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Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

REINFORCING AFRICAN SANI TATION OPER ATORS TTHROUGH THR TH RO R OU O U G H PEER-TO-PEER P E E R TTO O P E E R LEARNING LLEA EA RN R N I N G PARTNERSHIPS PAR RTTNER RS R SHIP (RASOP-AFRICA) ((RA RAS RA R AAS SOP S OP P-AFR - AAFR FFR RICA RI R CA) C A)

INITIAL SITUATION ASSESSMENT - SUMMARY BAMAKO – KAMPALA – LUSAKA - YAMOUSSOKRO – YAOUNDÉ Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

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APRIL 2017


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CONTENTS

3 4 4 4 5

SUMMARY

List of tables List of pictures List of annexes List of Abbreviations I. INTRODUCTION

I.1. I.1.1. I.1.2 I.2. I.2.1. I.2.2.

7 8 8 10 11 11 11

: Recalling RASOP project background and objectives : Background : Purpose and Objectives : Initial Assessment Objectives : Main objective : Specific objectives

II. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

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III. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE RASOP PROJECT TARGET CITIES

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IV. SUMMARY OF DIFFERENT DIAGNOSES

19

IV.1. : Summary of sanitation technical diagnosis IV.2. : Summary of Institutional and Regulatory Aspects IV.2.1. : Summary of Institutional Organization IV.2.2.: Summary of regulatory aspects

20 26 26 27

V. SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL ASPECTS

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VI. SWOT ANALYSIS FOR ON-SITE SANITATION SERVICE DELIVERY

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CONCLUSION

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RECOMMENDATIONS

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DOCUMENTS REVIEWED

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12

: Summary of some aspects related to demography of RASOP cities : Summary of the climate, relief and hydrology of RASOP cities : Liquid sanitation coverage rate in RASOP target cities : Specific production of excreta and faecal sludge collected : Household excreta storage devices : Truck number and capacity, and origin of collected sludge : Sludge Discharge Tax (Levy) in Various Cities : SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Bamako : SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Kampala : SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Lusaka : SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Yamoussoukro : SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Yaoundé

17 18 20 21 22 23 25 34 35 35 36 37

LIST OF PICTURES

Figure 1 : Picture of « Gulper » A Figure 2 : Unspoiled discharge site in Bamako Figure 3 : Unspoiled discharge site in Nomayos (Yaounde)

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LIST OF ANNEXES

Annexe 1. : RASOP projet activity planning Annexe 2. : Countries involved in RASOP project activities

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List of Abreviations ANGESEM ADB DNACPN DRACPN DSUVA BMGF SWOT FSM KCCA LT LWSC NWSC WHO ONAD OSS NGO PIP RASOP-Africa FSTP UNICEF

: Agence de Gestion des Stations d’Epuration du Mali : African Development Bank : National Directorate for Sanitation and Control of Pollution and Nuisances : Direction Régionale de l’Assainissement du Contrôle des Pollutions et des Nuisances : Direction des Services Urbains de Voirie et d’Assainissement : Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation : Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats : Faecal Sludge Management : Kampala Capital City Authority : Traditional latrines : Lusaka Water Sewerage Company (Société Nationale d’Eau et d’Assainissement) : National Water and Sewerage Corporation (Société Nationale d’Eau et d’Assainissement) : World Health Organization : Office National de l’Assainissement et du Drainage : On-site sanitation : Non-Governmental Organization : Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) : Building the capacities of African sanitation operators through: Peer-to-Peer Learning partnerships : Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant : UNICEF

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Summary of Initial Assessment Reports Manual emptying tools


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I.

©visionscarto.net

INTRODUCTION

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I. I.1. RECALLING RASOP PROJECT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES I.1.1. Background In developing countries in general and in Africa in particular, access to adequate sanitation remains a luxury for a large segment of the population. Thus, 2.4 billion people around the world, including 700 million in sub-Saharan Africa, do not have improved sanitation facilities. These figures continue to increase in line with population growth. Over the past 15 years, the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa has almost doubled. In the same period, interventions to improve sanitation in this part of Africa have reached only less than 20% of the population (UNICEF/ WHO, 2015).

member states, devolved SDG 6 to access to safe drinking water and sanitation. This is all about «(...) investing in adequate infrastructure, providing sanitation facilities and promoting hygiene at all levels, by 2030». For this purpose, 6.2 Target on sanitation and hygiene is clear and goes beyond issues of access to improved infrastructure. Indeed, by 2030, this target intends to «allow access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end defecation in open air, by paying particular attention to the needs of women, girls and vulnerable people».

This has resulted in thousands of deaths, many of them children. An estimated 2,200 children die daily due to diarrheal diseases associated with inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene (CDC, 2016). The annual cost of this situation is estimated at $ 5.5 billion US for 18 African countries (WSP, World Bank, 2012). In sub-Saharan Africa, the population has access to adequate sanitation, the vast majority of which consists of on-site sanitation (84% of the population). This has resulted in a significant production of faecal sludge (or sludge), whose management is generally the forgotten area in state sanitation policies. In almost all subSaharan African countries, collection and transport of faecal sludge are handled by private (usually informal) companies. These sanitation operators responsible for collecting and transporting sludge to landfill sites (open spaces) play a central and indispensable role in the on-site sanitation system.

In this context, several African countries with the support of donors (BMGF, AWF, USAID, etc.) have attempted to reverse the trend by introducing, with varying degrees of success, various models for the development of on-site sanitation, involving more than 90 per cent of the African population. This is the case, for example, of Senegal (ONAS), South Africa (eThekwini) and Côte d’Ivoire (ONAD). In Senegal, for example, with the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, various tools, through a scientific approach, have been implemented for better institutional and legislative organisation of the faecal sludge sector, mobilization and greater involvement of the private sector, use of ICT for better pit-emptying service and construction of infrastructure for faecal sludge collection, transport, treatment and reuse.

The new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in September 2015 by the 195 UN

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For successful sharing of African experiences in the field of on-site sanitation, the African Water Association (AfWA) has undertaken to apply to the sludge sub-sector the WOP principles it


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

implemented in the drinking water sector over the 2009-2014 period. As a result, a joint partnership (2016-2018) referred to as «Sanitation Operators Partnership (SOP)», devolved specifically to the sanitation sector in general and to the management of faecal sludge in particular, has been implemented through RASOP-Africa project entitled «Reinforcing African Sanitation Operators through Peer-to-Peer Learning Partnerships.” Through this project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, AfWA seeks to promote the development of sludge management strategies and the identification of on-site sanitation projects in five African cities: Bamako (Mali), Yamoussoukro (Côte d’Ivoire), Yaoundé (Cameroon), Kampala (Uganda) and Lusaka (Zambia). RASOP-Africa project’s method is based on a global approach to sanitation chain which involves wastewater and excreta: collection of wastewater and excreta at user interface, transport of waste to pre-treatment facilities, as

well as collection, transport and treatment of faecal sludge on appropriate sites before making use of treatment by-products. This project, piloted by AfWA is based on two sanitation operators with recognized experience in the industry in Africa. These two operators, considered as mentors, must support five other cities in the implementation of an improved system for the provision of on-site sanitation services. They include: • Office National de l’Assainissement du Sénégal (ONAS), which must support three Francophone cities in Africa: Bamako (Mali), Yaoundé (Cameroon) and Yamoussoukro (Côte d’Ivoire); • EThekweni Metropolitan Municipality of Durban, South Africa, to support two water and sanitation operators of two Southern African cities: Lusaka Water Sewerage Corporation (LWSC) in Zambia and Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) in Kampala (Uganda).

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LEThekwini Metropolitan Municipality is one of eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa, established in 2000, including the city of Durban and surrounding cities. Comprising 7 former independent municipalities and tribal lands, eThekwini is one of the 11 districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Over the past 14 years, an additional 1.3 million people in the city of Durban have been connected to tap water and 700,000 have access to toilets. Access to a basic water and sanitation service is provided free of charge to the poorest families, while service and higher water consumption are billed at full cost. EThekwini’s water and sanitation service is at the forefront of exploring technical and social solutions. This makes it one of the most progressive public water and sanitation services in the world. ONAS was established in 1996 following the reform of the water and sanitation sector initiated by the Government of Senegal. This entity, which is a public institution of an industrial and commercial nature, is responsible for the development and operation of infrastructures and equipment in the sector of collective and on-site sanitation involving wastewater, excreta and rainwater drainage in urban areas. With the support of a number of donors including the World Bank and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, ONAS has, since 2005, established, on one hand, a comprehensive programme for the development of on-site sanitation, resulting in providing more than 65,000 households in Dakar with individual sanitation systems and the construction of several faecal sludge treatment plants and, on the other hand, a programme for the structuring of the sanitation market, henceforth conceived as a value chain in which the private sector works alongside the public sector to improve the conditions for the poor.

I.1.2 Purpose and Objectives The aim of this project is to contribute to the improvement of the coverage and the quality of the service related to on-site sanitation and faecal sludge management for at least one million people in Africa. Specific objectives of RASOP-Africa project are: • Adapting and disseminating technical guidelines to promote on-site sanitation and faecal sludge management,

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• Performing capacity building for sanitation operators in 5 African countries through SOPs, • Assisting operators in developing strategic sanitation plans and an appropriate regulatory framework, • Improving the governance and accountability of the AfWA program management team.


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

I.2. OBJECTIVES OF THE INITIAL ASSESSMENT I.2.1. General Objective The objective is to take stock of the faecal sludge management in each of the target cities for better

appreciation of the quality of the services provided by both public and private operators.

I.2.2. Specific Objectives LThe specific objectives were: • • •

Making a technical diagnosis Making an institutional diagnosis, Making a diagnosis of the legal situation,

• Identifying all stakeholders and assessing their strengths and weaknesses, • Identifying and assessing facilities and/or sites for the dumping of faecal sludge.

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II. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

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II.

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH In this phase, the implementation of RASOP in Africa targeted five cities: Bamako (Mali), Yamoussoukro (Côte d’Ivoire), Yaoundé (Cameroon), Kampala (Uganda) and Lusaka (Zambia). For all the cities surveyed, the methodology used for the initial assessment was based on the following three pillars:

c) Visiting areas for the discharge of faecal sludge.

©susanA Secretariat

a) Organising focus groups with mechanical pit emptiers, manual pit emptiers and pit-emptying business/truck owners

b) Conducting interviews with institutional entities responsible for the management of faecal sludge, municipality «sanitation» managers, agents in charge of discharge areas, pitemptying business/truck owners, NGOs active in the pit-emptying sub-sector, financial institutions, potential sub-sector partners;

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III. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE RASOP PROJECT TARGET CITIES

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BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE RASOP PROJECT TARGET CITIES

III.

There is some contrast between the selected cities, in terms of demographics, size, and climate. In terms of culture, three of the RASOP beneficiary cities are French-speaking (Bamako, Yamoussoukro and Yaoundé), while Lusaka and Kampala are of English-speaking culture; governance styles inherited from colonization are consequently different (direct and indirect rules).

Bamako Bamako, is the capital and largest city of Mali. Located on the banks of the River Niger, the city of Bamako is built in a basin surrounded by hills. It stretches from west to east over 22 km and from north to south over 12 km, covering an area of 267 km². Bamako occupies the southernmost fringe of the African Sahel corresponding to the Sudanian zone. It, thus, benefits from a relatively humid tropical climate with total annual precipitation of 878 mm, yet with a dry season and a marked rainy season. The driest month does not receive the least raindrop (rainfall is 0 mm in December), while the rainiest month is well-watered (234 mm rainfall in August). The city had 2,009,109 inhabitants in 2009. Its rate of urban growth is currently the highest in Africa (an average annual growth rate of 4.8%).

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Kampala Kampala, is the political capital of Uganda. This city is located almost in the centre of Ugandan territory, not far from Lake Victoria. The city covers an area estimated at 195 km2 for a population estimated in 2014 at 1,507,080 inhabitants, or approximately 5% of the Ugandan population. Its average annual growth rate is 3.9% and the population density per km2 is estimated at 7,928. Its geographical coordinates are 0°19’00»North latitude, and 32°35’00» East longitude. The dominant climate of Kampala is known to be tropical. The average annual temperature is 21.3 °C and the average annual precipitation is 1,293 mm. Lusaka Lusaka, is the capital and largest city of Zambia. It is located at an altitude of 1,269 meters with geographical coordinates of 15°24’17’’South and 28°17’6’’ East. Lusaka enjoys a tropical climate. The dry season runs from April to October, while the fairly marked rainy season runs from November to March. Moreover, since the city is situated on a plateau at an altitude of about 1,300 meters, the temperature difference between day and night can sometimes be significant. The city covers 360 km² and has 2.3 million inhabitants. The density is estimated at about 100 inhabitants/ km2. It is located south of the central plateau of the country, at an altitude of 1,300 meters, at the intersection of Zambia’s four main roads running north, south, east and west.


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Yaoundé

Yamoussoukro

Yaoundé, is the political capital of Cameroon. The city of Yaoundé is located in the south of Central Region and is 250 km east of the coast of Biafra Bay. It is located at an altitude of 750 meters, and has as geographical coordinate’s latitude: 3°52’12” North longitude: 11°31’12” East. The average annual precipitation is 1,564 mm. The climate of Yaoundé is an equatorial Guinean climate with four wellmarked seasons: Two rainy seasons (mid-August to mid-November and mid-March to mid-June) and two dry seasons (mid-November to mid-March and mid-June to mid-August). The city covers an area of 304 km² with an urban area of 183 km². It had 2.8 million inhabitants in 2015, an average density of 5,691 inhabitants/km².

Yamoussoukro, has been the political and administrative capital of Côte d’Ivoire since 1983. It is located 240 kilometres north of Abidjan, the country’s economic capital and former political capital. The population was estimated in 2014 at 362,000 inhabitants and the city covers 3,500 km2 for a density of 103 inhab/km2. The annual increase is estimated at 2.6%/year. Yamoussoukro is subject to an equatorial climate with four seasons including two dry seasons (mid-November to midMarch and mid-July to mid-September) and two rainy seasons (mid-March to mid-July and midSeptember to mid -October). Average rainfall amounts range from 900 to 1,100 mm per year with a highly variable spatial distribution in the year and year to year. The geographical coordinates of Yamoussoukro are 6°49’13»Latitude North and 5°16’36» West Longitude. The altitude in relation to the sea level is 214 m.

Table 1 : Summary of some aspects related to demography of RASOP cities CITIES

AREA (KM2)

POPULATION DATA

Bamako

267

- - -

Annual growth rate = 4.8% 4,397,194 (2017) Density = 6,775 inhabitants/km2

Yaounde

304

- - - -

Annual growth rate = 5.7% 2,765,568 inhabitants (2015) 5,600,303 inhabitants (2035) Density = 5,691 inhabitants/km2

3500

- - - -

Annual growth rate = 2.6% 300,000 inhabitants 852,788 inhabitants (2050) Density = 85.7 inhabitants/km2

Lusaka

360

- - - -

Annual growth rate = 5% 2.3 million (2010) 5 million (2035) Density = 100 inhabitants/km2

Kampala

178

- - -

Annual growth rate = 3.9% 1,507,080 inhabitants (2014) Density = 7,928 inhabitants/km2

Yamoussoukro

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Cities which do not necessarily have the same climate features or cities with different reliefs ... Precipitation is between 800 mm/year (Bamako) and 1,600 mm/year (Yaoundé). The relief is made of plains, plateaus and numerous hills. All these cities have watercourses and, consequently, the

issue of faecal sludge management is much more sensitive because of the possible pollution of these bodies of water.

Table 2: Summary of the climate, relief and hydrology of RASOP cities

CITIES

CLIMATE - -

Sudanian-type climate much more like Sudanian & Sahelian type 800-900 mm/yr

- - -

Wet equatorial climate 16-31°C (23.5 °C on average) 1600 mm/year

- - -

Equatorial climate 25.8 ° C on average 1,145.6 mm/year

- - -

Wet Subtropical Climate 882 mm/year 27.5-13.7 °C (19.9 °C on average

-

Tropical climate with 2 dry seasons between December and March and between June and July 1,293 mm/year

Bamako

Yaounde

Yamoussoukro

Lusaka

Kampala -

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RELIEF -

Mountainous

-

Rugged, many hills 700 to 800 m of altitude

-

HYDROGRAPHY -

Town located on either side of the Niger River

- -

Very dense Main waterway Mfoundi (45 km2)

Plains and Plateaus

Two tributaries (Marahoué and Nzi) of Bandama drain the city

Existence of many hills 1,200 to 1,300 m altitude

The city is drained by Ngwerere, Chalimbana, Chunga and Chilongolo rivers.

- -

Presence of many hills 1,300-1,350 m above sea level

The city is mainly drained by the Nakivubo stream and some subsidiary streams draining waste water to Lake Victoria


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IV. SUMMARY OF DIFFERENT DIAGNOSES

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SUMMARY OF DIFFERENT DIAGNOSES

IV.

IV.1. Summary of Sanitation Technical Diagnosis A predominance of on-site sanitation most of which does not comply with the minimum quality defined by WHO/UNICEF joint programme for monitoring water supply and sanitation ...

This joint program defines the proportion of the population having access to improved sanitation (urban and rural areas) as well as the percentage of the population having access to facilities which, under hygienic conditions, prevent people, animals or insects from coming into contact with human excreta. A large proportion of the population in these cities dispose of their excreta

with traditional devices, most of which do not comply with the minimum quality defined by this programme. Collective sanitation is still underrepresented (<2% of the population), with the exception of Lusaka where this system would affect 10 to 20% of the population.

Persistence of open air defecation... Open-air defecation continues in these cities, albeit to a lesser extent (0.4 to 1%). Table 3: Liquid sanitation coverage rate in RASOP target cities LIQUID SANITATION COVERAGE RATE CITIES

ON-SITE SANITATION

Bamako

-

98% devices of which 33% unimproved

YaoundĂŠ

- -

99% of which: 75% individual improved

-

24% unimproved latrines

Yamoussoukro

-

90% (244,000 hbts)

Lusaka

- -

90% unimproved latrines in peri-urban area 10% septic tanks and sewerage

Kampala

- - -

68% Community schemes 20% individual devices 11% public toilets

/: Data not available

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COLLECTIVE -

1,5 % - 0,7 %

-

10 %

OPEN-AIR DEFECATION / 0.4 % /

10-20%

1%

/

1%


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A small amount of sludge is collected compared to specific production... The specific production, which is related to the population, shows a very significant deposit, which will grow with the increase in population. The largest production (3,218 m3/d that is, about 1.2 million m3/year) is recorded in the city of Bamako,

with a population of more than 4.3 million, while the lowest is recorded in the city of Yamoussoukro ( 233 m3/d). However, constancy which emerges is the small fraction collected, ranging from 54% in the city of Kampala to less than 10% in Yaoundé.

Table 4: Specific production of excreta and faecal sludge collected SPECIFIC PRODUCTION OF FAECAL SLUDGE

CITIES

QUANTITIES OF SLUDGE COLLECTED

PERCENTAGE OF SLUDGE COLLECTED

Bamako

3218 m3/d (2017)

1644 m3/d

51 %

Yaoundé

2220 ± 2130 m3/jd(2014)

129 -186 m3/d

6-8%

Yamoussoukro

- - -

72 m3/d

31% (2017)

Lusaka

2,670

Kampala

1300 m /d

233 m3/d (2017) 450 m3/d (2030) 768 m3/d (2050)

/ 3

700 m /d 3

/ 54%

/: Quantity not known because there is no formal sludge collection system

A predominance of traditional household latrines... Most of the excreta storage facilities in the RASOP target cities are traditional latrines. These are complemented by improved latrines (VIP),

manual flush latrines and septic tanks, in varying proportions.

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Table 5: Household excreta storage devices CITIES

Bamako

YaoundĂŠ

Yamoussoukro

Lusaka

Kampala

EXCRETA STORAGE DEVICES - - -

Improved latrines: 58% Unimproved latrine: 32.5% Septic tanks: 8%

- - - - -

Traditional latrines (21.8%) VIP Latrines (11.2%) Toilets with Septic tank (34%) Cubicles with concrete slab (31.8%) Others (0.5%)

- - -

Flush toilets: 25% Manual and VIP latrines: 20% Nature and traditional latrines: 55%

- - - - - -

Traditional latrines (61.3%) VIPs (2.1%) Manual flush latrines (1.5%) Hand-operated latrines connected to a septic tank (11.5%) Flush toilets connected to sewage systems (22.3%) Flush toilets pouring into the environment (1.3%)

- - -

Traditional dry pit latrine VIP latrines with waterproof pit or not Septic tank

Strong involvement of private operators in the collection and transport of faecal sludge ... The collection and treatment of faecal sludge are the prerogative of private operators, who, with the exception of Lusaka, operate mainly in the informal sector. The collection is performed using second-hand trucks, which, in most cases are obsolete and therefore short-lived. Unfortunately, these operators also face the scarcity of spare parts for trucks and pumps.

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In Lusaka, pit emptying operators are also involved in other activities, including the delivery of water to construction sites. Sludge mainly comes from households, but also from commercial establishments (hotels, restaurants) or public establishments. Septic tanks are more prone to mechanical emptying.


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Table 6: Truck number and capacity, and origin of collected sludge

CITIES

TRUCK NUMBER AND CAPACITY

ORIGIN OF COLLECTED SLUDGE

Bamako

- -

80 trucks (6-14 m3) 10 m3 (34%) and 8 m3 (22%)

-

Households Households (56%) Restaurants or hotels (17%) Town halls (2%) Others (25%)

Yaounde

-

18 trucks (6-12 m )

- - - -

Yamoussoukro

-

6 trucks (5-10 m3) (Private operators)

households

- -

18 companies 21 trucks (6-18 m3)

- - -

Commercial (70%) Households (18%) Public sector (10%)

- -

66 Trucks (1.8-13 m3) Low involvement of the public operator (KCCA) which has 6 trucks

- -

Households shops

Lusaka

Kampala

3

Omnipresence of manual emptying ... Although this practice has only huge drawbacks in terms of sanitation, it exists whatever the city concerned, in particular to serve the most deprived and areas difficult to reach by trucks or to support mechanical emptying of pits insufficiently emptied due to the high rate of thickening of the sludge. In Kampala, 15 private contractors use a Figure 1 :

a

semi-mechanized system consisting of the use of small power-driven machineries engines units («Gulper») (Figure 1) with a capacity of about 200L for the collection and transport of sludge up to an emptying truck.

b

Figure 1 : Image of «Gulper» a) In operation; b) Transferring sludge into containers of greater capacity to transport by tricycles to a sludge treatment plant) ;

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A quasi-absence of treatment plants for collected faecal sludge... Some cities like Bamako do not have a formal sludge discharge site, which results in anarchic discharge of sludge in the fields or in Tienfale forest reserve. In Yaounde, the discharge site remains the property of a family. Only Yamoussoukro, Lusaka and Kampala have a formal sludge discharge site.

activity that threatens the health of populations and the balance of the receiving environment. These disastrous health and environmental consequences are the cause, in some cases, of social conflicts between residents of the discharge areas and the emptying companies.

Except Kampala, which has a sludge treatment plant of a reasonable capacity (400 m3/d) in Lubigui, and to a lesser extent Lusaka, which has a low-capacity bio-digester (50 m3), all the sludge collected in other cities are discharged without prior treatment. This practice is a risky

In Kampala, the sludge treatment facility includes a sedimentation/thickening pond, a covered drying bed and a co-treatment of the leachate by lagooning. However, no information is available concerning the treatment quality of this sludge.

2 Figure 2 :

Unspoiled discharge site in Bamako

Figure 3 :

Unspoiled discharge site in Nomayos (YaoundĂŠ)

Discharge is generally performed on payment of a tax ... With the exception of Yamoussoukro, where discharge is free of charge, in the other cities, this discharge of sludge is done against a levy. If in Bamako, this tax is paid to the Association of Emptyers, in Kampala and Lusaka, it is transferred

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to the National Society of Water and Sanitation (NWSC and LWSC); the case of Yaounde is quite emblematic because the city council and the family owning the land share discharge fees, which could be around 36,000 USD per year.

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Table 7: Sludge Discharge Tax (Levy) in Various Cities CITIES

SLUDGE DISCHARGE TAX (LEVY)

Bamako

-

1.7-5 USD/day

Yaounde

-

8.33 USD/day (36,000 USD/year)

Yamoussoukro

-

No

Lusaka

-

3.79/m3

Kampala

-

3 USD (1.8 m3) to 12 USD (11-13 m3)

Low Conversion of Bio-solids and other By-Products ... The conversion of bio-solids and other sludge byproducts remains low or non-existent. Only cases of conversion of dried sludge in the dry season

in Bamako and the production of briquettes for cooking in Kampala and the use of bio-solids in agriculture are reported.

Formalizing mechanical emptying activity is virtually non-existent, yet there are initiatives to organise pit emptiers into an association... With the exception of Lusaka, where a license is issued to any person or company wishing to carry on the activity, no other cities formally acknowledge such activity to the extent of licensing it. However, there is an association of emptiers in Yaoundé

Experimental Plant of eThekwini – University of KwaZulu Natal – Durban, South Africa

(ROCOBY), Bamako (SYNACOR, Spiros section) and Kampala (PEA and KPEA). Unfortunately, a number of emptiers are not yet part of these associations (Yaoundé and Bamako).

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IV.2. Summary of Institutional and Regulatory Aspects IV.2.1. Summary of Institutional Organization A good number of players are involved in the management of the sanitation sector, with a main role devolved to private operators ... With the exception of Lusaka and Kampala, where waste disposal companies belong to the BoroughCity Council, a host of players intervene in liquid sanitation in various cities, including: • the central government, through its various ministries (Environment, Water, Urban Planning and Housing, Territorial Administration, Health ...) • Decentralized territorial authorities (municipalities, town halls, etc.)

• Development partners (International Cooperation) • households, … It should be noted that there are public entities specifically responsible for the management of water and sanitation services in some cities, notably in Kampala with National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC), in Lusaka with LWSC Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company) and in Yamoussoukro with ONAD (Office National de l’Assainissement et du Drainage).

• Mechanical and manual pit emptiers • Associations of pit emptiers, in particular in Kampala, Bamako and Yaoundé

This wide range of players, in particular institutional players, is in some cases responsible for conflict of powers, as overlaps appear with regard to flow charts of the ministries involved in the sector.

Institutional players’ response capacities are sometimes unsuitable as regards the service ... Capacities of players of the sector in centralized and decentralized services and decentralized territorial authorities are generally inadequate as regards their mandate in terms of number of staff and skills. In most cases, there is a shortage of staff in terms of numbers and qualifications to carry

26

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

out tasks related to wastewater treatment and its promotion, both at the level of decentralized government bodies and municipalities. As a result, project ownership capacities at municipal level, in particular, remains low.


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

IV.2.2. Summary of regulatory aspects A host of texts, yet no text specific to on-site sanitation management... In most cases, there are no legislative provisions for the management of on-site sanitation, despite the fact that it is liquid sanitation system that prevails in most capital cities. Moreover, the few texts which exist are not applied.

There is no text or law governing the activity of manual emptying. This activity is performed most of the time without any form of personal protection sported by garbage collectors (shovels, pickaxes are their working tools used to clean latrines and septic tanks).

Defining responsibilities remains imperfect ... Precise functions and tasks attached to these functions are very poorly defined (in particular, project ownership or operation function) and are the source of numerous confusions and difficulties with regard to application. This is particularly the case in Cameroon, where there are several

overlaps among ministries in respect of different functions, such as overlaps in the development of standards and the exercise of multiple controls; the same applies to the management of the sanitation tax. Overlaps appear in the flow charts of the ministries involved in the sector.

Devolving powers to Municipalities not always effective... In the context of decentralization, a transfer of powers to the Municipalities does not always go together with a transfer of human and financial resources. Sanitation functions are scattered across several services. Sanitation actions carried out by the municipalities on the ground most often

concern draining rainwater. The involvement of the municipalities of Kampala and Lusaka seems to be stronger in faecal sludge management than in French-speaking cities.

Communication and marketing still not sufficient ... Large-scale communication actions on wastewater treatment are most often limited to emergency actions. Promotion of hygiene and stimulation of

demand for sanitation remains marginal. Training curricula in this field do not exist and training courses remain punctual.

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

27


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

28

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

V. SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL ASPECTS

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

29


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

V.

SUMMARY OF FINANCIAL ASPECTS Funding faecal sludge management remains the forgotten part of liquid sanitation... While public and private investors prefer investing in the drinking water sector, seen as having priority and more profitable, investments in liquid

sanitation are most often focused on rainwater drainage.

Development partnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; contribution appears as a drop in the bucket... Development partners (donors, bilateral and multilateral cooperation agencies, international non-governmental organizations, etc.) are strongly called upon by Governments and national NGOs

to help out in implementing actions in the area of liquid sanitation. But their intervention remains marginal in view of the number of challenges to be faced in the sector.

Most investment in sanitation is provided by householdsâ&#x20AC;Ś Micro-finance and commercial banks have little interest in intervening in the sanitation sector, despite economic benefits which are numerous (improvement in comfort, reduction in waterborne diseases, reduction in nuisances). In all the target cities, the financing of on-site sanitation

works is taken care of directly by households. Pit emptiers are struggling to find financing for the actual renewal of their trucks, as was done in Dakar as part of the Sludge Market Restructuring Programme.

Pit emptying costs remain high This is particularly the case in YaoundĂŠ, where the highest rates are recorded (19.2 USD/m3). These high costs are partially justified by long distances which trucks must cover to reach the discharge site, as well as the leasing of this site by private operators. In Kampala, where an official

site exists, only 4 USD/m3 is disbursed on average by a household. These costs are borne entirely by households. Low frequency of emptying pits (households empty only when they are sure that pits are full) could also be linked to these expensive emptying costs.

Commercial banks are reluctant to finance pit emptying operators ... The informal nature of enterprises limits their access to credit. It is also this lack of funding which

30

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

limits the development of pit emptying companies.


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Sanitation tax issue... In Bamako, there is a discharge tax payable by each emptier to use the discharge site (1.7-5 USD/d). In Kampala, this tax is between USD 3 and 12. On the other hand, in Yamoussoukro and Lusaka, no tax is levied. In YaoundĂŠ, the levy is estimated at around 8.33 USD/rotation. However, this tax is paid partly to the family owning the discharge

site and partly to the municipality of Mbankomo where this site is located. In Cameroon, there is also a sanitation tax to finance activities in the field. However, the weak implementation of the latter does not allow the raising of funds for the development of the sector.

Diversifying emptying activities may allow companies to hold out financially ... The collection and transport of faecal sludge may appear to be financially unprofitable if companies, like those in Lusaka, do not engage in other

activities (selling water to construction sites, for example).

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports Community Ablution Blocks in Durban â&#x20AC;&#x201C; South Africa

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Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

32

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

VI. SWOT ANALYSIS FOR ON-SITE SANITATION SERVICE DELIVERY

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33


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

SWOT ANALYSIS FOR ON-SITE SANITATION SERVICE DELIVERY

VI.

In order to define the relevance and consistency of future actions to carry out with a view to improving on-site sanitation services, the following analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) has been conducted in each

mentee City. This SWOT analysis is presented in a global way or as per category of players. This analysis will result in the development of Performance Improvement Plans (PIPs)

Table 8: SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Bamako PLAYERS

STRENGTHS -

Generally aware of health risks related to lack of hygiene and inadequate sanitation.

Populations -

Are willing to have improved

WEAKNESSES -

tion services (adequate ISW, mechanical emptying) -

Mechanical Emptiers

Live in compounds sometimes inaccessible to Spiros and/or located in areas with high water table.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;ISWâ&#x20AC;?.

-

Have a low standard of living, with low capacity to pay for sanita-

-

Have informal type of functioning as part of their activities.

-

Have old trucks (more than 15 years old) and sometimes not

Are well-organised and have a

adapted.

strong will to organise their work

-

Have a low financial capacity to pay for new hydro cleaners.

and defend their interests.

-

Are not able to access a bank loan.

-

They are fragile when faced with police harassment, due to the age of their trucks and the absence of developed discharge sites.

-

Exercise a tolerated but illegal and dangerous activity.

-

Are not organised.

-

Have a low social status.

-

Have a low financial capacity to invest in a Spiros.

-

Are not able to access a bank loan.

sludge management.

-

They lack sufficient financial, technical and human resources.

Benefit from direct contact with

-

Do not have a budget line dedicated to on-site Sanitation or FSM.

-

Does not have sufficient financial and human resources.

-

Encounters difficulty in sanctioning unspoiled discharge sites, due

a pit.

Manual Emptiers

-

Ensure complete emptying of

-

Competitive costs compared with Spiros

Local Communities

- -

Exercise jurisdiction over faecal

populations.

DNACPN

-

Has representations at the regional and municipal levels

to the absence of FSTPs. -

Is both judge and jury (sanitation project environmental impact generator and evaluator).

34

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

-

ANGESEM

Technical and Financial Partners

-

-

Has 10 years’ experience in the management of sewerage system and wastewater treatment - plants (WWTPs). - In respect of the new definition of the sanitation players’ roles and responsibilities, it serves in its capacity as an owner agent.

Does not have sufficient financial and human resources. Encounters difficulty in carrying out some of the responsibilities it shares with other players (DNACP, Local and Regional Authorities).

Are willing to support the country - in the implementation of its development projects

Until recently, attention has not been paid to sanitation, including faecal sludge management.

Table 9: SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Kampala

STRENGTHS

OPPORTUNITIES -

-

The law establishing KCCA gives, among other prerogatives, that of improving sanitation in the city

Existence of a law on public-private partnership, which allows better involvement of the private sector in waste management Opportunities for grants and loans to finance sanitation projects

-

WEAKNESSES - - -

Poor planning in the past, which resulted in the absence of dedicated sanitation areas with regard to households or faecal sludge treatment plants Limited financial resources Lack of financial resources

THREAT -

Too many applications with few resources allocated can change priorities Little interest of political decision-makers in health interventions and law enforcement

-

Table 10: SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Lusaka STRENGTHS - - - -

Directorate’s willingness to support on-site sanitation (OSS) and FSM services Availability of start-up funds for OSS and FSM activities Sludge treatment plants which are operating, or being implemented Availability of dynamic and motivated staff to lead OSS and FSM activities

OPPORTUNITIES - - - -

Political will to bring the on-site sanitation (NSS) and fecal sludge management (FSM) agenda forward Market availability for OSS and FSM services Availability of many OSS and FSM technology options Predisposition of other stakeholders to partner with Lusaka Water Sewerage Company (LWSC) to manage OSS and FS

WEAKNESSES - - - -

Lack of standards/guidelines for several aspects of OSS and FSM Insufficient scaling capacity of facilities Limited capacity to respond to anticipated technological changes Inadequacy of Sanitation Master Plan as regards FSM

THREAT - Weakness of the legal and institutional framework for OSS and FSM - Limited influence of OSS installation standards which may affect sludge collection - Business model failure due to inability of clients to pay - Insufficient financial capacity of the private sector to participate in the management of faecal sludge - Unpredictability of financial markets/exchange rate fluctuations which may discourage private investment in FSM

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

35


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Table 11: SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Yamoussoukro STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

-

- - -

- - - - - - -

36

Good collaboration/membership of ONAD, the Municipality and private operators Availability of a master plan Participatory management strategy has been developed Availability of sites to house FSTPs Availability of a communal radio to relay EducationInformation -Communication (EIC) messages Excellent layout of the city with good accessibility Implementation of a license Existence of an emptierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manual

- - - - - -

Lack of coordination unit Misunderstanding among institutional players Limited law enforcement power as regards the municipality Absence of financial institutions from the chain Absence of sanitation code and/or standard Poor access to improved toilets Informal activity is established as a rule Age of the fleet and trucks in very small number Absence of a FSTP

OPPORTUNITIES

THREAT

- - - -

- - - - -

Effectiveness of operatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; certification Creating an association of emptiers Implementing the RASOP project Commitment of banks and microfinance institutions to take an interest in FSM

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

Good unsecured process Creating spontaneous enterprises Pollution of the lakes of the municipality Proliferation of waterborne diseases Generalization of connection to gutters


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Table 12 : SWOT for the provision of on-site sanitation services in Yaoundé STAGES OF THE SECTOR

STRENGTHS -

- Access to Sanitation

-

High rate of access to sanitation in households (93.2%), of which 76% improved works (34.6% septic tanks); Low rate of open air defecation (0.6%); Strong household investment in the construction of facilities (from CFAF 20,000 for basic latrines to more than CFAF 1 million for septic toilets;

WEAKNESSES -

-

- -

- -

- -

- Faecal sludge collection, Transport and Treatment

-

An existing sludge collection market with great potential for development; Existence of faecal sludge operators’ network (ROCOBY); Presence of an official discharge site recognised and used by all emptiers;

- - - - - -

OPPORTUNITIES The national liquid sanitation - strategy, which envisages the possibility for the public authorities of providing subsidies to households to improve their sanitation facilities - - RASOP Africa project will support the YCC in the organisation of the sanitation service; - The sanitation strategy of the Yaoundé city.

THREAT

- Stakeholders in construction know little about different types of improved latrines to be offered to households; Lack of monitoring of municipalities in the implementation of sanitation works; Lack of households’ information on emptying service; 17% of households in spontaneous settlement areas use latrines referred to as “Canon Latrine”, whose sludge is directly discharged into watercourses. 47% of schools do not have improved latrines. Insufficient public toilets on the markets. Little involvement of municipalities in FSM; Laxity of public authorities (MINSANTE) in granting approvals High emptying service cost (CFAF 82,000 on average), Old trucks and problem of spare parts supply faced by emptiers; Various harassments which cost up to 15% of the emptying cost; Difficult access to the Nomayos undeveloped discharge site; High discharge fees at the Nomayos site (CFAF 5,000/ trip) and CFAF 75,000/truck/ month.

- -

-

RASOP- Africa project will support the YCC in the organisation of sanitation service; The sanitation strategy of the Yaounde city;

-

Poverty of households defecating in the open air, who will not be able to finance their sanitation works even though it is at low cost; Threat of eviction of households using cannon latrines, making them hostile to improving their latrines.

Nonpayment of service fees by customers: indeed, several problems occur with customers; Owner threatens on a regular basis to prevent from having access to the site.

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

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Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

-

Cross-cutting: Organisation, Regulation and Capacity Building

38

-

- There is a decree of the MINSANTE (No. 0003/A/ MSP/SESP/DPS) which specifies the requirements for carrying on the business of mechanical emptying in Cameroon; The YaoundĂŠ City Council has just signed an authorisation for emptiers to move around freely within the city as part of their activity, which will reduce harassment;

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

-

- -

-

-

There is no legislative and regulatory corpus specific to the field of sanitation; Overlaps clearly appear in the flow charts of the ministries involved in the sector; Training curricula in the field do not exist and the training remains punctual; A lack of personnel in numbers and qualification to carry out the tasks related to wastewater treatment and its promotion at the level of the YCC and districts; YCC does not have a department responsible for the management of the sanitation sector in its territory; Wastewater treatment does not appear to be a priority for institutional organisations which only undertake urgent actions in this area.

- -

- - -

National Liquid Sanitation Strategy (August 2011) The Freedom of Association Act 1990 RASOP-Africa project Yaounde sanitation strategy

-

Lack of sustainable funding mechanism for sanitation at national and city level; Lack of a single sanitation management body at the national and city level.


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

CONCLUSION Consistency emerges from the studies carried out:

a) - In technical terms • Individual sanitation predominates collective or semi-collective systems;

over

• A number of devices are found in households, including traditional latrines, VIP latrines and septic tanks;

subject not only to problems of spare parts, but also to a local workforce not qualified for the repair of hydro-cleaners; • Emptying costs are prohibitive in some cities (case of Yaoundé where emptying costs 19 US $/m3 on average);

• Manual emptying is a reality in all cities; • Mechanized collection and transport of sludge is mainly carried out by informal private operators. This service is not efficient enough because the machinery used is too old and

• Treatment and conversion of sludge constitute the weakest links in the sector since sludge is in most cases discharged without prior treatment due to a lack of an adequate treatment or sizing plant.

b) - In institutional and regulatory terms The main constraints of this sector are: • The lack of coordination of the institutional framework for the sector;

health education;

• A myriad of texts, but no text specific to the management of on-site sanitation;

• Lack of regulation of technology options for sanitation and weak technical capacities of the players.

• The definition of responsibilities remains imperfect;

In addition, initiatives to organise private operators exist in a few cities

• Lack of a programme to promote hygiene and

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

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Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

c) - In financial terms There is a real challenge relating to financing the sector. Indeed, one can note: • Lack of specific resources for investment and maintenance of the sanitation system; • Micro-finance and commercial banks have very little interest in financing the construction of works for households or even private operators;

40

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

• Inadequacy of Government’s financial resources with regard to the objectives to be achieved; • Contribution of development partners, although not insignificant, appears as a drop in the ocean given the overwhelming challenges in the sector.


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

RECOMMENDATIONS However, this initial assessment identified several aspects that could be improved to make the

faecal sludge management system more efficient and controlled. Thus, it would be judicious,

In technical terms to: • Establish standards for the construction of toilets, which can facilitate emptying;

• Explore other ways of recovering by-products from sludge;

• Intensify communication and marketing towards households to stimulate demand for improved and easy-to-empty latrines;

• Perform capacity building for players of each link in the sludge chain;

• Assist emptying companies to better structure themselves;

• Establish collaboration among universities, industry and sanitation authorities to pursue research and develop innovative approaches to improving sanitation.

• Renew and increase the number of sludge treatment plants;

In institutional and regulatory terms to: • Integrate sludge legislative corpus;

management

into

the

• Clarify the role of each actor in the sludge chain in order to avoid overlaps;

• If necessary, support the transfer of competences to municipalities through the provision of human, material and financial resources;

In financial terms to: • Develop other innovative financing mechanisms such as the establishment or effective implementation of the sanitation tax;

• Develop innovative banking products in the sanitation sector.

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

41


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

DOCUMENTS REVIEWED 1- CONSULTANTS’ REPORTS SUBMITTED TO AFWA • Barbara Mwila Kazimbaya-Senkwe, 2016. Initial evaluation of the performance of operators and small service providers of Lusaka, 25 p. + PPT • Charles B. Niwagaba, 2016. Assessment of the initial situation of onsite sanitation and faecal sludge management in Kampala, 31 p. • Emmanuel Ngnikam, 2016. Diagnostic du secteur de l’assainissement dans la ville de Yaoundé. 86 p + annexes

• Bécaye Sidy DIOP, 2016. Rapport d’évaluation initiale de la Mise en œuvre du RASOP-Africa dans la ville de Bamako (Mali). 28 p + annexes • Jean Birane GNING, 2016. Mise en œuvre du RASOP-Africa dans la ville de Yamoussoukro en République de Côte d’Ivoire. Rapport d’évaluation initiale des performances. 39 p + annexes

2- Power Point (PPT) presentation documents on Year 1 evaluation workshop of the project. Yaounde, 13-15 March 2017

3- Webography -

42

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamako https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaounde https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamoussoukro https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/kampala https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lusaka

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

ANNEXES Annex 1. RASOP Project Activity Planning COMPONENTS

MAIN STEPS

Component 1: - adapting and disseminating technical guidelines to promote on-site sanitation and management of municipal faecal sludge

Adapting sludge management to the context of subSaharan African countries

Assessing performance

Making results public on target sites

ACTIVITIES

KEY INDICATORS

Adapting information from basic documents on sanitation services (emptying latrines, treatment of sludge, management of public toilets)

Information on faecal sludge management has been adapted and used for the context of sub-Saharan African countries.

Developing two questionnaires on utility/management performance for municipalities and small private sanitation companies

Two questionnaire models have been produced and validated

Organizing a validation workshop for information adapted by the African Water Facility.

A list of participants and a workshop report are available

Conducting baseline assessments

A basic evaluation report has been produced

Conducting final assessments

A final evaluation report has been produced

Making publications (production of leaflets relating to the project, ...) and probably conference papers

Publication links are available as well as five project flyers

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

43


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Component 2: Capacity building for sanitation operators in 5 African countries through SOPs

Contract Partnership between AWF, Mentors and Mentees

Benchmarking and audit visits

Funding

Identifying focal points and communicating required information

Emails sent have been listed and categorized

Developing MoUs

Five MoUs have been signed between mentors and mentees

Preparing schedules for reference and audit visits (5 days and 5 participants per country) and verification is 2 mentors and one consultant

The schedule of visits has been prepared and communicated to stakeholders

Developing a list of issues to consider when benchmarking and making audit visits

The list of issues to be discussed during the visits has been developed and communicated to the stakeholders.

Conducting a thorough check of mentees by mentors

02 audit reports have been produced and are available for each of the 5 cities.

Developing Five-Year Performance Improvement Plans

5 five-year plans for utilities and/or municipalities have been developed and are available.

Identifying projects for cities based on five-year plans

05 projects have been identified in the five cities for fundraising.

Organizing a round table of donors in each country and monitoring the funding process

05 donor roundtable reports are available.

Training and Recruiting consultants assistance to project beneficiaries Developing training materials

Disseminating best practices

44

05 consultant contracts signed and 05 start-up service orders established. Training materials have been prepared and submitted to AfWA

Obtaining approval of training materials from donors

The validation e-mail of training materials by the Foundation has been submitted to AfWA.

Training at local level sanitation / municipal managers and small private operators

02 training reports and 02 lists of participants are available.

Producing a broadcast material

01 film on the project, 01 film on the partnership of the sanitation operators and 01 prospect on the project have been developed and are available.

Disseminating good lessons learned

The tools used for the dissemination of these materials have been described.

Adapting training materials

Training materials have been finalized and submitted to AfWA

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Component 3: assisting operators in developing strategic sanitation plans and an appropriate regulatory framework;

Component 4: Improving the governance and accountability of the AfWA Program Management Team

Strategic Plan for Urban Sanitation

Organizing a participatory strategic planning workshop

Five sanitation strategic plans and five lists of participants per city are available.

Monitoring the implementation of the strategic sanitation plan

Defining main criteria for granting licenses

A certification report is available

Issuing licenses to small private operators

10 licenses issued to small private operators are effective and the list of beneficiaries has been established.

Setting up a small association of private operators

Three associations of small private operators are in place and the minutes of the Constituent General Assembly are available.

Affiliation of associations of small private operators to AfWA

The AfWA operators have been established and are available. Payment receipts are available.

Launching the program

Organising country-level inception workshops

05 Inception Workshop Reports are available.

Implementing the project team

Hiring the project team

The project coordinator's contract has been signed and the team is in place at AfWAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s headquarters.

Training the project team

The training report of the project team is available.

Reviewing and validating the project monitoring plan

Developing monitoring indicators and a plan for disseminating good practices

01 list of monitoring indicators has been validated by the Foundation

Project planning, monitoring and evaluation

Organising monitoring and evaluation workshops

06 evaluation reports and workshop evaluation (02/year) are available

Supervising country level activities

Â

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

45


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Annexe 2. Countries Involved in RASOP-Africa Project Activities

Countries of Mentees -

46

Cameroon (Yaoundé) Côte d’Ivoire (Yamoussoukro) Mali (Bamako) Uganda (Kampala) Zambia (Lusaka)

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

Countries of Mentors - l’Office National de l’Assainissement du Sénégal (ONAS) , Senegal’s National Office for Sanitation - eThekweni Metropolitan Municipality of Durban (South Africa)


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

47


Implementing RASOP-AFRICA

Edited by AfWA and funded by BMGF 48

Summary of Initial Assessment Reports

APRIL 2017

Initial situation assessment summury veng  

REINFORCING AFRICAN SANITATION OPERATOR S THROUGH PEER-TO-PEER LEARNING PARTNERSHIPS (RASOP-AFRICA)

Initial situation assessment summury veng  

REINFORCING AFRICAN SANITATION OPERATOR S THROUGH PEER-TO-PEER LEARNING PARTNERSHIPS (RASOP-AFRICA)

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