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REFERENCES PGM RECENSEES EN SEPTEMBRE 2010 STATISTIQUES Thèmes

Adresses auteurs

01) Nombre total références 02) PGM-Résistantes aux insectes 03) PGM-Résistantes aux nématodes 04) PGM-Tolérantes à des Herbicides 05) PGM-Résistantes aux champignons Phytopathogènes 06) PGM-Résistantes aux bactéries 07) PGM-Resistantes aux Virus 08) PGM-Resistantes aux maladies (articles généraux) 09) PGM-Résistantes à l'environnement 10) PGM-Outils de recherche en biologie végétale 11) 9 et 10 12) Résistance des organismes cibles (OC) 13) Impact sur organismes non cibles (ONC) 14) Devenir des transgènes ou/et transprotéines 15) Bioengineering 16) Sante 17) Biotechnologie de l'environnement USA China* India Germany Japan France** United Kingdom Korea Canada Spain Australia Italy Columbia Belgium South Africa The Netherlands Switzerland Taiwan Brazil - Brasil Argentina New Zealand Kenya Malaysia Saudi Arabia Austria Czech Republic Denmark Hungary

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Pakistan Poland Sweden Egypt Greece Norway Philippines Portugal Finland Mexico Romania Slovakia Thailand Cameroon Costa Rica Ethopia Israel Mauritania Nigeria Serbia Turkey Uganda

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* Revues chinoises de septembre non dépouillées ** dont 11 sur aspects agronomiques

LISTE DES REFERENCES PGM RECENSEES EN SEPTEMBRE 2010 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Aananthi N, Anandakumar CR, Ushakumari R, Shanthi P, Year: 2010 Title: * Agrobacterium – mediated transformation of indica rice under Acetosyringone–free conditions. (Research Article). Journal: Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(4): 1244-1248 (July 2010) Label: Bioengineering Keywords: indica rice, Agrobacterium –mediated transformation, Acetosyringone (AS) Abstract: The possibility of developing transgenic indica rices through Agrobacterium –mediated transformation in the absence of Acetosyringone at bacterial preinduction or cocultivation or both stages was assessed. Six weeks old, scutellum derived calluses of indica rice viz., ASD 16, White Ponni, Pusa Basmati, Pusa Sugandh 4, Pusa Sugandh 5 were cocultivated with A.tumifaciens strain EHA 105, harbouring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.1 with the â-glucouronidase (GUS) and hygromycin phospho transferase genes in the T-DNA region. Addition of Acetosyringone (AS) to the pre induction medium and cocultivation medium induced higher levels of transient GUS expression than that obtained with the addition of AS to either of the stages. Adddition of sucrose to both the media revealed that the transient expression levels were similar to those obtained by the addition of AS. The resultant fertile plants were stable ttransformants as revealed by GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis for the GUS and HPT genes. The results indicated that the addition of phenolics like AS may not be essential for the induction of vir genes and development of transgenic indica rices are also possible under AS free conditions. URL: http://7163212528993603940-a-1802744773732722657-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/ejpb10/vol-1-43/Vol-1-4-1244-1248.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cqadhIu2_b2jI36ohs7ioClmJOLyl3Yxf5plrbnEHtne8iAfdRj1uGBenszN3o8p3QSRv5VW3ySSGZ8DLd3YzkhKUT


5YMjNwoHq8qIPWuTPtcLnuJnSathWuy0ysC95bEdFKPCACeAgreQwsNoa05VYLRZamcwdT0IzIAsZZ0q2 7iQcFk6fFS5XrSy3p4bz0Ihj913t83aKp5EK6EBzhhq17qlBw%3D%3D&attredirects=0 Author Address: Rice Research Station, Ambasamudram-627401 India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Aananthi N, Anandakumar CR, Ushakumari R, Shanthi P, Year: 2010 Title: * Regeneration study of some indica rice cultivars followed by Agrobacterium – mediated transformation of highly regenerable cultivar, Pusa Basmati 1. Journal: Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(4): 1249-1256 (July 2010). Label: Bioengineering Keywords: regeneration, indica rice, Agrobacterium –mediated transformation Abstract: Five indica rice (Oryza sativa L.var.) cultivars viz., ASD 16, White Ponni, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandh 4 and Pusa Sugandh 5 were subjected to tissue culture to study their regenerability in terms of regeneration percent and total number of regenerated plantlets obtained for a fixed sample size per variety. Regeneration potential was found to be highest (56.03%) for Pusa Basmati 1 and the lowest (30.37%) for White Ponni. The highly regenerating indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati 1 was subjected to genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumifaciens EHA 105 harbouring the virulent Plasmid Pcambia 1305.1. Sucessful transformation events in the infected calli with this strain were assayed by transient GUS assay using 5-bromo 4-chloro 3-indolyl-D glucuronide (X-gluc) as a substrate. The frequency of transformation in terms of transient GUS assay was found to be 44.0 ± 2 S.E URL: http://7163212528993603940-a-1802744773732722657-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/ejpb10/vol-1-43/Vol-1-4-12491256.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7crJGzmWNy1IQRb_fiGQWbqig4rudtz1pcdNTe3JFMjAS4tdEL61PBNk4NYjIb8 F6LAer1TPibrLbwca_io2CNP7tBReA32TnCyy6MWZdCoAUVdbTVLfRAf2X9eWT88reUi88OdYAjGufyDixw_qR5wZ4vXRbrJCx8I03D2v7U2qhYLfV-wZmE3Wa2hJMOiUDsZl6YWt-dDQR7HZciNNzcjv4BCw%3D%3D&attredirects=0 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Aananthi N, Anandakumar CR, Ushakumari R, Shanthi P, Year: 2010 Title: * Agrobacterium – mediated transformation of indica rice under Acetosyringone–free conditions. (Research Article). Journal: Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(4): 1244-1248 (July 2010) Label: Bioengineering Keywords: indica rice, Agrobacterium –mediated transformation, Acetosyringone (AS) Abstract: The possibility of developing transgenic indica rices through Agrobacterium –mediated transformation in the absence of Acetosyringone at bacterial preinduction or cocultivation or both stages was assessed. Six weeks old, scutellum derived calluses of indica rice viz., ASD 16, White Ponni, Pusa Basmati, Pusa Sugandh 4, Pusa Sugandh 5 were cocultivated with A.tumifaciens strain EHA 105, harbouring the binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.1 with the â-glucouronidase (GUS) and hygromycin phospho transferase genes in the T-DNA region. Addition of Acetosyringone (AS) to the pre induction medium and cocultivation medium induced higher levels of transient GUS expression than that obtained with the addition of AS to either of the stages. Adddition of sucrose to both the media revealed that the transient expression levels were similar to those obtained by the addition of AS. The resultant fertile plants were stable ttransformants as revealed by GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis for the GUS and HPT genes. The results indicated that the addition of phenolics like AS may not be essential for the induction of vir genes and development of transgenic indica rices are also possible under AS free conditions. URL: http://7163212528993603940-a-1802744773732722657-s-sites.googlegroups.com/site/ejpb10/vol-1-43/Vol-1-4-1244-1248.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cqadhIu2_b2jI36ohs7ioClmJOLyl3Yxf5plrbnEHtne8iAfdRj1uGBenszN3o8p3QSRv5VW3ySSGZ8DLd3YzkhKUT 5YMjNwoHq8qIPWuTPtcLnuJnSathWuy0ysC95bEdFKPCACeAgreQwsNoa05VYLRZamcwdT0IzIAsZZ0q2 7iQcFk6fFS5XrSy3p4bz0Ihj913t83aKp5EK6EBzhhq17qlBw%3D%3D&attredirects=0 Author Address: Rice Research Station, Ambasamudram-627401 India


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Aananthi N, Anandakumar CR, Ushakumari R, Shanthi P, Year: 2010 Title: * Regeneration study of some indica rice cultivars followed by Agrobacterium – mediated transformation of highly regenerable cultivar, Pusa Basmati 1. Journal: Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(4): 1249-1256 (July 2010). Label: Bioengineering Keywords: regeneration, indica rice, Agrobacterium –mediated transformation Abstract: Five indica rice (Oryza sativa L.var.) cultivars viz., ASD 16, White Ponni, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandh 4 and Pusa Sugandh 5 were subjected to tissue culture to study their regenerability in terms of regeneration percent and total number of regenerated plantlets obtained for a fixed sample size per variety. Regeneration potential was found to be highest (56.03%) for Pusa Basmati 1 and the lowest (30.37%) for White Ponni. The highly regenerating indica rice cultivar Pusa Basmati 1 was subjected to genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumifaciens EHA 105 harbouring the virulent Plasmid Pcambia 1305.1. Sucessful transformation events in the infected calli with this strain were assayed by transient GUS assay using 5-bromo 4-chloro 3-indolyl-D glucuronide (X-gluc) as a substrate. The frequency of transformation in terms of transient GUS assay was found to be 44.0 ± 2 S.E URL: http://7163212528993603940-a-1802744773732722657-ssites.googlegroups.com/site/ejpb10/vol-1-4-3/Vol-1-4-12491256.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7crJGzmWNy1IQRb_fiGQWbqig4rudtz1pcdNTe3JFMjAS4tdEL61PBNk4 NYjIb8F6LAer1TPibrLbwca_io2CNP7tBReA32TnCyy6MWZdCoAUVdbTVLfRAf2X9eWT88reUi88OdYAjGufyDixw_qR5wZ4vXRbrJCx8I03D2v7U2qhYLfV-wZmE3Wa2hJMOiUDsZl6YWt-dDQR7HZciNNzcjv4BCw%3D%3D&attredirects=0 Author Address: Rice Research Station, Ambasamudram-627401 India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Abdallah Naglaa A Year: 2010 Title: * Amflora: Great expectation for GM Crops in Europe. Journal: GM Crops Volume 1, Issue 3 May/June 2010 Pages 109 - 112 DOI: 10.4161/gmcr.1.3.12398 Label: Composition Adoption BioIndustrie Abstract: Amflora provides a plausible reason for commercially cultivation of GM Crops in Europe. For improving the industrial application of potato, the amylose-less Amflora was genetically engineered to produce only amylopectin component in its starch. Amflora was developed by silencing the expression of the starch synthase enzyme using antisense strategy to eliminate the expression of amylose. Amylopectin is known to be the required starch component for industrial purpose because of its thickening properties, in the contrary amylose component has a gelling property which interfere with the industrial processes and it makes the dissolved potato starch unstable. Therefore, it is requested to separate the two components. Seperating amylopectin and amylose in potato starch would require energy and water consumptions and therefore be uneconomical. URL: http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/gmcrops/article/12398/ Author Address: Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI); Agricultural Research Center (ARC); 9 Gamaa St.; Giza 12619 Egypt XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Abdallah Naglaa A Year: 2010 Title: * GM Crops in Africa: Challenges in Egypt. Journal: GM Crops Volume 1, Issue 3 May/June 2010 Pages 116 - 119 DOI: 10.4161/gmcr.1.3.12811 Label: Adoption Socioeconomic


Abstract: In Africa, six million children die from malnutrition before their fifth birthday per year (World Bank stats). More than 800 million people go to bed hungry, 300 million of them are children. "Simply because my people are hungry, that is no justification to give them poison" Small words that were outspoken by President Levy Mwanawasa of Zambia, who refused to accept milled grains from the United States during the worst food shortage crises that ever faced Africa 2002. Amazingly; African leaders of Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi and Mozambique refused to accept food aid, because it was "contaminated" with genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Moreover, they claimed that it made food "hazardous to human health". Eventually, African countries gave in and accepted milled GM cereals, but Zambia was only spared from the catastrophe when they received certifiably non-GM aid from Europe. URL: http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/gmcrops/article/12811/ Author Address: Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI); Agricultural Research Center (ARC); 9 Gamaa St.; Giza 12619 Egypt XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Abdul Azeez, Sane AP, Tripathi SK, Bhatnagar D, Pravendra Nath, Year: 2010 Title: * The gladiolus GgEXPA1 is a GA-responsive alpha-expansin gene expressed ubiquitously during expansion of all floral tissues and leaves but repressed during organ senescence. Journal: Postharvest Biology and Technology 58, 1. Label: Physiol Keywords: biosynthesis; cell growth; flowering; flowers; gene expression; genes; genetic transformation; gibberellins; gynoecium; hypocotyls; inhibition; leaves; paclobutrazol; plant growth regulators; plant tissues; postharvest systems; reporter genes; seedlings; senescence; stamens; transgenic plants; transgenics anthesis; Capparales; cell elongation; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; plant growth substances; plant hormones; reporter gene Abstract: The final shape and size of the flower is genetically and developmentally controlled by tight regulation of cell number and cell size with cell expansion playing an important role The gladiolus expansin gene, GgEXPA1, was expressed prominently during phases of active tepal expansion and cell elongation in stamen filaments, gynoecium styles and expanding leaves but not in tissues where expansion had ceased and senescence had been initiated. Within tepals, differential expression between the proximal and distal portions that differ in cell elongation was observed. The expression of the gene was responsive to GA and inhibited by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol. The promoter of GgEXPA1 showed strong expansion-responsive GUS expression in young agro-infiltrated gladiolus tepals and in etiolated hypocotyls and light grown expanding cotyledonary leaves of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. Inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by paclobutrazol blocked the expression of the promoter-driven reporter gene indicating GA responsiveness of the promoter. GgEXPA1 provides an interesting example of a single expansin gene being involved in expansion processes in different plant tissues such as tepals, stamens, pistils and leaves that are both spatially as well as temporally distinct in their development. The studies provide a basis for GA mediated expansion of floral organs via expansins prior to anthesis. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 45 ref. Author Address: Plant Gene Expression Lab, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Academy of Science of South Africa Year: 2010 Title: 造 Workshop proceedings Report on : GMOs for Africazn Agriculture: Challenges and opportunities. Journal: Published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - P O Box 72135 - Lynnwood Ridge 0040 Pretoria, South Africa - ISBN: 978-0-9814159-7-0 July 2010 Label: InRe HeTo FuRe BaRe ViRe ReEn DisRe General Socioeconomic Abstract: Foreword: This proceedings report is the product of a two-day workshop hosted by the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) from 17-18 September 2009. ASSAf, in partnership with the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities, the Network of African Science Academies (NASAC) and the Uganda National


Academy of Sciences (UNAS) received funding from the InterAcademy Panel (IAP) to conduct a study on ―Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Opportunities and Challenges in Africa‖. A planning committee comprising Dr Hennie Groenewald (Chair), Dr Antonio Llobell and Prof. Ed Rybicki from South Africa and Prof. Patrick Rubaihayo from Uganda was established. The committee held its first meeting in June 2009 and decided to focus on agricultural crops within the context of the African continent. The proposed structure for the follow-up scientific workshop was also formulated at this meeting. The two-day September 2009 scientific workshop was titled ―GMOs for African Agriculture: Opportunities and Challenges‖. Invited experts from seven different African countries (South Africa, Uganda, Kenya, Senegal, Cameroon, Zimbabwe and Mauritius), as well as an expert from the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities, attended the meeting to address issues concerning GMOs in agriculture. Papers presented at the workshop included accounts of research being undertaken in Africa on GM technology, and highlighted the opportunities created by GM technology and the many challenges faced in applying this technology to African agriculture. It was noted that the capacity to develop GM technology and to evaluate risks was available. Scientists in African countries were ready to engage in scientific and funding partnerships to develop GM technology, and the basis on which regulatory systems can be developed already exists. However, it was recognised that there are numerous challenges that lie ahead, chief of which are those relating to the commercialisation of GM products and the applications of GM technology in the market place. It was agreed unanimously by participants at the workshop that the conclusions of the workshop should be brought to the attention of policy-makers across Africa and that this should be done through the production of a concise, colourful and digestible policymakers‘ document. The production of the workshop proceedings is the first step in this direction. This study on GMOs was conducted by ASSAf as a forum study, in which invited experts were assembled to exchange views on a particular topic, and through the presentations and debates were able to draw some conclusions. This particular study was conducted under the umbrella of the ASSAf Committee on Science for Poverty Alleviation, underscoring the potential role of GMOs in food security on the African continent. It is sincerely hoped that this study will assist in the alleviation of poverty in Africa. I would like to thank the IAP for funding this study and particularly wish to express my thanks to those who assisted in the planning of the workshop and all those who contributed the papers that comprise this proceedings report. Finally, I wish to thank all the staff of ASSAf, particularly Ms Phakamile Mngadi, for the support given to the committee to enable them to complete this task. Prof. Robin Crewe President: Academy of Science of South Africa Executive Summary The production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Africa has the potential to alleviate many problems on the continent – at present, millions of Africans are vulnerable to food insecurity and malnourishment. This is particularly evident in rural areas, where people depend primarily on agriculture for food and income. This report focuses on the potential of biotechnology, through GMOs, to provide solutions to such problems. Biotechnology is defined as ―any technique that uses living organisms or substances from these organisms, to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses‖ (Office of Technology Assessment of the United States Congress). Modern biotechnology has been associated with genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM). Recombinant DNA, or genetic engineering, is a more precise form of biotechnology, allowing a breeder to transfer known, desirable genes into crops, instead of moving large groups of mostly unknown genes into crops, as in most traditional breeding. ―genetically modified crops‖, often known by the acronym ―GM crops‖, are usually received with varying emotions worldwide. Nonetheless, GM application, a component of biotechnology, is gradually finding its niche across the globe. Indeed, plant and crop breeders have been using biotechnology to modify the genetic make-up of crops for thousands of years. African agriculture has for decades been faced by multiple challenges, ranging from low productivity to poor or non-existent markets and infrastructure. There has been a decline in the production of cereals over the past four years, which has been attributed to lowinput (i.e. farming based on a reduction of fertilisers, herbicides and insecticides) usage, declining soil fertility, erratic climatic conditions and low government commitment to fund development efforts in the sector. Biotechnology offers a mechanism to increase crop productivity, and as such to contribute towards food security and poverty eradication in Africa. A decade after GM crops were introduced into the world, their production has grown to about 125 million ha globally. Biotechnology first found its way into Africa through Bt maize, which was introduced into South


Africa in 2003. Since its introduction, the technology has been found to reduce losses of maize incurred through damage by stem borers. However, there is still a large untapped potential in biotechnology that can be embraced to address Africa‘s challenges. Although biotechnology is gradually being embraced across the globe, it nonetheless faces much opposition. Challenges to its adoption include: • perceptions and attitudes • access to and use of proprietary technology • biotechnology policy • the cost of biotechnology research. In order to tap into the potential that biotechnology offers to agricultural productivity and food security, there is a need for greater dedication by African governments towards biotechnology development. This can be done by developing their capacity to negotiate access to intellectual property (IP) rights, and to enact and operationalise IP rights and biosafety policies and guidelines that foster technological innovations, delivery and trade. In Chapter 1, the situation with respect to GM crop plants in Germany is investigated. German companies invest large sums of money in plant biotechnology, but much of the research and production is conducted outside Germany due to the hostility of the German public towards GM plants. The licensing of GM crops for all 27 member states of the European Union (EU) is carried out by the European Council. To date, relatively few products from GM crops have been admitted in the EU for human consumption or fodder and all have to be labelled as GM. It is noted that in Europe a large proportion of the public is opposed to plant gene technology and that politicians have been influenced by this sentiment. The activities of the German science academies in conjunction with the InterAcademy Panel (IAP) to counteract the misleading campaigns by GM opponent organisations are explored in this chapter. The ecological and economic aspects of the cultivation of GM insect-resistant varieties of maize, rice and cotton are summarised, and it is concluded that the growth of these crops by small-scale farmers in developing countries can be beneficial. Chapter 2 focuses on the role of GMOs in food and nutrition security in Africa. In 2000, the UN adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), many of which have a direct connection with food security. By definition, food security is achieved when all people at all times have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Clearly, in the light of this definition, food security poses a major problem for the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where problems of food supply, hunger, under-nutrition and malnutrition exist. GM technology presents an exciting opportunity to contribute towards the resolution of the African food and nutrition security problem, provided it is carried out within a framework of appropriate biotechnology policy with sufficient financing for human capital development, the construction and equipping of the necessary laboratories and the conducting of rigorously planned, results-oriented GM food research. Research results have shown the possibility of increasing crop yields, improving the storage potential of harvested crops, improving the protein content of starchy foods, biofortification of local foods, and improving the functional potential of local foods. In Chapter 3, some of the opportunities and challenges in the use of GM technology are explored. The use of GM technology and its products is still in its infancy in Africa. South Africa, which has biosafety regulations in place, is one of the three countries [with Egypt and Burkina Faso] on the continent that are producing commercial GM crops. The GM crops that are produced on a commercial basis have been limited to maize (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). These four crops have been transformed for the two traits of insect resistance and herbicide tolerance. There is a need in Africa also to develop GM crops with other important traits. One of the very few transgenic crops with virus resistance that has been commercialised is papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is now grown on a commercial basis by farmers on the Hawaiian islands, where GM technology was used to save the local papaya industry from total collapse due to infection by PRSV. The Hawaiian papaya experience can be used as a model to address the many virus problems that have affected African farming communities for a long time. Various laboratories across the continent are using GM technology to develop transgenic crops with virus resistance. The first all-African-produced modified plant in the form of transgenic maize with resistance to the maize streak virus (MSV) has been developed. This maize is at present being evaluated under containment. Other projects underway on the continent are also discussed. As the number of scientists with training in molecular biology, tissue culture and virology increases, there is likely to be a concomitant increase in the number of projects aimed at developing transgenic crops with virus


resistance. Against this background, it is concluded that the future for the development of GMOs in Africa looks promising. GM technology in the form of GMO plants with virus resistance could be the key to unlocking the potential of African agriculture by, among other things, addressing and solving the numerous viral disease problems that have hampered the economic production of Africa‘s major food and commercial crops. Chapter 4 provides an evidence-based evaluation of the environmental effects of GM crops. Most concerns about GM crops can be categorised as follows: food safety and animal/human health concerns, environmental concerns, agricultural concerns and socioeconomic issues. Some of the studies that have been conducted on potential impacts of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant GM crops are highlighted. In order to effectively evaluate GM crops, an acknowledgment of their potential benefits must be made in addition to an evaluation of the potential damage to the environment and human and animal health. With a large number of GM crops currently under development in Africa it is evident that regulatory authorities in the continent will continue receiving applications for GM trials and/ or environmental releases. In order to be able to effectively evaluate these applications, it is imperative that they have access to relevant information and appropriate training. The application of a multidisciplinary systems biology approach to the evaluation of GM crops is described in Chapter 5. The concept of ―substantial equivalence‖ is used to compare GM plants and their non-GM counterparts in terms of changes in gene expression and associated protein and metabolite derivatives as a result of genetic modification. These key compounds have been determined by international standards to form the basis of substantial equivalence. The substantial equivalence approach was adopted by regulatory bodies to ensure that GM plants and foods are as safe and nutritious as their conventional counterparts. A case study involving the genetic modification of a Bt maize cultivar grown in one location over three years (seasons) with its non-GM maize counterpart is presented. Chapter 6 documents the lessons learned from the commercialisation of a GM potato in South Africa. It is concluded that only larger multi-institutional and multidisciplinary groups stand any chance of success in the commercialisation process and it is noted that the South African authorities appear to be becoming more conservative and less willing to grant permits. If this is the trend, it may make it more difficult for other African countries to embrace this potentially beneficial technology. GMOs are produced by one of three methods: recombinant DNA technology, chemical methods, or through nuclear techniques. Chapter 7 focuses on the use of nuclear techniques in GMO production, noting that they are highly competitive in comparison with nonnuclear technologies, and that huge economic benefits have accrued in other regions through the use of radiation-induced mutations. An opinion paper on sustainable GMO technologies for African agriculture is presented in Chapter 8. Agricultural sustainability usually refers to agronomic sustainability, including aspects such as agronomic practices, productivity and ecological diversity – all factors that should be considered during the risk assessment of a GM crop before it is released commercially. Most GM crops that have been commercialised to date were developed primarily for large-scale farming systems and would, arguably, not impart the same scale of benefits to small-scale and subsistence farmers, typical of developing countries. Therefore, to allow developing countries to derive the full potential benefits of biotechnology crops, it is proposed that, in addition to the traditional biosafety aspects mentioned above, technology developers should also more carefully consider factors such as the relevance and accessibility of a particular technology to ensure sustainability. Risk assessment and risk management play a critical role in the successful commercialisation of GM crops and should therefore be considered as an integral part of any GM research and development programme. This chapter develops these concepts and presents a risk analysis framework which can be used in an R&D programme to identify, assess and mitigate potential biosafety and other deployment risks. The sustainability of GMOs usually revolves around their sustainable use in agricultural systems, focusing predominantly on food/feed and environmental safety. Sustainability is therefore often equated with the postrelease safety of the GMO, an aspect that is regulated in all systems and is therefore carefully considered during the development and risk assessment processes. Potential socioeconomic impacts, by contrast, are currently either not regulated in many countries or are considered only at a very late stage of product development. The fact that most of the current commercial GM crops were designed around the needs of specific markets which differ considerably from those in the developing world, and that they were not developed based on locally established priorities and competencies, has resulted in GM products that are unable to deliver positive socioeconomic impacts to many farmers in developing countries. The sustainable adoption and use of GM technology is also subject to many socioeconomic and practical constraints, which should be considered proactively in ex ante sustainability analyses. By integrating sustainability analyses, including biosafety and


socioeconomic assessments, into a GMO research and development pipeline, the development of both safe and economically sustainable products could be ensured. Such an approach should also improve the overall efficiency of the innovation system because it will help to ensure the development of safe, relevant and accessible products that are truly sustainable. The penultimate chapter, Chapter 9, recognises that Africa, home to over 900 million people and representing 14% of the world‘s population, is the only continent where food production per capita is decreasing and where hunger and malnutrition afflict at least one in three people. It is the continent that represents by far the biggest challenge in terms of adoption and acceptance of new technologies, and the chapter questions whether agricultural biotechnology can work in Africa. It is noted that despite the Green Revolution, crop yields in sub-Saharan Africa have hardly changed over the past 40 years and cereal production per capita is steadily declining. It is estimated that with current yields, the projected shortfall of cereals will be 88.7 million tons by 2025. Biotechnology offers considerable opportunity for addressing many of Africa‘s pressing challenges. Ongoing biotechnology research in Africa focuses largely on attempting to solve local problems associated with food production, health and the environment. Biotechnology can play a role in increased global crop productivity to improve food, feed and fibre security in sustainable crop production systems that also conserve biodiversity. It can contribute to the alleviation of poverty and hunger, and the augmentation of traditional plant breeding, and can reduce the environmental footprint of agriculture, mitigate climate change, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to the costeffective production of biofuel. Agricultural biotechnology is vital for addressing the chronic food shortages in sub-Saharan Africa. GM technology is employed in only a few African countries, namely South Africa, Zimbabwe, Egypt, Kenya, Burkina Faso, Uganda and Malawi, and to a lesser extent in Mauritius. Of all these countries, only South Africa, Egypt and Burkina Faso have reached the commercialisation stage. Most countries in Africa have ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) and have received United Nations Environment Programme – Global Environment Facility (UNEPGEF) assistance to formulate their biosafety frameworks, yet only a few have functioning biosafety legislation that allows field trials of GM products (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and Mauritania). With the commercialisation of biotechnology products in other parts of Africa, South Africa is no longer the sole producer of biotechnology products in Africa. However, the country remains the pioneer of the technology and is a role model for the rest of Africa. South Africa is seen as the hub of agricultural biotechnology for Africa as it is one of the few countries in Africa that has a well-developed regulatory system and the expertise to manage the technology. However, South Africa seems to be moving towards stricter legislation, contrary to available scientific evidence. There is therefore a need in South Africa to ensure that decision-makers who develop policies and amend and enforce the existing legislation and regulations are continually educated and informed on biosafety and biotechnology. Chapter 10 presents the experience of a technology developer in the regulation of GMO activities in South Africa and concludes with some recommendations. Challenges are experienced at various levels: in the design of the legislative framework, in the operational procedures and in the authorisations granted. It is recommended that legislative frameworks should be functional, practical and operational, while providing protection of the developer‘s investment in terms of IP. Application forms should be activity specific, easily accessible and science-based. Assessment of applications by regulators should be timely, transparent and focused on information that will assist in determining the safety of the proposed activity and product. Concerns, decisions and reasons for decisions should be communicated in a timely fashion and be clearly stated. Conditions should be activity-specific, based on agricultural practice and remain consistent to enable implementation, unless supported by scientific evidence that would necessitate any amendment to the conditions. Applications should be processed within the time periods described in legislative frameworks. Notes: Content : About the Academy v Foreword vii Acknowledgements x Executive Summary xi List of Figures xxii List of Tables xxiii


List of Acronyms xxiv Introduction and Problem Statement, Dr Gospel Omanya 1 1. The Situation Concerning GM Crop Plants in Germany, Prof. Hans-Walter Heldt 11 2. The Role of GMOs in Africa: Food and Nutrition Security, Prof. Carl M.F. Mbofung 41 3. Transgenic Plants with Virus Resistance: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa, Dr Augustine Gubba 57 4. Challenges for GM Technologies: Evidence-based Evaluation of the Potential Environmental Effects of GM Crops, Dr Dennis Obonyo, Ms Lilian Nfor, Dr Wendy Craig and Mr Decio Ripandelli 67 5. Systems Biology Approach to the Evaluation of GM Plants . A Case Study, Dr Eugenia Barros 93 6. Commercialisation of a GM Potato (A Case Study . Lessons Learned), Mr Gurling Bothma 101 7. The Use of Nuclear Techniques to Produce Improved Varieties of Food Crops in Africa, Dr Yousuf Maudarbocus 113 8. Opinion Paper: Sustainable GMO Technologies for African Agriculture, Dr Jan.Hendrik Groenewald 121 9. Agricultural Biotechnology: Does it work in Africa?, Mrs Remi Akanbi 131 10. Regulation of GMO Activities in South Africa: Experience from a Technology Developer, Ms Michelle Vosges 141 Appendix 1: 147 Committee Members 148 Speakers 150 Staff Members 154 Appendix 2: Workshop Programme 155 URL: http://www.assaf.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/PDF/ASSAf%20GMO%20African%20Agriculture%202010%20Web.pdf Author Address: South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Ahmad Parvaiz, Jaleel Cheruth Abdul, Salem Mohamed A, Nabi Gowher, Sharma Satyawati Year: 2010 Title: * Roles of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in plants during abiotic stress. Journal: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 30, 3, 161-175. Label: ReEn Physiol Review Keywords: Antioxidants, ROS, redox signaling, calcium, ABA Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plants as byproducts during many metabolic reactions, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Oxidative stress occurs when there is a serious imbalance between the production of ROS and antioxidant defense. Generation of ROS causes rapid cell damage by triggering a chain reaction. Cells have evolved an elaborate system of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants which help to scavenge these indigenously generated ROS. Various enzymes involved in ROSscavenging have been manipulated, over expressed or downregulated to add to the present knowledge and understanding the role of the antioxidant systems. The present article reviews the manipulation of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in plants to enhance the environmental stress tolerance and also throws light on ROS and redox signaling, calcium signaling, and ABA signaling. URL: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/07388550903524243 Author Address: 1Biochemistry laboratory, CRDT, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India 2Department of Botany, Baramulla College, 193101, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110062, India 4Department of Aridland Agriculture, Faculty of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University, AlAin 17555, United Arab Emirates XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Akagi Takashi, Ikegami Ayako, Yonemori Keizo, Year: 2010 Title: * DkMyb2 wound-induced transcription factor of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.), contributes to proanthocyanidin regulation. Journal: Planta 232, 5, 1045-1059.


Label: Physiol DisRe Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Cis-motif - DkMyb2 - DkMyb4 - Persimmon - Proanthocyanidin Abstract: Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of a plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) accumulates abundant PAs in each plant organ, and some potential Myb-like transcription factors (Myb-TFs) involved in the production of PAs have been isolated. In this study, we aimed to molecularly characterize one of them, DkMyb2, which was placed in a subclade including a PA regulator of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), TRANSPARENT TESTA2 (TT2), and was coinduced with PA pathway genes after wound stress. Ectopic DkMyb2 overexpression caused significant upregulation of PA pathway genes in transgenic persimmon calluses and significant accumulation of PA, and increased mean degree of polymerization of PAs in transgenic kiwifruit calluses. Analysis of the DNA-binding ability of DkMyb2 by electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that DkMyb2 directly binds to the AC-rich cis-motifs known as AC elements in the promoters of the two PA pathway genes in persimmon, DkANR, and DkLAR. Furthermore, a transient reporter assay using a dual-luciferase system demonstrated direct transcriptional activation of DkANR and DkLAR by DkMyb2. We also discuss subfunctionalization of two PA regulators in persimmon, DkMyb2 and DkMyb4, as well as PA regulators in other plant species from the viewpoint of their ability to bind to cis-motifs and their functions in transcriptional activation. Our results provide insight into the multiple regulatory mechanisms that control PA metabolism by Myb-TFs in persimmon. Notes: 67 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1241-7 Author Address: (1) Laboratory of Pomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan (2) Laboratory of Pomology, Department of Bioproduction Sciences, Ishikawa Prefectural University, Nonoichi Ishikawa, 921-8836, Japan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Akanbi Remi Year: 2010 Title: ¤ Agricultural Biotechnology: Does it work in Africa? Journal: Published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - P O Box 72135 - Lynnwood Ridge 0040 Pretoria, South Africa - ISBN: 978-0-9814159-7-0 July 2010. Label: Socioeconomic Adoption Abstract: Full text : 1 Introduction Africa is home to over 900 million people representing 14% of the world‘s population. It is the only continent where food production per capita is decreasing and where hunger and malnutrition afflict at least one in three people (James, 2008). Africa is recognized as the continent that represents by far the biggest challenge in terms of adoption and acceptance of new technologies. Present agricultural practices in Africa are not producing adequate amounts of food for its growing population (Blancfield et al., 2008). For this reason farmers are putting additional pressure on the environment in their quest to feed more and more people. Success in meeting these challenges will depend on the unearthing of new information and knowledge, and the development and use of new technologies. If these are combined with the broader adaptation of existing technologies, it will allow increased crop production on the continent. Africa is yet to fulfil its food production potential and it is especially vulnerable in terms of food security (Brink et al., 1998). To meet Africa‘s food requirements, it is therefore necessary to increase the efficiency of food production. Several key factors including plant biotechnology are required for improved crop production. New technologies need to be assessed to determine the role they can play in improving crop yield, controlling diseases and pests and improving nutritional content. Africa is very poor and challenges to the development and effective use of biotechnology exist not only in financial constraints but also in policy, national capacities, information access and the regulatory environment. 2 Agricultural biotechnology Agricultural biotechnology has been around for centuries. Mankind has been manipulating living organisms for thousands of years. Three thousand years ago civilisations were using yeast to make bread, beer and wine and using bacteria to extract minerals from ore; for the past 500 years we have been selectively breeding crops and since 1920 we have been able to increase crop yields six-fold (Evansa & Fischerb, 1999). Agricultural


biotechnology is vital for addressing the chronic food shortages in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the Green Revolution, crop yields in sub-Saharan Africa have hardly changed over the past 40 years and cereal production per capita is steadily declining. It has been estimated that with current yields the projected shortfall of cereals will be 88.7 million tons by 2025 (Thompson, 2002). 3 The role of biotechnology in Africa Biotechnology offers considerable opportunity for addressing many of Africa‘s pressing challenges. Ongoing biotechnology research in Africa focuses largely on attempting to solve local problems associated with food production, health and the environment. Biotechnology can play a role in increased global crop productivity to improve food, feed and fibre security in sustainable crop production systems that also conserve biodiversity. It can contribute to the alleviation of poverty and hunger, augmentation of traditional plant breeding, reduce the environmental footprint of agriculture, mitigate climate change and reduce greenhouse gases and contribute to the cost-effective production of biofuel. 4 The status of biotechnology in Africa Genetic modification technology is being employed only in a very few African countries, namely South Africa, Zimbabwe, Egypt, Kenya, Burkina Faso, Uganda and Malawi, and to a lesser extent in Mauritius. Of all these countries, only South Africa, Egypt and Burkina Faso have reached the commercialisation stage. The remaining countries have either only recently approved contained trials of crops such as cotton and maize (e.g. Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Malawi), or do not as yet have any regulatory or scientific capacity to conduct such trials. Most countries in Africa have ratified the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB) and have received United Nations Environment Programme – Global Environment Facility (UNEP-GEF) assistance to formulate their biosafety frameworks. Only a few have functioning biosafety legislation that allows field trials of GM products (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania). 5 Challenges • A third of the African population suffers from chronic hunger. • There is a volatile political environment in most African countries. • Lack of biosafety regulation is the biggest limitation to biotech growth in Africa. Changing regulatory regimes or lack of them have serious implications for the development of biotechnology in Africa. Biosafety regulations and legislation are in place only in a few countries in Africa, and such a limitation is a serious constraint that impairs the use, evaluation and release of GMOs. • Extension services are virtually non-existent. • The media and anti-biotechnology groups: three countries in Africa have commercialized biotechnology crops and a few are conducting or are on the verge of conducting confined or field trials. Anti-biotech campaigners will increasingly target these countries. • Public awareness and acceptance – biotechnology regulation is essential to promote public interest and ensure safety. Consumer acceptance will increase when there is confidence in the checks and balances that biosafety regulations offer. 6 Opportunities There is political will for biotech in Africa. The lack of priority setting in agricultural research is evident in many African countries, which is reflected in a lack of awareness and commitment by the national governments. Continuous technical and financial support will assist Africa to create an enabling environment for biotechnology to thrive. Over 90% of sub-Saharan Africa relies on rain-fed agriculture. Severe drought occurs approximately every eight years. Drought-tolerance technology could help farmers to maximise their inputs and management practices and protect their investments in times of water shortages. Without Africa-focused R&D, capacity building and policies that enable the safe and beneficial use of biotechnology, African farmers may be denied access to drought-tolerance technology. Biotechnology products in the pipeline that will revolutionise agriculture in Africa for the poor are droughttolerant, nitrogen-efficient and biofortified crops. South Africa has the capacity, expertise, experience, enabling legislations and resources to lead the continent in R&D, innovations and expanding crop acre. South Africa‘s experience and vast capacity should be shared with the rest of Africa. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), launched in 2000 (MDG Africa Steering Group, 2008), consist of eight key objectives, one of which is the eradication of poverty and hunger in Africa by 2015. The G8 nations have, however, been lagging behind in their commitments to boost aid to Africa. With rising food prices, hunger and poverty the G8 leaders are under immense pressure to do something.


We need to ensure the renewal of the G8‘s commitments by developing an initiative to tap into the G8‘s resources and those of other organisations, such as the World Bank and the FAO, which would help Africa to realise some key MDGs. Networking and training opportunities in Africa should be continued. Linkages between African countries as well as with the developed world should be stimulated through existing networks and joint projects. 7 The South African experience South Africa became the first country in Africa to adopt GM crops when it approved its first transgenic crops for commercial use in 1997. To date the commercial release of insectresistant (Bt) cotton and maize as well as herbicide-tolerant (RR) soya beans, cotton and maize have been approved in South Africa. In October 2005, stacked-gene cotton (Bt & RR) was approved and in March 2007 the stacked-gene maize (Bt & RR) was approved. The present national GM crop percentages are: cotton 90%, white maize 56%, yellow maize 72% and soya 80% (James, 2008). Figure 9.1: Adoption of GM crops in South Africa (James, 2008) For the first 12 years of commercialisation of biotech crops from 1996 to 2007, South Africa was the only country on the African continent to benefit from commercialising biotech crops. In 2008, Burkina Faso grew 8 500 ha of Bt cotton for seed multiplication and initial commercialisation, and Egypt grew 700 ha of Bt maize for the first time (James, 2008). Table 9.1: Total area of GM crops planted in South Africa in 2008 (James, 2008) Crop Total area Area GM % GM Remarks Maize White maize 1 600 000 ha 891 000 ha* 56% * Bt/HT 164 000 ha (83%) HT 148 000 ha (9%) Bt 576 000 ha (8%) Yellow maize 1 000 000 ha 720 000 ha* 72% * Bt/HT 138 000 ha (83%) HT 131 000 ha (9%) Bt 455 000 ha (72%) Soybeans 230 000 ha 184 000 ha* 80% * HT soybeans Cotton 13 000 ha 12 000 ha* 92% * Bt/HT 10 000 ha (83%) HT 1 000 ha (9%) Bt 950 ha (8%) 8 Socioeconomic benefits of GM crops in South Africa In South Africa a study published in 2005 involving 368 small and resource-poor farmers and 33 commercial farmers, the latter divided into irrigated and dry-land maize production systems. The data indicated that under irrigated conditions, Bt maize resulted in an 11% higher yield (from 10.9 MT to 12.1 MT/ha), a cost savings in insecticides of US$18/ha equivalent to a 60% cost reduction, and an increased income of US$117/ha. Under rainfed conditions, Bt maize resulted in an 11% higher yield (from 3.1 to 3.4 MT/ha), a cost saving on insecticides of US$7/ha equivalent to a 60% cost reduction, and an increased income of US$35/ha (Gouse et al., 2005). Farmers are paying premium prices for the use of the technology because of increased productivity and efficiency gains (Brookes & Barfoot, 2008). South Africa is estimated to have increased farming income from biotech maize, soybean and cotton by US$383 million in the period between 1998 and 2007, with benefits for 2007 alone estimated at US$227 million (Brookes & Barfoot, 2009). 9 Conclusion With the commercialisation of biotechnology products in other parts of Africa, South Africa is no longer the sole producer of biotechnology products in Africa. However, the country remains the pioneer of the technology and is a role model for the rest of Africa. South Africa is seen as the hub of agricultural biotechnology for Africa as it is one of the few countries in Africa that has a well-developed regulatory system and the expertise to manage the technology. However, South Africa seems to be moving towards stricter legislation which is not based on scientific fact. There is therefore a need in South Africa to ensure that decision-makers who develop policies, amend and enforce the existing legislation and regulations are continuously educated and well informed on biosafety and biotechnology. GM crops can contribute to improved food security and poverty alleviation in Africa.Developing farmers in Africa have shown that they are able to access the benefits of GM crops, but they need good governance, financial support, skills training, market access, the support of competent extension services and an adequate rural infrastructure. Bibliography


Blanchfield, J.R., Lund, D. & Spiess, W. 2008. Report on the Food Security Forum. Held in conjunction with the 14th World Congress of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai, China, 19-23 October 2008. Brink, J.A., Woodward B.R. & DaSilva, E.J. 1998. Plant biotechnology: a tool for development in Africa. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, 1(3). Brookes, G. & Barfoot, P. 2008. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996–2006. Dorchester, UK: PG Economics Ltd, 118 p. Brookes, G. & Barfoot, P. 2009. GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996–2007. Dorchester, UK: PG Economics Ltd. Evansa, L.T. & Fischerb, R.A. 1999. Yield potential: its definition, measurement, and significance. Crop Science, 39: 1544-1551. Gouse, M., Pray, C., Kirsten, J.F. & Schimmelpfennig, D. 2005. A GM subsistence crop in Africa: the case of Bt white maize in South Africa. International Journal of Biotechnology, 7(1/2/3): 84-94. James, C. 2008. Global status of commercialised biotech/GM crops: 2008. ISAAA Brief No. 39. Ithaca, NY: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA). MDG Africa Steering Group. 2008. Recommendations of the MDG Africa Steering Group launched at African Union Summit on 1 July 2008. Available at: http://www.mdgafrica.org/pdf/MDG Africa Steering Group Recommendations - English - HighRes.pdf2008. Thompson, J.A. 2002. Research needs to improve agricultural productivity and food quality, with emphasis on biotechnology. Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town. URL: http://www.assaf.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/PDF/ASSAf%20GMO%20African%20Agriculture%202010%20Web.pdf Author Address: AfricaBio, South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Akhtar TA, Orsomando G, Mehrshahi P, Lara-Nunez A, Bennett MJ, Gregory JF, Hanson AD, Year: 2010 Title: * A central role for gamma-glutamyl hydrolases in plant folate homeostasis. Journal: The Plant Journal - Article first published online: 29 AUG 2010. Label: Physiol Keywords: Folate polyglutamate gamma-glutamyl hydrolase vacuole tomato Abstract: SUMMARY Most cellular folates carry a short poly-γ-glutamate tail, and this tail is believed to impact their efficacy and stability. The tail can be removed by -glutamyl hydrolase (GGH, EC 3.4.19.9), a vacuolar enzyme whose role in folate homeostasis remains unclear. In order to probe the function of GGH, we modulated its level of expression and subcellular location in Arabidopsis plants and tomato fruit. Three-fold overexpression of GGH in vacuoles caused extensive deglutamylation of folate polyglutamates and lowered total folate content by approximately 40% in Arabidopsis and tomato. No such effects were seen when GGH was overexpressed to a similar extent in the cytosol. Ablation of either of the major Arabidopsis GGH genes (AtGGH1 and AtGGH2) alone did not significantly affect folate status. However, a combination of ablation of one gene plus RNAi-mediated suppression of the other (which lowered total GGH activity by 99%) increased total folate content by 34%. The excess folate accumulated as polyglutamate derivatives in the vacuole. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which (i) folates continuously enter the vacuole as polyglutamates, accumulate there, are hydrolyzed by GGH, and exit as monoglutamates, and (ii) GGH consequently has an important influence on polyglutamyl tail length and hence on folate stability and cellular folate content. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04330.x Author Address: 1Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA 2Dipartimento Patologia Molecolare e Terapie Innovative, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, 60131, Italy 3Plant Sciences Division, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, UKingdom 4Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Aksenova NP, LA Wasserman, LI Sergeeva, TN Konstantinova, SA Golyanovskaya, AV Krivandin, IG Plashchina, W Blaszczak, J Fornal, GA Romanov,


Year: 2010 Title: * Agrobacterial rol genes modify thermodynamic and structural properties of starch in microtubers of transgenic potato. Journal: Russian Journal of Plant Physiology Volume 57, Number 5, 656-663. Original Russian Text © N.P. Aksenova, L.A. Wasserman, L.I. Sergeeva, T.N. Konstantinova, S.A. Golyanovskaya, A.V. Krivandin, I.G. Plashchina, W. Blaszczak, J. Fornal, G.A. Romanov, 2010, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2010, Vol. 57, No.5, pp. 703–710. Label: Physiol Composition Keywords: Solanum tuberosum - rolB - rolC - transgenes - tubers - starch - lamellae - melting temperature Abstract: Wild-type (WT) plants of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and their transgenic forms carrying agrobacterial genes rolB or rolC under the control of B33 class I patatin promoter were cultured in vitro on MS medium with 2% sucrose in a controlled-climate chamber at 16-h illumination and 22°C. These plants were used as a source of single-node stem cuttings, which were cultured in darkness on the same medium supplemented with 8% sucrose. The tubers formed on them were used for determination of the structure of native starch using the methods of differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC), X-ray scattering, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that, in starch from the tubers of rolB-plants, the temperature of crystalline lamella melting was lower and their thickness was less than in WT potato. In tubers of rolC plants, starch differed from starch in WT plants by a higher melting temperature, considerably reduced melting enthalpy, and a greater thickness of crystalline lamellae. Deconvolution of DSC thermogram makes it possible to interpret the melting of starch from the tubers of rolC plants as the melting of two independent crystalline structures with melting temperatures of 65.0 and 69.8°C. Electron microscopic examination confirmed the earlier obtained data indicating that, in the tubers of rolC plants, starch granules are smaller and in the tubers of rolB plants larger than in WT plants. Possible ways of influence of rol transgenes on structural properties of starch in amyloplasts of potato tubers are discussed. Notes: 25 Ref. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/4112121920154931/ Author Address: Russia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Alam Badre, Jacob James, Earl Hugh J, Year: 2010 Title: * Photosynthetic efficiency of transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) over-expressing mtlD gene under drought and paraquat stress. Journal: Indian Journal of Plant Physiology 15, 2, 186-191. Label: Physiol Abstract: genetically transformed tobacco plants over-expressing mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD) in maintaining better photosynthetic activity than the untransformed wild plants during water deficit stress and in combination with paraquat stress. Inhibitions in the rates of net CO2 assimilation (PN) and the non-cyclic photosynthetic electron transport across photosystem II (ETR) due to water deficit stress were much smaller in the mtlD transformed plants (22% and 9%, respectively) than in the untransformed wild ones (55% and 52%, respectively). These differences were even more marked when the plants experiencing water deficit stress were treated with paraquat, which blocks the photosynthetic electron transfer chain and diverts the excitation energy into producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The minimal inhibitions in the photochemical activity (9-10%) of mtlD transformed plants resulting from the environmental stresses agree with their expected efficient use of photosynthetic electrons. Results of the present study thus suggest that mtlD transformed tobacco plants tolerated the stress better than the untransformed wild plants which is noteworthy for further attention. Author Address: 1Plant Physiology Division, Rubber Research Institute of India, Kottayam-686 009, India. 2Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Plant Sciences Building, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 306027272, USA. 3Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada ON N1G 2W1. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Albajes Ramon, Lumbierres Belén, Pons Xavier, Year: 2010


Title: * Managing weeds in herbicide-tolerant GM maize for biological control enhancement. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 1-8. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: HeTo Resistance IPM Abstract: Deployment of transgenic herbicide-tolerant maize that allows post-emergence treatment with broad-spectrum herbicides may lead to changes in the composition and abundance of weed flora. The consequences of these changes on maize arthropods and particularly on insect pest natural enemies are studied in this work. Weeds, insect herbivores and their natural enemies were monitored in maize plots treated twice with glyphosate (V4 and V8) in comparison with plots treated once with conventional pre-emergence herbicides. Plots were sampled by visual observation, pitfall and yellow sticky traps during two consecutive years (2007 and 2008). In spite of the significant differences recorded in weed abundance between the two herbicide treatments, there were very few significant differences in the arthropod groups monitored, in contrast with results of a previous study comparing plots with two glyphosate treatments (as in the present work) and with no herbicide treatment in order to identify the most responsive arthropod to weed abundance alteration. It seems that when maize weed abundance is not drastically altered, populations of arthropod herbivores and natural enemies are not greatly affected. However, more studies are needed to determine the potential impacts of modifying herbicide use on arthropods and particularly on conservation biological pest control. Author Address: Spain ? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Ali S, Hameed S, Masood S, Ali GM, Zafar Y, Year: 2010 Title: ?? Status of Bt Cotton Cultivation in Major Growing Areas of Pakistan. Journal: Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 3, 1583-1594. Label: Adoption InRe Keywords: expression; plants Abstract: A survey of 10 districts in Sindh and 11 in Punjab was conducted during cotton growing season of 2007-08. Samples were collected from a total of 126 locations. Two samples from each location were subjected to ImmunoStrip analysis for the detection of Bt-Cry protein which revealed that 81% (34/42) and 90% (76/84) samples from Sindh and Punjab provinces, respectively, were positive for Bt protein and harbored CryIAc gene. However, none of the sample was found to have Cry2Ab and Cry1F genes. The samples were further analyzed to confirm their transgenic nature by ELISA for npt-II (Kanamycin) selection marker gene encoded protein. Another limited survey was conducted in 2009-10 to re-assess the situation. Both surveys revealed that Bt transgenic cotton is widely grown in the cotton growing areas of Sindh and Punjab. This is the first science based study to estimate the extent of Bt cotton spread in the country Notes: Cited Reference Count: 12 Author Address: Natl Agr Res Ctr, Islamabad 45500, Pakistan. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Álvarez-Alfageme Fernando, Franz Bigler, Jörg Romeis, Year: 2010 Title: * Laboratory toxicity studies demonstrate no adverse effects of Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 to larvae of Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): the importance of study design . Journal: Transgenic Research - Received: 26 April 2010 Accepted: 10 July 2010 Published online: 26 August 2010 Label: InRe ImpactBiol Keywords: Environmental risk assessment - MON810 - MON88017 - Non-target effects - Study design Abstract: Scientific studies are frequently used to support policy decisions related to transgenic crops. Schmidt et al., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:221–228 (2009) recently reported that Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb were toxic to larvae of Adalia bipunctata in direct feeding studies. This study was quoted, among others, to justify the ban of Bt maize (MON 810) in Germany. The study has subsequently been criticized because of methodological shortcomings that make it questionable whether the observed effects were due to direct toxicity of the two Cry


proteins. We therefore conducted tritrophic studies assessing whether an effect of the two proteins on A. bipunctata could be detected under more realistic routes of exposure. Spider mites that had fed on Bt maize (events MON810 and MON88017) were used as carriers to expose young A. bipunctata larvae to high doses of biologically active Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1. Ingestion of the two Cry proteins by A. bipunctata did not affect larval mortality, weight, or development time. These results were confirmed in a subsequent experiment in which A. bipunctata were directly fed with a sucrose solution containing dissolved purified proteins at concentrations approximately 10 times higher than measured in Bt maize-fed spider mites. Hence, our study does not provide any evidence that larvae of A. bipunctata are sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 or that Bt maize expressing these proteins would adversely affect this predator. The results suggest that the apparent harmful effects of Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb1 reported by Schmidt et al., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:221–228 (2009) were artifacts of poor study design and procedures. It is thus important that decision-makers evaluate the quality of individual scientific studies and do not view all as equally rigorous and relevant. Keywords Environmental risk assessment - MON810 - MON88017 - Non-target effects - Study design Notes: From : GMO Safety - Sep 3, 2010 http://www.gmo-safety.eu/news/1220.study-maize-harmfulladybirds.html Genetically modified maize and non-target organisms New study: Bt maize not harmful to ladybirds Genetically modified maize has no harmful impacts on the two-spotted ladybird. This is the finding of a scientific study published in August 2010. It contradicts a similar study published in 2008, which the German minister of agriculture, Ilse Aigner, cited when justifying the German ban on cultivating MON810 Bt maize. Ladybirds are among the insects that live in maize fields. The 2009 ban on cultivating MON810 Bt maize was based in part on a study that had found harmful effects on ladybirds. Now a new study has been published with different findings. The conclusions in the 2008 study contradict numerous other studies that have found no negative impacts of Bt maize or Bt proteins on ladybirds. As part of the study, ladybird larvae were fed on flour moth eggs that had been sprayed with Bt protein solutions in various concentrations. The scientists found a higher mortality rate among the larvae fed in this way than in the control groups and concluded that the two-spotted ladybird might be harmed by Bt maize. The publication was used, along with others, to justify the ban on MON810 cultivation announced by Germany‘s minister of agriculture, Ilse Aigner, in April 2009. Other scientists expressed serious doubts about the study findings, saying among other things, that no clear dose-effect relationship had been found. The mortality rate did not increase in line with the Bt protein concentration sprayed on the flour moth eggs. In addition, the mortality rate in some control groups, in which the food had not been sprayed with Bt protein, was unusually high. Moreover, the study was criticised for the fact that it was not clear how much Bt protein had been applied to the eggs and how many moth eggs the larvae had eaten. In the view of the study‘s critics, the larvae could not have eaten any appreciable quantity of Bt protein anyway, because young ladybirds only suck their food dry. The new study reassessed the possible impact that Bt proteins might have on two-spotted ladybirds. It aimed to clarify, first of all, whether the larvae eat flour moth eggs in their entirety or whether they just suck them dry. Young ladybird larvae were given individual flour moth eggs and were observed while they consumed the eggs. It was found that they only suck the eggs dry. In no cases were larvae found to have eaten even a part of the outside. To ensure that the ladybird larvae ingested a biologically relevant quantity of Bt protein, the new study used red spider mites as a food source. Red spider mites feed on maize, among other things, and of the ladybird‘s natural prey organisms they are the ones that accumulate the most Bt protein. The exact amount was measured using an ELISA test. Ladybird larvae were fed exclusively on red spider mites that had previously been fed on Bt maize. The mortality of these larvae was not significantly different from that of the control group, which was given red spider mites that had been fed on conventional maize. Finally, the ladybird larvae were fed with purified Bt protein in a nutrient solution, at a concentration ten times higher than that found in the red spider mites. No significant differences in larval development were observed between this group and the control group that received the nutrient solution without Bt protein. In another control group, substances were added to the nutrient solution that are known to be toxic to ladybirds. In this group, the mortality rate was significantly higher and the surviving larvae developed more slowly. This shows that the trial design is suitable in principle for demonstrating harmful effects of components of the feed solution.


Since the ladybird larvae in the experiment were exposed to much higher Bt protein quantities than they would be expected to consume in the field, the authors conclude that the cultivation of Bt maize has no harmful effects on the two-spotted ladybird. Author Address: Agroscope Reckenholz-T채nikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Amudha J, Balasubramani G, Malathi VG, Monga D, Bansal KC, Kranthi KR, Year: 2010 Title: * Cotton transgenics with Antisense AC1 gene for resistance against cotton leaf curl virus. (Research Article) Journal: Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(4): 360-369 (July 2010). Label: ViRe Keywords: Antisense RNA based resistance, Cotton leaf curl virus, rep, npt II, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, G.hirsutum. Abstract: Cotton leaf curl virus is a devastating pest in the North India and in small pockets of Southern states. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is caused by a Geminivirus, transmitted by whitefly Bemisia tabaci vector. This is a serious problem in the northern region and leads to yield losses up to 58% and 69% (ICAC recorder, 1999). Genetic engineering for cotton transgenics resistant to leaf curl disease (CLCuD) through antisense RNA approach is potential to tackle the disease in cotton. Cotton transgenics resistant to leaf curl disease (CLCuD) using Antisense (rep) (Replicase protein) gene was developed via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. A binary vector carrying the Antisense rep gene along with the npt II (neomycin phospho transferase) gene driven by CaMV-35S promoter and NOS (nopaline synthase) terminator was used for transformation. The confirmation of the rep and npt II genes in the transgenic plants were verified by PCR and integration of TDNA into the plant genome was confirmed by Southern analysis. The individual transgenics were raised in the green house and screened for the virus resistance. T2 progeny analysis showed classical Mendelian pattern of inheritance. Author Address: Central Institute for Cotton Research, Post Box No:2, Shankar Nagar(PO),Nagpur,440 010 Maharashtra,India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: An Fengying, Zhao Qiong, Ji Yusi, Li Wenyang, Jiang Zhiqiang, Yu Xiangchun, Zhang Chen, Han Ying, He Wenrong, Liu Yidong, Zhang Shuqun, Ecker Joseph R., Guo Hongwei, Year: 2010 Title: * Ethylene-Induced Stabilization of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 and EIN3-LIKE1 Is Mediated by Proteasomal Degradation of EIN3 Binding F-Box 1 and 2 That Requires EIN2 in Arabidopsis. Journal: Plant Cell 22, 7, 2384-2401. Label: Physiol Abstract: Plant responses to ethylene are mediated by regulation of EBF1/2-dependent degradation of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3) transcription factor. Here, we report that the level of EIL1 protein is upregulated by ethylene through an EBF1/2-dependent pathway. Genetic analysis revealed that EIL1 and EIN3 cooperatively but differentially regulate a wide array of ethylene responses, with EIL1 mainly inhibiting leaf expansion and stem elongation in adult plants and EIN3 largely regulating a multitude of ethylene responses in seedlings. When EBF1 and EBF2 are disrupted, EIL1 and EIN3 constitutively accumulate in the nucleus and remain unresponsive to exogenous ethylene application. Further study revealed that the levels of EBF1 and EBF2 proteins are downregulated by ethylene and upregulated by silver ion and MG132, suggesting that ethylene stabilizes EIN3/EIL1 by promoting EBF1 and EBF2 proteasomal degradation. Also, we found that EIN2 is indispensable for mediating ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 accumulation and EBF1/2 degradation, whereas MKK9 is not required for ethylene signal transduction, contrary to a previous report. Together, our studies demonstrate that ethylene similarly regulates EIN3 and EIL1, the two master transcription factors coordinating myriad ethylene responses, and clarify that EIN2 but not MKK9 is required for ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 stabilization. Our results also reveal that EBF1 and EBF2 act as essential ethylene signal transducers that by themselves are subject to proteasomal degradation.


Notes: The recently controversial ethylene signaling pathway has been reexamined in this study with results supporting a linear signaling pathway, in which EIN2 and EBF1/EBF2, but not MAP KINASE KINASE9, are essential signaling components required for ethylene-induced EIN3 and EIL1 protein stabilization. URL: http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/7/2384 Author Address: a National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China b Division of Biochemistry and Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, 65211 c Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037 USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: AN Xin-min, JING Yan-ping, LIU Jun-mei, ZHANG Zhi-yi, Year: 2010 Title: ?? A Novel Technology for Removing Potential Risks from Genetically Modified Plants. Journal: China Biotechnology 2010, 2. Label: EvaluationRisque Keywords: "Gene-deletor" technology Genetically modified plants Ecological risk Food safety Abstract: Scientists have been searching an effective tool for solving the safety issue of GM(genetically modified) plants for many years.The group led by Chinese American scientist Yi Li,a professor at University of Connecticut,made a great breakthrough in this field after 6 years' intensive research: his group published the "Gene-deletor" technology in 2007.The technology was developed from two recombination systems Cre/Loxp and FLP/FRT,and FLP/Cre was driven by Organ/Tissue-specific promoter,all transgenic foreign genes will be thoroughly removed from pollen,fruit and seed after they have accomplished function.It could effectively prevent GM gene flow into non-biotech plants or weeds,and may help alleviate public concerns on ecological risks and food safety caused by GM plants.Here the concept,principle of "gene-deletor" technology were introduced and its applications in genetic engineering research were discussed. Author Address: National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding,Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants,Ministry of Education,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083,China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: ANDERSON CD, EPPERSON BK, FORTIN MJ, HOLDEREGGER R, JAMES PMA, ROSENBERG MS, SCRIBNER KT, SPEAR S, Year: 2010 Title: * Considering spatial and temporal scale in landscape-genetic studies of gene flow. Journal: Molecular Ecology 19, 17, 3565-3575. Label: Dispersion Keywords: autocorrelation dispersal gene flow sampling space-time processes spatial genetic structure Abstract: Landscape features exist at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and these naturally affect spatial genetic structure and our ability to make inferences about gene flow. This article discusses how decisions about sampling of genotypes (including choices about analytical methods and genetic markers) should be driven by the scale of spatial genetic structure, the time frame that landscape features have existed in their current state, and all aspects of a species life history. Researchers should use caution when making inferences about gene flow, especially when the spatial extent of the study area is limited. The scale of sampling of the landscape introduces different features that may affect gene flow. Sampling grain should be smaller than the average home-range size or dispersal distance of the study organism and, for raster data, existing research suggests that simplifying the thematic resolution into discrete classes may result in low power to detect effects on gene flow. Therefore, the methods used to characterize the landscape between sampling sites may be a primary determinant for the spatial scale at which analytical results are applicable, and the use of only one sampling scale for a particular statistical method may lead researchers to overlook important factors affecting gene flow. The particular analytical technique used to correlate landscape data and genetic data may also influence results; common landscape-genetic methods may not be suitable for all study systems, particularly when the rate of landscape change is faster than can be resolved by common molecular markers. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04757.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04757.x/abstract


Author Address: 1Center for Evolutionary Medicine and Informatics, The Biodesign Institute, and School of Life Sciences, PO Box 875301, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 2126 Natural Resources Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864, USA 3Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 4WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, Z端rcherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland 5Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB 6Department of Fisheries & Wildlife and Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 7Project Orianne: The Indigo Snake Initiative, 579 Highway 441 South, Clayton GA 30525 8Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 441136, Moscow, ID 83844, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Anderson Jill T, Thomas Mitchell-Olds Year: 2010 Title: * Ecological genetics and genomics of plant defences: evidence and approaches. Journal: Functional Ecology Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 Label: InRe Review Keywords: candidate gene;genome wide association studies;plant defence;population genomics;transgenics;quantitative trait loci Abstract: 1. Herbivores exert significant selection on plants, and plants have evolved a variety of constitutive and inducible defences to resist and tolerate herbivory. Assessing the genetic mechanisms that influence defences against herbivores will deepen our understanding of the evolution of essential phenotypic traits. 2. Ecogenomics is a powerful interdisciplinary approach that can address fundamental questions about the ecology and evolutionary biology of species, such as: which evolutionary forces maintain variation within a population? and What is the genetic architecture of adaptation? This field seeks to identify gene regions that influence ecologically important traits, assess the fitness consequences under natural conditions of alleles at key quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and test how the abiotic and biotic environment affects gene expression. 3. Here, we review ecogenomics techniques and emphasize how this framework can address long-standing and emerging questions relating to anti-herbivore defences in plants. For example, ecogenomics tools can be used to investigate: inducible vs. constitutive defences; tradeoffs between resistance and tolerance; adaptation to the local herbivore community; selection on alleles that confer resistance and tolerance in natural populations; and whether different genes are activated in response to specialist vs. generalist herbivores and to different types of damage. 4. Ecogenomic studies can be conducted with model species, such as Arabidopsis, or their relatives, in which case myriad molecular tools are already available. Burgeoning sequence data will also facilitate ecogenomic studies of non-model species. Throughout this paper, we highlight approaches that are particularly suitable for ecological studies of non-model organisms, discuss the benefits and disadvantages of specific techniques and review bioinformatic tools for analysing data. 5. We focus on established and promising techniques, such as QTL mapping with pedigreed populations, genome wide association studies, transcription profiling strategies, population genomics and transgenic methodologies. Many of these techniques are complementary and can be used jointly to investigate the genetic architecture of defence traits and selection on alleles in nature. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2010.01785.x/abstract Author Address: Department of Biology, Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Andersson Meike S, Carmen de Vicente M Year: 2010 Title: // Gene flow between crops and their wild relatives. Label: Dispersion Notes: Comment from : Simard MJ - Evolutionary Applications 2010, 3, 4, 402-403. Gene flow between crops and their wild relatives


Gene flow from domesticated plants to free-growing relatives was a rather trivial issue before the advent of transgenic crops. Gene flow into crops was relatively more important, especially to plant breeders trying to introduce new genes in a crop, or to breeders and seed growers wanting to ensure the genetic purity of a cultivar. Genes can now be transferred from bacteria, or potentially any plant or animal species into crops and so, crop to weed gene flow is not so trivial anymore. What if these transgenes can persist in the environment? Anyone interested in this biosafety issue will soon realize that potential gene flow from crops is highly variable depending on the crop species and the presence of wild relatives where the crop is currently cultivated. While information on specific crops abounds, especially in scientific journals, most reviews that include multiple crops are published as regulatory reports and focus on crops grown in developed countries. The main objective of this book was to compile information on relationships between cultivated crops and their wild relatives in order to promote the conservation and utilization of crop genetic resources. Therefore, crops uncommon in developed countries but grown in areas of high biodiversity are included. Andersson and de Vicente, have worked and collaborated with multiple institutions and scientists around the world (Costa Rica, Germany, Colombia, USA and Italy, to name a few) to write this review. It is a good reference source, especially for regulators and policymakers, but also of interest to breeders, plant evolutionists, ecologists, conservationists, agronomists and botanists. The book allows the rapid assessment of gene flow potential by crop (each chapter from 2 to 22 focuses on a single crop) and by geographical location (world maps are presented at the end of the book). Each crop is introduced with a nice picture of its inflorescence. Chapters are in alphabetical order according to crop common name. Crop names are also found at the bottom right of odd pages, providing a simple index that allows rapid consultation. Chapter one outlines the importance of crop diversity and gene flow, as more and more genetically modified (GM) crops are planted. The authors define terms such as: gene flow, hybridization, introgression and ecological effects of introgression. Chapter two essentially describes the methodology for selecting and gathering the information. The method used for the modeled likelihood of introgression for each crop (the innovative world maps) is described with more details on pages 549–560. Subsequent chapters each focus on a single crop selected according to three criteria (i) world production area, (ii) advances in GM technology and (iii) relative contribution to food security. For each crop, the number of domesticated species is mentioned along with the reason for selecting one or two species. The center(s) of origin and diversity are listed, followed by information on flowering, pollen biology, reproduction, seed dispersal and dormancy, persistence, weediness/invasiveness, crop wild relatives (also listed in a Table) and hybridization. Finally, there is information on bridge species, pollen flow (sometimes illustrated as a figure presenting outcrossing as a function of distance), isolation distances, state of the GM technology for the crop, agronomic management recommendations to minimize gene flow, crop production area, research gaps and conclusions. The first chapter provides a good introduction to the subject although some statements are over simplistic. For example, stating that ‗seed dormancy of some GM canola is significantly higher than non-GM controls under some field conditions (Linder. 1998. Ecological Applications 8:1180–1195)‘ without mentioning that the GM trait modifies oil composition, is misleading. Oil composition can potentially alter seed dormancy since seed oils are sources of energy prior to the initiation of photosynthesis (in Linder and Smith. 1995. Ecological Applications 5:1056–1068, in the references). I wish the method used to rank and select the twenty crops was described or some explanation given as to why sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) [24 million ha (M ha) in 2008], sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (25 M ha in 2008) (http://faostat.fao.org/) or all forage crops were left out in favor of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense) (33 M ha, advances in GM technology, but how much does it contribute to food security?), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) (4.6 M ha, no commercial GM production) or finger millet (Eleusine coracana) (4 M ha, no transformation protocols). I salute the inclusion of food crops produced essentially in India (pigeon peas) and Africa (finger millet), but expected to find sugarcane or alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Perhaps it should have been specified that high biodiversity in the center of origin of the crop was also decisive in crop selection, if that is the case. The wealth of information provided for each crop is sometimes redundant as seed dormancy, persistence of volunteers and weediness are often interrelated, but I trust, most of the important information has been covered (at least from my knowledge of a few crops). Also, the source for agronomic management recommendations is unclear as none are provided for most crops (13/20) and few to no references are listed to support the four to seven recommendations. Finally, it is difficult to assess the accuracy of the maps showing the modeled likelihood of introgression since a detailed description of the geographic mapping methodology, which is based on a few known geographical locations of the species and bio-climatic variables, is in preparation (Andersson et al. in prep.) and therefore cannot be consulted. Although I recognize that the maps want to give an indication of


the potential gene flow if wild relatives occupy and expand their entire ranges based on bio-climatic requirements, this can easily lead to overestimations as climate is not the only variable limiting species ranges. As a case in point, the Brassica napus (canola) and Triticum aestivum (wheat) maps essentially suggest that there is moderate to high likelihood of gene flow in cultivated areas across Canada. However, both B. napus fields and Brassica rapa weeds are infrequent in Southern Ontario, no known wild Triticum species exist in Canada (http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/bio/dir/biodoce.shtml) and Aegilops cylindrica has a very limited distribution in a single province (http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/invenv/pestrava/aegcyl/aegcylfse.shtml). That said, I acknowledge that mapping gene flow potential on a world scale is not an easy task and maps will initially be rudimentary. These maps are publicly available on the web (not at the location indicated in the book, but at http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/geneflow/) and will possibly be refined as more information becomes available. I had problems trying to map the data provided and, as I do not like to spend time on that type of technical problem, I abandoned the visualization of the web maps. In spite of the few inevitable minor errors, over simplistic statements, omissions and mismatched references here and there, I learned much more than I could criticize from this 564 page book. For example, I learned that there is little information on the pollen biology of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.), that finger millet (E. coracana) and wild relatives are among the least analysed crops, that some teosintes (Zea mays subspecies and Zea spp.) are rare and endangered, that the main constraint for developing transgenic peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) is the lack of agronomically useful genes, that some wild relatives of cotton (Gossipium spp.) are endemic, that potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) have complex hybridization barriers, that the origin of shattercane (Sorghum bicolor weed) still awaits clarification and that ants can disperse rice (Oryza sativa) seeds. Having read the entire book, I wish the authors would have included a general conclusion regarding gene flow between crops and their wild relatives. It is important to recognize that most crops have low outcrossing rates, informal seed exchange systems, low seed dormancy and shattering (as a consequence of domestication), wild relatives in their center(s) of origin (since crops come wild plants) and that information on pollen duration and viability is lacking for a number of crop species. The book certainly achieves its goal to compile available information on relationships between cultivated crops and their wild relatives. As mentioned in the foreword by Norman C. Ellstrand, an authority on gene flow, assembling information for so many crops was undoubtedly a titanic task. All this work generated a solid initial reference book for anyone dealing with, or interested in, the transfer of genes between cultivated and freegrowing plants. This book will undoubtedly promote awareness on biodiversity in the context of plant domestication and cultivation. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00138.x Author Address: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Québec, QC, Canada XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Andriotis VME, Pike M, Bunnewell S, Hills MJ, Smith AM, Year: 2010 Title: * The plastidial glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate antiporter GPT1 is essential for morphogenesis in Arabidopsis embryos. Journal: The Plant Journal 64, 1, 128-139. Label: Physiol Keywords: glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate antiporter GPT1 plant embryo development Arabidopsis plastid seed abortion lipid synthesis Abstract: Summary The glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate antiporter GPT1 is a major route of entry of carbon into non-photosynthetic plastids. To discover its importance in oilseeds, we used a seed-specific promoter to generate lines of Arabidopsis thaliana with reduced levels of GPT1 in developing embryos. Strong reductions resulted in seed abortion at the end of the globular stage of embryo development, when proplastids in normal embryos differentiate and acquire chlorophyll. Seed abortion was partly dependent on the light level during silique development. Embryos in seeds destined for abortion failed to undergo normal morphogenesis and were ‘raspberry-like’ in appearance. They had ultrastructural and biochemical defects including proliferation of peroxisomes and starch granules, and altered expression of genes involved in starch turnover and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We propose that GPT1 is necessary for early embryo development because it catalyses import into plastids of glucose-6-phosphate as the substrate for NADPH generation via the


oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We suggest that low NADPH levels during plastid differentiation and chlorophyll synthesis may result in generation of reactive oxygen species and triggering of embryo cell death. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04313.x Author Address: 1Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UKingdom XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Antofie MM, Sand C Year: 2009 Title: * Insights into the biotech policy and Europeans tendency. Journal: Research Journal of Agricultural Science 41, 2. Label: Adoption Reglement Keywords: agricultural policy; biosafety; biotechnology; directives; genetic engineering; genetic transformation; legislation; maize; regulations; reviews; risk assessment; transgenic plants Common Market; corn; EC; EEC; European Communities; European Economic Communities; genetic manipulation; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; rules Abstract: This paper reviews the evolution of biotechnology policies and legislation in the European Union, focusing on genetically modified crops as a major biotechnological breakthrough. Policies that aim to address biosafety issues associated with transgenic crops are discussed. A case study on the political and legislative aspects of the release of maize MON810 in Austria is presented. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 9 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103226534 Author Address: Universitatea "Lucian Blaga" Sibiu, Str. Oituz nr. 31, Sibiu, Sibiu County, Romania. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Antonopoulou Lina, Papadas Christos, Targoutzidis Antonis, Year: 2009 Title: * The Impact Of Socio-Demographic Factors And Political Perceptions On Consumer Attitudes Towards Genetically Modified Foods: An Econometric Investigation. Journal: Agricultural Economics Review>Volume 10, Issue 2, June 2009 Label: Adoption Conso Keywords: Globalization political genetically modified food econometric Abstract: This survey-based paper investigates the impact of socio-demographic factors, along with political perceptions, as expressed by attitudes towards globalization, on consumer attitudes towards GM foods, in Greece. Different aspects of consumer attitudes regarding GM foods are examined, such as general preference, banning, labeling, intention to purchase them at a sufficiently low price, the nutritional category of food product and the proximity of the genetic modification to the final product. Econometric analysis using Logit and Probit models was conducted. Estimates clearly show that in general, attitudes towards GM foods are not affected by socio-demographic characteristics. However, political perceptions are a significant influential factor. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58062 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/58062/2/10_2_7.pdf Author Address: Department of Economics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, Botanikos 11855, Athens, Greece Hellenic Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, 26 Octovriou 90, 54628 Thessaloniki, Greece XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Apel W, Schulze WX, Bock R, Year: 2010 Title: * Identification of protein stability determinants in chloroplasts.


Journal: Plant Journal 63, 636-650. Label: Physiol Abstract: Although chloroplast protein stability has long been recognised as a major level of post-translational regulation in photosynthesis and gene expression, the factors determining protein stability in plastids are largely unknown. Here, we have identified stability determinants in vivo by producing plants with transgenic chloroplasts that express a reporter protein whose N- and C-termini were systematically modified. We found that major stability determinants are located in the N-terminus. Moreover, testing of all 20 amino acids in the position after the initiator methionine revealed strong differences in protein stability and indicated an important role of the penultimate N-terminal amino acid residue in determining the protein half life. We propose that the stability of plastid proteins is largely determined by three factors: (i) the action of methionine aminopeptidase (the enzyme that removes the initiator methionine and exposes the penultimate N-terminal amino acid residue), (ii) an N-end rule-like protein degradation pathway, and (iii) additional sequence determinants in the Nterminal region. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04268.x/abstract Author Address: Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Ariel Federico, Diet Anouck, Verdenaud Marion, Gruber Veronique, Frugier Florian, Chan Raquel, Crespi Martin, Year: 2010 Title: * Environmental Regulation of Lateral Root Emergence in Medicago truncatula Requires the HD-Zip I Transcription Factor HB1. Journal: Plant Cell 22, 7, 2171-2183. Date: July 1, 2010 Label: ReEn Physiol Abstract: The adaptation of root architecture to environmental constraints is a major agricultural trait, notably in legumes, the third main crop worldwide. This root developmental plasticity depends on the formation of lateral roots (LRs) emerging from primary roots. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the HD-Zip I transcription factor HB1 is expressed in primary and lateral root meristems and induced by salt stress. Constitutive expression of HB1 in M. truncatula roots alters their architecture, whereas hb1 TILLING mutants showed increased lateral root emergence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, promoter mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR assays revealed that HB1 directly recognizes a CAATAATTG ciselement present in the promoter of a LOB-like (for Lateral Organ Boundaries) gene, LBD1, transcriptionally regulated by auxin. Expression of these genes in response to abscisic acid and auxin and their behavior in hb1 mutants revealed an HB1-mediated repression of LBD1 acting during LR emergence. M. truncatula HB1 regulates an adaptive developmental response to minimize the root surface exposed to adverse environmental stresses. URL: http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/7/2171 Author Address: a Instituto de Agrobiotecnología del Litoral, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CP 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina b Institut des Sciences du Végétal, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, F91198 Gif sur Yvette, France c Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, Les Grands Moulins, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France d Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes Micro-organismes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Arshad M, A Suhail Year: 2010 Title: * Studying the sucking insect pests community in transgenic Bt cotton. Journal: Int. J. Agric. Biol., 12: 764–768 Label: InRe RavageurSecond Efficacite Keywords: Transgenic Bt cotton; Sucking insect pests; Population density; Seed treatment; Insecticide


Abstract: Cotton jassid, whitefly and thrips are important sucking insect pests in cotton fields in the Punjab, Pakistan. The seasonal dynamics of these pests were compared on transgenic Bt cotton line, â&#x20AC;&#x2022;IR-FH-901â&#x20AC;&#x2013; expressing Cry1Ac insecticidal protein with its parent non-transgenic cotton cultivar, FH-901. There was no significant difference in population densities of theses pests in Bt and non-Bt cotton, when nothing was sprayed. However, insecticide application effectively controlled theses pests in both Bt and non-Bt cotton. In conclusion, there is no difference in transgenic Bt and non-Bt cotton for jassid, whitefly and thrips attack and application of suitable insecticide is required to theses pests on transgenic cotton. URL: http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_5/23.pdf Author Address: Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Ashikawa Ikuo, Abe Fumitaka, Nakamura Shingo, Year: 2010 Title: * Ectopic expression of wheat and barley DOG1-like genes promotes seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Journal: Plant Science 179, 5, 536-542. Label: Physiol Keywords: Arabidopsis Barley DOG1 Seed dormancy Abstract: To develop strategies for manipulating the level of crop seed dormancy, it is necessary to search for the genes that control dormancy. In this study, we investigated whether wheat and barley homologues of the Arabidopsis dormancy gene DOG1 (Delay of Germination 1), TaDOG1L1 and HvDOG1L1 (respectively), also induce seed dormancy. Because their sequence similarity to DOG1 is low and the tissue-specific expression pattern of DOG1 was not conserved in either of these genes, these genes do not appear to retain the function of DOG1. However, ectopic overexpression of either of these DOG1 homologues in transgenic Arabidopsis markedly increased seed dormancy. Furthermore, dormancy release during dry seed storage in the transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing the Triticeae genes occurred similarly to that in a transgenic line overexpressing DOG1. This evidence demonstrates conservation of the function of DOG1 in both TaDOG1L1 and HvDOG1L1. Thus, these DOG1-like genes in wheat and barley are good candidate transgenes for reducing preharvest germination in wheat. Research highlights > Wheat and barley contain a family of DOG1-like genes in their genomes. > The seed dormancy function of DOG1 is conserved in these Triticeae genes. > Dormancy induced by these genes decays within several weeks after seed ripening. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TBH-50S8PFN1/2/5675b5f74af897a0453605d4d92c224b Author Address: NARO, National Institute of Crop Science, 2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8518, Japan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Avesani L, Bortesi L, Santi L, Falorni A, Pezzotti M, Year: 2010 Title: * Plant-made pharmaceuticals for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases: where are we? Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines 9, 8, 957-969. Label: Biopharming Keywords: autoantigen; autoimmune disease; oral tolerance; plant-made pharmaceutical; recombinant protein; transgenic plant collagen-induced arthritis; human tissue transglutaminase; toxin-b-subunit; nonobese diabetic mice; recombinant human interleukin-4; acid decarboxylase gad65; insulin fusion protein; ii-collagen; choleratoxin; transgenic plants Abstract: Molecular farming in plants or plant cell cultures represents a viable alternative technology that holds great promise for the low-cost and large-scale production of recombinant proteins. The particular case of plant-based vaccines for the prevention of autoimmune diseases is addressed here, presenting a comprehensive overview of the different molecules and expression technologies that have been investigated so far in both academia and industry. The potential of plants not only as bioreactors but also as delivery systems for pharmaceuticals is discussed, and the advantages of oral delivery of autoantigens for the induction of immune tolerance are highlighted.


Notes: Times Cited: 1 Cited Reference Count: 96 URL: <Go to ISI>://000281104800016 Author Address: Univ Verona, Dipartimento Biotecnol, I-37134 Verona, Italy. Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Biol, I-00133 Rome, Italy. Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Med Interna, I-06126 Perugia, Italy. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Avesani L, Vitale A, Pedrazzini E, DeVirgilio M, Pompa A, Barbante A, Gecchele E, Dominici P, Morandini F, Brozzetti A, Falorni A, Pezzotti M, Year: 2010 Title: * Recombinant human GAD65 accumulates to high levels in transgenic tobacco plants when expressed as an enzymatically inactive mutant. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal 8, 8, 862-872. Label: Biopharming Keywords: T1DM GAD65 transgenic plant Abstract: The 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is the major autoantigen implicated in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The bulk manufacture of GAD65 is a potential issue in the fight against T1DM but current production platforms are expensive. We show that a catalytically inactive form of GAD65 (GAD65mut) accumulates at up to 2.2% total soluble protein in transgenic tobacco leaves, which is more than 10-fold the levels achieved with active GAD65, yet the protein retains the immunogenic properties required to treat T1DM. This higher yield was found to be a result of a higher rate of protein synthesis and not transcript availability or protein stability. We found that targeting GAD65 to the endoplasmic reticulum, a strategy that increases the accumulation of many recombinant proteins expressed in plants, did not improve production of GAD65mut. The production of a catalytically inactive autoantigen that retains its immunogenic properties could be a useful strategy to provide high-quality therapeutic protein for treatment of autoimmune T1DM. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00514.x Author Address: 1Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Verona, Verona, Italy 2Istituto di Biologia e Biotecnologia Agraria, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano, Italy 3Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Awaji Sushma M, V Nagaveni Prashantkumar, S Hanjagi, DN Madhvi, VR Sashidhar, Rohini Sreevathsa Year: 2010 Title: * Simple yet stringent screening methodologies for evaluation of putative transformants for abiotic stress tolerance: salt and cadmium stress as a paradigm. Journal: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants Volume 16, Number 2, 115-121, Label: Detection ReEn Metaux Salin Keywords: Abiotic stress - evaluation - methodology - transgenics Abstract: Rigorous and stringent screening methodologies to select transformants at both seedling and plant level under cadmium or NaCl stress were developed. At seedling level, two screening strategies were standardized. One involved germination on filter paper/agar in the presence of either CdCl2 (125 µM) or NaCl (350–450 mM) for 9 days and selection of tolerant putative transformants. The other involved germination of the seedlings on soilrite by irrigation of 450 mM NaCl. Further, at plant level, in vitro evaluation for stress tolerance involved a simple leaf senescence bioassay. Combination of the seedling and plant level screening strategies would result in the initial identification of promising transformants for further analysis. Author Address: Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore – 560 065, India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Axelsson E. Petter, Joakim Hjältén, Carri J. LeRoy, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Anders Wennström & Gilles Pilate, Year: 2010 Title: Can Leaf Litter from Genetically Modified Trees Affect Aquatic Ecosystems? Secondary Title: Ecosystems 12, 7, 1049-1059. Label: Composition Physiol ImpactBiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences Abstract: In addition to potential benefits, biotechnology in silviculture may also be associated with environmental considerations, including effects on organisms associated with the living tree and on ecosystems and processes dependent on tree residue. We examined whether genetic modification of lignin characteristics (CAD and COMT) in Populus sp. affected leaf litter quality, the decomposition of leaf litter, and the assemblages of aquatic insects colonizing the litter in three natural streams. The decomposition of leaf litter from one of the genetically modified (GM) lines (CAD) was affected in ways that were comparable over streams and harvest dates. After 84Â days in streams, CAD-litter had lost approximately 6.1% less mass than the non-GM litter. Genetic modification also affected the concentration of phenolics and carbon in the litter but this only partially explained the decomposition differences, suggesting that other factors were also involved. Insect community analyses comparing GM and non-GM litter showed no significant differences, and the two GM litters showed differences only in the 84-day litterbags. The total abundance and species richness of insects were also similar on GM and non-GM litter. The results presented here suggest that genetic modifications in trees can influence litter quality and thus have a potential to generate effects that can cross ecosystem boundaries and influence ecosystem processes not directly associated with the tree. Overall, the realized ecological effects of the GM tree varieties used here were nevertheless shown to be relatively small. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10021-010-9373-y Author Address: (1) Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 90183 Umeå, Sweden (2) Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington 98505, USA (3) Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu, 80101, Finland (4) Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden (5) INRA, UR0588, Amélioration Génétique et Physiologie Forestières, CS 40001 Ardon, 45075 Orléans Cedex 2, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Azhar MT, MU Rehman, S Aftab, S Mansoor, Year: 2010 Title: * Utilization of natural and genetically-engineered sources in Gossypium hirsutum for the development of tolerance against cotton leaf curl disease and fiber characteristics. Journal: Int. J. Agric. Biol., 12: 744–748 Label: Composition Qualite Keywords: Genetically-engineered; Gossypium hirsitum; Natural sources; Introgression; CLCuD; Fiber Abstract: The present study efforts have been made to combine natural and genetically-engineered resistance to get enhanced tolerance against cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) and improvement in fiber characteristics. Maximum number of tolerant plant against CLCuD was observed in the families of NIBGE-115 × transgenic Coker-312 expressing antisense rep, whilst minimum number of plants was in the families of FH-1000 × transgenic rep Coker-312 cotton. It was noted that ginning out turn; fiber fineness was significantly increased in F1 and F2 of NIBGE-115 × transgenic antisense rep Coker-312. Significant increase for fiber length was observed in the families of CIM-496 × transgenic antisense Coker-312 but non-significant differences were observed in all of the families of the crosses. The positive and highly significant correlation coefficient was observed between fiber length and fiber strength. The sample of parent plant material was small in the present study and did not represent the whole of the germplasm of G. hirsutum, therefore it would be worth-while to conduct another experiment involving large number of parents from the germplasm in a crossing program to substantiate the present findings. URL: http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_12_NO_5/19.pdf Author Address: Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P O Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Baburam, Singh Year: 2010 Title: ?? Genetically modified (GM) crops and controversies. Journal: Orissa Review May-June 2010 - 73-75. Issue: May-June Label: Review Abstract: Full text : Ever since the introduction of first transgenic tomato for commercial cultivation in USA in the Year 1995, the area under GM crops has gone up 74-fold in the world. In 1996 the global area under transgenic was only 1.7 million hectares while in 2008 the global area is 125 million hectares. It took about 10 years for the area to cross the first billion mark while to cross the second billion acre mark it took only 3 years signifying the rapid expansion of the GM crops through out the world. In 1996, the cultivation of biotech crop was confined to USA but now 25 countries have adapted its cultivation. In addition, 30 countries have granted regulatory approval for import of GM product and their release in open environment. Of the countries where GM crops are cultivated at present, 15 are from developing countries and remaining 10 are from developed countries. The number of biotech farmers increased significantly during these 13 years and at present it stands at 13.3 million. Notably 90 % (12.3 million ) of them are resource poor farmers from developing countries. Starting with one crop species in 1995, now the numbers of species in which transgenic have been developed has gone up to 24. Out of 66 principal crops cultivated through out the world, scientists are actively engaged in transgenic development in 57 crop species. It is excepted that by 2020-25 world will have transgenic in most important crop species. The above development indicates the rate at which the technology is spreading and perhaps it may be the fastest spreading technology in the agriculture sector. The leading countries where transgenic crops are extensively grown include USA with 62.5 million hectare, followed by Argentina (21.0 million hectares), Brazil (15.8 million hectares). India (7.6 million hectares), Canada (6.7 million hectares), China (3.8 million hectares, Paraguay (2.7 million hectares), South Africa (1.8 million hectares), Uruguay (0.7 million hectares), Bolivia (0.6 million hectares), Philippines (0.4 million hectares), Australia (0.2 million hectares), Mexico and other 12 countries with less than 0.1 million hectares. India finds a place in the top 5 megabiotech countries of the world. Scenario of GM crops in India : In India the first transgenic ( Bt Cotton) was cleared for cultivation in the year 2002. Within a span of seven years the area under Bt cotton has gone beyond 7.6 million hectares and it constitutes approximately 82% of the total cotton area of the country. Important States where Bt cotton is grown extensively include Maharastra (3.13 million hectares- representing almost half of 42% of Bt cotton area in India) followed by Gujarat (1.36 million hectares), Andhra Pradesh (1.32 million hectares), Madhya Pradesh (620.000 ha). It is claimed that with the introduction of Bt cotton in India and with rapid expansion of its area, India got transformed from a net importer to a net exporter of cotton. Export of cotton registered a sharp increase from a meagre 0.05 million bales in 2001-02 to 8.5 million bales in 2006-08. Field trial on 10 crops ( brinjal, cabbage, castor, cauliflower, corn, ground-nut, okra, potato, rice and tomato) is going on at present in India. After Supreme Court lifted its restriction on experimental field trial of GM crops in 2008, the Apex Regulatory Body - Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) has recommended for the field trial of Bt brinjal in the country. If it is allowed by government for its commercial cultivation it will be the first GM food crop to be cultivated in open environment in India. Several other GM food crops (cabbage, cauliflower, corn, ground-nut, okra, potato, rice and tomato) are in the pipe line to follow. The GM Debate: Lot of debates are going on relating to the prospect and risks associated with the GM crops. The argument which are adduced in favour of GM technology are (i) higher yield (ii) better quality (iii) high degree of uniformity (iv) eco-friendly (vii) cost-effective and (viii) affordable price. The arguments which are adduced against this technology are (i) cost-intensive (ii) hazardous to environment and health and (iii) detrimental to our livelihood security and sovereign rights of our farmers.


Contradicting claims and counter claims about the technology has kept all including farmers in a state of utter confusion. Impact on Agriculture: Promoters of GM technology claim that spread of GM crops will boost our agricultural production significantly through their high yielding ability and resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. It will also ensure our food and nutritional security through development of nutritionally rich food grains like beta-carotene rich golden rice. It will reduce pressure on land and other natural resources due to high productivity of crops and thus can play a significant role in checking deforestation for agricultural purpose. Where as the opponents of the technology claim that there is no significant gain in the productivity of the GM crops in comparison to some of the best high yielding varieties/ hybrids available in the country. They argue that cultivation of few GM varieties with narrow genetic base in large scale will make crops more vulnerable to diseases and pests due to genetic uniformity. Large scale cultivation of transgenic will also bring reduction in biodiversity though squeeze in varietal and crop diversity. There is risk of transfer of introduced foreign gene into other varieties and non-target species and it may lead to gene pollution and contamination of our genetic resources. Cultivation of transgenic will encourage more application of fertilizers and chemicals and cultivation of herbicide tolerant GM varieties will boost herbicide application in the field. Increase in application of these agrochemicals will ultimately lead to environmental pollution. Apprehensions are also made that cultivation of disease and pest resistant transgenic will lead to development of resistance in the pests and may hasten their coevolution. Similarly transfer of herbicide tolerant/ resistant gene from transgenic to associate weed species may lead to development of super-weeds causing serious problem in future for their control. Impact on Biodiversity: The promoters of GM technology argue that introduction of GM crops will help in conservation of biodiversity through reduction in application of pesticides. They are also of opinion that extensive cultivation of GM crops will reduce pressure on the land and other natural resources and it will reduce deforestation activity for agriculture purpose. Whereas the opponents are of the view that introduction of transgenic particularly herbicide tolerant ones will encourage increased application of herbicides in the agricultural field. This will have adverse effect on the environment as well as biodiversity. In addition squeeze in varietal diversity and gene pollution will also adversely affect our rich biodiversity. Since biodiversity is the key to our food security any reduction in it will adversely affect our food security. Impact on Health: The promoters of GM technology argue that introduction of GM varieties capable of producing more nutrients and vitamins like golden rice will help to mitigate mal- nutrition problem in the under nourished people. Technologies are now also available to produce GM varieties that can produce therapeutical proteins and drugs in the plant systems and it may help in solving our health related problem. Whereas the opponents are of the view that the introduction of foreign gene in the food crop system will lead to production of a foreign protein that may cause Allergy, Cancer, Stomach ailment and various other ailments. They also cite some case studies in their support. Impact on Economics: Promoters of GM technology claim higher return due to reduction in the cost of production which can make food grains affordable to poor people. Because of its high degree of uniformity it can facilitate mechanization in agriculture and better market. The counter claims are that it will be cost intensive and our resource poor farmer can not afford it. Besides the market access of GM foods it will have less appreciation in the market. Seeds of GM crops / technology have been patented and so it will be monopoly of multinationals who will indirectly control the price of seed and their availability and so it will affect sovereign rights of our farmers. State approach to the problem: Orissa is considered as the secondary centre of origin of rice due to occurrence of wide natural variability (genetic diversity). Similarly Orissa is considered as the gene center for several other crops like brinjal, gourds, cucumber, minor millet etc. The State should take a cautious approach as regards to GM crops are concerned to avoid any potential risk gene contamination and reduction in its rich biodiversity. Through studies need to be made on aspects to aspects to assess its long term impact on environment, health and biodiversity prior to taking a policy decision on introduction of relevant GM crops. References: 1. International Service for the acquisition of agribiotech application report 2009 2. Genetic Roulette-Jeffrey M. Smith (2008). A South Against genetic Engineering and Deccan Development Society publication.


Dr. Baburam Singh is a Professor, Notes: Times Cited: 0 URL: <Go to ISI>://20103259730 Author Address: Plant Breeding & Genetics, Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bakshi DK, Arora JK Year: 2007 Title: * Genetically modified crops in Indian perspective: an overview. Journal: Journal of Plant Science Research 23, 1/2. Accession Number: CABI:20103043262 Label: Bioengineering Adoption Review Keywords: aubergines; cold resistance; cold stress; commercial hybrids; cotton; crop quality; crop yield; cultivation; disease resistance; drought; drought resistance; genetic transformation; groundnuts; heat resistance; heat stress; herbicide resistance; hybrid varieties; Indian mustard; pest resistance; plant diseases; plant pests; plant water relations; potatoes; rice; salinity; salt tolerance; tomatoes; transgenic plants; water stress brinjal; Capparales; cold hardiness; drought tolerance; eggplants; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; Lycopersicon esculentum; paddy; peanuts; rai; resistance to disease Abstract: In India, vigorous efforts have been initiated for development of GM crops, in view of their potential and importance. As of now, Bt cotton is the only transgenic crop approved for commercial cultivation in the country. Since its introduction in 2002, there has been a phenomenal increase in the area under Bt cotton which presently stands at 3.5 million hectare. As of now, 111 hybrids and 4 events viz. Bollgard 1 (BG-1), Bollgard 2 (BG-2), Event 1 and GFM event of Bt cotton are approved for commercial cultivation in the country. The first GM food crop of India i.e. Bt brinjal is in pipeline for introduction in the market. In fact, with the release of Bt brinjal, India is likely to take global lead in introduction of first GM eggplant. Further, various other GM crops including rice, potato, tomato, mustard, groundnut and several other food crops are under different stages of development and trials in the country. The genetic modification is primarily targeted at introduction of crop protection traits which include: resistance to pests, disease & herbicides; abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, cold or salinity and quality traits for enhanced nutrition, shelf life, improved taste, colour, fragrance & increased productivity. The results of socio-economic impact assessment studies on Bt cotton are encouraging in terms of economic and environmental benefits. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 50 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103043262 Author Address: Biotechnology Division, Punjab State Council for Science & Technology, Chandigarh - 160 019, India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Ballester A, Cervera M, Peña L, Year: 2010 Title: * Selectable marker-free transgenic orange plants recovered under non-selective conditions and through PCR analysis of all regenerants. Journal: Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture Volume 102, Number 3, 329-336. Label: Bioengineering Keywords: Clean vector - Citrus - Fruit plants - Genetic transformation - Stacking - Woody plants Abstract: Selectable marker (SM) genes have been considered necessary to achieve acceptable rates in the generation of transgenic plants. Genes encoding antibiotic or herbicide resistance are widely used for this purpose. In most cases, once transgenic plants have been regenerated, permanence of SM genes in the plant genome is no longer necessary, and it becomes a matter of public concern. Moreover, the removal of SM genes from transgenic plants could facilitate gene stacking through successive transformations, particularly when the availability of these markers is rather limited for most crop plants. In the genus Citrus, with highly heterozygotic species of long generation cycles, methods implying the segregation and removal of marker transgenes in the progeny are not feasible. Here, we have evaluated the direct production of SM-free citrus plants under non-selective conditions, using a ―clean‖ binary vector carrying only the transgene of interest, and


through the recovery of transformants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of all regenerated shoots. The response of two different citrus genotypes, Carrizo citrange (intergeneric hybrid of C. sinensis L. Osb. X Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and Pineapple sweet orange (C. sinensis L. Osb.), was evaluated. Our results indicate that, in this system, the competence between transgenic and non-transgenic cells is the main factor determining final transgenic regeneration frequencies. For Carrizo citrange, no transgenic plant could be recovered. For Pineapple sweet orange, marker-free transformation efficiency was 1.7%, paving the way for the viable production of orange transformants carrying only the transgene(s) of interest. Notes: 32 Ref. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/t873xg11171785g6/ http://www.springerlink.com/content/t873xg11171785g6/fulltext.html Author Address: Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Apartado Oficial, 46113 Moncada, Valencia, Spain XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Balog Adalbert, Ágnes Szénási, Dóra Szekeres, József Kiss Year: 2010 Title: * Staphylinids (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in genetically modified maize ecosystems: species densities and trophic interactions. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 9-15. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: InRe ImpactBiol Abstract: Abstract: In this paper we present results on rove beetles (species, guilds, densities) from a threeyear field experiment conducted in Hungary with Bt maize (MON810, Cry1Ab) and its corresponding near isogenic variety. According to our results there were no significant differences in density for species belonging to the non-aphidophagous predator and parasitoid guilds; however the aphidophagous guild showed differences between the two maize varieties in some years. The abundance of aphidophagous staphylinids did not correlate with the total annual and monthly Rhopalosiphum padi density (its prey) in the same year but higher aphid density in one year may have influenced the larval development of rove beetles in that year influencing beetle densities in the following year. Author Address: Hungary XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bambawale OM, R K Tanwar, O P Sharma, B B Bhosle, R C Lavekar, S B Patil, A Dhandapani, T P Trivedi, P Jeyakumar, D K Garg, A A Jafri, B L Meena Year: 2010 Title: * Impact of refugia and integrated pest management on the performance of transgenic (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Journal: Indian J agri Sci Vol. 80 No. 8 p. 730 New Delhi August 2010. Label: InRe Resistance Author Address: India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bao LiangShuai, Gong ZhenHui, Li DaWei, Huang Wei, Lu MingHui, Chen RuGang, Year: 2010 Title: ?? Construction and transformation of the plant expression vector carrying ML gene of pepper. Journal: Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 30, 5, 901-904. Accession Number: CABI:20103213811 Label: FuRe Keywords: pepper ML gene plant expression vector genetic transformation Abstract: In order to analyse the effect of ML gene to Phytophthora capsici,plant expression vector pBI121ML was constructed by using the vector pBI121.The expressed vector pBI121-ML was transferred into


Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 by means of rapid frozen thaw method successfully.Pepper susceptible Cv.B12 was transformed with pBI121-ML by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.PCR and RT-PCR detection confirmed that four transgenic lines of pepper were obtained Notes: Times Cited: 0 URL: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-DNYX201005008.htm Author Address: College of Horticulture,Northwest A&F University,Yangling,Shaanxi 712100,China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bao-Rong L, Hui X Year: 2008 Title: 造 The fitness of hybrids and progenies between weedy rice and insect-resistant Bt (cryIAc) rice. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Dispersion InRe Abstract: Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) is a serious weed infesting paddy fi elds in both tropic and temperate rice cultivation regions worldwide. It is the third or fourth most noxious weed threatening rice production (Delouche et al. 2007), particularly in regions where direct seeding or no-till cultivation is replacing rice transplanting practices. Weedy rice can successfully thrive and expand in paddy fields, largely due to its excellent adaptation to agricultural practices and ecological conditions, in addition to its seed shattering and seed dormancy characteristics, which allow it to survive in soil seed banks. Weedy rice can also mimic the morphological and physiological characteristics of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) grown in the same fi elds. This makes the control of weedy rice extremely difficult once it infests a rice fi eld, causing reductions of rice yield and quality (Delouche et al. 2007). Rapid adaptive evolution of weedy rice may have played an essential role in its successful invasion and infestation of the managed agro-ecosystems. Hypothetically, the rapid adaptive evolution of weedy rice might be intimately associated with hybridization and introgression of weedy rice with the concomitant rice varieties, because the elite crop genes can be continuously incorporated into weedy rice populations through recurrent hybridization and introgression. It is proven that weedy rice can easily hybridize and introgress with cultivated rice because of its conspecific status with cultivated rice (Cao et al. 2006), which may increase genetic diversity of weedy rice and complicate the process of its fi eld control. Recently, there has been a great concern over gene fl ow from genetically modifi ed (GM) rice to weedy rice through outcrossing (hybridization/introgression) that may cause unwanted environmental consequences (see Lu and Snow 2005). The incorporation of novel and unique functional transgene(s) resistant to biotic (e.g. herbicide and insect) and abiotic stresses (e.g. drought and cold) from GM rice may enhance fi tness and change evolutionary potential of weedy rice containing the transgenes. This may largely alter the population dynamics of weedy rice and increase the diffi culties for controlling weedy rice populations that have picked up transgenes. Spontaneous gene fl ow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has been reported in a number of studies with a considerable frequency (Chen et al. 2004; Shivraina et al. 2007). Our unpublished molecular experimental data aimed to measure the mating system of weedy rice populations collected from different rice fi elds showed variable outcrossing rates between 0.4~12%, indicating a high potential of gene fl ow. All the data suggested that transgene flow from GM rice to weedy rice is unavoidable in the region where cultivated and weedy rice coexist. As a result, the assessment of environmental consequences caused by transgene fl ow from GM rice to weedy rice is important for predicting the extent of weedy rice problems, and for sustainable agriculture. In order to understand the fitness change of weedy rice that contains transgenes, we produced F1 hybrids and F2 progenies from artifi cial crosses between insect-resistant GM rice lines (Bt CryIAc and CpTI) and weedy rice strains collected from different sources. Comparative analysis of field performances of the artificial hybrids, F2 progenies, and weedy rice parents was conducted under field experiments with different insect pressure and pure or mixed cultivation styles. From the experiment involving F1 hybrids and the weedy parents under pure or mixed cultivation of weedy rice or/and F1 hybrids, results showed signifi cantly better performances for some traits e.g., number of spikelets per plant and 1000-seed weight with insect pressure, but poor performances for number of seeds per plant under the same insect pressure. Results further showed that there was a significant correlation between 1000-seed weight and seed germination rates or seedling survival rates of F1 hybrids and weedy rice parents. The F1 study indicated that productive potential and better seeds


from the crop-weedy hybrids may enhance the possibility of transgene introgression into weedy rice populations. From the experiment involving F2 progenies with or without the transgenes under normal or low insect pressure, results showed slightly better performance of F2 progenies with the transgenes than those without the transgenes under normal insect pressure. However, there were no signifi cant differences between F2 progenies with or without the transgenes. The small sample size and insuffi cient contrast of insect pressure in our experiment may have caused the insignificant results, but results from the F2 study demonstrated that transgenes can be introgressed into and persist in the weedy rice populations. Further fi tness studies involving a larger sample size of F2 and F3 progenies with or without the transgenes under more ideal insect pressure are ongoing, in order to develop a better understanding of the fi tness changes in weedy rice containing transgenes. References Cao QJ, Lu B-R, Xia H, Rong J, Sala F, Spada A & Grassi F. 2006. Genetic diversity and origin of weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea) populations found in Northeastern China revealed by simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Annals of Botany, 98: 1241–1252. Chen LJ, Lee DS, Song ZP, Suh HS & Lu B-R. 2004. Gene fl ow from cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) to its weedy and wild relatives. Annals of Botany, 93: 67-73. Delouche JC, Burgos NR, Gealy DR, Zorilla-San MG, Labrada R & M. Larinde. 2007. Weedy rices: origin, biology, ecology and control. Rome: FAO of the United Nations. Lu B-R & Snow AA. 2005. Gene fl ow from genetically modified rice and its environmental consequences. BioScience, 55: 669-678. Shivraina VK, Burgos NR, Andersb MM, Rajgurua SN, Moorea J & Salesa MA. 2007. Gene flow between ClearfieldTM rice and red rice. Crop Protection, 26: 349-356. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Barbi T, Irons SL, Pepponi I, Hawes C, Ma JK-C, Drake PMW Year: 2010 Title: * Expression and plasma membrane localization of the mammalian B-cell receptor complex in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal - Article first published online: 22 SEP 2010 Label: Biopharming Keywords: B-cell receptor - transgenic plants - antibody Abstract: The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR), displayed on the plasma membrane of mature B cells of the mammalian immune system, is a multimeric complex consisting of a membrane-bound immunoglobulin (mIg) noncovalently associated with the Igα/Igβ heterodimer. In this study, we engineered transgenic tobacco plants expressing all four chains of the BCR. ELISA, Western blotting and confocal microscopy demonstrated that the BCR was correctly assembled in plants, predominantly in the plasma membrane, and that the noncovalent link was detergent sensitive. This is the first example of a noncovalently assembled plasma membrane-retained heterologous receptor in plants. In B cells of the mammalian immune system, following antigen binding to mIg, BCR is internalized and tyrosine residues on Igα and Igβ are phosphorylated activating a signaling cascade through interaction with protein kinases that ultimately leads to the initiation of gene expression. Expression of the BCR may therefore be an important tool for the study of plant endocytosis and the identification of previously unknown plant tyrosine kinases. The specificity and diversity of the antibody repertoire, coupled to the signal transduction capability of the Igα/Igβ heterodimer, also indicates that plants expressing BCR may in future be developed as environmental biosensors. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00566.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00566.x/abstract


Author Address: 1) Molecular Immunology Unit, Centre for Infection and Immunology, Division of Clinical Sciences, St. George‘s University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK 2) School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UKingdom XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Barik Bishnu Year: 2010 Title: // Ian Scoones: Science, agriculture and the politics of policy: the age of biotechnology in India Secondary Title: Agriculture and Human Values 27, 3, 377-378. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-09-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0889-048X Label: SocioEconomic Keywords: Humanities, Social Sciences and Law Abstract: The book under review is a part of a larger project involving collaboration with India, China and Southern Africa. The insights narrated are gathered through three hundred semi-structured interviews with a diverse range of informants, carried out during numerous visits to India between 2000 and 2002. Through the narratives Scoones provides a detailed examination of the development of biotechnology in India, with a focus on agriculture. Biotechnology as a science, as a business, as politics, as symbol and as narrative is investigated to gauge the vision of development and the discourse on the policy framework. The author‘s remark on the context of India stands correct. He notes that India has been a land of extreme contrast where overall poverty has declined but inequality has grown, particularly between the urban areas that have profited from new economic activities such as Information Technologies (IT) and the rural areas where the agricultural economy has stagnated. In the case of Karnataka State, the author further magnifies his argument by stating that the State has vast areas of dry rural hinterlands along with its fast growing hitech Bangalore—the capital of the State; no other city and State better exemplify the contrast, contradiction and challenges of modern India than Bangalore. The author further emphasizes that Bangalore being known as an IT hub not only in Asia, let alone in the world, houses over 10,000 industries and has had positive economic impact on the State. Despite this positive economic impact, there is visible and marked inequality in income and opportunities, which means that there are pockets in the State having extreme wealth and whereas large areas of State real under extreme poverty; more than 20% of the State population lives below poverty. Additionally, farmers committing suicide is a routine phenomena in the State; during 2003–2004, 650 farmers committed suicide because of failures in managing agriculture. Scoones observes that on the surface India is shining. The country has 40 million tons of foodgrain reserves with a $100 billion foreign exchange surplus. India‘s economic growth rate was 8% during past four. To meet the food requirements of the fast growing population, India has to increase food production by 105 million tons by 2020, and according to several interviewees, this can only be achieved if biotechnology is introduced in Indian agriculture. Biotechnology is seen as a sunrise industry- one that could be at the forefront of an economic transformation through revitalizing agriculture. As Mazumdar Shaw claimed, the biotechnology sector had the potential to generate $5 billion in revenue and create one million skilled jobs in the country over 5 years. Manju Sharma, the Indian Secretary of Science and Technology, predicted that the biotechnology market of India would yield 5% share of the global $50–60 billion market by 2005. Then Chief Minister Mr. S. M. Krishna promoted the idea of establishing a biotechnology hub in Bangalore, alongside IT, and provided all the required infrastructure facilities for its speedy growth. Mr. Krishna appointed Mazumdar Shaw as the chairperson of the high level committee to plan and guide the State government in the direction of executing the necessary decision on the matter. Several policy decisions were taken at the State and central government level. Bureaucrats, technocrats, policy makers and politicians were involved in the process to give a proper shape to the biotechnology hub at Bangalore by integrating science and technology to planning. On its website, the multinational company Monasanto India also stated that India has to increase food production dramatically and that biotechnology can help grow this food without affecting the environment. Monasanto in alliance with Mayhco officially released Bt cotton for commercial sale. Before releasing the seed in the market, it conducted field trials in several locations in the State. However, the field trials encountered severe protests by the local farmers. The protests were supported by established NGOs and farmers‘ leaders in the State who maintained that Bt cotton will undermine farming communities‘ livelihoods, destroy bio-diversity and cause human health risks. Vandana Shiva describes the field trials as ―illegal and unscientific‖ (p. 326).


Shiva argued that there was no yield gain, in fact there was yield reduction and no reduction in pesticide use to counter cotton bollworm. She agitated on the fact that the field trial results were not made public and that the introduction of BT cotton only helped to expand the monopoly of the multinational company to gain maximum benefit. Let us now analyze the real situation and impact of biotechnology on crop productivity, protecting the environment, creating employment opportunities and the economic status of farming communities. Agriculture in India, and Karnataka in particular, is at a crossroad. The effects of the Green Revolution are already over. Indian agriculture no longer is in a position to provide gainful employment opportunities or viable opportunities for livelihoods. Over the years, farming communities have experienced severe crises and as reported, several hundred farmers have committed suicide in the country and from Karnataka alone. Now the Indian villages are looking deserted as more and more youths are leaving the countryside for gainful employment in towns and metropolitan cities. The Indian economy is facing a serious meltdown. Although the growth rate was predicted to be at 8%, this rate was too difficult to accomplish and maintain. The IT sector in Bangalore also is facing severe crisis. In this meltdown situation no one talks about biotechnology, neither the bureaucrats nor the technocrats, including the policy makers. Professor Ian Scoones deserves praise for writing a classical monument on biotechnology. The book is well written with a huge amount of data gathered from different sources. The style of presentation is very lucid, emphasizing the point of arguments logically. Frankly speaking, the style of presentation is fascinating and superb. Not a single mistake is noticed throughout the book. Social scientists, policy makers and students of science and technology should read this book. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10460-010-9276-8 Author Address: School of Social Sciences, Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded, 431606, Maharashtra, India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Barrett Michael Year: 2010 Title: + Weed Scientists Tackle Glyphosate Resistance Problems. Journal: Plant Management Network Number 104: September 28, 2010 Label: HeTo Resistance Abstract: Full text : Lexington, Kentucky (September 20, 2010)--In recent years, glyphosate-resistant weeds common north and south of Kentucky have appeared in the state. While glyphosate-resistant marestail is widespread in Kentucky, Palmer amaranth and waterhemp are new problems in certain counties. Weed scientists in the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture are exploring different methods of control for these weeds with the hopes of containing them to the already-infested areas. Palmer amaranth and waterhemp share many similarities. They are in the pigweed family, are similar in appearance, produce male and female plants that must cross to reproduce and are problems in soybeans. Although both species have been in Kentucky for more than 10 years, problems controlling them with glyphosate did not appear until the past few years. Fulton County growers were the first to observe control problems with Palmer amaranth. A recent survey found that glyphostate-resistant Palmer amaranth is now in all four Kentucky counties that border the Mississippi River. Native to the Southwest, Palmer amaranth has spread across the Southeast. In states to the south, it's a major problem in cotton as well as in soybeans. "Kentucky is different from the states to our south, in that most of our grain crop acreage is rotated; so our growers have used multiple weed management practices on the fields. It's kept us from having a lot of weed problems," said Michael Barrett, UK weed scientist. The ground in Fulton County with the greatest concentration of Palmer amaranth is in the Mississippi River bottom lands. It is not conducive to traditional Kentucky crop rotation, because annual floods from the river cover the ground well into the spring. Only soybeans have been successfully raised on this ground, said Cam Kenimer, Fulton County extension agent for agriculture and natural resources. Palmer amaranth can grow 6- to 7-feet tall, and each plant produces thousands of seeds. The weed takes moisture away from the crop, which can reduce yields, Kenimer said. Barrett began a weed management trial for Palmer amaranth at Jim Major's farm along the Mississippi River bottoms in Fulton County this year.


"We've had Palmer amaranth on a limited basis for the last three or four years, but last year, it mushroomed out of proportion," Major said. "It's spreading out more to upland ground." To minimize the spread of Palmer amaranth, growers need to control the weed before it goes to seed. "We are still gathering information, but we should have specific recommendations shortly," Barrett said. "It appears it's going to be a combination of a soil-applied herbicide and a post-emergence herbicide. These two things should reduce the likelihood that the plant develops resistance to one of the treatments. We are considering adding information on both Palmer amaranth and waterhemp into the 2011 edition of AGR-6, Weed Control Recommendations for Kentucky Grain Crops." Waterhemp is a common weed in the Midwest and has been in Kentucky for many years. But glyphosateresistant plants only started showing up in the past few years. Glyphosate-resistant waterhemp is found in Western Kentucky from Hancock County to Fulton County but is most prolific along the Green and Ohio rivers. Like Palmer amaranth, glyphosate-resistant varieties may have entered the state on field equipment. In Illinois, weed specialists have found some waterhemp plants that are resistant to several different herbicide classes. Waterhemp can be anywhere from 4- to 12-feet tall and produces thousands of seeds. "It's a weed that can get out of hand really quickly because of the number of seeds it produces," said William Witt, UK weed scientist. Witt and graduate student, Blake Patton, have confirmed the weed is glyphosate resistant in several counties and are working to determine if it is resistant to any other herbicides at a trial in Union County. "Most of the worst cases of glyphosate resistance are in fields along the Ohio River, but glyphosate-resistant weeds are also found further back from the river," said Rankin Powell, Union County extension agent for agriculture and natural resources. Witt believes growers will be able to control both Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, but it will require a different weed-management plan. "We controlled weeds before we had products containing glyphosate, and we will control them again," he said. While control trials for this weed are just beginning, growers can do a couple of things to minimize the spread of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp including removing the weeds while small to prevent seed production and rotate the field with corn. There is an effective herbicide against glyphosate-resistant waterhemp, but it's only available for use in corn. Producers, who believe they have either weed on their property, should contact their county agriculture and natural resources extension agent, so the weed can be identified. URL: http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/cm/news/2010/GlyphosateResistance/ Author Address: University of Kentucky Press Release. www.ca.uky.edu USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Barros E, Nelson SW Year: 2010 Title: * Creation of a High-Yielding Recombinant Maize Hybrid for the Production of a Microbicide to Prevent Hiv-1 Transmission. Journal: South African Journal of Science 106, 5-6, 77-81. Accession Number: WOS:000281421400014 Label: Biopharming Abstract: The aim of this study was to use conventional breeding to increase the production in maize of the human monoclonal antibody 2G12, known to have potential therapeutic properties in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. The recombinant antibody, together with a fluorescent marker, was introduced into two South African high-performing maize elite inbred lines by crossing them with a transgenic maize line that had been transformed with the monoclonal antibody 2G12. The effect of breeding to produce high-expressing recombinant hybrid seed was evaluated by comparing 2G12 production in the different breeding lines with the original maize line. 'Good production practice standards' were followed throughout the breeding programme. 'Conventional drug regulations' adapted to plant-made pharmaceuticals were also followed, with the seeds being stored in a 'master seed bank'. The maize hybrid expressed a higher level of the antibody than the recombinant maize elite lines. This plant-derived antibody provides a means of producing a microbicide component that could be used with other HIV-neutralising antibodies as an additional approach to prevent HIV infection. URL: <Go to ISI>://000281421400014


Author Address: 1CSIR Biosciences, Pretoria, South Africa 2Nelson Genetics CC, Bryanston, South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Barros Eugenia Year: 2010 Title: 造 Systems Biology Approach to the Evaluation of GM Plants . A Case Study. Journal: Published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - P O Box 72135 - Lynnwood Ridge 0040 Pretoria, South Africa - ISBN: 978-0-9814159-7-0 July 2010. Label: Composition EvaluationRisque Expression ImpactExpression Abstract: A common element in the assessment of food safety of transgenic crops is centred on a comparative analytical evaluation with the conventionally bred crop plant assuming that these products have a history of safe use. This complies with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) principle of substantial equivalence. Non-targeted analytical approaches of gene, transcript, protein and metabolite levels are, however, the methods of choice to investigate the physiology of genetically modified (GM) plants as comprehensively as possible, thus increasing the chances of detecting unintended effects. In South Africa, the use of non-targeted analytical approaches to validate the concept of substantial equivalence in GMO plants is being investigated. While the results of the first study have been submitted for a scientific publication, this report summarises some of the outcomes of a specific data set. This case study evaluated the effect of genetic modification and environmental variation of one Bt maize cultivar grown in one location over three years (seasons) with its nonGM maize counterpart. Four non-targeted methods were used. The study showed that the variation observed in the two maize lines was mainly due to environmental factors. Full text : 1 Introduction In the early stages of production and commercialisation of foods derived from GM plants, international consensus was reached regarding the principles of food-safety evaluation. The concept of substantial equivalence became the starting point of the safety evaluation framework based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis to compare the properties of GM foods with the appropriate counterpart (Kuiper et al., 2001). However, the controversy regarding GM plants and their potential impact on human health and the environment have led to the development of additional methods for risk assessment. Risk assessment focuses on potential adverse effects which could result from unintended effects of genetic modifications. Unintended effects can also occur in conventional breeding. The best way to detect unintended effects is through nontargeted analysis by using profiling techniques. These techniques allow screening of potential changes in the physiology of the modified host plant at different cellular integration levels that include the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation and at the metabolic pathway level (Rischer & OksmanCaldentey, 2006). Other factors, such as genetic characteristics (cultivar, isogenic lines), agronomic factors (soil, fertilisers) and environmental influences (location, weather, stress), also need to be considered during GM versus non-GM evaluations because they could contribute to some alteration that is not necessarily due to the genetic modification. There is therefore a need to use some of these profiling techniques to evaluate a GM plant versus a non-GM plant under different conditions to be able to determine their application in future risk assessment evaluations as more complex genetic traits are introduced into plants. 2 Targeted versus non-targeted approach to detect unintended effects The evaluation of GM plants using targeted analysis looks at the compositional variation in the GM plant compared to the non-GM counterpart using a selection of analytes of interest. These key compounds have been determined by international standards to form the basis of substantial equivalence. The substantial equivalence approach was adopted by regulatory bodies to ensure that GM plants and foods are as safe and nutritious as their conventional counterparts (Kuiper and Kleter, 2003). The analytes or key compounds that are included in the baseline analysis of targeted studies include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and other nutritional/anti-nutritional compounds that may affect the nutritional value and safety of the crop (Kuiper et al., 2001). The selection of compounds may be limited to a restricted number representing essential biochemical/physiological pathways in the plant. The targeted approach has many limitations with respect to unknown antinutrients and natural toxins. Furthermore, any unforeseen, unintended effects of the genetic modification may escape detection using the targeted approach. Thus analyses using non-targeted profiling technologies have been developed that allow the screening of potential changes in the physiology of the plant at


different cellular integration levels that include gene expression, protein translation and at the metabolic pathway level. These system biology technologies are also known as ―omics‖ technologies, which refer to the comprehensive analysis of biological systems. In this case study four profiling technologies were used to evaluate one GM maize (Bt) and its non-GM counterpart. The effect of genetic modification and the environmental variation were included in the study by growing the two maize cultivars in one location over three growing seasons. 3 Data analysis Profiling techniques generate a large amount of data even when a limited number of samples are used. To obtain a meaningful analysis of the profiles from the GM maize and its non-GM counterpart, the first stage of data analysis took into account all the compounds at once to give an overall view of the data. The multivariate analysis used in this study to identify the main sources of variation in the data set was the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This technique reduces multidimensional data sets to smaller numbers of new variables called components that still retain most of the variation in the data. Once the major sources of variation are identified the next step is to examine each component individually using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), taking into account all the relevant features of the experimental design (Davies, 2009). Compounds are then listed in order of significant level. 3.1 Transcriptomics The microarray technology is the most common approach for gene expression profiling. cDNA microarrays have been used to investigate changes in gene expression during maize kernel development. One drawback of cDNA microarrays is the false discovery rate that results from cross-hybridisation among family members of the plant being studied. By contrast, oligo arrays can achieve hybridisation patterns of transcript levels relatively accurately and there are a few that are commercially available. The microarray used in this study was obtained from the Maize Oligonucleotide Array Project (US). In total 3 541 spots were included in the data analysis and PCA results showed a separation of the samples according to season and genotype. When the drivers of variation were investigated using ANOVA, the largest variation was due to year, whereas a much lower variation was due to genotype. This suggests that the variation found between GM and non-GM maize at the gene expression level was not significant. 3.2 Proteomics The main approach currently used in protein profiling studies is two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. This technology allows the comparative analyses of protein patterns, changes in protein concentrations or posttranslational modifications triggered by environmental factors or genetic modification. There are, at present, two major shortcomings with this technology: the first is that only highly expressed proteins can be detected in a complex protein mixture and the second is that there is not sufficient protein sequence data for identification purposes. The protein profiles generated by 2-D electrophoresis of the two maize cultivars showed that 714 proteins were included in data analysis, and PCA results showed that the samples could be separated according to season and genotype. The ANOVA tests showed that the effect of year was stronger than the effect of genotype. There was a very slight separation between genotypes which suggests that no significant variation was observed between GM and non-GM maize at the protein level. 3.3 Metabolomics The analysis of plant metabolites is generally complicated due to their highly complex nature and vast chemical diversity. There is a range of technologies that can be used to identify individual compounds that could represent alterations in the content of cellular compounds such as sugars, fats, acids and other metabolites. These include Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Fourier-transform (near) infrared spectroscopy. Both 1HNMR and GC-MS were the metabolite profiling techniques used in this case study. 1H-NMR fingerprinting plays a central role in dissecting the relationship between sequence and biological function. Although there is incomplete coverage of the plant metabolome, 1H-NMR was sensitive enough to produce metabolic profiles of the two maize cultivars (15 500 complex data points were examined). Thirty-six compounds were identified for data analysis and the results showed a separation among the three seasons but no visible separation between the genotypes (GM and non-GM). GC-MS metabolite profiling provides valuable information on the structural identity of compounds, but limitations of this technology include its restriction to low molecular weight constituents and the range of detectable analytes that is dependent on the choice of solvents used in metabolite extraction. Using GC-MS, 120 compounds were included in the data analysis and a separation was observed for seasons and for genotypes. The effect of season was greater than that of genotype. 4 CONCLUSION


The application of systems biology as a multidisciplinary approach to validate the concept of substantial equivalence as part of the safety assessment of GM plants can provide relevant information regarding changes in gene expression and associated protein and metabolite derivatives as a result of genetic modification. The non-selective comparison of GM maize with its non-GM counterpart offers unlimited possibilities for the identification of unintended effects. In this ―case study‖ non-targeted molecular profiling technologies were used to provide insight into the extent of variation in the maize transcriptome, proteome and metabolome by analysing two maize genotypes grown in the same location in three different years. The results showed that the variation observed was mainly caused by growing season and the associated environmental factors and was not due to genotype. Although the environment was the dominant source of variation, no common drivers of variation could be identified in this dataset. The differences that were observed between the Bt maize and the non-GM counterpart using the four technologies were not statistically significant. Since only two maize lines were used the possibility of identifying differences due to natural variation was not part of the scope of this study. This study also highlighted the possibilities, as well as the challenges, of profiling analysis for food-safety evaluation. A big challenge of the ―omics‖ technologies is the vast amount of data that they generate, making it extremely complex to evaluate individual GM lines and making a meaningful interpretation difficult. Other challenges include the many gaps related to the number of genes for which a function has been identified and the limited coverage of the proteome and metabolome. These technologies still need to be validated before they can be used for routine safety assessment. They are not intended to replace existing analyses but to confirm and supplement current targeted analytical approaches. References Davies, H. 2009. A role for ―omics‖ technologies in food-safety assessment. ScienceDirect. Available at: doi:10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.03.002. Kuiper, H.A., Kleter, G.A., Noteborn, P.J.M. & Kok, E.J. 2001. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods. The Plant Journal, 27: 503-528. Kuiper, H.A. & Kleter, G.A. 2003. The scientific basis for risk assessment and regulation of genetically modified foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 14:.277-293. Rischer, H. & Oksman-Caldentey, K.M. 2006. Unintended effects in genetically modified crops: revealed by metabolomics? Trends in Biotechnology, 24: 102-104. URL: http://www.assaf.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/PDF/ASSAf%20GMO%20African%20Agriculture%202010%20Web.pdf Author Address: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biosciences, Meiring Naudé Road, Brummeria, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bart RS, Chern M, Vega-Sánchez ME, Canlas P, Ronald PC, Year: 2010 Title: * Rice Snl6, a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase-Like Gene Family Member, Is Required for NH1-Mediated Immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Journal: PLoS Genet 6(9): e1001123. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001123 Label: BaRe Abstract: Rice NH1 (NPR1 homolog 1) is a key mediator of innate immunity. In both plants and animals, the innate immune response is often accompanied by rapid cell death at the site of pathogen infection. Over-expression of NH1 in rice results in resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), constitutive expression of defense related genes and enhanced benzothiadiazole (BTH)- mediated cell death. Here we describe a forward genetic screen that identified a suppressor of NH1-mediated lesion formation and resistance, snl6. Comparative genome hybridization and fine mapping rapidly identified the genomic location of the Snl6 gene. Snl6 is a member of the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR)-like gene family. We show that Snl6 is required for NH1-mediated resistance to Xoo. Further, we show that Snl6 is required for pathogenesis-related gene expression. In contrast to previously described CCR family members, disruption of Snl6 does not result in an obvious morphologic phenotype. Snl6 mutants have reduced lignin content and increased sugar extractability, an important trait for the production of cellulosic biofuels. These results suggest the existence of


a conserved group of CCR-like genes involved in the defense response, and with the potential to alter lignin content without affecting development. Author Summary Plants possess potent and effective endogenous methods for responding to pathogen attacks, referred to as plant innate immunity. In this report we further our understanding of rice innate immunity through characterization of the Snl6 gene. The snl6 mutant was identified from a mutant screen for positive regulators of immunity. While innate immunity represents a powerful agronomic tool, identification of desirable genes from crop species is limited by the slow and laborious nature of map-based cloning. Here we describe our methodology of combining comparative genome hybridization and fine mapping to rapidly identify the Snl6 gene. Snl6 is distantly related to members of the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase gene family, is required for pathogenesis gene expression and resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Snl6 mutants have reduced lignin content and increased sugar extractability, an important trait for the production of cellulosic biofuels. URL: http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1001123 Author Address: 1 Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America, 2 Joint Bioenergy Institute, Emeryville, California, United States of America USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Baschet Jean-François, Pingault Nathanaël Year: 2009 Title: £ La réduction des usages de pesticides : le plan Ecophyto 2018 : Le rôle des indicateurs d‘utilisation pour évaluer l‘atteinte des objectifs. Journal: Ministère de l‘Agriculture et de la Pêche - Secrétariat Général - Service de la statistique et de la prospective - Sous-direction de la prospective et de l‘évaluation - Analyse N° 4 Février 2009 Label: ImpactPesticide Abstract: La réduction des usages de pesticides est un dossier complexe à plus d‘un titre. Du fait d‘abord du nombre important de substances actives et de produits commerciaux qui peuvent s‘utiliser à des doses très différentes, de quelques grammes à plusieurs dizaines de kilos par hectare. Le nombre d‘acteurs concernés est également très élevé, qui par leurs décisions influent directement ou indirectement sur ces usages : exploitants agricoles, transformateurs et distributeurs, consommateurs, etc. Enfin, il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de la connaissance des différents impacts et même de l‘importance des usages. La question de la mesure, c‘est-àdire des indicateurs de suivi, est donc essentielle ; elle est au coeur de ce plan présenté en septembre 2008. URL: http://agriculture.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Analyse_4_Ecophyto_indicateurs-2.pdf Author Address: France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Batista Rita, Oliveira Margarida Year: 2010 Title: * Plant natural variability may affect safety assessment data. Journal: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - In Press, Uncorrected Proof - August 27/10. Label: EvaluationRisque Composition Keywords: Genetically modified food Food safety evaluation Plant natural variability "omics" technologies Proteomics 2-D gel electrophoresis Maize Environmental effects Abstract: Before market introduction, GE food products, like any other novel food product, are subjected to extensive assessment of their potential effects on human health. In recent years, a number of profiling technologies have been explored aiming to increase the probability of detecting any unpredictable unintended effect and, consequently improving the efficiency of GE food safety assessment. These techniques still present limitations associated with the interpretation of the observed differences with respect to their biological relevance and toxicological significance. In order to address this issue, in this study, we have performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of five different ears of five different MON810 maize plants and of other five of the nontransgenic near-isogenic line. We have also performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of the pool of the 5 protein extractions of MON810 and control lines. We have notice that, in this example, the exclusive use of data from 2D-electrophoresed pooled samples, to compare these two lines, would be insufficient for an adequate safety evaluation. We conclude that, when using "omics" technologies, it is extremely important to eliminate all


potential differences due to factors not related to the ones under study, and to understand the role of natural plant-to-plant variability in the encountered differences. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WPT-50X2NM91/2/aa2409681582a19be3778c9cd477e5b2 Author Address: a National Institute of Health, Av. Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa, Portugal b Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica/Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica, Quinta do Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras, Portugal XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Baud Sébastien, Ana Belen Feria Bourrellier, Marianne Azzopardi, Adeline Berger, Julie Dechorgnat, Françoise Daniel-Vedele, Loïc Lepiniec, Martine Miquel, Christine Rochat, Michael Hodges, Sylvie FerrarioMéry, Year: 2010 Title: * PII is induced by WRINKLED1 and fine tunes fatty acid composition in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal: The Plant Journal - Accepted manuscript online: 12 AUG 2010. Pages: no Label: Physiol Composition Keywords: PII WRINKLED1 seed fatty acid composition Arabidopsis oil metabolism Abstract: The PII protein is an integrator of central metabolism and energy levels. In Arabidopsis, allosteric sensing of cellular energy and carbon levels alters the ability of PII to interact with target enzymes such as Nacetyl-L-glutamate kinase and heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, thereby modulating the biological activity of these plastidial ATP- and carbon-consuming enzymes. A quantitative reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction approach revealed a three-fold induction of the AtGLB1 gene (At4g01900) encoding PII during early seed maturation. The activity of the AtGLB1 promoter was consistent with this pattern. A complementary set of molecular and genetic analyses showed that WRINKLED1, a transcription factor known to induce glycolytic and fatty acid biosynthetic genes at the onset of seed maturation, directly controls AtGLB1 expression. Immunoblot analyses and immunolocalization experiments using anti-PII antibodies established that PII protein levels faithfully reflected AtGLB1 mRNA accumulation. At the subcellular level, PII was observed in plastids of maturing embryos. To further investigate the function of PII in seeds, comprehensive functional analyzes of two pII mutant alleles were carried out. A transient increase in fatty acid production was observed in mutant seeds at a time when PII protein content was found to be maximal in wild-type seeds. Moreover, minor though statistically significant modifications of the fatty acid composition were measured in pII seeds, which exhibited decreased amounts of modified (elongated, desaturated) fatty acid species. The results obtained outline a role for PII in the fine tuning of fatty acid biosynthesis and partitioning in seeds. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04332.x Author Address: 1Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, UMR 1318 INRA-AgroParisTech, INRA Centre de VersaillesGrignon, Route de Saint-Cyr (RD10), 78026 Versailles Cedex, France. 2Institut de Biologie des Plantes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8618, Université Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bayat F, B Shiran, DV Belyaev, NO Yur'eva, GI Sobol'kova, H Alizadeh, M Khodambashi, AV Babakov, Year: 2010 Title: * Potato plants bearing a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter HvNHX2 from barley are characterized by improved salt tolerance. Journal: Russian Journal of Plant Physiology Volume 57, Number 5, 696-706. Original Russian Text © F. Bayat, B. Shiran, D.V. Belyaev, N.O. Yur‘eva, G.I. Sobol‘kova, H. Alizadeh, M. Khodambashi, A.V. Babakov, 2010, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2010, Vol. 57, No.5, pp. 744–755. Label: ReEn Salin Keywords: Solanum tuberosum - vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter - salt tolerance - genetic engineering Abstract: Two cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were transformed with a barley antiporter gene HvNHX2 driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. The expressed transgene conferred a higher NaCl tolerance to one of the cultivars. Under salt stress, the more salt-tolerant transgenic plants had longer roots, higher dry


weight, and suppressed cell expansion as compared to wild-type plants. The salt tolerance of the plants grown in vitro was not accompanied by elevated total sodium in any plant organs tested. Instead, higher potassium was found in roots of transgenic plants. Possible mechanisms of plant salt tolerance are discussed. Notes: 24 Ref. Author Address: Russia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bellocchi G, Giacomo M de, Foti N, Mazzara M, Palmaccio E, Savini C, Domenicantonio C di, Onori R, Eede G van den, Year: 2010 Title: * Testing the interaction between analytical modules: an example with Roundup Ready soybean line GTS 40-3-2. Journal: BMC Biotechnology 10, 55 Pages: (5 August 2010) Accession Number: CABI:20103261641 Label: Detection HeTo Abstract: Background The modular approach to analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) relies on the independence of the modules combined (i.e. DNA extraction and GM quantification). The validity of this assumption has to be proved on the basis of specific performance criteria. Results An experiment was conducted using, as a reference, the validated quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) module for detection of glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready速 GM soybean (RRS). Different DNA extraction modules (CTAB, Wizard and Dellaporta), were used to extract DNA from different food/feed matrices (feed, biscuit and certified reference material [CRM 1%]) containing the target of the real-time PCR module used for validation. Purity and structural integrity (absence of inhibition) were used as basic criteria that a DNA extraction module must satisfy in order to provide suitable template DNA for quantitative real-time (RT) PCR-based GMO analysis. When performance criteria were applied (removal of non-compliant DNA extracts), the independence of GMO quantification from the extraction method and matrix was statistically proved, except in the case of Wizard applied to biscuit. A fuzzy logic-based procedure also confirmed the relatively poor performance of the Wizard/biscuit combination. Conclusions For RRS, this study recognises that modularity can be generally accepted, with the limitation of avoiding combining highly processed material (i.e. biscuit) with a magnetic-beads system (i.e. Wizard). URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6750/10/55/abstract Author Address: 1 European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Molecular Biology and Genomics Unit, via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy 2 Italian National Institute of Health, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, GMO and Mycotoxins Unit, viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Benekos Kostantinos, Kissoudis Christos, Nianiou-Obeidat Irini, Labrou Nikolaos, Madesis Panagiotis, Kalamaki Mary, Makris Antonis, Tsaftaris Athanasios, Year: 2010 Title: * Overexpression of a specific soybean GmGSTU4 isoenzyme improves diphenyl ether and chloroacetanilide herbicide tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants. Journal: Journal of Biotechnology 150, 1, 195-201. Label: HeTo Bioengineering Keywords: Tobacco GST Herbicide detoxification Diphenyl ether Chloroacetanilide Abstract: Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) superfamily consists of multifunctional enzymes and forms a major part of the plants herbicide detoxification enzyme network. The tau class GST isoenzyme GmGSTU4 from soybean, exhibits catalytic activity towards the diphenyl ether herbicide fluorodifen and is active as glutathione-dependent peroxidase (GPOX). Transgenic tobacco plants of Basmas cultivar were generated via Agrobacterium transformation. The aim was to evaluate in planta, GmGSTU4's role in detoxifying the diphenyl


ether herbicides fluorodifen and oxyfluorfen and the chloroacetanilides alachlor and metolachlor. Transgenic tobacco plants were verified by PCR and Southern blot hybridization and expression of GmGSTU4 was determined by RT-PCR. Leaf extracts from transgenic plants showed moderate increase in GST activity towards CDNB and a significant increase towards fluorodifen and alachlor, and at the same time an increased GPOX activity towards cumene hydroperoxide. GmGSTU4 overexpressing plants when treated with 200 [mu]M fluorodifen or oxyfluorfen exhibited reduced relative electrolyte leakage compared to wild type plants. Moreover all GmGSTU4 overexpressing lines exhibited significantly increased tolerance towards alachlor when grown in vitro at 7.5 mg/L alachlor compared to wild type plants. No significant increased tolerance was observed to metolachlor. These results confirm the contribution of this particular GmGSTU4 isoenzyme from soybean in the detoxification of fluorodifen and alachlor, and provide the basis towards the development of transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capabilities for future use in environmental cleanup of herbicides. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6T3C-50J9GPX5/2/93fa4a9c4c036593444c7fe6492b544f Author Address: a Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 261, Thessaloniki GR-54124, Greece bInstitute of Agrobiotechnology, CERTH, 6th km Charilaou-Thermis Road, P.O. Box 361, Thermi GR-57001, Thessaloniki, Greece c Laboratory of Enzyme Technology, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos Street, GR-11855 Athens, Greece XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bereœ Pawe K Year: 2010 Title: * Reduction of damage caused by Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn. in south-eastern Poland in 2007 through the cultivation of transgenic maize varieties. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 17-21. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: InRe Efficacite Abstract: The objective of the study carried out in 2007 was to evaluate the susceptibility of selected varieties of Bt-transgenic maize (DKC3421YG and Bacilla; transformation event MON 810) and their conventional types without the Cry1Ab protein (DKC3420 and Clarica) to damage caused by the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) under the conditions of south-eastern Poland. The study confirmed the high resistance of the Bt maize varieties to damage caused by the caterpillars of this moth. The use of Bt varieties allowed the average reduction of damaged plants in location A (Podkarpackie voivodeship) by 95.2% and damaged cobs by 98.1%. In location B (Lubelskie voivodeship) the number of transgenic plants damaged by caterpillars was reduced by 99.4% and that of cobs by 98.9%. In addition, the level of plant damage was lower: for Bt plants, i.e. the plants hosted significantly lower numbers of caterpillars, and a lower number of holes gnawed by them was observed in comparison to the corresponding nontransformed control maize varieties. Author Address: Poland XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bergé Jean Baptiste, Agnès Evelyne Ricroch Year: 2010 Title: * Emergence of minor pests becoming major pests in GE cotton in China: What are the reasons? What are the alternatives practices to this change of status? Journal: GM Crops Volume 1, Issue 4 July/August 2010. Label: InRe RavageurSecond Review Abstract: A recent study in China by Lu et al. 1 shows that populations of an occasional cotton pest, mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae), increased following the introduction of genetically engineered (GE) cotton plants. The GE cotton produces a delta-endotoxin from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control the cotton bollworm. Before the introduction of Bt cotton in China, mirid bugs were usually controlled by broad-spectrum


pesticide sprays targeted against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the most important pest of cotton in China. The effectiveness of the control of H. armigera by Bt cotton cultivation has resulted in a decrease in the amount of insecticides used on Bt cotton compared to conventional cotton. This has led to a lack of control of mirids on Bt cotton due to the reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use and consequently to a transformation of a minor pest to a main one. We discuss the scientific evidence available in the literature of this phenomenon. We examine the reasons of the emergence of minor pests to become major pests in Bt cotton in China and possible solutions to this change of status. URL: http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/gmcrops/article/13421/ Author Address: Laboratory Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution University Paris-Sud / CNRS / AgroParisTech (UMR 8079) 91405 Orsay cedex – France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bertalan Kruppa Year: 2010 Title: ?? The impact of the EU GMO policy on the competitiveness of the livestock industry. Journal: Studies in Agricultural Economics>Issue 112, July 2010, 97-108 Label: Socioeconomic Keywords: EU GMO policy zero tolerance threshold asynchronous authorisation soybean imports Abstract: The stringent GMO policy of the EU adversely affects the competitiveness of the member states‘ livestock industries, in particular the poultry and pig sectors. This arises from the fact that the EU animal industry is highly dependent on the import of feedstuffs sourced from pro-GMO countries. The import is expected to face increasing diffi culties especially due to two elements of the EU GMO policy: the prolonged approval process of new GM varieties and the zero tolerance threshold towards GMOs that have not yet received authorization. To overcome this problem the study recommends actions including the speeding up of the authorisation process and the introduction of a tolerance level for unapproved GMOs. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93125 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/93125/2/Studies_112_7.pdf Author Address: Szent István University, Gödöllõ, Hungary; XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bi Dongling, Cheng Yu Ti, Li Xin, Zhang Yuelin, Year: 2010 Title: * Activation of Plant Immune Responses by a Gain-of-Function Mutation in an Atypical Receptor-Like Kinase. Journal: Plant Physiol. 153, 4, 1771-1779. Date: August 1, 2010 Label: DisRe Physiol Abstract: Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive1 (snc1) contains a gain-offunction mutation in a Toll/interleukin receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat Resistance (R) protein and it has been a useful tool for dissecting R-protein-mediated immunity. Here we report the identification and characterization of snc4-1D, a semidominant mutant with snc1-like phenotypes. snc4-1D constitutively expresses defense marker genes PR1, PR2, and PDF1.2, and displays enhanced pathogen resistance. Map-based cloning of SNC4 revealed that it encodes an atypical receptor-like kinase with two predicted extracellular glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase domains. The snc4-1D mutation changes an alanine to threonine in the predicted cytoplasmic kinase domain. Wild-type plants transformed with the mutant snc4-1D gene displayed similar phenotypes as snc4-1D, suggesting that the mutation is a gain-offunction mutation. Epistasis analysis showed that NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 is required for the snc4-1D mutant phenotypes. In addition, the snc4-1D mutant phenotypes are partially suppressed by knocking out MAP KINASE SUBSTRATE1, a positive defense regulator associated with MAP KINASE4. Furthermore, both the morphology and constitutive pathogen resistance of snc4-1D are partially suppressed by blocking jasmonic acid synthesis, suggesting that jasmonic acid plays an important role in snc41D-mediated resistance. Identification of snc4-1D provides us a unique genetic system for analyzing the signal transduction pathways downstream of receptor-like kinases. URL: http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/abstract/153/4/1771


Author Address: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, People's Republic of China National Institute of Biological Sciences, Zhongguancun Life Science Park, Beijing 102206, People's Republic of China Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bindu Simon, Sengupta-Gopalan Champa Year: 2010 Title: * The 3' untranslated region of the two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) regulates transcript stability in response to glutamine. Secondary Title: Planta 232, 5, 1151-1162. Publisher: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Label: Physiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Glutamine synthetase - Medicago sativa - Alfalfa - 3' Untranslated region - Post-transcriptional regulation - Nitrogen assimilation - Glutamine Abstract: Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to produce glutamine. The GS enzyme is located either in the chloroplast (GS2) or in the cytoplasm (GS1). GS1 is encoded by a small gene family and the members exhibit differential expression pattern mostly attributed to transcriptional regulation. Based on our recent finding that a soybean GS1 gene, Gmglnß 1 is subject to its 3'UTR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation as a transgene in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) we have raised the question of whether the 3'UTR-mediated transcript destabilization is a more universal phenomenon. Gene constructs consisting of the CaMV35S promoter driving the reporter gene, GUS, followed by the 3'UTRs of the two alfalfa GS1 genes, MsGSa and MsGSb, were introduced into alfalfa and tobacco. The analysis of these transformants suggests that while both the 3'UTRs promote transcript turnover, the MsGSb 3'UTR is more effective than the MsGSa 3'UTR. However, both the 3'UTRs along with Gmglnß 1 3'UTR respond to nitrate as a trigger in transcript turnover. More detailed analysis points to glutamine rather than nitrate as the mediator of transcript turnover. Our data suggests that the 3'UTR-mediated regulation of GS1 genes at the level of transcript turnover is probably universal and is used for fine-tuning the expression in keeping with the availability of the substrates. Notes: 57 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1247-1 Author Address: (1) Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA (2) Graduate Program in Molecular Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA (3) Present address: Department of Horticulture and NESPAL, The University of Georgia, Tifton Campus, Tifton, GA 31793-0748, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Biradar Kaveri S, HL Nadaf, Kenganal Mallikarjun, Year: 2010 Title: * Discrimination of transgenic cotton seed using visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Journal: Indian Journal of Plant Physiology Year : 2010, Volume : 15, Issue : 3 Label: InRe Detection Keywords: Chemometrics, Cotton seeds, Regression models, Spectral pre-treatments, Transgenic, Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Abstract: Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques, was used to distinguish transgenic cotton seed from non-transgenics. Two hundred fifty cotton seeds of RCH-2 genotype containing Cry 1Ac gene conferring resistance to lepidopteron pests and the same number of their parent non-transgenic seeds were scanned in the Vis/NIR wavelength spectrum of 400–2500 nm. Modified partial least square (mPLS), partial least square (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) models were applied for calibration and classification of samples into two groups. The results showed that differences exist between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton seeds and excellent classification can be


obtained after optimizing spectral pretreatment. The spectral difference between the two groups are observed at a wavelength range of 1100–1900 nm, which is related to first and second overtone of C-H stretching vibrations and sixth overtone of C=C stretching vibrations. Standard normal variate (SNV) and detrend scatter correction with second derivative data pretreatment using mPLS model could achieve 100% accurate classification for both transgenic and non-transgenic samples. Reliable equations were developed with r = 0.96 and r = 0.92 for calibration and validation set respectively with low standard error of performance (SEP) (0.13) using mPLS model. Author Address: National Seed Project, Seed Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka. India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bonny Sylvie Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Issues, impacts, and prospects of the first transgenic crops tolerant to a herbicide. The case of glyphosate-tolerant soybean in the USA. Journal: International Association of Agricultural Economists>2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China Label: HeTo Adoption ImpactPesticide ImpactEnvironnement Dispersion Rendement Socioeconomic Efficacite Keywords: Genetically modified crop GMO Biotechnology Agro-economic impact Environmental impact Sustainability Soybean Pesticide Weed Prospects Herbicide Glyphosate Abstract: Until today, herbicide-tolerant (HT) transgenic crops have been the most widely used type of transgenic crops. In 2008, worldwide, 63% of all agricultural land devoted to transgenic crops involved HT transgenic ones, and the percentage was higher (85%) when the herbicide-tolerant trait was stacked with another. In addition, other HT crops are foreseen within the next five years if we are to believe the "pipeline" of the companies involved along with field trials. However, herbicide-tolerant crops have been criticized, particularly in Europe, because of the type of trait introduced: herbicide tolerance. Indeed, this trait leads the crops to depend on a herbicide (generally glyphosate) instead of freeing them from some pesticides through a better use of their biological capacities and a valorisation of life processes as biotechnology was expected to do. Therefore, how can we explain the widespread use of HT transgenic crops and what are their fallouts? At first the paper presents the extent of surface areas dedicated to these crops and the factors that have led to the development of these herbicide-tolerant crops. Then, the case of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans in the USA is studied in more detail. Its agro-environmental impacts, particularly with regard to trends in the use of herbicides, are analyzed. Thirdly, we address the factors of adoption, economic performance, benefits, and drawbacks of this soybean as well as its prospects. Finally, the conclusion questions the contribution of HT soybean to more sustainable agriculture. Notes: IAAE 2009 International Conference URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51449 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/51449/2/IAAE%202009CP185_BONNY_First%20transgenic%20crops%20tolerant%20to%20a%20herbicide_23%20juin%202009.pdf Author Address: INRA, UMR Economie publique INRA-AgroParisTech, Campus de Grignon, BP 01, 78850 Grignon – France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Borem A, Gomes WS Year: 2009 Title: ?? Biosafety and society Journal: Informe Agropecuario 30, 253. Accession Number: CABI:20103085534 Label: EvaluationRisque Keywords: biosafety; biotechnology; environmental legislation; environmental protection; genetically engineered organisms; legislation; public health genetically modified organisms; GEOs Abstract: Biosafety constitutes all studies and procedures designed to prevent or control hazards caused by the use of chemical, physical and biological agents to biodiversity. The specific study of the impacts of


biotechnology on human and animal health and the environment is governed in various countries by laws, procedures or specific policies. In Brazil, the National Technical Commission on Biosafety (CTNBio) is a collegiate multidisciplinary authority created by Law no. 11.105 of 24 March 2005, which aims to provide support and technical consultancy and advisory services to the Brazilian federal government on (i) the formulation, updating and implementation of the national policy on biosafety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and (ii) the establishment of technical safety standards and the provision of technical advice regarding the protection of human health, living organisms and the environment, in relation to activities involving all aspects of GMOs and their products (development, experimentation, cultivation, manipulation, transport, marketing, consumption, storage, release, disposal). Biosafety legislation in Brazil comprises only the technology of genetic engineering, and that of recombinant DNA technology, and the establishment of requirements for the handling of GMOs. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 10 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103085534 Author Address: UFV, CEP 36570-000 Vicosa, MG, Brazil. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bosch D, Schots A Year: 2010 Title: * Plant glycans: friend or foe in vaccine development? Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines 9, 8, 835-842. Date: Aug Accession Number: ISI:000281104800007 Label: Biopharming Review Keywords: C-type lectin receptor; glycoengineering; glycosylation; N-glycan; pattern-recognition receptor; plant expression; subunit vaccine; Toll-like receptor; vaccine; reactive carbohydrate determinants; human monoclonal-antibody; dendritic cells; n-glycans; transgenic plants; linked oligosaccharides; glycoprotein allergen; antigen presentation; secretory pathway; in-vitro Abstract: Plants are an attractive platform for the production of N-glycosylated subunit vaccines. Wild-type glycosylation of plants can be exploited to produce vaccines that antigen-presenting cells effectively take up, degrade and present to cells of the adaptive immune system. Alternatively, glycoengineered plants can be used to produce humanized antigens. Glycoengineering also allows the construction of plants that are able to produce vaccines with custom-made N-glycan structures aiding the construction of vaccines that can be delivered to antigen-presenting cells in a target-oriented approach. The knowledge of innate immune receptors and their role in antigen uptake and presentation is rapidly increasing. In this article, aspects of plant glycosylation and immunology are reviewed and we discuss the possibilities to use this knowledge for the rational design of plant-expressed vaccines. Notes: Times Cited: 1 Cited Reference Count: 64 URL: <Go to ISI>://000281104800007 Author Address: Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Dept Plant Sci, Nematol Lab, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands. Univ Utrecht, Dept Chem, NL-3584 CH Utrecht, Netherlands. Bosch, D, Univ Wageningen & Res Ctr, Dept Plant Sci, Nematol Lab, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, NL-6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bothma Gurling Year: 2010 Title: 造 Commercialisation of a GM Potato (A Case Study . Lessons Learned). Journal: Published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - P O Box 72135 - Lynnwood Ridge 0040 Pretoria, South Africa - ISBN: 978-0-9814159-7-0 July 2010. Keywords: Bioengineering Socioeconomic Adoption Abstract: 1 Why we did the project


The potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is a serious insect pest of potatoes in South Africa (Visser et al., 2003; Visser, 2007) and has become an increasingly important pest on tobacco and tomato as well (Van Vuuren et al., 1998; Gilboa & Podoler, 1994). Damage has also been reported on eggplant and other solanaceous crops and weeds (Rahalkar et al., 1985). It is an introduced pest, originating from South America (Visser, 2005), and is therefore not a native component of the South African ecosystem. The larvae attack potato plants and tubers under the soil and in stores, and are responsible for losses of up to R40 million per annum to the South African potato industry (Visser & Schoeman, 2004). Commercial producers rely on insecticide application for PTM, generally applied at weekly intervals. Applications start when the first moths appear and the insecticide is applied eight to twelve times per season. Control is not always satisfactory and damage levels vary between seasons and years, depending largely on the survival of overwintering moths and their re-infestation of newly planted fields (Visser, 2004). No insecticide is registered against the PTM in South Africa under storage conditions. This includes Bt sprays, none of which are registered for use against PTM either on foliage or tubers (Nel et al., 2002). The only control strategy that gives consistently good control against the PTM is the use of genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant potatoes containing the Cry1Ia1 gene (Visser, 2004). Because PTM in South Africa occurs outside of its natural distribution range (Visser, 2005), has demonstrated potential to feed on and therefore threaten other species (potatoes, other solanaceous crops, and other wild solanaceous species), and causes economic harm (Visser & Schoeman, 2004), this pest fits the definition of an invasive species. Therefore attempts to control this pest are consistent not only with good agricultural practice, but also with the objectives of the Biodiversity Act. Another reason for the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of efforts led by the public sector and developing country institutions to make biotechnology products available in Africa. The PTM-resistant potato could be one of the first public sector-developed products to be approved and deployed in a developing country. Largely due to the high cost of developing a transgenic crop, only the large multinational companies have had the financial resources to pursue the commercial development of GM crops. Many laboratories at universities and other research organisations have produced GMOs. However, to put the GMO through all the regulatory hoops and produce a regulatory dossier with all the evidence to demonstrate that the GMO is not harmful is a costly affair. Therefore many of these products will never be commercially released. Proper commercial development of this product will benefit all potato farmers in South Africa. The technology is in the tuber, and the benefit is not scale-dependent. A further aim is to demonstrate the value of developing country involvement in generating safety assessment data, namely the scientific contribution and at a reduced cost. This would result in the building of capacity of public sector institutions in commercialising GM crops. 2 What was done? The following product commercialisation approach was followed. 2.1 Technology and Product Development First field tests had to be conducted under normal agricultural conditions to demonstrate the proof of concept. Multi-location field trials in the major growing regions were conducted over a number of growing seasons to select the ideal clone and for the bulking-up of material. 2.2 Regulatory File Development Food-safety analysis was performed and environmental studies done. Intellectual property ownership of product components had to be assessed and â&#x20AC;&#x2022;freedomto-operateâ&#x20AC;&#x2013; and licensing of the potato had to be done. In the case of this potato some of these licensing issues still have to finalised. 2.3 Marketing and Distribution A delivery strategy had to be developed that would fit into the existing potato industry in South Africa. Discussions were held with seed producers who had historically supplied smallscale farmers (emerging farmers) with seed potatoes. They were quite keen to distribute the GM potatoes. Initially, due to the small amounts of seed, farmer participatory trials with small-scale producers were planned. Extension will have to be done to assist farmers to use the technology safely and according to permit regulations. Standard farming extension will also have to be included in this package. A stewardship and liability strategy was developed. 2.4 Outreach and Communication Public communication of the benefits and impacts of the potato was started. However, due to budget constraints this part of the project was scaled down. It was also decided that it would perhaps be more beneficial if the potatoes were in the pipeline before more substantial communication efforts were undertaken. Creating


expectations of a product that may never be commercialised can also have a negative impact on the consumer. On the whole the retail industry was not opposed to the new potato, but there were fears that organisations would mobilise customers to boycott the product or their stores, thus affecting profits. 2.5 Documentation of Socioeconomic Assessments The Spunta G2 potatoes offer farmers an alternative to the use of pesticides for controlling potato tuber moth in the field and in storage. The Spunta G2 potatoes can be safely stored without any chemical treatment for tuber moth, even under heavy moth infestations. Socioeconomic studies have shown that smallholder farmers lose a considerable amount of their stored potatoes to the potato tuber moth and that chemical treatments are used in attempts to prevent these loses. Furthermore, some of these chemicals are not approved for use on potatoes. A study was undertaken with commercial farmers as well as five smallscale farmer communities. A few commercial farmers were against the technology as they believed it would interfere with their exports. Some welcomed the potato and others did not see that it would be beneficial to them. The small-scale farmers‘ major concerns revolved around more basic issues, such as land availability and other input constraints. 3 Summary of data needed for the regulatory dossier 3.1 Agronomic Performance We had to demonstrate that the GM Spunta G2 potato performed as well as the standard Spunta under various farming conditions. The potato was tested in six potato-growing regions for a number of seasons. Resistance to tuber moth under diffused light store conditions was also examined and found to be excellent. The GM potato performed as well as the standard potato and gave 100% protection against PTM. 3.2 Molecular Data We demonstrated that we had a single copy gene insert in Spunta G2 without any vector backbone or other additional DNA fragments. The inserted gene, as well as about 1 Kb on either side of the inserted gene, was sequenced to demonstrate that the gene itself was intact and that no new reading frames were generated. The levels of expression of the Bt protein were also determined in the leaves and tubers. 3.3 Food and Feed Safety Both the transformed and non-transformed Spunta potatoes were analysed for nutrient composition and it was found that they were identical. Solanine levels in the tubers were also determined to see if there were any increases in levels. Toxicity tests were performed by feeding mice a large single dose of the Bt protein, but no ill effects were seen. A whole food-feeding study with rats was conducted over 90 days and a number of parameters were measured (e.g. growth, organ weight, blood chemistry) and no differences could be determined in the various test groups. 3.4 Environmental Safety A study in three of the trial locations was conducted over a number of years on the arthropod populations that inhabit the potato plots. Arthropods found above the canopy, within the canopy and on the ground were collected and assessed. Tens of thousands of arthropods were collected during the study and no negative impacts were found. The predation on PTM larvae and eggs was also studied, and no negative results were found. Studies were also conducted on the soil microflora to determine whether the Bt protein produced in the plant affects these populations. Once again, no negative impact could be determined. 3.5 Socioeconomic Impact Data Two surveys were conducted to attempt to shed light on the socioeconomic impact of the Bt potato. It is important to note that although this information is requested by the Executive Council, there are no guidelines on what kind of information is needed. We were subsequently informed that even a ―desktop‖ study may have been sufficient. These studies are very expensive and the Executive Council should provide proper guidelines of what they require. The two studies that were conducted were for smallholder and commercial producers were: ―Smallholder potato production activities in South Africa: a socioeconomic and technical assessment of five cases in three provinces‖ and ―Potential economic benefits of a genetically modified (GM) tuber moth resistant-potato variety in South Africa: an exante socioeconomic evaluation for commercial producers‖. Smallholder farmers indicated a range of problems, many of which might be simply and cost-effectively reduced by means of adapting existing technology to local conditions and practices. Engaging in a process of participatory and adaptive research with farmers will enable them to help optimise their potato production within their specific environment. This can be achieved by encouraging farmers, research institutions and community workers (NGOs and PDA) to work together in close collaboration. Adapting current technologies to local conditions tends to be more cost-effective than developing new technologies which, due to their generic nature, are not adapted to local conditions and might not be adopted as a result. Optimising production and storage practices


within a low-input situation could help to address many pest and disease problems experienced by subsistence farmers, as many of the problems faced are management problems, exacerbated by lack of access to sufficient resources. It appears that commercial farmers in general would agree to introduce GM potatoes into their production planning on condition that the new technology significantly increases their profits. The GM potato with PTMresistant genes might not have the expected rapid adoption rate among farmers, since most farmers have PTM infestation under control at a reasonable cost. 3.6 Post-Approval Stewardship Plan An 80-page post-approval stewardship plan was developed that could be implemented if approval were granted. 4 Where are we now? The Regulatory Dossier was compiled and submitted with an application for general release to the office of the Registrar of the GMO Act in 2008. The Executive Council assessed the application and decided not to grant a general release permit in July 2009. The Executive Council cited 11 points for this rejection. The Agricultural Research Council (ARC), with support from their partners, decided to appeal this decision on the grounds that the reasons provided did not warrant a rejection. This process is still in progress at the time of writing, but it is hoped that the appeal process will have been completed by mid-2010. The project has therefore been on hold since 2008. If the appeal is successful, planting material for the farmer participatory trials will only be available at the end of 2011. The project is at a point where it is unable to continue unless we manage to get permission to do ―farmer participatory trials‖. 5 What have we learned? South Africa has the expertise to assess GM products. However, there are still gaps in this expertise. Many of the tests that were to be performed in South Africa, e.g. testing for the solanine content in potato tubers, soil microbiological work, protein production and antibody production, could not be done here. Either it had not been done before and/ or no-one could be found who was willing to develop the methodology or perform the tests. At times the fees that laboratories wanted to charge to develop tests were far higher than those charged in the US. One possible reason for the lack of testing facilities is that there is no demand for these tests and therefore the expertise has not been developed. However, the fieldwork, animal-feeding studies, molecular analysis and food nutritional analysis, for example, could be done at a reasonable cost. Although there is in general a large scientific pool of expertise in South Africa that would be able to be involved in GMO evaluation, research institutions and groups are not necessarily set up to perform these tests. Stakeholder buy-in from the early stages is essential for success. Stakeholders should be part of the team from start to finish. However, stakeholders can have a change of heart during the project, which can have a severe negative impact on the project. Every attempt should be made to keep communication lines open and to keep all the stakeholders on board. Stakeholders who have inside information about the project can become major liabilities if they decide to withdraw from the project. Adequate funding is essential. The process of developing and bringing a GM crop to the market can be expensive and can take a very long time. Therefore funders must make long-term commitments as the project can stagnate for years while regulatory authorities make decisions that impact on the project. Unexpected or unplanned expenses may arise during the project which can have severe implications if no additional funding can be sourced. Intellectual property issues should be addressed before the project begins or as soon as possible after the project has started. Years of work can be wasted if the IP-holders decide not to allow their property to be used for commercial purposes. Post-release stewardship is a very difficult but important aspect of such a project. Research organisations typically do not have the resources and mechanisms to implement stewardship programmes. Therefore it is essential to have industry or trade partners with the resources and skills to implement the stewardship campaign. These partners should be part of the team from the early stages of the project. 6 Final comments Before embarking on the long journey of developing and commercialising a GM product, one must ask the following questions: • Is it only an academic exercise? • Is it worth the time and effort? • Is there real benefit to anyone? • Is it a case of ―we have an answer, let us find a problem‖? • Is the government serious about using GM technology and will they create an enabling environment? • Can public organisations really compete with large multinationals?


I suspect that few research organisations are totally truthful about the answers they will give to the above questions. Financial pressures and the push for publications may encourage research groups to develop GM crops that will have ―great benefit‖ for certain communities, but will ultimately end up as academic exercises. It is important that all serious role-players should evaluate what they want to achieve, assessing the chances of success and, if successful, how will the product be rolled out for the beneficiaries. Only the larger multiinstitutional and multidisciplinary groups stand any chance of success. Expertise and resources must be pooled and directed to a few ―good‖ projects. The South African authorities appear to be becoming more conservative and less keen on granting permits. If this is the case, it may make it more difficult for other African countries to embrace this potentially beneficial technology. REFERENCES Gilboa, S. & Podoler, H. 1994. Population dynamics of the potato tuber moth on processing tomatoes in Israel. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 72: 197-206. Nel, A., Krause, M. & Khelawanlall, N. 2002. A guide for the control of plant pests (39th edition). Pretoria: Directorate: Agricultural Productions Inputs, Department of Agriculture. Rahalkar, G.W., Harwalkar, M.R. & Rananavare, H.D. 1985. Phthorimaea operculella. In: Singh, P. & Moore, R.F. (Eds.). Handbook of Insect Rearing, Chapter 2: 443-451. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Van Vuuren, J.J., Bennett, A. & Bennett, A.L. 1998. Oviposition site preferences of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a pest on tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae). African Entomology, 6: 177-183. Visser, D. & Schoeman, A.S. 2004. Flight activity patterns of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). African Entomology, 12: 135-139. Visser, D. 2004. The potato tuber moths, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in South Africa: potential control measures in non-refrigerated store environments. PhD Thesis, University of Pretoria. Visser, D. 2005. Guide to potato pests and their natural enemies in South Africa. Pretoria: Agricultural Research Council, 105 p. Visser, D. 2007. Potato tuber moth damage increases dramatically in 2007 (in Afrikaans). Chips, June- Aug: 34-36. Visser, D., Steyn, P.J. & Le Roux, S.M. 2003. Occurrence and control of pests. In: Niederwieser, J.G. (Ed.), Guide to Potato Production in South Africa. Pretoria: CPD Printers, pp. 153-173. URL: http://www.assaf.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/PDF/ASSAf%20GMO%20African%20Agriculture%202010%20Web.pdf Author Address: Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat VOPI, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bothma Gurling, Charlotte Mashaba, Nompumelelo Mkonza, Ereck Chakauya and Rachel Chikwamba Year: 2010 Title: * GMOs in Africa: Opportunities and challenges in South Africa. Journal: GM Crops Volume 1, Issue 4 July/August 2010. Label: Socioeconomic Abstract: Genetically modified organisms are expected to have a large impact on the ability of humanity to feed, fuel and heal itself in light of the growing global change, and adverse geo-climatic conditions anticipated as a result of climate change. GMOs have already demonstrated potential in enhancing food production, with additional benefits in quality of crops and environmental aspects. South Africa is one of the few developing countries that have joined an increasing number of countries that have commercialised GM crops. With South Africa being an early adopter of GM technology, the economic benefits for some of the crop technologies can be readily demonstrated, particularly in commercial crop production. Seventy five percent of agricultural output comes from the highly organised commercial sector, and small scale farmers contribute the rest. Malnutrition and food insecurity remain an issue in this seemingly prosperous economy. In this paper we examine the progress made in the adoption of GMO crops, the potential of the technology to meet the millennium targets of food security and poverty alleviation, and the hurdles that this technology faces in South Africa. URL: http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/gmcrops/article/13533/ Author Address: CSIR Biosciences, Pretoria, South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Bouet Antoine, Gruere Guillaume, Leroy Laetitia. Year: 2010 Title: ¤ From ―May Contain‖ to ―Does Contain‖: The price and trade effects of strict information requirements for GM maize under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Journal: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association>2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, p. 26 Collections: 2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado Label: Adoption Reglement Dispersion Keywords: Genetically modified food International Trade Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Abstract: Article 18.2.a of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety requires that each traded shipment of living modified organisms intended for food, feed or processing (LMO-FFPs)- essentially unprocessed genetically modified (GM) products- be labeled as such. More specifically, in 2006, Protocol members decided on a twooption rule. Shipments containing well identified LMO-FFPs would be labeled as ―does contain‖ LMO-FFPs and would include a list of all GM events present in each shipment. Shipments containing LMO-FFPs that are not well-identified would be labeled as ―may contain‖ LMO-FFPs as done previously. Members would also post a complete list of GM events approved on an internet database. This paper provides a comprehensive trade assessment of strict documentation requirements on traded shipments globally. More specifically we evaluate the trade diversion, price, and welfare effects of implementing the ―does contain‖ rule on the maize sector in all significant trading countries. Using a new spatial trade equilibrium model, we implement scenarios by adding differential transport costs only between GM producers and CPB members. Our results show that information requirements would have a significant effect on the world market for maize. But they would have even greater effects on trade, creating significant trade distortion, diverting exports from their original destination. The measure would also lead to significant negative welfare effects, for all members of the Protocol and nonmember that produce GM maize. While producers in non-GM Protocol member countries may benefit from increased protection, consumers and producers in selected countries of Sub-Saharan Africa will have to proportionally pay a much heftier price for such measure. This results call for governments in African and other affected Protocol member countries to reconsider their support for this new regulation that is bound to have no environmental benefits but significant and lasting economic costs. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61533 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/61533/2/AAEApaperv3.pdf Author Address: 1International Food Policy Research Institute 2033 K Street NW, Washington DC 200061002, USA 2 Centre d‘Analyse Théorique et des Traitements de Données Economiques, Université de Pau et des Pays de l‘Addour (CATT/UPPA), France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Brioudes Florian, Thierry Anne-Marie, Chambrier Pierre, Mollereau Bertrand, Bendahmane Mohammed, Year: 2010 Title: * Translationally controlled tumor protein is a conserved mitotic growth integrator in animals and plants. Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences107, 37, 16384-16389. Date: September 14, 2010 Label: Physiol Keywords: Arabidopsis Drosophila organ development cell division Abstract: The growth of an organism and its size determination require the tight regulation of cell proliferation and cell growth. However, the mechanisms and regulatory networks that control and integrate these processes remain poorly understood. Here, we address the biological role of Arabidopsis translationally controlled tumor protein (AtTCTP) and test its shared functions in animals and plants. The data support a role of plant AtTCTP as a positive regulator of mitotic growth by specifically controlling the duration of the cell cycle. We show that, in contrast to animal TCTP, plant AtTCTP is not implicated in regulating postmitotic growth. Consistent with this finding, plant AtTCTP can fully rescue cell proliferation defects in Drosophila loss of function for dTCTP. Furthermore, Drosophila dTCTP is able to fully rescue cell proliferation defects in Arabidopsis tctp knockouts. Our data provide evidence that TCTP function in regulating cell division is part of a conserved growth regulatory pathway shared between plants and animals. The study also suggests that, although the cell division


machinery is shared in all multicellular organisms to control growth, cell expansion can be uncoupled from cell division in plants but not in animals. URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/37/16384.abstract Author Address: a) Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université de Lyon, 69364 Lyon, France; b) Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université de Lyon, 69364 Lyon, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Brookes Graham, Yu Tun-Hsiang, Tokgoz Simla, Elobeid Amani, Year: 2010 Title: ¤ Evaluating the Production and Price Impacts of Biotechnology Application in Crop Markets. Journal: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association>2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado USA Label: Socioeconomic Keywords: biotech crops prices yield soybeans corn canola partial-equilibrium model price effects Abstract: Biotechnology crop traits have been applied on a widespread commercial global basis since 1996, making it the most rapidly adopted crop technology in agriculture. The primary biotechnologies used have included technology delivering herbicide tolerance and insect resistance for crops, such as corn, soybeans, cotton, and canola. This technology has provided farmers with productivity improvements through a combination of yield improvements and cost reductions. Thus, this technology has had an impact on prices of cereals and oilseeds (and their derivatives) both in countries where biotech traits were applied and in the global market. Realizing the surging significance of biotechnology application in global crop markets, this study first summarizes the productivity impacts of biotech crops on production; secondly, aims to quantify the impact of the use of biotech traits on production, utilization and prices of corn, soybeans, and canola as well as other crops where the biotechnology is not utilized. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61164 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/61164/2/Biotech_Poster_Final_%2311874.pdf Author Address: Dorchester, United Kingdom Email: graham.brookes@btinternet.com Department of Agricultural Economics University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN USA International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, DC USA Center for Agricultural and Rural Development Iowa State University Ames, IA USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Brunner S, Hurni S, Streckeisen P, Mayr G, Albrecht M, Yahiaoui N, Keller B, Year: 2010 Title: * Intragenic allele pyramiding combines different specificities of wheat Pm3 resistance alleles. Journal: The Plant Journal - Accepted manuscript online: 23 AUG 2010 Keywords: NB-ARC-LRR virulence spectrum race specificity intragenic allele pyramiding powdery mildew wheat Abstract: Some plant resistance genes occur as allelic series, with each member conferring specific resistance against a subset of pathogen races. In wheat, there are 17 alleles of the Pm3 gene. They encode nucleotidebinding (NB-ARC) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain proteins, which mediate resistance to distinct race spectra of powdery mildew. It is not known if specificities from different alleles can be combined to create resistance genes with broader specificity. Here, we used an approach based on avirulence analysis of pathogen populations to characterise the molecular basis of Pm3 recognition spectra. A large survey of mildew races for avirulence on the Pm3 alleles revealed that Pm3a has a resistance spectrum that completely contains the one of Pm3f, but extends it towards additional races. The same is true for the Pm3b and Pm3c gene pair. The molecular analysis of these allelic pairs revealed a role of the NB-ARC protein domain in the efficiency of effector-dependent resistance. Analysis of the wildtype and chimeric Pm3 alleles identified single residues in the C-terminal LRR motifs as the main determinant of allele specificity. Variable residues of the N-terminal LRRs are necessary, but not sufficient, to confer resistance specificity. Based on these data, we constructed a chimeric Pm3 gene by intragenic allele pyramiding of Pm3d and Pm3e that showed the combined resistance


specificity and, thus, a broader recognition spectrum compared with the parental alleles. Our findings support a model of stepwise evolution of Pm3 recognition specificities. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04342.x Author Address: 1Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zürich, Zollikerstrasse 107, CH-8008 Zürich, Switzerland 2Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zürich, Switzerland 3Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E1.4, D-66123 Saarbrücken, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Buckley YM Year: 2008 Title: ¤ The potential for management to contain invasive genotypes: lessons from invasive plants. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Dispersion Abstract: Countless plant species and cultivars of anticipated and realised economic benefit have been introduced worldwide; many have subsequently become economically and environmentally problematic (Lonsdale 1994, Cook & Dias 2006). Those benefiting from introductions may be a different set of people from those bearing the costs of escape. For invasive plants we are just starting to explore the confl icts between winners and losers from plant introductions. There is an increasing realisation that potential commercial benefits should be weighed up against risks of invasion and the costs of subsequent containment. Regulatory instruments for introduction of new species have been slow to appear and have only become rigorous in the past decade. Regulation alone may not be enough, with governments acting as insurers to the industry (or often government agencies) introducing plants (Martin 2008). There is a growing realisation that some of the costs of ameliorating the impacts of ―commercial weeds‖ should be passed on to the industry – this is an ongoing challenge for invasive species where the source cannot always be reliably traced to a particular importer or propagator. An analagous issue exists for the introduction of new genotypes of crop or pasture plants which have a probability of escape (of genes or plants) and costs for other producers and natural resource managers. I will present a recently developed model for risk assessment of ―commercial weeds‖. Deciding whether, when & where to control Motivation for controlling invasive plants often comes from their large economic and environmental impacts. It is not always clear however that it is the invasive species itself which causes the impacts we are concerned with. Invasives could in fact be passengers of broader ecosystem perturbations rather than drivers of change themselves (MacDougall & Turkington 2005). Even if invasives have caused large impacts post-introduction (e.g. reductions in biodiversity) it is not clear that those impacts are reversible via reductions in invader density via simple population control. Whole ecosystem management is often necessary in order to restore the ecosystemprocesses or assets of interest (Buckley 2008). Many invasive plants are promoted by disturbance and therefore management must necessarily involve consideration of other ecosystem processes. Reductions in disturbance (and therefore establishment opportunities) for disturbance promoted invaders can be a necessary component of a successful management programme (Buckley et al. 2004, Buckley et al. 2007, Firn et al. in press). Management processes themselves can be highly destructive of vegetation and act as a disturbance in the ecosystem which can lead to re-invasion of the target species or another disturbance promoted invader (Buckley et al. 2007). Understanding how management activities impact on the ecosystem is essential if long-term management goals are to be achieved. Integrated weed management is likely to be more successful than a single ―silver bullet‖ approach. For invasive GMOs, control techniques may be important for reducing establishment opportunities for volunteers. Managers will also need to know how much their control techniques are promoting the establishment of unwanted individuals and populations. New models can inform us of whether to manage and if so how much to invest in management, given densityimpact curves (Yokomizo et al. in press). If management costs are excessively high in relation to the impacts of invaders, it may be better to live with the impacts. Whether maximal impacts are felt at high or low densities of the invader determines the optimal management investment as well as characteristics of the species life-history such as density dependent recovery and ease of eradication (Yokomizo et al. in press). Clear determination of


impacts and how they scale with invader density are therefore essential before deciding whether to manage the invader population. Plant invasions have to be managed at a landscape scale as pollen and seeds can move long distances in a single event (in the order of kilometres, e.g. Bacles et al. 2006). In order to prioritise which populations to manage we need to be able to predict dispersal and determine whether eradication or containment is feasible given the resources available. An understanding of dispersal vectors can enable landscape-scale management to be optimised (Buckley et al. 2005, Buckley et al. 2006). A related approach is to use neutral landscape models (With 2002) to determine what kinds of landscapes are most susceptible to spread of invasive plants. Ultimately introduction and management of invasive plants are human actions and in order to co-ordinate weed management at the landscape scale we need to factor in human behaviour, motivations and the socio-economic aspects of management. Future challenges & dealing with uncertainty One principle of invasive species management is that â&#x20AC;&#x2022;a stitch in time saves nineâ&#x20AC;&#x2013;, meaning that management when an invasion is in its early stages will be more cost-effective than management of larger populations and areas. Early interventions however will be dogged by uncertainty, and we have little information on how robust management strategies are likely to be in the face of uncertainty (Buckley et al. 2005). We need general rules for management when we have little information at the start of an invasion. We currently have some guidelines on how to manage plants with different life-histories (Ramula et al. in press) but given the importance of landscape structure and dispersal, more work is needed to come up with guidelines which can be applied at the landscape scale. Given our rapidly changing landscapes we need to question the role of invasive plants in radically transformed landscapes and novel ecosystems (Hobbs et al. 2006). References Bacles, C.F.E., Lowe, A.J., & Ennos, R.A. (2006) Effective Seed Dispersal Across a Fragmented Landscape. Science, 311, 628. Buckley, Y.M., Bolker, B.M., & Rees, M. (2007) Disturbance, invasion and re-invasion: managing the weedshaped hole in disturbed ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 10, 809-817. Buckley, Y.M., Rees, M., Paynter, Q., & Lonsdale, W.M. (2004) Modelling integrated weed management of an invasive shrub in tropical Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 547-560. Buckley, Y.M., Brockerhoff, E.G., Langer, E.R., Ledgard, N., North, H., & Rees, M. (2005) Slowing down a pine invasion despite uncertainty in demography and dispersal. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 1020-1030. Cook, G.D. & Dias, L. (2006) Turner review no. 12: It was no accident: deliberate plant introductions by Australian government agencies during the 20th Century. Australian Journal of Botany, 54, 601-625. Firn, J., Rout, T., Possingham, H., & Buckley, Y.M. (in press) Managing beyond the invader: manipulating disturbance of natives simplifi es control efforts. Journal of Applied Ecology. Hobbs, R.J., Arico, S., Aronson, J., Baron, J.S., Bridgewater, P., Cramer, V.A., Epstein, P.R., Ewel, J.J., Klink, C.A., Lugo, A.E., Norton, D., Ojima, D., Richardson, D.M., Sanderson, E.W., Valladares, F., Vila, M., Zamora, R., & Zobel, M. (2006) Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 1-7. Lonsdale, W.M. (1994) Inviting trouble: introduced pasture species in Northern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 19, 345-354. MacDougall, A.S. & Turkington, R. (2005) Are invasive species the drivers or passengers of change in degraded ecosystems? Ecology, 86, 42-55. Martin, P. (2008) Cross pollination or cross-contamination? Directions for informing the management of invasives with market-economy concepts. In 16th Australian weeds conference: weed management 2008 - hot topics in the tropics (eds R.D. van Klinken, V.A. Osten, F.D. Panetta & J.C. Scanlan), pp. 6-13. Queensland Weed Society, Cairns, Australia. With, K.A. (2002) The landscape ecology of invasive species. Conservation Biology, 16, 1192-1203. Yokomizo, H., Possingham, H.P., Thomas, M.B., & Buckley, Y.M. (in press) Managing the impact of invasive species: the value of knowing the density-impact curve. Ecological Applications. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: School of Integrative Biology, University of Queensland, and CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Australia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bullock J, Hails R


Year: 2008 Title: ¤ Measuring and modelling the fate of GM hybrids in the real world. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Dispersion Abstract: Introduction Risk assessment of transgene escape from crops involves scrutiny of a number of steps from pollen movement through to fi tness changes following introgression of transgenes into wild relatives1. The fi rst stages in this process - pollen movement and hybrid formation . are well researched2,3. The next stage involves the assessment of fi tness changes in transgenic plants, i.e. GM crops or GM crop •~ wild relative hybrids. Fitness can be measured at a population level using ƒÉ the rate of population increase, which can be measured directly or projected using matrix models4. This approach has been used in a few cases5,6, but outstanding issues are that: the complete life cycle (e.g. including seed survival in the soil) should be measured; fi tness is habitat dependent, so studies in crop situations are uninformative about fi tness in (semi-)natural environments; competition within and between species affects population growth, so there is a need to quantify this process. We did long term studies on Brassica to determine the utility of this modelling approach in GM risk assessment. We worked on the crop plant B. napus and its wild progenitors B. oleracea ssp oleracea and B. rapa. Methods & Results Brassica oleracea is a wild plant of calcareous cliffs and B. rapa is found along riversides. Studies were carried out in these natural habitats and contrasted with the crop situation. The complete life-cycle was measured in each experimental manipulation. Individual studies considered the outstanding issues listed above. Hybrid performance Hybrids between B. rapa and B. napus were created and seed sown of the hybrid and the parent species in wild riparian habitats and the crop situation. In the wild B. napus did not persist, while B. rapa had a positive population growth rate. The hybrid died out in two wild habitats but completed its life cycle in one. In this last, many life history parameters exhibited lower fi tness in the hybrid compared to B. rapa. This led to a ƒÉ value which indicated a declining population. In the crop habitat both parent species persisted and showed rapid population growth. The hybrid differed only in fecundity and was able to persist, albeit with a much lower population growth rate than either parent. In the wild habitats an ability to persist in the seedbank was a critical determinant of population growth rate, while fecundity was the main determinant of fi tness in the crop situation. Stochasticity We did demographic studies on wild and crop species in multiple habitats over several years. This showed that demographic parameters and population growth rate was highly variable in time and space. This suggests that stochastic formulations of matrix models are more informative than deterministic approaches. We used these to model the impact of stochastic processes on long-term population growth. The effects of increased return times of pathogen (Alternaria) attack and soil disturbance were investigated using stochastic models for B. rapa. Unsurprisingly, increased disturbance frequency aided population growth, but the response to fungal attack was counter-intuitive. More frequent attacks had minor effects on population growth. This is because the fungus affected fecundity, which had little effect on population growth in the wild. Density dependence Density dependence is a ubiquitous process in populations but is rarely measured in natural conditions. We did experimental manipulations of density in the Brassica species and found impacts at the germination and plant survival stages. Inclusion of the density dependence in matrix models showed it had a stabilising effect on population dynamics by restricting population size. Conclusions The matrix modelling approach allows us to move beyond conjecture and make hard predictions about the risk from GM plants. In our Brassica system this approach has given some unexpected results. For example, about how hybridisation affects particular life history parameters, the role of fungal pathogens in population fi tness, and the importance of changes in plant seed output. It has also allowed us to quantify important processes of stochasticity and density dependence in crop and wild habitats. These processes are relatively straightforward to quantify and model in a 3 year research project and we advocate that this approach should be more widely implemented in risk assessment research.


References 1. Hails, R.S., and Morley, K. (2005) Genes invading new populations: a risk assessment perspective. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20, 245-252 2. Wilkinson, M.J., et al. (2003) Hybridization between Brassica napus and B. rapa on a national scale in the United Kingdom. Science 302, 457-459 3. Chevre, A.M., et al. (2000) Assessment of interspecifi c hybridization between transgenic oilseed rape and wild radish under normal agronomic conditions. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 100, 1233-1239 4. Bullock, J.M. (1999) Using population matrix models to target GMO risk assessment. In Challenges in applied population biology (Thomas, M.B., and Kedwards, T., eds), 205-212, Association of Applied Biologists 5. Allainguillaume, J., et al. (2006) Fitness of hybrids between rapeseed (Brassica napus) and wild B. rapa in natural habitats. Molecular Ecology 15, 1175-1184 6. Hooftman, D.A.P., et al. (2005) Demographic vital rates determine the performance advantage of crop-wild hybrids in lettuce. Journal of Applied Ecology 42, 1086-1095 URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UK XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Buning TD Year: 2010 Title: // Four steps to stimulate meaningful communication on sensitive issues in societal debate: the case of a research agenda for biotechnology and food in the Netherlands. Book Title: Knowledge Demoracy: Consequences for Science, Politics, and Media - 241-253. City: Berlin Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN Accession Number: ISI:000280791500017 Abstract: The destructive and emotional clashes between stakeholders in innovative fields of technology (nuclear energy, cloning, GMO-crops) have been blamed on the knowledge divide between scientists, politicians and society. Often, a cautious (network) approach to synchronise knowledge levels among all stakeholders is proposed. These proposed solutions are described under various headings such as, "Interactive Science Communication", "Interactive Policy" and "New Modes of Governance". In this chapter a transdisciplinary approach, illustrated by an actual case on around the biotechnology and food debate, is described. Called the "four steps"-approach, it is unique in the sense that it merges classical tools for policy analysis (for example analysis of policy documents, interviews with experts, relational problem analysis) with transdisciplinary tools (for example citizens' panels, focus groups, Socratic dialogues, stakeholder workshops) resulting in what has been termed a "constructed societal agenda". This societal agenda reflects the interrelated complexity of the different issues extracted from policy discussions which are expanded, analysed and reflected upon by citizens without a vested interest. At the same time it is a frame of reference to enable communication between citizens and other parties in order to recognise their own position in relation to others in the same comprehensive scheme. In the final steps, common ground might be found to escape from simplistic dead end one-way messages, and to head for meaningful dialogues instead. The thus constructed societal agenda offers in addition a framework for democratic public input at the decision table. Notes: Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 0 URL: <Go to ISI>://000280791500017 Author Address: tjard.de.cock.buning@falw.vu.nl The Netherlands XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Burg HA van den, Kini RK, Schuurink RC, Takken FLW, Year: 2010 Title: * Arabidopsis small ubiquitin-like modifier paralogs have distinct functions in development and defense. Journal: Plant Cell 22, 6, 1998-2016. Accession Number: CABI:20103261065 Label: Physiol DisRe


Abstract: Posttranslational modifications allow dynamic and reversible changes to protein function. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a small gene family encodes paralogs of the small ubiquitin-like posttranslational modifier. We studied the function of these paralogs. Single mutants of the SUM1 and SUM2 paralogs do not exhibit a clear phenotype. However, the corresponding double knockdown mutant revealed that SUM1 and SUM2 are essential for plant development, floral transition, and suppression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defense responses. The SUM1 and SUM2 genes are constitutively expressed, but their spatial expression patterns do not overlap. Tight transcriptional regulation of these two SUM genes appears to be important, as overexpression of either wild-type or conjugation-deficient mutants resulted in activation of SA-dependent defense responses, as did the sum1 sum2 knockdown mutant. Interestingly, expression of the paralog SUM3 is strongly and widely induced by SA and by the defense elicitor Flg22, whereas its expression is otherwise low and restricted to a few specific cell types. Loss of SUM3 does not result in an aberrant developmental phenotype except for late flowering, while SUM3 overexpression causes early flowering and activates plant defense. Apparently, SUM3 promotes plant defense downstream of SA, while SUM1 and SUM2 together prevent SA accumulation in noninfected plants. URL: http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/content/short/tpc.109.070961v1 Author Address: a Plant Pathology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands b Laboratory for Phytopathology, Wageningen University, 6708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands c Centre for BioSystems Genomics, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands d Plant Physiology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Burgi Jurg Year: 2009 Title: // Insect-Resistant Maize: A Case Study of Fighting the African Stem Borer. Journal: Cabi Publishing; Cab Publishing Abstract: Description The 'Insect Resistant Maize for Africa' (IRMA) project in Kenya was aimed at developing new maize varieties both by conventional methods and by biotechnologically incorporating the endotoxin produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. The author gives an impartial and chronological account of this project between 1999 and 2008. Many farmers in sub-Saharan Africa suffer heavily from crop losses due to stem borer pests. Insecticides are often unaffordable; therefore, maize plants must be made resistant to pests. The 'Insect Resistant Maize for Africa' (IRMA) project in Kenya was aimed at developing new maize varieties both by conventional methods and by biotechnologically incorporating the endotoxin produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. The author gives an impartial and chronological account of this exemplary project between 1999 and 2008, supplemented by discussions of agricultural development policy and descriptions of Kenyan smallholders and the project team. He also takes critical and rational positions on the use of modern plant breeding techniques, biotechnology and development policy. Table of contents Introduction Excursus on Kenya The Prehistory Biotechnology for the Poor The First Year (1999) Excursus on Independent-Minded Partners The Second Year (2000) A Farmer in Nyeri (17 Dec 2000) The Third Year (2001) Farmers in Machakos (24 Nov 2001) Excursus on Plant Breeding The Fourth Year (2002) Farmers in Western Kenya (25/26 Nov 2002)


Farmers in the Lowlands (27 Nov 2002) Excursus on Communications in a Rough Terrain The Fifth Year (2003) Farmers in Meru (15 Nov 2003) Excursus on Commerce and Consumption The Sixth Year (2004) Farmers in Kisii (21 June 2004) Farmers in Mwala (7 Dec 2004) Excursus on Patents and Licenses The Seventh Year (2005) Farmers in Githunguri (6 Nov 2005) Farmers in Mbeere (19 Nov 2005) A Preliminary Assessment Gleanings (2006-2008) Excursus on Market Segmentation A Farmer near Embu (3 Nov 2008). Notes: From : Chistia Yusuf, Biotechnology Advances; Volume 28, Issue 6, November-December 2010, Page 936 - Book review Sustainable food production needs biotechnology Available online 25 May 2010. The need for food has never been greater. Modern agriculture appears to barely keep up with the increasing demand for food and questions are emerging about the environmental sustainability of crop production using the existing methods. This book highlights the role of various biotechnologies in improving crop productivity. The book is about maize (corn in North America) and its pests in Africa, mainly Kenya. The focus is on the efforts of a specific project, the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa project, for developing pest resistant varieties of this crop. The book was originally published in 2007 in German under the title Mais nach Mass. The English version of the book updates parts of the German edition and includes some new sections. Maize is a staple food in Kenya and some other regions of Africa. Cultivated for thousands of years by the Indians of South and Central America, maize came to the Old World after Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba. Maize was introduced to Africa by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. Stem borers, or caterpillar of certain moths, are major pests of maize in Africa. Pesticides are not effective against the borers once they have penetrated the plant stem. Modern plant breeding techniques including genetic engineering have been effectively used in developing maize varieties with improved resistance to pests. This book provides convincing evidence that biotechnology is essential to a future food security for the world. Food security based on sustainable crop production is of course necessary for our continued wellbeing. Many more projects of the type discussed in the book will be needed to achieve this important objective. This account by a journalist does not delve much into the technical issues. Instead, it provides a highly readable narrative of an important project in a social context. The book is illustrated with numerous color photographs. Short biographies and pictures of the individuals involved in the Kenyan project make the book interesting. The discussion of the issues faced in having a crop variety accepted by the local farmers is particularly insightful. This hardcover book is produced to a good quality, but it is not for everyone. Individuals concerned with crop production and improvement research in the developing world will find it an interesting case study. Fieldworkers tasked with marketing a new crop to farmers should find the book useful. Author Adress: School of Engineering, PN456, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Busani Bafana Year: 2010 Title: ÂŁÂŁ Scientists claim GM cowpea could generate US$1 billion. Journal: SciDev Net 1 octobre 2010 Label: InRe Efficacite


Abstract: [SALY, SENEGAL] A pest-resistant version of the black-eyed pea, a subspecies of the cowpea, is on track for commercial introduction, promising higher yields and claimed savings of up to US$1 billion on a crop that has found new popularity among African smallholders. The cowpea, actually a bean, is rich in protein and is an important crop for both tackling malnutrition and adapting to climate change as it tolerates hot, dry conditions. But infestation by the Maruca vitrata pod borer has cut the value of crops by up to US$300 million for smallholders in Africa, who produce nearly 5.2 million tonnes of the bean. The continent currently accounts for about 70 per cent of global production. Now, scientists at the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) at Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria, in collaboration with other institutes including the African Agricultural Technology Foundation, Kenya, have engineered an insect-resistant Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cowpea that they say could be on shelves in six years. The cowpea — an ancient African crop — has been making a comeback in recent years, with increased yields seen across Africa, delegates heard this week (27 September–1 October) at the 5th World Cowpea Conference in Dakar, Senegal. "The cowpea is emerging as one of the most important food legumes because of its early maturity and its fit as a niche crop in multiple cropping systems," said B. B. Singh, an international cowpea breeder and visiting scientist at Texas A&M University in the United States. He noted that there has already been a six-fold increase in world cowpea production in the last few decades, a "quiet revolution that is greater in magnitude than that of cereals and all other pulses". Christian Fatokun, a cowpea breeder at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria, said that, as the crop is grown on a small scale by ill-resourced farmers, no commercial seed company will service this sector. And, because the cowpea is self-pollinating, companies also have little incentive to supply seeds. The Bt cowpea will raise the status of the bean, claimed its developers. It could also generate up to US$1 billion by 2020 for farmers. "Up until now, nobody in the scientific world was able to introduce resistance to this insect into cowpea," said Mohammad Faguji Ishiyaku, principal investigator of the Bt cowpea project and a researcher at the IAR. "Our research will mean increased income by using less insecticide and increased productivity for areas growing cowpeas. Farmers will also have reduced exposure to harmful chemicals." IITA agricultural economist, Ousmane Coulibaly, said surveys on cowpea in Nigeria, Benin, Mali and Burkina Faso have found that farmers are using a lot of expensive and sometimes harmful pesticides. In Nigeria — the largest producer and consumer of cowpea in Africa — net gains from not using pesticides could be about $500 million, he said. URL: http://www.scidev.net/fr/agriculture-and-environment/news/le-ni-b-bt-pourrait-rapporter-jusqu-us-1milliard-aux-petits-agriculteurs.html XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Bustos Regla, Gabriel Castrillo, Francisco Linhares, María Isabel Puga, Vicente Rubio, Julian PérezPérez, Roberto Solano, Antonio Leyva, Javier Paz-Ares, Year: 2010 Title: * A Central Regulatory System Largely Controls Transcriptional Activation and Repression Responses to Phosphate Starvation in Arabidopsis. Journal: PLoS Genet 6(9): e1001102. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001102 Label: ReEn MacroEl Abstract: Plants respond to different stresses by inducing or repressing transcription of partially overlapping sets of genes. In Arabidopsis, the PHR1 transcription factor (TF) has an important role in the control of phosphate (Pi) starvation stress responses. Using transcriptomic analysis of Pi starvation in phr1, and phr1 phr1-like (phl1) mutants and in wild type plants, we show that PHR1 in conjunction with PHL1 controls most transcriptional activation and repression responses to phosphate starvation, regardless of the Pi starvation specificity of these responses. Induced genes are enriched in PHR1 binding sequences (P1BS) in their promoters, whereas repressed genes do not show such enrichment, suggesting that PHR1(-like) control of transcriptional repression responses is indirect. In agreement with this, transcriptomic analysis of a transgenic plant expressing PHR1 fused to the hormone ligand domain of the glucocorticoid receptor showed that PHR1 direct targets (i.e., displaying altered expression after GR:PHR1 activation by dexamethasone in the presence of cycloheximide) corresponded largely to Pi starvation-induced genes that are highly enriched in P1BS. A minimal promoter


containing a multimerised P1BS recapitulates Pi starvation-specific responsiveness. Likewise, mutation of P1BS in the promoter of two Pi starvation-responsive genes impaired their responsiveness to Pi starvation, but not to other stress types. Phylogenetic footprinting confirmed the importance of P1BS and PHR1 in Pi starvation responsiveness and indicated that P1BS acts in concert with other cis motifs. All together, our data show that PHR1 and PHL1 are partially redundant TF acting as central integrators of Pi starvation responses, both specific and generic. In addition, they indicate that transcriptional repression responses are an integral part of adaptive responses to stress. Author Summary As sessile organisms, plants are often exposed to stress conditions, and have evolved adaptive responses to protect themselves from different types of stress. Some responses are stress type-specific whereas others are common to different stress types. Understanding how these responses are controlled is crucial for rational improvement of stress tolerance, a limiting factor in crop productivity. Here we examined the physiological and molecular responses to phosphate starvation and found that a single transcription factor family, represented by PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PHR1), has a central role in the control of specific and shared phosphate starvation stress responses. In consonance with the importance of PHR1, we found that the PHR1-binding sequence, present in most PHR1 direct targets, is a crucial cis motif for Pi starvation responsiveness. An artificial promoter controlled by PHR1 recapitulates responsiveness to Pi starvation and to modulators of this response, qualifying PHR1 family members as central integrators in Pi starvation signalling. This central integrator system also controls most transcriptional repression responses to Pi starvation, indicating that they are an integral part of the adaptive response, and not a consequence of plant malfunction due to stress. URL: http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1001102 Author Address: Department of Plant Molecular Genetics, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología-CSIC, Madrid, Spain XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Büttner-Mainik A, Parsons J, Jerôme H, Hartmann A, Lamer S, Schaaf A, Schlosser A, Zipfel PF, Reski R, Decker EL, Year: 2010 Title: * Production of biologically active recombinant human factor H in Physcomitrella. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal - Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010. Pages: no Label: Composition Biopharming Keywords: complement factor H FH moss Physcomitrella patens recombinant biopharmaceuticals Abstract: The human complement regulatory serum protein factor H (FH) is a promising future biopharmaceutical. Defects in the gene encoding FH are associated with human diseases like severe kidney and retinal disorders in the form of atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis II (MPGN II) or age-related macular degeneration (AMD). There is a current need to apply intact full-length FH for the therapy of patients with congenital or acquired defects of this protein. Application of purified or recombinant FH (rFH) to these patients is an important and promising approach for the treatment of these diseases. However, neither protein purified from plasma of healthy individuals nor recombinant protein is currently available on the market. Here, we report the first stable expression of the full-length human FH cDNA and the subsequent production of this glycoprotein in a plant system. The moss Physcomitrella patens perfectly suits the requirements for the production of complex biopharmaceuticals as this eukaryotic system not only offers an outstanding genetical accessibility, but moreover, proteins can be produced safely in scalable photobioreactors without the need for animal-derived medium compounds. Transgenic moss lines were created, which express the human FH cDNA and target the recombinant protein to the culture supernatant via a mossderived secretion signal. Correct processing of the signal peptide and integrity of the moss-produced rFH were verified via peptide mapping by mass spectrometry. Ultimately, we show that the rFH displays complement regulatory activity comparable to FH purified from plasma. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00552.x Author Address: 1Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany 2Centre for Biological Signalling Studies (BIOSS), Freiburg, Germany 3Department Infection Biology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infectionbiology – Hans Knoell Institute, Jena, Germany


4Core Facility Proteomics, Centre for Systems Biology (ZBSA), Freiburg, Germany 5Feiburg Initiative for Systems Biology (FRISYS), Freiburg, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Buxdorf Kobi, Hendelman Anat, Stav Ran, Lapidot Moshe, Ori Naomi, Arazi Tzahi, Year: 2010 Title: * Identification and characterization of a novel miR159 target not related to MYB in tomato. Secondary Title: Planta 232, 5, 1009-1022. Publisher: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0032-0935 Label: Physiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Flower - Development - Leaf - MiRNA - MiR159 - Tomato Abstract: MicroRNA 159 (miR159) is a highly conserved miRNA with roles in flowering under short days, anther development and seed germination via repression of GAMYB-like genes. In tomato, the function of miR159 (Sl-miR159) is currently unknown and target transcripts have not been experimentally validated. Here, we identified and characterized a new miR159 target gene (SGN-U567133) in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) that is not related to MYB. SGN-U567133 is predominantly expressed in flowers and encodes a nuclearlocalized protein that contains a unique NOZZLE-like domain at its N terminus. In tomato, SGN-U567133 represents a small gene family and orthologs have been identified in other plant species, all containing a conserved miR159 target site in their coding sequence. Accordingly, 5'-RACE cleavage assay supported miRNA-mediated cleavage of SGN-U567133 transcripts in vivo. Moreover, the SGN-U567133 transcript accumulated in P19-HA-expressing tomato leaves in which miRNA-mediated cleavage is inhibited. In addition, transgenic tomato plants expressing a miR159-resistant form of SGN-U567133 accumulated higher levels of the SGN-U567133 transcript and exhibited defects in leaf and flower development. Together, our results suggest that SGN-U567133 represents a novel class of miR159 targets in plants and raise the possibility that its post-transcriptional regulation by Sl-miR159 is essential for normal tomato development. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1231-9 Author Address: (1) Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan, 50250, Israel (2) The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Camargo SR de Year: 2009 Title: ?? Detection of transgenic organisms and products Journal: Informe Agropecuario 30, 253. Accession Number: CABI:20103085531 Label: Detection Review Keywords: assays; crops; detection; DNA; food products; genetically engineered organisms; immunoassay; methodology; molecular biology; molecular genetics techniques; proteins; RNA; transgenic plants deoxyribonucleic acid; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified organisms; genetically modified plants; GEOs; GMOs; methods; ribonucleic acid Abstract: Technological advances in agriculture, such as the introduction of genetically modified organisms into crop fields and of their derivatives into food products, have created the need for analytical techniques for the identification of the genes and proteins introduced in order to ensure the purity of genetically derived products. Various molecular biology and immunoassay techniques are described that are used for the detection of sequences of DNA, RNA or exogenous protein introduced into transgenic organisms by biotechnological means. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 22 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103085531 Author Address: Alellyx Applied Genomics, CEP 13069-380 Campinas, SP, Brazil.


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Canavari Maurizio, Tisselli Farid, Nayga Rodolfo M Jr., Scarpa Riccardo, Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Italian Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced GM Food. Journal: International Association of Agricultural Economists>2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China Label: Adoption Consom Keywords: Food Genetically modified organisms consumer acceptance willingness to buy nutritionally enhanced food products Abstract: The aim of this article is to evaluate Italian consumers‘ acceptance and willingness to purchase GM foods based on the type of benefit (input vs output trait) and product (plant based vs animal based). Two surveys were administered in two consecutive years (2004 and 2005) and the data used to test for possible changes in consumer acceptance. The results of a multinomial logit analysis suggest that on average consumer acceptance for plant-based GM food was higher in 2005. This study confirmed the key role of information strategies to consumers, with the most relevant results being the role distorted information play in raising the consumer‘s level of fear and perceived risk. Respondents also place a higher level of confidence on scientists who are generally seen as independent of the industry. Consumers that usually consume and buy enhanced food products have a higher probability to buy a GM product providing an increased vitamin content. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51651 Author Address: a Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering, viale Giuseppe Fanin 50, 40127, Bologna, Italy b University of Arkansas, Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States of America USA c The University of Waikato, Waikato Management School, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Cancado GM de A, Brasileiro ACM, Ribeiro AP, Fernandes MCN, Sant'Ana GC, Fontes-Soares BD, Rocha HS,Freitas GF, Year: 2009 Title: ?? Transgenic plants Journal: Informe Agropecuario 30, 253. Accession Number: CABI:20103085528 Label: Bioengineering Review Keywords: gene transfer; genetic markers; genetic transformation; molecular genetics; molecular genetics techniques; reporter genes; transgenic plants; vectors Agrobacterium; bacterium; biochemical genetics; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; reporter gene Abstract: With the advent of genetic engineering and advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to introduce new genetic traits into an organism by the direct manipulation of genes. Aspects of plant transgenics discussed in this article include the identification and isolation of genes of interest, vectors for transformation, genetic markers and reporters, methods of transformation, and the analysis of transformed plants by molecular techniques. The transformation methods that are currently used are described and include: transformation by Agrobacterium, through which the transfer of foreign genes into the genomes of plants is promoted; biobalistic transformation, which relies on the transfer of genes to plant cells through the mediation of microprojectiles fired directly into the cell; and transformation via electroporation, which creates pores in the membrane of protoplasts using electrical pulses, thus allowing the foreign gene to penetrate inside the cell and integrate into the genome. There are also other methods that are used in smaller scale. In general, there is no one method of transformation that is better than the other, as the efficiency is related mainly to the purpose, cost, operational technique and the species concerned. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 24 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103085528 Author Address: U.R. EPAMIG SM-FECD, Caixa Postal 33, CEP 37780-000 Caldas, MG, Brazil.


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Capalbo D, Tozzi J, Arantes O, Labate C, Andrade , Ávila L, Melo I, Year: 2008 Title: ¤ Studies on biodegradation of Cry1Ac protein by rizospheric bacteria from Bt cotton soil. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: InRe Devenir ImpactBiol Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis, Bt, the most used bacteria for insect control, can also be genetically engineered into crops in order to protect them against insects. The development of such insect-resistant crops has some benefi ts and some potential risks. The release of Cry proteins (originated by Bt cry gene inserted) to the soil (pollen deposition, root exudation, cell senescence, residues left in the fi eld after harvesting, among others) is one of the potential risks foreseen and this may occur during the plant lifespan. Root exudates infl uence rizosphere microorganism and in this way biosafety studies were developed. A few or non-toxic effects of Cry proteins on woodlice, collembolans, mites, earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, and on the activity of various enzymes in soil are reported, but the question concerning the infl uence on microbial communities still remains incomplete. The literature shows that at least part of the Cry proteins could remain adsorbed to mineral or organic-mineral soil particles, remaining protected against degradation and inactivation, and could retain much of its biological activity for a period that will depend on soil characteristics. In addition the structure of the bacterial community around Bt cotton plant is less affected by transgenic Bt-traits than by other environmental factors like plant age, soil characteristics, climate and cotton variety. There are studies on dissipation of the Bt proteins exudating from roots of transgenic plants, but few on degradation of the protein. One study conducted in a Ð-irradiated sterilized soil indicated that the decline in extractable Cry protein concentration could be due to biotic degradation rather than to physical adsorption by the soil particles. Bt cotton (Bollgard™ event 531) has been approved for commercial release in Brazil by the National Biosafety Technical Committee (CTNBio) in 2005 and since then the cultivation area is increasing annually. There are some concerns in the country about risks to non target species including soil microbiota. Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa - leads the research on Bt cotton biosafety issues in Brazil, and Embrapa Environment, one of Embrapa Research Centers, develops studies on the impacts on soil microorganisms. This work was done under the umbrella of Embrapa´s Biosafety Research Network - BioSeg -looking for impacts of the approved Bt cotton on soil microorganisms. The objective was to identify and characterize the degradation of Cry protein by soil microorganisms using the microbial purifi ed and activated version of the Cry1Ac protein (66 kDa) supplied by Marianne Pusztai-Carey from Case Western Reserve University. This protein is the one synthesized by the approved Bt cotton in Brazil. Soil from crop land around Campinas (São Paulo State, Brazil) was collected and used to fi ll pots where Bt cotton (Bollgard™ event 531) would be cultivated. At a defi ned period of plant development freshly rizospheric soil was collected from these pots and added to defi ned culture medium (mentioned here as MMCry, meaning mineral salts medium [MM] plus Cry1Ac protein as the sole carbon and nitrogen source) for bacterial isolation. For comparative purposes the bacterial growth was also observed on the same MM medium amended with glucose and ammonium nitrate instead of Cry1Ac (mentioned here as MMGA). Bacterial growth was undertaken through sussessive culture on MMCry. Each 48 hours an aliquot was transferred to a fresh MMGA or MMCry. This subculture was repeated six times. At the fi nal harvest time it was serially diluted and spread on MMGA or MMCry agar plates, respectively. Twenty four colonies bacterial-like were selected based on observation of its growth fi tness and among them the best three were used in growth kinetic studies. The three bacteria were identifi ed by gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids (FAME) as Gordonia rubripertincta, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumilus. For growth kinetic studies a suspension of young bacteria cells was used as inoculum for fresh MMCry liquid medium at a fi nal concentration of 103-104 cells/mL. Cultures were grown at 28°C under rotary agitation at 250 rpm. Samples were taken at preestablished intervals, serially diluted and plated for CFU determination (colony forming units) on MMCry agar for 96 hours at 28°C. For verifi cation of Cry protein degradation the three bacteria were grown for 96 hours in MMCry liquid medium, followed by precipitation of bacterial cells and supernate electrophoresis on 10%


sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE). Brilliant Blue R250 was used as dye solution and MMCry liquid medium was run in a separate lane as pattern. The three bacteria selected belong to distinct genera and species but they showed similar behavior regarding the utilization of Cry protein for their development. Statistical analysis of the growth rate (Tukey‘s test) showed that Cry protein allows bacterial growth, and the growth rate for MMGA and MMCry are similar. The electrophoresis experiments showed a single band on the reference lane containing MMCry, corresponding to a molecular mass of 66 kDa. For each of the three different bacteria several bands of smaller molecular mass were detected corresponding to Cry1Ac degradation products. Further studies about the kinetic of such biodegradation are under development at Embrapa Environment. Data of growth kinetic and electrophoresis run will be presented at the 10 ISBGMO. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: 1 Embrapa Environment, 2 Embrapa Environment - Fapesp Fellowship, 3 Embrapa Environment - Consultant (Agrofuturo), 4 ESALQ - University of São Paulo - Genetics Department, Brazil XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Carrau Javier Guillem Year: 2009 Title: ?? Lack of Sherpas for a GMO Escape Route in the EU. Journal: German Law Journal, Volume 10, Number 8, 2009, pages 1169-1199 Label: Reglement Adoption Abstract: Introduction The foodborne disease and other incidents of food contamination, such as the dioxins crisis, have tested the internal market of the European Union (EU) in relation to the free movement of goods.1 The protective measures adopted under the safeguard clause obliged EU Member States to act in co•]ordination with the European Commission and, in fact, to modify elements of their food chain structure. Certainly the agrofood safety crisis of the 1990s and the review of European food law have resulted in a system in which the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) plays a key role. In this context, the conflict over Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) constitutes a challenge for EU policymakers. In the words of EC President Barroso, the challenge will need •gsherpas•h like in an expedition to climb the Himalayas in order to be adequately resolved,2 but the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has recently added that some transparency will be also welcomed.3 In 2001, Chevassus-au-Louis proposed three strategies to be adopted by European governments and EU institutions on biotechnology. Option A represented starting a process of generalization and banalization of GMO coordinated with the execution of commitments in transparency and good governance in decisions related to authorizations and product labelling. Option B consisted of stating a durable prohibition and exclusion of GMO (crop, crop and import, foods and others) and a definition of non•]GM products (threshold of presence, technical aspects, obligation of means or obligation of results). Option C was focused on the public and proactive investment in GMO in order to grant the acceptable and possible co•]existence of GMO crops and non•]GMO crops allowing a better adaptability to the wide range of existing interests and the uncertainties of the future.4 Currently, the debate is ongoing and none of these options have been clearly developed. In physics, we can say that inertia has replaced synergy on this issue due to several factors: first, although the EU process is stopped de facto after the difficulties of the Treaty of Lisbon, options and strategies should be developed concerning the GMO because the EU system, consisting of prior authorizations and compulsory labelling, has produced problems between the EU and the US and the essential mistrust of European consumers is the main reason for the cautions adopted by EU legislation; second, EU Institutions should assure the freedom of movement in the internal market and the possibility of maintaining high standards of health and environmental protection. The precautionary principle interacts with the principles of freedom of investigation, information and participation, and with the ethical analysis of research activities. Third, the GMO regulatory approaches analysed are inspired by different perceptions of risk. Therefore, the precautionary principle, as a legal instrument to prevent and manage such risk, constitutes the pillar of a large list of consequences with new legal concepts such as traceability; and fourth, EU territory is an attractive market for GMO exporting countries and GM seed companies. Internal harmonisation of the EU is not working on this issue in spite of the fact that EC institutions


and lobbies have made great efforts. For instance, there is a long backlog of GMO applications following the modification of GMO legislation. In this article, after analysing the interaction between GMO risk and precautionary principle, we will focus on key elements of the EU system in order to conclude that traceability, labelling and coexistence must be considered the keywords of the EU GMO system. In addition, we will propose that transparency and simpler and better proceedings should be also powered by EU institutions. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90607 Author Address: Clerk of the House. Legal Adviser. Valencian Parliament, Spain. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Carrière Y, Crowder DW, Tabashnik BE, Year: 2010 Title: * Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops. Journal: Evolutionary Applications 3, 5-6, 561-573. Label: InRe Resistance Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis fitness cost host-plant resistance incomplete resistance population dynamics resistance management transgenic crops Abstract: Abstract Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are used worldwide to control major pests of corn and cotton. Development of strategies to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops requires an understanding of factors affecting responses to natural selection, which include variation in survival on Bt crops, heritability of resistance, and fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations. The two main strategies adopted for delaying resistance are the refuge and pyramid strategies. Both can reduce heritability of resistance, but pyramids can also delay resistance by reducing genetic variation for resistance. Seasonal declines in the concentration of Bt toxins in transgenic cultivars, however, can increase the heritability of resistance. The fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations can be reduced by agronomic practices, including increasing refuge size, manipulating refuges to increase fitness costs, and manipulating Bt cultivars to reduce fitness of resistant individuals. Manipulating costs and fitness of resistant individuals on transgenic insecticidal crops may be especially important for thwarting evolution of resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests. Field-evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14Â years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00129.x Author Address: 1 Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA 2 Department of Entomology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Carroll Joseph M, Mohammad Shafiq Ur Rehman, . Year: 2010 Title: £ Pakistan - Biotechnology - GE Plants and Animals Journal: GAIN (Global Agricultural Information Network) - 8/2/2010 - USDA Foreign Agricultural Service Label: InRe Adoption Abstract: Report Highlights: In 2010, Pakistan formally approved eight Bt cotton varieties for general cultivation. While a biotech framework and necessary legislation have been put in place, the government‘s capacity to evaluate and monitor new biotech crops is weak. Another major development is the signing of MOU‘s between public and private sector institutes with U.S and the Chinese biotech seed companies. Implementation of the Plant Breeder‘s Rights Act and amendments to the Seed Act are still pending in the parliament. Aside from traditional vaccines and some genomic studies there is little Genetically Engineered (GE) animal activity in the country Notes: From : Crop Biotech Update > September 3, 2010 – http://www.isaaa.org/kc/cropbiotechupdate/article/default.asp?ID=6612 GAIN Reports: Pakistan Pakistan's status on Biotechnology: GE Plants and Animals is also available at http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Biotechnology%20%20GE%20Plants%20and%20Animals_Islamabad_Pakistan_8-2-2010.pdf The report says that although


Pakistan formally approved eight Bt cotton varieties for general cultivation in 2010, has a biotech framework and necessary legislation in place, the government's capacity to evaluate and monitor new biotech crops is weak. Nevertheless, MOUs between public and private sector institutes with U.S and Chinese biotech seed companies have been signed. Author Address: ? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Carstens Keri L, Katrina Hayter, Raymond J. Layton, Year: 2010 Title: * A perspective on problem formulation and exposure assessment of transgenic crops. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 23-30. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: EvaluationRisque DiscussionPaper Abstract: Risk assessment is a science-based decision making process. When risk assessment follows an established framework, it allows for transparency, predictability, and consistency in the regulatory process. Problem formulation is a critical first stage in the risk assessment process; it involves 1) the characterization of the transgenic plant and receiving environment, 2) definition of harm, 3) identification of potential exposure pathways or potential harm, and 4) establishment of assessment endpoints to evaluate the potential for harm based on the plant‘s characteristics. Risk to non-target organisms can be defined as the co-occurrence of hazard (or toxicity) and exposure. Exposure characterization has often been overlooked in the literature regarding the risk assessment of transgenic plants, with many recent publications focusing only on the hazard portion of the risk assessment equation. Exposure assessment informs the risk assessment and assists in the determination of which types of non-target organisms should be tested in hazard characterization. The purpose of risk assessment is to provide a framework for efficient decisionmaking, rather than to generally increase scientific knowledge; therefore data collection for risk assessment must be directed toward answering specific questions identified in the problem formulation stage. Author Address: UKingdom XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Ce-Shing Sheu, Chung-Yi Wu, Shu-Chuan Chen, Chi-Chu Lo, Year: 2008 Title: ¤ Direct extraction of soil DNA for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), to study the influence of different transgenic papaya lines on soil bacterial communities. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: ImpactBiol Abstract: The infl uence of transgenic crops on the soil diversity of microorganisms is one of the major risk assessments being conducted in Taiwan since 2007. A reliable soil DNA extraction method for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis DGGE was required: (1) to select a soil DNA extraction protocol for use in our laboratory in order to give DNA extracts pure enough for PCR amplifi cation from a wide ranges of soils, and (2) to apply PCR-DGGE for investigating the infl uence of three virus resistant transgenic papaya lines on the soil microbial community in an experimental confined field. Six soils of different type, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, and pH were tested, and four previously reported soil DNA extraction methods were applied to these soils: 1. the MoBio UltraClean Soil DNA kit (UC method, MoBio Laboratories, Inc. Solana Beach, CA. USA; 2. the GS method (Widmer et al., 1996); 3. the CS method (Zhou et al., 1996), and 4. the BS method (Miller et al., 1999). Fresh soil samples of 0.1 g (in triplicate) were used to extract DNA (crude DNA), and was further purifi ed by QIAquick gel before PCR amplifi cation. Soil DNA extracts by Zhou‘s CS method plus gel was recommended


for DGGE to monitor the microbial diversity in soil. There were significant differences on the bacterial diversity DGGE patterns in microbial composition at the beginning of planting, and the differences reduced after six months. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: 1 Chaoyang University of Technology, Applied Chemistry, 2 Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Taiwan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chakraborty Subhra, Chakraborty Niranjan, Agrawal Lalit, Ghosh Sudip, Narula Kanika, Shekhar Shubhendu, Naik Prakash S, Pande PC, Chakrborti Swarup Kumar, Datta Asis, Year: 2010 Title: * Next-generation protein-rich potato expressing the seed protein gene AmA1 is a result of proteome rebalancing in transgenic tuber. Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - published ahead of print September 20, 2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1006265107 Keywords: Compoisiton Nutrition Abstract: Protein deficiency is the most crucial factor that affects physical growth and development and that increases morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Efforts have been made to improve protein quality and quantity in crop plants but with limited success. Here, we report the development of transgenic potatoes with enhanced nutritive value by tuber-specific expression of a seed protein, AmA1 (Amaranth Albumin 1), in seven genotypic backgrounds suitable for cultivation in different agro-climatic regions. Analyses of the transgenic tubers revealed up to 60% increase in total protein content. In addition, the concentrations of several essential amino acids were increased significantly in transgenic tubers, which are otherwise limited in potato. Moreover, the transgenics also exhibited enhanced photosynthetic activity with a concomitant increase in total biomass. These results are striking because this genetic manipulation also resulted in a moderate increase in tuber yield. The comparative protein profiling suggests that the proteome rebalancing might cause increased protein content in transgenic tubers. Furthermore, the data on field performance and safety evaluation indicate that the transgenic potatoes are suitable for commercial cultivation. In vitro and in vivo studies on experimental animals demonstrate that the transgenic tubers are also safe for human consumption. Altogether, these results emphasize that the expression of AmA1 is a potential strategy for the nutritional improvement of food crops. Notes: From : NewScientist Life : http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19473-transgenic-indiansuperspuds-pack-more-protein.html Transgenic Indian superspuds pack more protein 20:00 20 September 2010 by Debora MacKenzie A genetically modified (GM) potato has been created that makes up to 60 per cent more protein per gram than ordinary potatoes. But even with that help spuds don't contain much protein, so that's not the most interesting part: in a surprise result, the GM crop also yielded more potato per hectare. This is the first time that a simple genetic modification has increased yield. Potatoes are an increasingly popular way to increase food production in India, China and other developing countries. The tubers are mainly carbohydrate, but they also contain a little protein: a medium (150-gram) spud contains 3 grams of protein, about 6 per cent of the US recommended daily allowance. The GM variety's extra 60 per cent raises that to 4.8 grams â&#x20AC;&#x201C; nearly 10 per cent of the recommended amount. Subra Chakraborty and colleagues at India's Central Potato Research Institute in Shimla created the highprotein "protato" in 2003 by giving potatoes a gene from the grain amaranth, a South American plant widely eaten across the tropics, including India. The gene codes for a "storage" protein in amaranth seeds, but in the protato it was linked to a DNA code that turns on production of the storage protein in tubers. The team has now spliced this gene into seven commercial potato varieties, and field-tested them for several seasons. This is crucial, as GM crops often behave differently in the lab and the field. Some tubers contained almost twice as much extra protein as the prototype, with increases in several essential amino acids. Tests in rats and rabbits revealed no toxic or allergic effects. However, the plants also photosynthesised more, and produced 15 to 25 per cent more potatoes per hectare by weight â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the only time this has ever been reported for a plant with just one extra gene. Hungry millions


The UN Food and Agriculture Organization reports that 925 million people will suffer chronic hunger this year. "Despite promises that GM crops could make a significant contribution to achieving global food security," Chakraborty and colleagues write, such crops have so far mostly been used for industry or fodder, not for boosting human nutrition. The researchers hope their potatoes will change that. Merideth Bonierbale, head of crop improvement at the International Potato Center in Lima, Peru, says her organisation has chosen to develop potatoes with high levels of iron and zinc, because their lack is a severe problem in many countries and just a little more in potatoes could make a big difference in people's diets. The International Potato Center's potatoes are made without genetic modification. Chakraborty says the team is applying to Indian regulators for permission to sell the potato. As to whether the GM spud tastes different, he says: "Our data suggests better cooking, processing quality and palatability." Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1006265107 URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/09/13/1006265107.abstract Author Address: aNational Institute of Plant Genome Research, New Delhi 110067, India; bCentral Potato Research Institute, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh 171001, India; and cCentral Potato Research Institute Campus, Modipuram, Uttar Pradesh 250110, India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chan Y-L, Cai D, Taylor PWJ, Chan M-T, Yeh KW, Year: 2010 Title: * Adverse effect of the chitinolytic enzyme PjCHI-1 in transgenic tomato on egg mass production and embryonic development of Meloidogyne incognita. Journal: Plant Pathology 59, 5, 922-930. Label: ReNe Physiol Keywords: embryogenesis fungal chitinase PjCHI-1 reproductivity root-knot nematode Solanum lycopersicum Abstract: A novel chitinase gene (PjCHI-1) isolated from Paecilomyces javanicus, a non-nematophagous fungus, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter, was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). T1 tomato plants exhibited high endochitinase activity and reduced numbers of eggs and egg masses when infected with the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. The eggs found in transgenic tomato had lower shell chitin contents than eggs collected from control plants. Egg masses from transgenic plants exhibited higher chitinase activity than those from control plants. Moreover, only 30% of eggs from transgenic plants were able to develop to the multi-cell/J1 stage, compared with more than 96% from control plants. The present study demonstrated that the expression of the PjCHI-1 chitinase gene can effectively reduce the production of egg masses and repress the embryonic development of M. incognita, presenting the possibility of a novel agro-biotechnological strategy for preventing crop damage by RKN. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02314.x Author Address: 1Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei; 2Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Molecular Phytopathology, Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Hermann-Rodewald-Str. 9, Kiel, Germany; 4BioMarka/Center for Plant Health, School of Agriculture and Food Systems, Faculty of Land and Food Resources, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 5Biotechnology Center in Southern Taiwan, Academia Sinica, Tainan, Taiwan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chandel G, S Banerjee, M Vasconcelos, M A Grusak, Year: 2010 Title: * Characterization of the Root Transcriptome for Iron and Zinc Homeostasis-related Genes in Indica rice (Oryza sativa L) Journal: Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology Year : 2010, Volume : 19, Issue : 2 Label: ReEn Metal Physiol Keywords: transcriptome, metal homeostasis, candidate genes, sequence homology, in-silico, RT-PCR. Abstract: Micronutrient malnutrition is the most common form of nutrient deficiency among populations having a cereal-based diet. Rice is the staple food for one third of the world's population but is poor source of iron and zinc content. We have characterized root transcriptome of diverse indica rice cultivars for expression


of ten known metal homeostasis related genes in plants grown under controlled condition [with Fe(III)-HEDTA iron source]. Fe/Zn contents of root and shoot tissues were also determined. Expression analysis showed expression of OsFRO2, OsZIP9, OsYSL3, OsIRT-1 and OsZip5 in most of the cultivars. The cDNA amplicons of OsFRO2 and OsZIP9 from different cultivars were analysed for sequence homology and several variation in their nucleotide sequences among rice genotypes. More than 94% sequence homology was observed for both the genes. We analysed the genomic region underlying these genes to obtain information about possible spatial localization based on overlapping ESTs and MPSS tags. Also, putative SNPs were identified within OsFRO2 and OsZIP9 genes that need to be validated. The sequence based information may be useful in further development of gene specific markers for screening and breeding of high iron and zinc lines. Author Address: 1National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India. 2Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India. 3Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012, India. 4KRBL Ltd, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201203, India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chandler S, Terdich K, Senior M, Kalc G, Year: 2008 Title: ¤ Regulatory considerations and the commercialization of minor transgenic crops; genetically modified carnation. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Bioengineering Adoption Composition Qualite Abstract: Several transgenic varieties of an important cut-fl ower, the carnation, are now available commercially and have been sold around the world for several years. The transgenic varieties have a novel fl ower colour as the result of the accumulation in petals of the anthocyanins based on delphinidin. This pigment does not occur naturally in carnation due to the lack of fl avonoid - 3‘5‘- hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. The transgenic varieties of carnation carry the gene for this protein. Transgenic carnation fl owers are grown in Australia, Colombia and Ecuador and are sold in the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, Dubai and Europe. From the perspective of regulation of GMOs, carnation plants and/or fl owers harvested from those plants are categorized as low risk. This conclusion is attested to by the Offi ce of Gene Technology Regulator decision to place colour-modifi ed transgenic carnation varieties on the gene register in Australia. No other GMO‘s have been added to the register to date, inclusion on which means that there are no regulation-related conditions associated with the production, sale and use of these GMO‘s. There is no evidence for gene flow from carnation, which has never escaped cultivation despite decades of massive amounts of production in Europe, Colombia and Ecuador. Carnation is grown in covered, intensively managed production facilities, which are continuously maintained to control insects and diseases. Naturally, as this is the purpose of cultivation, all the flowers are removed from the plants and carnation has no capacity to disseminate via seed formation or pollen-mediated gene fl ow. There are no related species in the native fl ora of South America (carnation belongs to the genus Dianthus) and our own surveys found no related species in the exotic and introduced fl ora in and near production sites in Colombia. Carnation plants are propagated by cuttings, but outside of cultivation carnation has no vegetative propagation mechanisms that might assist survival. Carnation is susceptible to freezing and infection by pathogens such as Fusarium and Botrytis. Transgenic carnation fl owers are air-freighted from South America to the United States, Canada, Japan, Europe and the Middle East. At destination there is no realistic probability of gene flow to related species, nor of establishment of wild populations of transgenic carnation (as a result of consumers discarding fl owers with their household waste, for example). The trait that has been modifi ed in the carnation, fl ower colour (or more specifi cally the production of delphinidin based anthocyanins) poses no risk to human health and tens of millions of transgenic carnation fl owers have been produced in and exported from South America, with no reports of adverse health effects arising through handling. Carnation is not used or processed for food or pharmaceutical use and delphinidin based anthocyanins are ubiquitous natural compounds found in many ornamental plants and at very high


concentrations in some foods, particularly berries. Medical studies have shown that delphinidin is a particularly beneficial flavonoid. Despite a history of safe use and trade in carnation fl owers producing delphinidin based anthocyanins, the regulatory system is in several ways a constraint to commercialization and presents a genuine barrier to introduction of new varieties. The problem does not lie with regulators of GMOs, who in our experience are sympathetic, supportive and co-operative. Rather, use of genetic modifi cation methods in minor crops, such as ornamentals like carnation, is constrained by the fact that regulation of genetically-modifi ed plants is primarily governed by legislation, guidelines and codes of practice which are generic in nature. The major regulatory issues this can present are; 1. In some cases, the cost of regulation makes entry to market in small countries prohibitively expensive, even when there are customers that want the product. This is because of costs associated with the need for translation, multiple copies of written materials (including copies of all cited papers in some cases) local hearings, fees and travel. 2. In the case of cut fl owers destined for import only not all countries require a fi eld trial as part of the regulatory process. This is a very sensible approach, given the risk of gene flow is inherently higher at the places of production, where the products will have already been approved. However, in some countries there is a need to carry out country-specifi c fi eld trials for products which have been grown and sold commercially for many years elsewhere. For a vegetatively propagated greenhouse grown crop it is not clear how the additional data improves the risk assessment process. 3. Some legislation requires the generation of insert(s) and fl anking genome sequence. Generation of this data is a very diffi cult and expensive exercise and in non-food crops particularly, is a relatively small component of the risk assessment. There do not appear to be alternatives to the provision of such data. 4. Assessment on an event-by-event basis is required in most countries, even though those events may be very similar. For example, our transgenic carnation product pipeline develops new varieties of transgenic carnation using essentially the same genes (including the same selectable marker) generating essentially the same phenotype (production of delphinidin). What largely differs between transgenic events is the parent variety and the fl ower colour shade produced. The comparator trials we routinely carry out on a small scale are used to identify lines which are as close to similar to the parent line as possible, aside from flower colour. Unfortunately, under the current system it is necessary to produce data packages for every new variety which results in a large allocation of resources (time, travel, communication and paper) to generate applications that are largely identical to previous submissions. Delphinidin production in carnation fl owers is a good example of a trait-crop combination which could be regulated on a phenotype basis, as a possible solution to excess administration. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: Florigene, Australia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chassy Bruce M Year: 2010 Title: * The Safety Assessment of Transgenic Plants in which Gene Expression Has Been Modified. Journal: ISB NEWS REPORT SEPTEMBER 2010 Label: EvaluationRisque Expression Abstract: Full text : Engineered crops have become a significant component of modern agriculture. Prior to release for commercial planting, a thorough pre-market regulatory review focuses on any potential agricultural and environmental impacts of genetically engineered crops, as well as any differences in food safety that may be associated with the introduction of novel genes and their products. The regulatory review process is a comparative one in which differences between a new transgenic crop variety and its conventional counterparts are assessed, followed by a determination if any changes that have occurred have introduced new risks or heightened existing risks. To date, the great majority of transgenic cultivars that have passed regulatory review contain genes that encode proteins that confer desired novel traits such as insect or herbicide resistance. Alteration of endogenous gene expression can be an alternative method of producing useful phenotypes in plants. For example, RNA-associated mechanisms can be used to switch off genes, while up-regulation of specific transcription factors can be used to enhance expression and thereby modify a plantâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s growth or response to stress. Since neither of these two mechanisms necessarily depends on the expression of a new


heterologous protein(s), it is reasonable to ask if the safety assessment paradigm developed for and applied to transgenic plants that express novel proteins is appropriate for genetically engineered plants in which gene expression has been altered. This article briefly summarizes the conclusions of a recent paper1 that examines the suitability of the currently used comparative safety paradigm to crops in which gene expression has been altered. Parrott et al. (2010) also serves as an up-to-date review of the safety assessment process. The current safety assessment paradigm The development of a new cultivar, whether transgenic or not, involves repeated selection and culling of candidate plants that do not conform to a long list of crop-specific phenotypic traits found in near isogenic and appropriate comparators, for example: (1) germination and seedling emergence; (2) vegetative vigor; (3) time to anthesis; (4) plant height at maturity; (5) time to maturity; (6) pollen characteristics; and (7) yield. Agronomic and other characteristic traits for each crop have been summarized by OECD, EFSA, and other sources so that cultivars that are advanced into the safety assessment process are the product of repeated selection that contributes to the elimination of both undesirable and unintended variations. A keystone of safety assessment is an examination of compositional and nutritional equivalence of a transgenic cultivar in comparison to closely related counterparts. A unique set of key nutrients, toxicants, and antinutrients associated with each crop are analyzed. Although changes in composition do not necessarily pose new risks, to date the great majority of the crops that have received regulatory approval are compositionally indistinguishable from their conventional counterparts. This has caused some people to question if composition studies are needed for transgenic plants that express simple novel protein-mediated phenotypes, such as insect or herbicide resistance2. A second key focus of contemporary safety assessment is a direct evaluation of the safety of any newly inserted novel proteins with respect to their potential for eliciting toxic or allergic reactions. Bioinformatic comparison to known toxins, anti-nutrients, and allergens, protein digestibility assays, and in vivo studies, such as testing acute toxicity in mice and subchronic toxicity in rats, can be used to assess the potential for adverse effects. Through almost two decades of experience, perceptions about which studies provide significant insights into protein safety, and which do not, have—perhaps not surprisingly—changed. It has been recommended that the assessment could be simplified by a selective and tiered approach4; however, the studies required by regulatory agencies have simply become more numerous and more complex with passing time3,4. Other safety studies include characterization at the molecular level of both the DNA and any introduced proteins, the safety of novel molecular markers used for selection, and nutritional studies in animals. The authors conclude with respect to the current assessment process: ―This safety assessment paradigm is based on the state of knowledge that existed more than 20 years ago. Some aspects have been found to have a scientific basis, whereas other elements of the safety assessment have provided little relevant information on safety.‖ Modulation of gene expression in plants Parrott et al. (2010) leads the reader to the conclusion that the safety assessment paradigm is itself in need of simplification, derived directly from a comparison of conventional breeding with genetic engineering. The authors observe that conventional breeding gives rise to a large number of mutations that typically remain uncharacterized—this is particularly the case where chemical or radiation-induced mutagenesis has been used. Furthermore, a number of studies are cited that demonstrate that transgene insertion can produce less DNA disruption than other conventional breeding methods. While it has been argued that transgenic insertion is per se mutagenic, it appears that DNA alteration mediated by naturally occurring transposition and retrotransposition in plants far exceeds that caused by mutagenesis. Parrott el al. (2010) point out that conventional breeding is generally regarded as safe, in spite of the fact that the nature of the changes in new conventional cultivars are usually unknown. The reader is left to wonder why transgenic crops are subjected to such careful regulatory scrutiny. Small RNA This point is well illustrated by the observation that RNA interference and RNAi species are natural components of the genome that have been historically, albeit unknowingly, exploited by plant breeders. The plant genome potentially encodes thousands of small regulatory RNAs. Traits as varied as the buff seed coat in soybeans and the stems of some modern maize hybrids depend on small RNA-associated mutations. The FLAVR SAVR tomato, high-oleic soybeans, modified starch potato, low allergenic ryegrass, low nicotine tobacco, and various virus resistant crops are all examples of genetically engineered plants in which gene modulation mediated through small RNAs has produced a desired phenotype in the absence of a novel heterologous protein. Several of these were approved and commercialized prior to elucidation of the small RNA mediated mechanism by which the phenotypic changes had occurred.


RNAi-associated changes can be targeted to virtually any gene, even if present in multiple copies; plant scientists have focused their attention in particular on genes associated with pests and pathogenicity. Other targets include altered growth and development, altered nutritional content, and elimination of undesirable compounds. No exogenous genes are used in this form of genetic engineering, and in fact, no genes need be introduced if selectable markers are not present. Transcription factors Transcription factors (TF) and other gene-signaling pathway modifiers have not been used to date in commercial cultivars; however, they have great potential to modulate plant development and stress responses. These proteins, which can enhance or repress gene expression, are key regulatory molecules that constitute up to 10% of plant genes. The effects of a single TF need not be restricted to a single gene; expression of some TFs can trigger a cascade of events. Many of the most important traits associated with crop domestication and improvement have been mediated by alterations in TF expression; for example, loss of shattering of grain crops, loss of branching in maize, naked grains in maize, and dwarfing in wheat that fueled the Green Revolution. To date, no commercial crops in which TFs have been modulated have been released; however, a major focus of research is on TF-mediated resistance to abiotic stress, such as drought tolerance for which several candidate TFs have been identified in different crops. The safety assessment of crops developed using gene-modulation Since small RNAs and TFs comprise a significant portion of the plant genome, and humans and animals routinely consume plants, they are exposed to DNA, RNA, and in the case of TFs, small quantities of TF proteins in their diets. No adverse effect has ever been reported from the ingestion of DNA or RNA. Products such as the FLAVR-SAVR tomato and virus-resistant vegetables were approved because DNA and RNA are safe to consume, and no novel proteins were produced in them. Medical and pharmaceutical uses for small RNAs are an active focus of investigation; however, a major stumbling block has been natural barriers found in vertebrates to the uptake of preformed nucleic acids. Small RNAs do not appear to be active by an oral route of administration unless they are encapsulated in an invasive bacterium that transports them into the bloodstream like a Trojan Horse. As noted above, crops developed using small RNA-mediated mechanisms produce no novel proteins and would therefore be exempt from protein safety assessment. TFs are proteins; however, they are present in very small amounts since they are produced in very few copies per cell. There is also a long history of consuming TFs without any reported adverse effect. Most proteins are innocuous4; no characterized TF has any similarity to a known allergen, toxin, or anti-nutrient. It is likely that a TF that would be employed in genetic engineering of a plant would be from that plant, or perhaps from a closely related crop plant with a high likelihood that it has been encountered previously in the diet. Considering the above, and the fact that plant breeders have altered small RNA and TF content for millennia, it seems reasonable to conclude that modulation of small RNA species or TF production per se is not likely to produce new food safety risks. The most significant changes that might be encountered in crop plants developed through the use of gene modulation techniques is the elimination of a metabolite or the alteration of the composition of a plant. TFs in particular can change the timing and amount of gene expression, but are limited to the genes present in the plant. Thus, they cannot result in the production of novel compounds; they can only alter relative amounts of endogenous compounds. Thus, Parrott et al. (2010) conclude that the safety assessment paradigm used to assure the safety of genetically engineered crops appears to be more than sufficiently robust for application to genemodulated crops. Since conventional crops with altered composition are not subjected to close regulatory scrutiny, it is hard to justify calling for careful compositional studies of gene-modulated crops from a scientific perspective. Such studies will doubtless be required by most regulatory authorities, if for no other reason than to assuage misplaced concerns about the safety of genetically engineered crops. In such cases, the appropriate comparator is the conventional crop grown, to the extent possible, in conditions such as the transgenic version is designed to withstand (e.g., cold, drought). Thus, Parrott et al. (2010) conclude that the safety assessment paradigm used to assure the safety of genetically engineered crops appears to be more than sufficiently robust for application to gene-modulated crops. References 1. Parrott W, Chassy B, Ligon J, Meyer L, Petrick J, Zhou J, Herman R, Delaney B. and Levine M. Application of food and feed safety assessment principles to evaluate transgenic approaches to gene modulation in crops. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 1773-1790 (2010). 2. Rod Herman, Bruce Chassy, Wayne Parrott. Compositional Assessment of Transgenic Crops Engineered with Input Traits: an Idea Whose Time has Passed. Trends in Biotechnology 27, 555-557 (2009).


3. Goodman RE, Vieths S, Sampson HA, Hill D, Ebisawa M, Taylor SL, and van Ree R. Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified crops – what makes sense? Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 73–81 (2008). 4. Delaney B, Astwood JD, Cunny H, Conn RE, Herouet-Guicheney C, Macintosh S, Meyer LS, Privalle L, Gao Y, Mattsson J, Levine M. Evaluation of protein safety in the context of agricultural biotechnology. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (Suppl. 2), S71–S97 (2008). URL: http://www.isb.vt.edu/news/2010/Sep/Safety-Assessment-Transgenic-Plants-Gene-ExpressionModified.pdf Author Address: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chauhan H, Khurana P Year: 2010 Title: * Use of doubled haploid technology for development of stable drought tolerant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transgenics. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal - Article first published online: 18 AUG 2010. Pages: no Label: ReEn Secheresse Bioengineering Keywords: drought doubled haploid HVA1 transgenics wheat Abstract: Anther culture-derived haploid embryos were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv CPAN1676) using barley HVA1 gene for drought tolerance. Regenerated plantlets were checked for transgene integration in T0 generation, and positive transgenic haploid plants were doubled by colchicine treatment. Stable transgenic doubled haploid plants were obtained, and transgene expression was monitored till T4 generation, and no transgene silencing was observed over the generations. Doubled haploid transgenic plants have faster seed germination and seedling establishment and show better drought tolerance in comparison with nontransgenic, doubled haploid plants, as measured by per cent germination, seedling growth and biomass accumulation. Physiological evaluation for abiotic stress by assessing nitrate reductase enzyme activity and plant yield under post-anthesis water limitation revealed a better tolerance of the transgenics over the wild type. This is the first report on the production of double haploid transgenic wheat through anther culture technique in a commercial cultivar for a desirable trait. This method would also be useful in functional genomics of wheat and other allopolyploids of agronomic importance. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00561.x Author Address: Department of Plant Molecular Biology, Delhi University, New Delhi, India XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chen H, He H, Yu D, Year: 2010 Title: * Overexpression of a novel soybean gene modulating Na+ and K+ transport enhances salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. Journal: Physiologia Plantarum Accepted manuscript online: 28 SEP 2010 12:00PM EST Pages: no Label: Physiol Abstract: Salt is an important factor affecting the growth and development of soybean in saline soil. In this study, a novel soybean gene encoding a transporter (GmHKT1) was identified and its function analyzed using transgenic plants. GmHKT1 encoded a protein of 419 amino acids, with a potential molecular mass of 47.06 kDa and a predicted pI value of 8.59. Comparison of the genomic and cDNA sequences of GmHKT1 identified no intron. The deduced amino acid sequence of GmHKT1 showed 38â€―49% identity with other plant HKTlike sequences. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of GmHKT1 was upregulated by salt stress (150 mM NaCl) in roots and leaves but not stems. Overexpression of GmHKT1 significant enhanced the tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants to salt stress, compared to non-transgenic plants. To investigate the role of GmHKT1 in K+ and Na+ transport, we compared K+ and Na+ accumulation in roots and shoots of wild-type and transgenic tobacco plants. The results suggested that GmHKT1 is a transporter that affected K+ and Na+ transport in roots and shoots, and regulated Na+/K+ homeostasis in these organs. Our findings suggest that


GmHKT1 plays an important role in response to salt stress and would be useful in engineering crop plants for enhanced tolerance to salt stress. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2010.01412.x Author Address: 1National Center for Soybean Improvement, National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China 2Institute of Vegetable Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chen H, Hwang JE, Lim CJ, Kim DY, Lee SY, Lim CO, Year: 2010 Title: * Arabidopsis DREB2C functions as a transcriptional activator of HsfA3 during the heat stress response. Journal: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print]. Label: Physiol ReEn Secheresse Abstract: The dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB) family is important in regulating plant responses to abiotic stresses. DREB2C is one of the Arabidopsis class 2 DREBs and is induced by heat stress (HS). Here, we present data concerning the interaction of DREB2C with heat shock factor A3 (HsfA3) in the HS signal transduction cascade. RT-PCR showed that HsfA3 is the most up-regulated gene among the 21 Arabidopsis Hsfs in transgenic plants over-expressing DREB2C. DREB2C and HsfA3 displayed similar transcription patterns in response to HS and DREB2C specifically transactivated the DRE-dependent transcription of HsfA3 in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Yeast one-hybrid assays and invitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays further showed that DREB2C interacts with two DREs located in the HsfA3 promoter with a binding preference for the distal DRE2. Deletion mutants of DREB2C indicated that transactivation activity was located in the C-terminal region. In addition, dual activator-reporter assays showed that the induction of heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in transgenic plants could be attributed to the transcriptional activity of HsfA3. Taken together, these results indicate that DREB2C and HsfA3 are key players in regulating the heat tolerance of Arabidopsis. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20849812 Author Address: Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Plant Molecular Biology & Biotechnology Research Center, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chen H, Saksa K, Zhao FY, Qiu J, Xiong LM, Year: 2010 Title: * Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants. Journal: Plant Journal 63, 4, 573-583. Accession Number: WOS:000281002100004 Label: Composition Expression Nutrition Abstract: P>The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutantcontaining AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. Notes: ReferencesBinder, S., Knill, T. and Schuster, J. (2007) Branched-chain amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Physiol. Plant. 129, 68â&#x20AC;&#x201C;78.


Direct Link:AbstractFull Article (HTML)PDF(136K)ReferencesServices SFX pour l'INRA Blombach, B., Schreiner, M.E., Holatko, J., Bartek, T., Oldiges, M. and Eikmanns, B.J. (2007) l-valine production with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73, 2079–2084. Brosnan, J.T. and Brosnan, M.E. (2006) Branched-chain amino acids: enzyme and substrate regulation. J. Nutr. 136, 207S–211S. Chen, H. and Xiong, L. (2005) Pyridoxine is required for post-embryonic root development and tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stresses. Plant J. 44, 396–408. Chipman, D.M. and Shaanan, B. (2001) The ACT domain family. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11, 694–700. Chipman, D.M., Duggleby, R.G. and Tittmann, K. (2005) Mechanisms of acetohydroxyacid synthases. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 9, 475–481. Duggleby, R.G. and Pang, S.S. (2000) Acetohydroxyacid synthase. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33, 1–36. Duggleby, R.G., McCourt, J.A. and Guddat, L.W. (2008) Structure and mechanism of inhibition of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 46, 309–324. Elisakova, V., Patek, M., Holatko, J., Nesvera, J., Leyval, D., Goergen, J.L. and Delaunay, S. (2005) Feedbackresistant acetohydroxy acid synthase increases valine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 207–213. Eoyang, L. and Silverman, P.M. (1984) Purification and subunit composition of acetohydroxyacid synthase I from Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 157, 184–189. Fernstrom, J.D. (2005) Branched-chain amino acids and brain function. J. Nutr. 135, 1539S–1546S. Friden, P., Donegan, J., Mullen, J., Tsui, P., Freundlich, M., Eoyang, L., Weber, R. and Silverman, P.M. (1985) The ilvB locus of Escherichia coli K-12 is an operon encoding both subunits of acetohydroxyacid synthase I. Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 3979–3993. Hacham, Y., Avraham, T. and Amir, R. (2002) The N-terminal region of Arabidopsis cystathionine ?-synthase plays an important regulatory role in methionine metabolism. Plant Physiol. 128, 454–462. Harris, R.A., Joshi, M., Jeoung, N.H. and Obayashi, M. (2005) Overview of the molecular and biochemical basis of branched-chain amino acid catabolism. J. Nutr. 135, 1527S–1530S. Haughn, G.W. and Somerville, C.R. (1986) A mutation causing imidazolinone resistance maps to the Csr1 locus of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 92, 1081–1085. Hershey, H.P., Schwartz, L.J., Gale, J.P. and Abell, L.M. (1999) Cloning and functional expression of the small subunit of acetolactate synthase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Plant Mol. Biol. 40, 795–806. Hofgen, R., Laber, B., Schuttke, I., Klonus, A.K., Streber, W. and Pohlenz, H.D. (1995) Repression of acetolactate synthase activity through antisense inhibition: molecular and biochemical analysis of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Désirée) plants. Plant Physiol. 107, 469–477. Hutson, S.M., Lieth, E. and LaNoue, K.F. (2001) Function of leucine in excitatory neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system. J. Nutr. 131, 846S–850S. Ishitani, M., Xiong, L., Stevenson, B. and Zhu, J.K. (1997) Genetic analysis of osmotic and cold stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis: interactions and convergence of abscisic acid-dependent and abscisic acidindependent pathways. Plant Cell, 9, 1935–1949. Kaplun, A., Vyazmensky, M., Zherdev, Y., Belenky, I., Slutzker, A., Mendel, S., Barak, Z., Chipman, D.M. and Shaanan, B. (2006) Structure of the regulatory subunit of acetohydroxyacid synthase isozyme III from Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 357, 951–963. Keeler, S.J., Sanders, P., Smith, J.K. and Mazur, B.J. (1993) Regulation of tobacco acetolactate synthase gene expression. Plant Physiol. 102, 1009–1018. Kopecky, J., Janata, J., Pospisil, S., Felsberg, J. and Spizek, J. (1999) Mutations in two distinct regions of acetolactate synthase regulatory subunit from Streptomyces cinnamonensis result in the lack of sensitivity to end-product inhibition. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 266, 162–166. Lee, Y.T. and Duggleby, R.G. (2001) Identification of the regulatory subunit of Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase and reconstitution with its catalytic subunit. Biochemistry, 40, 6836–6844. Lee, Y.T. and Duggleby, R.G. (2002) Regulatory interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase. FEBS Lett. 512, 180–184. Lee, Y.H., Foster, J., Chen, J., Voll, L.M., Weber, A.P. and Tegeder, M. (2007) AAP1 transports uncharged amino acids into roots of Arabidopsis. Plant J. 50, 305–319. McCourt, J.A., Pang, S.S., King-Scott, J., Guddat, L.W. and Duggleby, R.G. (2006) Herbicide-binding sites revealed in the structure of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 103, 569–573.


Mendel, S., Elkayam, T., Sella, C., Vinogradov, V., Vyazmensky, M., Chipman, D.M. and Barak, Z. (2001) Acetohydroxyacid synthase: a proposed structure for regulatory subunits supported by evidence from mutagenesis. J. Mol. Biol. 307, 465–477. Mendel, S., Vinogradov, M., Vyazmensky, M., Chipman, D.M. and Barak, Z. (2003) The N-terminal domain of the regulatory subunit is sufficient for complete activation of acetohydroxyacid synthase III from Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 325, 275–284. Miflin, B.J. and Cave, P.R. (1972) The control of leucine, isoleucine, and valine biosynthesis in a range of higher plants. J. Exp. Bot. 23, 511–516. Nair, K.S. and Short, K.R. (2005) Hormonal and signaling role of branched-chain amino acids. J. Nutr. 135, 1547S–1552S. Ouellet, T., Rutledge, R.G. and Miki, B.L. (1992) Members of the acetohydroxyacid synthase multigene family of Brassica napus have divergent patterns of expression. Plant J. 2, 321–330. Park, J.H., Lee, K.H., Kim, T.Y. and Lee, S.Y. (2007) Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of l-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene knockout simulation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 104, 7797–7802. Radmacher, E., Vaitsikova, A., Burger, U., Krumbach, K., Sahm, H. and Eggeling, L. (2002) Linking central metabolism with increased pathway flux: l-valine accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 2246–2250. Relton, J.M., Wallsgrove, R.M., Bourgin, J.P. and Bright, S.W.J. (1986) Altered feedback sensitivity of acetohydroxyacid synthase from valine-resistant mutants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Planta, 169, 46– 50. Sathasivan, K., Haughn, G.W. and Murai, N. (1991) Molecular basis of midazolinone herbicide resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana var Columbia. Plant Physiol. 97, 1044–1050. Schuster, J. and Binder, S. (2005) The mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (AtBCAT-1) is capable to initiate degradation of leucine, isoleucine and valine in almost all tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol. Biol. 57, 241–254. Shaner, D.L. and Singh, B.K. (1993) Phytotoxicity of acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors is not due to accumulation of 2-ketobutyrate and/or 2-aminobutyrate. Plant Physiol. 103, 1221–1226. Singh, B.K. and Shaner, D.L. (1995) Biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids: from test tube to field. Plant Cell, 7, 935–944. Singh, B., Schmitt, G., Lillis, M., Hand, J.M. and Misra, R. (1991) Overexpression of acetohydroxyacid synthase from Arabidopsis as an inducible fusion protein in Escherichia coli: production of polyclonal antibodies, and immunological characterization of the enzyme. Plant Physiol. 97, 657–662. Tardif, F.J., Rajcan, I. and Costea, M. (2006) A mutation in the herbicide target site acetohydroxyacid synthase produces morphological and structural alterations and reduces fitness in Amaranthus powellii. New Phytol. 169, 251–264. Tourneur, C., Jouanin, L. and Vaucheret, H. (1993) Over-expression of acetolactate synthase confers resistance to valine in transgenic tobacco. Plant Sci. 88, 159–168. Vyazmensky, M., Sella, C., Barak, Z. and Chipman, D.M. (1996) Isolation and characterization of subunits of acetohydroxy acid synthase isozyme III and reconstitution of the holoenzyme. Biochemistry, 35, 10339–10346. Wiersma, P.A., Schmiemann, M.G., Condie, J.A., Crosby, W.L. and Moloney, M.M. (1989) Isolation, expression and phylogenetic inheritance of an acetolactate synthase gene from Brassica napus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 219, 413–420. Wu, K., Mourad, G. and King, J. (1994) A valine-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana displays an acetolactate synthase with altered feedback control. Planta, 192, 249–255. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04261.x/abstract Author Address: 1Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, MO 63132, USA 2Plant Stress Genomics Research Center and Division of Chemical and Life Sciences & Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chen Hao, Kristen Saksa, Feiyi Zhao, Joyce Qiu, Liming Xiong, Year: 2010 Title: * Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants. Journal: The Plant Journal Volume 63, Issue 4, pages 573–583, August 2010


Accession Number: FSTA:2010-Bc1708 Label: Physiol Keywords: branched-chain amino acids;BCAA;essential amino acids;AHAS;ACT domain;valine resistance Abstract: The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutantcontaining AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. (c) 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and the Society for Experimental Biology. Notes: Times Cited: 0 URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04261.x/abstract Author Address: 1Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, MO 63132, USA 2Plant Stress Genomics Research Center and Division of Chemical and Life Sciences & Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chen LiTing, Luo Ming, Wang YuYuan, Wu KeQiang, Year: 2010 Title: * Involvement of Arabidopsis histone deacetylase HDA6 in ABA and salt stress response. Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany 61, 12. Accession Number: CABI:20103248952 Label: Physiol ReEn Salin Keywords: abscisic acid; acetylation; gene expression; genes; genetic markers; genetic regulation; histones; lysine; mutants; mutations; phenotypes; plant growth regulators; protamine kinase; RNA; salinity; seed germination; seeds; stress; stress response; wild relatives; ABA; Capparales; histone deacetylase; histone kinase; plant growth substances; plant hormones; ribonucleic acid Abstract: Histone modifications play an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. All histone modifications are reversible, which may therefore provide a flexible way for regulating gene expression during the plant's development and during the plant response to environmental stimuli. The reversible acetylation and deacetylation of specific lysine residues on core histones are catalysed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDAs). HDA6 is an RPD3-type histone deacetylase in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis HDA6 mutant, axe1-5, and HDA6 RNA-interfering plants displayed a phenotype that was hypersensitive to ABA and salt stress. Compared with wild-type plants, the expression of the ABA and abiotic stress-responsive genes, ABI1, ABI2, KAT1, KAT2, DREB2A, RD29A, and RD29B, was decreased in axe1-5 and HDA6 RNA-interfering plants when treated with ABA or salt stress. It was found that both ABA and salt stress could enrich the gene activation markers, histone H3K9K14 acetylation, and H3K4 trimethylation, but decrease the gene repression marker, H3K9 dimethylation, of the ABA and abiotic stressresponsive genes. Our study indicates that HDA6-involved histone modifications modulate seed germination and the salt stress response, as well as ABA- and salt stress-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 31 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103248952 Author Address: Institute of Plant Biology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan.


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chen Yanjuan Year: 2010 Title: ?? On the revolution of modern agricultural science and technology and sustainable development of agriculture in China. Journal: BULLETIN OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: 2010 (3). Label: Bioengineering Adoption Review Keywords: Keywords: Modern Agricultural Science and Technology Sustainable Development of Agriculture and Technology Strategy Revolution Key words: agricultural technology revolution Sustainable Development of Agriculture Chinasustainable developmentscience and technology a decisive factor in the development of the first productive forces of science and technology scientific and technological progress of agricultural science and technology measures the key role of the meaning of article characteristics Abstract: Science and technology are primary productive forces, scientific and technological progress is a decisive factor in agricultural development to achieve sustainable agricultural development must rely on modern agricultural technology revolution. Article from modern agricultural technology revolution of the content and features, this paper discusses the revolution of modern agricultural technology on the critical role of agriculture for sustainable development, sustainable agricultural development in China were analyzed major problems, put forward to promote the sustainable development of China Agricultural Science and Technology Strategy. Author Address: Economic and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chen Yu-Ting, Quan-Sheng Fang, Chu-Hui Chiang, Shyi-Dong Yeh, Hui-Wen Wu, Tsong-Ann Yu, Year: 2010 Title: * Transgenic Eustoma grandiflorum expressing the bar gene are resistant to the herbicide Basta®. Journal: Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture Volume 102, Number 3, 347-356. Label: HeTo Bioengineering Keywords: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation - Herbicide-resistance - Greenhouse evaluation Glufosinate ammonium - Rooting Abstract: Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) is a cut or ornamental flower that is popular all over the world. This ornamental crop, however, lacks an effective weed control method due to its susceptibility to herbicide. In this study, transgenic plants of a lisianthus cultivar were produced using Agrobacterium-mediated delivery of the plasmid pCAMBIA3300, which carried the bialaphos resistance (bar) gene under driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. The transgenic calli were derived from wounded edges of the leaves grown on a shoot regeneration medium containing 100 mg l-1 cefotaxime and 2 mg l-1 glufosinate ammonium for 4 weeks. The callus that was detached from the wounded edge of the leaf was transferred to the shoot regeneration medium with 100 mg l-1 cefotaxime and 5 mg l-1 glufosinate ammonium for 4 weeks for shoot regeneration. The bar gene integration and expression in the transgenic plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Subsequently, the transgenic lines were assessed in vitro and under greenhouse conditions for their resistance to the commercial herbicide Basta®, which contains glufosinate ammonium as the active component. Six transgenic lines showed high percentages (67–80%) of survival in vitro under the selection condition with glufosinate ammonium (up to 216 mg l-1). Under greenhouse conditions, the plants from these six lines remained healthy and exhibited a normal phenotype after spraying with glufosinate ammonium (up to 1,350 mg l-1). This is the first paper to provide a detailed survey of transgenic lisianthus expressing the bar gene and exhibiting herbicide-resistance under greenhouse conditions. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/n15842x4150h4551/ Author Address: (1) Institute of Genomics and Bioinformatics, Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (2) Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Da Yeh University, Changhua, Taiwan (3) Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Chintawar Sachin, Mishra Ashok K, Gillespie Jeffrey, Year: 2009 Title: 造 The Impact of Adoption of Genetically Modified Corn on the Off-Farm Labor Supply in the United States. Journal: Institution/Association: Southern Agricultural Economics Association>2009 Annual Meeting, January 31-February 3, 2009, Atlanta, Georgia Label: Socioeconomic Keywords: Adoption GM corn Off farm labor two-stage left-censored simultaneous Tobit Abstract: With the production and cropping efficiency gains from adoption of Genetically Modified (GM) corn, the number of acres planted has increased steadily over the past decade. Also, the adoption of GM crops in general has an impact on the labor allocation decisions of farm operators. Using a large sample of Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) data, we estimate a two-stage left-censored simultaneous Tobit model to estimate the impact of adoption of GM corn on the off-farm labor supply of farm operators. Results indicate that the adoption of GM corn has had a negative and significant impact on the off-farm labor supply. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46832 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/46832/2/SAEA_Finalsubmission.pdf Author Address: Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness - Louisiana State University - 226 Ag. Admin. Bldg.; Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chistia Yusuf Year: 2010 Title: * Sustainable food production needs biotechnology. Journal: Biotechnology Advances; Volume 28, Issue 6, November-December 2010, Page 936 - Book review Label: InRe Review Socioeconomic Abstract: Full text : The need for food has never been greater. Modern agriculture appears to barely keep up with the increasing demand for food and questions are emerging about the environmental sustainability of crop production using the existing methods. This book highlights the role of various biotechnologies in improving crop productivity. The book is about maize (corn in North America) and its pests in Africa, mainly Kenya. The focus is on the efforts of a specific project, the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa project, for developing pest resistant varieties of this crop. The book was originally published in 2007 in German under the title Mais nach Mass. The English version of the book updates parts of the German edition and includes some new sections. Maize is a staple food in Kenya and some other regions of Africa. Cultivated for thousands of years by the Indians of South and Central America, maize came to the Old World after Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba. Maize was introduced to Africa by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. Stem borers, or caterpillar of certain moths, are major pests of maize in Africa. Pesticides are not effective against the borers once they have penetrated the plant stem. Modern plant breeding techniques including genetic engineering have been effectively used in developing maize varieties with improved resistance to pests. This book provides convincing evidence that biotechnology is essential to a future food security for the world. Food security based on sustainable crop production is of course necessary for our continued wellbeing. Many more projects of the type discussed in the book will be needed to achieve this important objective. This account by a journalist does not delve much into the technical issues. Instead, it provides a highly readable narrative of an important project in a social context. The book is illustrated with numerous color photographs. Short biographies and pictures of the individuals involved in the Kenyan project make the book interesting. The discussion of the issues faced in having a crop variety accepted by the local farmers is particularly insightful. This hardcover book is produced to a good quality, but it is not for everyone. Individuals concerned with crop production and improvement research in the developing world will find it an interesting case study. Fieldworkers tasked with marketing a new crop to farmers should find the book useful. Yusuf Chistia, Book reviewed : Insect-Resistant Maize: A Case Study of Fighting the African Stem Borer


Author: Jurg Burgi - CABI Publisihing Author Address: School of Engineering, PN456, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Chung Mi-Young, Julia Vrebalov, Rob Alba, JeMin Lee, Ryan McQuinn, Jae-Dong Chung, Patricia Klein, James Giovannoni, Year: 2010 Title: * A tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) APETALA2/ERF gene, SlAP2a, is a negative regulator of fruit ripening. Journal: Plant Journal ―Accepted Article‖; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04384.x Label: Physiol Abstract: The transition of fleshy fruit maturation to ripening is regulated by exogenous and endogenous signals which coordinate the transition of the fruit to a final state of attractiveness to seed dispersing organisms. Tomato is a model for biology and genetics regulating specific ripening pathways including ethylene, carotenoids and cell wall metabolism in addition to upstream signaling and transcriptional regulators. Ripening associated transcription factors described to date including the RIN-MADS, CLEAR NON-RIPENING, TAGL1 and LeHB-1 genes all encode positive regulators of ripening phenomena. Here we describe an APETALA2 transcription factor (SlAP2a) identified through transcriptional profiling of fruit maturation that is induced during and which negatively regulates tomato fruit ripening. RNAi repression of SlAP2a results in fruits which over-produce ethylene, ripen early and modify carotenoid accumulation profiles by altering carotenoid pathway flux. These results suggest that SlAP2a functions during normal tomato fruit ripening as a modulator of ripening activity and acts to balance the activities of positive ripening regulators. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04384.x/pdf Author Address: 1Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Tower Road, Cornell University campus, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA. 2US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Robert W. Holy Center, Tower Road, Cornell University campus, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA 3Current affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Colson Gregory, Huffman Wallace Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Consumers' Willingness to Pay for New Genetically Modified Food Products: Evidence from Experimental Auctions of Intragenic and Transgenic Foods. Journal: International Association of Agricultural Economists>2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China Label: Adoption Socioeconomic Keywords: GM foods consumer attributes willingness to pay economics experiments Abstract: Early GM traits were obtained by transferring genes across species, largely from soil bacteria. Part of the consumer resistance to them has been their transgenic nature. Recently, breakthroughs have occurred using intragenic bioengineering where genes are moved long distances within a specie, for example in potato, and without antibiotic markers. The objective of this research is to assess consumers‘ acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) for new intragenic fresh potato, tomato, and broccoli with higher levels of antioxidants and vitamin C, which are consumer traits. To elicit consumer valuations, a new series of experimental auctions were conducted in 2007 that built upon methodology developed in our earlier research. WTP was assessed in a multiround n-th price auction with seven labeling treatments and five information treatments. We show for the first time that consumers are willing to pay significantly more for intragenic GM vegetables with enhanced levels of antioxidants and vitamin C than for a plain-labeled product and marginally more than for a GM-free product. Supporting earlier research, consumers‘ WTP for GM food products is affected by the type of information available to them when they are making their decisions. The findings suggest potential success for future intragenic GM fresh produce. Notes: http://purl.umn.edu/49986


http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/49986/2/GMIAAEChina112508allab.pdf Author Address: Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Colson Gregory, Huffman Wallace E, Rousu Matthew, Year: 2010 Title: ¤ Estimates of the Welfare Impact of Intragenic and Transgenic GM Labeling Policies. Journal: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association>2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado Label: Adoption Reglement URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61387 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/61387/2/11713.pdf Author Address: Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Georgia USA Department of Economics, Iowa State University Department of Economics, Susquehanna University XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Conley AJ, Zhu H, Le LC, Jevnikar AM, Lee BH, Brandle JE, Menassa R, Year: 2010 Title: * Recombinant protein production in a variety of Nicotiana hosts: a comparative analysis. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal Article first published online: 7 OCT 2010 DOI: 10.1111/j.14677652.2010.00563.x Pages: no Label: Bioengineering Composition Biopharming Bioindustrie Review Keywords: molecular farming recombinant protein production transgenic plants transient expression erythropoietin interleukin-10 amylase Pseudomonas aeruginosa Abstract: Summary Although many different crop species have been used to produce a wide range of vaccines, antibodies, biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes, tobacco has the most established history for the production of recombinant proteins. To further improve the heterologous protein yield of tobacco platforms, transient and stable expression of four recombinant proteins (i.e. human erythropoietin and interleukin-10, an antibody against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a hyperthermostable α-amylase) was evaluated in numerous species and cultivars of Nicotiana. Whereas the transient level of recombinant protein accumulation varied significantly amongst the different Nicotiana plant hosts, the variety of Nicotiana had little practical impact on the recombinant protein concentration in stable transgenic plants. In addition, this study examined the growth rate, amount of leaf biomass, total soluble protein levels and the alkaloid content of the various Nicotiana varieties to establish the best plant platform for commercial production of recombinant proteins. Of the 52 Nicotiana varieties evaluated, Nicotiana tabacum (cv. I 64) produced the highest transient concentrations of recombinant proteins, in addition to producing a large amount of biomass and a relatively low quantity of alkaloids, probably making it the most effective plant host for recombinant protein production. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00563.x Author Address: 1Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada 2Southern Crop Protection and Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, Canada 3Transplantation Immunology Group, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada 4Food Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Sainte-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada 5Vineland Research and Innovation Centre, Vineland Station, ON, Canada XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Consmuller Nicola, Beckmann Volker, Petrick Martin, Year: 2009 Title: ¤ The Adoption of Bt-Maize - An Econometric Analysis. Journal: International Association of Agricultural Economists>2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China.


Label: InRe Adoption Socioeconomic Keywords: GMO crops Germany panel data analysis Abstract: In this study, we theoretically and empirically investigate the determinants of Bt maize adoption in German regions. Specifically, we ask how the regulatory framework, the farm structures as well as the sociopolitical environment of GM expansion in Germany have influenced regional adoption rates. Following a description of the relevant legal and economic framework in Germany, we develop theoretical hypotheses concerning regional variation in Bt-maize adoption and test them econometrically with unique data at the Federal States (L채nder) and County (Landkreis) level. The study provides evidence that the adoption of Btmaize in different regions is positively affected by the amount of maize grown per farm and by the European Corn Borer (ECB) infestation rates. There is also some evidence that the Bt-maize adoption is negatively affected by the activities of the anti-GMO movement and the establishment of GMO-free zones. ============================== Conclusions Our analysis shows that the regional differences in Bt-maize adoption are affected by agricultural structures and the activities of the anti-GMO movement. The regulatory environment in Germany introduces additional fixed and variable cost to adopters of Btmaize. Although Bt-maize is a scale neutral technology controlling for damages caused by the European Corn Borer (ECB) the additional fixed and variable costs transform the technology into a scale dependent one. As the empirical analysis of panel data at the Federal States level show, the maize area grown per farm is the single most important factor explaining regional and temporal variance in Bt-maize adoption. At the Federal States level no relationship could be identified between the ECB infestation rates and the Bt-maize adoption. One main reason seems to be that farms with little maize acreage resign completely from Bt-maize adoption even if they face high ECB infestation rates. In contrast, at the Brandenburg County level the ECB infestation frequency turns out to be an important factor explaining the adoption of Btmaize. Brandenburg, however, is characterised by large-scale maize farming, where the size of maize strands are unlikely to constrain Bt-maize adoption. Surprisingly, other factors such as land ownership and organic agriculture do not explain the regional and temporal variation of Bt-maize adoption on the Federal State level. However, there is some indication that anti-GMO activists and GMO-free zones have a negative impact on Btmaize adoption. Whereas at the level of the Brandenburg Counties the increasing size of GMO-free zones constrains the adoption of Bt-maize, this could not be confirmed for the level of the Federal States. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51630 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/51630/2/432_Adoption%20Bt%20maize_IAAE2009.pdf http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/53262/2/v39_53262.pdf Author Address: 1 Humboldt-Universit채t zu Berlin Germany 2 Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Constance DH Year: 2010 Title: * Sustainable agriculture in the United States: a critical examination of a contested process. Journal: Sustainability 2, 1, 48-72. Accession Number: CABI:20103257143 Label: Review AgriBio Keywords: sustainable agriculture; USDA; organics; GMOs Abstract: This paper investigates the political economy of the development of sustainable agriculture programs and initiatives in the United States. Sustainable agriculture emerged as part of a growing critique of the negative environmental consequences of unquestioned modern farming methods. The USDA/Sustainable Agriculture Research Education Program created in 1990 and the National Organics Program created in 2002 are the current government-sponsored programs in support of sustainable agriculture. Recently, private approaches to develop a national sustainable agriculture standard for the U.S. have emerged. The events of the cases developed in the paper reveal that because the concept of sustainability is deeply contested, agribusiness is able to exploit the ambiguity surrounding the definition of sustainable and exercise power in attempts to frame sustainable agriculture in their favor. Most recently, this contested process has focused on whether geneticallymodified organisms (GMOs) will be included as part of the national sustainable agriculture standard. URL: http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/2/1/48/


Author Address: Department of Sociology, Campus Box 2446; Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, 77341-2446, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Contesto C, Milesi S, Mantelin S, Zancarini A, Desbrosses G, Varoquaux F, Bellini C, Kowalczyk M, Touraine B, Year: 2010 Title: * The auxin-signaling pathway is required for the lateral root response of Arabidopsis to the rhizobacterium Phyllobacterium brassicacearum. Journal: Planta. 2010 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print]. Label: Physiol Abstract: Plant root development is highly responsive both to changes in nitrate availability and beneficial microorganisms in the rhizosphere. We previously showed that Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain isolated from rapeseed roots, alleviates the inhibition exerted by high nitrate supply on lateral root growth. Since soil-borne bacteria can produce IAA and since this plant hormone may be implicated in the high nitrate-dependent control of lateral root development, we investigated its role in the root development response of Arabidopsis thaliana to STM196. Inoculation with STM196 resulted in a 50% increase of lateral root growth in Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings. This effect was completely abolished in aux1 and axr1 mutants, altered in IAA transport and signaling, respectively, indicating that these pathways are required. The STM196 strain, however, appeared to be a very low IAA producer when compared with the high-IAA-producing Azospirillum brasilense sp245 strain and its low-IAA-producing ipdc mutant. Consistent with the hypothesis that STM196 does not release significant amounts of IAA to the host roots, inoculation with this strain failed to increase root IAA content. Inoculation with STM196 led to increased expression levels of several IAA biosynthesis genes in shoots, increased Trp concentration in shoots, and increased auxin-dependent GUS staining in the root apices of DR5::GUS transgenic plants. All together, our results suggest that STM196 inoculation triggers changes in IAA distribution and homeostasis independently from IAA release by the bacteria. Author Address: Laboratoire des Symbioses Tropicales et Méditerranéennes, Université Montpellier 2, IRD, CIRAD, SupAgro, INRA, CC 002, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095, Montpellier Cedex 05, France. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Costa Font Montserrat, Gil Jose M Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Risk perceptions, risk attitudes and the formation of consumer acceptance of Genetically Modified (GM) food. Journal: European Association of Agricultural Economists>113th Seminar, September 3-6, 2009, Chania, Crete, Greece Label: Adoption Conso EvaluationRisque Keywords: risk perceptions consumer acceptance risk attitudes GM food. Abstract: The influence of risk perception and risk attitudes in the process of accepting genetically modified (GM) food is often ignored, and particularly whether both constructs (latent variables) have a combined effect in explaining consumer acceptance. Similarly, the inclusion of organic product standards juxtaposed to GM food is unknown. This paper attempts to shed some light on this question by examining the decision making process through the use of structural equation modeling (SEM). We use survey data from Spain and a set of theoretical constructs that allow us to identify independent mechanisms underlying individuals‘ risk decision making. Our results suggest that the conceptualized model captures the decision making process, and that both perceptions and attitudes toward risk have independent effects on consumer acceptance. However, the effect from risk perception is larger in intensity. Finally, attitudes towards organic production emerge as an informative determinant of attitudes towards GM food. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58001 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/58001/2/CostaFont.pdf Author Address: CREDA-UPC-IRTA, Edifici ESAB,Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, C/ Esteve Terrades, 8, 08860-Castelldefels (Barcelona) Spain,


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Costa-Font Montserrat, Tranter Richard, Gil Jose M, Jones Philip, Gylling Morten, Year: 2010 Title: ¤ Do defaults matter? Willingness to pay to avoid GM food vis-à-vis organic and conventional food in Denmark, Great Britain and Spain. Journal: Agricultural Economics Society>84th Annual Conference, March 29-31, 2010, Edinburgh, Scotland Label: Adoption Keywords: Genetically modified food consumer behaviour choice models Denmark Grate Britain and Spain. Abstract: The introduction and communication of new technologies in the food industries has given rise in the past to some scientific uncertainty that hampers informed choice. Here we draw upon the case of Genetically Modified (GM) technology and, in particular, on different types of GM food, to investigate consumers‘ behavioural reactions to GM food as well as their willingness to pay for avoiding GM food in three EU countries, Denmark, GB and Spain in 2007. Our unique contribution lies in that our empirical analysis concerns two food products containing different characteristics. In particular, we compare consumers‘ reactions to cornflakes (to represent a processed food) and tomatoes (to represent a 'fresh' food) juxtaposed with GM and conventionally produced food. Our results reveal that, although GM food is the least preferred production process (vis-à-vis organic or conventional food), consumers can be divided into two groups depending on their preferences for organic food. Namely, a first group is made up of GB and Spain where consumers are willing to pay a small, or modest, premium over the respective market average price, and a second group is that of Denmark where consumers‘ willingness to pay is significantly larger. Although risk is an influential characteristic, risk rankings indicate that GM food is perceived as less risky than irradiation, artificial growth hormones in food or pesticides used in the production process. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/91750 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/91750/2/43costafont_tranter_gil_jones_gylling.pdf Author Address: 1 CREDA-UPC-IRTA (Center for Agro-food Economy and Development), Edifici ESAB, Parc Mediterrani de la Tecnologia, C/Esteve Terrades, 8. 08860-Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain. 2 Centre for Agricultural Strategy, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading. PO Box 237, Earley Gate, Reading RG6 6AR, UKingdom 3 Danish Institute of Food and Resource Economics (KVL), Rolighedsvej 25, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Coucheron Dag H, Johansena Steinar D, (Guest Editors), Year: 2010 Title: * Special review issue on RNA in basic and applied research. Journal: New Biotechnology Volume 27, Issue 3, 31 July 2010, Page 169 Special Issue: Biotechnology Annual Review 2010 - RNA Basics and Biotechnology Applications Label: Expression Bioerngineering physiol Review Abstract: Full text : The field of RNA research is rapidly expanding. About two decades ago the RNA universe appeared very limited and restricted to messenger RNAs and a few highly abundant natural RNAs. The discovery of catalytic RNA in the early 1980s, followed by the development of new methods of in vitro synthesis and amplification of RNA, the solving of complex RNA structures, and the modern RNomics have dramatically changed our view of RNA function, structure, biological role, and biotechnological prospects. In September 2008 we arranged the scientific meeting ‗Current Topics in RNA Biology‘ with invited speakers, poster presentations, and short talks (www.RNA.no). The location was somewhat unusual since it was arranged on a ship (MS Finnmarken; http://hurtigruten.co.uk) sailing north at the cost of Northern Norway. Despite a heavy storm during parts of the trip, great science was presented on a variety of RNA topics. The contributors, representing well established and highly reputed researches as well as young scientists in the beginning of their careers, were then invited to submit review papers to this special RNA issue. Here we present eleven timely and comprehensive reviews on basic and applied RNA research. The issue starts with two papers presenting different approaches to RNA structural modeling and design, followed by three papers on biotechnological applications and basic features of large catalytic RNAs (group I ribozyme, group II


ribozyme, and RNase P ribozyme). The discovery of small regulatory RNAs a few years ago has brought new dimensions to the RNA field. Thus, the papers on bacterial sRNA, siRNA and innate immunity, microRNA target prediction, and biological roles of zebrafish microRNA, all represent this small regulatory RNA research development. The issue is closed by two papers on RNA in genomic contexts – editing and intron splicing of plastid RNA, and RNA deep sequencing approach to marine bioprospecting. Finally, we thank all the authors who contributed to this special RNA review issue, and our good colleague and friend Professor M. Raafat El-Gewely (Reviews Editor – New Biotechnology, Elsevier) for giving us the opportunity and trust in organizing this issue. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B8JG4-4YGHH0W3&_user=4296857&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse& _zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=docinfo(%23toc%2343660%232010%23999729996%232099767%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=43660 &_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=12&_acct=C000012518&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4296857&md5= 83e782dd2c139f53a257a814ca2c2c23&searchtype=a Author Address: RNA and Transcriptomics Group, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Crava Cristina M, Yolanda Bel, Juan Ferré, Baltasar Escriche Year: 2010 Title: * Absence of Cry1Ab resistance in a Spanish Ostrinia nubilalis population from an infested greenhouse. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 31-36. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: InRe Resistance Abstract: Transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ab has been planted in Spain to control corn borers as Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), since 1998. Indeed, 79 thousand hectares have been planted to Bt-maize in different Spanish areas in 2008. The high selective pressure may produce the development of resistance in populations of the target pest, decreasing the effectiveness of the transgenic crop. The selection may be even higher in neighbour crops in which O. nubilalis is a pest and where it is controlled by conventional Bt-spray products containing Cry1Ab. A sample of O. nubilalis was collected from a greenhouse in south-eastern Spain that was suffering high levels of infestation after repeated treatments with different Bt products. Insects were brought and reared in our laboratory and their susceptibility to activated Cry1Ab toxin, Cry1Ab protoxin and the Bt standard HD-1-S2005 product was tested. As a susceptible control, insects from France kept in the laboratory for more than 10 years without exposure to Bt were used. The ―effective growth inhibition‖ was recorded seven days after treatment and accounted for both dead larvae and larvae which not passed the first instar. PROBIT analyses of the data revealed no significant different response between the strains to activated Cry1Ab toxin and to HD-1S-2005. Cry1Ab protoxin showed 7-fold lower activity in the laboratory strain when compared to the field strain. These data suggest an absence of a relevant shift in the resistance to Cry1Ab in the insects from the field strain as compared to the laboratory one, and point to a deficient Bt product application in the greenhouses. Author Address: Spain XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Crocco CD, Holm M, Yanovsky MJ, Botto JF, Year: 2010 Title: * AtBBX21 and COP1 genetically interact in the regulation of shade avoidance. Journal: The Plant Journal - Accepted manuscript online: 15 SEP 2010 02:40PM EST. Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: shade-avoidance syndrome (SAS) T-DNA mutants B-box zinc finger proteins canopy light Arabidopsis

PAR genes


Abstract: Summary Plants grown at high densities perceive, through the phytochrome system, the selective absorption of red (R) by canopy leaves, and reflection of far-red (FR) from neighbouring plants. This signal triggers morphological responses such as hypocotyl, stem elongation, and acceleration of flowering, which are known collectively as the shade-avoidance syndrome (SAS). Mutations in the photomorphogenic repressor COP1 suppress SAS, but how COP1 modulates these responses is uncertain. We identified a new mutant with altered responses to natural shade, named lhus for long hypocotyl under shade. lhus seedlings have longer hypocotyls than wild-type under low R:FR, but not under sunlight or darkness. lhus phenotype is due to a mutation affecting a B-box zinc finger transcription factor encoded by At1g75540, a gene previously reported as AtBBX21 that interacts with COP1 to control de-etiolation. Mutations in other members of this protein family are also impaired in SAS regulation. In short-term canopy shade, LHUS/BBX21 acts as positive regulator of SAS genes, such as PAR1, HFR1, PIL1 and ATHB2. In contrast, global expression analysis of wild-type and lhus/bbx21 seedlings reveals that a large number of genes involved in hormonal signalling pathways are negatively regulated by LHUS/BBX21 in response to a long-term canopy shade, and this observation fits well with the phenotype of lhus/bbx21 seedlings grown under low R:FR. Moreover, bbx21bbx22 restored SAS in the cop1 background. We propose that LHUS/BBX21 and other B-box-containing proteins, such as BBX22, act downstream of COP1 playing a central function in the early and long-term adjustment of SAS in natural environments. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04360.x Author Address: 1IFEVA, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg University, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Cueno Marni, Hibi Yurina, Karamatsu Katsuo, Yasutomi Yasuhiro, Imai Kenichi, Laurena Antonio, Okamoto Takashi, Year: 2010 Title: * Preferential expression and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Tat fusion protein expressed in tomato plant. Secondary Title: Transgenic Research 19, 5, 889-895. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0962-8819 Label: Biopharming Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - AIDS - Antibody response - Cellular immune response - HIV-1 Tat - Transgenic tomato Abstract: HIV-1 Tat plays a major role in viral replication and is essential for AIDS development making it an ideal vaccine target providing that both humoral and cellular immune responses are induced. Plant-based antigen production, due to its cheaper cost, appears ideal for vaccine production. In this study, we created a plant-optimized tat and mutant (Cys30Ala/Lys41Ala) tat (mtat) gene and ligated each into a pBI121 expression vector with a stop codon and a gusA gene positioned immediately downstream. The vector construct was bombarded into tomato leaf calli and allowed to develop. We thus generated recombinant tomato plants preferentially expressing a Tat-GUS fusion protein over a Tat-only protein. In addition, plants bombarded with either tat or mtat genes showed no phenotypic difference and produced 2-4 g Tat-GUS fusion protein per milligram soluble plant protein. Furthermore, tomato extracts intradermally inoculated into mice were found to induce a humoral and, most importantly, cellular immunity. Notes: 35 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-009-9358-9 Author Address: (1) Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology¸ Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Misuho-cho, Mizuhoku, Nagoya Aichi, 467-8601, Japan (2) Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Vaccine Research, Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Tsukuba Ibaraki, 305-0843, Japan (3) Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna, 4031, Philippines XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Cueno Marni, Hibi Yurina, Imai Kenichi, Laurena Antonio, Okamoto Takashi. Year: 2010 Title: * Impaired plant growth and development caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat. Secondary Title: Transgenic Research 19, 5, 903-913. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0962-8819 Label: Biopharming ImpactBiol Physiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Cytokinin - Cytokinin oxidase - HIV-1 Tat - Tomato - Transient expression Abstract: Previous attempts to express the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Tat (trans-activator of transcription) protein in plants resulted in a number of physiological abnormalities, such as stunted growth and absence of seed formation, that could not be explained. In the study reported here, we expressed Tat in tomato and observed phenotypic abnormalities, including stunted growth, absence of root formation, chlorosis, and plant death, as a result of reduced cytokinin levels. These reduced levels were ascribed to a differentially expressed CKO35 in Tat-bombarded tomato. Of the two CKO isoforms that are naturally expressed in tomato, CKO43 and CKO37, only the expression of CKO37 was affected by Tat. Our analysis of the Tat confirmed that the Arg-rich and RGD motifs of Tat have functional relevance in tomato and that independent mutations at these motifs caused inhibition of the differentially expressed CKO isoform and the extracellular secretion of the Tat protein, respectively, in our Tat-bombarded tomato samples. Notes: 32 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-010-9360-2 Author Address: (1) Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Misuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya Aichi, 467-8601, Japan (2) Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines, Los Banos, Laguna, 4031, Philippines XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Cuesta Arenas Yaite, Kalkman Eric RIC., Schouten Alexander, Dieho Mirjam, Vredenbregt Peter, Uwumukiza Beatrice, OsĂŠs Ruiz Miriam, van Kan Jan AL, Year: 2010 Title: * Functional analysis and mode of action of phytotoxic Nep1-like proteins of Botrytis cinerea. Journal: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 74, 5-6, 376-386. Date: 2010/9// Label: FuRe Physiol Keywords: Gene expression Grey mould Necrotroph Phytotoxic proteins Site-directed mutagenesis Virulence factor Abstract: Nep1-like proteins (NLPs) induce necrosis and ethylene production in dicotyledonous plants. Botrytis cinerea contains two genes encoding NLPs, named Bcnep1 and Bcnep2. The activity of both proteins as well as the expression and function of the genes was studied. The genes are differentially expressed during pathogenesis. Mutants in either the Bcnep1 or Bcnep2 gene were equally virulent as the wild type strain. Sitedirected mutant proteins were expressed in tobacco by agroinfiltration. Mutations in a conserved motif, or in either of two N-terminal cysteine residues abolished necrosis-inducing activity. The contribution of the plant to necrosis-inducing activity of B. cinerea NLPs was investigated using Arabidopsis mutants, virus-induced gene silencing and pharmacological inhibitors. The necrosis-inducing activity of B. cinerea NLPs does not seem to require cellular processes or defense signalling pathways previously identified to be involved in pathogeninduced plant cell death. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WPC-50CDSK81/2/8d5eca3871b6eea128848621daa6390f Author Address: Wageningen University, Laboratory of Phytopathology, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Cuibao Ning, Wang Fang, Yan-Ping Wang, Zhi-Zhou Zhang, Year: 2010 Title: ?? Constructing Expression Vector of New Fusion Enzyme and the Preliminary Investigation of Problems Appeared in the Process. Journal: Biological Technology 2010 Vol 20 - 02 Label: Bioengineering Keywords: restriction endonuclease , PI-SCE Fok, pET28a, cloning , restriction enzyme digestion , Abstract: Objective: Fok restriction enzyme catalytic region gene (631bp) and PI-Sce ? recognition regionbased Taipa (546bp) to connect together and cloned into plasmid pET28a-~ + in the expression of new restriction enzyme fusion enzyme preparation. Methods: beer yeast and sea-bed Flavobacterium as template, PCR amplification of PI-Sce ? and Fok ? gene fragment, then they cloned plasmid pET28a ~ +, and then double-integrated plasmid digestion test. Results: the integration process, both PI-Sce ? or Fok ? gene fragment inserted into the vector can be successful alone, but insert the second paragraph of the gene, the enzyme showed that the gene fragment of about 600bp missing . Conclusion: missing probably because of two new genes linked to the conversion of toxic to host cells, host cell shear was carried out; these two genes may be the formation of a high-level structure will lead to not very good connection, resulting in loss phenomenon. URL: http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=fr&sl=zh-CN&tl=en&u=http://www.ilib2.com/P-ISSN~1004311X.html&rurl=translate.google.com Author Address: China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Czarnak-Klos Marta, Rodríguez-Cerezo Emilio Year: 2010 Title: £ Best Practice Documents for coexistence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming - 1. Maize crop production. Journal: European Coexistence Bureau (ECoB) Abstract: The European Coexistence Bureau (ECoB) was created in 2008 by the Directorate- General for Agriculture and Rural Development (DG AGRI) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to implement the Agriculture Council conclusions of 22 May 2006, inviting the Commission to engage in works related to coexistence between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM farming in close cooperation with Member States and stakeholders. The Council invited the European Commission to identify the best practices for technical segregation measures and to develop crop-specific guidelines for coexistence regulations while leaving the European Union (EU) Member States the necessary flexibility to adapt the recommendations to their specific climatic and agricultural conditions. The ECoB, located on the premises of the JRC‘s Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), consists of a scientific Secretariat (formed by permanent JRC staff and seconded national experts) and cropspecific technical working groups (TWGs) consisting of technical experts nominated by interested Member States (currently one dealing with maize crop production). The management practices for maize crop production proposed in this Best Practice Document (BPD) are the result of a consensus building process which started in October 2008. The ECoB Secretariat was responsible for collection of inputs from TWG members and exchange of information between them, analysis of the collected data and preparation of drafts of the Best Practice Document for consultation. The ECoB Secretariat proposed compromise solutions on controversial issues when necessary. This Best Practice Document was finally adopted by consensus within the Technical Working Group in May 2010. For this BPD, about 30 stakeholder organisations were consulted via Advisory Groups managed by the Commission (on Cereals, Oilseeds and Proteins; on Organic Farming and on Rural Development including external stakeholder groups: EuropaBio, European Seed Association, Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth). • Legislative context In the Commission Recommendation of 23 July 2003 on guidelines for the development of national strategies and best practices to ensure the co-existence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming, coexistence refers to the ability of farmers to make a practical choice between conventional, organic and GMcrop production, in compliance with the legal obligations for labelling and/or purity standards. The ability of the agricultural sector to provide both products is the key factor to ensure the consumers‘ freedom in this area. As agriculture is an open system, the possibility of adventitious presence of GM crops in


non- GM harvests exists and therefore suitable technical and organisational measures may be necessary to ensure coexistence and, consequently, consumers‘ choice further down the food chain. The European legislation1 establishes a threshold, at a level of 0.9%, below which the marketed products containing adventitious or technically unavoidable traces of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) authorised to be used as and in products in the European Community do not require labelling. The Recommendation 2003/556/EC2 on guidelines for the development of national strategies and best practices to ensure coexistence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming advises that the coexistence measures should not go beyond what is necessary to ensure that the legally binding threshold of 0.9% is respected. The current Best Practice Document has been developed in relation with that objective. On 13 July 2010, the College has adopted a new Recommendation on coexistence replacing Commission Recommendation of 23 July 2003. The new Recommendation better reflects the possibility for Member States to establish coexistence measures to avoid the unintended presence of GMOs in conventional and organic crops and their need for sufficient flexibility to take into account their regional and national specificities and the particular local needs of conventional, organic and other types of crops and products. This new Recommendation takes into account the fact that the potential loss of income for producers of particular agricultural products is not necessarily limited to exceeding the labelling threshold set out in EU legislation at 0.9%. In certain cases, depending on market demand and on the respective provisions of national legislations the presence of traces of GMOs in particular food crops –even at a level below 0.9%- may cause economic damage to operators who would wish to market them as non containing GMOs. In view of the new Recommendation, the best practices proposed in this document remain valid to ensure that legally binding threshold of 0,9% established by European legislation is respected, and given the flexibility of the options presented they represent also a useful tool for Member States which decide to aim at lower levels of admixture. In addition, the Commission is currently working on the impact assessment of the establishment of thresholds for labelling GMO traces in conventional seeds and will examine the establishment of such thresholds in the light of the new policy on GMO cultivation. The development of specific legislation or nonbinding coexistence guidelines is in the competence of individual Member States. According to the coexistence report3 of April 2009 published by the Commission, 15 Member States have at present adopted dedicated legislation on coexistence and three further Member States have notified drafts of the legislation to the Commission. • Scope of the Best Practice Document This document, containing consensually agreed best practices for coexistence of GM maize with conventional and organic maize, is intended to assist Member States in the development or refinement of their coexistence legislation or voluntary standards for good agricultural practice. The document covers maize crop production, be it grain production, whole plant use or the sweet maize production. Maize seed production was not addressed in the document. The document is applicable to currently grown heterozygous, single event GM maize. The proposed measures should be adapted in the case of different zygosity or copy numbers of GM loci being introduced in new varieties and approved for cultivation. • Maize crop production in the EU In 2009, grain maize was cultivated on 5.6 million hectares in the EU, the highest share (29%) being cultivated in Romania. In the case of silage maize, the main European growers are France and Germany with an area of around 1.5 million hectares in each of those countries (Eurostat4, data retrieved February 2010). Only limited data is available regarding organic maize production and the dedicated areas may vary considerably from year to year. The main producer of organic maize in Europe is Italy, with a share of organic maize production of about 1.8%. As stated in the Commission report of 2009 on coexistence, the commercial experience with cultivation of GM maize is limited, as in 2008 the cultivation of the only authorised event, MON810, was reported by 6 Member States (CZ, DE, ES, PT, RO and SK) on a surface of about 100 000 ha (about 1.2% of the total maize acreage in EU 27 in this year). In 2009 GM maize cultivation was discontinued in Germany. The total area planted in the EU decreased to about 95 000 ha. The decrease was caused by several factors, including the decreased total area of maize production in Europe. Spain continued to be the largest EU grower with 80% of the total Bt maize area in Europe and an adoption of GM crops on the level of 22%. • Review of the available information on management of adventitious GM presence in maize crop production Potential sources of GM admixture in non-GM maize crops and possible management practices Seed impurities Mixing in machinery Cross-fertilization Mixing in machinery Mixing during during sowing with GM maize during harvesting transport, drying &


storage Seed purity

Cleanliness of seed drillers

GM volunterers Spatial isolation (distances)

Cleanliness of harvester

Cleanliness of dryers, means of transport and storage

facilities Buffer/discard zone Temporal isolation (different flowering time) Control of volunteers The TWG-Maize has carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the available data concerning field experiments and commercial cultivation of GM maize conducted predominantly in European climatic conditions. The information was provided by TWG members who submitted publications (e.g. peer reviewed articles, results of monitoring conducted in Member States), unpublished results and descriptions of practices currently applied in Member States. Various sources of possible GM admixture in non-GM harvests through the production chain were analysed by the TWG-Maize, as well as the factors influencing the GM admixture level. The possible sources of admixture during different steps of the production chain and relevant management practices are summarised in the figure above. > Seed purity The presence of GM seeds in non-GM seed lots was considered one of the critical issues. The TWG.Maize decided to discuss scenarios of best practices to limit outcrossing (the main source of GM admixture in maize crop production) to different levels (from 0.1% to 0.9%) to accommodate for different scenarios of impurities coming from seeds. The GM content in non.GM harvests was expressed in haploid genome equivalents in this document. > Outcrossing with GM maize Cross-pollination between maize fields has been widely studied in Europe in recent years. The outcrossing level can be mitigated by using the appropriate isolation distances, pollen barriers or separation of flowering time. The recommendations to limit the outcrossing level were based on the results of field trials, modelling approach and some data regarding crop production. The most widely used coexistence measure is based on spatial isolation of GM and non- GM fields. In the case of a measure being applied to limit the outcrossing to level below the legally binding labelling threshold (0.9%) the recommended isolation distance did not exceed 50 m. In the case of fields located in close proximity the barren ground isolation distance can be replaced by maize plants (so called buffer or discard zones). Such maize barriers are usually more effective in reduction of outcrossing levels than the isolation distances. In the case of nonmaize barriers such an effect was not observed. Several factors, like field size and shape, prevalent wind direction, the presence of physical barriers between the fields and land topography, were analysed as influencing the level of outcrossing between the maize fields. These variables are however not easily represented or accounted for. Therefore, the TWG-Maize giving recommendations decided to consider the situation which favours the GM pollen flow (non- GM fields located downwind from the pollen donor) and not to propose any modifications of the measures according to the abovementioned variables. The possible contribution of volunteers to the overall GM admixture content was discussed in the document and considered a minor source of GM content in non-GM harvests in present agricultural conditions. > Mixing with GM seeds/harvest during sowing, harvesting, transport and storage. The available data regarding possible commingling with GM seeds/harvest during sowing, harvesting, transport and storage are very limited. The main source of GMO presence in non-GM harvests at the farm gate is the mixing of GM and non-GM material during harvesting. Harvesters used to collect the non-GM harvest after collecting the GM one should be therefore "flushed" with non-GM maize. â&#x20AC;˘ Costs of coexistence measures The costs associated with the application of management practices were already assessed in previous studies. The costs of the use of isolation distances (the most widely applied management tool) will basically correspond to opportunity cost which relates to not growing GM varieties on certain parts of the farm and may vary depending on the regional conditions. In the case of the isolation distance being replaced by a buffer zone some direct costs connected to the sowing of two types of maize could also be taken into account. â&#x20AC;˘ Cross-border issues


Currently cross-border issues related to GM cultivation were analysed only by two Member States, Denmark and Germany. Both administrative and technical issues were identified as potentially problematic, as well as different liability and compensation schemes existing in those countries. The development of consensually agreed guidelines for maize crop production may contribute to the reduction of these problems if, on the basis of best practices described in this document, technical segregation measures were to become similar in Member States. The issues regarding administrative and compensation schemes were outside the scope of the best practice document. â&#x20AC;˘ Best practices for coexistence measures in maize crop production The best practices were based on the abovementioned analysis of existing information concerning possible sources of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops. On this basis, TWG members submitted their proposals for management practices, which were analysed and standardised by the ECoB Secretariat. The TWG-Maize have consensually agreed the recommendation of the following best practices for each potential source of admixture: > Seed purity The seeds used by farmers should comply with the EU purity requirements. The seeds should be stored in a way that minimizes the risk of any unintended use of GM varieties and their commingling with non-GM varieties. > Outcrossing with GM maize The outcrossing with GM maize can be mitigated by applying appropriate spatial or temporal isolation measures. The spatial measures, like isolation distances and buffer or discard zones replacing isolation distance, can be applied in all Member States. The use of temporal measures, based on shifting the flowering times of GM and non-GM fields in order to prevent outcrossing, depends on climatic conditions and is limited to Mediterranean countries and Romania. > Isolation distances The isolation distances which allow mitigating outcrossing were proposed separately for maize grain production and whole plant use. In order to take into account different climatic and agronomic conditions, the recommendations given for any admixture level are expressed as a range. The outcrossing with GM maize is the only source of admixture taken into account. The table below shows the isolation distances recommended by the TWG-Maize. Proposals for isolation distances which can be recommended to reduce outcrossing to different levels in case of grain maize and the whole plant use The isolation distances for admixture levels from 0.1% to 0.9% were proposed by the TWG-Maize, to allow for the adjustment of necessary practices according to different scenarios concerning GM content in seeds. This also allows adventitious or technically unavoidable presence from sources other than cross-pollination (machinery etc.) to be taken into account. Proposals for isolation distances which can be recommended to reduce outcrossing to different levels in case of grain maize and the whole plant use Admixture level Proposed isolation distances grain maize whole plant use 0.1% 105 to 250 -500 m 85 to 120 m 0.2% 85 to 150 m 50 to 65 m 0.3% 70 to 100 m 30 to 55 m 0.4% 50 to 65 m 20 to 45 m 0.5% 35 to 60 m 15 to 40 m 0.6% 20 to 55 m 0 to 35 m 0.7% 20 to 50 m 0 to 30 m 0.8% 20 to 50 m 0 to 30 m 0.9% 15 to 50 m 0 to 25 m > Buffer/discard zones Buffer zones, created around the donor field, fully replacing the required isolation distance were considered a useful coexistence tool. In this situation the TWG-Maize recommended the replacement of 2 m of isolation distance by 1 m of buffer. The partial replacement of isolation distances by buffer zones needs further investigation. The discard zones created around the recipient field could also be an effective tool, however further investigation is needed to propose concrete measures. > Temporal isolation measures The use of temporal isolation measures was considered highly dependent on climatic conditions in a given Member State and its effectiveness may vary year to year. In general the


measures proposed below may replace spatial isolation measures and reduce outcrossing to levels below 0.1%. The use of staggered sowing dates as a tool allowing to reduce outcrossing to levels below 0.1%, in the case of varieties having the same maturity class, can be recommended in the countries listed in the table below. In France, according to the information provided by the French TWG member, the measure based on delayed sowing should be used only in combination with other measures (e.g. reduced isolation distance), according to specific recommendations published previously. The use of varieties of different maturity classes as a tool to allow the reduction of outcrossing to levels below 0.1% in the case of varieties sown at the same date, was recommended in the case of the countries listed in the table below. Minimal sowing delays recommended to reduce outcrossing between donor and receptor fields Member State Minimal sowing delays recommended Greece 45-50 days Italy at least 30 days Portugal 20 days Romania 15-20 days Similar to the staggered sowing dates case, in France the varieties of different maturity classes may be used in combination with other measures, according to specific recommendations published previously. > Admixture resulting from the use of the same seed drillers, harvesters, means of transport or storage places for different production systems All the machines, means of transport and storage places should be cleaned in an appropriate way in case the non.GM seeds or harvest were to be sown, harvested, transported or stored after the GM material. The use of dedicated machinery or storage places eliminates the risk of admixture. • Areas where coexistence is difficult to achieve The TWG-Maize acknowledges the fact that in specific cases the application of recommended best practices may be difficult. Several factors may contribute to this, such as: smaller fields than considered in the isolation distance tables; elongated fields; short field depth; and a level of adoption of GM maize. In those cases, alternative measures may be used, e.g. communication between farmers to minimise problems including the voluntary agreements on harvest labelling and clustering of fields of one production system. • Review of the document and next TWG-Maize activities The TWG members expressed the need for periodical revision of the Best Practice Document as new data becomes available in the future. The timeframe of such revisions remains undecided. The experts stressed as well that the harmonised approach to the monitoring of the efficiency of the coexistence measures is required and, possibly, the development of guidelines for such monitoring. This issue will be addressed by the Technical Working Group during its next activities. Minimal differences in maturity classes recommended to reduce outcrossing between donor and receptor fields Member State Minimal recommended differences in maturity classes (in FAO units) Greece 400 Italy 200 Portugal 200 Romania 200 Slovenia 250 Spain 300 1) Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 March 2001 on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms and repealing Council Directive 90/220/EEC. OJ L 106, 17.4.2001, p. 1–39 Regulation (EC) No 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 concerning the traceability and labelling of genetically modified organisms and the traceability of food and feed products produced from genetically modified organisms and amending Directive 2001/18/EC. OJ L 268, 18.10.2003, p. 24–28 2) Commission Recommendation of 23 July 2003 on guidelines for the development of national strategies and best practices to ensure the coexistence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming. OJL 189, 29.7.2003, p. 36–47 3) European Commission, 2009. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the coexistence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming. COM (2009) 153 final.


4) http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database URL: Maize http://ecob.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Maize.pdf Author Address: Marta Czarnak-Klos (Best Practice Document author); Detached National Expert working for Directorate General Agriculture and Rural Development, seconded to JRC Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; Emilio Rodríguez Cerezo (Head of the European Coexistence Bureau); JRC Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; Europe XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Da Ines O, Graf W, Franck KI, Albert A, Winkler JB, Scherb H, Stichler W, Schaffner AR, Year: 2010 Title: * Kinetic analyses of plant water relocation using deuterium as tracer - reduced water flux of Arabidopsis pip2 aquaporin knockout mutants. Journal: Plant Biology 12, 129-139. Accession Number: WOS:000280999200014 Label: Physiol Abstract: Due to reduced evaporation and diffusion of water molecules containing heavier isotopes, leaf water possesses an elevated 18O or 2H steady-state content. This enrichment has been exploited in plant physiology and ecology to assess transpiration and leaf water relations. In contrast to these studies, in this work the 2H content of the medium of hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana was artificially raised, and the kinetics of 2H increase in the aerial parts recorded during a short phase of 6-8 h, until a new equilibrium at a higher level was reached. A basic version of the enrichment models was modified to establish an equation that could be fitted to measured leaf 2H content during uptake kinetics. The fitting parameters allowed estimation of the relative water flux q(leaf) into the Arabidopsis rosette. This approach is quasi-non-invasive, since plants are not manipulated during the uptake process, and therefore, offers a new tool for integrated analysis of plant water relations. The deuterium tracer method was employed to assess water relocation in Arabidopsis pip2;1 and pip2;2 aquaporin knockout plants. In both cases, q(leaf) was significantly reduced by about 20%. The organ and cellular expression patterns of both genes imply that changes in root hydraulic conductivity, as previously demonstrated for pip2;2 mutants, and leaf water uptake and distribution contributed in an integrated fashion to this reduced flux in intact plants. Notes: Times Cited: 1 URL: <Go to ISI>://000280999200014 Author Address: Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Daghan, H, Arslan M, Uygur V, Koleli N, Eren A, Year: 2010 Title: * The Cadmium Phytoextraction Efficiency of Scmtii Gene Bearing Transgenic Tobacco Plant. Journal: Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 1974-1978 Published: AUG 2010. Accession Number: WOS:000281303100011 Label: ReEn ImpactEnvironnement Bioremediation Keywords: Cadmium; Nicotiana tabacum; metallothionein; phytoremediation; transgenic KeyWords Plus: HEAVY-METAL DETOXIFICATION; METALLOTHIONEIN GENE; ENZYMEACTIVITY; RICE SEEDLINGS; ACCUMULATION; STRESS; PHYTOREMEDIATION; GLUTATHIONE; TOLERANCE; LEAD Abstract: Cadmium pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the human health and the environmental quality. Phytoremediation, the use of green plants to remove, sequester or detoxify pollutants offers an environmentally-friendly alternative to engineering-based methods for remediation. The T2 generations of the ScMTII gene bearing transgenic and non-transgenic tobacco plants were grown hydroponically in Hoagland nutrition solution containing 0, 5 and 10 mg/L Cd in controlled growth room to


determine their ability to uptake and accumulate Cd within the shoots and roots. There were no significant shoot and root thy weight differences between transgenic and non-transgenic tobacco plants. The ScMTII gene bearing transgenic tobacco plant accumulated 19.8% higher Cd than the non-transgenic tobacco plant in the above ground parts of the plant during the two weeks exposure period in hydroponic culture. In non-transgenic plant, however, Cd is accumulated mainly in the roots. The results of current study indicate that the use of the ScMTII gene bearing transgenic tobacco plant for Cd phytoremediation is limited. Further studies are needed to test the effectiveness of the ScMTII gene for phytoextraction of other heavy metal ions. URL: <Go to ISI>://000281303100011 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/InboundService.do?Func=Frame&product=WOS&action=retrieve&SrcApp=End Note&UT=000281303100011&SID=V1Kd6fFiF52LDDH8DEM&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=ResearchSoft&mode=F ullRecord&customersID=ResearchSoft&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Faccess.isiproducts.com%2Fcustom_image s%2Fwok_failed_auth.html Author Address: 1. Mustafa Kemal Univ, Fac Agr, Field Crops Dept, Antakya, Turkey 2. Mustafa Kemal Univ, Fac Agr, Dept Soil Sci, Antakya, Turkey 3. Mersin Univ, Fac Engn, Environm Fac, Mersin, Turkey XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Daskalova Sasha M, Josiah E Radder, Zbigniew A Cichacz, Sam H Olsen, George Tsaprailis, Hugh Mason, Linda C Lopez, Year: 2010 Title: * Engineering of N. benthamiana L. plants for production of N-acetylgalactosamine-glycosylated proteins - towards development of a plant-based platform for production of protein therapeutics with mucin type O-glycosylation. Journal: BMC Biotechnology 2010, 10: 62 Label: Biopharming Abstract: Background Mucin type O-glycosylation is one of the most common types of post-translational modifications that impacts stability and biological functions of many mammalian proteins. A large family of UDP-GalNAc polypeptide:Nacetyl-alpha-galactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) catalyzes the first step of mucin type O-glycosylation by transferring GalNAc to serine and/or threonine residues of acceptor polypeptides. Plants do not have the enzyme machinery to perform this process, thus restricting their use as bioreactors for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Results The present study demonstrates that an isoform of the human GalNAc-Ts family, GalNAc-T2, retains its localization and functionality upon expression in N. benthamiana L. plants. The recombinant enzyme resides in the Golgi as evidenced by the fluorescence distribution pattern of the GalNAc-T2:GFP fusion and alteration of the fluorescence signature upon treatment with Brefeldin A. A GalNAc-T2-specific acceptor peptide, the 113136 aa fragment of chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit, is glycosylated in vitro by the plant-produced enzyme at the "native" GalNAc attachment sites, Ser-121 and Ser-127. Ectopic expression of GalNAc-T2 is sufficient to "arm" tobacco cells with the ability to perform GalNAc-glycosylation, as evidenced by the attachment of GalNAc to Thr-119 of the endogenous enzyme endochitinase. However, the capacity for glycosylation of recombinant glycoproteins expressed at very high levels, such as the magnICON-expressed E. coli enterotoxin B subunit:H.sapiens mucin 1 tandem repeat-derived peptide fusion protein (LTBMUC1), is limited by the low endogenous UDP-GalNAc substrate pool and the insufficient translocation of UDP-GalNAc to the Golgi lumen. Further genetic engineering of the GalNAc-T2 plants by co-expressing Y. enterocolitica UDP-GlcNAc 4-epimerase gene and C. elegans UDP-GlcNAc/UDP-GalNAc transporter gene overcomes these limitations as indicated by the expression of the model LTBMUC1 protein exclusively as a glycoform. Conclusion Plant bioreactors can be engineered that are capable of producing Tn antigen-containing recombinant therapeutics. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6750-10-62.pdf Author Address: 1 Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA 2 Center for Innovations in Medicine, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA


3Center for Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Davies HM Year: 2010 Title: * Commercialization of whole-plant systems for biomanufacturing of protein products: evolution and prospects. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal 8, 8, 845-861. Label: Biopharming Review Keywords: Plant-made pharmaceuticals molecular farming pharming pharmaceuticals biotechnology Abstract: Summary Technology for enabling plants to biomanufacture nonnative proteins in commercially significant quantities has been available for just over 20 years. During that time, the agricultural world has witnessed rapid commercialization and widespread adoption of transgenic crops enhanced for agronomic performance (herbicide-tolerance, insect-resistance), while plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) and plant-made industrial products (PMIPs) have been limited to experimental and small-scale commercial production. This difference in the rate of commercial implementation likely reflects the very different business-development challenges associated with ‘product’ technologies compared with ‘enabling’ (‘platform’) technologies. However, considerable progress has been made in advancing and refining plant-based production of proteins, both technologically and in regard to identifying optimal business prospects. This review summarizes these developments, contrasting today’s technologies and prospective applications with those of the industry’s formative years, and suggesting how the PM(I)P industry’s evolution has generated a very positive outlook for the ‘plant-made’ paradigm. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00550.x Author Address: Kentucky Tobacco Research and Development Center, and Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: DeFraia CT, Zhang X, Mou Z, Year: 2010 Title: * Elongator Subunit 2 Is an Accelerator of Immune Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal: The Plant Journal - Accepted manuscript online: 28 AUG 2010 Pages: no Label: DisRe Keywords: AtELP2 NPR1 plant immunity salicylic acid systemic acquired resistance gene transcription Abstract: SUMMARY Immune responses in eukaryotes involve rapid and profound transcriptional reprogramming. Although mechanisms regulating the amplitude of defense gene expression have been extensively characterized, those controlling the speed of defense gene induction are not well understood. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 (AtELP2) regulates the kinetics of defense gene induction. AtELP2 is required for rapid defense gene induction and the establishment of full basal and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Surprisingly, biological or chemical induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a longlasting plant immunity against a broad-spectrum of pathogens, restores pathogen resistance to Atelp2 mutant plants. Simultaneous removal of AtELP2 and NPR1, a transcription coactivator essential for full-scale expression of a subset of defense genes and the establishment of SAR, completely abolishes resistance to two different ETI-inducing pathogens. These results demonstrate that AtELP2 is an accelerator of defense gene induction, which functions largely independent of NPR1 in establishing plant immunity. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04345.x Author Address: Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, P.O. Box 110700, Gainesville, FL 32611. USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Delis C, Krokida A, Georgiou S, Pena-Rodriguez LM, Kavroulakis N, Ioannou E, Roussis V, Osbourn AE, Papadopoulou KK, Year: 2010


Title: * Role of lupeol synthase in Lotus japonicus nodule formation. Journal: New Phytologist - Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010. Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: Lotus japonicus lupeol synthase nodules roots symbiosis triterpenes Abstract: •Triterpenes are plant secondary metabolites, derived from the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). Here, we investigated the role of lupeol synthase, encoded by OSC3, and its product, lupeol, in developing roots and nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus. •The expression patterns of OSC3 in different developmental stages of uninfected roots and in roots infected with Mesorhizobium loti were determined. The tissue specificity of OSC3 expression was analysed by in situ hybridization. Functional analysis, in which transgenic L. japonicus roots silenced for OSC3 were generated, was performed. The absence of lupeol in the silenced plant lines was determined by GC-MS. •The expression of ENOD40, a marker gene for nodule primordia initiation, was increased significantly in the OSC3-silenced plant lines, suggesting that lupeol influences nodule formation. Silenced plants also showed a more rapid nodulation phenotype, consistent with this. Exogenous application of lupeol to M. loti-infected wild-type plants provided further evidence for a negative regulatory effect of lupeol on the expression of ENOD40. •The synthesis of lupeol in L. japonicus roots and nodules can be solely attributed to OSC3. Taken together, our data suggest a role for lupeol biosynthesis in nodule formation through the regulation of ENOD40 gene expression. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03463.x Author Address: 1Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Larissa 41221, Greece 2Unidad de Biotecnología, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, México 3National Agricultural Research Foundation, Institute of Chania, Greece 4National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Athens, Greece 5John Innes Centre, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UKingdom XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Delker Carolin, Poschl Yvonne, Raschke Anja, Ullrich Kristian, Ettingshausen Stefan, Hauptmann Valeska, Grosse Ivo, Quint Marcel, Year: 2010 Title: * Natural Variation of Transcriptional Auxin Response Networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal: Plant Cell 22, 7, 2184-2200. Date: July 1, 2010 Label: Physiol Abstract: Natural variation has been observed for various traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we investigated natural variation in the context of physiological and transcriptional responses to the phytohormone auxin, a key regulator of plant development. A survey of the general extent of natural variation to auxin stimuli revealed significant physiological variation among 20 genetically diverse natural accessions. Moreover, we observed dramatic variation on the global transcriptome level after induction of auxin responses in seven accessions. Although we detect isolated cases of major-effect polymorphisms, sequencing of signaling genes revealed sequence conservation, making selective pressures that favor functionally different protein variants among accessions unlikely. However, coexpression analyses of a priori defined auxin signaling networks identified variations in the transcriptional equilibrium of signaling components. In agreement with this, cluster analyses of genome-wide expression profiles followed by analyses of a posteriori defined gene networks revealed accession-specific auxin responses. We hypothesize that quantitative distortions in the ratios of interacting signaling components contribute to the detected transcriptional variation, resulting in physiological variation of auxin responses among accessions. URL: http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/7/2184 Author Address: a Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Independent Junior Research Group, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany b Institute of Computer Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Demanèche S, Simonet P Year: 2010 Title: ¤ Biotic and abiotic regulation of recombinant DNA transfer from transgenic plants to soil bacteria. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Transfert Abstract: The possible transfer of recombinant DNA from transgenic plants to soil bacteria is one of the issues that feed the ongoing debate about the ecological safety of plant transgenic technology. Societal concerns regarding bacteria are especially related to the potential dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment that raise fundamental evolution questions about gene transfer between species and kingdoms. The objectives of my talk will be to present an overview of the investigations that we carried out recently to understand how horizontal gene transfers (HGT) in bacteria are regulated. This will include the role of the various bacterial cell mechanisms involved in the regulation of acquisition and integration of foreign DNA with a particular emphasis on DNA originating from plants. I will also indicate how plant bacteria DNA fl ow can be regulated by environmental conditions in some plant related ecosystems, which are hot spots for HGT compared to the bulk soil. Most of these results were obtained from laboratory and green house experiments. I will compare to results from a fi eld experiment in which the ampicillin resistance bla-TEM1 gene of the Bt176 transgenic maize was targeted in the soil bacteria community by culture dependent and independent technologies. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: Environmental Microbial Genomics, Laboratoire Ampère, UMR CNRS 5005, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Université de Lyon, France. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Demont M, Devos Y, Sanvido O, Year: 2010 Title: Towards flexible coexistence regulations for GM crops in the EU Journal: EuroChoices, Volume 9, Number 2, August 2010 , pp. 18-24(7). Accession Number: CABI:20103256749 Label: InRe HeTo Dispersion Reglement Socioeconomic Abstract: The European Union (EU) is currently facing a challenge that might unnecessarily hamper the adoption of GM crops: regulating the coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops. Member states are currently implementing or developing both ex ante coexistence regulations and ex post liability schemes to ensure that both GM and non-GM crops can be cultivated in the EU. In this article, we explore in detail how national and/or regional policymakers can build in a certain degree of flexibility in ex ante coexistence regulations in order to reduce the regulatory burden on certain agricultural options and avoid jeopardising the economic incentives for coexistence. We use the example of GM maize as a case study, being the only GM crop planted over a significant area in the EU. We conclude that flexibility could be integrated into regulations at different levels: (i) at the regulatory level by relaxing some of the regulatory rigidity in ex ante regulations; (ii) at the farm level by allowing the substitution of isolation distances by pollen barriers; and (iii) at the national/regional level through plural coexistence measures, consistent with heterogeneity of farming in the EU. French : L'Union européenne (UE) est actuellement confrontée à un défi qui pourrait entraver inutilement l'adoption des cultures transgéniques : la réglementation de la coexistence de cultures transgéniques et nontransgéniques. Les États membres sont en train de mettre en œuvre ou de développer à la fois des réglementations de coexistence a priori et des dispositifs de responsabilité a posteriori, afin de permettre la coexistence des deux types de cultures dans l'UE. Dans cet article, nous envisageons en détail comment les décideurs de l'action publique au niveau national et/ou régional peuvent introduire un certain degré de flexibilité dans les réglementations de coexistence a priori afin de réduire le poids réglementaire de certaines


options agricoles et d'éviter de compromettre les incitations économiques à la coexistence. Nous utilisons l'exemple du maïs transgénique, seul culture transgénique occupant une superficie non négligeable dans l'UE. Nous concluons que la flexibilité pourrait être intégrée dans les réglementations à différents niveaux : (i) au niveau réglementaire en assouplissant certaines des rigidités dans les réglementations a priori; (ii) au niveau de l'exploitation en permettant la substitution des distances de séparation par des barrièrs à pollen; et (iii) au niveau national/régional par le biais de mesures plurielles de coexistence, cohérentes avec l'hétérogénéité de l'agriculture européenne. URL: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/euch/2010/00000009/00000002/art00004 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1746-692X.2009.00135.x/full Author Address: 1: Matty Demont, Principal Agricultural Economist, Africa Rice Center (Africa Rice), SaintLouis, Senegal and previously Centre for Agricultural and Food Economics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 2: Yann Devos, Post-Doctoral Researcher, Department of Plant Production, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. 3: Olivier Sanvido, Research Scientist, Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon Research Station ART, Zurich, Switzerland. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Devos Yann, Mathias Cougnon, Sofie Vergucht, Robert Bulcke, Geert Haesaert, Walter Steurbaut, Dirk Reheul, Year: 2010 Title: * Environmental impact of herbicide regimes used with genetically modified herbicide-resistant maize. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 43-48. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: HeTo ImpactBiol ImpactEnvironnement Resistance Sante Abstract: With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the EU, changes in patterns of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production. To test this hypothesis, the environmental impact of various herbicide regimes currently used with non- GMHR maize in Belgium was calculated and compared with that of possible herbicide regimes applied in GMHR maize. Impacts on human health and the environment were calculated via the pesticide occupational and environmental risk (POCER) indicator. Results showed that the environmental impact of herbicide regimes solely relying on the active ingredients glyphosate (GLY) or glufosinateammonium (GLU) is lower than that of herbicide regimes used in non-GMHR maize. This beneficial environmental impact is reduced or counterbalanced depending upon the use of other herbicides in association with GLY or GLU in GMHR maize. Author Address: Belgium XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Devos Yann, Sylvie Mestdagh, Karine Lheureux, Year: 2010 Title: *¤ EFSA‘s activities on the environmental risk assessment of GM plants. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 37-42. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: EvaluationRisque DiscussionPaper Abstract: The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) plays a central role in the risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants in the European Union by providing (1) independent science-based advice on the safety of GM plants and derived food and feed products, and (2) risk assessment guidance to assist applicants in the preparation and presentation of their GM plant market authorisation applications. The EFSA‘s scientific panel on genetically modified organisms (GMO Panel) has taken several initiatives to consider the latest experience gained, as well as technological progress and scientific developments made in the field of the


risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed products. In this respect, the EFSA GMO Panel is currently in the process of revising the environmental sections of its guidance document for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed products. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: D'haeseleer Katrien, De Keyser Annick, Goormachtig Sofie, Holsters Marcelle, Year: 2010 Title: * Transcription Factor MtATB2: About Nodulation, Sucrose and Senescence. Journal: Plant and Cell Physiology 51, 9, 1416-1424. Date: September 1, 2010 Label: Physiol Keywords: Differential expression Medicago truncatulaIn determinate nodule Sucrose homeostasis Symbiosis Abstract: The symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia results in root nodules with nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Throughout the lifespan of the nodules, the exchange of C sources and N compounds between the host plant and the bacteria is tightly balanced. Sucrose plays a major role in the provision of C skeletons and energy to the bacteroids. Transcription of MtATB2, encoding a bZIP transcription factor, is shown to be regulated by sucrose and is enhanced during nodule senescence. Transcripts occur in the nodule apex and in the vascular tissue of nodules and roots. Ectopic expression of the gene diminished nodule formation and affected root growth. Presumably, MtATB2 controls processes that are under sucrose homeostasis and are important for nodule and root growth. URL: http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/content/51/9/1416.abstract Author Address: 1Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, 9052 Gent, Belgium 2Department of Plant Biotechnology and Genetics, Ghent University, 9052 Gent, Belgium XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Di Marzio Walter D, María E. Sáenz, José L. Alberdi, Nicolás Fortunato, Verónica Cappello, Clarisa Montivero, Gabriela Ambrini, Year: 2010 Title: * Environmental Impact of Insecticides Applied on Biotech Soybean Crops in Relation to the Distance from Aquatic Ecosystems. Journal: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Volume 29, Issue 9, pages 1907–1917, September 2010 Accession Number: WOS:000281200700004 Label: HeTo InRe ImpactPesticide Abstract: Aquatic environments located in areas cultivated with biotech soybean were studied. Water and sediment samples were analyzed for insecticides, acute toxicity, genotoxicity, detoxification biomarkers, and fish diversity. Samples were taken in the core area of soybean cultivation in Argentina; all measures were related to the distance between the crops and the streams sampled. Endosulfan (alpha + beta) concentrations as high as 553.33 mu g/kg were found in sediments from environments located at 0.15 m from treated fields. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) gene expression in fish showed the highest correlation with the environmental concentration of endosulfan. These biomarkers and mortality of amphipods significantly correlated with the concentration of endosulfan in water and sediment, which correlates inversely with the distance between the crop and streams. The differences with respective controls disappear at distances greater than 5 m. The fish diversity was significantly lower from distances between the margin of the stream and soybean crops, not exceeding 2 m. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.246/abstract Author Address: 1National Council of Scientific and Technical Researches CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires, Argentina 2Ecotoxicology Research Program, Department of Basic Sciences, National University of Luján, B6700 Luján, Argentina 3Provincial Agency for Sustainable Development, Government of the Province of Buenos Aires, B1900 La Plata, Argentina XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Dietrich P, Anschuetz U, Kugler A, Becker D, Year: 2010 Title: * Physiology and biophysics of plant ligand-gated ion channels. Journal: Plant Biology Volume: 12 Pages: 80-93 Supplement: Suppl. 1 Published: SEP 2010. Accession Number: WOS:000280999200009 Label: Physiol DisRe ReEn Keywords: Author Keywords: Cyclic nucleotides; glutamate; intra- and extracellular signalling ligands KeyWords Plus: PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH; RECEPTOR-LIKE GENE; CALMODULIN-BINDING TRANSPORTER; IONOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; CYCLIC-NUCLEOTIDE; ARABIDOPSISTHALIANA; PLASMA-MEMBRANE; NITROGEN-METABOLISM; TRANSGENIC PLANTS; K+ CHANNELS Abstract: Small molecules and metabolites often act as intra- or extracellular messengers in signal transduction pathways. Ligand-gated ion channels provide a mean to transduce those biochemical signals at the membrane into electrical events and ion fluxes. In plants, cyclic nucleotides and glutamate represent intra- and extracellular signalling ligands, respectively. While the former have been shown to regulate voltage-dependent ion channels and are supposed to activate cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channels, the latter are perceived by ionotropic glutamate receptors (GLRs). This review summarises our current knowledge about CNG channels and glutamate receptors in plants and their proposed roles in plant development and adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Notes: Times Cited: 1 URL: <Go to ISI>://000280999200009 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/InboundService.do?Func=Frame&product=WOS&action=retrieve&SrcApp=End Note&UT=000280999200009&SID=V23El2J7g88M5fAbO5i&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=ResearchSoft&mode=Full Record&customersID=ResearchSoft&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Faccess.isiproducts.com%2Fcustom_images %2Fwok_failed_auth.html Author Address: 1. Erlangen Univ, Dept Biol, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany 2. Univ Wurzburg, D-97082 Wurzburg, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Dillen Koen, Mitchell PD, Van Looy T, Tollens E, Year: 2010 Title: * The western corn rootworm, a new threat to European agriculture: opportunities for biotechnology? Journal: Pest Management Science Volume: 66 Issue: 9 Pages: 956-966 Published: SEP 2010. Accession Number: WOS:000281368100005 Label: InRe Efficacite Adoption Socioeconomic Keywords: Author Keywords: biotechnology; GM crops; Bt maize; Monte Carlo simulation; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera KeyWords Plus: CHRYSOMELIDAE LARVAL INJURY; ANTE IMPACT ASSESSMENT; PESTMANAGEMENT; SUGAR-BEET; COLEOPTERA; INSECTICIDES; MAIZE; RESISTANT; HUNGARY; MODEL Abstract: BACKGROUND: During the early 1990s, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte (WCR), a maize pest, invaded the European continent. The continuous spread of the pest has introduced a new constraint into European maize production. As the damage caused by the invasive species is highly variable and different crop protection (CP) strategies are available, farmers' optimal strategies are not obvious. This study uses a simulation model to assess the competitiveness of different CP strategies in seven Central European countries. RESULTS: Results indicate a high degree of heterogeneity in the profitability of different CP strategies, depending on the production parameters in each country. In general, crop rotation and Bt maize offer the best solutions to farmers, but, in continuous (non-rotated) maize cultivation, chemical CP options may capture part of the market. For Austrian continuous maize production it is found that not deregulating Bt maize implies that farmers forego revenues of up to (sic)59 ha(-1). CONCLUSIONS: In the presence of WCR, producing maize by an economically sound method requires incorporating country- and farm-specific characteristics into the decision framework. Also, not deregulating Bt maize has direct monetary consequences for many farmers that could influence total maize output and resistance management. URL: <Go to ISI>://000281368100005


http://apps.isiknowledge.com/InboundService.do?product=WOS&action=retrieve&SrcApp=EndNote&UT=00 0281368100005&SID=V23El2J7g88M5fAbO5i&SrcAuth=ResearchSoft&mode=FullRecord&customersID=R esearchSoft&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Faccess.isiproducts.com%2Fcustom_images%2Fwok_failed_auth.html Author Address: 1. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Div Agr & Food Econ, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, B-3001 Louvain, Belgium 2. Univ Wisconsin, Dept Agr & Appl Econ, Madison, WI USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Dolgikh EA, Leppyanen IV, Osipova MA, Savelyeva NV, Borisov AY, Tsyganov VE, Geurts R, Tikhonovich IA, Year: 2010 Title: * Genetic dissection of Rhizobium-induced infection and nodule organogenesis in pea based on ENOD12A and ENOD5 expression analysis. Journal: Plant Biology Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010 Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: Genetic dissection Nod factor nodulation nodulins Pisum sativum signal transduction symbiotic mutants Abstract: In legumes, perception of rhizobial lipochitooligosacharide-based molecules (Nod factors) and subsequent signal transduction triggers transcription of plant symbiosis-specific genes (early nodulins). We present genetic dissection of Nod factor-controlled processes in Pisum sativum using two early nodulin genes PsENOD12a and PsENOD5, that are differentially up-regulated during symbiosis. A novel set of nonnodulating pea mutants in fourteen loci was examined, among which seven loci are not described in Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. Mutants defective in Pssym10, Pssym8, Pssym19, Pssym9 and Pssym7 exhibited no PsENOD12a and PsENOD5 activation in response to Nod factor-producing rhizobia. Thus, a conserved signalling module from the LysM receptor kinase encoded by Pssym10 down to the GRAS transcription factor encoded by Pssym7 is essential for Nod factor-induced gene expression. Of the two investigated genes, PsENOD5 was more strictly regulated; not only requiring the SYM10â€―SYM7 module, but also SYM35 (NIN transcription factor), SYM14, SYM16 and SYM34. Since Pssym35, Pssym14, Pssym34 and Pssym16 mutants show arrested infection and nodule formation at various stages, PsENOD5 expression seems to be essential for later symbiotic events, when rhizobia enter into plant tissues. Activation of PsENOD12a only requires components involved in early steps of signalling and can be considered as a marker of early symbiotic events preceding infection. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2010.00372.x Author Address: 1 All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology (ARRIAM), St. Petersburg, Russia 2 St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia 3 Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University (WU), Wageningen, the Netherlands XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Dong C-J, Wang Y, Yu S-S, Liu J-Y. Year: 2010 Title: * Characterization of a Novel Rice Metallothionein Gene Promoter: Its Tissue Specificity and Heavy Metal Responsiveness. Journal: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 52, 10, 914-924. Label: ReEn Expression Metaux Abstract: Abstract The rice (Oryza sativa L.) metallothionein gene OsMT-I-4b has previously been identified as a type I MT gene. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism involved in its tissue specificity and abiotic induction, we isolated a 1 730 bp fragment of the OsMT-I-4b promoter region. Histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining indicated a precise spacial and temporal expression pattern in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher GUS activity was detected in the roots and the buds of flower stigmas, and relatively lower GUS staining in the shoots was restricted to the trichomes and hydathodes of leaves. No activity was observed in the stems and seeds. Additionally, in the root of transgenic plants, the promoter activity was highly upregulated by various


environmental signals, such as abscisic acid, drought, dark, and heavy metals including Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and Al3+. Slight induction was observed in transgenic seedlings under salinity stress, or when treated with Co2+ and Cd2+. Promoter analysis of 5′-deletions revealed that the region ∑583/∑1 was sufficient to drive strong GUS expression in the roots but not in the shoots. Furthermore, deletion analysis indicated important promoter regions containing different metal-responsive cis-elements that were responsible for responding to different heavy metals. Collectively, these findings provided important insight into the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of the OsMT-I-4b promoter, and the results also gave us some implications for the potential application of this promoter in plant genetic engineering. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2010.00966.x Author Address: Laboratory of Molecular Biology and MOE Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Downes S, Mahon RJ, Rossiter L, Kauter G, Leven T, Fitt G, Baker G, Year: 2010 Title: * Adaptive management of pest resistance by Helicoverpa species (Noctuidae) in Australia to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II cotton. Journal: Evolutionary Applications 3, 5-6, 574-584. Label: InRe Resistance Keywords: agriculture Bacillus thuringiensis cotton Helicoverpa species pest management resistance transgenic Abstract: Abstract In Australia, monitoring Helicoverpa species for resistance to the Cry2Ab toxin in second generation Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has precisely fulfilled its intended function: to warn of increases in resistance frequencies that may lead to field failures of the technology. Prior to the widespread adoption of twogene Bt cotton, the frequency of Cry2Ab resistance alleles was at least 0.001 in H. armigera and H. punctigera. In the 5 years hence, there has been a significant and apparently exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. Herein we review the history of deploying and managing resistance to Bt cotton in Australia, outline the characteristics of the isolated resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, and use a simple model to predict likely imminent resistance frequencies. We then discuss potential strategies to mitigate further increases in resistance frequencies, until the release of a third generation product. These include mandating larger structured refuges, applying insecticide to crops late in the season, and restricting the area of Bollgard II® cotton. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide; therefore the strategies being considered in Australia are likely to relate to other situations. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00146.x Author Address: 1 CSIRO Entomology, Australian Cotton Research Institute, Narrabri, NSW, Australia 2 CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, ACT, Australia 3 Industry and Investment NSW, Australian Cotton Research Institute, Narrabri, NSW, Australia 4 Cotton Australia Limited, Mascot, NSW, Australia 5 Cotton Research and Development Corporation, Narrabri, NSW, Australia 6 CSIRO Entomology, Indooroopilly, Qld, Australia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Downes S, Parker T, Mahon R, Year: 2010 Title: * Incipient Resistance of Helicoverpa punctigera to the Cry2Ab Bt Toxin in Bollgard II® Cotton. Journal: PLoS ONE 5(9): e12567. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012567 Label: InRe Resistance Abstract: Combinations of dissimilar insecticidal proteins (―pyramids‖) within transgenic plants are predicted to delay the evolution of pest resistance for significantly longer than crops expressing a single transgene. Fieldevolved resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops has been reported for first generation, singletoxin varieties and the Cry1 class of proteins. Our five year data set shows a significant exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in Australian field populations of Helicoverpa punctigera since the adoption of a second generation, two-toxin Bt cotton expressing this insecticidal protein. Furthermore,


the frequency of cry2Ab resistance alleles in populations from cropping areas is 8-fold higher than that found for populations from non-cropping regions. This report of field evolved resistance to a protein in a dual-toxin Bt-crop has precisely fulfilled the intended function of monitoring for resistance; namely, to provide an early warning of increases in frequencies that may lead to potential failures of the transgenic technology. Furthermore, it demonstrates that pyramids are not ‗bullet proof‘ and that rapid evolution to Bt toxins in the Cry2 class is possible. Notes: This work was funded by the Cotton Research and Development Corporation, http://www.crdc.com.au/, grant CSE0002 to Downes and Mahon. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. URL: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012567 Author Address: CSIRO Entomology, ACRI, Narrabri, Australia, 2 CSIRO Entomology, Canberra, Australia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Drechsel Gabriele, Raab Sabine, Hoth Stefan, Year: 2010 Title: * Arabidopsis zinc-finger protein 2 is a negative regulator of ABA signaling during seed germination. Journal: Journal of Plant Physiology 167, 16, 1418-1421. Date: 2010/11/1/ Label: Physiol Keywords: ABA Arabidopsis AZF2 Seed germination Stress signaling Abstract: The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) mediates plant development and adaptation to environmental stresses. ABA-dependent transcription factors are central regulators of ABA signaling. Here, we report on the identification of the ABA-induced transcriptional repressor Arabidopsis zinc-finger protein 2 (AZF2) as ABA signaling component. We isolated azf2-1 mutants lacking AZF2 full-length transcripts that were hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination. In line with a function of AZF2 in seed germination and seedling development, AZF2-promoter activity was observed in radicles and young cotyledons of AZF2-promoter:GUS plants. Our results indicate that AZF2 is a negative regulator of ABA signaling in seeds. Notes: 28 Ref. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B7GJ7-50GKC2R2/2/563f728e7784e872530f59a409fc9d6c Author Address: Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Duan Qiaohong, Kita Daniel, Li Chao, Cheung Alice Y, Wu Hen-Ming, Year: 2010 Title: * FERONIA receptor-like kinase regulates RHO GTPase signaling of root hair development. Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published ahead of print September 27, 2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1005366107 Accession Number: 10.1073/pnas.1005366107 Label: Physiol Keywords: RAC/ROP; reactive oxygen species; ROPGEF; signal transduction; surface regulator; Abstract: Plant RHO GTPases (RAC/ROPs) mediate multiple extracellular signals ranging from hormone to stress and regulate diverse cellular processes important for polarized cell growth, differentiation, development, reproduction, and responses to the environment. They shuttle between the GDP-bound inactive state and the GTP-bound activated state and their activation is predominantly mediated by a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) referred to as ROPGEFs. Using the Arabidopsis ROPGEF1 as bait, we identified members of a receptor-like kinase (RLK) family as potential upstream regulators for RAC/ROP signaling. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are emerging as important regulators for growth and development and play a crucial role in mediating RAC/ROP-regulated root hair development, a polarized cell growth process. We therefore screened T-DNA insertion mutants in these RLKs for root hair defects and found that mutations in one of them, At3g51550 encoding the FERONIA (FER) receptor-like kinase, induced severe root hair defects. We show that the fer phenotypes correlated with reduced levels of active RAC/ROPs and NADPH oxidase-dependent, auxin-regulated ROS accumulation in roots and root hairs and that up-regulating


RAC/ROP signaling in fer countered the mutant phenotypes. Taken together, these observations strongly support FER as an upstream regulator for the RAC/ROP-signaled pathway that controls ROS-mediated root hair development. Moreover, FER was pulled down by ROP2 GTPase in a guanine nucleotide-regulated manner implying a dynamic signaling complex involving FER, a ROPGEF, and a RAC/ROP. URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/09/22/1005366107.abstract Author Address: aDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, bMolecular Cell Biology Program, and cPlant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Dwivedi Krishna K, Roche Dominique, Carman John G, Year: 2010 Title: * Expression in Arabidopsis of a nucellus-specific promoter from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Journal: Plant Science 179, 5, 549-552. Date: 2010/11// Label: Physiol Keywords: Apomixis Arabidopsis Ovule development Nucellus-specific expression Transgenic plants Abstract: Though many tissue-specific promoters have been identified, few have been associated specifically with the angiospermous megasporangium (nucellus). In the present study the 2000-bp regulatory region upstream to the watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, gene WM403 (GenBank accession no. AF008925), which shows nucellus-specific expression, was cloned from watermelon gDNA and fused to the ß-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). The resulting plasmid, WM403 Prom::GUS+, which also contained NPTII, was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Co1-0. Seedlings were selected on kanamycincontaining medium, and transformants were confirmed by PCR. GUS assays of T3 transformants revealed weak promoter activation in epidermal layers of the placenta and locule septum during premeiotic ovule development but strong activation in the nucellus, embryo sac and early embryo, from early embryo sac formation to early globular embryo formation. Expression in seeds was absent thereafter. These results indicate that the WM403 promoter may be useful in driving nucellus-specific gene expression in plants including candidate genes for important nucellus-specific traits such as apospory or adventitious embryony. Notes: TY - JOUR URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TBH-50P4N142/2/5bbdbc1eb814604bb2f6d4ff72ad94f6 Author Address: a Caisson Laboratories, Inc., 1740 Research Park Way, North Logan, UT 84341, USA b Plants, Soils and Climate Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322-4820, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Economidis I Year: 2008 Title: ¤ The safety of GMOs in the research agenda of the knowledge-based bio-economy (KBBE). Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Adoption Abstract: The KBBE is a concept which has been translated into a research programme within the 7th Framework Programme of research and development which is the European Union´s chief instrument for funding research over the period 2007 to 2013. The KBBE is expected to play an important role in a global economy, where knowledge is the best way to increase productivity and competitiveness and improve our quality of life, and sustainable bio-based resources will be increasingly necessary to protect our environment and social model. It is a sector estimated to be worth more than Ð 1.5 trillion per year. KBBE addresses the following needs: growing demand for safer, healthier, higher quality food; sustainable use and production of renewable bio-resources; increasing risk of epizootic and zoonotic diseases and food related disorders; sustainability and security of agricultural, aquaculture and fi sheries production; increasing demand for high quality food, taking into account animal welfare and rural and coastal contexts and response to specifi c dietary


needs of consumers. One of the aims of KBBE is to increase the use of sustainable production systems. For land based biological resources, special emphasis is given to low input (e.g. pesticides and fertilisers), improved management of resources and novel plants (crops and trees) with respect to their composition, resistance to stress, ecological effect, nutrient and water use effi ciency etc. This will be supported through research into biosafety, co-existence and traceability of novel plants systems and products, and monitoring and assessment of the impact of genetically modifi ed crops on the environment and human health as well as the possibility of their broader benefi t for society. Biotechnology is also dependant on improved biomass and plant based renewables. The strengthening of the knowledge base and the developing of advanced technologies to optimise biomass production is vital for applications in industrial processes and in energy production. This includes plant, animal and microbial genomics and metabolomics for an improved productivity, composition, optimised conversion capacity etc. In this frame of research genetic modifi cation and biosafety can be revisited having accumulated more knowledge and more experience aiming at a bioeconomy effective to the needs of society. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: European Commission, Directorate-General for Research. Belgium XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms Year: 2010 Title: £ Scientific Opinion on an application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2009-65) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON 89034 × 1507 × NK603 and all subcombinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto. Question number: EFSA-Q-2009-00413 Journal: The EFSA Journal 2010; 8(9):1782 Keywords: InRe HeTo EvaluationRisque Sante Environnement Abstract: Full text Summary : Following the submission of an application (EFSA-GMO-NL-2009-65) under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified (GM) maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603[1] and all subcombinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny[2] for food and feed uses, import and processing. In delivering its scientific opinion, the EFSA GMO Panel considered the application EFSA-GMO-NL-2009-65, additional information supplied by the applicants, the scientific comments submitted by the Member States, and relevant scientific publications. Further information from applications for placing on the market under EU regulatory procedures the single maize events MON 89034, 1507 and NK603 and the two double stacks 1507 x NK603 and MON 89034 x NK603 was taken into account. The scope of application EFSA-GMO-NL-2009-65 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 and all subcombinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny, and all derived products, but excludes cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel evaluated maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 with reference to the intended uses and appropriate principles describe in its Guidance Documents for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed, and for the risk assessment of GM plants containing stacked transformation events. The scientific evaluation of the risk assessment included molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of the corresponding proteins. An evaluation of the comparative analyses of composition, agronomic and phenotypic traits was undertaken, and the safety of the new proteins, both individually and in combination, and the whole food/feed was evaluated with respect to potential toxicity, allergenicity and nutritional quality. An evaluation of environmental impacts and the postmarket environmental monitoring plan was undertaken. The single maize events MON 89034, 1507 and NK603, and two sub-combinations of these events 1507 x NK603 and MON 89034 x NK603 were the subject of separate earlier risk assessment evaluations by the EFSA GMO Panel. No new genes in addition to those occurring in maize MON 89034, 1507 and NK603 have been introduced in maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603. Maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 was produced by conventional crossing of the single maize events, to combine in the same stack resistance against certain


lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests and tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium- and glyphosate-based herbicides. Molecular analysis confirmed that maize MON89034, 1507 and NK603 inserts are present and that their structures are retained in maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603. The result of the updated bioinformatic analyses of the flanking sequences and the open reading frames spanning the insert-plant DNA junctions did not reveal a safety concern. The overall levels of the Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry1F, PAT and CP4 EPSPS proteins, were comparable to those of the respective single maize events MON 89034, 1507 and NK603. Based on the results of comparative analyses, the EFSA GMO Panel concludes that maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 is compositionally, phenotypically and agronomically comparable to its conventional counterpart and equivalent to commercial maize varieties, except for the presence of Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry1F, PAT, CP4 EPSPS and CP4EPSPS L214P proteins in maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603. Based on the assessment of the data available, including the additional information provided by the applicants in response to the EFSA GMO Panelâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s question regarding maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603, its conventional counterpart and data on the single maize events, the EFSA GMO Panel is of the opinion that crossing of maize MON 89034, 1507 and NK603 does not result in interactions between the single maize events which causes compositional, phenotypical or agronomic changes. The safety of Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins expressed in maize MON 89034, the Cry1F and PAT proteins expressed in maize 1507, and the CP4 EPSPS and CP4 EPSPS L214P proteins expressed in maize NK603 have been assessed for their safety previously and no safety concerns were identified for humans and animals. Regarding the safety and nutritional properties of food and feed products derived from maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603, the EFSA GMO Panel considers it unlikely that interactions between the single maize events will occur that may impact on the food and feed safety and nutritional properties of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603. The EFSA GMO Panel bases this consideration on the known functional characteristics of the newly expressed proteins and on the outcomes of the comparative analysis of compositional, phenotypic and agronomic characteristics of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603. In addition, the EFSA GMO Panel considers it unlikely that the overall allergenicity of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 has been altered. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel is of the opinion that maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 and all sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny are as safe and as nutritious as its conventional counterpart and commercial maize varieties, and concludes that this maize and derived products are unlikely to have adverse effects on human and animal health in the context of its intended uses. The application EFSA-GMO-NL-2009-65 concerns food and feed uses, import and processing, but excludes cultivation in the EU. Therefore, there is no requirement for scientific assessment of possible environmental effects associated with the cultivation of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of establishment and spread of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of viable grains from maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 (including all sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny) during transportation and processing, except in the presence of glufosinate-ammonium- and/or glyphosate-based herbicides and/or under infestation of target pests. Taking into account the scope of the application, the rare occurrence of feral maize plants and the low levels of exposure through other routes, the risk to non-target organisms is extremely low. It is highly unlikely that the recombinant DNA will transfer and establish in the genome of bacteria in the environment or human and animal digestive tracts. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicants is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 and all sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny. Furthermore, the EFSA GMO Panel agrees with the reporting intervals proposed by the applicants in the general surveillance plan. The EFSA GMO Panel recommends that appropriate management systems should be in place to restrict seeds of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 entering cultivation as the latter requires specific approval under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that the information available for maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 addresses the scientific comments raised by the Member States and concludes that the maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603, assessed in this application, is as safe as its conventional counterpart and other appropriate comparators with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and the environment. In addition, the EFSA GMO Panel is of the opinion that crossing of single maize events MON 89034, 1507 and NK603 to produce maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 does not result in interactions between the events which would affect the safety of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and on the environment, in the context of its intended uses. Based on data provided for maize stack MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603, the single maize events (MON 89034, 1507 and NK603), and for the two


double stacks 1507 x NK603 and MON 89034 x NK603, the EFSA GMO Panel is of the opinion that there is no biological reason to expect that any of the other sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny would raise a safety concern. The EFSA GMO Panel concludes that maize MON 89034 x 1507 x NK603 is unlikely to have adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment, in the context of its intended uses. Published: 27 September 2010 [1] Unique Identifier MON-89Ø34-3 x DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 x MON-ØØ6Ø3-6 [2] Sub-combinations of these events exclude all single events. The sub-combination not previously evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel is MON 89034 x 1507; Sub-combinations previously evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel are MON 89034 x NK603 and 1507 x NK603 URL: Summary : http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/scdoc/1782.htm?WT.mc_id=EFSAHL01&emt=1 Opinion : http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/doc/1782.pdf Author Address: Europe XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: EFSA, Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms Year: 2010 Title: £ Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-CZ-2008-62) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 and all sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto. Journal: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(9):1781 EFSA, Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms, Question number: EFSA-Q-2008-764. Label: InRe HeTo EvaluationRisque Sante Environnement Abstract: Summary Full text : Scientific Opinion on application (EFSA-GMO-CZ-2008-62) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 and all subcombinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny, for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto Question number: EFSA-Q-2008-764 Adopted: 8 September 2010 Summary Following the submission of an application (EFSA-GMO-CZ-2008-62) under Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 from Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified (GM) maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122[1] and all sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny[2] for food and feed uses, import and processing. In delivering its scientific opinion, the EFSA GMO Panel considered the application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2008-62, additional information supplied by the applicants, scientific comments submitted by the Member States, and relevant scientific publications. Further information from applications for placing on the market under EU regulatory procedures the single maize events MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017 and 59122, and the two parental double stacks MON 89034 x MON 88017 and 1507 x 59122 was taken into account. The scope of the application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2008-62 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 and all sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny, and all derived products, but excludes cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel evaluated maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 with reference to the intended uses and appropriate principles described in its Guidance Documents for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed, and for the risk assessment of GM plants containing stacked transformation events. The scientific evaluation of the risk assessment included molecular characterisation of the inserted DNA and expression of the corresponding proteins. An evaluation of the comparative analyses of composition, agronomic and phenotypic traits was undertaken, and the safety of the new proteins, both individually and in combination, and the whole food/feed was evaluated with respect to potential toxicity, allergenicity and nutritional quality. An evaluation of environmental impacts and the post-market environmental monitoring plan was undertaken.


The single maize events MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017, and 59122 and the two double stacks 1507 x 59122 and MON 89034 x MON 88017, were the subject of previous risk assessment evaluations by the EFSA GMO Panel. No new genes in addition to those occurring in maize MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017 and 59122 have been introduced in maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122. Maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 was produced by conventional crossing of inbred lines containing the maize stacks 1507 x 59122 and MON 89034 x MON 88017, to combine resistance against certain lepidopteran and coleopteran target pests and tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium- and glyphosate-based herbicides. Molecular analysis confirmed that maize MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017 and 59122 inserts are present and that their structures are retained in maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122. The result of the updated bioinformatic analyses of the flanking sequences and the open reading frames spanning the insert-plant DNA junctions did not reveal a safety concern. The overall levels of Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry1F, PAT, Cry3Bb1, CP4 EPSPS, Cry34Ab1, and Cry35Ab1 proteins were comparable to those in the respective single events MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017 and 59122. Previous evaluations showed that the single maize events (MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017 and 59122) and the two double stacks (1507 x 59122 and MON 89034 x MON 88017) do not differ compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically from their respective conventional counterparts, and that the single events and the two double stacks are equivalent to commercial maize varieties except for the introduced traits. In this application, results of the comparative analyses indicated that maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 does not differ compositionally, agronomically and phenotypically from its conventional counterpart, and is equivalent to commercial maize varieties, except for the newly introduced traits. The safety of the proteins Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 expressed in maize MON 89034, proteins Cry1F and PAT expressed in maize 1507, proteins Cry3Bb1 and CP4 EPSPS expressed in maize MON 88017, and proteins Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1 and PAT expressed in maize 59122 have been assessed previously, and no safety concerns were identified for humans and animals. In addition, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that it is unlikely that the overall toxicity and allergenicity of the whole maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 has been changed. A feeding study with broiler chickens confirmed that the nutritional properties of grain produced by maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 are not different from those of its conventional counterpart and commercial maize varieties. Potential interactions between the maize events with respect to potential effects on human and animal health were the focus of the assessment on food/feed safety issues. On the basis of the known functional characteristics and modes of action of the newly expressed proteins (Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry1F, PAT, Cry3Bb1, CP4 EPSPS, Cry34Ab1, and Cry35Ab1), the EFSA GMO Panel considers it unlikely that interactions between these proteins would occur that would raise any safety concern. Based on the assessment of data provided for the maize stack MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122, for the single maize events MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017, and 59122, and for the two double stacks 1507 x 59122 and MON 89034 x MON 88017, the EFSA GMO Panel considered the other sub-combinations of the individual events not previously assessed and identified no biological reason to expect that any of the other subcombinations of these single events would raise a safety concern. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel is of the opinion that maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 and any sub-combinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny are as safe and as nutritious as the conventional counterpart and commercial maize varieties, and concludes that these maize and derived products are unlikely to have adverse effects on human and animal health, in the context of its intended uses. The application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2008-62 concerns food and feed uses, import and processing, but excludes cultivation in the EU. Therefore, there is no requirement for scientific assessment of possible environmental effects associated with the cultivation of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122. There are no indications of an increased likelihood of establishment and spread of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of viable grains produced by maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 (including all sub-combinations of the individual events) during transportation and processing, except in the presence of glufosinate-ammonium- and/or glyphosate-based herbicides and/or under infestation by target pests. Taking into account the scope of the application, the rare occurrence of feral maize plants and the low levels of exposure through other routes, the risk to non-target organisms is extremely low. It is highly unlikely that the recombinant DNA will transfer and establish in the genome of bacteria in the environment or human and animal digestive tracts. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicants is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 and all subcombinations of the individual events as present in its segregating progeny. Furthermore, the EFSA GMO Panel agrees with the reporting intervals proposed by the applicants in the general surveillance plan. The EFSA GMO Panel recommends that appropriate management systems should be in place to restrict seeds of maize MON


89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 entering cultivation as the latter requires specific approval under Directive 2001/18/EC or Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that the information available for maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 addresses the scientific comments raised by the Member States and that the maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122, as described in this application, is as safe as its conventional counterpart and commercial maize varieties with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and the environment. In addition, the EFSA GMO Panel is of the opinion that crossing of maize events MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017 and 59122 to produce maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 does not result in interactions between the events which would affect the safety of maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 with respect to potential effects on human and animal health and on the environment, in the context of its intended uses. Based on the data provided for maize stack MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122, the single maize events MON 89034, 1507, MON 88017, 59122, and for the two double stacks 1507 x 59122 and MON 89034 x MON 88017, the EFSA GMO Panel is of the opinion that there is no biological reason to expect that any of the other sub-combinations5 of the individual events present in the segregating progeny would raise a safety concern. The EFSA GMO Panel concludes that maize MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122 is unlikely to have adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment, in the context of its intended uses. Published: 27 September 2010 [1] Unique identifier MON-89Ø34-3 x DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 x MON-88Ø17-3 x DAS-59122-7 [2] Sub-combinations of the individual events exclude all single events. Sub-combinations not previously evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel are MON 89034 x 1507 x MON 88017, MON 89034 x 1507 x 59122, MON 89034 x MON 88017 x 59122, 1507 x MON 88017 x 59122, MON 89034 x 1507, MON 89034 x 59122, MON 88017 x 59122, 1507 x MON 88017; sub-combinations previously evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel are 1507 x 59122 and MON 89034 x MON 88017. URL: Summary : http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/scdoc/1781.htm?WT.mc_id=EFSAHL01&emt=1 Opinion : http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/scdocs/doc/1781.pdf Author Address: Europe XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Eizaguirre Matilde, Filipe Madeira, Carmen López, Year: 2010 Title: *¤ Effects of Bt maize on non-target lepidopteran pests. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 49-55. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: InRe RavageurSecond Abstract: Genetically modified (GM) maize with the insecticidal capacity of Bacillus thuringiensis, (Bt maize, expressing Cry1Ab) was first authorized in Spain in 1998. Since then its cultivated area has increased year by year to reach 78‘000 ha in 2008, representing 21% of the total maize-growing area in Spain. In the study area (Lleida, Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula) it represents almost 80% of the total. Bt maize provides an effective control of two key lepidopteran pests, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) and Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). However, in addition to the two corn borers, two other non-target Lepidoptera, Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth) and Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), cause occasional but severe damage to maize. Effects of Bt maize on these two Lepidoptera were studied in laboratory and field trials. Some larvae of both species can survive and complete development when feeding on Bt maize. Field evaluations carried out from 2005 to 2008 showed no differences in the number of H. armigera larvae per plant between Bt and isogenic varieties in most of the trials. In the laboratory, M. unipuncta showed a larval survival of 15%, which is significantly lower than that recorded in isogenic varieties. Additionally, larval development in survivors was significantly longer when they were fed Bt maize. Adults resulting from larvae developed on transgenic maize laid 13% fewer eggs than those resulting from larvae developed on isogenic maize. When they had the choice, neonate M. unipuncta larvae preferred first Sorghum bicolor, then isogenic maize plants and finally Bt plants for feeding. Recorded differential mortality caused by Bt maize on non-target Lepidoptera in comparison with targeted corn borers may affect the composition and abundance of the Lepidoptera community in maize as a consequence of Bt maize deployment. Author Address: Spain


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Elhiti Mohamed, Tahir Muhammad, Gulden Robert H, Khamiss Khalil, Stasolla Claudio, Year: 2010 Title: * Modulation of embryo-forming capacity in culture through the expression of Brassica genes involved in the regulation of the shoot apical meristem. Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany 61, 14, 4069-4085. Date: September 1, 2010 Label: Physiol Abstract: Somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis is achieved by culturing bending-cotyledon embryos on a 2,4-D-containing induction medium for 14 d followed by a transfer on to a hormone-free development medium. Several genes orthologous to Arabidopsis SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), CLAVATA 1 (CLV1), and ZWILLE (ZLL) were isolated from Brassica oleracea (Bo), B. rapa (Br), and B. napus (Bn), and ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis to assess their effects on somatic embryogenesis. Ectopic expression of BoSTM, BrSTM, and BnSTM increased the number of somatic embryos, whereas a different effect was observed in lines overexpressing BnCLV1 in which somatic embryo formation was severely repressed. The introduction of BnZLL did not have any effects on Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis. The increased embryo-forming capacity observed in lines overexpressing Brassica STM was associated with a lower requirement for the inductive signal 2,4-D, and a higher expression of WUSCHEL (WUS) which demarcates the formation of embryogenic cells. This was in contrast to the 35S::BnCLV1 lines which showed the highest requirement for exogenous 2,4-D and a reduced WUS expression. Microarray studies were conducted to monitor global changes in transcript levels during Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis between the wild-type (WT) line and a BoSTMoverexpressing line, which showed the most pronounced enhancement of somatic embryo yield. The introduction of BoSTM affected the expression of many genes involved in hormone perception and signalling, as well as genes encoding DNA methyltransferases and enzymes of glutathione metabolism. Pharmacological experiments performed to confirm some of the microarray results showed that Arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis is encouraged by a global hypomethylation of the DNA during the induction phase and by a switch of the glutathione pool towards an oxidized state during the subsequent development phase. Both events occurred in the 35S::BoSTM line, but not in the WT line. Altered expression of Brassica STM also had profound effects on B. napus microspore-derived embryogenesis. The yield of microspore-derived embryos increased in lines overexpressing BnSTM and significantly decreased in antisense lines down-regulating BnSTM. URL: http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/14/4069.abstract Author Address: Department of Plant Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, R3T 2N2, Manitoba, Canada XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Elrouby Nabil, Coupland George Year: 2010 Title: * Proteome-wide screens for small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) substrates identify Arabidopsis proteins implicated in diverse biological processes. Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - PNAS published ahead of print September 20, 2010, doi:10.1073/pnas.1005452107. Label: Physiol Abstract: Covalent modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates various cellular activities in yeast and mammalian cells. In Arabidopsis, inactivation of genes encoding SUMO or SUMO-conjugation enzymes is lethal, emphasizing the importance of SUMOylation in plant development. Despite this, little is known about SUMO targets in plants. Here we identified 238 Arabidopsis proteins as potential SUMO substrates because they interacted with SUMO-conjugating enzyme and/or SUMO protease (ESD4) in the yeast two-hybrid system. Compared with the whole Arabidopsis proteome, the identified proteins were strongly enriched for those containing high-probability consensus SUMO attachment sites, further supporting that they are true SUMO substrates. A high-throughput assay was developed in Escherichia coli and used to test the SUMOylation of 56% of these proteins. More than 92% of the proteins tested were SUMOylated in this assay by at least one SUMO isoform. Furthermore, ADA2b, an ESD4 interactor that was


SUMOylated in the E. coli system, also was shown to be SUMOylated in Arabidopsis. The identified SUMO substrates are involved in a wide range of plant processes, many of which were not previously known to involve SUMOylation. These proteins provide a basis for exploring the function of SUMOylation in the regulation of diverse processes in Arabidopsis. URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/09/15/1005452107.abstract Author Address: Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linne Weg 10, Cologne 50829, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Eltayeb Amin Elsadig, Yamamoto Shohei, Habora Mohamed, Elsadig Eltayeb, Matsukubo Yui, Aono Mitsuko, Tsujimoto Hisashi, Tanaka Kiyoshi, Year: 2010 Title: * Greater protection against oxidative damages imposed by various environmental stresses in transgenic potato with higher level of reduced glutathione. Journal: Breeding Science 60, 2, 101-109. Label: ReEn Oxydatif Keywords: glutathione, ascorbate, oxidative stress, potato Abstract: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world‘s number one non-cereal food crop and ranks fourth among most important crops grown worldwide in terms of acreage, yield and value. In order to maintain greater protection against environmental stresses, we developed transgenic potato overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana glutathione reductase gene (AtGR1). The transgenic potato maintained up to 6.5 folds higher GR activity, 5.8 folds glutathione (GSH) contents and up to 2.2 folds higher glutathione S-transferase activity compared to non transformed plants (NT). Interestingly, while the transgenic plants exhibited decreased dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity, the relative reduced ascorbate (AsA) contents were higher while the relative dehydroascorbate (DHA) were lower compared to NT which provide a support to the hypothesis that an active glutathione-independent pathway for DHA reduction might exists in vivo. The transgenic plants maintained an enhanced tolerance to methylviologen, and cadmium. When subjected to drought stress, the transgenic plants exhibited faster recovery with less visual injury compared to NT. These results suggest that manipulation of glutathione levels provides reliable strategy for the development of industrial transgenic potato plants with enhanced tolerance to multiple environmental stresses. URL: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jsbbs/60/2/60_101/_article Author Address: 1) Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University Japan 2) Environmental Biology Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies 3) Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University 4) Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Engels H, D Bourguet, L Cagá, B Manachini, I Schuphan, TJ Stodola, A Micoud, C Brazier, C Mottet, DA Andow, Year: 2010 Title: * Evaluating Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ab by F2 Screen in European Populations of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology Oct 2010, Vol. 103, No. 5: 1803-1809. Label: InRe Resistance Keywords: European corn borer, Bt maize, Mon810, resistance management, HDR strategy Abstract: The large-scale cultivation of transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have already lead to the evolution of Bt resistance in some pest populations targeted by these crops. We used the F2 screening method for further estimating the frequency of resistance alleles of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), to Bt maize, Zea mays L., producing the CrylAb toxin. In France, Germany, and Italy, 784, 455, and 80 lines of European corn borer were screened for resistance to Mon810 maize, respectively. In Slovakia, 26 lines were screened for resistance to the CrylAb toxin. The cost of F2 screen performed in the four countries varied from US$300 to $1,300 per line screened. The major difference in cost was mostly due to a severe loss of univoltine lines during the screen in Germany and Slovakia. In none of the screened lines did we detect alleles conferring resistance to Mon810 maize or to the CrylAb toxin. The


frequency of resistance alleles were <1.0 × 10-3, <1.6 × 10-3, <9.2 × 10-3, and <2.6 × 10-2 in France, Germany, Italy, and Slovakia, with 95% probability, respectively. The average detection probability over all lines was ˜90%. Making the assumption that European corn borer populations in these countries belong to the same genetic entity, the frequency of alleles conferring resistance to the CrylAb produced by the Mon810 maize in western and central Europe was 1.0 × 10-4, with a 95% confidence interval of 0–3.0 × 10-4. Notes: references Alstad, D. N., and D. A. Andow. 1995. Managing the evolution of insect resistance to transgenic plants. Science 268: 1894–1896. Andow, D. A., and D. N. Alstad. 1998. F2 Screen for rare resistance alleles. J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 572–578. Andow, D. A., and D. N. Alstad. 1999. Cr edibility interval for rare resistance allele frequencies. J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 755–758. Andow, D. A., and A. R. Ives. 2002. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management. Ecol. Appl. 12: 1378– 1390. Andow, D. A., D. N. Alstad, Y.-H. Pang, P. C. Bolin, and W. D. Hutchison. 1998. Using an F2 screen to search for resistance alleles to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 91: 579–584. Andow, D. A., D. M. Olson, R. L. Hellmich, D. N. Alstad, and W. D. Hutchison. 2000. Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin CrylAb in an Iowa population of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 26–30. Andreadis, S. S., F. Alvarez-Alfageme, I. Sanchez-Ramos, T. J. Stodola, D. A. Andow, P. G. Milonas, M. SavopoulouSoultani, and P. Castanera. 2007. Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin CrylAb in Greek and Spanish populations of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 195– 201. Bentur, J. S., D. A. Andow, M. B. Cohen, A.M. Romena, and F. Gould. 2000. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in a Philippine population of Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 1515–1521. Bolin, P. C., W. D. Hutchison, and D. A. Andow. 1999. Long-term selection for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis CrylA(c) endotoxin in a Minnesota population of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 1021–1030. Bourguet, D., M.-T. Bethenod, N. Pasteur, and F. Viard. 2000. Gene flow in the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis: implications for the sustainability of transgenic insecticidal maize. Proc. B. Soc. Lond. B. 267: 117– 122. Bourguet, D., J. Chaufaux, M. Seguin, C. Buisson, J. L. Hinton, T. J. Stodola, P. Porter, G. Cronholm, L. L. Buschman, and D. A. Andow. 2003. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Bt maize in French and US corn belt populations of Ostrinia nubilalis. Theor. Appl. Genet. 106: 1225–1233. Cagán, L'. 1998. Voltinism of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn., in Slovakia. Plant Prot. Sci. 34: 81–86. Chaufaux, J., M. Séguin, J. J. Swanson, D. Bourguet, and B. D. Siegfried. 2001. Chronic exposure of the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to CrylAb Bacillus thuringiensis toxin. J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 1564–1570. Downes, S., R. J. Mahon, and K. M. Olsen. 2007. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management in Australia for Btcotton: current status and future challenges. J. Inv. Pathol. 95: 208–213. Farinos, G. P., M. de la Poza, P. Hernandez-Crespo, F. Ortego, and P. Castanera. 2004. Resistance monitoring of field populations of the corn borers Sesamia nonagrioides and Ostrinia nubilalis after 5 years of Bt maize cultivation in Spain. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 110: 23–30. Frolov, N. A., D. Bourguet, and S. Ponsard. 2007. Beconsidering the taxonomy of several Ostrinia species in the light of reproductive isolation: a tale for E. Mayr. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 91: 49–72. Gahukar, B. T. 1975. Nouvelles techniques adoptées pour l'élevage d'Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner sur milieu artificiel. Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anim. 7: 491–498. Gaspers, C. 2009. The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, Hbn.), its susceptibility to the Bt-toxin CrylF, its pheromone races and its gene flow in Europe in view of an insect resistance management. Dissertation BWTH, Aachen University, Germany. Génissel, A., S. Augustin, C. Courtin, G. Pilate, P. Lorme, and D. Bourguet. 2003. Initial frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis poplar in a field population of Chrysomela tremulae. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270: 791–797.


Gould, F. 1998. Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 43: 701–726. He, D. J., J. L. Shen, W. J. Zhou, and C. F. Gao. 2001. Using F2 genetic method of isofemale lines to detect the frequency of resistance alleles to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin from transgenic Bt cotton in cotton bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Cotton Sci. 13: 105–108. Huang, F., B. B. Leonard, and D. A. Andow. 2007. Sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize. J. Econ. Entomol. 100: 164–171. James, C. 2009. Global status of commercialized biotech/ GM. ISAAA Brief, no. 36. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri Biotech Applications, Ithaca, NY. Kruger, M., J.B.J. Van Rensburg, and J. Van den Berg. 2009. Perspective on the development of stem borer resistance to Bt maize and refuge compliance at the Vaalharts irrigation scheme in South Africa. Crop Prot. 28: 684–689. Lozzia, G. C., and B. Manachini. 2003. Susceptibility of Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Bull. Insect 50: 215–219. Malausa, T., A. Dalecky, S. Ponsard, P. Audiot, B. Streiff, Y. Chaval, and D. Bourguet. 2007. Genetic structure and gene flow in French populations of two Ostrinia taxa: host races or sibling species? Mol. Ecol 16: 4210– 4222. Manachini, B., A. Zanar do, and A. Spada. 2007. Using AFLP to investigate the genetic similarity of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) infesting rice and corn. Proceedings IV Temperate Rice Conference: 350– 351. Matten, S. B., G. P. Head, and H. D. Quemada. 2008. How governmental regulation can help or hinder the integration of Bt crops within IPM programs, pp. 27–39. In J. Romeis, A. M. Shelton, and G. G. Kennedy (eds.), Integration of insect resistant genetically modified crops within IPM programs. Springer, New York. Nagy, B. 1970. Rearing of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) on a simplified artificial diet. Acta Phytopathol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 5: 73–79. Roush, R. T. 1998. Two-toxin strategies for management of insecticidal transgenic crops: can pyramiding succeed where pesticide mixtures have not? Phil. Trans. B. Soc. Lond. B 353: 1777–1786. Schneider, J. C. 1999. Confidence interval for Bayesian estimates of resistance allele frequencies. J. Econ. Entomol. 92: 755. Shelton, A. M. J. Z. Zhao, and R. T. Boush. 2002. Economic, ecological, food safety, and social consequences of the deployment of Bt transgenic plants. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 47: 845–881. Siegfried, B. D., T. Spencer, A. L. Crespo, N. P. Storer, G. P. Head, E. D. Owens, and D. Guyer. 2007. Ten years of monitoring for Bt resistance in the European corn borer: what we know, what we don't know and what we can do better. Am. Entomol. 53: 208–214. Stengel, M., and G. Schubert. 1982. Etude comparative de la vitesse de croissance et de la sensibilité à la photopériode de deux races de pyrales du maïs (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) et de leurs hybrides. Agronomie 2: 989–994. Stodola, T. J., and D. A. Andow. 2004. F2 screen variations and associated statistics. J. Econ. Entomol. 97: 1756–1764. Stodola, T. J., D. A. Andow, A. R. Hyden, J. L. Hinton, J. J. Roark, L. L. Buschman, P. Porter, and G. B. Cronholm. 2006. Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin CrylAb in southern U.S. Corn Belt population of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 502–507. Tabashnik, B. E., A. J. Gassmann, D. W. Crowder, and Y. Carrière. 2008. Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory. Nat. Biotechnol. 26: 199–202. Tabashnik, B. E., J.B.J. Van Rensburg, and Y. Carrière. 2009. Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data. J. Econ. Entomol. 102: 2011–2025. Tuytuynov, Y., E. Zhadanovskaya, D. Bourguet, and R. Arditi. 2008. Landscape refuges delay resistance of the European corn borer to Bt-maize: a demo-genetic dynamic model. Theor. Pop. Biol. 74: 138–146. Vacher, C., D. Bourguet, F. Bousset, C. Chevillon, and M. E. Hochberg. 2003. Modelling the spatial configuration of refuges for a sustainable control of pests: a case study of Bt cotton. J. Evol. Biol. 16: 378–387. Venette, R. C., W. D. Hutchinson, and D. A. Andow. 2000. An in-field screen for early detection and monitoring of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in transgenic crops. J. Econ. Entomol. 93: 1055–1064. Wenes, A.-L., D. Bourguet, D. A. Andow, C. Courtin, G. Carré, P. Lorme, L. Sanchez, and S. Augustin. 2006. Frequency and fitness cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in Chrysomela tremulae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Heredity 97: 127–134.


Wyniger, B. 1974. Insektenzucht. Methoden der Zucht und Haltung von Insekten und Milben im Laboratorium. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart, Germany. Xu, Z., F. Li, J. Chen, F. Huang, D. A. Andow, Y. Wang, Y. C. Zhu, and J. Shen. 2009. Using an F2 screen to monitorfrequency of resistance alleles to Bt cotton in field populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Manag. Sci. 65: 391–397. Zhao, J. Z., Y. X. Li, H. L. Collins, and A. M. Shelton. 2002. Examination of the F2 screen for rare resistance alleles to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in the diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 14–21. Zhao, J. Z., J. Cao, H. L. Collins, S. L. Bates, B. T. Boush, E. D. Earle, and A. M. Shelton. 2005. Concurrent use of transgenic plants expressing a single and two Bacillus thuringiensis genes speeds insect adaptation to pyramided plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102: 8426–8430. URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/EC10055 Author Address: 1 Institute for Environmental Research (Biologie V), Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany. 3 Department of Plant Protection, Slovak Agricultural University, 94976 Nitra, Slovakia. 4 Department of Animal Biology University of Palermo, 90123 Palermo, Italy. 5 Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MI 55108. 6 Unité Résistance aux Produits Phyto sanitaires, AFSSA, 69364 Lyon, France. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Enrique R, Siciliano F, Favaro MA, Gerhardt N, Roeschlin R, Rigano L, Sendin L, Castagnaro A, Vojnov A, Marano MR, Year: 2010 Title: * Novel demonstration of RNAi in citrus reveals importance of citrus callose synthase in defence against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal - Article first published online: 31 AUG 2010. Pages: no Label: BaRe Keywords: RNAi-induced gene silencing citrus functional genomics Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri asiatic citrus canker callose synthase Abstract: Summary Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by citrus canker, a disease caused by the bacterial phytopathogen, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). GenBank houses a large collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) enriched with transcripts generated during the defence response against this pathogen; however, there are currently no strategies in citrus to assess the function of candidate genes. This has greatly limited research as defence signalling genes are often involved in multiple pathways. In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi) as a functional genomics tool to assess the function of candidate genes involved in the defence response of Citrus limon against the citrus canker pathogen. Double-stranded RNA expression vectors, encoding hairpin RNAs for citrus host genes, were delivered to lemon leaves by transient infiltration with transformed Agrobacterium. As proof of principle, we have established silencing of citrus phytoene desaturase (PDS) and callose synthase (CalS1) genes. Phenotypic and molecular analyses showed that silencing vectors were functional not only in lemon plants but also in other species of the Rutaceae family. Using silencing of CalS1, we have demonstrated that plant cell wall-associated defence is the principal initial barrier against Xanthomonas infection in citrus plants. Additionally, we present here results that suggest that H2O2 accumulation, which is suppressed by xanthan from Xcc during pathogenesis, contributes to inhibition of xanthan-deficient Xcc mutant growth either in wild-type or CalS1silenced plants. With this work, we have demonstrated that high-throughput reverse genetic analysis is feasible in citrus. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00555.x Author Address: 1Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR-CONICET). Área Virología, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario. Suipacha, Rosario, Argentina 2Fundación Pablo Cassará, Centro de Ciencia y Tecnología ―Dr. Cesar Milstein‖. Saladillo. Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina 3Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Las Talitas, Tucumán, Argentina


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Erdmann R, Gramzow L, Melzer R, Theissen G, Becker A, Year: 2010 Title: * GORDITA (AGL63) is a young paralog of the Arabidopsis thaliana Bsister MADS box gene ABS (TT16) that has undergone neofunctionalization. Journal: The Plant Journal 63, 6, 914-924. Label: Physiol Keywords: MADS box genes Bsister genes fruit growth neofunctionalization gene duplication GORDITA Abstract: Summary MIKC-type MADS domain proteins are key regulators of flower development in angiosperms. Bsister genes constitute a clade with a close relationship to class B floral homeotic genes, and have been conserved for more than 300 million years. The loss-of-function phenotype of the A. thaliana Bsister gene ABS is mild: mutants show reduced seed coloration and defects in endothelium development. This study focuses on GORDITA (GOA, formerly known as AGL63), the most closely related paralog of ABS in A. thaliana, which is thought to act redundantly with ABS. Phylogenetic trees reveal that the duplication leading to ABS and GOA occurred during diversification of the Brassicaceae, and further analyses show that GOA has evolved under relaxed selection pressure. The knockdown phenotype of GOA suggests a role for this gene in fruit longitudinal growth, while over-expression of GOA results in disorganized floral structure and addition of carpel-like features to sepals. Given the phylogeny and function of other Bsister genes, our data suggest that GOA has evolved a new function as compared to ABS. Protein analysis reveals that the GOAspecific ‘deviant’ domain is required for protein dimerization, in contrast to other MIKC-type proteins that require the K domain for dimerization. Moreover, no shared protein interaction partners for ABS and GOA could be identified. Our experiments indicate that modification of a protein domain and a shift in expression pattern can lead to a novel gene function in a relatively short time, and highlight the molecular mechanism by which neofunctionalization following gene duplication can be achieved. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04290.x Author Address: 1University of Bremen, Department of Biology and Chemistry, Plant Evo-Devo Group, Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen, Germany 2Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Genetics, Philosophenweg 12, 07743 Jena, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Faino Luigi, Carli Paola, Testa Antonino, Cristinzio Gennaro, Frusciante Luigi, Ercolano Maria, Year: 2010 Title: * Potato R1 resistance gene confers resistance against Phytophthora infestans in transgenic tomato plants. Secondary Title: European Journal of Plant Pathology 128, 2, 233-241. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Label: FuRe Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Disease resistance gene - Late blight - Heterologue system Transformation - PR proteins Abstract: Tomato is challenged by several pathogens which cause loss of production. One such pathogen is the oomycete Phytophthora infestans which is able to attack all the aerial parts of the plant. Although a wide range of resistance sources are available, genetic control of this disease is not yet successful. Pyramiding R-genes through genetic transformation could be a straightforward way to produce tomato and potato lines carrying durable resistance to P. infestans. In this work the R1 potato gene was transferred into tomato lines. The tomato transgenic lines were analyzed by using q-RT-PCR and progeny segregation to determine the gene copy number. To test the hypothesis that R1 represents a specifically regulated R-gene, transgenic tomato plants were inoculated with P. infestans isolate 88133 and IPO. All the plants containing the R1 gene were resistant to the late blight isolate IPO-0 and susceptible to isolate 88133. These results provide evidence for specific activation of the R1 gene during pathogen challenge. Furthermore, evidence for enhancement of PR-1 gene expression during P. infestans resistance response was obtained. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10658-010-9649-2 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: FANG Jia-hai, WEI Xue-jiao, WANG Lai-chun, Year: 2010 Title: ?? Effects of Introducing Antisense Wx Gene on Grain Quality of Rice Cultivar Zhenshan97A and Its F1 Generations. Journal: ACTA AGRICULTURAE UNIVERSITATIS JIANGXIENSIS(NATURAL SCIENCES EDITION): 2010 32(3). Label: Boengineering Physiol AgronomicTrait Composition Keywords: Antisense Wx gene in rice quality Zhenshan 97A Keywords: Import of rice genes on the quality of Rice Zhenshan amylose content of transgenic plants backcross plant selection bred gel consistency chalkiness positive effect Abstract: Traduction (Chinois > anglais) Using Antisense Wx gene Zhenshan 97B positive transformed plants by plant selection, backcrossing, bred Antisense Wx gene Zhenshan 97A - quality Zhenshan 97A. Quality Zhenshan 97A and Zhen Shan 97A comparison, direct Starch decreased from 25.6% to 9.3%, gel consistency increased from 45 mm to 86 mm, chalkiness decreased from 23.5% to 7.1%; use of high-quality preparation of F1 Zhenshan 97A has the same effect of grain quality. URL: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical_jxnydxxb201003004.aspx Author Address: Jiangxi Agricultural University, Crop Physiology and Ecology and the Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding, Jiangxi, Nanchang, 330045 Jiangxi Agricultural University, Land Resources and Environment College, Jiangxi, Nanchang, 330045, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: FANG Zhi-jun, YANG Yi-ling, HUANG Chun-hui, GU Qing-qing, XU Xiao-biao, Year: 2010 Title: ?? Genetic Engineering and Germplasm Improvement in Citrus Rootstocks. Journal: ACTA AGRICULTURAE JIANGXI: 2010 22(6) Label: Bioengineering Review Keywords: Citrus rootstock improvement of genetic engineering Key words: genetic engineering technology engineering to improve the breeding stock of citrus germplasm resources, improved Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic plant diversity in the main direction of transformation system rootstock varieties Biotechnology Research Identification of in vitro propagation law into domestic law bud foster improved side Abstract: Overview of the current gene engineering technology in citrus rootstock germplasm improvement in the work of Research and Development, Genetic Engineering in citrus breeding mainly Agrobacterium, transformation in vitro axillary bud multiplication possessed identification method, DNA directly into law, and the training of new resistant varieties of citrus rootstock to achieve certain results, the establishment of an effective transformation system, also received a number of transgenic plants. Now, with the continuous development of biotechnology and genetic engineering matures in citrus rootstock genetic engineering research and improvement of germplasm resources aspects of diversity will remain the main direction of the future. URL: http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical_jxnyxb201006024.aspx Author Address: Jiangxi Agricultural University, College of Agriculture, Jiangxi, Nanchang, 330045, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Fang Zhiwei D, Marois James J, Stacey Gary, Schoelz James E, English James T, Schmidt Francis J, Year: 2010 Title: * Combinatorially Selected Peptides for Protection of Soybean Against Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Journal: Phytopathology 100, 10, 1111-1117 Label: FuRe Abstract: Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the fungal pathogen that causes Asian soybean rust, has the potential to cause significant losses in soybean yield in many production regions of the United States. Germplasm with durable, single-gene resistance is lacking, and control of rust depends on timely application of fungicides. To assist the development of new modes of soybean resistance, we identified peptides from combinatorial phage-display peptide libraries that inhibit germ tube growth from urediniospores of P. pachyrhizi. Two peptides, Sp2 and


Sp39, were identified that inhibit germ tube development when displayed as fusions with the coat protein of M13 phage or as fusions with maize cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (ZmCKX1). In either display format, the inhibitory effect of the peptides on germ tube growth was concentration dependent. In addition, when peptides Sp2 or Sp39 in either format were mixed with urediniospores and inoculated to soybean leaves with an 8-h wetness period, rust lesion development was reduced. Peptides Sp2 and Sp39, displayed on ZmCKX1, were found to interact with a 20-kDa protein derived from germinated urediniospores. Incorporating peptides that inhibit pathogen development and pathogenesis into breeding programs may contribute to the development of soybean cultivars with improved, durable rust tolerance. URL: http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PHYTO-12-09-0365 Division of Biochemistry, 117 Schweitzer Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia 65211; Plant Pathology Department, North Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 3925 Hwy 71, Marianna 32446. USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Feddermann , Rajasekhara Reddy Duvvuru Muni, Tatyana Zeier, Jeroen Stuurman, Flavia Ercolin, Martine Schorderet, Didier Reinhardt, Year: 2010 Title: * The PAM1 Gene of Petunia, Required for Intracellular Accommodation and Morphogenesis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Encodes a Homologue of VAPYRIN. Journal: The Plant Journal - Accepted manuscript online: 23 AUG 2010 09:50AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365313X.2010.04341. Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: Symbiosis Glomus intraradices Petunia hybrida VAPYRIN arbuscular mycorrhiza ankyrin intracellular accommodation Abstract: Most terrestrial plants engage into the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis with fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. The initial recognition of the fungal symbiont results in the activation a symbiosis signaling pathway that is shared with the root nodule symbiosis (common SYM pathway). The subsequent intracellular accommodation of the fungus, and the elaboration of its characteristic feeding structures, the arbuscules, depends on a genetic program in the plant that has recently been shown to involve the VAPYRIN gene in Medicaco truncatula. We have previously identified a mutant in Petunia hybrida, penetration and arbuscule morphogenesis1 (pam1), that is defective in the intracellular stages of AM development. Here, we report the cloning of PAM1, which encodes a VAPYRIN homologue. PAM1 protein localizes to the cytosol and the nucleus, with a prominent affinity to mobile spherical structures that are associated with the tonoplast, and therefore are referred to as tonospheres. In mycorrhizal roots, tonospheres were observed in the vicinity of intracellular hyphae, where they may play an essential role in accommodation and morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04341.x Author Address: 1Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, CH-1700 Fribourg, Switzerland 2Keygene NV, PO Box 216, 6700AE Wageningen, The Netherlands XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Ferreyra Maria Lorena Falcone, Pezza Alejandro, Biarc Jordane, Burlingame Alma L, Casati Paula, Year: 2010 Title: * Plant L10 Ribosomal Proteins Have Different Roles during Development and Translation under Ultraviolet-B Stress. Journal: Plant Physiol. 153, 4, 1878-1894. Date: August 1, 2010 Label: ReEn Physiol Abstract: Ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10) proteins are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has three RPL10 genes encoding RPL10A to RPL10C proteins, while two genes are present in the maize (Zea mays) genome (rpl10-1 and rpl10-2). Maize and Arabidopsis RPL10s are tissuespecific and developmentally regulated, showing high levels of expression in tissues with active cell division. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that RPL10s in Arabidopsis associate with translation proteins,


demonstrating that it is a component of the 80S ribosome. Previously, ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure was shown to increase the expression of a number of maize ribosomal protein genes, including rpl10. In this work, we demonstrate that maize rpl10 genes are induced by UV-B while Arabidopsis RPL10s are differentially regulated by this radiation: RPL10A is not UV-B regulated, RPL10B is down-regulated, while RPL10C is upregulated by UV-B in all organs studied. Characterization of Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants indicates that RPL10 genes are not functionally equivalent. rpl10A and rpl10B mutant plants show different phenotypes: knockout rpl10A mutants are lethal, rpl10A heterozygous plants are deficient in translation under UV-B conditions, and knockdown homozygous rpl10B mutants show abnormal growth. Based on the results described here, RPL10 genes are not redundant and participate in development and translation under UV-B stress. URL: http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/abstract/153/4/1878 Author Address: Centro de Estudios Fotosintéticos y Bioquímicos, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531, Rosario, Argentina Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, California 94158–2517 USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Fields Allison, Wang Ning, Hua Zhihua, Meng Xiaoying, Kao Teh-hui, Year: 2010 Title: * Functional characterization of two chimeric proteins between a Petunia inflataS-locus F-box protein, PiSLF2, and a PiSLF-like protein, PiSLFLb-S2 . Secondary Title: Plant Molecular Biology 74, 3, 279-292. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0167-4412 Label: Physiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Chimeric proteins - Petunia inflata - Self-incompatibility - Slocus F-box protein - S-RNase Abstract: Self-incompatible solanaceous species possess the S-RNase and SLF (S-locus F-box) genes at the highly polymorphic S-locus, and their products mediate S-haplotype-specific rejection of pollen tubes in the style. After a pollen tube grows into the style, the S-RNases produced in the style are taken up; however, only self S-RNase (product of the matching S-haplotype) can inhibit the subsequent growth of the pollen tube. Based on the finding that non-self interactions between PiSLF (Petunia inflata SLF) and S-RNase are stronger than self-interactions, and based on the biochemical properties of PiSLF, we previously proposed that a PiSLF preferentially interacts with its non-self S-RNases to mediate their ubiquitination and degradation, thereby only allowing self S-RNase to exert its cytotoxic function. We further divided PiSLF into three potential Functional Domains (FDs), FD1-FD3, based on sequence comparison of PiSLF and PiSLF-like proteins, and based on SRNase-binding properties of these proteins and various truncated forms of PiSLF2 (S 2 allelic variant of PiSLF). In this work, we examined the in vivo function of FD2, which we proposed to be responsible for strong, general interactions between PiSLF and S-RNase. We swapped FD2 of PiSLF2 with the corresponding region of PiSLFLb-S2 (S 2 allelic variant of a PiSLF-like protein), and expressed GFP-fused chimeric proteins, named b-2-b and 2-b-2, in S 2 S 3 transgenic plants. We showed that neither chimeric protein retained the SI function of PiSLF2, suggesting that FD2 is necessary, but not sufficient, for the function of PiSLF. Moreover, since we previously found that b-2-b and 2-b-2 only interacted with S3-RNase ~50 and ~30%, respectively, as strongly as did PiSLF2 in vitro, their inability to function as PiSLF2 is also consistent with our model predicating on strong interaction between a PiSLF and its non-self S-RNases as part of the biochemical basis for S-haplotype-specific rejection of pollen tubes. Notes: 25 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-010-9672-x Author Address: (1) Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, 403 Althouse Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA (2) Intercollege Graduate Degree Program in Plant Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, 403 Althouse Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA (3) Present address: Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Fok Michel Year: 2010 Title: * Autant en emporte la culture du coton transgénique aux États-Unis... Journal: Cahiers Agricultures. Volume 19, Numéro 4, 292-8, juillet-août 2010. DOI : 10.1684/agr.2010.0406 Keywords: amélioration génétique, pathologie, productions végétales Abstract: Les conférences 2010 du Beltwide cotton ont apporté une vision nouvelle sur les conséquences de 15 années d'utilisation massive des variétés de coton transgénique aux États-Unis. L'observation des changements dans les complexes d'ennemis des cultures de cotonnier et les solutions recherchées pour y faire face montrent que les effets positifs proclamés de l'utilisation de ces variétés se sont évanouies en termes d'efficacité du contrôle des ennemis des cultures, de réduction du coût et d'antagonisme entre voie chimique et voie biotechnologique de ce contrôle. La durabilité technique et économique des variétés transgéniques dépend de l'approche systémique et coordonnée de leur utilisation. Full text : Les Beltwide Cotton Conferences sont organisées annuellement depuis 1983 aux États-Unis par la National Cotton Council (NCC) dans la première semaine de janvier. Elles réunissent des chercheurs et des professionnels industriels et agricoles de la filière cotonnière du pays, tout en étant ouvertes aux participants de pays étrangers. En 2010, ces conférences ont eu lieu à la Nouvelle-Orléans. Le thème du coton transgénique y a pris une place particulière, presque quinze ans après la commercialisation des premières variétés transgéniques de grandes cultures (maïs, soja, coton) intégrant un ou plusieurs gènes de Bacillus thuringiensis pour la résistance à certains ravageurs (variétés Bt), ou un gène de tolérance à une matière active herbicide (surtout le glyphosate), ou bien les deux types de gènes. Pour des conférences relatives au coton et se déroulant dans le sud des États-Unis, il est tentant de paraphraser le titre du fameux roman de Margaret Mitchell, « Gone with the wind », pour souligner l'évanouissement de quelques illusions. En effet, alors que les variétés transgéniques de coton couvrent aujourd'hui 88 % des surfaces cotonnières américaines (tableau 1), les agriculteurs constatent l'émergence de la nuisibilité de ravageurs qui ne nécessitaient pas de contrôle (« nouveaux » ravageurs) et l'apparition d'un nombre croissant de plantes adventices devenues résistantes au glyphosate. Or, bien que les conférences du Beltwide restituent régulièrement depuis 1999 des travaux sur les « nouveaux » ravageurs, les changements des complexes de ravageurs auxquels font échos ces travaux ont été occultés dans une synthèse assez récente publiée par le ministère de l'Agriculture des États-Unis (Fernandez-Cornejo et Caswell, 2006). Mais, en 2010, les conférences du Beltwide ont marqué pour la première fois une réelle attention portée aux changements observés et révélé une inquiétude des producteurs de coton aux États-Unis. Cet article a pour but de commenter le contenu des conférences du Beltwide 2010. Nous présentons en première partie le déroulement et les thèmes abordés, puis nous restituons en deuxième partie la situation actuelle de changement des complexes d'ennemis de la culture, qui a été particulièrement discutée. La troisième partie indique les travaux de recherche engagés pour y faire face et la dernière partie souligne les illusions balayées par la situation actuelle. Des conférences interprofessionnelles ciblées sur l'actualité cotonnière Rencontres de chercheurs, de politiques et de professionnels de la filière L'institution organisatrice, la National Cotton Council (NCC), a été créée en 1938 pour promouvoir la coordination entre les acteurs privés de la production cotonnière aux États-Unis. Elle regroupe les acteurs principaux, à savoir les producteurs, les consultants (agronomes conseillers), les égreneurs, les stockeurs, les négociants et les transformateurs des graines et de la fibre. Parmi ses prérogatives, la NCC affiche aujourd'hui clairement son rôle de lobby auprès des hommes politiques. Elle exhorte régulièrement les producteurs à faire pression sur leurs élus locaux pour infléchir la politique cotonnière des États-Unis. Par le biais du site Internet de la NCC, chaque producteur peut trouver les coordonnées des élus locaux auprès de qui il peut intervenir. La NCC rend compte des faits et gestes des élus sur la question du coton, de manière à maintenir la pression sur les politiques. Sa récente lettre ouverte, pour féliciter la délégation américaine aux dernières négociations de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) à Genève, en décembre 2009, est à comprendre dans cette démarche. Les trois jours que durent les conférences sont partagés entre la restitution des résultats de recherche (tableau 2) et les questions de production et de politique agricole. La NCC y rend également compte de ses activités, tout comme l'organisation interprofessionnelle Cotton Incorporated, important financeur de la recherche publique


sur le coton. Les organisateurs sollicitent les chercheurs pour qu'ils présentent très rapidement les résultats de leurs travaux, surtout quand ils sont financés par la Cotton Incorporated. Les conférences du Beltwide permettent ainsi de connaître les derniers résultats des productions, des techniques et des recherches aux ÉtatsUnis, parfois bien avant leur publication dans les revues. Les résumés et les textes des communications ne sont pas disponibles au moment des conférences, mais les actes sont publiés sur Internet sous la forme d'enregistrements audio et vidéo, dès le mois de février, et de fichiers textes, au mois de juin. L'accès aux actes, disponibles depuis 1983, est offert à tout participant aux conférences1. Tableau 1 Parts des superficies (%) en variétés transgéniques aux États-Unis en 2009. Table 1. Percentages of surface covered by transgenic varieties in the United States in 2009. Culture Gènes Bt seuls Gènes HT seuls Gènes empilés Bt + HT Total Maïs 0 91 0 91 Coton 17 23 48 88 Soja 17 22 46 85 Tableau 2 Thèmes des présentations de résultats de recherche aux conférences du Beltwide 2010 (NouvelleOrléans). Table 2. Research results presentation themes at the Cotton Beltwide 2010 Conferences (New Orleans). Présentations Économie Agronomie* Maladies Ravageurs Adventices Amélioration Technologies Total variétale transformation** Communications 26 93 23 59 22 43 72 338 Posters 11 46 17 39 19 20 4 156 Total 37 139 40 98 41 63 76 494 Le secteur cotonnier américain en prise avec les défis intérieurs et extérieurs Pour aborder la question politique, les organisateurs font s'exprimer le ministre en charge de l'agriculture dans l'État où les conférences sont organisées, mais aussi des personnalités d'instances fédérales. Cette année, le ministre de la Louisiane a fustigé le projet de loi Cap & Trade visant à réduire les émissions de gaz à effet de serre par les agriculteurs. Le commissaire chargé de la surveillance des bourses de produits agricoles a commenté le rapport de l'étude qu'il avait commanditée après la flambée des cours du coton, au début du mois de mars 2008, et qui n'a pas permis de conclure à des actes de manipulation du marché. Les travaux coordonnés par la Cotton Incorporated indiquent que la préoccupation de la durabilité de la production cotonnière est fortement prise en compte depuis quelques années aux États-Unis. Les travaux sur le bilan énergie et carbone sont déjà assez avancés et les résultats sont exploités pour souligner que les modes de production du coton sont compatibles avec les préoccupations environnementales : la Cotton Incorporated a ainsi mis en ligne un vade-mecum pour aider à argumenter dans ce sens 2. Pour autant, le manque d'eau constitue aujourd'hui l'une des plus graves menaces de la production cotonnière, notamment au Texas qui est le principal État « cotonnier », fournissant plus de 50 % de la production américaine de coton. Le défi est lancé à la fois d'une irrigation plus économe et efficiente et d'une agriculture pluviale plus productive. Cela induira des investissements supplémentaires, auxquels certains producteurs de coton ne pourront pas faire face. De ce fait, le nombre de producteurs se réduira encore alors qu'il n'est plus que de 18 605 en 2007 (au lieu de 24 805 en 2002 et 33 640 en 1997). Les activités connexes à la production cotonnière vont donc diminuer, avec pour conséquence une perte d'emplois – estimée à 8 000 emplois dans le seul État du Texas. L'exode rural qui s'ensuivra sera préjudiciable à la survie des communautés rurales actuelles. L'autre menace concerne le changement de politique de soutien, notamment sous le coup des attaques de l'OMC. À ce propos, les travaux présentés montrent un changement notable d'attitude dans la défense des subventions américaines. Les travaux antérieurs, visant à évaluer l'effet de la politique américaine sur le prix mondial, concluaient à un effet dépressif de seulement 3-5 %, alors que certaines études étrangères évaluaient cet effet négatif à 15-20 %. Les nouveaux travaux présentés ont porté sur l'effet des politiques de soutien des pays concurrents sur le marché mondial. Leurs résultats sont assez étonnants : ils indiquent que la politique de prix minimum garanti en Inde, de même que la politique de contrôle des importations du coton par la Chine, ont chacune le même effet sur le prix mondial que l'ensemble de toutes les mesures de soutien appliquées aux États-Unis. Ces résultats tendraient à indiquer que ce dernier pays n'est pas plus responsable de la baisse du prix mondial que d'autres pays. Inquiétude évidente face à l'évolution des complexes parasitaires Au regard des sessions passées, les conférences de 2010 se singularisent par l'organisation de séances sur les changements observés dans les complexes des ennemis de la culture cotonnière. Un atelier spécifique a ainsi été


animé par des chercheurs pour discuter des plantes adventices résistantes au glyphosate, utilisé massivement dans la pratique du zéro labour. L'atelier a été relayé par un panel de discussions sur le bilan des apports des variétés transgéniques, compte tenu des changements observés. Le panel était composé de deux chercheurs, l'un spécialiste de la lutte contre les ravageurs et l'autre de la lutte contre les adventices, d'un producteur du Texas et d'un consultant. Ces deux événements ont été les plus suivis par les participants, indiquant que les producteurs, les consultants et les chercheurs ont pris pleinement conscience des changements opérés sur le terrain dans les complexes de ravageurs et d'adventices. Les citations qui suivent témoignent de leurs doutes relatifs à la poursuite des variétés de coton transgéniques : « On est content que le coton transgénique existe, mais ça ne suffit pas pour que je dorme sur mes deux oreilles » Consultant « Les biotechnologies, une épée à double tranchant » Titre de l'intervention d'un consultant « La technique du zéro labour réduit l'érosion éolienne et améliore la rétention en eau des sols, c'est très adapté au Texas, on ne voudrait pas devoir l'abandonner du fait des adventices résistants au glyphosate » Producteur du Texas « Ce dont on a besoin, ce sont de nouveaux produits chimiques » Conclusion d'un malherbologue « J'entends dire qu'il faut revenir à la culture du coton conventionnel, mais dans quelle proportion et comment s'assurer qu'une nouvelle infestation de grande ampleur de chenilles des capsules ne vienne détruire la culture ? » Expert en contrôle des ravageurs. Résultats des études sur les complexes parasitaires Évolution des complexes de ravageurs Aux États-Unis, avant l'adoption du coton Bt, les principaux ravageurs qui détruisaient les cultures de coton étaient les chenilles lépidoptères des capsules (Helicoverpas zea, Heliothis virescens et Pectinophora gossypiella) et le charançon des capsules Anthonomus grandis. Les ravageurs ciblés par les premières variétés de coton Bt étaient les chenilles des capsules. Leur commercialisation intervenant au moment où le programme national d'éradication du charançon lancé à la fin des années 1970 arrivait aux derniers États cotonniers, le problème des principaux ravageurs paraissait alors résolu. L'efficacité du coton Bt contre ses ravageurs cibles est certes indéniable. L'emploi massif du coton Bt a progressivement entraîné la chute de leurs populations, à tel point que leur contrôle chimique nécessite en moyenne seulement 0,5 traitement par an à l'échelle nationale. Depuis 2003, l'utilisation du coton Bt n'induit d'ailleurs pratiquement plus de réductions du nombre de traitements contre ces ravageurs par rapport au coton conventionnel. De ce point de vue, il est étonnant de ne pas trouver d'analyse sur l'intérêt technique et économique à diminuer substantiellement le taux d'utilisation du coton Bt. Mais cette efficacité du coton Bt n'est plus suffisante et la situation actuelle est devenue compliquée. Aujourd'hui, il faut déchanter devant un changement des complexes de ravageurs, probablement dû à la très grande sélectivité des toxines Bt contre les ravageurs cibles, sélectivité par ailleurs présentée auparavant comme un avantage. Au lancement du coton Bt, les craintes concernaient en effet la résistance des ravageurs cibles aux toxines Bt et les dégâts sur la faune non ciblée (Hardee et al., 2001), mais personne ne pensait au changement de statut de nuisibilité des ravageurs non ciblés. Trois observations soulignent ce changement des complexes de ravageurs. Premièrement, la chenille des capsules Pectinophora gossypiella est imparfaitement contrôlée. Deuxièmement, il apparaît de graves infestations de chenilles phylophages du genre Spodoptera (S. exigua et S. frugiperda), comme cela est aussi observé dans d'autres pays utilisateurs du coton Bt (Chine, Burkina Faso avec les espèces S. littoralis et S. litura). Or, le traitement chimique contre ces chenilles phylophages était inutile avant le coton Bt et il est devenu indispensable aujourd'hui. Enfin, les insectes piqueurs-suceurs sont devenus des ravageurs prépondérants, alors qu'ils ne l'étaient pas systématiquement auparavant. Il s'agit de deux punaises, Lygus lineolaris et Lygus hesperus, d'acariens (Tetranychus spp.), d'aleurodes (Bemisia spp.) et de pucerons (Aphis spp.). Même si la composition des complexes de ravageurs ayant franchi le seuil de dégâts économiques est variable selon les États cotonniers, les plus fortes craintes sont exprimées à l'encontre des punaises et des pucerons qui sont présents sur de nombreuses autres espèces végétales. Pour la punaise L. lineolaris, 300 espèces hôtes ont ainsi été recensées. Pour les pucerons, l'augmentation du degré d'infestation est observée depuis 2006 et a atteint un niveau en 2009 jamais observé auparavant.


Ces nouvelles émergences de ravageurs ont pour conséquence le recours accru aux insecticides chimiques. Les semenciers ont augmenté le traitement des semences ; une dizaine de produits pesticides sont ainsi utilisés, et un chercheur s'est même étonné, avec ironie, que les semences puissent encore germer dans ces conditions. En 2009, le contrôle au champ des « nouveaux » ravageurs a nécessité 6,5 traitements chimiques en moyenne dans l'ensemble des États cotonniers américains, alors que ces traitements étaient peu pratiqués. Les pertes de rendement ont également été estimées en absence de traitements chimiques ou en situation d'efficacité insuffisante de ces traitements. Les orateurs se sont même accordés à reconnaître une perte d'efficacité des produits chimiques utilisés, corrélée à l'augmentation récente de la pression des nouveaux ravageurs. Cette perte d'efficacité concerne des produits de traitement des semences et des produits de traitement foliaire de types organophosphates, carbamates et neonicotinoïdes. Finalement, le coût du contrôle des ravageurs du cotonnier tend à augmenter depuis l'utilisation des variétés transgéniques. La sophistication du traitement des semences est l'un des facteurs de l'augmentation du coût des semences de coton Bt, qui est passé de 20 dollars US par acre en 2005 à plus de 85 dollars US par acre en 2009. À cela, il faut ajouter le coût des multiples insecticides nécessaires pour contrôler les ravageurs non ciblés du coton Bt. L'évolution des coûts des pesticides est aussi à mettre en rapport avec celle de la structure du marché. D'une part, le nombre de firmes de phytopharmacie d'origine européenne ou américaine a drastiquement diminué : un orateur a fait remarquer qu'en 1962, on recensait 42 firmes, puis 33 en 1980, et finalement 7 en 2009. D'autre part, de nombreux produits nouveaux ont été mis sur le marché. Ces produits ont des modes d'action novateurs, mais chaque mode d'action est représenté par peu de produits commerciaux. La concurrence entre les produits est alors seulement virtuelle, car ils ne sont pas réellement substituables. Face à l'ensemble de cette situation, la pertinence d'un retour à la culture du coton conventionnel, à un degré non explicité, est mentionnée. Il s'agit déjà d'une réalité : en 2009, il y en aurait eu 400 000 acres (sur une surface totale en coton de 8,9 millions d'acres) et une superficie de 1,5 million d'acres est attendue pour 2010. La question est encore éludée par les chercheurs spécialistes du contrôle des ravageurs, ces chercheurs utilisant l'argument d'un retour possible à une forte infestation des ravageurs cibles. Notes: Évolution des complexes de plantes adventices Les variétés de coton transgéniques tolérantes à la matière active herbicide glyphosate couvrent aujourd'hui 71 % des superficies totales de coton des États-Unis et cette part continue d'augmenter. Pourtant, depuis 2003, le phénomène de résistance des plantes adventices au glyphosate s'est progressivement étendu à tous les États producteurs de coton pour toutes les grandes cultures (coton, maïs, soja…). Ce phénomène reflète une dérive de la flore adventice, directement liée à la destruction des mauvaises herbes en zéro labour par l'utilisation d'herbicides, notamment le Roundup® de Monsanto à base de glyphosate. Les espèces adventices résistantes au glyphosate les plus fréquemment citées sont en premier lieu Conyza canadensis (horseweed) et Amaranthus palmeri (« pigweed »), qui inquiètent le plus les producteurs américains, puis Lolium rigidum (« ryegrass »), Sorghum halepense (« johnsongrass »), Ambrosia artemisiifolia (« ragweed »). Les parcelles peuvent être totalement envahies par plusieurs d'entre elles. Une enquête réalisée en 2009 indique que le nombre d'espèces résistantes a varié de 2 à 18 selon les États cotonniers et qu'en certains comtés de ces États, 75 % des champs ont été touchés et que 45 % des producteurs ont recouru à l'arrachage manuel. Quel paradoxe au pays de la motorisation et où l'on clame, avec l'expansion de la pratique de l'agriculture de précision, que la nouvelle révolution consiste à embarquer de plus en plus d'électronique sur les machines agricoles ! Un autre phénomène inattendu a vu le jour. La culture des variétés transgéniques de soja, coton et maïs tolérantes au glyphosate a contribué à transformer ces plantes cultivées elles-mêmes en adventices. Par exemple, dans les champs de coton, les plants de soja ou de maïs issus de graines laissées après la récolte constituent les adventices les plus difficiles à maîtriser, puisque non éliminées par le glyphosate auquel elles sont tolérantes. Le coton transgénique tolérant au glyphosate est aussi une mauvaise herbe pour le soja et le maïs. Évolution des complexes parasitaires en relation avec le zéro labour Les variétés transgéniques tolérantes au glyphosate ont permis d'étendre la pratique du zéro labour. En zéro labour, la culture principale est semée sans travail du sol dans un couvert végétal qui a été préalablement contrôlé par herbicide. Au moment des semis, ce couvert végétal permanent induit une température du sol plus faible qu'en culture sur sol nu et une humidité plus élevée. De ce fait, les maladies fongiques des plantules se développent (fonte des semis), ainsi que les maladies fongiques foliaires après le stade plantule. Les consultants préconisent donc l'utilisation accrue de fongicides. Malgré cela, chercheurs et consultants admettent qu'il reste encore beaucoup à faire pour optimiser les techniques de traitement fongicide.


L'interaction entre l'utilisation des variétés transgéniques et les techniques culturales du zéro labour a des effets au-delà du complexe des maladies fongiques. La pression des ravageurs est aussi influencée par le couvert végétal. L'augmentation de la pression des ravageurs de début de saison, notamment les thrips, les pucerons, les acariens et les punaises, est fréquemment signalée, au point que les consultants recommandent déjà la destruction de cette végétation quelques semaines avant le semis, y compris aux alentours des parcelles à semer, en attendant que les chercheurs trouvent de nouvelles solutions. Recherches en cours sur la gestion des complexes parasitaires En résumé, les communications présentées indiquent que la recherche mise sur la chimie et sur les biotechnologies pour la protection de la culture du cotonnier, alors que les tentatives pour une approche plus systémique restent timides. Encore des travaux pour attester de l'efficacité du coton Bt Alors que cela fait presque 15 ans que le coton Bt est cultivé à grande échelle, des travaux sont encore poursuivis pour statuer sur son efficacité. Les chenilles des capsules, ravageurs cibles des gènes Bt, sont toujours présentes, parfois à un degré assez élevé dans les États du delta du Mississipi, ce qui est une différence notable avec ce qui est observé en Chine (Wu et al., 2008). Les orateurs indiquent qu'on ne doit pas les occulter, même si elles ne sont plus les ravageurs qui menacent le plus le coton. Deux communications ont ajouté que la résistance des chenilles des capsules au coton Bt n'a pas émergé. En moyenne des dernières années, le gain de rentabilité du coton Bt tend à être négligeable par rapport au coton conventionnel protégé chimiquement. La forte augmentation du coût d'emploi de la technologie Bt (semences et royalties) en est une cause importante. Le retour au coton conventionnel pourrait paraître légitime, mais cela n'a pas été explicitement évoqué dans les communications. Persistance de la voie chimique pour contrôler les ravageurs cibles du coton Bt Rappelons que c'est l'émergence de la résistance des chenilles des capsules aux insecticides à base de pyréthrinoïdes qui a été l'un des facteurs de la proposition du coton transgénique. Une communication a d'ailleurs porté sur le suivi de la résistance de ces ravageurs aux pyréthrinoïdes, alors que ces produits sont bien moins utilisés depuis le recours au coton Bt. Ce travail a cependant sa pertinence à un moment où le retour à la culture du coton conventionnel est évoqué. Les limites actuelles du coton Bt semblent même ranimer la recherche de nouvelles familles de produits chimiques afin de contrôler ces ravageurs lépidoptères. Un nouveau produit commercial (famille Anthranilic Diamide) a été présenté pour son efficacité sur un large spectre de lépidoptères sur les grandes cultures (coton, maïs, soja…). L'homologation de ce produit serait déjà acquise pour la plupart des cultures, sauf pour le soja. Les résultats indiquent que deux applications de ce produit aboutissent à une protection équivalente à l'utilisation du coton Bt, mais l'information sur le coût reste évasive. La proposition de produits chimiques à large spectre d'action marque un changement de stratégie des firmes de phytopharmacie par rapport à l'option de ―frappe ciblée‖ sur des ravageurs précis. L'incidence possible de cette stratégie sur les changements des complexes des ravageurs n'est pas abordée. Contrôle chimique des ravageurs non-cibles du coton Bt L'évaluation des pertes de récolte causées par les nouveaux ravageurs – principalement les piqueurs-suceurs et à un degré moindre les chenilles phylophages – et l'évaluation de l'efficacité des nouvelles molécules d'insecticide ont fait l'objet de 21 communications sur les 59 traitant du contrôle des ravageurs. Cinq communications ont porté sur l'observation avérée de la perte de sensibilité des ravageurs piqueurssuceurs (punaises, pucerons) vis-à-vis des insecticides utilisés depuis les années 2000 face à la recrudescence de leurs attaques. L'arrêt du recours à ces insecticides a donc été explicitement recommandé. L'efficacité de nouveaux produits insecticides est actuellement évaluée par des expérimentations associant les chercheurs des firmes de phytopharmacie et les chercheurs des universités et les résultats sont présentés par les uns ou les autres. C'est un produit commercial de la famille des Sulfilimines qui semble avoir le vent en poupe, notamment vis-à-vis des deux espèces de punaises et des pucerons. L'efficacité contre les pucerons est telle qu'un orateur a même affirmé que le contrôle chimique des pucerons est ainsi résolu. D'une manière générale, il faut souligner que les firmes ne cherchent pas à montrer que leurs produits sont meilleurs que ceux des concurrents. Elles insistent sur l'équivalence d'efficacité et sur la contribution à élargir la gamme des produits utilisables pour offrir flexibilité de choix et possibilité d'alternance dans l'utilisation des produits disponibles. Les travaux intègrent la mesure des effets sur un large spectre de ravageurs, avec cependant des doses différentes d'utilisation. Le large spectre est désormais présenté comme un avantage. De même, la variation des doses d'utilisation en fonction des ravageurs est avancée comme un atout de flexibilité et de compatibilité dans la mise en œuvre de programme de lutte int��grée. Contrôle des ravageurs par les biotechnologies


Du côté des firmes de biotechnologie, la voie du coton transgénique est poursuivie avec la proposition de nouveaux types de variétés intégrant de nouveaux gènes. C'est le cas de la firme Bayer avec le coton TwinLink, qui combine les deux gènes cry1Ab et cry2Ae contrôlant les ravageurs lépidoptères et le gène LibertyLink de cette firme pour la tolérance à un herbicide (à base de glufosinate d'ammonium). L'insertion d'un nouveau gène de tolérance au glyphosate de la même firme (gène GlyTol) est engagée pour donner lieu à de nouvelles variétés TwinLink/GlyTol, qui auront la particularité de tolérer deux herbicides différents. Syngenta, une autre multinationale en phytopharmacie et en biotechnologie, travaille de son côté à la combinaison du gène Bt cry1Ab et du gène Vip3A, homologué mais pas encore proposé à la commercialisation, pour la résistance aux ravageurs. D'autres solutions envisagent une association plus complexe de trois gènes. C'est un chercheur de Monsanto qui annonce la commercialisation prochaine de Bollgard3, issue de la combinaison des deux gènes Bt utilisés dans Bollgard2 (cry1Ac et cry2Ab) et du gène Vip3A de Syngenta. Il était étonnant d'entendre un chercheur de Monsanto vanter les mérites du gène de Syngenta en termes de spectre plus large contre les ravageurs lépidoptères ! Monsanto est la seule firme à donner des résultats d'un nouveau gène Bt pour le contrôle d'une espèce de punaises bien que les toxines Bt ne paraissent pas adaptées a priori au mode d'ingestion des punaises. Les résultats sont prometteurs, mais il reste encore du chemin à parcourir avant la commercialisation. Exploration de pistes nouvelles pour le contrôle des nouveaux ravageurs Une première piste agronomique repose sur l'étude de la dynamique des populations des nouveaux ravageurs. L'effet négatif du voisinage du maïs sur l'infestation des punaises dans les champs de coton est mis en évidence, amenant la recommandation de réaliser des traitements contre les punaises sur le maïs en bordure des champs de coton. Les premiers travaux sont engagés pour comprendre le déterminisme du système olfactif d'une espèce de punaise, qui serait déterminant pour la recherche de nourriture : sa compréhension peut ouvrir des voies de contrôle, en perturbant l'alimentation de ces ravageurs. Une autre recherche repose sur l'exploitation de la vidéo haute définition pour filmer en continu les déplacements et l'alimentation d'une espèce de punaise, en fonction de l'âge et du sexe des insectes. L'idée est de comprendre qui, des mâles ou des femelles, et à quel stade, causent le plus de dégâts au cotonnier. Gestion des adventices résistantes au glyphosate Les chercheurs soulignent la nécessité de nouveaux produits chimiques, tout en considérant qu'il ne faut pas seulement miser sur les herbicides. Des techniques culturales, comme le retournement du sol, sont, dans certains cas, appropriées, même si cela pose un problème de compatibilité avec le zéro labour. Les solutions chimiques proposées actuellement ne sont pas réellement efficaces. On a recouru, sans succès durable, aux herbicides résiduels ou de contact, en puisant dans les molécules existantes dont certaines déjà anciennes, comme le paraquat. À mesure que les phénomènes se développent et que de nouveaux produits sont proposés, de nouveaux programmes de lutte sont testés, qui associent plusieurs produits, en traitements de présemis et de post-émergence. Mais il est encore trop tôt pour se prononcer sur leur efficacité. Ces méthodes de lutte induisent bien sûr un coût supplémentaire. Le nombre élevé d'espèces adventices résistant au glyphosate fait que leur contrôle doit combiner différentes techniques adaptées à la biologie de chaque adventice concernée. La connaissance de cette biologie devient un facteur primordial de l'efficacité des futurs moyens de lutte, d'autant plus que certaines plantes adventices, comme Ambrosia artemisiifolia, ont développé une sélection biologique avec une germination retardée, échappant ainsi à la période d'épandage des herbicides. La mise en marché prochaine de nouvelles variétés transgéniques tolérantes à l'herbicide à base de 2-4 D peut être une autre solution possible. L'enquête réalisée en temps réel3 lors d'un atelier avec les consultants indique une certaine méfiance à l'égard de ces nouvelles variétés, en raison des risques de dispersion de l'herbicide hors des champs traités. Conclusion Les conférences du Beltwide 2010 ont apporté une vision nouvelle des conséquences de l'utilisation des variétés de coton transgéniques aux États-Unis. Avec un recul de presque 15 années de culture, l'observation des changements dans les complexes d'ennemis de la culture du cotonnier et les solutions recherchées pour y faire face montrent que les effets positifs proclamés de l'utilisation de ces variétés ressemblent aujourd'hui à des illusions perdues dans trois domaines :


•– les variétés de coton transgénique actuellement cultivées ne résolvent pas définitivement les problèmes des ennemis de la culture, parce que de nouveaux ennemis sont apparus (insectes ravageurs et plantes adventices). En conséquence, leur utilisation n'a pas permis de réduire durablement l'emploi des pesticides chimiques, redevenus nécessaires. Cet emploi est aujourd'hui coûteux et exige un haut degré de maîtrise technique, du fait de la nouveauté des molécules pesticides à utiliser et de la dépendance de leur efficacité aux conditions d'utilisation ; •– le contrôle des ennemis de la culture par l'utilisation de variétés transgéniques est devenu globalement plus coûteux, tant par l'augmentation continue du prix des semences que par les pesticides à utiliser en complément. Dès lors, le sentiment de confort qui prévalait au début de cette utilisation est remplacé par un sentiment d'incertitude sur l'efficacité et la rentabilité de ce contrôle ; •– les solutions de contrôle par la chimie ou les biotechnologies se révèlent être complémentaires alors qu'en Syrie, le recours aux produits chimiques a fortement diminué sans recourir aux variétés transgéniques (Alascar et Fok, 2009). De surcroît, la concurrence entre les firmes au sein de chacune des deux branches est seulement virtuelle, soit par la non substituabilité des nouveaux pesticides chimiques, soit par l'entente possible entre les firmes de biotechnologies. Les phénomènes observés aux États-Unis ne sont toutefois pas généralisables, parce qu'ils font référence à un cas extrême d'utilisation massive, simultanée et non coordonnée de variétés transgéniques de soja, de maïs et de coton, qui se succèdent sur les mêmes parcelles et dans les mêmes paysages. Il est donc risqué d'extrapoler ces phénomènes à d'autres régions du monde, même si de nouveaux ravageurs sont apparus en Chine et en Australie, tout comme des plantes adventices résistantes au glyphosate en Argentine et au Brésil. Face à ces phénomènes, un consultant a conclu à l'intérêt d'une approche systémique et coordonnée de l'utilisation des variétés transgéniques. Même si ce message n'a pas paru convaincre l'auditoire du Beltwide 2010, il nous paraît d'une importance primordiale pour bien appréhender la portée et les limites de l'utilisation des variétés transgéniques. Références [Alascar et Fok, 2009] Alascar H, Fok M. Politique cotonnière en Syrie : adaptation partielle et progressive à la mondialisation. Cah Agric 2009 ; 18 : 393-401. [Fernandez-Cornejo et Caswell, 2006] Fernandez-Cornejo J, Caswell M. The First Decade of Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States. Washington (DC) : USDA Economic Research Service, 2006. [Hardee et al., 2001] Hardee DD, Van Duyn JW, Layton MB, Bagwell RD. Bt Cotton Management of the Tobacco Budworm-Bollworm Complex. Washington (DC) : USDA Agricultural Research Service, 2001. [Wu et al., 2008] Wu K-M, Lu Y-H, Feng H-Q, Jiang Y-Y, Zhao J-Z. Suppression of Cotton Bollworm in Multiple Crops in China in Areas with Bt Toxin–Containing Cotton. Science 2008 ; 321 : 1676-8. 1 http://www.cotton.org/beltwide/index.cfm?page=proceedings 2 http://www.cottoncampus.org/Cotton-Environmentally-Friendly-Sustainability/ 3 Les organisateurs des conférences Beltwide, toujours à l'avant-garde des technologies, ont réalisé une enquête en temps réel en utilisant les produits de la firme eInstruction (http://www.einstruction.com/products/index.html). Author Address: Cirad UR SCAAvenue Agropolis TA B102/02 3498 Montpellier France. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: FOK Michel, Marcelo VARELLA Year: 2010 Title: * Evolution des regles d'utilisation du soja transgenique au Bresil : une analyse par une approche systemique de la gouvernance. Journal: Politique et Management Public, Volume 28, n¡Æ2, 2010. pp. 3-35. Label: HeTo Adoption Socioeconomic Keywords: Mots cles : Bresil ; Gouvernance ; soja ; OGM ; biotechnologies ; Monsanto; agro-business Kea words : Brazil; Governance; soybean; GMO; biotechnologies; Monsanto; agribusiness Abstract: Au Bresil, l'evolution de l'autorisation de l'utilisation du soja transgenique rendu tolerant a l'herbicide RoundUp¢ç de Monsanto, dit soja SRR, est un sujet qui a attire l'attention de la communaute internationale. Cet article en propose l'etude la plus complete a notre connaissance, en couvrant une periode de plus de dix ans et en s'interessant aux modalites pratiques d'acces au SRR. Notre analyse, qui a porte sur l.evolution de la gouvernance des regles d'utilisation du SRR, est la premiere analyse de gouvernance relative au domaine des OGM en agriculture. Cette etude a ete realisee en


appliquant l'approche systemique proposee par Turke (2008). La dynamique du systeme social concerne par l'utilisation du SRR illustre differentes configurations de gouvernance publique et privee, dans un contexte domine par la confiance dans le progres technique et par le role des grandes entreprises dans le developpement de l'agro-business. Abstract In Brazil, the evolution of the authorization of the use of transgenic soybean, rendered tolerant to RoundUp herbicide of Monsanto (RRS), is a topic which has attracted attention of the international community. To our knowledge, this paper proposes the most comprehensive study of the mentioned topic by covering a period of more than ten years and by addressing the conditions of access to RRS. Our study, which lies in the analysis of the governance in setting the rules for RRS use, is the first governance study applied to the area of GMO in agriculture. The study of governance is implemented through the systemic approach of Turk (2008). The dynamics of the social system involved in the use of RRS demonstrates various shapes of public and private governance within a context dominated by the trust in technical progress and in the role of large firms to promote agribusiness. URL: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/52/25/78/PDF/Fok_gouv_ogm.pdf Author Address: * CIRAD, UR SCA, 34398 Montpellier, France ** Centro Universitario de Brasilia, SEPN 707/907 - Campus do UniCEUB - Bresil XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Fornalé S, Shi X, Chai C, Encina A, Irar S, Capellades M, Fuguet E, Torres J-L, Rovira P, Puigdomenech P, Rigau J, Grotewold E, Gray J, Caparros-Ruiz D, Year: 2010 Title: * ZmMYB31 Directly Represses Maize Lignin Genes And Redirects The Phenylpropanoid Metabolic Flux. Journal: The Plant Journal - Accepted manuscript online: 15 SEP 2010 02:41PM. Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: R2R3-MYB lignin cell wall flavonoids phenylpropanoids maize Abstract: SUMMARY Few regulators of phenylpropanoids have been identified in monocots with potential as biofuel crops. Here, we demonstrate the role of the maize R2R3-MYB factor ZmMYB31 in the control of the phenylpropanoid pathway. We determined its in vitro consensus DNA-binding sequence as ACCT/AACC, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) established that it interacts with two lignin gene promoters in vivo. To explore the potential of ZmMYB31 as a regulator of phenylpropanoids in other plants, its role in the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway was further investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. ZmMYB31 downregulates several genes involved in the synthesis of monolignols, transgenic plants are dwarf and show a significantly reduced lignin content with unaltered polymer composition. We demonstrate that these changes increase cell wall degradability of the transgenic plants. In addition, ZmMYB31 represses the synthesis of sinapoylmalate, resulting in plants more sensitive to UV irradiation, and induces several stress-related proteins. Our results suggest that, as an indirect effect of lignin biosynthesis repression, transgenic plants redirect carbon flux towards the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Thus, ZmMYB31 can be considered a good candidate for the manipulation of lignin biosynthesis in biotechnological applications. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04363.x Author Address: 1Centre for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG), Consortium CSIC-IRTA-UAB, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. 2Dept. Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606. 3Dept of Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology and Plant Biotechnology Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. USA 4Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad de León, 24071, Spain. 5Institute of Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia IQAC-CSIC, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. 6Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Frank S, Keck M, Sagasser M, Niehaus K, Weisshaar B, Stracke R, Year: 2010


Title: * Two differentially expressed MATE factor genes from apple complement the Arabidopsis transparent testa12 mutant. Journal: Plant Biology Article first published online: 4 AUG 2010 Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana flavonoid biosynthesis Malus x domestica MATE transporter proanthocyanidins transparent testa12 (tt12) Abstract: Abstract Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are a class of flavonoids with numerous functions in plant ecology and development, including protection against microbial infection, animal foraging and damage by UV light. PAs are also beneficial in the human diet and livestock farming, preventing diseases of the cardiovascular system and lowering the risk of cancer, asthma and diabetes. Apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) are naturally rich in flavonoids, but the flavonoid content and composition varies significantly between cultivars. In this work, we applied knowledge from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, for which the main features of flavonoid biosynthesis have been elucidated, to investigate PA accumulation in apple. We identified functional homologues of the Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) gene TRANSPARENT TESTA12 from A.Ă&#x201A; thaliana using a comparative genomics approach. MdMATE1 and MdMATE2 were differentially expressed, and the function of the encoded proteins was verified by complementation of the respective A.Ă&#x201A; thaliana mutant. In addition, MdMATE genes have a different gene structure in comparison to homologues from other species. Based on our findings, we propose that MdMATE1 and MdMATE2 are vacuolar flavonoid/H+-antiporters, active in PA accumulating cells of apple fruit. The identification of these flavonoid transporter genes expands our understanding of secondary metabolite biosynthesis and transport in apple, and is a prerequisite to improve the nutritional value of apples and apple-derived beverages. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2010.00350.x Author Address: 1 Bielefeld University, Department of Biology, Genome Research, Bielefeld, Germany 2 Bielefeld University, Department of Biology, Metabolome and Proteome Research, Bielefeld, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Freeman John L, Tamaoki Masanori, Stushnoff Cecil, Quinn Colin F, Cappa Jennifer J, Devonshire Jean, Fakra Sirine C, Marcus Matthew A, McGrath Steve P, Van Hoewyk Doug, Pilon-Smits Elizabeth AH, Year: 2010 Title: * Molecular Mechanisms of Selenium Tolerance and Hyperaccumulation in Stanleya pinnata. Journal: Plant Physiol. 153, 4, 1630-1652. Date: August 1, 2010 Label: ReEn ImpactEnvironnement Abstract: The molecular mechanisms responsible for selenium (Se) tolerance and hyperaccumulation were studied in the Se hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) by comparing it with the related secondary Se accumulator Stanleya albescens using a combination of physiological, structural, genomic, and biochemical approaches. S. pinnata accumulated 3.6-fold more Se and was tolerant to 20 {micro}M selenate, while S. albescens suffered reduced growth, chlorosis and necrosis, impaired photosynthesis, and high levels of reactive oxygen species. Levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, total sulfur, and nonprotein thiols were higher in S. pinnata, suggesting that Se tolerance may in part be due to increased antioxidants and up-regulated sulfur assimilation. S. pinnata had higher selenocysteine methyltransferase protein levels and, judged from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, mainly accumulated the free amino acid methylselenocysteine, while S. albescens accumulated mainly the free amino acid selenocystathionine. S. albescens leaf x-ray absorption nearedge structure scans mainly detected a carbon-Se-carbon compound (presumably selenocystathionine) in addition to some selenocysteine and selenate. Thus, S. albescens may accumulate more toxic forms of Se in its leaves than S. pinnata. The species also showed different leaf Se sequestration patterns: while S. albescens showed a diffuse pattern, S. pinnata sequestered Se in localized epidermal cell clusters along leaf margins and tips, concentrated inside of epidermal cells. Transcript analyses of S. pinnata showed a constitutively higher expression of genes involved in sulfur assimilation, antioxidant activities, defense, and response to (methyl)jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, or ethylene. The levels of some of these hormones were constitutively elevated in S. pinnata compared with S. albescens, and leaf Se accumulation was slightly enhanced in both species when these hormones were supplied. Thus, defense-related phytohormones may play an important signaling role in the Se hyperaccumulation of S. pinnata, perhaps by constitutively up-regulating sulfur/Se assimilation followed by methylation of selenocysteine and the targeted sequestration of methylselenocysteine.


URL: http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/abstract/153/4/1630 Author Address: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Water Management Research Division, Parlier, California 93648 USA California State University Fresno, Center for Irrigation Technology, Fresno, California 93740 USA Biology Department and Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Biology Division, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305–8506, Japan Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertshire AL5 2JQ, UKingdom Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 Department of Biology, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina 29526 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Fuentes S, Pires N, Ostergaard L, Year: 2910 Title: * A clade in the QUASIMODO2 family evolved with vascular plants and supports a role for cell wall composition in adaptation to environmental changes. Journal: Plant Molecular Biology (2010) 73: 6: 605–615 Accession Number: CABI:20103263558 Label: ReEn Temperature Physiol Keywords: adhesion; cell walls; effects; embryos; environmental factors; flowers; gene expression; genes; inflorescences; molecular biology; mutants; mutations; phylogenetics; vascular system; xylem; Capparales Abstract: The evolution of plant vascular tissue is tightly linked to the evolution of specialised cell walls. Mutations in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were previously shown to result in cell adhesion defects due to reduced levels of the cell wall component homogalacturonic acid. In this study, we provide additional information about the role of QUA2 and its closest paralogues, QUASIMODO2 LIKE1 (QUL1) and QUL2. Within the extensive QUA2 family, our phylogenetic analysis shows that these three genes form a clade that evolved with vascular plants. Consistent with a possible role of this clade in vasculature development, QUA2 is highly expressed in the vascular tissue of embryos and inflorescence stems and overexpression of QUA2 resulted in temperature-sensitive xylem collapse. Moreover, in-depth characterisation of qua2 qul1 qul2 triple mutant and 35S::QUA2 overexpression plants revealed contrasting temperaturedependent stem development with dramatic effects on stem width. Taken together, our results suggest that the QUA2-specific clade contributed to the evolution of vasculature and illustrate the important role that modification of cell wall composition plays in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions, including changes in temperature. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 45 ref. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/9m156016h466q541/fulltext.pdf Author Address: Department of Crop Genetics, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UKingdom XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gaamouche T, Manes C-L dO, Kwiatkowska D, Berckmans B, Koumproglou R, Maes S, Beeckman T, Vernoux T, Doonan JH, Traas, Inzé D, De Veylder L, Year: 2010 Title: * Cyclin-dependent kinase activity maintains the shoot apical meristem cells in an undifferentiated state. Journal: The Plant Journal 64, 1, 26-37. Label: Physiol Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana cell cycle CDK endo-reduplication organogenesis shoot apical meristem Abstract: Summary As the shoot apex produces most of the cells that comprise the aerial part of the plant, perfect orchestration between cell division rates and fate specification is essential for normal organ formation and plant development. However, the inter-dependence of cell-cycle machinery and meristem-organizing genes is still poorly understood. To investigate this mechanism, we specifically inhibited the cell-cycle machinery in the shoot apex by expression of a dominant negative allele of the A-type cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) CDKA;1 in meristematic cells. A decrease in the cell division rate within the SHOOT MERISTEMLESS


domain of the shoot apex dramatically affected plant growth and development. Within the meristem, a subset of cells was driven into the differentiation pathway, as indicated by premature cell expansion and onset of endoreduplication. Although the meristem structure and expression patterns of the meristem identity genes were maintained in most plants, the reduced CDK activity caused splitting of the meristem in some plants. This phenotype correlated with the level of expression of the dominant negative CDKA;1 allele. Therefore, we propose a threshold model in which the effect of the cell-cycle machinery on meristem organization is determined by the level of CDK activity. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04317.x Author Address: 1Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB, 9052 Gent, Belgium 2Department of Plant Biotechnology and Genetics, Ghent University, 9052 Gent, Belgium 3Department of Biophysics and Morphogenesis of Plants, University of Silesia, 40-032 Katowice, Poland 4John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UKingdom 5Laboratoire de Reproduction et Dévelopement des Plantes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gaba Victor, Rosner Arie, Maslenin Ludmilla, Leibman Diana, Singer Sima, Kukurt Emre, Shiboleth Yoel, Gal-On Amit, Year: 2010 Title: * Hairpin-based virus resistance depends on the sequence similarity between challenge virus and discrete, highly accumulating siRNA species Secondary Title: European Journal of Plant Pathology 128, 2, 153-164. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0929-1873 Label: ViRe Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Potato virus Y - PVY - Transgenic resistance - Tobacco - Hairpin RNA construct - Viral strain specificity Abstract: Virus resistance can be effectively generated in transgenic plants by using the plant’s silencing machinery. To study the specificity of gene-silencing-based resistance, homozygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants containing a 597-nt hairpin RNA construct of the Potato Virus Y (PVY) replicase sequence were challenged with a variety of PVY strains. The transgene-carrying tobacco line was immune to five potato PVY strains with high sequence similarity (88.3â€―99.5%) to the transgene. Infection with more distant tomato and pepper PVY field strains (86â€―86.8% sequence similarity) caused delayed symptom appearance in the transgenic tobacco. Transgene production of small interfering (si) RNA was detected by northern blot and measured using a custom-designed microarray for the detection of small RNAs. siRNA accumulation peaks were observed throughout the inverted-repeat transgene. In the resistance-breaking tomato and pepper strains there were nucleotide differences in the sequences correlated to siRNA transgene accumulation, indicating the role of siRNA specificity in resistance breaking. The log of transgene siRNA signal intensity increased with probe GC content, indicating that the accumulating siRNA molecules were GC-rich. Sequence similarity of highly accumulating siRNAs with the target virus strain appears to be important for both resistance and resistance-breaking characteristics. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10658-010-9654-5 Author Address: (1) Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Science, ARO Volcani Center, 50250, Bet Dagan, Israel (2) Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, The University of Michigan, MI, Ann Arbor, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Garcia-Alonso Monica Year: 2010 Title: *¤ Current challenges in environmental risk assessment: The assessment of unintended effects of GM crops on non-target organisms. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 49-55.


Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: InRe EvaluationRisqoe ImpactEnvironnement Abstract: As part of the regulatory approval process for commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops in the EU applicants have to asses the potential adverse effects that GM crops may have on human and animal health and the environment. This includes an assessment of potential adverse effects on non-target organisms arising from intended and unintended results of the genetic modification. The methodology to be used for the environmental risk assessment of GM crops to non-target organisms has been a major subject of debate for many years. However, after much research, a conceptual framework based on a tiered approach is now widely accepted by risk assessors, regulators and the scientific community. This methodology works well when the assessment is aimed at establishing the risk associated with intended effects of the genetic modification or unintended effects that have been identified during the comparative assessment. There the transformed plant is grown alongside its conventional counterpart and a number of plant characteristics are measured and compared. However, the regulatory process in the EU now also considers the requirement to assess the risk of potential unintended effects that have not been identified during the comparative assessment. This represents a major challenge for risk assessors in that there is no clear basis in which to set testable hypothesis. This paper discusses some of the problems encountered by risk assessors when trying to fulfill this regulatory requirement and explores ways forward. Author Address: Spain XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gaso-Sokac Dajana, Kovac Spomenka, Josic Djuro, Year: 2010 Title: * Application of Proteomics in Food Technology and Food Biotechnology: Process Development, Quality Control and Product Safety. Journal: Food Technology and Biotechnology Volume: 48 Issue: 3 Special Issue: Sp. Iss. SI Pages: 284295 Published: JUL-SEP 2010 Accession Number: WOS:000281138400006 Label: Nutrition EvaluationRisque Keywords: proteomics; food proteins and peptides; food quality; food safety KeyWords Plus: 2-DIMENSIONAL GEL-ELECTROPHORESIS; TANDEM MASS-SPECTROMETRY; GENETICALLY-MODIFIED CROPS; BIFIDOBACTERIUM-LONGUM NCC2705; CREUTZFELDTJAKOB-DISEASE; ESCHERICHIA-COLI O157-H7; BEAN PHASEOLUS-VULGARIS; CALCIUMBINDING PROTEIN; BACILLUS-CEREUS; PRION PROTEIN Abstract: Human food is a very complex biological mixture and food processing and safety are very important and essential disciplines. Proteornics technology using different high-performance separation techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, one-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography, combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry has the power to monitor the protein composition of foods and their changes during the production process. The use of proteomics in food technology is presented, especially for characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, detection of batch-to-batch variations and quality control of the final product. Further attention is paid to the aspects of food safety, especially regarding biological and microbial safety and the use of genetically modified foods. URL: <Go to ISI>://000281138400006 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/InboundService.do?Func=Frame&product=WOS&action=retrieve&SrcApp=End Note&UT=000281138400006&SID=Y2I6PN7a72J2pggg6c8&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=ResearchSoft&mode=FullR ecord&customersID=ResearchSoft&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Faccess.isiproducts.com%2Fcustom_images%2 Fwok_failed_auth.html Author Address: 1. COBRE CCRD, Prote Core, Providence, RI 02903 USA 2. Brown Univ, CORO W, Providence, RI 02903 USA 3. Univ Rijeka, Dept Biotechnol, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia 4. Univ JJ Strossmayer, Fac Food Technol, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia 5. Univ JJ Strossmayer, Dept Chem, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Gaufichon L, Reisdorf-Cren M, Rothstein SJ, Chardon F, Suzuki A, Year: 2010 Title: * Biological functions of asparagine synthetase in plants. Journal: Plant Science 179, 3. Accession Number: CABI:20103256120 Label: Physiol Keywords: ammonium; asparagine; aspartate-ammonia ligase; assimilation; carbon; genes; genetic engineering; genetic transformation; glutamate decarboxylase; glutamine; isoenzymes; light; light relations; metabolites; mutants; nitrogen; nucleotide sequences; photoreceptors; phylogenetics; seed germination; signal transduction; stress; stress response; transgenic plants asparagine synthetase; DNA sequences; genetic manipulation; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; isozymes Abstract: Ammonium is a form of inorganic nitrogen derived from several metabolic pathways, and is assimilated into glutamine, glutamate, asparagine and carbamoylphosphate. These molecules play important roles in nitrogen assimilation, recycling, transport and storage in plants. Ammonium assimilation into asparagine is catalyzed by ammonia-dependent asparagine synthetase encoded by asnA (EC 6.3.1.1) or glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase encoded by asnB (EC 6.3.5.4) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These organisms display a distinct distribution of these two forms of asparagine synthetase. Gene and primary protein structure for asparagine synthetase-A and -B from prokaryotes and eukaryotes is examined. Using nucleotide sequences, we constructed a phylogenetic tree that distinguished two major classes (classes I and II) for ASN genes from a range of organisms. Only the glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetases-B have been identified, and are encoded by a small multigene family in plants. The isoenzyme encoded by each member of the gene family provides asparagine at specific phases of development. These include the nitrogen mobilization in germinating seeds, nitrogen recycling in vegetative organs in response to stress, and nitrogen remobilization during seed embryogenesis. The expression of genes for asparagine synthetase is regulated by light and metabolites. Genetic and molecular data using mutants and transgenic plants have provided insights into the light perception by the photoreceptors, carbon and nitrogen sensing and signal transduction mechanism in the asn regulation. Global analysis of carbon and nitrogen metabolites supports the impact of asn regulation in the synthesis and transport of asparagine in plants. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103256120 Author Address: Departement Adaptation des Plantes a l'Environnement, IJPB, UMR1318 AgroParis Tech, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Route de St-Cyr, 78026 Versailles cedex, France. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: GAUVRIT C, CHAUVEL B Year: 2010 Title: * Sensitivity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia to glufosinate and glyphosate at various developmental stages. Journal: Weed Research 50, 5, 503-510. Label: HeTo Resistance Keywords: common ragweed seed production pollen production herbicide allergenic pollen Abstract: Glufosinate and glyphosate at 375 g.a.i. h-1 and 540 g.a.i. h-1, respectively, were assessed for control of Ambrosia artemisiifolia under non-crop conditions at four different developmental stages (vegetative, BBCH 14; bud appearance, BBCH 53-55; onset of pollen production, BBCH 61; mid female flowering, BBCH 73-77). Both herbicides displayed high efficacies at all development stages. However, after treatments at BBCH 14, new emergence or re-growth of A. artemisiifolia led to the presence of plants that produced pollen and seeds. Treatments at BBCH 53â€―55 gave more than 99.9% reduced pollen production. Seed production was more than 99.9% reduced by glyphosate and 92.0â€―99.8% by glufosinate. Treatments at BBCH 61 suppressed viable seed production by more than 99.8%. When treatments were made at BBCH 73-77, seed production by A. artemisiifolia was not significantly affected, but seed viability was decreased by 10-85%. Although significantly reduced, the number of viable seeds was still 283-652 and 827-3893 m-2 in the plots treated by glufosinate and glyphosate respectively. It is concluded that on non-crop areas, herbicide treatment of A. artemisiifolia at bud appearance (BBCH 53-55) with glufosinate or glyphosate gave the most effective control of both pollen and seed production. Notes: TY - JOUR URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2010.00800.x


Author Address: INRA, UMR1210 Biologie et Gestion des Adventices, Dijon, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gen-ichiro Arimuraa, Maffeic Massimo E Year: 2010 Title: * Calcium and secondary CPK signaling in plants in response to herbivore attack. Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Volume 400, Issue 4, 1 October 2010, Pages 455-460. (Mini Review) doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.08.134 Label: InRe Physiol Review Keywords: Calcium signaling; Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CPK); Herbivory; Plant defense response Abstract: Plant Ca2+ signals are involved in a sizable array of intracellular signaling pathways after pest invasion. Upon herbivore feeding there is a dramatic Ca2+ influx, followed by the activation of Ca2+dependent signal transduction pathways that include interacting downstream networks of kinases for defense responses. Notably, Ca2+-binding sensory proteins such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) have recently been documented to mediate the signaling following Ca2+ influx after herbivory, in phytohormoneindependent manners. Here, we review the sequence of signal transductions triggered by herbivory-evoked Ca2+ signaling leading to CPK actions for defense responses, and discuss in a comparative way the involvement of CPKs in the signal transduction of a variety of other biotic and abiotic stresses. Research highlights ? Upon herbivory there is a Ca2+ influx limited to cell layers lining the wounded zone. ? Ca2+-binding sensory proteins are critically involved in herbivory responses. ? CPKs play extensive roles in various biological and environmental responses. Author Address: a Global COE Program: Evolution and Biodiversity, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan b Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Otsu 520-2113, Japan c Plant Physiology Unit, Department of Plant Biology and Innovation Centre, University of Turin, 10135 Turin, Italy XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Germida J, Dunfield K Year: 2008 Title: 造 Influence of field site on the diversity of soil bacterial communities associated with four varieties of genetically-modified, herbicide-tolerant canola. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf. Label: HeTo ImpactBiol Abstract: Genetically-modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) cropping systems are among the most successful of the fi rst generation of genetically modifi ed (GM) products, with millions of hectares grown globally each year. In fact, herbicide resistance is the most common transgenic traits in GM plants, with more than 70% of the global transgenic hectareage being resistant to at least one herbicide. In Canada, genetically modifi ed canola (oilseed rape; Brassica sp.,) tolerant to non-selective broad-spectrum herbicides received environmental and nutritional food and safety clearances by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency in 1995. Since then, growers rapidly adopted its use, and currently approximately 80% of Canadian canola is GMHT. One of the least understood areas in the environmental risk assessment of GMHT crops continues to be their non-target impacts on soil microbial communities and soil ecosystem functioning. In order to begin to examine this issue, we conducted a three-year fi eld study to assess the effects of GMHT canola on soil and plant- associated bacterial communities. This study was a multiple field site study where canola varieties were seeded at five field sites across Saskatchewan, Canada. Field sites represented a range of soil textures and organic matter contents, and had never been previously seeded to GMHT canola. Treatments included eight (four GMHT and four non-GMHT) commercially available canola varieties and an unplanted fallow control plot. Varieties considered GMHT


included a Roundup Ready® variety, tolerant to glyphosate that contained the 5-enolpyruvylshikamate-3phosphate synthase (EPSPS) and glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX) genes, and three Liberty-Link® varieties, tolerant to glufosinate-ammonium that contained the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene and a kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). Plants were grown under normal fi eld conditions, however, in order to attempt to assess the genetic impacts of the crops on the bacterial communities, no herbicides were applied to any of the plants. The rhizosphere and root-interior bacterial communities were characterized via community level physiological profi les (CLPP), fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Field sites and plants were sampled on various dates corresponding to preseeding, and when plants were at rosette, fl owering, maturity, and then post harvest fall stubble and overwintered stubble. The root material and soil were collected from each plot and placed into phosphate-buffered saline for dilution and inoculation of Biolog® plates for CLPP. In addition, FAME analysis of the rhizosphere and root-associated microbial community was conducted by extracting fatty acids from soil and roots according to standard MIDI protocols. FAMEs were analyzed by gas chromatography, and their composition was statistically compared using multivariate analysis. Soil DNA was extracted from rhizosphere soils using FastDNA® Spin Kit for soil. Bacterial DNA was amplifi ed with primers targeting the 16SrDNA gene, using a forward primer end-labeled with [Ð-32P] ATP. PCR products were restricted with two restriction enzymes (CfoI and MSpI) and T-RFLP analysis was conducted manually using a vertical gel electrophoresis system. Gels were scored and banding patterns were analyzed using multivariate analysis. The results showed that carbon utilization patterns and fatty acid methyl ester profi les of the microbial community associated with GMHT canola varieties were signifi cantly different from the microbial communities associated with non GMHT canola varieties. However, this effect was dependent on the transgene. In particular, the glyphosate-tolerant variety Quest supported a unique microbial community compared to the communities supported by the four non GMHT varieties and three glufosinate ammonium-tolerant varieties tested. Analysis of rhizosphere bacterial communities associated with canola throughout the fi eld season demonstrated that these communities are subject to seasonal variation. Importantly, in April (after plants were harvested in the preceding September) no differences were observed between bacterial communities from fi eld plots that contained harvested transgenic canola stubble and fi eld plots that contained no plants during the fi eld season, demonstrating that in Saskatchewan, the effect of transgenic plants on the microbial community was temporary, and dependent on the presence of the plants. The composition and functional diversity of bacterial communities from bulk soil and plant-associated bacterial communities were all signifi cantly infl uenced by fi eld site. Furthermore, fi eld site interacted with plant variety in its infl uence on the bacterial community. The effect of plant variety on the bacterial community at one fi eld site was sometimes entirely different in another fi eld site. Therefore, generalizations about the effect of GMHT plants on all soil microbial communities are not possible. In a recently completed 4-year fi eld study exploring the interactions of glyphosate, and GMHT corn-soybean cropping systems on the soil ecosystem, we also concluded that fi eld site, and factors such as environment, as well as soil physical, chemical and biological characteristics had a major infl uence on the persistence of recombinant plant DNA in the soil. In-crop plant DNA levels ranged between 1,000 and 1,000,000 copies of cp4 epsps per gram soil fresh weight. Average persistence of cp4 epsps (gene conferring resistance to glyphosate) was low (1 to 10 copies per gram soil fresh weight) after crop harvest in October and before planting the following May in both corn and soybean. Below-ground microbial communities, including, soil food webs, and microorganisms, were infl uenced, but also dependent upon fi eld season and location. The interaction between microbial communities, transgenic plants and field site, along with the seasonal variability in microbial communities documented in these studies emphasizes the complexity and need for a multifaceted approach to study the risks of GMHT plants to the diversity of the microbial community. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: 1 University of Saskatchewan, 2 University of Guelph, Canada XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Programmer: Gessler Cesare, Giovanni Broggini, Gabriella Parravicini, Paolo Galli, Iris Szankowski, Roberta Paris, Andrea Patocchi, Year: 2010 Title: *¤ Genetic modification of apple to control diseases.


Label: DisRe Efficacite Abstract: Apple scab is controlled by a high number of fungicide applications. Fireblight control is difficult and in some situations and up to three Streptomycin applications are necessary. The application of such pesticides is highly questioned because of their potential environmental impact and residues. Classical breeding has produced scab resistant cultivars and in the near future also fireblight resistant cvs. However, their popularity is limited as the traditional market dominant cvs have quality characteristics for producers, storage and consumers difficult to equal, and contrary to most other crops, apples are recognized as a cultivar, e.g. Gala, Golden Delicious, and not as a crop e.g. Bananas. In order to maintain the cultivar, single genes coding for enzymes and other proteins which can inhibit or at least reduce the development of scab and fireblight can be introduced by DNA-technology. A large range of foreign genes e.g. encoding lysozymes from bacteriaphages, fungi and animals have been used and in some cases reduce fireblight and /or scab susceptibility. Pathogen derived genes or pathogen induced promotors may also contribute. In all cases, all of the incorporated genes and control sequences are foreign and the marker genes needed for the selection of the transformed cells are antibiotic (e.g. nptII) or herbicide resistance genes (Bar). However such transgenic plants are currently unacceptable in Europe, especially as apple is mostly a fresh consumed product and consumers are highly sensitive to the issue. Even if legislation would permit such transgenic apple cultivars, no producer will take the risk of not being able to sell his product. Moreover, his personal profit includes the reduction of the number of treatments. Objection of the consumers, opinion makers and sometime policy makers are very broad, ranging from ethical issues (we should not manipulate genes in a way which nature does not, e.g. across natural barriers) to potential risks of outcrossing, vertical gene transfer and others. Therefore an approach which delivers to plant only genes (including promotors and terminators) originating from a crossable donor plant avoids most of the product oriented objection and could be an interesting alternative to transgenesis. This, however, does not eliminate the general objections to the technology itself. Such plants are defined as cisgenic. To create a cisgenic plant, firstly the apples own resistance genes and promoter sequences need to be cloned, and, secondly, a technology which eliminates the selection genes needs to be implemented. Both are currently available. We introduced HcrVf2, one of the open-reading-frames present in the genomic region introgressed in Malus x domestica from Malus floribunda 821, conferring Vf resistance against scab into the cvs. Gala and Elstar. The gene is constitutively expressed at a high level under the control of its own promoter and gives full resistance to an equal level and interaction as the Vf resistance introgressed by classical breeding. For the development of cisgenic plants, marker genes are necessary as they are for the development of transgenic plants. However, a system of post selection elimination of the marker genes has been implemented in strawberry and is currently applied to apple. A further system is reported to deliver â&#x20AC;&#x2014;marker gene freeâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; in tomato and tobacco plants. We are currently testing the two systems and developing a third, all using, as a target, the HcrVf2 gene with its own promoter. The final result will be a plant of the target cv. into which the HcrVf2 has been introduced by DNA-recombinant technology corresponding to the definition of cisgenic. Concurrently, we are identifying further scab resistance genes and fireblight resistance regions with the final scope of obtain a cisgenic apple cv. with fireblight resistance and scab resistance based on several functional different resistances. Plants of popular cvs. with resistance to the two diseases can contribute to a reduction of environment contamination and fruit residues avoiding the major critics against transgenic plants. Author Address: Italy XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Geyer BC., Kannan L, Cherni I, Woods RR, Soreq H, Mor TS, Year: 2010 Title: *Transgenic plants as a source for the bioscavenging enzyme, human butyrylcholinesterase. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal 8, 8, 873-886. Label: Biopharming Keywords: organophosphorous compounds nerve agents pesticides codon usage transgenic plants enzyme therapy Abstract: Organophosphorous pesticides and nerve agents inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase at neuronal synapses and in neuromuscular junctions. The resulting accumulation of acetylcholine overwhelms regulatory mechanisms, potentially leading to seizures and death from respiratory collapse. While current therapies are only capable of reducing mortality, elevation of the serum levels of the related enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) by application of the purified protein as a bioscavenger of organophosphorous compounds is effective in preventing all symptoms associated with poisoning by these toxins. However, BChE therapy requires large


quantities of enzyme that can easily overwhelm current sources. Here, we report genetic optimization, cloning and high-level expression of human BChE in plants. Plant-derived BChE is shown to be biochemically similar to human plasma-derived BChE in terms of catalytic activity and inhibitor binding. We further demonstrate the ability of the plant-derived bioscavenger to protect animals against an organophosphorous pesticide challenge. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00515.x Author Address: 1School of Life Sciences and The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA 2Department of Biological Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gil-Humanes Javier, Piston Fernando, Tollefsen Stig, Sollid Ludvig M, Barro Francisco, Year: 2010 Title: * Effective shutdown in the expression of celiac disease-related wheat gliadin T-cell epitopes by RNA interference. Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 39, 17023-17028 . Date: September 28, 2010 Accession Number: 10.1073/pnas.1007773107 Label: Composition Sante Nutrition Abstract: Celiac disease (CD) is an enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat and similar proteins from barley and rye. The inflammatory reaction is controlled by T cells that recognize gluten peptides in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 molecules. The only available treatment for the disease is a lifelong gluten-exclusion diet. We have used RNAi to down-regulate the expression of gliadins in bread wheat. A set of hairpin constructs were designed and expressed in the endosperm of bread wheat. The expression of gliadins was strongly down-regulated in the transgenic lines. Total gluten protein was extracted from transgenic lines and tested for ability to stimulate four different T-cell clones derived from the intestinal lesion of CD patients and specific for the DQ2-α-II, DQ2-γ-VII, DQ8-α-I, and DQ8-γ-I epitopes. For five of the transgenic lines, there was a 1.5â€―2 log reduction in the amount of the DQ2-α-II and DQ2-γ-VII epitopes and at least 1 log reduction in the amount of the DQ8-α-I and DQ8-γ-I epitopes. Furthermore, transgenic lines were also tested with two T-cell lines that are reactive with ω-gliadin epitopes. The total gluten extracts were unable to elicit T-cell responses for three of the transgenic wheat lines, and there were reduced responses for six of the transgenic lines. This work shows that the down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi can be used to obtain wheat lines with very low levels of toxicity for CD patients. URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/107/39/17023.abstract Author Address: aInstituto de Agricultura Sostenible, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), E-14080 Córdoba, Spain; and bCentre for Immune Regulation, Institute of Immunology, University of Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, 0027 Oslo, Norway XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Girin Thomas, Pauline Stephenson, Cassandra MP Goldsack, Sherry A Kempin, Amandine Perez, Nuno Pires, Penelope A Sparrow, Thomas A Wood, Martin F Yanofsky, Lars Østergaard, Year: 2010 Title: * Brassicaceae INDEHISCENT genes specify valve margin cell fate and repress replum formation. Journal: The Plant Journal Volume 63, Issue 2, pages 329–338, July 2010. Accession Number: CABI:20103246886 Label: Physiol Keywords: alleles; conservation; crops; ethyl methanesulfonate; fruits; genes; genetic transformation; mutants; mutations; phylogenetics; plant breeding; plant development; rape; transgenics canola; Capparales; ethyl methanesulphonate; oilseed rape Abstract: Members of the Brassicaceae family, including Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape (Brassica napus), produce dry fruits that open upon maturity along a specialised tissue called the valve margin. Proper development of the valve margin in Arabidopsis is dependent on the INDEHISCENT (IND) gene, the role of which in genetic and hormonal regulation has been thoroughly characterised. Here we perform phylogenetic comparison of IND genes in Arabidopsis and Brassica to identify conserved regulatory sequences that are


responsible for specific expression at the valve margin. In addition we have taken a comparative development approach to demonstrate that the BraA.IND.a and BolC.IND.a genes from B. rapa and B. oleracea share identical function with Arabidopsis IND since ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) mutant alleles and silenced transgenic lines have valve margin defects. Furthermore we show that the degree of these defects can be finetuned for crop improvement. Wild-type Arabidopsis produces an outer replum composed of about six cell files at the medial region of the fruits, whereas Brassica fruits lack this tissue. A strong loss-of-function braA.ind.a mutant gained outer replum tissue in addition to its defect in valve margin development. An enlargement of replum size was also observed in the Arabidopsis ind mutant suggesting a general role of Brassicaceae IND genes in preventing valve margin cells from adopting replum identity. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 48 ref. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04244.x/abstract Author Address: 1Department of Crop Genetics, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, UKingdom 2Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA 3Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: GMO Compass Year: 2010 Title: ££ EU report puts forward isolation distances for GM maize. Journal: GMO Compass : http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/home/ Label: InRe Dispersion Reglement Abstract: Full text : (29 September 2010) On this week's meeting of the Agricultural Council of the EU, the Health and Consumer Policy Commissioner John Dalli presented a Best Practice Document for the cultivation of GM maize. The report was drawn up by the European Coexistence Bureau to propose measures that avoid the mixing of GM and conventional maize. According to Dalli, the report is meant to help Member States in developing their own coexistence guidelines – in July the Commission had come forward with a proposal to nationalise the cultivation decision of GM crops. At the meeting several Member States criticised this move, though. The measures suggested by the Coexistence Bureau relate to the storage of the seeds and, above all, to spatial isolation distances as best ways to limit or avoid co-mingling of maize from different cultivation systems. Even if the Best Practice Document is non-binding, Dalli explained that these measures "are in full accordance with the spirit and aims of the proposal" to devolve the definition of coexistence policies to Member States and to provide them with more flexibility to do so. In compiling the report the Coexistence Bureau has not only drawn upon numerous scientific trials, studies and models covering different regions in the EU, it has also collaborated with 20 experts that were nominated by interested Member States. This work has resulted in sets of isolation distances that reduce cross-pollination between GM and non-GM maize and ensure compliance with different target levels for the presence of GMOs in conventional maize. To keep the GMO content in grain maize below the current labelling threshold of 0.9 percent, isolation distances of 15 to 50 meters are sufficient, even under unfavourable wind conditions. For silage maize, where the whole plants are utilised, isolation distances of 0 to 25 metres are enough. Given that currently no thresholds have been defined yet for the admixture of GM material in conventional seeds, the isolation distances for the cultivation of GM maize may need to be larger in future to ensure adherence to the overall legal threshold of 0.9 percent. For instance, for grain maize distances of 20-55 metres would be enough to limit cross-pollination rates to 0.6 percent. However, the report also states that in specific cases the application of the recommended best practices may be difficult, e.g. in regions with small or narrow fields. In such cases the experts of the Coexistence Bureau see possible solutions e.g. in voluntary agreements between farmers on harvest labelling and the clustering of fields of one production system. No regulation of coexistence at the national level? At the same meeting of the EU's Agricultural Council a majority of Member States objected to the Commission's proposal to nationalise the cultivation decision of GM crops. Among the opposing Member


States were Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Poland. They feared clashes with the World Trade Organisation if no consistent rules were followed in the EU. Furthermore they considered the proposal a violation of the single EU market and the EU common agricultural policy. Only Austria supported these plans. Now a working group is to be established to clarify the issue and develop a consensus. See also on GMO Compass: EU Commission: Countries to decide independently on GM crops (News, 13 July 2010 http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/news/523.eu_commission_countries_decide_independently_gm_crops.html Coexistence: Different Agricultural Systems Working Side by Side http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/regulation/coexistence/ Coexistence Possible: Often With No Additional Effort http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/regulation/coexistence/201.coexistence_is_possible.html Maize http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/safety/environmental_safety/182.maize.html Further information: GMO / Research: Report on concrete measures to avoid mixing of GM and conventional maize http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/10/1181 European Coexistence Bureau (ECoB), Best Practice Documents for coexistence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming: 1. Maize crop production http://ecob.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents.html#best_practice http://ecob.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/Maize.pdf Notes: From : [Actualité de la sécurité alimentaire et de la biotechnologie agricole] jeu. 07/10/2010 05:15 Un rapport de l'UE propose des distances d'isolement pour le maïs GM Source : GMO Compass Auteur : n/a Un nouveau Document sur les meilleures pratiques (Best Practices Document) pour la culture de maïs génétiquement modifié (GM), rédigé par le Bureau européen pour la coexistence, fournit des lignes directrices relatives à la " coexistence " pour savoir comment éviter le mélange de maïs GM et de maïs conventionnel. Conçues pour aider à informer la législation nationale des Etats membres de l'UE, les lignes directrices concernent le stockage de semences de maïs et en particulier les distances d'isolement entre champs de maïs GM et non-GM. Des distances d'isolement de 15 à 50 mètres suffiraient pour maintenir la teneur en OGM en dessous de 0,9 % (le seuil au-delà duquel les aliments doivent être étiquetés GM dans l'UE). Le Document sur les meilleures pratiques note que dans des cas particuliers, l'application de leurs recommandations peut s'avérer difficile, par exemple dans des zones où les champs sont petits ou étroits. John Dalli, commissaire en charge de la santé et de la protection des consommateurs, a présenté le document au Conseil de l'agriculture la semaine dernière. A cette réunion a été également examinée la nouvelle politique de décentralisation de la réglementation des OGM au sein de l'UE. La majorité des Etats membres de l'Union se disent opposés au plan proposé. On peut notamment citer l'Allemagne, la France, l'Italie, l'Espagne et la Pologne. Ces Etats ont fait part de leurs préoccupations, à savoir si la proposition serait interprétée comme une violation des règles de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) et si les propositions constituent une violation de l'idée d'un marché unique européen et d'une politique agricole commune des Etats membres. Seule l'Autriche soutient la politique. Un groupe de travail va être établi à présent pour clarifier la question et rechercher un consensus. Pour consulter l'article en ligne en version originale anglaise, cliquer sur le lien ci-dessous. http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/news/541.docu.html URL: http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/news/541.docu.html Author Address: Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Godfree RC Year: 2008 Title: ¤ Risk assessment of virus-resistant pasture plants: a case study using the model Trifolium repens – Clover yellow vein virus pathosystem. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Transfert


Abstract: Rapid development and commercial release of novel disease-resistant plants over the past decade has led many ecologists to question the potential environmental hazards associated with their release into agricultural and natural plant communities. One central concern is that host populations currently regulated by disease may acquire resistance genes, experience rapid population growth, and invade target and non-target ecosystems. This risk is likely to be especially high for plant species selected for high persistence, such as pasture plants. The objective of this project has been to assess the level of risk posed by transgenic and conventionally-bred virus-resistant (VR) pasture plants to non-target ecosystems and to develop effi cient risk-assessment protocols on which to base biosafety assessments targeting these species. I have used the model Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV)-Trifolium repens pathosystem in southeastern Australia to address these questions, with an overall focus on predicting the potential magnitude of ecological release that would occur if wild T. repens genotypes in this region were to acquire viral resistance. Materials and Methods The risk assessment reported here has incorporated four key research methodologies: 1) surveys of wild T. repens populations in southeastern Australia for virus presence and abudance, 2) fl oristic surveys of native plant communities aimed at defi ning relationships among wild T. repens populations and other native species, 3) glasshouse and fi eld experiments aimed at determining the impact of naturally-occurring ClYVV isolates on wild T. repens genotypes by comparing the performance of infected and virus-free T. repens clones, and 4) assessment of the impact of ClYVV on in situ wild clover populations located in high conservation-value montane and subalpine plant communities in south-eastern Australia. Results Field surveys of montane and subalpine T. repens populations in southeast Australia indicated that ClYVV was present in 80% of populations in the survey region but that other viruses were rare (Godfree et. al. 2004). The results of fl oristic surveys (Godfree et al. 2004, 2006) conducted in the same region showed that T. repens was one of the most abundant forbs present in these environments, although its abundance was usually low (0-25% cover), existing primarily in inter-tussock space among grass species. Glasshouse experiments using ClYVV isolates and T. repens lines from grassland and woodland communities indicated that viral infection reduced host survival, stolon growth, morphology and fl ower production by 1050%. However, infectivity and aggressiveness among ClYVV isolates and resistance and tolerance among T. repens lines varied signifi cantly. Field experiments also showed that ClYVV signifi cantly reduced the population growth rate of clover by limiting host plant fecundity, growth and survival, with viral impacts being generally greater in grassland environments. Demographic modeling of these data suggests that the release of wild clover populations from the pathogenic effects of ClYVV would likely result in a 3% mean increase in population growth rate and invasion of some new environments by clover populations (Godfree et al. 2007). However, surveys of in situ montane and subalpine wild T. repens populations failed to detect any impact of ClYVV on host performance. Discussion These results indicate that the expansion of non-target host plant populations following the introduction of compatible diseaseresistant genotypes into the environment is a plausible scenario but that the level of ecological release is likely to be dependent on the spatial distribution and abundance of both host and pathogen, co-evolutionary history of the pathosystem, and the presence of complex host-disease-environment interactions. These factors all need to be considered if ecological risks associated with release of VR plants are to be realistically assessed. In the present case, the evidence suggests that the release of wild Trifolium repens from the pathogenic effects of Clover yellow vein virus would likely result in an increase in the growth rate and niche breadth of extant host populations, which may place sympatric native species at risk. However, further research is required to determine the role of other factors such as gene fl ow, hybrid fi tness, and vector dynamics in mediating the degree of release observed in the fi eld. The results of this project also confi rm that as one moves from controlled glasshouse experiments to in situ field studies the diffi culty involved in quantifying small but ecologically important host-pathogen interactions increases greatly, and so the latter should not be solely relied upon as a basis for risk assessment. This highlights the importance of incorporating a complementary set of fi eld surveys, plant community analyses, tiered glasshouse/fi eld experiments and in-situ monitoring of wild populations into protocols aimed at assessing the biosafety of disease-resistant plants in general. continued.. Acknowledgements


I would like to thank Matthew Woods, Andrew Young, Brendan Lepschi, Lyndsey Vivian, Peter Thrall and Paul Chu for scientifi c and technical contributions to the parts of this project. I also thank Dairy Australia for partial funding of this work. References Godfree, R.C., Chu, P.W.G. and Woods, M.J. 2004. White clover (Trifolium repens) and associated viruses in the subalpine region of south-eastern Australia: implications for GMO risk assessment. Australian Journal of Botany 52: 321-331. Godfree, R.C., Vivian, L.M. and Lepschi, B.J. 2006. Risk assessment of transgenic virus-resistant white clover: non-target plant community characterisation and implications for fi eld trial design. Biological Invasions 8: 1159-1178. Godfree, R.C., Thrall, P.H. and Young, A.G. 2007. Enemy release after introduction of disease-resistant genotypes into plantpathogen systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104: 2756-2760. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: CSIRO Plant Industry, Australia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Godoy MG, Gutarra ML, Castro AM, Machado OL, Freire DM, Year: 2010 Title: * Adding value to a toxic residue from the biodiesel industry: production of two distinct pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum in castor bean waste. Journal: J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010 Sep 16. [Epub ahead of print]. Label: Biofuel Abstract: In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology. Author Address: Departamento de Bioquímica, Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana - 549-1 e 2, Instituto de Química, Centro de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Bloco A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21941-909, Brazil. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gomez LD, Gilday A, Feil R, Lunn JE, Graham IA, Year: 2010 Title: * AtTPS1-mediated trehalose 6-phosphate synthesis is essential for embryogenic and vegetative growth and responsiveness to ABA in germinating seeds and stomatal guard cells. Journal: The Plant Journal 64, 1, 1-13. Label: Physiol Keywords: Arabidopsis TILLING trehalose trehalose 6-phosphate synthase sugar signalling ABA Abstract: Summary Trehalose and associated metabolites are part of the sugar signalling system in plants and have profound effects on development. Disruption of the TREHALOSE 6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (TPS1)


gene in Arabidopsis results in delayed embryo growth, altered cell wall morphology and carbon metabolism and abortion at the torpedo stage. Here we investigate the role of the TPS1 gene in post-embryonic development using two approaches. In the first we use the seed-specific ABI3 promoter to drive the TPS1 cDNA during embryo development, resulting in rescue of the embryo-lethal tps1 phenotype. Lack of expression from the ABI3::TPS1 transgene in post-germinative tps1 seedlings results in severe growth arrest, accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and leads to an increase in expression of genes related to ABA signalling. In the second approach we use TILLING (targeted induced local lesions in genomes) to generate three weaker, nonembryo-lethal, alleles (tps1-11, tps1-12 and tps1-13) and use these to demonstrate that the TPS1 protein plays a key role in modulating trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) levels in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis. All three weaker alleles give a consistent phenotype of slow growth and delayed flowering. Germination of tps1-11, tps1-12 and tps1-13 is hypersensitive to ABA with the degree of hypersensitivity correlating with the decrease in T6P levels in the different alleles. Stomatal pore aperture is regulated by ABA, and this was found to be affected in tps112. Our results show that the TPS1 gene product plays an essential role in regulating the growth of vegetative as well as embryogenic tissue in a mechanism involving ABA and sugar metabolism. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04312.x Author Address: 1CNAP, Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UKingdom 2Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am M端hlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Granell A, Fernandez-del-Carmen A, Orzaez D, Year: 2010 Title: * In planta production of plant-derived and non-plant-derived adjuvants. Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines 9, 8, 843-858. Date: Aug Accession Number: ISI:000281104800008 Label: Biopharming Keywords: CTB; lectin; plant adjuvant; plant-made vaccine; recombinant protein; RTB; saponin toxin-b-subunit; heat-labile enterotoxin; virus-like particles; hepatitis-c virus; transgenic tobacco chloroplasts; synthetic neutralizing epitope; glucosidase-aggregating factor; vaccine candidate antigen; insulin fusion protein; high-yield expression Abstract: Recombinant antigen production in plants is a safe and economically sound strategy for vaccine development, particularly for oral/mucosal vaccination, but subunit vaccines usually suffer from weak immunogenicity and require adjuvants that escort the antigens, target them to relevant sites and/or activate antigen-presenting cells for elicitation of protective immunity. Genetic fusions of antigens with bacterial adjuvants as the B subunit of the cholera toxin have been successful in inducing protective immunity of plantmade vaccines. In addition, several plant compounds, mainly plant defensive molecules as lectins and saponins, have shown strong adjuvant activities. The molecular diversity of the plant kingdom offers a vast source of nonbacterial compounds with adjuvant activity, which can be assayed in emerging plant manufacturing systems for the design of new plant vaccine formulations. Notes: Times Cited: 1 Cited Reference Count: 148 URL: <Go to ISI>://000281104800008 Author Address: [Granell, Antonio; Fernandez-del-Carmen, Asun; Orzaez, Diego] Univ Politecn Valencia, CSIC, Inst Biol Mol & Celular Plantas, Valencia 46022, Spain. Orzaez, D, Univ Politecn Valencia, CSIC, Inst Biol Mol & Celular Plantas, CPI Ed 8E,Camino Vera S-N, Valencia 46022, Spain. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Groenewald Jan.Hendrik Year: 2010 Title: 造 Sustainable GMO Technologies for African Agriculture. (Opinion Paper) Journal: Published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - P O Box 72135 - Lynnwood Ridge 0040 Pretoria, South Africa - ISBN: 978-0-9814159-7-0 July 2010.


Label: ImpactEnvironnement Socioeconomic Abstract: Abstract Agricultural sustainability usually refers to agronomic sustainability, including aspects such as agronomical practices, productivity and ecological diversity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all factors that should be considered during the risk assessment of a genetically modified (GM) crop before it is released commercially. Most GM crops that have been commercialised to date were developed primarily for large-scale farming systems and would, arguably, not impart the same scale of benefit to small-scale and subsistence farmers, typical of developing countries. Therefore, to allow developing countries to derive the full potential benefits of biotech crops, we propose that, in addition to the traditional biosafety aspects mentioned above, technology developers should also more carefully consider factors such as the relevance and accessibility of a particular technology to ensure sustainability. Risk assessment and risk management play a critical role in the successful commercialisation of GM crops and should therefore be considered as an integral part of any GM research and development programme. This paper will develop these concepts and present a risk analysis framework which can be used in an R&D programme to identify, assess and mitigate potential biosafety and other deployment risks. Full text : 1 Introduction In a discussion on the sustainability of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), it usually revolves around their sustainable use in agricultural systems, focusing predominantly on food/feed and environmental safety. Sustainability is therefore often equated to the post-release safety of the GMO, an aspect that is regulated in all systems and is therefore carefully considered during the development and risk assessment processes. Potential socioeconomic impacts, by contrast, are currently either not regulated in many countries or are only considered at a very late stage of product development. The facts that most of the current commercial GMO crops were designed around the needs of specific markets that differ considerably from those in the developing world, and that they were not developed based on locally established priorities and competencies, resulted in GMO products that are unable to deliver positive socioeconomic impacts to many farmers in developing countries. The sustainable adoption and use of GM technology also depend on many socioeconomic and practical constraints, which should be considered proactively in ex ante sustainability analyses. By integrating sustainability analyses, including biosafety and socioeconomic assessments, into a GMO research and development pipeline, the development of both safe and economically sustainable products could be ensured. Such an approach should also improve the overall efficiency of the innovation system because it will help to ensure the development of safe, relevant and accessible products that are truly sustainable. 2 Why focus on sustainable GM technologies? Obvious answers to this question will revolve around the post-release endurance, safety, diversity and productivity aspects of the GM crop and its receiving environment, but it also has an important developmental or strategic aspect. To successfully unlock the potential of GM technology, it is important to realise that the technology in itself is not a product. GM technology should be packaged into a final product that, in addition to the sustainability aspects listed above, is also relevant and accessible to ensure adoption and continued use. Defining sustainability in this holistic way and integrating these considerations from an early stage into a GM research and development programme will not only help with the development of safe, sustainable products, but will also improve the efficiency of the innovation process because flawed products can be discarded at an early stage. 3 Defining the sustainability of GMOs Sustainability implies safety and the safety of GMOs is defined in terms of their food/feed and environmental safety, issues that should be proactively considered from the very start of a GM research and development project to ensure regulatory compliance. These safety aspects of sustainability are not disputed and are similar for all markets, but GM crop sustainability also includes a socioeconomic aspect that can vary dramatically between different markets. It should therefore come as no surprise that the socioeconomic sustainability and benefit of the currently available GM crops have been questioned in many developing countries. Even in countries where the potential socioeconomic impact of GMOs is considered before general release, this is only done as part of regulatory compliance with the aim of limiting undesired ex post impacts and is not intended to be a comprehensive feasibility analysis. To ensure the sustainable adoption and use of GMOs in a particular environment, these aspects should be considered proactively during the development process of the specific product. The integrated, proactive assessment of both the biosafety and socioeconomic aspects, i.e. a continuous sustainability assessment, of a new GMO is therefore critical to ensure the development of sustainable products for African agriculture that will impart a real benefit to the adopters of the technology (Figure 8.1).


Figure 8.1: Integrating sustainability assessments into a GMO crop R,D&C programme To be sustainable, GMOs for African agriculture have to be safe, relevant and accessible. The best way to ensure this is to develop these crops locally, based on local knowledge, priorities, capacities and constraints. 4 Sustainability assessment of GMOs Sustainability was previously defined on the basis of its three contributing aspects, i.e. food/ feed safety, environmental safety and socioeconomic feasibility. However, when using it as an integrated tool for decisionmaking in a GMO R,D&C programme, it is more relevant to define it chronologically. I will therefore briefly discuss the seven sequential sustainability assessment clusters as indicated in Figure 8.1 and illustrate the principle of integrated sustainability assessment by way of a few examples in each cluster. (a) Biosafety assessment – at molecular level: Even before the first construct is developed for a transformation programme, the possible implications of the individual genetic components and interventions should be considered. This early-stage, strategic assessment could help to ensure that the final product will be safe and viable. Possible impacts of the molecular biology interventions/protocols and tools that are used during the transformation programme include the following: • The choice of a particular transformation system can impact on transgene copy number and the presence of partial vector sequences. • Using tissue-specific promoter sequences could reduce the possible environmental impact of the transgene. • Certain selectable markers such as antibiotic resistance genes might be prohibited in certain regulatory territories. • Under the current South African legislation the use of a human gene will have specific labelling implications while analogues from different sources will not. (b) Biosafety assessment – at organism level: Both the selection of a particular organism/ crop and the GM trait(s) of the resulting organism should be considered at an early stage. Possible risks associated with different organisms will obviously vary – targeting a particular crop disease via the causative agent, its possible vectors or the crop itself will, for example, have very different possible impacts. • Modifying food crops to sustain industrial applications could also have significant socioeconomic impacts. • The availability of biological containment measures could play a significant role in risk management strategies. • The introduction of a GM crop into its geographical centre of origin or where sexually compatible wild relatives are present would imply vertical gene flow, which could limit the type of GM traits that could be transferred to that particular crop. (c) Biosafety assessment – comprehensive regulatory overview: The regulatory overview or development of the regulatory dossier for a GMO constitutes the comprehensive characterisation of the final transgenic line that has been earmarked for commercialisation, i.e. the GM product. At this stage, all the aspects of biosafety, i.e. food/feed safety and environmental safety, and where appropriate, the potential socioeconomic impacts of the GMO are considered. • As part of the food/feed safety assessment, possible toxic components, allergens, nutrients and their interactions will be investigated, with the frame of reference for many of these studies being substantial equivalence. • Possible environmental impacts will be considered with reference to the new GM trait and where relevant, e.g. the transgene‘s possible impact on the competitiveness of the organism, the potential for gene flow and its likely impact, non-target organisms and resistance development. • Currently, no clear guidelines exist for evaluating the possible socioeconomic impacts of GMOs, but it is probably fair to say that current evaluations focus on ensuring that the impacted industry and the majority of its stakeholders will not be disadvantaged by the release of the GMO. Possible changes in agricultural practices and potential gains and losses in agricultural inputs, yields and markets are also considered. (d) Biosafety assessment – monitoring: In most countries the release of GMOs is conditional on post-release monitoring to gauge possible long-term effects and to ensure the employment of prescribed management practices, e.g. the use of refugia as part of a resistance management programme. One strategic aspect to assess here is the identification of measurable endpoints, e.g. exactly how will nontarget impacts be evaluated over time? (e) Socioeconomic assessment – relevance: When considering the use of GM technology, its relevance to a particular targeted community should be carefully considered. As stated earlier, the focus should be on the intended product and its potential benefits and not on the technology. The potential benefit for the specific target market/community under their particular circumstances should be clearly described. The benefit should


be a priority for the targeted community. Other technologies that could deliver the same benefit and the acceptability of GM technology should also be considered. (f) Socioeconomic assessment - accessibility: Many technical and practical aspects surrounding the deployment of a GMO can impact on its accessibility in a developing country. • The potential costs or legal obligations associated with intellectual property rights could impact on many of the technology packages that have been used during the development of a GMO. Also, technology deployment should never be at the expense of freedom to choose. • Management practises associated with particular GM traits could make them non-viable on a small scale or in an informal environment, e.g. seed-saving and associated introgression could contribute to resistance development. • Cultural practices and preferences could impact on the acceptability of a particular trait, e.g. yellow maize as a result of high ß-carotene levels for human consumption, or the presence of an inconspicuous trait in an unacceptable variety. (g) Socioeconomic assessment – integration: Integrating GM technology effectively and seamlessly into current local agricultural systems is crucial for the sustainable use of the technology. If the deployment of GM technology remains dependent on sophisticated distribution, implementation and management programmes, the distribution of its benefits will be severely limited in the developing world. Again, the sustainable solution is to focus more widely on issues such as institutional development than just on the technology. 5 Conclusion A final strategic aspect of sustainability that deserves brief mention is the public acceptance of GM technology. Other applications of GM technology, such as that in the medical industry have not initiated as many negative perceptions, most probably because the potential benefit/risk ratio is perceived to be much more favourable in these applications. The nature of the debate on GM foods will therefore probably change significantly when more products are developed that deliver a tangible benefit to the end consumer. Developing such products specifically for application in the developing world and ensuring that they are supported with credible biosafety and sustainability data and underpinning principles as described above, will help to ensure that the true potential of GM technology can be unlocked for African agriculture. URL: http://www.assaf.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/PDF/ASSAf%20GMO%20African%20Agriculture%202010%20Web.pdf Author Address: Biosafety South Africa, 105 Wentworth, Somerset Links Office Park, Somerset West 7130, South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gruère Guillaume, Kimani Virginia Year: 2010 Title: £ IMPLEMENTING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED COMMODITIES UNDER THE CARTAGENA PROTOCOL ON BIOSAFETY ARTICLE 18.2(A) AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL THE CASE OF KENYA Journal: IFPRI Note Number 17, 2010 Label: ImpactBiol Réglement Abstract: This note summarizes a study on the implications of implementing strict information requirements for genetically modified (GM) commodities under Article 18.2(a) of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Kenya. The results show that enforcement of strict ―does contain‖ requirements, compared with the default ―may contain‖ option, would create additional costs and challenges in the difficult implementation of import regulations. Notes: FOR MORE INFORMATION: Kimani, V. 2009. Import control and documentation requirements for living modified organisms for food, feed or processing: Implication of the Cartagena Protocol‘s Article 18.2(a) in Kenya. ===================================== From : AgriGenomics Research ; http://www.agbio.net/index.aspx?ID=113932 Two new notes on information requirements for LMO-FFPs under the Biosafety Protocol Date Posted: Wednesday, September 22, 2010


New Notes from the Program for Biosafety Systems on information requirements for LMO-FFPs under the Biosafety Protocol Two new notes from the Program for Biosafety Systems (PBS) summarize results from studies on the economic implications of introducing stringent information requirements for shipments of living modified organisms for food, feed or processing (LMO-FFPs) under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Article 18.2(a). The first (PBS Note 17) focuses on implementation challenges for Kenya, and shows that the enforcement of ―does contain‖ strict requirements, compared with the default ―may contain‖ option, would create additional costs and challenges in the difficult implementation of import regulations. The second note (PBS Note 18) summarizes a global economic study of the trade and price effects of introducing a strict documentation option in the case of maize. The results show that it would increase maize prices and distort international trade, with significant economic losses in Protocol member countries. The two notes are available on the IFPRI website: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/pbsnote17.pdf http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/pbsnote18.pdf Further Information: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/pbsnote17.pdf URL: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/pbsnote17.pdf Author Address: International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. USA Pesticides and Agricultural Resource Centre, Nairobi, Kenya. Pesticides and Agricultural Resource Centre XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gschwendtner Silvia, Reichmann Michael, Müller, Martin, Radl Viviane, Munch Jean, Schloter Michael, Year: 2010 Title: * Effects of genetically modified amylopectin-accumulating potato plants on the abundance of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms in the rhizosphere. Secondary Title: Plant and Soil 335, 1, 413-422. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0032-079X Label: Composition ImpactBiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Genetically modified potato plants - Real-time PCR - Gene abundance - Plant beneficial microorganisms - Phytopathogens - Rhizosphere Abstract: In this study, the potential effects of a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) on plant beneficial bacteria and fungi as well as on phytopathogens in the rhizosphere were investigated in a greenhouse experiment and a field trial. For comparison, the non-transgenic parental cultivar of the GM line and a second non-transgenic cultivar were included in the study. Rhizospheres were sampled during young leaf development (EC30) and at florescence (EC60). The microbial community composition was analysed by real-time PCR to quantify the abundances of Pseudomonas spp., Clavibacter michiganensis, Trichoderma spp. and Phytophthora infestans. Additionally, total bacterial and fungal abundances were measured. None of the examined gene abundance patterns were affected by the genetic modification when wild type and GM line were compared. However, significant differences were observed between the two natural potato cultivars, especially during the early leaf development of the plants. Furthermore, gene abundance patterns were also influenced by the plant developmental stage. Interestingly, the impact of the cultivar and the plant vegetation stage on the microbial community structure was more pronounced in field than in greenhouse. Overall, field-grown plants showed a higher abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere than plants grown under greenhouse conditions. Notes: 50 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0430-2 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k82012811r762306/fulltext.html Author Address: (1) Chair of Soil Ecology, Technische Universität München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany (2) Institute for Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Am Gereuth 8, 85354 Freising, Germany


(3) Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Terrestrial Ecogenetics, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Guan ZJ, Guo B, Huo YL, Guan ZP, Wei YH, Year: 2010 Title: * Overview of expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants. Journal: Vaccine. 2010 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print]. Label: Biopharming Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a pathogen for chronic liver infection, afflicts more than 350 million people world-wide. The effective way to control the virus is to take HBV vaccine. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is an effective protective antigen suitable for vaccine development. At present, "edible" vaccine based on transgenic plants is one of the most promising directions in novel types of vaccines. HBsAg production from transgenic plants has been carried out, and the transgenic plant expression systems have developed from model plants (such as tobacco, potato and tomato) to other various plant platforms. Crude or purified extracts of transformed plants have been found to conduct immunological responses and clinical trials for hepatitis B, which gave the researches of plant-based HBsAg production a big boost. The aim of this review was to summarize the recent data about plant-based HBsAg development including molecular biology of HBsAg gene, selection of expression vector, the expression of HBsAg gene in plants, as well as corresponding immunological responses in animal models or human. Author Address: Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China; Department of Life Sciences, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng, Shanxi 044000, China. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gubba Augustine Year: 2010 Title: ¤ Transgenic Plants with Virus Resistance: Opportunities and Challenges for Africa. Journal: Published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - P O Box 72135 - Lynnwood Ridge 0040 Pretoria, South Africa - ISBN: 978-0-9814159-7-0 July 2010. Label: ViRe Bioengineering Adoption Socioeconomic Abstract: Full text : 1. Introduction The use of genetically modified (GM) technology and its products in Africa is still in its infancy. South Africa, which has biosafety regulations in place, is the only country on the continent that is commercially producing GM crops. However, countries such as Egypt and Burkina Faso have recently reported growing GM crops on a commercial basis. The GM crops that are produced on a commercial basis have been limited to maize (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). These four crops have been transformed for the two traits of insect resistance and herbicide tolerance. There is a need in Africa also to develop GM crops with other important traits. This presentation will focus on the trait of plant disease resistance, specifically resistance to plant virus infection. Compared to other pathogens, such as bacteria and fungi, viruses have very simple structures and genomes, and for that reason GM crops with resistance to viral infection can easily be produced. 2. Examples of viruses of economic importance in African agriculture For a long time viruses have been known to be major limiting factors in the production of Africa‘s major food and commercial crops. The literature abounds with examples of the detrimental effects of viruses on many different crops grown on the African continent (Figure 3.1). Maize streak virus (MSV) (Zea mays L.), discovered in 1901, is a major pathogen of maize (Wambugu, 1999; Bosque-Perez, 2000). The virus has rendered the production of maize in some parts of Africa virtually impossible. The twin threat of cassava mosaic virus disease (CMD) and cassava brown streak virus disease (CBSD) has had devastating effects on the production of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.) in East and Central Africa (Gibson et al., 1996; Legg & Tresh, 2000; Hillocks et al., 2001; Tresh & Cooter, 2005). The hopelessness of farmers trying to eke out a living from their heavily diseased crops is a common feature in all production areas. In the recent past, banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has emerged as a major threat to banana (Musa paradisiacal L.) production, putting at risk the


food security of more than 70 million people in 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa who depend on banana for their livelihood and food supply (FAO, 2001). Infected banana plants produce little or no fruit. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a major source of dietary protein for cash-poor farmers who constitute a large majority of people in Africa. The seed-borne viruses, bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) continue to be serious threats to bean production on the continent (Mukeshimana et al., 2003). Potato virus X (PVX), potato virus Y (PVY) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV) singly or in combination, result in substantial yield losses in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in all areas of production. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) is among the most important food staples grown in subSaharan Africa, particularly East Africa. Efforts to control sweet potato disease virus (SPDV), a result of the synergistic interaction between sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) which results in up to 95% reduction in tuber yield of potato (Ipomea batatas L.) throughout Africa, are being pursued in earnest (Gibson et al., 2003). The economic impact of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is huge mainly due to its extremely broad host range and worldwide distribution (Rosello et al., 1996). It possesses one of the largest host ranges of any plant virus, with over 1 090 plant species in over 100 families cited (Peters, 2003). The virus infects many different vegetable crops and reduces the marketable value of produce. With an estimated crop loss of over US$1 million for several crops, TSWV ranks among the ten most detrimental plant viruses worldwide (Goldbach & Peters, 1994). Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) occurs wherever cucurbits are grown and infected plants have very poor fruit set. In West Africa, the production of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) has been under threat from cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV) for over 70 years and the search for virus-resistant cacao varieties is still on (Posnette & Todd, 2008). CĂ´te dâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Togo record combined loses of over 500 000 tons/year. In the citrusproducing countries, infections of trees with citrus tristeza virus (CTV) have resulted in millions of infected trees being felled, leading to severe financial losses for the affected farmers (Bar-Joseph & Marcus, 1989). Control of CTV continues to be a challenge. It is evident that the damage associated with viral diseases to different crops translates into major financial losses for the affected farmer and in most cases the losses are a real threat to food security. Given that the strategies that have been commonly used to control or manage plant viral diseases have not been very effective, there is an urgent need to look at alternative methods that can complement the existing strategies. To this end, the concept of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) as described by Sanford and Johnson (1985) to produce genetically modified plants with virus resistance offers exciting possibilities. 2.1 Transgenic Papaya (Carica papaya L.) with Virus Resistance One of the very few transgenic crops with virus resistance that have been commercialized is papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is now grown on a commercial basis by farmers on the Hawaiian islands (Gonsalves, 1998). These beautiful islands have a compelling story to tell on how GM technology was used to save the local papaya industry from total collapse due to infection by PRSV. The Hawaii papaya story can be used as a model to address the many virus problems that have affected African farming communities for a long time. At the height of the PRSV problem, abandoned papaya orchards were a common feature of the landscape in the main papaya-growing areas, and this bore testimony to the devastating effects the virus was having on the papaya industry. Efforts to control the virus using resistant papaya cultivars and cross-protection had failed dramatically. Local scientists looked at the concept of PDR for providing a lasting solution to the problem. To this end, the coat protein (CP) gene of PRSV was used in the transformation of papaya (Cai et al., 1990; Fitch et al., 1992). The resultant transgenic plants showed resistance to PRSV under greenhouse conditions (Tennant et al., 1994). Following a series of field tests, and having met the stringent environmental and biosafety requirements, transgenic papaya was eventually commercially released in 1998 (Gonsalves, 1998). Using GM technology, the papaya industry in Hawaii was transformed from the seemingly hopeless state at the height of the PRSV problem to where the industry today is back to its former glory (Figure 3.2). Today, transgenic Rainbow papaya is being exported to mainland US and Canada. 3 Lessons from the Hawaii papaya story The fact that the local farmers and the scientific community in Hawaii came together to solve an economically important viral disease problem shows that there is no need to involve a multinational company in such projects. The participation of multinational companies in such projects always attracts the opponents of GM who use the opportunity to portray the technology in a negative light. The papaya story is a model of how GM


technology can be harnessed to solve a viral disease problem and help save a whole community from total financial ruin. This model can be adapted to suit specific environments. 4 The way forward for Africa PDR has been demonstrated to be very effective in controlling/managing an important viral disease. It is important that the use of PDR should occupy a prominent position on the African agricultural research agenda. There is an urgent need to initiate projects that address the numerous viral disease problems that African farmers are currently facing and have been facing for a very long time. 4.1 Development of Transgenic Plants with Virus Resistance in Africa It is pleasing to note that different laboratories across the continent are using GM technology to develop transgenic crops with virus resistance on a routine basis. The first all- African produced modified plant in the form of transgenic maize with resistance to MSV has been developed (Shepherd et al., 2007). This maize is at present being evaluated under containment. Other projects underway on the continent include: (a) Transgenic cucurbits and potato with resistance to several viruses being developed in Egypt. (b) Transgenic sweet potato with resistance to SPDV being developed in Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. (c) Transgenic cassava with resistance to CMD and CBSD being developed in Uganda and Kenya. Confined trials of cassava transformed for resistance to CMD are now being conducted in Uganda. As the number of scientists with training in molecular biology, tissue culture and virology increase, there is likely to be a concomitant increase in the number of projects on developing transgenic crops with virus resistance. Against this background, the future for the development of GMOs in Africa looks promising. 4.2 Opportunities and Challenges Given the many virus disease problems in Africa that need urgent research attention, many opportunities exist for using GM technology. However, there are many challenges that have to be addressed before these opportunities can be exploited. First, it is important for individual countries to have biosafety regulations in place so as to create environments in which GMO research can take off. Second, it will also be necessary to identify centres of research excellence on the continent that can spearhead the research. Such centres must have a molecular biologist, a virologist and a tissue culture specialist to lead the research. Third, substantial amounts of money will be needed to fund this expensive research. The money will be used to buy equipment and consumables, and build facilities in which the research will be conducted. 5 Conclusion GM technology in the form of GMO plants with virus resistance could be the key to unlocking the potential of African agriculture by, among other things, addressing and solving the numerous viral disease problems that have hampered the economic production of Africaâ&#x20AC;˘fs major food and commercial crops. Lessons learnt from the Hawaii transgenic papaya project can be used as a model to develop GMOs with virus resistance by the various National Agricultural Research Services (NARS) and universities across the continent. The longsuffering farmer will have a brighter future. REFERENCES Bar-Joseph, M., Marcus, R. & Lee, R.F. 1989. The continuous challenge of citrus tristeza virus control. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 27: 291-316. Bosque-Perez, N.A. 2000. Eight decades of maize streak virus research. Virus Research, 71: 107-121. Cai, W., Gonsalves, C., Tennant, P., Fermin, G., Souza, M., Sarindu, N, Jan, F-J., Zhu, H.Z. & Gonsalves, D. 1990. A protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of Carica papaya L. In Vitro Cell, 35:6169. FAO: Agriculture 21: 2001. Acting together against banana diseases in Africa. Fitch, M.M.M., Manshardt, R.M., Gonsalves, D., Slightom, J.L. & Sanford, J.C. 1992. Virus-resistant papaya plants derived from tissues bombarded with the coat protein gene of papaya ringspot virus. Bio/ Technology, 10: 1466-1472. Gibson, R.W., Legg, J.P. & Otim-Nape, G.W. 1996. Unusually severe symptoms are a characteristic of the current epidemic of mosaic virus disease of cassava in Uganda. Annals of Applied Biology, 128, 479-490. Goldbach, R. & Peters, D. 1994. Possible causes of the emergence of tospovirus diseases. Seminars in Virology, 5: 113-120. Gonsalves, D. 1998. Control of Papaya ringspot virus in papaya: a case study. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 36: 415-437. Hillocks, R.J., Raya, M.D., Mtanda, K. & Kiozia, H. 2001. Effects of brown streak virus disease on yield and quality of cassava in Tanzania. Journal of Phytopathology, 149: 389-394. Legg, J.P. & Tresh, J.M. 2000. Cassava mosaic virus disease in East Africa: a dynamic disease in a


changing environment. Virus Research, 71: 135-141. Mukeshimana, G., Hart, L.P. & Kelly, J.D. 2003. Bean common mosaic virus and bean common mosaic necrosis virus. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2894. Peters, D. 2003. Tospoviruses. In: Loebenstein, G. & Thottappilly, G. (Eds), Viruses and Virus Diseases of Major Crops in Developing Countries. Boston, USA: Kluwer Academic, pp. 719-742. Posnette, A.F. & Todd, J. McA. 2008. Virus diseases of cacao in West Africa VIII. The search for virus resistant cacao. Annals of Applied Biology, 38: 785-800. Rosello, S., Diez, M.J. & Nuez, F. 1996. Viral diseases causing the greatest economic losses to the tomato crop. I. The tomato spotted wilt virus – a review. Scientia Horticulture 76: 117-150. Sanford, J.C. & Johnson, S.A. 1985. The concept of parasite-derived resistance deriving resistance genes from the parasite‘s own genome. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 113: 395-405. Shepherd, D.N., Magwende, T., Martin, D.P., Bezuidenhout, M., Kloppers, F.J., Carolissen, C.N., Monjane, A.L., Rybicki, E.P. & Thompson, J.A. 2007. Maize streak virus-resistant transgenic maize: a first for Africa. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 5: 759-767. Tennant, P., Gonsalves, C., King, K-S., Fitch, M., Manshardt, R., Slightom, J.L. & Gonsalves, D. 1994. Differential protection against papaya ringspot virus isolates in coat protein gene transgenic papaya and classically cross-protected papaya. Phytopathology, 84:1359-1366. Tresh, J.M. & Cooter, R.J. 2005. Strategies for controlling cassava mosaic virus disease in Africa. Plant Pathology, 54: 587-614. Wambugu, F. 1999. Why Africa needs agricultural biotech. Nature, 400: 15-16. Gibson, R.W., Aritua, V., Byamukama, E., Mpende, I. & Kayongo, J. 2003. Control strategies for sweet potato disease virus in Africa. Virus Research, 100: 115-122. URL: http://www.assaf.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/PDF/ASSAf%20GMO%20African%20Agriculture%202010%20Web.pdf Author Address: Plant Pathology, School of Agricultural Sciences & Agribusiness, University of KwaZuluNatal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gunsolus Jeffrey L Year: 2010 Title: + Diversify Weed Control Strategies to Keep Glyphosate Effective. Journal: Plant Management Network Number 104: September 28, 2010 - University of Minnesota Press Release. www.extension.umn.edu Label: HeTo Resistance Abstract: Full text : St. Paul, Minnesota (September 13, 2010)--If using multiple applications of glyphosate at increasingly higher rates is not improving weed control in your crops, you must stop following glyphosate failure with more glyphosate. Early September is a good time to assess fields for the presence of common waterhemp and giant and common ragweed that have survived this year‘s glyphosate applications, and to develop a strategy that prevents this from happening next year. Glyphosate has been used extensively on Minnesota corn and soybean acres since the late 1990s. Unfortunately, sole reliance on glyphosate has resulted in giant and common ragweed and common waterhemp plants that are resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant weeds are often injured by the herbicide, yet many plants still go to seed, increasing their numbers in following years. To maintain the usefulness of glyphosate in corn, soybean and sugar beet cropping systems in the future, it is important to reduce total reliance on glyphosate by diversifying weed management practices, putting more emphasis on spring and early-summer weed control and focusing glyphosate use in the crop where it is of greatest value to you. I recommend the following strategies based on experience and extensive research conducted by University of Minnesota Extension and other land-grant institutions: • Diversification of your chemical weed control practices is critical to managing resistance. Select herbicide partners for glyphosate that will effectively control the weeds that have become difficult for glyphosate to control. This partnership could include a preemergence herbicide applied when the crop is planted, followed by glyphosate or an early-season postemergence herbicide tank mixed with glyphosate. The advantage of the


preemergence herbicide is the residual weed control for multiple flushes of early-emerging weeds and reduction of the potential for crop yield loss due to weed competition from a delayed postemergence glyphosate application. • Postemergence tank-mix partners are often preferred by farmers because they reduce the number of field operations, but timing of application is critical as they must be applied to 3- to 4-inch weeds for maximum effectiveness. • Liberty Link corn and soybeans offer another postemergence herbicide strategy—the use of Ignite herbicide, which controls weeds without killing the Liberty Link crops. Application to weeds three- to four- inches tall is critical and more consistent results are achieved following a preemergence herbicide. • As other herbicides are introduced into your weed control plan, crop rotation restrictions associated with each herbicide could influence your crop rotation; this is especially true for sugar beets. • Also, consider using glyphosate only in the crop where effective herbicide alternatives to glyphosate are lacking. • Finally, consider rotation to early-season competitive crops, such as small grains. URL: http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/cm/news/2010/WeedStrategies/ Author Address: University of Minnesota Extension 612-625-8130 USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Guo Jian-Lin, Yu Chun-Lin, Fan Chun-Yuan, Lu Qi-Neng, Yin Jing-Ming, Zhang Yun-Feng, Yang Qing, Year: 2010 Title: * Cloning and characterization of a potato TFL1 gene involved in tuberization regulation. Secondary Title: Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 103, 1, 103-109. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0167-6857 Label: Physiol AgronomicTrait Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Cloning - Expression analysis - Potato - StTFL1 Abstract: Both tuberization and flowering are influenced by photoperiod in potato. TERMINAL FLOWER1 is a key regulator of floral timing in Arabidopsis and other herbaceous species. In order to clarify the relationship of TFL1 protein with tuberization, a homolog of TFL1, designated Solanum tuberosum TFL1 (StTFL1; accession no. DQ307621), was isolated from potato plantlets by reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The predicted amino acid sequence of this cDNA had a high degree of identity with other homologous members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family. Analysis of mRNA levels for StTFL1 showed that it was highly expressed in roots and initial stolons, with the expression becoming progressively weaker during subsequent tuberization. Over-expression of StTFL1 resulted in normal tuberization in transgenic lines under the long-day condition. These results demonstrate that StTFL1 is involved in the regulation of tuberization. Notes: 19 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11240-010-9759-8 Author Address: (1) College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095 Nanjing, China (2) Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory for Plant Ex Situ Conservation, 210014 Nanjing, China (3) Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Eco-Agricultural Biotechnology around Hongze Lake, 223300 Huai‘an city, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Guo Y, Han L, Hymes M, Denver R, Clark SE, Year: 2010 Title: * CLAVATA2 forms a distinct CLE-binding receptor complex regulating Arabidopsis stem cell specification. Journal: The Plant Journal 63, 6, 889-900. Label: Physiol Keywords: CLAVATA2 CLE peptide CORYNE CLAVATA1 receptor complex meristem


Abstract: CLAVATA1 (CLV1), CLV2, CLV3, CORYNE (CRN), BAM1 and BAM2 are key regulators that function at the shoot apical meristem (SAM) of plants to promote differentiation by limiting the size of the organizing center that maintains stem cell identity in neighboring cells. Previous results have indicated that the extracellular domain of the receptor kinase CLV1 binds to the CLV3-derived CLE ligand. The biochemical role of the receptor-like protein CLV2 has remained largely unknown. Although genetic analysis suggested that CLV2, together with the membrane kinase CRN, acts in parallel with CLV1, recent studies using transient expression indicated that CLV2 and CRN from a complex with CLV1. Here, we report detection of distinct CLV2-CRN heteromultimeric and CLV1-BAM multimeric complexes in transient expression in tobacco and in Arabidopsis meristems. Weaker interactions between the two complexes were detectable in transient expression. We also find that CLV2 alone generates a membrane-localized CLE binding activity independent of CLV1. CLV2, CLV1 and the CLV1 homologs BAM1 and BAM2 all bind to the CLV3-derived CLE peptide with similar kinetics, but BAM receptors show a broader range of interactions with different CLE peptides. Finally, we show that BAM and CLV1 overexpression can compensate for the loss of CLV2 function in vivo. These results suggest two parallel ligand-binding receptor complexes controlling stem cell specification in Arabidopsis. Notes: TY - JOUR URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04295.x Author Address: Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1048, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Guo Zhiyi, Hao Xiaohui, Yan Jin Lei, Shang Limei, Pei Xin, Wu Hui-Jing, Zhao Yu Yvonne, Zhang Xuan, Yang Fang, Year: 2010 Title: ?? A New Method of Site-directed Mutagenesis by Modifying Overlap Extension PCR. Journal: Biological Technology 2009 Vol 19, 06. Label: Bioengineering Keywords: site-directed mutagenesis , overlap extension PCR , the high GC content , Abstract: To improve the overlap extension PCR, the introduction of DNA site-directed mutagenesis to achieve a simple and accurate. Methods: The amplified through the application of different enzymes and reaction system to produce overlap extension PCR method to introduce mutations in the DNA fragment, and then subcloned into the vector. In this paper, human cyclin D1 promoter NF-?B site (-39/-30) as an example. Results: DNA sequencing proved that the successful introduction of site-directed mutagenesis. an introduction of four mutations in base pairs. mutation the introduction of 100%. Author Address: China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Gyau Amos, Julian Voss, Achim Spiller, Ulrich Enneking, Year: 2009 Title: * Farmer Acceptance of Genetically Modified seeds in Germany: Results of a Cluster Analysis. Journal: International Food and Agribusiness Management Review Volume 12, Issue 4, 2009 Label: Adoption Keywords: Biotechnology, cluster analysis, German farmers Abstract: Discussion on plant genetic engineering has experienced increasing momentum with the introduction of Genetically Modified (GM) corn in Germany and other European countries. This paper determines the various groups of German farmers, their attitudes and expected decisions on the use of GM foods using cluster analysis of 370 German farm managers. The results of cluster analysis indicate five main farmer groups who differ in terms of certain demographic characteristics and attitudes towards GM adoption. The study proposes tailored communication and risk management as an important measure that can be used by the biotechnology advocates to improve the level of acceptance. Conclusion and Implications In the foregoing analysis, we identified and characterised the various groups of German farm managers concerning their perception of GM acceptance based on the technology acceptance model by Voss et al. (2009). Five main groups of farmers were identified and their behaviour level of informedness about biotechnology in


agriculture, willingness to take risks, general attitude towards biotechnology, and their demographic characteristics were determined. The study revealed that the farmer groups differ significantly on their general attitude towards GM acceptance, as well as the level of education and informedness. The differences in the various characteristics and attitudes among the various groups of farmers suggest that differentiated and specifically designed strategies need to be adopted by the relevant stakeholders in the promotion of GM. For instance, it is suggested that the use of tailored information could be used as a tool by the biotechnology advocates to improve the level of acceptance by the German farmers. Since the respondents in clusters 2 and 3 have indicated that they are only marginally informed about the various aspects of biotechnology in agriculture, stakeholders who see the promotion of biotechnology as important for agricultural development through improvement in productivity and farm income can enhance their course by designing information and educational programs according to the specific characteristics of the clusters. As an example, respondents in cluster 2 can be educated and informed about the potential economic benefits of the GM seed. Once they are able to realize the economic benefits that GM can provide, they are more likely to transform from being Skeptics to Supporters and Die-hards. A recent study of BT corn adoption in Spain by Gomez Barbero et al. (2008) published in Nature Biotechnology in the year 2008 revealed that Spanish farmers who adopted BT corn had higher economic benefits compared to the non-adopters as a result of increase in yield of the BT corn over the conventional corn. In addition, it was observed in the study that no price premium was obtained for the conventional corn over the BT variety. In addition, respondents in cluster 3 could also be enlightened on the negative campaigns that have been going around about the potential impact of GM seeds by its strong opponents. While it is admitted generally that provision of information is expected to influence attitudes, Frewer et al. (1995) advocate that the social context in which the information is disseminated is also important to determine the public reactions to that information. This therefore suggests the need for credible, trusted and regulated information sources in order to enhance acceptability (Dittus and Hilliers, 1993; Slovic, 1993). Frewer et al. (1995) argue that the use of proactive information provision by industry and government and the development of effective communication strategies such as the use of â&#x20AC;&#x2022;consensus conference approachâ&#x20AC;&#x2013; can facilitate trust in the information provided through improvement in dialogue among the interest groups. In addition, the media could also be tasked to provide more information on the biotechnology since the media is one major source of such information to the general public. Quality press, television documentaries, and news broadcasts are an important source of trusted information to the general public compared to government and industry sources Frewer et al. (1995). In addition, since it is observed that the Strong Opponents and the Economic Skeptics also show the strongest belief that the use of GM is associated with risk, some form of risk management tools may be instituted in order to influence the rate of adoption by the German farmers. Fernandez-Cornejo and McBride (2002) have argued that market and production risks faced by producers can be reduced through measures such as contracting, integration, hedging, and time sequencing transactions. Insurance can be instituted for those who would like to transform from the use of non-GM seeds to GM on their farms. These measures can alleviate some of the fears in terms of economic loss about which opponents and the skeptics are concerned. Perry et al. (1977), and Bender and Hill (2000) observed an increase in contracting among growers of GM corn and soybeans as a means to assure producers of market in many countries. Finally, since the Strong Opponents have shown that they are well informed about the arguments, which are put forward by the supporters, we recommend that the biotechnology activists would have to redefine their campaign messages and arguments that are used to defend the use of biotechnology. Thus, their present message might not have gone well with some sections of the population, especially the managers in cluster 5. It is expected that a well defined and efficiently disseminated message may transform the skeptics if not the opponents to accept the use of GM seeds. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92552 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/92552/2/20081036_Formatted.pdf Author Address: a Research Fellow, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, SA 5064, Australia b Director, Agrifood Consulting, Weender Landstr. 6, 37073, Goettingen, Germany c Professor, Goettingen University, Department of Agriculture Economics and Rural Development, Platz der Goettinger, Sieben 5,37073 Gottingen, Germany d Professor, University of Applied Sciences Osnabruck, Faculty of Agriculture and Landscape Architecture, Oldenburger Landstrasse 24, 49090 Osnabruck, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Hai Zhongyu, Shen Bao-Gen Year: 2010 Title: ?? Genetic Transformation Technique of Plant Gene. Journal: ANHUI AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE BULLETIN: 2010 16(11). Label: Bioengineering Review Keywords: Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of DNA directly into law Abstract: The existing main plant genetic analysis of genetic transformation methods, the proposed method for the selection of transgenic plants for reference. Author Address: Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei, 434025 China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hails R, Newstrom-Lloyd L Year: 2008 Title: 造 Conceptual, statistical and mathematical models to predict the probability of introgression, invasion and harm. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Dispersion Abstract: In the early days of risk assessment of genetically modIfi ed (GM) plants, comparisons were drawn between successful weeds, nonnative invasive plants and the GM plant being reviewed. However, this approach to risk assessment was quickly replaced with the current approach, as our ability to defi ne what makes a successful weed is very poor. Since these early days in the 1980s, the current process has developed from toxicological approaches, with the identifi cation of hazard, the estimation of exposure and the characterization of risk. This procedure as currently practiced by regulatory committees has much to recommend it, but also has its weaknesses. For example, there is no explicit consideration of benefi ts. Consequently, it is likely that the existing regulatory procedure would detect a GM plant with a potential to become invasive, but could reject a non-invasive GM plant that could directly or indirectly bring environmental benefi ts through changes in agricultural practice. This paper will report the outcome of a two day workshop held at Landcare Research, Christchurch, New Zealand on 14th and 15th November 2008. The workshop will review conceptual, statistical and mathematical models to predict the likelihood of introgression and invasion for non-native and GM plants and to assess the potential for environmental harm from such events. The starting point will be a review of the current processes employed by regulatory agencies for non-native and GM plants, with a discussion of strengths and weaknesses. Different risk assessment models, methods and tools will then be presented, including those employed in other field (e.g. the regulation of weeds, genetically modifi ed animals, ecotoxicology, environmental modelling) and novel approaches. One example of novel methodology is provided by pathway analysis, which is currently used in systems biology to model processes within cells. Scaling up from cell processes to metabolic networks has proved challenging and raises similar issues to those found in risk assessment. However, new methods present potential solutions to these problems. A second example is provided by Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) which are graphical models incorporating probabilistic relationships among variables. This method has primarily been used to examine the management of natural resources and is particularly useful for combining expert knowledge with empirical data, and in situations characterised by high uncertainty. Both of these features make them potentially very useful for risk assessment of GM and non-native plants, but there are few examples to date of rigorous model testing. Thus the potential of this approach is yet to be fully evaluated. Breakout groups will discuss a range of methods and approaches, and discuss which elements could be incorporated into the risk assessment of GM and non-native plants. This paper will draw together those conclusions and recommend future avenues for the development of a practical, cost effective conceptual model to inform risk assessment in the future, explicitly considering whether non-native plants and GM plants could be considered within similar frameworks. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: 1Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, UKingdom


2Landcare Research, New Zealand XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hall Clare, Toma Luiza, Moran Dominic, Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Investigation of the factors influencing adoption of GM crops at country level. Journal: International Association of Agricultural Economists>2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China Label: Adoption Keywords: Genetically modified crops structural equation model global adoption. Abstract: With the possible exception of nuclear technology, few scientific breakthroughs have generated the level of emotive debate that has surrounded the roll-out of agricultural biotechnology. Initial discussion about the environmental impacts of agricultural genetic modification, are now frequently juxtaposed with counterclaims that the technologies could actually be part of a wider global environmental solution in relation to climate change mitigation and food shortages. This study tests whether there are any consistent messages on why some countries seem to be advancing adoption of the technology, while others are not. We consider the range of claims in existing literature on adoption tendencies and then use structural equation modelling to test and estimate these a priori determinants of GM adoption. We found that being an exporter of maize and soybeans, agricultural area, participation in the Responsible Care Program of the Chemical Manufacturer's Association, having the EU and/or Japan as main trading partners, and participation in international environmental agreements, significantly influence decisions about whether or not to adopt GM crops at the country-level. In addition, there are two variables that are indirectly related to adoption decisions at countrylevel, namely technological readiness and government effectiveness. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50366 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/50366/2/632.pdf Author Address: Land Economy and Environment Research Group, Scottish Agricultural College (SAC); West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UKingdom XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Han Bin, MA Hui-ling, Li Yun-Xia, Year: 2010 Title: ?? Lysozyme-GFP Dual Gene in the Transformation in Callus of Alfalfa. Journal: ACTA AGRECTIR SINICA : 2010 18(3) Label: Bioengineering Keywords: Key words: alfalfa lysozyme Lyz green fluorescent protein GFP callus by Agrobacterium-mediated gene Key words: dual gene of alfalfa callus induction Transformation of green fluorescent protein resistant callus medium lysozyme Agrobacterium transformation efficiency of PCR amplification conditions Varia conversion factors inhibiting effect of fluorescence detection cephalosporins growth alfalfa infection time Abstract: Agrobacterium-mediated method using lysozyme (Lyz) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene transfer, "Gannon 1" hybrid alfalfa (Medicago sativa Martyn) and "Gannon 3" alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties, obtained with the dual gene in transgenic alfalfa callus; by fluorescence detection and PCR amplification, to detect lysozyme Lyz and green fluorescent protein GFP gene in alfalfa callus cells; of the dual gene in alfalfa, "Gannon 1" and "Gannon 3" in the transformation of a number of factors to determine the appropriate conversion conditions in order to improve the genetic transformation efficiency. The results showed that: 75 mg · L-1 card kanamycin on callus growth of alfalfa has significant inhibitory effect; 300 mg · L-1 cefotaxime can effectively suppress the growth of Agrobacterium LBA4404; OD600 of 0.4 to 0.5 of the Agrobacterium infection appropriate time is 10 min; by 3 ~ 4 d pre-culture materials were cultured 3 d after infection, after the callus induction medium MS +2,4-D 2.0 mg · L-1 + KT 0.5 mg · L-1 + 0.6% agar +2.5% sucrose, the callus induced resistance; "Gannon 1" and "Gannon 3" resistant callus induction rates were 35% and 32%. Author Address: Institute of Grassland Gansu Agricultural University, Gansu, Lanzhou, 730070, China; grass eco system the Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Gansu, Lanzhou, 730070, China; in - U.S. Grassland Livestock Farming Research Center, Gansu, Lanzhou, 730070, China


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Han L, Li G-J, Yang K-Y, Mao G, Wang R, Liu Y, Zhang S, Year: 2010 Title: * Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and 6 regulate Botrytis cinerea-induced ethylene production in Arabidopsis. Journal: The Plant Journal 64, 1, 114-127. Label: FuRe Physiol Keywords: mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation ethylene biosynthesis ACC synthase Botrytis cinerea plant defense response Abstract: Summary Plants challenged by pathogens, especially necrotrophic fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, produce high levels of ethylene. At present, the signaling pathways underlying the induction of ethylene after pathogen infection are largely unknown. MPK6, an Arabidopsis stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was previously shown to regulate the stability of ACS2 and ACS6, two type I ACS isozymes (1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase). Phosphorylation of ACS2 and ACS6 by MPK6 prevents rapid degradation of ACS2/ACS6 by the 26S proteasome pathway, resulting in an increase in cellular ACS activity and ethylene biosynthesis. Here, we show that MPK3, which shares high homology and common upstream MAPK kinases with MPK6, is also capable of phosphorylating ACS2 and ACS6. In the mpk3 mutant background, ethylene production in gain-of-function GVG-NtMEK2DD transgenic plants was compromised, suggesting that MPK6 and MPK3 function together to stabilize ACS2 and ACS6. Using a liquid-cultured seedling system, we found that B.Ă&#x201A; cinerea-induced ethylene biosynthesis was greatly compromised in mpk3/mpk6 double mutant seedlings. In contrast, ethylene production decreased only slightly in the mpk6 single mutant and not at all in the mpk3 single mutant, demonstrating overlapping roles for these two highly homologous MAPKs in pathogen-induced ethylene induction. Consistent with the role of MPK3/MPK6 in the process, mutation of ACS2 and ACS6, two genes encoding downstream substrates of MPK3/MPK6, also reduced B.Ă&#x201A; cinerea-induced ethylene production. The residual levels of ethylene induction in the acs2/acs6 double mutant suggest the involvement of additional ACS isoforms, possibly regulated by MAPK-independent pathway(s). URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04318.x Author Address: Division of Biochemistry, Interdisciplinary Plant Group and Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hann Dagmar, Rathjen John Year: 2010 Title: * The long and winding road: virulence effector proteins of plant pathogenic bacteria. Secondary Title: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 67, 20, 3425-3434. Publisher: Birkhuser Basel Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 1420-682X Label: BaRe Physiol Review Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Type III secretion system - Effector proteins - MAMPs - Innate immunity - Virulence factors Abstract: Plant pathogenic bacteria inject about 30 virulence effector proteins into the host cell using a specialized secretion apparatus. Bacteria which are unable to do this elicit host immunity and cannot grow inside living plant tissue. Thus, the primary function of the effectors is to suppress host immunity. The identity of individual effectors within each complement varies even between closely related bacterial strains, and effectors themselves act redundantly and are apparently interchangeable. Many effectors are known to target components of plant defense pathways, but it is difficult to study their role in molecular terms. For some of them, there is controversy about their mode of action. We propose that effectors act promiscuously by targeting host molecules with low specificity and affinity. Notes: 78 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-010-0428-1


Author Address: (1) Section of Plant Physiology, Botanical Institute, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 1, 4056 Basel, Switzerland (2) Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, RN Robertson Building, Biology Place, Acton, ACT, 0200, Australia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hannon Eugene R, Mark S Sisterson, S Patricia Stock, Yves Carrière, Bruce E Tabashnik, Aaron J Gassmann, Year: 2010 Title: * Effects of Four Nematode Species on Fitness Costs of Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin CrylAc. Journal: Journal of Economic Entomology 103(5):1821-1831. 2010 doi: 10.1603/EC10087 Label: InRe Resistance Keywords: ecological negative cross-resistance, Pectinophora gossypiella, resistance management, simulation modeling, Steinernema riobrave Abstract: Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). In conjunction with refuges of non-Bt host plants, fitness costs can delay the evolution of resistance. Furthermore, fitness costs often vary with ecological conditions, suggesting that agricultural landscapes can be manipulated to magnify fitness costs and thereby prolong the efficacy of Bt crops. In the current study, we tested the effects of four species of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on the magnitude and dominance of fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin CrylAc in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). For more than a decade, field populations of pink bollworm in the United States have remained susceptible to Bt cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. producing CrylAc; however, we used laboratory strains that had a mixture of susceptible and resistant individuals. In laboratory experiments, dominant fitness costs were imposed by the nematode Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar, and Raulston but no fitness costs were imposed by Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, Steinernema sp. (ML18 strain), or Heterorhabditis sonorensis Stock, Rivera-Orduño, and Flores-Lara. In computer simulations, evolution of resistance to CrylAc by pink bollworm was substantially delayed by treating some non-Bt cotton refuge fields with nematodes that imposed a dominant fitness cost, similar to the cost observed in laboratory experiments with S. riobrave. Based on the results here and in related studies, we conclude that entomopathogenic nematodes could bolster insect resistance management, but the success of this approach will depend on selecting the appropriate species of nematode and environment, as fitness costs were magnified by only two of five species evaluated and also depended on environmental factors. Notes: References Cited Abbott, W. S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol. 18: 265–267. Angst, B. D., C. Marcozzi, and A. I. Magee. 2001. The Cadherin superfamily: diversity in form and function. J. Cell Sci. 114: 629–641. PubMed, CSA Bergelson, J. 1994. The effects of genotype and the environment on costs of resistance in lettuce. Am. Nat. 143: 349–359. CrossRef Bird, L. J., and R. J. Akhurst. 2007a. Effects of host plant species on fitness costs of Bt resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Biol. Control 40: 196–203. CrossRef Boemare, N. 2002b. Biology, taxonomy and systematics of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, pp. 35–56. In R. Gaugler (ed.), Entomopathogenic nematology. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, United Kingdom. Boemare, N. 2002. Interactions between the partners of the entomopathogneic bacterium nematode complexes, Steinernema-Xenorhabdus and Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus. Nematology 4: 601–603. CrossRef Bourguet, D., T. Guillemaud, C. Chevillon, and M. Baymorrd. 2004. Fitness costs of insecticide resistance in natural breeding sites of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Evolution 58: 128–135. BioOne Burnell, A. M., and S. P. Stock. 2000. Heterorhabditis, Steinernema and their bacterial symbionts—lethal pathogens of insects. Nematology 2: 31–42. CrossRef Campbell, J. F., E. E. Lewis, S. P. Stock, S. Nadler, and H. K. Kaya. 2003. Evolution of host search strategies in entomopathogenic nematodes. J. Nematol. 35: 142–145. PubMed Caprio, M. A. 2001. Source-sink dynamics between transgenic and non-transgenic habitats and their role in the evolution of resistance. J. Econ. Entomol. 94: 698–705. BioOne, PubMed, CSA


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Stern, V. M., B. F. Smith, B. van den Bosch, and K. S. Hagen. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia 29: 81–101. Stock, S. P., and J. C. Gress. 2006. Diversity and phylogenetic relationship of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) from the Sky Islands of southern Arizona. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 92: 66–72. CrossRef, PubMed Stock, S. P., B. Bivera-Orduño, and Y. Flores-Lara. 2009. Heterorhabditis sonorensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), a natural pathogen of the seasonal cicada Diceroprocta ornea (Walker) (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in the Sonoran desert. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 100: 175–184. CrossRef, PubMed Strauss, S. Y., J. A. Rudgers, J. A. Lau, and R. E. Irwin. 2002. Direct and ecological costs of resistance to herbivory. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17: 278–285. CrossRef, CSA Tabashnik, B. E., A. L. Patin, T. J. Dennehy, Y. Liu, Y. Carrière, M. A. Sims, and L. Antilla. 2000. Frequency of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in field populations of pink bollworm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97: 12980–12984. CrossRef, PubMed, CSA Tabashnik, B. E., F. Gould, and Y. Carrière. 2004. Delaying evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops by decreasing dominance and heritability. J. Evol. Biol. 17: 904–912. CrossRef, PubMed Tabashnik, B. E., B. W. Biggs, D. M. Higginson, S. Henderson, D. C. Unnithan, G. C. Unnithan, C. EllersKirk, M. S. Sisterson, T. J. Dennehy, Y. Carrière, et al. 2005a. Association between resistance to Bt cotton and Cadherin genotype in pink bollworm. J. of Economic Entomology 98: 635–644. BioOne, PubMed Tabashnik, B. E., T. J. Dennehy, and Y. Carrière. 2005b. Delayed resistance to transgenic cotton in pink bollworm. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102: 15389–15393. CrossRef, PubMed Tabashnik, B. E., A. J. Gassmann, D. W. Crowder, and Y. Carrière. 2008. Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory. Nat. Biotechnol. 26: 199–202. CrossRef, PubMed Van Rensburg, J.B.J. 2007. First report of field resistance by stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to Bttransgenic maize. S. Air. J. Plant Soil 24: 147–151. Vila-Aiub, M. M., P. Neve, and S. B. Powles. 2009. Fitness costs associated with evolved herbicide resistance alleles in plants. New Phytol 184: 751–67. CrossRef, PubMed URL: http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/EC10087 Author Address: 1 Department of Entomology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. USA 2 USDA—ARS, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, Parlier, CA 93648. 3 Corresponding author: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hardy Serge, Vincent Legagneux, Yann Audic, Luc Paillard, Year: 2010 Title: * Reverse genetics in eukaryotes. Journal: Biology of the Cell (2010) 102, (561–580) (Printed in Great Britain) Label: Expression Review Keywords: eukaryote, gene targeting, knock-down, knock-out, mutation, phenotype, reverse genetics. Abbreviations used: DSB, double-strand break; dsRNA, double-stranded RNA; ES cell, embryonic stem cell; FRT, FLP recombination target; HR, homologous recombination; KI, knock-in; KO, knock-out; cKO, conditional KO; miRNA, microRNA; MO, morpholino; MosDEL, Mos1-mediated deletion; MosSCI, Mos1mediated single-copy insertion; MosTIC, Mos1 excision-induced transgene instructed gene conversion; ORF, open reading frame; RISC, RNA-induced silencing complex; siRNA, small interfering RNA; shRNA, smallhairpin RNA; SSR, site-specific recombinase; TILLING, targeting induced local lesions in genomes; UAS, upstream activating sequence; UTR, untranslated region; y+, yellow+. Abstract: Reverse genetics consists in the modification of the activity of a target gene to analyse the phenotypic consequences. Four main approaches are used towards this goal and will be explained in this review. Two of them are centred on genome alterations. Mutations produced by random chemical or insertional mutagenesis can be screened to recover only mutants in a specific gene of interest. Alternatively, these alterations may be specifically targeted on a gene of interest by HR (homologous recombination). The other two approaches are centred on mRNA. RNA interference is a powerful method to reduce the level of gene products, while MO (morpholino) antisense oligonucleotides alter mRNA metabolism or translation. Some model species, such as Drosophila, are amenable to most of these approaches, whereas other model species are restricted to one of them. For example, in mice and yeasts, gene targeting by HR is prevalent, whereas in Xenopus and zebrafish MO oligonucleotides are mainly used. Genome-wide collections of mutants or


inactivated models obtained in several species by these approaches have been made and will help decipher gene functions in the post-genomic era. Author Address: Université de Rennes 1, Université Européenne de Bretagne, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 140, Rennes, France, and †CNRS, UMR6061, Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes, Rennes, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Harscoët E, Dubreucq B, Palauqui J-C, Lepiniec L, Year: 2010 Title: * NOF1 Encodes an Arabidopsis Protein Involved in the Control of rRNA Expression. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12829. Accession Number: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012829 Label: Expression Physiol Abstract: The control of ribosomal RNA biogenesis is essential for the regulation of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the characterization of NOF1 that encodes a putative nucleolar protein involved in the control of rRNA expression in Arabidopsis. The gene has been isolated by T-DNA tagging and its function verified by the characterization of a second allele and genetic complementation of the mutants. The nof1 mutants are affected in female gametogenesis and embryo development. This result is consistent with the detection of NOF1 mRNA in all tissues throughout plant life's cycle, and preferentially in differentiating cells. Interestingly, the closely related proteins from zebra fish and yeast are also necessary for cell division and differentiation. We showed that the nof1-1 mutant displays higher rRNA expression and hypomethylation of rRNA promoter. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrated that NOF1 is an Arabidopsis gene involved in the control of rRNA expression, and suggested that it encodes a putative nucleolar protein, the function of which may be conserved in eukaryotes. URL: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012829 Author Address: INRA, IJPB, UMR 1318 INRA-AgroParisTech, Versailles, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hartl Jochen, Herrmann Roland Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Would Consumers Value New Functional Properties of GM Food? A Choice-Modeling Approach for Rapeseed Oil. Journal: International Association of Agricultural Economists>2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China. Label: Adoption Conso Keywords: Genetically modified food functional food rapeseed oil Germany choice modeling Abstract: European consumers and, in particular, German consumers are known to be very critical towards the introduction of genetically modified (GM) foods. It is analyzed here whether German consumers do reject second-generation GMO foods, too. Whereas first-generation GM crops induced producer-related benefits, second-generation GM crops are associated with consumer-oriented benefits like an improvement of nutritional quality. The determinants of demand for second-generation GM rapeseed oil are investigated within an online survey of 1556 German consumers. It is elaborated how two functional properties of that product matter; i.e. long-chain omega 3 fatty acids and the cholesterol-lowering effect of phytosterols. It turns out that GMO rapeseed oil is neglected by 74% of all respondents. Output traits, however, will increase the probability of purchases of GMO rapeseed oil. This is more the case for long-chain omega 3 fatty acids than for phytosterols. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51728 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/51728/2/51728%20main.pdf Author Address: Institute of Agricultural Policy and Market Research, University of Giessen, Senckenbergstrasse 3, 35390 Giessen, Germany. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Hayashi Nagao, Haruhiko Inoue, Takahiro Kato, Taketo Funao, Masaki Shirota, Takehiko Shimizu, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Hiroko Yamane, Yuriko Hayano-Saito, Takashi Matsumoto, Masahiro Yano, Hiroshi Takatsuji, Year: 2010 Title: * Durable panicle blast-resistance gene Pb1 encodes an atypical CC-NBS-LRR protein and was generated by acquiring a promoter through local genome duplication. Journal: The Plant Journal - Accepted manuscript online: 28 AUG 2010 10:33AM EST | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365313X.2010.04348.x. Label: FuRe Keywords: rice; blast resistance; field resistance; P-loop ;adult resistance Abstract: Rice blast is one of the most widespread and destructive plant diseases worldwide. Breeders have used disease resistance (R) genes that mediate fungal race-specific ‗gene-for-gene‘ resistance to manage rice blast, but the resistance is prone to breakdown due to high pathogenic variability of blast fungus. Panicle blast 1 (Pb1) is a blast-resistance gene derived from the indica cultivar ‗Modan.‘Pb1-mediated resistance, which is characterized by durability of resistance and adult/panicle blast resistance, has been introduced into elite varieties for commercial cultivation. We isolated the Pb1 gene by map-based cloning. It encoded a coiled-coil– nucleotide-binding-site–leucine-rich repeat (CC–NBS–LRR) protein. The Pb1 protein sequence differed from previously reported R-proteins, particularly in the NBS domain, in which the P-loop was apparently absent and some other motifs were degenerated. Pb1 was located within one of tandemly repeated 60-kb units, which presumably arose through local genome duplication. Pb1 transcript levels increased during the development of Pb1+ cultivars; this expression pattern accounts for their adult/panicle resistance. Promoter:GUS analysis indicated that genome duplication played a crucial role in the generation of Pb1 by placing a promoter sequence upstream of its coding sequence, thereby conferring a Pb1-characteristic expression pattern to a transcriptionally inactive ‗sleeping‘ resistance gene. We discuss possible determinants for the durability of Pb1mediated blast resistance. URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04348.x/abstract Author Address: Plant Disease Resistance Research Unit, Division of Plant Sciences, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan. 2Field Crop Division, Aichi Agricultural Research Center, Nagakutecho, Aichi 480-1103, Japan. 3Institute of the Society for Techno-Innovation of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ippaizuka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0854, Japan. 4National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo, Hokkaido 062-8555, Japan. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: He Y, Chen L, Zhou Y, Mawhinney TP, Chen B, Kang B-H, Hauser BA, Chen S, Year: 2010 Title: * Functional characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana isopropylmalate dehydrogenases reveals their important roles in gametophyte development. Journal: New Phytologist Article first published online: 14 SEP 2010. Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana gametophyte development glucosinolate isopropylmalate dehydrogenase leucine Abstract: * Isopropylmalate dehydrogenases (IPMDHs) catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of 3isopropylmalate (3-IPM) in leucine biosynthesis in microorganisms. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains three putative IPMDH genes. * IPMDH2 and IPMDH3 proteins exhibited significantly higher activity toward 3-IPM than IPMDH1, which is indicative of a pivotal role in leucine biosynthesis. Single mutants of IPMDH2 or IPMDH3 lacked a discernible phenotype. Genetic analysis showed that ipmdh2 ipmdh3 was lethal in male gametophytes and had reduced transmission through female gametophytes. The aborted pollen grains were small, abnormal in cellular structure, and arrested in germination. In addition, half of the double mutant embryo sacs exhibited slowed development. * The IPMDH2/ipmdh2 ipmdh3/ipmdh3 genotype exhibited abnormal vegetative phenotypes, suggesting haplo-insufficiency of IPMDH2 in the ipmdh3 background. This mutant and a triple mutant containing one


allele of IPMDH2 or IPMDH3 had decreased leucine biosynthetic enzyme activities and lower free leucine concentrations. The latter mutant showed changes in glucosinolate profiles different from those in the ipmdh1 mutant. * The results demonstrate that IPMDH2 and IPMDH3 primarily function in leucine biosynthesis, are essential for pollen development and are needed for proper embryo sac development. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03460.x Author Address: 1) Department of Biology, Genetics Institute, Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA 2) State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China 3) Department of Biochemistry and Child Health, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA 4) Department of Microbiology and Cell Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA 5) Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research (ICBR), University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Heldt Hans-Walter Year: 2010 Title: ¤ . The Situation Concerning GM Crop Plants in Germany. Journal: Published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - P O Box 72135 - Lynnwood Ridge 0040 Pretoria, South Africa - ISBN: 978-0-9814159-7-0 July 2010. Label: Adoption Reglement InRe FuRe Conso Abstract: Full text : 1 Plant research in Germany In Germany, experimental plant research has a long tradition. The first publication on a transgenic plant was by Jeff Schellâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s group at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne together with the group of Marc van Montagu in Gent, Belgium (De Block et al., 1984). At present, a large number of institutions in Germany are engaged in experimental plant research, examples of which are given below. This list, which is far from complete, includes large research institutes with up to several hundred staff members and research groups at universities. The research institutes, as well as universities, carry out primarily basic research, which is in many cases related to biotechnical applications. 1.1 The Max Planck Society The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is an independent, non-profit organisation that promotes basic research. With about 80 institutes, it supports promising research activities in life sciences, natural sciences and humanities that require personnel and equipment expenditures that universities cannot afford. (a) Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam-Golm (Prof. Ralph Bock, Prof. Mark Stitt, Prof. Lothar Willmitzer). From genome structure to genome function, network analyses, genetic diversity, phenotyping, data mining and biomodelling and biotechnology. (b) Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne (Prof. George Coupland, Prof. Maarten Koorneef, Prof. Paul Schulze-Leffert). Plant developmental biology, plant breeding and genetics, plant microbe interactions. (c) Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena (Prof. Ian T. Baldwin, Prof. Wilhelm Boland, Prof. Jonathan Gershenzon). Molecular ecology, plant defense mechanisms, metabolism of secondary plant compounds. 1.2 The Leibniz Association The Leibniz Association is the umbrella organisation for 86 institutions conducting research or providing scientific infrastructure. They conduct strategic theme-based research with an interdisciplinary approach. (a) Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben (Prof. Andreas Graner, Dr Winfried Weschke, Dr Helmut Baeumlein, Dr Udo Conrad, Dr Lothar Altschmied, Prof. Falk Schreiber, Dr Mario Gils, Prof. Nicolaus van Wiren, Dr Michael Melzer). Gene bank with 148 000 accessions from 3 049 plant species and 801 genera, and herbarium with 390 000 samples. Seed development, gene regulation, phytoantibodies, expression mapping, plant bioinformatics, hybrid


wheat, molecular engineering, molecular farming, elucidation of genes regulated by biotic and abiotic stress, structural cell biology. (b) Leibniz-Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Halle (Prof. Steffen Abel, Prof. Dierk Scheel, Prof. Ludger Wesjohann). Molecular signal processing, stress and developmental biology, bioorganic chemistry of natural products from plants and fungi. (c) Institute for Biosafety of Genetically Modified Plants, Quedlinburg and Brunswick (Prof. Joachim Schiemann). Risk assessment and monitoring of GM organisms and co-existence of cultivation systems with and without GM plants, investigation of possible effects of GM plants on nature and sustainable agriculture. The institute gives advice to the government on the safety aspects of gene technology. 1.3 University of Bielefeld (a) Department of Genetics (Prof. Alfred Puehler). Research to indentify genes from plants and microorganisms responsible for relevant biological phenomena, e.g. symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Biological safety research analyses of the potential and probabilities of a putative horizontal gene transfer in natural habitats. (b) Department of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants (Prof. Karl-Josef Dietz). Analysis of protein structure and function (peroxiredoxins, V-ATPase), salt adaption and tolerance, heavy metal tolerance. 1.4 University of Cologne Botanical Institute II (Prof. Ulf Ingo Flügge). Molecular plant physiology (chloroplast translocators). Plant membrane database, improved antioxidant content for food applications, European Arabidopsis stock centre (Tamara). 1.5 University of Düsseldorf (a) Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology of Plants (Prof. Peter Westhoff). Genetic analysis of chloroplast differentiation, molecular basis and evolution of C4 photosynthesis. (b) Department of Plant Biochemistry (Prof. Andreas Paul Weber, Prof. Peter Jahns). Systems biology and biochemistry of intracellular transport processes in plants, photo-oxidative stress in plants. 1.6 University of Erlangen (a) Department of Molecular Plant Physiology (Prof. Norbert Sauer). Multiple aspects of transport through plasmodesmata, long-distance assimilate allocation between tissues and organs, and cell-to-cell signalling in plants. (b) Department of Biochemistry (Prof. Uwe Sonnewald). Molecular plant biochemistry and physiology (photosynthetic carbon fixation and its use for primary and secondary metabolites). Plant biotechnology (plantmade vaccines and antibodies, improved food and feed sources with reduced allergenic potential and increased nutritional value). 1.7 University of Freiburg Department of Plant Biotechnology (Prof. Ralf Reski). Production of pharmaceutically relevant proteins by transgenic Physcomitrella grown in bioreactors. 1.8 University of Göttingen (a) Department of International Food Economics and Rural Development (Prof. Matin Qaim). Role of agricultural biotechnology for rural development, e.g. poverty and welfare in India, socioeconomic impacts of banana tissue cultures in East Africa. (b) Department of Tropical Plant Cultivation (Prof. H. Thiessen). Biogeochemical determinants of land-cover change and land use in savanna cultivation grazing systems. (c) Department of Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research (Prof. Ptr. Karlovsky). Role of secondary metabolites in biotic interactions between plants and fungi. (d) Department of Biochemistry (Prof. Ivo Feussner). Role of oxilipins in plant development and stress response, production of unusual fatty acids in crop plants for industrial purposes. (e) Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Physiology (Prof. Christiane Gatz). Regulation of gene expression in response to xenobiotic stress. 1.9 University of Heidelberg (a) Department of Plant Cell Biology (Prof. David G. Robinson). Intracellular protein transfer in plant cells (e.g. vesicle-mediated). (b) Department of Plant Molecular Physiology (Prof. Thomas Rausch). Molecular mechanisms by which crop plants counter the effects of abiotic and biotic stress exposure, development of genetic markers for breeding stress-resistant crop plants. 1.10 University Hohenheim Department of Plant Production and Agro Ecology in the Tropics and Subtropics (Prof. Joachim Sauerborn, Prof. Folkard Asch, Prof. Georg Cadisch). Plant production in the tropics and subtropics, crop water stress


management, development of sustainable agricultural production systems, generation of fungal disease-resistant crops. 1.11 University of Potsdam (a) Department of Molecular Biology (Prof. Bernd Mueller-Roeber). Plant genome research, biomolecular technologies. (b) Department of Plant Physiology (Prof. Martin Steup). Various aspects of starch metabolism. 1.12 University of Rostock (a) Department of Biochemistry (Prof. Birgit Piechulla). Floral scent synthesis and emission, molecular basis of chronobiology of plants. (b) Department of Plant Physiology (Prof. Hermann Bauwe). Investigation of the process of photorespiration at the molecular level. German companies invest large sums in plant biotechnology. BASF Plant, among other projects, carries out research on the development of drought-tolerant crops, protection of plants against the fungus Phytophtera, generation of canola traits with healthy long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and starch for industrial use in potato (AMFLORA). Bayer Crop Science is working on the generation of genetically modified rice, cotton, maize, canola and soybean. KWS Saat AG has developed herbicide-resistant sugar beet, and is involved in the generation of large-size maize plants for biogas production. Unfortunately much of the research and production of the above companies is being done outside Germany due to the hostility of the public in Germany towards GM plants. 2 Licensing of GM crops in Europe for human consumption and fodder and for cultivation The licensing for all countries of the European Union is carried out by the European Council. After an assessment of the safety of the environment and consumption by the European Food Safety Authority, the assessment has to be approved by a qualified majority vote of the European Council for Agriculture and Fisheries. The different European Councils each represent 27 member countries. The bigger the country‘s population, the more votes it has, but the number is weighted in favour of the less populous countries. A qualified majority is reached if a majority of member states approves, and there is a minimum of 74% of the votes and the votes in favour represent at least 62% of the total population of the European Union. Obviously, the hurdle for any agreement is very high. This explains how until now only relatively few products from GM crops have been admitted in the European Union for human consumption or fodder as listed below. It should be noted that this licensing does not include cultivation in Europe. 3 GM crop products admitted in Europe • Maize: 11 traits, herbicide and insect resistance (Syngenta, Monsanto, Pioneer) • Canola: 4 traits, herbicide resistance, male sterility (Bayer Crop Science, Monsanto) • Soybeans: 2 traits, herbicide resistance (Bayer Crop Science, Monsanto) • Sugar beet: 1 trait, herbicide resistance (KWS Saat, Monsanto) • Cotton: 6 traits, herbicide and insect resistance (Monsanto, Bayer Crop Science) • Carnation flowers: 4 traits, altered colour of flowers, durability (Florigene Ltd) In Europe the rule is that products from GM crops have to be labelled. If food or fodder contains more than 0.9% of a GM product, or if 0.9% of a product derived from GM material was involved in producing it, then the label must say so. This applies to food in the supermarket as well as food served in restaurants. It has the effect that GM products are not used in restaurants as they would have to be marked on the menu card. The products are practically unsaleable in supermarkets. If labelled products were to appear on the shelves, activists from Greenpeace and other GM opponents would turn up and make such a fuss that the shopkeepers would not put up with it. Thus, in reality the consumer has no choice. When licensed GM products are used as fodder, the resulting animal products do not have to be labelled according to the European rules. Since animal farmers are largely dependent on imported soybean and maize as fodder, GM products are frequently fed to the animals. This has raised protests of GM opponents in Germany with the result that in Germany the label ―Without Gene Technology‖ has been recently created for animal products not containing GM fodder. It remains to be seen to what extent this label will actually appear on products on the shelves of supermarkets. In several European countries, due to misinformation campaigns of GM opponents such as Greenpeace, large parts of the public are against plant gene technology, and as the leading politicians of these countries follow this sentiment, it is often very difficult to obtain a qualified majority for the admission of a GM trait in the European Council. To give an example: the safety of maize MON 88017 as food or fodder was approved by the European Food Safety Authority, but it failed a qualified majority for its licensing in the European Council of


Agriculture. This had severe consequences: shiploads of shredded soybean had to be returned since they contained traces far below 0.1% of the maize Mon 88017 as contaminant. Since the Council has until now not agreed on threshold values for permissible contaminations, due to the sensitivities of modern analysis techniques, even traces of dust from unlicensed GM traits are enough for a rejection. This creates great difficulties in the fodder industry. Licensing for the cultivation of GM crops is extremely difficult. In 2003, BASF generated, in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute in Potsdam, a potato with uniform starch (amylopectin) for industrial use (AMFLORA). Numerous studies gave convincing evidence that growing of AMFLORA was safe for the environment and it was approved by the European Food Safety Authority as safe for human consumption in case these potatoes were eaten by mistake. The commercial cultivation of the potato was planned for 2007. Until now the European Commission has still not given its approval. So far only a single GM trait, namely the maize MON 810 containing a Bt protein for protection against the corn borer, has been admitted in Europe, and for about ten years has been grown successfully in Spain and also in a very few places in Germany. There is a provision that member governments are allowed to ban the cultivation of a GM crop licensed in Europe if there is an immediate danger. For the sake of popularity, governments of some member states, including Germany, used this provision to ban the cultivation of MON 810 based on dubious publications which have been debunked by experts. In a country such as Germany, the problem with GM products is that the consumer derives no benefit from consuming them, since food prices are low anyway. Also there is no pressing need for the large majority of German farmers to cultivate the insect- and herbicide-resistant crop plants currently available. On the other hand, people are very conscious about the quality of their food, and many are willing to pay much higher prices for food if it is labelled ―organic‖ despite the fact that it has never been proved that ―organic‖ food is healthier than conventional food. Organisations of GM opponents exploit this sentiment to seek donations by worrying the public with unfounded allegations that the consumption of GM food is a health hazard. Professionally organised campaigns, in particular by Greenpeace, have been very successful in convincing the majority of the public of this, and the politicians, when making decisions, just follow this sentiment. 4 Activities of German Academies in conjunction with the InterAcademy Panel (IAP) to counteract the misleading campaigns by GM opponent organisations The Union of German Academies of Sciences and Humanities adopted a programme funded by the IAP on the prospects of GM crops for sustaining the food supply for the growing populations of developing countries (IAP GMO Initiative on Genetically Modified Plants). The programme aimed at counteracting the false arguments of environmental activists against Green Biotechnology by forming a panel of experts to collect scientifically based arguments. Texts were to be produced and presented in a simple manner in order to attract the attention of decision-makers and the media. A Commission of Green Biotechnology of the Union of German Academies produced two draft reports and a statement which were the basis for extensive discussions at an International Workshop on GM Crops held in Berlin in May 2006. The panel of international experts at this workshop (the participant from South Africa was Prof. Jocelyn Webster from AfricaBIO) passed, by subsequent correspondence, the reports Are there hazards for the consumer from eating GM food? and GM insect-resistant crops with regard to developing countries, which were both adopted as official documents of the IAP. Moreover, a statement on GM crops in developing countries was passed. A summary of the findings of these documents, being relevant to the present workshop, is therefore given below. 4.1 Commission of Green Biotechnology of the Union of German Academies and an International Workshop on GM Crops held in Berlin in May 2006 (a) Are there health hazards for the consumer from eating genetically modified food? Based on the published scientific literature, this report examines the potential hazards and risks of consuming genetically modified (GM) plant products. Toxicity, carcinogenicity and food allergenicity, and the possible effects of consuming foreign DNA (including antibiotic-resistant genes) are all taken into account. The report concludes that food derived from GM plants approved by the EU and the US poses no risks greater than those from the corresponding ―conventional‖ food. On the contrary, in some cases food from GM plants appears to be superior with respect to health. Probably no discovery in plant sciences has had, in so short a time, such farreaching consequences on agriculture as the method reported in 1983 for the genetic modification of plants using gene technology. In 2005, such genetically modified varieties comprised 60% of global soybean cultivation, 14% of maize, 28% of cotton and 18% of rape seed; between 2003 and 2005 the overall increase of the area worldwide given over to GM crops was 33%. This clearly demonstrates that the application of gene technology in agriculture has been economically very successful.


Genetic modifications to crop plants have so far focused primarily on the production of herbicide-tolerant varieties for minimising harvest losses due to weeds, and the generation of insect-resistant varieties to decrease losses from insect damage. More recent developments are directed at protection against viral and fungal infections, the enhancement of tolerance towards drought and salinity, the formation of male sterile plants for the generation of productive hybrids, and the improvement of the nutritional quality of crop plants, for example by modifying the fatty acid composition in oil seeds. The campaigns of opponents of agricultural biotechnology have deliberately provoked widespread public anxiety by asserting that food from GMOs is a health hazard. ―Organic‖ products are advertised as free from GMOs, thus claiming that they are especially healthy. The slightest trace of GMOs in ―organic‖ products as a result of cross-pollination is termed ―genetic pollution‖; in some countries it may justify a claim for damages. (b) Does the consumption of food from GM plants really involve a health hazard for the consumer? This report bases its findings on reliable and attributed data. Thus, in marked contrast to the claims made by opponents of these foods, all the information used is derived from publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals in which contributions are reviewed anonymously by experts in the field. The interests of the consumer are protected by very rigorous licensing procedures based on scientifically robust protocols as laid down by national and international organisations, including the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the EU. These regulations are much stricter than those required for conventionally grown food which normally receive no formal testing whatsoever from a health perspective. Moreover, in the EU it is now obligatory that all food ingredients from GM plants are so labelled if they exceed a threshold content of 0.9% for each ingredient. In principle, no absolute guarantee can ever be offered for the safety of any food, whether produced conventionally or from GM plants. It is common knowledge that conventionally produced food can be the cause of allergies in predisposed persons; nuts (and particularly peanuts), strawberries, shellfish and wheat are all familiar examples. Foods of plant origin often contain toxic or carcinogenic substances; nature has provided plants with a large arsenal of defensive substances as protection against damage from feeding insects or from bacterial and fungal infections. Moreover, plant products may be contaminated by fungal toxins, a number of which are strongly carcinogenic; Fusaria toxins, which often pollute wheat and maize (even when grown ―organically‖), are examples. It has been estimated that in industrial countries most of the carcinogenic substances ingested derive from ―natural‖ plant food. Since absolute safety is never possible, the basis for approving GM food products is the failure – after extensive prescribed testing – to find any adverse indicators. Such tests show that these foods are at least as safe and nutritious as the corresponding products from conventionally produced crops. This paper addresses in more detail some conceivable risks of consuming GMOs or products containing them. Note has been taken in particular of the very detailed GM Science Review of the Royal Society (First Report 2003, Second Report 2004), compiled by a panel of 28 distinguished scientists from various disciplines, a report from the Food Standard Agency (UK) and the Symposium of Green Biotechnology of the Union of the German Academies (2002). (c) Is it possible that some or all GM foods are more toxic or carcinogenic than conventionally grown food, either directly because of the new gene product itself or from unexpected effects of the new inserted gene(s) causing damage to one or more existing genes? It must be stressed that in conventional breeding seeds have for long been treated with mutagenic chemicals or high-energy radiation (Y-rays from a cobalt radiation source) to promote random mutations in the hope that some of them may be beneficial. The potential dangers from such mutations, as well as from the natural mutations which occur continually in all living organisms, are very much higher than those from transgenic plants. Yet no formal testing of their safety as human and animal food is required. The situation is very different for GM products. It takes at least ten years to develop a new GM trait, during which time a very detailed investigation is undertaken in both laboratory and field trials of the equivalence of the GM plant to its conventional counterpart: they are compared with respect to phenotype, growth and nutritional properties, and chemical composition. Toxicity and carcinogenicity are tested in feeding trials with livestock and rats before the product can be approved for the market. Trials with thousands of animals have shown GM products to be harmless: no scientifically substantiated reports have suggested that the health or productivity of animals is impaired after being fed GM fodder in comparison with the conventional equivalent. Moreover, for some ten years GM food products have been part of the human diet in the US and some other countries. It is estimated that 60–70% of processed foods on US supermarket shelves contain GM components – and they are not labelled. Accordingly, trillions of GM meals have been eaten without any scientifically based report indicating a single health hazard – not one. Furthermore, in spite of a number attempts to do so, there has


been no successful consumer claim in any court anywhere for compensation for damage supposedly incurred from the consumption of GM products. This constitutes yet more evidence for the efficacy of the testing procedures and for the safety of the products themselves. On the other hand, the well-known health risk to consumers from the presence in maize of contaminating fungal toxins is decreased in GM insect-resistant varieties. Conventional maize cobs are often infected with the fungus Fusarium moniliforme, resulting in production of the fungal toxin fumonisin. For more than a century, ―mouldy corn disease‖ has been recognised as a hazard for horses, pigs and other livestock, with entire herds dying after being fed corn infected with Fusaria. Sixteen years ago, fumonisin was identified as the cause of the disease. It is known to induce liver cancer in rats. Fumonisin is thus a serious problem; it is so stable that it survives processing and can sometimes be found in cornflakes. In the UK in September 2003, the analysis of 30 samples of maize products in supermarkets led to the removal of ten of them because of excessively high levels of The contaminated samples with the highest fumonisin contents were those labeled ―organic‖. Several studies have found contamination with fumonisin to be greatly decreased in insect-resistant (Bt) GM maize, whereas in conventional maize plants the fungi proliferate in cobs injured by insects. In GM maize there is much less insect damage and hence less fumonisin. These findings indicate that food from GM maize is more healthy for humans than that from conventionally grown maize. (d) Is there a higher risk of food allergy from eating food derived from GM plants than from conventional food? Estimates suggest that 5–8% of children and of 1–2% adults are allergic to certain conventionally produced foods. Peanuts, for instance, are known to contain 12 allergenic proteins. While there is no legal requirement for the testing of foods from conventional varieties, strict allergy tests are mandatory for GMO products. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has introduced a protocol for detailed GMO allergenicity tests, both for the plant products concerned and also for their pollen. This protocol is being constantly improved. Tests of this sort on one occasion alerted scientists to the fact that the introduction of a gene from Brazil nut into soybean, in the hope that it would improve quality, would be allergenic for certain people. As a result, further development of that GMO was abandoned by the company involved prior to any commercialisation, demonstrating that the safety regulation system functions well. Our collective experience to date shows the strict allergenicity tests of GM products to have been very successful: not one allergenic GM product has been introduced onto the market. In conventional breeding, in which genes are altered at random by experimentally-caused mutations or unexpected gene combinations generated by crossings, such tests are not legally required. For this reason the risk of GM plants causing allergies can be regarded as substantially lower than that of products from conventional breeding. Furthermore, intensive gene technology research is already underway with a view to removing allergens from peanuts, wheat and rice. (e) Has the consumption of transgenic DNA adverse effects on health? Might transgenic DNA survive the digestive tract and become incorporated into human cells, thus altering their genetic information? Does transgenic DNA affect the intestinal microflora and might this constitute a health risk? Every day, people on average consume 0.1–1 g DNA in their food. In food from GM plants, transgenic DNA would amount to about 1/100 000–1/1 000 000 parts of this. Scientists are in agreement that digestion of transgenic DNA in no way differs from that of DNA from conventional food. The ―new‖ genes in GM plants derive mostly from other organisms already present in conventional food: viruses and soil bacteria are present in vegetables. All DNA, transgenic or not, is degraded in the digestive tract although this process may not always be complete. Experiments with animals have shown that very limited quantities of DNA fragments from food may be taken up into blood and body cells, which probably applies equally to humans. Nevertheless, this would have no effect on the genetic composition of human cells: the stable integration of plant DNA into animal genomes has never been observed, with natural barriers apparently in place to prevent any such horizontal gene transfer. To provide a promoter (gene switch) for the synthesis of the foreign protein in GM has been speculation that the DNA sequence of this virus promoter might be incorporated from undigested plant material into the genome of human cells, there to provoke the development of tumours. No evidence has been provided for this theory which ignores the fact that the viral promoter has the properties of a plant DNA with its uptake into the human genome prevented by the natural barriers mentioned above. However, there is another significant detail negating this speculation: for centuries, cabbage and cauliflower have been part of the human diet. Half of all cauliflower and 10% of cabbage are infected with the virus, so people have been eating cauliflower mosaic virus for centuries or perhaps for millennia. There have never been adverse health reports from the consumption of these naturally ―contaminated‖ vegetables.


Experimental research has demonstrated that natural barriers make the horizontal gene transfer of plant DNA extremely unlikely, whether from the roots of plants into soil bacteria or from an animal digestive tract into intestinal bacteria. This argues strongly against unsupported assertions that recombinant DNA from a transgenic plant might be spread by bacteria. The situation is different in the case of recombinant DNA originally derived from a bacterial source. Those DNA sequences can indeed be inserted into bacterial genomes by homologous recombination. A number of approved GM plants do contain bacterial genes conferring resistance to antibiotics; they are used as selection markers in the procedure of gene transfer. The possibility exists of these resistance genes being transferred to intestinal bacteria. In most cases, the gene employed confers resistance to the antibiotics kanamycin and neomycin. Because of their high toxicity, these antibiotics are very seldom used in human medicine, and then exclusively for external applications only. Moreover, the resistance genes to these two antibiotics are already present in large amounts in an average soil sample. bacterial ampicillin-resistant genes have been used as selection markers for the generation of GM plants. Since ampicillin is used medically for severe infections such as meningitis, there has been speculation that the consumption of products from the corresponding GM plants may lead to a loss of therapeutic effectiveness due to the spread of ampicillin resistance via intestinal bacteria. Plausible though this scenario at first sight appears to be, in normal healthy persons up to 27% of the Escherichia coli bacteria in the intestine already contain this ampicillin-resistant gene. The practice of adding antibiotics to cattle fodder means that the droppings of 75% of cattle and pigs in Germany were found to contain Escherichia coli bearing the ampicillin resistance gene. In New Zealand, some 20% of soil bacteria were found to contain the ampicillin marker even though GM plants had never been grown there. This clearly shows that the presence of these antibiotic resistance markers in GM plants, even if they were able to survive passage through the digestive tract, represent no risk to human health. However, since it seems to be impossible to convey to the general public the difference between various antibiotics and the corresponding resistance genes, they are no longer used as selection markers or are later excised and so not present in GM plants. In summary, the evidence suggests it to be most unlikely that the consumption of the well-characterised transgenic DNA from approved GMO food presents any recognisable health risk. 5 Conclusion This paper noted at the outset that the consumption of any foodstuff present various degrees of risks to health. Estimating the importance of risks specifically related to GM food products can be made only by comparison with the corresponding conventional products. The former offer the advantage of having been exceptionally thoroughly tested with respect to health risks, but the latter have not been tested at all. In estimating the health risks, it is also relevant to remember that, since 1996, hundreds of millions of people in plants, a promoter from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) is often used. There the Americas and elsewhere have regularly been consuming GM products as part of their normal diets without any proven evidence of adverse health effects. It might be argued that this is only evidence for the absence of strong and easily observed adverse effects, and that milder or long-term damage cannot be excluded. While long-term effects are not expected, which is equally true for all food; how many of our ailments in later life derive from decades of eating particular foods? For the most part, we do not know. The present regulations for the approval of GM plants and their product have established a framework which: affords an effective safety evaluation on the basis of scientific • data before marketing • requires GM products to be labelled by law, so offering the consumer informed choice • specifies monitoring procedures which will reveal unexpected effects after the introduction of GM products onto the market • permits the regulatory authorities to evaluate these data at any time. This report shows that, because of the rigour with which they must be tested and the controls to which they are subject, it is extremely unlikely that GMO products approved for market in the European Union and other countries present a greater health risk than the corresponding products from conventional sources. 6 Genetically modified insect-resistant crops with regard to developing countries Using existing literature, this report summarises ecological and economical aspects of the cultivation of genetically modified insect-resistant varieties of maize, rice and cotton. It shows that the growth of these crops by smallholder farmers in developing countries can be beneficial for their earnings, their health and also for the ecosystem. Agriculture in general leads to ecological disturbances as wild plant communities are replaced by monocultures of crop plants. In order to obtain sufficiently high yields, fertilizers are used and weeds combated by herbicides and tilling. Insect attack and fungal infections have to be minimised. These are both achieved conventionally by the application of pesticides which have adverse effects on the agricultural ecosystems. An alternative approach


is to use genetically modified (GM) crops resistant to pests. It is just over ten years since the first GM crops were introduced, yet they are very popular with farmers. In 2005 it was estimated that approved GM crops were grown globally on 90 million ha, about 5% of all arable land; the increase between 2003 and 2005 alone was 33%. Some 90% of those benefiting were resource-poor farmers from developing countries whose increased incomes from biotech crops contributed to the alleviation of their poverty. The Nuffield Council of Bioethics stated in 1999 that ―GM crops had a considerable potential to improve food security and the effectiveness for the agriculture in developing countries‖. Whether the growth of GM crops is more economically rewarding and less damaging to the environment than the cultivation of their conventional counterparts with conventional protection by agrochemicals needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis. The present report deals with three important crops grown in developing countries: maize, rice and cotton, all with genetically engineered resistance against feeding insects. This has been achieved by the expression within the crop plants of proteins (Bt proteins) derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringensis. Over 200 different Bt proteins toxic to selected insects have been identified in various strains of this bacterium. For 40 years Bt proteins have had a safe history as biopesticide preparations and are approved for organic farming. Rats fed with very high doses of Bt proteins showed no detectable toxic effects, whereas synthetic pesticides, such as organophosphates and chlorinated biphenyls, are toxic. The high price of Bt preparations, however, makes them expensive for use on commodity crops and they represent less than 2% of pesticides sold worldwide. Synthetic pesticides kill a very broad spectrum of insects, i.e. the target pests, as well as beneficial insects, whereas Bt crops kill primarily those insects attacking the crops. Seeds incorporating Bt technology are particularly suitable for smallholder farmers, because they do not require the equipment and knowledge necessary for pesticide applications, and reduce farmers‘ exposure to insecticides, particularly for those using hand sprayers. 6.1 Maize Worldwide, maize is the leading staple in terms of tonnage, with two-thirds of the global hectarage grown in developing countries. It is noteworthy that the yields of maize harvested per hectare in the Corn Belt of the US can be 20-fold higher than that of resource-poor subsistence farmers in developing countries. Although most maize is used as animal feed, it is a staple food in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. For example, the consumption of maize in Kenya has been reported to be 400 g per person per day. In such countries it is imperative for food security that maize harvest yields are improved. Decreasing the harvest losses caused by insect pests is a major factor in yield improvement and stability. On a global basis, the most important insect pests of maize are the larvae of various moths (corn borers). In temperate areas of America, and also more recently in Europe, rootworm larvae which damage roots have emerged as serious maize pests, with the yield losses in fields infested with rootworms as high as 50%. While rootworms can be combated by spraying organophosphates onto the soil, stem borers are difficult to control by pesticide spraying as the caterpillars penetrate into the plant. The application of pesticides must thus target the caterpillars during the very short time between their emerging from the egg and entering the maize plant. Bt maize, by contrast, has the advantage of the caterpillars being targeted when they feed on the plant and are so prevented from entering the stem. Although combating some pests will increase the population of others, the global deployment of Bt genes to control maize pests has been estimated to have the potential of eliminating 40–50% of the insecticides currently in use. During the past ten years, hundreds of million people have consumed products from GM maize and it has been widely used as animal feed. Yet, as discussed in an earlier report of our commission (―Are there health hazards for the consumer from eating genetically modified food?‖), there is no evidence of the consumption of GM maize or its products being harmful to health. Moreover, there is clear evidence that GM maize offers the advantage of being much less subject to contamination by mycotoxins such as fumonisin and aflatoxin, toxins produced by fungi that infest maize cobs and cause serious illnesses in man and animals. The invading fungi are opportunistic, primarily infecting kernels damaged by caterpillars. Contamination by these powerful toxins can be so high that harvest products have to be withdrawn from the market. For subsistence farmers, e.g. in parts of Africa, the toxins cause serious health problems, particularly for children. The significantly lower mycotoxin contamination of GM maize is due to the fact that the cobs have fewer injuries. Thus, Bt maize offers a critically important advantage for consumers concerned about food safety. So far, Bt maize seeds have been distributed as hybrid varieties giving high yields, but the harvested grains cannot be used as farmer-saved seed. Critics of biotechnology often offer this as a reason why, in developing countries, Bt seeds are not suitable for smallholder farmers who mostly use farmer-saved seeds. However, hybrids are the predominant seed types in many developing countries. In China, the largest producer of maize after the US, where maize is grown by 105 million farmers with an average holding of 0.23 ha per farm, 84%


have adopted hybrid seeds since they offer a higher return. For areas such as Central America and West Central Africa, where most of the maize is grown by subsistence farmers with farmer-saved seeds, non-profit organisations are called upon to introduce Bt genes into local varieties so that these farmers may also profit from Bt technology. 6.2 Rice Worldwide, rice is the principal food for nearly two billion people, with the main producers being China, India and Indonesia. In these countries, rice is mostly grown by about 250 million smallholder farmers. Again, major insect pests are caterpillars such as stem borers and leaf-folders. At present, the productivity of rice plantations depends heavily on chemical inputs. The introduction of conventional pesticides about 30 years ago had a devastating impact on insect diversity, drastically reducing the populations of fish and crabs in the rice fields. Many companies and institutions in the world, e.g. in Iran and China, are developing genetically modified insect-resistant rice. Bt rice cultivars have already been field-tested in Iran, China and Costa Rica, to be fully commercialised in due course. Field studies indicate that the introduction of Bt rice has the potential for decreasing the amount of pesticides sprayed on the fields by more than 50% together with considerable increases in harvest yield. 6.3 Cotton Cotton is grown in developing countries, mainly by smallholder farmers. The harvest is particularly threatened by insect pests such as the cotton bollworm and caterpillars feeding within the fruit where the cotton fibres are produced. Without treatment, these pests can destroy most of the harvest. Conventionally, they are combated by spraying organophosphate or pyrethroid pesticides. More pesticides are applied per hectare of cotton than to any other crop with the number of sprayings necessary per season varying from 2 to 12, but sometimes as high as 30. Despite major expenditure on pesticides, cotton cultivation has totally collapsed in various regions of the world because of extremely high infestation levels. For the past nine years, genetically modified cultivars containing a Bt protein toxic to the cotton bollworm have been available. Their commercial introduction has been very successful: by 2005, Bt cotton was grown on 28% of the global hectarage of cotton, with an increase of 33% in the last year. Whereas the Bt cotton technology was originally commercialised by a single company in the US, it is now also distributed by a range of companies and institutions in China, India and elsewhere. In China in 2005, about 65% of the cotton was Bt cultivars, and in South Africa as much as 85%. 7 Ecological aspects Experience with traditional crops shows that, through hybridisation, they can give rise to weeds requiring special agricultural practices for their elimination. It is well established that gene flow occurs between both GM cultivars and non-GM crops and their wild relatives. Cultivars of maize, rice and cotton sown as crops do not have sufficient biological fitness to survive in natural habitats; in most cases the incorporation of a few additional genes is unlikely to alter the fitness of a cultivar in a natural ecosystem. Maize has wild relatives only in Mexico and Central America, whereas the wild relatives of cotton and rice are more widespread. So far, no transgenes have been observed to escape from maize or cotton to a wild relative, there permanently to initiate a selective advantage. In the wild, insect resistance could offer such a selective advantage, but insect resistance mediated by a single gene is unlikely to persist. In the case of Bt rice, particularly with modern rice cultivars designed for dry-land agriculture, special attention must be paid to the question of the possibility of gene flow to weedy wild rice relatives. It is surely relevant for such scenarios that, for more than 30 years, a very large number of rice cultivars have been grown into which single genes conferring resistance to certain insects have been introduced by conventional breeding. There are no known cases in which wild or weedy rice populations have become more competitive as a result of hybridisation with these cultivars. Some years ago it was reported in a laboratory experiment that feeding pollen to Bt maize caused considerable toxicity to Monarch butterflies and that survival of the species was threatened by this GM crop. The report provoked so much public anxiety that the EU placed a moratorium lasting several years on the approval of GM crops. Extensive field studies, subsequently carried out by numerous investigators, clearly demonstrated that the cultivation of Bt maize has no measurable impact on Monarch butterflies. A large number of studies on Bt maize, rice and cotton, performed in several countries, have all shown that the populations of many non-target insects are higher in fields of Bt cultivars than in There has been concern that Bt proteins from the litter of plants and root exudates persist in the soil and have an impact on its fauna. Taking into account that agricultural soils are in any case highly modified by conventional cultivation, and particularly by tilling and the application of fertilisers and pesticides, the impact of Bt crops on the fauna in the soil has been shown in extensive studies, including bioassays, to be negligible.


As mentioned earlier, Bt proteins are toxic only to selective insect pests. Combating those pests that are insensitive to the Bt toxin means that in many cases the cultivation of Bt cultivars still requires the application of pesticides, although the number of pesticide sprays required is mostly much lower than with conventional cultivars. Decreases in pesticide applications are beneficial not only to the environment but also to farm labourers. Spraying chemical pesticides is a considerable health hazard, especially if hand sprayers are used. A survey in China revealed there were formerly on average 54 000 poisoning incidents annually, including 490 deaths due to the use of pesticides, and that the introduction of Bt cotton cultivars reduced this health risk substantially. These facts provide overwhelming support for the beneficial effect of Bt crop cultivation, both for the environment and for the health of farm labourers. 8 Economic aspects Since the seeds of Bt cultivars are more expensive than their conventional counterparts, a farmer will have to decide whether infestation by pests is high enough to make the purchase of GM seeds profitable. Although the returns for using Bt technology can result in reduced labour and pesticide costs, as well as increased harvest yields, there remain situations in which the cost of Bt seeds is not justified. The fact that in 2003 30% of maize and 46% of cotton in the US were planted as Bt cultivars clearly demonstrates that Bt technology can indeed be profitable for farmers. The fact also that only 30% and 46% was planted suggests that there are circumstances in which the additional cost of the seeds is not justified. The decision of whether or not to use such seeds was made by individual American farmers on commercial grounds. This also applies to many developing countries. In China, where cotton is grown by about 11 million farmers with an average holding of 0.4 ha, about two-thirds of these farmers have already adopted Bt cotton. Bt technology is reported as being profitable because it leads in many cases both to a substantial decrease in pesticide use and to a yield increase. In India, where cotton contributes 30% of the national agricultural gross domestic production and is grown mainly by smallholder farmers, the infestation of cotton fields by insect pests is very high and the average yield per area is only about half of the world average. In India, only three years after the commercial release of Bt cotton, about one million farmers have decided to grow it. As reported, most, although not all of the farmers, made substantial profits as a result. Future success depends on the introduction of locally adapted varieties. In both China and India the distribution of Bt technology is no longer restricted to multinational companies but increasingly involves national companies and institutions, resulting in more competitive pricing. These examples show clearly that Bt technology can indeed be valuable in economic terms to smallholder farmers with relatively small fields in developing countries, as well as to the large farms in developed countries. There is, however, the possibility that pests may become resistant to Bt toxins as has happened in the past with the extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. Although the evolution of resistant pests will not cause major ecological problems, it might seriously affect the economy of farmers and seed companies. In order to prevent such resistance, countries, such as the US, have adopted insect-resistant management programmes which include providing refuges of non-GM crops or other hosts. This ensures that susceptible insects are available in sufficient numbers to mate with any resistant survivors from Bt fields, so preventing the build-up of resistant insect populations. Thus far this system has worked well; almost all farmers obey the rules and several recent studies have failed to find any resistance. Smallholder farmers do not have such problems, because they usually have several small fields with diverse crops. World agriculture must continue to fulfil the food and fibre needs of the growing human population, as well as rectify the existing widespread malnutrition. To achieve this aim, pest control will have to rely on integrated pest-management practices which include crop rotation, biological control, Bt technology and the sparing use of pesticides. Bt technology has shown itself to be a valuable contribution to knowledge-based agriculture. 9 Statement on genetically modified crops Molecular engineering of crops has brought revolutionary advances in agriculture. In 2005, just ten years from their introduction, many GM crop varieties have been grown on about 5% of all global arable crop land in 21 countries by 8.5 million farmers, 90% of whom are resource poor. Some developing countries have used GM varieties and benefited from them for several years and are now in a position to affirm their need and their will to develop more GM farming. We of the academies of sciences worldwide wish to state the following: Foods from GM crops are more extensively tested than any other. They have been shown to be as safe as, or even sometimes safer, than foods derived from the corresponding conventional plants. Ten years of human consumption and extensive nutritional testing amply support this conclusion (see the report of the IAP GMO initiative: Are there health hazards for the consumer from eating genetically modified food?).


Any food, GM or not, may certainly involve some risk – known or not, indexed or not – for human health. There is at present not the least scientific or medical evidence that possible risks posed by GM food are higher than risks posed by non-GM food. The environmental impact of GM crops is no greater than that of traditional crops. In some cases GM crops have decreased the negative effects of current agricultural practices: for example, insect-resistant cotton requires mostly substantially decreased applications of chemical pesticides, and herbicide-tolerant crops allow no-till practices, cutting energy use and promoting healthy soils. Seed-incorporated technology is particularly suitable for small farmers in developing countries. GM crops resistant to insects, viruses or fungi reduce farmers‘ exposure to chemical pesticides, particularly when pesticides are applied with hand sprays. The successful cultivation of GM cotton in China and South Africa shows how former subsistence farmers have significantly increased their income and dramatically improved their quality of life. In both developed and some developing countries, organic farmers already operate in an environment in which they are subject to influences from neighbouring activities. With proper separation safeguards the presence of genes encoding GM traits in organic products is negligible. Nothing in GM agriculture prevents organic farmers from pursuing their normal practices. Although the rules of organic farming currently exclude the use of GM crops, there is no evidence-based justification for that position. GM crops can make a major global contribution to the quantity and quality of food. In developing countries, farmers suffer major crop losses caused by insects and diseases. GM technology has already shown that such losses can be significantly reduced, leading directly to improvements in food quality and safety (e.g. insectresistant maize has appreciably lower levels of highly carcinogenic fungal toxins). Just as each consumer ought to have the right to accept or reject GM food, so farmers in developing countries and elsewhere should be able to decide for themselves whether to plant conventional, organic or GM crops. They should have the freedom to decide whether it is profitable for them to use the more costly GM seeds instead of conventional seeds. For there to be choice, appropriate regulations including labelling of GM products must be in place, regulations that are proportionate and not excessive. For developing countries to have access to crop biotechnology for their own agriculture, international and non-profit organisations must help governments to formulate appropriate regulations and assist with the training of personnel to administer them. We wish to debunk the unsupported arguments against genetically modified (GM) crops. On the basis of a wealth of experimental evidence on GM crops – evidence that has accumulated in the past decade from many studies – we affirm that: • Foods from legally approved GM crops are no less safe for humans and animals as conventional crops. • In the country concerned, legally approved GM crops do not pose greater environmental hazards than conventional crops. • Small-scale farmers, not just large farms and multinational corporations, can profit from the adoption of GM crops, which in turn could contribute to the alleviation of poverty and hunger in the developing world. • GM crops pose no unresolvable conflict with either non-GM crops or organic farming. • GM crops can make major contributions to the quantity and quality of food worldwide. • Freedom of choice should apply to all farmers and consumers, not just to some of them. • Decisions about the cultivation of GM crops and the consumption of GM foods must be based on the best available scientific evidence, not on ideological or political beliefs. We should be able to call on governments and non-government environmental organisations to end any unjustified campaigns against GM crops. Bibliography Ammann, K. 2005. Effects of biotechnology on biodiversity: herbicide-tolerant and insect-resistant GM crops. Trends in Biotechnology, 23: 388-394. Bates, S.I. et al. 2005. Insect-resistance management in GM crops: past, present and future. Nature Biotechnology, 23: 57-62. Cohen, J.I. 2005. Poorer nations turn to publicly developed GM crops. Nature Biotechnology, 23: 2733. De Block, M., Herrera-Estrella, L., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J. & Zambryski, P. 1984. EMBO Jl, 3: 16811689. Food Standards Agency (UK). 2003. Report, Sept. Fox, J. 2003. Resistance to Bt toxin surprisingly absent from pests. Nature Biotechnology, 21: 958-959. Global Status of Commercialised Transgenic Crops. 2003. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications, No. 30/2003. GM Science Review. 2003, 2004. An open review of the science relevant to GM crops and food based on the interest and concern of the public. London: The Royal Society, 1st Report, July 2003, 2nd Report,


January 2004. Gressel, J. et al. 2004. Major heretofore intractable biotic constraints to African food security that may be amenable to novel biotechnological solutions. Crop Protection, 23: 661-689. Grüne Gentechnik. 2002. Akademie Journal, 1/2002: 1-46. High, S.M. et al. 2004. Achieving successful deployment of Bt rice. Trends in Plant Science, 9: 286-292. Hossain, F. et al. 2004. Genetically modified cotton and farmers‘ health in China, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 10: 296-303. Huang, J. et al. 2002. Bt cotton benefits, costs, and impacts in China. AgBioForum 5: 153-166. Huang, J. et al. 2005. Insect-resistant GM rice in farmers‘ fields: assessing productivity and health effects in China. Science, 308: 688-690. International Council for Science (Canada). 2003. New genetics, food and agriculture: scientific discoveries – social dilemmas. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA). 2004–2008. Reports on the Global status of GM crops, 32, 2004; 34, 2005; 35, 2006; 37, 2007; 39, 2008. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA). 2001–2003. Global reviews of commercialised transgenic crops: Feature: Bt cotton, 26, 2001; GM rice: Will this lead the way for global acceptance of GM crop technology? 28, 2003; Feature: Bt Maize, 29, 2003. Marasas, W.F.O. 2001. Discovery and occurrence of the fumonisins: a historical perspective. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109: 239-243. Minorsky, P.V. 2002. Fumonisin mycotoxins. Plant Physiology, 129: 929. National Centre for Food and Agricultural Policy. 2004. Impacts on US agriculture of biotechnologyderived crops planted in 2003. Washington DC, USA. Nuffield Council of Bioethics (UK). 1999, 2004. The use of genetically modified crops in developing countries. London. Qaim, M. & Matuschke, I. 2005. Impacts of genetically modified crops in developing countries: a survey. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, 44: 207-227. Qaim, M. et al. 2006. Adoption of Bt cotton and impact variability: insights from India. Review of Agricultural Economics, 24: 48-58. Shelton, A.M. et al. 2002. Economic, ecological, food safety, and social consequences of the deployment of Bt transgenic plants. Annual Review of Entomology, 47: 845-881. Tabashnik, B.E. et al. 2005. Delayed resistance to transgenic cotton in pink bollworm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA: 102(43): 15389-15393. Union of the German Academies of Science and Humanities Report, InterAcademy Panel Initiative on Genetically Modified Organisms. 2006. Are there hazards for the consumer when eating food from genetically modified plants? Available at: http://www.akademienunion.de/publikationen/literatursammlung_gentechnik/english.html. URL: http://www.assaf.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/PDF/ASSAf%20GMO%20African%20Agriculture%202010%20Web.pdf Author Address: Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hemaid Ibrahim Soliman, Mahdia Gabr and Naglaa A. Abdallah Year: 2010 Title: * Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis. Journal: GM Crops Volume 1, Issue 1 January/February 2010 Pages 40 - 51. Label: Bioengineering Abstract: Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and


kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 µg DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay. Author Address: Department of Plant Genetic Resources, Desert Research Center, Cairo Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, ARC, Egypt XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hernández-Martínez P, Navarro-Cerrillo G, Caccia S, de Maagd RA, Moar WJ, et al, Year: 2010 Title: * Constitutive Activation of the Midgut Response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-Resistant Spodoptera exigua. Journal: PLoS ONE 5(9): e12795. Accession Number: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012795 Label: InRe Resistance Abstract: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes involved in conferring resistance is of paramount importance. A colony of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was selected for 15 years in the laboratory for resistance to Xentari™, a B. thuringiensis-based insecticide, reaching a final resistance level of greater than 1,000-fold. Around 600 midgut ESTs were analyzed by DNA-macroarray in order to find differences in midgut gene expression between susceptible and resistant insects. Among the differentially expressed genes, repat and arylphorin were identified and their increased expression was correlated with B. thuringiensis resistance. We also found overlap among genes that were constitutively over-expressed in resistant insects with genes that were up-regulated in susceptible insects after exposure to Xentari™, suggesting a permanent activation of the response to Xentari™ in resistant insects. Increased aminopeptidase activity in the lumen of resistant insects in the absence of exposure to Xentari™ corroborated the hypothesis of permanent activation of response genes. Increase in midgut proliferation has been proposed as a mechanism of response to pathogens in the adult from several insect species. Analysis of S. exigua larvae revealed that midgut proliferation was neither increased in resistant insects nor induced by exposure of susceptible larvae to Xentari™, suggesting that mechanisms other than midgut proliferation are involved in the response to B. thuringiensis by S. exigua larvae. URL: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0012795 Author Address: 1 Department of Genetics, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain, 2 Plant Research International B.V., Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 3 Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States of America USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hiruma Kei, Onozawa-Komori Mariko, Takahashi Fumika, Asakura Makoto, Bednarek Pawel, Okuno Tetsuro, Schulze-Lefert Paul, Takano Yoshitaka, Year: 2010 Title: * Entry Mode-Dependent Function of an Indole Glucosinolate Pathway in Arabidopsis for Nonhost Resistance against Anthracnose Pathogens. Journal: Plant Cell 22, 7, 2429-2443. Date: July 1, 2010 Label: FuRe


Abstract: When faced with nonadapted fungal pathogens, Arabidopsis thaliana mounts nonhost resistance responses, which typically result in the termination of early pathogenesis steps. We report that nonadapted anthracnose fungi engage two alternative entry modes during pathogenesis on leaves: turgor-mediated invasion beneath melanized appressoria, and a previously undiscovered hyphal tip-based entry (HTE) that is independent of appressorium formation. The frequency of HTE is positively regulated by carbohydrate nutrients and appears to be subject to constitutive inhibition by the fungal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade of MAPK ESSENTIAL FOR APPRESSORIUM FORMATION1. The same MAPK cascade is essential for appressorium formation. Unexpectedly, the Arabidopsis indole glucosinolate pathway restricts entry of the nonadapted anthracnose fungi only when these pathogens employ HTE. Arabidopsis mutants defective in indole glucosinolate biosynthesis or metabolism support the initiation of postinvasion growth of nonadapted Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum orbiculare. However, genetic disruption of Colletotrichum appressorium formation does not permit HTE on host plants. Thus, Colletotrichum appressoria play a critical role in the suppression of preinvasion plant defenses, in addition to their previously described role in turgormediated plant cell invasion. We also show that HTE is the predominant morphogenetic response of Colletotrichum at wound sites. This implies the existence of a fungal sensing system to trigger appropriate morphogenetic responses during pathogenesis at wound sites and on intact leaf tissue. Notes: This work describes a previously undiscovered cellular process that fungi use for entry into leaves: hyphal tip-based entry (HTE) that is independent of appressorium formation. It shows that HTE is the predominant morphogenetic response of Colletotrichum during pathogenesis at wound sites and might have broader significance as infection strategy on fruits during ripening. URL: http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/7/2429 Author Address: a Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan b Max-Planck-Institut f端r Pflanzenz端chtungsforschung, D-50829 Cologne, Germany XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hodges LD, Lee LY, McNett H, Gelvin SB, Ream W, Year: 2009 Title: * The Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS gene encodes two secreted proteins required for genetic transformation of plants. Journal: Journal of Bacteriology 191, 1. Accession Number: CABI:20103264417 Label: Bioengineering Keywords: binding proteins; codons; fluorescent proteins; gene expression; genes; genetic engineering; genetic transformation; mutants; mutations; nuclei; open reading frames; strains; tobacco; transgenic plants bacterium; carrier proteins; cell nuclei; coding triplet; genetic manipulation; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; ORFs Abstract: Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are related pathogens that cause crown gall and hairy root diseases, which result from integration and expression of bacterial genes in the plant genome. Single-stranded DNA (T strands) and virulence proteins are translocated into plant cells by a type IV secretion system. VirD2 nicks a specific DNA sequence, attaches to the 5 end, and pilots the DNA into plant cells. A. tumefaciens translocates single-stranded DNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells where it likely binds T strands and may aid in targeting them into the nucleus. Although some A. rhizogenes strains lack VirE2, they transfer T strands efficiently due to the GALLS gene, which complements an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation. Unlike VirE2, full-length GALLS (GALLS-FL) contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. GALLS-FL and VirE2 contain nuclear localization signals (NLS) and secretion signals. Mutations in any of these domains abolish the ability of the GALLS gene to substitute for virE2. Here, we show that the GALLS gene encodes two proteins from one open reading frame: GALLS-FL and a protein comprised of the C-terminal domain, which initiates at an internal in-frame start codon. On some hosts, both GALLS proteins were required to substitute for VirE2. GALLS-FL tagged with yellow fluorescent protein localized to the nucleus of tobacco cells in an NLSdependent manner. In plant cells, the GALLS proteins interacted with themselves, VirD2, and each other. VirD2 interacted with GALLS-FL and localized inside the nucleus, where its predicted helicase activity may pull T strands into the nucleus. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 51 ref.


URL: <Go to ISI>://20103264417 Author Address: Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. reamw@orst.edu XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hokanson Karen E, Ellstrand Norman C, Ouedraogo Jeremy T, Olweny Patrick A, Schaal Barbara A, Raybould Alan F, Year: 2010 Title: * Biofortified sorghum in Africa: using problem formulation to inform risk assessment. Journal: Nature Biotechnology 28, 9, 900-903 | Opinion and Comment | Correspondence Date: 2010/09//print Label: Nutrition EvaluationRisque Abstract: Full text : see table in http To the Editor: Most of the genetically modified (GM) crops approved to date (e.g., corn, cotton and soybean improved for insect resistance or herbicide tolerance) do not have compatible wild relatives near their intended area of cultivation, and those that do are not being cultivated in the center of diversity of the species. However, many GM crops being developed to solve agronomic or nutritional problems in developing countries may be grown near centers of origin and diversity of the crop, where these plants were first domesticated and remain major crops1. Furthermore, they are often being developed by publicly funded, nonprofit institutions2. Such developers, and the regulatory authorities that oversee them, often have relatively limited experience and resources for risk assessment and are faced with some of the first decisions regarding risks associated with gene flow in centers of diversity. Although the potential for negative effects of gene flow from GM crops in centers of diversity must be considered, some would argue that another kind of risk will be increased if the benefit offered by these products is delayed3, 4. It is essential, therefore, that data required for risk assessment, including those related to gene flow, are limited to information necessary to allow sound regulatory decisions. Numerous studies related to gene flow from GM crops have been conducted or proposed to address interesting research questions, including evaluations of distance and rates of gene flow, fitness of hybrids, ecosystem dynamics and other parameters5. Although some of these studies are useful for decision making, many lack a clear identification of the harm and how the study relates to a causal pathway from the GM crop to that harm. This accumulation of data under the name of 'risk assessment' can lead to considerable confusion about what is necessary for a regulatory decision6. The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Problem formulation begins with the identification of the protection goals of the law or other instrument that triggered the risk assessment (e.g., protection of biodiversity). A proper problem formulation then derives adverse effects (harm) as operational assessment endpoints (e.g., the abundance of a valued species) based on the protection goals. This is followed by the development of possible scenarios of harm (that is, how there may be adverse change to the assessment endpoints given what is known about the crop plant, the introduced traits and the environment; a risk scenario or conceptual model). Testable hypotheses can then be formulated and an experimental plan to test them can be determined. The advantage of following the steps of problem formulation is that it focuses data acquisition on clear questions to help decision makers, rather than on attempts to exhaustively characterize all possible outcomes following cultivation of GM crops. It is important to recognize that for risk assessment to be effective, harm must be defined before data acquisition. Definitions of harm are necessarily subjective, and subjectivity in risk assessment cannot be eliminated by doing more scientific research. Thus, extensive collection of data cannot substitute for clear decision-making criteria6, 8, 10. Most of the genetically modified (GM) crops approved to date (e.g., corn, cotton and soybean improved for insect resistance or herbicide tolerance) do not have compatible wild relatives near their intended area of cultivation, and those that do are not being cultivated in the center of diversity of the species. However, many GM crops being developed to solve agronomic or nutritional problems in developing countries may be grown near centers of origin and diversity of the crop, where these plants were first domesticated and remain major crops1. Furthermore, they are often being developed by publicly funded, nonprofit institutions2. Such developers, and the regulatory authorities that oversee them, often have relatively limited experience and


resources for risk assessment and are faced with some of the first decisions regarding risks associated with gene flow in centers of diversity. Although the potential for negative effects of gene flow from GM crops in centers of diversity must be considered, some would argue that another kind of risk will be increased if the benefit offered by these products is delayed3, 4. It is essential, therefore, that data required for risk assessment, including those related to gene flow, are limited to information necessary to allow sound regulatory decisions. Numerous studies related to gene flow from GM crops have been conducted or proposed to address interesting research questions, including evaluations of distance and rates of gene flow, fitness of hybrids, ecosystem dynamics and other parameters5. Although some of these studies are useful for decision making, many lack a clear identification of the harm and how the study relates to a causal pathway from the GM crop to that harm. This accumulation of data under the name of 'risk assessment' can lead to considerable confusion about what is necessary for a regulatory decision6. The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Problem formulation begins with the identification of the protection goals of the law or other instrument that triggered the risk assessment (e.g., protection of biodiversity). A proper problem formulation then derives adverse effects (harm) as operational assessment endpoints (e.g., the abundance of a valued species) based on the protection goals. This is followed by the development of possible scenarios of harm (that is, how there may be adverse change to the assessment endpoints given what is known about the crop plant, the introduced traits and the environment; a risk scenario or conceptual model). Testable hypotheses can then be formulated and an experimental plan to test them can be determined. The advantage of following the steps of problem formulation is that it focuses data acquisition on clear questions to help decision makers, rather than on attempts to exhaustively characterize all possible outcomes following cultivation of GM crops. It is important to recognize that for risk assessment to be effective, harm must be defined before data acquisition. Definitions of harm are necessarily subjective, and subjectivity in risk assessment cannot be eliminated by doing more scientific research. Thus, extensive collection of data cannot substitute for clear decision-making criteria6, 8, 10. In the following article, we present a case study that shows how these concepts can be applied to risk assessment for GM nutritionally enhanced sorghum intended for cultivation in the center of diversity of the crop and provides a model to help focus the criteria for risk assessments of other GM crops in their centers of diversity. The case is based on a discussion among a panel of individuals (including the authors of this correspondence) with expertise and experience in risk assessment, gene flow, sorghum biology and sorghum as a crop in Africa. This was assembled at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis in October 2008 by the Program for Biosafety Systems, an organization involved in capacity building for regulation of biotech, to discuss the environmental risks associated with gene flow to wild relatives in the case of African biofortified sorghum (ABS). This panel was not convened to make a determination of the level of risk, but to discuss how it is possible to assess the risk. The steps of problem formulation were used to guide this discussion. Sorghum is a major crop and staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. ABS is being developed with funding from the public sector in a humanitarian effort to bring better nutrition to the people of Africa (see http://www.grandchallenges.org/ImproveNutrition). Biotech is being used to introduce genes into sorghum for increased lysine and threonine, increased protein digestibility, reduced phytic acid to enhance the availability of iron and zinc, as well as increased levels of the vitamin A precursor beta carotene. The specific genes inserted into ABS and their modes of action were considered during our discussion. The genes are being combined in a single unit that will behave as a locus, to be expressed in the seed endosperm only. These sorghum lines will soon be ready for field trials and for breeding to introduce the genes into suitable local varieties. The center of origin and diversity for sorghum is in the Ethiopia-Sudan region of Africa13. Existing data suggest that gene flow does occur readily between the crop and nearby or sympatric weedy populations, although very rarely to distant, more-or-less truly 'wild' populations13, 14, 15. According to theory, even neutral genes from cultivated sorghum, which are not expected to have a selective advantage or disadvantage by definition, may persist in the wild populations, even if gene flow should be rare16, 17. The discussion panel agreed that when GM sorghum is grown in standard conditions for the cultivation of sorghum, transgenes are likely to be transferred to and persist in the wild populations, as with other genes from cultivated sorghum. For the purposes of a risk assessment, in this case, it should not be necessary to carry out any additional studies to test for the likelihood or frequency of gene flow to wild sorghum. The important question the panel identified for environmental risk assessment of gene flow from ABS in Africa is whether there may be harmful consequences when the transgenes enter the wild populations through gene flow. To answer this question using problem formulation, the first steps are to determine the protection goals


and identify assessment endpoints that fit those goals. In many countries, protection goals are defined by law. If no legal definition exists, it may be necessary to define the goals in the risk assessment, perhaps using precedent from similar assessments elsewhere. Identification of the harm presents one of the greatest challenges for risk assessors. As noted before, 'harm' is subjective and cannot be deduced scientifically; science can help us predict whether there will be consequences of actions, but it cannot determine whether those consequences are acceptable18. In this case study, harm is defined as adverse changes to ecological assessment endpoints. We recognize that assessment endpoints could also be cultural, political or economic but did not consider those endpoints in our discussion. In this case, we considered specific adverse changes to valued entities (that is, harms) and scenarios by which they could result from gene flow from ABS to wild sorghum (Table 1). The harms we identified include loss of valuable genetic diversity in the crop, loss in abundance or diversity of valued flora or fauna, and loss of crop yield. More than one scenario could lead to each of the identified harms, and each scenario is based on our knowledge of the biology of sorghum, the introduced traits, the environment where it will be grown and population genetics theory. Some of these scenarios are those typically associated with gene flow, such as loss of diversity due to a selective sweep or genetic swamping. Other scenarios are more specifically related to knowledge about the biology of the crop and the introduced traits. For example, the panel recognized that bird feeding is a serious problem already in sorghum but did not agree about whether this would have an impact in wild relatives of sorghum, or that there was a reason to expect the traits being introduced into ABS would make the seeds more attractive to birds; however, birds are known to prefer seeds with low-tannins19, and the panel agreed that an unintended reduction in the level of tannins should be considered (Table 1; harm 1, scenario 4). During the problem formulation phase of risk assessment, it must be decided which scenarios are plausible, warranting further investigation, and which scenarios are so unlikely that they do not need to be considered7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. We included most of the scenarios that we discussed, although there was some disagreement about which were plausible. Table 1: A plan to assess the potential environmental risks of gene flow ABS to wild sorghums in Africa Full table Having clearly outlined the harms and possible ways that ABS might lead to them, we developed a testable hypothesis of 'no harm' for each scenario identified, which can then be corroborated or refuted with existing or new observations. A testable hypothesis for each of these potential scenarios for harm is shown in Table 1. Various other hypotheses could have been formulated related to each scenario. It is not necessary to test every possible hypothesis, but ideally the hypothesis to test is one that will give most confidence that the scenario leading to harm is not likely8. In the case of ABS, the panel (including the authors of this correspondence) agreed that the scenarios by which the identified harms could occur are only likely if there are unintended changes associated with the transformation. All of these hypotheses of no difference can be tested by conducting a thorough comparison of the GM and non-GM sorghum for the specific characteristics in the hypotheses, to evaluate the likelihood that the identified harms will not occur from ABS. Such a thorough characterization of a GM crop, which includes characteristics related to agronomic performance, survival and reproduction, disease and insect susceptibility, nutritional composition and known toxicants, is standard practice during GM crop development. Comparative assessment to detect differences between the GM crop and a comparator, usually its non-GM counterpart, forms the foundation of risk assessment for GM crops currently12, 16. This is generally conducted in the laboratory and in field trials, which may be carried out over multiple seasons and in multiple locations. Field trials are conducted with appropriate measures for confinement of plant material, including the restriction of gene flow. If any potentially harmful unanticipated changes are detected during this characterization, further assessment or risk management options would be considered. It should be noted that certain unanticipated changes such as disease or pest susceptibility could have a significant effect on the comparative yield of the GM crop, in which case the product may not be deployed owing to poor agronomic performance not related to biosafety. The panel also determined that an additional study to compare characteristics related to survival and reproduction in 'ABS Ă&#x2014; wild' hybrids and 'non-ABS Ă&#x2014; wild' hybrids could be conducted to test the hypothesis that transgene interaction with wild genetic backgrounds will not significantly increase the survival and reproduction of hybrids. Each of the harms identified is possible if there is an increase in survival and reproduction due to such an interaction (Table 1). Interactions between transgenes and 'wild' genes are not expected to increase hybrid survival and reproduction relative to non-GM hybrids, but few studies have been done specifically to address this question. A carefully designed set of experiments would test this hypothesis. Although it would not be necessary to repeat a study like this for every GM crop, especially if collective evidence or prior experience with the transgene demonstrates no potentially harmful gene interaction effect,


most panel members agreed that these hybrid studies would be useful for a regulatory decision concerning ABS. In this case of ABS, we considered environmental impacts associated with gene flow that are commonly of regulatory concern, including loss of diversity in flora or fauna due to invasiveness or toxicity and yield loss in crops due to increases in weediness, and we considered case-specific scenarios by which these harms could occur. We determined that experimentation to test whether the identified harms are likely to occur only requires a thorough characterization of the GM plants and GM plant × wild plant hybrids for specific characteristics compared with non-GM plants. If a hypothesis is falsified, then additional experiments would be necessary. Although the harms that we identified in this case of nutritionally enhanced sorghum in Africa may be typical of those to consider for any transgenic crop cultivated in its center of diversity, it is conceivable that other harms might be identified, based on the protection goals within a particular regulatory framework, or on the specific details of a different case (that is, crop, trait or environment). Even when the harms are similar, a different set of hypotheses and experiments may be developed depending on the case. For example, if the introduced trait were one that might be expected to confer a fitness advantage (e.g., insect, disease or stress tolerance) in sorghum, some harms may be more likely or other scenarios more plausible, and therefore a different set of hypotheses and experiments might be developed7, 8, 12. This might also be true if the same nutritionally enhanced traits were introduced into a different crop or environment. In a similar manner, problem formulation can be applied for risk assessment related to concerns other than from gene flow, such as impacts on nontarget organisms11, 12. By focusing on the initial problem formulation phase of a risk assessment, it is possible for developers and regulators to gain a clear indication of the important questions to answer, and the data required to address them. By clearly identifying what are the harms, considering scenarios that might lead to them and developing testable hypothesis when necessary, risk assessments can be conducted in a manner that is open and transparent for all parties. This will allow developers and regulators, especially those with relatively limited experience in risk assessment, to move forward with confidence in their efforts to develop products and assess the risks, and to safely provide these technologies that hold such promise. 1.Jennings, P.R. & Cock, J.H. Econ. Bot. 31, 51–54 (1977). … However, many GM crops being developed to solve agronomic or nutritional problems in developing countries may be grown near centers of origin and diversity of the crop, where these plants were first domesticated and remain major crops 2.Cohen, J. Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 27–33 (2005). Furthermore, they are often being developed by publicly funded, nonprofit institutions 3.Cross, F.B. Wash. Lee Law Rev. 53, 851–925 (1996). Although the potential for negative effects of gene flow from GM crops in centers of diversity must be considered, some would argue that another kind of risk will be increased if the benefit offered by these products is delayed3, 4… 4.Paarlberg, R. Starved for Science: How Biotechnology is Being Kept Out of Africa (Harvard University Press, Boston, 2008). Although the potential for negative effects of gene flow from GM crops in centers of diversity must be considered, some would argue that another kind of risk will be increased if the benefit offered by these products is delayed3, 4… 5.Chandler, S. & Dunwell, J. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 27, 25–49 (2008). … Numerous studies related to gene flow from GM crops have been conducted or proposed to address interesting research questions, including evaluations of distance and rates of gene flow, fitness of hybrids, ecosystem dynamics and other parameters5… 6.Johnson, K.L., Raybould, A., Hudson, M.D. & Poppy, G. Trends Plant Sci. 12, 1–5 (2007). … This accumulation of data under the name of 'risk assessment' can lead to considerable confusion about what is necessary for a regulatory decision6… 7.Nickson, T. Plant Physiol. 147, 494–502 (2008). The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… … During the problem formulation phase of risk assessment, it must be decided which scenarios are plausible, warranting further investigation, and which scenarios are so unlikely that they do not need to be considered7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… …, insect, disease or stress tolerance) in sorghum, some harms may be more likely or other scenarios more plausible, and therefore a different set of hypotheses and experiments might be developed7, 8, 12…


8.Raybould, A. & Cooper, I. Environ. Biosaftey Res 4, 127–140 (2005). The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… … Thus, extensive collection of data cannot substitute for clear decision-making criteria6, 8, 10… … During the problem formulation phase of risk assessment, it must be decided which scenarios are plausible, warranting further investigation, and which scenarios are so unlikely that they do not need to be considered7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… … It is not necessary to test every possible hypothesis, but ideally the hypothesis to test is one that will give most confidence that the scenario leading to harm is not likely8… …, insect, disease or stress tolerance) in sorghum, some harms may be more likely or other scenarios more plausible, and therefore a different set of hypotheses and experiments might be developed7, 8, 12… 9.Raybould, A. Environ. Biosafety Res. 5, 119–125 (2006). The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12... … During the problem formulation phase of risk assessment, it must be decided which scenarios are plausible, warranting further investigation, and which scenarios are so unlikely that they do not need to be considered7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… 10.Raybould, A. Plant Sci. 173, 589–602 (2007). The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… in article … Thus, extensive collection of data cannot substitute for clear decision-making criteria6, 8, 10… in article … During the problem formulation phase of risk assessment, it must be decided which scenarios are plausible, warranting further investigation, and which scenarios are so unlikely that they do not need to be considered7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… 11.Romeis, J. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 203–208 (2008). The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… in article … During the problem formulation phase of risk assessment, it must be decided which scenarios are plausible, warranting further investigation, and which scenarios are so unlikely that they do not need to be considered7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… in article … In a similar manner, problem formulation can be applied for risk assessment related to concerns other than from gene flow, such as impacts on nontarget organisms11, 12… 12.Wolt, J. et al. Transgenic Res. 19, 425–436 (2010). The use of appropriate problem formulation to identify data needs has gained attention recently in discussions on risk assessment of GM crops7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… in article … During the problem formulation phase of risk assessment, it must be decided which scenarios are plausible, warranting further investigation, and which scenarios are so unlikely that they do not need to be considered7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12… in article … Comparative assessment to detect differences between the GM crop and a comparator, usually its non-GM counterpart, forms the foundation of risk assessment for GM crops currently12, 16… in article …, insect, disease or stress tolerance) in sorghum, some harms may be more likely or other scenarios more plausible, and therefore a different set of hypotheses and experiments might be developed7, 8, 12… in article … In a similar manner, problem formulation can be applied for risk assessment related to concerns other than from gene flow, such as impacts on nontarget organisms11, 12… 13.Kimber, C.T. in Sorghum: Origin, History, Technology, and Production (eds. Smith, C.W. & Frederiksen, R.A.) 3–98 (Wiley, New York, 2000). The center of origin and diversity for sorghum is in the Ethiopia-Sudan region of Africa13… in article … Existing data suggest that gene flow does occur readily between the crop and nearby or sympatric weedy populations, although very rarely to distant, more-or-less truly 'wild' populations13, 14, 15… 14.Tesso, T. et al. Crop Sci. 48, 1425–1431 (2008). … Existing data suggest that gene flow does occur readily between the crop and nearby or sympatric weedy populations, although very rarely to distant, more-or-less truly 'wild' populations13, 14, 15… 15.Mutegi, E. et al. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 57, 243–253 (2009). … Existing data suggest that gene flow does occur readily between the crop and nearby or sympatric weedy populations, although very rarely to distant, more-or-less truly 'wild' populations13, 14, 15… 16.Craig, W., Tepfer, M., Degrassi, G. & Ripendelli, D. Euphytica 164, 853–880 (2008).


… According to theory, even neutral genes from cultivated sorghum, which are not expected to have a selective advantage or disadvantage by definition, may persist in the wild populations, even if gene flow should be rare16, 17… in article … Comparative assessment to detect differences between the GM crop and a comparator, usually its non-GM counterpart, forms the foundation of risk assessment for GM crops currently12, 16… 17.Ellstrand, N.C. Dangerous Liaisons? When Cultivated Plants Mate with their Wild Relatives (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2003). … According to theory, even neutral genes from cultivated sorghum, which are not expected to have a selective advantage or disadvantage by definition, may persist in the wild populations, even if gene flow should be rare16, 17… 18.Lubchenco, J. Science 279, 491–497 (1998). … As noted before, 'harm' is subjective and cannot be deduced scientifically; science can help us predict whether there will be consequences of actions, but it cannot determine whether those consequences are acceptable18… 19.McMillian, W.W., Wiseman, B.R., Burns, R.E., Harris, H.B. & Greene, G.L. J. Agron. 64, 821–822 (1972). … For example, the panel recognized that bird feeding is a serious problem already in sorghum but did not agree about whether this would have an impact in wild relatives of sorghum, or that there was a reason to expect the traits being introduced into ABS would make the seeds more attractive to birds; however, birds are known to prefer seeds with low-tannins19, and the panel agreed that an unintended reduction in the level of tannins should be considered (Table 1; harm 1, scenario 4)… 20.Gepts, P. & Papa, R. Environ. Biosafety Res. 2, 89–103 (2003). 21.Chandrashekar, A. & Satyanarayana, K.V. J. Cereal Sci. 44, 287–304 (2006). Notes: From : [Actualité de la sécurité alimentaire et de la biotechnologie agricole] jeu. 16/09/2010 05:15 Sorgho biofortifié en Afrique : la formulation de problèmes pour éclairer l'évaluation des risques Source : Nature Biotechnology Auteur : Karen E Hokanson et al. Cet article présente une étude de cas de l'application de concepts d'évaluation des risques à l'évaluation des risques du sorgho génétiquement modifié (GM) à valeur nutritionnelle améliorée, destiné à être cultivé au centre de diversité du sorgho (la région Ethiopie-Soudan). Le cas est basé sur les travaux d'un groupe d'experts réuni en octobre 2008 par le Programme de renforcement des capacités dans le domaine de la biosécurité (ou PBS, de l'anglais Program for Biosafety Systems), pour discuter des risques environnementaux associés aux flux de gènes vers des parents sauvages dans le cas du sorgho biofortifié en Afrique (ABS, pour Africa Biofortified Sorghum). Le principal concept d'évaluation des risques identifié par l'article est la nécessité pour les autorités de réglementation de se focaliser sur la phase initiale de formulation des problèmes d'une évaluation des risques. Une telle approche permettrait aux autorités de réglementation d'avoir une indication claire des questions importantes auxquelles il faut répondre, et des données requises pour les traiter. Selon l'article, l'ABS est actuellement mis au point sur financement du secteur public, dans un effort humanitaire visant à offrir une meilleure alimentation aux populations africaines. L'article indique que des lignées de sorgho GM dotées de quelques traits nouveaux - teneur accrue en lysine et en thréonine, plus grande digestibilité des protéines, acide phytique réduit pour améliorer la disponibilité de fer et de zinc, et niveaux accrus de bêta carotène précurseur de la vitamine A - seront bientôt prêtes pour des essais en champ et pour la sélection visant à introduire les gènes dans des variétés locales appropriées. Le panel de discussion a convenu que lorsque le sorgho GM est cultivé dans des conditions normales pour la culture de sorgho, il se peut que les transgènes soient transférés aux populations de sorgho sauvage et y persistent, comme c'est le cas d'autres gènes de sorgho cultivé. La question importante identifiée par le panel pour l'évaluation des risques environnementaux liés aux flux de gènes de l'ABS en Afrique est de savoir s'il peut y avoir des conséquences néfastes lorsque les transgènes s'introduisent dans les populations sauvages à travers les flux de gènes. Le panel a soigneusement identifié ce qui pourrait être nuisible et divers scénarios qui pourraient entraîner des conséquences préjudiciables, puis il a élaboré une hypothèse véritable de " non préjudice " pour chaque scénario. Chaque hypothèse, indique l'article, peut être corroborée ou réfutée avec des observations existantes ou nouvelles. Les abonnés payants à la revue Nature Biotechnologie peuvent consulter l'article en ligne en cliquant sur le lien cidessous. http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v28/n9/full/nbt0910-900.html URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nbt0910-900 Author Address: Program for Biosafety Systems, Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.


Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, California, USA. Institut de l'Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Kenya National Assembly, Nairobi, Kenya. Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Syngenta, Jealott's Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire, UKingdom XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hooftman D, van Tienderen P Year: 2008 Title: ¤ From hybridization to introgression models: Predicting the fate of a transgene in wild relatives based on linkage disequilibrium relations. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Keywords: Dispersion Modelisation Abstract: Introduction Effects of introgression of transgenes from crops to wild relatives are a persistent topic in discussions on the risks of genetically modified crop introductions1, 2, for one thing because a spread of a ‗successful‘ transgene cannot easily be reversed. Furthermore, introgression of crop genes could lead to the potential development of more troublesome weeds as well as a potential niche expansion of introgressant populations with a wild relative background genome3. The spread of transgenes depends on the possibility for gene exchange between crop and wild taxa as well as the specifi c effects of a transgene on hybrid fi tness. Much effort has been devoted to studying gene fl ow between crop species and their wild relatives4. If gene fl ow is possible, as is often the case, the outcome of the gene exchange will depend on the performance of hybrids under natural conditions. Natural selection will weed out maladapted genotypes leading to the establishment of successful phenotypes with elevated fitness5. It is within such a context that the effects of transgenes should be evaluated: the baseline is the dynamics of the crop-wild hybridization process, and putative effects of introduced transgenes in such a system are superimposed upon this baseline6, 7. Introgression of genes from crops will likely be at the level of chromosomal segments rather than at the gene level6. Within such segment a gene could be benefi cial to the recipient plant, leading to higher likelihood of survival. Surrounding neutral genes will tend to ―hitchhike‖ along and increase in frequency through linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the benefi cial gene. Conversely neutral or even mildly disadvantageous genes could be blocked from introgression by being linked to a negatively selected gene. Currently there is a range of modeling approaches available describing the development of hybrid populations without reference to specifi c genes differing in fitness8, 9, 10. Alternatively, the spread of single traits through populations is investigated using one-locus models11, 12. In this talk we will present a multilocus selection approach after shortly reviewing the merits and disadvantages of these previous approaches. Model description We first re-examine the standard deterministic two-locus model for (partially) outcrossing species, to study the potential of hitchhiking, the persistence of LD, expected introgressed block size, and the rate of increase of selected and neutral crop genes into a wild gene pool . An actual hybridization complex is simulated for Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative Lactuca serriola. Although both species are mainly autogamous, an approx. 1% outcrossing rate can be anticipated. This approach combines recombination rates (based on genetic maps) and putative fi tness effects of individual alleles. Upon this baseline the effects of transgenes, given their genomic location, are superposed. We use stochastic Individual Based Modeling (IBM) in which both individual plants and individual loci are used as pointers. Loci are placed onto a genetic map; accordingly the recombination likelihood among loci can be estimated. Individual haploid gametes are formed by inheriting a combination of alleles from the diploid parental genome, including crossing-overs. Subsequently, the likelihood of survival of the formed combination of gametes is based on the accumulated fi tness of the containing alleles. To simulate a QTL approach13, alleles can be added, which confer to a higher or lower fi tness relative to the wild relative. Transgenes can be placed on the genomic map accordingly.


Results & Discussion The two-locus model shows that LD between crop and wild genes persists for tens of generations, even in largely outcrossing populations. Therefore the scope for hitchhiking is considerable, and the retained crop block size is often large. Such observations follow the predictions by Stewart and coworkers of block based introgression6. Employing a stochastic IBM we show that the extent of this hitchhiking strongly depends on the anticipated recombination frequency among two loci interacting with (i) the relative fi tness differences of the containing (transgenic) alleles at different loci and (ii) population size. These effects can not easily be identifi ed in nonIBM models. On a more general level the combination of genetic location and allelic fi tness differences added to populations with a restricted size shows that selection only partially sorts (―weeds‖) among offspring when alleles are added to the crop that differ in relative fi tness from the wild relative. Replacement of alleles with lower fi tness, by alleles with a higher relative fi tness, is continuously (at least to a certain extent) counteracted by hitchhiking. Consequently, the general level of introgression of ―neutral‖ genes could be higher than previously expected. Approaches as ours combine in a selective environment (i) analysis of introgression based on the fi tness association of single genes, (ii) genetic location based hybridization patterns and (iii) fi nite population sizes. Consequently, they provide a more accurate estimate of the introgression likelihood for specifi c genes. Risk assessment applying this approach could increase the predictability of possible introgression or blocking of linked genes. From the more commercial side, a judicious choice of transgene insertion sites may further inhibit transgene escape because of their negative selection in a wild background genome, certainly in combination with one or more other biosafety constructs. Since high resolution linkage maps have become available in many inter-taxa crosses, gene-targeting based on such map-based criteria seems feasible. References 1. Snow et al. (2005). Ecological Applications 15: 377-404. 2. Andow & Zwahlen (2006). Ecology Letters 9: 196���214. 3. Pilson & Prendeville (2004). Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35:149–174. 4. Ellstrand (2003). Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, USA. 5. Rieseberg et al. (2000). Plant Molecular Biology 42: 205-224. 6. Stewart et al. (2003). Nature Reviews Genetics 4: 806-817. 7. Chapman & Burke (2006). New Phytologist 170: 429-443. 8. Thompson et al. (2003). Ecological Modelling 162: 199-209. 9. Hall et al. (2006). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 273: 1385-1389. 10. Hooftman et al. (2007). Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 1035-1045. 11. Huxel (1999). Biological Conservation 89: 143-152. 12. Haygood et al. (2003). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 270: 1879-1886. 13. Baack et al. (2008). Molecular Ecology 17: 666–677. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: University of Amsterdam, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, The Netherlands XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Horna Daniela, Kyotalimye Miriam, Falck-Zepeda Jose, Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Cotton Production in Uganda: Would GM technologies be the Solution?. Journal: International Association of Agricultural Economists>2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China. Label: InRe Adoption Keywords: Stochastic budget analysis GM cotton Organic cotton Abstract: The government of Uganda is currently testing the performance of genetically modified (GM) cotton varieties. Cotton is cultivated in Uganda for two main reasons: 1) agro-ecological conditions favor cotton cultivation, and 2) there is a long tradition of cotton cultivation in the country. Two main research questions are addressed in this study: a) would the adoption of genetically modified (GM) cotton benefit Ugandan farmers? b) Would the use of GM seed be more profitable than the low input traditional system or than the organic production system? Stochastic budget analysis is used to address these questions. The results show that estimated values of cotton profitability do not seem to justify the investment in a complex technology. The


question then is how transferable is GM technology and how easily can it be adopted by Ugandan farmers. The vertical integration of the chain could facilitate the dissemination of the technology, but availability of seed and inputs of good quality and appropriate extension support have to be guaranteed. URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51823 http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/51823/2/Horna-Kyotalymye-Falck-Zepeda-JUN30th.pdf Author Address: Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa, IFPRI USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Horvath B, Peralta P, Peszlen I, Divos F, Kasal B, Li LaiGeng, Year: 2010 Title: * Elastic modulus of transgenic aspen. Journal: Wood Research (Bratislava) 55, 1. Accession Number: CABI:20103124546 Label: Composition Lignine Qualite Keywords: lignin; modulus of elasticity; transgenic plants; wood properties; wood strength; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; quaking aspen; strength of wood; Young's modulus Abstract: Changing lignin content and structure in trees by manipulating genes encoding key enzymes in various lignin biosynthetic pathways provides a great potential to efficiently utilize woody biomass in pulp and paper making and ethanol production. Solid wood and composite board applications could also be possible for genetically engineered trees, where mechanical properties are crucial. In this work, the elastic modulus of wildtype and transgenic aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with reduced lignin content and increased syringyl to guaiacyl ratio was investigated. A total of fifty sample trees were harvested from the green house after 2.5years of growth and used to measure the static and dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE). Dynamic MOE was determined by Fakopp Microsecond Timer; while static MOE was measured by three-point bending using micromechanical testing. Based on the results, a reduction in the lignin content reduced both the dynamic and static MOE. An increase in the syringyl to guaiacyl ratio also resulted in a decrease in the elastic moduli but to a lesser extent. However, the combined influence of lignin content and structural changes showed the most obvious negative effect on the elastic properties. Dynamic MOE and static MOE values showed similar trend across genetic groups, thus the Fakopp Microsecond Timer can be used to predict the elastic modulus of small diameter trees. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 25 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103124546 Author Address: Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 8005, Raleigh, NC 27695-8005, USA. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hou CT Year: 2010 Title: * Special issue on Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology: number 4. Journal: New Biotechnology 27, 4, 277-444. Accession Number: CABI:20103256029 Label: Revue GĂŠnĂŠral Abstract: agricultural biotechnology and divided into 5 categories, such as molecular engineering, industrial enzymes, production of biological products, biologically active compounds and biofuels. Notes: RESEARCH PAPERS Molecular Engineering Co-expression of heterologous desaturase genes in Yarrowia lipolytica Original Pages 277-282 Lu-Te Chuang, Dzi-Chi Chen, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Catherine Madzak, Ying-Hsuan Chen, Yung-Sheng Huang Functional expression of the thiolase gene thl from Clostridium beijerinckii P260 in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus buchneri Original Research Article Pages 283-288 Siqing Liu, Kenneth M. Bischoff, Nasib Qureshi, Steven R. Hughes, Joseph O. Rich


Isolation and characterization of oil palm constitutive promoter derived from ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene Original Research Article Pages 289-299 Subhi Siti Masura, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad Parveez, Ismanizan Ismail Overexpression and characterization of an extremely thermostable maltogenic amylase, with an optimal temperature of 100 °C, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Staphylothermus marinus Original Research Article Pages 300-307 Dan Li, Jong-Tae Park, Xiaolei Li, Sukyung Kim, Seungjae Lee, Jae-Hoon Shim, Sung-Hoon Park, Jaeho Cha, Byong-Hoon Lee, Jung-Wan Kim, Kwan-Hwa Park PCR amplification and cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase involved in synephrine biosynthesis in Citrus Original Research Article Pages 308-316 Glenn E. Bartley, Andrew P. Breksa III, Betty K. Ishida Two laccase isoenzymes and a peroxidase of a commercial laccase-producing basidiomycete, Trametes sp. Ha1 Original Research Article Pages 317-323 Masato Nakatani, Makoto Hibi, Masashi Minoda, Jun Ogawa, Kenzo Yokozeki, Sakayu Shimizu Expression and activity analysis of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase from onion Original Research Article Pages 324-329 Yawei Han, Liping Chen, Duobin Mao, Lijun Tang, Lihong Guan Enhanced production of lipase by the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5 using statistical experimental designs Original Research Article Pages 330-336 Mohamed Sifour, Taha I. Zaghloul, Hesham M. Saeed, Mahmoud M. Berekaa, Yasser R. Abdel-fattah Isolation of lipase and citric acid producing yeasts from agro-industrial wastewater Original Research Article Pages 337-340 Ladan Mafakher, Maryam Mirbagheri, Farshad Darvishi, Iraj Nahvi, Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Giti Emtiazi Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis Original Research Article Pages 341-346 Young-Han Cho, Jae Yong Song, Kyung Mi Kim, Mi Kyoung Kim, In Young Lee, Sang Bum Kim, Hyeon Shup Kim, Nam Soo Han, Bong Hee Lee, Beom Soo Kim Production of Bioproducts11 Production optimization and properties of beta glucosidases from a marine fungus Aspergillus-SA 58 Original Research Article Pages 347-351 K.K. Elyas, Abraham Mathew, Rajeev K. Sukumaran, P.P. Manzur Ali, K. Sapna, S. Ramesh Kumar, K.R. Rekha Mol Optimal production of 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-hexadecenoic acid from palmitoleic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 Original Research Article Pages 352-357 Jae-Han Bae, Min-Jung Suh, Beom-Soo Kim, Ching T. Hou, In-Jung Lee, In-Hwan Kim, Hak-Ryul Kim A combined metabolic/polymerization kinetic model on the microbial production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Original Research Article Pages 358-367 Giannis Penloglou, Avraam Roussos, Christos Chatzidoukas, Costas Kiparissides Optimization, in vitro release and bioavailability of ?-oryzanol-loaded calcium pectinate microparticles reinforced with chitosan Original Research Article Pages 368-373 Jong Soo Kim, Ji-Soo Lee, Pahn-Shick Chang, Hyeon Gyu Lee Extracellular Ă&#x;-glucosidase production by the yeast Debaryomyces pseudopolymorphus UCLM-NS7A: optimization using response surface methodology Original Research Article Pages 374-381


Aneli M. Barbosa, Ellen C. Giese, Robert F.H. Dekker, Dionísio Borsato, Ana I. Briones Pérez, Juan F. Úbeda Iranzo Optimization of nitrogen source for enhanced production of squalene from thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. Original Research Article Pages 382-389 Guanqun Chen, King-Wai Fan, Fu-Ping Lu, Qian Li, Tsunehiro Aki, Feng Chen, Yue Jiang Bioactive Compounds17 In vitro antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and acute oral toxicity of marine algae Gracilaria changii Original Research Article Pages 390-396 Sreenivasan Sasidharan, Ibrahim Darah, Mohd Kassim Mohd Jain Noordin Activity and characterization of secondary metabolites produced by a new microorganism for control of plant diseases Original Research Article Pages 397-402 Wen-Hsiung Ko, Yi-Jung Tsou, Mei-Ju Lin, Lih-Ling Chern Synergistic effect of high pressure processing and Lactobacillus casei antimicrobial activity against pressure resistant Listeria monocytogenes Original Research Article Pages 403-408 Hyun-Jung Chung, Ahmed E. Yousef Development of the molecular methods for rapid detection and differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum and F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum in Taiwan Original Research Article Pages 409-418 Ying-Hong Lin, Kan-Shu Chen, Jing-Yi Chang, Yu-Ling Wan, Ching-Chi Hsu, Jenn-Wen Huang, Pi-Fang Linda Chang a-Glucosidase inhibitory activities of 10-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid: an intermediate of bioconversion of oleic acid to 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid Original Research Article Pages 419-423 Souren Paul, Ching Tsang Hou, Sun Chul Kang Biofuel and Others22 Biological pretreatment of rice straw by fermenting with Dichomitus squalens Original Research Article Pages 424-434 Jin Seop Bak, Myoung Dong Kim, In-Geol Choi, Kyoung Heon Kim Stability of meoru (Vitis coignetiea) anthocyanins under photochemically produced singlet oxygen by riboflavin Original Research Article Pages 435-439 Moonjung Kim, Suk Hoo Yoon, Munyhung Jung, Eunok Choe Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the enzyme activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli Original Research Article Pages 440-444 Woo-Suk Bang, Hyun-Jung Chung URL: <Go to ISI>://20103256029 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hou H, Erickson J, Meservy J, Schultz EA, Year: 2010 Title: * FORKED1 encodes a PH domain protein that is required for PIN1 localization in developing leaf veins. Journal: The Plant Journal 63, 6, 960-973. Label: Physiol Keywords: FORKED1 PINFORMED1 vein patterning auxin transport auxin canalization Arabidopsis Abstract: The formation of Arabidopsis leaf veins is believed to require canalization of auxin into discrete and continuous cell files to generate a highly reproducible branched and reticulate pattern. During canalization, incipient veins become preferred routes for auxin transport through expression and asymmetric localization of the PINFORMED1 (PIN1) auxin efflux protein: PIN1 expression narrows from a group of cells to a single cell file, and localization of PIN1 protein becomes polarized to the cell membrane facing a previously formed vein.


The shift in PIN1 localization is believed to require active vesicle cycling and be auxin-dependent, generating an autoregulatory loop. Previously, we have shown that fkd1 mutant leaves have an open vein pattern that lacks distal vein meeting. Here, we identify FKD1 as encoding a pleckstrin homology domain- and DUF828containing protein. A fusion of the FKD1 promoter and the GUS reporter gene was expressed in vascular tissue throughout the plant, and its expression in incipient veins in leaves narrows in a manner similar to that of PIN1. FKD1 expression in roots and leaves can be altered by changes to auxin response and auxin transport. In the absence of FKD1, PIN1::GFP narrowing to incipient veins is delayed, and localization to the apical cell face is infrequent. The lack of apical PIN1 localization correlates with the failure of newly forming veins to connect distally with previously formed veins. Our data suggest that FKD1 influences PIN1 localization in an auxindependent manner, and we propose that it represents a key component of the auxin canalization pathway. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04291.x Author Address: 1Department of Cell and System Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, M5S 3B2, ON, Canada 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, TIK 3M4, AB, Canada XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: How Kit A, Boureau L, Stammitti-Bert L, Rolin D, Teyssier E, Gallusci P, Year: 2010 Title: * Functional analysis of SlEZ a tomato Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) gene demonstrates a role in flower development. Secondary Title: Plant Molecular Biology 74, 3, 201-213. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0167-4412 Label: Physiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Polycomb - Epigenetic - Tomato - Fruit - Flower - Enhancer of zeste Abstract: The Enhancer of Zeste (E(z)) Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, which are encoded by a small gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been shown to participate to the control of flowering and seed development. For the time being, little is known about the function of these proteins in other plants. In tomato E(z) proteins are encoded by at least two genes namely SlEZ1 and SlEZ2 while a third gene, SlEZ3, is likely to encode a truncated non-functional protein. The analysis of the corresponding mRNA demonstrates that these two genes are differentially regulated during plant and fruit development. We also show that SlEZ1 and SlEZ2 are targeted to the nuclei. These results together with protein sequence analysis makes it likely that both proteins are functional E(z) proteins. The characterisation of SlEZ1 RNAi lines suggests that although there might be some functional redundancy between SlEZ1 and SlEZ2 in most plant organs, the former protein is likely to play specific function in flower development. Notes: 52 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-010-9657-9 Author Address: (1) UMR Biologie du fruit (UMR 619), INRA, Universités Bordeaux 1 et Bordeaux 2, CR INRA de Bordeaux, 71 Avenue Edouard Bourleaux, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d‘Ornon Cedex, France (2) Université de Bordeaux 1, UMR 619, 33883 Bordeaux, France XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hu JianJun, Yang MinSheng, Lu MengZhu, Year: 2010 Title: * Advances in biosafety studies on transgenic insect-resistant poplars in China. Journal: Biodiversity Science 18, 4, 336-345. Accession Number: CABI:20103263200 Label: InRe RavageurSecond ImpactBiol Dispersion Transfert Review Keywords: transgenic poplar Bt gene insect pests biosafety gene flow Abstract: More concerns have been focused on transgenic trees than transgenic food crops because of their longevity and the likelihood that transgene might spread to related species of wild trees grown nearby. Detailed, the long life span of trees could increase the likelihood of transgene instability, affect diversity of non-target


organisms, improve resistance to insecticidal proteins, increase invasiveness of the tree itself (weediness), and arouse negative environmental consequences or new environmental risks resulted from gene flow or gene escape. The transgenic black poplar Populus nigra carrying Bt gene and hybrid white poplar clone 741 [Populus alba * (P. davidiana+P. simonii) * P. tomentosa] carrying fusion genes, which are resistant to leaf insects, have been commercial release in China since 2002. In this review, we provide a brief overview of biosafety assessment researches on transgenic insect-resistant poplar varieties during the last decades. Arthropod population and community structure have changed within the transgenic poplar plantations, and the diversity of the insect community has increased. But there are no significant changes for soil microbial communities. Gene flow monitoring in the transgenic black poplar plantation showed that the probability of gene escape is very low via pollen and seeds. The potential environment risk was also evaluated based on the experiments of horizontal gene transfer from transgenic poplars through endophytic bacteria. We pointed out the necessity of the biosafety assessments concerning the transgenic poplars when intercropping with food crops. Notes: Times Cited: 0 URL: <Go to ISI>://20103263200 Author Address: 1 Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091 2 Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding, Hebei 071000 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hu Ruibo, Qi Guang, Kong Yingzhen, Kong Dejing, Gao Qian, Zhou Gongke, Year: 2010 Title: * Comprehensive Analysis of NAC Domain Transcription Factor Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa Journal: BMC Plant Biology 10, 1, 145. Accession Number: doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-145 Label: Physiol Abstract: BACKGROUND:NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) domain proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play diverse roles in various plant developmental processes. NAC transcription factors comprise of a large gene family represented by more than 100 members in Arabidopsis, rice and soybean etc. Recently, a preliminary phylogenetic analysis was reported for NAC gene family from 11 plant species. However, no comprehensive study incorporating phylogeny, chromosomal location, gene structure, conserved motifs, and expression profiling analysis has been presented thus far for the model tree species Populus.RESULTS:In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of NAC gene family in Populus was performed. A total of 163 full-length NAC genes were identified in Populus, and they were phylogeneticly clustered into 18 distinct subfamilies. The gene structure and motif compositions were considerably conserved among the subfamilies. The distributions of 120 Populus NAC genes were non-random across the 19 linkage groups (LGs), and 87 genes (73%) were preferentially retained duplicates that located in both duplicated regions. The majority of NACs showed specific temporal and spatial expression patterns based on EST frequency and microarray data analyses. However, the expression patterns of a majority of duplicate genes were partially redundant, suggesting the occurrence of subfunctionalization during subsequent evolutionary process. Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to confirm the tissue-specific expression patterns of 25 NAC genes.CONCLUSION:Based on the genomic organizations, we can conclude that segmental duplications contribute significantly to the expansion of Populus NAC gene family. The comprehensive expression profiles analysis provides first insights into the functional divergence among members in NAC gene family. In addition, the high divergence rate of expression patterns after segmental duplications indicates that NAC genes in Populus are likewise to have been retained by substantial subfunctionalization. Taken together, our results presented here would be helpful in laying the foundation for functional characterization of NAC gene family and further gaining an understanding of the structure-function relationship between these family members. URL: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/10/145 Author Address: 1 Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, PR China 2 Current address: Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, 315 Riverbend Road, Athens, GA 30602, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Hu TingZhang, Xiao GuoSheng, Huang XiaoYun, Chen ZaiGang, Year: 2010 Title: ?? Isolation and functional analysis of the rice OsNRT1-d promoter. Journal: Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica 30, 7, 1289-1295. Accession Number: CABI:20103242990 Label: Physiol Abstract: was studied. The 2 019 bp upstream sequence of the translation start codon ATG of OsNRT1-d gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of rice using PCR. The putative TATA-box, CAAT-box and transcription start site were detected at -189, -127, and -93 bp upstream of the translation start codon ATG, respectively. Three OsNRT1-d promoter deletion derivatives were constructed to identify the OsNRT1-d promoter. The promoter fragments with 5-deletions were fused to GUS reporter gene. The chimeric genes were introduced to rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. NRT2019::GUS, NRT1196::GUS and NRT719::GUS had the same expression patterns in the roots, leaves, flowers and seeds of transgenic rice. GUS activity conferred by different OsNRT1-d promoter fragments was significantly regulated by emergency drought (air-drying on filter paper) and simulated drought (15% PEG6000). OsNRT1-d promoter responds to drought stress and the 719 bp upstream sequence of the translation start codon ATG of OsNRT1-d contains the drought responsive elements. However, OsNRT1-d promoter did not respond to ABA, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, KNO3, and glutamine. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103242990 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: HU Y-Q, LIU S, YUAN H-M, LI J, YAN D-W, ZHANG J-F, LU Y-T, Year: 2010 Title: * Functional comparison of catalase genes in the elimination of photorespiratory H2O2 using promoterand 3'-untranslated region exchange experiments in the Arabidopsis cat2 photorespiratory mutant. Journal: Plant, Cell & Environment 33, 10, 1656-1670. Label: Physiol Keywords: 3'-untranslated region Arabidopsis catalase hydrogen peroxide leaf photorespiration promoter-exchange experiments Abstract: ABSTRACT Photorespiration-associated production of H2O2 accounts for the majority of total H2O2 in leaves of C3 plants and is mainly eliminated by catalases. In Arabidopsis, lack of CAT2, but not CAT1 or CAT3, results in growth suppression and a marked accumulation of H2O2 in leaves. To evaluate the contribution of individual catalase genes and their promoters to catalase function, we investigated the growth suppression and H2O2 accumulation phenotypes of Arabidopsis derivatives expressing catalase genes from heterologous CAT promoters in a cat2 mutant background. The expression of CAT2 from the CAT2 promoter restored the wild-type phenotype in a cat2-1 mutant, while CAT1 and CAT3 promoter-driven expression of CAT2 did not. Ectopic expression of CAT3 from the CAT2 promoter also restored the normal phenotype, unlike that of CAT1 which required replacement of the CAT1 3′-untranslated region (UTR) with that of CAT2. These results demonstrated that the photorespiratory role of CAT2 is determined mainly by the regulation of its promoter activity. The 3′-UTR of CAT2 was vital for controlling CAT2 protein levels under photorespiratory conditions. Identification of component of heterotetramers catalase isoforms suggested that there is some functional redundancy between CAT2 and CAT1 and CAT3. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2010.02171.x Author Address: Key Lab of MOE for Plant Developmental Biology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Huang Chao-Feng, Yamaji Naoki, Ma Jian Feng, Year: 2010 Title: * Knockout of a Bacterial-Type ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene, AtSTAR1, Results in Increased Aluminum Sensitivity in Arabidopsis. Journal: Plant Physiol. 153, 4, 1669-1677. Date: August 1, 2010 Label: ReEn Physiol


Abstract: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent a large family in plants, but the functions of most of these transporters are unknown. Here we report a gene, AtSTAR1, only encoding an ATP-binding domain of a bacterial-type ABC transporter in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). AtSTAR1 is an ortholog of rice (Oryza sativa) OsSTAR1, which has been implicated in aluminum (Al) tolerance. Knockout of AtSTAR1 resulted in increased sensitivity to Al and earlier flowering. Unlike OsSTAR1, AtSTAR1 was expressed in both the roots and shoots and its expression was not induced by Al or other stresses. Investigation of tissue-specific localization of AtSTAR1 through {beta}-glucuronidase fusion revealed that AtSTAR1 was predominantly expressed at outer cell layers of root tips and developing leaves, whose localization is also different from those of OsSTAR1. However, introduction of OsSTAR1 into atstar1 mutant rescued the sensitivity of atstar1 to Al, indicating that AtSTAR1 has a similar function as OsSTAR1. Furthermore, we found that AtSTAR1 may interact with ALS3, a transmembrane-binding domain in Arabidopsis to form a complex because introduction of OsSTAR1, a functional substitute of AtSTAR1, into als3 mutant resulted in the loss of OsSTAR1 protein. All these findings indicate that AtSTAR1 is involved in the basic detoxification of Al in Arabidopsis. URL: http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/abstract/153/4/1669 Author Address: Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki 710–0046, Japan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: HUANG Jing-Jing, HAN Bin, CHANG Ju-Hua, SHEN Wen-Biao, SHEN Jin-Liang Year: 2010 Title: ?? Preparation of polyclonal antibody of N-terminal peptide of cadherin of Helicoverpa armigera and primary detection of Bt-resistance. Journal: Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, Year 2010, Issue 2, Page 293-298. Label: InRe Resistance Author Address: China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Huang SQ, Xiang AL, Che LL, Chen S, Li H, Song JB, Yang ZM, Year: 2010 Title: * A set of miRNAs from Brassica napus in response to sulphate deficiency and cadmium stress. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal 8, 8, 887-899. Label: ReEn Keywords: microRNA sulphate deficiency cadmium sulphur transporter ATP sulphurylases Abstract: Summary MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-coding small RNAs that can base pair their target mRNAs to repress their translation or induce their degradation in organisms. However, whether miRNAs are involved in the global response to sulphate deficiency and heavy metal stress is unknown. In this study, we constructed a small RNA library from rapeseed (Brassica napus) treated with sulphate deficiency and cadmium (Cd2+), respectively. Sequencing analysis revealed 13 conserved miRNAs representing nine families, with five new miRNAs that have not been cloned before. Transcriptional analysis with RT-PCR showed the differential expression of these miRNAs under sulphate deficiency and Cd exposure. We have cloned five genes BnSultr2;1 and BnAPS1-4, which encode a low-affinity sulphate transporter and a family of ATP sulphurylases in B. napus, respectively. BnSultr2;1, BnAPS3 and BnAPS4 were first cloned from B. napus, and BnSultr2;1, BnAPS1, BnAPS3 and BnAPS4 were identified as the targets of miR395. Analysis with 5'-RACE and transformation of MIR395d into B. napus confirmed that all of them were the authentic targets of miR395. Our results support the importance of miRNAs in regulating plant responses to abiotic stresses and suggest that identification of a set of miRNAs would facilitate our understanding of regulatory mechanisms for plant tolerance to sulphate deficiency and heavy metal stress. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00517.x Author Address: 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China 2Laboratory of Rapeseed Breeding, Industrial Crop Institute, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Huff Jonathan A, Reynolds Daniel B, Dodds Darrin M, Irby J Trenton, Year: 2010 Title: * Glyphosate Tolerance in Enhanced Glyphosate-Resistant Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Journal: Weed Technology 24, 3, 289-294. Date: 2010/09/15 Label: HeTo ImpactBiol Efficacite Abstract: Glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (RR) cotton varieties after the four-leaf stage can decrease boll retention resulting in severe yield reductions. Enhanced glyphosate-resistant cotton (RR Flex), released for commercial use in 2006, offers a wider window of glyphosate applications without the risk of yield loss. However, no data exist regarding the effect of glyphosate application, especially late season applications, on fruit partitioning in RR Flex cotton. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of glyphosate rate and application timing on RR Flex cotton yield and fruit partitioning compared with current RR cotton. Studies were conducted during a 3-yr period (2004 to 2006), throughout the cotton growing regions of Mississippi. Roundup Ready (ST 4892 Bollgard/Roundup Ready [BR]) and Roundup Ready Flex (Mon 171 Enhanced Roundup Ready and ST 4554 Bollgard II/Roundup Ready Flex [B2RF]) cotton was planted, and glyphosate was applied at various rates and cotton growth stages. Data were collected using box mapping, a technique designed to depict yield partitioning on a cotton plant. RR Flex cotton yields were unaffected by glyphosate application timing or rate. Yields for ST 4892 BR were affected by application timings after the sixth leaf. ST 4892 BR had increased yield partitioning to position-three bolls and upper nodes with later application timings of glyphosate. Increases in seed cotton partitioned to higher nodes and outer fruiting positions were unable to compensate for fruit shed from innermost, lower fruiting sites. These data indicate that RR Flex cotton has excellent tolerance to late-season glyphosate applications. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1614/WT-08-183.1 Author Address: Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762. USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Huh Sun Mi, Noh Eun Kyeung, Kim Hye Gi, Jeon Byeong Wook; Bae Kisuk, Hu Heng-Cheng, Kwak June M., Park Ohkmae K, Year: 2010 Title: * Arabidopsis Annexins AnnAt1 and AnnAt4 Interact with Each Other and Regulate Drought and Salt Stress Responses. Journal: Plant and Cell Physiology 51, 9, 1499-1514. Date: September 1, 2010 Label: ReEn Secheresse Salin Keywords: ABA Arabidopsis Annexin Calcium-binding protein Drought stress Salt stress Abstract: Annexins are Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding proteins that form an evolutionarily conserved multigene family throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. Two annexins, AnnAt1 and AnnAt4, have been identified as components in osmotic stress and abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we report that AnnAt1 and AnnAt4 regulate plant stress responses in a light-dependent manner. The single-mutant annAt1 and annAt4 plants showed tolerance to drought and salt stress, which was greatly enhanced in double-mutant annAt1annAt4 plants, but AnnAt4-overexpressing transgenic plants (35S:AnnAt4) were more sensitive to stress treatments under long day conditions. Furthermore, expression of stress-related genes was altered in these mutant and transgenic plants. Upon dehydration and salt treatment, AtNCED3, encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, and P5CS1, encoding -1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase, which are key enzymes in ABA and proline synthesis, respectively, were highly induced in annAt1annAt4 plants and to a lesser extent in annAt1 and annAt4 plants, but not in 35S:AnnAt4 plants. While annAt1 plants were more drought sensitive, annAt4 plants were more tolerant in short days than in long days. In vitro and in vivo binding assays revealed that AnnAt1 and AnnAt4 bind to each other in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Our results suggest that AnnAt1 and AnnAt4 function cooperatively in response to drought and salt stress and their functions are affected by photoperiod. URL: http://pcp.oxfordjournals.org/content/51/9/1499.abstract Author Address: 1School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea 2Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA


3Department of Plant Molecular Systems Biotechnology and Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Husnain T, Maqbool A, Qaisar U, Irfan M, Zahoor M, Khan M, Rashid B, Riazuddin S, Year: 2008 Title: 造 Expression of drought related genes of Gossypium arboreum in G. hirsutum. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: ReEn Secheresse Abstract: Five local varieties of Gossypium arboreum i.e. FDH-170, FDH-300, FDH-306, FDH-786 and Ravi were studied for tolerance against water shortages. Epicuticular wax and proline content from leaves of control and drought stressed plants were extracted and quantifi ed. All varieties showed an increase in the wax and proline content under drought conditions and FDH-786 was found to be the most drought tolerant with a 9 fold high level in wax content and 5.75 fold elevated level of proline content as compared to control. Therefore, it was selected for the identifi cation and expression analysis of wax genes. Primers were designed from genebank EST database to identify unknown wax genes from Gossypium arboreum. Full-length coding region of two of these genes was identifi ed by RACE-PCR and sequenced. These genes showed homology with wax gene 3-ketoacyl CoA synthase and Cer3 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana. Both genes were amplifi ed from genomic DNA and it was found that 3 ketoacyl CoA consists of a single exon while cer3 consists of a large number of exons. Gossypium arboreum (L) was also studied using differential display technique. Initially 30 fragments were expressed with 93 primer pair combinations and 20 fragments were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. Seven were confi rmed through real time PCR. Due to signifi cant homology of two transcripts A4B1 & A6B2 with small heat shock protein and universal stress protein, these were selected to get full length gene. Full-length coding region of two of these genes was identifi ed by RACE-PCR. Both genes were amplifi ed from genomic DNA. Alignments revealed that GHSP26 comprises a single open reading frame of 230 amino acids. The gene product contains the highly conserved alpha crystalline region, spanning amino acid residues 133-217 and a Met-rich region from 94-117aa at the N-terminus. The gene was transferred to G. hirsutum where transgenic plants exhibit better temperature tolerance GUSP PCR from genomic DNA resulted in isolation of two closely related genes of same family designated GUSP1& GUSP2. The two genes code for proteins with predicted molecular weights of 18.2 Kdal and 19.1 Kdal respectively. Sequence analysis showed that GUSP1& GUSP2 are highly similar to the bacterial MJ0577-type of ATP-binding Usp proteins, which have been proposed to function as a molecular switch. Nucleotide sequences of these two genes showed 81% sequence similarity while their encoded protein shared 75% sequence identity to each other. Expression of the genes in different tissues was checked through real time PCR. The highest levels of drought-inducible expression were found in the leaves with progressive decrease in expression in stem and root, as compared to very low expression in control tissues. GUSP also upregulated under salt stress while GHSP26 did not show upregulation under salt stress. Southern blot analysis revealed that GHSP26 has 7-8, while GUSP has 5- 6, copy number in cotton genome. URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, Pakistan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hutchison WD, EC Burkness, PD Mitchell, RD Moon, TW Leslie, SJ Fleischer, M Abrahamson, KL Hamilton, KL Steffey, ME Gray, RL Hellmich, LV Kaster,TE Hunt, RJ Wright, K Pecinovsky, TL Rabaey, BR Flood, ES Raun, Year: 2010 Title: * Areawide Suppression of European Corn Borer with Bt Maize Reaps Savings to Non-Bt Maize Growers. Journal: SCIENCE 8 OCTOBER 2010 VOL 330 www.sciencemag.org Keywords: InRe Efficacite


Abstract: Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for nonBt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management. Notes: Supporting Online Material www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/330/6001/222/DC1 Author Address: 1Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. 2Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. 3Department of Biology, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. 4Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16802, USA. 5Minnesota Department of Agriculture, St. Paul, MN 55107, USA. 6Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection, Madison, WI 53718, USA. 7Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. 8USDA-ARS, Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Unit, Genetics Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011, USA. 9Syngenta Seeds Inc., Slater, IA 50244, USA. 10Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, NEREC, Haskell Agricultural Laboratory, Concord, NE 68728, USA. 11Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA. 12Iowa State University, Nashua, IA 50658, USA. 13General Mills Inc., Le Sueur, MN 56058, USA. 14Del Monte Foods, Rochelle, IL 61068, USA. 15Pest Management Co., Lincoln, NE 68506, USA. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Hwang IS, Hwang BK. Year: 2010 Title: * Role of the pepper cytochrome P450 gene CaCYP450A in defense responses against microbial pathogens. Secondary Title: Planta. 2010 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print], pp. 1-13. Publisher: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Date: 2010-09-09 ISBN/ISSN: 0032-0935 Label: BaRe FuRe Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences Abstract: Plant cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in a wide range of biosynthetic reactions, leading to various fatty acid conjugates, plant hormones, or defensive compounds. Herein, we have identified the pepper cytochrome P450 gene CaCYP450A, which is differentially induced during Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. CaCYP450A contains a heme-binding motif, PXFXXGXRXCXG, located in the Cterminal region and a hydrophobic membrane anchor region at the N terminal. Knock-down of CaCYP450A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) led to increased susceptibility to Xcv infection in pepper. CaCYP450Aoverexpressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited lower pathogen growth and reduced disease symptoms, and they were more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis than wildtype plants. Overexpression of CaCYP450A also enhanced H2O2 accumulation and cell death. However, CaCYP450A Arabidopsis ortholog CYP94B3 mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to virulent Pst DC3000, but not to avirulent Pst DC3000 avrRpm1 or virulent H. arabidopsidis infection. Taken together, these results suggest that CaCYP450A is required for defense responses to microbial pathogens in plants. The nucleotide sequence data reported here has been deposited in the GenBank database under the accession number HM581974.


URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1266-y Author Address: Laboratory of Molecular Plant Pathology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul, 136-713, Korea. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Iglesias Cynthia, Mohamed Khraishy Year: 2010 Title: £ Jordan - Biotechnology - GE Plants and Animals Journal: GAIN (Global Agricultural Information Network) Report Number: JO1005 - 6/24/2010 - USDA Foreign Agricultural Service Label: Adoption Abstract: Jordan has recently issued new biotechnology regulations that mandate the labeling of biotech food and feed. Notes: From : Crop Biotech Update > September 3, 2010 http://www.isaaa.org/kc/cropbiotechupdate/article/default.asp?ID=6612 GAIN Reports: Jordan Jordan's status on Biotechnology: GE Plants and Animals has been released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service. The report notes that Jordan has recently introduced new regulations on biosafety of biotechnology products, but it still lacks the technical ability to enforce laws on biotechnology. Download the report at http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Biotechnology%20%20GE%20Plants%20and%20Animals_Amman_Jordan_6-24-2010.pdf Author Address: ? XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Year: 2009 Title: ££ Annual Report - ICRISAT 2009. Food security and diversification in the drylands. Book Title: Annual Report - ICRISAT 2009. Food security and diversification in the drylands City: Patancheru India Publisher: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Pages: 60 pp. Accession Number: CABI:20103240228 Label: Adoption Socioeconomic Keywords: bioinformatics; biotechnology; crop yield; cultivars; food security; genetic diversity; genetic improvement; ICRISAT; improved varieties; millets; pearl millet; phenotypic variation; seed quality; seeds; semiarid climate; small farms; varietal resistance; watersheds; weeds bulrush millet; catchment areas; cultivated varieties; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics; People's Republic of China; phenotypic variability Abstract: ICRISAT's mission is "to reduce poverty, enhance food and nutritional security and protect the environment of the semi-arid tropics by empowering the poor through partnership-based science with a human face". This report for 2009 portrays the multipronged efforts to ensure food security in the semi-arid tropics. These include the: (1) use of modern science tools (biotechnology and bioinformatics) to create new and more vigorous crop varieties; (2) understanding and use of the West and Central African pearl millet diversity (phenotypic and genetic) in the development of improved, farmer-preferred cultivars; (3) use of on-station trials on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) to control Striga hermonthica and increase crop yields by using S. hermonthicaresistant cultivars; (4) understanding the livelihoods of smallholder farmers of the semi-arid tropics; (5) assessing the watersheds of China and India; and (6) providing viable seeds for the poor farmers. Notes: Annual report English URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10731/3343 http://openaccess.icrisat.org/bitstream/10731/3343/1/icrisat-ar-2009.pdf Author Address: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra Pradesh, India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Jacek P. Twardowski, Pawe Bereœ, Micha Hurej, Zdzisaw Klukowski, Year: 2010 Title: *¤ Ground beetles (Col., Carabidae) in Bt-maize – preliminary results from the first large scale field experiment in Poland. Journal: IOBC/wprs Bulletin Vol. 52, 2010, 97-102. Working Group „GMOs in Integrated Plant Production‖. Proceedings of the fourth Meeting on Ecological Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms at Rostock (Germany), 14-16 May, 2009. Edited by: Jörg Romeis. (ISBN 978-92-9067-226-5) [xii+ 117 pp.] Label: InRe ImpactBiol Abstract: The ground beetle fauna was studied at two experimental field sites in Poland. The aim of this study was to determine the long term impact of Bt maize on non-target organisms in comparison to conventional maize. For this purpose, Bt maize (DKC 3421 YG) expressing the Cry1Ab toxin and the respective isogenic non-Bt variety (DKC 3420) were cultivated under identical conditions. For comparison, two non-Bt cultivars sprayed with a lambda-cyhalotrine were also included. Population density of surface-active invertebrates was monitored using pitfall traps (4 per plot). In the first year of the study, no significant differences between Bt maize and the conventional treatments were detected. Author Address: Poland XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Jang In-Cheol, Henriques Rossana, Seo Hak Soo, Nagatani Akira, Chua Nam-Hai, Year: 2010 Title: * Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR Proteins Promote Phytochrome B Polyubiquitination by COP1 E3 Ligase in the Nucleus. Journal: Plant Cell 22, 7, 2370-2383. Date: July 1, 2010 Label: Physiol Abstract: Many plant photoresponses from germination to shade avoidance are mediated by phytochrome B (phyB). In darkness, phyB exists as the inactive Pr in the cytosol but upon red (R) light treatment, the active Pfr translocates into nuclei to initiate signaling. Degradation of phyB Pfr likely regulates signal termination, but the mechanism is not understood. Here, we show that phyB is stable in darkness, but in R, a fraction of phyB translocates into nuclei and becomes degraded by 26S proteasomes. Nuclear phyB degradation is mediated by COP1 E3 ligase, which preferentially interacts with the PhyB N-terminal region (PhyB-N). PhyB-N polyubiquitination by CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) in vitro can be enhanced by different PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) proteins that promote COP1/PhyB interaction. Consistent with these results, nuclear phyB accumulates to higher levels in pif single and double mutants and in cop1-4. Our results identify COP1 as an E3 ligase for phyB and other stable phytochromes and uncover the mechanism by which PIFs negatively regulate phyB levels. Notes: This work identifies COP1 as the ubiquitin E3 ligase for not only phytochrome B but also other members of the stable phytochrome family and shows that PIF transcription factors enhance phyB ubiquitination by COP1 in vitro. It provides a molecular mechanism for the termination of red light signal transduction. URL: http://www.plantcell.org/cgi/content/abstract/22/7/2370 Author Address: a Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065 USA b Department of Botany, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Jasbeer Kaur, Son Radu, Farinazleen Mohamad Ghazali, Kqueen CheahYoke, Year: 2010 Title: * Real-time PCR-based detection and quantification of genetically modified maize in processed feeds commercialised in Malaysia. Journal: Food Control 21, 11.


Accession Number: CABI:20103267246 Label: InRe Detection Devenir Keywords: detection; feeds; maize; polymerase chain reaction; transgenic plants; corn; feeding stuffs; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; PCR Abstract: The present study which dealt mainly with processed feeds and some maize samples sold commercially in Malaysia evaluated the implementation of a real-time PCR cycling system for singleplex screening of eight target sequences (lectin, hmg, adh1, p35S, NK603, GA21, MON810 and MON863) and quantification of four genetically modified (GM) maize events (NK603, GA21, MON810 and MON863). The effects of using proprietary glass magnetic particles to bind DNA to their surface were also investigated in terms of DNA quantity, purity, integrity, quality and its overall effect on DNA amplification. GM material was present in 26.2% feeds and 65% maize samples. All GM samples contained MON810 followed by NK603 (47.5%), GA21 (25%) and MON863 (2.5%). Single-event and multiple-events were identified in the GM samples with 50% of the GM samples containing multiple-events. The present study which represents a fast and reliable methodology would provide an overview of the presence and levels of GMOs in feeds and maize in Malaysia. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 25 ref. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103267246 Author Address: Department of Chemistry, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia, Jalan Sultan, 46661 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Javelle Marie, Vanessa Vernoud, Nathalie Depège-Fargeix, Christine Arnould, Delphine Oursel, Frédéric Domergue, Xavier Sarda, Peter M. Rogowsky, Year: 2010 Title: * Overexpression of the Epidermis-Specific Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper IV Transcription Factor OUTER CELL LAYER1 in Maize Identifies Target Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism and Cuticle Biosynthesis. Journal: Plant Physiology 154:273-286 (2010). Accession Number: MEDLINE:20605912 Label: Physiol Abstract: Transcription factors of the homeodomain-leucine zipper IV (HD-ZIP IV) family play crucial roles in epidermis-related processes. To gain further insight into the molecular function of OUTER CELL LAYER1 (OCL1), 14 target genes up- or down-regulated in transgenic maize (Zea mays) plants overexpressing OCL1 were identified. The 14 genes all showed partial coexpression with OCL1 in maize organs, and several of them shared preferential expression in the epidermis with OCL1. They encoded proteins involved in lipid metabolism, defense, envelope-related functions, or cuticle biosynthesis and include ZmWBC11a (for white brown complex 11a), an ortholog of AtWBC11 involved in the transport of wax and cutin molecules. In support of the annotations, OCL1-overexpressing plants showed quantitative and qualitative changes of cuticular wax compounds in comparison with wild-type plants. An increase in C24 to C28 alcohols was correlated with the transcriptional up-regulation of ZmFAR1, coding for a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase. Transcriptional activation of ZmWBC11a by OCL1 was likely direct, since transactivation in transiently transformed maize kernels was abolished by a deletion of the activation domain in OCL1 or mutations in the L1 box, a cis-element bound by HD-ZIP IV transcription factors. Our data demonstrate that, in addition to AP2/EREBP and MYBtype transcription factors, members of the HD-ZIP IV family contribute to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis. URL: http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/abstract/154/1/273 Author Address: Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128 BioSciences Lyon Gerland, Unité Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F–69364 Lyon, France INRA, UMR879 Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F–69364 Lyon, France CNRS, UMR5667 Reproduction et Développement des Plantes, F–69364 Lyon, France Centre de Microscopie INRA/Université de Bourgogne, INRA, Centre de Microbiologie du Sol et de l'Environnement, F–21065 Dijon, France Laboratoire de Biogenèse Membranaire, Université Bordeaux II, CNRS-UMR5200, F–33076 Bordeaux, France Biogemma, Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, F–63028 Clermont-Ferrand, France


XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Jena Kshirod, Kim Suk-Man Year: 2010 Title: * Current Status of Brown Planthopper (BPH) Resistance and Genetics. Secondary Title: Rice 3, 2, 161-171 Publisher: Springer New York Date: 2010-09-01 ISBN/ISSN: 1939-8425 Accession Number: DO - 10.1007/s12284-010-9050-y Label: InRe Efficacite Bioebgineering Keywords: Life Sciences - Rice - Brown planthopper - Genetics - Resistance - Major genes - Gene mapping Abstract: Among the planthoppers of rice, the brown planthopper (BPH) is a major threat to rice production and causes significant yield loss annually. Host-plant resistance is an important strategy to reduce the damage caused by BPH and increase rice productivity. Twenty-one major genes for BPH resistance have been identified by using standard evaluation methods developed at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to distinguish resistance or susceptibility of rice genotypes to BPH biotypes/populations. These genes are from diverse genetic resources such as land race cultivars and wild species of Oryza. Of the 21 resistance genes, 18 genes have been localized on specific region of six rice chromosomes using molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools. Some of these resistance genes are clustered together such as Bph1, bph2, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18, and Bph21 on the long arm of chromosome 12; Bph12, Bph15, Bph17 and Bph20 on the short arm of chromosome 4; bph11 and Bph14 on the long arm of chromosome 3 and Bph13(t) and bph19 on the short arm of chromosome 3. Six genes (Bph11, bph11, Bph12, bph12, Bph13 and Bph13) originated from wild Oryza species have either duplicate chromosome locations or wrong nomenclature. The discrepancy should be confirmed by allelism tests. Besides identification of major resistance genes, some quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BPH resistance have also been identified on eight chromosomes. Most of the rice cultivars developed at IRRI possess one or two of the major resistance genes and the variety IR64 has many QTLs and confers strong resistance to BPH. More BPH resistance genes need to be identified from the wealth of gene pool available in the wild species of Oryza. Two BPH resistance genes (Bph14 and Bph18) have been cloned, and a snow drop lectin gene (GNA) has been identified and used in the development of BPH-resistant transgenic plants. Efficient introgression of resistance genes (Bph1, bph2, Bph3, Bph14, Bph15, Bph18, Bph20, and Bph21) into elite rice cultivars by marker-assisted selection together with strategic deployment of these genes can be an important approach to develop stable resistance to BPH and sustain rice production in the tropical and temperate rice growing regions. Notes: 66 Ref URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12284-010-9050-y Author Address: Rep Korea XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Jha A, Joshi M, Yadav NS, Agarwal PK, Jha B, Year: 2010 Title: * Cloning and characterization of the Salicornia brachiata Na(+)/H (+) antiporter gene SbNHX1 and its expression by abiotic stress. Journal: Mol Biol Rep. 2010 Sep 19. [Epub ahead of print] Label: ReEn Salin Abstract: Salinity causes multifarious adverse effects to plants. Plants response to salt stress involves numerous processes that function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. A Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHX1 gene has been isolated from a halophytic plant Salicornia brachiata in this study. Predicted amino acid sequence similarity, protein topology and the presence of functional domains conserved in SbNHX1 classify it as a plant vacuolar NHX gene. The SbNHX1 cDNA has an open reading frame of 1,683 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 560 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass 62.44 kDa. The SbNHX1 shows high amino acid similarity with other halophytic NHX gene and belongs to Class-I type NHXs. TMpred suggests that SbNHX1 contains 11 strong transmembrane (TM). Real time PCR analysis revealed that SbNHX1 transcript expresses maximum at 0.5 M. Transcript increases


gradually by increasing the treatment duration at 0.5 M NaCl, however, maximum expression was observed at 48 h. The overexpression of SbNHX1 gene in tobacco plant showed NaCl tolerance. This study shows that SbNHX1 is a potential gene for salt tolerance, and can be used in future for developing salt tolerant crops Author Address: Discipline of Marine Biotechnology and Ecology, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Bhavnagar, 364 002, Gujarat, India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Jiang Wei, Li Lin Liu Teng Wang Year: 2010 Title: ?? Research progress in crop waterlogging. Journal: GUANGXI AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES: 2010 41(5) Label: ReEn Inondation Keywords: Waterlogging tolerance of crops to waterlogging Progress Key words: crop progress of waterlogging stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics of progress of water stress indicators of major natural disasters, changes in the intrinsic physiological mechanism of morphogenesis gene technology at the molecular level identification of plant damage mechanism of visual damage limitation article Abstract: Waterlogging is most of the world is facing one of the major natural disasters, crop waterlogging caused a series of injury or even death, severely limits the distribution and yield of crops. Article from the physiological and biochemical aspects of morphogenesis and introduced crops in the waterlogging Stress changes of the indicator mechanism of crop waterlogging; that should be further physiological and biochemical characteristics of crop research, gene technology at the molecular level by exploring the inner crop Nai mechanism of water stress and to identify reliable, intuitive identification of waterlogging physiological indicators in order to fundamentally solve the issue of plant water stress Author Address: Hunan Agricultural University, Institute of Ecology Institute of Biological Science and Technology, Changsha, 410128 Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Jones Phill Year: 2010 Title: $ Genetically Engineered Alfalfa: OTAY! Or Not OTAY!. Journal: ISB News Report August 2010 Label: HeTo Adoption Reglement Abstract: Full text : The US Department of Agriculture‘s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) approved genetically engineered (GE) alfalfa in 2005. The US Food and Drug Administration gave it a thumbs up. Yet questions about GE alfalfa haunted courts and APHIS for about five years. The controversy concerned the deregulation of two lines of GE alfalfa that tolerate the glyphosate herbicide, Roundup®. Benefits touted for Roundup Ready® alfalfa include high-quality weed-free hay, cost-effective weed control, and improved production efficiencies. A decrease in weed content should improve animal welfare by controlling the amount of poisonous weeds in alfalfa feed. Farmers have also reported increases in alfalfa yield with the Roundup Ready® crop. The Western Organization of Resource Councils asserts that GE alfalfa poses a variety of harms. Since alfalfa is a cross-pollinating crop, the Council contended, GE DNA from Roundup Ready® alfalfa fields may contaminate fields of conventional alfalfa and alfalfa grown under organic conditions. About five percent of US-grown alfalfa is exported, and the presence of GE alfalfa could wreck organic alfalfa and conventional alfalfa export markets. Consumption of GE alfalfa also may harm birds, mammals, insects, and other beneficial organisms, the Council argued. Alfalfa debate shifts from APHIS to Federal District Court Monsanto Company owns the patent rights to Roundup Ready® alfalfa, and licenses the technology to Forage Genetics International, the exclusive developer of Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed. In May 2003, Monsanto and Forage Genetics submitted a petition to the USDA that requested nonregulated status for two Roundup Ready® alfalfa lines, J101 and J163. APHIS prepared an Environmental Assessment and accepted comments from the


public about a draft EA. APHIS issued a Finding of No Significant Impact in June 2005. The agency saw no need to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and unconditionally deregulated the GE alfalfa. What about objectors‘ fears of GE alfalfa contamination? APHIS concluded that it would be ―up to the individual organic seed or hay grower to institute those procedures that will assure‖ that their crops will not include any GE alfalfa. By using reasonable quality control, the agency decided, ―it is highly unlikely that the level of glyphosate tolerant alfalfa will exceed one percent in conventional alfalfa hay,‖ a degree of contamination that would not bar the product from the Japanese market. In early 2006, the Center for Food Safety, several other nonprofit organizations, and alfalfa growers filed a lawsuit against the USDA in a California US District Court that challenged APHIS‘ decision to deregulate the Roundup Ready® alfalfa lines. The plaintiffs alleged that the USDA‘s deregulation of GE alfalfa violated the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), because cultivation of the GE alfalfa would pass on the glyphosate tolerance gene to conventional alfalfa, a significant environmental impact. On February 13, 2007, Judge Charles R. Breyer held that APHIS had violated NEPA by deregulating Roundup Ready® alfalfa without first drafting an EIS. According to the judge, APHIS had effectively concluded that any environmental impact would be insignificant, because organic and conventional farmers bore the responsibility to prevent genetic contamination. Yet Judge Breyer could find no evidence that the agency had investigated if farmers could in fact protect their crops from genetic contamination. As the court mulled over an appropriate remedy for the NEPA violation, Monsanto and Forage Genetics joined the case. In March, the judge issued a preliminary injunction order prohibiting all planting of Roundup Ready® alfalfa and all sales of Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed after March 30, 2007, pending the issuance of a permanent injunction. This order allowed farmers who had already purchased Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed to plant the seed. Farmers who had already planted Roundup Ready® alfalfa were not required to remove the plants, and were allowed to harvest, use, and sell Roundup Ready® alfalfa. In April 2007, Judge Breyer held a hearing on the scope of permanent injunctive relief. The plaintiffs wanted to prevent all future planting of Roundup Ready® alfalfa, as well as the harvesting of any Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed already planted, pending the completion of an EIS and a new decision by APHIS on deregulation. The defendants requested that the GE alfalfa planting proceed under certain conditions, including the cultivation of GE alfalfa at suitable distances from other crops to minimize gene flow to non-genetically engineered alfalfa seeds. Both sides submitted a colossal amount of evidence, their experts disagreeing over practically every factual issue relating to possible environmental harm. In May 2007, the district court judge vacated APHIS‘ June 2005 regulation decision, ordered APHIS to prepare an EIS before the agency decided again about Monsanto‘s deregulation petition, and issued a permanent injunction prohibiting the planting of any Roundup Ready® alfalfa in the United States after March 30, 2007, pending the government‘s completion of the EIS and decision on the deregulation petition. Future harvesting or sale of about 260,000 acres of GE alfalfa already planted would be allowed under certain conditions. The judge instructed APHIS to issue an administrative order detailing mandatory practices for future harvesting or sale of GE alfalfa already planted. The judge ordered Forage Genetics to supply all known GE alfalfa seed production locations for public disclosure. Producers of conventional or organicallygrown alfalfa could use this information to decide if they should test their crops for contamination. Later, the court restricted disclosure to farmers only. The Supremes weigh in In August 2007, the USDA, Forage Genetics, Monsanto, and a number of alfalfa growers filed an appeal with the Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco. The defendants asserted that the injunction was too broad. They also argued that the district court should have held a further hearing before enjoining future planting, even though the judge had already held a hearing on the need for an EIS. A three-judge panel heard the case in June of 2008, and issued a decision in September. Two of the three judges decided to uphold the ban on selling and planting of GE alfalfa seed, pending the completion of an EIS. The dissenting judge asserted that they should send the case back to the district court so that the court could conduct an evidentiary hearing on the merits and scope of the permanent injunction. In December 2009, APHIS offered its draft EIS for public comment. The agency considered two alternatives in the draft EIS. It would either grant nonregulated status to the two lines of GE alfalfa, or maintain the status as regulated articles. APHIS analyzed the alternatives with regard to their potential impacts on gene flow between the GE alfalfa and conventional alfalfa, weed development, herbicide use, possible effects on conventional and organic alfalfa markets, human health and safety, effects on the physical environment, and other factors.


Meanwhile, Forage Genetics, Monsanto, and two alfalfa farmers appealed the latest court decision to the US Supreme Court. The Petitioners and the government did not dispute that APHIS‘ deregulation decision violated NEPA. Rather, they argued that the lower courts failed to show a likelihood of irreparable harm to justify the issuance of the injunction. In January 2010, the Court agreed to review the ruling. Justice Stephen Breyer took no part in consideration of the petition; Judge Charles R. Breyer of the district court is his brother. The Court heard oral arguments in April, and issued its decision on June 21. In a 7-1 ruling, the Court reversed the appellate court. First, the Court tackled the injunction that prevented APHIS from deregulating GE alfalfa pending completion of the EIS. ―[T]he District Court barred the agency from pursuing any deregulation,‖ wrote Justice Alito, ―no matter how limited the geographic area in which planting of [GE alfalfa] would be allowed, how great the isolation distances mandated between [GE alfalfa] fields and fields for growing non-genetically engineered alfalfa, how stringent the regulations governing harvesting and distribution, how robust the enforcement mechanisms available at the time of the decision, and—consequently—no matter how small the risk that the planting authorized under such conditions would adversely affect the environment in general and respondents in particular.‖ Before a court grants a permanent injunction, a plaintiff must show that it has suffered an irreparable injury. Here, the plaintiffs cannot show that they will suffer irreparable injury if APHIS is allowed to proceed with any partial deregulation, the Court said, because if and when APHIS pursues a partial deregulation that arguably runs afoul of NEPA, the plaintiffs may file a new suit challenging the action.Also, a partial deregulation need not cause plaintiffs any injury at all. Depending upon APHIS‘ conditions, the risk of gene flow could be virtually nonexistent. The Court decided that the District Court also had erred in issuing the nationwide injunction against planting GE alfalfa. ―[B]ecause it was inappropriate for the District Court to foreclose even the possibility of a partial and temporary deregulation,‖ Alito explained, ―it necessarily follows that it was likewise inappropriate to enjoin any and all parties from acting in accordance with the terms of such a deregulation decision.‖ Both sides of the dispute hailed the verdict as a victory. For now, APHIS can decide growing conditions for GE alfalfa pending completion of the EIS, which may issue in Spring 2011. References APHIS (2010) Roundup Ready® Alfalfa. APHIS website. Available at: www.aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/alfalfa.shtml. Monsanto et al. v. Geertson Seed Farms et al., 561 U. S. ____ (2010). Available at: http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/slipopinions.aspx. Hubbard, Kristina (2008). A Guide to Genetically Modified Alfalfa. Western Organization of Resource Councils. Available at: www.worc.org. Welker, Steve and Matt Fanta (December 18, 2009). Biotechnology and the Farmers‘ Right to Choose. Available at: www.monsanto.com. Author Address: Phill Jones Biotech-Writer.com - PhillJones@nasw.org USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Joo Yeol Kim, Hwa Jung Lee, Hyun Ju Jung, Kazuyuki Maruyama, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Hunseung Kang, Year: 2010 Title: * Overexpression of microRNA395c or 395e affects differently the seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under stress conditions. Journal: Planta. 2010 Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print] Label: ReEn Physiol Keywords: Abiotic stress - Arabidopsis - MicroRNA - miR395 - Sulfate transporter Abstract: The Arabidopsis genome encodes six members of microRNA395 (miR395) family previously determined to regulate the expression of ATP sulfurylase (APS) and the sulfate transporter SULTR2;1. However, the mRNA targets for the individual miR395 family members and the biological consequences produced by target gene regulation of each miR395 remain to be identified. In this study, a transgenic approach was employed to determine the mRNA targets for each miR395 family member as well as the role each member plays in plant growth under abiotic stress conditions. Overexpression of miR395c or miR395e retarded and accelerated, respectively, the seed germination of Arabidopsis under high salt or dehydration stress conditions. Despite a single nucleotide difference between miR395c and miR395e, the cleavage of mRNA targets, APS1, APS3, APS4 and SULTR2;1, was not same in miR395c- and miR395e-overexpressing plants. These results demonstrate that a given miRNA family containing a single nucleotide difference can guide the


cleavage of various mRNA targets, thereby acting as a positive or negative regulator of seed germination under stress. Notes: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00425-010-1267-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/g0572k6025103365/ Author Address: (1) Department of Plant Biotechnology, Agricultural Plant Stress Research Center and Biotechnology Research Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-757, Korea (2) Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, 2-20-1 Chu-ou, Kurashiki Okayama, 710-0046, Japan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Jossier M, Kroniewicz L, Dalmas F, Le Thiec D, Ephritikhine G; Thomine S, Barbier-Brygoo H, Vavasseur A, Filleur S, Leonhardt N, Year: 2010 Title: * The Arabidopsis vacuolar anion transporter, AtCLCc, is involved in the regulation of stomatal movements and contributes to salt tolerance. Journal: The Plant Journal - Article first published online: 29 AUG 2010. Pages: no Label: Physiol ReEn Salin Keywords: Chloride Channel/Transporter Salt stress Stomata Vacuole Tonoplast Abstract: Abstract In the plant cell, anion channels and transporters are essential for key functions such as nutrition, resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses and ion homeostasis. In Arabidopsis, members of the CLC (ChLoride Channel) family located in intracellular organelles were shown to be required for nitrate homeostasis or pH adjustment and previous data involved AtCLCc in nitrate accumulation. We investigated new physiological functions of this CLC member in Arabidopsis. Here we report that AtCLCc is strongly expressed in guard cells and pollen and more weakly in roots. AtCLCc:GFP fusion revealed a localization restricted to the tonoplast. Disruption of the AtCLCc gene by a T-DNA insertion in four independent lines affects physiological responses directly related to the movement of chloride across the tonoplast membrane. In response to light, opening of clcc stomata was reduced and ABA treatment failed to induce their closure, whereas application of KNO3 but not KCl restored stomatal opening. clcc mutant plants were hypersensitive to NaCl treatment when grown on soil, and to NaCl and KCl in vitro, confirming the chloride dependence of the phenotype. These phenotypes were associated with modifications in chloride content in both guard cells and roots. These data demonstrate that AtCLCc is essential for stomatal movement and salt tolerance by regulating chloride homeostasis. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04352.x Author Address: 1Institut des Sciences du Végétal, C.N.R.S., 1 Avenue de la Terrasse 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex France 2Laboratoire des Echanges Membranaires et Signalisation, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6191, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Commissariat à l‘Energie Atomique-Université Aix-Marseille II, Commissariat à l‘Energie Atomique Cadarache Bat 156, 13108 St Paul-lez-Durance France 3INRA, Nancy Université, UMR1137 Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestières, IFR 110 EFABA, F-54280 Champenoux, France 4Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, U.F.R. Sciences du Vivant, 35 rue Hélène Brion, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 France. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Julkifle Advina L, Xavier Rathinam, Uma Rani Sinniah, Sreeramanan Subramaniam, Year: 2010 Title: * Optimisation of Transient Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) Gene Expression in Phalaenopsis Violacea Orchid Mediated by Agrobacterium Tumefaciens-mediated Transformation System. Journal: Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(8): 3424-3432, 2010. Label: Bioengineering


Abstract: Numerous transformation factors were successfully optimised to develop a reliable and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Phalaenopsis violacea. The optimisation of factors influencing stable transformation efficiency in new species is very important as it can reduce the costs in labor and materials in the future. Hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, EHA 101 and 105, harboring the pCAMBIA 1304 plasmid which contains gusA gene and gfp gene as the reporter markers, were used for transformation study. Transient gfp gene expression was used to evaluate the efficiency of T-DNA delivery in transformants due to its simple, non-destructive and cell autonomous procedure. Agrobacterium strain EHA 105 was proved to be better in transforming the targeted PLBs than EHA 101, based on the notably high transient expression of gfp gene in all the parameters tested. Different temperatures during cocultivation period, the concentration of L-cysteine, calcium (CaCl2) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) in cocultivation medium as well as pH and light and dark conditions during co-cultivation period were identified to be major factors in enhancing the percentage of transient gfp gene expression. Increased T-DNA delivery efficiencies were obtained when P. violacea PLBs were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 5% of banana Mas extract containing 200 mg.L-1 L-cysteine, 60ìM silver nitrate, without calcium, adjusted to pH 5.5 and incubated in the dark at 24°C. The results from transient transformation of PLBs suggested that Agrobacteriummediated transfer of T-DNA to the naturally recalcitrant P. violacea is feasible and is highly efficient. Consequently, by combining the best treatments, an efficient and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol could be continued to facilitate the insertion of any desirable traits for the production of transgenic Phalaenopsis violacea orchid. URL: http://www.insipub.com/ajbas/2010/3424-3432.pdf Author Address: 1School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Minden Heights, 11800, Penang, Malaysia, 2Department of Biotechnology, AIMST University, Batu 3½ , Jalan Bukit Air Nasi, Bedong, 08100, Kedah, Malaysia, 3Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Malaysia. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kabbage Mehdi, Li Wei, Chen Shaorong, Dickman Martin B, Year: 2010 Title: * The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of an insect anti-apoptotic gene (SfIAP) is required for plant stress tolerance. Journal: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 74, 5-6, 351-362. Date: 2010/9// Label: Physiol FuRe ReEn Keywords: Inhibitor of apoptosis E3 ligase Disease tolerance Abstract: Previously, we showed that transgenic plants expressing SfIAP, an insect anti-apoptotic gene, conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses and resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. A pronounced and consistent delay in tomato fruit ripening was also observed. Preliminary data suggested that SfIAP negatively affected ethylene synthesis, which could account, at least in part, for the observed phenotypes. A key question is how an insect anti-apoptotic protein functions to enhance stress tolerance in plants, particularly since conserved core apoptotic pathway regulators appear to be absent in plants at the primary sequence level. In this study, we show that the RING domain, a characteristic motif of several IAP family members, has an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity suggesting involvement of SfIAP in proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Proteasome inhibitors were applied to transgenic plants undergoing stress. Proteasome inhibitor treatment restored ethylene signaling and wild type phenotypes in SfIAP expressing transgenic plants. Transient assays of RING domain deletion (Sf?RING) or point mutations (SfIAPC330A) resulted in the inhibition of ubiquitin ligase activity, while also restoring normal ethylene signaling and the wild type phenotypes including pathogen susceptibility and normal fruit ripening in tomato. During salt stress, increases in ubiquitinylated proteins correlated with salt tolerance in SfIAP expressing plants. Baculovirus inverted repeat (BIR) domains, signature motifs of the IAP family, are also required for the full resistant phenotype of SfIAP plants. SfBIR1, but not SFBIR2, is required for salt tolerance. Only when coupled with the RING domain, was protection conferred in a similar manner to full length SfIAP against salt stress. Taken together, the ubiquitin ligase activity of SfIAP is necessary, but not sufficient to confer plant stress tolerance. The mechanism/target by which SfIAP confers tolerance appears to be via ethylene regulation and the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.


URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WPC-509W75K1/2/359d34b6366d0c760d4cef823149ad5f Author Address: a Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology, Texas A&M University, USA b Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, College Station, TX 77843, USA c Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kaga A, Kuroda Y, Kitamoto N, Tomooka N, Ohsawa R, Vaughan D, Year: 2008 Title: 造 Studies on gene dispersal from soybean to wild soybean growing in their natural habitat in Japan. Journal: 10th ISBGMO - 10th International Symposium on the Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms Biosafety research : Past Achievements and Future Challenge - Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Cable St., Wellington, New Zealand, Sunday 16 November - Friday 21 November 2008 http://www.isbr.info/sites/default/files/symposia/10th_symposium-2008.pdf Label: Dispersion Abstract: Soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] and wild soybeans (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) are sympatric across much of Japan. The objectives of our studies are to assess cross-pollination between soybean and wild soybean in their natural habitat and whether escaped genes from soybean become established in wild populations. Genetic structure of wild and cultivated soybean The genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean populations and modern cultivated soybean varieties was characterized using 20 microsatellite markers, one for each linkage group. 616 fi eld collected individuals from 77 wild soybean populations from across Japan were compared with 53 varieties of cultivated soybean that covered more than 95% of recent soybean planting area in Japan. Average out-crossing rate in Japanese wild soybean populations was 3.4% but for several populations it exceeded 10%. High outcrossing rate and seed migration between populations were considered important factors for secondary gene spread. Among 20 SSR markers, 7 showed clear allelic differentiation between cultivated and wild soybean and are useful for marker-based evaluation of gene introgression. Intermediates between wild soybean and soybean To clarify fi eld gene introgression from cultivated soybean into wild soybean populations, fi eld surveys were conducted throughout Japan over fi ve years. Individual wild soybean plants in populations around or near soybean fi elds were carefully checked. Obvious natural hybrid derivatives between wild and cultivated soybean were found in northern and southern Japan. A morphologically intermediate individual was found about 15m from soybean fi elds in Akita, northern Japan in 2003. In Saga, southern Japan, in 2004 10 intermediate individuals from 3 sites were found in wild populations. Among these three sites, we found two kinds of intermediate, one individual with dull green seed and seven individuals with black seed at Saga site 1. During a survey conducted in Hyogo, Akita and Saga prefectures in 2006 at the similar scale as 2004, three intermediate plants were found at new two sites in Saga. In 2007, one intermediate was identifi ed from Yamagata, northern Japan. Natural hybrids between wild soybean and soybean Using the 20 microsatellite markers and chloroplast CAPS markers, gene dispersal from cultivated soybean in wild soybean populations was evaluated. Genotypes of intermediate individuals and 20-55 individuals from wild soybean populations where these intermediates were found were compared with samples from adjacent soybean fi elds. The intermediate from Akita in 2003, three intermediates from Saga in 2004, three intermediates from Saga in 2006, one from Yamagata in 2007 had the same chloroplast type as wild soybean, revealed heterozygosity at all microsatellite loci that distinguish wild and cultivated soybean and had one allele each from wild soybean and cultivated soybean. Thus these intermediates are natural F1 hybrids of wild soybean to which soybean out-crossed. Compared with these intermediates with dull yellow seed coat, the other seven individuals with black seed at Sags site 1 in 2004, had a lower heterozygosity and homozygous cultivated soybean alleles at several loci. The number of homozygous loci was different in individuals, suggesting that these are natural hybrid derivatives. Interestingly, these hybrid derivatives result from a cross between wild soybean and black seeded cultivar that is different from yellow or green seeded cultivars involved in the natural F1 hybrids with dull yellow seed coat. Monitoring hybrid derivatives


Most of the seeds from intermediate individuals were left for future monitoring to determine whether the progenies can survive in the natural environment. However, only one intermediate individual was found growing at Saga site 1 in the 2005 survey and no intermediate individuals were found at the other sites in Akita and Saga prefecture to date. Many samples from wild soybean population sites were also analyzed where intermediates were found using the same method discussed above. However, secondary gene dispersal from intermediate plants to wild soybeans was not observed. While gene introgression from soybean into wild soybean can occur, it seems to be very rare in natural habitats in Japan. Based on monitoring for four years, the hybrid derivatives show low or no persistence. Genetic dissection of traits associated with adaptation of cultivated and wild soybean The fate of escaped transgenes will depend on levels of fi tness conferred on hybrids and environmental factors. Wild soybeans have indeterminate, twining branching habit with abundant pods from which seeds are dispersed in autumn. The seeds over winter and some germinate the following spring. In contrast, soybean have short thick stem and produce fewer large pods and seed number is about 10% of wild soybean. Soybean seeds cannot over winter in natural conditions. The numerous differences between soybean and wild soybean are mainly associated with human selection. To clarify the genes controlling traits associated with adaptation in cultivated and wild soybean, two inbred populations were developed from two cross combinations between two wild soybean and two modern cultivars, having different growth habits and representing northern and southern Japanese accessions. These two populations were evaluated for their fi tness, such as seed production and winter seed survival, in three locations, Akita (northern), Ibaraki (central) and Hiroshima (southern) prefectures. Simultaneously we constructed two genetic linkage maps for these two populations. Using the genetic linkage map information, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for adaptation related traits were identifi es. One major QTL on linkage group L for the seed number and three major QTLs on linkage group A2, C2 and D1b for winter seed survival were identifi ed in all locations. At these four major QTLs, all soybean genes reduce seed production and severely reduce winter seed survival suggesting that the major genes acquired during domestication have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. The results support the low persistence of hybrid derivatives in the natural habitat in Japan. Simulation study of introgression from soybean and wild soybean It is necessary to assess the possibility of environmental transgene dispersal from GM soybean. Since natural selection occurs on phenotypes, hybrids with various proportions of disadvantageous and advantageous genes from soybean would be targets of selection depending on the proportion of these genes. In soybean such genes are located on different chromosomes. To predict fitness performance in progenies having different gene combinations by chance and monitor fl uctuation of persistence probability of introgressed soybean gene in wild soybean populations, we developed a computer simulation model in relation to introgression based on QTLs information. The fi rst prototype model has been designed to maintain populations with defi ned population size by selfing. Simulation starts from the condition where one hybrid plant occurs in a hypothetical wild soybean population. Their phenotypes, total seed number and proportion of winter seed survival, are estimated based on their genotype, genotypic effect of their QTLs and environmental variation, then the same number of offspring genotypes as the initial population size is randomly selected, and the process repeated for ten generations. Segregation and crossing over based on linkage map information are also taken into account. Fluctuations of the introgressed soybean gene frequency over 100 iterations, with and without QTL effects, were compared. Introgressed soybean genes having selective disadvantage tend to disappear more quickly than neutral genes. Similarly, when a transgene has no environmental advantages or disadvantages, reduction of transgene from the population was also largely infl uenced by degree of the introgressed gene effect altering fi tness performance and genetic map distance from adaptation genes. This computer model is now being further developed. Acknowledgements This work was supported by Global Environment Research Fund of the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (FY2003-FY2005) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan (2006-2008). URL: http://www.isbgmo.info/assets_/isbgmo_symposium_handbook.pdf Author Address: 1 National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2 University of Tsukuba, Japan. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


Author: Kambakam Sekhar, Bhyri Priyanka, Reddy VD, Rao KV, Year: 2010 Title: * Isolation and characterization of a pigeonpea cyclophilin (CcCYP) gene, and its over-expression in Arabidopsis confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance. Journal: Plant, Cell and Environment 33, 8. Accession Number: CABI:20103246868 Label: ReEn Secheresse Salin Keywords: amino acid sequences; biomass; characterization; chlorophyll; complementary DNA; DNA libraries; drought; effects; environmental factors; fluorescence; gene expression; genes; genetic transformation; growth; isomerases; localization; nuclei; pigeon peas; plant development; roots; salinity; salt; salt tolerance; shoots; stress; stress conditions; stress response; survival; temperature; transgenic plants; transgenics; water stress; Capparales; cDNA; cell nuclei; genetically engineered plants; genetically modified plants; GMOs; protein sequences Abstract: A full-length cDNA clone of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) encoding cyclophilin (CcCYP) has been isolated from the cDNA library of plants subjected to drought stress. Amino acid sequence of CcCYP disclosed similarity with that of single-domain cytosolic cyclophilins of various organisms. Expression profile of CcCYP in pigeonpea plants is strongly induced by different abiotic stresses, indicating its stress-responsive nature. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing CcCYP exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity and extreme temperatures as evidenced by increased plant survival, biomass, chlorophyll content and profuse root growth. The CcCYP transgenics, compared to the controls, revealed enhanced peptidyl-propyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity under stressed conditions, owing to transcriptional activation of stress-related genes besides intrinsic chaperonic activity of the cyclophilin. The transgenic plants subjected to salt stress exhibited higher Na+ ion accumulation in roots as compared to shoots, while a reverse trend was observed in the salt-stressed control plants, implicating the involvement of CcCYP in the maintenance of ion homeostasis. Expression pattern of CcCYP:GFP fusion protein confirmed the localization of CcCYP predominantly in the nucleus as revealed by intense green fluorescence. The overall results amply demonstrate the implicit role of CcCYP in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at whole-plant level. URL: <Go to ISI>://20103246868 Author Address: Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, A.P., India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kaur P, Samuel DVK, Bansal KC, Year: 2010 Title: * Fruit-specific Over-expression of LeEXP1 Gene in Tomato Alters Fruit Texture. Journal: Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 177-183 Published: JUL 2010 . Accession Number: WOS:000281080200006 Label: Composition QualitĂŠ Physiol Keywords: expansin, fruit softening, fruit-specific promoter, transgenic tomato. Abstract: Expansins are cellular proteins with diverse physiological functions. Expression of fruit-specific expansin gene in tomato is associated with fruit softening - a desirable trait from the processing point of view. In the present study, an expansin gene LeEXP1 was introduced via Agrobacterium tumefaciens in sense orientation under the control of a fruit-specific promoter LeACS4 with nptII gene as selection marker in Indian tomato cv Pusa Uphar. PCR detection and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of the transgene in the transformed tomato plants: RT-PCR and northern blot analysis using total RNA isolated from leaves and fruits confirmed over-expression of the LeEXP1 gene in transgenic fruits as compared to the wild type plants. Apart from the visual change in increased red colouration of fruits at different stages of ripening, overexpression of the LeEXP1 gene resulted in enhanced fruit softening, as determined by force required to rupture the fruit pericarp, in the transgenic fruits from breaker stage onwards as compared to the nontransformed wild type fruits. The results thus suggest an improvement in texture of the LeEXP1 overexpressing fruits, which might be useful for tomato processing industry. Notes: Times Cited: 0 URL: http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jpbb&volume=19&issue=2&article=006


Author Address: 1National Research Centre on Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute Campus, New Delhi, 110 012, India. 2Division of Post-Harvest Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110 012, India. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kavai-ool U, Ezhova T Year: 2010 Title: * The analysis of auxin distribution in the wild type and abruptus mutant plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) heynh. By using the chimeric gene DR5::GUS. [Original Russian Text © U.N. Kavai-ool, T.A. Ezhova, 2010, published in Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Biologiya, 2010, No. 3, pp. 17–19.] Secondary Title: Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin 65, 3, 104-106. Publisher: Allerton Press, Inc. distributed exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media LLC Date: 2010-09-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0096-3925 Label: Physiol Keywords: Russian Library of Science - plant development - auxin - mutants - transgenic plants - Arabidopsis thaliana Abstract: We have studied the activity of the chimeric gene DR5::GUS that indicates the spatial pattern of free auxin distribution and relative auxin level in the tissues of A. thaliana plants. It is established that the temperature sensitive abruptus mutation leads to temperature dependent increased accumulation of the free auxin in leaves, staments, and sepals in comparison to control plants homozygous for the wild type allele ABRUPTUS/PINOID. Our data revealed the important role of the ABRUPTUS/PINOID gene in the regulation of the auxin polar transport. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3103/S0096392510030041 Author Address: Russia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kawakatsu T, Takaiwa F Year: 2010 Title: * Cereal seed storage protein synthesis: fundamental processes for recombinant protein production in cereal grains. Journal: Plant Biotechnology Journal - Article first published online: 23 AUG 2010 Pages: no Label: Bioengineering Composition Biopharming Bioindustrie Review Keywords: cereal seed storage protein transcription protein sorting processing transgenic plant industry Abstract: Cereal seeds provide an ideal production platform for high-value products such as pharmaceuticals and industrial materials because seeds have ample and stable space for the deposition of recombinant products without loss of activity at room. Seed storage proteins (SSPs) are predominantly synthesized and stably accumulated in maturing endosperm tissue. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating SSP expression and accumulation is expected to provide valuable information for producing higher amounts of recombinant products. SSP levels are regulated by several steps at the transcriptional (promoters, transcription factors), translational and post-translational levels (modification, processing trafficking, and deposition). Our objective is to develop a seed production platform capable of producing very high yields of recombinant product. Towards this goal, we review here the individual regulatory steps controlling SSP synthesis and accumulation. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00559.x Author Address: Transgenic Crop Research & Development Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Keppler Brian D, Showalter Allan M Year: 2010


Title: * IRX14 and IRX14-LIKE, Two Glycosyl Transferases Involved in Glucuronoxylan Biosynthesis and Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis. Journal: Molecular Plant 3, 5, 834-841. Date: September 1, 2010 Accession Number: 10.1093/mp/ssq028 Label: Physiol ReEn Secheresse Keywords: Abiotic/environmental stress - cell walls - genetics - Arabidopsis - irregular xylem - xylan Abstract: IRX14 and IRX14-LIKE (IRX14L) are two closely related glycosyl transferases in the glycosyl transferase 43 (GT43) family of Arabidopsis. A T-DNA insertion mutant for IRX14 results in comparatively minor changes, such as irregular xylem, while a mutation for IRX14L results in no changes. However, an irx14 and irx14L double mutant severely affects growth and development, with the dwarf plants failing to produce an inflorescence stem. Plants that are homozygous for IRX14 but heterozygous for IRX14L (irx14 irx14L(±)) exhibit an intermediate phenotype, including noticeably smaller leaves, stems, and underdeveloped siliques. Additionally, the T-DNA insertion mutant for IRX14 was found to result in a drought-tolerant phenotype. Carbohydrate analysis of total cell wall extracts revealed a reduction in xylose for the irx14 and irx14 irx14L(±) mutants, consistent with a defect in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. Immunolocalization of xylan with the LM10 antibody revealed a loss of xylan in irx14 mutants and a further reduction in the irx14 irx14L(±) mutants. IRX14L likely functions redundantly with IRX14 in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, with IRX14 having a more important role in the process. URL: http://mplant.oxfordjournals.org/content/3/5/834.abstract Author Address: Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Ohio University, 315 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701-2979, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kim Dong-Hwan, Sung Sibum Year: 2010 Title: * The Plant Homeo Domain finger protein, VIN3-LIKE 2, is necessary for photoperiod-mediated epigenetic regulation of the floral repressor, MAF5. Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - published ahead of print September 13, 2010. Label: Physiol Abstract: In facultative photoperiodic flowering plants, noninductive photoperiods result in a delay in flowering, but such plants eventually flower, illustrating plasticity in an important developmental transition, flowering. The model plant, Arabidopsis, has a facultative photoperiod response. Although the inductive flowering promotion pathway has been extensively studied, the pathway to flowering in noninductive photoperiods is not well understood. Here, we show that a Plant Homeo Domain finger-containing protein, VIN3-LIKE 2 (VIL2), is necessary to maintain the epigenetically repressed state of MAF5 and permit more rapid flowering in noninductive photoperiods in Arabidopsis. Levels of both VIL2 mRNA and protein are under diurnal fluctuation and maintain the repressed state at MAF5 chromatin in a photoperiod-specific manner. VIL2 binds preferentially to dimethylated histone H3 Lys-9 (H3K9me2) peptides in vitro and VIL2 is required for the maintenance of H3K9me2 at MAF5 chromatin in vivo. Furthermore, VIL2 is required for the maintenance of trimethylated histone H3 Lys-27 at MAF5 through the physical association with a component of polycomb repression complex 2. Thus, the repression of MAF5 by VIL2 provides a mechanism to promote flowering in noninductive photoperiods, which contributes to the facultative nature of the Arabidopsis photoperiodic response. URL: http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/09/09/1010834107.abstract Author Address: Section of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology and the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kim Hyung-Sae, Sung Jin Kim, Nazia Abbasi, Ray A Bressan, Dae-Jin Yun, Sang-Dong Yoo, SukYun Kwon, Sang-Bong Choi, Year: 2010 Title: *The DOF transcription factor Dof5.1 influences leaf axial patterning by promoting Revoluta transcription in Arabidopsis.


Journal: The Plant Journal - Article first published online: 29 AUG 2010. Pages: no Label: Physiol Keywords: activation tagging mutant Dof transcription factor Dof5.1 leaf polarity Revoluta Abstract: Dof proteins are transcription factors that have a conserved single zinc finger DNA-binding domain. In this study, we isolated an activation tagging mutant Dof5.1-D exhibiting upward curling leaf phenotype due to enhanced expression of the REV gene that is required for establishing adaxial-abaxial polarity. Dof5.1-D plant also had reduced transcript levels for IAA6 and IAA19 genes, indicating an altered auxin biosynthesis in Dof5.1-D. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay using Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif and the REV promoter region indicated that the DNA-binding domain of Dof5.1 binds to a TAAAGT motif located in the 5’-distal promoter region of the REV promoter. Further, transient and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays verified binding activity of Dof5.1 DNA-binding motif with REV promoter. Consistent with binding assays, constitutive over-expression of the Dof5.1 DNA-binding domain in wild-type plants caused a downward curling phenotype, whereas crossing Dof5.1-D to a rev mutant reverted the upward curling phenotype of the Dof5.1-D mutant leaf to the wild-type. These results suggest that the Dof5.1 protein directly binds to the REV promoter and thereby regulates adaxial-abaxial polarity. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2010.04346.x Author Address: 1Division of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Myongji University, Yongin, Kyunggi-do 449728, South Korea 2School of Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering, Myongji University,Yongin, Kyunggi-do 449-728, South Korea 3Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Center for Plant Environmental Stress Physiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2010, USA 4Plant Stress Genomics Research Center, 4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 5Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660–701, South Korea 6Department of Biological Science, College of Natural Science, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746, South Korea 7Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 305-333, South Korea XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kim Ki-Seung, Curtis B Hill, Glen L Hartman, David L Hyten, Matthew E. Hudson, Brian W Diers, Year: 2010 Title: * Fine mapping of the soybean aphid-resistance gene Rag2 in soybean PI 200538. Journal: TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics Volume 121, Number 3, 599-610, DOI: 10.1007/s00122-0101333-6. Accession Number: CABI:20103255023 Label: InRe RavageurSecond Keywords: artificial selection; backcrossing; clones; genes; genetic markers; genetics; linkage; pest resistance; pests; plant introduction; polymerase chain reaction; polymorphism; recombination; resistance; single nucleotide polymorphism; soyabeans, Aphis glycines; cloning; genetic recombination; PCR; soybeans Abstract: The discovery of biotype diversity of soybean aphid (SA: Aphis glycines Matsumura) in North America emphasizes the necessity to identify new aphid-resistance genes. The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plant introduction (PI) 200538 is a promising source of SA resistance because it shows a high level of resistance to a SA biotype that can overcome the SA-resistance gene Rag1 from 'Dowling'. The SA-resistance gene Rag2 was previously mapped from PI 200538 to a 10-cM marker interval on soybean chromosome 13 [formerly linkage group (LG) F]. The objective of this study was to fine map Rag2. This fine mapping was carried out using lines derived from 5,783 F2 plants at different levels of backcrossing that were screened with flanking genetic markers for the presence of recombination in the Rag2 interval. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and two dominant polymerase chain reaction-based markers near Rag2 were developed by re-sequencing target intervals and sequence-tagged sites. These efforts resulted in the mapping of Rag2 to a 54-kb interval on the Williams 82 8 * assembly (Glyma1). This Williams 82 interval contains seven predicted genes, which includes one nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat gene. SNP marker and


candidate gene information identified in this study will be an important resource in marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance and for cloning the gene. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 43 ref. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/f6088u3282316444/ Author Address: USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kim M, Kim SC, Song KJ, Kim HB, Kim IJ, Song EY, Chun SJ, Year: 2010 Title: * Transformation of carotenoid biosynthetic genes using a micro-cross section method in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). Journal: Plant Cell Rep. 2010 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print] Label: Bioengineering Composition Nutrition Keywords: Agrobacterium-mediated transformation - Carotenoid biosynthetic genes - Kiwifruit - Micro-cross sections Abstract: Genetic transformation using a micro-cross section (MCS) technique was conducted to improve the carotenoid content in kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward). The introduced carotenoid biosynthetic genes include geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS), phytoene desaturase (PDS), ?-carotene desaturase (ZDS), ?-carotene hydroxylase (CHX), and phytoene synthase (PSY). The transformed explants were selected on half-strength MS medium containing 0.001 mg l(-1) of 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l(-1) of zeatin, either 5 mg l(-1) hygromycin or 25 mg l(-1) kanamycin, and 500 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. The genomic PCR, genomic Southern blot analysis, and RT-PCR were performed to confirm the integration and expression of the transgenes. The transformation efficiencies of either kanamycin- or hygromycin-resistant shoots ranged from 2.9 to 22.1% depending on the target genes, and from 2.9 to 24.2% depending on the reporter genes. The selection efficiencies ranged from 66.7 to 100% for the target genes and from 95.8 to 100% for the reporter genes. Changes of carotenoid content in the several PCR-positive plants were determined by UPLC analysis. As a result, transgenic plants expressing either GGPS or PSY increased about 1.2- to 1.3-fold in lutein or ?-carotene content compared to non-transgenic plants. Our results suggest that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of kiwifruit can be greatly increased by this MCS method and that the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway can be modified in kiwifruit by genetic transformation. Our results further suggest that GGPS and PSY genes could be major target genes to increase carotenoid contents in kiwifruit. Notes: 52 Ref. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20842364 Author Address: Agricultural Research Center for Climate Change, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Jeju, 690-150, Korea. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kim NH, Choi HW, Hwang BK, Year: 2010 Title: * Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria effector AvrBsT induces cell death in pepper, but suppresses defense responses in tomato. Journal: Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 2010 Aug;23(8):1069-82. Accession Number: CABI:20103251639 Label: BaRe Physiol Keywords: apoptosis; chillies; disease resistance; gene expression; genes; genetic transformation; genetically engineered microorganisms; mutants; mutations; plant diseases; plant pathogenic bacteria; plant pathogens; tomatoes; bacterium; genetically modified microorganisms; GMOs; Lycopersicon esculentum; phytopathogenic bacteria; phytopathogens; plant-pathogenic bacteria; resistance to disease; transgenic microorganisms Abstract: A type III effector protein, AvrBsT, is secreted into plant cells from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Bv5-4a, which causes bacterial spot disease on pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). To define the function and recognition of AvrBsT in the two host plants, avrBsT was introduced into the virulent pepper strain X. campestris pv. vesicatoria Ds1. Expression of AvrBsT in Ds1 rendered the strain avirulent to pepper plants. Infection of pepper leaves with Ds1 (avrBsT) expressing AvrBsT but not with


near-isogenic control strains triggered a hypersensitive response (HR) accompanied by strong H2O2 generation, callose deposition, and defense-marker gene expressions. Mutation of avrBsT, however, compromised HR induction by X. campestris pv. vesicatoria Bv5-4a, suggesting its avirulence function in pepper plants. In contrast, AvrBsT acted as a virulence factor in tomato plants. Growth of strains Ds1 (avrBsT) and Bv5-4a &Delta;avrBsT was significantly enhanced and reduced, respectively, in tomato leaves. X. campestris pv. vesicatoria-expressed AvrBsT also significantly compromised callose deposition and defensemarker gene expression in tomato plants. Together, these results suggest that the X. campestris pv. vesicatoria type III effector AvrBsT is differentially recognized by pepper and tomato plants. Notes: Cited Reference Count: 43 ref. URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20615117 Author Address: Laboratory of Molecular Plant Pathology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-713, Korea Republic. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kim Sang-Ic, Tai Thomas Year: 2010 Title: * Genetic analysis of two OsLpa1-like genes in Arabidopsis reveals that only one is required for wildtype seed phytic acid levels. Secondary Title: Planta 232, 5, 1241-1250. Publisher: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Date: 2010-10-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0032-0935 Label: Physiol Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Inositol phosphate metabolism - Phytic acid - Heterologous complementation - Oryza sativa - Ortholog - Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant Abstract: Phytic acid (inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate or InsP6) is the primary storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds. The rice OsLpa1 encodes a novel protein required for wild-type levels of seed InsP6 and was identified from a low phytic acid (lpa) mutant exhibiting a 45â&#x20AC;&#x201C;50% reduction in seed InsP6. OsLpa1 is highly conserved in plants and Arabidopsis contains two OsLpa1-like genes, At3g45090 and At5g60760. Analysis of homozygous T-DNA insertion mutants of At5g60760 revealed significantly reduced levels of seed InsP6 while no changes were observed in seeds of At3g45090 mutants. A double knockout mutant of At5g60760 and At3g45090 was created and its seed InsP6 content was similar to that of the At5g60760 mutant indicating that At3g45090 does not provide functional redundancy. OsLpa1 was confirmed to be the ortholog of At5g60760 by complementation of a knockout mutant with a cDNA clone corresponding to the largest of three alternative transcripts of OsLpa1. The spatial and temporal expression of At5g60760 during seed development is consistent with its involvement in seed InsP6 biosynthesis. Notes: 41 Ref. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-010-1243-5 Author Address: Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Department of Plant Sciences, Mail Stop 1, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kim WY, Kim JY, Jung HJ, Oh SH, Han YS, Kang H, Year: 2010 Title: * Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins during cold adaptation. Journal: Plant Physiol Biochem. 2010 Sep 8. [Epub ahead of print] Label: ReEn Temperature Keywords: Antiporter - Halophyte - Ion homeostasis - Salicornia brachiata - Vacuolar NHX Abstract: Among the three zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins, named AtRZ-1a, AtRZ1b, and AtRZ-1c, in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, AtRZ-1a has previously been shown to enhance cold and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. Here, we determined and compared the functional roles of AtRZ-1b and AtRZ-1c in Arabidopsis and Escherichia coli under cold stress conditions. AtRZ-1b, but not AtRZ-1c, successfully complemented the cold sensitivity of E. coli BX04 mutant cells lacking four cold shock proteins.


Domain deletion and site-directed mutagenesis showed that the zinc finger motif of AtRZ-1b is important for its complementation ability, and that the truncated N- and C-terminal domains of AtRZ-1b and AtRZ-1c harbor the complementation ability. Despite an increase in transcript levels of AtRZ-1b and AtRZ-1c under cold stress, overexpression or loss-of-function mutations did not affect seed germination or seedling growth of Arabidopsis under cold stress conditions. AtRZ-1b and AtRZ-1c proteins, being localized to the nucleus, have been shown to bind non-specifically to RNA sequences in vitro, in comparison to AtRZ-1a that is localized to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and binds preferentially to G- or U-rich RNA sequences. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the three AtRZ-1 family members showing different cellular localization and characteristic nucleic acid-binding property have a potential to contribute differently to the enhancement of cold tolerance in Arabidopsis and E. coli. URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/lp62pk884j26q685/fulltext.html Author Address: Department of Plant Biotechnology, Agricultural Plant Stress Research Center and Biotechnology Research Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea. XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kimura T, Nakagawa T Year: 2010 Title: ÂŁÂŁ Development of Gateway binary vectors for plant molecular biology. Journal: Bulletin of the Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University 36, 1-2. Accession Number: CABI:20103200851 Label: Bioengineering Physiol Abstract: plant genome. As a result, transgenic technique is essential to reveal gene function in genome wide analyses of plants. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a major method in plant genetic engineering. Construction of Ti binary vectors is an essential step in that method. Therefore, acceleration of vector construction enhances genome wide analyses of plants. However, Ti binary vectors are large and have many restriction endonuclease recognition sites outside of multi-cloning sequence and have difficulty in subcloning of a target gene in the vector. Gateway cloning technique is known to facilitate gene construction instead of the use of conventional method with restriction enzymes and DNA ligase. Application of Gateway cloning technique for construction of Ti binary vectors realized efficient cloning of target genes into binary vectors. The new Gateway compatible binary vectors (pGWBs and ImpGWBs) comprise a variety of reporters, epitope tags and selective markers that should make them useful for construction of plasmids for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plants. Also, MulitSite Gateway cloning method was applied to construct a novel promoter swapping binary vector R 4 pGWB. Notes: Times Cited: 0 URL: <Go to ISI>://20103200851 Author Address: Mie University Graduate School of Biological Resources Japan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Kiselev, K.; Grishchenko, O.; Zhuravlev, Y. Year: 2010 Title: * CDPK gene expression in salt tolerant rolB and rolC transformed cell cultures of Panax ginseng. Secondary Title: Biologia Plantarum 54, 4, 621-630. Publisher: Springer Netherlands Date: 2010-12-01 ISBN/ISSN: 0006-3134 Label: ReEn Salin Keywords: Biomedical and Life Sciences - Agrobacterium rhizogenes - calcium-dependent protein kinases NaCl Abstract: CDPKs (calcium-depended protein kinases) are of great importance for the activation of defense reactions in plants. In this study, we aimed to find a connection between CDPK expression and increased salt tolerance in Panax ginseng. Treatment of P. ginseng cell cultures with W7 (CDPK protein inhibitor) showed that CDPK proteins were necessary for salt tolerance. Expression of PgCDPK1c, PgCDPK2c and PgCDPK4a was significantly increased in the cells treated with 60 mM NaCl compared to control cells, whereas expression


of PgCDPK1b and PgCDPK3a was decreased. In the NaCl-treated cells, new CDPK transcripts also appeared (PgCDPK3c, PgCDPK4as). We also used rolC and rolB transformed cultures and the effects of the rol genes on CDPK expression were similar to the effects of salt stress: they caused a significant increase in the expression of PgCDPK1c, PgCDPK2c, and PgCDPK4a and decreased expression of PgCDPK3a, in addition to the appearance of the short CDPK transcripts. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10535-010-0112-1 Author Address: Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690022, Russia XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Author: Klein Agnes, Zapilko Marina, Menrad Klaus, Gabriel Andreas, Year: 2009 Title: ¤ Consumer acceptance of genetically modified rapeseed-oil: A discrete-choice-experiment. Journal: German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA)>49th Annual Conference, Kiel, Germany, September 30-October 2, 2009. Label: Adoption Keywords: Consumer behavior GM food rapeseed-oil Discrete-Choice-Experiment Abstract: This paper deals with consumer acceptance of genetically modified rapeseed-oil in Germa