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Fighting

for Opportunity school choice yearbook 2009 – 10


Fighting for Opportunity School Choice Yearbook 2009–10 An Annual Publication

Published by: Alliance for School Choice 1660 L Street, NW, Suite 1000 Washington, D.C. 20036 (202) 280-1990 www.AllianceForSchoolChoice.org

Copyright © 2010 Alliance for School Choice, All Rights Reserved ISBN 978-0-9816482-3-1

Authors: Andrew Campanella and Ashley Ehrenreich Book and cover design: Stacey Maloney Printed in the United States of America

First Printing


1

Fighting for Opportunity School Choice Yearbook 2009–10

This Yearbook is dedicated to the parents and children who, despite seemingly insurmountable obstacles, fight each and every day for a better, fairer, and stronger education for their children and for access to quality schools. We fight alongside them to make the promise of school choice and equal opportunity a reality.


introduction

2

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

3 introduction

Introduction The past year presented the school choice movement with unprecedented challenges and unique opportunities. Because of state-level budget crises and electorally emboldened adversaries, the school choice movement fought a seven-theatre war to protect educational opportunities for lowincome children. It was a rollercoaster ride of strong advocacy, emotion, uncertainty, and nonstop hard work for school choice supporters in every state. The epicenter of the battle for opportunity was Washington, D.C., where school choice advocates mounted one of the strongest defenses of an endangered voucher program in recent memory. However, educational opportunity was also jeopardized in Arizona, Louisiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. While 2009 brought setbacks—particularly in Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania—no theatre of our battle saw complete defeat. And despite the toughest year in a decade for school choice, advocates effectively weathered the storm, making gains in some states and realizing several significant successes. School choice advocates made significant gains in states like Indiana and Florida, for example. Indiana’s legislature created a $2.5 million individual and corporate scholarship tax credit program, and Florida approved, with record bipartisan support, a dramatic expansion to its tax credit program—making that program the largest in the nation. In 2009, we saw, again, a significant increase in the number of students participating in school choice programs (5 percent, to about 180,000) and an increase in the amount of public money allocated for school choice programs—unexpected victories in what turned out to be the worst economic climate in decades. And despite challenges at the federal level, an ever-increasing number of Democratic state legislators last year joined with their Republican colleagues to support school choice. Interestingly, the media tide shifted in favor of school choice in 2009, at least on the national level. The epic battle over the D.C. voucher program encouraged national newspapers—from USA Today and The Wall Street Journal to The Washington Post and the Washington Times—to powerfully editorialize in favor of school vouchers. Even progressive commentators like MSNBC’s Chris Matthews this year offered enthusiastic endorsements of school vouchers in D.C. As we begin 2010, we encourage all supporters to recommit to the continuing effort to advance the promise of educational opportunity. If 2009 has taught us anything, it’s that if we’re willing to fight hard for what we believe in, most of the time, we will win.


Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

introduction

4

Former D.C. Councilman Kevin P. Chavous, one of America’s leading Democratic advocates for school choice, speaks at a Capitol Hill rally on September 30, 2009.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

5 table of contents

Table of Contents What is School Choice? Year in Review: 2009

7–9 10–15

Research Recap: School Choice Saves Tax Dollars

32–33

Appendix A: State Profiles

34–53

Appendix B: School Choice Organizations

54–55 56–59

Growth and Expansion

16–20

Feature: Head of the Class

21–23

How It Works

24–25

Myth vs. Reality

26–29

Highlight: The Fight for Real Hope in D.C.

30–31

Sources and Credits

Research Recap: School Choice Yields Student Gains

60–61


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Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Students from Washington, D.C., participate in one of a dozen protests to protect the District’s endangered voucher program from Congressional elimination.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

7 what is school choice?

What is School Choice? School choice puts parents in charge of their children’s education by letting them select the best schools for their children, public or private. Some parents exercise school choice when they decide to move to a certain city or neighborhood because of the quality of the traditional public schools there or the presence of innovative public charter schools. Other parents—those who can afford it—send their children to high-quality private schools. Many low-income and middle-class families simply cannot afford to move to better neighborhoods or pay for private school tuition—on top of the money they already pay in taxes to support public school systems. As a result, these families are often forced to send their children to failing or unsafe public schools, institutions that have resisted reform because of the powerful forces of the education bureaucracy. We believe that low-income and middle-class parents should have stronger options— right away — through access to private schools via school vouchers and scholarship tax credit programs. We also believe that states should eliminate barriers preventing the creation of more high-quality charter schools. Types of School Choice *

School Vouchers

Voucher programs give children (usually low-income children, children in failing schools, or children with special needs) greater access to high-quality private schools. In voucher programs, education dollars “follow the child,” and parents select private schools and receive state-funded scholarships to pay tuition.

Scholarship Tax Credit Programs

Scholarship tax credit programs provide families with greater access to high-quality private schools, by providing incentives for corporations and individual taxpayers to get involved in the business of improving education. In these programs, companies and individuals get tax credits for donating to nonprofit organizations that provide scholarships for children to attend private schools.

Public Charter Schools

Charter schools provide essential choices to parents and children. Charters are public schools, run by educators, members of the community, universities, or other bodies, that are permitted to innovate and develop specialized educational programs for students without the bureaucracy that often plagues traditional public schools. States with strong charter school laws allow these schools to operate with a level of autonomy, so that they can avoid heavy bureaucracy.

*  This is not an exhaustive list of school choice options. Parents can also exercise school choice through public magnet schools, inter and intra-district public school choice, virtual schools, and by homeschooling their children.


Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

what is school choice?

8

What School Choice Means to Parents Perhaps the finest answers to the question “What is school choice?” come not from academics and policy wonks, but from the parents and children who participate in school voucher and scholarship tax credit programs nationwide. School choice means different things to different families—but most families agree that school choice provides an opportunity for their children to excel and to thrive. For Shayla Williams, a 13-year-old who receives a Step Up for Students Scholarship as part of the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program, school choice means a healthier learning environment. Of her new school, Shayla says, “There’s no drama. No one fights here.” LeeAnn Evatt says that school choice has given her son Justin, a Georgia Special Needs Scholarship recipient, a chance to dream again. “His first year in private school was really about getting back to where he was,” she says. “Second semester was pretty good, but this year he’s completely back to the old Justin — Mr. Happy-Go-Lucky. I feel like I almost have a new child, honestly. Now he has his hopes and dreams back again.” Cleveland mother Debby Barry, whose son receives a scholarship to attend a private school through the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program, says school choice means safety for her children. “We live in the ’hood,” Debby says. “I hear gunshots every night. The kids in our neighborhood are wild. I can’t wait to get him to school to get him out of the neighborhood. I couldn’t afford private school tuition, so I am blessed to have this scholarship. This is what I want for my child.” Florida mother Patricia Allen says that school choice provides her sons with hope for a better future. “Without these scholarships, there is no telling what would have happened to my boys. The scholarship program gave my children the second chances they needed for success in school and in life.” Her sons receive Step Up for Students Scholarships. For sixth grader Sekou, a scholarship recipient and participant in Pennsylvania’s Educational Improvement Tax Credit (EITC) program, school choice means smaller class sizes and fewer distractions: “My school is much different from public school, and I enjoy going there for many reasons. One reason is because there are smaller class sizes so you can hear more. Also, there are no girls to distract you or get you in trouble…. Another difference is that the classes are hard, and you have to study more, and if you don’t do your homework, you get detention,” he says.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

Arizona father Scott’s children receive scholarships through Arizona’s Individual School Tuition Organization Tax Credit program. For Scott, school choice means a lifeline of stability for his son and four daughters. “After my wife died of cancer, I didn’t know how I would raise my kids, keep working, and make their lives normal again. These scholarships provided my children with the opportunity to continue to excel in school despite impossible circumstances at home.” For Jessica Burhardt, a mother of children who receive vouchers through Louisiana’s Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence program, school choice means that her kids have a chance at proving their true potential. “I live in Orleans Parish, and my children were able to move from a failing Recovery District school to a private school directly because of the Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program,” she says. “While they attended public school, they received a less satisfactory education in an environment where not only the students but teachers didn’t care. They had no room to thrive. Now they are both honor roll students and spelling bee winners.” For Carol, the mother of Jeremy—a recipient of a Georgia Special Needs Scholarship— school choice means that she has a chance to see the best in her son again. “They say that Jeremy is the best kid. He went from six suspensions last year in the public school to zero behavior problems this year. He’s even in the choir. Last year we had the kid who was throwing pinecones at teachers, and this year he is in the choir. This is a new kid here.” For Seanette, a mother of three in Cleveland, school choice means that her children won’t fall through the cracks. “It takes a strain off me to know I can send my child to a great school. I feel safe leaving my child at this school, which is a wonderful feeling. In Kellisa’s public school, she was doing advanced work but she was still bored to tears. She was slipping through the cracks. I was so happy when the principal at her new school called and told me about the Cleveland Scholarship. I enrolled her right away, and now I see such a difference.”

“I got involved in the fight for school choice when my daughter Nia’s scholarship was revoked during the fight to save the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program. My son Nico went from getting no attention whatsoever at a failing public school to thriving in a private school, so I know that vouchers work. To me, school choice means putting kids first. And to anyone who wants to end a program that helps kids, I tell them: Keep politics out of this. It’s about our family.” — LaTasha Bennett, D.C. mother

what is school choice?

For many students, including fourth grader Brandon, a recipient of Ohio’s EdChoice Scholarship, school choice means great teachers. “In the beginning the work was hard, harder than the work at my old school,” Brandon says. “But my teacher never gave up on me. She made sure I understood the lessons and never ignored me in class.”

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Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Students rally in Phoenix, Arizona, in 2008 to support specialized school voucher programs. These initiatives became “Lexie’s Law” in 2009.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

The start of 2009 saw the inauguration of a new president, Barack Obama, and also the climax of the global economic crisis. With states across the country facing unprecedented budget shortfalls and crushing deficits, the potential for the passage of new school choice programs appeared bleak. In fact, as 2009 began, the school choice movement braced itself for attacks from opponents who would claim, despite economic reality, that school voucher programs and scholarship tax credit programs cost excessive money and drained funds from public schools. To combat these false claims, the school choice movement protected programs with aggressive advocacy — planning rallies across the country, expanding its parental outreach efforts, and broadening its base of support to include even more Democrats. Throughout the following pages, you can read about the major battles, successes, and challenges of 2009— and see how school choice advocates were able to overcome nearly insurmountable odds to increase school choice programs and student enrollment in the school choice movement’s most challenging year to date. Two New Programs Signed into Law After a long battle, Indiana legislators involved in a protracted budget debate passed a $2.5 million corporate and individual scholarship tax credit program. In addition to having the support of the state’s governor, Mitch Daniels, the program was passed because of extensive public support, including a long-term letter-writing campaign targeted at key legislative budget committee members, a comprehensive effort to place opinion pieces in targeted newspapers, and the involvement of a wide range of religious and community groups. The program will start providing scholarships to students in 2010. Arizona remained a hotbed of controversy in 2009—fueled mostly by agitation by the ACLU and the People for the American Way. Despite deploying vast resources in attempts to kill voucher programs specifically designed to help children with special needs and children in foster care, these special interests ultimately failed in their attempts to undermine school choice in the state. When a court ruled that Arizona’s Blaine Amendment created an atmosphere that wasn’t conducive for the voucher programs, school choice activists worked with a team of legislative allies to swiftly pass Lexie’s Law, a $5 million initiative that converted the two voucher programs for foster children and students with special needs into a corporate scholarship tax credit program, preserved educational opportunities for more than 470 children, and expanded access to the program for students with “504” plans.

year in review: 2009

Year in Review: 2009

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Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

section two year in review: 2009

12

Parents fight to protect Ohio’s Autism Scholarship Program at a Columbus, Ohio, rally in 2009.

Five Programs Expanded or Enhanced In addition to this victory against well-funded special interests, the Arizona school choice coalition also succeeded in convincing lawmakers to eliminate the sunset provision in the Corporate School Tuition Organization (STO) Tax Credit Program, to include insurance premium tax credits in the corporate STO program, and to allow donations through payroll deduction for the Individual School Tuition Organization Tax Credit Program. In Florida, extensive public outreach resulted in protection of Florida’s Corporate Tax Credit Scholarship Program—now known as the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program. Because of the vocal and public support of Governor Charlie Crist—along with a multitude of Florida’s Democratic legislators—the program was expanded in 2009 to allow for insurance premium tax credits. Iowa school choice supporters saw two significant successes in 2009, thanks to the support of committed legislators and Democratic Governor Chet Culver. In 2009, corporations were permitted to join individuals in making donations to support scholarships in the state. For the first time, the state came extremely close to reaching the program’s cap—the maximum allowable tax credits permitted for the program, $7.5 million—and 9,624 students were served. With the help of popular Governor Bobby Jindal, along with Democratic Senator Ann Duplessis and Democratic Representative Austin Badon (both of New Orleans), the planned increase in funding for Louisiana’s popular Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program—a voucher initiative for low-income students in failing New Orleans schools—was preserved and expanded by $2.1 million despite some legislative opposition. Supporters of the program rallied in Baton Rouge to convince lawmakers of the program’s positive impact. On the enrollment front, the Louisiana chapter of the Black Alliance for Educational Options (BAEO) worked with local advocates to mount an aggressive parental outreach and education campaign.


School Choice Yearbook  2009-2010

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In Utah, legislators enacted another annual increase in funding for the Carson Smith Special Needs Scholarship program. Under the leadership of parent groups in Utah, the Carson Smith program continued to thrive in 2009 with $150,000 in additional funding and overwhelming rates of parental satisfaction.

Faced with overwhelming state budget deficits and challenges from legislators to cut costs, Rhode Island Governor Don Carcieri, a Republican, began the year with an effort to eliminate all of the Ocean State’s tax credit programs. Thanks to strong efforts by the Rhode Island Scholarship Advocates (RISA), however, Governor Carcieri reversed course— advocating for the preservation of the program. In the end, legislators from both parties agreed with the governor’s stance, preserving the $1 million program in its entirety. In the battle to preserve and protect the nation’s oldest and longest-running school choice voucher program, Wisconsin school choice advocates succeeded in beating back challenges from a governor who has never supported the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). Instead of adopting a proposed regime of overly burdensome regulations proposed by the governor and his allies—regulations that supporters believed would severely harm

Louisiana First Lady Supriya Jindal meets with two parents who support the Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program in 2009.

year in review: 2009

Three Programs Protected In the Buckeye State, School Choice Ohio and its allies went on the offensive against a governor who remains vehemently opposed to parental choice in education. School choice allies in Ohio rallied public support and waged a full-scale enrollment effort for the EdChoice voucher program, increasing applications by 30 percent in just one year. In addition, the team managed to beat back the governor’s efforts to weaken the program, and succeeded in passing key language that will improve the program’s accountability to families and taxpayers in the future.


Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

year in review: 2009

14

Florida Governor Charlie Crist meets students who receive Florida Tax Credit Scholarships through Step Up for Students, at a 2009 rally.

the program’s ability to admit students and schools into the MPCP — school choice supporters agreed to a legislative compromise that requires additional testing and new government oversight. Two Programs Still under Siege Pennsylvania—another state with strong bipartisan support—suffered one of the most significant setbacks of 2009 because of the Keystone State’s desperate financial situation. The program, which served nearly 45,000 children in 2008, was targeted for complete elimination by some legislators who sought to close “budget gaps.” The support of Democratic Governor Ed Rendell, State Senator Anthony A. Williams (D–Philadelphia), and State Representative Dwight Evans (D–Philadelphia), however, paid off—as the program escaped complete elimination and survived with what school choice supporters hope will be a temporary funding reduction. Perhaps the most prominent fight in 2009 took place in Washington, D.C. Despite President Obama’s campaign promise to “fund what works, regardless of ideology,” his administration sent early signals that he intended to completely eliminate the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program—a voucher initiative for low-income students in Washington, D.C., who attend predominantly failing schools. As a result, D.C. activists—led by D.C. Parents for School Choice and local coalition leaders Kevin P. Chavous and Virginia Walden Ford—mounted an all-out effort to save the program. On the morning of a rally that brought more than 2,000 families out to Freedom Plaza in the District, the Obama administration bowed to incredible pressure and agreed to preserve the program for students already receiving scholarships. Not content with this “compromise,” school choice leaders mounted a full-scale television, radio, newspaper, and Internet campaign to save the program, culminating in two dozen protests, events, and rallies and significant national news coverage. As of this writing, the outcome of the battle to save the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program is uncertain.


School Choice Yearbook  2009-2010

15

Overview: Successful School Choice Legislation in 2009 State

Legislation

Arizona

Creation of Scholarship Tax Credit Program for Special Needs & Foster Children Elimination of Sunset on Corporate STO Program

Expansion of Corporate STO Program

Inclusion of Insurance Premium Taxes in Corporate STO Program

Allowance of Donations to STOs by Payroll Deduction

Florida

Inclusion of Insurance Premium Taxes in Corporate Tax Credit Program

Indiana

Creation of Scholarship Tax Credit Program

Iowa

Inclusion of Corporate Taxes in Scholarship Tax Credit Program

Louisiana

Appropriation of Additional Funds for Scholarships

Ohio

Academic Accountability Provisions Added to Existing Voucher Programs

Rhode Island

Restoration of Corporate Scholarship Tax Credit Program

Utah

Expansion of Carson Smith Special Needs Scholarship Program

District of Columbia

Extension of Funding for Opportunity Scholarship Program

year in review: 2009


16

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Dr. Howard Fuller, founder of the Black Alliance for Educational Options (BAEO), poses with children from Durham Nativity School in Durham, North Carolina.


School Choice Yearbook  2009–10

17

Growth and Expansion

There are now 18 publicly funded private school choice programs operating in 11 states and the District of Columbia. These programs are evenly divided between school voucher programs (9) and scholarship tax credit programs (9). Of the 18 programs in existence, five are specifically designed to assist children with special needs. In 2009, Florida eclipsed Pennsylvania to become the state with the most students enrolled in school choice programs. Arizona and Ohio are now tied (with three programs each) as the states with the highest number of school choice programs. 2009–10 School Choice Data at a Glance States (Including D.C.) with School Choice Programs Scholarship Tax Credit Programs Public Charter Schools State with Special Needs / Foster Programs Total Number of School Choice Programs

12 7 40 5 18

Number of School Voucher Programs

9

Number of Scholarship Tax Credit Programs

9

Special Needs/Foster Programs

5*

Total Students in School Choice Programs

179,721

Total Students: Scholarship Tax Credit Programs

115,642

Total Students: School Voucher Programs

64,079

Total Students: Special Needs / Foster Programs

24,555*

Total Funding Expended for School Choice Programs

$606,097,380

Total Funding: Scholarship Tax Credits

$236,316,848

Total Funding: School Vouchers

$369,780,532

Total Funding: Special Needs / Foster Scholarships

$168,135,462*

Average Scholarship Amount for School Choice Programs

$3,373

Average Scholarship in Scholarship Tax Credit Programs

$2,044

Average Scholarship in School Voucher Programs

$5,770

Average Scholarship for Special Needs / Foster Programs

$6,847

* Numbers under sections highlighted in yellow do not add up to the larger sums. Data is provided for reference.

growth and expansion

During 2009, the school choice movement saw the addition of a new state to the school choice family: Indiana. In addition, student enrollment continued its steady growth—to 179,721, a nearly 5 percent increase over 2008–09 and an 86 percent increase over five years ago (2004-05).


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Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Recent Student Enrollment Growth in Targeted School Choice Programs 180,000

171,478

179,721

2008-09

2009-10

158,725

160,000 140,000 126,519 120,000

108,705 96,528

100,000

90,613

55,373

60,000 40,000

29,003

20,000 0 2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

2007-08

Growth in States with Private School Choice Programs IN

12

LA

LA

11

GA

GA

GA

10

IA

IA

IA

IA

9

RI

RI

RI

RI

8

UT

UT

UT

UT

UT

7

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

DC

6

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

PA

5

fl

fl

fl

fl

fl

fl

fl

fl

fl

fl

fl

4

az

az

az

az

az

az

az

az

az

az

az

az

az

3

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

WI

2007

2008

2009

1

WI

2006

2

2005

oh

2004

oh

2003

oh

2002

oh

2001

oh

2000

oh

1999

oh

1998

oh

1997

oh

1996

oh

1995

oh

1994

oh

1993

oh

1992

oh

1991

oh

1990

growth and expansion

81,524 80,000


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

19

States with Targeted Private School Choice Programs

Washington Montana Oregon

Maine

North Dakota Minnesota

Idaho

Vt. Wisconsin

South Dakota

New York

Wyoming

Michigan Nebraska

Pennsylvania

Iowa

Nevada

Illinois

Utah

Indiana

Ohio

Maryland West Virginia

Colorado

California

Kansas

Kentucky

South Carolina

Arkansas Georgia

Mississippi Alabama

Louisiana Texas

Florida

Alaska

Hawaii

18 Private School Choice Programs 12

9

1 Special Needs / Foster 8 4 Special Needs 6 8 General 4

5 General 2

0 Vouchers

Scholarship Tax Credits

growth and expansion

Tennessee

New Mexico

9

New Jersey Delaware

Washington, DC

North Carolina

10

Conn. R.I.

Virginia

Missouri

Oklahoma

Arizona

N.H.

Mass.


20

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

2009–10 Scholarship Recipients by State 0

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

30,000

Florida

growth and expansion

32,001

Wisconsin

20,328

Ohio

18,654

Iowa

9,624

3,968

Georgia

Utah

Rhode Island

45,000

44,839

Arizona

Louisiana

40,000

46,900

Pennsylvania

Washington, D.C.

35,000

1,319

1,195

602

291


head of the class

> Justina and Shauna Mason When Florida mother Yvette Mason noticed that her daughters, Justina and Shauna, were losing focus at their public middle school, she wasted no time in exploring what other options were available to them. Unable to attend college herself, Yvette was determined that her twin daughters would follow a different path. Yvette learned about the Step Up for Students Scholarship, which serves students from households with incomes that meet the standard for free and reduced–price lunch, and began researching private schools in her Orlando neighborhood. Justina and Shauna were awarded Step Up scholarships to attend Agape Christian Academy, where the small class sizes and individual attention allowed them to academically thrive. “I ask a lot of questions,” says Shauna, “and the teachers really break it down for you. If you have trouble with something, they will be there to help you.” Four years after they entered Agape Christian Academy, Justina and Shauna graduated as co-valedictorians with 4.0 grade point averages. Their shared goal of earning nursing degrees from the University of Central Florida is well within their reach, and because their mother was able to choose a school that provided a solid educational foundation, there is no limit to their future success.

“She always showed us that you can’t go anywhere without an education,” Justina says of her mother. “That’s the most important thing to being successful.”

21


22

head of the class

> Tiffany Dunston Eager to help her escape the limitations of her inner-city Washington, D.C., school, Tiffany Dunston’s aunt encouraged her to apply for an Opportunity Scholarship through a federally funded voucher program that allows low-income children to escape failing public schools.

“I started praying every day because I didn’t want to go to a neighborhood school,” tiffany says. Tiffany’s prayers were answered when she enrolled in the freshman class at Archbishop Carroll High School in Washington, D.C. Tiffany noticed a difference in the new learning environment immediately. “The way people act toward each other, the activities, the curriculum,” she says. “That’s the difference — Carroll has limited distractions.” Unwilling to allow this opportunity to be wasted, Tiffany excelled in the classroom and on the basketball court. Tiffany attributes her drive to honoring the memory of her cousin, James, who was shot and killed at age 17. “He was going to be the first college graduate in my family, but he died before his opportunity. Now I’m trying to step in his shoes, to finish what he started.” In 2008, Tiffany graduated as the valedictorian of her Archbishop Carroll class. She is currently a sophomore at Syracuse University, where she is majoring in biochemistry.


School Choice Yearbook  2009–10

Pennsylvania’s Educational Improvement Tax Credit (EITC) Program, supported by a broad bipartisan coalition, is a huge success. Just ask Sekou, a sixth grader. “I’m grateful I can get a good education at a private school such as Nativity School because of the scholarship support I received. If you’re smart, when you finish college, all your degrees will help you make enough money to take care of your family…” he says.

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Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

How It Works

how it works

Voucher Programs Education vouchers are the method of public education funding that empowers parents by allowing public money to follow their children to the public or private schools of their choice. There are a wide variety of targeted school voucher programs in existence today. Types of K-12 Voucher Programs Means-tested voucher programs are targeted to low-income families who meet specific income criteria, typically around 185 percent of the federal poverty guideline.

Existing programs for low–income students

Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program (means-preferenced)

Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

Louisiana’s Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program (also a failing schools program)

D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program

Failing schools voucher programs are targeted to children in low-performing public schools. Existing programs

Ohio’s Educational Choice (EdChoice) Scholarship Program

Louisiana’s Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program (also means-tested)

Special education voucher programs are targeted to children with special educational needs. Typically, they require the student to have an Individualized Education Program (IEP) to qualify. Existing programs

Florida’s McKay Scholarship for Students with Disabilities Program

Georgia Special Needs Scholarship Program

Ohio’s Autism Scholarship Program

Utah’s Carson Smith Special Needs Scholarship


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

25

Foster child voucher programs are targeted to children in foster care, who, because of their frequent changes of address, are often forced to change schools many times over the course of their K-12 education (no existing programs). G.I. Junior voucher programs are targeted to children in military families, who often live on bases or in areas with high concentrations of failing schools (no existing programs). Universal voucher programs allow all children, regardless of their family income, where they live, or any other criteria, to participate. In effect, this type of program serves to separate the government financing of education from the government operation of schools. It can be means-preferenced so that poorer families receive larger vouchers (no existing programs). Scholarship Tax Credit Programs Scholarship tax credit programs provide individuals and/or corporations with tax credits for charitable contributions to nonprofit organizations that grant children scholarships so that they can attend the public or private schools of their parents’ choice.

»» Typically, laws require that eligible families meet certain income criteria. »» Scholarship granting organizations use their own criteria for distributing scholarship monies to eligible students. »» States monitor these organizations to ensure financial accountability. »» Depending on the state, these organizations are referred to as Scholarship Organizations (SOs), School Tuition Organizations (STOs), Scholarship Granting Organizations (SGOs), Student Scholarship Organizations (SSOs), or Scholarship Funding Organizations (SFOs). »» Scholarship tax credit programs are available in Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.

how it works

Rather than being operated by the government, these scholarship programs are run by nonprofit, tax-exempt, scholarship granting organizations. The scholarships do not originate from state appropriations, but from private charitable donations made under the provisions of the tax code. Accordingly, they are not funded by public agencies.


26

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Silas and Shayla, pictured with their grandmother, Maria, are now students at Victory Christian Academy in Lakeland, Florida, through a Step Up for Students Scholarship.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

27

Myth vs. Reality In their efforts to preserve the status quo and protect their political power, opponents spend a lot of money perpetuating myths about school choice. Take a few minutes and read the truth! Then, join with the Alliance for School Choice as we fight the distortions and work to bring school choice to your state. School choice drains funds from public schools.

reality School choice helps public schools. Studies have consistently demonstrated that public schools benefit from the existence of voucher and tax credit programs. In addition, with private school choice programs, school districts retain a portion of the funding for each child who leaves the public system — even though the district no longer has to educate the student.

myth

Private school choice violates the separation between church and state.

reality The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that appropriately designed private school

choice programs are fully constitutional.

myth

School choice is just a Republican, right-wing issue.

reality School choice is truly a bipartisan issue. Prominent Democratic supporters of private school choice include: Senator Dianne Feinstein, Senator Robert Byrd, Senator Joe Lieberman, Newark Mayor Cory Booker, former D.C. Mayor Anthony Williams, Louisiana State Senator Ann Duplessis, and former U.S. Representative Carrie Meek. Furthermore, a majority of school choice programs enacted over the past five years have been approved by a Democratic legislative body or signed by a Democratic governor.

myth

Students don’t learn more because of school choice.

reality When you look at the credible research available on several school choice programs in places like Milwaukee, Washington, D.C., Florida, and Cleveland, you will see that in every case, students who participate in these programs produce higher academic achievement than their peers in public schools. Parent satisfaction is extremely high, and students love their new schools.

how it works

myth


28

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

myth

There is no accountability in school choice programs.

reality The vast majority of private schools have rigorous evaluation criteria, and every private school choice program has accountability provisions — such as testing and reporting — in addition to being continually accountable to parents. Schools also have to qualify for participation in most school choice programs. School choice advocates also support smart accountability provisions in state laws—such as fair testing and program assessment — to ensure that the academic successes of students are measured and reported.

myth

The problem with private school choice is that schools won’t be required to accept children.

how it works

reality The people who run private schools want to help children, especially disadvantaged children and children with disabilities. Many private schools are built just to help children and families who are most in need. Several successful private school choice programs are designed specifically to provide much-needed support to children with special needs, and most other school choice programs focus on children from low-income families.

myth

School choice means abandoning public schools.

reality Public schools are an integral part of American society and, in many cases, offer a quality education for our children. But when public schools don’t work—or don’t work for your child—don’t you deserve another option? In reality, school choice does not always mean that people have to choose private or religious schools. Public schools, including charter schools, are an important part of the school choice movement. The school choice movement seeks access to better schools for children, whether traditional public schools, charter schools, or private schools.

myth

School choice hurts (or is opposed by) teachers.

reality No matter where students are being educated, there will always be a need for high-quality teachers. And more choices in schools also means more choices for teachers. School choice could likely lead to more teaching jobs as schools hire more teachers to lower class sizes to make their schools more attractive to students and parents. And studies demonstrate that a plurality of public school teachers actually support well-designed school choice programs.

myth

School choice allows the best students to abandon the public schools.

reality Students who are doing poorly in public schools are most likely to take advantage of school choice programs. Generally, students who succeed in a school see no need to switch schools. Studies also demonstrate that most parents—regardless of their income—make good choices when provided with school options.


School Choice Yearbook  2009–10

Louisiana Sen. Ann Duplessis (D-New Orleans, right) and Rep. Austin Badon (D-New Orleans, left) meet with families who benefit from the Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program at a 2009 Baton Rouge rally.

29


30

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

RESEARCH RECAP

School Choice Yields Student Gains Milwaukee Voucher Students Graduate at Higher Rates than Public School Peers Students who receive vouchers from the nation’s oldest school voucher program — the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program — graduate at an 18 percent higher rate than students in the Milwaukee Public Schools.

research recap

“The findings, from a leading national expert who analyzed six years of data, estimate that 3,352 additional Milwaukee students would have received diplomas between 2003 and 2008 if public school graduation rates had matched those of low-income students using educational vouchers,” School Choice Wisconsin said. The graduation rate for voucher students was 77 percent, compared with 65 percent for public school students. The Wall Street Journal hailed the report and said that President Obama, who has promised to “fund what works” in education, should “take another look at Milwaukee, where the nation’s oldest and largest publicly funded school voucher program is showing academic gains.” D.C. Voucher Program Yields “Largest Achievement Impact” for Any Federal Education Program Students who receive D.C. school vouchers demonstrated “the largest achievement impact of any education policy program yet evaluated” by the U.S. Department of Education, according to studies released in 2008 and 2009 by the Institute for Education Sciences (IES) and Education Next. Specifically, students who received vouchers made statistically-significant gains in reading. In fact, voucher students gained approximately 3.1 months of additional learning in reading over their public school peers. As Education Week’s Debra Viadero wrote, “What’s missing from all the media coverage, though, is the fact that this study is another one of the randomized controlled studies that the IES has been rolling out in recent years…[M]ost of those studies are finding few, if any, program effects. So the fact that the D.C. program is beginning to yield positive academic results may be especially noteworthy.” Florida Scholarship Recipients Make the Grade for a Third the Cost of Public Schools Despite costing “less than any other K-12 option that Florida funds,” the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program is educating some of Florida’s students at strong levels. In fact, students who receive scholarships from the tax credit program are keeping pace with their public school peers in the state.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

31

According to a June 2009 report by University of Florida professor David Figlio, “The typical student participating in the program tended to maintain his or her relative position in comparison with others nationwide. It is important to note that these national comparisons pertain to all students nationally, and not just low-income students.” New Study Reveals Private School Teachers More Satisfied than Public Counterparts Private school teachers are likely to feel safer, be more satisfied with their jobs, and have more influence over their teaching environment than public school teachers, according to a recent study conducted by the Foundation for Education Choice. According to the teachers themselves, those working in private schools are more than twice as likely as those in public schools to feel that they have “a great deal of influence on performance standards for students.” And 60 percent of private school teachers say they have “a great deal of control” over what they teach, compared to 36 percent of public school teachers.

research recap

Alexanne would like to attend Villa Joseph Marie High but knows that her family does not have the money to send her there without a scholarship through Pennsylvania’s Educational Improvement Tax Credit program. “I hope that someday I will have the privilege to attend this high school, which would help me achieve my future goals,” she says.


32

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

RESEARCH RECAP

School Choice Saves Tax Dollars With America recovering from the worst economic crisis in decades, voters across the country are becoming increasingly wary of education plans with steep price tags—especially when the majority of U.S. states face overwhelming budget shortfalls. In addition, legislators and families are understandably worried about how tightening state budget belts will impact education.

research recap

According to research, however, school choice programs can provide a workable solution to states that want to improve the quality of education and save tax dollars. In fact, there exists a significant body of research demonstrating that existing and proposed school choice programs save millions of dollars for taxpayers each year. Here are just six examples:

Arizona  Arizona is saving $11.4 million annually because of the corporate tax credit scholarship program, according to a study sponsored by the Institute for Justice. The report was based on an analysis by the state’s Joint Legislative Budget Committee and showed that every student who would transfer from a public school to a private school because of the program would save the state’s general fund $5,000 in one year. Florida  The Corporate Tax Credit Scholarship Program saved $1.49 in state education spending for every $1.00 of tax credits awarded to businesses that donated funds to Scholarship Funding Organizations in 2007–08, according a legislatively required fiscal analysis of the program. This latest analysis of the program is the third showing that it saves money. Georgia & Indiana  The two-year-old Georgia Scholarship Tax Credit Program is estimated to save taxpayers approximately $5.9 million a year, and the Indiana Scholarship Tax Credit Program is slated to save the state anywhere from $6.4 million to $17.6 million per year after five years of operation, according to studies by the Indiana-based Foundation for Educational Choice. Pennsylvania  Taxpayers directly saved $144 million over six years because of the Educational Improvement Tax Credit (EITC) program, according to a study by the Indiana-based Foundation for Educational Choice. In addition, the Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives estimates that if all the children receiving scholarships between the 2001-02 school year and the 2006-07 school year attended public schools instead, it would have cost the state an additional $1.5 billion dollars over those years.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

33

Wisconsin  The Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) saved taxpayers between $24.6 million and $37.2 million each year from 2007–09, according to a state analysis. In addition, the state’s nonpartisan Legislative Fiscal Bureau estimated that school districts outside of Milwaukee received a net of nearly $86 million in additional state funding for the 2007-08 school year because of the MPCP. In other words, if the program was eliminated, districts would have had to raise property taxes if they wanted to recoup the lost funding.

When analyzed in the abstract, school choice proposals also save money. For example, the CATO Institute recently revealed a new tool that allows individuals to determine the savings that states would realize if they instituted statewide scholarship tax credit programs. Looking at five states in particular—Illinois, New York, South Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin—authors Andrew Coulson and Anca M. Cotet demonstrate that over a 10-year period, each of the states would have a net savings ranging “from $1.1 billion for South Carolina to $15.9 billion for Texas.”

research recap

Florida Step Up for Students scholarship recipients with legendary football coach and school choice supporter Don Shula and his wife, Mary Ann.


34

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

A Washington, D.C., mother attends a protest at the U.S. Department of Education to raise awareness about the need to save the endangered D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program.


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

35

State Profiles 36–38

Florida

39–40

Georgia

41–42

Indiana

43

Iowa

44

Louisiana

45

Ohio

46–48

Pennsylvania

49

Rhode Island

50

Utah

51

Wisconsin

52

Washington, D.C.

53

a note on methodology The following pages contain data and research regarding each of the publicly funded private school choice programs operating in the United States. The information on these pages was generated through rigorous research into state laws and regulations, updated most recently in February 2010. Enrollment and expenditure data was provided by state officials, who were contacted on several occasions by Alliance researchers for information, clarification, and updates. In instances when this information was not available from a state agency or organization, numbers were estimated—using historical averages and trend data—by Alliance for School Choice researchers in collaboration with other national school choice leaders. Please see the Sources and Credits section for a state-by-state breakdown of data sources, uses, and estimations.

state profiles

Arizona


36

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Arizona Individual School Tuition Organization Tax Credit Program Type Individual scholarship tax credit

Data Update

Student Eligibility »» None specified in law »» May be determined by School Tuition Organization (STO) »» Private school students also eligible

Scholarships Awarded Schools Participating

28,933 373

STOs Operating 55

STO Requirements 2008 Donations $55,269,528 »» Use at least 90 percent of contributions for scholarships »» Make scholarships available for more than one school »» Annually report to the state data on accepted contributions, grants awarded, and participating schools School Requirements Comply with state private school regulations, including nondiscrimination and health and safety requirements Scholarship Cap None

Student Participation

Tax Credit Value 100 percent of donation

state profiles

Donor Tax Credit Cap »» $500 single »» $1,000 married couple Statewide Cap None. $55.2 million expended in 2009-10 school year Year Enacted 1997

0

1998–99

1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

30,000

128 3,365 15,081 18,049 19,559 20,134 21,146 22,529 24,678 27,153

2008–09

28,321

2009–10

28,933


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

37

Arizona Corporate School Tuition Organization Tax Credit Program Type Corporate scholarship tax credit Student Eligibility »» Family income cannot exceed 185 percent of the federal free or reduced-price lunch program limit ($75,467 for a family of four in 2009) »» Attended public school the previous year or entering kindergarten STO Requirements »» Use at least 90 percent of contributions for scholarships »» Make scholarships available for more than one school »» Annually submit to the state: ∏∏ Data on accepted contributions, grants awarded, and participating schools ∏∏ Proof of independent review of financial statements by a certified public accountant School Requirements »» Comply with state private school regulations, including nondiscrimination and health and safety requirements »» Require teachers to be fingerprinted »» Annually administer and make publicly available the aggregate results of nationally norm-referenced, standardized achievement test Scholarship Cap »» $4,400 – grades K-8 »» $5,700 – grades 9-12 »» Limits increase by $100 each year

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 2,596 Schools Participating 176 STOs Operating 2009 Expenditures

Donor Tax Credit Cap None Statewide Cap »» $17.28 million (FY 2010) »» 20 percent annual increase each year Year Enacted 2006

19 $6,575,907

Student Participation 0 2006–07 2007–08

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

35 1,947

2008–09

2,967

2009–10

2,596

state profiles

Tax Credit Value 100 percent of donation


38

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Arizona Lexie’s Law Program Type Corporate scholarship tax credit program for children with special needs and foster children Student Eligibility »» Students who received vouchers under Arizona’s two previous voucher programs (for foster children and children with disabilities) receive priority in scholarships »» Students must have attended a government-run public school as a full–time student for 100 days prior to the fiscal year »» Students must: ∏∏ have been placed in foster care at any time before the student graduates from high school or obtains a GED, OR ∏∏ have been identified as having a disability under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act or identified by a school district as a child with a disability, or a student eligible to receive disability services from a school district School Tuition Organization (STO) Requirements »» STOs must use 90 percent of contributions for scholarship »» STOs must be nonprofit organizations and have a 501(c)(3) designation by the Internal Revenue Service »» An STO cannot limit the scholarships it provides under the program to children attending a particular school or group of schools

state profiles

School Requirements »» Schools must not discriminate on the basis of race, color, handicap, familial status, or national origin, and that satisfies the requirements prescribed by federal law for private schools Scholarship Cap »» Shall not exceed the cost of tuition for the student to attend a private school »» Scholarships cannot exceed the amount that it would cost the state to send the child to an applicable public school Donation Cap None Tax Credit Value »» Donors will receive a 100 percent credit for their donations, allowing for $5 million in credits allowed if $5 million is donated »» Tax credits are provided on a first-come, first-served basis. »» Tax credits can be carried over from year to year. Statewide Cap $5 million Year Enacted 2009

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 472 Schools Participating 107+ 2009 Expenditures

$2,859,800

Student Participation 0 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

40 359 439 472


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

39

Florida John M. McKay Scholarship for Students with Disabilities Program Program Type Special needs voucher

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 19,913

Student Eligibility »» Have Individualized Education Program (IEP) »» Attended a Florida public school the previous year »» Children of U.S. military personnel transferring are exempt from prior year public school attendance requirement

Schools Participating 920 $129,815,632

2009 Expenditures

School Requirements »» Be approved by state department of education »» Submit to the state annual sworn compliance reports regarding all local and state health and safety codes »» Comply with federal nondiscrimination requirements of 42 U.S.C. s. 2000d »» Teachers and other school personnel working with scholarship recipients must have federal background check »» Teachers must have a bachelor’s Student Participation degree, three years of teaching

Enrollment Cap None Scholarship Cap »» Whichever is less: ∏∏ amount of public school funding student would have received, or ∏∏ selected private school’s tuition and fees Program Funding »» No specific program appropriation »» $129.8 million spent in 2009-10 school year Year Enacted 1999

0

1999–00

2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

2 970 5,013

state profiles

experience, or special expertise »» Schools in operation less than three years must obtain a surety bond or letter of credit to cover value of the scholarship payments for one quarter »» Annually report student’s progress to parents

9,130 13,739 15,910 17,300 18,273 19,852 20,530 19,913


40

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Florida Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program

Data Update

Program Type Corporate scholarship tax credit

Scholarships Awarded 26,987 Schools Participating 975

Student Eligibility »» Qualify for the federal free or reduced–price lunch program ($40,793 for a family of four in 2009) »» Attended a Florida public school the previous year or entering kindergarten or first grade

2

SFOs Operating

$96,166,715

2009 Expenditures

state profiles

Scholarship Funding Organization (SFO) Requirements »» Use at least 97 percent of donations for scholarships »» SFOs with less than three years worth of audits must use 100 percent of donations for scholarships »» Make scholarships available for more than one school »» Submit to the state: ∏∏ Financial and compliance audit performed by certified public accountant ∏∏ Quarterly reports on number of scholarship recipients and participating schools School Requirements »» Be approved by state department of education »» Submit to the state annual sworn compliance reports regarding all local and state health and safety codes »» Comply with federal nondiscrimination requirements of 42 U.S.C. s. 2000d »» Teachers and other school personnel working with scholarship recipients must have federal background check »» Teachers must have a bachelor’s degree, three years of teaching experience, or special expertise »» Schools in operation less than three years must obtain a surety bond or letter of credit to cover value of the scholarship payments for one quarter »» Scholarship students must take a nationally recognized norm-referenced test or the state public school assessment Scholarship Cap »» $3,950 for private school scholarship »» $500 scholarship covering transportation to another public school Tax Credit Value 100 percent of donation Donor Tax Credit Cap 75 percent of state income tax liability Statewide Cap $118 million Year Enacted 2001

Student Participation 0

5,000

10,000

2003–04

11,550

2004–05

1o,549

2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

20,000

25,000

30,000

15,585

2002–03

2005–06

15,000

15,123 17,819 21,493 24,871 26,987


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

41

Georgia Georgia Special Needs Scholarship Program Student Eligibility »» Attended a Georgia public school the previous year »» Have Individualized Education Program (IEP) School Requirements »» Notify state regarding intention to participate »» Demonstrate financial viability »» Comply with federal nondiscrimination requirements of 42 U.S.C. s. 2000d »» Comply with state health and safety requirements »» Be accredited or in the process of becoming accredited »» Teachers must have bachelor’s degree or three years’ experience in education or health »» Provide parents with teachers’ credentials »» Report to parents and state regarding students’ academic progress Scholarship Cap »» Whichever is less: ∏∏ amount of public school funding student would have received, or ∏∏ selected private school’s tuition and fees Enrollment Cap None Program Funding »» No specific appropriation »» $7.1 million spent in 2009–10 school year

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 2,068 Schools Participating 175 2009 Expenditures $7,161,363

Year Enacted 2007 0 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

899 1,596 2,068

state profiles

Student Participation


42

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Georgia Georgia Scholarship Tax Credit Program Program Type Corporate and individual scholarship tax credit Student Eligibility Attended a Georgia public school in previous year or entering pre-kindergarten or kindergarten Student Scholarship Organization (SSO) Requirements »» Use at least 90 percent of contributions for scholarships »» Make scholarships available for more than one school »» Annually submit to the state: ∏∏ Data on accepted contributions and tax credits approved ∏∏ Independent review of financial statements by certified public accountant School Requirements »» Be accredited or in the process of becoming accredited »» Comply with the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 »» Comply with all state private school regulations, including health and safety codes Scholarship Cap Tuition and fees

state profiles

Tax Credit Value 100 percent of donation Data Update

Donor Tax Credit Cap »» $1,000 single »» $2,500 married couple »» 75 percent of corporation’s state income tax liability

Scholarships Awarded 1,900 Schools Participating Not available SSOs Operating 2009 Expenditures

Statewide Cap $50 million Year Enacted 2008

11 $13,046,381

Student Participation 0 2009–10

500

1,000

1,500

2,000 1,900


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

43

Indiana Corporate & Individual Scholarship Tax Credit Program Program Type Corporate and individual scholarship tax credit Student Eligibility »» Eligible families must have an income at or below 200 percent of the free or reduced–price lunch level ($81,586 for a family of four in 2009) »» Eligible students will have to have been enrolled in a public school the prior year or be entering kindergarten Scholarship Organization (SO) Requirements »» SOs must be nonprofit organizations and have a 501(c)(3) designation by the Internal Revenue Service »» An SO cannot limit the scholarships it provides under the program to children attending a particular school or group of schools School Requirements »» Non–public schools must be accredited by a national or regional accreditation agency that is recognized by the state board »» Schools must administer a nationally recognized and norm-referenced assessment of the school’s students »» The Department of Education will publish an annual list of accrediting agencies and an annual list of nationally recognized and norm-referenced assessments Scholarship Cap None

Tax Credit Value »» Donors will receive a 50 percent credit for their donations, allowing for $2.5 million in credits if $5 million is donated »» Donors cannot carryover credits from year to year Statewide Cap $2.5 million in credits Year Enacted 2009 please note that the Indiana Department of Education and the State Department of Revenue are promulgating additional rules on how the Scholarship Tax Credit program will operate, including interpretations of program components.

state profiles

Donation Cap None


44

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Iowa Individual School Tuition Organization Tax Credit Program Type Individual scholarship tax credit Student Eligibility »» Family income must not exceed 300 percent of federal poverty guideline ($66,150 for a family of four in 2009) »» Private school students also eligible School Tuition Organization (STO) Requirements »» Use at least 90 percent of contributions for scholarships »» Make scholarships available for more than one school »» Annual review of financial statements by public accounting firm »» Submit data to the state on accepted contributions, grants awarded, and participating schools School Requirements »» Be accredited »» Comply with federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Iowa Chapter 216 »» Comply with state health and safety codes Scholarship Cap School’s tuition

Data Update

Tax Credit Value 65 percent of donation

Scholarships Awarded 9,624 Schools Participating Not available

state profiles

Donor Tax Credit Cap None

STOs Operating

11

2009 Donations

$11,394,228

Statewide Cap $7.5 million Student Participation

Year Enacted 2006

0 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

2,500

5,000

7,500

10,000

116 7,527 8,737 9,624


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

45

Louisiana Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program Program Type Means-tested and failing schools voucher Student Eligibility »» Family income cannot exceed 250 percent of federal poverty guideline ($55,125 for a family of four in 2009) »» Entering grades K-3 »» Attended an underperforming public school in previous year or entering kindergarten »» One additional grade level of eligibility will be added each year School Requirements »» Be approved by the state to participate »» Comply with state nondiscrimination and health and safety requirements »» Administer state exams required under the Louisiana School and District System to scholarship recipients »» Schools in operation less than two years cannot have more than 20 percent of students receiving scholarships »» Submit to the state an annual independent financial audit conducted by a certified public accountant Scholarship Cap »» Whichever is less: ∏∏ 90 percent of state and local per pupil funding, or ∏∏ tuition, fees, and costs associated with testing Enrollment Cap None

Data Update Schools Participating 32 2009 Expenditures $4,797,738

Student Participation 0 2008–09 2009–10

500

1,000 640 1,195

1,500

state profiles

Scholarships Awarded 1,195

Year Enacted 2008


46

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Ohio Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program Program Type Means-preferenced voucher

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 5,469

Student Eligibility »» Students living in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District »» In grades K-8 when first applying »» Priority given to students living below 200 percent of the federal poverty guideline ($44,100 for a family of four in 2009) »» Scholarship may continue throughout high school »» Private school students also eligible School Requirements »» Be registered to participate and chartered by the Ohio Department of Education »» Meet state minimum standards for chartered non-public schools, including administering the Ohio Graduation Test »» Comply with state laws regarding nondiscrimination and health and safety codes

state profiles

Scholarship Cap »» 90 percent of $3,450 for low-income students ($3,150) »» 75 percent of $3,450 for other students ($2,587.50) Enrollment Cap None Program Funding $14.9 million spent in 2009-10 school year Year Enacted 1995

Schools Participating 39 2009 Expenditures

$14,960,506

Student Participation 0 1996–97 1997–98

2,500

5,000

1,994 2,914

1998–99

3,674

1999–00

3,406

2000–01 2001–02 2002–03

7,500

3,797 4,523 5,281

2003–04

5,887

2004–05

5,710

2005–06

5,813

2006–07

6,116

2007–08

6,273

2008–09 2009–10

5,849 5,469


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

47

Ohio Autism Scholarship Program Program Type Special needs voucher

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 1,500

Student Eligibility »» Student must be identified as autistic through assigned school district »» Must be assigned an Individualized Education Program (IEP) »» Private school students also eligible

Scholarship Cap $20,000 Enrollment Cap None Program Funding »» No specific appropriation »» $25.6 million expended in 2009-10 school year Year Enacted 2003

2009 Expenditures $25,628,472

300 475 734 1,005 1,500

state profiles

School Requirements »» Register with the state »» Demonstrate fiscal soundness »» Have properly credentialed staff »» In operation one full year »» Have adequate liability, property, and casualty insurance certified by a certified public accountant »» Obtain surety bond or letter of credit to cover value of scholarships »» Teachers and other staff working with children must undergo background checks »» Comply with state nondiscrimination and health and safety codes »» Provide regular student progress reports to parents and school

Schools Participating Not available


48

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Ohio Educational Choice Scholarship Program Program Type Failing schools voucher Student Eligibility »» Current public school students assigned to a school that has been in Academic Watch or Academic Emergency for two years of a three–year period »» Students scheduled to enter kindergarten in one of these schools also qualify »» Priority is given to returning and low–income applicants School Requirements »» Be chartered by the Ohio Department of Education »» Meet state minimum standards for chartered non-public schools, including administering the Ohio Graduation Test »» Administer state tests in grades 3-8 »» Comply with state laws regarding nondiscrimination and health and safety codes Scholarship Cap »» $4,500 – grades K-8 »» $5,300 – grades 9-12 »» Scholarship must be accepted as full tuition for students living under 200 percent of federal poverty guideline ($44,100 for a family of four in 2009)

state profiles

Enrollment Cap 14,000 Data Update

Program Funding »» No specific appropriation »» $42.5 million spent in 2009-10 school year

Scholarships Awarded 11,685 Schools Participating 298

Year Enacted 2005

2009 Expenditures

$42,564,225

Student Participation 0 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

2,500

5,000

7,500

10,000

15,000

2,713 7,144 10,432 11,685


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

49

Pennsylvania Educational Improvement Tax Credit Program Type Corporate scholarship tax credit Student Eligibility »» Family income cannot exceed $60,000, with an additional $12,000 allowed for each additional dependent »» Private school students also eligible Data Update Scholarship Organization (SO) Requirements Scholarships Awarded 44,839 »» Use at least 80 percent of contributions for scholarships Schools Participating Not available »» Make scholarships available for SOs Operating 353** more than one school 2009 Donations $49,274,290 »» Submit to the state an annual report detailing donations received and scholarships awarded School Requirements »» Comply with the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 »» Teachers and other employees working with children must undergo background checks »» Meet state health and safety codes

Student Participation 0 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05

Tax Credit Value »» 75 percent of one-year donation »» 90 percent of two-year donation

20,000

30,000

20,204 25,875 26,701

2006–07 2007–08 2008–09

Statewide Cap $38 million **

Year Enacted 2001

50,000

17,350

2005–06

Donor Tax Credit Cap $300,000

40,000

state profiles

Scholarship Cap Tuition and fees

10,000

Includes SOs that provide Pre–K scholarships.

29,638 36,730 43,764 44,839


50

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Rhode Island Rhode Island Corporate Scholarship Tax Credit Program Type Corporate scholarship tax credit Student Eligibility »» Family income cannot exceed 250 percent of the federal poverty guideline ($55,125 for a family of four in 2009) »» Other criteria determined by Scholarship Granting Organization »» Private school students also eligible Scholarship Granting Organization (SGO) Requirements »» Use at least 90 percent of contributions for scholarships »» Provide annual report to state detailing number and value of scholarships awarded, ZIP codes of recipients, and criteria used to award scholarships School Requirements »» Comply with federal and state laws regarding nondiscrimination »» Teachers must have bachelor’s degrees Data Update »» Teachers must undergo background check »» Meet state health and safety codes Scholarships Awarded 291 Scholarship Cap None

Schools Participating 25 SGOs Operating

state profiles

Tax Credit Value »» 75 percent of one-year donation »» 90 percent of two-year donation

2009 Expenditures $1,730,000

Student Participation

Donor Tax Credit Cap $100,000 Statewide Cap $1 million Year Enacted 2006

3

0 2006–07

100

200

300 278

2007–08

291

2008–09

291


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

51

Utah Carson Smith Special Needs Scholarship Program Type Special needs voucher Student Eligibility »» Be identified as disabled and learning under Individualized Education Program (IEP), or »» Currently attending eligible private school and be determined in need of specialized services School Requirements »» Be approved by the state »» Comply with federal nondiscrimination requirements of 42 U.S.C. s. 2000d »» Comply with state health and safety codes »» Submit to the state an audit and financial report completed by a certified public accountant »» Possess adequate working capital to maintain operations for the first year »» Disclose to parents the special education services to be provided and the cost of those services »» Administer annual assessment of student’s academic progress and report results to the student’s parents »» Teachers of recipients must have bachelor’s degrees, three years of teaching experience, or special skills »» Provide parents with teacher’s credentials Scholarship Cap »» Based on state’s public school funding formula ∏∏ $6,442.50 – three or more hours of services ∏∏ $3,865.50 – less than three hours of services

Schools Participating 43 2009 Expenditures $2,670,195

Student Participation

Program Funding $3.5 million Year Enacted 2005

Scholarships Awarded 602

state profiles

Enrollment Cap None

Data Update

0 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

100

200

300

400

500

600

107 340 548 582 602


52

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

Wisconsin Milwaukee Parental Choice Program

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 20,328

Program Type Means-tested voucher

Schools Participating 111 2009 Expenditures $130,182,400

state profiles

Student Eligibility »» Students living in the Milwaukee Public School district »» Family income below 175 percent of the federal poverty guideline ($38,587 for a family of four in 2009) »» Private school students also eligible School Requirements »» Meet state nondiscrimination policies »» Allow students to opt out of religious programs »» Administer a nationally normed test to scholarship recipients in grades 4, 8, and 10 and provide scores to School Choice Demonstration Project »» Receive accreditation within three years of participating in MPCP »» Annually submit to the state a financial audit conducted by a certified public accountant »» Provide the state evidence of sound fiscal practices and financial viability »» School administrator must undergo financial training »» Meet all state health and safety codes Scholarship Cap $6,442 Enrollment Cap 22,500 Program Funding $130.1 million for 2009–10 Year Enacted 1990

Student Participation 0

5,000

1990–91

337

1991–92

504

1992–93

591

1993–94

718

1994–95

786

1995–96

1,320

1996–97

1,606

1997–98

1,501

1998–99 1999–00 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10

10,000

15,000

20,000

5,740 7,596 9,104 10,391 11,209 12,788 14,427 15,274 17,126 18,550 19,414 20,328


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

53

Washington, D.C. D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program Program Type Means-tested voucher Student Eligibility »» Qualify for the federal free or reduced–price lunch program ($40,793 for a family of four in 2009) »» Priority to students who attend schools deemed in need of improvement, corrective action, or restructuring under the federal No Child Left Behind Act »» Low-income students in other public schools are given second priority »» Students currently attending private school are given third priority »» Scholarship recipients are required to participate in standardized assessments as part of a fiveyear federal evaluation of the program School Requirements »» Must not discriminate »» Comply with district health and safety codes Scholarship Cap $7,500 Enrollment Cap None

Data Update Scholarships Awarded 1,319

Program Funding $12 million

Schools Participating 45 2009 Expenditures $12,000,000

Student Participation 0 2004–05

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

1,022

2005–06

1,712

2006–07

1,799 1,933

2007–08

1,716

2008–09 2009–10

1,319

state profiles

Year Enacted 2004


54

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

National School Choice Organizations

national school choice organizations

Alliance for School Choice AllianceForSchoolChoice.org

Democrats for Education Reform DFER.org

American Federation for Children FederationForChildren.org

The Foundation for Educational Choice FriedmanFoundation.org

American Legislative Exchange Council ALEC.org

Heartland Institute Heartland.org

Black Alliance for Educational Options (BAEO) BAEO.org

Heritage Foundation Heritage.org

The CATO Institute CATO.org

Hispanic Council for Reform & Educational Options HCREO.org

Center for Education Reform EdReform.org

Institute for Justice IJ.org

Council for American Private Education (CAPE) CapeNet.org

National Alliance for Public Charter Schools PublicCharters.org State Policy Network SPN.org


School Choice Yearbook  2009 – 10

55

State School Choice Organizations New Jersey Excellent Education for Everyone NJE3.org

Florida Step Up for Students StepUpForStudents.com

New Mexico Educate New Mexico EducateNM.org

Georgia Center for an Educated Georgia EducatedGeorgia.org

North Carolina Parents for Educational Freedom in NC PEFNC.org

Indiana School Choice Indiana SchoolChoiceIndiana.org

Ohio School Choice Ohio SCOhio.org

Iowa Iowa Alliance for Choice in Education IowaACE.org

Pennsylvania REACH Foundation PASchoolChoice.org

Louisiana Louisiana BAEO Louisiana.BAEO.org

Rhode Island Rhode Island Scholarship Alliance RIScholarshipAlliance.org

Maryland BOAST BOASTMaryland.org

Utah Parents for Choice in Education ChoiceInEducation.org

Minnesota Coalition for Kids Misf.org/coalition-for-kids.php

Virginia School Choice Virginia SchoolChoiceVA.com

Missouri Children’s Education Alliance of Missouri ChildrensEducationAlliance-MO.org

Washington, D.C. D.C. Parents for School Choice SaveSchoolChoice.com Wisconsin School Choice Wisconsin SchoolChoiceWI.org

state school choice organizations

Arizona AZ School Tuition Organization Association ASTOA.com


56

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

HIGHLIGHT

The Fight for Real Hope in D.C. Throughout 2009, the school choice movement generated more publicity for school voucher programs than any other time since the U.S. Supreme Court’s landmark case Zelman v Simmons Harris in 2002. The reason? School choice was placed in a national spotlight when Congress and President Obama announced their intention to eliminate the highly successful D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program, a move that sparked massive backlash in the District and across the country. Backed by local Democrats and national supporters — including Senators Joseph Lieberman (I-CT), Dianne Feinstein (D-CA), Robert Byrd (D-WV), former Mayors Anthony Williams and Marion Barry—the D.C. coalition immediately responded to the president’s decision to eliminate the OSP, launching a yearlong campaign to save the program. An estimated 6,000 attendees participated in more than a dozen D.C.–area events, including a May 6 rally on Freedom Plaza, demonstrations in front of the U.S. Department of Education, and a major rally on Capitol Hill. In addition, parents made trips to visit key members of Congress on an almost daily basis, and school choice supporters launched a $700,000 advertising program to support the program, featuring former D.C. Councilman and Alliance board member Kevin P. Chavous. As a result of the heightened attention, newspapers across the country came together in support of school choice. For example, The Washington Post and The Washington Times were, for the first time in recent memory, on the same side of an issue, as were USA Today and the Wall Street Journal.

highlight: the fight for real hope in d.c.

The following editorial, reprinted with permission from USA Today, provides a good example of how one newspaper can move — in just two years — into a favorable position on school choice.

A student from Washington, D.C., participates in one of a dozen protests to protect the District’s endangered voucher program from Congressional elimination.


School Choice Yearbook  2009–10

Ou r view on improvi ng education : Despite succ ess, sch ool choice ru ns into new bar rier s.

May 19, 2009

Obama, Democrat s deny D.C . k ids option they exercise themselves .

Few nationa l images are more shamefu l tha n those of innocent, low decrepit public schoo -income kid s mi lling ls, unca red for, un saf through e and ba rely educ ate 67% — fai l to meet fed d. In Wa sh ing ton, D.C era l sta ndard s of lea rn ., alo ne , 173 schools — ing. So it wa s cu rious tha t when President Obam a recently allowed 1,7 schoolch ild ren to keep 16 of Wa sh ing ton’s ne , until graduation, the ed iest vouchers they use to hig her-qua lity private esc ape their fai led pu ones, he also closed the bli c sch ools for progra m to new appli Depa rtment reported ca nts. All this occu rre that voucher pa rticip d as the ants show superior ski Educ ation news wa s bu ried in an lls in reading, safety impenetrable study rel and orderl iness. The ea sed without a news conference. Why the ambivalenc e? Becau se teacher un ion s, fea ring loss of job oppose vouchers and s, have pu shed most other options that inv Democrats to ite competition for pu giv ing poor pa rents the bli c sch ools. Put another way, same choice that the they oppose president him sel f — Democrats in Cong res along with his ch ief of s — have made in sen sta ff and some 35% of ding their ch ild ren to private schools. Vouchers have impro ved the math and rea ding of inner-cit y ch ild N.C ., va rious studies ren from Dayton, Oh show. The Wa sh ing ton io, to Charlotte, vouchers improved the ha lf a school yea r, tho rea din g of girls and younger ug h result s for other kid s by about groups were iffier. Ye ex periments su rvive t opposit ion is so fierce pa st the seedli ng sta that few voucher ge. Florida vouchers were blocked by a pa rty-lin e vote in the state Supre by a un ion-fu nded an me Cour t. In Ut ah, the ti-voucher ca mpaig n.

y were kil led

Th is ser ves on ly to pro

tec t fai ling schools.

By federa l measu res, students at 12,978 U.S . schools are fai ling to tot al. Giv ing them an improve adequately — other option, by vouc 13 % of the he rs or by other mean s, provides public schools to impro an escape route and ve. pressu res Charter schools are an other well-proven op tion for att ain ing the in popu lar ity. About same goal, and they are 1.2 mi llion students no ga ini ng w attend the schools, chartered but ru n by wh ich are tax payer-fu independent operator nd ed an d publicly s. Th e ones requir ing str ict time have succeeded order, reg ula r testing in raising their low-in and more school come students’ academ ic performance abov e public-school peers Yet 26 states restrict eit . her the nu mber of ch arter schools or chart authorit ies and un ion er students, and ma ny s hobble their for matio loc al n and funding. In time, the success of the school choice mo vement might change public schools are at the politica l dy na mi lea st being held accou cs. Meanwh ile, ntable under the federa requirement that sch l No Ch ild Left Behin ools ma ke testable, yea d Ac t. The federa l rly progress in student pe in math and reading rformance ha s dr iven for most age groups, im provements the lat est Nationa l Assessm Measu ring teacher pe ent of Educ ational Pro rformance is the next gre ss show s. ste p. Ex pa nded by Presid performance” is su re ent Obama, Bu sh-era to improve schools — “pay-foras long as requiremen ts aren’t weakened. As an Educ ation Depa rtment spokesman say s, “T he un ion s are no school kid s need a ch t happy.” But 20 mi llio ance to succeed. Scho n low-income ol choice is the most effec tive way to give it to them.

57


58

Fighting for Opportunity  Alliance for School Choice

HIGHLIGHT

The Fight for Real Hope in D.C. »» D.C. Parents for School Choice Executive Director Virginia Walden Ford addresses a crowd of 35 reporters at a press conference outside the U.S. Department of Education on September 8, 2009. The event was covered by FOX News.

highlight: the fight for real hope in d.c.

»» CNN anchor Kyra Phillips shows viewers how to use the “Save School Choice” Web site, August 20, 2009.

»» D.C. Parents for School Choice criticized President Barack Obama and Congressional appropriators in a series of television, radio, and newspaper advertisements.

President Obama, I’ll do anything to make sure my child gets a good education. Why won’t you help?

“Thousands of children use the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program to go to better schools. The program lets D.C. parents like me choose the best schools for our kids. But President Obama and Congress want to end this program, even though it works. Why does President Obama—who used a scholarship to go to private schools himself—want to deny low-income children the same opportunities he enjoyed? It makes no sense. President


School Choice Yearbook  2009–10

59


60

Sources and Credits The authors of Fighting for Opportunity: School Choice Yearbook 2009–10 utilized information from a variety of sources in developing this annual publication. To maintain the flow of the document without interruption, the sourcing for the book is provided in this section. The authors remain enormously grateful, specifically, to the state officials and school choice organizations that participated in our rigorous information-gathering and data mining process. Their dedication and hard work have helped to make the Alliance for School Choice’s information and data unparalleled in its accuracy. In addition, we are incredibly thankful for the assistance and support of Greg Brock, Scott Jensen, and John Schilling through the research and writing process. photographs and testimonials

All of the photographs and testimonials that appear in Fighting for Opportunity: School Choice Yearbook 2009–10 were provided by school choice organizations across the country. We are enormously grateful to the following organizations for providing photographs and stories for use in this publication: TOPS for Kids (Harry Miller), Step Up for Students (Jon East), Center for an Educated Georgia (David Pusey), Iowa Alliance for Choice in Education (Trish Wilger), Louisiana BAEO (Shree Medlock), Parents for Educational Freedom in North Carolina (Darrell Allison), School Choice Ohio (Chad Aldis), REACH Foundation (Erin Loudenslager), Rhode Island Scholarship Alliance (Kate Nagle), Parents for Choice in Education (Judi Clark), D.C. Parents for School Choice (Virginia Walden Ford, Kevin P. Chavous), School Choice Wisconsin (Susan Mitchell, George Mitchell, Mike Ford), and the Institute for Justice (Lisa Knepper, Bob Ewing, and Christina Walsh). We would also like to credit and thank the National Review for use of some of Tiffany Dunston’s quotations in our “Head of the Class” feature. research recap: school choice yields student gains

Milwaukee “Graduation Rates for Choice and Public School Students in Milwaukee, 2003-2008,” John Robert Warren, University of Minnesota, Study, February 2010. “New Study: Graduation Rate for Milwaukee Voucher Students 18 % Higher Than for Public School Students,” School Choice Wisconsin, News Release, February 2, 1010. “Milwaukee’s Voucher Graduates,” The Wall Street Journal, Editorial, February 7, 2010 D.C. “The Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Impacts After Three Years,” Institute of Education Sciences, Study, March 2009. “Lost Opportunities,” Education Next, Article, August 2009. “D.C. Voucher Students Begin to Nudge Ahead,” Debra Viadero, Education Week, Article, April 6, 2009. Florida “Evaluation of Florida’s Corporate Tax Credit Scholarship Program,” David N. Figlio, University of Florida, Study, June 16, 2009. “Florida Tax Credit Scholarship: Let the evidence speak,” Florida Tax Watch, Article, 2010 Teachers “What America’s Teachers Say about Teaching in Public and Private Schools,” Foundation for Educational Choice, Study, 2009 research recap: school choice saves tax dollars

sources and credits

“Fiscal Analysis of Arizona’s Corporate Tax Credit Scholarship Program,” Vicki Murray, Institute for Justice, Study, September 26, 2006. “School Choice by the Numbers: The Fiscal Effect of School Choice,” Susan Aud, Foundation for Educational Choice, Study, April 2007. “The Dollars and Sense of School Choice,” Mary Yoder and Jared Walczak, Commonwealth Policy Brief, Article, July 2007. “The Florida Corporate Income Tax Credit Scholarship Program: Updated Fiscal Analysis,” Collins Center for Public Policy, Study, February 2007. “The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Georgia,” Brian Gottlieb, Foundation for Educational Choice, February 2008. “The Fiscal Impact of a Large-Scale Education Tax Credit Program,” Andrew Coulson, Cato Institute, July 1, 2008. “The Fiscal Impact of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program: 2009 Update,” Robert Costrell, University of Arkansas, Report, March 2009 state profiles

Arizona Individual School Tuition Organization Tax Credit. Amount of funds donated is for 2008, provided by state revenue office; student enrollment number is an ASC estimate based on historical average scholarship amounts. State contact: Georganna Meyer, Arizona Department of Revenue. Corporate School


School Choice Yearbook  2009-10

61

Tuition Organization Tax Credit. Amount of funds donated is for 2009, provided by state revenue office; student enrollment number is an ASC estimate based on historical average scholarship amounts and spending by STOs, reflecting an approximate 12 percent decline in donations. State contact: Georganna Meyer, Arizona Department of Revenue. Lexie’s Law. Numbers for expenditures and student enrollment are based on the assumption that students were covered by Lexie’s Law when the two previous voucher programs were concluded. Florida John M. McKay Scholarship for Students with Disabilities. Student enrollment data is for 2009, provided by state department of education’s school choice Web site and program quarterly reports; funds expended is an ASC estimate based on historical averages multiplied by current enrollees. State contact: Laura Harrison, Florida Department of Education. Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program. Student enrollment data is for 2009, provided by state department of education’s school choice Web site and program quarterly reports; funds expended is an ASC estimate based on historical averages multiplied by current enrollees. State contact: Laura Harrison, Florida Department of Education. Georgia Georgia Special Needs Scholarship Program. Student enrollment data is for 2009 and was provided by the state department of revenue via the Center for an Educated Georgia (CEG); expenditures are ASC estimates based on historical average scholarship amounts. Georgia Scholarship Tax Credit Program Student enrollment numbers were provided by the Center for an Educated Georgia for 2009, based on a survey of STOS; funds donated is for 2009 and is based on information provided via CEG from the state department of revenue. Iowa Individual School Tuition Organization Tax Credit. Student enrollment numbers and expenditure/ donation information provided by the State Department of Revenue for 2009. State Contact: Jim McNulty, Taxpayer Services and Policy. Louisiana Student Scholarships for Educational Excellence Program. Student enrollment numbers and expenditure/donation information provided by the State Department of Education for 2009 via ASC staff. State Contact: Mary Cavalier, Louisiana Department of Education. Ohio Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program. Student enrollment data is for 2009, provided by state department of education; funds expended is an ASC estimate based on historical averages multiplied by current enrollees. State Contact: Susan Cosmo, Ohio Department of Education. Autism Scholarship Program. Student enrollment data is for 2009, provided by the state department of education via School Choice Ohio; funds expended is an ASC estimate based on historic averages multiplied by current enrollees. Educational Choice Scholarship Program. Student enrollment data is for 2009, provided by state department of education; funds expended is an ASC estimate based on historical averages multiplied by current enrollees. State Contact: Susan Cosmo, Ohio Department of Education. Pennsylvania Educational Improvement Tax Credit. Student enrollment numbers and expenditure/ donation information provided by the State Department of Education for 2009. State Contact: Ted Knorr, Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development. Rhode Island Rhode Island Corporate Scholarship Tax Credit. Information provided by the Rhode Island Scholarship Alliance (RISA); this program is fully subscribed. Utah Carson Smith Special Needs Scholarship. Student enrollment data is for 2009, provided by state department of education; funds expended is an ASC estimate based on historical averages multiplied by current enrollees. State contact: Travis Rawlings, Utah Department of Education. Wisconsin Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Student enrollment numbers and expenditure/donation information provided by the State Department of Education for 2009. State contact: Molly Koranda, Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. sources and credits

Washington, D.C. D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program. Student enrollment data is for 2009, provided by the Washington Scholarship Fund (WSF); expenditure information is for 2009 provided by WSF and Congressional appropriation.


allianceforschoolchoice.org 1660 L Street, NW Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20036 Phone  202.280.1990 Email  info@AllianceForSchoolChoice.org


School Choice Yearbook 2009–10