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Volume 122 No. 3

AUGUST 24, 24, 2013 2013 -- AUGUST AUGUST 30, 30, 2013 2013

121 Years The AFRO Celebrates

Your YourHistory History• •Your YourCommunity Community••Your YourNews News

In August August 2013, 2013, the the In AFRO is celebrating its AFRO is celebrating its 121st year of publishing 121st year of publishing news about about the the AfricanAfricannews American community. American community. During the the past past 121 121 years, years, During this newspaper has served this newspaper has served in many many respects respects like like in a diary of the Africana diary of the AfricanAmerican community; community; American mirroring the ups and and mirroring the ups downs the community has downs the community has endured as its expanding endured as its expanding and ever ever changing changing role role in in and the American culture has the American culture has evolved with with the the passing passing evolved of each decade in the 20th 20th of each decade in the century. century. This year year we we celebrate celebrate This the AFRO’s anniversary the AFRO’s anniversary by focusing focusing on on the the issue issue by

Third Section Section Third (1900-1920) (1900-1920) 05


47105 21847

of how how we’ve we’ve had of had to to fight to to achieve achieve the fight the civil civil rights which which have have been rights been continuously denied continuously denied purely purely due to to the the color color of due of our our community’s complexion. community’s complexion. The pursuit pursuit of of our The our civil rights rights has has been civil been aa permanent fixture fixture in permanent in every every edition of of the the AFRO edition AFRO during during the 121 121 years years it the it has has been been publishing. publishing. This special special 121st This 121st Anniversary edition edition is Anniversary is divided into into six six sections divided sections with the the first first two two sections with sections containing the the news containing news of of the past past week. week. The the The next next four sections sections contain four contain the AFRO’s AFRO’s reporting reporting the of the the significant significant events of events and personalities and personalities that that significantly defined defined the significantly the community’s quest community’s quest for for civil civil rights equality equality from rights from 1900 1900 up to to the the historical historical 1963 up 1963 March on Washington. March on Washington. The AFRO AFRO coverage The coverage in in these sections dramatizes these sections dramatizes how the the voting voting rights, how rights, equal opportunity equal opportunity and and freedom from from racial freedom racial abuses enjoyed enjoyed by abuses by White White American citizens, American citizens, have have rarely been been extended extended to rarely to the African-American African-American the community without without community tremendous sacrifices. tremendous sacrifices.


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In the the third third section, In section, AFRO articles AFRO articles describe describe race riots, riots, lynchings, lynchings, race political maneuverings political maneuverings to eliminate eliminate the the right to right to to vote, and other abuses that vote, and other abuses that appeared to define the way appeared to define the way of life for most Blacks of life for most Blacks in this part of the 20th in this part of the 20th century. century. A positive outcome A positive outcome of these depressing of these depressing first decades was the first decades was the community’s conception community’s conception Continued on A2 Continued on A2

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121 Years

Continued from A1 of its own organizations to generate opportunities for enhancing the quality of life of the “Negro” by voicing a growing need for improved education, federal laws against lynchings and improved voting rights. The birth of the Niagara Movement in 1905 and the emerging presence of W. E. B. Dubois, William Monroe Trotter, publisher of the Boston Guardian Newspaper, AMEZ Bishop Alexander Walters of the National African-American Council and other personalities joined with the ever present leadership of Booker T. Washington to form a chorus of strong voices that objected to the continuing civil rights abuses. While these individuals often disagreed among themselves with respect to what strategies should be pursued to achieve the community’s civil rights objectives, they were nevertheless the incubators, which brought forth the NAACP and other groups that focused on securing the civil rights the racist American culture was withholding from the evolving African-American community in this initial phase of the 20th century.

Fourth Section (1921-1934)

The fourth section starts off with coverage of the complete annihilation of the African American community in Tulsa, Oklahoma by White rioters. This event is often labeled

“Black Wall Street,” the devastation of which was followed by a similar violent event in Rosewood, Florida in 1923. Four years later as a result of the Mississippi flood of 1927, many Blacks were forced back into slavery to assist recovery efforts of White plantation owners. All of these abuses were interspersed with the continued reports of lynchings that not only proliferated throughout the South, but occasionally cropped up in selected locals in the North. Indeed it appears that the 1920’s were tough times for Black folks in America. The outraged voice of the NAACP was an ever present fixture in the AFRO in response to the brutalities suffered by Black communities in the 1920’s. In spite of the protestations of the NAACP and other groups, the quest for federal anti-lynching laws and federal voting rights laws could not overcome the strong Southern Block in Congress that continued to lock out Black civil rights until the period of the 1963 March on Washington.

Fifth Section (1934-1954)

The fifth section spans the period surrounding World War II up to the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. The barriers represented by the ‘Jim Crow’ culture of the 1920’s appears to have begun to erode slowly with the inauguration of

Franklin D. Roosevelt as president in 1933. Elimination of segregation at the federal civil service job level was part of the ‘New Deal’ delivered by Roosevelt during his term, but the military continued to be segregated, abusive and restrictive towards Black troops who sorely wanted to prove their fighting abilities in battle but rarely were given the opportunity to show it. It was left up to Roosevelt’s successor, President Harry S. Truman who mandated equal opportunity and the elimination of segregation in the military when he issued the Executive Order #9981 in July, 1948. Even so, it would take years to completely eliminate the military ‘Jim Crow’ culture as reflected on several of the AFRO front pages in this section. On the civilian side, the A. Philip Randolph, the head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Union (BSCP) in 1941 planned a March on Washington Movement to demonstrate the need for federal antilynching legislation, and the need for removal of segregation restrictions in the defense industries and in the military. In spite of Randolph’s insistence to proceed with the demonstration, the march was nevertheless called off when Roosevelt partially capitulated by issuing Executive Order 8802 eliminating defense industry segregation.

Front images and articles clockwise from top left: • Aug. 1, 1942, Seven Days in Lifeboat Hell, but Seamen finds U.S. Jim Crow Worse • Daisy Bates protesting in Little Rock, 1960, Courtesy of Afro American Archives • Sept. 7,1963, ‘Cry for Freedom’, the 1963 March on Washington Edition • Sept. 21, 1957, I Didn’t Know People Could Be So Cruel • Elizabeth Eckford of the Little Rock Nine harassed trying to gain entry to Little Rock Central High School, 1957, Courtesy of Afro American Archives • Autherine Lucy, 1956, AFRO File Photo • Feb. 9, 1929, Restaurant Wouldn’t Serve Hero • March Supporting Anti-Lynching Bill Passage, circa 1940s,

Sixth Section (1954-1963)

The sixth and last section reflects the series of events that immediately preceded and precipitated the August 1963 March on Washington. This was the era of the non-violent demonstrations; a tactic not previously used but which nevertheless proved to be an effective strategy in igniting positive civil rights results. The often-violent confrontations occurring during this period fixated the world’s attention on the dramatic civil rights abuses suffered by Blacks in the South. At the 1963 March on Washington a collective voice was raised, most noted by the stirring “I Have a Dream” speech given by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., demanding an end to the violations of the civil rights of African Americans and the immediate enactment of protective legislation to secure the voting rights too long denied by southern state action. The collective voices raised at the 1963 March on Washington precipitated some important results. The following year, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed, and a year later the long awaited Voting Rights Act of 1965 was enacted. While these legislative steps were vital in improving the Black community’s civil rights, remnants of the once prevalent ‘Jim Crow’ culture continue even today. Courtesy of Afro American Archives • June 7, 1930 Oklahoma Mob Lynches Half-Wit • June 10,1950, White Supremacy Takes a Beating • Mary Church Terrell reads AFRO front page after Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court Ruling, 1954, Courtesy of Afro American Archives • May 25, 1957, Give Us the Ballot, the 1957 March on Washington Edition • Aug. 2, 1941, Miss. Camp Dixie’s Worst • Moses Newson pictured with National Guard at the integration of University of Mississippi by James Meredith,1962, Courtesy of Afro American Archives • Center Picture– Aug. 28, 1963: LC-U9- 10363-5/Warren K. Leffler

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, Afro-American A3

Volume 122 No. 3

AUGUST 24, 2013 - AUGUST 30, 2013


All Roads Leading to D.C.

August 24 March on Washington Reminiscent of 1963 By Hazel Trice Edney When more than 250,000 people convened on the National Mall on Aug. 28, 1963 for the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, 6 million people were unemployed, 22 million Americans lived in poverty, voting rights for Blacks were barely existent in many areas of the country and Blacks often faced harassment and mistreatment. Fifty years later, 12 million people are unemployed, 60 million Americans live in poverty, voting rights gained, in part, as a result of the historic march are now under attack and the

INSIDE A4 Desegregating the Clay Courts at Druid Hill Park


Oklahoma Slaying May Lead to More Profiling INSERT • Walmart

Listen to “First Edition” Join Host Sean Yoes Sunday @ 8 p.m. on 88.9 WEAA FM, the Voice of the Community.

Trayvon Martin case has once again highlighted the stereotyping, profiling and harassment of African Americans who are often labeled suspicious just because of the color of their skin. As thousands convene August 24, for the 50th anniversary commemoration, called the “National Action to Realize the Dream,” the nation’s Black leadership is expected to outline an agenda for a 21st century Civil Rights Movement. Despite some gains, overwhelming statistics conclude that the famous “content of their character” instead of the “color of their skin” hope expressed in Dr. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech Continued on A4

Your History • Your Community • Your News

By Freddie Allen NNPA Washington Correspondent

Martin Luther King Jr. AP Photo

Musicians Make a Joyful Noise Inside, Outside Church By Zachary Lester AFRO Staff Writer On most Saturday nights, Ignatius Perry Jr. and his band mate, Reginald Payne, are partying at clubs in the Baltimore/Washington area and on most Sunday mornings, they are in church. In both situations, they’re gigging. For years, Perry, 22, and Payne, 23, the keyboardist and bassist, respectively, for the

Baltimore-based modern jazz fusion band Tribe Inc.

Baltimore-based modern jazz fusion band Tribe Inc., have pursued music careers in the secular world at the same time spending most Sundays making a joyful noise unto the Lord in church bands. Perry has played piano and organ at the Edgewood Baptist Church in Washington, D.C., for about three years, although his home church is actually New Community Church of God and Christ in Continued on A5

Civil rights leaders will march on Washington, D.C. on Aug. 24 to observe the 50th anniversary of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom where Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. Now economists, labor groups and community stakeholders want to make sure that the Black jobs crisis gets top billing on the agenda. Some researchers said that the economic agenda of the 1963 march was largely forgotten as Blacks won hardfought victories for voting

“There has been an incomplete representation of the Civil Rights Movement.” –Algernon Austin

The Maryland Health Connection:

Why Jarron Johnson Believes ‘Obamacare’ is a Blessing By Roz Hamlett Special to the AFRO

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Should be the Focus Again

Before May 22, 2013, Jarron Johnson, 31, had never been seriously sick a day in his life. But this past spring, he happened to be in a car with two friends on their way to help another friend move when as the saying goes, he was ‘in the wrong place at the wrong time.’ Long story short: by that evening Johnson was rushing by ambulance to University of Maryland Shock Trauma Center in Baltimore with a life threatening gunshot wound to the lower back, an innocent victim of random gunfire.

“Had I been involved in a car accident or become seriously ill for whatever reason, I would’ve basically been screwed.” –– Jarron


Several blood transfusions later, and after a week-long stay in the hospital and a round of physical therapy, Johnson was

able to walk again. His was a miraculous recovery even though one bullet remains lodged in his pelvis. The final bill for his relatively short hospital stay is $25,000. “That was the last thing that I expected to ever happen to me,” said Johnson, who will receive financial assistance with his hospital bill from a victim compensation fund that covers crime victims in Baltimore City. “Had I been involved in a car accident or become seriously ill for whatever reason, I would’ve basically been screwed. I would be responsible for the entire amount myself,” he said. As a result of his close call with Continued on A6

At Home and Around the World, the AFRO Was There By Moses J. Newson Special to the AFRO It’s doubtful that John H. Murphy Sr. foresaw the international role the church/ community paper he cobbled together in 1892 would play as the AFRO-American Newspapers grew into an institution. As the AFRO celebrates its 121st anniversary this month, the familyowned publication, recognized worldwide for its domestic civil rights coverage, can boast of having supported the welfare of colored peoples everywhere. Reflecting on its role for more than a century as a key chronicler of events important to African Americans, the

AFRO is observing August as a month to mark special anniversaries--Aug. 13 for the first date of publication of the AFRO, and Aug. 28 for the unprecedented March on Washington. Lest it be thought the AFRO limited itself to fighting battles on behalf of colored peoples, the record shows the paper fought at home and abroad on behalf of freedom and justice for all – even when discrimination was prevalent in America and abroad. For example, the AFRO sent correspondents to cover AfricanAmerican troops during World War II, in Vietnam, in Iraq and Afghanistan. Included among them were longtime Washington AFRO editor Arthur M.

Carter, European Theatre; Ollie Stewart, North Africa, Italy and France; Max Johnson, Europe; Vincent Tubbs, South Pacific; and Michael Davis, Vietnam. Mrs. Elizabeth Murphy Phillips Moss became the first woman from a black newspaper accredited as a war correspondent but missed getting to a war zone after becoming ill in England. Samuel Lacy, the AFRO’s Baseball Hall of Famer (writer’s wing) who played a role in Jackie Robinson’s barrier-breaking major league baseball entry, covered black baseball players in such places as Cuba, Mexico and the Dominican Republic. He also represented the AFRO abroad

Copyright © 2013 by the Afro-American Company

Continued on A5

Algernon Austin, director of the Race, Ethnicity, and Economy Program at the Economic Policy Institute rights and anti-discrimination policies in public and the workplace. “There has been an incomplete representation of the Civil Rights Movement. On one hand people struggled tremendously, people fought, people died and we did have tremendous success, because of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom,” said Algernon Austin, director of the Race, Ethnicity, and Economy Program at the Economic Policy Institute. “We did get the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act, in part, because of the pressure from the 1963 March on Washington. Unfortunately, some historians have focused just on the success and have ignored everything else.” Austin made his comments during a recent panel discussion on the forgotten history of the March on Jobs and Freedom during a symposium coordinated by the Economic Policy Institute, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank focused on the economic needs of low- and middleincome families. Continued on A5


The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

The AFRO Reports: Baltimore’s Battle for Civil Rights

Desegregating the Clay Courts at Druid Hill Park By Sean Yoes Special to the AFRO James Crockett helped make history in Baltimore. A veteran real estate entrepreneur in the city since 1956, he has owned a home on Liberty Heights in Northwest Baltimore since the 1950’s. Baltimore was a different place then. Or perhaps it changed because of the work of people like him, his colleagues and scores of others who trod along the trail blazed by people like Thurgood Marshall, Juanita Jackson and Clarence Mitchell, Jr. “In 1944, when I was still in high school we were picketing Ford’s Theater,” Crockett said, referring to the theater at 320 W. Lafayette Street, downtown, which was established in 1870. The theater relegated Blacks to its second balcony until 1952. Protests there were the first in an ongoing series that Crockett participated in with an interracial group of activists known as “the Young Progressives of Maryland.” In the summer of 1948, the group

took aim at the segregated clay tennis courts at venerable Druid Hill Park. “White people would play on the clay courts at 7 o’clock in the morning on Sunday, then they would go to church. So, the courts were open, and we got together to play some tennis,” Crockett said. “The first couple of times nothing happened, then the word got out that the integration group was playing tennis on the clay courts.” That’s when the Department of Recreation and Parks, then known as the Bureau of Recreation, sent the Park Police out to break up the interracial matches with little resistance from the Progressives. But, the group had a plan. “We had to have a vehicle that would get the attention of the people in charge,” Crockett said. That vehicle was an incendiary flier boldly announcing their intention to participate in an interracial tennis match on July 11,1948. “KILL JIM CROW! DEMAND YOUR RIGHTS! Organize to smash discrimination in recreational facilities,”

Jennifer Hudson and Rela

James Crockett, Baltimore activist, in a 1953 photo. the flier read. In addition to the flier, the civil rights agitators sent a less provocative, formal letter to Harold Callowhill,

March on Washington Continued from A3

delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Aug. 28, 1963 remains elusive. So while the mission of the commemoration is to move ahead, there is also a feeling that on the issue of civil rights, the nation has “unfinished business.” “The exact quote from A. Philip Randolph was that America could not work if 6 million Americans are unemployed. Okay, well, we’ve got 12 million Americans unemployed – and that’s the official number,” said economist Bill Spriggs, of the AFL-CIO. “If 6 million people are unemployed and 250,000 people show up when the public policy statement and the position of [President John F. Kennedy] was ‘I am going to stimulate the economy to do whatever it takes to get the unemployment rate down to 4 percent’ and you currently have a president who hasn’t said anything close to that, then how many people are supposed to be in the street?” That remains to be seen on Aug. 24. The vast

majority of those 12 million unemployed people are African Americans. And though the unemployment rate appears to be dropping, it still remains consistently twice that of Blacks. Labor leader A. Philip Randolph, alongside chief organizer Bayard Rustin, was a key player in the 1963 March on Washington. His exact words were: “We have no future in a society in which 6 million Black and White people are unemployed and millions more live in poverty. Nor is the goal of our civil rights revolution merely the passage of civil rights legislation. Yes, we want all public accommodations open to all citizens, but those accommodations will mean little to those who cannot afford to use them.” That sentiment mirrors the message coming from modern day civil rights leaders, who have spent months tuning up their speeches for Aug. 24. “Like what Dr. King, Roy Wilkins, A. Philip Randolph

and Dr. [Dorothy] Height did in 1963 led to the ‘64 Civil Rights Act and the ‘65 Voting Rights Act, what we do in this August we intend to help shape and change legislation and the body politic and the spirit of this country going forward,” said the Rev. Al Sharpton, a key organizer of the Aug. 24 march, at a June news conference announcing the event. “We intend to address the powers in the kingdom and make change happen.” Martin Luther King III has described Saturday’s march as “almost like a campaign” in that it will place front and center the need for change. He called today’s economic situation “unacceptable in a nation with so much wealth and so many resources and so much ingenuity.” “It is our responsibility to challenge this nation,” King said. “And again, that’s why we will come together in large numbers on August 24. But we will be going around to communities all over this nation over the next 24 months, mobilizing


Maryland Public Service Commission 16 th Floor Hearing Room William Donald Schaefer Tower 6 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, Maryland The purpose of the hearing is to set a procedural schedule for this matter, consider any petitions to intervene that have been filed, and consider any other preliminary matters requested by the parties. Any persons seeking to intervene in this proceeding should file an original and seventeen (17) paper copies, plus one electronic copy, of a petition to intervene with David J. Collins, Executive Secretary, Maryland Public Service Commission, William Donald Schaefer Tower, 6 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 by 5:00 p.m., EDT, Thursday, August 22, 2013.


The Commission encourages parties to use the Commission’s “e-file” system for filing the electronic copy. Details of the “e-file” system are available on the Commission’s web page, Additionally, five of the paper copies of the petition shall be three-hole punched.

superintendent of the Bureau and White, were arrested, of Recreation. taken to the Baltimore “The Young Progressives Police’s Northern District of Maryland are planning Station and charged with a tennis outing at Druid rioting, conspiracy to riot or Hill Park on Sunday, July disturbing the public peace. 11. As you probably know, Seven people were convicted. membership in the Young It was the first case in Progressives is open to all Maryland where Blacks and regardless of race, color or Whites, together, initiated vehiclethat sought By Alan creed. WeKing have been advised asport-utility lawsuit alleging bothin connection with the murder of AFRO Staff Writer by legal opinion that there groups’ were Hudson’srights mother andbeing brother. is no law providing for other violated by Jim Crow laws, The white, 1994 Chevrolet Jennifer Hudson and Suburban with Illinois license relatives positively identified segregation on the tennis according to Larry Gibson, courts,” the letter dated July a University of Maryland 3, 1948 read. law professor and Thurgood Ultimately, the message Marshall scholar. was received by the powers The fracas at Druid Hill that be and those who shared Park even got the attention the values and beliefs of the of legendary journalist H.L. Young Progressives. Mencken, who devoted what About 2 p.m. on July 11, many believe was his last 1948, hundreds of people column for The Evening were lined up along the clay Sun, to the clash on the clay courts when four young courts. And the notorious women: Mary Coffee and curmudgeon took a position Gloria Stewart, who were that shocked those who Black, and Mitzi Freishat believed Mencken to be racist and Jeanette Fino, who were and ant-Semitic. Courtesy Photos Jennifer Hudson and her mom, Darnell White, lined up for a mixed On Nov.Donerson 9, 1948, he who wrote was killed, as well as her brother, Jason. race doubles match. But in The Evening Sun: before a ball was served, “Certainly it is astounding plate X584859 was found on the body of her 7-year-old Baltimore Park Police, who to find so much of the spirit of Chicago’s West Side after nephew Monday, just hours had been hovering on a the Georgia Cracker surviving police received a 7 a.m. call after his body was found in a hillside, swooped down on in the Maryland Free State, the players and broke up the and under official auspices… demonstration. It is high time that all such In all, 22 people, Black Continued on A8

at every level bringing business leaders, community leaders, religious leaders and elected officials together to determine how we’re going to define a strategic plan that brings about that freedom, justice and equality for our and Dallas Cowboys players By Alan King Tony Romo and Terrell Owens, AFRO Staff Writer communities and ultimately among the names submitted to for our nation.” election officials. Presidential candidate John Sharpton and King will Hurd said those workers, who McCain’s attack on ACORN – be joined by U.S. Rep. John were doing thoseNews things without Associated Community Your History • Your Community • Your ACORN’s knowledge or permisOrganization for Reform Now – Lewis, who is believed to be sion, were fired. confirms theThe success of the Afro-American Newspapers the sole speaker at the 1963 “The evidence that has surorganization, the headOffice of the • Corporate Baltimore Headquarters march who remains alive; faced so far shows they faked group says. Charles Street forms to get paid for work they “This is testimony2519 to theN. work U.S. Rep. Nancy Pelosi; U.S. Baltimore, Maryland 21218-4602 didn’t do, not to stuff ballot we’ve done and success we’ve Rep. Steny Hoyer; the family boxes.” ACORN, she said, is the had,” Maude 410-554-8200 Hurd, president of • Fax: 1-877-570-9297 of Emmett Till, whose death victim of fraud, not the perpetraACORN, said in an interview at 14 is often cited as the tor of it. with the AFRO. Founded by John Henry Sr., said August 13, 1892 Hurd the only things “When this attack started, weMurphy catalyst for the beginning of bogus are theL.charges themhad just announced Publisher that we hadEmerita Washington - Frances Murphy II the Civil Rights Movement; selves. And factcheck. org registered 1.3 million new votand the parents of Trayvon Chairman of the agrees.- John J. Oliver, Jr. ers,” she said. “That’s justBoard/Publisher to say Martin. There will also be It concluded, “Neither that someone’s running scared- Takiea Hinton Executive Assistant - 410-554-8222 ACORN nor its employees have because of ACORN’s success.” advocates for the church, Receptionist - Wanda Pearson - 410-554-8200 been found guilty of, or even McCain, who is running for civil rights, labor, women’s charged -with, casting fraudulent president on the Republican tickDirector of Advertising rights, immigration reform votes.” et, lashed out at ACORN the Lenora Howze -in410-554-8271 - The problem came about priand LGBT rights, organizers final debate against Barack Baltimore Advertising Manager - of the way marily because Obama, contending the group “is said. Robert Blount 410-554-8246 ACORN operates. Rather than on the verge of maybe perpetratThe August 24 event is rely on volunteers, it pays peoing one of the greatest frauds in of Finance - Jack Leister - 410-554-8242 scheduled to begin with a ple, many of them poor or unemvoter historyDirector in this country, ployed, to sign up new voters. maybe destroying the fabric of rally at the Lincoln Memorial - 410-554-8265 The idea was to help both those democracy.” Archivist - Ja-Zette Marshburn at 8 a.m., following by a being registered and those doing, a non-partisan Director, Community & Public Relations march to the King Memorial. the registration. Web site, found those claims to Diane W. Hocker - 410-554-8243 The march is not to be Maud explained, “We have a be “exaggerated,” with “no evizero tolerance policy for deliberdence of any such democracy-Editorial confused with a second ateThomas-Lester falsification of registration.” destroying fraud.”Executive Editor - Avis commemorative event on Most news account neglect to Hurd believes the McCain Editor - Dorothy Boulware August 28. The Rev. Bernice point out charges were politically motivatNews Editor - Gregory Dalethat ACORN is King, the daughter of Dr. required by law to turn in all reged. istration forms. And they also fail She said, “Because it’s lowProduction Department - 410-554-8288 Martin Luther King, Jr., has to note that it was the organizaand moderate-income people, announced a “Let Freedom Global tion, in many instances, that first and people of color, I believe the Markets Ring Global Commemoration McCain Directorcampaign - Benjaminthinks M. Phillips brought the-phony registrations thoseIV - 410-554-8220 to the attention of authorities. voters are going to vote Celebration Call to Action” Circulation/Distribution Manager - apparently The McCain camp Democratic, Baltimore which is not neceson the steps of the Lincoln Sammy Graham - 410-554-8266 isn’t interested in those fine sarily true.” Memorial at 1 p.m. That points, preferring to air misleadACORN is no stranger to event will include tributes, ing ads that seek to link Obama controversy. WashingtontoOffice ACORN, thereby undercutting For 38 years, the non-partisan entertainment and a “Let 1917forBenning his political organization has fought social Road, Freedom Ring” bell ringing McCain: I’m John McCain and economic justice for low- D.C. 20002-4723 Washington, at 3 p.m., she said. I approve this message. and moderate-income 202-332-0080 • Fax:and 1-877-570-9297 The White House has Announcer: Who is Barack Americans. With 400,000 memObama? A man with “a political ber families organized intoGeneral more Manager announced that President Washington Circulation/Distribution Manager -at warp baptism performed than 1,200 neighborhood chapBarack Obama will be Brookins - 202-332-0080, ext. 106 speed.” Vast ambition. After colters in 110 citiesEdgar nationwide, speaking at the “Let Freedom lege, he moved to Chicago. ACORN has over the years seen Director of Advertising Became a community organizer. Ring” ceremony. its share of criticism Lenora while Howzeadvo- ext. 119 - There, Obama met Madeleine cating for affordable housing, The August 28 events Business SolutionsTalbot, Consultant part of the Chicago living wages, healthcare for the have been designed to Elaine Fuller - ext. 115 -branch of ACORN. He was so underserved— and while organunderscore the need for a impressive that he was asked to izing voter registration drives. Office Administrator - ext.staff. 100 train the ACORN But none has been as withering- Mia Hayes-Hawkins continued movement. What did ACORN in Chicago and baseless as this one. In a press conference Customer Service,election Home Delivery and engage in?Subscriptions: Bullying banks. With the presidential announcing the event, Rev. tactics. Disruption less than two weeks away,• CustomerIntimidation 410-554-8234 Bernice King said states are of business. ACORN forced ACORN’s detractors allege the Billing Inquiries: 410-554-8226 to issue risky home loans. organization has engaged in mas- banks being asked to participate in Nights fraud and Weekends: The410-554-8282 same types of loans that sive voter registration after the bell-ringing to recommit caused the financial crisis we’re the reported discovery of bogus to the quest for freedom. in today. names, such as Mickey Mouse “Struggle is a neverending process,” she said, Advertiser: BGE quoting her mother, Coretta Scott King. “We are Publication: Afrostill American fighting for freedom. This is Identification Statements Insertion Date:of the Aug.freedom 17 & 24, 2013 Baltimore Afro-American — (USPS 040-800) is published weekly by The Afro-American a continuation Newspapers, 2519 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4602. Subscription Rate: struggle.” Baltimore - 1 Year - $40.00 (Price includes tax.) Checks for subscriptions should be made Ad Size: 5.42” x 7” payable to: The Afro-American Newspaper Company, 2519 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD It is unclear whether 21218-4602. Periodicals postage paid at Baltimore, MD. Title: President Obama Notice will of hearing - 8/27/2013 POSTMASTER: Send addresses changes to: The Afro-American Newspaper Company, 2519 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4602. respond to the specific issues If you have received this publication material Washington Afro-American & Washington Tribune — (0276-6523) is published that will be discussed at the about itThe in error, or have any questions please weekly by the Afro-American Newspapers at 1917 Benning Road, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002-4723. contact24 the traffic when dept. atheWeber Shandwick Subscription Rate: Washington - 1 Year - $40.00. Periodical Postage paid August march at Washington, D.C. at (410) 2100. 28. speaks on558 August POSTMASTER: Send addresses changes to: The Washington Afro-American

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August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American



Continued from A3 Payne, despite the fact that has been the sound engineer his first instrument is the bass, at Community of Hope AME plays keyboards as the music Church in Temple Hills director at his church. for seven years. Outside of For many up-and-coming church, he plays bass for artists, and even many who the band Soul’A Movement, are established, church offers which performs what he calls an additional outlet for their a blend of “funk, R&B and artistic expression. It can also provide a boost to their wallets as many churches offer a stipend to their musicians, sometimes equal to what they earn performing secular music at local clubs and other venues. The Black church has traditionally been a training ground for young performers. Whitney Houston first stood before a microphone at New Hope Baptist Church in Newark. Usher started singing at age 9 in the choir at St. Elmo Greg Burton Missionary Baptist Church in Chattanooga, Tenn. old school.” Bass player and keyboardist Burton played in a gospel Adam Blackstone, music band in the 90s, but left to director for Janet Jackson broaden his horizons and learn and other artists, first played the sound engineering trade. in front of an audience in “I was playing gospel in church. Eric Moore, the Black a church group in the 90s,” drummer for the metal band Burton recalled. “We weren’t Suicidal Tendencies, said on getting many gigs, so the band Facebook that he “grew up in stopped playing and I really stopped playing the bass for a while after that, too.” Entertaining in venues considered to be havens of sin can sometimes raise the eyebrows of pastors who urge their members to Bo Sampson and Trey Songz avoid such places. At First the church playing drums and Baptist Church of Glenarden, loving music.” for example, the Rev. John K. “About eighty percent of Jenkins Sr. often jokes that all artists started in churches,” the members who attend the said Bo Sampson, 49, an noon service on Sundays are entertainment consultant and “the partying crowd,” while booking agent from Northwest those who attend two earlier Washington who represents services are more pious. hundreds of musicians who Musicians said they can play in genres ranging from maintain their walk with jazz to hip hop to R&B to Christ even as they perform rock. “About half the artists in clubs and other secular I represent still play in their venues. churches, as well.” “The church secretary Greg “Googie” Burton, doesn’t need the pastor’s 50, of Northwest Washington, permission to go work for

Sprint, outside of the job that she has at the church, so why should the church musician have to ask for permission to go play—wherever—to make a living for themselves?” said Perry. “You use your skills in any way you can, and that’s how we make a living out here.” Drummer Samuel Glover, 20, of Upper Marlboro, agreed. “I think the downside to being a young church musician is that some people won’t take you seriously,” he said. “A lot of people assume that [we] musicians do what we do because it’s a hobby, instead of our jobs or our career paths. It becomes very difficult, sometimes, to sustain a steady and consistent income.” Glover attends and plays for Heart for God Community Church in


Continued from A3

“The Unfinished March,” a report by the Economic Policy Institute, authored by Austin, detailed a number of goals outlined during the 1963 march that have been largely left behind. According to the report, organizers knew that the civil rights Blacks gained would be diminished without economic opportunities that had the power to lift millions of Blacks out of poverty. According to the EPI report, “The organizers of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom also demanded decent housing, adequate and integrated education, a federal jobs program for full employment, and a national minimum wage of over $13.00 an hour in today’s dollars.” Today, many Blacks still live in poverty, attend poorly funded, mostly segregated schools, and suffer unemployment rates that are twice as high as Whites. Austin said that many of the struggles that Blacks are facing today are connected to the economic inequality and the disempowerment of the American public and that the influence of money and lobbyists in politics is making

The AFRO Was There Continued from A3

at a number of Olympics competitions. As a charter member of the National Newspaper Publishers Association, the AFRO has continued to be involved in foreign coverage by NNPA correspondents. For decades, through interviews and research, the AFRO brought its readers vital information about leaders and peoples from faraway Liberia, Ethiopia, Egypt and Haiti. Over the years Washington had experienced almost every imaginable type of demonstration by citizens wanting to be heard by national officials. Still, it had never seen anything like that 1963 march for jobs and justice – and the presidential administration of John F. Kennedy was so concerned that considerable military and police forces were made available in case things got out of hand. Area people came on foot, in cars and by metro transit. Participants from across the country used more than 2,000 buses, 21 chartered trains and 10 chartered airliners. Considering some of the major civil rights events in the years just before the historic march, its internationally witnessed appeal for justice and jobs could not be ignored. There had been the Montgomery bus boycott, the sit-ins, the Freedom Ride, President Kennedy sending troops to get James Meredith into the University of Mississippi and the assassination of Miss. NAACP leader Medgar Evers. Immediately, President Kennedy called on Congress to pass his civil rights proposal but there was skepticism that a bill could get past the opposition of Dixie congressmen.

Clinton, and also tribeincrtd. The plays for Ecclesia band’s Facebook Fellowship Church page shows that in Greenbelt. He they recently also plays in a performed at gospel band called venues as varied Walk By Faith as Eden’s Lounge and plays many in Baltimore and freelance gigs the Den in Fort with groups of Washington in Prince George’s different genres, County. including jazz and Payne said funk. He currently despite the fact that studies music at many musicians Prince George’s enjoy playing in Community College and out of church, and hopes to later if churches paid transfer to the All photos: better, musicians Berklee College of Sam Glover whose first Music in Boston to obligation is to get his music degree. which to choose, having a topBut at the same time quality band can put people in the church wouldn’t have to double up with outside gigs. pastors may urge their pews on Sundays. “People just need to members to refrain from Perry and Payne, who are understand that we need to patronizing clubs and even ask roommates, as well as band make a living, too,” Payne them to limit their exposure to mates, are celebrating the said. “I was raised in the secular music, church officials release of Tribe Inc.’s debut church, and if they paid us admit that with today’s more album, “Road to Destiny,” more, we would never have to demanding members, who which can be preordered work at a club.” have many churches from at

Then there was the tragic church bombing in Birmingham that killed four young AfricanAmerican girls. When it seemed racial matters couldn’t get any worse, Birmingham Police Chief Eugene “Bull” Connor turned powerful fire hose streams of water and vicious dogs on peaceful demonstrators. The televised and print pictures shocked millions. Then came that awful day in November 1963 when President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. After Vice President Lyndon Baines Johnson was sworn-in as president, he pledged to pass a strong civil rights bill. Boldly twisting arms and skillfully enlisting the support of a good number of Republican congressmen, Johnson pushed through the 1964 Civil Rights Act and a year later the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Opponents of the 1964 Act waged an 83day filibuster. The NAACP’s Washington Bureau chief, Clarence Mitchell Jr., also an AFRO columnist, wrote a memorable account of the final one-man, night-long futile 14-hour filibuster by West Virginia Democratic Senator Robert Byrd, the once KKK member. A few national spokesmen such as Malcolm X called the March on Washington little more than a circus. History says otherwise. Moses Newson is a former city editor for the AFRO. As a reporter for the AFRO, he covered most of the major civil rights events of the latter part of the 20th century.

a bad situation worse. “Clearly the government is dysfunctional, by design, in some respects,” said Clarence Lang, associate professor of African and African American studies at the University of Kansas at Lawrence. “I don’t know that the federal government, at this point in history, is the vehicle for the kinds of changes that we might be envisioning.” Ultimately, it falls on everyday Americans to drive that change starting in their own communities. “You have to fight where you’re standing. Whether that’s in Kansas or New York state or Michigan, we have to begin to build and dig where we stand,” said Lang. And like Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., some economists believe that the fight for economic equality needs a strong labor movement. “When workers had a voice, they had a way of making sure that the pie was going to be divided up a little more fairly,” said William Spriggs, chief economist for AFL-CIO, an umbrella group for labor unions in the United States. Spriggs said that, since the 1970s, more of the pie goes to profits and interest, and less goes to workers. As the pie shrinks, workers fight amongst themselves over a smaller and smaller pie. “We’re not creating a smaller pie. We have to point to the right people who are creating a smaller pie,”

said Spriggs. “We need the government to take the side of those of us who are earning our pay versus those of us who are speculating on Wall Street and betting on horses.” Pushing the labor movement as a change agent may be a tough sell for today’s workers, who participate in unions with less frequency than generations past. Even though 13.1 percent of Black workers are union members, the Labor Department reported that the union membership rate for all workers was just 11.3 percent in 2012. In 1983, the membership rate was 20.1 percent. Spriggs also suggested that Wall Street titans pay for cleaning up the whole mess, not just the mess that let them get their jobs back and their bonuses back and then argue for tax cuts. Spriggs called for a “financial transaction tax” targeting the more perilous gambles made by Wall Street investors. “We saved AIG that was bankrupt, we can save Detroit that’s bankrupt,” said Spriggs. “And if the AIG [employees] that caused the downturn in the first place can get a bonus, because it said in their contracts that they had to get a bonus, then Detroit city workers can get a pension, just like it said in their contracts.” Like other panelists, Spriggs suggested that some of employment disparities may be beyond current policy reform. “While an outcome of

the 1963 march was the establishment of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, it wasn’t enough,” said Spriggs. “What people need to think about with the Trayvon Martin case is…what that jury was saying about young Black men.” Spriggs continued: “Once you really understand what that jury was saying about young Black men, do you really have to ask why do young Black men have a hard time getting a job?” The Labor Department reported that Blacks 16-19 years old faced a 41.6 percent unemployment rate in July, compared to 20.3 percent jobless rate for Whites. Black men still suffer the highest unemployment rate among all adult worker groups. Even though some of the panelists expressed doubts about the ability of lawmakers, civil rights leaders and everyday Americans to come together to solve the problems surrounding economic inequality some were more optimistic. “We are clearly moving beyond our evil past into a time where we will be very different,” said Angela Glover Blackwell, founder and CEO of Policy Link, a research group that advocates for economic and social equity. “We will get there, it is inevitable, but the old guard is afraid of losing and the last gasp can be a dangerous time and that’s exactly where we are right now.”

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

Oklahoma Slaying May Lead to More Profiling, Blacks Fear By AFRO Staff The reason they did it, prosecutors said, is because they were bored. Allegedly because three Duncan, Okla., teenagers didn’t have anything better to do, Christopher Lane, 22, of Melbourne, Australia, a baseball player attending college in the U.S. on a full scholarship, is dead. He was shot in the back while he jogged in an upscale neighborhood. First-degree murder charges were filed August 20 against two of the teens-James Francis Edwards, 15, and Chancey Allen Luna, 16. Both are Black. They were ordered held without bond. A third teen, Michael Dewayne Jones, 17, whose race could not be determined, was charged with being an accessory after the fact and with driving a vehicle while a weapon was discharged. According to the

Associated Press, the youth told a judge at a hearing the day of his arrest, “I pulled the trigger.” The judge then told the suspect to be quiet because the facts of the case would be argued at a later date. The young man then started crying, according to news accounts. His bond was set at $1 million. African Americans interviewed by the AFRO said they feared the incident will fuel more attacks like those that left Trayvon Martin dead at the hands of George Zimmerman. “I can’t even put it into words. I don’t have any words,” said B.T. Cooper of Bowie. “Now, there are going to be lot more people who do that ‘stand their ground.’ These young men were wrong and they are going to jail, but this is going to have repercussions for so many innocent young Black men. Some people already see any young Black man as violent

Johnson Continued from A3

death, Johnson has been paying more attention to health coverage issues. He is also aware that the Oct. 1 deadline date is nearing for enrollment in a health plan or the expanded Medicaid program through the Maryland Health Connection. The Maryland Health Connection (MHC) is administered by the Maryland Health Benefit Exchange (MHBE) established in April 2011 in accordance with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

and stories like this fuel that mentality.” Jones allegedly told police the boys killed Lane for “the fun of it,” according to the Associated Press. Washington D.C. Ward 5 ANC Commissioner Jackie Manning, of Northeast, who works with young people, said she will talk to the youths she knows about the incident. She said while the crime was appalling, the public should remember that the accused youths are innocent until the case is adjudicated in a court of law. She found it unusual that authorities would release the alleged statements from the young suspects. “Why would they come out and say what they were supposed to have said about the crime before they have talked to lawyers?” she said. “They are juveniles. I’ve never heard someone come out and give a reason why

“I consider it a blessing, not only that I could recover and wasn’t left a quadriplegic (like his younger brother, who suffered a gunshot to the head last year), but that President Obama has put in place a plan that will help me and others like me in the future.” Health coverage matters greatly because an unexpected illness or injury can happen to anyone, even to someone who is young and healthy like Johnson. Without health coverage, or without enough coverage, an illness or injury can drain savings, and high medical bills are a leading


Courtesy Photo

Chancey Allen Luna, 16, James Francis Edwards, 15, and Michael Dewayne Jones, 17 someone who is accused did something before they have a chance to talk to lawyers. We need to wait to see what happens in court.” Cooper said she will remind the young Black men she knows to be extra careful in light of this case, the same way she did after Zimmerman

cause of personal bankruptcy and home foreclosure in the United States. Until they personally face the unexpected, most people don’t realize that the average cost of a three-day hospital stay is well over $30,000 or that fixing a broken leg can cost up to $7,500. That’s why the early outreach efforts by the (MHC) have targeted people in those demographics groups that are least likely to be insured. These include ethnic minorities – particularly African Americans and Hispanics – and the group that is dubbed “the invincibles” – millenials who’ve never bought insurance or

attacked Trayvon Martin. “This is the kind of thing that, as Blacks, we hate,” she said. “We sympathize with the young man who was killed. We feel sorry and pray for his family. I just hope that people won’t look at all young Black men and think they are capable of this kind

don’t think they need it. Beginning in October, MHC will serve as the new marketplace for consumers to compare health insurance options and enroll in a plan that best meets their needs, whether Medicaid or a private insurance plan. The enrollment period begins Oct. 1 and coverage begins on Jan. 1, 2014. The enrollment process has been simplified to allow Maryland residents to apply online, by phone, by mail or in person using one streamlined application. Even if health insurance has been unaffordable in the past, residents

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of violence. “Like Whites commit crimes that don’t have anything to do with anyone except the offender, Blacks commit crimes that have nothing to do with other Blacks. This case should not cause people to indict all Black boys.”

may qualify for financial assistance or qualify for Medicaid through expanded eligibility guidelines beginning in 2014. MHC is also the only place to receive new premium tax credits from the federal government and cost-sharing reductions. And users will be able to link to the new call center for assistance at 855-(MHC) 642-8572 or 8573 for TTY. The center is staffed Monday through Friday from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Go to for more information and to sign up for updates.

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August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American



Why We’re Still Marching For a while, it looked like the 50th anniversary observance of the March on Washington would expose a sharp split in the Civil Rights Movement. Al Sharpton jumped ahead of his colleagues by cornering Martin Luther King III and the two of them announced a March on Washington for Aug. 24. Other civil rights leaders were planning events around that time and complained privately that George E. Curry Sharpton and Martin III had locked up major labor group support, a primary source of funding for the movement. A series of high-profile events – the Supreme Court’s decisions gutting the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and remanding a University of Texas affirmative action case back to the appellate level for stricter scrutiny and the acquittal of George Zimmerman of second-degree murder in connection with the shooting death of 17-year-old unarmed Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Fla. – left African-Americans and their supporters clamoring for an outlet to express their disgust. Suddenly, the march organized by Sharpton became the focal point. At this point, it looks like all of the major civil rights leaders – including Marc Morial, president and CEO of the National Urban League; Charles Steele, CEO of Dr. King’s old organization, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC); Jesse Jackson, founder of the Rainbow PUSH Coalition; Ben Jealous, president and CEO of the NAACP, among others – will join Sharpton and King as headliners of the Aug. 24 march. Of course, there are the usual detractors who argue, as conservative talk show host Armstrong Williams does, that we’ve been marching so long that we should have reached wherever we were marching to by now. The reality is that we haven’t reached our destination.

At a panel at the recent Urban League convention assessing the progress made since the original March on Washington, Al Sharpton said, “You say why march about voting? Well, that’s how we got it the first time. We did not get voting rights at a cocktail sip, trying to have racial harmony sessions. We got it by organizing and galvanizing and the only way we are going to make changes is by organizing and galvanizing.” Let’s not forget that Trayvon Martin’s name became a household word only after marches led by Sharpton, college students and activists around the nation, insisting that George Zimmerman be brought to trial for murder. And while we’re on the subject of marches, not everyone marched in the demonstrations of the 1960s. There was not unity among civil rights leaders – Roy Wilkins, for example, was intensely jealous of Dr. King – and many people did not jump on the King bandwagon until after he was assassinated. Unfortunately, there will be two observances of the 1963 March. One on Aug. 24 co-chaired by Sharpton and Martin, III and another one on Aug. 28, the date of the original march. President Obama, who has had difficulty in the past uttering Dr. King’s name in public, will speak at the second event organized by Bernice King, the sole surviving daughter of the slain civil rights leader. Those who question the need for another march should examine an Economic Policy Institute (EPI) analysis comparing the goals of the 1963 march with today’s reality: Goal: An end to ghettos. Reality: Forty-five percent of poor Black children but only 12 percent of poor White children live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty. Goal: An End to School Segregation. Reality: Seventy-

four percent of Black children attend schools that are 50-100 percent non-White, resulting in fewer resources than majority White schools. Goal: Jobs for All. Reality: In 2012, the Black unemployment rate –14 percent – was 2.1 times the White unemployment rate (6.6 percent). Goal: A Living Wage. Reality: The minimum wage of $7.25 an hour, well below the $11.06 an hour a full-time worker needed in 2011 to keep a family of four out of poverty (36 percent of Black workers make poverty-level wages). That’s why we’re still marching. George E. Curry, former editor-in-chief of Emerge magazine, is editor-in-chief of the National Newspaper Publishers Association News Service (NNPA.)

‘We Need a Change’ “Dear President Obama . . . Guns are really easy to get and people think they need them to protect themselves, but most times they’re showing off and making more problems and adding to the violence . . . 7 people are too many to lose and I don’t want to see another one of my friends, or even myself gone. We need a change.” In mid-July, students at Marian Wright Children’s Defense Fund Edelman Freedom Schools® summer enrichment sites across the country participated in a National Day of Action. The Freedom Schools program seeks to empower children to know that they are not just citizens in waiting. We want them to grow up knowing that they can and must make a difference in their homes, schools, communities, nation, and world. Many wrote letters this summer to President Obama, members of Congress, and local officials sharing their beliefs about gun laws and personal experiences with gun violence. Some were inspired by the March 2013 Washington Post

Magazine article “What’s Your Number?” which asked readers how many people they knew who had been killed or injured by guns. The youths who wrote the letters above and below had more experience than most. They are all boys between 15 and 20 years old who attend the Maya Angelou Academy at the New Beginnings Youth Development Center just outside Washington, D.C., one of six juvenile justice facilities across the country that have joined colleges, community groups, faith networks, public schools, municipalities, and dozens of other organizations hosting Freedom Schools sites. “Dear President Obama . . . I have lost 20 or more people to gun violence . . . I have seen one of my best friends get shot and killed in my face. What really hurt was I had to tell his mother he was dead. To this day his murder is unsolved and I honestly feel it will never be solved. But something needs to give; either stricter gun policy or more mothers will have to go through what my friend’s mother went through.” “Dear President Obama . . . I have lost 23 friends and family to gun violence, some killed by police, some killed by stray bullets, and some over beefs. The thing I want to change about gun violence is for everybody to not only put down their guns, but to come together as one . . . Not only is it a time for change, but it’s time for a truce. We are fighting a war in another country, but we are at war right here in our homeland.”

“Dear President Obama . . . I am writing this letter to you because the longer people have access to illegal firearms, there will be more deaths to come . . . The more people suffer in poverty, the more there will be chaos and violence . . . It has to stop now! We all have to come as one. These young brothers are hypnotized by negativity. Help these young brothers, President Obama.” In a nation with 315 million people and 310 million guns, urban neighborhoods are not the only communities overflowing with guns and teenagers in inner-city D.C. are not the only children who believe there are so many guns in our country they might need one, too, in order to survive. And what message did it give these students when Trayvon Martin, a teenager who looked a lot like them and was not carrying a gun, was followed, shot, and killed by an adult while doing nothing wrong and the adult was set free? Our children are afraid for their friends, their families, and themselves. They know something needs to change. But they can’t get there without us—and they certainly can’t get there by arming themselves with still more guns. Marian Wright Edelman is president of the Children’s Defense Fund.

Minimum Reasoning on Minimum Wage Some phones were ringing; others were on hold as Real Christian Radio’s host was well into his 10 a.m. until 2 p.m. program. The subject was “Is minimum wage enough to live on?” and syndicated radio personality Lonnie Hunter’s job was letting the audience “have their say” on the issue. Actually, the subject had come up earlier on “The Yolanda Adams Morning Show” when the show’s cohost asked listeners to “speak up” let him know whether William Reed minimum wage “is a livable wage” and could they survive on $7.25 an hour. All morning long stations in the “Praise” network urged listeners to: “Say what you want to say” about whether minimum wage is a livable wage. So, as they say in the business, the subject “already had legs” by the time Hunter stepped to the microphone. Christian Radio’s midday host Hunter is a minister, musician, artist and producer who got misled into taking an “on air” position advocating flawed economic concepts. Sadly, Hunter doesn’t know, or see, the socialist philosophy the issue is based upon.


Though he never cited himself as an economist, but amid the tweets, Facebook messages and contest challenges, the high audience involvement Hunter achieved that day, was based on bogus subject matter and theme. The whole idea and discussion of wage legislation is politics run amuck. Many liberals, still widely accept the view that minimum wage laws are needed to provide the working poor with a fair wage. Hunter unwittingly took sides in a misguided issue that labor unions have been pushing for years. People proposing minimum wage legislation have the rose-colored glasses’ view of government that promotes redistribution of wealth and marketplace intervention. Labor unions have held lofty status in the Black political agenda of recent years. Supporters of the minimum wage claim it increases the standard of living of workers, reduces poverty, reduces inequality and boosts morale. Actually, such rules and legislation increase poverty and unemployment. Sixty percent of the jobs lost in the last recession were middle income. Most new positions are in expanding low-wage industries such as retail, food services, cleaning and health-care support. By 2020, 48 percent of jobs will be in those service sectors. The economic evidence shows Blacks haven’t yet mastered capitalism. Most show a gross lack of understanding of how it works. An example of our participation in misguided social engineering goes back to Chicago in 2006 when the Chicago City Council rejected a proposal from Wal-Mart to open a store on the South Side. Subsequently, that Council approved

an ordinance requiring Wal-Mart and other “Big-Box” stores to pay much higher minimum wages than their competitors. All to which Chicago unions and community groups cheered, not fully grasping the fact that such targeted legislation tarnishes a city’s reputation as a place to do business. Politicians in the nation’s capital moved to center stage buffoonery with a new “minimum wage” chicanery. The D.C. Council has moved to raise the local minimum wage for employees at major retailers and requiring “Big-Box” stores to pay their employees 50 percent more than the existing District minimum wage. At its core, the City Council measure is all a plot to tell the world’s largest retailer “how it should operate.” The “Large Retailer Accountability Act of 2013,” would require retailers with more than $1 billion in annual revenues to pay employees making less than $50,000 a year at least $12.50 per hour. D.C.’s minimum wage is $8.25 per hour. The belief that increasing the minimum wage is socially beneficial is a delusion Blacks need to delete from their economic lexicon. It’s time such buffoonery ceases and Blacks think and act in ways that illustrate a realization of where we live and work – an economic and political system in which trade and industry are based on private ownership for profit. “Minimum wage” is antithetical to how “laissez-faire” works. William Reed is head of the Business Exchange Network.

Send letters to The Afro-American, 2519 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 or fax to 1-877-570-9297 or e-mail to



The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American


Fines, Points Await School Bus Stop Scofflaws By Blair Adams AFRO Staff Writer

The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) wants motorists to know if they pass a school bus with the stop sign extended, expect to be charged with a moving violation that will cost up to $300 in fines and tack three points on your license. A survey conducted by MSDE at the end of the 2012-13 school year found motorists often ignore stop arms on school buses. The MSDE estimates that nearly 3,400 drivers illegally drove past a school bus while the stop sign was extended. “The overall goal is the safety of our children,” William Reinhard, spokesman for MSDE told the AFRO. He said the idea is to remind drivers that it is illegal to pass a stopped

school bus when the stop sign is extended, and their hazard lights are flashing. “For the safety of the children, drivers must stop in each direction,” he said. In April, more than 70 percent of the Maryland school bus drivers took part in the survey, where seven out of 10 bus drivers said they witnessed a violation. “While we are gratified with the progress being made, we want to emphasize that every student of ours is precious,” State Superintendent of Schools Lillian M. Lowery said in a statement. “Drivers must understand that it is illegal to pass a bus with its stop arm extended and its lights flashing.” In Maryland, there are nearly 7,000 school buses that ferry students to and from school, and in some cases to after-school activities.

Reinhard told the AFRO drivers should be more aware of their surroundings. “I’m sure it’s frustrating because they school buses usually stop during rush hour however, it’s for the child’s safety.” In 2012, an Ohio woman was arrested after she repeatedly drove on a sidewalk, all because she didn’t want to wait for the school bus to load and unload kids. Shena Hardin was caught by a Cleveland police officer and was charged with reckless driving and failure to stop for a school bus. In an interview Harden’s mother said, “the bus takes too long.” A problem Reinhard said happens often. “We live in a society where people need to get somewhere fast and unfortunately traffic doesn’t always allow that.” “There are no excuses for this violation,” Lowery said.

Back-to-School Rally Offers Free School Supplies By Blair Adams AFRO Staff Writer With one week left until the official start of school, the mayor’s office hosted their annual back-to-school rally, offering free school supplies to Baltimore city school students – helping families prepare for the 2013-14 school year. During the four-hour event, hundreds of parents and kids gathered at the War Memorial Plaza, on Aug. 17. With dancing and live music as a background, those who needed them received free immunizations, courtesy of the Baltimore health department.

“This is great what the city does for the kids because we can’t afford all the supplies they need,” Gelenia Coleman told the AFRO. Coleman, a northeast Baltimore resident said her daughter, Destine Davis, is entering into the 5th grade and said the event offers a great head start for the school year. While filling out an application for the free breakfast and lunch program, Davis said she was “excited to go back to school.” Participants in the rally were able to visit several onsite vendors and learn more about school safety, receive hands on CPR training, healthy eating tips and other

Brandon Bull Barber 2203 N. Charles St.

Baltimore, Maryland 21218

school resources. The backpacks, which were stuffed with pencils, notebooks, erasers, glue and binders were handed out by volunteers after families visited at least nine vendors, resulted in their “hall pass” punch card being completed. Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake took the stage after several local performances and artist keep the attention of the crowd. Rawlings-Blake thanked the several sponsors and partners who helped make the rally possible. “Let’s have the best school year,” RawlingsBlake yelled to the crowd. Interim School CEO Tisha Edwards thanked everyone for coming to kick off the new school year. She told families, “This is going to be an amazing year.” Edwards also asked parents to commit to have their kids in school everyday. The first day of school for Baltimore City students is Aug. 26.

Quadruple Shooting Kills Two, Injures Two By Blair Adams AFRO Staff Writer Two people are dead and two wounded during an early morning quadruple shooting in a south Baltimore neighborhood, following a string of violence that has occurred in the city. Police say on Aug. 20, around 5:47 a.m. they responded to the 1200 block of S. Carey Street for the report of a neighborhood disturbance. When they arrived on the scene they found 22-year-old Meghan Kerrigan and her boyfriend William Monroe dead, gunned down in their own home. “The two victims were pronounced dead on the scene,” Det. Brandon Echevarria told the AFRO. “The two other victims were transported and treated at an area hospital-one in critical condition and the other is in stable condition.” “The suspected shooter is now in custody,” Echevarria said. According to police, 35-year-old Melville Mason, shot all victims inside the row home on S. Carey Street. Echevarria said there was an infant inside, however the infant was not injured and was returned to family members. As of Aug. 20, there have been 145 homicides compared to 134 this time last year. For non-fatal incidents, there have been 274 compared to this time last year. Although the details about the shooting have yet to be released, police said this was “not a random act.”

Druid Hill Park


Continued from A4

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relics of Ku Kluxry be wiped out in Maryland…The Park Board rule is irrational and nefarious. It should be got rid of forthwith.” Ultimately, the efforts of Crockett and the other Young Progressives on the clay courts fell short in a court of law. The tennis protesters merged with the “Easterwood Professionals,” an interracial basketball team coached by Crockett, as well as two golfers, in the case of Boyer v. Garrett, which sought to desegregate recreational facilities in Baltimore.

They lost in U.S. District Court in 1948 and lost a subsequent appeal in 1950. But, the city park board voted to integrate recreation facilities in 1955, a year after Brown v. Board was rendered. The Young Progressives disbanded shortly after the 1948 decision. “Our activism was taken away from us,” Crockett said. “We had to apply our energy in different directions…It’s a shame because we enjoyed being together.”

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August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American

Rev. Dr. Haywood Robinson

The United Council of Christian Community Churches of Maryland and Vicinity recently commemorated 50 years of ministry and celebrated those who have consistently served with distinction. The Jubilee Banquet, held Aug. 9, at Morgan State University, recognized Past Legends, deceased Pastors Tommie L. Jenkins, Charles White and Earl Tucker. Pastor Edward McClurkin and the Rev. Dr. Agnes Alston received Living

Mother Sadie Baldwin, Pres. Jimmy Baldwin, First Lady Charlene Baldwin, Outstanding Service from Council as President of UCCCC Churches

Elder Mary Lucas

Rev. Lawrence Bryant and First Lady Diane Bryant

Pastor Antoine McClurkin

Rev. Daphiney Clark Williams

Legend Awards. The Rev. Dr. Haywood A. Robinson III was the banquet preacher for the event chaired by the Rev. Helen B. Mayo. Pastor Jimmy C. Baldwin Sr., pastor of Shiloh C.C. Church, has served as the council president for nearly a decade. The founding pastors of the UCCCC were: Rev. Sidney Daniels, Rev. Theodore C. Jackson Sr., Rev. George W. Baynard and Rev. Edward M. Revels, pastors of Emmanuel, Gillis Memorial, Shiloh and St. Paul Christian Community Churches, respectively.

Lavern Baldwin and Jimmy Baldwin

Cathy White, Lyndell White, and Margaret Murray

Jabria Wilson, Amiyah Tucker, Kyelle Johnson,Mia Ramos, Rev. McClurkin, Victoria Price and Darien Wallace

Photos by J.D. Howard

Mr. and Mrs. Vance Tillery and Carla Lightsey

Mr. and Mrs. Curtis Washington

Rev. Andre Hale Rev. Jacqueline Williams

Past Legends Presentation to Wives, Pastor Baldwin, Mrs. Earl Tucker, Mrs. Charles White, Mrs. Tommie Jenkins Sr. and Sis. Diane Bryant

The garden party was replete with fancy hats and dresses, desserts and piano music to celebrate the 50th birthday of Carla Lightsey, who wore the most adorable hat of the afternoon. The outdoor setting was perfect, as was the weather on that July 27 afternoon. And the Panama Band was on hand to provide more entertainment.

Sis. Diane Bryant, Pastor Lawrence Bryant, Sis. Florence Graham, Sis. Sharon Sellers and Sis. Robin Johnson

Sis Renee Payne, Bro. Lee Davis and Sis. Florence Graham

President Baldwin, Rev. Edward McClurkin and Rev. Helen Mayo, Living Legend recipients


Sharon Dent, Lee Davis and James Smith

Cousin Marsha Gladden and Debbie Sutton

Lazette Porter, Honoree and Sherry Cindric

Gloria Christian, mother of the honoree

Renea Camper and Ronetta Stringfellow

Desserts by owners of Bahea and Company

Honoree and Cousin Minister Vernon Harris Panama band members, Horace and husband Dwayne Lightsey

Mr. and Mrs. Douglass McKenzie

Mr. and Mrs. Marlon Wise and Mr. and Mrs. Dwayne Lightsey Photos by J.D. Howard


The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013


Disposable Diapers Pose a Financial Strain for Low-Income Mothers

Maternity support workers in low-income areas of the country agree. “We know that when a mother is stressed, the health Standing in the aisle of her local grocery store, Jacquelyn outcomes for the child are drastic,” said Corinne Cannon, K. Clemmons had a decision to make. founder of the D.C. Diaper Bank that distributes an estimated Like so many weeks and months before, she weighed the 35,000 to 40,000 diapers each year to families via 15 different options in her head: gas, or diapers? Bills, or diapers? organizations throughout the District, Maryland, and Virginia. “It was tough,” said Clemmons, remembering the financial Families receive the diapers from distribution partners struggle she faced with her first child in 2003. “I normally had such as the Central Union Mission and Little Lights Urban to skim from everything- including the grocery money to get Ministries. diapers because it’s such an immediate need. There is no such The Washington, D.C.-based organization was created in thing as waiting until the next pay because you can’t wait 2010 after Cannon began to think about mothers and their until you are completely out.” children lacking emotional and financial support. “For me, it was food or diapers,” she told the AFRO. She “I started asking around, doing research, and calling had another child in 2009 and, her income had increased, the organizations. We said we can give time and we can give dilemma wasn’t as acute. money. They all said ‘we need diapers.’” And once they are out of diapers, the financial dilemma Cannon’s next move was to find a local diaper bank and eased. “When the child gets potty-trained, the sky opens up send materials. To her surprise the closest facility to the and there is a hallelujah chorus,” she said. Washington, D.C. area was in Pennsylvania. Photo by Alexis Taylor But she’s not the only who’s struggled with the cost of “It’s something as simple as a diaper but if you give a According to the August edition of Pediatrics, 30 percent disposable diapers. family diapers it’s one more thing they don’t have to worry of women cannot keep an adequate supply of disposable According to a new study in the August edition of about. It frees up dollars because food stamps and WIC funds diapers. Pediatrics, 30 percent of women cannot keep an adequate don’t pay for diapers. Money can then go to other things like supply of disposable diapers. the light bill, extra food, and rent.” This means one out of every 12 babies faces increased risk for diaper rashes and other Cloth diapers aren’t an option for low-income mothers, Cannon said, because most don’t illnesses that arise from prolonged contact with soiled diapers. have in-home washing machines and, by law, they can’t wash them in public laundromats. The study included 877 pregnant women or mothers with children and showed that Black “We didn’t mean to start a non-profit, but the need was there,” she said. “The reality is that women and mothers between the ages of 20 and 44 were less likely to admit they need help in this metro area we’ve got many different groups of women that are in need.” affording diapers. And the need is the same in Maryland, where the National Center for Children in Poverty Clemmons, 30, now openly says she was one of those women. (NCCP) determined that 33 percent of young children in the state are living in homes with “I didn’t want to borrow money for diapers,” she told the AFRO, adding that her income beneath the federal poverty level. commissioned pay in 2003 was an added burden. “When I got a bonus I would stock up on “We see about 1,000 clients a year in our four centers and most of them are indigent,” said diapers so I wouldn’t have to feel bad if a check was smaller than expected.” Carol A. Clews, executive director of the Baltimore Center for Pregnancy Concerns, founded At home, Clemmons said she resorted to diaper-free time for her daughter. Sitting the child in 1980. “Many of these mothers start off from a very bad place when they are having these on a towel, she would hope for the best. She was unaware of city efforts to help women in her babies.” position. “You don’t think about what everything costs until you have to start purchasing diapers all “It was easier for me to throw two or three towels in the washing machine,” she said. the time and see how often you have to change these babies.” Clemmons considered cloth diapers, but realized daycare centers and babysitters weren’t There are four Centers for Pregnancy Concerns throughout the Baltimore area including St. too keen on being intimate with baby excrement--and neither was she. The idea was nixed three Rita’s Center in Dundalk and St. Brigid’s Center in Canton. There are centers in Arbutus and months into motherhood when she had to go back to work. Essex, Md. where families can directly pick up diapers, formula, and clothing as it is available. According to the study, diaper needs causes untold amounts of stress for women, which in According to Clews, the Centers distribute more than 2,700 diapers on a month basis. turn negatively impacts child development. “We see African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, and a lot of Muslim clients,” said Clews. “We do not discriminate at all, we see everybody.” To find out more about donating baby supplies visit or www. By Alexis Taylor AFRO Staff Writer

AARP Creates Web Site to Help Sort Out Health Young, Familiar Sex Care Options Partners Likely to Skip Condoms, Study Finds By Zenitha Prince Special to the AFRO

It has been more than three years since the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was enacted into law, yet health care experts say many Americans remain unsure about how the law impacts their lives. As part of its ongoing effort to clear up that confusion, the AARP this month launched a suite of new resources for persons seeking information, including a new online tool called Health Law Answers. The new tool seeks to educate Americans about the health care law and what it means for insured and uninsured individuals and families using simple, clear-language. Using, consumers can get customized information based on where they live, gender, their family size, income and insurance status. Answering just seven simple questions generates a report about what benefits may be available and where to find more information. That report can be downloaded, e-mailed or saved, making it easy to share information with others. The tool is also available in Spanish -, and reports can easily be translated between the English and Spanish. “We know there is a lot of information out there about the health care law and AARP

is here to help people cut through the clutter,” said Nicole Duritz, vice president of health education and outreach for AARP. “That’s why we created Now in a few easy steps anyone can get a free, customized report connecting them to local resources and information that matters to individuals and their families.” For example, if someone is currently without health coverage the tool will let them know how the health insurance marketplace will work, provide resources about things to consider when shopping for coverage and then connect the individual with the health insurance marketplace in their state. In addition to, AARP created an information-rich website called for consumers to quickly find resources and more detailed information on specific aspects of the law. AARP is also engaged in on-the-ground efforts to educate consumers about the law, including collaborating with a number of organizations to reach people where they live, including outreach in Hispanic communities with the Hispanic Federation, National Council of La Raza, Esperanza and the League of United Latin American Citizens. “Americans are looking for answers and information that matters to them and AARP is here to help,” concluded Duritz. For more information visit

By Alexis Taylor AFRO Staff Writer

Teens engaging in sexual intercourse are less likely to use condoms with partners with whom they think they have a more indepth relationship with and deem “familiar,” according to a just-released health study. In the August 2013 edition of the Journal of Adolescent Health, health researchers released the findings from a 2008 survey of 1,469 heterosexual youths from the Chicago area. The study was completed in an effort to get a better understanding of how sexually transmitted diseases and infections spread. “Half of all sexually transmitted infections are among adolescents and young adults,” said lead author of the study, Dr. Stephanie Staras. “Sometimes, the partner one chooses affects whether or not one uses a condom.” “If the person thought their partner was casual or unexpected they were more likely to use a condom.” The study was sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and conducted by the University of Florida (UF), where Staras is an assistant professor for both the Institute for Child Health Policy and the UF Department of Health Outcomes and Policy. Staras said that there were many factors that increased the risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease from a partner that is already infected. “We looked at whether the partners were drinking alcohol two hours before sex, and when partners were doing that they were less likely to use condoms,” she told the AFRO.

“I don’t think people know the right questions to ask. They don’t know that it’s riskier to be with an older person. You might think you know them well but you don’t know several things about them because you’re not in the same social circles and you don’t know their friends.” The study also found that liquor played a role in increasing the risk of disease for minor girls. “We looked at whether the partners were drinking alcohol two hours before sex,” said Staras. “When partners were drinking they were less likely to use condoms.” Coupled with being “familiar” with their partner, adding liquor to the equation caused teen girls to be half as likely to insist that a condom be used and follow through with the request. According to the study, teaching youths that disease and infection are real possibilities regardless of their partner’s perceived character or risk factor will go a long way in putting knowledge into practice.

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American



“Ashe to Amen” Uplifts at the Reginald Lewis Museum

The exhibition, which was first shown at New York’s Museum of Biblical Art (MOBIA), is a visual study of African American religious traditions. Honoring their tremendous impact as African American religious and community leaders, King-Hammond dedicated the show to the memories of the late reverends Dr. Marion C. Bascom and Dr. Harold A. Carter, Sr., former museum board members. The exhibition includes works from renowned artists such as Henry Ossawa Tanner and Romare Bearden to those of contemporary artists Xenobia Bailey and Baltimore’s Joyce J. Scott. “The show is not created around any particular denomination. It is created for believers and nonbelievers,” King-Hammond said. As they walk through the exhibition, with recorded gospel music playing in the background, viewers have been heard to comment about feeling some sort of spiritual connection. Upon hearing the story of the survival of Bailey’s single-stitch, hand-crocheted revival tent, which sat in a box in a flooded studio during Hurricane Sandy, but was not damaged, the connection seems obvious. “It’s such a great story,” said Lowery Stokes Sims, curator at New York’s Museum of Arts and Design and former executive director of the Studio Museum in Harlem. “It sat in water for two weeks and it’s still in shape…Now that’s truly a miracle from God!” A. Skipp Sanders, the museum’s executive director, said he found intriguing “the way the exhibition uses the art and all kinds of items we saw in our senior relatives’ homes to sharpen our understanding of the African–related cultural connections that persisted in our everyday lives, even when we were forgetting their original meaning, and even as we embraced a Christian theology.” He said of the crocheted revival tent: “I swear, it really is mystical.” To complement the exhibition and broaden visitors’ understanding and appreciation of the work, museum officials have added workshops, bus tours, music and dance performances to the schedule. “As one of the sponsors, we just think that this is a wonderful way to get a different segment of the community to come in,” said Beverly Carter, an exhibition sponsor and co-chair of the museum’s Ashe Circle,” a support group for the museum. “We’re seeing people here who’ve never been here before and who’ve never seen an exhibit of this kind before. We’d like to see this continue in the future.” Ashe to Amen will remain open through Sept. 29 at the R.F. Lewis Museum before moving to Memphis’s Dixon Gallery and Gardens.

By Jannette J. Witmyer Special to the AFRO The sound of joyful voices raised in song in the gospel tradition filled every corner of the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History and Culture on a recent afternoon for the opening of its current exhibition, “Ashe to Amen: African Americans and Biblical Imagery.” Photos by J.D. Howard The exhibition’s title uses Margo Humphrey’s “The two commonly recognized Last Bar-B-Que” (above). African and African Januwa Moja’s “Queen of American praise terms to Spades” (right). introduce the show’s theme. The Yoruba “ashe” and “amen” are words of affirmation, meaning “so be it” or “and so it is.” Additionally, “ashe” refers to the creative power of an artist to make something happen. “’Ashe to Amen: African Americans and Biblical Imagery’ is an exhibition that I created in order to talk about the things that African Americans have been experiencing since we came to the shores of the United States,” said exhibition curator Leslie KingHammond, founding director of the Center for Race and Culture at the Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA) and chair of the R.F. Lewis museum’s board of directors. “It talks about the intersection of African religious beliefs, Christian religious beliefs and all those beliefs we created in between to address our spirituality and religious needs.”

Star of ‘The Famous Jett Jackson’

Actor Lee Thompson Young Dead at 29 By Zachary Lester AFRO Staff Writer A generation of Disney kids went into mourning this week after Lee Thompson Young, who portrayed the title character in the “The Famous Jett Jackson” on the mouse channel for three seasons, was found dead in his North Hollywood home. He was 29. “That makes me sad,” said Princeton University junior Ijeoma Madubata, 19, of Riverdale in Prince George’s County. “He was a part of my childhood.” Most recently, Young portrayed police Det. Barry Frost, a well-dressed computer wiz with an aversion to the sight of blood, on the TNT series “Rizzoli & Isles.” The series also stars Angie Harmon and Sasha Alexander. In a statement released to several media outlets, Young’s manager said it appeared that Young took his own life. The Los Angeles Police Department, which is investigating the case, has not released a cause of death. “It is with great sadness that I announce that Lee Thompson Young tragically took his own life this morning,” manager Jonathan Baruch said in a statement. “Lee was more than just a brilliant young actor, he was a wonderful and gentle soul who will be truly missed. We ask that you please respect the privacy of his family and friends at this very difficult time.” Young was found dead in his home about 8 a.m. Aug. 19, after colleagues at “Rizzoli & Isles” called police because he failed to show up on the set for filming. “We are beyond heartbroken at the loss of this sweet, gentle, good-hearted, intelligent man,” TNT officials said in a statement. “He was truly a member of our family. Lee will be cherished and remembered by all who knew and loved him, both on- and off-screen, for his positive energy, infectious smile and soulful grace. We send our deepest condolences and thoughts to his family, to his friends and, most especially, to his beloved mother.” quoted a statement from the Disney Channel. “Nothing any of us can say will adequately express our sadness over Lee’s untimely passing — our thoughts are

with his loved ones and the many fans of his work.” Young Black Hollywood mourned the actor via Twitter. “I have no words to say. I honestly am speechless to the recent passing of my old friend Lee Thompson Young,” Palmer said. “My heart is broken today,” tweeted actor Columbus Short. “RIP to my dear friend and brother Lee Thompson Young. Writing partner/Friend/Brother #HeartAche” TNT photo “So sad to hear about Lee Lee Thompson Young Thompson Young,” tweeted actress Lauren London. “He was such a good guy with a great heart. May he have peace. Prayers all around.” “My heart goes out to Lee Thompson Young RIP…These child stars are leaving us too soon. My heart is aching…” tweeted former child star and actress Tia Mowry. “Very very sad to hear about Lee Thompson Young. He was always very kind, and such a light,” said entertainer Solange Knowles. Actress Megan Good tweeted pictures of herself with Young when she appeared on “The Famous Jett Jackson” more than a decade ago. Young was born in South Carolina. He said he got bit by the acting bug at age 10 when he played Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in a play called “A Night of Stars and Dreams.” He was most famous for his starring role as a teenager in “The Famous Jett Jackson,” which ran from 1998 to 2001 on the Disney

Channel. On the show, Jett, the son of a police chief, portrayed a kid detective named Silverstone on a television show that he had moved for filming to his North Carolina hometown so that he could be near his family and friends. After the show was cancelled, Young worked steadily, playing television roles in series such as “Scrubs,” “CSI New York,” and “Smallville” and in films such as Friday Night Lights and Akeelah and the Bee with Keke Palmer. He also voiced characters for The Disney Channel’s “The Proud Family” and “Xiaolin Showdown.” According to his biography on, Young attended the Professional Performing Arts High School in New York and the USC School of Cinematic Arts, where he earned a full academic scholarship and graduated with honors. He was also a photographer, studied martial arts and was an avid supporter of the Children’s Defense Fund.


The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

BALTIMORE’S OWN GIFTED GUARTIST WILL BE A HOUSEHOLD WORD Hello everyone, I hope you have enjoyed your summer season so far, but it is not over yet. I have been checking out a lot of the local night clubs more than usual. Not only for my new book sales, but because it has been jumping with some great live entertainment. I was recently at Maceo’s and I saw and heard a guitarist named Jay Alan Thompson, who made you think that you were in a honeymoon suite with the sounds he was producing from the strings on his guitar, if you know what I mean. Honey Child! I still feel tingling down my spine and it has been over a week. Girlfriend! Take my word for it, the man is gifted. I was truly impressed as well as the rest of the patrons. Jay was one of Phil Butts’ musicians that night. Ladies, not only is Jay Thompson awesome playing the guitar, but he is good looking, too, very pleasing to the eyes. Let me tell you a little more about this musician. Jay attended Howard University and Rutgers Jay Alan Thompson, guitarist, University; eventually bassist, songwriter, publisher, earning two degrees worship leader, IT specialist and a from Howard member of the Phil Butt’s Sunset University—a Band, took the stage at Maceo’s bachelor of musicLounge on Monroe Street recently jazz studies and and brought the house down. master of musicguitar. His style can best be described as an intense blending to blues, jazz, Latin, r&b, gospel, rock, and classical. Major influences include: B.B. King, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, John Coltrane, Wes Montgomery, Miles Davis, Oscar Peterson, Beethoven, Brahms, Walter Hawkins and Carlos Santana, just to name a

few. The next time you hear the name playing with any group, check him out. I promise, you won’t be disappointed. Speaking of Phil Butts, Larry Enoch Lodge of Perfection, of the Most Washington, Worshipful Hiram Grand Lodges, 1205 one of the N. Eutaw Place, is having their “Annual long-time Crab Feast on Aug. 25, 4-8 Tall members Cedars Hall, 2501 Putty Hill Ave. For more of the Arch information, call Jessie Boyd, 410-298Social Club on 0319. Pennsylvania Avenue is hosting a nice event at the club on Aug. 25 from 5 to 9 p.m. Your ticket will include live entertainment by Phil Butts’ Sunshine Band, food and access to a cash bar. This event is a fundraiser to help with the renovations that are being done. The Enoch Lodge of Perfection; Most Worshipful Hiram Grand Lodge is hosting their Annual Crab Feast on Aug. 25, 4-9 p.m. at Tall Cedars Hall, 2501 Putty Hill Avenue. Lillian “Tiger Lil’ Vickers and her They have a huge daughter Suzonne Vickers with hot and cold buffet including: crab cakes, other family members and friends will host a Charity Fundraiser for crab soup, shrimp the Johns Hopkins Moore Clinic creole, beef, fresh & Osler 8 “Michael Del Bianco ham, smoked country Fund” at Melba’s Place, 3126 ham, BBQ ribs, fried Greenmount Avenue from 4-8 chicken, potato salad, p.m., with a light fare and cash macaroni salad, bar. For more information, call macaroni and cheese, 410-585-4331. mashed potatoes,

Lemon Zest! By Kam Williams Special to the AFRO

Born in Baton Rouge, La. on March 1, 1966, Don Lemon anchors CNN Newsroom during weekend prime-time and serves as a CNN correspondent out of the network’s New York bureau, Don joined CNN in September 2006. He has an Edward R. Murrow award for his coverage of the capture of the Washington, D.C. snipers, and an Emmy for a special report on real estate in Chicagoland. In 2009, Ebony Magazine named him one of the 150 most influential Blacks in America. A couple of years later, he came out of the closet, and discussed his homosexuality in an autobiography entitled Transparent.

Don recently caught a lot of flak from a number of African-American pundits for agreeing with Bill O’Reilly’s criticisms of the black community, especially since he even suggested that the conservative talk show host hadn’t gone far enough. Here, he talks about “We Were There,” an oral history of the 1963 March on Washington featuring Rep. John Lewis (D-Ga.) and other participants from the march. The special is set to debut on CNN on Aug. 23 at 10:00 p.m., 1:00 a.m., and 4:00 a.m. KW: What interested you in doing a special about the March on Washington? DL: We had been talking about it for awhile as the 50th anniversary approached, and I kept indicating that I would love to be a part of it. Somewhere, somehow,

winner, I don’t think you’d have to beg too much. DL: Just because I’m here at CNN, I never rest on my laurels and presume I can coast now. I still throw my hat in the ring and push to have a voice. I am the face of this documentary for CNN, and I think that says a lot about how far we’ve come.

Don Lemon

somebody heard that, Kam, and they said, “Don really wants to do this. Let’s have him do it.” KW: Being an Emmy and Edward R. Murrow Award-

KW: Does the documentary have a theme? DL: There are, for me, a few different themes. People like John Lewis and A. Philip Randolph put their lives on the line to participate. So, the first theme that stands out to me is courage. The second theme was the hope they exhibited in “the teeth of the most terrifying odds,” as James Baldwin said. Thirdly, Bayard Rustin, who many call the Architect of the Civil Rights Movement, finally gets his due. He’s the silent, strong man who made The March happen. But because he was

vegetables, free beer, iced tea, coffee and soda and hot steamed crabs. For ticket information, call Jessie Boyd at 410-298-0319. The proceeds from this event provide scholarship funds to individuals who have excelled in high school and contributed to the community with an ultimate goal of attending college to obtain a higher education degree. The Allyson Taylor, song stylist, Enoch Lodge of Perfection musician and song writer #1 is a non-profit Scottish recently released her new Rite group working under CD, named “I’ve Got News for The Most Worshipful You”, a mixture of jazz-tinged Hiram Grand Lodge A.F. originals and classics. She & A.M. The Lodge serves has been labeled as a female as an arm of finance to the Ray Charles. Contact Charles community of Baltimore R. Steinmetz Company at through tuition scholarships to and stipends for books. book this artist. FYI- Jeff Sewell, commander of the Sons, American Legion, located at151 Winters Lane in Catonsville, hosts a “Crab Night” every Wednesday night starting at 7 p.m. Ronald Alston, Sr., is the post commander. Look out folks! “The original Time Tunnel” is coming live with the “High Priest of Soul, ” JB Brown, I know you remember him from the radio station, WEBB and others, playing the 50, 60’s and 70’s music on the turntable. Well, he is going to meet and greet you in person again spinning your favorite Line Dance music, hand dance or just do the jitter-bug at the Crystal Ballroom, located in the Days Inn Hotel, 8712 Loch Raven Blvd. in Towson, Md. on Aug. 31, 8 p.m. until 1 a.m. The ticket includes food, cash bar and vendors. For more information, call 443-425-8739. Well, my dear friends, I will be at the Odyssey Lounge on Pressman Street with my new book from 5 to 6 p.m. If you live in west Baltimore or are driving around the city during that time, come on by and get your autographed book. In the meantime, you be good to yourself and others. If you need me, call me at 410-833-9474 or email me at UNTIL THE NEXT TIME, I’M MUSICALLY YOURS.

gay and people tried to use that against him is probably why we don’t hear so much about him. KW: How do you, as probably the most prominent black celebrity to come out, feel about California voters’ support for a ban on gay marriage? DL: I don’t consider myself a celebrity. I’m just a journalist. Yeah, I was in the forefront, and took a lot of heat for it. I think the president’s evolution in terms of gay marriage has helped change many people’s minds. I think it’s empowering for a person to live an authentic life. It can only help when prominent and successful people of color come out and live authentically, because younger people, who are being bullied and might be questioning whether they should continue to live, might have second thoughts about

taking their own lives. KW: What about the criticism you received for your recent remarks agreeing with [Fox News’] Bill O’Reilly about the black community. DL: At least I got a conversation started. That was my goal, and I think I accomplished it. And just because I’m AfricanAmerican does not mean I have to feel a certain way because I’m black. You don’t have true freedom until you allow a diversity of opinion and a diversity of voices. KW: But do you fear being pigeonholed as a buddy of O’Reilly? DL: There are many things that Bill O’Reilly and I disagree about. I just happen to agree with some of what he had to say on this issue, but not all of it. Does that mean I co-signed his whole being and existence? No?

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American



AFRO Sports Desk Faceoff

Does Al Harrington’s Addition Make Wizards Playoff-Primed? procedure on the same leg. But Harrington is only two seasons removed from a stellar season with the Denver Nuggets that saw him challenge for Sixth Man of the Year with averages of 14 points and six rebounds a game as a super sub. Apparently healthy and highly motivated, as noted by Harrington, Washington appears to be getting another veteran to help in their rebuilding process. But will it be enough to make them a playoff favorite? Perry Green and Stephen D. Riley of the AFRO Sports Desk debate this question. Green: The addition of Harrington instantly makes him the best player on the team behind Wall and Nene. The time for Washington to snap their playoff drought is now. There should be no excuses for the team to not venture into the six- through eight-seed range in what should be a wide-open race in the NBA Eastern Conference for those last few spots. Barring injury, this is a postseason caliber club that had better make some noise this season with several jobs and careers on the line. Perhaps one more pickup-- George Karl at head coach-and this team would be set for postseason contention.

AP photo

Al Harrington By Perry Green and Stephen D. Riley AFRO Sports Desk The Washington Wizards haven’t made the flashiest of moves this offseason but they continue to make solid ones. The signing of stretch forward Al Harrington earlier in the week gives Washington the spacing big man that point guard John Wall requested earlier this summer. Harrington, 33, barely played last season for the Orlando Magic as he recovered from a knee injury and staph infection that resulted from a surgical

Riley: Harrington doesn’t make this team any more playoff caliber than it was already with Wall, Nene and Bradley Beal at the forefront. Harrington is a nice addition but how much can you really expect from a 33-year-old coming off major surgery and a staph infection? I still think Trevor Ariza’s contract is excellent trade bait to lure in a major piece in this retooling phase. If Ariza’s contract can net that impact frontcourt player then how much of Harrington will we really see? Green: I don’t trust the brain trust in D.C. to even pull off such a maneuver as turning Ariza into a glorified player. The Wizards should just stay in their lane and be happy with the acquisition of Harrington. Obviously he’s not the player he used to be at this stage in his career but he’s easily the best

Losing Streak Pushed Orioles Farther From Wild Card Berth By Perry Green AFRO Sports Editor The Baltimore Orioles were in desperate need of a win after entering this week 1.5 games behind in the race for a wild card seed. Instead, they went on to lose four of five games and ultimately fell behind three games in the wild card hunt. (Aug. 12-14) Arizona Diamondbacks Sweep Three-Game Series. The first of their untimely losses came in a three-loss sweep by the Arizona Diamondbacks from Aug. 12-14. Home run leader Chris Davis nailed his 43rd homer of the season in Game One of the series, and then hit his 44th home run in Game Two. But the pitching down the stretch was atrocious for the O’s as Tommy Hunter blew a chance for a save in the first game, leading to a 7-6 loss, and Jim Johnson blew his eighth save opportunity of the year in a 4-3 loss in the second game. Not even Chris Tillman, the O’s best pitcher this season, could get a win as he gave up two earned runs before Johnson blew his ninth save opportunity of the season in a 5-4 loss in Game Three. (Aug. 16-17) Victory over Rockies Ends Losing Funk The poor pitching continued into Baltimore’s next series against the Colorado Rockies as Wei-Yin Chen gave up four earned runs in a 6-3 loss in Game One of the series. The O’s also struggled on offense as they recorded just five hits in the game. Fortunately for Baltimore they were able to end their four-game losing skid in Game Two against the Rockies, thanks to a huge third inning. The O’s scored a season-high seven runs in that inning, which helped them secure the 8-4 victory. Analysis: The Orioles had a minor issue with their offense during their ill-timed losing slump this week. But the main problem is the same one they suffered for most this season – inconsistency from their pitchers. Baltimore simply hasn’t been able to start games with strong pitching, putting too much pressure on their bullpen. They tried to address the issue by adding Bud Norris and Scott Feldman to the rotation. But both pitchers have been no more than average at best. And now their best pitcher in the bullpen and designated closer, Jim Johnson, has been struggling. He still has a league leading 39 saves this season, but he also blew 9 save chances, including two this past week. If Baltimore doesn’t get it together soon, they risk the chance of falling even further behind in the wild card race, which will mean no playoff baseball for Charm City. O’s Player of the Week: Manny Machado During a week when offense was hard to come by for the Orioles, Machado was the most consistent batter on the team. He recorded eight hits, along with four RBI and a homerun this week.

frontcourt option off the bench for Washington and I’m not sure how much that says about him or how little it says about the Wizards bench. Even on a loaded championship style team I think Harrington would get a lot of burn so questioning whether or not he would be an impact on a team that just selected third in the NBA draft is silly. Riley: Well, I think it’s silly to imply that adding Harrington leaves no room for error with the Wizards not making the postseason. Everything in D.C. centers around the health of Wall, Nene and the overall team pretty much. They’re already set to roll out what should be one of the most potent perimeter attacks in Wall, Beal, Ariza, Martell Webster and Otto Porter. All Nene had to do was give them 70-plus games of health and solid production and they were walking into the postseason when next April rolls around. Harrington gives them better depth and quality then they had behind the starting bigs; but if either Wall, Beal or Nene goes down, it wouldn’t matter who was coming off the bench for the team if their core players can’t play. Green: Obviously we’re all banking on a healthy Wizards team but you can try to spin this if you want to but I trust Washington’s roster a lot more now with Harrington than I did without him. Harrington is going to allow guys like Jan Vesley, Chris Singleton and Trevor Booker to not play, which automatically gives them addition by subtraction. Honestly, Vesely and Singleton shouldn’t even be in the Association while Booker would be better suited as the fourth or fifth big off the bench rather than the first. Replacing those three with Harrington and Washington has effectively trimmed the dead weight off the roster and injected scoring, energy and competent play into an otherwise limp frontcourt rotation. If this Wizards team doesn’t make the playoffs, there would be only one person to blame and that’s their losing coach, Randy Wittman.

You are invited to a free AFRO Town Hall event HEALTH COVERAGE IS NOW WITHIN REACH Pastor Jamal Bryant and the Empowerment Temple welcome Maryland Health Connection for an informative talk on the new health coverage options available to Maryland residents starting October 1. Even if you’ve never been able to afford health insurance in the past, you may be eligible for financial help to lower the cost of insurance – or you may now be eligible for Medicaid.

Tuesday, August 27 5:30 pm Refreshments and Information 6:00-7:15 pm Program

Empowerment Temple 4217 Primrose Avenue Baltimore, MD 21215

• Your History • Your Community • Your News

HealthCare Access Maryland is authorized to enroll individuals in Baltimore City, Baltimore County and Anne Arundel County through Maryland Health Connection.


Payment Policy for legal notice advertisements. Effective immediately, The Afro American Newspapers will require prepayment for publication of all legal notices. Payment will be accepted in the form of checks, credit card or money order. Any returned checks will be subject to a $25.00 processing fee and may result in the suspension of any future advertising at our discretion. TYPESET: Wed Jun 05 10:35:57 EDT 2013


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TYPESET: Wed May 01 11:55:50 EDT 2013


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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

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TYPESET: Wed Aug 14 12:09:49 EDT 2013


ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY, MARYLAND Annapolis, Maryland ANNOUNCEMENT REQUEST FOR BIDS Notice to Contractors for the Cape St. Claire Rd Widening and Transmission Main; is available online at the Purchasing Office website and www. On or after August 12, 2013, Plans and Specifications may be obtained from the Anne Arundel County Web Page at the following address: http://www. cfm Bids will be received until time/date shown below, at the Purchasing Office, Heritage Office Complex, 2660 Riva Road, 3rd Floor, Annapolis, MD 21401. Bids received after the date and time set will be rejected. Due by 1:30 p.m. Project No.: H461001/W783001Contact: Kathy Sharp 410 224-1273 Local Time, Tuesday, September 17, 2013 William L. Schull, C.P.M., CPPBPurchasing TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:46:18 EDT 2013 Agent CITY OF BALTIMORE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS BUREAU OF WATER AND WASTEWATER NOTICE OF LETTING Sealed Bids or Proposals, in duplicate addressed to the Board of Estimates of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore and marked for Sanitary Contract 911-Improvements to Sanitary Sewers in the Herring Run Sewershed will be received at the Office of the Comptroller, Room 204, City Hall, Baltimore, Maryland until 11:00 A.M. on Wednesday, September 25, 2013. Positively no bids will be received after 11:00 A.M. Bids will be publicly opened by the Board of Estimates in Room 215, City Hall at Noon. The Contract Documents may be examined, without charge, at the Department of Public Works Service Center located on the first floor of the Abel Wolman Municipal Building, 200 N. Holliday Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 as of Friday, August 16, 2013 and copies may be purchased for a non-refundable cost of $100.00.Conditions and requirements of the Bid are found in the bid package. All contractors bidding on this Contract must first be prequalified by the City of Baltimore Contractors Qualification Committee. Interested parties should call 410-396-6883 or contact the Committee at 3000 Druid Park Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21215. If a bid is submitted by a joint venture (”JV”), then in that event, the document that established the JV shall be submitted with the bid for verification purposes. The Prequalification Category required for bidding on this project is B02552-Sewer Construction or G90099Cured-In-Place Pipe Lining Cost Qualification Range for this work shall be $5,000,000.01 to $10,000,000.00 A ”PreBidding Information” session will be conducted at 300 Abel Wolman Municipal Building, Large Conference Room, on August 26, 2013 at 10:00 A.M. The CCTV videos of the sewers included in this project will be made available for viewing/copying to interested parties at the office of Whitman, Requardt and Associates, LLP, (410) 235-3450, Luther Bathurst or Ken Sprau. Refer to IB-9 for additional details. Principal Items of work for this project are: *Sewer Cleaning and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) inspection *Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) Lining of Sanitary Sewers *Excavate and Replace Segments of Sanitary Sewer via Point Repairs *Manhole Repair and Rehabilitation Work *Sewer House Connection (SHC) Repair and Rehabilitation Work *New Manhole and Cleanout Installation Work The MBE goal is 9% The WBE goal is 3% SANITARY CONTRACT 911 APPROVED: Bernice H. Taylor Clerk, Board of Estimates APPROVED: Alfred H. Foxx Director of Public Works


NAME: ________________________________________________ ADDRESS: _____________________________________________ PHONE NO.:____________________________________________ CLASSIFICATION: ______________________________________ (Room, Apt., House, etc.) INSERTION DATE:_________________

BALTIMORE AFRO-AMERICAN NEWSPAPER Legal Advertising Rates Effective October 1, 2008 PROBATE DIVISION (Estates) 202-332-0080 PROBATE NOTICES a. Order Nisi $ 60 per insertion b. Small Estates (single publication $ 60 per insertion c. Notice to Creditors 1. Domestic $ 60 per insertion 2. Foreign $ 60 per insertion d. Escheated Estates $ 60 per insertion e. Standard Probates

CIVIL NOTICES a. Name Changes 202-879-1133 b. Real Property

$180.00 per 3 weeks $180.00 per 3 weeks $180.00 per 3 weeks $360.00 per 6 weeks $125.00

$ 80.00 $ 200.00

FAMILY COURT 202-879-1212 DOMESTIC RELATIONS 202-879-0157 a. Absent Defendant b. Absolute Divorce c. Custody Divorce

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To place your ad, call 1-800-237-6692, ext. 262, Public Notices $50.00 & up depending on size, Baltimore Legal Notices are $24.84 per inch. 1-800 (AFRO) 892 For Proof of Publication, please call 1-800-237-8892, ext. 244 TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:49:24 EDTLEGAL 2013 CITY OF BALTIMORE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS BUREAU OF WATER AND WASTEWATER NOTICE OF LETTING Sealed Bids or Proposals, in duplicate addressed to the Board of Estimates of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore and marked for Sanitary Contract 922-Large Diameter Sewer Cleaning in the Low Level Sewershed will be received at the Office of the Comptroller, Room 204, City Hall, Baltimore, Maryland until 11:00 A.M. on Wednesday, September 18, 2013. Positively no bids will be received after 11:00 A.M. Bids will be publicly opened by the Board of Estimates in Room 215, City Hall at Noon. The Contract Documents may be examined, without charge, at the Department of Public Works Service Center located on the first floor of the Abel Wolman Municipal Building, 200 N. Holliday Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 as of Friday, August 16, 2013 and copies may be purchased for a non-refundable cost of $50.00. Conditions and requirements of the Bid are found in the bid package. All contractors bidding on this Contract must first be prequalified by the City of Baltimore Contractors Qualification Committee. Interested parties should call 410-396-6883 or contact the Committee at 3000 Druid Park Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21215. If a bid is submitted by a joint venture (”JV”), then in that event, the document that established the JV shall be submitted with the bid for verification purposes. The Prequalification Category required for bidding on this project is G90129 Large Diameter Pipe Cleaning Cost Qualification Range for this work shall be $2,500.001.00 to $5,000,000.000 PreBidding Information? session will be conducted at 300 Abel Wolman Municipal Building, Large Conference Room, 200 Holliday Street, Baltimore, MD 21202 on August 28, 2013 at 10:00 A.M. The meeting will be followed by a site visit (optional) to the Eastern Avenue Pumping Station at 751 Eastern Avenue Principal Items of work for this project are: Heavy Cleaning and inspection of large diameter sewers of the Low Level Interceptor Sewer and Eastern Avenue Pump Station grit chamber, including manholes and structures. The MBE goal is 5% The WBE goal is 2% SANITARY CONTRACT 922 APPROVED: Bernice H. Taylor Clerk, Board of Estimates APPROVED: Alfred H. Foxx Director of Public Works

TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:50:11 EDT 2013 NOTICES CITY OF BALTIMORE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NOTICE OF LETTING Sealed Bids or Proposals, in duplicate addressed to the Board of Estimates of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore and marked for BALTIMORE CITY NO. TR14001; RECONSTRUCTION OF FOOTWAYS CITYWIDE will be received at the Office of the Comptroller, Room 204 City Hall, Baltimore, Maryland until 11:00 A.M SEPTEMBER 18, 2013. Positively no bids will be received after 11:00 A.M. Bids will be publicly opened by the Board of Estimates in Room 215, City Hall at Noon. The Contract Documents may be examined, without charge, at the Department of Public Works Service Center located on the first floor of the Abel Wolman Municipal Building, 200 N. Holliday Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 as of AUGUST 23, 2013 and copies may be purchased for a non-refundable cost of $75.00. Conditions and requirements of the Bid are found in the bid package. All contractors bidding on this Contract must first be prerequalified by the City of Baltimore Contractors Qualification Committee. Interested parties should call (410) 396-6883 or contact the Committee at 751 Eastern Ave., Baltimore, Maryland 21202. If a bid is submitted by a joint venture (”JV”), then in that event, the document that established the JV shall be submitted with the bid for verification purposes. The Prequalification Category required for bidding on this project is (A02601 Portland Cement Concrete). Cost Qualification Range for this work shall be $500,000.00 to $1,000,000.00 A ”Pre-Bidding Information” session will be conducted at 10:00 A.M. on August 30, 2013 at 417 E. Fayette Street, Room 7th Floor, Baltimore, Maryland 21202. Principal Items of work for this project are: 5” Concrete Sidewalk - 66,500 SF; 5” Concrete Sidewalk Damaged by Tree Roots - 47,000 SF; Emery. Repairs for 5” Conc. Sidewalk By Trees Roots - 6,800 SF. The MBE goal is 27% and WBE goal 10%. APPROVED: Bernice H. Taylor, Clerk Board of Estimates


CITY OF BALTIMORE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS BUREAU OF WATER AND WASTEWATER NOTICE OF LETTING Sealed Bids or Proposals, in duplicate addressed to the Board of Estimates of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore and marked for Solid Waste Contract 13310-Cell 6 Leachate Conveyance System Improvements at the Quarantine Road Landfill will be received at the Office of the Comptroller, Room 204, City Hall, Baltimore, Maryland until 11:00 A.M. on Wednesday, September 11, 2013. Positively no bids will be received after 11:00 A.M. Bids will be publicly opened by the Board of Estimates in Room 215, City Hall at Noon. The Contract Documents may be examined, without charge, at the Department of Public Works Service Center located on the first floor of the Abel Wolman Municipal Building, 200 N. Holliday Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 as of Friday, August 16, 2013 and copies may be purchased for a non-refundable cost of $100.00.Conditions and requirements of the Bid are found in the bid package. All contractors bidding on this Contract must first be prequalified by the City of Baltimore Contractors Qualification Committee. Interested parties should call 410-396-6883 or contact the Committee at 3000 Druid Park Drive, Baltimore, Maryland 21215. If a bid is submitted by a joint venture (”JV”), then in that event, the document that established the JV shall be submitted with the bid for verification purposes. The Prequalification Category required for bidding on this project is B02552 Sewer Construction Cost Qualification Range for this work shall be $1,000,000.00 to $2,000,000.00 A ”Pre-Bidding Information” session will be conducted at Quarantine Road Landfill on August 26, 2013 at 10:00 A.M. Principal Items of work for this project are: 3,500 L.F. of dual 6-inch HDPE Leachate Force Main, with Vaults and Appurtenances 4,200 L.F. of 6-inch HDPE Water Line, with Backflow Preventer Vault and Fire Hydrants 2120 L.F. of dual 5-inch HDPE Electrical Conduit, Complete in Place One (1) Truck Wheel Wash and One (1) Chemical Storage Building 2,780 sq. yds. of Full Depth Asphalt Paving The MBE goal is 11% The WBE goal is 3% SOLID WASTE CONTRACT 13310 APPROVED: Bernice H. Taylor Board of Estimates Clerk, Board of Estimates APPROVED: Alfred H. Foxx Director of Public Works TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:51:09 EDT 2013 BALTIMORE CITY COUNCIL PUBLIC HEARING ON BILL NO. 13-018 The Urban Affairs and Aging Committee of the Baltimore City Council will meet on Thursday, September 12, 2013 at 4:05 p.m., in the City Council Chambers, 4th floor, City Hall, 100 N. Holliday Street, to conduct a public hearing on City Council Bill No. 13-0187. CC 13-018 ORDINANCE - Baltimore City Landmark List - C.J. Youse Building - FOR the purpose of designating the C.J. Youse Building, 235 North Holliday Street, as a historical landmark. BY adding Article 6 - Historical and Architectural Preservation Section(s) 13-18 Baltimore City Code (Edition 2000)NOTE: This bill is subject to amendment by the Baltimore City Council. Sharon Green Middleton TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:51:55 EDT 2013 Chair BALTIMORE CITY COUNCIL PUBLIC HEARING ON BILL NO. 13-0188 The Urban Affairs and Aging Committee of the Baltimore City Council will meet on Thursday, September 12, 2013 at 4:05 p.m., in the City Council Chambers, 4th floor, City Hall, 100 N. Holliday Street, to conduct a public hearing on City Council Bill No. 13-0188. CC 13-0188ORDINANCE - Baltimore City Landmark List - Brinks Building - FOR the purpose of designating the Brinks Building, 231 North Holliday Street, as a historical landmark. BY adding Article 6 - Historical and Architectural Preservation Section(s) 13-18 Baltimore City Code (Edition 2000)NOTE:This bill is subject to amendment by the Baltimore City Council. Sharon Green Middleton TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:53:04 EDT 2013 Chair City of Baltimore Department of Finance Bureau of Purchases Sealed proposals addressed to the Board of Estimates of Baltimore, will be received until, but not later than 11:00 a.m. local time on the following date(s) for the stated requirements: SEPTEMBER 18, 2013 *CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT RENTAL SERVICES B50003116 THE ENTIRE SOLICITATION DOCUMENT CAN BE VIEWED AND DOWN LOADED BY VISITING THE CITYS WEB SITE:

To advertise in the AFRO Call 410-5548200

TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 16:43:24 EDT 2013



Notice of DRAFT Performance Report Update and Comment Period on the State of Maryland’s Consolidated Plan Notice is hereby given that the State of Maryland has opened a 30 day public comment period on the Consolidated Plan Annual Performance and Evaluation Report (CAPER). The Consolidated Plan is a planning document required by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and is prepared by the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD). It covers a five year period (July 1, 2010-June 30, 2015) and is designed to coordinate Federal, and to a lesser extent State, resources to provide decent housing, economic opportunities, and an acceptable living environment for Maryland’s citizens. The Plan is updated every year during the five year period through an Annual Action Plan, and includes a series of one year goals toward meeting the overall five year goals of the Plan. Maryland’s Consolidated Plan covers the state’s non-entitlement jurisdictions. Entitlement jurisdictions - those that receive funding directly from HUD, including Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Harford, Howard, Montgomery and Prince George’s Counties, and the Cities of Annapolis, Baltimore, Bowie, Cumberland, Frederick, Gaithersburg, Hagerstown, and Salisbury - prepare their own Consolidated Plans and are not covered by the State plan. As part of the Consolidated Planning process, the State submits a CAPER to HUD which describes the progress the State has made in carrying out the one-year goals contained in the five year Plan. DHCD has just completed the third year of the five year Plan that ended June 30, 2013, and the draft CAPER details the progress DHCD has made toward it housing and community development goals both in the last year and for the full five years of the Plan. DHCD has generally been successful in meeting the goals of its Five Year Plan. We are exceeding our rental subsidy goals, and have greatly exceeded our special loan goals, primarily due to the large number of Weatherization units we continue to close. We are very close to our multi-family production goals. In addition, we continue to meet our goals in revitalizing communities. We have not met our homeownership goals to date as a result of difficulties in the homeownership market, but note that we financed more than twice the number of homeownership units we did two years ago. DHCD is interested in public input and comment on the draft CAPER. We will take written comments (via either email or standard post) on the report through COB Tuesday, September 17, 2013 at the address listed below. In addition, we will hold a series of public meetings on the CAPER at the following dates, times, and places: Wednesday, September 4, 2013 at 1:30 p.m. Caroline County Central Library 100 Market Street Small Meeting Room Denton, Maryland Wednesday, September 4, 2013 at 7:00 p.m. Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development First Floor Meeting Room100 Community Place Crownsville, Maryland Thursday, September 5, 2013 at 10:30 a.m. Fairview Branch Library Small Meeting Room Rt. 4 and Chaneyville Road Owings, Maryland Friday, September 6, 2013 at 1:30 p.m. Allegany County Office Complex Room 212701 Kelly Road Cumberland, Maryland All of the hearing rooms are accessible to persons with disabilities. Persons requiring a translator should request one at least three days prior to the hearing they plan to attend. The draft Performance Report may be found on DHCD’s website at www.dhcd. under the title ”About DHCD” in the Publications link on the left side of our Home Page. Hard copies of these documents may also be found at the following regional lending libraries: the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, the Washington County Free Library in Hagerstown, the Lewis J. Ort Library in Frostburg, the Frederick Douglas Library in Princess Anne, the Blackwell Library in Salisbury and the Southern Maryland Regional Library in Charlotte Hall. A large print version of the document is also available at the Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in Baltimore. Last but not least, you may also obtain a copy of this document by calling, writing, or e-mailing John M. Greiner at the address and phone numbers listed below. Written comments should be directed to Mr. Greiner at this address and email as well: Mr. John M. Greiner Housing Policy Officer Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development 100 Community Place Crownsville, Maryland 21032-2023 (410) 514-7191 Maryland Relay for the Deaf at 1 (800) 735-2258 TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 16:41:40 EDT 2013 DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT AIR AND RADIATION MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION NOTICE OF APPLICATION AND OPPORTUNITY TO REQUEST AN INFORMATIONAL MEETING The Maryland Department of the Environment, Air and Radiation Management Administration (ARMA) received a permit-to-construct application from P&J Contracting Company, Inc. on June 6, 2013 for the installation of one (1) 100 ton per hour crusher equipped with a 350 horsepower diesel engine, one (1) 500 ton per hour screen equipped with a 111 horsepower diesel engine. The proposed installation will be located at 4300 Shannon Drive in Baltimore, Maryland 21213.

CAREER CORNER EXPERIENCE is PRICELESS! The AFRO AMERICAN Newspaper is seeking a college student with an interest in journalism, graphic design or marketing to serve in a non-paid intern position in the AFRO’s Baltimore, MD. office at 2519 N. Charles Street. Flexible weekday hours to accommodate class schedule. • Enhance your resume with an internship at the longest running African-American family-owned newspaper in the nation. • Learn first hand, on-the-job training & transferable career skills Call 410-554-8200 x1243 or e-mail to learn more about an experience that can make the difference in your future job search. Like education, EXPERIENCE is PRICELESS! AFRO READERS, please pass along this unique opportunity to college students in your network.

TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 15:29:56 EDT 2013

Anne Arundel County Career Opportunities Claims Adjuster Correctional Program Specialist II Deputy Director, Bureau of Engineering (Deputy Director, Public Works) Deputy Sheriff I, Entry Level Detention Officer Director of Inspections and Permits Environmental Control Inspector Equipment Operator II Technical Services Manager (Chief, Data Resources) Visit our website at for additional information and to apply on-line. You may use the Internet at any Anne Arundel County library, or visit our office at 2660 Riva Road in Annapolis. AEO/DF/SFE TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 16:42:14 EDT 2013

MTA Capital Program Analyst Salary $44,600-$71,399 Grade: 17 Location: Baltimore, MD Open Until Filled This position is responsible for monitoring and reporting on the schedules and budgets of MTA’s capital projects, including major vehicle and equipment purchases as well as facility and infrastructure improvements. Requires possession of a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration, Finance, or related field, plus at least five (5) years of experience in program administration, capital programming, budgeting or related field, preferable y in the area of transportation. To read this job announcement in its entirety and to apply, please visit: The MTA is An Equal Opportunity Employer

Copies of the application and other supporting documents are available for public inspection. Ask for Docket #15-13 at the following locations during normal business hours. Marylamd Department Department of the Environment Air and Radiation Management Administration 1800 Washington Boulevard Baltimore, Maryland 21230 Enoch Pratt Free Library Herring Run Branch 3801 Erdman Avenue Baltimore, Maryland 21213 (410) 396-0996 Pursuant to the Environment Article, Section 1-603, Annotated Code of Maryland, the Department will hold an informational meeting to discuss the application and the permit review process if the Department receives a written request for a meeting within 10 working days from the date of the second publication of this notice. All requests for an informational meeting should be directed to the attention of Ms. Shannon Heafey, Air Quality Permits Program, Air and Radiation Management Administration, 1800 Washington Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21230. Further information may be obtained by calling Ms. Shannon Heafey at (410) 537-4433. George S. Aburn, Jr., Director Air and Radiation Management Administration





TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:47:04 EDT 2013

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American

TYPESET: Wed Aug 21 14:55:46 EDT 2013 Anne Arundel County Career Opportunities Claims Adjuster Correctional Program Specialist II Deputy Director, Bureau of Engineering (Deputy Director, Public Works) Deputy Sheriff I, Entry Level Detention Officer Director of Inspections and Permits Environmental Control Inspector Equipment Operator II Technical Services Manager (Chief, Data Resources)


The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 24, 2013

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

Introduction 1900 - 1919


he early 20th century saw Blacks attempting to carve a victory out of the terrible injustices that had been visited upon them in the wake of the destruction of Reconstruction. Slavery had ended in 1863 and two years later, in 1865, the Civil War had concluded. Reconstruction was ushered in, mostly at the hands of liberal, Northern Whites who wanted to give African Americans a jump start on the citizenship that had eluded the enslaved among them. Educational opportunities opened up for a people who had once seen enslaved Blacks punished for knowing how to read and write. An unprecedented number of Blacks were voted into office on the local, state and national level. Blacks began to acquire property and open businesses. Then trouble came. In the South, Whites who had seen their way of life decline with the prohibition of free Black labor grew resentful that the same dark-skinned people whom they once had held in bondage now enjoyed some of the privileges of citizenship. Many White former enslavers banded together to pressure their state legislatures to limit Black access to progress. White cowards banded together under cover of pointed hoods to commit violence against Blacks orchestrated to intimidate them into succumbing to oppression. With Frederick Douglass urging Blacks to “agitate,” African Americans began organizing against the hate that held them down. Churches began to take a role in helping Blacks to navigate around the rules and regulations that threatened to re-enslave them. Enter John H. Murphy, Sr., an AME Sunday school superintendent from Baltimore who had been born enslaved in 1840. In 1892, he merged his church bulletin with two other publications to create what would become the AFRO-American Newspaper. Within 20 years, the AFRO had a circulation of 10,000 and Murphy had made a name for himself as a crusader who used his newspaper as a bully pulpit to fight for justice and enfranchisement for Blacks. The AFRO covered local and national news about the battle to overcome oppression. AFRO reporters wrote about the heroes who were on the front lines of the battle, from W.E.B. DuBois to Booker T. Washington. They covered the inception of organizations such as the NAACP. The newspaper

carried headlines about meetings prominent Blacks had with presidents and other elected leaders. When the message they received wasn’t satisfactory to Blacks, the AFRO wrote stories about promises going unfulfilled. When Blacks were victimized by crime and injustice, the AFRO was there. Stories were artfully told by a cadre of talented reporters and writers and some colorful characters who, while they may have lacked the journalism credentials of their colleagues, were well versed enough in life to bring some amazing stories to AFRO audiences. One such contributor wrote a column called “Midnight’s Musings.” Midnight, as the writer was known, traveled much of the country opining about everything from social gatherings to social injustice. For the July 11, 1903 edition, his column was datelined Louisville, Ky., where he attended a social event with prominent Black citizens of the city. “I am not ashamed of the fact that I belong to your race and you to mine, and while I have thought that I would like to turn white and rank among the white, now that thought has changed, and I am inclined to get even closer to my people…” he wrote. “I am proud that the Lord made me a black man and I have no desire to change, and I have made up in my mind not to change.” Front Page

Images 1. a. National Negro Business League Conference Program, 1908, Courtesy of Afro American Archives b. Inside Pages detailing its prominent members 2. Founders of Niagara Movement, 1905, Courtesy of Library of Congress Prints and Photograph Division 3. Lynching Will Brown, Omaha, Nebraska, 1919 4. Letter from Booker T. Washington to Afro Founder John H. Murphy, Sr., 1911 Clippings 1) 54 Victims of Washington Riots: Solders Try to Terrorize Colored Folk, July 25, 1919, AfroAmerican National Edition 2) Twas A Glorious Victory: Maryland Registers It Protest Against Disenfranchisement of Negroes, November 11, 1905, National Edition (need to crop out ProQuest top) 3) September 5, 1919, Afro American National Edition Front Page 4) President Roosevelt Stirs Up the Southern Bourbons, October 26, 1901, Afro American Newspaper Naational Edition ... 5) 5,000 March D inelSilent August 4, 1917, Afro American Newspaper National Edition iversParade,


: Dr. Joel Spin


All photos AFRO Archive, unless otherwise noted AS N 13; 893-1988) NATION H o-American (1 1988); Apr 5, 19 e Baltimore Afr merican (1893ers: Th Afro-A rical Newspap ProQuest Histo pg. 1


Afro-AmericanNORFOLK AFTER T ProQuest Histo (1893-1988); Sep 27, 1918; HE RIOT: Trouble St arts When S rical Newspape pg. 1 rs: The Baltim ore Afro-Amer ican (1893-1988 )

JIMCROW TABLES AT SOUTHERN COLLEGES: White Teachers Eat At One Table ... Afro-American (1893-1988); Feb 8, 1913; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Baltimore Afro-American (1893-1988) pg. 1

CHICAGO IN GRIP OF TERRIBLE MOB: MANY KILLED, THOUSANDS INJURED; MANY ... Telegraph Afro-American (1893-1988); Aug 1, 1919; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Baltimore Afro-American (1893-1988) pg. 1

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Increase of Black Vote creates White Panic October 26, 1901 President Roosevelt Stirs Up the Southern Bourbons Invited Leading Educator to Dine at the White House President Roosevelt last week invited Mr. Booker T. Washington, principal of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala. to dine with him at the White House. The result of which has been to stir this country from one end to the other. Many opinions favorable and otherwise have been expressed, but those favorable seem to be largely in the majority. Many of the leading men and newspapers think that President Roosevelt has only done what he had a perfect right to do both as President and gentleman, and in his private and public position. Below will be found many of the comments which are taken mainly from the columns of the Philadelphia North American. Among those who are wide between the eyes and liberal of view, there is but one opinion of President Roosevelt’s inviting Booker T. Washington to dinner. The President desired conversation with one of the most prominent educators of the age; he wished information relative to certain people and sections which Mr. Washington possessed, and exercised his American privilege of asking the gentleman to dinner. There, it is presumed they discussed the matters of material interest. There is but one opinion as noted – that is, that President Roosevelt did well in extending

hospitality to Washington, and that the latter did well in accepting it. Comment on the impertinent critics, who objected is favorable. They are generally considered as bigots, and really the adverse comment half excited more consideration. Southern Members Silent Few of the Southern members of Congress in the city will discuss President Roosevelt’s dinner to Booker T. Washington. The reason for this is plain. Every senator or representative now in Washington has an ax to grind, and it is the President who says who shall use the grindstone. Senator Morgan’s Opinion Senator Morgan, of Alabama, who hails from Mr. Washington’s State, did consent to say this: “It is foolish to argue that President Roosevelt’s invitation to Washington to dine with himself and wife will have any effect on the political situation in the South and I do not care to discuss such a stupid question.” Senator McLaurin of South Carolina, who has been in frequent conferences with Mr. Roosevelt recently concerning the building up of a Republican party in the South and

October 26, 1901 Congratulations for Booker T. Washington

Frostburg, Md., October 22 – All honor to Dr. Lyon and his noble band of assistants, It is indeed a matter of congratulations to know that the scheme advocated some time since by the Afro American is so soon to be put into operation and we are to have an industrial school in Maryland. This ought to inspire every Negro in the State to com forward and give the case a lift. There should be no hesitancy, all should back Dr. Lyon in his noble effort and we believe that just as soon as the matter is properly presented to the people they will make a generous response. Despite the arguments of some of our leaders that such a system of education is unsound, we observe that Booker T. Washington and Tuskegee are moving right along and the work seems to be prospering. President Roosevelt is giving evidence of the fact that he intends to boss his own household and reserves the right to invite whom he pleases to dine with him. In thus honoring Washington he honored the whole race and himself as well. Now, as a further evidence of his friendliness to us we hope he will bring the murderers of Postmaster Baker to justice inasmuch as the government’s secret service officers know where to find them.

Lunch at the White House

Booker T. Washington

July 29, 1905 Birth of the NAACP The Niagara Movement At a very recent meeting held in Buffalo, N.Y., a number of eminent colored men from various parts of the country a new organization was effected, the Niagara Movement. The evident purpose of this Movement is to enlist in hearty and united cooperation the thinking and active men of the race, so that there may be a persistent, well directed and effective campaign continually waged against whatever forces interpose and hinder the realization of perfect equality and enjoyment of all our rights as citizens of this republic. The right to vote, the right to be treated as all others are treated in all public places, and in short, every right

W.E.B. DuBois

that pertains to man represent some of the tangible results arrived at by this Movement. As we understand it, it will be a movement akin to the Anti-Slavery Society, and boldness and vigor utterance will characterize the writers and speakers in this cause. Naturally enough Dr. DuBois is the head and center of this movement. He is a man eminently qualified for the work. With all the instincts of a true gentleman, the learning and erudition of a scholar and the courage of his every conviction, and resident in the very heart of the South, it would have been almost utterly impossible to have made a better selection. We are with the movement heart and soul. The need for such a movement with wise and able leadership has unquestionably been felt for many years. The movement is now a fact, and all intelligent race loving and truth loving men will not only welcome it most heartily but generously cooperate in furthering the ends sought. In a few words the effort may be characterized as one of “Persistent Manly Agitation.” The very name of Dr. DuBois at the head ought to be a guarantee that this new movement shall in no wise be used as a means of undervaluing the splendid work of Dr. Washington, or as a vehicle for abusing or belittling this great racial leader, as would, doubtless, greatly rejoice the hearts of some of our little big men. Therefore, in the interest of the largest amount of good for the race and the entire country, we dare express the earnest wish, that the motto “Principles, not men” may never be

Representative Davey of Louisiana were among those who refused to discuss the matter. As to the Sentiment The Northern sentiment is all distinctly in support of the President’s action. Mr. Roosevelt, it is argued, lost none of his rights of citizenship when he took national office. His franchise to invite whom he pleases to dinner is unimpaired. Neither do men of breadth regard the situation as of special political significance beyond indicating a healthy national progress. The president is chief, not of a section, a race or a class, but of the whole nation. That is what is heard in reply to the invective of certain hectic proponents of Negro inferiority. Fit to Sit at Any Table Chicago, October 20 – “Booker Washington is fit to sit at any table in the land,” said Bishop Henry C. Potter, of New York, today, referring to the fact that the colored educator had dined with the President. “Inasmuch as I entertained Mr. Washington at my table last winter and know that no more courteous or exact man exists, I naturally feel that there is no reason in the outcry. I sympathize fully forgotten by those who enter into the work of this movement. Some men have honestly thought that Dr. Washington has made a great mistake in not, all along, taking a radical stand on the suffrage question. Now, it is perfectly legitimate for any one to take such a position and set to work, in a straight forward way, to maintain his contention. But the moment he leaves off arguing the question, and begins to impugn the motives of Dr. Washington, that moment he weakens the cause. We have contended all along that Dr. Washington was right in choosing the sphere of his activities, yea, in placing limitations upon himself that he might do the most good. And at the same time we have as resolutely contended that some other leader ought to step to the front and emphasize that particular phase of the race’s needs not sufficiently cared for by D.r Washington. At last it has been done. The cause is in good hands. Let us all hope and pray that Dr. Washington and Dr. DuBois may heartily cooperate as far as

with the President in a situation that would be trying to the greatest man and feel perfectly confident ath he will signally distinguish himself.” Senator Mason is Shocked at Censure Chicago, October 20 – “Roosevelt is being abused today because he gave a dinner to a black man,” said U.S. Senator William E. Mason. “He is being slandered in some parts of the country in a way that makes me shudder. Booker T. Washington I consider the greatest educator of the century. “They say that opportunity never knocks at your doors more than once. With Booker T. Washington it never knocked, but he got up in the night from his environment of slavery, and surmounting all great obstacles, has given his life to the education of the Negro and has taught him to keep away from everything but industry and honesty. “Booker T. Washington, considering his early life is a greater man than Harvard College ever graduated. When President Roosevelt gave him a dinner spread on the table on which Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation I felt like saying and did say, ‘God bless President Roosevelt.” possible and that were there is a divergence, all of us may be charitable enough to set it down as an honest effort, on both sides, to reach the same end, by different methods. These little big fellows who are continually jumping up discrediting and impugning the motives of our leaders, because of any divergence in politics must be severely set down upon. Dr. Washington stands for every principle enunciated by the Niagara Movement, only he wisely leaves the leadership along certain lines to those better qualified than himself, while, with heart and soul he continues his emphasis of those particular phases which appeal to him as being of more practical and immediate importance. The sooner we reach the same conclusion, that “We are not divided All one body we One in hope, and doctrine One in Charity” the better for all concerned.

September 9, 1906 Atlanta Riots Encouraging Outlook

Out of turmoil and disaster of the late riots in the city of Atlanta comes the encouraging news that better element of two races have come together and are conferring with each other as to what is best to be done under all circumstances looking to the best interests of both races. Among the many suggestions come one that will give utmost satisfaction to everyone interested in good government and the welfare of the whole. It is seriously suggested the abolition of all saloons, both black and white, and the probable results will be that an election will be held with the avowed purpose of abolishing all saloons in the city. This will be a good step, and if carried out there is no doubt that another riot will hardly take place in Atlanta. No one place on earth

is more prolific of vice than the saloon, and with its abolition there will come a different condition of affairs which will redound to the benefit of both races. It is also stated that the leading citizen of both races have been in conference, and suggestions have been freely offered by both. If it can be brought about that the best citizens of both races can be brought in contact with each other better, there is no doubt but great good will come to both. The whites and blacks are both in this country to stay, and as God has made both and as he is no respecter of persons, a better understanding on the part of each for the other, will go far toward solving the very vexing problem now occupying the attention of the better classes of both races.

August 10, 1901

Midnight’s Musings: A Little Something About the People of Washington “Now I lay me down to sleep, I pray the Lord my soul to keep,” is before me as I start to write my letter this week, and this will doubtless remind you that I was once a child, and I am thinking that I will be one again for this prayer comes to me just like it did when my mother taught it to me. But before I go further let me tell you that I am in the house of prayer. I am stopping at the house of my old friend Bishop James A. Handy, and you know I have told you about how he used to play around the streets of Baltimore, and how he made use of his time, and I went on my way rejoicing, having a good time, as many young men are doing today, and now I am just a little more than a mere man, and Bishop Handy is one of the greatest men of the race. You will remember in my talk last week I told you a little about the people of Washington.

Continued on page 9

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

December 24, 1910 Keeping the vote from Maryland Blacks Must Fight West Segregation Law The West Segregation Ordinance is now a legal fact. The Hon. Edgar Allen Poe, City Solicitor, has pronounced it constitutional, and the Hon. J. Barry Mahool, mayor, has affixed his signature thereto, and the infamous measure takes its place among the local statues of Baltimore City. A number of our leading people took a prominent stand against it during its passage through the City Council, and though disagreeing with their methods, I commend their purposes and believe in this that there was a genuine unanimity among all our people. Segregation is no longer a threat, it is a fact; and unless it is nullified by a judicial interpretation by the courts, it will lose money and our people will suffer a new form of humiliation conjured up by the Negro haters of Baltimore City. In their blind zeal at our mortification they will injure the good name of our city, and add to the financial burdens of a great many of their own race, all of which is to be regretted by every conscientious, well thinking, progressive citizen of Baltimore, white or black, native or foreign born. No language can be too severe to characterize the infamy or its authors, but that is no part of my purpose here. History will take care of them, and in due time will consign them either to a well deserved obscurity or to contemptuous prominence. What I wish to ask is this simple question: What are we going to do about it? It is true that the author, Mr. Milton Deshields, and its sponsor, Mr. George W. West, believe in its legality; that Mr. Poe, and the eminent Mr. Marbury have pronounced it constitutional, and the city government and the political party behind it

are pledged to its enforcement, but it is not the first time and it won’t be the last when our enemies’ idea of legality and constitutionality, have not favorably impressed courts of justice, and when the latter have blocked the enforcement of unfair and unjust measures aimed at us. Both Mr. Poe and his eminent father, now dead, thought the Poe Amendment a just and constitutional measure, but the people of the State thought otherwise. Mr. Marbury has taken great pains to “discover” the unconstitutionality of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, and its consequent inapplicability to the suffrage regulations of Maryland, but the people of the State have refused to take him seriously on this matter, and in the recent Annapolis case tried in the United States Court here before Judge Morris, that distinguished jurist in an opinion of great force and learning laid bare the pretension of Mr. Marbury, and to the minds of both lawyers and laymen put a perceptible dent in Mr. Marbury’s reputation as a constitutional lawyer. The point I wish to make is this: That because eminent counsel have been consulted and pronounced a measure legal or otherwise, is no reason why any sane man should not seek the judicial determination of the matter by the regularly constituted tribunals of the Commonwealth. But recently, Governor Crothers, himself a lawyer and an ex-judge, backed in his efforts by the legal services and opinions of Attorney General Straus, Randolph Barton and Senator Rayner, undertook to remove the Police Board of Baltimore City and to appoint

another board to the “vacancy” he had thereby created. The Board didn’t take kindly to the Governor’s notions, and contested in court his right of removal with the results that the Court of Appeals decided that there was no vacancy for the “Governor” to fill, and that his attempted removal of the Board was without authority and therefore illegal. The Board is still in office enjoying the honors and reaping the rewards thereof. Suppose it had yielded at the Governor’s request, awed as it might have been at the “advice” of the Governor’s eminent counsel. The West Ordinance is in line with the legislation in this State in the last dozen or so years aimed at our humiliation. We have met the disfranchisement measures and contributed mightily to their overthrow. The Separate Car Law has been stripped of many of its harsher features thanks mainly to an outsider, but not without assistance from our own people. Discrimination of the rankest and most unfair sort in matters of public education in many of the counties of the State goes on without protest from those closely interested, and particularly here in the matter of this new deviltry, for either or both the Suffrage League and the Progressive League and I suggest that it be taken up at once. The citadel of our rights is the courts, but courts are not self-acting institutions. They are formed and maintained for our protection, but their protection in private matters is not wholly vouchsafed us unless by appeal to them. This same sort of legislation has been attempted before, and it is therefore not original as some think with Mr. Milton

Deshields. The Legislature of Maryland at the session of 1908 passed a similar measure for Crisfield, but Governor Crother returned it with his veto, because he said it was unconstitutional. San Francisco undertook several times to restrict the Chinese in that city in about the same way that the West ordinance would segregate us here, but in each instance the courts declared the efforts void, either for unconstitutionality or in violation of treaty rights. Because the council has passed it and it is now law, and because a retinue of lawyers have declared it a valid exercise of the city’s police powers is no reason, (imposing as this array of power and wisdom may be in its favor) why we should be discouraged, and sit supinely by while our enemies laugh at our discomfiture. The courts are open and to them we should go. I am a lawyer, and the tone of this argument might impress some of your readers that I am in search of a retainer, but I wish to say here now that nothing is further from my mind. If any organized effort is made to test the validity of this law I shall be only too glad to contribute my mite financially, or to assist professionally and without pay, in this cause. It is high time we were letting our enemies understand that we don’t purpose to be driven any further without vigorous protest, and in that protest every man of us needs to be counted and I beg to be in at the count. W. Ashbie Hawkins Dec. 22, 1910

July 7, 1917 East St. Louis Riots, Unceasing Violation of Black folks St. Louis Asks Baltimore to Help On the morning of July 5 the Afro-American received the following telegram: St. Louis, Mo., July 4 – Conditions indescribably horrible. Hundred shot and killed. Mothers separated from husbands and children and homes burned. Such suffering and inhumanity unheard of. Thousands have come to St. Louis. Colored citizens unitedly rose to aid sufferers. Entire blame for wholesale massacre blamed upon the militia and police who gave guns to the mob. All provisions being made to secure damages for property and for life but can never pay for suffering and heartaches which have come to these innocent people. Work plentiful here; conditions reasonable. Quiet in East St. Louis

following telegram: St. Louis, Mo., July 3 – At 6 p.m., Tuesday, rioting at St. Louis was practically under control of two thousand militia. The mob has done all it could do without going to the real colored section of the city. This was only done through fear on the part of the mob. Police and militia did very little to protect innocent blacks. Trouble caused by repeated attacks on Negroes since May 28. Negroes kill police sergeant, thinking he was a rioter. The Negroes killed were those living in scattering sections of the city. Fifty whites were killed and wounded. The NAACP is taking the lead in offering protection. St. Louis city officials and the Red Cross render assistance.”

now, after thousands have been driven from their and after Governor, city officials and militia acted feebly in the face of such a reign of terror. Only a few will return to East St. Louis, though firms are making inducements to some men to remain here; others to go South and further North. Hundreds leaving for any point away from this vicinity; scattering like sheep. Let not the men of the East fail to demand federal investigation and redress for their brethren in distress. St. Louis dailies urge this. Did Not Venture into the Colored Section On the morning of July 4th the Afro-American received the

Frightfulness in America Puts Europe to Shame East St. Louis, Ill., July 6 – The ruthless, devastating German drive thru Belgium and the French Reign of Terror were almost equaled in the sickening, riotous, propertydestroying and murderous scenes enacted here by whites who became frenzied every time they saw the face of a colored person this week. The Emperor Nero was hardly more cruel than were white East St. Louisans, and police and militia, many times, calmly looked on while some people were being maimed or murdered and homes occupied by colored persons were becoming a prey to whites infested with the arson spirit.

White Women Take Part Even white women of whom Caucasian men so vociferously boast, caught the spirit of repression and Negro-baiting, and even jumped on cars to pull off colored women and beat them up. White women, the “cream of civilization” were heard to gleefully make such remarks as “I hit a ‘nigger’ in the head with a brick.” With a spirit like that of wild beasts, whites set fire to colored homes and waited to fire on the occupants as they ran out to escape the flames. A Little Belgium Over 300 homes were burned and the devastated area especially around Eleventh and Causland avenues, resembled, in some respects, parts of Belgium where Germans made the drive that shocked the civilized world. The whites showed great brutality in their treatment of the colored people. A white man pretending to be interested in

seeing a colored man escape injury, invited him into an alley. The colored man went, the white man following him into the alley and then shot him in the head. The white man then calmly rejoined the mob. Another instance was that of an injured colored man, thought dead, being riddled with bullets when his body was seen to move.

Colored People Leaving Hundreds of colored men and women have left the city, many never to return. The four bridges leading across the river to St. Louis were the roads taken by many of those leaving. Policemen at the St. Louis end searched them for weapons. Whites, however, did not have to undergo this search. Many of those who left were sheltered in the homes of people in St. Louis. Cause of Outbreak Labor interests have been enkindling the fires of prejudice against the Negro since a large number came here to work as laborers in the place of whites who had gone back to Europe to join the armies of their respective countries. Hostility was especially shown by union labor forces, always opposed to Negro workmen gaining a foothold. The alleged hold-up of two white men was given as the excuse for the riot on May 28, in which three colored and two white men were killed. Over thirty colored men are said to have been killed at this time, and there are no known figures of the whites killed and wounded.

Migration Attacked The May riot was the subject for an investigation by the City Council. A report was made Saturday in which Negro immigration here was attacked. Mayor Nollman went on record as being opposed to colored men coming here to get work and even telegraphed the Governor of Georgia and asked his assistance in keeping Negroes in the South. The report of last Saturday opposing the coming of Negro workers made some of the prejudiced whites grow bolder and they began to “go after” Negroes. Rioting occurred Sunday night and colored men began to prepare. A number were gathered together Monday when a riot call was sent into the police. Detective Sergeant Coppedge and several policemen came on the scene in a few minutes. Some conversation passed between the policemen and the men, and Coppedge was shot and killed. The Carnage Begins The mob spirit of the whites was then aroused, homes of colored people were stripped of firearms and the carnage began. The militia was called out, but they and the police apparently sympathized with the mob. The coming of Governor Lowden, 600 militiamen from Chicago and the starting of a federal investigation have caused an ostensible subsiding of the mob spirit. The Grand Jury will meet next Monday and may conduct an investigation. More than one hundred whites arrested in connection with the riots have been discharged in the police courts.

Eyewitness Describes Rioting in East St. Louis A staff correspondent of the Chicago Herald gives the following pen picture of the brutality of the whites: “Saint Bartholomew’s night did not outdo this massacre when once it started. Indescribably barbarity was born on the moment and perpetrated with malicious deliberation not typical of the most depraved inhabitants of a western nation. “Boys of 13, 14, 15 and 16 were in the forefront of every felonious butcher; girls and women wielding bloody knives and clawing at the eyes of dying victims, sprang from the ranks of the mad thousands. “There was no attempt at avenging specific misdeeds upon selected individuals. Black skin was a death warrant. Wherever a Negro appeared he was stoned, shot, beaten, strung up – more than a dozen suffered all of these forms of savage onslaught. “Fire came as an inspiration. A woman set the first blaze and

was triumphantly carried off on the shoulders of her brethren for it.

demonstration of men suddenly gone mad. There was a visible coolness and pre-meditation about it.

Choice of Death “For that the Negroes had the bitter choice of remaining in and being burned to cinders or venturing out and being shot and lynched. “Far out in the outskirts of the city where stray and sparse settlements of Negroes had been, the riot reached. Here there was not such dense crowds – and there was no protection of any kind, not even a supine policeman or inefficient guard. “The outlying colored folk were shot and thrown into the river, the creek, down manholes – anywhere. Among them was a little girl, 2 years old, shot through the heart and flung into midroad. “And the spirit of the mob still was not the hectic raving

No One Drunk “There were many groups, some of them even without impromptu leaders, standing about or poking here and there, killing their Negroes as they found them. No one was drunk. “Many of the rioters and participants in the charnel-house atrocities displayed high humor. When a hanged Negro’s rope broke and two of the lynchers fell back into the spray of a fire hose the mob howled with laughter “All day today, with plenty of time for realization of the color of its hands and the infamy of its soul, the lawless portion of the community still threatens and says that the last Negro will be killed or chased out of here. That isn’t rioting – that’s revolution.

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August 4, 1917 5,000 March in Silent Parade

New York, August 1 – Nearly 5,000 colored men and women of every walk of life marched in a parade as a “silent protest against acts of disfranchisement, segregation, lynch law, jim crowism and other discriminations” last Saturday. The route was down Fifth Avenue from 59th Street to 24th Street where the paraders dispersed. The parade was one of the most orderly ever held on Fifth Avenue and there was no cheering until the end of the march was reached. The route was lined with spectators and the banners and paraders brought out in glaring form the fact that the Negro is greatly discriminated against. Police Inspector Praises Police Inspector Morris, who with one hundred policemen, marched with the paraders, expressed warm admiration for those who took part. “They have done everything just right,” he declared. “They have been lovely.” Only one sign was objected to. It showed a colored mother crouched protectively over two children with the caption “East St. Louis.” It also showed a picture of President Wilson and carried his assertion that the world must be made safe for democracy. Inspector Morris suggested that the banner was in bad taste and it was immediately withdrawn. The picture originally appeared as a cartoon in the New York Evening Mail and was reproduced in the Afro-American. Other than this there was not one feature to mar the parade

They marched in New York City

and in this city of radical and conservative opinions, along with others bordering on the anarchistic, the affair was generally agreed to be one that could not help from making a profound impression. In the line of march were doctors, lawyers, ministers, school teachers and trained nurses. Many veterans of the Spanish American War were there too. The grand marshal, Captain Hubert Jackson, served in Cuba and the Philippines as captain of Company L of the Sixth Massachusetts, Clifton G.A. French, a lawyer, was in the Twenty-third Kansas. He explained the purpose of the parade this way: “We love our government. And we want our Government to love us too.”

The Banners The banners carried aloft bore the following inscriptions: “Thou shalt not kill.” “Unto the least of these my brethren.” “Mother, do lynchers go to heaven?” “Suffer little children and forbid them not.” “Give me a chance to live.” “Mr. President, why not make America safe for democracy?” The first blood for American independence was shed by a Negro, Crispus Attucks.” “For the spirit of Christ in the making and the execution of the laws.” “Your hands are full of blood.”

September 1, 1917

Black soldiers revolt

The Houston Uprising

Out of all the jumble of anger and hatred and prejudice that has reached the North concerning the uprising of the 24th Infantry stationed at Houston, Texas, several indisputable causes appear. The white people of Houston were opposed to the coming of the 24th to the city, with the result that considerable hostility sprang up between the police and the soldiers. Before the uprising, the officers of the regiment requested the police to refrain from using the word “nigger” in referring to 24th boys. A white policeman roughly handled a colored woman in making an arrest, and beat up a 24th soldier who objected to such treatment.

“We have 30,000 teachers.” “Race prejudice is the offspring of ignorance and the mother of lynching.” “Ten thousand of us fought in the Spanish American War.” “Three thousand Negroes fought for American independence under George Washington.” “No Negro has ever betrayed his country or attempted to assassinate a President or any official of the Government.” “Patriotism and loyalty presuppose protection and liberty.” “America has lynched without trial 2,867 Negroes in thirtyone years. Not a single murderer has suffered.” “Memphis and Waco centres of American culture?” “Two hundred thousand black men fought for your liberty in the Civil War.” “The world owes no man a living, but every man an opportunity to earn a living.” “Thirty-four Negroes have received Carnegie hero medals.” “Our music is the only American music.” “A square deal for every man.” And there was another one to the effect that if any fault were to be found with color, either white people or God is responsible. The Rev. Dr. Hutchins C. Bishop was president of the parade. The Rev. Dr. Charles D. Martin was secretary. The Rev. F.A. Cullen was vice president. The first deputy marshal was J. Rosamond Johnson. Others were A.B. Cosey, C.H. Payne, formerly a member of Troop A. Ninth Cavalry; the Rev. E.W.

Later in the day another soldier was arrested on some trifling charge and soundly beaten when he resisted. Angered by the continued insults, the discrimination, and the humiliation of the police and the civilians the soldiers lost their heads. When the smoke of the uprising cleared away they had shot up the town, killing fifteen whites and wounding a score more. It is regrettable that the soldiers so far forgot themselves as to spill innocent blood, yet there is another side to the controversy. The 24th is composed of regulars, with good army records. When the regiment went to Columbus, New Mexico with Pershing

last year, they found that the civilians were peeved at their coming, that the shopkeepers were unwilling to serve them, and restaurants averse to serving them food. Instead of resenting it, the soldiers gave a minstrel show in a big theater with the citizens as the guests of honor. They had to repeat the performance and then the town belonged to them. After six months peaceful stay in Columbus, citizens could not speak too highly of the regiment’s behavior. This is the kind of troopers to be found in the 24th, men not unused to rudeness and prejudice of the southerners. The uprising, led by a non-commissioned officer and participated in by 100 men shows plainly how

Suspend Judgment Says Bishop Smith

Aroused by the drastic editorial in the white press condemning the members of the 24th Infantry for shooting up Houston, Texas, that Bishop A.C. Smith of the AME Church resided in Detroit, Mich. Has published an open letter on the subject. The bishop says: There are so many currents and counter-currents of a disturbing nature in evidence that this is no time for hasty utterances. Public judgment should be suspended until all the material facts in the unfortunate and regrettable occurrence have been fully investigated and the result made known by the war department. The stories emanating from Houston are one-sided and reflect the prejudices of the dominant element in Houston instead of the facts in the case. A Negro in military uniform is as exasperating to the average Texan as is the flaunting of a red rag in the face of an enraged bull. When the Titanic disaster was reported, it is said, Mr. Andrew Carnegie laconically inquired: “What was she doing up there anyway?” having reference to the extreme northern course the

great the provocation must have been. Mr. Roosevelt very forcibly said to Mr. Gompers sometime ago that murder is undebatable, and he is right. But it is worth noting as the New York Evening Globe states, “the breeders of disorder are those who still hold with Chief Justice Taney that the Negro has no rights that the white man is bound to respect.” Secretary Baker has up to this point refused to recall his decision assigning Northern colored drafted units to Southern camps. We hope he sticks to it. The white South has got to get used to the colored man who keeps his hat on, and resents insults that no gentleman will stand.

Uniformed Blacks = Southern paranoia

ship had taken. It is equally pertinent to inquire, why were the Negro troops sent to Texas anyway, particularly those of the regular army? Has the remembrance of the Brownsville affair entirely faded from public memory? Is it so soon forgotten that but a few days ago publicity was given to the report that Negro troops were in a clash with the authorities of Waco, Texas? Two distinct incidents that occurred during the SpanishAmerican war are still fresh in my memory – the threat to dynamite a train load of Negro regulars by the dominant element of Texarkana, Ark., and the merciless assault made on a train load of Negro volunteers at Nashville, Tenn., while en route from Chattanooga to Cincinnati.

Suspend Judgment, is Plea Hon. Joe H. Engle, M.C. for the Houston district, in a dispatch to the secretary of war said: “Without stating who is to blame, it is clearly a race riot and is a tragedy sufficient to compel the statement that it is a tragic blunder to send the Negro troops to southern camps.” Who is to blame for this tragic blunder? The Negro troops

went to Houston in obedience to the orders of their superiors whose right it is to direct their movements. A race riot? Yes, and that statement coming from a congressman on the ground, and the chosen representative of the dominant element of Houston, ought to be sufficient to induce the public to suspend judgment for the time being. President Wilson made a trenchant statement in a speech in Philadelphia to the effect that “A man may be too proud to fight.” With equal force it may be said that a man may be too manly to continually submit to extreme brutal treatment. Even the patient ox may be goaded to desperation. The fact is the white race by precipitating a world-war has turned man’s earthly abode into a veritable hell, and there no is no telling when the fires of damnation will be extinguished or what elements will be consumed while they are raging. If plain speaking is in order, let both sides be heard. Nothing that I have written is to be construed as indicating the least desire on my part to condone any infraction of discipline by the Negro troops in question. Let no guilty man escape.

February 21, 1902

Midnight Musings: Hears Professor Booker Preach a Sermon on Practical Obedience Little Rock—I have been trying to study just how long this world has been in existence and to save my life, I can’t tell. It was not made yesterday, nor the day before nor the day after, so just what day it was made I can’t tell, because when I pick up my Bible, all I can learn is that in the beginning “God created the Heavens and the earth.” Now when was the beginning? I have scratched and knocked on this thick head of mine and to save my life I can’t tell. I’ll bet you my head to a ginger snap that some of you are already asking: “What is that old man after now? And you will have to wait until I get thru and see what I have said and how I’ve said it owing to the fact that education as too high up the tree when I came into this world and lived out my boyhood days. Well, I would like to make me a world but it is impossible for me to do so, I will just confine myself to telling you what I have seen in this sin cursed world. Can you tell me where I was when I left off last week? I bet you a nickel you can’t. Hold on. I must not forget that I am a Baptist and my pastor would expel me from church even in my old age if he cause me betting. I spent a few days in Gurdon as you know and told you something about the town and some of the people, and since I am going back there this week to see about some kind of anniversary, I will not tell you more about it now. I promised to say a few lines to you about the Arkansas Baptist College and I am here right now. I keep on going around to these colleges. I am just going to

do away with that title “Colonel” Midnight and call myself “Professor.” It strikes me that I know enough to be a “fessor” now for just look at the colleges I have been to. It was on Sunday night after sitting in the colored part of the carriage drawn by a big old black iron horse for two hours, I got off at the stable at Little Rock. I toted my things up the steps and got on the street wagon filled with white folks and did not get off until I reached the colored folks Arkansas Baptist College. To the department of Prof. Booker and his family I toted my trunks and was received by Mrs. Mary Carver Booker, the wife of the president. I did not tarry long enough to eat me a piece of bread and butter but rushed over to the college, into the chapel and there found the president with his hands outstretched, preaching to the students a practical sermon on the Gospel of Obedience. I have heard

talk about obedience before, have had my parents to try to whip it into me by means of the leather strap, I have heard colored folks and white folks talk to the children about it but I heard about it this time and this night as I have never heard before in all my life. Prof. Booker talked about obedience to parents and teachers, obedience to employers, obedience to law, obedience to God and I tell you if them students can get all them obediences into their head, they will make good practical men and women. This is according to my idea of seeing. There is one things about Prof. Booker , he tries at all times to deal with things that will be helpful to the boys and girls and I have admired him for this particular thing. He has been to school, got his head full of the best common sense and the best education. It strikes me very forcibly that he got his common sense education at home from a common sense mother, and his college education from Roger Williams University, and if that ain’t getting education I would

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November 5, 1917 Supreme Court Declares Segregation Void Washington, D.C. Nov. 8 – By a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court of the United States has declared the Louisville Segregation ordinance unconstitutional and therefore void. Based on the ordinance passed by the Baltimore City Council, and approved by Mayor Preston, several years ago, segregation ordinances were passed by several cities in the south, including Louisville, Ky. The decision deals with the Louisville ordinance, but applies to all cities which have passed such ordinances segregating the white from the colored population. Below are excerpts from the decision as handed down, and shows the main contention of the Court: “We pass then to a consideration of the case upon its merits. This ordinance prevents the occupancy of a lot in the City of Louisville by a person of color in a block where the greater number of residences are occupied by white persons; where such a majority exists colored persons are excluded. This interdiction is based wholly upon color; simply that and nothing more. In effect, premises situated as are those in question in the so-called white block are effectively debarred from sale to persons of color, because if sold they cannot be occupied by the

purchaser nor by him sold to another of the same color. “This drastic measure is sought to be justified under the authority of the State in the exercise of the police power. It is said such legislation tends to promote the public peace by preventing racial conflicts; that it tends to maintain racial purity; that it prevents the deterioration of property owned and occupied by white people, which deterioration, it is contended, is sure to follow the occupancy of adjacent premises by persons of color. “The authority of the State to pass laws in the exercise of the police power, having for their object the promotion of the public health, safety and welfare is very broad as has been affirmed in numerous and recent decisions of this court. Furthermore the exercise of this power, embracing nearly all legislation of a local character is not to be interfered with by the courts where it is within the scope of legislative authority and the means adopted reasonably tend to accomplish a lawful purpose. But it is equally well established that the police power, broad as it is, cannot justify the passage of a law or ordinance which runs counter to the limitations of the Federal

Constitution. “The Federal Constitution and laws passed within its authority are by the express terms of that instrument made the supreme law of the land. The Fourteenth Amendment protects life, liberty and property from invasion by the sates without due process of law. Property is more than the mere thing which a person owns. It is elementary that it includes the right to acquire, use and dispose of it. The Constitution protects these essential attributes of property. “The concrete question here is: May the occupancy, and, necessarily, the purchase and sale of property of which occupancy is an incident, be inhibited by the states, or by one of its municipalities, solely because of the color of the proposed occupant of the premises? That one may dispose of his property, subject only to the control of lawful enactments curtailing that right in the public interest must be conceded. The question now presented makes it pertinent to enquire into the constitutional right of the white man to sell his property to a colored man, having in view the legal status of the purchaser and occupant.”

August 1, 1919 Chicago riots- Another failure... Dead in Chicago Remain Unburied Chicago, Illinois, July 31 – Failure of police to find criminals who assaulted white and colored women is said to have started the Washington riots. Failure of police to find white criminals, who bombed homes of colored people is at bottom of the cause of the riot in Chicago. In the past three months race hatred has smoldered in Chicago, due to the fact that no less than ten homes of colored persons have been bombed by whites whom the police could not find. Chicago is now home of an estimated colored population of 125,000. Many of them come from the South during the last migration and along with them came up the cracker whites.

These crackers are the ones who objected to the colored homes in the well-to-do section, and started the bombing. Yesterday and the day before whites have made numerous attempts to set fire to colored homes. Six have been burned down. In the colored section of the city not a wheel moves. New York Central trains have been fired upon. Jessie Binga, banker, issued an appeal to the Mayor asking for supplies for hungry colored folk. No wagons have entered the black belt this week, and the population is desperate. The stock of corner groceries has been sold out. Many colored dead remain unburied in homes. Colored and white undertakers refuse to risk travel thru the streets.

Bishop Hurst on Mob Violence New York, August 1 – The New York World, one of the fairest newspapers in the country, following the rioting in Chicago, sent a number of telegrams to race leaders in various sections of the country, including Bishop John Hurst, of Baltimore, asking their advice as to what should be the attitude of the race in mob uprisings and Bolshevistic propaganda. The telegram sent by the World and Bishop Hurst’s straightfrom-the-shoulder reply follow: New York, July 30, 1919 Bishop John Hurst 1808 McCulloh Street Baltimore, Md. The World, which has always opposed injustice to and

George Holt and Eugene Manns distributed thousands of circulars advising colored people to stay off the streets. Ministers met in Olivet Baptist Church Tuesday and asked the Mayor to close all drink and gambling resorts and then made a speaking tour thru the black belt. Veterans of the old Eighth Regiment have helped in reserving order. Today more than 6,000 soldiers patrol the streets and still sniping continues. Both colored and white people are terrified beyond measure one white man said today: “I saw white men running thru the streets with children by the hand and babies in their arms. A police captain had told them, for God’s sake arm, they are coming and we can’t hold them.”

‘Let the colored man...use his gun with effect and impose respect’

upheld the rights of the colored race in America, thinks the time has now come when the members of that race should be warned by their owned leaders against counsels of Bolshevism and violence which are being both openly and privately circulated. We invite you to telegraph, at our expense, for publication, any message of advice or admonition you may think needful. The World To the New York World: In answer to your telegram, I beg to address the following to the colored people of the country: The bloody conflicts between the races in Washington and Chicago are disheartening to all true Americans, no matter who is responsible for them. They are especially trying to the colored people who must eventually suffer most from

them. Lawlessness makes things worse always. It throws the wheel of progress backward and causes untold loss to society. It behooves the colored man, belonging as he does to the weakest social group of the country, to practice moderation, self-restraint and patience in these trying moments. He must not only refrain from starting any trouble, but from any conduct that might be used as an occasion for trouble. He must remember that in times even darker than these his forefathers made it a practice to pray to the God of Heaven and deliverance came. If while exercising these virtues his assailants will not desist, but rather persist in molesting him, let the colored man do what all self-respecting people would do – viz: use his gun with effect and impose respect. John Hurst Bishop, AME Church

October 3, 1919 Omaha Riots: Colored Soldiers as Deputy Sheriffs Trying to Restore Order Omaha, Nebraska, Sept. 29 – The propaganda to discredit the Negro in this section culminated Monday in one of the most disgraceful scenes in the history of any American city when William Brown was taken from the city Court House and lynched by a mob and Mayor Edward P. Smith was nearly lynched by the same mob because he demanded a fair trial for the accused man. Ever since the riots in Chicago and Washington, The News, Bee and World Herald, local daily papers, have persisted in placing in glaring headlines every alleged crime of which the colored people were charged. This has been true even of cases where upon investigation, no proof has been found that colored men were implicated. Requests that such practices be abolished, from the local branch of the NAACP and kindred organizations have been entirely ignored. The Daily News of Saturday devoted two columns of its front page and a flaming headline to the capture of William Brown and of efforts of a mob to lynch him. This article was accompanied by a large [photo] of Brown and a picture of 25 colored idlers being shipped out of the city.

The result of eighteen hours under lynch and mob rule may be summed up as follows:

his condition was critical, but that he would probably recover.

surrender his prisoner, who was taken down on a ladder.

Dead William Brown, colored, accused of assault on a white girl. Francis Clancy, white, shot and killed.

Mob Goes Wild From 6 p.m. until troops arrived this morning the mob was in control of the town; men women and children, filling the streets around the court house, went wild. Pawn shops and hardware stores were looted to obtain firearms and ammunition. Every policeman on the streets was overpowered, clubs taken from them and many seriously beaten. Sheriff Michael Clark and his deputies successfully held the crowd, howling for the Negro’s life, at bay until the court house was set afire. Gasoline was poured on the first floor and the torch applied. Police extinguished this blaze, but the mob obtained more gasoline and soon flames were shooting from the first, second and third story windows, while the crowd howled. The jail was on the fifth floor. Sheriff Clark took his prisoner to the roof in order to escape the heat from the burning building. When flames reached the fourth floor, firemen arrived. They were overpowered by the mob and their ladders taken from them. Clark was forced to

Negro Hanged and Shot The mob tore every stitch of clothing from the body. The noose was adjusted and his body hoisted about six feet from the ground. Shotguns and revolvers were turned loose into it. As the first bullets struck the man, his body twitched spasmodically. His entrails were exposed as the body was riddled with bullets. Members of the crowd took the body down, tied it to a police patrol wagon, which they had taken from officers and dragged it through the principal streets and the Negro district. Later they threw it into the fire, which other members of the mob had prepared. Thirty-one men were arrested by police in connection with the rioting. All were found to be carrying goods and ammunition and are being held with bail. Following his capture Saturday, Brown claimed his innocence and said he had never seen the girl before. He said he was forty years old and had come to Omaha about a year ago from Cairo, Ill. He was employed at a coal dealer on S. 10th Street.

Injured Mayor Edward Smith and 56 others. Property Loss Over $2 million. Mayor Smith narrowly escaped the fate of the Negro when he defied the mob. His defiance to the mob, mumbled while almost unconscious from beatings he received and with the rope around his neck were: “Will Enforce the Law.” “I’ll give my life if necessary but I’ll not surrender the Negro. I’m going to enforce the law.” The Mayor’s life was saved when the rope was cut from around his neck while he was being lifted from the ground. The Mayor was rushed to a hospital in an automobile. Physicians said today that

‘Cracker’ Senator Defends Outrages Against Negroes Chicago, Ill., October 2- Protests have been made to the Chicago Tribune against the inflammatory headline appearing in its final edition concerning the Omaha riot. Through the United States Senate, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People issued a statement that there have been forty-three lynchings this year, four white. Since then, up to Tuesday, there have been two additional: Miles Phifer and Robert Grosky, the latter a discharged soldier, five miles from Montgomery, Ala. They were taken from county officials, turned loose, told

to run, and fired upon by twenty-five masked men. Senator William E. Borah, in a patriotic speech in the Senate called attention to the amazing immediate need of drastic action against lynching and mob violence if the country is to be saved from destruction. Senator Williams, of Mississippi, followed Senator Borah, and not only defended the action of the mob in Omaha, but defended lynching generally, declaring that race clashes were all due to attempted outrages on white women by Negroes. To this statement, a

prominent race leader remarked: “It is a pity for America that such absurd falsifying is allowed to go unchallenged in the United States Senate. Senator Williams, sworn to uphold the Constitution, advocates lynch law. He is the unworthy possessor of a senatorial seat secured through the trickery of disfranchisement in a state where two thirds of the population is made up of the colored people whom he slanders.” The colored people of the country at large, are showing amazing calmness and fortitude under the most trying experience through

which the race has never been called upon to pass. Everywhere that there has been race outbreaks, East St. Louis, Atlanta, Longview, Houston, Washington, Chicago, Knoxville and now Omaha, the better element of whites and the better element of colored people have conferred frankly on the subject and worked out cooperative plans of economic adjustment in such a way that conditions improve. There is a high hope, however, that public sentiment will soon reach the point where all classes, including hoodlums of both races will be forced to respect law and order.

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Midnight’s Musing June 7, 1902 MEETS A LARGE NUMBER OF PROMINENT RACE MEN IN THE SOUTH. A Doctor who has made a Name for Himself – A High School Principal who has Accumulated Money and Property – Hears Professor Council Make a Great Speech – Meets Bishop Evans Tyree – Will go to Birmingham Next September to see Dr. E. C. Morris Preside

Helena, Ar. – I tell you I have moved a little bit since I sent you my last letter and I am still on the move, and with all the movement I have seen some things which have encouraged me and I am happy by seeing them and hope you will wait and see what I have to say to you this week, and when I get thru saying it I am sure that you will be posted. My private secretary’s mother has been sick for several weeks and that has kept me praying, but I am glad to be able to report to you all that she is better now. You will remember that I told you last week that I went to Frankford, Ky, and this week I must tell you that while there I saw some things which encouraged me very much. For instance I met Dr. E.E. Underwood, who to my mind is one of the best doctors in Frankfort. He is equal to any white man or any other kind of man in the city and his work tells for itself. When a man is almost ready to cross over the river, then he sends for Dr. Underwood who accommodates him. He is just a wonderful man. I am always so proud when I can meet the men of my race who are doing something. This brings to mind that I have made a new discovery and all through Dr. Underwood. I have found that I have a father and he is still living, and is a real black man. So many people have thought my blue eyes and lily

black face were due to the white blood in my veins, but I had a long talk with my father and he tells me that it is not true, that I am his real own son. I talked with Mrs. Underwood, who is a young woman making her way to the front, and raising her family in the proper way. She was born right in Frankfort, and has worked up to be queen of her own home and it is her own home too. Dr. Underwood brought it since he has been practicing in Frankfort, and he has also purchased other property. Prof. W.H. Mao owns, perhaps, as much real estate as any man in Frankfort and he is at the head of the high up school there. He is one of the men of the race that makes us all real proud of him. I have to make a shout or two myself. Do you remember where I was when I wrote to you last week? If You do not remember, and if your head is so thick that you can’t remember from one week to another, then I do not intend to tell you over again, so you will just be able to see where I am when I write to you next week, but I will be at some point in this county unless the Lord calls me home, and I hope that he will not soon do so. I have been in company with big men and I have seen a few things by you being in their company. I had the pleasure of riding from Normal, Ala., to Memphis, Tenn., in company with Prof. W. H. Councill and Dr. E.C. Morris, and I have never enjoyed anything more, yes I was even with a larger crowd than that, for Dr. W.L. Councill rode along for a short while with us and when he got off I was way off in the land where people are worse than infants, and there I was associating with the ghosts. All the way up the road I did dream and see funny things. You see Dr. E.C. Morris, president of the National Baptist convention preached a sermon at Normal, and he returned home, and I was in his company, and then Prof. Councill made another speech at another place and I

will tell you about it later, but you must listen to me now about Dr. Morris. I have been hearing him preach for a long time, but I never heard him preach like he did the day in question. He said many things and great things to the boys and girls of the school and I took some of it for myself. Dr. Morris is certainly a great preacher and he knows just how much

to preach to all people, and how to reach their hearts. I am unable to say when I had a sermon to go so deep down in my heart as that one did at Normal, and I could hardly hold my peace.

People of Washington Continued from page 3

I discussed my visit to the home of Miss Denora Randolph and her sisters Misses Mary Ellen and Rachel. Misses Lenora and Mary Ellen you will remember, although I was as green as a pumpkin, carried me around to see some of the big people of the town introduced me into society and allowed me a chance to meet some folks who had something in their heads. They were up in education, up in learning, up in style and up in manners, and I felt like I was going to fly home to glory. I have heard about Paul Laurence Dunbar, I have read about him in the papers, but never did I have the pleasure of seeing him in his home. Well I met him this time at his big home and called to see him. His home is neatly furnished and looks like that of a smart man. Dunbar is lily black like myself. He is so stained with the race hue that it is

impossible for him to get away. He is the man that can write poetry. I never tried to write it myself, but I am proud to say that we have a man who is recognized all over the country as a good poetry writer. My secretary tells me that he can beat Rudyard Kipland writing. Don’t you ask me who this Rudyard Kipland is for I would guess from now until this other big foot of mine is in the grave and I will never be able to tell you. He is some fellow who was born in war times, I think. I called to see Mrs. Chase and her daughter Mayme; the latter expressed a willingness to help me to name that book of mine, not only this, but if I stay in Washington this winter, she will teach me at night and then I will be able to write my own book. I don’t know but what I may do this yet. I am thinking about it pretty strongly at prevent.

Hears Professor Booker Preach Continued from page 5 like to know. The sermon ended and they called on “Colonel” Midnight to pray and it’s all I could do to keep my mouth from jumping out of my heart. It jumped and my heart choked, my mouth quivered and before I said the first word to the Lord, I commanded, “Be still old mouth

cause you knows what you had to do now you’d quiver worse than this. So the mouth quieted down and I went on talking to the Lord. I told him all about it for a few minutes and ended with “Amen.” Services ended and I spent a few minutes receiving greetings from the teachers.


WORKING TO FULFILL THE HOPES & DREAMS OF THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON (1963-2013) “Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God’s children”

~Martin Luther King

U.S. SENATOR BEN CARDIN Paid for by Ben Cardin for Senate, Inc.

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Phillips in 1947,

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

Introduction 1920 - 1933

The times were changing and the AFRO was there to cover it.


he 1920s ushered in a more assertive time for Blacks. The gains of Reconstruction all but gone, African Americans increasingly paved the way for their success, despite rampant racism and segregation. The tenor of the freedom conversation grew more urgent. African Americans began to increasingly establish their own institutions, usually in large cities, where burgeoning Black neighborhoods became centers of business and culture. Blacks were getting educated in larger numbers at HBCUs and at majority institutions in the North and afterward, then taking that knowledge back to their communities and establishing businesses and cultural outlets to help uplift the race. Culturally, Blacks came into their own in the 1920s. Harlem, in New York City, became the national center of a cultural revolution that came to be known as the Harlem Renaissance. Our literature, music and art were celebrated and proliferated. That gave way to the construction of art galleries, restaurants, theaters and night clubs in Black neighborhoods around the nation. U Street thrived in Washington D.C. Pennsylvania Avenue became a cultural center in Baltimore. Cities such as Tulsa had seen the success of Black enterprise in a big way when banks, funeral homes, insurance companies, beauty salons, restaurants and nightclubs created a African American wealthy class. As they saw examples of success, more Blacks began to open more businesses, which thrived under a dependable African American clientele. We bought Black because we had to do so; African Americans were typically forbidden to patronize White-owned establishments. Though there were some setbacks, like the burning of Black Wall Street in Tulsa by racist Whites in 1921, economically, Blacks were on an upward trajectory. Our politics grew more assertive, as well. The NAACP and other organizations began to agitate more loudly under the protection of a Black electorate that increasingly used the ballot box to send a message and demand repayment in the form of better treatment for the race. The Black intelligentsia urged the end of segregation and racist degradation, lobbying politicians directly and penning eloquent articles and letters to the editor that were published by a burgeoning Black Press. They extolled the evils of segregation and the patronizing attitudes of White elected leaders who pandered for Black votes by pledging to take action, but then failing, once in

office, to do anything significant. And the AFRO was there to report the stories. The newspaper chronicled the advent of the Jazz Age, celebrated Black economic achievement and took White politicians to task for their part in perpetuating racism. The newspaper’s pages were filled with all the news African Americans could use, along with advertisements for the products and services geared to their needs and entertainment features told on society and sports pages. The AFRO’s publishers, from John H. Murphy to present, have always used the newspaper to further the cause of Black people. When African Americans faced injustice, the incidents were chronicled front and center on the pages of the AFRO. When Blacks won battles, that was presented in headlines just as large as a means to show the ascension of Blacks, despite the racist forces that tried to hold us down and to offer hope that the fight was not in vain. “ARGUE SCOTTSBORO CASE” read the page one banner headline on October 15, 1932, referencing the case where nine Black youths were charged with raping two White women on a train while traveling in Alabama. The youths were convicted and some sentenced to death on shoddy evidence. The case drew national media attention, but none covered it as thoroughly as the AFRO, which provided its readers with a stream of stories from the time the incident occurred to the time each of the young men were released. Front page

Images 1. 1927 Mississppi Flood Refugee Camp, 1927, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 2. Scottsboro Boys Demonstration flyer, 1931, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 3. “Scottsboys Boys” in prison, circa 1931, Courtesy of Afro American Archives Articles 1. Tulsa in Ruins, Best Citizens Dead, June 10, 1921, Afro American National Edition 2. U.S. Judges Urges Color Bar, August 18, 1928

3. Death Stalks in Mississippi Flood Path, April 30, 1927 4. Sentence of Octet to Electric Chair in One Day is Nation’s Record: Eight Men to Die After Gala Rape Trial, April 18, 1931 5. True Story of Kentucky Lynching, December 24, 1927 6. Florida Mob Fires Colored Homes, Rosewood Massacre, January 19, 1923 7. Colored Folks Crowd J.C. Cars Coming North, January 19, 1923 8. DC Cop Kills Seconds Victim, May 2, 1925 9. Flood Body Without Funds, December 3, 1932

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‘Bless my soul, Miss Harding had ordered the gates March 11, 1921 unlocked.’ Old Timer at ‘Augryation’

The reporter spied Old Timer hobbling along Pennsylvania Avenue inauguration day walking down the middle of the street behind President Harding’s auto. “What are you doing in the middle of the street,” O.T. was asked. “I am an old soldier,” the old fellow replied, “and when augryation comes, I marches in parade; whether anybody else does or not. I marched down this avenue for Lincoln, an’ Grant, an’ McKinley an’ Roosevelt. Ef Wilson had ner ben sich a pore cuss, I’d

march some behind him. “As it is boy, I am gittin eight years’ stiffness outen my leges. Jus watch my dus.” “Wait a minute,” the reporter yelled after the old man, finally reaching him and pulling him by the arm up on the sidewalk. “You will walk yourself into pneumonia, heart trouble or sleeping sickness, if you don’t go steady. Calm down and tell me what you have been doing.” Old Timer started on, then hesitated, came back and took a proffered cigar, and began to talk:

“Well, I was up yonder in the White House grounds that Wilson kept locked so that William Monroe Trotter, Oswald Garrison Villard, Col. George Harvey, the folks from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Senator Jim Reed, Hiram Johnson and others could not get in, and bless my soul Mrs. Harding had ordered the gates unlocked. I went right in, strolled around on the grass and saw everybody there but Ralph Tyler, and they tell me that he was the only big man from Ohio that was not there. “Bill Fitzgerald was on hand trying to see how he would fit in that Recorder of Deeds job, Doc Lyon told somebody that he was ready to go right back to Africy right now, and Judge Terrell, he let it be known that he is just as willing to serve under Harding as he was under Taft and Wilson.

However, I ain’t fur Lyons. You see its jus like this. I been trying to dope it out, but I jus can’t see how God called him to be a minister of his and Uncle Sam’s at the same time. If he is gwine to serve God, all right. If he is goin’ to turn God and John Wesley Church down in order to get a few thousand beans and a political job, that’s all right too. But fer heavin’s sakes let him do one or the other and stop sashaying backwards and forwards. “Are you going to support Dr. Fowler for the Senate?” the reporter asked. “I am going to support anything with color to it,” and hit anything that looks ‘lily white.” Old Timer bade the reporter goodbye as he stopped to greet Link Johnson, National Committeeman from Georgia, and a bunch of Southern job seekers.

Black Wall Street June 3, 1921 Worst Race Riot in History of the Country About Over (By telegraph) Tulsa, Okla., June – Every Negro church, business place and home has been destroyed during the riot. A number of prominent citizens have been killed including Dr. Jackson. The city is under martial law. The deaths will exceed 100. Signed J.O. Midnight. Equal Rights League Protests Wholesale Colored Arrests in Tulsa Boston, June 1 – Officers of the National Equal Rights League, a Negro organization, in a telegram sent today to Governor Robertson, of Oklahoma, protested against wholesale arrests of “colored and not whites, giving the whites an unfair fighting advantage,” in connection with the race riots at Tulsa. The telegram asked the Governor to direct the Adjutant General “to

give the colored a fair chance to protect lives, families and remaining property.” (Special to the Afro-American) Tulsa, Okla., June2 – At least 100 persons have been killed, and the colored section of this city is in ruins following a two-day race riot here. Damage to property is estimated at $5 million. Dead lie in streets awaiting burial. Tulsa casualties include 25 whites killed and 100 injured: 60 colored killed, 100 injured. Trouble started when Richard Rawlings was arrested on the charge of “impudence and impertinence” to a white girl in an elevator. Police said he “assaulted” her and there were threats of lynching. A dozen colored men hearing of the rumor

armed themselves, marched to the court house and asked to be sworn in as deputies to protect the prisoner. They were later reinforced by others and a crowd of whites collected on the opposite side of the street. A white man started the riot by trying to take a gun away from a Negro. He was instantly killed. The battle began. Colored men were outnumbered three to one and fell back into the colored section which attacking whites immediately set on fire. The state militia was called out and the city put under martial law. Police disarming negroes by the hundreds leaving whites their arms. Militia also aided the whites. Firemen took a stand on the edge of the black belt in order ot keep the flames there and prevent any white homes from catching fire.

Flames were not obedient, however, and hundreds of white people lost their homes. Ten thousand colored people, it is estimated, lost everything that they had. They are camped on the hills above the city, in Convention Hall and in the ball park, where the high fence enables them to be kept under strict guard. Thousands of colored people have left Tulsa for neighboring cities. To stay here means to be arrested for being colored, put in one of the detention camps on bread and water under guard or the chance of being shot at by snipers in the public streets. How many colored homes in white sections remain cannot now be stated. Most of those in the ten blocks devastated were frame and burnt like tinder.

June 10, 1921 Leading Men Lost Lives in Tulsa Tulsa, Okla., June 9 – Tulsa lies stricken almost unto death. The city is literally in sackcloth and ashes and it seems like a veritable miracle that it has escaped complete destruction. Whatever it enjoyed in the matter of thrift, enterprise and a fair name has been, for the moment, at least, destroyed by a wanton, fiendish mob, actuated by jealousy and race hatred, which sought to wipe out the Negroes and their section of the city for the simple reason their prosperity and intelligent development was becoming too evident to suit the wishes of a certain element of whites.

meantime the casualties were mounting up with the odds in favor of the colored combatants. It was near midnight when the militia arrived on the scene. This turned the tide of battle to the whites again. The Negroes retreated. Then it was that the white

and the owner of the Dreamland Theater, also destroyed by fire. Williams was reputed to be worth more than $200,000. Dr. John Wayne died fighting, protecting his home which was destroyed by fire. John Wheeler, one of the oldest employees at the First National, was killed by a stray bullet while on his way to the bank Wednesday morning. No colored man in Tulsa was more highly respected than John Wheeler. He had been in the employ

Whole Truth Not Told But little of the real truth has reached the outside world concerning the whole, horrible affair. The attempted rape incident has turned out to be nothing more than a discovery of the fact that a giddy white girl had become infatuated with a comely young Negro lad of scarcely more than twenty years of age. He was arrested at the insistence of a group of white men and the charge of attempted rape was lodged against him. The boy is yet in jail but the girl has disappeared and the rape charge is about to fall to the ground. Negroes Fear Lynching It is true that shortly after the arrest of the young colored man a small number of Negro men gathered in the vicinity of the jail. Tulsa Negroes had decided that no lynching should take place in Tulsa without a blood sacrifice to prevent. Rumors had reached the colored section that a lynching would be attempted by the whites. When the colored men arrived in the vicinity of the jail they found a number of white men who immediately assumed a hostile attitude toward the colored men. It was not long before trouble was started and the riot well under way. The Negroes fearing that their suspicions that a lynching was to be effected was about to be confirmed fought with great desperation and courage. Negroes Outnumbered Within a short while the Negroes were outnumbered by the whites and they began an orderly retreat which carried them to the North side of the Frisco Railroad tracks where they made a stand so valiant and death dealing that a S.O.S. was sent out by the Chief of the local police for soldier help. In the

hoodlums began to apply the torch to the business concerns of the colored people located along Greenwood Avenue. Prominent Negroes Killed It was but a short step from the business section to the better residential section in this locality. Here three prominent colored men met death defending their homes from the torch bearing mob. Dr. A.C. Jackson, the leading colored physician of the city, was killed on his doorstep and his well appointed home touched by the torch and totally destroyed by the fire that followed. The same fate befell Wesley Williams, the wealthiest Negro in Tulsa

Tulsa – A Horror and a Benediction The race war in Tulsa, Okla. Last week is at one and the same time a horror and a benediction. When the first word of the clash was sent ahead over the wires, millions of colored people shuddered. They visualized Tulsa’s 15,000 colored people battling against 85,000 whites to keep a Negro from being lynched without a trial. They saw them succeed, but in the effort lose their homes and churches and business houses – burnt up and utterly destroyed by bloodthirsty Southerners who style themselves a superior race. Last Sunday Tulsa’s colored section, separated by a railroad track from the whites was a model of Negro progress. It contained besides its many fine homes, beautiful churches, a newspaper plant, a drug store, a modern hotel and department store, which did a business of $100,000 a year. Oil made quite

a few colored men of the town wealthy and they developed a community which prospered without the aid of white banks and merchants. This was on Sunday and Wednesday night smoking ruins told their own story of death and destruction. This caused the feeling of horror in millions of hearts of American Negroes. But this is not all of the story. Millions of thoughtful Negroes will thank God for the Tulsa riot as another index of progress. Ten years ago Negroes would not fight when white men got ready to lynch one of their number. There may be hundreds of rural spots in southern United States where no public protest would be made should crackers start a lynching party today. But world knows what happened in Chicago, Omaha, Washington and East St. Louis when mobs started on a

of the First National for a long number of years and was one of the familiar and popular figures of the city. He was buried with signal honors, the officials of the bank attending in a body. Thousands Made Homeless The fires spread. White brutes applied the torch while the militia busied itself with the disarming and arresting of such Negroes who were unlucky enough to fall into their hands. In a short period of time a great host of defenseless women and children were being driven helter skelter by the unfeeling mob or made prisoners by the militia and police.

rampage. Today Tulsa knows there are black men who would rather die than submit to mob law and we have an idea, when the city is rebuilt, there will never be the need of any federal law to put an end to lynching there. We believe that Tulsa has got enough of mob spirit to last it a generation. This is the benediction of the Tulsa race riot. As long as we have yellow journals like the Tulsa daily and the local Sun and American, which feature disorderly cases involving black men and white women and close their columns to the same class cases when white men molest black women, there will be lynchings or rumors of lynchings – unless Black men will resolve with God as they did in Tulsa, that the law will be upheld, even though it costs home and church and business and life.

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June 16, 1922 Old Timer Sees President Harding: Says He Has Been Following Bishop Brooks Around Old Timer was in the crowd around Mt. Vernon Place trying to get a glimpse of President Harding as he entered the home of Senator France Wednesday. “Everybody seems to be here except Col. Carrington,” he told the reporter. “Boy, I wuz bound to git here to see if some of them fellers who are sayin’ France mustn’t go back to the Senit are in the crowd. “In fact, I wuz in sich a hurry to git here that I clean forgot this is No Accident Week and came near being hit by one of the automobeels. You’d a thought my rheumatics was clean gone by the haste in which I got out of the way. “Mare Broening is also some pumpkins today, having served a little crackers and tea to Mistah Harding at Emerson’s Bromo Seltzer Hotel.” “I suppose you are an admirer of Mr. Harding?” the reporter asked. “Yes, I love him about as much as Charley Cuttrill, “Link” Johnson and “Bob” Church do who was promised, but didn’t get no jobs,” replied Old Timer. “Boy, I see yore papah is hot after gittin’ a cullud man to boss the cullud schools. Keep up the fight, even if some of those high brows don’t help you.” “Where have you been lately?” asked the reporter. “Been busy follering Bishop Brooks around in gittin’ money for Africy and hepping him count

it. That shore is some man and I was sorry when he left the city Monday night, but I know there’s plenty of money just sittin’ up and waiting for him in yuther places. “Well, I am goin’ to the commencements and I will see the young folkses start out in life. I see by yore papah that more than a hundred students will finish at Prof. Mason Hawkin’s University. That hundred won’t be a handful to what’s a comin’ and you better hang right on to Mare Broening’s and the Skule Board’s coattails until they start the new building.” “How’s politics?” the reporter queried. “So simmering,” O.T. replied. “Bill Fitzgerald is out for my friend France, Tom Smith is gumshoeing for Fitz to be renominated for City Council, but he can’t tell for the life of hisself which Dimmycrat he is goin’ to gumshoe for the Senit,” O.T. said gravely. “Charles Wesley is having his big clarinet shined up and is goin’ to blow more music than Jack Thomas’ band did in Perkins Square last Friday night in letting the folks know he ain’t afeard to run against Fitz. You’d better watch Cap’n Brown up in the 14th ward and John Jones and Bill Gibson in the 5th. “There’s President Hardin’ now,” the old fellow said, as he tried to break through the police lines.

January 19, 1923 Colored Folk Crowd J.C. Cars Coming North New York, January 16 – Any old day becomes movin’ day in Dixie – Sunday preferred, wrote Lester Walton in a special article for the World yesterday. With apologies to Emile Cone, day by day in every way the Negro migration wave is getting larger and larger. Unless possessed of previous knowledge that the South is in the throes of a new exodus this fact would not be brought directly home to you from any unusual picture presented on the railroads. The Jim Crow coach at all times is a replica of the New York subway train at rush hour. Therefore no special significance can be attached to crowded Jim Crow cars. There is no way of differentiating between long distance travelers and those bound for intermediate points except by personally engaging in conversation. It is impossible to form correct conclusions with respect to a passenger’s distinction by casually taking an inventory of the clothes on his back or the amount of baggage, if any, carried.

His Complete Wardrobe It is an uncommon sight for a Negro to board a train for the Middle West clad in working clothes, which represents his complete wardrobe on or off his back. His personal appearance, which would suggest the probability of his alighting at the next station, is entirely misleading; for he is an interstate passenger traveling hundreds of miles to reach “the promised land” where justice is meted out on a more equitable and humane basis. So fire are many Negroes with an overwhelming desire to leave the South that they get on a train for the North with less than a dollar in their pockets after having bought a through ticket. Learning of their financial straits, frequently sandwiches and soda pop are supplied them by generous fellow passengers. The majority of those being drawn North on the crest of

the present wave have very little use for trunks. A family, consisting of from three to eight, convey their belongings in bulging suit cases of various sizes, colors and texture. There are instances of course, of families selling out their business and shipping household effects ahead. Their financial status, however, is above that of the average deserting the South. Tell their Stories The volubility of the migrant, particularly to one of his own race, has its pathetic appeal. In less than ten minutes you learn a life’s story, perhaps somewhat crudely related but full of human interest and narrated with childish simplicity. Inability to earn a decent livelihood, coupled with the reaction after years of pent-up resentment and dissatisfaction over unfair treatment are the potent reasons for shaking the dust of the Southland. These artless travelers possess an imagination elastic as that of a child of six indulging in fanciful reveries about the visit of Santa Claus. Crossing the Mason and Dixon Line to them is akin to entering another world. With sparking eyes and faces wreathed in smiles they tell you with a display of animation what is nearest to their minds and hearts – of a longing to live in a land where lynching is not a favorite pastime and where race discrimination in its various forms is not so pronounced. One of the strange features of the present exodus is that Negroes began leaving South at the advent of cold weather. Heretofore assertions have been made time and again that while the Negro went North during the spring and

summer months, he, nevertheless, found it advisable to return before winter set in. But the North winds, sleet and snow seem to be more compatible than lynching. Jim Crow car and other oppressive measures adopted “to keep the Negro in his place.” 50,000 Have Gone It is conservatively estimated that over 50,000 Negroes have left the Southern States for the North, West and Middle West within the past ninety days and they are leaving on every train. From the Mississippi and Arkansas deltas fully 15,000 have gone. Georgia comes next with 12,000, South Carolina, Texas and Alabama each furnish an imposing quota in order named. Whether the exodus will gain impetus or soon give evidence of having spent its force no one can foretell. The situation is puzzling, giving farmers, business and professional men grave concern. Farm owners in many sections face disastrous financial losses in the immediate future, for acres have been left untilled and crops are yet to be planted. Fears are entered that there may be a repetition of conditions during the war when 500,000 Negroes migrated northward.

July 4, 1925 Almost White Colored Folk Rile Georgia Atlanta, Ga. – Existence of a large number of nearly-white colored people in this State led this week to efforts to change the State law defining who is white and who is colored. The bill was introduced in the legislature by J.C. Davis, white, of DeKalb County. It provides: That the term “white persons” should apply to a person who has no trace whatsoever, of any other blood and Caucasian. (Previously seven-eighths white blood made a person white.) That the state registrar of vital statistics prepare a form for the registration of every person in the commonwealth by race. Birth registration by race shall be compulsory. White persons shall be prohibited from marriage with any other race. It is unlawful for state officers to issue marriage license for white and colored races. Pastors are forbidden also to perform such ceremonies. Whites and colored cannot marry and settle down in this state. Marriage applicants must give complete information as to parents, race and place of birth Shall be a crime for any person to make out a false birth or marriage certificate. Mr. Davis declared he realized that the white race and the black race intermarried in Egypt, India, Mexico, West Indies, Cuba and most of the South

American countries, despite all efforts to prevent it. We must employ, he said, some effective means to prevent it in America. Illegal Amalgamation “Illegal racial amalgamation is going on in Georgia at an alarming rate. There are many Georgia born mulattoes whose complexion is as white as any Caucasian and who may pass for white whenever and wherever they choose to do so. Mr. Davis however, says, nothing in his bill about hating this type of race mixture. ‘Dangers’ Are Outlined “The greatest present danger to the people of Georgia is the danger of unwittingly permitting a near white mulatto to marry into our families. This is a misfortune which can befall the high as well as the low, the rich as well as the poor. The social standing and wealth of the Rhinelander family did not prevent their son from marrying a near white mulatto woman. To use an example nearer home, I personally know of one secret order lodge in the city of Atlanta which recently initiated two near white mulattoes, believing them to be white men, and accepted them as members for quite a while until through accident it was discovered that they were mulattoes. They passed as white men socially, in business and in every other way.

Photo shows one of the colored dwellings in Rosewood, Fla., set on fire by mob. This dwelling and eleven others were totally destroyed leaving but a pile of cinders and twisted iron-bed frames.

Any man who is accepted as a member of a lodge will, as a general rule, be accepted in the homes of members of that lodge. Other Dangers “With transportation facilities convenient, as they are, rapid and in the reach of all, the mulatto or black Georgia Negro who is displeased with Georgia laws can go in one day to a state where he may marry a white and rear a family of mulattoes: and the legally born near white mulatto who has been bred up so close to the white line that the Negro characteristics are not apparent, may leave his northern home and reach Georgia in one day where he, being unknown, may palm himself off as white and marry into the white race here. 30,000,000 Negroes In the lifetime of some now living, we may expect the present 12,000,000 colored population to increase to 20,000,000 or possibly 30,000,000 and perhaps to 100,000,000 during the next century, to say nothing of the profile Mongolians who are already firmly established upon our western coast. Inter-Marriage Club “Dr. Frederick L. Hoffman, in Eugenics in race and state, volume 2, 1923, quotes Prof. A.E. Jenks, of the University of Minnesota, who with an assistant, made a study of the racial intermixture by marriage in St. Paul – Minneapolis, Professor Jenks, describing a club says: This club is known as the ‘Manassas Club’ and has about 200 members in the twin cities. Its only rule for eligibility being that the Negro seeking admission have a white wife.

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Famous Black poet- Colored men not allowed May 1, 1926 above first floor Cullen Barred at Emerson Hotel

Mr. Parker, manager of the Emerson Hotel, when seen by a reporter, refused to discuss the matter. When asked directly as to whether the policy of the hotel was to exclude all colored speakers, he stated that he had nothing to say about that and that the City Club incident would have to be referred to Rabbi Lazaron. Rabbi Morris S. Lazaron, whose duty it is to introduce speakers invited to appear before the City Club stated, when approached by a reporter for the AFRO that the president of the club would have to make any statement for publication that was forthcoming. It was learned from various sources that the invitation given Mr. Cullen came after the matter had been duly presented to the board which handles these matters and that at that time it met with the approval of that body. Efforts to secure another hotel were fruitless and the president of the club wired Mr. Cullen’s manager cancelling the date.


Courtesy Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division • LC-USZ62-42529

Countee Cullen, Harvard student, poet and winner of many national contests, was barred from the Emerson Hotel, Saturday. He had been invited to speak by the City Club at its mid-day luncheon and expected to read selections from his newest book of poem, “Color.” Mr. Cullen, who is the son of the Rev. F.A. Cullen, pastor of Salem M.E. Church, New York, is now a student at Harvard University. The senior Cullen is a former Baltimorean. The poet arrived in the city Saturday morning and went immediately to the Emerson hotel. He told the clerk of his engagement and asked that Rabbi Lazaron, chairman of the committee on speakers be informed. The clerk promised to call the Rabbi but Mr. Cullen waited for 15 minutes in the lobby until well past the time of his engagement. Again Mr. Cullen went to the desk and asked that the City Club officials be notified. Shortly after this James W. Chapman, president of the City Club came out and explained to Mr. Cullen that the hotel manager had refused to permit a colored man to go above the first floor in the hotel and for this reason his engagement had been cancelled. Word to this effect, Mr. Chapman said, had been wired to Harvard. Mr. Cullen, however, was in New York, and it failed to reach him in time. Check for traveling expenses was given Mr. Cullen and he then left the hotel. First arrangements were that Mr. Cullen was to remain in the city over Sunday and speak to the Scribblers and to the Modern Quarterly Clubs. Another social gathering was planned for the YMCA> After the insult, however, that was offered at the Emerson, Mr. Cullen felt it so keenly that he made several calls upon friends in the city and then left Saturday night for his home in New York. The members of the City Club explained that the club meetings are held in one of the hotel’s private dining rooms. Rabbi Lazaron had invited Mr. Cullen to speak, the question

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Congratulations Afro-American Newspaper of color never entering his mind. When the speaker was advertised, however, and the hotel management learned of it through the press, they called up the City Club officials and made it known that Mr. Cullen would be barred or they would have to take their meeting elsewhere.

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Walters Relocations Congratulates the Afro American on the 121st Anniversary Edition and its focus on the battles the Black community has waged for its civil rights.

National Park Service and National Alliance of Faith and Justice and our sponsors the W.K Kellogg Foundation and the U.S. Dept. of Justice the

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

Miss. Flood waters rise, Slavery re-emerges June 4, 1927 Walter White Finds Peonage Rife in Refugee Camps, Bayonets Bar Flood Victims New York – Negroes held in peonage in the Mississippi flood area, and prevented from leaving concentration camps without the consent of their landlords, also attempts to charge Negro tenants with the flood relief administered to them, are reported by Walter White, assistant secretary of the NAACP. Mr. White has returned from a tour of the flood area. He reports instances of Negroes escaping refugee camps and preferring to go without food, shelter and clothing rather than be returned to the plantations from which the flood had driven them. Mr. White released the following statement today at the Associations’ offices: Four Big Cities “In response to complaints of peonage in the Mississippi flood area, I went to that territory and in my tour visited Memphis, Vicksburg, Jackson, New Orleans and other places in the flooded region. At Memphis, I talked with Dr. William R. Redden, chief medical officer, for the Red Cross in the flood area. Dr. Redden authorized me to quote him as follows: The Red Cross emphatically disapproves of any attempt to use this disaster by landlords further to enslave Negro tenant farmers and sharecroppers. Aid is given directly to the individual sufferer. It would be an interesting problem to see that attempts by landlords and others to charge their relief against tenants are checked when such relief is given to refugees after they have returned to their homes. Released to Landlords “In many refugee camps, however, Negroes are released only to ‘their’ landlords and are sent back to the plantation from which they came. This fact was confirmed to me by General Curtis T. Green, commanding officer at Vicksburg of the Mississippi National Guard troops who are keeping order in the area covering registration from parts of Sunflower, Bolivar, Yazoo, Warren and Holmes Counties and all of Issaquena, Sharkey, Washington and Humphreys Counties. General Green told me that plantation owners come to the camps to pick out ‘their Negroes’ and that labor agents are kept from the camps ‘no man being permitted to talk to any

other but his own Negroes.’

taken out by industrial firms, being checked in again when their labors were finished. Most of these men had no objection to working, even though not paid, but they objected to the beating, cursing and kicking they had to endure.

Virtual Imprisonment “The extent of virtual imprisonment of Negro flood sufferers to prevent escape from the plantation areas is attested in a dispatch from Cleveland, Mississippi, published in the Vicksburg Evening Post, of May 5, in which it is stated: A meeting of the executive committee of the Citizens Relief Committee was held jointly with J.C. McMullen, director-in-charge of Red Cross relief work here. The matter of parties, covering a wide range of the delta section not overflowed, coming to Cleveland with the view and purpose of being permitted to remove families from the camp and place them on their own plantations, was thoroughly discussed and considered, with the result that the matter of releasing families or individuals to parties other than to the one with whom they have previously contracted for the year, was placed in the hands of V.W. Thomas. Mr. Thomas was instructed by the committee not to release any family or persons from the camp except on written consent of the landlord from whose plantation the laborers came or on the personal request or authorization of the landlords. Refugees Escape “At a number of camps I was told of Negroes eluding guards

The Peonage Farm Refugees and one of the campsites.

Brutality “There are also numerous instances of brutality in the treatment of Negroes forced to work on the levees under the guns of soldiers and even white civilians. In many places, notably Greenville and Stop’s Landing, Negroes were thus conscripted, among them being an insurance agent, and they were kept at work even when it was plain the levee would break.

Walter White, NAACP assistant secretary

and escaping, preferring to forego food, shelter, clothing and medical attention rather than go back to the

plantations from which the flood waters had driven them. At some of the camps Negroes were being

40 Carried Away “When the break came, this insurance agent told me how he saw some forty or fifty Negroes swept away by the waters, presumably to death. He managed to fight his way back to the levee. He is a graduate of Tuskegee, married, with a child and entirely trustworthy and reputable. “He injured his foot in the break of the levee but was put to work on the levee at Greenville, being allowed to obtain treatment for his injury only when that levee gave away two days later. Did Not Know They Owned Bodies “In conclusion I will give one more authorized quotation from Dr. Redden, showing the conditions prevalent in the Delta: Some of the Negroes did not even know that their own bodies belonged to them. When we sought to vaccinate them they said that it could be done only after their plantation bosses gave their permission. When some of these plantation owners objected we had to tell them ‘Either you will permit vaccination or we will stop relief.’ Red Cross Ignorant “In my talk with responsible heads of the Red Cross I was impressed with their attitude of fairness and impartiality but of course individual subordinates in doing the work do not always act in accordance with the expressed spirit of the Red Cross. The attention of the central administration is being called to the complaints.”

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May 12, 1928 Epitome of Southern racism Blease Again on Rampage; Cites Afro

Colored Woman Virago “I warn you people,” declared Blease, “that when you turn the Negro man loose in a riot with whatever arms he may be able to accumulate and turn the Negro woman, virago, loose with a torch, God save you people who are acting as you do toward them today. “You may smile at it today and think it is a small matter, but we people who have faced it warn you that you are playing with fire, that you are playing with serpents; and when the day comes do not forget that the solid South will stand on the rock for white supremacy upon which she has ever stood.” Black Chocolates “I hope Illinois will send a ‘nigger’ to Congress. I want to walk over and see one of Hoover’s black chocolates sitting around with some of the white people here who seem to love them so well. I also hope New York will send one down. “The more you rub them into those people that love them the better I like it. You cannot make them associate with us. There are not enough marines in or outside of the United States Army and Navy in Nicaragua and all

the colored race the promise that if they are elected president of the United States a Negro will put in the Cabinet. “I do not think the candidate, himself, is responsible for that, but it is being talked; and it is being talked about one Alfred Smith and one Herbert Hoover. I do not think they know it, but some of their friends are saving it; but I will tell you this much: If they are elected, I would not be very much surprised if they carried out the promise – either one of them. If a man will make a white woman sit down at a desk and work right side by side or in between two big, black buck ‘niggers,’ I would not be at all surprised to see him put one in his cabinet. Courtesy Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division • LC-DIG-hec-21141

Washington, D.C. – ‘Coley’ Blease, Democratic Senator from South Carolina, went on a rampage here again Monday taking raps at Hoover, President Johnson, of Howard University and an Afro American news story. Senator Blease’s tirade came during the discussion of Bill (S 1727) to amend the retirement of employees act for the classified Civil Service. Referring to the recent order of Herbert Hoover to eradicate segregation in the Department of Commerce, Blease called attention to the fact that just a few days ago the Republican keynoter, Senator Fess (Ohio) was defeated for delegate to the Republican Convention by a Negro. This was done, he said, because Negroes in the State of Ohio heralded Hoover’s act in all the newspapers and made it a special appeal to colored voters to support Hoover.

Sen. Cole Blease

combined to make us associate with them. “I have been told – I do not know that it is true: I do not assert it as the truth, and I do not believe that any candidate for president himself, would be guilty of it – but I have been told in the last few days that certain friends of two of the candidates making this race for the presidency, have held out to

January 12, 1929 6,000 Saw Mississippi Lynching Lynched Man’s Bones are Scattered Along the Road Rome, Miss. – All that remains of the powerful body of Charley Sheppard, doublemurderer and assaulter, were a few charred and blackened bones along the roadside between here and state prison camp No. 11. The blackened skull of the man who paid by an hour of burning alive before he lost consciousness, smoked in a ditch beside the road next morning, tossed there by a white souvenir hunter who captured it after cremation.

A leg which had been carried off by another white witness to the burning, was likewise along the road. Dismembered parts of the body were carried off, but because of the stench were thrown from automobiles at various distances from the burning. The white man who cut off Sheppard’s ears with a pocket knife just before the torch was applied to his gasoline soaked body later exhibited them at a filling station in Drew.

Cites AFRO Referring to President Mordecai Johnson of Howard University. Senator Blease cited a news story appearing on the first page of the Afro American of the issue of March 3. “Howard Prexy Declares for Full Equality – Scientists Agree, He Says, That No Harm Can Come From Intermarriage.” This damnable doctrine which I have read is that promulgated by the man at the head of Howard University to which, a few days ago, you appropriate the sum of $390,000. “He is going around about the country spreading among the members of the Negro race, and, of course, among the students of Howard University, this rotten, indecent doctrine on marriage between the white and African races. “On the front page of this paper, (AfroAmerican) almost side by side with the article that I have read, appears the news that southern members of Congress voted for that appropriation. “May God have mercy on them. Little Black Baby “There was a boy in South Carolina whom I knew from his boyhood quite well. He rolled the mail in a town there from the depot to the post office in a cart, away back years before they had automobiles. He was as white, so far as color of skin was concerned, as any man in

this building. “He came up here to Washington, got an appointment through the man who was the postmaster, a Republican, from the North, went to work in one of the departments, and met a girl in the department whose father was a very splendid white man, a man of standing and influence here in the community. He came from one of the far Western states. This boy and this girl married. About 14 or 15 months after they had been married this girl gave birth to a child. The father was walking up and down with the husband on the outside, anxiously waiting, as I suppose parents generally are. The boy walked around into his room. About that time the doctor opened the door. The girl’s father said, “Doctor, how is everything – alright?” “The doctor looked down, and he said, ‘No.’ “The father said, ‘My God! Is it dead?’ “The doctor said, ‘No: worse than that.’ “The father said, ‘What in the h--- could be worse?’ “He said, ‘the baby is a nigger.’ “That happened in Washington City. The father rushed back into the room and saw the little black baby lying on the side of its white mother. He dashed out and got this boy and dragged him into the room and demanded to know what that meant, and demanded from the girl. “The reply was, which was the truth, that the boy was the son of a Negro woman by a white doctor. When this child was brought into the world it reverted to type, as any physician will tell you it will do. “That man took that boy and that daughter and sent them away out to his home, out yonder. So far as I know, they are there yet. That boy was born and reared in the county Newberry, where I was born and reared. I knew his father, I knew his mother, and I know that the census is correct: and I know that the census is correct; and I once more warn you white people who are pleading for inter-marriage, to be careful that you do not have in your cradles at home a little black baby.”

April 12, 1930 Census Taker is Ousted Because He is Colored

Washington – Following the receipt of a protest from a white man who objected to his wife answering questions to a Negro census enumerator, William D. Denney, white, director of the census for Delaware, dismissed Bernard Saunders, enumerator for the rural section of New Castle County last week. It was made clear that no act of Saunders occasioned his dismissal for he was considered one of the most efficient of the census takers in the group of thirty working in the county, of which he was the only colored. Capital Silent Inquiries at the Bureau of Census, however, failed to throw any official light on the matter

as Director Steuart stated positively that “no such incident had come under his notice.” He said that he questioned whether any supervisor having appointed an enumerator would dismiss him on any such complaint. Woman Violated Law The refusal or the woman to answer the questions of the enumerator and the subsequent objection of her husband is in strict violation of the Census Act which makes a person refusing to answer the questions of a duly appointed enumerator guilty of a misdemeanor and punishable of imprisonment or $500 fine.

April 12, 1930 Train Lynching in Georgia is South’s Newest

Memphis, Tenn. – A mysterious cloak of silence has been placed around the circumstances of the lynching of J.H. Wilkins, a Pullman porter of Kansas City, Mo., who was taken from the Southern Railroad special express, running between Miami, Florida, and Kansas City, Friday night, and slain. The body of the porter, dressed in his Pullman uniform, was found by some small boys, tied to a tree at Locust Grove, Georgia. When reports of the murder were first made known, it was not disclosed in what manner the porter had been seized and taken from the train. The train was not supposed to stop between Macon and Atlanta, Ga., but it is learned that a stop was made at Juliette, seventeen miles from the scene of the murder. Wilkins was last seen at Macon at three o’clock in the morning. It is believed that the killing must have occurred about half past four, as other porters claimed to have missed him first at five o’clock. Two other porters, who were supposed to continue on the train to Kansas City, were not allowed to do so, but were stopped in this city. Woman in Berth According to unofficial reports which have leaked out, Wilkins was taken from the train through the

window of berth No. 7. The berth had a white woman occupant. This woman was allowed to leave the train when it reached the city, also. The belief has been expressed that Wilkins came to his death at the hands of the white train crew. The theory is that some action on the part of Wilkins had aroused the ire of the crew, and that they stopped the train at Locust Grove, and, after stabbing him, one of their number dragged his body nearly a quarter of a mile away and tied it to the sapling. There were footprints from where the train stopped to the tree, but they were not the footprints of Wilkins. A line of blood drops ran parallel to the footprints. Porter 12 Years – No Blot Although one white woman passenger on the train said that she admonished Wilkins earlier in the night about drinking, telling him that he was his own worst enemy, he had been a porter for twelve years without a blot on his record. Passengers on the train said that Wilkins and the other porters had been uniformly courteous and attentive to them. At the time he was taken from the train he was supposed to be on watch for the other porters who were asleep.

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Scottsboro Boys April 18, 1931 Sentence of Octet to Electric Chair in One Day is Nation’s Record Scottsboro, Ala. – With eight men on their way to the electric chair after a record day’s death convictions, the fate of 14-yearold Roy Wright, charged with the others of committing a wholesale assault on two white hobo girls traveling in a freight car, hung in the balance when the jury disagreed with 24 hours deliberation. The state’s attorney sought the death sentence for the boy after the girls testified that all nine of the men took their turn in attacking them. Was Gala Day The trial was a gala day for this section. Ten thousand white mountaineers and villagers laid aside their work and came to town the day of the trial. A special “arrangement committee” was appointed

by the town authorities and business men to boost the attendance of the affair. When the trial was called, every bit of the space in the courtroom was filled and thousands milled about the streets and in the courtyard which was under guard of the troops. Machine guns had been set up in the entrances of the building and at strategic points around the courthouse. It was mutually agreed that the defendants would be tried in pairs, and “justice” was dispensed in rapid fashion as jury after jury, after short deliberation returned verdicts of guilty. The white girls identified their assailants; the assailants denied the attacks and jury agreed with the white girls and after the last verdict was rendered, Judge J. A. Hawkins sentenced the following men to death in the electric chair on July 10:

Charlie Weems and Ozie Powell, Eugene Williams and Andy Wright, Clarence Norris and Heywood Patterson, Olen Montgomery and Willie Robertson.

Subdue Them Following the conviction the men were taken to Gadsden where they were placed in the “bull pen.” Here they were beaten into submission after they were alleged to have staged a riot and demanded special food. They were placed in irons. A number of labor bodies charge that the eight men were railroaded to their doom and have made protests against the trial. Governor Miller at Montgomery, received protests in the case from the International Labor Defense in New York, the League of

Struggle for Negro Rights of New York and the Anti-Imperialst League of the United States. The governor declined to comment. The alleged attacks occurred March 24, when the nine youths were beating their way on a freight train with the two white girls and their five male companions. According to the story of the white girls, the white boys were thrown from the car, and they were attacked. When the train arrived here the alleged rapists were removed from the train and placed in the local jail. Preparations were being made to lynch them when the members of the mob were forced to seek warmer quarters due to a drop in the temperature and before the coldwave was over, troops were here to guard the prisoners who were later taken to Gadsden.

October 10, 1931 Fight for Cops and Firemen: Walter White NAACP Head Chides Baltimore for Lack of Organization Although he came to Baltimore to promote the fight to save the nine youths in the Scottsboro frame-up, Walter White, executive secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, spoke most forcefully on the political stagnation he had observed in Baltimore and urged his hearers to fight for their share of the public funds, at a meeting held in Bethel AME Church, Monday night. Speaking in this vein, Mr. White declared that there is $3 million in the fire department budget, $4 million in the police budget, but colored citizens were denied the right to share in this annual expenditure, even in the most menial capacities. This condition, he declared, can only be remedied by a strong association

that can make the politicians listen. There is $9,000 spent by the public works department, but colored people can only dig in the streets, for even the right to lift garbage and ashes is denied them. Mr. White indicted Baltimore for its laxity in supporting the NAACP and declared that it is time for Baltimore to stop complaining of hard times and get out and make conditions better through organization. He urged local lodges, churches and organizations to take out a $500 life membership in the NAACP. Work Out Salvation Prefacing his address with a tribute to the late Bishop Hurst, Mr. White spoke of his great respect and close friendship for the late prelate.

Touching upon the world-wide problems that are causing the nations unrest, he said: “When the world is in a chaotic condition this is the time for minority groups to work hard for their salvation.” Mr. White reviewed the Scottsboro case up to date, painting a vivid picture of the fight the association is making to free these nine boys from the death penalty. “The Scottsboro case is important, not so much because it is the fight for the lives of nine innocent boys, but because this case is a part of the whole mass movement of colored people here and abroad to come out from under oppression,” he declared. Speaking of the tactics employed by the Communists, he said: “If the Communists had

come into the case on a platform of world-wide propaganda, as was their first motive, they would have made colored people their debtors. Instead, they have muddled the situation considerably by sending threatening telegrams to the prosecution officers and the governor of Alabama and the judge in the case. If these boys die, the lives of colored people in this country will be a little less safe. The National Association secretary has already made three trips to Alabama in the interest of the case and expects to make another next week. The case, which comes up for trial January 18, 1932, has already covered 790 type-written pages of evidence and has cost the association $600 in stenographers’ fees alone.

February 4, 1933 Invited but not included Woodson Raps Separate Arrangements For the Roosevelt Inauguration By DR. CARTER G. WOODSON Editor of the Journal of Negro History

The other day a friend of mine, now very much worried about losing his job on the fourth of March, sang to me the woes afflicting so many others on the eve of a change in the Federal administration. In a facetious manner I suggested that he talk with G. David Houston, to whom many people have referred as the coming “spokesman” for his Harvard classmate, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Certainly we who have received scant consideration from Herbert Hoover would not like to suffer still more at the hands of the incoming chief executive of the nation. Anything which may prevent such a thing certainly should be cheerfully done by the friends of humanity. Not Taken Seriously When I heard that this scholarly classmate of the Presidentelect was to dabble in political matters, however, I did not take

it more seriously than that he would have access to this public functionary and would add a word occasionally to see that less injustice be meted out to our oppressed people. Inasmuch as Mr. Houston has well established himself by his work in education and as a successful newspaper correspondent in local matters. I never think of him as having time to give to things purely political. If he desire to do so, however, it is his affair, not mine. Yet, I cannot refrain from expressing the hope that this educator will not go to the extent of making himself an agent through which we must be meagerly served by persons whose attitude toward us is such that they will not give adequate attention to those less fortunate than the victors in the recent election It will be so much better for a man of color to become the advisor of the President of the United States, not on matters which peculiarly concern the Negro but on all affairs respecting the common welfare and social justice. The thinking Negro will Continued from page 9

Dr. Carter G. Woodson

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how can he do so while directing the youth to the ghetto? They must be taught to think, not to eat, drink, and romp at the back door.

Continued from page 8

struggle to reach this higher ground in politics. Declined to Serve I received another impression of the affair the other day, however, when I was called up by several “distinguished” person’s who insisted that I serve on the Colored Inaugural Committee which will provide for the entertainment of the politicians who will appear in Washington to participate in restricted fashion in the inauguration of the President of the United States. Inasmuch as I never accept jim-crowism, unless it is forced upon me, I had to refuse to permit the use of my name, but these gentlemen of the Jim Crow resorted to the argument that I should be willing to serve thus because Mr. G. David Houston is to be the chairman of this special committee, and his name so appears on their letterhead. Is this to be Mr. Houston’s function on the regular Inaugural Committee? Surprise This struck me as a great surprise, and I am still hoping that a man of such educational influence will withdraw from any such jim-crowism which has been the thing to which politicians have usually stooped for their bread and butter. Mr. Houston does not need to do it, and there can be no pecuniary reason for such stooping. He will want to retain the respect of his student; and

Step Backward It is all right for our people in this city to make preparation to entertain friends whenever they come to Washington, but to make a special effort to stage festivities at the back door when they are denied the right to come through the front door and participate in the grand functions of this occasion is to me a step backward toward slavery. We are not compelled to have a banquet or a dance during the inaugural season. Yet, if they must dance or dine, they can easily arrange such functions at some other time when they are not semi-officially worked out so as to determine their social status at a great disadvantage. Sackcloth and Ashes If we are not to be admitted to the real inaugural function because of our color, we should show much more manhood by remaining at home in sackcloth and ashes as a protest against the denial of this social and civic right. To proceed otherwise means surrender to the oppressor. It looks too much like slavery to see our men and women purchasing expensive finery to imitate others whom they can see only by peeping through the windows and the cracks of the doors. It is a most discouraging thing to men who have worked hard in trying to open their eyes of our people when they see those who are “educated” content to hang on to customs observed among the salves a century ago.

First and Second Holidays These “educated” persons remind me of those whom, as a boy, I observed in Virginia. I used to hear our people during the springtime talk about the First Holiday and the Second Holiday for which they always made extensive preparation. The white people at the same time were busy getting ready for the great festivities of Easter and Whitsuntide. I could not understand the difference in point of view until I studied the history of slavery. I found out that this custom carried over into freedom, developed from the fact that the ante-bellum whites had their festivities during the days leading up to and on Easter and Whitsuntide while the slaves who had to work hard waiting on them were permitted to have theirs at the back door or in the barnyard on the Mondays following these important days. Now here in 1933 we find our “highly educated” people conforming to these same customs of slavery. It is evident, then, that you cannot free a man by telling him to be free. He has to be free in spirit before you can make him a real free man. You cannot free a man’s mind from the slave psychology merely by sending him to school and cramming it with facts that somebody else would like to have him know. To free him and make him free indeed his mind must be so fed as to stimulate his thinking and enable him to plan and do for himself. Some of us do not think, and we lose our self-respect when we so stoop as to participate in such degradation of our own status. We thereby demonstrate in a most dramatic fashion what education will not do for some of us.

the ‘What is Integration?’ debate February 25, 1933 Houston Defends March 4th Inaugural as Democratic By G. David Houston, chairman Inaugural Committee’s Committee on Special Entertainment Washington – Running true to form, certain critics have loaded their heaviest guns with their usual ‘jim crow’ ammunition in an attempt to throw a broadside into the Inaugural Committee. Stunned by the new type of Democracy, these critics should be excused for not understanding what is really going on. Instead of curtailing the participation of our people in the inaugural ceremonies, the inaugural leaders created a committee to relate us to every phase of the ceremonies. Never in the history of inaugurations has so much concern been shown for our feelings, and it is very doubtful whether the propaganda will go far that points to the chairman of the committee on Special Entertainment as the “Uncle Tom,” or “Uncle Ned” type. The slight excitement is without cause and may be only a smokescreen to becloud the real motive. Share in Every Feature In order, however, that the public may have the facts, the chairman wishes all to know that the Inaugural Committee expects our citizens to share in every feature of the ceremonies. Positively no color-line has been drawn in any of the activities. The listing of committee members under the chairman of the Committee on Special Entertainment was for the definite purpose of assistance in covering all phases of the ceremonies, thus affording Democratic treatment to colored representatives. Complaint as to Marchers For example, hitherto there has been a general complaint of positions which our marchers have had in the line of parade. The listing of a sub-chairman on parade simply means that his function is to look after the welfare of these marchers – not to have a separate parade of his own. Souvenirs Likewise, the former complaint that our own visitors have been unable to secure official souvenirs was met by setting up a sub-chairman to handle souvenirs so that the limited stock might not be exhausted before prospective colored purchasers might be accommodated – not to set up a parallel activity. Regardless of what strides true democracy may be making, the most sanguine among us could hardly look forward to the reception and housing of our visitors to Washington by any other group than our own. Certain inescapable functions thus become imperative for the Committee on Special Entertainment. Perhaps the ideal democracy, which is a consummation devoutly to be wished, might see all the hotels open alike to all comers, but that idealistic day has not arrived in time for the housing of the colored visitors. The committee, therefore, has a real function, regardless of how the critics may regard it. No Substitution The entertainment prepared by the committee was not in any way to be construed as a

substitution for any activity which our visiting guests might care to attend, but an assured addition, which was destined to augment their pleasures while in the city, dwelling as they needs must with their own people. There may, of course, be some isolated exceptions. Clubs It so happens that there are a number of colored Democratic clubs throughout the country, not christened so by the committee, but so labeled by themselves. As such clubs are like-minded in their political faith, it was deemed wise to have a get-together of these clubs. A banquet was suggested by some, but other forms of entertainment were selected – not surely to be attended by those who prefer going elsewhere. The Inaugural Ball The inaugural ball seems to be the target for some of the misguided critics. Originally, a number of balls were to have been sponsored by the Inaugural Committee, but for various reasons, almost solely the unavailability of the halls, only two balls were sponsored, neither of which was restricted as to patronage. When there has been only one inaugural ball, our visitors in meager numbers have attended, but largely as spectators. There never has been any exclusion on color. For obvious reasons, our people have attended to the matter of self-exclusion. They have always wanted their own ball, but have never obtained the official sponsoring of such an event. It has always been underwritten by private individuals who have sensed the need of such an affair. Two Balls This Year To make possible the entertainment of more persons, the Inaugural Committee is sponsoring two balls, each in a handsome hall, with the same democratic treatment, with the hope of representation of the White House at both halls. Neither ball is labeled by color. Neither is restricted as to patronage. A safe and sober guess is that one is likely to be attended preponderantly by one of the visiting groups; the other preponderantly by the other visiting group. Election – Not Segregation Frankly, we feel that most of our visitors, who are impelled more by the desire of entertainment than that of curiosity, will most likely want to ply their way to the ball. When people elect to be together, they are not

segregated. Thanks to our generous citizens of Washington, who are serving in large numbers on the various sub-committees, every effort is being made to receive members of our group with outstretched hands. It would be to the everlasting discredit of such local citizens if they permitted our visitors to come here without providing some provisions for giving them a ball, without attempting to crowd them into one ball that has already sold a record number of tickets. On the other hand, such entertainment should not be left to private individuals, whether they have philanthropic or commercial aims.

No Curtailment Briefly, there is no plan afoot to curtail the colored people’s participation in the inaugural ceremonies. On the other hand, our people will receive better treatment than ever known before. The setting up of a committee to see to it that we are included in every feature of the ceremonies is in itself a guarantee of the proper kind of treatment. Let no one pay serious attention to any propaganda, but attend with wide-open eyes. The indications are that our people will be in Washington in large numbers. The committee welcomes the huge under taking of welcoming, housing and entertaining them, with no intention of curtailing their participation in the ceremonies.

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dream The

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

Introduction 1934-1954


s economic times grew harder in the early to mid 20th century, Blacks’ demands for a place at the table intensified. The crash of the stock market in October 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression led to the demise of many factories, whose products were no longer needed by a populace struggling to earn enough money for the essentials. As factories cut production, layoffs were ordered. Blacks, many of whom had found work in factories in the North after fleeing the oppression of the South, were hit particularly hard. As the nation struggled with the economic downturn, it also struggled with racism. In 1934, threats by racist Whites against Blacks so concerned city leaders in Oklahoma City that martial law was imposed. The next year, the NAACP took President Franklin Roosevelt to task for failing to move on civil rights legislation. Also in 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law that blocked Blacks from voting in Texas primaries. In 1936, the latest of several bills to outlaw lynching passed the House but failed in the Senate as powerful Southerner lawmakers lobbied against the measure. As such events occurred, Blacks increasingly cried foul. Peaceful protests and acts of civil disobedience began to occur. Churches provided Black leaders with places to hold meetings to inform African Americans about means to protest discrimination. NAACP chapters were formed by the hundreds. In places like Florida, a hotbed of racism, heroes like Harry T. Moore protested vehemently against lynchings and other attacks on Blacks. The AFRO covered the stories. Mid-century also saw some major victories in decisions that set the stage for segregation to be attacked in the courts later. In 1936, the same year Jessie Owens took gold in Germany, equal teacher pay, regardless of race, was established in Gibbs v. Board of Montgomery County. The NAACP later used this ruling to argue for equal pay for other jobs. In 1938, the Supreme Court decided that in cases where an equal separate education was not possible, an equal education had to be provided, even if it meant sending Blacks into segregated schools. By the 1940s, Blacks had been allowed to fight in World War II, given the right to vote in primaries, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) has been formed and the first members of the “Freedom Riders” had started moving through the South in buses. The AFRO covered all of the action as the protests, litigation and other actions that would lead to the Civil Rights Movement heated up.


“75,000 Persons Cheer Marian,” touted an AFRO headline on April 15, 1939, announcing a story about opera singer Marian Anderson’s triumphant performance at the Lincoln Memorial after she was banned from singing at Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution. “President Orders Defense Jobs Open to All,” read a headline on June 21, 1941, over a story about FDR placing “the full support of his office behind the task of wiping out discrimination against colored workers in defense industries.” Some of the most respected soldiers in the fight for Black rights wrote for the AFRO. Charles Hamilton Houston, the legendary attorney who filed the cases that ultimately led to the desegregation of public schools, wrote eloquently in the pages of the AFRO before his death in 1950. Under the headline “Spotlight on Mississippi,” on Dec. 10, 1946, Hamilton wrote: “In the Senate Committee hearings in Jackson, Miss., against Sen. Theodore Bilbo on charges of inciting intimidation in the last primary campaign, the colored man in Mississippi came of age. The Senate ruled before the hearings…that it would not subpoena witnesses to support the charges against Senator Bilbo, but would rely on volunteer testimony. Many people were apprehensive lest the Mississippi victims might be afraid to testify.” But when the time came, Hamilton noted in the AFRO, “nearly 200 veterans” were there. “Older men, too, were there to testify, regardless of possible reprisals against their property, businesses and families. “Mississippi,” he wrote, “met the test.”

Front Page Articles 1. Supreme Court Rules Favorably in All Three Segregation Cases, June 10, 1950 2. Court Ends Maryland U.S. Color Bar: Court Orders U of Md to Admit Amherst Graduate, June 22, 1935 3. Mrs. Morgan Hails J.C. Bus Victory, June 15, 1946 4. FDR Orders End of Civil Service Ban, September 13, 1941 5. Mix Classes, June 5, 1954 6. Memphis is Upset, Colored Infant May Prove an Ofay, September 1, 1934 7. Court Orders Law School Opened, January 17, 1948

100: Nine Whites Held in Jail Cripp Jackson, Emory les and Aged ... All photos AFRO Archives, except where otherwise noted. Afro-American (1893-1988); Aug 17, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The 1946; Baltimore Afro-American (1893-198 pg. 1 8)

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Overs mpanies Delete Our Soldiers from Movies Cut Troops: 5 Co Jan 8, 1944; 88) Afro-American (1893-1988); Baltimore Afro-American (1893-19 ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The pg. 1

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8. Army Ignores Truman Order, June 2, 1951 9. Waves Taste J.C., December 30, 1944 Images (Clockwise) 1. Mary McLeod Bethune in conversation with Frances Murphy I, circa 1940s, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 2. March Supporting Anti-Lynching Bill Passage, circa 1940s, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 3. Detroit Riot Victim, 1943, Courtesy of Afro American Archives

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American

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June 22, 1935 Court Ends Md. U’s Color Bar Baltimore – the action of the University of Maryland in barring Donald Gaines Murray, Amherst College graduate, from its law school because of his color, was declared illegal by a decision of Judge Eugene O’Dunne, white, Tuesday, in the Baltimore City Court. NAACP lawyers led by Dr. Charles H. Houston, special counsel for the organization, defended Mr. Murray’s plea for a writ of mandamus, requiring the university to accept and pass upon his entrance qualifications. Issues Writ Judge O’Dunne, after hearing the testimony in the controversy ruled that the case was past the investigation stage and issued a writ of mandamus that requires the institution to admit the applicant in the law school. Reports indicate that the State will appeal the case, but Charles T. LeViness, III, white, assistant attorney general, would not commit himself on the question. Hopes for Success At the conclusion of the case, however, Mr. LeViness said, “I wish to be quoted as saying that I hope that Mr. Murray leads the class in the law school and graduates as valedictorian.” He made this statement while shaking hands with the Amherst graduate. From the beginning, in the early hours of the morning, to the close at 5 p.m. – past normal closing time – the case was a sharp interchange of legal argument and court wit. The argument in the case was opened by Mr. Houston, special

attorney for the NAACP. Mr. Houston pointed out that the action is being brought against a ruling on the right of Mr. Murray to enter the institution. He quoted the charter of the University of Maryland as admitting that the university bars no persons because of creed or religion. He said in substance, the requirements of the University of Maryland for admission to the law school are two years of college work and a good moral character. He pointed out in the petition Mr. Murray is a graduate of Amherst College, with more than the minimum requirements. He declared that the application was arbitrary and wrongfully refused and violated the Fourteenth Amendment. O’Conor Absent Mr. Houston was followed by Mr. LeViness, who in the absence of Herbert R. O’Conor opened the case for the University of Maryland. Mr. LeViness was asked at the outset by Judge O’Dunne: “Does the State of Maryland establish the reason of race as a cause for barring Mr. Murray from the university?” Policy to Exclude LeViness: Yes. It is public policy of this state to exclude colored from schools attended by whites to maintain a separate system of education. Judge O’Dunne: What does public policy have to do with it? LeViness: By saying the law provides for separate schools in theory if not in fact and has established an entire division in the department of education for the

the growing demand for higher education, the legislature passed an act providing scholarships in 1931 and in 1935 created a commission of higher education for colored. He cited the members of the commission. He said that the commission administers a sum of $10,000. Judge O’Dunne: Where do the students go when they get these scholarships? LeViness: They go to other states and Howard University.

Charles H. Houston benefit of colored people. When we get to the higher brackets of education, Princess Anne Academy a junior college provides for colored. We have also the large appropriation for Morgan College. Charges no Demand Mr. LeViness also added that until recently there has been no demand for higher education for colored, hence there has been no provision. He said, however, pursuant to

Cites Separate System Judge O’Dunne: Well, here is one who doesn’t want to go outside of the state and doesn’t want to go to Howard University. What are you going to do about him? LeViness: Well, we have a separate system of education. Judge O’Dunne: What are you going to do, persuade him to be a doctor instead? Now let us look at it in a practical way. Then the jurist pointed out that the sum of $200 which is awarded by the state for higher education is in no way a just scholarship. He said this because, as he pointed out, it would be necessary after the tuition has been paid also to pay board and lodging. Can’t See Argument LeViness then said that he assumed that if there were a law school anywhere in the State of Maryland for colored people, Mr. Murray’s case would be invalid and since that was the reasoning in the case he could not see where the argument concerning board and lodging could be introduced. Judge O’Dunne answered: “Yes, but that is not in this case.”

Won’t Admit It. And then LeViness was asked by Judge O’Dunne whether the state admits that Mr. Murray is qualified. He answered by saying: “We do not dispute the qualifications, but we don’t admit it either. “That’s an equivalent to a denial,” Judge O’Dunne replied. He then asked that the state admit in the record that so far as scholarship is concerned Mr. Murray is qualified and LeViness admitted this in the record which was filed. Mr. Murray, on the witness stand, declared that his parents are taxpayers in the city and that he wants to go to the university law school because it is convenient for him. Pearson Under Fire Dr. Raymond A. Pearson, white, president of the university, was longest on the witness stand. His testimony took nearly an hour and a half. In response to verbal prodding by Dr. Houston, Dr. Pearson declared that he believes that in some instances the faculty of Princess Anne Academy, a small school on the Eastern Shore that is called a branch of the University of Maryland, is equal to that of the university. Training Similar He insisted that the first two years of training at Princess Anne are the same as the first two years at the University of Maryland. It was the state’s contention that the academy provides one of the adequate ways of meeting the need for higher education of members of Mr. Murray’s race.

ABC CONGRATULATES the AFRO American Newspaper on its 121st Anniversary


A discussion featuring

Rev. Raphael G. Warnock, Ph.D.

of the Historic Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia



6 PM –8 PM

Frederick Douglass-Isaac Myers Maritime Museum 1417 Thames Street | Baltimore, MD 21231





Register at 1114 Cathedral Street | Baltimore, MD 21201 | 410.659.0000 |

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

June 29, 1935 University of Maryland Applicant Gets Threatening Letter

Baltimore- Receipt of a threatening letter by Donald Gaines Murray, who last week won the right to enter the University of Maryland’s law schools, was revealed, this week, as the city court ruling of Judge Eugene O’Dunne was appealed by order of the University’s regents. The action of the board of regents came following a session in the Fidelity Building, Monday. It was moved that the attorney-general make an immediate appeal and ask the court to hear the case before the school opens next term. Final Settlement Anticipated The purpose of this request for speed was explained by Charles T. LeViness, III, white, of the attorney general’s office, who said that the University of Maryland wishes to settle the

matter once and for all in the court of appeals. Authorities of the university do not regard the decision in the Murray case as reason for admitting all qualified members of Mr. Murray’s race.

New Applicant They point out that they already have a second applicant for admission to the school of law, filed by Benjamin Price, 1516 Druid Hill Avenue, graduate of Indiana University. Action on Mr. Price’s application must be held up, the school officials contend, until the court of appeals makes a ruling in the case.

Donald Gaines Murray

Murray Gets Threat The threat to Mr. Murray, written on a penny postcard, and received through the mails directly after the favorable verdict of Tuesday, follows:

You damn n----r. You are doing your race a bad turn – we will not put with n------ism or the yankee doings – so you had better go back to the n----r Yankees---you and such as you are bound to force a head which certainly will not result in any good to you. The message is signed with a scrawl, and addressed to N----r Donald G. Murray, 1500 block of McCulloh Street. Mr. Murray is inclined to regard the matter as a joke, and with a smile he said, Saturday, “The person who wrote that probably never finished the eighth grade, and I’m not worrying about it anyway.” Attorneys Determined Thurgood Marshall, one of Mr. Murray’s attorneys, also was inclined to regard the matter as the work of some crank or fanatic. He pointed out, however, that he may take the matter up with the postal inspector – just to make sure, if such assurance can be obtained. “My client is going to the University of Maryland in September,” Mr. Marshall said, “and we are going to fight this thing through to the end.”

April 15, 1939 75,000 Persons Cheer Marian: Capital Sees Greatest Public Demonstration Against Jim Crow Since the Funeral of Col. Charles Young. Sixteen years ago I followed a great procession down Pennsylvania Avenue. Behind the military escort was led a riderless horse, its owner’s boots reversed in stirrups. On a gun carriage, drawn by eight black horses, rested the flag-covered casket of Col. Charles Young. Sixty thousand persons lined the sidewalks as the cortege proceeded to Arlington National Cemetery where a throng estimated at 5,000 persons gathered in the new marble amphitheatre to hear orations and eulogies over the remains of the first colored officer to reach the rank of colonel in the regular army. Cemetery caretakers said then that never before had such a crowd filled the amphitheatre for the funeral of any individual. Colored people regarded it as a parade of protest, a demonstration against the race prejudice of Woodrow Wilson’s administration that kept Col. Young from an assignment to command a regiment in France, and led to his death from a broken heart. Another Protest Last Sunday, Washington saw another demonstration in protest against race prejudice. This time it was led by Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior in the cabinet of President Roosevelt.

75,000 Hear Singer A throng, estimated by Mr. Ickes own men, numbering between 75,000 and 80,000 people filled the grounds in front of the Lincoln Memorial to hear Marian Anderson sing. Everybody was there – the lame, the halt and the blind, all races and colors, the eminent and the humble – all of them applauding and even cheering. The great contralto, denied permission to appear in Constitution Hall, owned by the Daughters of the American Revolution, barred from the use of the Central High School (white) auditorium by the board of education, found a heart-warming welcome under the skies amid the beautiful grounds of the nation’s capital. Diplomats, Congressmen Present Marian Anderson, standing on a platform behind a half dozen microphones carrying her voice to thousands before her and other unseen thousands by radio, saw beside her diplomats and Congressmen. Immediately below her were movie cameras, sound truck men, and scores of news camera men, popping off flash light bulbs. In a semi-circle before her spread out a sea of friendly faces,

The crowd gathers at the Lincoln Memorial to hear Anderson sing.

several acres of them, and the most conspicuous part of them were thousands upon thousands of varicolored flowers bedecking the hats of the women. Far out before her lay the long reflecting pool at the end of which Washington’s Monument pointed its finger toward heaven. Closing up other sides of the quadrangle were the immense marble government buildings, extending for blocks and the Jefferson memorial, now in course of erection. Back of Marian, the great Emancipator, Abraham Lincoln, in marble with homely face and squaretoed shoes sat in his arm chair and it seemed to me there was a faint smile on his face. To Sing At the White House It was the irony of face, the dear ladies of the D.A.R. seeking to prevent 5,000 people from hearing a simple Philadelphia choir singer who has grown to be one of the world’s best, proved to be the means by which she was given an audience of 75,000, a million dollars worth of publicity and an invitation to sing at the White House before President and Mrs. Roosevelt and the King and Queen of England. Ickes is Host Host to a great show was

Marian Anderson

Secretary Ickes. He enjoyed it, made a good speech and I even saw him pat his foot as Marian sang a spiritual. Accustomed out Chicago way to an annual festival of song in the open air of Soldiers’ Field,

Honest Harold saw nothing new in promoting the first open air sing, the biggest the capital has ever seen. He had other aides, Charles Houston and Walter White, of the NAACP, a warm spring day, a bright sun and Easter Sunday.

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American

Mayor Vincent C. Gray and the DC Delegation Invite you to a

Pre-March on Washington

Congress has been “derelict in their duties and sacred responsibility to make justice and freedom a reality for all citizens in the District of Columbia.”

at the DC War Memorial (Across Independence Ave. from the MLK, Jr. Memorial)

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

August 24, 2013 8:30 AM (After Conclusion, The DC Delegation will Join the National March)




Anniversary 1963-2013


For more information or to register your group, call rally coordinators:

Steve Glaude (202) 442-8150 | Terese Lowery (202) 724-7690



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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

June 21, 1941 President Orders Defense Jobs Open to All

President Roosevelt this week in a pointed memorandum to the Office of Production Management placed the full support of his office behind the task of wiping out discriminations against colored workers in defense industries. Pointing out that there had come to him repeated complaints concerning the barring of “available much-needed workers: from defense production “solely because of race, religion or national origin,” the President characterized the situation as one of “grave national importance” and urged that immediate steps be taken to deal with it effectively. The memorandum, addressed to William S. Knudsen and Sidney Hillman, co-directors

of OPM, called attention to nationwide discrimination against colored workers, despite the fact that “labor stringencies are appearing in many areas. Continuing, President Roosevelt said: “I note with satisfaction that the Office of Production Management has recognized the seriousness of this situation, and that on April 11 it addressed a letter on the subject to all holders of defense contracts. As Chief Executive of the Nation, I place the full support of my office behind your statement to the effect that: ‘All holders of defense contracts are urged to examine their employment and training policies at once to determine whether or not these policies make

Randolph Won’t Halt Job March

New York – “President Roosevelt’s statement on job barriers will have no effect on the march to Washington. The march is on,” A. Philip Randolph told the AFRO late Monday. Despite advices from persons high in national affairs – among them Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox and Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, plans for the July 1 marchon-Washington of thousands of colored Americans protesting discrimination in the

national defense program continue interrupted. A. Philip Randolph, director of the march, declared this week. In a letter to Mr. Randolph last week, the First Lady said: “I have talked over your letter with the President and I feel very strongly that your group is making a very grave mistake at the present time to allow this march to take place. I am afraid it will set back the progress which is being made, in the army at least, towards

ample provision for the full utilization of available and competent Negro workers. Every available source of labor capable of producing defense materials must be tapped in the present emergency.’ Can’t Exclude Segments “No national combating the increasing threat of totalitarianism can afford arbitrarily to exclude large segments of its population from its defense industries. Even more important is it for us to strengthen our unity and morale by refuting at home the very theories which we are fighting abroad. “Our government cannot countenance continued discrimination against American

better opportunities and less segregation. “I feel that if any incident occurs as a result of this, it may engender so much bitterness that it will create in Congress even more solid opposition from certain groups than we have had in the past. “I know that crusades are valuable and necessary sometimes, but undertaken when the temper is as tense as it is at present, it seems to me unfortunate, and to run the risk which a meeting such as this carries with it, is unwise. ‘Deeply Concerned’ “You know that I am deeply concerned about the rights of colored people, but I think one much face situations as they are and not as one wishes them to be. I think this is a very serious decision for you to take.” This letter was followed by a conference with Mrs. Roosevelt and Mayor La Guardia on Friday morning in City Hall with Walter White and Mr. Randolph. Both the First Lady and the Mayor expressed the view contained in the letter. While appreciation was expressed for the fine spirit of both Mrs. Roosevelt and the Mayor toward the colored people, a definite exception and difference of opinion were registered by both Messrs. Randolph and White. They insisted that the march-on-Washington movement was an expression of the dissatisfaction of colored citizens with the policy of discrimination in departments of the federal government and in national defense

A. Philip Randolph accepting an Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity Social Action award from its Eastern Region leaders, 1952

June 5, 1943

citizens in defense production. Industry must take the initiative in opening the doors of employment to all loyal and qualified workers regardless of race, national origin, religion or color. “American workers, both organized and unorganized, must be prepared to welcome the general and much-needed employment of fellow workers of all racial and nationality origins in defense industries. “In the present emergency, it is imperative that we deal effectively and speedily with this problem. I shall expect the Office of Production Management to take immediate steps to facilitate the full utilization of our productive man-power.”

industries. It was certain, they continued, to have a favorable and beneficial effect upon the American people, both black and white, since it would show that colored people themselves have awakened to a definite sense of their mass power, which is already beginning to win respect and consideration from white America and official Washington. Last week, Mr. Randolph received telegrams from Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox, requesting that he come to Washington for a conference. Mr. Randolph consented only on condition that other members of the committee also be present. At the conference Stimson, Knox, Sidney Hillman, William S. Knudsen of the OPM, and others are expected to be present to hear the committee’s demands that there be immediate cessation of discriminatory practices by the army, navy, defense industries and the air corps. Scores Registry The march committee headquarters at 2289 Seventh Avenue, New York City, is receiving scores of letters from persons who wish to register to go to Washington on July 1. There will be a huge mass meeting before the Lincoln Memorial at which time marchers will be addressed by Mr. Randolph and Walter White who will express the impatience of the colored people with continued segregation and discrimination.

Shipyard racism

Outbreak at Shipyard Hurts Old Mobileans Perhaps those hurt most by the outbreak at the Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company, except the fifty colored workers injured, were old-line Mobileans. Civic leaders have long pointed with pride to the amicable relations which have existed here between the two races. Within the pattern of the deep south, Mobile has been regarded as a liberal city on the color question.

Foreign Influence Felt This is attributed to two factors. One is that the city is predominantly Catholic, which, it is pointed out, has had a temporizing effect on the

race question. The second is that Mobile, a seaport city, has had a rich Spanish and French background and heritage, which has helped ease any tension that has developed.

Rioters from Backwoods There is no question, according to those close to the situation, that most of the whites who participated in the clash were from the backwoods of Mississippi, the hills of Alabama and the parishes of Louisiana. They came here within the last two years, since the war boom hit this city. They came with preconceived and fixed attitudes on

January 8, 1944 Movies Cut Troops Five motion picture companies were accused this week of deleting from their newsreels scenes showing colored American soldiers in action overseas. Accused of this un-American display are Universal, MetroGoldwyn Mayer, Pathe, Paramount and Fox Movie-Tone. Most recent instance of this prejudice, which keeps about 89 per cent of the American population ignorant of what colored Americans are doing in the war, was a newsreel showing President Roosevelt reviewing troops from a jeep at some point overseas. No colored troops were visible. Racism Costs Best Shot Cuttings from this film,

acquired by the All American Newsreel, however, show clearly the inspection of colored troops in line with all others. All of them passed in review, the colored troops passing with their full equipment, including rifles, along with the others. In their zeal to delete the scenes showing colored troops, the movie companies sacrificed the best shot of the President and General Eisenhower chatting in the jeep because colored soldiers were in the background. In order to get more action shots from the fronts it is understood that pictorial groups and public relations officers have been directed to give full cooperation in this regard in the future.

the race question, civic spokesmen say. Moreover, there is little doubt that because of their limited education on the color question and provincial life, the rioters were persons highly susceptible to the race baiting demagoguery preached by Congressman Rankin and Senator Bilbo, both of Mississippi, and Sam Hobbs, of this State. It has been noted here that, perhaps coincidentally, the trouble broke the very day the House of Representatives overwhelmingly passed the anti-poll tax bill.

Population Trebled In ordinary times, Mobile is a city equipped to house about 80,000 persons, but since the industrial expansion began, the population has swollen from that figure to upwards of 250,000. The city, it is obvious, has been unable to cope with the impact of that population pressure. Although in the past year nine public housing projects, two of which were for colored have been constructed, the housing conditions are still inadequate and deplorable. Recreation Inadequate Many of the workers are forced to find lodgings in box cars,

tents, trailers and on porches. Transportation facilities are taxed. Nothing in the way of organized recreation has been planned and ordinary amusement outlets are woefully inadequate. With its colored population having expanded three times its 1940 figure of 30,000, there has been established no social agency to deal with the needs of maladjusted workers who have been imported from rural areas. Visitors, too, face a problem. The YMCA does not have accommodations for overnight guests, there are no hotels for colored and lodging homes are usually overcrowded.

April 8, 1944 Texas Blacks to vote- finally White Primary Out Washington – The United States Supreme Court on Monday, by an 8 to 1 vote, struck down the “white primary” as a device for disfranchising colored voters in Southern states. It was the third straight victory for the NAACP in its efforts to get the ballot for 571,000 eligible colored voters in Texas. Just how sweeping the decision is in its effects on other states cannot be determined until a study has been made of state statutes regulating primary elections. The ruling, delivered by Mr. Justice Reed for the majority, specifically involved the right of colored electors to vote in Democratic primaries in Texas. Primary Main Thing Lonnie E. Smith, of Houston, charged that the Democratic party

in Texas has been denying colored voters the right to participate in party primaries which, in that state, are equivalent to elections. A party rule restricted membership to “white citizens.” Smith sued S.E. Allwright, an election judge, and James R. Liuzza, an associate election judge, in the Forty-eighth Precinct of Harris County, Texas, for damages of $5,000 because they refused to give him a ballot or permit him to cast a ballot in the primary election of July 27, 1940, for the nomination of Democratic candidates for Federal, State and local officers, solely because of his race or color. He also asked for a declaratory judgment affirming the right of colored electors to vote in Texas primaries.

Vote 8 to 1 Justice Stanley F. Reed read the majority opinion. Justice Owen J. Roberts of Pennsylvania, a Republican, dissented. Owens was appointed to the Court in place of Judge John J. Parker of North Carolina whom colored people and labor opposed. At the time it was said that Owens, a Lincoln University trustee, had no race prejudice. Justice Reed said the court was exercising its established power to re-examine constitutional questions where correction seemed advisable. It overruled its decision in the case of Grovey vs. Townsend, in which it had held that membership in a political party was of no concern to the State. Justice Roberts, in dissenting, charged that the court was inconsistent and was reversing itself in an era

Continued on E7

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American

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July 7, 1945 Decision in White Primary May Liberalize South Washington –In an appraisal of the Texas white primary case decision by the U.S. Supreme Court over a year ago, Dr. William H. Hastie, counsel for plaintiff and dean of Howard University Law School, writing in the Lawyers’ Guild Review, said: “It may well be the verdict of

history that in Smith vs. Allwright, the Supreme Court released and galvanized democratic forces which in turn gave the South the momentum it needed toward ultimate leadership in American liberalism.” Hastie observed that the things the court did and said, as well as

things it elected not to say and do, on that occasion, appear “even more important now than in 1944.” Potential Weighed He said that the potential of this decision, both in its effect upon political institutions and in analogical projections into other

fields, “is a matter of substantial interest and consequence.” Hastie pointed out that open defiance of the decision was generally in words rather than in deeds, and that South Carolina is the only state that has undertaken “legislative nullification of the judicial mandate.”

He concluded that the decision marks “the emergence of a conception of governmental action which will subject numerous important activities, heretofore customarily regarded as ‘private,’ to the constitutional restraints applicable to government.”

June 15, 1946 Supreme Court’s Ruling in Morgan Case Stirs Va. The 6-1 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Mrs. Irene Morgan, upsetting Virginia’s jim-crow bus transportation statute, came like an earthquake Monday and shook the state from center to circumference. Mrs. Morgan, en route from Hayes Store, Gloucester County, to Baltimore aboard a Greyhound bus in July, 1944, was seated in the second seat ahead of the long rear seat there were two vacancies and six white passengers were standing. The driver ordered her to take one of the vacant rear seats, citing the segregation law, but she refused to move. He then caused her arrest on a warrant charging violation of the State segregation law – Section 407dd of the State code. Ignored fine She was later fined $10 in Middlesex County Circuit Court, noted an appeal to the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals, which sustained the ruling of the lower court, whereupon she appealed the case to the United States Supreme Court. The case was fought through the courts by Spottswood W. Robinson III of the law firm of Hill, Martin and Robinson of

Richmond, with the support of the Richmond and Virginia branches and the national office of the NAACP. Although Greyhound Bus Lines officials expressed the opinion they would abide by the ruling, they were cautious in defining the effects of the decision, since they had not received an official copy of the text of the opinion. Early Test Looms While buses in most cases in Virginia carry no signs, indicating seating space for passengers of either race, this being left to the drivers’ discretion, it is believed that colored citizens will lose no time in testing out their new freedom. One man had informed his attorney Tuesday morning that he was preparing to purchase a ticket to a destination in North Carolina on a Greyhound bus and had planned to seat himself in one of the front seats in order to test the effectiveness of the decision. Buses Checked A check at the local Greyhound bus station, however,

Continued from E6

primary elections are a part of election machinery of a State and are subject to Federal control. Since this was the first decision of the court that primaries are a part of general elections, and since it was rendered after the Grovey vs. Townsend verdict, Justice Reed said, it was now necessary to re-examine the court’s previous decisions. Heretofore, the justice declared, the high court looked upon denial of a vote in a primary as a mere refusal by a party of party membership. Once the court has agreed that primary elections are a part of general elections, no State may be intervention permit a private organization to practice racial discrimination in an election. The liberal (?) Justice Roberts in his dissent said that the court was not following precedents. Justice Reed declared that the court when convinced of its previous mistakes, had not bothered about precedents.

of confusion when the greatest need is steadfastness.

Marshall’s Statement Thurgood Marshall, in a letter to Attorney General Francis Biddle, said that the NAACP had submitted affidavits for colored people illegally barred from voting in 1942. The FBI investigated but took no action. Mr. Biddle was asked to call attention of all U.S. attorneys to the Supreme Court’s decision and instruct them to take definite action in each instance in which colored voters are barred from the polls. The case just decided has been in the courts over three years and was financed by citizens of Texas and other States.

Third Texas Case This is the third Texas NAACP case to go before the Supreme Court and end in victory. Two, those in 1924 and 1929, were filed by Dr. A.L. Nixon, an El Paso physician. At the time, Texas law stated that “no colored person should be eligible to vote in a Democratic primary.” The Supreme Court termed the law unconstitutional. HOURS: MONDAY THRU FRIDAY: 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM EXAMINATION BY APPOINTMENT SAT: 9:00 AM - 12:00 PM State Changed Law Dr. Dixon and the NAACP sued again and the U.S. 3020 LIBERTY HEIGHTS AVENUE Supreme Court upheld them. BALTIMORE, MD 21215 Texas again changed the law a (410) 664 - 9436 second time, giving the State (443) 524-2302 (FAX) Democratic Convention power to exclude colored voters.

Ashburton Opticians

The Test Case Lost The test case, Grovey vs Townsend, was filed (not by the NAACP) and it was lost. White Man Meantime, the U.S. Supreme Court had before it the case of a white Democratic voter whose ballot election officials refused to count. The high court decided in this case (U.S. vs. Classic) that

Porter’s Comment Discussing the matter with a porter at the station, the reporter was informed that no colored passengers leaving Richmond had been noted taking forward seats in the buses, but that several had arrived here from the North with the races mixed. The porter pointed out that it would probably be some time before colored passengers in the South begin taking advantage of their new freedom, having been for so long accustomed to riding in the rear. He added that “fear will force some of them to run to the rear” for a long time to come.

The NAACP in Action

White Primary Out

Thurgood Marshall

revealed that most colored travelers either are not so eager to test the efficiency of the new ruling or have not given the matter any serious consideration. The reporter checked three outgoing buses at the Greyhound terminal – two bound for Washington and another for Jacksonville, Fla., and on none of them were colored passengers found in any other section of the bus than the traditional rear section.

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NAACP Pickets Safeway in Washington, DC, April 26, 1941

Anti-Lynch Bill Signers, Howard Theater, Wash. DC, circa 1930s

Sharon Baptist Church congratulates the AFRO- American Newspapers on 121 years of being the greatest newspaper in this country. 1373 N. Stricker Street Baltimore, MD 21217

Rev. A.C.D. Vaughn, Senior Pastor Sharon Baptist

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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

Robinson's a winner April 19, 1947 Jackie Sparks Dodgers Brooklyn – Jackie Robinson, completing three full exhibition games here against the New York Yankees, on Monday night was set to open the 1947 National League season as first baseman for the Brooklyn Dodgers. The former UCLA all-round athlete, who captured the International League batting crown last year in his first crack at organized baseball, is already rivaling Dixie Walker as the favorite of Flatbush fans, than whom there is no more rabid a By Sam Lacy bunch anywhere in the world. Purchased from the Montreal Royals on Thursday, Jackie was signed to a Dodger contract at 11 o’clock Friday morning and three hours later was installed at first base in the lineup against the Yankees. He has placed the position ever since. Though failing to obtain a hit in the opening game of the series, which the Bums took, 14-5, Jackie was credited with three runs batted in, was on base twice and handled 15 putouts

Robinson signs a baseball for young fans.

without error, one on the back end of a doubleplay. On Saturday, Jackie’s slashing single to left scored Pete Reiser from second, with the run which prevented his mates from being whitewashed as the Yanks won, 801. He accepted 11 fielding chances without a muscle and took part in the completion of three twin-killings. In Sunday’s 10-9 loss to New York, Robinson banged out a single in the first inning, having been moved from the No. 6 to the No. 2 spot in the batting order. Thereafter, he met the ball solidly but couldn’t get it to fall safe. Afield, he took care of 10 putouts, still without error, two of them for double-play completions. Several of Jackie’s new teammates praised him following Sunday’s game. Acting Manager Clyde Sukeforth stated that he “looks good” and reiterated an earlier commitment that “Jackie’s going to have a thorough trial at the position.” Ed Stanky, the Bums’ brilliant second baseman and a native of Mobile, Ala., observed: “Well, with the pressure eased now, he should do all right. I think he did remarkably well the first two days when the pressure was terrific. “There is this that can be said about him: he learns very fast. I pointed out one or two things to him which I thought would help, and I noticed that he didn’t have to be reminded again. Looks like he doesn’t make the same mistake twice.”

July 31, 1948 Two Executive Orders Issued

Washington – President Truman on Monday issued two Executive Orders, one seeking an end of jim crow in the Armed Services, the other seeking the end of discrimination in Federal employment. The first directive regarding the Armed Services, said in part: “It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the Armed Services, without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.

Put Into Effect Rapidly “1. This policy shall be put into effect as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time element required to effectuate any necessary changes without impairing efficiency or morale. “2. There shall be created in the

national military establishment an advisory committee to be known as the President’s Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services. It shall be composed of seven members to be designated by the President.

Will Make Recommendation “3. The committee is authorized on behalf of the President to examine into the rules, procedures and practices of the Armed Services in order to determine in what respect such rules, procedures and practices may be altered and improved with a view to carrying out the policies of this order. “The committee shall confer and advise with the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of the Air Force and shall make such recommendations to the

President and to such secretaries as in the judgment of the committee will effectuate the policy hereof.” Merit to Govern Jobs Mr. Truman’s order governing fair employment practices within the Federal establishment, in part, follows: “1. All personnel actions taken by the Federal Government shall be based solely on merit and fitness and such officers are authorized and directed to take appropriate steps to assure that in all such actions there shall be no discrimination because of race, color, religion or national origin. “2. The heads of each department in the executive branch of the government shall be personally responsible for an effective program to insure that fair employment policies are fully observed in all personnel actions within his

Pressure Groups in Action Also last Thursday, 25 representatives of 20 national labor, civil rights, fraternal and religious organizations, at the call of the NAACP, met in conference at the Willard Hotel and adopted a five point minimum program on civil rights for recommendation to the special session of Congress which opened Monday. The minimum program called for enactment now of legislation for a permanent FEPC, abolition of the poll tax; punitive measures to suppress lynching and mob violence; banning of segregation in interstate transportation; and revision of the displaced persons Act to permit immigration of persons now discriminated against.

President Told to Act The conference also urged the President to issue immediately an executive order banning discrimination and segregation in the Federal services including the armed forces. In this regard, the conferees reminded Mr. Truman of his promise made last Feb. 2 in a special message to Congress in which he indicated that he would issue an executive order banning discriminatory hiring practices in Federal agencies. Vigilance Committee Walter White, executive secretary of the NAACP, told a press conference following the meeting that the conferees plan to implement their recommendations through a special committee which would maintain a vigilant watch over actions by the special session of Congress. The special committee will issue progress reports to local branches of the organizations represented at the conference. In discussing chances for a successful filibuster against civil rights legislation in the special session by Southerners, Mr. White pointed out that there are 51 Republicans in the Senate who could unite their votes with that of

19 Northern Democrats to invoke cloture. The NAACP executive reemphasized that colored voters hold the balance of power in 75 Congressional districts who will follow the actions of the special session with a critical eye.

Rights Bills Ready Singularly enough, the only bills ready for Senate consideration immediately are measures dealing with civil rights. The Senate leadership apparently is willing to call up one of the measures that is less controversial than the Ives bill against discrimination in employment. The matter of breaking a Southern filibuster, however, still presents a problem. Nothing was done by the 80th Congress with respect to amending Senate rules to make it passable for a simple majority of Senators present and voting to limit debate and to make the cloture rule applicable to any “motion.” Must Hurdle Cloture As the rule now stands, it is possible to have a filibuster develop on a “motion” to approve the Journal or some other frivolous motion, on which it is doubtful that debate could

President Branch Ricky announced the purchase of Jackie’s contract at the height of the Montreal-Brooklyn exhibition game on Thursday afternoon. The announcement was in the form of a 14-word statement; “The Brooklyn Dodgers today purchased the contract of Jackie Robinson from the Montreal Royals.” The Rickey statement brought to an end a long period of speculation as to whether or not the Brooklyn boss would have the temerity to place Jackie in the major Leagues. As predicted in the AFRO just two weeks ago. Robinson goes to Brooklyn as a utility infielder, capable of playing first base, second base or shortshop. Robinson signed a Dodger contract on Friday morning in Rickey’s office. No salary terms were disclosed but both the club president and the player appeared highly pleased. Robinson was in a Brooklyn uniform when his team took the field for exhibition games with the New York Yankees. Rickey called a press conference immediately after Thursday’s Brooklyn-Montreal game was completed. He explained that he had made the decision to promote Jackie “several weeks ago,” but it wasn’t until the ball game was in progress here Thursday that he made up his mind to do it right away.

Military integrates department.” Sets Up FEPC Board The Presidential order establishes in the Civil Service Commission a Fair Employment Board of not less than seven persons, the members of which shall be officers or employees of the commission. “They shall have the authority to review decisions made by the head of any department which are appealed pursuant to issuance of this order or referred to the board by the head of the department for advice, and to make recommendations to such heads.” Pressure From All Sides Pressure from several different angles has been exerted upon President Truman to issue the twin Executive Orders abolishing segregation and discrimination in the Armed Services and the Federal

Truman Outlaws Bias in Civil Service Army Washington (NNPA) – President Truman told his press and radio conference last Thursday morning that he will discuss civil rights legislation in his message to the special session of Congress, which he will deliver in person on Tuesday. Asked for details of the statement he would make on civil rights, Mr. Truman declined to disclose just what his recommendation will be, but said the message will speak for itself.

Jackie Robinson

Government. Charles Howard, Des Moines attorney, Progressive Party keynoter in Philadelphia, Friday, called upon the President to issue such directives, or be branded as a “hypocrite.” Edgar Brown, president of the National Negro Council, led a delegation to the Capital, Monday morning, urging that such Executive Orders be issued. In addition, A Philip Randolph and Grant Reynolds, each of whom heads organizations set up for the purpose of wiping out jim crow in the Armed Services, called upon Mr. Truman, recently, to do so through a joint letter him. With the special session of the 80th Congress beginning Monday, the President has established, by his leadership, high civil rights goals for members of the Republicandominated Congress to shoot at.

Army integrates

be brought to a close even by a twothirds vote. Even after the Journal is approved, the motion to take up a bill is debatable without end, unless cloture is applied. What Truman Has Done Mr. Truman already has asked Congress for legislation establishing a permanent commission on civil rights, a Joint Congressional Committee on Civil Rights, and a Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department. He has also requested measures to strengthen existing Federal civil rights statutes, a Federal anti-lynching law, more adequate protection of the right to vote, establishment of an FEPC, and a ban on racial discrimination in interstate travel.

Pending Bills Proposals which would carry out these recommendations, and which are pending on the Senate calendar, are the Ives bill against discrimination in employment, the Bender anti-poll tax bill and the Ferguson anti-lynching bill. The House has already passed the Bender anti-poll tax bill. The House Judiciary Committee has approved the Case anti-lynching

bill, a stronger measure than the bill reported by the Senate Judiciary Committee, but the House Rules Committee did not report a rule making it an order of business on the floor. Hearings have not been held by the House Education and Labor Committee on FEPC legislation, although a number of bills have been referred to it. GOP’s Last Strategy The strategy decided upon by the Senate Republican Policy Committee before Congress quit in June was to support anti-lynching legislation, a filibuster against which, it is believed, could be more easily broken than against either the antipoll tax or FEPC bill. Prolonged discussion of constitutional questions in committee in connection with the anti-lynching bill, however, delayed that measure, and it was not until a few days before the session ended that Sen. Homer Ferguson (Rep., Mich.) was able to report the bill. The Senate ran behind schedule in the debate on the selective service bill, and it was decided that it was virtually useless to call up any of the civil rights bills in the closing days of the last session because of a threatened filibuster.

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American

Mary McLeod Bethune and Frances Murphy I, circa 1940s

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NAACP Meeting with Roy Wilkins, Mary White Ovington (NAACP Founder), unnamed individual and Walter White

Roy Wilkins and Daisy Bates, circa 1954

Harlem Riot, 1943 March Supporting Passage of Anti-Lynching Bill, Aug. 10, 1946

C o n g rat u l at


To the Afro-American Newspapers on

Stephanie Rawlings-Blake Mayor City of Baltimore


The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

“We shall not be moved today.” —Asean Johnson, age 9, protesting the closure of Chicago public schools

At the 1963 March on Washington, we sang, “We shall not be moved.” Today, our children are showing the same resolve, continuing the work we started and reclaiming the promise of public education. A high-quality public education for all children is an economic necessity, an anchor of democracy, a moral imperative and a fundamental civil right. We march for neighborhood public schools that are safe, welcoming places for students like Asean. We march to reclaim the promise of public education. Like a tree that’s standing by the water, we shall not be moved.

Reclaim the Promise. #ReclaimIt


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The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

Introduction 1955 - 1963


t was the era when an entire race actualized and it all started after the heinous murder of a little boy. After 1954’s Brown v. Board of Topeka case was argued masterfully by Thurgood Marshall before the U.S. Supreme Court, Blacks began to feel that a major civil rights victory was imminent. African Americans experienced a euphoria not seen in years after SCOTUS ordered the desegregation of public schools with “all deliberate speed.” No longer would Black children be asubjected to substandard education and limited academic opportunity. But it was news that a 14-year-old boy, Emmett Till, a native of Chicago who was visiting family in Money, Miss., had been dragged out of bed in the middle of the night by two White men, brutally beaten to death, then dumped into the Tallahatchie River that stirred an outrage in Blacks that would not be assuaged. That outrage sparked a movement that would lead to sitins at lunch counters; voter registration drives in the most oppressive corners of the South; protests and marches that culminated in the massive March on Washington on Aug. 28, 1963. The anger over an unthinkable atrocity visited on a child spurred demands for change that were so ardent that neither attack dogs, nor water cannons, nor threats of death would quell the protesters’ determination that change had to occur. In a story that ran on Sept. 10, 1955, headlined “3rd Lynching of Year Shocks Nation,” an AFRO reporter, writing from Greenwood, Miss., described reaction to the youth’s murder. “The brutal lynching of a 14-year-old boy, the third act of

mob violence to hit Mississippi within five months, has so [shocked] the nation that even the state’s governor has been moved to speak out,” the reporter wrote. “An avalanche of bitter protests from every section of the nation has forced Gov. [Hugh] White to promise a complete investigation and full prosecution of persons responsible for the kidnapmurder of Emmett Louis Till.” In an AFRO story dated Sept. 17, 1955, it was reported that “some 2,000 persons packed into the church, more than 2,000 others were jammed in front of the building” and “more than 100,000 persons viewed the youth’s body” in his hometown of Chicago. The casket was open, at the request of Emmett’s mother, Mamie E. Bradley, who collapsed during the service. She wanted the world to see what had been done to her son. “The boy’s face showed evidence of a brutal beating before his murder,” the reporter wrote. “Almost all of his teeth were knocked out and the right side of his face was almost unrecognizable. There was a small bullet hole through the temple.” When the men widely believed to be responsible for the attack literally got away with murder, disbelief and anger resounded from Los Angeles to New York City. The Civil Rights Movement was born. A little more than three months after his body was found, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a White man on a Montgomery, Ala., sparking a 13-month boycott of public transportation that was the longest act of protest the nation had ever seen. A year later, Autherine J. Lucy applied and was admitted to the University of Alabama, though

she was later expelled. In 1957, a group of Black students who would come to be known as the Little Rock Nine desegregated Central High School in Little Rock, Ark. By the time the movement had unofficially ended with the death in 1968 of Martin Luther King, Jr., a young preacher who became the face of the movement after the bus boycott, a Voting Right Act had been passed, a Civil Rights Act was law and Blacks, at least on paper, had been granted the full rights that had been denied them for so long. Front Page

Articles 1. Who's Afraid of Wallace? June 15, 1963 2. I didn't Know People Could Be So Cruel, September 21, 1957 3. Mississippi Bows, Meredith Goes In, October 6, 1962 4. Trial Set in Lynching, September 17, 1955 5. 'Give Us the Ballot', May 25, 1957 6. Mob Attacks Bus with Fire Bombs, May 20, 1961 Images 1. March on Washington, 1963 2. Marchers arriving in DC for Prayer Pilgrimage, 1957, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 3. Political Cartoon drawn by Thomas Stockett depicting Wallace blocking entrance of James Meredith to the University of Mississippi, 1962, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 4. First Freedom Riders,1961, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 5. Elizabeth Eckford of the Little Rock Nine harassed trying to gain entry to Little Rock Central High School, 1957, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 6. March on Washington participants in line for buses head to Washington,1963, Courtesy of Afro American Archives 7. James Meredith and U.S. Federal Marshals gaining entrance into U. of Mississippi, 1962, Courtesy of Afro American Archives

All photos AFRO Archives, except where otherwise noted

September 10, 1955

Mississippi: the Emmett Till Lynching

3rd Lynching of Year Shocks Nation Greenwood, Miss. – The brutal lynching of a 14-year-old boy, the third act of mob violence to hit Mississippi within five months, has so chocked the nation that even the state’s governor has been moved to speak out. An avalanche of bitter protests from every section of the nation has forced Gov. High White to promise a complete investigation and full prosecution of persons responsible for the kidnap-murder of Emmett Louis Till, whose weighted body was found in the Tallahatchie River. The governor broke his silence to answer a wire sent him by Roy Wilkins, NAACP executive secretary. “…All decent citizens throughout the nation call upon you to use all the powers of your office to see that the lynchers of 14-year-old Emmett Louis Till are brought to justice,” Mr. Wilkins’ message read. “We cannot believe that the responsible officials of the State of Mississippi condone the murdering of children on any provocation.” Gov. White wired Mr. Wilkins: “Parties charged with murder are in jail and I have every reason to believe the courts will do their duty in prosecution. Mississippi does not condone such conduct.” The heinous lynching of young Till marked the third crime of its kind in Mississippi since May 7. Still unsolved is the brutal lynching of the Rev. George W. Lee who was shot from ambush at Belzoni, Miss., after he had refused to halt his NAACP campaign to get members of his race registered as voters. Although FBI agents have been investigating the case since the night of the crime, no arrests have been made and no evidence has been carried before a grand jury. The second lynching occurred on the crowded courthouse square at Brookhaven, Miss., on August 13. Lamar Smith, 63-year-old farmer, was shot down by three men as the sheriff looked on, and allegedly made no attempt to halt the lynching. Smith also had been active in a registration campaign, leading up to the primary election on Aug. 23. Three men, two farmers and an oilfield worker, were later charged with causing Smith’s death and are now at liberty on $20,000 bail each awaiting trial. The third lynch victim, a native of Chicago, was visiting his uncle, Moses Wright, in Money, Miss., when he was kidnapped Aug. 27 by two white men and a woman.

Roy Bryant, a former paratrooper, who operates a store and his half brother, J.W. Milan, former Army lieutenant, had admitted the kidnapping, but deny having anything to do with young Till’s death. The two are under arrest on a murder charge, but the woman, Mrs. Bryant, for whom a warrant has been issued, has disappeared. The boy’s body, when fished from the river, bore the marks of a beating with a heavy instrument. He had also been shot in the head. The body was weighted down with a gin pulley, a cast iron wheel used to operate a

cotton gin. The wheel, about a foot and a half in diameter, weighed 150 to 200 pounds. It was attached to the boy’s body with barbed wire around his waist. Several motives have been given for the brutal crime. First reports were Till had used obscene language in addressing Mrs. Bryant, while in the store with several other youths to buy bubble gum. This was later amended to the report that he had been “insolent.” The insolence was described as his failure to say “yes ma’am” while addressing the woman. But this also was changed when it became

know that Till, who since a polio attack at the age of three, had not been able to speak clearly. Maurice Wright, Till’s cousin, who accompanied him to the store, said the boy made a whistling sound in his effort to pronounce words. This sound, apparently, was misinterpreted by Mrs. Bryant, who thought he was giving her a “wolf” whistle of admiration. Wright steadfastly denied that his cousin had either spoken insolently or whistled at Mrs. Bryant.

Friday to Tallahatchie County where the lynching is believed to have occurred. A grand jury was scheduled to sit at Charleston, Miss., the county seat Tuesday. If an indictment is returned, the trial is not likely to be held until the next term of circuit court in March. The FBI said it was keeping in close touch with law enforcement officers in Mississippi, but made no move to intervene because apparently no federal law had been violated. The FBI could move in if there was evidence of violation of civil rights laws or that the kidnapping involved crossing a state line. In Chicago, Emmett’s mother, Mrs. Mamie Bradley, wept at the news of her son’s lynching. “I can’t think, I just can’t think,” she said. “He didn’t do anything to deserve that. Somebody is going to pay for this. The entire State of Mississippi is going to pay for this.” She sobbingly continued: “I can’t work. I have nothing left to work for. My whole life is ruined. Now I need all the financial help I can get. All I want now is to get my boy’s body back and give him a decent burial. Then I’ll have to go to work on this thing. “Emmett was a good boy. He was mischievous, but he was not a bad boy,” she said. “He’s never been in any trouble. He’s been my life saver – did the washing, ironing and housework so I could work. “He has stood by me like a man. Emmett Till’s Great Uncle and How could anyone do this terrible eyewitness to his murder, thing to him?” Moses Wright and grandson. Till’s mother disclosed that she had secured the services of a Chicago undertaker to bring the boy’s body back to Chicago just in time to prevent a hasty burial in a cemetery at Tutwiler, Miss. Later that evening Mrs. Bryant, “We had to stop burial down there,” said accompanied by her husband and his half Mrs. Bradley. “We got word to them just in brother, called at the Wright home and demanded the surrender of “that Chicago boy.” time.” Friends and neighbors called at the home of Bryant, witnesses said, had a pistol in his Mrs. Bradley’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Henry hand. They searched Wright’s house and Spearman, where Mrs. Bradley took all phone brought several boys out before Till was calls during the three-day search for the boy. carried to the car and identified by Mrs. Mr. Spearman has been a Chicago resident Bryant. for 30 years and is a plant guard for the Inland They drove away. Steel Container Co. Bryant and Milan, when arrested later, Emmett was an eighth grader at the McCosh admitted the kidnapping, but insisted they had School. He was born in Chicago and had been released young Till unharmed. in Mississippi only once before on a visit five The two men, who at first were held in the years ago. LeFlore County Jail, here, were transferred

August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013, The Afro-American

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September 17, 1955 Ask Fighting $$$ At Till Funeral Chicago – The body of Emmett Louis Till, 14, victim of murder in Mississippi, lay in an open casket while funeral services were held here Saturday because his mother wanted to “Let the people see what they did to my boy.” The services were conducted by Bishop Louis H. Ford of St. Paul Church of Christ, in Roberts Temple Church, Bishop Isiah Roberts, pastor. Screams from the 2,000 mourners in the church were heard as he intoned: “For as much as ye have done unto one of these, my little ones, ye have also done unto me.” The Rev. Archibald J. Carey, former Third Ward alderman and an AME minister, also spoke at the services. In addition to some 2,000 persons packed into the church, more than 2,000 others were jammed in front of the building, as Bishop Roberts, pastor, and Bishop Ford led prayers. Mrs. Mamie E. Bradley, mother of the murdered youth, collapsed and had to be assisted to a seat after viewing her son’s body. Several others among the 18 relatives of the lad also were overcome by grief as they passed the bier. The procession to the cemetery for his burial Tuesday included more than 50 automobiles. Capt. Albert Anderson, in charge of the police detail at the church, estimated that more than 100,000 persons viewed the youth’s body. Other relatives at the funeral, beside the

youth’s mother, included Mrs. Alma Spearman, his grandmother; George T. Smith, an uncle, and Mrs. Mose Wright of Money, Miss., a great aunt with whom he was living when kidnapped. The boy’s face showed evidence of a brutal beating before his murder. Almost all of his teeth were knocked out and the right side of his face was almost unrecognizable. There was a small bullet hole through the temple. A minister stood on a raised platform behind the casket urging the mourners to contribute money to obtain legal aid in fighting this “southern atrocity.” The Rev. Cornelius Adams, assistant pastor of the Great Harvest Baptist Church, called for “fighting dollars.” “We don’t want our children to suffer violence,” he said; “we don’t want to see our people killed just because of a childish accident.” At least $700 had been collected before the services began, he said. Upwards of 5,000 persons stood outside the church during the services waiting their turn to file past the coffin. Church officials and the boy’s mother decided to postpone the burial

Her 14 year old son lynched in Mississippi - Weeping bitterly, Mrs. Mamie Bradley of Chicago is assisted from Roberts Temple after funeral services for her son, Emmett. Left, Bishop Louis Ford; right, Bishop Isaik Roberts of Church of God in Christ.

until Tuesday to enable those who so desired to view the body. Thousands of persons had jammed the area around the Reynar and Sons funeral home, forcing police to rope off the area for three blocks to preserve order.

The crowd was not ugly, but the jam was so great that nearly every window in the funeral home was shattered. The chapel itself was left “a shambles,” a spokesman for the home said. Some 30 police officers were on duty around the church to preserve order.

Supporting the cause December 17, 1955 CAR POOLS KEEP RIDERS OFF VEHICLES MONTGOMERY, Ala. – “We are tired of being humiliated by bus drivers:” So said the Rev. J.R. King, a leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association, sponsors of a city –wide boycott against the city bus lines. “Those drivers talk to us like we are dogs. Ordering us to get up out of our seats and give them to white passengers. Even white passengers are not above saying: “N…r get up out of your seat.”

*** THE REV. MR. KING told the AFRO Saturday that the passenger strike has been 85 per cent effective. “About 75 percent of the bus patronage comes from colored riders,” estimated the Rev. Mr. King. “We have figure that the bus company has been losing about $3,000 a day,” he added. *** THE BOYCOTT, which ended its first week Sunday,

stemmed from the arrest and subsequent fine of Mrs. Rosa Parks a department store seamstress. “She was arrested after a bus driver stopped the bus and ordered her to get up to give a white person a seat,” the Rev. Mr. King explained. “The bus company got a witness who said that there were other seats available in the bus for her to sit. “However, many other witnesses said that the bus was so crowded that colored persons were standing.

“Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy.” - DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.

M A C Y ’ S C O M M E M O R AT E S T H E 5 0 T H A N N I V E R S A R Y O F T H E G R E AT M A R C H O N WA S H I N G TO N

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February 11, 1956 COP ESCORT ON ALA. U. CAMPUS: ‘It Wasn’t Necessary’

TUSCALOOSA, Ala. – “I’m sure it wasn’t necessary.” This was the cryptic statement made to the AFRO by 25-year-old Miss Arthurine Lucy, who was provided with a policeman escort when she broke the 124-year old color line on a rainy Friday afternoon, as she took a seat in a geography class at the University of Alabama. The entrance of attractive, brown-skinned Miss Lucy, among 12,000 white students, attracted so little attention, one co-ed was heard to say: “I wonder why they haven’t let them come here before.” Most of her fellow students either appeared indifferent to her presence or preferred to create the impression that they considered her no different than other students. *** ASKED HOW she felt at the end of her first day of classes, she said, “Fine. I didn’t expect to feel any other way.” Denying that being the only colored person in a sea of white faces gave her the feeling of a goldfish in a bowl, she said her first day in class “went off naturally, just as I believed and hoped it would.” For her debut as the first colored student to enter a Deep South institution, she chose a

two-piece, pink outfit, which set off to good advantage the satin luster of her dark brown complexion. She wore tan, low-heel shoes and carried a green rain-coat and hat. *** COMPLETELY COMPOSED after her initial experience, Miss Lucy said she was certain that before the end of next week, it would not be necessary for her to commute each day to Birmingham. The 106-mile trip was made necessary by a last-minute resolution of the school’s trustees denying her dormitory and dining hall accommodations. The denial was promptly challenged in US. District Court, Wednesday morning, by Arthur Shores NAACP attorney. Mr. Shores withheld filing against school officials at the suggestion of U.S. District Judge Hobart Grooms, who called in lawyers of the university’s board of consultation. *** THE JURIST, whose injunction opened the University of Alabama to colored students, reportedly warned the lawyers that withholding from Miss Lucy privileges granted to other students was not in compliance with his injunction. The lawyers were told to so advise

Autherine Lucy integrates

members of the board and report to him within three days what action they intended taking before a contempt citation was considered. Denial of dormitory accommodations to the Birmingham coed also is in conflict with Alabama law which requires all firstyear coeds to live on the campus. Miss Lucy, who is pursuing studies leading to a bachelor’s degree in library science, said that several students and faculty members had already indicated their pleasure over her admission. *** ONE TEACHER, she said, detained her after other members of the class had gone to whisper: ‘I admire your courage and I am sure you will win.” A male student passed her a folded note which read: “There’s more of us here rooting for you than you think. We don’t like the deal those old mossbacks on the board gave you.” Her first act Friday was to pay $35.40 for six books. Besides geography she is taking children’s literature, history of question reference service, political science and function of American government. *** SHE WAS accompanied here from

Birmingham by the Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth, pastor of Birmingham’s Bethel Baptist Church, and Mrs. Polly A. Hudson, who had been scheduled to enroll with her. Mrs. Hudson was denied admission on grounds of “conduct and martial record.” Married and the mother of a 2-years old son, she has filed for divorce. Judge Grooms has directed university Dean William F. Adams to appear in his court Thursday to show cause why he should not be held in contempt for barring Mrs. Hudson. The court order followed a petition filed Thursday by Mr. Shores, who expressed confidence that Mrs. Hudson could not be denied admission on such official grounds. *** THE OPENING of the school, Friday, marked the conclusion of a bitterly fought legal battle, begun three years ago. Emory O. Jackson, chairman of Alabama Committee for Educational Equality, estimated that it had cost his group almost $4,000 to break down the school’s color bar. A sign of the times was the announcement by the university that for the first time this semester it was offering a course in human relations.

September 1, 1956 ‘If a colored man is permitted to sit by a white woman...’ Supreme Court Given Warning by Alabama WASHINGTON – Granting a colored man the right to sit beside a white woman on public buses in Alabama would result in bloodshed, the U.S. Supreme Court was warned Thursday. The warning came in the form of a brief filed by Montgomery Board of Commissioners and the Alabama Public Service Commission. The Supreme Court was asked “to face squarely the truth and reality” by overthrowing the decision of a three-judge Federal court that Alabama’s laws requiring segregation of passengers was unconditional. THE LOWER COURT, comprised of native Alabama judges on June 5 held that state and city Jim Crow laws were in conflict with the U.S. Constitution’s guarantees of due process and equal protection of the law. The court permanently enjoined enforcement of the statues and ordinances, but suspended the injunction pending outcome

of an appeal to the Supreme Court. The case was the outgrowth of the Montgomery bus boycott and was filed by Fred D. Gray, attorney, of Montgomery. He was assisted during the actual trial by Robert L. Carter, assistant NAACP special counsel of NYC, and Arthur Shores of Birmingham. ALABAMA Attorney General John Patterson, who prepared the state’s appeal, told reporters: “We are making our last stand.” The Alabama brief, in part, reads: “Both races have the same bus drivers, ride the same buses, see the same sights when riding, look out of identical windows, pay the same fare and sit in identical seats. “The accommodations are identical in every respect. The right of the passenger is only that of being carried safely, and with a due regard to his personal comfort and convenience.

“This cannot be done and peace and order maintained in similar places if, by court decree, a colored man is permitted to sit by a white woman.” *** ATTORNEY GENERAL Patterson asked that the case be placed on the Supreme Court’s calendar for oral argument in the 1956 fall term. Fred D. Gray, who filed the suit, told the AFRO Saturday, that he and his NAACP co-counsel would be ready with a brief attacking Alabama’s contention within the legal deadline. He expressed confidence that the Supreme Court would uphold the lower court’s decision that laws requiring segregated travel are unconstitutional. Mr. Gray is scheduled to report for induction in the army on Sept. 17 unless there is further intervention by Selective Service authorities in Washington.

September 8, 1956 Ala. Board Gets Cold Feet in Montgomery Bus Boycott WASHINGTON – Alabama Public Service commissioners say they never ordered or upheld segregation in the bus boycott. That announcement comes out of the brief filed in appealing this case to the Supreme Court on the part of Alabama officials. Federal judges outlawed bus segregation in the state in a 2 to 1 decision on June 5. The injunction against bus Jim Crow was suspended pending the appeal, which arrived last week in a brief to the clerk’s office of the Supreme Court. IN THESE papers, it is said, “The members of the Alabama Public Service Commission object to their joinder as parties defendant and move to dismiss the action against them. Commissioners “never attempted or threatened to enforce the status and ordinances relating to the segregation of races on buses, operated by Montgomery City Lines, Inc.,” they said. Alabama Attorney General John Patterson and his assistants deny that Commissioners Jimmy Hitchcock and Sibyl Pool

September 14, 1957 ‘Right-to-vote’ bill reported signed by Ike NEWPORT, R.I. – White House sources reported Monday that President Eisenhower signed the compromise “right to vote” bill, passed by the recent session of Congress. Prior to signing it, the President was urged to seek a stronger civil rights bill by calling Congress into extra session by Chester K. Gillespie, Cleveland lawyer and nationally-known Republican lawyer. Mr. Gillespie also urged a veto of the present bill. More stringent legislation is needed, he claimed, in view of the action of Governor Faubus of Arkansas.

were aware of action by C. C. (Jack) Owen, president of the board. MR. OWENS sent a telegram to the National City Lines of Chicago, of which the Montgomery lines is a subsidiary, on April 24: “As president of the Alabama Public Service Commission, elected by the people of Alabama, sworn to uphold the segregation laws of this state, which include all forms of public transportation, I hereby defy ruling handed down by the U.S. Supreme Court… “Alabama state law requiring segregation of the races on buses still stands. All public carriers in Alabama are hereby directed to strictly adhere to all present existing segregation laws in our state or suffer the consequences.” The lawyers said, “That telegram was sent without the knowledge or concurrence of the other two commissioners.”

*** THE CASE is set for oral argument on the Supreme Court calendar for October. Alabama lawyers for the colored citizens are Charles D. Langford and Fred Gray, both of Montgomery. Mr. Gray is scheduled to report for induction in the Army on Sept. 17. If drafted before October, he may not participate in the case which he helped to focus into headlines around the world. In addition to state commissioners, other defendants named in the suit are City Commissioners Frank Parks and Clyde Sellers. Also Goodwyn J. Ruppenthal, chief of Police, and bus drivers James F. Blake and Robert Cleere. Alabama holds that it has the right to exercise police power to maintain segregation for the sake of “peace and order.”

September 27, 1957 President Eisenhower’s reasoning discredited The Eisenhower-Faubus conference, Saturday, was a disappointment. Before entering the meeting with the law-breaking Governor of Arkansas, Eisenhower declared he would use every effort to enforce the United States Constitution. Afterwards, the President said the conference was constructive, and patience is required. Sunday, Ike again commented on school integration, saying that it cannot be legislated. The Arkansas problem is now down to this: Whether a state governor can defy a Federal court and the Federal Constitution. Why did Ike raise the question as to whether the 14th Amendment should have been passed in the first place, or whether the Supreme Court should have ordered it enforced with all deliberate

speed? Why didn’t the President stick to the only question before him, namely: enforcement of the law. If he believes you cannot legislate integration, then he would have to believe also that you cannot legislate law, order, decency, love and the golden rule. What jackass ever said you could do these things? But what you can do is to make and enforce law which prevents people from putting their lawlessness and indecency and their hatred into public action. The law may not change Kasper’s views on segregation, but it can stop him from practicing them with picket lines, incendiary speeches and dynamite. Somewhere President Eisenhower has heard the expression that laws cannot be enforced if a majority of public opinion is against them. That is a big lie and the

President should not repeat it. That was the line of the slaveholders in 1840. Wise old Abraham Lincoln said laws which a majority of the public opposed can be enforced, if the public is wrong. We could have avoided a bloody Civil War if we had accepted the reasoning of Abraham Lincoln, rather than the pronouncements of the advocates of slavery. It is unfortunate that after 100 years President Eisenhower should adopt the reasoning of discredited slaveholders. Attorney General Brownell and Federal Judge Davies, we hope we are not puzzled by Mr. Eisenhower’s varied utterances. There was Senator Knowland, the President’s legislative leader in the Senate, who fervently asked the President to take the stand, and stand still so everybody could locate his position.

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October 5, 1957 ‘Little Rock Nine’ describes 1st day in integrated school LITTLE ROCK, Ark. – “it was really pleasant and everyone was extra nice today.” That was the reaction of Miss Melba Patillo, pretty and vivacious junior, after her first day of integrated classes at Central High School. She was one of the pioneering pupils at the school, four of whom held a brief press conference after school, with Mrs. L.C. Bates, president of the Arkansas NAACP, as chaperone. One young man, Terrance Roberts, one of the three boys attending the not integrated school under protection of Federal Troops, confirmed Miss Patillo’s statement that their reception at the school was good. “THERE WAS ONLY one thing unpleasant,” said Miss Patillo, 15, who plans to become a professional dancer and a singer. “In English class one boy stood up and tried to get other pupils to leave with him.” The other pupils ignored him, according to Miss Patillo, and the teacher told him to “Go ahead and leave.” He then asked something like “You mean you’re chicken? Nobody going with me? She said. The children denied emphatically reports that each of them had been assigned a personal guard of paratroopers in the corridors and classrooms of the school. “Of course there were soldiers all through the building,” explained Miss Minnie Jean Brown, also a 15-year-old junior, who says she hopes someday to be national NAACP secretary. *** ALL OF THE children expressed a strong belief that the troopers would remain long enough to make certain that there would be no repeat of Monday’s performance after the troops are gone. Young Roberts said non-chalantly that he tried to look upon his first day there as just another school day in spite of the fact that it followed by two days a previous appearance at the school when he was badly treated. Miss Brown, stating proudly that she had already

The Little Rock Nine are escorted by federal troops as they attend Little Rock Central High School, 1957

learned one of the school’s yells, gave a ringing demonstration, then waxed serious, sizing up her white classmates in these words: “THEY DON’T HAVE anything against us. They are torn between what their parents think and what they think themselves. They just want to find out what we are like and when they discover we are nice people everyone will get along wonderfully.” The group of nine pupils was supposed to have been swelled to 10 on Thursday when Miss June Hill, 15, was scheduled to complete her transfer from Horace Mann High to Central. Showing an eagerness to get away from the news

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December 21, 1957 Ala. Defies Federal bars to travel segregation

MOBILE, Ala. – Travel segregation remains a “definite reality” at many points in Alabama, a limited report issued Wednesday by the Public Affairs Research Committee, said. The report made the charge that “despite rulings of the Interstate Commerce Commission outlawing segregation in waiting rooms and on trains and buses, devious means have been employed to circumvent the law.” It added that violence which marked the period of the successful Montgomery bus boycott and immediately following the court victory against segregation on city buses,

“did not deter colored citizens there from continuing to insist that their rights under the law be respected.:” THE REPORT noted that colored citizens in Birmingham have instituted court action attacking waiting room segregation and a city law requiring separate seats from white and colored persons on buses. It said that the court steps developed from the arrest of colored persons in a railroad waiting room and for riding non-segregated on city buses. It said further that railroad agents at

Flomaton, Ala., were accused of calling the police to arrest some colored persons traveling in interstates commerce several months ago. According to the report, they happened to choose seats in a section of the passenger station reserved for white. These arrests were said to be “contrary to federal law.” *** THE ALABAMA Public Service Commission was said to have compelled railroads to place signs on waiting room doors which have had a tendency to confuse colored passengers about their rights.

Bus lines in many cities and towns still retain “white” and “colored” signs designating separate waiting rooms for the races, the report declared. It said that in many communities violations of Federal law have been abetted by employees of railroads and bus lines “who have flagrantly segregated colored travelers, or called police to arrest those who would not easily be intimidated where their rights were involved.”

June 3, 1961 Swarm of Freedom Riders set to invade Ala., Mississippi

ATLANTA – If Mississippi and Alabama officials thought they could frighten off Freedom Riders by the threat of arrest, they’ll soon learn differently. Literally swarms of Freedom Riders representing just about every state in the Union are headed for new challenges of Dixie’s frantic efforts to maintain segregation in interstate travel. The clarion call has gone out from five sources. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., sounded one trumpet Sunday following a weekend conference of Southern Christian Leadership Conference officials here. *** AT THE SAME time, Edward B. King Jr. (no relation to Dr. King), who is administrative secretary of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, called upon members in all colleges in the Southeast to send volunteers for a step up in Freedom Riders. King said he had already received response from chapters of his organization in sixteen Southern states and the District of Columba. He said the present “lull” was caused by final examinations on most campuses and promised as soon as commencements were out of the way, students will fill buses headed toward the now traditional Birmingham MontgomeryJackson – New Orleans freedom route. Meanwhile both the NAACP and CORE were busy sending out pleas for volunteers. The NAACP urged members of its 123 key college units in 33 states to return home on a “non-segregated transportation basis” at the end of the school year. *** ROY WILKINS, executive secretary, urged

the young people to “sit where you choose on trains and buses” and “to use terminal, restaurant and other facilities without discrimination. The Supreme Court’s rulings are clear as to both types of travel.” The national office of the Congress of Racial Equality in New York has sent out orders for members to broaden their tests to railroad and airline terminals. “The time to act is now” said the memorandum prepared by James Farmer, national director, from Montgomery. Farmer later made the trip from Montgomery to Jackson, Miss., where he was arrested and convicted. *** “Throughout the nation we can end segregation in bus, train and airline terminals if we are willing to make the sacrifices involved,” Farmer asserted. Marvin Rich, in charge of CORE’s community relations, has been running the office during Farmer’s absence. A check for $5,000 was sent to the organization by Walter P. Reuther, president of the Industrial Union Department of AFL-CIO, to help finance the Freedom Ride operation. Reuther in a letter to Mr. Farmer, praised the Freedom Riders for “doing the nation a great service.” Rich said other contributions are pouring in from the organization’s 25,000 members, but expenses are running higher than expected. *** CHALLENGE OF intrastate travel restrictions has been ordered in Florida by the Rev. Leon Lowery of Tampa, president of the Florida NAACP. All members were told to seek service in terminal restaurants, take front seats on trains

and buses and ignore racial signs on restroom facilities. The Rev. Theodore Gibson, president of the Miami NAACP, reported that Greyhound in Miami removed “colored” and “white” signs after learning that his organization planned a test in that terminal. *** APPROVAL OF the Freedom rides came Thursday from the United Presbyterian Church, meeting in annual session at Buffalo, N.Y. A resolution adopted by delegates representing 3,250,000 members of the church, “commends and encourages those persons who are seeking by non-violent means to bring about equality for all.” Two white Central State College students left Wilberforce, O., Thursday night to join the Freedom Riders at Montgomery. Both students have been active in sit-down demonstrations.

More Freedom Riders-A new busload of Freedom Riders, including four white college professors, and three colored students, arrives in Montgomery, Ala under guard of police and the National Guard. Center with glasses is the Rev. William Coffin,Jr. At left partly hidden is Dr. David F. Swift and behind him wearing glasses is Dr. John D. Maguire.

Escort Home-National Guardsman button up tailgate of truck as they began taking church rally-goers home from First Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala. Mob tried to storm the church despite guard by U.S. Marshals.

August 26, 1961 FBI Investigates Police Freedom Riders’ Beating

JACKSON, Miss. – The brutal beating of three freedom riders en route here to New Orleans Saturday has caused that city to be labeled a good place to stay way from. “New Orleans is too hot,” a CORE spokesman said. “You can’t tell how far the police will go there.” An FBI agent contacted Edward Blankenheim, CORE field secretary, this week and promised to investigate the case to see if the three riders’ “civil liberties” had been violated. Riders leaving here were urged to sidestep New Orleans on their return trip. The riders’ were arrested on vagrancy charges, which were later dropped. They were charged with assault, simple assault, aggravated assault, and simple escape. They posted bond and appeared in Hinds County Court here for their arraignment Tuesday morning. *** BLANKENHEIM said lack of housing for those riders who wished to join the movement

They are Dave Myers of Noblesville, Ind., and Dave Frankhauser of Cincinnati. Myers has also applied for duty with the Peace Corps. Frankhauser is an honor student in chemistry. *** THE REV. F. L. SHUTTLESWORTH of Birmingham, one of 11 persons arrested in Montgomery for eating in the Trailways bus terminal, was released under $1000 bail Saturday. The Rev. Ralph Abernathy president of the Montgomery Improvement Association and four others remained in jail, refusing to make bond. Military authorities in Montgomery arrested six white teenagers, whom they charged with shooting the Rev. Solomon S. Seay Sr., as he stepped off the front porch of his home. They were turned over to juvenile authorities and released in custody of their parents. The names were withheld.

in New Orleans also influenced the decision. A small group of CORE trained student non-violent leaders have been working in the city for some time. “We don’t want to impose on the local people too much in the face of hostile law enforcement officers.” *** THE THREE arrested were George Blevins, 21, an artist from Los Angeles, Calif.; John Dolan, 20, a student at the University of California; and Frank Nelson, 23, a civil engineer from California. Dolan had red scabs across the left side of his face, which he said came from being thrown out of a paddy wagon. Blevins had a bandaged cut on the back of his head. All three riders had swollen welts across their backs which they attributed to blows from police night sticks. *** BLEVINS TOLD the story in graphic detail. “We were sitting there (in the colored home, colored neighborhood) waiting for

dinner when a cop knocked on the door and said something about a disturbance in the neighborhood. “Our host talked with him for awhile and then he left. About 15 minutes later the door swung open and three policemen came in without knocking. “They asked us a lot of questions about our ages, where we were from, searched us and the place. They were looking for something to get us on. “When they found me with $1.75, John had $2.16, and Frank had more than $17, they said we were charged with vagrancy. “They took us to the 2nd precinct in a patrol car booked us, and locked us up. Blevins said they were called “nigger lovers” and “agitators” but were not molested at first. *** “THEN THEY came to transfer us to the city jail. They put us in a paddy wagon with another guy. Heard one policeman say he had been charged with assault on a colored man.

“The guy kept asking questions and didn’t seem satisfied with the answers until we told him we were “Freedom Riders.” “When we said that, he told Frank who was sitting beside him to move over on the other side. ‘I don’t sit beside people like you,’ he told Frank. Frank moved because we didn’t want any trouble,” Blevins continued. “The guy was quiet until we got to the police station and the wagon stopped. Then he started swinging at us. He couldn’t hurt us much because the space wasn’t big enough for him to get a full punch. Just before the door opened he grabbed John by the legs and started yelling ‘help, help.’ “The door opened and the cops hauled us out and started swinging with their billies. One had John by the neck and beating him over the head and kept yelling ‘He’s trying to escape, he’s trying to escape.’ So John sat down…It was funny but we didn’t feel much like laughing then. “When they got us inside we were lined up against the wall for about 15 minutes.

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June 15, 1963 Even Governors Can Be Jailed

We do not know what surprises President Kennedy and the Department of the Justice have in store for Governor Wallace of Alabama. The President has said that the orders of the federal courts would be enforced even with troops if necessary. The federal courts have enjoined the governor from interfering with admission of colored students to the University of Alabama summer school. The governor insists that he will personally meet them at the door to prevent their enrollment. The showdown is imminent. There should be no uncertainty about the outcome. *** IF THE GOVERNOR personally interferes with the order of the court, he should be arrested, put in jail, released on bond, brought to trial and eventually fined and imprisoned. If, as soon as he gets out, he repeats the offence, he should be jailed, found guilty again, fined and imprisoned again. This procedure should continue in every case that he defies the courts. This is exactly what happened in 1870 when Congress passed the Civil Rights law permitting colored people to serve on juries, to appear in court as plaintiffs and witnesses as other citizens. As many as 5,000 arrests were made by the federal government before judges in Southern states decided to obey the law. In some cases, judges who refused colored people the right under the law, to appear in courts, were arrested as many of six times. *** IN MARYLAND, the Legislature passed an act to pay the fines of such judges who were arrested for violating the civil rights law. However, the federal government was insistent. The judges got tired of going to jail and amassing a criminal record which disqualified them from holding public office. So that in 10 years, all resistance ceased. Governor Wallace believes that if students and clergy, their children and citizens of Alabama are willing to go to jail to obtain their civil rights, he’s willing to go to jail to prevent it. The government should give him that opportunity and we trust that the federal courts and the Department of Justice will not shirk their duty.

Tighter security provided for Wallace than Mikoyan NEW YORK – A visit by bearded Fidel Castro could not have provoked tighter security measures than those accorded Gov. George Wallace of Alabama on his recent visit here to appear on “Meet the Press.” It wasn’t necessary to provide Soviet Deputy Premier Allastas Mikoyan with such protection. Barricades lined 49th St. from the Avenue of America to Fifth Ave. and Rockefeller

Plaza as police sealed off all entrances to the skyscraper where the NBC studios were located. Technical workers had to get a button to go bout their jobs. Policemen, both colored and white, were in evidence everywhere. Even as ambulance and a mobile communications Commission, the Rev. Mr. Walker said. Hundreds protested Wallace’s appearance.

George Wallace blocking the entrance of University of Alabama, 1963

Equal time asked to refute Wallace’s teevee statements ATLANTA – (ANP) – Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. has requested equal time from the NBC network to refute statements made by Alabama Gov. George Wallace who appeared on NBC’s news show “Meet the Press,” which originated out of New York. Charging the statements made by the governor before a nationwide audience as “distortion,” Dr. King and his aides said the Governor gave the impression that colored persons are voting all over the state of Alabama and that the state’s schools are truly

equal. The Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker, executive assistant to Dr. King who heads the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, said the request for equal time for one of their spokesmen was wired to Lawrence Spivack, producer of the show, and to Robert Sarnoff, chairman of the board of the National Broadcasting Co. Copy of the wire has also been sent to the Federal Communications Commission, the Rev. Mr. Walker said.

‘Who’s Afraid of Wallace?’: Freedom fight getting results Not waiting for President Kennedy’s new civil rights program expected to be handed Congress this week, militant Freedom Fighters in widely scattered areas were enjoying substantial success in knocking down ancient color bars in public places. Serving blunt notice that the drive would

not be slowed down was the announcement by James Farmer, national director of CORE that a July Fourth deadline has been set for Southern department, variety and drug stores affiliated with national chains to end segregation.

June 29, 1963 Widow Visits JFK

WASHINGTON (ANP) – The family and brother of slain Mississippi martyr Medgar Evers were signally honored by President Kennedy in a gesture combining sympathy and respect last week. The surviving Evers were personally welcomed by the Chief Executive of the nation during their unannounced tour of the White House, after Medgar Evers was buried in Arlington National Cemetery, the final resting place of America’s heroes, with full military honors. The graveside rites were attended by 1,000 persons, including several governmental and Congressional leaders and prominent civil right leaders. *** DURING HIS meeting with the Evers, including the slain rights leaders’ widow and two children, the President presented Darryl K, a PT boat tie-clasp, and his sister, Reena Denise, 8, a charm bracelet with the PT insignia engraved on it. The mementos are symbol of Mr. Kennedy’s ordeal as a PT boat naval commander during World War II. Evers brother Charles who has taken over his duties as NAACP field secretary in Jackson, Miss., was also welcomed by the President during the White House tour. The Presidential welcome was one of the significant and related events occurring in the nation’s capital, which will undoubtedly affect the future of the colored man in America. *** THE FIRST TWO concern the welcome and the burial of Evers, and the third was the presentation by the President of the strongest civil rights message ever submitted to Congress. Evers, the 37-year-old Mississippi State NAACP Field secretary, was buried in hallowed ground with full military honors. He was killed by a sniper’s bullet, June 12, in the driveway of his home in Jackson, Miss. While more than $20,000 has been offered for information leading to the arrest and conviction of his slayer, the assailant still remains at large. Mr. Evers’ body was removed from the John Wesley AME Zion Church here where an estimated 25,000 persons passed his bier in one and a half days. A funeral cortege of nearly 600 cars accompanied the body to the cemetery where two services were held, one in the 500 seat Ft. Meyer chapel and another at the graveside. THE SLAIN LEADER was a World War II veteran who served in the Army from 1943 to 1946 and received two battle stars for his part in the Normandy invasion and the campaign

in France. Bishop Stephen Gill Spotswood, of the AME church and chairman of the national board of the NAACP, delivered the eulogy in the chapel and stated: “God grant that Medgar Evers may be the last black American to give his life to make the Constitution come alive for the full citizenship of all Americans.” NAACP Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins, speaking at the graveside said Evers had insisted on remaining in Jackson although he knew that “every morning he went forth he was offering his life for the things he believed in. “That offering was finally accepted,” said Wilkins. “He believed in his country and now it remains to be seen whether his country believes in him.” EVERS WAS a member of the American Veterans Committee and had been elected to the Committee’s national board two weeks before he died. Micky Levine, former AVC national chairman said, “No leader ever had a more noble and divine cause.” Shortly before the graveside rites terminated, Clarence Mitchell, III, a member of the Maryland State Legislature, led the assembled group in the hymn which has become the marching song of the rights struggle, “We Shall Overcome.” The entire ceremony was marked by what one mourner described as a “hushed dignity.” At least two persons, a young Medgar Evers and Aaron Henry man and a young woman collapsed quispeaking at conference, circa 1962 etly in the noonday heat. Few seemed to notice. Standing about the grave with bowed heads were scores of persons prominent in many walks of life. OBSERVED AMONG them were Dr. Robert C. Weaver, Administrator of the Housing and Home Finance Agency; Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of the Interior; Rep. Charles C. Diggs, Jr. (D-Mich.); Rep. Augustus F. Hawkins (D-Calif.); G. Mennen Williams, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs. Clarence Mitchell, NAACP Washington Bureau chief; Pedro Sanjuan, State Department Assistant Chief of Protocol; Berl I. Bernhard, staff director of the Civil Rights Commission; Frank D. Reevers, Democratic National Committeeman for D.C.; Louis Martin, Deputy Chairman, Democratic National Committee. The Rev. E. Franklin Jackson, president, Washington NAACP, the Rev. Walter E. Fauntroy, regional director, Southern Christian Leadership Conference; Robert W. Kitchin, Jr., Assistant Personnel Director, Agency for International Development.

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September 7, 1963 Vast Sea of Humanity Raises ‘Cry for Freedom’ Washington – The cry was ‘freedom!” The legions marched. Some 241,000 singing, clapping, praying, marching Americans, Protestants, Jews, Catholics, black and white, flew, walked, rode, drove and roller skated to Washington Wednesday, to demand that a recalcitrant Congress pass effective civil rights legislation. It was the largest demonstration in the capital in the nation’s history. Twenty-one chartered trains and 16 regular trains screamed along the rails into Union Station bringing 23,000 passengers. Some 1,600 buses roared down the nation’s highways bringing 60,000 passengers to Washington from as far west as Oklahoma City and Wyoming. Over 30,000 marchers were from Philadelphia. Clarksdale and Jackson, Mississippians, came in overalls, wearing them as a signal badge of honor. The marchers wore sandals, loafers, high heels, tennis shoes and Lena Horne walked in boots but the marching cadence was the same. The synchronized beat as “Freedom Now!” They thronged from the gathering site at the Washington Monument, along Constitution and Independence Avenues to the Lincoln Memorial. At the foot of the brooding statue of Abraham Lincoln, they stood, sat on the grass, sat in chairs and hung from the trees. It was a clear, golden day. Temperatures hovered about 87 degrees. The sky was cloudless. A slight breeze stirred. An occasional bird fluttered by. A few airplanes droned in the sky. Helicopters bearing the press hung suspended overhead.

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other organizers lead the way.

Randolph Vows Fight to Continue “We will need to continue our demonstrations…to return to our communities to build fires under our Congressmen,” A. Philip Randolph, director of the March on Washington, said Thursday.

A. Philip Randolph

He told the National Conference on Civil Rights of the Socialist Party that Negroes must use whatever strength they won in last Wednesday’s demonstration to further the

passage of civil rights legislation. He said, “legislation is enacted under pressure. You can’t move senators and congressmen just because everyone thinks a measure is right. There has got to be pressure.” In broadening the nationwide drive for equality, Randolph said the 10 march chairmen will hold a strategy planning session in New York before the middle of September. He said one of the key objectives would be an expanded civil rights bill. Randolph told the gathering that Southern senators who filibuster against the present bill will be hit with “counter-filibuster” tactics “all around the country.” He explained that these tactics would come partly in the form of town meeting discussions in churches in Washington and elsewhere, at which political, civic and religious leaders would address gatherings “round-the-clock.” Plans still in the tentative stage call for 500 to 1,000 demonstrators to converge on Washington each day during the filibuster to take part in the meetings. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. said another tactic would be a “mass write-in campaign so that people in the tens of thousands” could urge doubtful Congressmen to pass the legislation.

JFK Vows Push for More Jobs

Washington – President Kennedy told the 10 March on Washington chairmen August 28 that he would continue his efforts to obtain increased employment and elimination of discrimination in the hiring of colored people. In a statement issued following an hour and 20-minute session with the leaders, the President called attention to the “tens of thousands of Americans, both colored and white,” who visited Washington “to secure equal treatment and equal opportunity.” He said pursuit of these two goals “are neither novel nor difficult to understand. What is different today is the intensified and widespread public awareness of the need to move forward in achieving these objectives – objectives which are older than the Nation.” The Chief Executive said remarkable progress in translating civil rights from principles into practices had been made this summer, but “we have a very long way yet to travel.” “One cannot help but be impressed,” he continued, “with the deep fervor and the quiet dignity that characterizes the thousands who have gathered in the nation’s capital from across the country to demonstrate their faith and confidence in our form of government. “History has seen many demonstrations – of widely varying character and for a whole host of reasons. As our thoughts travel to other demonstrations that have occurred in different parts of the world, this nation can properly be proud of the demonstration that has occurred here today.

“The leaders of the organizations sponsoring the March and all who have participated in it deserve our appreciation for the detailed preparations that made it possible and for the orderly manner in which it has been conducted.” Mr. Kennedy also promised to maintain the drive to win enactment of the administration’s Civil Rights Bill and the proposals to broaden and strengthen the Manpower Development and Training Program and other legislative programs. The President took time out during the meeting to have a sandwich and coffee with the visitors who had gone without food since breakfast. He asked his staff to bring milk for A. Philip Randolph, the group’s chairman. At the end of the visit with the President, the march leaders met with reporters outside the White House press office, before proceeding to a local radio and television station to tape a program. Randolph said, among other things, that he was greatly pleased over the way things went in the march involving 210,000 persons and felt the demonstration was one for which “every American can be proud.” He then introduced Roy Wilkins, NAACP executive secretary, whom he called “our expert on legislative affairs:” Dr. Eugene Carson Blake, United Presbyterian Church; Walter Reuther (“One of the towers of strength”); Dr. Martin Luther King (“America’s moral leader”); and John Lewis, national chairman, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.

They arrived to the march by the busloads.

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10 F10

The Afro-American, August 24, 2013 - August 30, 2013

You were neither too young or too old to participate in the movement.

The March on Washington - August 28, 1963

Well known entertainers, such as Odetta performed for the crowd.

The signs says it all.

They came - all races, creeds and colors

This delegation from Guinea came to see the workings of the civil rights movement.

The Power To Turn

a dream inTo

realiTy. We are proud to honor the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. on this very special 50th anniversary. We continue to be inspired by his words and actions as we work together for the benefit of the communities we serve.

Baltimore Afro-American Newspaper Civil Rights Special Edition 8 24 2013  

Special Edition in celebration 50th Anniversary of the March on Washington and 121st Anniversary of the AFRO-American Newspapers

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