Zagreb in 1979 and has been employed by the same institution ever since. He earned his Master’s Degree in 2000 with the thesis ‘Housing for the elderly based on the example of the Zagreb retirement homes analysis’. He attended professional training during 1989, 1992 and 1993 in Vienna (ILBAu – GmbH) and Stuttgart (Laage & Partner Bureau, Behnisch and Partner Bureau). In 1993 he established the ARK, an architectural design studio, with Gordana Domić. Since 1999 he has been a licensed architect and a member of the Croatian Chamber of Architects and Civil Engineers (since 2008 the Croatian Chamber of Architects). Since 2008 he has been the Associate Professor at the Faculty of Architecture, and in 2007 and 2008 has served as a member of the Croatian Chamber of Architects and Civil Engineers’ Committee for the registration grade of architects. From 2003 until 2007 he was the Assistant Dean of Operations at the Faculty of Architecture. Since 2007 he has been serving as the Head of the Institute of Architecture. Since 2011 he has been the Dean at the Faculty of Architecture University of Zagreb. Koružnjak has multiple copyrighted works at exhibitions and group exhibits and has participated as lecturer at professional conferences. In addition to both his educational work and scientific research, he had always strived to explore models of housing for the elderly and standard models of sports facilities being the author and co-author of several award-winning architectural competitions and implementation of residential, commercial, medical, sports and school buildings and interiors. Assistant professor at the Department of Urbanism, Spatial Planning and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. He has lectured ‘Application of materials and structures in architecture of parks’ at the Faculty of Architecture and ‘Design and planning of landscapes’ at the Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb. He has been engaged in science and research activities in the fields of architecture, urban planning and landscape architecture.

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Diplomirao je 2004. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. U prosincu 2004. godine postaje znanstveni novak – asistent u Kabinetu za primjenu računala u arhitekturi gdje radi na tri nastavna kolegija i suradnik je na znanstvenoistraživačkim projektima. U srpnju 2012. brani doktorsku disertaciju ‘Sustav smjernica za planiranje održivih sveučilišnih kampusa’, u sklopu doktorskog studija ‘Arhitektura’ na Arhitektonskom fakultetu, a pod mentorstvom prof. dr. sc. Baletića. Autor je nekoliko znanstvenih članaka te sudionik na domaćim i međunarodnim znanstvenim konferencijama, a svoje stručne radove izlaže u Hrvatskoj i inozemstvu. Autor je nekoliko izvedenih arhitektonskih projekata, izrađenih konzervatorskih studija te organiziranih radionica i izložbi.

He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb in 2004. In December of the same year, he became a research assistant in the Cabinet for Application of Computers in Architecture, where he lectured at three courses and also was an assistant in science research projects. In July 2012, he defended his doctorate thesis ‘Guidelines system for university campuses sustainable planning’, as a part of the doctorate study ‘Architecture’ at the Faculty of Architecture, under the mentorship of Professor Baletić, Ph.D. He has authored several scientific articles and participated in national and international scientific conferences, and exhibited his professional works in Croatia and abroad. He is the author of several implemented architectural designs, conservation studies and workshops and exhibitions.

Lisac, Rene

Kao natjecatelj s uspjehom sudjeluje na mnogim urbanističkim i arhitektonskim natječajima te do sada osvaja četiri nagrade i pet otkupa. Aktivni je član Udruženja hrvatskih arhitekata i Društva arhitekata Zagreba. Jedan je od autora međunarodnog interdisciplinarnog projekta ‘Akupunktura grada’ koji od 2011. godine financira program Europske unije Kultura (2007. – 2013.), a pod nazivom ‘City Acupuncture’, čiji je Rene Lisac programski koordinator.

Mikić, Vesna

Autorica šezdesetak projekata s nekoliko realizacija i tridesetak arhitektonskih natječaja, s više koautora osvaja brojne nagrade: prva nagrada za stambeni objekt u ulici Zelengaj, 1987. i stambene zgrade na Kajzerici 1989. te otkup na natječaju za novu zagorsku kuću 1995. (sa Sanjom Filep), Gradska tržnica, Kutina 2004., 2. nagrada, GračaniDolje, Zagreb, 2004., 2. nagrada (sa Zoranom Protić, d.i.a. i Damirom Petricem, d.i.a); urbana cjelina s tri stambene vile,

She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Zagreb in 1980 and earned her doctoral degree with the thesis Architect Antun Ulrich – Classical Quality in Modernism. In 1981 she worked as a designer at the Institute of Architecture, from 1990 as an assistant at the Faculty of Architecture. She has held the following posts with the Faculty of Architecture: teaching assistant at the Department of Architectural Design (1990–1993) senior researcher (1993–1999), teaching assistant (1999–2004), assistant professor (2004–2011), and is now full professor at the Department for Architectural Design, Cabinet for Public Buildings; Cabinet for Interior Design. With the aim to enable the recognition of Faculty of Architecture and the Zagreb School of Architecture, as the Vice-dean for Education in the period between 2001 and 2003 (Dean: Ivan Juras, prof., PhD), she launched and edited the book ‘Faculty of Architecture, Selection of student works 2001/2002’, issued as publication of the Faculty of Architecture. She participated in many home and international scientific meetings (Washington DC, Venetia). She is the author of series of articles as well as of the book ‘Architect Antun Ulrich – Classical Quality in Modernism’, Publishing house Jurčić, Zagreb, 2002. Together with Sanja Filep, in 2005 she founded the HiperCroatia Summer School, which became part of the official curriculum of the Faculty and grew into the elective course Contemporary Architecture in the Region. She is the author of some sixty projects with several realizations and some thirty architectural tenders with several co-authors, in cooperation with whom she won numerous prizes: first prize for the residential building in Zelengaj street in 1987 and the apartment buildings in Kajzerica in 1987, as well as a buy-off project at the competition for the New House in Zagorje in 1995 (with Sanja Filep); Town market hall, Kutina 2004, 2nd

Biografije

Biographies

Diplomirala je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu 1980. godine, a doktorirala s disertacijom ‘Arhitekt Antun Ulrich – klasičnost moderne’. Od 1981. zaposlena kao projektantica u Zavodu za arhitekturu, a od 1990. kao asistentica na Arhitektonskom fakultetu. 1999. docentica. Godine 2004. postaje izvanredna profesorica, a 2011. redovna profesorica na Katedri za arhitektonsko projektiranje, Kabinet za javne zgrade i Kabinet za interijer. U cilju prepoznavanja Arhitektonskog fakulteta i zagrebačke škole arhitekture, kao prodekanica za nastavu u periodu od 2001. do 2003. (dekan prof.dr.sc. Ivan Juras), pokreće i uređuje knjigu ‘Arhitektonski fakultet, Izbor studentskih radova 2001/2002’, objavljenu u izdanju AF-a. Sudjeluje na mnogim domaćim i stranim znanstvenim skupovima (Washington DC, Venecija). Autorica je niza znanstvenih članaka i knjige ‘Arhitekt Antun Ulrich, klasičnost moderne’, Naklada Jurčić, Zagreb, 2002. Godine 2005. sa Sanjom Filep osniva ljetnu školu Hiper Hrvatska koja postaje dio službenog kurikuluma fakulteta i profilira se kroz izborni kolegij ‘Suvremena arhitektura u regiji’.

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As a competitor, he successfully participated in many urban planning and architectural competitions and so far won four awards and five of his projects were bought out. He is an active member of the Croatian Architects Association and Zagreb Society of Architects. Lisac is also one of the authors of the international and interdisciplinary project ‘City Acupuncture’. Since 2011, the projects have been financed by the EU programme ‘Culture’ (2007 – 2013) and Rene Lisac is its programme coordinator.


facta architectonica 2

Miščević, Ljubomir

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Lisičina ulica u Zagrebu 2002. – 04. (Koautor: Zorana Protić, d.i.a.) realizirano, Centar socijalne skrbi, Zagreb, 2006./10. realizirano (sa Zoranom Protić, d.i.a. i Damirom Petricem, d.i.a, 1. nagrada).

prize; Gračani-Dolje, Zagreb 2004, 2nd prize (wuth Zorana Protić, Arch. Eng. and Damir Petric, Arch. Eng.); the urban complex of three residential villas, Lisičina Street in Zagreb, 2002–04, in realization (with Zorana Protić, Arch. Eng.); the Social Welfare Centre, Zagreb 2006 – 2010, in realization (with Zorana Protić, Arch. Eng. and Damir Petric, Arch. Eng.), 1st prize.

Diplomirao 1979. Dekanova i Rektorova nagrada. Zavod za arhitekturu i Kabinet za stanovanje, 1979. Asistent Interieur 1989., predavač; Energetska i ekološka arhitektura 1991., Održiva arhitektura 2007., Visokotehnološka arhitektura 2008., Projektiranje i oblikovanje održive arhitekture, doktorski studij 2007., High-tech arhitektura 2011., doktorski studij AF-a u Ljubljani. Redoviti profesor 2010.

Graduated in 1979. Received Dean's and Rector's awards. Institute of Architecture and associate at the Department of Architectural Design, 1979. From 1989 to 1992 assistant in Interior Design. Lecturer; Energy and Ecology Architecture, 1991. Senior lecturer, 1994; assistant professor of Architectural Design, 1996; graduation thesis, 1997; Integral Work, 1999. Lecturer; Sustainable Architecture, 2007; High-Tech Architecture, 2008; Design of Sustainable Architecture, doctoral study, 2007; High-Tech Architecture, Doctoral study, Ljubljana in 2012. Full professor in 2010.

Stručni ispit 1983., ovl. arhitekt 1998., dopuštenje Ministarstva kulture RH, 2001. Voditelj Međunarodne ljetne škole arhitekture od 2000. i Studijskog centra u Motovunu od 2007. Poslijediplomski studij Urbanizam i prostorno planiranje 1982., registrirani znanstveni istraživač. Specijalistički poslijediplomski seminar Bioclimatic Architecture and Practical Design, Lisabon, EU, 1993. HR projekt Pasivna sunčana stambena arhitektura i međunarodni HR-SAD projekt Energetska i ambijentalna rehabilitacija u stanovanju, 1985. Program za strane stručnjake, Urban Environmental Issues, SAD, 2004. Od 1984. sudionik hrvatskih i međunarodnih stručnih i znanstvenih skupova; objavljuje referate, projekte i studije. Recenzent, član i voditelj hrvatskih i međunarodnih stručnih udruga. Predsjednik hrvatske sekcije u Međunarodnom udruženju za sunčevu energiju i Centra za obnovljive izvore energije, jedan od osnivača Savjeta za zelenu gradnju Hrvatske 2010. Ostvarenja obiteljskih kuća, višestambenih zgrada i hotela, interijera, industrijskog i grafičkog dizajna, izložbe, kazališne i TV scenografije. Domaći i međunarodni natječaji. Priznanje Državne uprave za zaštitu okoliša 1995. i Ford Motor Int. Comp. za očuvanje prirodne i kulturne baštine 2000. Predsjednik Društva arhitekata Zagreba, 2001. – 2005. Osnivač i prvi predsjednik Odbora za energetski učinkovitu i održivu arhitekturu i Odbora za pristupačnost u arhitekturi HKA-a od 2010. do 2012. Osnivač i voditelj Konzorcija pasivna kuća Hrvatska 2014. Radovi o energetski učinkovitoj, održivoj, high-tech i inteligentnoj arhitekturi, teoriji i povijesti arhitekture, o materijalima i zaštiti okoliša. Urednik hrvatskih i međunarodnih časopisa. Voditelj projekata EU-a za Hrvatsku; PASS-NET, IDES-EDU, PERFECTION, OPEN HOUSE, partner u projektima INTENSE, CROSKILLS I., II., ECO-SANDWICH, BISTEC i PASSREG. www.kpk.hr

220

Biografije

Since 2000 the head of International Summer School of Architecture and of Study Centre in Motovun, 2007. Licensing exam in 1983, licensed architect of Croatian Chamber of Architects in 1998 and licensed by Ministry of Culture in 2001. Post-graduate studies in Urban and Physical Planning, 1982, registered scientist. Specialist course Bioclimatic Architecture and Practical Design, Lisbon, 1993. International Croatian and USA project Energy and Ambience Rehabilitation in Housing 1985. Invited and attended the Foreign Visitors Program Urban Environmental Issues, USA, State Department, 2004. Since 1984 participation in Croatian and international conferences, continuously presented on exhibitions and public lectures, published papers, projects and studies on solar and ecology architecture, theory, sustainability, materials, high-tech, and environmental protection. His realized projects include: single and multi family houses, hotels, office and industrial buildings, town planning projects, interior designs, graphic and product design, designs for exhibitions, theatre and TV set. He participated in domestic and foreign architectural, urban and design competitions. Award-winner in competitions. Received awards from Croatian State Administration of Environmental Protection in 1995 and from Int. Ford Motor Comp. for the protection of nature and cultural heritage in 2000. Chairman of the Association of Zagreb Architects from 2001 to 2005. Editor and member of some editorial boards of professional journals, visiting lecturer in Croatia and abroad, reviewer, member and head of professional and other associations. President of Croatian section in International Solar Energy Society and of Croatian Centre for renewable energy sources, head of Passive House Consortium Croatia, 2014. Head of EU projects for Croatia; PASS-NET, IDES-EDU, PERFECTION, OPEN HOUSE, and partner in INTENSE, ECO-SANDWICH, CROSKILLS I., II., BISTEC and PASSREG projects. www.kpk.hr

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Rođen u Rijeci 1974. godine. Diplomirao na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu 2000. godine. Sudjeluje u nastavi na Arhitektonskom fakultetu od akademske 2002/03. godine. Stalno zaposlen, u zvanju docenta, od 2009. godine.

He was born in Rijeka in 1974. He graduated at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb in 2000. Since academic year 2002/2003 he has been teaching staff at the Faculty of Architecture, and in 2009 was tenured as assistant professor.

Mišković, Petar

U praksi fokusiran na projekte malih eksperimentalnih građevina te stambenih i društvenih zgrada. Djeluje samostalno ili u suradnji s drugim arhitektima i umjetnicima. U autorskim grupama predstavljao je Hrvatsku na Venecijanskom bijenalu arhitekture 2004. i 2010. godine.

In his practical work he focuses on small experimental constructions and on residential and social buildings. He works independently and in cooperation with other architects and artists. As part of author groups he represented Croatia on Venice Bienalle in 2004 and 2010.

Izvedeni stambeni projekti: stambena zgrada – POS, Đakovo, 2001. – 2003. (s Loherom i Rajčićem); kuće u nizu, Rukavac, 2007. – 12. (s Pavelićem); vila, Rijeka, u izvedbi (s Risterom).

Realized residential projects: POS (socially subsidized housing) apartment building in Đakovo, 2001 – 2003 (with Loher and Rajčić); terraced houses, Rukavac, 2007 – 2012. (with Pavelić); villa, Rijeka, under construction (with Rister).

Diplomirao je 1967., magistrirao 1978., a doktorirao 1990. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Stručno usavršavanje u SAD na specijalnom studiju Sveučilišta Harvard i MIT-u (1974. – 1975.), te kod Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Chicago (1975. – 1976.). Od 1991. redoviti je član – akademik Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti.

Neidhardt, Velimir

Dobitnik je niza nagrada među kojima su: nagrade Vladimira Nazora 1989. i 1995. i Viktora Kovačića 1979. i Nagrada grada Zagreba 2001. godine. Pridruženi je član Associate of the American Institute of Architects. Stručni radovi – realizacije (izbor): 2004. poslovna zgrada Croatia osiguranja, Zagreb; 1985. – 1989. poslovna zgrada INA, Zagreb; 1978. – 1984. Nacionalna i sveučilišna knjižnica, Zagreb, početni projekti (s M. Hržićem, Z. Krznarićem i D. Manceom), otvorenje 1995.; 1973. – 1979. robna kuća Boska i Dom radničke solidarnosti, Banja Luka, BiH (s Lj. Lulić i J. Nosso). Stručni radovi – natječaji (izbor): 2008. novi putnički terminal Zračne luke Zagreb, 1. nagrada na međunarodnom natječaju (s B. Kinclom i J. Radićem); 1996. zgrada Vlade Republike Hrvatske, Zagreb, 3. nagrada; 1993. Blok Badel, Zagreb, 1. nagrada; 1991. Svjetski trgovinski centar, Zagreb, 1. nagrada. Monografija: 2001. F. Vukić: Velimir Neidhardt – Urban Architecture / Arhitektura grada, Meandar i Neidhardt arhitekti d.o.o., Zagreb. Znanstveni rad – knjiga: 1997. Neidhardt, V.: Čovjek u prostoru: antroposocijalna teorija projektiranja, Školska knjiga, Zagreb.

221

Biografije

He earned his B.Sc. degree in Architecture in 1967 from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, his M.Sc. degree in 1978, and his doctorate degree in 1990. He spent one academic year 1974 – 1975 at Harvard University, and partly MIT, USA. This was followed by an invitation to work in the Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Studios in Chicago (1975 – 1976). Since 1991 he has been a Full Member (Academician) of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He has been awarded many prizes such as the Vladimir Nazor Awards for the years of 1989 and 1995, the Viktor Kovačić Award for the year of 1979, and the City of Zagreb Award for the year of 2001. He is an Associate of the American Institute of Architects. His realized design projects include (selection): 2004 – Croatia Insurance business complex, Zagreb; 1985 – 1989 –  INA Company Office Building, Zagreb; 1978 – 1984 – the National and University Library, Zagreb, initial design projects (with M. Hržić, Z. Krznarić and D. Mance), opened in 1995; 1973 – 1979 – Boska department store and Workers’ Solidarity Centre, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina (with Lj. Lulić and J. Nosso). Competition design projects (selection): 2008 – the new passenger terminal of Zagreb Airport, 1st prize at the international competition (with B. Kincl and J. Radić); 1996  – the Croatian Government building complex, Zagreb, 3rd prize; 1993 – Badel Block, Zagreb, 1st prize; 1991  – World Trade Centre, Zagreb, 1st prize. Monograph: 2001 – F. Vukić: Velimir Neidhardt – Urban architecture / Arhitektura grada, Meandar and Neidhardt arhitekti d.o.o., Zagreb. Publications – book: 1997 – Neidhardt, V.: Čovjek u prostoru:  antroposocijalna teorija projektiranja (Man in the Environment: Anthroposocial Theory of Design), Školska knjiga, Zagreb.

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Plavec, Ivica

Docent Ivica Plavec, dipl. ing. arh. rođen je 1963. godine u Sisku u Republici Hrvatskoj. Diplomirao je 1988. godine u grupi prof. dr. sc. Miroslava Begovića. Od 1989. do 1992. radi u projektnom uredu ABM kod arhitekata Luje Schwerera i Jasne Nosso. Godine 1992. osnovao je projektni ured Studio Urbana. Početkom 2005. samostalno osniva projektni ured za arhitekturu i inovacije Poligon projekt d.o.o. Od akademske godine 2003./2004. radi honorarno na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu kao viši predavač na kolegiju Arhitektonsko projektiranje VI – VII; od 2006. kao viši predavač na Arhitektonskim konstrukcijama, a od 2010. kao docent, voditelj vježbi iz Tehničkog studija i Arhitektonskih konstrukcija. 2010. gostuje kao profesor na arhitektonskom fakultetu u Pečuhu s predavanjem Motivi, modeli, mutacije, a na poziv Mađarske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti u organizaciji Arhitektonskog fakulteta u Pečuhu kao dio programa Pečuh Europska prijestolnica kulture. 2007. – 2011. odslušao je doktorski studij Arhitektura na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu i u fazi je izrade disertacije Novi sustavi gradnje i pomjena društvene paradigme (mentor B. Kincl). Značajniji projekti: trgovačko poslovni centar MBL, Zagreb, 1. nagrada, crkva Gospe od zdravlja, Smilčić, 1. nagrada; Sveučilišna knjižnica, Split, 2. nagrada; višestambena zgrada POS-a, Delnice, 1. nagrada; višenamjenska zgrada, Osijek, 3. nagrada; gradska tržnica, Kutina,1. nagrada. Realizacije: interijer caffe bara Donna, Zagreb, nagrada Bernardo Bernardi za 1994. godinu; samostan školskih sestara franjevki, Kloštar Ivanić – nominacija za nagradu Viktor Kovačić; samostan školskih sestara franjevki, Livno; višestambena zgrada POS-a, Delnice – nominacija za nagradu Drago Galić; priznanje "Piranesi"; 2004., apartmanske kuće na otoku Ugljenu; višestambene zgrade, naselje Jadran, Ivanić Grad – u realizaciji; urbana vila Sveti duh, Zagreb – u realizaciji; poslovni kompleks Adris grupe d.d. – rekonstrukcija i adaptacija stare zgrade Tvornice duhana Zagreb u Hrvatski povijesni muzej – početak realizacije u ljeto 2015.

Pleština, Lenko

222

Ivica Plavec, Associate Professor, BSArch, was born in 1963, in Sisak, Croatia. He graduated in 1988 in the class of Prof. Miroslav Begović. From 1989 to 1992, he worked at the ABM design office with architects Lujo Schwerer and Jasna Nosso. In 1992, he established Studio Urbana – an architectural design office. In early 2005, he founded, on his own, Poligon projekt d.o.o., an architecture and innovation design office.In the academic year 2003/2004, he started working part-time at the Faculty of Architecture of the Zagreb University as a senior lecturer, teaching the course of Architectural Design VI – VII; from 2006, as a senior lecturer, he taught the Architectural Technology course; since 2010, he has been an associate professor, supervising exercises in the courses Architecture and Integrated Disciplines Studio and Architectural Technology. In 2010, at the invitation of the Hungarian Academy of Arts and Sciences – as part of the programme of Pécs – European Capital of Culture – he was a visiting professor at the Faculty of Architecture in Pécs, with the lecture entitled ‘Motives, models, mutations’. From 2007 to 2011, he attended a doctoral study programme ‘Architecture’ at the Faculty of Architecture of the Zagreb University; he is working on his doctoral thesis ‘New construction systems and the change of social paradigm’ (mentored by B. Kincl). A selection of design projects: MBL business and shopping mall, Zagreb, 1st prize; Church of Our Lady of Health, Smilčić, 1st prize; University Library, Split, 2nd prize, POS apartment building, Delnice, 1st prize; a multi-purpose building, Osijek, 3rd prize; City Market, Kutina, 1st prize. Realised design projects: the interior of the ‘Donna’ café bar, Zagreb – won the 1994 Bernardo Bernardi award; Monastery of School Sisters of St. Francis, Kloštar-Ivanić – nominated for the Viktor Kovačić award; Monastery of School Sisters of St. Francis, Livno; POS multi-purpose building, Delnice – nominated for the Drago Galić award; the 2004 Piranesi Honourable Mention; apartment buildings on the island of Ugljan; apartment buildings of the Jadran residential block, Ivanić Grad – under construction; an urban villa, Sveti Duh Str., Zagreb – under construction; Adris Grupa d.d. business complex; reconstruction and adaptation of the old building of the Zagreb Tobacco Factory – to become the building of the Croatian History Museum – reconstruction work will start in the summer of 2015.

Diplomirao je 1970., a doktorirao 1990. godine na Arhi­ tektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu s radom Estetika stambene arhitekture u mjerilu etike. Izabran je 1976. za asistenta, 1991. za docenta, a 1995. za izvanrednog profesora. Redoviti je profesor trajno od 2006. godine. Stručno se usavršavao u SAD-u u uredima Marcela Breuera i Paula Rudolpha 1972. – 1973., i u Finskoj 1975. – 1976. godine. Susreo je Louis Kahna i Alvar Aalta. Izradio je veći broj projekata, dio kojih je i realiziran, i sudjelovao na više arhitektonskih natječaja na kojima je bio nagrađivan. Objavio je veći broj znanstvenih i stručnih članaka u domaćim i stranim publikacijama. Aktivno je sudjelovao na više znanstvenih skupova i konferencija. Posjetio je brojne antologijske primjere arhitekture. Među osvrtima na njegov rad ističu se napisi Antoanete Pasinović i Kenetha Framptona.

He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1970, and the doctorate from the same Faculty in 1990 with a doctoral thesis entitled ‘Aesthetics of Residential Architecture by the Criteria of Ethics’. He was appointed teaching assistant at the Faculty of Architecture in 1976, assistant professor in 1991, and associate professor in 1995. In 2006, he was conferred the title of distinguished professor. He received further training in the USA, working in the offices of Marcel Breuer and Paul Rudolph in 1972 and 1973, and in Finland in 1975 and 1976. He made the acquaintance of Louis Kahn and Alvar Aalto. He worked on numerous projects, a part of which has been executed; he took part in several architectural competitions in which he won awards. He published a number of scholarly papers in local and international publications. He took an active part in a

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Poseban su mu interes u znanstvenom i stručnom radu obiteljske kuće i niska stambena izgradnja.

number of conferences and congresses. He paid a visit to a large number of the greatest works of architecture. Critical reviews of his work by Antoaneta Pasinović and Keneth Frampton stand out among many others. In his professional work, he is particularly interested in family houses and low-rise residential buildings. Realized works (selection): 2004 – 2008 Pješčana Uvala urban villa, Goričica family house, Tošovac family house; 2003 Pantovčak family house – received annual Vladimir Nazor Award for architecture; 1998 – 2000 ‘Family triptych’ (reconstruction and extension: house in Klis, villa Galić, Bilandžić family house); 1990 – 1991 three urban villas in the Zelengaj Str., Zagreb; 1980 – 1982 ‘Koprivnica trilogy’ (reconstruction and extension: library, movie theatre, museum); Danica memorial area, Koprivnica (published in an AIA Annual Report, Washington, DC); 1977 – 1987 Šestine family house, Jadranovo family house, Stari Grad family house.

Stručni radovi – realizacije (odabir): 2004. – 2008. Urbana vila Pješčana uvala, obiteljska kuća Goričica, obiteljska kuća Tošovac; 2003. Obiteljska kuća Pantovčak, Nagrada Vladimira Nazora; 1998. – 2000. ‘Obiteljski triptih’ (obnova i dogradnja: kuća u Klisu, vila Galić, obiteljska kuća Bilandžić); 1990. – 1991. tri urbane vile na Zelengaju, Zagreb; 1980. – 1982. ‘Koprivnička trilogija’ (obnova i dogradnja: knjižnica, kino, muzej); spomen-područje Danica, Koprivnica (objavljeno je u izboru AIA – Annual Report, Washington DC); 1977. – 1987. obiteljska kuća, Šestine; obiteljska kuća, Jadranovo; obiteljska kuća, Stari Grad.

Rođen je 1969. u Zagrebu. Diplomirao je 1997. Član je Hrvatske komore arhitekata od 2001. Polaznik je doktorskog znanstvenog studija Arhitektura i urbanizam na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu od 2007. Od 2001. vodi vlastiti ured. Na AF-u u Zagrebu, u Kabinetu za stanovanje Katedre za arhitektonsko projektiranje radi od 2002. kao docent.

Rajčić, Branimir

Rako, Goran

223

Realizacije: 2001. – 2003. stambena zgrada po programu POS-a u Đakovu (s R. J. Loherom i P. Miškovićem); obnova pročelja Slavonske banke arhitekta Alfreda Albinija u Osijeku (s R. J. Loherom). 2005. – 2007.; kuća za odmor u Selcu; kuća B na Srebrnjaku u Zagrebu. Projekti: 2003. stambena zgrada po programu POS-a, Špansko, Zagreb (sa S. Bodrožićem); 2004. Dvorac Bela 1, Bela (s M. Milat); 2007. Zona društvenih djelatnosti Finida, Poreč (s D. Vranić); 2008. Osnovna škola ‘Finida’, Poreč; 2009. Trg Vladimira Nazora, Ivanić-Grad (s D. Marakovićem i B. Levačić); 2009. seosko domaćinstvo A, Kalje, Žumberačko gorje (s M. Žinić). Radionice, ljetne škole, znanstveni projekti: 2011. Turistički krajolici Zagreba (Arhitektonski fakultet s Udruženjem hrvatskih arhitekata, Gradskim uredom za strategijsko planiranje Grada Zagreba i Hrvatskom akademijom znanosti i umjetnosti); 2013. – Prostori svakodnevice i nove kulturne prakse u Beču i Zagrebu (Arhitektonski fakultet sa SkuOR TU, Beč). Stručne nagrade i priznanja: 2004. Nagrada Drage Galića za stambenu zgradu u Đakovu.

Born in 1969 in Zagreb. He earned his bachelor’s degree in 1997. Since 2001, he has been a member of the Croatian Chamber of Architects. Since 2007, he has been a doctoral candidate in the Architecture and Urban Planning doctoral study program, at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. Since 2001, he has run his own practice. Since 2002, he has been assistant professor at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb – Department of Architectural Design, Section of Residential Buildings. Realised design projects: 2001 – 2003 – Residential building, POS program, Đakovo (with R. J. Loher and P. Mišković); Reconstruction of the façade of the building of Slavonska banka by architect Alfred Albini in Osijek (with R. J. Loher). 2005 – 2007 – Holiday residence in Selce; House B in the Srebrnjak neighbourhood in Zagreb. Design projects: 2003 – Residential building, POS program, Špansko, Zagreb (with S. Bodrožić); 2004 – Castle Bela 1, Bela (with M. Milat); 2007 – Social activities complex, Finida, Poreč (with D. Vranić); 2008 – Primary School, Finida, Poreč; 2009 – Vladimir Nazor Square, Ivanić-Grad (with D. Maraković and B. Levačić); 2009 – Family farm A, Kalje, Žumberačko gorje (with M. Žinić). Workshops, summer schools, scientific projects: 2011 – Zagreb Tourist Gaze (Faculty of Architecture with the Croatian Architects’ Association, the Office for Strategic Planning and Development of the City of Zagreb and the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts); 2013 – Everyday Public Spaces and Emerging Cultural Practices in Vienna and Zagreb (Faculty of Architecture with Interdisciplinary Centre for Urban Culture and Public Space (SkuOR) Vienna). Professional awards and recognitions: 2004 – Drago Galić Award for a residential building in Đakovo.

Diplomirao je 1978. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu gdje 2000. godine postaje predavač, 2002. docent, a 2008. izvanredni profesor. Vlastiti projektni ured Radionica arhitekture otvara 2003. godine. Sudjeluje na nizu predavanja i samostalno ih drži od 2004. godine u Motovunu, Beču i na Danima Orisa u Zagrebu. Dobitnik je Nagrade Viktora Kovačića za najuspješniju arhitektonsku realizaciju 2002. godine za stambenu zgradu B u Rijeci i Nagrade Vladimira Nazora za 2006. godinu za zgradu Arheološkog muzeja Narona u Vidu pokraj Metkovića.

He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1978; in 2000 he became a lecturer at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb; in 2002, he was appointed assistant professor, and in 2008, associate professor. He established his own architectural practice ‘Radionica arhitekture’ (Architecture Workshop) in 2003. He has taken part in a series of lectures, and since 2004, he has been giving lectures independently in Motovun, Vienna and at Days of Oris, in Zagreb. He received the Viktor Kovačić Award for the most successful architectural achievement in 2002 for the residential building ‘B’ in Rijeka, and the Vladimir

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Rister, Vanja

Roth-Čerina, Mia

224

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Stručni radovi – realizacije (odabir): 2008. – 2009. trgovački centar u Tkalčićevoj ulici u Zagrebu (s V. Ivandom, N. Ravnićem, J. Sabolićem, M. Tus); 2007. dječji vrtić u Sesvetama (s N. Ravnićem, J. Sabolićem); 2006. Arheološki muzej Narona u Vidu, Metković; 2004. zgrada POS-a u Španskom (s N. Jakšić); 2002. stambena zgrada B, Rijeka; 1997. bolnica, Nova Bila, BiH (s B. Radonićem, A. Kuzmanićem, D. Marasovićem). Stručni radovi – natječaji (odabir): 2007. spomen-područje Vodotoranj, Vukovar, 1. nagrada (s K. Jeren, K. Marunicom, N. Ravnićem); 2007. hotel Rovinj, 3. nagrada (s K. Marunicom, M. Pecotićem, N. Ravnićem, J. Sabolićem); 2007. stambeno naselje Sopnica, Zagreb, 2. nagrada (s V. Ivandom, K. Jeren, K. Marunicom, N. Ravnićem, J. Sabolićem); 2005. Osnovna škola ‘Špansko’, Zagreb, 3. nagrada (s N. Ravnićem, J. Sabolićem); 2005. Osnovna škola ‘Čulinec’, Zagreb, 2. nagrada (s N. Ravnićem, J. Sabolićem); 2004. Dječji vrtić Selčina, Zagreb, 1. nagrada (s N. Ravnićem, J. Sabolićem); 2003. bazen u Puli, 2. nagrada (s I. Franićem): 2001. Arheološki Muzej Narona u Vidu, Metković, 1. nagrada; 2001. POS Špansko, Zagreb, 1. nagrada (s N. Jakšić); 1995. južne arkade Mirogoja, Zagreb, 2. nagrada (s B. Radonićem); 1993. stambeno naselje u Den Boschu, Nizozemska (s B. Radonićem); 1991. Kongresni centar u Nari, Japan, 1. nagrada (s B. Radonićem).

Nazor Award in 2006 for the building of the Narona Archaeological Museum in the village of Vid, in the vicinity of Metković. His realised works include (selection): 2008 – 2009 – a shopping mall in Tkalčićeva Str., Zagreb (with V. Ivanda, N. Ravnić, J. Sabolić, M. Tus); 2007 – a kindergarten in Sesvete (with N. Ravnić, J. Sabolić); 2006 – Narona Archaeological Museum, Vid, Metković; 2004 – a POS building (POS – the Government-supported Social Housing Construction Program) in the Špansko neighbourhood, Zagreb (with N. Jakšić); 2002 – residential building ‘B’, Rijeka; 1997 – hospital, Nova Bila, Bosnia and Herzegovina (with B. Radonić, A. Kuzmanić, D. Marasović). His competitions works include (selection): 2007 – WaterTower Memorial Area, Vukovar, 1st prize (with K. Jeren, K. Marunica, N. Ravnić); 2007 – Hotel Rovinj, 3rd prize (with K. Marunica, M. Pecotić, N. Ravnić, J. Sabolić); 2007 – Sopnica housing complex, Zagreb, 2nd prize (with V. Ivanda, K. Jeren, K. Marunica, N. Ravnić, J. Sabolić); 2005 – a primary school in Špansko, Zagreb, 3rd prize (with N. Ravnić, J. Sabolić); 2005 – a primary school in Čulinec, Zagreb, 2nd prize (with N. Ravnić, J. Sabolić); 2004 – a kindergarten in Selčina, Zagreb, 1st prize (with N. Ravnić, J. Sabolić); 2003 – a swimming pool in Pula, 2nd prize (with I. Franić); 2001 – Narona Archaeological Museum, Vid, Metković, 1st prize; 2001 – POS Špansko, Zagreb, 1st prize (with N. Jakšić); 1995 – Mirogoj Cemetery southern arcades, Zagreb, 2nd prize (with B. Radonić); 1993 – a housing complex in Den Bosch, the Netherlands (with B. Radonić); 1991 – Convention Centre in Nara, Japan, 1st prize (with B. Radonić).

Rođen je 1975. godine u Zagrebu. Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu diplomirao je 1999. godine. Od 2001. godine nastavnik je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, a od 2012. godine u zvanju docenta. Radovi (izbor): Fakultet organizacije i informatike (s T. S. Franićem), 2013., kompleks studentskog doma Sveučilišta u Dubrovniku (s T. S. Franićem i A. Martinčić), 2009., zgrada uprave gradskih groblja i pomoćnih radionica na Mirogoju (s T. S. Franićem), 2007; Filozofski fakultet i Učiteljski fakultet Sveučilišta u Rijeci, izvedeno (s H. Auf-Franić i T. S. Franićem), 2005. – 2010.; Osnovna škola ‘Sopnica-Jelkovec’ u Sesvetama, izvedeno (s H. Auf-Franić, T. S. Franićem i L. Korlaetom), 2003. – 2009.

Born in 1975 in Zagreb. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb in 1999. Since 2001 he has been teaching at the Faculty of Architecture of the University in Zagreb. In 2012 he was appointed assistant professor. Works (selection):Faculty of Organisation and Informatics in Varaždin (with T. S. Franić), 2013; Student dormitory compound of the University in Dubrovnik (with T. S. Franić and A. Martinčić), 2009; Management building for City Cemeteries and subsidiary workshops in Mirogoj cemetery (with T. S. Franić), 2007; Faculty of Philosophy and Faculty of Teacher Education of the University in Rijeka, executed (with H. Auf-Franić and T. S. Franić), 2005 – 2010; Elementary school SopnicaJelkovec in Sesvete, executed (with H. Auf-Franić, T. S. Franić and L. Korlaet), 2003 – 2009.

Rođena je 1974. u Zagrebu, gdje je diplomirala 2000. godine. 2000.-–2001. zaposlena je u arhi-tektonskom uredu Tubus. Na AF radi od 2001., gdje je 2006. apsolvirala na poslijediplomskom studiju. Studentska priznanja: Rektorova nagrada 2000.; predstavnica AF na Archiprix International za 2000. S više koautora sudjelovala je na mnogim arhitektonskim natječajima, nagrađena je na njih 10, od čega na 4 prvom nagradom (2005. Dječji vrtić Lanište u Zagrebu, realiziran 2008., s T. Čerinom; 2006. Osnovna škola u Žbandaju, s H. Auf-Franić, T. S. Franićem i V. Risterom; 2007. Osnovna škola u Popovači, s T. Čerinom; 2009. Dom umirovljenika u Senju, s T. Čerinom i D. Miočem). Uredila je više stručnih

She was born in 1974 in Zagreb where she graduated in 2000. She spent the next two years working for the Tubus Architectural Bureau. She has been employed by the Faculty of Architecture since 2001, and in 2006 she earned her graduate degree there. She won several student awards, including the Rector’s award in 2000, and she has represented the Faculty of Architecture at the Archiprix International competition for best graduation projects in architecture the same year. With several coauthors she participated in numerous architectural competitions, being recognized at ten of them, winning four first prizes (in 2005 for the Lanište Kindergarten, implemented in 2008, with T. Čerina; in 2006 for the Zbandaj Elementary School, with H. AufFranic, T. S. Franić and V. Rister; in 2007 for the

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Simonović-Majcan, Izvor

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

knjiga i sudjelovala na izradi udžbenika. Održala je nekoliko javnih predavanja, izlagala je na 38., 41. i 44. Zagrebačkom salonu, te je s T. Čerinom bila nominirana za nagradu ‘Viktor Kovačić’ 2008. godine.

Popovača Elementary School, with T. Čerina; and in 2009 for the Retirement Home in Senj, with T. Čerina and D. Mioč). She edited several professional books and participated in compiling a textbook. She held several public lectures, exhibited at the 38th, 41st and 44th Zagreb Salon and had been co-nominated with T. Čerina for the Viktor Kovačić Award in 2008.

Rođen je u Zagrebu 1981. Diplomirao je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu 2009. Radi u studiju UP. Svira bubnjeve u grupi BRUT. Surađuje sa Šimetin-Tutek od 2011.

Sokol-Gojnik, Zorana

Sudeta, Nikoleta

Viši je asistent, znan. novak na Katedri za projektiranje Arhitektonskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Doktorirala je sa temom Arhitektonska i urbanistička obilježja liturgijskih građevina u Zagrebu u 20. st., u prosincu 2010. godine. Sudjeluje u radu znanstvenoistraživačkih projekata Fakulteta (sudjeluje u znanstvenom projektu ‘Urbanističko i pejsažno naslijeđe Hrvatske kao dio europske kulture’ čiji je voditelj prof. dr.sc. Mladen Obad Šćitaroci). Svoj znanstveni i stručni interes usmjerava prema problemu sakralne arhitekture u suvremenosti. Autorica je niza znanstvenih članaka, znanstvenih tekstova na domaćim i međunarodnim znanstvenim konferencijama. S arhitektom Igorom Gojnikom (Arhitektonski ured Siloueta) suautorica je niza stručnih projekata, studija i natječaja. Svoje radove izlagala je na stručnim arhitektonskim izložbama. Autorica je dvaju prijevoda sveučilišnih udžbenika sa talijanskog jezika (Bruno Zevi, Povijest moderne arhitekture 1 i Povijest moderne arhitekture 2).

Diplomirala je 1972., a magistrirala 1981. na Prirodoslovno-matematičkom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu s radom ‘N-dimenzionalna apsolutna geometrija’. Od 1972. radi na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, a od 1989. i na Studiju dizajna pri Arhitektonskom fakultetu na predmetima Nacrtna geometrija i perspektiva 1 i 2. Izabrana je 1990. za predavačicu, 1994. za višu predavačicu, a 2004. za višu predavačicu – trajno. Od 2006. mentorica je I. godine preddiplomskog studija, a od 2007. voditeljica Kabineta za matematiku, nacrtnu geometriju i perspektivu. Od 1983. – 1990. suradnica je na znanstvenoj temi ‘Mate­ matičke strukture i njihova primjena u prostornom planiranju i arhitektonskim konstrukcijama’, a od 1990. – 2001. na znanstvenoj temi ‘Primjena matematičkih struktura i dizajna u arhitekturi’. Sudjelovala je izlaganjima na brojnim domaćim i međunarodnim kongresima što je rezultiralo člancima objavljenim u zbornicima i časopisima. Članica je Upravnog odbora Hrvatskog društva za geometriju i grafiku (HDGG) te međunarodnog društva International Society for Geometry and Graphics (ISGG). Koautorica je sveučilišnog udžbenika ‘Perspektiva’.

225

Biografije

Born in Zagreb, in 1981. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb in 2009. He works in the UP Studio, plays drums in the band BRUT. Since 2011, he has collaborated with Šimetin and Tutek.

She is a senior research assistant at the Department of Design of the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb. She received her doctorate degree in December 2010 defending the thesis entitled Architectural and Urban Features of Liturgical Buildings in Zagreb in the 20th Century. She has participated in science and research projects of the Faculty (she has taken part in the science project ‘The Urban and Landscape Heritage of Croatia as Part of the European Culture’ led by prof. Mladen Šćitaroci, Ph.D.). Her scientific and professional interest is in contemporary sacral architecture. She is the author of many scientific articles and papers presented at national and international scientific conferences. In collaboration with architect Igor Gojnik (Siloueta Architectural Firm), she co-authored several science projects, studies and tenders. Her work was presented in professional architectural exhibitions. She has translated two university textbooks from Italian (Bruno Zevi, History of Modern Architecture 1 and History of Modern Architecture 2).

She graduated in 1972 and defended her master’s thesis ‘N-Dimensional Absolute Geometry’ in 1981 at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Zagreb. From 1972 she worked at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb, and from 1989 also at the School of Design at the Faculty of Architecture, teaching the courses ‘Descriptive Geometry’ and ‘Perspective 1 and 2’. In 1990, she was elected a lecturer, in 1994, a senior lecturer and in 2004 a senior lecturer with a permanent position. Since 2006, she was supervising the first-year undergraduate programme and since 2007, she has been the Head of Cabinet for Mathematics, Descriptive Geometry and Perspective. From 1983 to 1990 she was an associate at the science topic entitled ‘Mathematical structures and their application in spatial planning and architectural constructions’ and from 1990 to 2001 on a scientific topic ‘Application of mathematical structures and design in architecture.’ She participated in numerous presentations at national and international congresses, which resulted in articles published in books and magazines. She is a member of the Management Board of the Croatian Society for Geometry and Graphics (CSGG) and of the International Society for Geometry and Graphics (ISGG). She co-authored the textbook ‘Perspective’. Born in Zagreb, in 1956. At the Faculty of

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Rođena je u Zagrebu 1956. Na Filozofskom fakultetu u Zagrebu apsolvirala studij povijesti umjetnosti. Diplomirala na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu 1985. Od 1985. do 1989. radi u arhitektonskom birou Centar 51 na projektima i izvedbama. Živi i radi u Beču od 1989. do 1999. Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu zaposlena je kao stručna voditeljica poslova doktorskih studija od 1999. Samostalno i u suradnji koncipirala je i organizirala niz predavanja i izložbi. U suradnji s Ivanom Tutek radi natječaje, projekte, studije i izvedbe od 2007.

Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb she completed the programme at the course of Art History. In 1985, she graduated from the Faculty of Architecture. From 1985 to 1989, she worked on projects and implementations thereof in the architectural firm ‘Center 51’. She lived and worked in Vienna from 1989 to 1999 when she got employed as the Head of Service for Doctorate Studies at the Faculty of Architecture. Independently and in collaboration, she has conceived and organised a series of lectures and exhibitions. Since 2007, in collaboration with Ivana Tutek, she has been.

Šimetin, Pavla

Rođen u Osijeku 16. 8. 1972. Diplomirao je 1996. Magistrirao 2002. Doktorirao 2006. U zvanje znanstvenog savjetnika izabran 2011. Od 2013. izvanredni je profesor i predstojnik Katedre za urbanizam, prostorno planiranje i pejsažnu arhitekturu Arhitektonskog fakulteta u Zagrebu.

Šmit, Krunoslav

Tadej, Sonja

Kao ovlašteni arhitekt radi u njegovom Zavodu za urbanizam, prostorno planiranje i pejsažnu arhitekturu. U Predsjedništvu Udruženja hrvatskih arhitekata i Izvršnom odboru Društva arhitekata Zagreba od 2005. do 2007. Autor/ koautor četiri knjige, četiri znanstvena članka, 12 usvojenih urbanističkih i prostornih planova, dva ostvarena arhitektonska projekta. Kao autor/koautor dobitnik je 15 nagrada na urbanističko-arhitektonskim natječajima od kojih je šest prvonagrađenih; među njima se ističu: Stambeno naselje na lokaciji Sopnica-Jelkovec (2003.), Katolički bogoslovni fakultet (1998.) i Britanski trg (1997.) u Zagrebu.

Kao suautorica i autorica s profesorom N. Fabijanićem dobitnica je više nagrada na natječajima (Središnji trg u

Born in 1968 in Zagreb. She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1992; she earned her Master degree in 2002 from the same Faculty with the thesis entitled Proposal for the reconstruction and revitalization of the Franciscan monastery complex on the island of Lopud. In 1998, she joined the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb as a junior research assistant; in 2004, she became a teaching assistant. In 2009, she was appointed assistant professor as a member of the Department of Architectural Design (Architectural Design Studio IV, Culture Facilities, Architectural Design Workshop; in cooperation with Prof. Dinko Kovačić she ran the Summer School in Bol; since 2009, head of the Summer School in Lopud: Tradition and Contemporariness). From 1995, she was a part-time assistant at the School of Design, teaching the course Interior; since 2009, she has been the course supervisor. Since 1994, worked together with Prof. N. Fabijanić and co-authored numerous architectural and urban development design projects, a large number of which has been published in local and foreign publications (Zebra Gallery, Ljubljana; Ghetaldus, Zagreb; House G, Zagreb; Upper Waterfront, Pag; King Tomislav Square, Opuzen; etc.). As an author and co-author with Prof. N. Fabijanić, she has been awarded several prizes in the competitions (Central Square in Umag; Two Squares, Vodnjan; Church of Blessed A. Stepinac, Zagreb; Archaeological Park – Principia, Rijeka etc.) She

Biografije

Biographies

Rođena je 1968. u Zagrebu. Diplomirala je 1992. godine na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Magistrirala je 2002. godine na Filozofskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu s radom Prijedlog rekonstrukcije i revitalizacije kompleksa franjevačkog samostana na Lopudu. U svojstvu znanstvene novakinje zaposlena je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu od 1998. godine. U zvanje asistenta izabrana je 2004., a u zvanje docenta 2009. godine, kao članica Katedre za projektiranje (Projektni studio IV, Zgrade za kulturu, Radionica arhitektonskog projektiranja, u suradnji s prof. Dinkom Kovačićem, voditeljica škole Tradicija i suvremenost samostalno od 2009. godine). Od 1995. godine honorarna je asistentica na Studiju dizajna na predmetu Interijer, a od 2009. nositeljica je kolegija. Od 1994. godine suradnica je i suautorica s prof. N. Fabijanićem na brojnim arhitektonsko-urbanističkim projektima i realizacijama (Galerija Zebra, Ljubljana; Ghetaldus, Zagreb; kuća G, Zagreb; Gornja riva, Pag; Trg kralja Tomislava, Opuzen i dr.), velik broj kojih je objavljen u domaćim i stranim publikacijama.

226

He was born in Osijek on August 16th, 1972. He graduated in 1996 and earned his master’s degree in 2002. He obtained his doctorate degree in 2006 and elected for scientific advisor in 2011. Since 2013 he has been the Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Urbanism, Spatial Planning and Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. He has been working as an authorized architect at the Faculty’s Institute for Urbanism, Spatial Planning and Landscape Architecture. He was a member of the Presidency of the Association of Croatian Architects and the Executive Board of the Association of Zagreb architects from 2005 till 2007. He is also an author/coauthor of four books, four science articles, twelve adopted urbanistic and spatial plans, two implemented architectural projects. As author/ coauthor he won fifteen awards at different architectural and urban design competitions and at six of which he won the first prize. The most outstanding ones are: the apartment settlement on the location Sopnica-Jelkovec (2003), Catholic Faculty of Theology (1998) and Britanski trg (British Square) (1997) in Zagreb.


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Umagu, Dva trga u Vodnjanu, Crkva bl. A. Stepinca u Zagrebu, Arheološki park – Principija u Rijeci i dr.). Samostalno je dobitnica nekoliko nagrada na natječajima (Zagreb, Strojarska; Dubrovnik, uvala Sumartin, 1. nagrada; Velika Gorica i dr.). Od 2007. članica je Suda časti Društva arhitekata Zagreba i članica Suda časti Udruženja hrvatskih arhitekata.

was also awarded several prizes in the competitions for her other works (Zagreb, Strojarska Str.; Dubrovnik, Sumartin Bay, 1st prize, Velika gorica etc.). Since 2007, she has been a member of the Court of Honour of the Zagreb Society of Architects and a member of the Court of Honour of the Association of Croatian Architects.

Rođena je u Dubrovniku 1969. Diplomirala i 2003. upisala doktorski studij na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu. Od 1990. do 1997. radi u Urbanističkom institutu Hrvatske, i do 2003. surađuje s arhitektonskim biroima na raznim projektima.

Tutek, Ivana

Uchytil, Andrej

Predavačica je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu na kolegijima Crtanje i Plastično oblikovanje od 2003. Sudjeluje u radu na kolegijima Kultura vizualne misli na Šumarskom fakultetu u Zagrebu i Crtanje na Agronomskom fakultetu u Zagrebu. U suradnji s Pavlom Šimetin radi natječaje, projekte, studije i izvedbe od 2007.

Tutek is a lecturer of drawing and plastic forming at the Faculty of Architecture. She has taken part in courses in visual culture thoughts at the Faculty of Forestry and drawing course at the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb. Since 2007, in collaboration with Pavla Šimetin, she has been working on tenders, projects, studies and implementation of designs.

Realizacije: 1991. – 2008. Crkva i župno pastoralni sklop sv. Ivana evenđelista, Utrina, Zagreb (s R. Waldgoni). Priznanje za projekt 29. zagrebačkog salona 1994., nominacija za Nagradu Viktora Kovačića 2008., nominacija za Nagradu Europske unije arhitekata Miesa van der Rohea 2008., 1. nagrada 44. zagrebačkog salona 2009. godine. 1987. Iluminacija prostornog kolaža, Split, Peristil, instalacija za projekt Intra Muros (s R. Waldgoni). Priznanje 23. zagrebačkog salona. Projekti: 1999. Muzej suvremene umjetnosti, Zagreb (s T. Pavelićem), natječaj, otkup. 1997. Spomenik palim hrvatskim braniteljima, Livno (s R. Waldgoni). Nagrada 32. zagrebačkog salona 1997. godine. 1984. I Giardini di Tempesta,

Born in 1956 in Zagreb, where he completed primary education and attended IV Grammar School. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture, Zagreb University, in 1982. He has been employed at the Faculty of Architecture since 1984. He earned his Master’s degree in 1990 and his doctorate in 2002. He supervised practical work in the courses Architectural design I, II, VI, and VII. He has taught at the Department of History and Theory of Architecture and the Department of Architectural Design and supervised the courses: Studio III, Croatian Architecture in the 20th Century, Croatian Space and Architecture – Dalmatia Individual Approach of Croatian Architects, Croatian Architecture and European Context. He has led the research project Atlas of Croatian Architecture of the 20th Century. Since 2007, he has taught at the Faculty Civil Engineering and Architecture in Split. He is a member of the Expert Council of the Croatian Architects’ Association (CAA) and editor of the edition of architectural monographs Mala Arhitektura. Books: 2009 – Leksikon arhitekata Atlasa hrvatske arhitekture XX. stoljeća (Lexicon of Architects of the Atlas of Croatian Architecture in the 20th Century) (with Z. Barišić Marenić, E. Kahrović). In 2009, he received the National Science Award. 2007 – Dubrovačke pouke arhitekta Nevena Šegvića (Dubrovnik Lessons of Architect Neven Šegvić). In 2008, he received the CAA Award for his theoretical work Neven Šegvić. Realized design projects: 1991 – 2008 – St. John Evangelist Church and parish pastoral centre complex, Utrina, Zagreb (with R. Waldgoni); 1994 – the 29th Zagreb Salon recognition; 2008 – nominated for the Viktor Kovačić Award, and also for the Mies van der Rohe Award – the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture, 2009 – the 1st award of the 44th Zagreb Salon; 1987 – Illumination of the Spatial Collage, Split, Peristil, intervention in space for the ‘Intra Muros’ project (with R. Waldgoni); the recognition of the 23rd Zagreb Salon. Design projects: 1999 – Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb (with T. Pavelić), competition, purchase; 1997 – Monument to Croatian Defenders, Livno (with R. Waldgoni); 1997

Biografije

Biographies

Rođen je 1956. u Zagrebu gdje je završio osnovnu školu i IV. gimnaziju. Diplomirao je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu 1982. Od 1984. zaposlen je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu, magistrirao je 1990., a doktorirao 2002. godine. Bio je voditelj vježbi kolegija Arhitektonsko projektiranje I, II, VI, VII. Radi na Katedri za teoriju i povijest arhitekture i na Katedri za arhitektonsko projektiranje. Nositelj je kolegija: Studio III, Hrvatska arhitektura 20. stoljeća, Hrvatski prostor i arhitektura – Dalmacija, Autorski pristupi hrvatskih arhitekata, Hrvatska arhitektura i europski kontekst. Voditelj je znanstvenog projekta Atlas hrvatske arhitekture 20. stoljeća. Od 2007. godine predaje i na Građevinsko-arhitektonskom fakultetu u Splitu. Član je Stručnog savjeta UHA-e i urednik monografske edicije arhitekata Mala arhitektura. Knjige: 2009. Leksikon arhitekata Atlasa hrvatske arhitekture XX. stoljeća (sa Z. Barišić Marenić i E. Kahrovićem). Državna nagrada za znanost 2009. godine. 2007. Dubrovačke pouke arhitekta Nevena Šegvića. Nagrada Nevena Šegvića UHA-e za teorijski i publicistički rad 2008.

227

Born in Dubrovnik in 1969. She graduated in 2003 from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb where she enrolled in doctorate studies. From 1990 to 1997, she worked at the Croatian Institute for Urban Planning, and from 2003 she has cooperated with different architectural firms on various projects.


facta architectonica 2

Virag, Nino

Vulin, Ante

Vulin Ileković, Dina

228

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Noale, Rocca di Noale, međunarodni natječaj Progetto Venezia (s R. Waldgoni), Venecijanski bijenale – III Mostra Internazionale d´Architettura 1985.

– award of the 32nd Zagreb Salon; 1984 – I Giardini di Tempesta, Noale, Rocca di Noale; 1985 – international competition ‘Progetto Venezia’ (with R. Waldgoni), Venice Biennale – III mostra internazionale d´architettura.

Rođen 1978. u Zagrebu, diplomirao 2004. na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Od 2005. radi u uredu Dva arhitekta, a 2006. osniva zajednički arhitektonski ured s Matijom Vaničekom. Od 2006. radio je kao honorarni asistent, a od 2009. kao predavač na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Godine 2013. upisuje doktorski studij arhitekture; sudjeluje u nastavi projektiranja stambenih zgrada. Od 2002. sudjelovao na brojnim arhitektonskim natječajima te osvojio nekoliko nagrada od kojih dvije prve. Sudjelovao je na izložbama Godišnja izložba ostvarenja hrvatskih arhitekata u 2007. i 2011. kao i na 47. Zagrebačkom salonu arhitekture.

Born in 1978, in Zagreb. He graduated in 2004 from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. In 2005, he started working at the architectural firm ‘Two architects’ and in 2006 established a common architectural firm with Matija Vaniček. From 2006, he worked as a part-time assistant and since 2009 as a lecturer at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb. In 2013, he enrolled in doctoral studies of architecture and participated in teaching the residential buildings design. From 2002, he took part in numerous architectural competitions and won several awards, two of which were first prizes. He also participated at the Annual Exhibition of Croatian Architects in 2007 and 2011, and at the 47th Zagreb Salon – Architecture.

Profesor, arhitekt i akademik Ante Vulin (1932. – 2012.), rođen je u Pagu, u Šibeniku je proveo djetinjstvo i gimnazijske dane, a živio je u Zagrebu. Diplomirao je 1959. na AF-u u Zagrebu, na kojem je 1960. izabran za asistenta, a 1985. za redovitog profesora u trajnom zvanju (kolegiji Crtanje i plastično oblikovanje, Arhitektonski crtež i grafika, Integralni rad). Dekan AF-a bio je od 1989. do 1993. Vodio je Studija dizajna 1998.2002. i jedan je od njegovih utemeljitelja, a bio je i profesor je na Poljoprivrednom fakultetu i Šumarskom fakultetu. Za redovitog člana HAZU-a izabran 1991. godine. Za svoj stvaralački rad dobio je mnoge nagrade i priznanja, među ostalim i Nagradu „Vladimir Nazor“ za životno djelo 2007. godine. Na javnim arhitektonskim natječajima dobitnik je niza prvih nagrada. Značajnije realizacije: Muzej grada Šibenika, 1975.; sklop zgrada Robne kuće Šibenik, 1980.; stambeni sklop Šubićevac, Šibenik, 1987.; Muzej Grada Zagreba, 1995.; sklop crkve, knjižnice i fakulteta Družbe Isusove, Zagreb, 1983.2001.; novi Šumarski fakultet u Zagrebu, 1992.-2006.; nova knjižnica Filozofskog fakulteta, Zagreb, 1994.- 2009. ; zgrada Saborskih ureda, 2010. Crtao je svakodnevno. Uživajući u potrazi za lijepim, sa zadovoljstvom je primjenjivao moto Nulla dies sine linea. Crtež je bio početna, a često i završna točka njegovog arhitektonskog projekta.

Professor, architect and academician Ante Vulin (1932-2012) was born in Pag, spent his childhood and high school years in Šibenik and lived in Zagreb. In 1959 he graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb, in 1960 he was elected Assistant and in 1980 a full-time tenured Professor (courses: Drawing and ModellingPlasticism; Architectural Drawing and Graphics, Integral Work). He served as Dean of the Faculty of Architecture from 1989 to 1993. He was Head of the Department of Architectural Design from 1998 to 2002. and was one of his founders. He taught at the Faculty of Agriculture and the Faculty of Forestry. In 1991 he was elected Full Member of the HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts). He won a number of awards and recognitions for his work, including the Vladimir Nazor Award for life achievement in 2007. Also, he won many first prizes in public architectural competitions. Major implemented projects: the Šibenik City Museum –1975; the Department Store complex in Šibenik - 1980; the Šubićevac residential complex, Šibenik – 1987; the Zagreb City Museum – 1995; the church, library and faculty of the Society of Jesus, Zagreb 1983-2001; the new Faculty of Forestry in Zagreb – 1992- 2006; the new library of the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb – 1994-2009; Parliamentary office building, 2010. He drew every day. Enjoying the search for beautiful, he applied with pleasure the motto Nulla dies sine linea. Drawing was the starting and often the final point of his architectural projects.

Rođena je u Zagrebu 1964. godine. Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu je diplomirala 1988., a doktorirala 1996. s disertacijom ‘Prozor kao likovni element arhitekture’. Sudjelovala kao autorica ili koautorica na tridesetak domaćih i međunarodnih natječaja te dvadesetak domaćih i međunarodnih izložbi (arhitektura i dizajn). Autorica dvadesetak realizacija i pedesetak projekata te dobitnica više domaćih i međunarodnih nagrada i priznanja. Zaposlena je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zagrebu od 1988. kao znanstvena pripravnica, asistentica, docentica, izvanred-

She was born in 1964 in Zagreb. She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in 1988 and earned a doctorate degree in 1996. Her doctorate thesis was Window As an Element of Art in Architecture. She authored or co-authored about thirty competitions and twenty exhibitions in the country and abroad (architecture and design). Also, she authored about twenty implemented projects and about fifty that have not been implemented, and won a number of Croatian and international awards and recognitions. She has been employed at the Faculty of Architecture in Zagreb since 1988 as Junior

Biografije

Biographies


facta architectonica 2

Waldgoni, Renata

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

na profesorica. Najznačajnije realizacije: Sklop benzinske postaje Rox-sjever, Zagreb, 2002.; novi Šumarski fakultet u Zagrebu, 1992. – 2006.; Adaptacija i rekonstrukcija zgrade za potrebe Hrvatskog sabora, Zagreb, 2008. – 2010.; nova knjižnica Filozofskog fakulteta u Zagrebu, 1994. – 2009.

Researcher, Assistant, Assistant Professor and Associate Professor. Major implemented projects: the ROX-North petrol station, Zagreb, 2002; the new Faculty of Forestry building in Zagreb, 1992 – 2006; adaptation and reconstruction of a building for the needs of the Croatian Parliament, Zagreb 2008 – 2010; the new library of the Faculty of Philosophy in Zagreb, 1994 – 2009.

Na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu diplomirala je 1981., a 1983. apsolvirala postdiplomski studij ‘Graditeljsko nasljeđe’. Od 1981. nastavnica je na Arhitektonskom fakultetu, od 1989. i na studiju dizajna te od 1999. i na studiju krajobrazne arhitekture. Od 1998. mentorica je diplomantima. Voditeljica je Kabineta za crtanje i plastično oblikovanje. Od 2010. redovna profesorica. Izradila je 70-ak projekata: arhitektonsko-urbanističkih, interijerskih te oblikovanja izložbi.

She graduated in 1981 from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Zagreb and in 1983 completed her postgraduate studies ‘Architectural Heritage’. In 1981, she started working as a lecturer at the Faculty of Architecture, in 1989 at the Design Studies and in 1999 at the Landscape Architecture studies. Since 1998 she has been mentoring graduate students. She is the Head of the Cabinet of Drawing and Plastic Molding. In 2010, she became full professor. Waldgoni has made around 70 projects in architectural and urban planning, interior design and organisation of exhibitions. Her drawings, projects and implemented projects have been published and exhibited (New York, Venice, Bologna, Vienna, Madrid, etc.). She has taken part in numerous competitions. Awards: Grand Prix at the 44th Zagreb Salon, St. John the Evangelist Church and Parish Centre, Utrina, Zagreb (in collaboration with A. Uchytil),2009; award for the project at the 32nd Zagreb Salon, Memorial to the fallen Croatian defenders, Livno, (in collaboration with A. Uchytil), 1997; International Piranesi award, Blitz business premises, Dugave, Zagreb, 1996; award for interior design at the 29th Zagreb Salon, ‘Camel Club’ Cafe, Dubrava, Zagreb, 1994.

Realizacije, projekti i crteži objavljivani su i izlagani (Zagreb, Venecija, Bolonja, Beč, Madrid, itd.). Sudjelovala je na brojnim natječajima. Nagrade: 2009. Velika nagrada 44. Zagrebačkog salona, Crkva i župni centar Sv. Ivana Evanđelista, Utrina, Zagreb (s A. Uchytilom). 1997. nagrada za projekt 32. Zagrebačkog salona, Memorijalni spomenik palim hrvatskim braniteljima, Livno (s A. Uchytilom). 1996. Međunarodno priznanje ‘Piranesi’, Poslovna kuća ‘Blitz’, Dugave, Zagreb. 1994. nagrada za interijer 29. Zagrebačkog salona, Kafe ‘Club Camel’, Dubrava, Zagreb.

Žaja, Gordana

Diplomirala 1975. na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Od 1976. stalno je zaposlena na Arhitektonskom fakultetu u Zavodu za arhitekturu na kojem od 1988. samostalno vodi projektantsku grupu. Od 1998. radi kao nastavnica na Arhitektonskom fakultetu na kolegijima Planiranje i organizacija građenja I i II, Troškovnici, a od 2008. i na kolegiju Zgrade za zdravstvo.

She graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Zagreb in 1975. Since 1976, she has been employed at the Faculty of Architecture, Institute of Architecture, where, since 1988, she has independently led an architectural design team. As of 1998, she has also been teaching at the Faculty of Architecture the courses Planning and Project Management I and II, and Cost Estimates, and since 2008, the course Buildings for Health Sector.

Biografije

Biographies

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Arhitektonski fakultet, sveuÄ?iliĹĄte u zagrebu

Sponzori Objavljeno potporom / Published with the support from the:

Zaklade Hrvatske akademije znanosti i umjetnosti / Foundation of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Hrvatske komore arhitekata / Croatian Chamber of Architects

Hrvatske banke za obnovu i razvitak / Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Ministarstvo kulture Republike Hrvatske / Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia

Grad Zagreb, Gradski ured za strategijsko planiranje i razvoj Grada / City Office for the Strategic Planning and Development of the City

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Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sponsors


Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Sponzori

Sponsors

PH. ANDREA FERRARI

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Marazzi. Your space. Marazzi Showroom Osjecka 9, 21000 Split – Croatia showroom.split@marazzigroup.com T. 00385 21 540367 www.marazzi.it

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facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Trendovi su direktna posljedica promjenjivih socijalnih, ekonomskih i socioloških utjecaja. Današnja arhitektura je ekološki odgovorna i održiva i dizajna koji se krece od krajnje minimalističkog do potpuno eksplicitnog. Danas je u procesu projektiranja i u svim fazama izgradnje objekta, najvažnije promišljanje o energetskoj učinkovitosti materijala za izgradnju kao i njihovog utjecaja na životnu sredinu (emisija CO2, otpad, reciklirani sadržaj ). Završno oblikovanje interijera, uz inovativan pristup u kreiranju novih ideja, također postavlja standard u prostoru u kontekstu komfora i poslovne učinkovitosti. www.armstrong.eu

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Sponzori

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Stropovi predstavljaju najveću vidljivu unutarnju plohu i imaju ključnu ulogu u određivanju karakteristika kao što su estetika, akustika i osvjetljenje interijera objekta. Bilo da je u pitanju otvorena struktura koja čini vidljivim betonske plohe ili je u pitanju stropna površina koja se prostire od zida do zida, Armstrong nudi rješenja koja, zahvaljujući materijalima od kojih su napravljena i njihovim karakteristikama, mogu imati monolitni ili diskontinuirani izgled uz isticanje posebnosti materijala (upijanje zvuka, reeksije svjetlosti, vlagootpornost...).

Sponsors


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

tradicionalna glazura

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

CATAglaze

Renomirani talijanski proizvođač Catalano uspješno se upustio u inovaciju u svijetu sanitarne opreme. Kada je o glazurama riječ, onda je svakako potrebno naglasiti da je u svijetu sanitarne opreme novost glazura Cataglaze. Ona se skupa sa keramikom peče na 1250 stupnjeva. Njene prednosti naspram tradicionalno obrađenih površina su te jer ne gubi sjaj, otporna je na kemikalije, ne mijenja svojstvo, ne oštećuje se, lako i brzo se čisti i održava, stvara savršeno glatku i ravnu površinu sa zatvorenim porama. Nova revolucionarna glazura koja sanitarnoj keramici daje glatku i ravnu površinu standard je u ponudi Catalano sanitarija.

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Sponzori

Sponsors


facta architectonica 2

Arhitektonski fakultet, sveučilište u zagrebu

Faculty of Architecture, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB

Černelić d.o.o. Rješenja za interijere je obiteljska tvrtka specijalizirana za projektiranje, dizajnersko oblikovanje i opremanje interijera. Tradicija opremanja interijera i izrade namještaja u obitelji Černelić seže daleko u prošlost, u 30-e godine prošlog stoljeća, kada je Ivan Černelić osnovao majstorsku stolarsku radionicu na zagrebačkom Kaptolu, koja je kasnije preseljena na adresu današnjeg sjedišta tvrtke. U današnje vrijeme, kada se potrebe suvremenog čovjeka neprestano mijenjaju, a standardi uređenja i opremanja postaju sve viši, uređenje i opremanje dobivaju sve veći značaj, bilo da se radi o stambenim, radnim ili prostorima u kojima se svakodnevno krećemo. I naša tvrtka, Černelić d.o.o, ide u korak s vremenom, te kontinuiranim unapređivanjem usluge, praćenjem svjetskih trendova, odabirom kvalitetnih proizvoda, te savjetima i informacijama, nastoji pomoći klijentima u osmišljavanju i opremanju životnog ili radnog prostora. Osnovna djelatnost tvrtke Černelić je proizvodnja projektiranog namještaja (namještaja po mjeri) i isporuka i montaža tipskog namještaja – stolova, stolica, garnitura za sjedenje, sistema pregradnih stijena, sistema za kontrolu akustike i podnih obloga. Naša proizvodnja se bazira na izradi drvenog namještaja i opreme, te uredskih stolica. Zahvaljujući suradnji s našim kooperantima, provjerenim hrvatskim stolarijama, raspolažemo s tehnologijom koja omogućava obradu svih vrsta materijala (laminat, furnir, masiv, lakiranje, Kerrock / Corian), te smo u mogućnosti izvesti i najzahtjevnije elemente i forme, u malim serijama ili pojedinačne komade. Također, nudimo i ostalu opremu za interijere, kao što su profesionalne kuhinje, rasvjeta, keramika i tekstili. U našem prodajnom asortimanu zastupljeni su neki od vodećih svjetskih proizvođača – Edra, Andreu World, Wilkhahn, Haworth, Humanscale, Las mobili, Dorma. Svi proizvodi iz naše ponude zadovoljavaju sve propisane norme u pogledu kvalitete izrade, izdržljivosti i sigurnosnih zahtjeva (europske norme EN), koje su na snazi i u Hrvatskoj. U nastojanju da našim klijentima pružimo cjelovitu i što ekonomičniju uslugu, svakom projektu pristupamo individualno, te u suradnji s projektantom i klijentom, najprije sagledamo potrebe i zahtjeve, te na osnovu njih predlažemo optimalno rješenje i odgovarajuće proizvode iz našeg širokog asortimana. Povrh toga, projektantima i dizajnerima nastojimo pomoći u njihovom kreativnom radu, u smislu pomoći pri pisanju troškovnika, podršku s autocad 3D simbolima, te pomoći u pronalaženju najboljeg rješenja, tj. opreme za konkretan projekt.

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Sponzori

Sponsors


Profile for Faculty of Architecture Zagreb

Facta architectonica 2  

Facta Arhitectonica 2 zbornik stručnih radova nastavnika Af (2011.–2013.) / Academic Volumes (2011–2013) Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Arhitektonsk...

Facta architectonica 2  

Facta Arhitectonica 2 zbornik stručnih radova nastavnika Af (2011.–2013.) / Academic Volumes (2011–2013) Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Arhitektonsk...

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