Page 1

ISSUE 1 2018

QUARTERLY

THE SENIOR LIVING EMPLOYEE A Socioeconomic Portrait of Today's Worker

STATE OF THE SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE Jobs, Hours, and Wages 2017 Q4

Sponsored by:


THE SENIOR LIVING EMPLOYEE Who is working in senior living, their backgrounds and social and economic status

INTRODUCTION Employees dedicated to the senior living industry are caring, unique individuals – each with their own experiences and reasons why they choose to serve our nation’s older adults as a career. Argentum took a look at the broader picture of these employees by exploring data revealing who is working in senior living, their backgrounds, and current economic and social status. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimates that the senior living industry employed 892,000 people serving the aging population in 2016.1 The needs of the baby boomer generation and their parents promise continued strong growth in the industry; the BLS predicts that the industry workforce will grow to 1.2 million by 2026. As a first step to recruitment and retention of an additional 300,000 employees, Argentum analyzed and profiled today’s senior living industry workforce. Senior living providers can greatly benefit by better identifying current industry workers’ unique characteristics and needs. Using data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census’ 2016 American Community Survey (ACS), Argentum in partnership with Decision Demographics profiled today’s senior living workforce through seven broad job groupings of people who serve the aging population in senior living communities. The ACS is the largest household survey administered by the U.S. Census Bureau, sampling 3.5 million households annually. Each year, the Census Bureau releases a subset of ACS responses prepared in a manner to protect respondent confidentiality. This data is the basis for this study.

IDENTIFYING THE SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE The American Community Survey (ACS) uses its own system to define industries, sometimes combining related BLS industries into larger umbrella categories to preserve respondent confidentiality. To create its general senior living category, which it defines as residential care communities except nursing homes, the ACS combines three BLS industries: CCRCs and assisted living communities, plus care settings serving developmentally disabled and other residential care populations. While it’s not possible to completely isolate and remove all records from care settings that do not serve seniors, Argentum has eliminated many specific occupations that are not found in the senior living workforce. For this analysis, Argentum first identified all people in the ACS data who reported they worked in the senior living industry. Since these survey results are self-reported by participants identifying themselves as working in the senior living industry, the results may include independent and assisted living, CCRCs, and memory care. The BLS data used in this report includes only CCRCs and assisted living. Using BLS data resources and Argentum’s topical knowledge, occupations were dropped that largely fall outside of the senior living industry, such as psychologists, substance abuse counselors, and probation officers. Chief executive officers also were removed as they are the intended audience of this report. The remaining occupations were organized into seven job groups, guided by Argentum reports. The resulting data consist of ACS survey responses from 7,042 individuals, which is the best representation of the senior living workforce possible from available survey data.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Employment Projections; https://data.bls.gov/projections/nationalMatrix?queryParams=623300&ioType=i ; The BLS data cited in this report is based on Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs) and assisted living communities. 1

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WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

TOPLINE TAKEAWAYS The senior living industry employs nearly 1 million people and its workforce is expected to grow to 1.2 million by 2026. As the industry needs to recruit and retain an additional 300,000 employees, it’s important for senior living providers to have a clear picture of just who is working in the industry. This report uses data on 7,042 senior living workers who completed the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2016 American Community Survey. »» Four out of five people in the senior living workforce are women. Women also hold the majority of management jobs, with a nearly 70 percent share. The share of black women in management is greater than the overall national labor force. Black employees (African-American and of Caribbean Island origin) in healthcare and personal care occupations is twice than of the U.S. workforce. »» The occupations of health aides, licensed practical nurses, and registered nurses each have greater shares of men under age 30 than women. »» The total senior living workforce is slightly younger than the U.S. workforce and less likely to be married than the national average. Among job groups, food service workers are the youngest. »» Six percent of the senior living workforce is 65 and older, with most of this group found in administrative support jobs. »» Cleaning and maintenance workers are the oldest job group with one-half age 50 or older. These workers include the highest share of immigrants out of all senior living job groups, at 24 percent. »» Senior living employees are more likely to be single parents than the U.S. employed labor force, at 14 percent compared to 9 percent of the U.S. workforce. Women with children age six or older is the most common type of single parent household; it alone accounts for 7 percent of the senior living workforce.

»» About 10 percent of all senior living employees speak Spanish at home. »» Hispanics make up 13 percent of the senior living workforce, less than their 17 percent share of the U.S. labor force. »» African- , Philippine- and Caribbean Island-born workers account for 10 percent of the senior living workforce, compared to 5 percent of the total workforce. »» Nearly one-quarter of food service workers are students age 16-24. Almost half of food service employees work fewer than 35 hours per week. »» Twenty percent of registered nurses work 45 or more hours per week. »» Eighty-three percent of senior living workers live within 30 minutes of work and nearly half live within 15 minutes of work. »» Ten percent of senior living workers lack health insurance, matching the national workforce average. »» Ninety percent of the senior living workforce reports having internet access at home. About a quarter of the senior living workforce reports lacking mobile internet access via a smartphone, which may affect how and when they receive communications from their employer. »» Rural workers tend to be a bit older, with 38 percent age 50 or over compared to 33 percent in urban areas. Men are more prevalent in the urban workforce, with 25 percent in urban areas compared to 16 percent in rural areas. The urban communities have a larger minority workforce compared to rural areas. »» The Midwest has the youngest workforce with 32 percent under age 30; 24 percent are under 30 in the South. The workforce in the South is 39 percent black and 14 percent Hispanic and in the West 7 percent black, 25 percent Hispanic, and 16 percent Asian. The West has the greatest share of foreign-born workers at 29 percent.

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Senior Living Community Workforce by Job Group

10%

Cleaning & Maintenance

32%

Healthcare

12%

Food Service

60%

7%

Workforce in Healthcare & Personal Care

Administrative Support

9%

Management

28% 1%

Personal Care

Business Operations

The senior living industry workforce is largely one of caregivers, with 60 percent of the workforce in healthcare and personal care occupations. The chart on page 7 provides a summary of the major occupations by job group. The charts in this profile contain data for each of the seven job groups. In the majority of charts beginning on page 15, the bar labeled ‘”total” shows the sum of the senior living community workforce across the seven job groups. The

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“U.S. Labor Force” data is for comparison and perspective; it represents all people currently employed and working in the United States—including over 57 million people working outside of the senior living industry as well as the nearly 900,000 people in the senior living community workforce. Due to rounding, percentages shown in the charts may sum to 99 percent or 101 percent.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Industry Job Group Occupations MAJOR OCCUPATIONS

HEALTHCARE

»» Nursing and home health aides »» Licensed practical and vocational nurses »» Registered nurses

»» Other healthcare support workers »» Therapists and aides including physical and occupational

PERSONAL CARE

»» Personal and home care aides »» Recreation and fitness workers

»» Bus drivers and chauffeurs »» First-line supervisors of aides

BUSINESS OPERATIONS

»» Accountants and auditors »» Human resources workers »» Business operations specialists

»» Computer support specialists »» Market research analysts

MANAGEMENT

All senior living industry managers, including fields such as: »» Health services »» Human resources workers »» Marketing »» Administrative services

»» Operations »» Financial

»» Secretaries and administrative assistants »» Receptionists »» Office clerks

»» Bookkeeping, accounting and auditing clerks »» First-line supervisors of administrative support workers

FOOD SERVICE

»» »» »» »»

Cooks Food servers Food preparation workers Waiters and waitresses

»» Chefs and head cooks »» Dishwashers »» First-line supervisors of food service workers

CLEANING & MAINTENANCE

»» »» »» »»

Housekeeping cleaners Janitors and building cleaners Laundry workers Grounds maintenance workers

»» First-line supervisors of cleaning and maintenance workers »» Maintenance and repair workers »» Security guards

ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT

TOTAL

All people working in the senior living industry (the seven senior living job groups above combined)

U.S. LABOR FORCE

The entire employed U.S. workforce working in any industry (including senior living)

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RESIDENT CARE JOBS: 60 PERCENT OF THE SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE HEALTHCARE »» One-third of senior living community jobs are healthcare-related. While this group includes jobs such as therapists and dietitians, one-half are nursing and home health aides, and another third are either registered nurses or licensed practical nurses.

PERSONAL CARE »» Nearly one-third of these resident care workers provide non-medical personal help. Most jobs in this group (83 percent) are personal care aides; the remainder includes recreation workers, drivers, or first-line supervisors of personal care aides. »» These workers are typically female, yet compared to healthcare workers, twice as many are men (21 percent, vs. 11 percent male for healthcare workers).

»» The vast majority of healthcare workers are women (89 percent) and most workers are middle-aged (40 percent are age 30 to 49). The share of workers under age 30 is larger for men (40 percent) than for women (30 percent).

»» This group is evenly divided between those under 30, 30 to 49, and age 50 or older, for both men and women.

»» The share of black women in the healthcare job group is twice that of the general U.S. labor force, while Hispanic workers are under-represented.

»» Nearly 20 percent of personal care workers were born outside of the United States, with the most common origins split between the Philippines (5 percent) and African countries (4 percent).

»» Nearly one-fifth of healthcare workers were born outside of the United States, with the Caribbean Islands, several African countries, and the Philippines as the most common origins. »» A full 94 percent of the healthcare job group are U.S. citizens, and only 1 percent report lack of English fluency. »» Forty-one percent are married and 15 percent are single parents. »» Education varies by occupation within the healthcare group. The share having attained an associate degree or more is 15 percent among health aides, 18 percent among licensed practical nurses, and 65 percent among all other health care occupations except registered nurses.

»» Black women comprise one-fourth of this job group, a share nearly twice that seen in the U.S. workforce.

»» Today, 92 percent are U.S. citizens and just 3 percent report limited English fluency. »» The share of married versus single employees are nearly equal at around 40 percent, with 23 percent previously married; 16 percent are single parents. »» One-third have completed high school while another onethird report attending college. Nearly one-quarter have completed an associate degree, a bachelor’s degree, or higher. One in seven is currently furthering their education. »» Personal care is largely full-time, with 71 percent working 35 or more hours a week.

»» This is a mostly full-time workforce, with 71 percent working 35 or more hours per week.

»» The personal care worker job group reports the highest share, 13 percent, with no health insurance.

»» Health insurance coverage is reported by 90 percent of this job group; variation in coverage between the occupations is small.

»» Compared to other senior living community workers, work schedules are more divided throughout the entire day to ensure coverage. Even so, 45 percent report to work between 6 a.m. and 9 a.m., and one-half report a commute of 15 minutes or less.

»» Even with the need for shifts to provide constant coverage, one-half of healthcare workers report arriving for work between 6 a.m. and 9 a.m., and 84 percent have a commute of less than 30 minutes. »» Away from work, 90 percent have internet access via home computer or mobile smartphone—leaving 10 percent without.

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»» This job group is the least web-connected, with 12 percent reporting no internet access at home or via a smart phone.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

OFFICE JOBS: 17 PERCENT OF THE SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE BUSINESS OPERATIONS »» Most jobs in the business operations group concern accounting or human resources work, but the group also includes specialists, such as computer or marketing support. This group makes up 1 percent of the senior living community workforce. »» Three-quarters of business operations workers are women. »» This is an older workforce, with 82 percent over age 30. »» Business operations is the least diverse job group, at 77 percent white. »» Foreign-born people comprise 12 percent of this group; nearly all workers (99 percent) in the job group are U.S. citizens. »» As it is likely a requirement for the job, less than 1 percent report limited ability in English. »» Being a generally older group, 60 percent are married. Only 6 percent are single parents. »» Two-thirds have earned a college degree and 92 percent have pursued some sort of higher education. One in 10 is currently enrolled in school.

MANAGEMENT »» Management workers make up 9 percent of senior living community workers. »» These jobs include all management positions, beyond first-line supervisors, for all fields in senior living such as health services and human resources to administrative services and operations. »» Like other job groups in the industry, the majority (69 percent) are women, and as might be expected, managers tend to be older, with 42 percent over age 50 and only 12 percent under age 30. »» White managers make up two-thirds of the ranks; another 16 percent are black. »» The share of management workers born outside of the United States (17 percent) is comparable to the senior living industry average. »» Non-U.S. citizen management workers make up 4 percent of this job group, below the industry average. Only 1 percent report limited English ability. »» Being an older job group, only 20 percent are single yet 10 percent are single parents.

»» The majority (87 percent) work full-time; just 2 percent work fewer than 20 hours a week—the smallest share of any job group.

»» Some higher education is virtually a prerequisite for management work, with 77 percent attending schooling beyond high school and 40 percent having completed college. This job group has the highest share age 35 and over enrolled in school at 5 percent, almost twice the industry average for this age cohort.

»» Health insurance coverage for this group is at 96 percent, matching administrative support workers with the highest share reported.

»» Management work is largely full-time, with 93 percent working 35 or more hours a week; nearly half work 45 or more hours per week.

»» These mainly full-time office workers generally (75 percent) arrive at work between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m.

»» Among management, 7 percent report living in a household without health insurance coverage.

»» Business operations workers as a whole have the longest commutes, with 31 percent traveling 31 or more minutes to work.

»» Management workers do keep some presence around the clock in this industry, with 22 percent arriving to work between midnight and 7 a.m. Yet reflecting that most staff work is daytime, one-half arrive between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m.

»» Ninety-eight percent report internet connectivity, the highest among all job groups.

»» Managers have slightly longer commutes than most other job groups, yet 75 percent live within 30 minutes of work. »» Management employees are available online with only 4 percent lacking internet access away from work.

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ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT »» In the senior living community workforce, 7 percent are in administrative support work. Secretaries, administrative assistants, receptionists, office clerks, and bookkeeping and accounting clerks are the primary occupations. »» This job group edges out healthcare for female workers, with 91 percent of administrative support performed by women. »» These workers tend to be older, with 44 percent age 50 or more. Thirteen percent are age 65 or older. »» Only the business operations group has lower minority representation than the administrative support group’s 31 percent non-white share. »» The share born outside of the United States is also lower, with 12 percent foreign-born and only 2 percent with limited English fluency. »» At 3 percent non-U.S. citizens, this group second only to business operations in lowest share being non-citizens. »» While 74 percent are currently or formerly married, this group is generally older, and as a consequence is least likely to have children at home, at two-thirds—but 9 percent of this job group are single parents. »» About half have completed some post-high school education while another one-fifth graduated from college. Nine percent are currently enrolled in school, with a smaller share age 19 to 24 compared to the industry average. » » These support workers generally work full-time, at 75 percent. »» Most administrative support workers (96 percent) have health insurance. » » Sixty percent of these office workers arrive at work between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m. »» Commuting times are very typical of the industry, with 81 percent travelling 30 or fewer minutes to work. »» Internet access away from work is reported by 94 percent.

OTHER SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS: 22 PERCENT OF THE SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE FOOD SERVICE »» Food service workers comprise 12 percent of the senior living community workforce. »» Food service jobs include cooks, food servers, food preparation workers, waiters and waitresses, chefs, dishwashers and first-line supervisors of these workers. »» Men make up one-third of this group, higher than the industry’s 22 percent average. »» This group is distinguished by its youth—nearly half are under age 30. »» The racial makeup of food service workers is similar to the industry as a whole, with 53 percent white, 22 percent black, and 16 percent Hispanic. »» The share of food service workers born abroad (16 percent) is close to the industry average (18 percent), although food service workers are more likely to be Hispanic, born outside of the United States. African-born food workers are less common at 1 percent, compared to an industry average of 3 percent. »» Non-citizens make up 8 percent of food service workers; 4 percent report limited English ability. »» This youthful group is mostly single, at 55 percent. Single parenthood is not uncommon, at 14 percent. »» This part-time work schedule fits a student’s schedule, with more than one in four food service workers currently enrolled in school. The students are equally divided between high school and college age students. »» This is largely a part-time workforce with 46 percent working fewer than 35 hours a week. »» Ten percent of food service employees do not have health insurance coverage. »» Unlike the typically daytime full-time workforce of the other job groups, food service workers’ arrival is distributed throughout the day. Many (42 percent) arrive during the 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. period but over 40 percent arrive after 9 a.m.

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WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

»» Food service workers have the shortest commutes of any job group with 58 percent traveling 15 minutes or less to work; a short commute is likely essential to successfully juggle the demands of student life and part-time work. »» This group as well as cleaning and maintenance workers have the lowest internet access, at 87 percent.

CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE »» One in 10 senior living community employees help clean and maintain the buildings and grounds. »» Half of this group is women who are maids and housekeeping cleaners. Half of the men in this job category are janitors and building cleaners, and the remainder have jobs such as general maintenance and repair workers, grounds maintenance, or security guards. »» This job group is the oldest, with one-half age 50 or older. »» This is the only job group whose share of veterans (4.7 percent) is on par with the U.S. workforce’s share (4.9 percent). This is explained by the fact that the share of men in this job group is twice that of the overall senior living workforce. »» Cleaning and maintenance workers are the most diverse senior living job group. About half are white, one-quarter are Hispanic, and about one-fifth are black.

»» Nearly one in four was born outside of the United States, with Mexico and the Caribbean as the most common foreign places of birth. »» This job group has the highest shares of non-citizens (12 percent) and workers with limited English fluency (8 percent). »» Being a bit older than the industry average, a somewhat larger share (47 percent) of cleaning and maintenance workers are married compared to the industry average. Nine percent head single parent families. »» One-quarter of this job group did not complete high school while 42 percent ended their education with high school graduation. This job group is least likely to be currently going to school, at 5 percent. »» Like most other job groups, cleaning and maintenance work is mostly full-time, with 77 percent working 35 or more hours per week. A full 64 percent work 40 or more hours per week. »» Among cleaning and maintenance workers, 11 percent do not have health insurance. »» Cleaning and maintenance workers are the first to arrive in the morning, with one-quarter arriving between 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. and another one-quarter before 8 a.m. This job group’s commute is typical of the industry, with 82 percent within 30 minutes of work. »» Along with the food service job group, these workers have the highest share (13 percent) without internet access.

URBAN AND RURAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE URBAN SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE

RURAL SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE

• 33 percent are age 50 or older

• 38 percent are age 50 or older

• 75 percent are women

• 84 percent are women

• 40 percent are white, 31 percent are black, 18 percent are Hispanic, and 8 percent are Asian

• 83 percent are white, 11 percent are black, 4 percent are Hispanic, and 1 percent are Asian

• 20 percent have a bachelor’s degree

• 13 percent have a bachelor’s degree

• 41 percent are single

• 32 percent are single

• 8 percent take public transportation to work

• Less than 1 percent take public transportation to work

• 9 percent report no internet access

• 14 percent report no internet access

• 78 percent have mobile broadband access

• 67 percent have mobile broadband access

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REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN THE SENIOR LIVING WORKFORCE There are distinct regional differences in the makeup of the senior living workforce across the United States, using the U.S. Census Bureau designation for region.

VT

NH MA RI CT NJ DE DC MD DC

HI Northeast: • 25 percent are men • 29 percent are under 30 • 25 percent are black, 9 percent are Hispanic, and 3 percent are Asian • 19 percent are foreign-born • 9 percent were born in the Caribbean, 3 percent in Mexico or Central/South America, and 2 percent in African countries • 7 percent are enrolled students under age 24 • 28 percent work less than 35 hours per week

South: • 19 percent are men • 24 percent are under 30 • 39 percent are black, 14 percent are Hispanic, and 2 percent are Asian • 18 percent are foreign-born

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• 6 percent were born in the Caribbean, 4 percent in African countries, and 3 percent in Mexico • 5 percent are enrolled students under age 24 • 24 percent work less than 35 hours per week

Midwest: • 20 percent are men • 32 percent are under age 30 • 16 percent are black, 6 percent are Hispanic, and 2 percent are Asian • 9 percent are foreign-born • 2 percent were born in African countries, 2 percent in countries of Europe, and 1 percent each in the Philippines and Mexico • 12 percent are enrolled students under age 24 • 33 percent work less than 35 hours per week

West: • 28 percent are men • 30 percent are under age 30 • 7 percent are black, 25 percent are Hispanic, and 16 percent are Asian • 29 percent are foreign-born • 10 percent were born in the Philippines, 7 percent in Mexico, and 4 percent in Asia • 7 percent are enrolled students under age 24 • 26 percent work less than 35 hours per week


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Workers by Gender and Occupation

7%

Cleaning & Maintenance

10%

20%

Food Service

Cleaning & Maintenance

8%

Administrative Support

37%

78%

8%

Female

Management

1% 28%

56% 3%

Personal Care

Administrative Female Support

44%

16%

56%Male

US LABOR Healthcare WORKFORCE BY GENDER

Cleaning & Maintenance

20%

Cleaning & Maintenance

37%

22%

Healthcare

Female

44% Male

26%

Male

20%

Mal

US LABOR 20% FORCE Food BYService GENDER

Business Operations

7%

22%

Healthcare

Personal Care

Food Service

2%

28%

Personal Care

3%

13%

Administrative Support

56%

Business Operations

Management

44%

»» Compared to U.S. labor force, the senior living workforce US LABOR WORKFORCEis disproportionately female. Four out of five people in the Male Female are women. BY GENDERsenior living workforce »» The top job groups for women are the caregiver occupations—healthcare and personal care—accounting for twothirds of women working in senior living. »» Just over 40 percent of men are in the caregiver occupations.

»» One in five men working in senior living work in food service and another one-fifth work in cleaning and maintenance. »» While 8 percent of women in senior living work are in management positions, they account for nearly 70 percent of those holding management jobs overall. This contrasts with the total US labor force, where women hold 56 percent of all management jobs.

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Age of Senior Living Workers by Occupation 48% 48% 40% 40%

46% 46%

36% 36%

31% 31%

30% 30%

35% 35% 28% 28%

24% 24%

24% 24% 18% 18%

7% 7%

4% 4% Healthcare Healthcare

Personal Care Personal Care

12% 12%

10% 10%

7% 7%

Business Operations Business Operations

46% 46%

Management Management

42% 42% 37% 37%

34% 34%

34% 34% 31% 31%

28% 28%

27% 27%

22% 22%

28% 28%

22% 22% 16% 16%

13% 13%

8% 8%

5% 5% Administrative Support Administrative Support

Younger than 30 Years

US LABOR FORCE BY AGE

Food Service Food Service

30 to 49 Years

23%

Younger than 30 Years

Cleaning and Maintenance Cleaning and Maintenance 50 to 60 Years

42%

30 to 49 Years

6% 6%

TOTAL TOTAL

65 Years and Older

29%

50 to 64 Years

6%

65 Years and older

»» Compared to U.S. labor force, the senior living workforce is disproportionately female. Four out of five people in the senior living workforce are women.

»» Just over 40 percent of men are in the caregiver occupations.

»» The top job groups for women are the caregiver occupations—healthcare and personal care—accounting for twothirds of women working in senior living.

»» While 8 percent of women in senior living work are in management positions, they account for nearly 70 percent of those holding management jobs overall. This contrasts with the total US labor force, where women hold 56 percent of all management jobs.

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»» One in five men working in senior living work in food service and another one-fifth work in cleaning and maintenance.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Age and Gender of Senior Living Workers by Occupation MALE Healthcare

40%

Personal Care

32%

Business Operations

19%

Management

17%

Administrative Support

25%

Food Service

53%

Cleaning & Maintenance

16%

FEMALE

36%

24%

35% 34%

33% 47% 32%

29%

37%

10%

39% 29%

35%

41%

17%

51% 36%

30%

21% 18%

Younger than 30 Years

15% 30 to 49 Years

»» In every job group, the percentage under age 30 is larger among men than women. This difference by gender is particularly large among younger healthcare and food service workers; younger men may be starting to enter traditionally female healthcare occupations. The percent of women age 50 and older is greater than the share for men in each job group, with the exception of business operations.

34%

53%

30%

44%

46% 34%

45%

42%

49%

29%

25% 34%

33%

51%

50 Years and older

»» Men are younger than women in the largest specific occupations that make up the healthcare group. The occupations of home health aides, licensed practical nurses, and registered nurses each have greater shares of men under age 30 than women.

Data show men under age 30 are starting to enter traditionally female healthcare occupations.

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Race/Ethnicity of Senior Living Workers 77% 77%

55%

68%

1%

53%

55%

68%

1%

53%

27%

25%

27%

25%

16%

12%

10% 5%

10%

5%

7%

12%

3%

7%

3%

7%

3% 3%

7%

10% 10%

9% 16%

6%

5%

9%

6% 1%

5%

Healthcare

Personal Care

1% Business Operations

Management

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

2% 2%

69% 69% 56%

53%

52%

53%

52%

24%

22% 12% 12%

3%

5%

3% 3%

3%

3%

1%

5% 5%

Administrative Support

Food Service

3% 1% Cleaning and Maintenance

TOTAL

Administrative Support White

Food Service Hispanic

Cleaning and Maintenance Black Asian

Other TOTAL

US LABOR FORCE BY RACE

62% White

17%

Hispanic

»» While 44 percent of the total senior living workforce is non-white, the office jobs groups of business operations, management, and administrative support all have a less than one-third share of non-white employees. »» The share of black employees in healthcare and personal care occupations is around twice that in the U.S. workforce.

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23%

13%

5%

3% 3%

13%

19%

16%

14%

23%

24% 19%

16% 22%

14%

56%

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

13% Black

6%

Asian

3% 3%

3%

Other

»» About 20 percent of food service workers and cleaning and maintenance staff are black, also greater than the seen in the total U.S. workforce. »» About one-quarter of the cleaning and maintenance staff are Hispanic. The share of Hispanic workers in food service, 16 percent, is similar to the total U.S. workforce share.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Race and Gender of Senior Living Workers MALE Healthcare Personal Care

48%

Business Operations

72%

Management

FEMALE

40% 54%

22% 24%

14% 10%

28%

76%

Food Service

49%

Cleaning & Maintenance

59%

3%

55%

10%

12%

2%

54%

13%

7% 14%

67%

Administrative Support

7%

69%

8% 17%

4% 12% 6%

2%

68%

12%

4%

55%

White

7% 19%

Hispanic

»» Nearly 30 percent of women in cleaning and maintenance are Hispanic compared to 18 percent of the men.

4% Black

3%

7% 9% 5% 1%

2%

15%

26% 18%

6%

5%

11%

15%

24%

78%

6%

5% 3%

27%

17% 29%

46% Asian

5% 2%

14% 2% 4%

20%

5%

20%

3%

3% 2%

Other

»» Black women are well represented in healthcare and personal care. The share of black women in management is also somewhat greater than in the overall national labor force. One in 5 women in food service and cleaning and maintenance is black.

Four out of five people in the senior living workforce are women. Women also hold the majority of management jobs, with a nearly 70 percent share. The share of black women in management is greater than in the overall national labor force.

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Senior Living Workers by Non-U.S. Place of Birth 6% 5% 4% 3% 3%

4%

4%

3%

3%

2% 2% 2%

2% 2% 2% 1%

2% 1%

1%

Healthcare

2%

Personal Care

3% 2% 2%

2% 1%

1%

Management

Business Operations 9%

5%

5% 4%

3%

3% 3% 3%

3%

3% 2% 2%

2%

Administrative Support Caribbean

US LABOR FORCE BY NON-U.S. PLACE OF BIRTH

2% 2% 2%

2%

1%

1% 1%

1%

3%

Caribbean

Philippines

1%

Africa

2% 2% 2%

2% 1%

TOTAL

Cleaning and Maintenance

Food Service Africa

4%

Mexico

1%

Europe

Philippines

5%

Mexico

Asia & India

2%

Europe

Central & South America

4%

Asia & India

3%

Central & South America

»» While the share of foreign-born workers in the senior living industry closely resembles the U.S. workforce, the mix of origin place differs.

»» The Philippines is the birth home of 5 percent of personal care workers and 3 percent of healthcare workers. Within healthcare, 7 percent of registered nurses were born in the Philippines.

»» African-, Philippine- and Caribbean Island-born workers account for 10 percent of the senior living workforce. These areas are the birthplace for 12 percent of health care workers, 12 percent of personal care workers, and 9 percent of management staff. In comparison, only 5 percent of the total U.S. workforce was born in these regions.

»» Compared to the U.S. workforce, those born in the Philippines also have a strong presence among the management, food service, and cleaning and maintenance job groups. »» Tabulations by the four Census regions of the United States suggest there are local-level concentrations of specific countries of birth in the senior living workforce.

The largest African migrant sources are (in descending order) Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, Liberia, Ghana, and Sierra Leone.

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ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Workers by Hispanic Orgin

8% 8%

5% 5%

5% 5%

4% 4%

3% 3%

2% 2%

1% 1% 1% 1% Healthcare Healthcare

1% 1%

1% 1% 1% 1%

Personal Care Personal Care

2% 2%

3% 3% 1% 1%

1% 1% 1% 1%

Business Operations Business Operations

Management Management

15% 15%

11% 11% 8% 8% 6% 6% 5% 5%

2% 2%

1% 1%

3% 3%

2% 2%

Administrative Support Administrative Support

2% 2%

1% 1%

Food Service Food Service Mexican

US LABOR FORCE BY HISPANIC ORGIN

2% 2%

10%

1% 1% 1% 1%

Cleaning and Maintenance Cleaning and Maintenance

Caribbean

Mexican

3% 3%

3% 3%

Central America

3%

Caribbean

2%

TOTAL TOTAL Other

Central American

2%

Other

»» Hispanics make up 13 percent of the senior living industry workforce, less than their 17 percent share of the U.S. labor force.

»» Over half of Hispanic senior living industry workers are from Mexico with the remainder coming from a variety of mostly Central American and Caribbean locations.

»» Nearly one in four cleaning and maintenance workers are Hispanic.

»» Food service workers are the group most comparable to the U.S. workforce in share of Hispanic and country of origin.

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

17


Senior Living Community Workforce by Citizenship

6% 11%

83% Healthcare

10%

82% Personal Care

4%

1%

8%

10%

85%

89% Business Operations

3%

8%

7%

7%

91%

Management

Citizen by Birth

US LABOR FORCE BY CITIZENSHIP

12%

11%

85%

Administrative Support

82%

»» Non-U.S. citizen senior living workers make up 7 percent of the industry workforce, compared to 9 percent of the U.S. workforce. »» The office workers in the industry are the least likely to be non-citizen; conversely, 12 percent of cleaning and maintenance workers are not citizens.

78%

Food Service

Naturalized Citizen

Citizen by Birth

10%

Cleaning & Maintenance

7% 10%

83% TOTAL

Not a Citizen

9%

Naturalized Citizen

9%

Not a Citizen

12% of senior living cleaning and maintenance workers are not U.S. citizens

»» Among office occupations workers who were not U.S. citizens at birth, most are now naturalized.

The sum of ‘not a citizen’ plus ‘naturalized citizen’ is slightly less than the share with ‘Non-U.S. Place of Birth’ shown in the previous chart because some citizens are born in U.S. territories or born abroad to American parent(s).

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ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Community Workforce with Limited English Skills

1%

Healthcare

3%

Personal Care

8%

Cleaning & Maintenance

3%

1%

Not Fluent in English

Management

2%

Administrative Support

4%

Food Service

US LABOR FORCE WITH LIMITED ENGLISH SKILLS

5%

»» The vast majority of senior living workers self-report that they are proficient in English. Less than 3 percent report that they do not speak English or do not speak it well.

»» About 10 percent of senior living employees speak Spanish at home; 19 percent of cleaning and maintenance workers speak Spanish at home.

»» Only 1 percent of healthcare workers report limited English ability, while 8 percent of cleaning and maintenance staff are not proficient in English.

»» Consistent with 3 percent of workers being born in the Philippines, 2 percent of senior living workers report speaking Tagalog at home.

»» Virtually all business and management workers are fluent English speakers.

Individuals who speak a language other than English at home are asked to self-rate their ability to speak English on a scale of ‘Very Well’, ‘Well’, ‘Not well’, or ‘Not at all.’ This chart defines ‘Limited English Skills’ as those who answered ‘Not well’ or ‘Not at all’.

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

19


Senior Living Community Workforce by Year of Entry to U.S.

7% 7%

6% 6%

5% 5% 3%

3%

2% 3%

3%

4%

4%

3% 4%

4%

5%

5%

5%

5%

4% 5%

5%

2% 3%

2%

4%

3% 3% 3% 3%

2%

2%

2%

1% 1%

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

7% 7% 7% 7%

6% 5% 6%

5%

4% 5% 4%

4% 4% 2% 2%

2%

2%

2% 2%

1% 2%

2%

1%

Administrative Support 1979 or earlier

Food Service

3%

1979 or earlier

3%

3%

2% 3%

3%

2%

1% 1% Cleaning and Maintenance

Food Service

1980 to 1989

Administrative Support

US LABOR FORCE BY YEAR OF ENTRY TO U.S.

5% 6%

5%

5%

4% 4%

6%

1990 to 1999

4%

1980 to 1989

TOTAL

2000 to 2009

Cleaning and Maintenance

5%

1990 to 1999

6%

2000 to 2009

2010 to 2016

TOTAL

3%

2010 to 2016

»» Almost one-half of senior living workers who are immigrants arrived after the year 2000; in comparison, 40 percent of the total U.S. immigrant workforce arrived in this period.

ing at a slower rate than in previous decades. This may be the result of the 2008 Great Recession or changing immigration policies.

»» The presence of post-2000 immigrants is most notable in the healthcare and personal care job groups.

»» Only 11 percent of business operations employees are immigrants, and almost none arrived after 2000.

»» The 2010 to 2016 period is shorter than the full decades shown for other time periods, yet immigrants are still accru-

»» The cleaning and maintenance job group has the highest share of immigrants, at 24 percent.

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ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

64% Senior Living Community Workforce by Education

64% 35% 27%

27%

31%

31% 15%

7%

35%

20%

32%

29%

10%

14%

15%

29% 10%

8% 14%

18%

1%

40%

20%

18%

32%

8%

20%

40%

20%

3%

7% Healthcare

10% 8% Personal Care

10% 8% Business Operations 1%

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

3%

8%

Management 8% Management

43% 39%

38%

31%

30%

23% 39% 31%

22%

38%

21%

22%

21%

3%

31% 30%

43% 19%

30%

13%

23%

26%

6%

4%

6% Food Service

High School Graduate

No High School Diploma

Administrative Support

US LABOR FORCE BY EDUCATION

4%

Food Service

10%

No High School Diploma

24%

High School Graduate

»» The senior living industry is largely served by high school graduates and those with some college or associate degrees. Nearly three-quarters of workers fall into one of these three educational attainment levels.

10%

11%

10%

11%

19% 6% 6%

17%

13% Administrative Support 3%

17%

31% 30%

26%

Cleaning and Maintenance 6% 6% Some College

TOTAL

Associate Degree

Cleaning and Maintenance

24%

Some College

10%

Associate Degree

BA+

TOTAL

32%

Bachelor’s and Higher

»» College graduates dominate the industry’s business operations, with nearly two-thirds having completed college. »» Food service and cleaning and maintenance have lower educational attainment; 10 to 12 percent have an associate degree or higher.

‘College graduates’ refers to people with at least a bachelor’s degree. The ‘Bachelor’s and Higher’ label includes completion of a bachelor’s or higher level degree such as a master’s degree, professional degree, or doctorate.

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

21


Senior Living Workforce Currently Enrolled in School, by Age 6%

6%

5% 4%

4% 6%

6%

3%

4% 3%

3%

3% 5%

2% 4%

4%

1%

1%

3%

3%

3%

4%

1%

Healthcare 1%

Personal Care

2% Business Operations 1%

3% Management 1%

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

12% 12%

6% 12% 12%

3%

6% 3% 3%

3% 2%

2%

2% 2%

3%

3%

2% Administrative Support 1%

3% 3%

16 to 18

2% Food Service 1%

19 to 24

2%

US LABOR FORCE Administrative Support Food Service CURRENTLY ENROLLED 16 to 18 IN SCHOOL, BY AGE

»» Fourteen percent of senior living employees are currently enrolled in school, higher than the national average of 10 percent. »» Food service workers stand out for their youth and concurrent enrollment in school. Nearly one-quarter of food service workers are students age 16 to 24. »» Six percent of healthcare and personal care workers are college-age employees who are also attending school.

22

1%

1%

1%

2%

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

2% 2% Cleaning and Maintenance 1% 25 to 34

TOTAL

35 and older

Cleaning and Maintenance 4% 2%

19 to 24

2%

25 to 34

2%

TOTAL

35 and older

»» Students age 25 to 34 make up 4 percent of the healthcare and personal care groups, twice the national share. These older students may find senior living work compatible with the demands of their studies. »» The share of students age 35 and older stands out among management workers; these enrolled employees may be seeking career advancement.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT 88%

83%

Senior Living Community Workforce by Hours Worked Per Week

6%

6%

58%

60%

58%

60%

12% 11% 13%

6%

Healthcare 12% 11% 13%

Healthcare

11% 12% 11% 2% 4%

7%

Personal Care 11% 12% 11% 6%

Business Operations

Personal Care

Business Operations

2% 4%

7%

US LABOR FORCE BY HOURS WORKED AdministrativePER Support WEEK

3% 2% 3% 5%

4%

Management

61%

45% 64% 18% 16%

Administrative Support 10% 11% Less than 20 5% 7%

Management

64%

68%

5% 7%

3% 2% 3% 5%

4%

68%

10% 11%

88%

83%

12%

9% 45%

6%

18%Food 16% Service 12% 9% 20 to 29

7%

LessFood thanService 20

9% 8%

61%

13% 7%

Cleaning and Maintenance 13% 9% 8% 30 to 34 35 to 39 6%

10%

7%

7%

8%

20 to 29Cleaning and 30 Maintenance to 34 35 to 39

»» Senior living employment is generally full-time work, with 72 percent of total senior living employees working 35 or more hours per week, a smaller share than in the U.S. workforce as whole. »» Among healthcare and personal care workers, around 70 percent work 35 or more hours a week. About three-quarters of both administrative support and cleaning and maintenance workers work full time.

11% 10% 11%

TOTAL 11% 10% 11% 40 or more

69%

TOTAL 40 or

more

»» Workers in the office-based job groups are the most likely to work full-time, particularly management and business operations. »» Food service work is most likely part-time; nearly one-half (46 percent) in this group works fewer than 35 hours per week. »» Registered nurses work longer hours with 20 percent working 45 or more hours per week.

Full time is considered 35 or more hours worked per week.

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

23


Senior Living Community Workforce By Transportation to Work

4% 8% 4%

9%

5%

4%

4%

4%

92%

86%

Healthcare

89%

Business Operations

Management

Car, truck, van, motorcycle

US LABOR FORCE BY TRANSPORTATION TO WORK

2%

85%

»» Nearly 90 percent of the industry workforce drives a personal vehicle to work, slightly higher than the U.S. average. »» The “other” category is primarily composed of those who work at home or walk to work. Overall, 3 percent walk to work. »» Management employees are the most likely to work at home, at 7 percent.

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ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

93%

86%

Administrative Support

Public transit or taxi

Car, truck, van, motorcycle

7% 4%

5%

4%

9%

91%

Personal Care

9%

3%

Food Service

88% Cleaning & Maintenance

89% TOTAL

Other means of travel

6%

Public transit or taxi

9%

Other means of travel

3 percent of senior living workers walk to work.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Community Workforce by Commute Time to Work

50% 50%

46% 46% 38% 38%

39% 39% 36% 36%

36% 36% 33% 33%

35% 35%

22% 22% 14% 14%

12% 12%

20% 20% 9% 9%

5% 5%

3% 3%

2% 2% Healthcare Healthcare

Personal Care Personal Care

Business Operations Business Operations

Management Management

58% 58%

48% 48%

46% 46%

42% 42% 39% 39%

36% 36%

35% 35%

28% 28% 15% 15%

15% 15%

12% 12% 4% 4%

10 to 15 minutes

US LABOR FORCE BY COMMUTE TIME TO WORK

Food Service Food Service

16 to 30 minutes

40%

0 to 15 minutes

»» Senior living workers’ commuting times may be slightly shorter on average than the national labor force, with 83 percent living within 30 minutes of work. »» Nearly half—48 percent—of senior living workers live within 15 minutes of work.

3% 3%

3% 3%

2% 2%

Administrative Support Administrative Support

14% 14%

Cleaning and Maintenance Cleaning and Maintenance

31 to 60 minutes

35%

16 to 30 minutes

More than 61 minutes

20%

31 to 60 minutes

TOTAL TOTAL

4%

More than 61 minutes

»» Food service workers live the closest to work, with 58 percent within 15 minutes of work. This could reflect a “convenience factor” when seeking employment—important for the many student part-time workers in this group. »» Office-based workers have commuting times that most closely resemble the U.S. labor force as a whole, probably because they are predominantly full-time and work a regular daytime schedule. ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

25


Senior Living Community Workforce by Time of Work Arrival 38% 38%

37% 37%

30% 27%

30%

26%

27% 18% 18%

26%

27% 27% 20%

19% 17%

19% 13%

14% 17% 14%

13%

13%

17%

13% 9%

14%

20% 14%

17% 11%

14% 8%

9%

8%

14% 8%

11%

6%

4%

6%

4%

5%

5% 8%

5%

5%

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

35% 35%

31% 31%

29%

28%

29%

28%

27%

26%

27%

26%

21%

20%

21%

17%

17% 17% 14%

17%

14% 11%

9% 9%

17% 20% 14%

6% 6%

11% 4%

12%

13%

17%

16% 16%

11%

12%

7%

11%

5%

7%

10% 10%

5%

4%

Administrative Support 6:00 Administrative AM to 6:59 AM Support 7:00 AM to 7:59 AM

US LABOR FORCE BY TIME OF WORK ARRIVAL

14%

13%

14%

Food Service

Cleaning and Maintenance

AM to 8:59 AM Food8:00 Service

12:00 AM to 5:59 PM 9:00 AM to 3:59 PM 4:00 PM to 11:59 PM TOTAL Cleaning and Maintenance

6:00 AM to 6:59 AM

26%

7:00 AM to 7:59 AM

22%

8:00 AM to 8:59 AM

22%

9:00 AM to 3:59 PM

TOTAL

8%

4:00 PM to 11:59 PM

9%

12:00 AM to 5:59 PM

»» The majority of senior living workers arrive to work between 6 a.m. and 9 a.m.

as part-time workers who may be scheduled throughout the day to prepare and serve meals.

»» Office-based job groups generally arrive between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m.

»» Healthcare and personal care workers also have arrival times that reach into the afternoon, evening, and early morning.

»» Food service workers’ arrival is distributed throughout the day, more so than among other jobs. This reflects a contingent of workers arriving early to prepare breakfast as well

26

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

»» Most cleaning and maintenance workers arrive before 8 a.m. for their workday.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Community Workforce Without Health Insurance

11%

10%

Cleaning & Maintenance

Healthcare

10%

Without Insurance

10%

Food Service

13%

Personal Care

4%

Administrative Support

4%

Business Operations

7%

Management US LABOR WORKFORCE WITHOUT HEALTH INSURANCE »» Overall, 10 percent of senior living workers lack health insurance, matching the national workforce average. »» Office-based workers are the least likely and personal care workers the most likely to lack health insurance.

10%

»» While the majority of senior living industry workers have employer-based health insurance, this measure does not indicate whether it is their job or that of another household member that is the health insurance source.

Medicare enrollment is reported by 8 percent of senior living employees, which closely corresponds with the more than 6 percent who are age 65 or older.

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

27


Senior Living Community Workforce by Internet Access

6% 19% 12%

10%

14%

13%

13%

13%

16%

15%

4%

10% 14%

11%

2% 6%

77%

74%

Healthcare

Personal Care

85%

92% Business Operations

Management

Via mobile broadband

US LABOR FORCE BY INTERNET ACCESS

79%

Via mobile broadband

76% Administrative Support Home only

13%

Home only

72%

70%

Food Service

Cleaning & Maintenance

76% TOTAL

No access

8%

No access

»» Personal internet access is ubiquitous among employees of the senior living industry, with 90 percent reporting access at home and the majority having mobile access. These percentages are similar to those reported by all U.S. workers.

»» Internet access is somewhat higher among business, management, and administrative staff.

HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS

Household size can be an indicator of complexity of life at home, be it a spouse and several children sharing a household or others sharing the home, such as aging parents or even grandchildren.

The following section profiles household and family characteristics to provide a broader view of the home life and challenges faced by senior living employees. The home situation may provide employees with additional support or impose time and economic pressures that can directly impact their motivation, availability, and readiness for work.

28

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

»» About a quarter of the senior living workforce reports lacking mobile internet access via a smartphone.

Likewise, marital status is an indicator of life stage. Widowed, divorced, and separated people have undergone some significant disruption in their lives which may have impacted their readiness for work at some point in their past; currently married workers may have additional economic and emotional support. Single parenthood places significant time and often economic pressures on an employee.


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Community Workforce by Household Size

42% 42% 28% 28%

40%

40%

40%

40%

20%

34%

29%

27%

42%

34%

29%

22%

27%

20%

42%

19% 22%

10%

11%

10%

11%

14%

19%

11%

10% 14%

11%

10%

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

41%

40% 34% 35%

41%

33% 34% 33% 34%

18% 15% 18% 15%

Administrative Support One person

Administrative Support

US LABOR FORCE BY HOUSEHOLD SIZE

29%

34% 35%

27% 27%

40%

21% 21%

10%

11%

10%

11%

Food Service Two people

Food Service

11%

One person

»» Household sizes of senior living employees generally follow the pattern seen in the national workforce.

29%

20% 20%

11%

Three or four people

Cleaning and Maintenance

30%

20%

11%

Cleaning and Maintenance

Two people

20%

TOTAL Five or more people

41%

Three or four people

TOTAL

18%

Five or more people

»» Business operations and administrative support workers are more likely to come from one-person households, likely reflecting the somewhat older workforce in these jobs where more workers are divorced or widowed empty nesters.

Household size is the total number of people occupying a housing unit, including the senior living industry worker.

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

29


Senior Living Community Workforce by Marital Status

40% 19%

41% Healthcare

40%

22%

23%

37% Personal Care

20% 23%

18%

60% Business Operations

57%

US LABOR WORKFORCE BY MARITAL STATUS

27%

55% 20%

47%

Management

Married

26%

Administrative Support

26% Food Service

Widowed/Divorced/Separated

51%

Married

»» The senior living workforce is slightly younger than the U.S. workforce and less likely to be married. Overall, 41 percent of these workers are married compared to 51 percent of the U.S. workforce.

17%

Widowed/Divorced/ Separated

31%

38%

23%

22%

47% Cleaning & Maintenance

41% TOTAL

Single

32%

Single

»» The youth of food service workers is consistent with 55 percent of them reporting being single; this is the same group disproportionately comprised of enrolled high school and college students.

»» The percent married is higher among the business, management, administrative support, and cleaning and maintenance staff—a reflection of these job groups having higher shares of older workers.

Senior living employees are more likely to be single parents than the U.S. employed labor force, at 13 percent compared to 9 percent of the U.S. workforce. Women with children age six or older is the most common type of single parent household; it alone accounts for 7 percent of the senior living workforce.

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ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Senior Living Community Workforce by Number of Children in Household 63% 56% 56%

59%

59%

59%

59%

20%

19% 15% 19% 15%

11%

20% 12%

11%

12%

63%

17% 16%

16% 15%

8%

17% 16% 9%

16% 15% 6%

8%

9%

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

6% Management

Healthcare

Personal Care

Business Operations

Management

67%

66%

63% 67% 63%

60%

20% 15% 15%

11% 11%

7% Administrative Support No children

Administrative Support

US LABOR FORCE BY NUMBER OF CHILDREN

19%

17%

20% 10%

7%

60%

66%

7%

10%

7% Food Service One

Food Service

60%

No children

»» About 40 percent of senior living staff have children under 18 at home, comparable to the national workforce.

19%

17% 9% 8%

13%

9% 8% Cleaning and Maintenance Two

Cleaning and Maintenance

18% One

14% Two

13%

9% 9%

TOTAL Three or more

TOTAL

8%

Three or more

»» Healthcare staff are the most likely to live with children, reflecting the age composition and life stage of workers in this job group.

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

31


Senior Living Community Workforce by Single Parenthood

6%

8%

8%

Cleaning & Maintenance

Cleaning & Maintenance

Food Service

6%

16%

Administrative Support

Food Service

5%

4%

Children under 6

Management

5%

Administrative Support

40%

Healthcare

8%

Management

US LABOR FORCE 1% BY AGE OF Business YOUNGEST CHILD

36%

Personal Care

Operations

3%

6%

Children Under 6

8%

Cleaning & Maintenance

Cleaning & Maintenance

US LABOR WORKFORCE BY SINGLE PARENTS

16%

Food Service

8%

5%

Healthcare

under 66to 17 6 to 17

Healthcare

Children 6 to 17

Administrative Support

40%

33%

3% 6% 6% Children ChildrenChildren

8%

Management

30%

1%

Personal Care

Business Operations

»» Senior living employees are more likely to be single parents than the U.S. employed labor force, at 13 percent LABOR compared to 9 percent of the U.S. workforce.

3%

6%

under 6

6 to 17

US ORKFORCE »BY Children » At least Children one of every seven personal care, healthcare, and NGLE PARENTS food service workers is a single parent who may face dif-

»» Over three-quarters of senior living staff with children under age 6 are in caregiver occupations—healthcare and personal care. »» Food service and management single parents are more likely to have older children.

ferent challenges than their married parent counterparts.

The percent of senior living industry workers who are single parents is reflected in the total area of the circles, while the ages of their children determine the shaded segments. Those with children in both age group are shown in the "under 6" group.

32

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

8

Ch 6


WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT TERM

DEFINITION*

TERM

DEFINITION*

Ability to speak English

Respondents who reported speaking a language other than English at home were asked to indicate their English-speaking ability.

Householder

Age

Age classification is based on the age of the person in complete years at the time of interview. Both age and date of birth are used in combination to calculate the most accurate age at the time of the interview.

One person in each household is designated as the householder. In most cases, this is the person, or one of the people, in whose name the home is owned, being bought, or rented and who is listed on line one of the survey questionnaire.

Household income

Household income includes the income of the householder and all other individuals 15 years old and over, whether they are related to the householder or not.

Citizenship

Respondents were asked to select one of five categories: (1) born in the United States, (2) born in Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or Northern Marianas, (3) born abroad of U.S. citizen parent or parents, (4) U.S. citizen by naturalization, or (5) not a U.S citizen.

Household relationship

The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to the question "How is this person related to Person 1 (the householder)."

Household size

Household size is the total number of people that are living in each housing unit, related or unrelated.

Internet access

The computer and internet use questions ask if anyone in the household owns or uses a desktop or laptop, a smartphone, a tablet or other portable wireless computer, or some other type of computer. Respondents were also asked what type of internet access they had, if any.

Marital status

People 15 and over were asked whether they were “now married,” “widowed,” “divorced,” “separated,” or “never married.” Couples who live together (unmarried people, people in common-law marriages) were allowed to report the marital status they considered the most appropriate.

Place of birth

Respondents were asked to report the name of the U.S. state/territory or foreign country of birth.

Race

Race categories generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country, and not an attempt to define race biologically, anthropologically, or genetically. For purposes of this report, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity have been combined, and anyone who reports Hispanic origin is counted as Hispanic regardless of the race they report.

Sex

Individuals were asked to mark either “male” or “female” to indicate their sex.

Usual hours worked

Respondents were asked the usual number of hours they worked during their weeks worked in the past 12 months.

Veteran status

People who indicated that they had served on active duty or were now on active duty were asked to indicate the period or periods during which they served.

Work travel

Means of transportation to work refers to the principal mode of travel that the worker usually used to get from home to work. Travel time to work is the total number of minutes that it usually took the worker to get from home to work. Arrival time at work is calculated from answers to “time leaving home” and travel time questions.

Year of entry to U.S.

All respondents born outside the United States were asked for the year in which they came to live in the United States. This includes people born in Puerto Rico and U.S. Island Areas; people born abroad of an U.S. citizen parent or parents; and the foreign born.

Education

Respondents are asked to provide their highest degree or the highest level of school completed. People currently enrolled in school report the level of the previous grade attended or the highest degree received.

Enrollment in school

People were classified as enrolled in school if they were attending a public or private school or college at any time during the 3 months prior to the interview

Health insurance coverage

Respondents were instructed to report their current coverage and to mark “Yes” or “No” for each of the types listed. The types of health insurance are not mutually exclusive; people may be covered by more than one at the same time, so totals may sum to more than 100%. Employer-provided health insurance coverage may be provided by the respondent’s employer or by the employer of someone else in their household.

Any private insurance

Private health insurance is a plan provided through an employer or union, a plan purchased by an individual from a private company, or TRICARE or other military health care.

Any government insurance

Public health coverage includes the federal programs Medicare, Medicaid, and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP); and individual state health plans.

Hispanic origin

Household

People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race. The terms are used interchangeably; some respondents identify with all three terms, while others may identify with only one. Origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. For purposes of this report, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity have been combined, and anyone who reports Hispanic origin is counted as Hispanic regardless of the race they report.

A household includes all the people who occupy a housing unit, such as a house, apartment, condominium, or mobile home.

*Adapted from the 2016 Subject Definitions for the American Community Survey of the U.S. Bureau of the Census https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2016_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

ARGENTUM QUARTERLY / ISSUE 1 2018

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