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Indy Tracker   A  mobile  application   I561  Midterm  Project  

BY: Aeshvarya  Verma   Ryan  Sukale  

Contents Executive  Summary  .............................................................................................................................................  3   Definition  of  the  setting  and  project  scope  .........................................................................................................  4   Fieldwork  activity  and  data  collected  ..................................................................................................................  5   Work/activity  models  ........................................................................................................................................  10   Requirements  and  goals  ....................................................................................................................................  16   Conceptual  Design  .............................................................................................................................................  19   Page  Design  and  prototypes  ..............................................................................................................................  22   High  Fidelity  Prototypes  ....................................................................................................................................  23   User  Feedback  and  Recommendations  .............................................................................................................  25   Appendix  A:  Fieldwork  And  Data  Collection  I  ....................................................................................................  29   Appendix  B:  Informed  Consent  Form  ................................................................................................................  36   Appendix  C:  Fieldwork  Data  Collection  II  ..........................................................................................................  38   Appendix  D:  Work  Model  Diagrams  ..................................................................................................................  55   Appendix  E:  Paper  Prototypes  ...........................................................................................................................  66   Appendix  F:  Interactive  Prototype  Screenshots  ................................................................................................  70    


Executive Summary    

The IndyGo   bus   service   is   used   extensively   by   lot   of   people   travelling   across   the   city   of   Indianapolis.   Everyday   several   commuters   use   the   bus   service   to   travel   to   and   from   their   homes.   The   bus   services   are   available   daily   and   in   order   to   facilitate   the   vast   number   of   commuters,   multiple   busses   are   available   on   each   route.   The   frequency   of   busses   varies   across   different   days   of   the   week   and   during   different   times   of   the   day.   There   are   several   bus   terminals   located   in   different   parts   of   the   city.     The   ones   in   heavily   populated   areas   have   a   shelter  and  many  facilities  whereas  the  ones  in  less  populated  areas  have  lesser  facilities.   The   following   report   describes   a   phone   application   that   we   designed   after   performing   a   contextual   study   of   commuters   of   the   IndyGo   bus   system   in   order   to   facilitate   their   travel   experiences.   Project  Setting  and  scope   To   begin   with   our   project,   the   team   first   identified   the   local   bus   terminals   that   could   be   visited   in   order   to   gather   information.   Due   to   the   nature   of   the   project,   we   chose   to   conduct   a   contextual   inquiry   at   several   different   bus   terminals   in   downtown   Indianapolis.   Our   primary   stakeholders  were  commuters  who  spent  time  waiting  for  busses  at  the  bus  terminals.   Data  Collection   The   team   gathered   the   essential   data   for   the   project   in   the   form   of   images,   audio   recordings   and   video   recordings   at   the   different   bus   terminals.   We   spent   several   hours   observing   what   users  did  when  waiting  at  bus  terminals  and  the  way  they  tried  to  proceed  with  their  activities.   We  also  collected  artifacts  such  as  the  bus  schedules  and  made  notes  on  the  characteristics  of   the  physical  location  at  which  the  activity  was  being  observed-­‐  the  bus  terminal.   Work  Models   The   team   used   the   data   gathered   in   during   the   observations   in   the   field   to   prepare   the   work   models.   We   structured   the   data   in   the   following   work   models,   viz.   Cultural   Model,   Sequence   Model,   Physical   Model,   Artifact   Model,   Affinity   Diagram   in   order   to   cull   our   requirements   from   our  data.   Requirements  and  Conceptual  Design   During  our  project  phase,  we  created  the  information  architecture  of  the  project  using  IDM  and   prepared   a   navigation   sequence   based   upon   our   inference   from   the   consolidated   model   diagrams.   We   also   envisioned   scenarios   where   our   application   could   be   used   to   assist   the   user   in  determining  bus  information.     Prototyping  

We prepared  low  fidelity  prototypes  of  the  application  on  paper  and  created  several  mockup   screens   that   reflected   the   architecture   and   navigation   sequences   that   we   had   conceptualized   earlier.   Later  we  prepared  high  fidelity  prototypes  of  the  application  using  Axure  that  contained  all  the   screens   and   relevant   sample   information.   We   kept   only   the   information   on   each   screen   that   would  relevant  to  the  task  that  the  user  would  be  performing  on  that  particular  screen.   User  testing   We   prepared   2   tasks   for   our   users   similar   to   the   situations   that   would   provoke   the   user   to   use   the   application.   Then   we   conducted   in   person   interviews   with   the   users   and   made   notes   on   their  feedback  of  the  interface.  Our  users  also  made  suggestion  of  the  additional  features  that   they   would   find   useful   to   be   present   on   the   application   that   were   outside   of   the   scope   of   the   project.   We   however   made   a   note   of   their   comments   and   provide   them   as   suggestions   for   future  enhancements  to  the  application.  

Definition of  the  setting  and  project  scope   As  the  13th-­‐largest  city  in  the  U.S.,  Indianapolis  has  repeatedly  been  ranked  below  40th  in  mass   transit   availability.   The   undue   emphasis   on   automobile   travel   in   city   planning,   excessive   automobile   usage   resulting   in   environmental   degradation   and   the   paucity   of   scheduled   bus   routes,   often   forcing   riders   (especially   students,   tourists   and   office   commuters)   to   choose   between   arriving   at   a   destination   extremely   early,   or   late.   In   spite   of   such   a   widespread   use,   there  are  still  a  few  areas  of  improvement  in  the  field  of  public  transport  that  could  assist  in  the   improvement  of  an  individual’s  travel  experience.   Based  upon  our  observations  and  experiences,  our  team  has  brainstormed  to  create  a  product   that   would   make   bus   route   information   available   to   travelers   on   the   fly   especially   in   situations   when   they   have   missed   a   bus.   We   intend   to   design   the   application   such   that   it   enables   users   to   immediately   look   up   alternative   busses   or   routes   for   their   destination   instead   of   being   stuck   in   the  same  place.  We  determined  the  best  means  of  determining  how  to  assist  the  users  was  to   observe   and   interview   them   in   the   process   of   making   a   choice   of   an   alternative   such   as   cabs   when  missing  the  bus  or  waiting  for  a  long  time.   To  fully  understand  the  problem  space,  we  visited  a  few  bus  stops  in  Downtown  Indianapolis   and  around  our  IUPUI  campus,  serving  a  pool  of  users  throughout  the  day.     Physical  Site   The  chosen  site  for  this  project  is  the  Bus  stop  and  its  surrounding  experience.  We  selected  a   few  bus  stops  in  Downtown  Indianapolis  and  around  IUPUI  campus.  The  primary  focus  of  the   inquiry  will  be  at  the  bus  stop  itself.     Stakeholders  

There are  three  basic  stakeholders  in  this  application   Commuters:   Since   we   are   only   focusing   on   transportation   by   bus,   bus   commuters   are   the   primary  stakeholders  in  our  application.  The  system  would  be  designed  to  cater  their  needs.   IndyGo  Bus  management  system:  These  stakeholders  represent  the  system  whose  data  would   be  used  to  calibrate  the  alternative  route  maps  for  our  primary  stakeholders.  Our  application   will  depend  on  the  timely  and  consistent  information  from  the  bus  management  system.   Cab  Services:  These  are  the  cab  service  providers  who  would  be  benefitted  if  our  target  user   chooses   to   avail   a   cab   when   they   realize   that   they   are   not   satisfied   with   the   wait   time   or   a   reroute  suggested  by  our  application.     Activity  Focus   The   Indianapolis   Public   Transportation   Corporation,   commonly   known   as   IndyGo,   operates   the   public   transit   system   for   the   city   of   Indianapolis,   Indiana.   IndyGo   operates   28   fixed   routes   with   some   5,000   stops,   bus   frequency   varying   on   the   popularity   of   the   route.   The   system   carries   approximately  9  million  passengers  annually,  traveling  a  total  distance  of  about  9  million  miles.  The   minimum  time  gap  between  two  buses  of  the  same  number  is  30  minutes  and  the  user  have  to  wait   for  that  amount  of  time  to  get  the  next  bus  or  look  at  the  map  (displayed  at  the  bus  stop)  to  finalize   a   different   bus   for   his/her   route.   Our   application   will   tackle   this   wait   time   problems   of   the   passengers  by  providing  them  the  accurate  information  of  the  next  bus  arrival,  either  of  the  same   number   or   a   different   bus   to   the   same   destination.   We   would   also   provide   alternate   transport   options   like   cab   services   with   the   calculated   price.   The   vast   number   of   options   can   make   the   selection  process  intimidating  for  the  potential  users.  Hopefully  during  the  contextual  interviews  we   can  uncover  the  processes  that  users  take  to  select  the  transportation  they  would  like  to  use.   Potential  Users   The  potential  users  of  our  system  are  bus  commuters.  Bus  commuters  usually  face  a  lot  of  issues   when  they  miss  a  bus  at  a  bus  stop  or  when  busses  get  cancelled.  And  there  is  no  convenient  way   for  them  to  get  any  updated  information  while  they  are  waiting  at  a  bus  stop.  Sometimes  while  at  a   bus  stop,  people  don’t  realize  that  another  bus  could  take  them  to  the  same  destination  and  they   waste   their   time   waiting   only   for   the   bus   that   they   know.   Our   potential   users   would   be   travelers   who  would  be  able  make  or  change  their  travel  decisions  based  upon  information  provided  by  our   application.  

Fieldwork  activity  and  data  collected     Fieldwork  Data  Collection  1  

The images,  audio  and  interview  transcripts  for  our  Fieldwork  Data  Collection  Results  I  is  present   in  Appendix  A   The  informed  consent  form  is  present  in  Appendix  B.   To  better  address  the  problem  space,  we  went  to  various  IndyGo  bus  stops  in  the  Downtown   area.  We  noticed  that  some  of  the  bus  stops  were  heavily  crowded  while  some  of  them  were   sparsely  crowded.  The  heavily  crowded  ones  had  more  shelter.  Since  it  was  snowing,  most  of   the   people   were   standing   inside   the   shelter.   However,   at   the   larger   bus   stops,   there   were   a   number   of   people   who   were   standing   out   of   the   shelter.   We   noticed   that   they   were   doing   so   because  at  the  larger  stops,  multiple  busses  were  stopping  simultaneously  and  some  of  them   stopped  ahead  of  the  shelter  area.     We   observed   them   for   around   two   hours   and   in   the   process   made   videos   capturing   the   actions   of  the  IndyGo  bus  users,  took  snapshots  of  important  artifacts  in  the  field,  made  notes  about  the   observation  and  eventually  selected  users  for  a  contextual  interview.   While   standing   at   the   “Ohio/Meridian”   IndyGo   bus   stop   we   observed   the   following   realistic   aspects  of  the  event  environment:   • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

Large number  of  people  using  the  bus  service   Some  of  the  users  were  sitting  inside  the  shed  while  many  were  standing  and   keeping  a  constant  watch  for  their  bus  to  arrive   Some  users  were  checking  the  route  board  to  decide  which  to  board   Almost  all  the  users  were  using  a  cellphone,  mostly  smartphones.  The  activities   range  from  talking  on  the  phone,  listening  to  music,  texting,  social  networking   etc.     Some  users  were  asking  other  bystanders  whether  that  particular  bus  has  left  or   not   People  were  also  asking  about  which  bus  to  board  for  their  destination   We  saw  some  users  running  towards  the  bus  stop  and  asking  us  to  signal  the  bus   driver  to  keep  waiting  for  them   We  also  noticed  some  people  missing  their  bus  and  just  waiting  for  the  next  bus   to  come.   People  were  mostly  travelling  alone   Poor  display  of  bus  route  chart   Some  taxis  parked  nearby  but  people  were  waiting  for  their  bus  even  if  it  took  a   long  time  for  their  bus  to  arrive   Majority  of  the  users  were  middle  aged     Route  maps  were  displayed  right  at  the  entrance  of  the  shelter   The  Route  maps  were  affixed  at  an  appropriate  height  such  that  people  of   different  heights  would  be  able  to  read  the  information  easily.   The  benches  inside  the  bus  terminals  were  located  away  from  the  place  where   the  bus  maps  were  affixed.  The  effect  this  had  was  that  most  people  were  sitting   on  the  bench  and  the  bus  route  map  could  be  easily  seen  since  there  was  hardly   anyone  blocking  its  view.  

In order   to   collect   data   to   assist   with   solving   the   problems   we   found   while   attempting   to   address   and   confirm   our   preliminary   observations,   we   conducted   different   contextual   interviews  with  an  IndyGo  Bus  user  and  a  Yellow  Cab  driver.   •  

Interview one:  Standing  at  the  bus  stop  in  Downtown  Indianapolis  with  a        person   waiting  for  his  bus   Interview  two:  At  the  Monument  circle  with  a  Yellow  Cab  driver  

Interview 1   Key  findings  from  our  interview:   •

• •

• • • •

Getting a  bus  at  a  particular  set  time  is  a  crucial  activity.  Since  its  arrival  depends  on   many  factors  like  traffic,  wait  time  at  all  the  previous  bus  stops,  weather  conditions,  etc.   (In  our  case  –  Snow)   User  wants  to  wait  for  the  bus  first,  if  it  becomes  too  late  then  only  they  proceed  to  the   taxi   User  uses  the  IndyGo  customer  service  number  to  get  the  information  about  the  bus   timings,  bus  routes  and  service  availability.  He  also  asks  his  neighboring  waiting  users   frequently  for  information  about  the  same.   User  wants  more  facilities  at  the  bus  stop  regarding  the  bus  arrival.   He  is  also  interested  in  an  application  showing  the  real-­‐time  details  about  the  bus   timing,  weather  effects  on  bus  services,  multiple  bus  routes  and  taxi  services   The  taxi  drivers  sometimes  get  calls  from  passengers  to  pick  up  from  bus  stops   The  user  generally  cannot  determine  whether  he  missed  the  bus  or  not  and  that  he  just   waits  for  another  bus  to  come.  

He  also  asks  his  other  friends/  co-­‐workers,  frequent  travelers,  for  the  bus  information,  over  the   phone.   Fieldwork  Data  Collection  2   The  images,  audio  and  interview  transcripts  for  our  Fieldwork  Data  Collection  Results  II  is  present   in  Appendix  C   For   our   second   and   third   contextual   interviews,   we   went   to   different   bus   terminals   in   downtown   and   observed   people   and   their   activities   while   they   waited   for   their  bus.   We   visited   two   IndyGo   bus   stops   in   the   Downtown   Indianapolis   area.   The   two   bus   stops   were   Ohio/Capital  and  Capital/Market.       Interview  2   These  bus  stops  were  a  few  meters  away  and  we  both  observed  for  around  3  hours.  During  this   time  we  observed  people  boarding  different  buses,  some  people  waited  more  than  the  others.   We   also   noticed   people   changing   bus   stops   from   Ohio/Capital   to   Capital/Market   to   complete   their   journey.   Some   people   were   carrying   two-­‐three   bags   with   them   while   most   of   the  

passengers were  in  possession  of  a  light  handbag.  We  also  saw  a  mom  carrying  her  baby  in  a   stroller,  a  cyclist  parking  his  bike  in  front  of  the  bus  and  boarding  it.     Among   all   this   action   we   observed   a   particular   person   sitting   inside   the   bus   stop   while   the   majority   of   the   passengers   were   outside   waiting   for   their   bus   and   looking   in   the   direction   of   incoming   buses   to   find   their   bus   number.   That   person   wasn’t   reading   anything   nor   listening   to   music,  just  relaxing  while  waiting  for  his  bus  to  come.  We  asked  him  why  has  was  sitting  inside   (it  was  sunny  and  warm  that  day!)  not  looking  for  his  bus?  He  that  said  he  had  suffered  three   heart   attacks   and   that   he   can’t   afford   to   take   any   fast   paced   action   or   exertion.   We   then   inquired   from   him   if   the   bus   stops   right   in   front   of   the   stop?   He   said,   making   a   frustrating   face,   no  and  that  when  there  are  many  buses,  some  stops  far  from  the  designated  stop  and  that  he   missed  quite  a  few.     As   he   was   sitting   doing   nothing,   we   asked   him   why   don’t   you   read   anything   from   the   newspaper  stand?  He  slammed  back  saying  those  stands  aren’t  updated  and  houses  old  stuffs.   And  then  we  asked  for  any  suggestions  that  he  might  be  having.  He  said,  maybe,  provide  them   in  the  bus  itself!  He  was  an  old  man  and  all  alone  at  the  bus  stop.     One  thing  popped  up  in  our  mind  was  about  the  violence  scene  associated  with  the  various  bus   stops   and   in   shady   neighborhood.   He   said,   in   a   heavy   voice,   yeah,   ‘I   witnessed   some   crime   mostly  people  with  drinking  habits  or  drug  addiction’.  We  raised  a  subsequent  question,  -­‐  ‘in   that   case   who   calls   the   police   and   how   these   incidents   are   handled’.   By   this   time,   he   became   interested   talking   with   us   and   started   telling   about   the   various   experiences   he’d   seen   during   his   lifetime   as   an   Indianapolis   resident.   He   replied,   it’s   the   duty   of   the   IndyGo   officials   whether   anyone  standing  in  that  bus  stop  or  the  bus  driver,  if  any  crime  happens  on  the  bus,  to  call  the   police.  He  said,  “There’s  a  protocol  these  people  follow,  I  guess”.     When   the   interview   was   going   on,   we   saw   many   buses   passing   our   bus   stop,   and   our   interviewee   got   distracted   every   time   a   bus   passes   by,   in   order   to   look   for   his   bus   number   (No.   10).  Then  we  asked  if  he  found  this  bus  stop  convenient?  He  replied  ‘Only  if  it’s  less  crowded,   then  yes’.  He  said  that  because  of  his  health  history,  he  always  looked  for  a  less  crowded  stop   and  also  for  less  crowded  busses.     Then  we  asked  him  if  he  knew  when  his  bus  would  come?  He  said  confidently,  1:10  (pm).  We   asked  ‘How  can  you  be  so  sure  about  the  timings?’  He  replied,  I  am  a  frequent  traveler  and  I   also  checked  the  Internet  about  the  timings,  before  coming  here.  An  Internet  user,  good!     We   inquired,   do   you   get   any   information   if   the   bus   you’re   waiting   for   broke   down   or   got   cancelled.   He   said,   (Checking   his   watch   again   for   the   time)   no,   but   this   one   time,   one   of   the   bus   got   cancelled   so   the   authority   arranged   for   a   different   one.   It   took   them   20-­‐25   minutes   for   this   process  and  it  was  tiresome.     We  asked  him  ‘what  about  information  about  other  buses’?  He  told  us  that  he  had  a  couple  of   schedule  cards  in  his  pockets  and  I  can  always  refer  to  them  to  find  out  about  other  buses.     After   our   interview,   we   proposed   the   idea   of   our   application   to   him,   basically   phone   based   and   whether   he’d   be   interested   in   it.   He   zapped   at   us   saying,   I   am   not   a   smartphone   user   and   that   I  

would prefer  asking  people  around  about  the  buses  but  the  IndyGo  people  must  increase  the   bus   frequencies.   He   also   refers   to   the   bus   route   chart   hanging   inside   the   bus   stop,   if   it’s   not   crowded.  By  this  time,  his  bus  came  (it  was  1:30pm!!!)  and  he  went.   Interview  3   For   this   interview   we   observed   a   person   standing   outside   the   bus   stop.   He   was   waiting   for   nearly  an  hour  now.  We  approached  him  and  asked  him,  ‘Why  are  you  standing  out  for  so  long?   Why  not  sit  inside  the  shelter?  He  answered  blissfully,  its  sunny  today  and  to  get  some  warmth,   he’s   standing   outside.   Also,   he   pointed   out   that   this   bus   stop   doesn’t   have   any   heaters   as   opposed  to  others.     As   he   wasn’t   doing   anything   while   standing,   we   asked   him   whether   he’d   be   interested   in   some   kind   of   reading   from   the   nearby   newspaper   vending   machine   or   using   his   cell   phone   for   something.   Making   a   sad   face,   he   answered   that   he   forgot   his   iPod   Touch   at   home   and   now   cannot  listen  to  his  favorite  music  tracks.     What  about  the  frequency  of  the  buses?  He  said,  as  I  only  get  these  two  weekend  days  as  off,  my   time   is   at   a   premium.   The   buses   should   come   as   they   come   in   the   weekdays   if   not   more   frequent.     Then  we  asked  him  ‘What  about  the  information  about  the  buses,  how  do  you  come  to  know   about  them?’  He  said  that  he’s  a  frequent  traveller  and  also  carries  the  schedules  with  him.     Then   we   asked   him   if   those   schedules   are   in   print   or   on   the   phone?   He   promptly   replied   ‘They   are   on   paper,   the   one   printed   by   the   IndyGo   bus   system’.   Then   we   asked   him   ‘Are   these   schedules   simple   to   read   and   with   the   right   information?   He   said,   pretty   much   yes,   and   coincidently,  these  schedules  are  brand  new  and  would  come  into  effect  from  tomorrow’.     We   noticed   that   there   was   a   small   notice   posted   inside   the   bus   stop   informing   about   these   change.  It  was  hard  to  notice  it  but  it  was  there!     We   asked   ‘What   if   you   miss   a   bus   today?’   He   said,   if   you   miss   a   bus,   you   miss   a   bus,   you   should   wait  for  another  one  or  walk  to  a  different  bus  stop  to  get  a  different  bus  altogether.  He  also   showed  us  direction  to  the  next  nearest  bus  stop,  in  case  we  miss  a  particular  bus  here,  which   was  kind  of  funny.     We   saw   him   take   out   his   cellphone   to   check   the   time   and   again   and   then   he   got   back   to   conversing  with  us.   Then  we  asked  him  ‘How  do  you  get  all  these  information  about  the  buses?’  He  answered,  ‘from   my  experience,  people  around  me  or  by  referring  to  the  charts  inside  the  bus  stops.’     Based   upon   his   answer,   we   asked   ‘But   what   about   those   bus   stops   that   don’t   have   these   charts?’  He  said,  ‘those  were  probably  too  old  as  almost  all  the  newer  stops  have  at  least  one   chart.  He  also  pointed  out  that  as  it’s  a  Saturday  today,  the  IndyGo  customer  service  phone  lines   are  closed  today  and  it  would  be  very  helpful  for  him,  if  they  activate  those  lines  on  weekends   too.’    

We also   observed   that   some   buses   were   waiting   here   for   the   passengers   to   come   and   some   passengers   were   running   from   far   to   catch   it   and   were   shouting   to   keep   the   bus   waiting   for   them!  What  a  scene  it  was.     The  interviewee  was  waiting  for  his  bus  during  his  time  and  said  it  will  come  around  2:30pm   and  that  it  will  drop  him  2  blocks  before  his  home  and  he  will  walk  the  rest.     We   asked   him   about   any   interesting   event   happened   to   him   while   waiting   for   the   bus?   He   recalled  about  one  when  he  was  waiting  for  number  19  bus  for  about  an  hour  and  it  turned  out   that   somebody   inside   the   bus   was   sick   and   had   vomited.   It   was   a   hygiene   issue   and   the   IndyGo   people  had  to  change  the  bus.  He  said  that  he  would  have  preferred  to  get  some  information   before  hand  of  such  an  incident  before  the  bus  had  arrived.     By  now,  we  had  been  talking  to  this  guy  for  more  than  half  an  hour  standing  with  him  and  his   bus  still  wasn’t  here.  We  were  determined  to  wait  with  him  till  his  bus  comes.     Meanwhile,  we  asked  him  if  he  had  any  suggestions  in  mind  to  improve  the  IndyGo  bus  service?   He   said,   ‘yeah,   maybe   an   online   site   or   something   to   tell   me   about   information,   including   some   real  time  information,  current  schedules,  any  sudden  change’  etc.     Here’s  comes  an  inspiration  for  us  to  built  the  application!     Finally  his  bus  came  and  he  went  too.    

Work/activity models   Consolidated  Flow  Model   Based   upon   the   flow   diagram,   we   were   able   to   understand   about   the   different   players   in   the   system   and   their   interactions.   We   learnt   that   the   IndyGo   bus   system   plays   a   central   role   in   providing  the  bus  stops  with  the  various  artifacts  and  in  spite  of  that,  there  is  not  much  direct   communication   of   IndyGo   with   the   passengers.   All   information   reaches   the   hands   of   the   passengers  through  indirect  routes.   Individual  diagrams  are  present  in  Appendix  D    

Consolidated Sequence  Model   The   sequence   model   displays   the   details   of   the   different   tasks   that   the   users   perform   in   the   order   in   which   they   perform   it.   When   making   the   sequence   diagram,   we   realized   that   although   the   intents   of   the   users   were   similar,   our   users   used   different   means   to   accomplish   their   goals.  

But eventually,  all  of  them  wanted  to  find  a  way  to  do  some  activity  of  leisure  once  they  were   aware  of  their  busses  but  had  to  keep  checking  the  bus  numbers  when  any  bus  arrived.   Individual  diagrams  are  present  in  Appendix  D  

  Consolidated  Cultural  Model   The  consolidated  cultural  model  shows  the  common  aspects  of  culture  that  pertain  across  the   user   population.   The   influencers   were   the   passengers,   co-­‐passengers,   customer   service  

representatives, drivers   and   the   IndyGo   management.   We   then   consolidated   all   the   unique   influences  between  all  the  influences.   Individual  diagrams  are  present  in  Appendix  D      


Consolidated Physical  Model   The   physical   model   shows   the   elements   in   the   workplace   that   the   people   interact   with.   We   observed   that   at   larger   bus   stands,   it   was   not   easy   for   people   to   identify   the   bus   that   had   arrived  when  multiple  busses  arrived  together.    

Artifact  Model  Diagrams   The   artifact   model   displays   the   different   artifacts   that   our   users   collect   and   work   with   when   they  plan  to  travel  on  a  bus.  Most  of  the  artifacts  are  static  in  nature  such  as  the  bus  schedule,   the  route  map,  the  bus  fare  information.  There  is  no  easy  way  for  the  user  to  interact  with  the   artifacts   collaboratively   to   find   the   information   that   he   wants.   Consolidated   artifact   model  

shows how  people  organize  and  structure  their  activities  from  day  to  day.  The  bus  route  charts   and   the   printed   route   leaflets   are   used   by   many   people   to   gather   information   about   the   bus   timings  and  bus  routes.  The  helpline  numbers  can  be  referenced  from  various  places  like  the   charts  inside  the  bus  stops,  printed  on  the  bus  itself,  from  the  leaflets  or  from  the  tickets.  The   leaflet   is   easy   to   carry.   The   charts   inside   the   bus   stops   are   also   simple   to   understand   but   outdated  sometimes.      

  Additional  Diagrams  are  present  in  Appendix  D   Affinity  Diagram   Based   upon   the   affinity   diagram,   we   were   able   to   group   together   the   different   needs   of   our   participants.  While  each  of  them  voiced  their  concerns  in  different  ways,  the  core  of  their  needs   focused  on  two  main  aspects  having  a  better  knowledge  of  the  bus  timings  and  routes,  and,  a   preference  for  bus  terminals  with  better  facilities.  

Requirements and  goals     Working   forward  from  interviews,   observations,   and  consolidated   models  collected   thus  far,  we  developed   a  cohesive   set  of  requirements   in  order   to  better   define   the   necessary   components   for   the   system   to   function   as   desired   and   provide   usable   output.  

Functional Requirements   The   system:   • Should  allow  the  user  to  access  the  contact  information  for  the  indygo  bus  system.   • Should  display  real  time  bus  information  for  each  day  of  the  week.   • Should  be  portable.   • Should  contain  static  and  real  time  bus  schedule.   • Should  inform  the  user  upon  bus  arrival.   • Should  provide  an  easy  access  to  leisurely  activities  while  waiting   • Should  display  bus  stop  details.     User  Requirements   • •

User must  be  able   to  access  information  from   his  web-­‐enabled  phone   User   must  possess  enough  knowledge  to  understand  the  information  presented  

      Usability  goals       -­‐  Effectiveness   • Menu  information  is  clear  and   useful   • Simple  and   effective  interactions  at  providing  needed  services       -­‐  Efficiency   • Rapid  interaction  with   clean  menu   • Saves  time   for  customer  and   provide  accurate  information       -­‐  Safety   • Shouldn’t  distract  user       -­‐  Utility   • Covers  all  the  IndyGo  bus   routes      

-­‐ Learnability   • must  be  readily  understandable,  intuitive  interface,  guide  user   through  the   application       -­‐  Memorability   • Consistent  look   &  feel   throughout  the  application,  functions  available  at   appropriate  place/time       User  Experience   goals   ●     Informative   ●     Time-­‐saving   ●     Non-­‐intrusive   ●     Aesthetically   pleasing   ●     Helpful          User  profile  1   Our   first   user   is  a  frequent   traveller.   However,   this   time   he  has   to  go  to  a  different   place   that  the  one  he  regularly   visits.   He  always   carries   his  mobile   phone   with  him   and   does  not  have  any   other  luggage.       User  profile  2   Our   second   user   is   at   home.   He   has   a   decent   experience   with   using   mobile   applications.   He   will   be   travelling   with   luggage   and   would   like   to   go   with   his   luggage  directly  to  the  bus   stop   from  which  he  can   board  his  bus.         Scenario  1   Mark  needs  to   go   to   the  supermarket.   There  is   a  sale  that  ends  at   2  pm  so   he   wants   to  get  there   well  before  time  since  he  wants  to  buy  a  lot  of  stuff.  Mark  heard  about   this  supermarket   from  his  friend  but  he  does  not  know  which  bus  would  take  him   there.   He   is   aware   of   the   route   but   is   not   sure   about   which   busses   can   get   him   there   in   time   because   it   is   a   weekend   and   usually   on  weekends,   the   frequency   of   busses  is  very   less.   He   opens   Indy   Tracker   on   his   iPhone.   He   enters   his   street   name   and   the   street   name  of  the  supermarket  in  as  the  source  and  destination.  The  applications  show   him  a  map  and  the  route  from  a  bus  stop  near  his  source  to  the  bus  stop  nearest  to   the   supermarket.   He   checks   the   bus   list   for   his   bus   stop   and   realizes   that   there   are   only   2   busses   that   are   plying   on   this   route   today.   The   next   arrival   time   of   one   is   at   11:45  am  and  the  other  is  at  12:15  pm.  He  decides  to  take  the  one  at  11:45  am  and   sets  the  application  to  buzz  him  at  the  specified  time.      

Scenario 2   Mary  is  travelling  to  Chicago.  She   needs  to  go  to  the  main  bus   terminal  and   her  bus   it  at  5:30   pm  and   she   has   a  good  2  hours  to  pack   and   prepare  for  her  trip.   There  are   a  couple  of  bus   stops  that   are  near   her  house.  But   she   does  not  know  which  one   of   them  will  take   her  to  the  bus   stop.  She   found  out  from   her  friends  that   the  main  bus   stop,   w here   s he   h as   t o   g o,   is  somewhere   between  30  to  45  minutes   by  bus   depending  on  which  bus   you   catch  because  the  routes  are  different.     Mary  opens  the  Indy  Tracker  application  on  her  phone  and  enters  the  source  and   destination.  The  application  shows  her  a  map  of  the  bus  terminals  around  that  have   busses  plying  to  the  destination.  She  is  then  able  to  pick  a  nearest  bus  stop  from  the   map  and  see  the  bus  schedule  for  that  bus  stop.  She  realizes  that  the  bus  is  too  late.   So  she  goes  back  to  the  map  and  selects  another  bus  stop.  She  realizes  that  this  bus   stop  has  a  bus  that  leaves  in  30  minutes  and  reaches  her  destination  20  minutes   well  before  time.  She  chooses  the  bus  and  sets  the  application  to  buzz  her  at  the   next  arrival  time  of  this  bus.   Conceptual  Design    

The application   will  facilitate  the  user  when  he   is   looking  for  a   bus,  either  when  he   is  at  the   bus   stand   or  when  he   wants  to   know  about  the   schedule  of   a   bus   or   its   route.       The   application   w ill   rely   on   the   information   from   the   IndyGo   bus   system   and   organize   the   route   maps   in   a   searchable   way   for   each   bus  stop  and  for  each   bus  route.     The   key   highlight   of   the   application   is   to   enable   the   user   to   search   for   his   destination   and   be   able   to  choose   the   most   suitable   option   from   the   one   that   the   system   will   present   him   based   upon   his   time   and  location  preferences.  He  would   also  be  able  to  view  additional  information  in  and  around  the  shelter.     Based   upon   the   work     models,     we     were     able     to     design     the     information     architecture    of    the    system    as  follows.                          

Information Architecture  Using  IDM    


Navigation Map    

We prepared  the  navigation  for  the  application  based  upon  the  way  the  users  interact   with   the   system   in   real   life.   The   navigation   follows   the   same   logic   that   people   follow   when  looking  for  information  in  the  context.   On  the  application’s  landing  page  one  of  the  options  allows  the  user  to  enter  his  source   and   destination.   If   a   source   is   not   entered,   then   the   current   location   of   the   user   is   assumed   to   be   the   source.   This   kind   of   selection   takes   the   user   to   a   map   view   that   will   display   the   nearest   bus   terminal   from   his   source   that   has   busses   to   his   destination.   Upon  selecting  a  bus  terminal,  the  user  can  then  see  a  filtered  list  of  all  the  busses  that   depart  to  his  choice  of  destination  from  there.     If   the   user   enters   a   bus   terminal   name,   in   that   case   the   area   map   will   display   the   route   map   from   the   user’s   current   location   to   the   desired   bus   terminal.   Upon   selecting   the  

bus terminal,   he   will   be   able   to   see   the   details   of   all   the   busses   at   the   terminal   with   their  next  arrival  time.     The  landing  page  also  gives  the  user  an  option  to  enter  a  bus  number.  This  is  the  case   when  the  user  is  already  aware  of  the  bus  that  he  needs  to  travel  on  but  want  to  get   specific   details   of   only   that   bus.   In   that   case   the   system   takes   the   user   to   the   area   map,   which  lets  the  user  select  a  terminal.  Then  it  will  display  the  entire  bus  schedule  and   route-­‐map  for  that  bus  in  a  new  page.   Operations   Bus  information   • • •

Customer enters  bus  number.   Customer  enters  destination  to  get  the  bus  details.   Customer  selects  a  time  for  which  he  wants  to  be  notified.  

Bust terminal  information   • •

Customer selects  a  terminal  to  get  the  shelter  information.   List  of  busses  that  go  to  the  customer’s  destination.  

Bus Route  Information   • • •

Route details  of  the  bus  along  with  all  the  stops.   Bus  timings  for  all  the  terminals  on  of  that  bus.   Bus  fare  information  for  the  entire  route.  

Page Design  and  prototypes     For   the   high   fidelity   prototype,   we   started   with   our   paper   prototypes.   We   first   determined  the  3  most  common  ways  in  which  we  envisioned  the  system  to  be  used  –   Looking   for   a   known   bus,   looking   for   busses   between   two   locations   and   looking   for   the   buses   and   facilities   from   a   given   bus   terminal.     Then   we   used   the   paper   prototypes  as  screens  and  walked  through  the  aforementioned  tasks  of  the  user.         Based  upon  the  walkthroughs,  we  identified  few  key  items         •   Information     that     must     be     present     on     most     pages,     if     not     all.     For  e.g.  t he                    helpline.     •   Information   that   is   relevant   to   one   page   but   not   to   another,   for   example,   in   the   page   where   we   show   the   area   maps,   we   show   different   units   of   drop   down  lists  based  upon  the  selection  that  the  user  made.     •   Information  that   should  be   shown  on   the   map.   For  e.g.   some  maps   require  a   route   to   be   displayed  such   as   when   the   user   enters   both   the   source   and   the  

destination. Other  maps  such  as  the  one  for  the  bus  terminal  details,  does  not   require  route  information.    

We  used  these  findings  from  the  walkthrough  as  differentiating  factors  between  the   key  screens  of  our  application  so  as  to  provide  the  user  with  the  relevant  contextual   information  on  each  screen  that  he  interacts  with.  

High Fidelity  Prototypes     We  prepared  a  high  fidelity  prototype  of  the  application  using  axure  which  is  available   at     Based   on   the   work   models   we   gathered   findings   on   the   needs   and   requirements  of   the  passengers.  How  the  various   artifacts  affect  their  travel,  the  physical  location  i.e.   the   bus   stop   also   plays   an   important   role   for   the   waiting   passengers.   From   the   consolidated   flow  model,  we  analyzed  that  for  a  passengers,  there  are  many  point  of   interactions  like  the  IndyGo  bus  management,  co-­‐-­‐-­‐passengers,  the  bus  driver  and  the   customer   service   representatives.   In   our   application   we   introduced   the   helpline   feature  to  give  various  important  contact  information  about  IndyGo.  We  included  all   the   arrival   bus   timings   of   the   buses,   for   that   day,   to   compensate   for   asking   the   co-­‐-­‐-­‐   passengers.    We    also    have    an    option    of    setting    alert    for    their    bus    arrival    using    the     ‘Buzz  me’  feature.           The   consolidated  physical  model  told   us   about   the   various  facilities  associated  with   a  bus  stop.  We  noticed   that  critical  information  and  included  a  facility  description   in   our    application.  Whenever  a   user    wants  to  know   the    bus   stop   facilities,    he    can   click   on   its   name   to   look   at   them   like   the   sitting   arrangement   inside   the   shed,   heaters,   vending  kiosks  availability  etc.     The   application   gives   an   intuitive   feel   and   displays   all   the   possible   information   in   a   coherent  manner  as  supported  by  the  consolidated  sequence  and  culture  model.  The   two  options  on  the  home  screen  itself  support  all  types  of  users  whether  they  know   only  the  bus  number,  bus  stop  name,  just  the  destination  or  from  a  source,  other  than   the  bus  stop,  to  a  final  destination.            

Internal Walkthroughs  of  High-­‐-­‐-­‐Fidelity  Prototypes  



Based upon   the   requirements   and   workflow   identified   from   the   work   models   we   designed   a   high   fidelity   prototype   of   the   envisioned   application   as   an   iPhone   application.   There  are  3  scenarios  that  we  try  to  cover  in  the  application.   1)     A   user  wants   to   determine  the  busses  from  a   source  and   destination.  In   our   case,     the     user     wants     to     go     from     New     York     Street     to     Lafayette     Road.   Our   application   addresses   this   use   case   by   letting   the   user   perform   the   following  sequence  of  actions.   a.       On  the  home  page,  enter  a  source  and  a  destination.   b.       On  the  next  screen  that  appears,  select  the  nearest  bus  stop  from  the   source  from  the  list  of  suggestions  provided.   c.   Once  the  user   selects   the  nearest   stop,  he  can  then  click  on  the  button   at  the  bottom  to  see  a  filtered  list  of  all  the  busses  from  that  stop  that   go  to  the  requested  destination.   d.       The  list  displays  the  next  arrival  time  of  the  bus.  He  can  also  see  the   list  of  the  subsequent  bus  arrival  times  from  the  dropdown.   e.       If   he   selects   a   particular   bus,   he   can   then   see   the   entire   route   of   the   bus   and   its   various   stops.   If   he   selects   a   particular   stop,   the   arrival   time  of  the  bus  at  that  stop  will  be  displayed.   f.   He  can  then  choose   to  select   the  time   at  which   he  wants  to  be  notified   of  the  bus  arrival.   2)   A   user   is   aware   of   the   bus   that   he   wants   to   travel   on.   In   our   case,   the   bus   number   is   37.     But   he   wants   to   determine   the   schedule   for   the   bus.     The   system  supports  this  functionality  in  the  following  way   a.       On  the  home  page,  the  user  can  enter  the  bus  number.   b.       This  takes  the  user  to  the  area  map,  which  displays  the  bus  route  for   the   given   bus.   The   user   can   then   select   a   destination   and   bus   stop   from  the  drop  down.   c.   Then  he  clicks  on  the  button  at  the  bottom  to  see  the  full  schedule   of   the  bus.  

d.     This  takes  him  to  the  page  where  he  can  see  the  different   stoppages  of  the   bus  and  the  different  timings  of  arrival  of  the  bus  at  those  stoppages.   e.      His  currently  selected  bus  stop  is  highlighted  and  he  can  choose  an  arrival   time  for  that  bus  stop  for  which  he  wants  to  be  notified.   3)     A  user  new  to  Indianapolis  and  uses  only  one  bus  stops  most  of  the  time.  The  stop   name  is  Newyork/Illinois  st  bus  stop,  which  is  close  to  his  home  as  well.  He  cannot   remember  all   the  buses  that   cater  to   this  particular  bus   stop.  He  also  wants   to   know   the  exact  time  of  his  bus  as  he  lives  close  to  the  bus  stop.  Since  he  wants  to   leave  a  minute  or  two  from  his  home,  an  alert  would  be  a  good  option  for  him.   This  task  can  be  completed  in  the  following  sequence   a)     On  the  home  page,  the  user  can  enter  the  stop  name.   b)     This  will  take  him  to  the  next  page  where   he  can  select  his  destination   and   can  also  view  his  initial  and  final  locations.   c)       When   clicked   on   ‘Find   Buses’,   he   can   see   a   list   of   all   the   buses   for   his   selected  destination.   d)     He  can  view  the  next  arrival  time  or  all  the  arrival  times  for  that  day.   e)     He   can  now  use  the   ‘buzz  me   at’  feature   to  set   an  alert  for   a  particular  time   of  arrival  of  the  bus.  

User Feedback  and  Recommendations   User  Testing   We  tested  our  applications  with  2  users.   We  asked  the  users  to  perform  the  following  two  tasks.     Task  1:  Consider  you  are  new  to  Indianapolis  and  you  live  near  the  bus  stop  called   Newyork  St./Illinois  St.  You  want  to  go  to  the  Wal-­‐Mart,  Lafayette  road  to  do  some   shopping.  Since  you  do  not  know  which  busses  go  to  Lafayette  road,  find  your  bus  number.   Also,  put  an  alert  for  a  particular  arrival  time  for  that  bus.     Task  2:  Suppose  you  are  standing  at  the  Newyork  St./Illinois  St.  bus  stop,  find  the  next   arrival  time  for  bus  number  37  and  look  for  all  the  facilities  present  at  that  bus  stop.     User  1   Occupation:  Student   Age:  23   Commuting  Frequency:  About  once  a  fortnight    

This user  stated  that  he  made  use  of  internet  before  travelling.  The  primary  means  of   getting  information  about  the  routes  and  busses  was  Google  maps.  However  he  did   acknowledge  that  when  he  was  at  a  bus  stand,  there  was  not  much  that  he  could  use  to   determine  the  status  of  a  bus.     The  user  had  the  following  feedback  for  each  task     Task  1:     This  task  was  clear  and  the  user  was  able  to  complete  it  easily.  The  user  did  feel  that  the   screens  were  relevant  and  that  all  the  information  present  on  the  screen  was  useful.   However,  the  user  also  made  the  following  comments.     • He  preferred  to  be  taken  to  the  list  of  busses  first  instead  of  an  area  map  when   searching  for  a  destination.   • On  the  app  screen  that  displays  the  bus  information,  he  said  he  would  have  found  it   more  useful  if  along  with  the  arrival  time,  it  would  also  display  the  duration  that  it   would  take  to  reach  the  destination.  He  said  that  duration  of  travel  along  with   arrival  time  would  be  more  meaningful  for  him  in  order  to  select  a  bus  instead  of   just  the  time.       Task  2:   This  task  took  the  user  a  bit  longer  to  perform.  However,  when  he  performed  the  search,  he   was  not  able  to  easily  get  the  information  for  the  bus  stop.  Although  the  user  went  through   all  the  relevant  screens  for  the  task,  the  user  was  searching  for  the  place  where  to  get  bus   stop  information.  After  he  tried  for  a  while,  we  had  to  help  the  user  and  ask  him  to  click  on   the  top  of  the  screen  which  displayed  the  bus  stop  name.   From  this  task,  we  gathered  the  following  feedback  from  the  user.   • •

It was  difficult  for  him  to  know  that  the  bus  stop  name  was  clickable.   While  trying  to  click  elsewhere,  the  user  also  seemed  slightly  confused  on  the  page   that  displayed  the  bus  route.  He  mentioned  that  it  would  have  been  nice  if  the  words   –  bus  route  would  be  more  prominent  so  that  he  would  instantly  know  what  the   different  names  on  the  screen  meant.  

The  user  also  made  an  overall  suggestion  that  apart  from  the  functionality  of  the   application,  he  would  have  also  liked  if  it  also  displayed  interesting  areas  around  the  bus   stop.  He  said  that  it  would  be  nice  to  know  if  there  was  a  good  restaurant  nearby  that  he   might  want  to  try  out  if  his  bus  was  to  come  after  a  long  time.      

User 2     Age  Group:  20-­‐29   Gender:  Male   IndyGo  bus  user:  Yes     The  second  participant  performed  both  the  tasks  in  a  reasonable  amount  of  time  and   without  any  major  errors.       For  the  first  task,  he  started  with  the  homepage  and  typed  in  the  bus  stop  name.  The   guiding  text  already  mentioned  in  the  search  box  helped  him  to  choose  that  option.       • The  search  result  page  offered  him  a  map  view  with  the  current  location  of  the  bus   stop  and  an  option  to  now  select  the  destination.  But,  he  was  a  bit  confused  with  all   the  blue  squares  scattered  in  the  map.  Those  boxes  were  actually  the  bus  stops  to  be   found  along  the  way  for  the  selected  destination.   • Since,  the  Wal-­‐Mart  is  located  at  the  Lafayette/30th  st.  he  found  that  option  and   pressed  on  find  buses.  He  then  selected  the  bus  number  37.   The  next  screen  posed  some  problem  for  him.  The  route  map  was  not  clear  for  him.   He  said,  "  you  could  have  placed  some  arrows  here  to  guide  from  the  source  to  the   destination,  it's  a  mess!"   • He  could  understand  the  use  of  "buzz  me  at"  option  and  selected  5:30pm  for  the   alert.     This  completes  the  task  1.     Task  2   Since  the  user  already  got  a  bit  familiar  with  the  interface  now,  he  was  finding  it  easy  to   move  around  the  application.       He  typed  in  the  bus  stop  name  and  pressed  search.     • On  the  next  screen,  he  was  searching  for  a  "facility"  option  but  couldn't  find  any.  He   then  accidentally  clicked  on  the  bus  stop  name  displayed  at  the  header  which   brought  the  facility  information  for  him.  This  completes  the  task  2.       Improvements   Based  upon  feedback  from  our  user  walkthroughs,  we  determined  the  following   recommendations  for  improving  our  design:   • One  of  the  major  improvements  would  be  to  give  some  elements  such  as  the  bus   stop  name  more  affordance  so  that  the  users  would  know  that  it  is  clickable.  

• • • •

Another improvement  would  be  to  also  include  the  bus  details  information  on  the   map  itself  because  we  observed  the  user  trying  to  click  on  the  map  when  trying  to   get  information  about  the  bus  terminal.   We  may  also  include  another  button  that  lets  the  user  explore  local  hotspots   surrounding  the  bus  stop  by  using  data  feeds  from  external  sources.   Showing  the  proper  flow  from  the  source  to  the  destination   Improving  the  alert  process  especially  in  case  of  late  bus  arrival.   Improve  the  map  view  interface  with  more  interactivity  and  information    

Appendix A:  Fieldwork  And  Data  Collection  I  

Video Link:   Audio  Transcripts  of  the  Contextual  Interview:  

1) With the  Person  waiting  for  the  bus:     2) With  the  Cab  Driver:  

Written Transcripts  of  the  Contextual  Interview:   Interview  Setting  


• • •

Downtown Indianapolis  IndyGo  Bus  stop   Event:  Waiting  for  bus  No:  8   Date:  February  1,  2013  

Demographic Information  

• •

Male, age  52  years   Occupation:  Hardware  repair  worker  

Notes Before   approaching   the   user,   we   observed   that   he   was   listening   to   music   on   his   smartphone.   We   came   to   know   that   he   travels   three   to   four   times   a   week   to   his   work,   sometimes  to  meet  his  friends  and  his  daughter.    He  prefers  bus  to  taxi,  as  he  wants  to  save   money.   When   planning   to   travel   to   a   new   location   he   calls   his   friends   or   the   IndyGo   bus   service  to  know  more  about  the  bus  number  and  the  route.   While  the  interview  was  on,  he  lighted  a  cigarette,  since  it  was  cold  and  snowing.  He  was   also   interested   in   some   “on-­‐bus   stop”   facilities   like   newspapers   and   a   chart   to   show   the   simplified  information  about  the  map  and  various  bus  routes.  He  doesn’t  use  Internet  to  get   bus  information  presently  but  seemed  interested  in  an  application  that  would  display  data   about  the  bus  timings,  alternate  routes  and  service  availability.   Interview  Setting  

• • •

Monument Circle  Taxi  parking  stand   Event:  Waiting  for  his  clients   Date:  February  1,  2013  

Demographic Information  

• •

Male, age  38  years   Occupation:  Yellow  Cab  Driver  

Interview Transcript:  Commuter   Q:  How  often  do  you  travel  by  bus?   A:  About  3-­‐4  times  a  week.   Q:  Do  you  use  a  regular  route  or  a  different  route  every  time?   A:  Different.   Q:  How  do  you  get  the  information?   A:  I  look  up  the  bus  schedule.    I  ask  people  who  I  know.  You  can  always  use  the  bus  station.  

Q: Do  you  use  Internet  for  finding  bus  related  information?   A:  I  don’t  use  Internet  for  finding  this  information.   Q:  How  often  do  you  wait  for  your  bus?  Do  you  come  on  time  and  you  wait  for  your  bus?   A:   Sometimes   I   get   lucky.   I   am   on   time   and   I   get   the   bus.   Otherwise   I   wait   for   the   bus   to   come.   Q:  How  do  you  kill  your  time?   A:  I  listen  to  some  music  and  smoke  some  cigarettes  and  wait.   Q:  Would  you  like  something  to  do  when  waiting?   A:  Having  a  newspaper  to  read  would  be  nice.   Q:  What  if  you  miss  the  bus?  Would  you  wait  for  the  next  bus?   A:  I  have  to.  What  else  am  I  going  to  do?   Q:  What  about  the  cab  service?  Would  you  call  a  cab?   A:  I  don’t  have  money  for  the  cab.  Else  I  would  not  be  riding  the  bus.   Q:  Would  you  wait  for  the  same  bus  number  or  a  different  one?   A:  A  different  one.   Q:  There  are  some  boards  on  the  bus  stop.  Would  you  be  referring  to  that?   A:  Yes,  sometimes.   Q:   Would   you   be   interested   in   an   application   that   would   show   you   the   exact   real   time   information  about  where  the  bus  is?   A:  I  think  that  would  be  great.  A  lot  of  people  would  like  that.   Q:  What  kind  of  options  would  you  like  to  see  in  such  an  application?   A:  I  would  like  to  see  where  the  bus  is  en-­‐route  and  estimated  time  of  arrival.  At  least  you   would  know  –  that  the  bus  is  going  to  be  here  in  8  minutes.   Q:   A   bus   that   you   wanted   to   travel   on   has   just   left.   So,   how   do   you   decide   how   long   you   want  to  wait?   A:  I  wait  until  it  gets  here.  If  it  starts  getting  dark,  I  start  getting  worried.  

Q: So,  you  mean  to  say  that  you  would  not  know  when  the  next  bus  would  arrive?   A:  Yea,  I  would  not  know.  Even  right  now  I  don’t  know.  I  just  got  off  the  37  over  there.  I  got   to  take  the  number  8.  I  don’t  have  the  number  8  schedule  so  I  can  just  wait.  It  could  have   just  left.  I  might  have  to  wait  an  hour.   Q:  Do  you  take  the  bus  for  your  work?   A:  I  take  it  for  the  doctor’s  appointment,  for  business.  Visit  my  daughter.   Later  on  we  thanked  the  participant  for  his  cooperation  and  then  collected  our  notes.     Interview  Transcript:  Driver   Here’s  a  short  transcript  taken  place  between  the  driver  and  us.   Us:  Do  you  get  calls  from  people  waiting  at  the  bus  stop.   Driver:  no,  not  so  frequently.   Us:  Do  you  connect  directly  with  your  passengers?   Driver:  umm,  No.     Us:  Do  you  use  an  application  to  connect  with  the  passengers?   Driver:  I  have  a  phone  to  pick  up  calls  from  my  base  station  directly  me  to  an  address  and  a   radio  to  talk  directly  to  my  supervisor.  I  also  get  notification  from  my  company  about  the   passengers.   Appendix  B:  Informed  Consent  Form       Consent  for  Participation  in  Interview  Research   I  volunteer  to  participate  in  a  research  project  conducted  by  Ryan  Sukale  and  Aeshvarya   Verma  from  Indiana  University.   I  understand  that  the  project  is  designed  to  gather  information  about  the  activities  of  bus   commuters  while  waiting  at  a  bus  stop.  I  will  be  one  of  3  people  being  interviewed  for  this   research.    

1. My participation  in  this  project  is  voluntary.  I  understand  that  I  will  not  be  paid  for   my  participation.  I  may  withdraw  and  discontinue  participation  at  any  time  without   penalty.  If  I  decline  to  participate  or  withdraw  from  the  study,  no  one  will  be  told.    

2. I understand  that  most  interviewees  in  will  find  the  discussion  interesting  and   thought-­‐provoking.  If,  however,  I  feel  uncomfortable  in  any  way  during  the   interview  session,  I  have  the  right  to  decline  to  answer  any  question  or  to  end  the   interview.   3. Participation  involves  being  interviewed  by  researchers  from  Indiana  University.   The  interview  will  last  approximately  20  to  30  minutes.  Notes  will  be  written  during   the  interview.  An  audio  tape  of  the  interview  and  subsequent  dialogue  will  be  made.   If  I  don't  want  to  be  taped,  I  will  not  be  able  to  participate  in  the  study.  

4. I understand  that  the  researcher  will  not  identify  me  by  name  in  any  reports  using   information  obtained  from  this  interview,  and  that  my  confidentiality  as  a   participant  in  this  study  will  remain  secure.  Subsequent  uses  of  records  and  data   will  be  subject  to  standard  data  use  policies  which  protect  the  anonymity  of   individuals  and  institutions.   5. No  one  outside  of  the  interview  will  have  access  to  raw  notes,  transcripts,  pictures,   or  audio  tape  of  the  interview.  This  precaution  will  prevent  my  individual  comments   from  having  any  negative  repercussions.  

6. I  have  read  and  understand  the  explanation  provided  to  me.  I  have  had  all  my   questions  answered  to  my  satisfaction,  and  I  voluntarily  agree  to  participate  in  this   study.     7. I  have  been  given  a  copy  of  this  consent  form.     ____________________________                                                          ________________________   My  Signature                                                                                                                          Date     ____________________________                                                          ________________________   My  Printed  Name                                                                          Signature  of  the  Investigator   For  further  information,  please  contact:  

Ryan Sukale  

Aeshvarya Verma  



Appendix C:  Fieldwork  Data  Collection  II          


This picture  shows  a  bus  with  a  bicycle  holder  for  passengers  who  carry  bicycles.  From  one   of   our   interviews   later,   we   came   to   know   that   the   new   busses   that   are   being   put   into   place   would   be   able   to   hold   3   bicycles   instead   of   the   current   facility   of   2.   The   participant   seemed   quite  pleased  at  this  facility  even  though  he  did  now  own  a  bicycle.  But  he  did  feel  that  such   a  facility  would  encourage  the  use  of  public  transport.    


In this   picture,   we   observed   that   the   number   of   the   bus   service   was   clearly   written   in   large   alphabets   on   the   backside   of   the   bus.   Also,   you   can   see   that   the   website   address   of   the   indigo  bus  system  is  also  mentioned.  In  one  of  the  interviews,  the  participant  said  that  he   usually  planned  his  trip  by  looking  up  the  bus  schedule  online.      

This is  a  picture  of  the  front  side  of  the  bus  where  the  fares  are  mentioned.  This  is  pasted   near   the   front   side   of   the   bus   just   at   the   entrance   so   that   the   passengers   can   easily   carry   money  before  they  enter  the  bus  or  while  they  are  waiting  in  the  queue  to  take  a  ticket.            

This is  a  picture  of  a  public  newspaper  and  classified  stand  near  the  bus  stops.  As  you  can   see,   most   of   the   sections   are   empty.   During   our   observation   we   noticed   that   there   was   hardly   anyone   who   was   interested   in   using   this   service   because   they   found   this   information  irrelevant  and  old  too.          

In this  picture  you  can  see  people  waiting  at  the  bus  stop.  One  of  them  has  a  newspaper  in   his   hand.   He   was   the   only   person   who   seemed   to   be   reading   a   newspaper   at   the   bus   stand.   Almost  all  of  the  others  were  just  standing  and  waiting  looking  here  and  there,  and  some   had  their  earphones  plugged  in  while  they  waited.      

In this  picture  taken  inside  the  shelter,  you  can  see  a  traveler  looking  at  a  schedule  and   making  a  note  of  the  bus  numbers  in  his  cellphone.  We  observed  that  a  lot  of  passengers   looked  at  the  travel  charts  the  moment  that  they  entered  the  bus  stand.  One  of  the  reasons   was  the  fact  that  the  bus  routes  were  being  changed  from  Feb  10.  As  seen  in  the  picture   that  follows.  

What we   noted   here   is   the   fact   that   people   came   to   know   about   the   new   routes   only   because  they  saw  this  poster.  So,  there  was  no  way  for  them  to  find  out  if  the  bus  routes   had  changed  if  they  had  not  seen  it  here,  or  looked  it  up  online  or  called  the  bus  service  to   find  out.  From  one  of  the  interviews,  we  also  noticed  that  those  who  were  familiar  with  the   local   routes   and   busses   relied   on   their   memory   for   the   bus   information   and   seldom   referred   to   the   bus   charts.   This   has   the   impact   that   sometimes,   they   may   still   rely   on   outdated  bus  information.      

As you   see,   the   bus   chart   at   the   bus   terminal   also   has   the   number   and   the   website   address.   From   our   interviews,   we   came   to   know   that   many   of   the   bus   terminals   do   not   have   this   charting  information.  This  makes  it  hard  for  them  to  find  out  about  the  proper  routes  when   they  are  stranded  and  almost  all  of  our  participants  relied  on  calling  the  bus  service  when   in  help.   In   fact,   one   of   our   participants   even   said   that   he   would   have   liked   to   see   the   bus   information  anytime.  But  since  the  IndyGo  bus  system  does  not  ply  all  the  time,  even  the   call   lines   don’t   work   24x7.   This   forces   them   to   wait   for   the   IndyGo   call   lines   to   be   active   before  they  can  decide  about  their  travel  routes.        

We noticed   that   the   bus   shelter   also   had   a   few   signs   that   indicated   that   smoking   was   prohibited.  Most  people  who  were  smoking  were  standing  outside  the  shelter.  In  one  of  the   shelters,  there  was  a  woman  sitting  along  with  her  child.  We  wanted  to  interview  her  but   were  unable  to  because  she  was  already  having  a  tough  time  trying  to  manage  her  kids.      

In this  picture,  you  can  see  another  passenger  looking  at  the  bus  route  chart.              

In this  picture,  you  can  see  that  a  lot  of  people  were  sitting  outside  the  bus  shelter.  When   we   asked   a   few,   most   of   them   said   that   it   was   warmer   outside   than   inside.   One   of   our   participants  said  that  this  bus  terminal  did  not  have  heaters.  And  since  it  was  cold  and  the   sun  was  up,  he  preferred  to  stand  in  the  sun  rather  than  sit  in  the  shade.  He  also  said  that   he  would  have  liked  it  if  the  bus  stand  had  heaters.  It’s  possible  that  if  he  knew  that  there   was  a  bus  stand  nearby  that  had  a  heating  facility;  he  might  have  chosen  to  wait  for  his  bus   at  that  place.            

This is   a   picture   of   one   of   our   participants   who   was   waiting   at   the   bus   terminal.   He   was   standing  outside  because  it  was  warmer  outside  rather  than  inside.  When  it  was  time  for   his  bus  to  come,  he  showed  us  his  watch  and  said  that  although  it  was  supposed  to  come  by   now,   he   had   no   idea   how   late   it   might   be.   We   waited   with   him   until   his   bus   arrived   10   minutes  late.  But  there  was  no  way  for  him  to  know  if  the  bus  was  going  to  come,  or  if  the   bus  had  broken  down  somewhere.  All  that  he  could  do  was  to  wait  and  see  if  it  comes.        

One of  the  magazines  from  the  newspaper  columns.  Most  of  them  are  just  heavy  on   classifieds  and  do  not  serve  any  purpose  for  the  travelers.  

This is  a  picture  of  a  passenger  keeping  his  bicycle  on  the  bus  before  boarding.    

This is  a  picture  of  the  ticket-­‐issuing  box  inside  the  bus.  As  you  can  clearly  see,  it  displays   all  the  bus  fares  and  any  other  bus  pass  instructions.  This  is  facing  the  door,  and  seems  to   be  redundant  on  purpose.      

This is   a   picture   of   the   driver’s   seat   inside   one   of   the   busses.   You   can   also   see   a   day   pass   in   the  ticket  vending  machine.          

IndyGo bus   day   pass.   As   you   can   see   in   the   picture,   it   contains   the   phone   number   for   customer   information   and   also   the   website   in   case   customers   want   to   check   any   details   online.  

Appendix D:  Work  Model  Diagrams     Cultural  Model  Diagrams   Consolidated  Cultural  Model  


Cultural Model  :  User  1,2,3  


Sequence Model  Diagrams  


Artifact Model  Diagrams      


Flow Model  Diagrams   Consolidated  Flow  Model  

Flow  Model  :  User  1  

Flow model  :  User  2  

  Flow  model  :  User  3  


Affinity Diagram  

Appendix E:  Paper  Prototypes      


Appendix F:  Interactive  Prototype  Screenshots  

Indygo tracker a mobile app for the indygo buses  

A comprehensive report describing the user centered design process followed in order to develop IndyGo Tracker mobile app.

Indygo tracker a mobile app for the indygo buses  

A comprehensive report describing the user centered design process followed in order to develop IndyGo Tracker mobile app.