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PlanningAcac my Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

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Table of Contents

4.4 PlanningAcademy Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

What is the Planning Academy? Planning Academy Objectives How Will You Learn About Planning?

7 7 7

What Will You Learn AboutTOD?

8

TRANSIT HISTORY History of Transit and City Development Early Transit Commuter Rail Age of the Streetcar Death of the Streetcar Rail Rapid Transit Motor Buses Light Rail

9 9 9 io 11 12 12 13

Edmonton's Transit System Edmonton Transit History Edmonton Transit Today Edmonton's Transit Future

13 13

14 14

TRANSIT SYSTEMS What is a Transit System Elements of a Transit System Transit Systems and TOD

17

Comparison of Transit Systems

18

Transit Service Areas

20

17 17

Centre Centre-to-Center Region-to-Region

20 22

23

Transit Lines Transit Line Types Trackway Treatments Selecting a Transit Line

24

Transit Modes Shuttle Bus Streetcar (Trolley or Tram) City Bus Bus Rapid Transit Light Rail Transit Rail Rapid Transit Commuter Rail High-Speed Rail Magnetic Levitation

28 28 30

24 25 26

31

32 33 35 36 37 38

TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT What is TOD? What is Not TOD?

40 40

Essential Components of TOD

40 41 41 42 42

Getting to the Station Development Around the Station Grid of Streets Complete Streets Station Hub Station Neighbourhood

44 46

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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Table of Contents my

IVing Pi! Plan r4 , B,14 4 ingA dinganduving c ainde Ed—nton Benefits ofTOD How Can TOD benefitYou? Money Time Health Society & Environment

47 47 48 48 49 49

Building TOD Infill TOD Greenfield TOD

50

Frequently Asked Questions About TOD

54

51

52

TOD PLANNING & EXAMPLES What is a TOD Plan',

56

When to Develop a TOD Plan

57

The Government's Role

58

Overcoming TOD Challenges

59

Which Cities Are Planning TOD?

6o

Edmonton is Planning TOD Transforming Edmonton TOD Guidelines TOD Planning Efforts

6o

Calgary is Planning TOD

67

Denver is Planning TOD

70

Glossary

75

References

78

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City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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List of Figures y PianningAcadm Planning,BildingandLivinginEmo nton

1: Transit History

8

2:

8

Transit Systems

o3: Transit Oriented Development

8

4:

TOD Planning Examples

8

5:

Early Transit

9

o6: Early Commuter Rail Transit

9

07: Transit History Timeline

9

o8: Horse-Drawn Streetcar o9: The Electric Streetcar

10

10: Streetcar Junkyard

11

11: Early Rail Rapid Transit

12

12: Early Motor Bus

12

13: Edmonton Streetcar

13

14: Edmonton Streetcar Map, 1938

14

15: Future Edmonton LRT System

15

16: Urban-Style LRT 17: London Transit System Map

17

18: Transit Service Area Sizes

20

3.9: Transit Within Centres

21

20: Centre-to-Centre Service Area

22

21: Region-to-Region Service Area

23

22: Transit Line Infrastructure

24

23: Embedded Trackway

25

24: Grass Trackway

25

25: Tie-Ballast Trackway

25

26: Slab Trackway

25

27: Yellow Line Transit Options, Portland

26

28: Yellow Line Stations 63 and 69 Options, Portland

26

29: Transit Line Options

27

30: Historic Trolley Shuttle, Oregon City, Oregon

29

31: Electrically Powered Shuttle, Quebec City

29

32: Shuttle on 3.6th Street Mall, Denver, Colorado

29

33: Modern Streetcar Vehicle, Portland

30

34: Streetcar in Mixed Traffic, Toronto, Ontario

30

35: Historic Trolley, New Orleans

30

36: Diesel City Bus, Edmonton

31

37: Electric Trolley Bus, Seattle

31

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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List of Figures e my IVding-duvingi, PianingAcad Pianning, ' dmonton

38: Typical Bus Stop

31

39: BRT Vehicle, San Diego, California

33

40: BRT in Dedicated Lane, Eugene, Oregon

33

41: BRT Station in Exclusive Guideway, Istanbul, Turkey

33

42: Low-Floor LRT Vehicle in Dedicated Lane, Portland

34

43: Sky Train on an Exclusive Guideway, Vancouver, BC

34

44: High-Floor Light Rail Platform, Edmonton

34

45: Elevated Rail Rapid Transit Vehicle, San Francisco

35

46: Subway Transit Vehicle, Toronto, Ontario

35

47: Subway Platform, Washington, D.0

35

48: Locomotive Commuter Rail, Menlo Park, California

36

49: Diesel Multiple Unit Commuter Rail, New Jersey

36

so: West Coast Express, Vancouver, BC

36

51: High-Speed Rail Corridor, Shanghai

38

52: BulletTrain High-Speed Rail Vehicle, Japan

38

53: Acela High-Speed Rail, US Northeast Corridor

38

54: Magnetic Levitation Vehicle, Shanghai

39

55: Magnetic Levitation Guideway, Shanghai

39

56: Magnetic Levitation Station, Shanghai

39

57: Successful TOD Increases Transit Ridership

40

58: Ideal TOD Area

41

59: Urban Centre TOD

41

60: Fine-Grained Street Grid

42

61: NOT Fine-Grained Street Grid

42

62: Pedestrian Friendly

43

63: Bike Friendly

43

64: Active Edges on Buildings

43

65: Station Hub

44

66: Retail and Commercial Uses

44

67: Station Hub Office District

45

68: Station Plaza

45

69: Station Neighbourhood

46

7o: Housing Height Transition

46

71: TOD Reduces Vehicle Kilometres Traveled

47

72: TOD Benefits

47

73: Typical Greenfield Site

so

74: Typical Infill Site

so

75: Infill TOD Site 2.994

51

4

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


List of Figures

Planning'B7r4 1diingiCadem ngandLivinginEdmo PianiL

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76: Infill TOD Site 2oo8

51

77: Greenfield TOD Site 1994

53

78: Greenfield TOD Site 2007

53

79: Greenfield TOD Streets Under Construction

54

8o: TOD Plan Triggers

57

81: Strategic Plan

61

82: Municipal Development Plan

62

83: Transportation Master Plan

62

84: TOD Guidelines

62

85: Station Pointe Plan

63

86: Mill Woods Station Area Redevelopment

64

87: McKernan-Belgravia Station Area Redevelopment

65

88: Brentwood Station Area Plan

67

89: Anderson Station Area Plan

68

90: Hillhurst/Sunnyside TOD Area Plan

69

91: Chinook Station Area Plan

70

92: loth & Osage Station Area Plan

71

93: loth & Osage Station Area View

71

94: Decatur Station Area Plan

72

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


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Introduction

4 ingAcademy 4 Plann Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

I.

INTRODUCTION TO THE PLANNING ACADEMY

A. WHAT IS THE PLANNING ACADEMY?

The Planning Academy is a series of courses, developed by the City of Edmonton, designed to provide participants with a better understanding of the planning and development process in Edmonton. Courses incorporate "real life" activities to assist participants' understanding of the material covered. B. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PLANNING ACADEMY?

• • • •

• To provide a service to the public • To promote good planning • To demonstrate that the City of Edmonton must consider many points of view in the planning and development process • To help participants become more effective in planning and development matters by building an understanding of planning

C. How WILL PARTICIPANTS LEARN ABOUT PLANNING?

The City of Edmonton is offering three core, and several optional courses through the Planning Academy. Completion of the three core courses and one elective entitles participants to a Certificate of Completion, which will be presented at a City Council meeting. The first course Land Use Planning: The Big Picture will provide a basic overview of land use planning. The second course Getting a Grip on Land Use Planning will examine the "How" of land use planning in greater detail. The third course Come Plan With Us: Using your Voice will specifically examine the role of the public in greater detail. Elective courses provide overviews of other planning disciplines, such as transportation planning, and urban design. Participants will also examine specific tools that help facilitate the overall planning process, like conflict management. While we recommend that participants complete all three core courses and at least one elective, we recognize that some participants may not choose to do so. For this reason, each core course has been structured to stand on its own.

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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Transit Oriented Development my BldingandLivingEonton r t H nn giAkeP a :

WHAT WILLYOU LEARN ABOUTTOD? This participants' manual provides background reference information for the TOD course. While not all of this information will be covered in detail in the class, the following topics will be addressed.

Transit History Figure oi: Transit History

This section explains the history of transit worldwide and in Edmonton. It also describes ways in which transit has impacted city development.

Transit Systems This section provides information on the elements of transit systems: service areas, lines and modes.

Transit Oriented Development

Figure 02: Transit Systems

4,0 metres

00 metre '1, loop,.

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This section defines TOD, describes key TOD components and benefits, and identifies the TOD opportunities and challenges associated with greenfield and infill station location sites.

TOD Planning & Examples 0 00‘‘‘‘‘

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Figure o3: Transit Oriented Development

In this section, sample TOD plans from the City of Edmonton and the similar North American cities of Calgary, Alberta and Denver, Colorado are described.

Glossary & References

oe Clarke A4)letic Grounds

Figure o4: TOD Planning Examples

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

Glossary and References sections are included at the back of the manual. Key terms that may be unfamiliar to participants are identified and defined in the Glossary. In the References section, books, articles and websites used in the creation of this manual are identified. These references may also provide useful sources for additional reading.


Transit Oriented Development my 4 ingAcad! En°nton Piai744 Plannin. 8idinganduvingin , ' TRANSIT HISTORY

HISTORY OF TRANSIT AND CITY DEVELOPMENT

Evolving modes of transportation have played a strong role in defining the scale and form of cities. Early Transit (Prior to 1830)

Early transit consisted of horse-drawn carts pulled on wooden rails. These 'railed roads' were used in Germany as early as the 1550s. By 1807, the first passenger locomotive had begun operation in Swansea, Wales. Due to its speed and ability to run in all types of weather, rail travel quickly became a popular mode of mass transportation around the world. Rapid city growth and the resulting separation of home and workplace were two key factors that shaped transportation during the eighteenth century industrial revolution. Workers traveling between their workplaces in the central city and their homes in residential neighbourhoods created the early version of peak travel periods. Wealthy workers traveled via private horse and carriage while workers without the means to purchase and maintain a horse and carriage often traveled by 'omnibus'—an 18- to 20-passenger horse-drawn wagon that was first introduced in London in 1829. Commuter Rail (mid-i800s to Present)

In the nineteenth century, commuter rail services began operating. Commuter rail was simply the addition of new stops along existing heavy rail passenger train lines that picked up passengers in outlying areas. These services fostered early suburban development and nodal development patterns. These patterns of development were different from the corridors of development later built along streetcar lines. Figure 07: Transit History Timeline

19205-MOTOR BUS

1.83os-EARLY STREETCAR

189os-RAPID RAIL

Figure o6: Early Commuter Rail Transit

2.98os-MODERN STREETCAR

Ic

188os-ELECTRIC STREETCAR 19005-COMMUTER RAIL

1970s-LIGHT RAIL

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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Transit Oriented Development dem y ,Pian Plan 4 1 4 ingAca 4 g Building and

in

Edmonton

Age of the Streetcar (1830 to mid-igoos) The world's first horse-drawn streetcar was born in New York in 1832. By the late 184os, horse-drawn streetcars began surfacing in other North American cities. The horse-drawn streetcar solidified downtown areas as the most accessible place in the city and thus the prime location for economic, social and cultural activities. The drawbacks of horse-power, including the cost of care, manure disposal, and the large number of animals required to operate a streetcar system, led to the exploration of alternate means of propulsion. Steam and cable power were both explored briefly before electric power was perfected in the 188os. The electric streetcar was fast, frequent, clean, reliable and inexpensive to operate—the electric streetcar industry boomed.

Figure o8: Horse-Drawn Streetcar

Figure og: The Electric Streetcar

10

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

By World War I, the electric streetcar had played a major role in the growth and structure of most North American cities. Streetcars stopped at closer intervals than commuter rail and fostered corridors of development along their lines. Early transit-oriented communities along streetcar lines were relatively compact, concentrated and included a mix of uses. Closely spaced stops meant that housing—to be convenient and therefore marketable—was located within a corridor two to three blocks deep on either side of the streetcar line. Large factories or major employment centers were also located along existing or planned streetcar lines. Neighbourhood-oriented retail and commercial facilities, such as grocery stores, bakeries, and drugstores, began clustering at the intersections of streetcar lines or along the more heavily traveled lines. The shops were often located on the ground floor of multi-storey apartment buildings, providing convenient shopping for the surrounding neighbourhoods. These shops could be visited conveniently while traveling between the home and workplace.


P

Transit Oriented Development

my Pl anningAcade ir Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

Death of the Streetcar (mid-igoos) By the 196os, the electric streetcar was nearly extinct and the personal automobile was North America's dominant transportation mode. Transportation histories identify two theories about why this transition occurred. One theory in the United States is that General Motors (GM) systematically and intentionally eliminated the electric streetcar system in order to increase sales of GM's gas and diesel-powered vehicles. In the spring of 1974, the Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly of the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate was presented with a report titled, American Ground Transport—A Proposal for Restructuring the Automobile, Truck, Bus and Rail Industries by Bradford Snell, assistant counsel of the subcommittee. In his report, Snell outlines the argument that GM, in conjunction with Standard Oil and Firestone Tires colluded to acquire electric streetcar companies and convert them to GM motor bus operations, thereby expanding the market for motor vehicle sales. The report alleged that GM dismantled electric streetcar systems in 45 cities, including the country's largest systems in Los Angles, NewYork, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Baltimore, and Salt Lake City. Another theory is that the transition from streetcars to automobiles was the result of changing consumer demand, the routing flexibility of roadway vehicles, and inefficient and poor management of streetcar companies. Figure

Streetcar Junkyard

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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Rail Rapid Transit (Post 1863) Figure

Early Rail Rapid Transit

In cities with large populations and high levels of traffic, a means of fast transportation that did not have to compete for space on the surface streets became necessary. In 1863, London opened the first underground rail line and in 1868, the first elevated railway was servicing NewYork City. These systems are known as rail rapid transit. Both were steam operated. After electrification was introduced in the 189os, cities all over North America began building gradeseparated rail systems. In 1954, Toronto opened its first subway line, followed by Montreal in 1966. Most rail rapid transit systems were built in the developed portions of cities and their impact on the outward spread of development was not significant. Motor Buses (Post 1920)

Figure 12: Early Motor Bus

In the 19205, a front-engine motor bus was designed to replace the earlier, cruder buses that were being used in some North American cities. These modern buses were easier for passengers to board and could be manually operated by a driver. Over the next 30 years, improvements to the motor buses continued, including the conversion to diesel engines and automatic transmissions. The advantage of the motor bus was its flexibility, as it was not dependent on embedded rails or overhead wires. Furthermore, the cost of constructing street surfaces was shared by all who operated vehicles on the roadways. However, sharing the roadway had drawbacks. As auto traffic became heavier, bus transportation became slower and less dependable.

12

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


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Transit Oriented Development

Plann144 ingAcademy Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

Light Rail (Post 1962)

The concept of light rail was established in 1962 and was distinguished from historic streetcar systems by having: • • • •

More than one car connected together More doors to facilitate full utilization of the space Faster and quieter operation Greater passenger capacity

The term light rail transit (LRT) was introduced in North America in 1972. The first of the new light rail systems began operation in 1978 when Edmonton adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system. EDMONTON'S TRANSIT SYSTEM

Edmonton Transit History Figure 13: Edmonton Streetcar

Streetcar Edmonton Transit System (ETS) began as the Edmonton Radial Railway with 21 kilometres of streetcar track in 1908. The line that went up Jasper Avenue and through the downtown core was the first electric streetcar system in the Canadian prairie region and served a population of 18,500 with a modest four-car fleet. Buses In 1932, motor buses were added to the ETS and in 1939, trolleybuses were added. Buses eventually replaced the streetcars, which were officially withdrawn in 1951. In the early 196os, peak period express bus lines and dedicated bus lanes were introduced. In 1993 low-floor buses were introduced, followed by articulated buses in 2001. Light Rail Between 1974 and 1978, Edmonton built North America's first modern LRT system for a city with a population under one million. The initial 7.2 kilometre line has exclusive rights-of-way with both at-grade and tunneled segments. Between 1978 and 2001, five new stations were added to the LRT system and the length of the line was increased to 12.6 kilometres, between Clareview station and the University of

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development 13


Transit Oriented Development ,P Plainninn..1144 a aidinnggandAL5ingaindEdmo

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Alberta. An extension to Health Sciences station at the University of Alberta opened in 2006. An extension from Health Sciences to South Campus opened in 2009, and the extension from South Campus to Century Park opened in 2010 for a total system length of 21 kilometres with 15 stations. Figure 14: Edmonton Streetcar Map, 1938

Edmonton Transit Today

Nufth

Today, ETS—a division of the City of Edmonton's Transportation Department— has a service area that encompasses over 7oo square kilometres and offers more than 3.8o lines to a population of approximately 780,000 (2009). In 2010, the system carried about 380,000 daily weekday passengers with a total of over 68 million annual rides.

H

D.on

ETS operates a variety of public transportation services, including buses, LRT, and Disabled Adult Transportation Services (DATS) vehicles. Edmonton's fleet includes over 900 bus vehicles, 74 LRT vehicles, and 172 DATS vehicles.

McItemeuis

Edmonton's Transit Future Edmonton is embarking on a major expansion of the LRT system to create a more sustainable transportation system and city. One of the City Vision and Strategic Goals of Edmonton, as outlined in the Transportation Master Plan, is to "pursue expansion of the LRT to all sectors with a goal to increase transit ridership and transit mode split, and spur the development of compact urban communities."

LRT Network Expansion In June 2009, City Council adopted a long-term LRT Network Plan that defines

14 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


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Transit Oriented Development

Planni4n ingAcademy Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

the ultimate LRT system for the City of Edmonton. This system will increase the number of stations from 15 to over 50 along the following lines: • • • •

Valley Line—New line from Mill Woods to Lewis Estates Metro Line—New line from NAIT to the City of St. Albert Capital Line—Extension from Clareview to Gorman Capital Line South—Extension from South Campus to Heritage Valley located near the city boundary at 41 Avenue S.W.

Figure 15: Future Edmonton LRT System A. • KINGS WAY

Downtown LRT Connection

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Proposed LRT System Existing LRT System

Compact Urban Communities The success of Edmonton's expanded transit system in providing a viable transportation option for Edmontonians is dependent on the development of supportive land use and circulation around the City's transit investments. Recognizing that transit is most successful when supported by land use policies that generate transit ridership, the City of Edmonton has developed the TOD Guidelines which provides direction for focusing denser development and civic infrastructure, such as new and improved streets and public spaces, around LRT stations, transit centres and transit avenues.

ALLARD

Urban-Style LRT System In addition to developing transit-supportive land use policies, the City of Edmonton will be shifting the style of new LRT lines to better integrate the system's technology with the urban environment and to foster the development of compact urban communities. Closer station spacing will better accommodate TOD and will place LRT stations within walking distance for more Edmontonians. Low-floor LRT cars allow stations to be integrated into sidewalks for better pedestrian access.

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development 15


Transit Oriented Development ,P i ey p,alnan,nri g,Bn*n andAiivcingind a Edmonton ffin agg

Low-floor LRT vehicles are anticipated on the West and Southeast LRT lines. Other technology changes include: • • • •

Embedded tracks where feasible Reduced speeds in congested areas Smaller-scale stations More direct transit, pedestrian and cyclist connections to stations

Figure 16: Urban-Style LRT

Transit Funding

Government of Alberta New LRT facilities in Edmonton have been partially funded through the City Transportation Fund and the Alberta Municipal Infrastructure Program. These provincial grant funding programs are designed to provide support for priority municipal infrastructure projects, including transportation and public transit undertakings such as the LRT lines and vehicles.

Government of Canada Funding for light rail vehicles has been provided by the Government of Canada through the Gas Tax Fund which was extended for an additional four years to 2014 and will become permanent beyond 2014. This will provide municipalities, such as Edmonton, the stable funding for their infrastructure needs.

City of Edmonton The City of Edmonton provides a portion of the funding for LRT extensions and LRT vehicles through local taxes and borrowing. The federal Gas Tax Fund will be used to help repay this borrowing.

3-6

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


Transit Oriented Development

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TRANSIT SYSTEMS

WHAT IS A TRANSIT SYSTEM?

A transit system is a public transportation service that links people to destinations within their city or metro region and consists of a number of elements. Most transit systems (of any size) are built on a 'hub and spoke' model. This model typically has an urban centre at the heart of the system that is linked to outlying regional centres with transit lines. These lines may include multiple transit stops or stations. This is a very efficient model for serving existing and planned land use development patterns. Transit systems that do not use the 'hub and spoke' model are rare.

Elements of a Transit System

Each transit system has operational characteristics that are determined by the service area, type of transit line and the transit mode. A transit system is comprised of the following elements: • • •

Transit Service Areas—the centres, corridors and regions that are served by one or more transit modes Transit Lines—the trackway, guideway or street on which the transit mode travels within the service area along with the associated station or stop locations Transit Modes—the type of vehicle used and the various conditions in which they transport passengers Figure 17: London Transit System Map

Transit Systems and TOD

One of the most critical—and often overlooked—long-term factors in increasing transit ridership is the ability to create TOD. While shortterm considerations, such as cost and timeline, are often the most prioritized considerations when a transit system is selected, the ability to generate high levels of transit ridership should be the ultimate priority.

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development 17


Transit Oriented Development my r Planning,Bdianduvirgin„no lanningAcade nton COMPARISON OF TRANSIT SYSTEMS

Service Distance

Each transit system has distinct elements and operational characteristics that makes it appropriate for its specific use and context. Not all transit systems are well suited for TOD. The table below describes nine transit modes within three scales of service areas. Each mode is described using the following categories— line type, service distance, system capacity and TOD potential. The table provides an at-aglance summary of the information described on the following pages.

The service distance refers to the distance between a vehicle's originating and ending destination. On the table below, the service distance for each transit type is described using the following rating system: • • • •

Short—less than 8 kilometres Medium—between 8 and 50 kilometres Long—between 5o and 120 kilometres Extended—more than 120 kilometres

With the exception of transit that serves extended service areas, the maximum travel time for each trip, regardless of service distance, typically does not exceed 30 minutes due to differences in transit mode speeds.

Line Type Line type describes whether the transit vehicle travels in mixed traffic, a dedicated lane or an exclusive right-of-way.

Centres

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Low

Low

Low

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TOD Potential

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


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Transit Oriented Development

PlanningAcademy Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

System Capacity The system capacity is determined by the transit vehicle's passenger capacity and the number of vehicles traveling per direction per hour. On the table below, the system capacity for each transit type is described using the following rating system: •

Low—less than 8,000 ppdph (passengers per direction per hour) Moderate—between 8,000 and 12,500 ppdph High—between 12,500 and 35,000 ppdph Very High—more than 35,000 ppdph

• • •

typically determined by the quantity of fixed infrastructure—provides developers with the confidence they need to invest in the area. On the table below, the TOD potential for each transit type is described using the following rating system: •

High—TOD is most successful around modes with long-term permanence, frequent service, and stations that are at the street level where they can be integrated with the surrounding development Moderate—TOD may occur around modes with some of the best conditions for TOD Low—TOD is not likely to occur around modes with infrequent service and station infrastructure requirements that divide the station from surrounding development None—TOD does not occur around modes where service frequency and line location are easily changed

• •

TOD Potential TOD potential is different for each transit system. For a system to be TOD supportive, it must offer frequent and reliable service and have a sense of permanence. This permanence—

Centre-To-Centre •

LIGHT RAIL

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City of Edmonton Sustainable Development 19


Transit Oriented Development lir PlannL4 ingAcad e my Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

TRANSIT SERVICE AREAS

Figure 3.8: Transit Service Area Sizes

There are three service area types: •

Centres—transit connects districts and special destinations within centres (e.g. Edmonton City Centre to the University of Alberta); service distance within centres is typically short (less than 8 kilometres) Centre-to-Centre—transit connects an urban centre to its regional centres, serving multiple stations or stops (e.g. from Edmonton to St. Albert); service distance for centre-to-centre service areas is typically medium (8 to 50 kilometres) Region-to-Region—transit connects multiple metro regions, typically stopping at each region's urban centre to serve the multi-modal transit centre (e.g. from Edmonton to Calgary); service distance for region-to-region service areas is typically long to extended (5o to 120 kilometres)

Centre Transit Links Districts and Destinations

Centre-to-Centre Transit Links Urban and Regional Centres

CENTRE

Transit within centres provides links between local districts or special destinations and typically connects to a multi-modal transit centre.

What is a Centre? A centre is a densely developed urban area—typically 1- 2 kilometres in radius—that has a gridded street

pattern. Within a metro region, there are typically two types of centres: •

Urban Centre—the economic and social focus of a metropolitan region; has the highest intensity of retail, employment and housing uses in the region Regional Centre—the primary workforce source for the urban centre; has a relatively small concentration of retail, employment and housing uses; links to and supports the urban centre

20

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

Region-to-Region Transit Links Multiple Metro Regions


Transit Oriented Development PlanningAcademy ir â&#x20AC;˘ Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

Transit within Centres Transit within centres provides an alternative to walking, biking or driving between neighbourhoods, districts, and destinations. It provides daily service for employees and residents. In some cases, transit within centres may be designed to serve visitors, providing seasonal or themed service. Transit within centres has the following characteristics. Short Service Distance The extent of the transit line is typically less than 8 kilometres. Because stops are spaced every few blocks and transit vehicles are mixed with other traffic, delays may occur during peak travel periods. Low to Moderate Capacity The dense populations within centres are typically served by multiple transit modes. Transit vehicles with low seating capacity are typically scheduled at 15- and 30-minute intervals. During peak travel periods, service frequency may increase. Potential Transit Modes Transit systems within centres may utilize these modes: â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

City Bus (or shuttle bus) Streetcar Figure 19: Transit within Centres District

Special Destination

Transit Line

Multi-Modal Transit Centre

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CENTRE-TO-CENTRE

Centres are linked with transit corridors between the urban centre and its outlying regional centres. Stations between the centres serve the adjacent population and park & ride transit patrons.

What is a Transit Corridor? Transit corridors are linear areas, generally 1-2 kilometres wide, that act as the 'spokes' of a centre-to-centre transit system. Transit corridors usually have multiple transit stops or stations.

Centre-to-Centre Transit Centre-to-centre transit corridors provide daily service for area employees, residents and visitors and are often used for work commutes. Centre-to-centre transit is characterized by the following operational characteristics.

Medium to Long Distance The extent of the transit line is typically between 8 and 120 kilometres. Stations are typically spaced 800 metres to 3 kilometres apart. These transit systems may run in a high-occupancy vehicle lane or exclusive guideway and may be elevated or below ground to accommodate longer vehicle units, reduce conflicts with other travel modes and reduce travel times.

High Capacity Centre-to-centre corridors link areas with greater populations and are typically served by vehicles with a high seating capacity. Service intervals are typically 10 to 15 minutes and may be more frequent during peak hours.

Figure

20:

Centre-to-Centre Service Area

Regional Centre

Transit Corridor Urban Centre

Potential Transit Modes Centre-to-centre corridors may utilize these modes: • • • •

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City bus Bus rapid transit Light rail Rail rapid transit

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Transit Line

Stations or Stops

Metro Region


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Transit Oriented Development

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REGION-TO-REGION

Region-to-region transit systems provide direct service between the urban centres of neighbouring metro regions. What is a Metro Region? A 'metro region' is comprised of a primary urban centre, adjacent regional centres and any developed areas that have a high degree of social, economic and geographic integration with the primary urban centre. Region-to-Region Transit Transit systems that link two or more metro regions generally serve tourists or longdistance commuters. Although these systems typically provide non-stop service between metro regions, some may offer intermediate stops at large regional centres or regional facilities such as airports. Region-to-region transit is characterized by the following operational characteristics. Long to Extended Service Distance The extent of the transit line is typically between 50 to 120+ kilometres. Region-to-region systems have the greatest station spacing of all system types. These systems are often connected to nation-wide transit networks. Although vehicles are typically higher speed, travel times are typically greater than 30 minutes due to the distance traveled. Moderate Capacity Transit systems serve areas of relatively high population, requiring a vehicle with a higher seating capacity. However, due to low service frequency, varying from 30 -minute intervals to once-a-day service, the overall capacity is moderate.

Figure 23.: Region-to-Region Service Area

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Potential Transit Modes Region-to-region corridors may utilize these transit modes: â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Commuter rail High-speed rail Magnetic levitation train

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TRANSIT LINES

A transit line is the route that transit follows and the stops or station locations that the transit serves along the way. The location of the transit line, stops and stations determine: • • •

The areas and populations that will be served by transit The levels of transit ridership the line can achieve The lines overall TOD potential

Transit Line types The infrastructure transit lines use can be grouped into three types based on the physical location and condition in which the transit vehicle travels, its interaction with other modes of transportation, and whether the vehicle is manually or automatically navigated. •

Mixed Traffic—transit vehicle shares all lanes on surface streets with auto traffic and follows roadway signalization; requires driver control of vehicle Dedicated Lane—transit vehicles travel on surface streets in a lane reserved for transit only and may have signal prioritization at intersections; requires driver control of vehicle Exclusive Guideway—transit vehicle travels within fully controlled rights-ofway that are not legally accessible to the public except at station locations; these rights-of-way may be at-grade, elevated or below grade; allows for partial or complete automatic control of transit vehicle

24 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

Figure 22: Transit Line Infrastructure -

Mixed Traffic

Dedicated Exclusive Lane Guideway


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Figure 23: Embedded Trackway TRACKWAY TREATMENTS

Trackways for rail vehicles may have one of the following treatments: • • • •

Embedded (paved) Grass Tie-ballast (gravel) Slab Figure 24: Grass Trackway

Figure 25: Tie-Ballast Trackway

_

Figure 26: Slab Trackway

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SELECTING A TRANSIT LINE Figure 27: Yellow Line Transit Options, Portland

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A range of transit line options may be identified that connect two destinations. Not all line options are equal and each may accomplish a different objective, such as lower construction cost or greater TOD potential. When identifying line options and selecting a preferred line, the following factors should be considered:

NE SkidrnoTe St.

61 60

TOD potential Ridership potential (areas and populations served) Land availability Land use and transportation system impacts Environmental impacts Cost

• • • •

57 59 58

• •

56

Transit Line Case Study The most common line options are a 'base case' line—which may be the most affordable—and a 'neighbourhood-serving' line—which may better serve existing populations.

Figure 28: Yellow Line Stations 63 and 69 Options, Portland

111.111111111tion Base case line options typically follow an existing seam in the corridor, such as a freeway or railroad right-of-way. Potential Pros • •

Decreased travel time Decreased implementation impacts on existing land uses • Decreased construction cost Potential Cons • •

26 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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Decreased TOD potential Decreased ridership potential due to stations that are separated from adjacent neighbourhoods Decreased opportunities for safe, direct and convenient pedestrian and bicycle access to stations


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Transit Oriented Development

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Figure 29: Transit Line Options

Neighbourhood-serving line options typically pass through existing neighbourhoods, run along existing roads or publicly-owned undeveloped parcels. Potential Pros Increased TOD potential Increased ridership potential because stations are accessible from existing neighbourhoods • Increased opportunities for safe, direct and convenient pedestrian and bicycle access to stations Potential Cons

• •

Increased travel times between centres Increased construction cost

Preferred Transit Line The selection of a preferred line will depend on the specific context of the corridor and factors such as available funding, timeline and political will. However, to maximize the public's return on transit investment and increase transit ridership, TOD potential should be a primary consideration.

Transit Co rri dor

• •

Base Case Option

Neighbourhood Serving Option

Stops or Stations

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TRANSIT MODES

A transit mode is the vehicle used to transport passengers. The two primary categories of transit vehicles are: •

Roadway vehicles-rubber tired, travel on paved surfaces, powered by diesel, electric, hybrid, or other engine types • Railway vehicles-metal wheeled, travel on a fixed trackway consisting of two rails, powered by diesel engines or electricity (or the case of magnetic levitation vehicles, levitates over a fixed magnetic guideway) Transit modes are described by the same service distance and system capacity ratings that are referenced under transit service areas. Energy Consumption and Emissions It is widely recognized that transit is a more energy efficient means of transportation and has fewer emissions when compared to personal automobiles. Under current conditions, U.S. transit vehicles consume about the same energy per passenger kilometres as a car, but move more passengers (Litman 2010). However, some transit modes can be more sustainable than others. Roadways Vehicles—A bus with seven passengers is about twice as energy efficient as an average automobile, and a bus with so passengers is about ten times as energy efficient as an average automobile. New hybrid buses are about twice as energy efficient as current direct drive diesel buses (General Motors Corp.). Railway Vehicles—Electric rail transit tends to be about three times as energy efficient as diesel bus transit (Litman 2010). In addition to consuming less energy, electric railway vehicles have the ability to use green electricity—renewable and nonpolluting energy sources that are harnessed using the wind, sun, water, waste, etc. Finally, because electrically powered transit modes do not use fuel they have lower emissions than roadway vehicles and are not susceptible to fluctuations in oil and petroleum prices. Shuttle Bus Centres Service Area Shuttle buses are rubber-wheeled vehicles that operate on existing roadways and typically travel in mixed traffic. In limited instances, shuttles may travel on an exclusive roadway for all or part of their line. Vehicles are similar in size to a 4o-foot city bus. Shuttles link special destinations, including transportation hubs such as train stations and cultural or entertainment facilities such as stadiums. Shuttle bus lines typically serve retail and employment uses between destinations. Because shuttles are often used primarily by tourists, they may be seasonal and/or

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Transit Oriented Development PlanningAcademy Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

themed. Themes are either historic (historic trolley bus) or have a special character (environmentally responsive electric bus). Shuttles may also connect employees at major campus headquarters to a transportation hub. When used this way, they serve as a feeder route for the 'last mile' between the office and another transit stop or an off-site parking facility.

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Short Service Distance • • •

Short trip lengths of less than 8 kilometres Moderate travel times Stops located at destinations, spacing varies as needed

Figure 31: Electrically Powered Shuttle, Quebec City —ow 6

Low System Capacity • • • • •

25-80 passengers per vehicle One vehicle Potential for delays due to the varying traffic conditions on local streets Relatively slow operating speeds due to propulsion power and traffic congestion Based on all factors, typical systems carry less than 8,000 ppdph (daily average)

Other • • •

Figure 32: Shuttle on 16th Street Mall, Denver, Colorado

Looped transit lines can provide continual service Shuttles can alter their line in response to traffic conditions and trip demand May connect to park & ride or outlying satellite parking facility

No TOD Potential Because shuttle buses have a very limited service area, a low system capacity, and flexible line routing they are not suited forTOD.

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Fi u Ure3 : Modern StreetcarVehicle, Portland

Streetcar (TROLLEY OR TRAM)

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Centres Service Area A streetcar is an electric rail vehicle that typically travels in mixed traffic on trackway installed within existing public rights-of-way. Streetcars are most appropriate in centres and may also serve, as they did historically, as a centre-to-centre transit form in low-density corridors.

Figure 34: Streetcar in Mixed Traffic, Toronto, Ontario

There are two types of streetcars: historic (or vintage-styled) and modern. The historic streetcar combines the technology of today's railway systems with the charm of vintage vehicle designs. Some examples can be seen in places like New Orleans, San Francisco and Memphis. Some examples of the modern type of streetcar can be seen in Portland, Seattle and Tacoma. New systems are under construction or being planned in cities across North America.

Short Service Distance • • •

Short trip lengths of less than 8 kilometres Moderate travel times Stops spaced every other block within urban centres, fewer stops when used in corridor applications

Fire 35: Historic Trolley, New Orleans r

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Low System Capacity • • • • •

90-175 passengers per vehicle One vehicle Potential for delays due to congestion or obstructions when sharing a lane with auto traffic Relatively slow operating speeds due to frequency of stops and traffic congestion Based on all factors, typical systems carry less than 8,000 ppdph (daily average)

High TOD Potential Streetcar systems offer multiple stops, moderately frequent headways and permanent rail infrastructure, creating a premium transit amenity that attracts developers. However, since streetcar vehicles share traffic lanes with autos and do not have signal priority, congestion can dramatically affect the timeliness and reliability of streetcar service.

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City Bus

6: Diesel Cit Bus Edmonton

Centre-to-Centre Service Area

City buses are rubber-wheeled vehicles that travel on existing roadways in mixed traffic. The are powered by diesel, electric or hybrid engines and make frequent stops, especially along higher density corridors. Buses are generally the 'backbone' of public transit in auto-dominated communities because they use the same infrastructure as automobiles and have highly flexible lines and service frequencies. Buses serve centres, centre-to-centre transit corridors and other developed areas. In general, they are not viewed as a premium mode of transit primarily due to negative public perception. Medium Service Distance • •

Trips that are 8 to so kilometres Stop spacing that may be as low as i stop every block, but Ito 2 stops per 400 metres is typical

Low System Capacity • • •

6o-loo passengers per vehicle One vehicle Potential delays due to the varying traffic conditions on local streets; therefore, buses are not dependable Relatively slow operating speeds cliie to travel in mixed traffic, especially during peak travel periods Based on all factors, typical systems carry less than 8,000 ppdph (daily average)

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Higher operational costs than rail vehicles because limited vehicle capacity requires more vehicles and operators per fleet, and they are more directly affected by fluctuating/rising fuel costs Potential to have the most lines in an overall transit system due to the mobile

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nature of the system and minimal infrastructure required Potential for quick system implementation with little disruption of existing traffic conditions Transit priority measures can mitigate delays imposed by vehicles May connect to park & ride at transit centres or to shared-use parking facilities

No TOD Potential

Since bus lines lack permanent infrastructure and are not viewed as a premium service, they do not provide a stable or attractive environment for developers and have no TOD potential.

Bus Rapid Transit Centre-to-Centre Service Area

Bus rapid transit (BRT) includes premium bus vehicles that are similar in look and feel to a streetcar or light rail vehicle. They are rubber-wheeled vehicles and are powered by diesel or hybrid engines. They typically operate in a dedicated or exclusive lane allowing them to provide more rapid transit service than city buses. BRT requires platforms, ticketing and other special infrastructure. In cities with a history of high bus ridership, BRT is generally viewed as a premium mode of transit. Although true BRT travels in an exclusive guideway, often at grade along a freeway or within a roadway in a physically separated median, BRT systems may travel portions of their line in dedicated lanes on surface streets or in mixed traffic. Signal prioritization is a feature of all BRT systems. Medium Service Distance

• • •

Medium trip lengths of 8 to so kilometres Moderate travel times Station spacing that may be as frequent as one station every 2-3 blocks in an urban centre, one station per 1-3 kilometres is typical outside centres

Moderate System Capacity

75-115 passengers per vehicle One vehicle Signal prioritization and separated travel lanes, potentially increasing travel time and schedule accuracy over a city bus Based on all factors, typical systems carry between 8,000 and 12,500 ppdph (daily average)

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Figure 39: BRTVehicle, San Diego, California

Higher operational costs than rail vehicles because limited vehicle capacity requires more vehicles and operators per fleet; more directly affected by fluctuating/rising fuel costs May connect to park & ride at transit centres or auto-oriented stations

Moderate TOD Potential

Figure 4o: BRT in Dedicated Lane, Eugene, Oregon

BRT systems can offer more TOD potential than city bus systems due to the dedicated or exclusive infrastructure required and the BRT's perception in many cities as a premium service.

Light Rail Transit Centre-to-Centre Service Area Light rail transit (LRT) is an electric passenger railway that links urban centres to outlying regional centres. LRT vehicles may travel in a dedicated lane or an exclusive guideway. They also have signal prioritization. LRT requires trackway, pantograph installation (overhead exposed infrastructure), station platforms, ticketing and other associated facilities. When used in centres, light rail stations may be spaced every few blocks but in corridor applications there will be fewer stops between centres.

Figure 41: BRT Station in Exclusive Guideway, Istanbul, _ Turkey

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Figure 42: Low-Floor LRT Vehicle in Dedicated Lane, Portland

Medium Service Distance • Medium trip lengths of 8 to 50 kilometres • Moderate travel times • Station spacing that may be as low as one station every 2-3 blocks in an urban centre, one station per 1-3 kilometres is typical outside centres

Moderate System Capacity

Figure 43: Sky Train on an Exclusive Guideway, Vancouver, BC

• 150-170 passengers per vehicle • One to five vehicles per train (can adapt by attaching/ detaching vehicles) • Punctual service due to dedicated lanes or exclusive guideways • Relatively moderate operating speeds due to station spacing, especially in higher density corridors • Based on all factors, typical systems carry between 8,000 and 12,500 ppdph (daily average)

Other

Figure 44: High-Floor Light Rail Platform, Edmonton

• Increase ridership over a rubber-wheel mode due to its perception as a premium transit mode • Larger turning radii so more area is required to turn • At-grade tracks can be hazardous for cyclists • May connect to park & ride at transit centres or autooriented stations

High TOD Potential Similar to streetcars, light rail systems offer multiple stops, frequent headways, and permanent rail infrastructure, creating a premium transit amenity that attracts developers. However, unlike streetcars, light rail operates in a dedicated lanes or exclusive guideway, has signal priority and covers a larger service area. This generally results in more reliable and timely transit that serves a greater population of people. Therefore, light rail generally has the highest TOD potential of all transit modes.

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Rail Rapid Transit

Figure 45: Elevated Rail Rapid Transit Vehicle, San Francisco

Centre-to-Centre Service Area

Rail rapid transit is an electric passenger railway (also called metro, subway, or rapid rail) that operates primarily in urban centres. It has high capacity, offers high frequency service and is grade separated. Rail rapid transit requires tunneled or elevated exclusive guideways, station platforms, ticketing and other associated facilities. It is characterized by high speeds and rapid acceleration. Outside urban centres, rapid transit lines are sometimes at ground level.

Figure 46: Subway Transit Vehicle, Toronto, Ontario

Medium Service Distance •

• •

Medium trip lengths of 8 to 50 kilometres (although there are system lengths as short as 3.8 kilometres and as long as 420 kilometres) Moderate travel times Station spacing that may be as low as one station every 2-3 blocks in an urban centre, one station per 1-3 kilometres is typical outside centres

Very High System Capacity • • • • •

Figure 47: Subway Platform, Washington, D.C.

125-250 passengers per vehicle Two to ten vehicles per train (can adapt by attaching/detaching vehicles) Punctual service due to exclusive guideways Frequent service Relatively moderate operating speeds, partially due to station spacing in higher density corridors Based on all factors, typical systems carry more than 35,000 ppdph (daily average)

Other •

Grade-separated systems may not require purchase of right-of-way, but have long

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Transit Oriented Development rldin PianningACademy Planning,Bu g andLiving iEdmonton construction periods •

Grade-separated platforms offer higher control of fare check due to limited entrances/exits; however, in an emergency, they offer limited exit strategies

Likely to be served by park & ride

Moderate TOD Potential Rail rapid transit systems require extensive fixed infrastructure and offer fast, frequent and reliable service. This provides a stable environment that attracts developers. However, the guideways and widely-spaced stations are typically built below or above ground. Therefore, the systems are not often integrated into neighbourhoods, conveniently accessed or as identifiable as a premium at-grade system. Figure 48: Locomotive Commuter Rail, Menlo Park, California

Commuter Rail Region-to-Region Service Area Commuter rail is an urban passenger train that links an urban centre with its outlying adjacent regional centres, primarily during peak travel periods. Commuter rail is characterized by multitrip tickets, specific station-to-station fares and

Figure 49: Diesel Multiple Unit Commuter Rail,

usually only one or two stations in the central

New Jersey

business district. It requires great lengths of trackway, station platforms, ticketing and other associated facilities. Commuter rail is generally perceived as a premium mode of transit with high passenger comfort. Long Service Distance •

Long trip lengths of so to 120 kilometres

Moderate travel times

Station spacing as needed

Figure 5o: West Coast Express, Vancouver, BC

High System Capacity •

3.00-375 passengers per vehicle

One to twelve vehicles per train (can adapt by attaching/detaching vehicles)

36

Long headways between trains; typically

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• • •

operates during peak hours only Punctual service due to dedicated or exclusive guideways Relatively moderate operating speeds due to heavy weight of vehicles coupled with types of propulsion Based on all factors, typical systems carry between 12,500 and 35,000 ppdph (daily average)

Other • •

Relatively low cost to maintain due to the efficiency of the system's capacity Likely to be served by park & ride

Low TOD Potential Due to the long-distance, commute-based nature of these systems, commuter rail typically has stations spaced at distant intervals, draws people from a large catchment area, has large park & ride facilities and has few daily trips beyond peak work commuter trips. For these reasons, commuter rail provides little benefit to local businesses, does not provide viable day-to-day transportation needs and is not well suited for TOD.

High-Speed Rail Region-to-Region Service Area High-speed rail operates in an exclusive guideway and travels at speeds of 200 kilometres per hour or greater. Used in the most densely populated regions of the world, it serves urban centres along high-demand travel corridors and serves as an alternative to regional air travel. High-speed rail requires great lengths of trackway and pantograph installation (overhead exposed infrastructure), station platforms, ticketing and other associated facilities. High speed rail is generally perceived as a premium mode of transit with high passenger comfort. High-speed rail technology uses overhead electrification, eliminates at-grade roadway crossings, makes infrequent stops, and avoids a succession of curves and reverse curves allowing it to maintain high speeds. Extended Service Distance • • •

Extended trip lengths that are greater than 120 kilometres Fast travel times Long distances, but infrequent stops

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Transit Oriented Development PianningAca d‘ e my planning,Bildinganduvinin.monton Very High System Capacity • • • • •

Passengers per vehicle varies Vehicles per train varies Moderate to long headways between trains Punctual service due to exclusive guideways Very fast operating speeds due to exclusive guideway, vehicle technology and electric propulsion Based on all factors, typical systems carry more than 35,000 ppdph (daily average)

Figure 52.: High-Speed Rail Corridor, Shanghai

Figure 52: Bullet Train High-Speed Rail Vehicle, Japan

Other • •

Relatively low cost to maintain due to the efficiency of the system's capacity Likely to be served by park & ride

Low TOD Potential Like commuter rail, high-speed rail offers long-distance, commute-based transportation, has stations spaced at distant intervals and draws people from a large catchment area. For these reasons, high-speed rail does not provide viable day-to-day transportation needs and is not well suited for TOD.

Magnetic Levitation Region-to-Region Service Area Maglev operates on an exclusive elevated guideway and travels at speeds exceeding kilometres per hour, the highest travel speeds of all transit modes. It is largely experimental with only one significant system in operation today in Shanghai, China. 200

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ningAcademy 444

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Figure 54:

Magnetic Levitation Vehicle, Shanghai

Extended Service Distance As more systems are developed, maglev's service distances will have extended trip lengths and fast travel times. Very High System Capacity Likely to be more than 35,000 ppdph (daily average) LowTOD Potential

Figure 55:

Magnetic Levitation Guideway, Shanghai

Figure 56:

Magnetic Levitation Station, Shanghai

Magnetic levitation systems offer high-speed transit and serve large service areas. The systems typically benefit long-distance commuters because they have stations spaced at distant intervals. Because of this, they are not well suited forTOD.

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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Transit Oriented Development my r Planning,BildinganduvinginEdm. ianningAcade nton TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELPMENT WHAT is TOD? TOD is urban development that is planned and integrated with an LRT station at its

core. In a TOD, housing, shopping, and employment are concentrated in a walkable and bikeable community within 400 metres—a five-minute walk in any direction— of the transit station. Successful TOD will increase transit ridership and reduce the number of automobile miles driven on Edmonton's congested roads. Creating TOD requires the creation of a complete neighbourhood in which land uses are located according to market fundamentals and are integrated with the pedestrian, bicycle, auto and transit networks. While a TOD is ideally focused around a transit station, the community should be designed to be economically and socially successful prior to the implementation of transit. WHAT IS NOT TOD? TOD is not:

• • • •

A single development project near the transit station—TOD is the entire 360-degree area of land uses and street network surrounding the station A monoculture of a single or even a few uses developed at high densities—TOD includes the full complement of essential land uses An isolated pocket of development near a transit station—TOD includes a web of interconnected streets linked to outlying neighbourhoods A new or untested rinuira 57. S rra fill TOD IncreasesTransitRidership development scheme—TOD responds to fundamental real estate development best practices for urban development

ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF TOD There are four essential building blocks common to all TOD. In the ideal TOD, the essential components are integrated to create a 'one-stop destination' that is easily accessed on

40 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


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Transit Oriented Development

Pr lanningAcade my Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

foot, by bicycle or from transit by commuters, residents and people working in the area.

Figure 58: Ideal TOD Area BOO metres

While the ideal TOD described on the following pages may not be achievable in all instances, true TOD development cannot be achieved unless these components are largely provided.

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TOD, unlike auto-oriented development, effectively accommodates all travelers—those in autos, trucks, trains, buses, on bicycles, and on foot. While ensuring adequate access for motorized vehicles, successful TODs prioritize safe, convenient and direct access for pedestrians and bicyclists within a five-minute (400-metre) walk to or from the transit station. •

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Grid of Streets—the traditional North Figure 59: Urban Centre TOD American urban development pattern of a connected network of streets fosters TOD more effectively than contemporary suburban development patterns of meandering, discontinuous streets and cul-de-sacs; the .SrATIONr Hut grid of streets should extend uninterrupted STATION NEIGHBOURHOOD 800 metres from the transit station AREA OF INFLUENCE Complete Streets—in auto-oriented development, streets function primarily as conduits for vehicle movement. In TODs, streets are designed not only to provide access to the station, but also as safe, enjoyable and beautiful places where people can linger at a cafe, bench or on a terrace

Development around the station Land use patterns and intensities should support the day-to-day needs ofTOD residents. Intensities and diversity of uses are highest near the station and decrease gradually away from the station. • •

Station Hub—the highest intensity of trip-generating retail, employment, and commercial uses occurs within 200 metres of the transit station Station Neighbourhood—medium- to high-density housing is concentrated within 400 metres of the transit station.

The area of influence—between 400 and 800 metres from the transit station—may contain unique amenities, medium-intensity uses and other transit-related features.

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may contain unique amenities, medium-intensity uses and other transit-related features. Figure 6o: Fine-Grained Street Grid I _1 I I I

1. GRID OF STREETS

The street grid is the most critical element in establishing successful TOD. An interconnected network of streets ensures that all trips to or from a transit station are as short as possible. Uninterrupted Grid The ideal TOD street grid extends continuously in all directions from the station—partial or disconnected networks are not ideal. The uninterrupted grid will provide: • 7 I Figure 61: NOT Fine-Grained Street Grid

Multiple access routes to the station and to adjacent development-by providing numerous routes, street traffic can be dispersed rather than concentrated on a few routes; streets can be designed to be more intimate and pedestrian-friendly Direct sight lines to the station-unless limited by topography, street grids should not meander or jog

Fine-Grained Grid The ideal TOD street grid is fine-grained with small block sizes that support convenient and direct pedestrian access to the station. The fine-grained grid: • --r

Fosters development that engages and activates public streets-precluding development that is inwardly oriented or set back from the street Creates more development sites-promoting architectural variety and precluding monolithic architecture associated with large development sites

2. COMPLETE STREETS

In addition to providing direct access to the transit station, great TOD streets are

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interesting, livable and safe places. In successful TODs, the street grid is designed as a series of 'outdoor rooms.' The public realm elements of sidewalks, streets and intersections and the private realm elements of the adjacent building walls, windows, and doorways must be people friendly. Along important transit lines, development bylaws, zoning regulations, and guidelines must be enacted to ensure that the public realm and the private realm encourage pedestrian and bicycle activity. Public Realm Essential requirements for the public realm elements_ include:

Figure 63: Bike Friendly

II

• •

Continuous wide sidewalks—lined with canopy trees, pedestrian-scaled lighting and places to /1—, sit and mingle Narrow streets—with slow moving auto traffic Safe intersections—that are easy to cross by people of all ages and physical abilities and during all weather conditions Safe bikeways—that are separated and protected from automobile traffic

Private Realm Streets that are safe day and night are fundamental to the success of a TOD. Essential building-edge requirements include: •

Figure 64: Active Edges on Buildings

Active edges—doorways and ground-floor windows that are oriented to the street provide visual and physical interaction between the inside of buildings and the street, creating 'eyes on the street' Zero-metre setbacks—buildings that are built up to the sidewalk establish a continuous 'street edge' that provides pedestrians and bicyclists with a comfortable sense of enclosure

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3. STATION HUB Figure 65: Station Hub

The highest intensity of development in a TOD occurs within the station hub, the area within 200 metres of the transit station. The station hub is home to neighbourhood-serving retail, and employment uses necessary to support the residents of the TOD. High-density housing may also be provided. Concentrated Uses Benefit Communities

Because two-thirds of driving trips are made to business, retail or work destinations, concentrating these trip-generating uses around the station and within a short walk for most TOD residents can reduce both the length and quantity of driving trips made by TOD residents and employees. Retail Street

Retail is the most important use to get right in a TOD. Retail uses provide the daily goods and services for area residents and employees and must be accessible for those who arrive via transit, walking, or auto. Retail anchors, such as grocery stores, along with neighbourhood-serving shops and services should be located on the ground floors of buildings along one or two streets originating at the station and connecting to the station neighbourhood. Retail uses are most successful when: • • • •

Located on a street with enough, but not too much, drive-by traffic; 8,000 to 15,000 average daily trips (ADT) is ideal Located on a street with continuous curb-side parking Retail uses occur on both sides of the street and are uninterrupted by vacancies or other types of uses The quantity of retail uses is sufficient to draw shoppers from outside of the TOD area Figure 66: Retail and Commercial Uses

Retail Parking

Only 30% of the parking needed for a retail street can be accommodated on-street. The other 70% should be accommodated with a reserve of parking that may be located below ground, in a separate structure, or integrated into a building and that can be accessed directly from the street.

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Office

Office uses provide employment opportunities for TOD residents and for commuters from outside of the TOD area. Businesses with a high number of jobs per hectare, such as medical and dental offices, corporate headquarters, public agencies, financial, real estate, insurance, design, technology and engineering uses, are ideally located in the station hub. These types of businesses require high visibility and brand exposure to succeed. They may be either single-use buildings or occupy upper floors above ground-floor retail or commercial uses. Office uses are most successful when located: • • •

On prominent high-traffic streets Adjacent to other office uses On medium to large parcels

Figure 67: Station Hub Office District

Low-intensity uses such as manufacturing, warehousing or other similar industrial uses are not appropriate within the Station Hub. Housing

High-density housing development is appropriate within the station hub. Housing within the hub should have active ground-floor design. Public Plaza

In downtown or centre TOD locations, where there is typically little existing open space, a public plaza should be located adjacent to the station where it can serve as a gathering space, a venue for markets or festivals, and as an overflow area for transit patrons during peak travel periods or event surges. Park & Ride

The greatest hindrance in the creation of a successful station hub is often the parking facility provided for commuters who arrive by car. Park & ride facilities located adjacent to the station severely degrade the station environment. Whenever possible, park & ride facilities should be prohibited. However,

Figure 68: Station Plaza


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where required, park & ride facilities should be sited within a reasonable walking distance from a station, but not immediately adjacent Figure 69: Station Neighbourhood to the station. Where financially feasible, transit parking can be stacked within a parkade. In these instances, parking may be adjacent to a station provided that the first floor of the parkade contributes to activating the station with retail and commercial uses.

4. STATION NEIGHBOURHOOD

The station neighbourhood is the area outside of the station hub and within 400 metres of the station. This area includes the largest concentration of housing within the TOD. Figure 7o: Housing HeightTransition

Housing

Transit ridership is most effectively increased by providing opportunities for living in close proximity—within a five-minute walk—of the station. By concentrating medium- and high-density housing uses in the station neighbourhood, greater transit ridership will be realized and the number of vehicle trips within the TOD will be reduced. A mix of rental and ownership properties should be provided within the neighbourhood to support a mix of income levels. Station neighbourhood housing should also be sensitive to the existing context and provide height transitions to lower density and single-family housing in the surrounding areas. Housing-Supportive Amenities

Ideally, all medium- and high-density housing will be within three blocks of a park or plaza. The success of a TOD is largely measured by whether it is a livable community that a city's citizens will find desirable. Simply loading density into a neighbourhood may result in a 'transit ghetto' where housing is provided but the ambiance and safety of the neighbourhood is poor. To attract a stable and diverse residential population, parks, open spaces, schools, and cultural uses must be woven into the fabric of the neighbourhood.

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Small neighbourhood-serving urban parks, rather than expansive regional parks, are more suitable in a station neighbourhood. The parks provided should be large enough to accommodate child-friendly play structures, courts, and informal grassy areas, but not so large as to consume too much area within the neighbourhood. As with the station plaza, parks should be the focus of adjacent development. Where outstanding natural landscapes—such as rivers or wooded areas—exist, they should be protected and featured.

BENEFITS OF TOD Residents, employees and customers of TODs tend to own fewer cars and take fewer

automobile trips than people in more autooriented areas. Studies indicate that automobile travel is typically 8% to 32% less per capita in a TOD than in a conventional land use development. Because TODs allow residents to walk and bike to everyday destinations, there are: •

Fewer auto trips—many of the trips that are made by automobile in a conventional lowdensity development are made by walking, Figure 71: TOD Reduces Vehicle Kilometres Traveled biking, or taking transit in a TOD Shorter auto trips—trip-generating uses—retail, commercial and employment—are located closer to housing and workplaces in a TOD

How CAN TOD BENEFITYOU?

op

As a resident or employee of a TOD, you have the option to walk, bike or take transit to access daily goods and services, resulting in benefits to you and your community in the following categories: • • • •

Fewer & Shorter Auto Trips

Money Time Health Society and Environment Figure 72: TOD Benefits

More

MONEY

I

More

Better

Healthier

TIME

HEALTH

ENVIRONMENT

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Transit Oriented Development IPT P Plainaninn g,Bn„idin ngg ..,AuvcinagidEde my m.nton 1. MONEY

Lower personal transportation costs can result in significant financial benefits to you and your community. Benefits for You By spending less money on fuel, parking, auto maintenance and other auto-related expenses, you will have more money to spend on the things you need and want. Households in a TOD can save an average of $9,300 a year by: •

Owning one less car—You could save approximately $5,700 per year in car ownership costs, including full-coverage insurance, license, registration, taxes, depreciation and finance charge Walking, biking or taking transit—Using an alternative transportation mode could save you $3,600 per year that would have be spent on auto parking* and gasoline** costs

Benefits forYour Community Your community can benefit from TOD through: • •

Increased farebox revenues—When more people ride transit, more money can be made on transit fares, resulting in a greater cost recovery for transit agencies Ongoing local economic stimulus—When people use transit instead of driving, money that would have been spent on gasoline and sent out of the community to gasoline suppliers can instead be spent in the local marketplace

* Parking costs assume $154.23 a month for unreserved parking in a downtown business district according to the 2009 Colliers International Parking Rate Study **Gasoline costs assume 15,000 miles (24,140 kilometers) per year at 23.4 miles (37.65 kilometers) per gallon at the price of $2.72 per gallon (.72/liter), the average for self-serve regular unleaded gasoline in the United States on July 7,

2010

2. TIME

Spending less time driving can translate into more personal time for you and greater productivity for your community. Benefits forYou If you live or work in a TOD, you can spend less time in your car due to: •

Transit options—Roadway congestion can result in time consuming delays; while

48 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


Transit Oriented Development Plan (.1 ingAcademy 1i1) 11111 Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

using transit, passengers can read, work, converse or relax rather than focusing on driving Easier access to daily needs—A concentration of neighbourhood-serving stores and services located within easy walking and biking distance can reduce time spent driving to fulfill daily errands

Benefits forYour Community Less time spent driving can: •

Increase civic participation—More time available to the individual can mean more time spent in the community

3. HEALTH Replacing auto trips with other transportation options can result in significant health benefits for you and your community as a whole. Benefits forYou TODs can provide you with opportunities for physical and mental health benefits that result from: •

• •

Active transportation options—Walking and bicycling to shopping, home, work or transit allows you to incorporate exercise in your daily routine that can help maintain a healthy body weight and ward off health-related diseases Reduced stress—The less you drive, especially in high-traffic areas, the less drivingrelated stress you experience Reduced auto-related injuries—Reducing the number of auto trips reduces your chances of auto-related injury or death

Benefits forYour Community TOD can provide your community with health-related benefits such as: •

Reduced health care costs—A healthy population requires less medical treatment, resulting in lower health care costs

4. SOCIETY & ENVIRONMENT

The physical design of a TOD and the reduction in auto-related emissions that results can have significant social and environmental benefits for you and your community.

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Transit Oriented Development Bne e my „id7g un ,,,,Ausag in „mc, nton

Social Benefits TODs create an attractive, safe and vibrant area that can allow you to reconnect with your neighbours and neighbourhood through: • •

High-quality public spaces—Conveniently located parks, plazas, open spaces and paths provide spaces for socializing and recreating More 'eyes on the street'—Complete streets, active ground-floor edges and higher residential densities can increase the safety of communities by providing more opportunities for resident interaction and community surveillance

Environmental Benefits TODs can provide environmental benefits for your community in the form of: • •

Open-space preservation—Compact development around transit stations can reduce the impact of sprawl on existing open space, farmland and natural areas Reduced CO2 emissions—A reduction in contaminants produced and released by autos can reduce the level of pollution that is washed into local streams, rivers and water tables and can improve air quality

BUILDING TOD

Figure 73: Typical Greenfield Site

Successful TOD, with government initiation and investment, can be built in both greenfield or infill development settings. While each TOD is built in a unique context, there are generally two types of sites: •

lnfill sites—areas with existing infrastructure and development, including scattered or clustered vacant or underutilized parcels that can be incrementally redeveloped over time Greenfield sites—large areas of undeveloped or minimally developed land that lacks infrastructure and that can be planned and developed comprehensively

Figure 74: Typical lnfill Site

lnfill and Greenfield sites each have unique TOD opportunities and challenges as described on the following pages.

50 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

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Transit Oriented Development 41 ) 1hP

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IN FILL TO D

Successful infill TOD includes transit-supportive high-density uses on limited opportunity sites and does not adversely impact existing stable development. Infill TOD occurs when transit-supportive land uses and densities are constructed on undeveloped or underutilized parcels within an existing developed area. Infill development parcels may be vacant lots, parking lots, buildings that are in poor condition or very low density in comparison with surrounding development. Infill can occur in a variety of locations, including urban or suburban neighbourhoods, employment districts, and in downtowns. Depending on the specific location, infill TOD sites may offer existing services such as retail shops and schools as well as an existing grid of streets, sidewalks and bike routes. Infill TOD sites may present the following opportunities and challenges. Figure 75: Infill TOD Site 1994

Figure 76: Infill TOD Site 2008

Opportunities • • •

Existing Public Facilities—Existing public infrastructure, services and amenities in a station area can support and encourage infill development Existing Ridership—Existing populations can provide ridership to support transit immediately after transit construction is completed Continued Growth in Developed Areas—New growth is focused in existing developed areas rather than on the outer periphery of the city

Challenges •

Existing Development Patterns—Typical infill TOD sites are dominated by low-intensity employment, single-family housing located along cul-de-sac streets—conditions that do not supportTOD land use or circulation principles Limited Development Potential—The often limited quantity of redevelopable land in

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Transit Oriented Development y r Planning, lanning Biding-dLiving Academ in Edmo

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infill TOD sites limits the opportunity to locate new development near transit, thus limiting transit ridership Compatibility with Existing Uses-Existing residents often do not wish to alter the existing low-density character of their neighbourhood and TOD densities and massing may be met with resistance Perceived Neighbourhood Safety-Existing residents often associate crime and safety with TOD due to the influx of people into the neighbourhood

GREENFIELD TOD

Development ofTOD on greenfield sites can support ideal TOD land use or circulation principles without adversely impacting existing neighbourhoods. Greenfield TOD occurs when transit-supportive land uses, densities and a grid of streets are constructed in a previously undeveloped area. Greenfield sites are typically located on the suburban fringe of a metropolitan region. In some instances, large reuse sites located within urban areas—such as Edmonton's Municipal Airport site— are also considered greenfield sites. Due to the lack of existing development and infrastructure, greenfield sites may offer the ultimate opportunity to design and build the essential components ofTOD without adversely impacting existing development patterns or populations. Greenfield TOD sites may present the following opportunities and challenges. Opportunities •

Lack of Development Pattern-Without an existing development framework to respond to, greenfields can present an opportunity to effectively implement ideal TOD land uses, and street and block configurations around transit stations Potential for New Ridership-The large quantity of undeveloped land increases the opportunity to provide medium- and high-density land uses, thus increasing the potential for higher transit ridership Reduced Incompatibility Issues-The lack of existing uses in the area reduces compatibility concerns between TOD land uses, scale and character and existing conditions

Challenges •

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Existing Ridership-Unless the TOD is partially or completely built out, there is little to no existing ridership to support transit immediately after transit construction is completed Existing Public Facilities-There are few to no existing public infrastructure,

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services or amenities to support and encourage development Pushing Growth Outside the Urban Fringe—New growth located outside existing developed areas may require increased infrastructure and support increased auto trips

Figure 77: Greenfield TOD Site 1994

Figure 78: Greenfield TOD Site 2007

Non-TOD Greenfield Development Practices Greenfield development unrelated to TOD is dominated by suburban development patterns such as low-density, single-family housing located along cul-de-sac streets. Creating TOD at high densities in compact, mixed-use settings is a new, unfamiliar approach for the majority of suburban developers and as a result: • •

TOD, as a constructible, marketable and economically viable development model, is often met with skepticism by the suburban, greenfield development community TOD proponents must demonstrate its viability and governments must provide financing or other development assistance to assure thatTOD can be built

The following issues represent differences between typical greenfield development and TOD practices. Greenfield practices are primarily intended to cut costs in order to achieve a higher financial return on development. In contrast, TOD practices often require a greater financial investment.

Infrastructure Costs • •

Typical Greenfield Development—On average, only about 20% of development areas are dedicated to public roadways and sidewalks TOD—The urban street grid in a TOD typically comprises 40% of the development area. These additional TOD infrastructure needs may require local governments to contribute to the cost or construction of roadways or other infrastructure

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Transit Oriented Development Building 'hng P e iarli n gAead Rnd ,Tvrng inEdm e

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Design Costs •

Typical Greenfield Development— Design costs associated with residential and commercial construction in suburban areas can be reduced by repeating a typical unit configuration with slight variation TOD—Because these areas are more dense and include a vertical mix of uses, developers in TODs are not able to easily replicate building designs, resulting in increased design, permitting and, in some cases, development costs

Parking •

Typical Greenfield Development— Costs of constructing parking are minimized by building low-cost Figure 79: Greenfield TOD Streets Under Construction surface lots or attached residential garages TOD—Developers are required to construct parking within structures or in 'screened' areas behind buildings

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT TOD Q: Will TOD increase property values in the plan area? A: Studies show that properties in close proximity to transit stations typically increased in value by 10-2o% (Smith and Gihring 2003; Mathur and Ferrell 2009).

Q: Will TOD bring crime into my neighbourhood? A: While it is true that more people may live, work or shop in your neighbourhood, TOD is not directly related to added crime. Well designed TOD may reduce crime and foster a safer neighbourhood.

Q: Will TOD bring added congestion into the area? A: Unknown. Typical development proposals require traffic analysis and a strategy for mitigation of impacts if they occur. TODs generally have less impact on roadway congestion than auto-oriented development.

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Transit Oriented Development Ir PlanningAcademy Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

Q: Will people park their car in my neighbourhood? A: Possibly, the impacts of neighbourhood parking can be mitigated with a neighbourhood parking program. Q: Can park & ride be accommodated so people won't park in my neighbourhood? A: With an urban light rail system, park & ride facilities are typically only provided at the ends of the transit lines. However, if a centrally located station does require park & ride facilities, parkades should be built to minimize the parking footprint and make room for other development. Surface parking lots should not be permitted. In areas without park & ride, residential parking permit programs can be used to control parking by non-neighbourhood residents. Q: Will TOD implementation require expropriation? A: Every City handles expropriation differently. In general, property owners within a TOD study area will not be forced to relinquish, sell, or rezone their property to accommodate the TOD plan. The intent is for the area to redevelop over time with the TOD plan serving as the redevelopment guide. Q: Is more housing inventory needed in Edmonton? A:Today there is little TOD housing available in Edmonton. As gas prices continue to rise and as the LRT system expands, the desire to live closer to transit will increase and the market for TOD housing will grow. Q: Will TOD really increase return on transit investment? A:Yes, a study showed that Chicago's current regional transit plan provides an estimated 2.1% annual return on investments, an enhanced plan provides a 34% return, and adopting TOD would increase the return to 61%. (Economic Development Research Group, 2007)

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Transit Oriented Development my I V Planning,B1 ,„ldingg 14) -dAuvcinagid n Ede— nton

TOD PLANNING & EXAMPLES

WHAT IS A TOD PLAN?

TOD plans identify locations for new transit-supportive land uses such as housing, employment and retail, as well as public parks, streets and services within 800 metres of a transit station. TOD plans serve as a framework for both public and private sector projects. They typically include a land use and circulation framework and implementation strategy that will guide redevelopment of the station area. TOD plans are specific to the context of the station area being planned. Residential uses may be appropriate to emphasize at one station area and employment uses may be appropriate at another. The mix of uses identified in the plan will depend on existing station area conditions. TOD plans are intended to: • • • • •

Increase transit ridership Establish a clear identity for the station area Provide transit-supportive land uses and densities Establish safe and convenient pedestrian and bicycle access between land uses and the transit station Establish a comfortable, attractive and vibrant public realm

WHY DEVELOP TOD PLANS?

A community invests significant amounts of money and political will to build a highquality transit system. For this reason, the public should see many returns on their transit investment. The development ofTOD plans can realize these returns, including reduced environmental impacts, a healthier population and perhaps the most compelling benefit, a maximization of financial return. TOD plans can help increase the public's financial return in the following forms: • • • • •

56

Increased private sector development activity and tax revenues Increased farebox revenues (results from increased ridership) Ongoing local economic stimulus Reduced infrastructure costs Job creation

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WHEN TO DEVELOP A TOD PLAN Fig 8o: TOD Plan Triggers

TOD plans should be prepared for those stations that offer the greatest TOD potential within a transit system.

...................

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Since development of a TOD plan requires an investment of agency time and funds, TOD plans will not likely be prepared for every station area. Therefore, stations with the greatest TOD potential should be prioritized to maximize transit-supportive development and increase transit ridership.

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TOD plans are also recommended for station areas that meet one or more of the following TOD plan triggers:

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. < Significant Redevelopable . . Area—at least 40% of the area ***••• . ........ .../• ..'••• ......... ••••••• within 400 metres of the station ................. ....••• ................. .• platform is redevelopable Infill Opportunity at Platform—a ROW Improvements Infill Opportunity at Platform redevelopable property engages the station platform Regional Destination—a planned or existing regionally significant destination located within 400 metres of the station platform Civic Use—the station area has a planned or existing public facility that is located within 200 metres of the station platform ROW Improvements—the station area is slated for public or private ROW improvements within 200 metres of the station platform Other—additional characteristics that make the station area a desirable location for TOD <_._._

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THE GOVERNMENT'S ROLE

To get TOD right, government agencies must lead and finance TOD planning efforts and initiate TOD implementation by investing in public infrastructure, facilities and amenities. TOD Planning To ensure TOD that features the appropriate mix of land uses, densities and amenities that are ultimately intended to increase transit ridership and reduce auto trips, TOD planning efforts should not be left to the private sector. TOD plans should be initiated, led and funded by the public sector, but may or may not be wholly prepared by a public agency. Depending on the complexity of a project, and the availability of agency staff, funding, and technical information, the preparation of a TOD plan may include the following personnel: •

• •

Agency staff—conduct background research, prepare technical analyses, organize and facilitate stakeholder involvement, prepare TOD Plan and Implementation Strategy (may be in collaboration with design consultant) Primary design consultant—facilitates public and stakeholder involvement and develops the TOD plan and implementation strategy Subconsultants—develop technical reports, such as market analysis, transportation impact assessment, infrastructure assessment, environmental and geotechnical analysis

TOD plans typically take one year to complete. TOD Implementation Upon completion of the TOD plan, government agencies must be willing to invest public dollars to implement the public projects identified in the TOD plan. This investment can: • • •

Spur immediate development momentum Demonstrate a commitment to station area redevelopment Attract developer interest

Projects that have the most potential to create significant change and spark widespread sustainable reinvestment in the station area should be prioritized. To maximize a community's return on investment, public expenditure should be made in one or more of the following categories: • • • • •

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Land acquisition Re-subdivision Rezoning Relocation of utilities Streetscape improvements

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• • • •

New local streets New or improved pedestrian and bike facilities, including protected bikeways, bike parking and changing facilities at the transit station New rail track crossings and signalization Public park and plaza development

OVERCOMING TOD CHALLENGES By recognizing and addressing challenges that may preclude TOD, cities can ensure that successful TOD is created. There are challenges to building successful TOD in every city. Perhaps the three greatest challenges are: • • •

Locating transit stations where TOD potential can be realized Encouraging developers to invest in potentially higher-cost TOD practices Protecting lands within station areas from development that may preclude TOD

Getting the Right Station Locations In most transit systems, TOD potential is not considered when locating stations. As a result, TOD becomes difficult or impossible to implement without significant changes to existing development patterns, impacting historic structures, or changing neighbourhood character. In station locations where TOD potential is limited, two options should be considered: • •

Relocate stations where more opportunities exist Maximize available opportunities for transit supportive development, but scale back expectations for TOD

Offsetting Developers' Costs In comparison with low-density developments, a greater financial investment may be required for developers to implement TOD practices. As a result, there is apprehension towards TOD in many development communities. To offset the costs of building in a TOD, the following should be considered: • •

Developers may need to increase their selling or lease price or assume a lower profit margin Public agencies may be required to make financial contributions to lessen the cost differential gap between low-density development and TOD

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Protecting Station Area Lands Without an adopted TOD plan, incremental station area development can occur that may preclude future TOD. To protect station areas from development that may be inconsistent with TOD, the following options should be considered: • •

Develop and adopt regulatory standards that identify minimum fundamental requirements for TOD Develop and adopt advisory principles that foster sustainable and livable communities that will guide TOD

WHICH CITIES ARE PLANNING TOD?

Many cities with light rail systems understand the need to plan for TOD. Edmonton is Planning for TOD Edmonton is embarking on a major expansion to their LRT system. The City has initiated TOD planning efforts around some existing and proposed LRT stations to focus denser development and civic infrastructure along the LRT lines. Edmonton's goal is to concentrate the city's future urban form around public transit to support a more sustainable environment and transportation system. Other North American Cities The following North American cities are also planning for TOD and were selected as TOD examples because of their similarity to Edmonton: • •

Calgary, Alberta, Canada—similar in climate and context to Edmonton Denver, Colorado, USA—similar in its prairie setting and historically auto-oriented development patterns

These cities were largely developed during the time when cities were dominated by automobiles. Today, both cities are planning for a more sustainable future by developing a comprehensive transit system with multiple lines and a variety of modes. Due to the challenges to creating TOD previously identified and the individual contexts of each of these cities, the following TOD plans do not necessarily represent ideal TOD.

EDMONTON IS PLANNING TOD

The success of Edmonton's transit system as a viable transportation option is dependent on the implementation of transit-supportive land use and circulation

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Transit Oriented Development Ir PlanningAcademy Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

elements around transit stations. Transforming Edmonton City Vision is a creative description of Edmonton in 2040 that sets the direction for The Way Ahead, the City of Edmonton's Strategic Plan, and supports its four guiding principles: • • • •

Integration Sustainability Livability Innovation

E WAY A—EAD CITY OF EDMONTON STRATEGIC PLAN

Figure 81: Strategic Plan

The Way Ahead's ten-year planning framework guides the evolution of Edmonton and ensures @moat= continued work towards the City Vision. The 411 strategic plan will help the City establish priorities and make informed decisions while managing the opportunities and challenges associated with rapid growth and change. The strategic plan focuses efforts and positions the City to improve the quality of life for citizens now and in the future. It relates to TOD by providing a focus for how the City of Edmonton will address its future transportation needs, transform its urban form, and deliver the greatest value of services and infrastructure. Six planning and policy documents have been developed or are in development that will lead the City toward the goals of the Strategic Plan and the realization of the City Vision. The documents are: • • • • • • •

The Way We Green: Environmental Strategic Plan (Approved July 2011) The Way We Live: People Plan (approved July 2010) The Way We Grow: Municipal Development Plan (approved May 2010) The Way We Move: Transportation Master Plan (approved September 2009) The Way We Finance: Long-Term Financial Strategy (in development) The Way We Prosper: Economic Development Plan (Approved March 2013) The Way We Grow and The Way We Move relate to TOD. In addition, TOD Guidelines are being developed to specifically support TOD within the city of Edmonton.

The Way We Grow: Municipal Development Plan This ten-year comprehensive planning framework addresses Edmonton's physical, economic and social development and contains an intermunicipal planning component which addresses the coordination of future land use, growth patterns

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and transportation systems with Edmonton's neighbouring municipalities. The plan is intended to provide policies and guidance for Edmonton's evolution into a more compact, transit-oriented, and sustainable city.

Figure 82: Municipal Development Plan

THE WAY WE GROW

How it relates to TOD The plan contains policy direction to prepare TOD plans around the existing and proposed LRT stations.

The Way We Move: Transportation Master Plan This ten-year planning framework supports public transit as a means to decrease the need for other public infrastructure investment throughout the Edmonton Metro Region, provideFigure 83: Transportation Master Plan viable alternative transportation modes that will reduce Edmonton's carbon and ecological footprint, and lessen THE WAY demand on energy and natural resources. WE MOVE How it relates to TOD &.Tiorrion

TRANSPORTMION LUSTER PLAN SEPIEMEERAX19

The plan supports the idea that effective transit services and transit oriented development along an expanded LRT are essential to successfully achieving the City Vision.

TOD Guidelines The TOD Guidelines document (previously called the Integrated Transit and Land Use Framework) provides regulatory and advisory guidelines for the development of TOD around Edmonton's transit stations. It demonstrates the City's commitment to sustainable growth in conjunction with the expansion of the LRT network. How it relates to TOD The TOD Guidelines identifies development guidelines and standards for the area within 800 metres of Edmonton's transit stations in an effort to create compact developments that maximize transit ridership.

6 2 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

Figure 84: TOD Guidelines

Transit Oriented Development

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TOD Planning efforts Four TOD planning efforts are currently planned or underway in Edmonton. These plans are: • • • •

Station Pointe-21 hectares adjacent to the existing Belvedere LRT Station Mill Woods Station Area Redevelopment—A plan for redevelopment around the planned Mill Woods LRT station McKernan-Belgravia Station Area Redevelopment —A plan for redevelopment around the existing McKernan/Belgravia LRT station Blatchford Redevelopment—City of Edmonton-initiated redevelopment of the 217 hectare City Centre Airport in which there will be two LRT stations on the future Metro (Northwest) LRT line

Station Pointe (Old Town Fort Road Redevelopment)

Figure 85: Station Pointe Plan

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The Station Pointe project area is - Fort Road widened /- on-street parking - special streetscape treatment located adjacent to the Belvedere - up to 250 residential units above commercial upgrading and infill on west side / - redevelopment on east side LRT station between 66 Street - architectural guidelines and 129 Avenue, and between High Density Residential Area - townhouses / high density residential (up to 750 units) Fort Road and the CN rail line. - high quality pedestrian environment with tree lined streets The project's intent is to revitalize individual ground floor units to address the street Mixed Use Area the historic Fort Road old town - retention of existing commercial and light industrial area, a once vibrant business - some redevelopment to high density residential community, by redeveloping it into Parks and Open Space CNR LINE - multi-use corridor a higher-density transit oriented - passive and active park uses development. The City received a Brownie Award—a Canadian Urban Institute Award for Brownfield Development— for legislation, policy and program development because the study area was once a contaminated and underutilized industrial and quasi-commercial land. ar"

COMMERCIAL AND CONIMERCIAURESIDEMIAL HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL

COMMERCIAL AND LIGHT INDUSTRIAL PARK SPACE

Main Component The primary components of the Station Pointe redevelopment are the widening of Old Fort Road and the creation of an urban transit-oriented village adjacent to the LRT Station. Fort Road will be widened from four to six lanes and will receive a new landscaped median and improved streetscape features. The urban village will be located along the southeast side of Fort Road and will include a mixture of mediumand high-density residential uses above ground-floor commercial and retail uses. The

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development 63


Transit Oriented Development em y ,PianniigAcad Plan ig,Bcng -duvir g in Edmonton area will house up to 1,500 new residents and present opportunities for affordable housing and townhouse living within walking distance of an LRT transit station. Project Timeline Roadway, servicing, and tree planning infrastructure will be completed in 2013. In addition, construction of two sites may begin in 2013 in response to market demand. Project Management The Station Pointe project is a City-led initiative managed by the City of Edmonton's Asset Management and Public Works Department.

Mill Woods Station Area Redevelopment Project Overview The Mill Woods Station Area Redevelopment is located on the proposed future LRT Station on 28 Avenue between 66 Street and Youville Drive. A redevelopment plan has been prepared that encompasses portions of the Mill Woods Town Centre, Tawa and Kameyosek neighbourhoods.

Figure 86: Mill Woods Station Area Redevelopment

It is envisioned that with the construction of the Mill Woods LRT station and relocated transit centre, the plan area will be transformed into a higher density, more compact mixed use community offering a wider range of housing choices, employment opportunities and civic uses in a mixed use urban development format. A focus on livability and placemaking in the plan area will improve the area as a desirable and attractive place to live, work, shop and play, and the design of buildings and public spaces exhibit a high standard of excellence. Overtime, a finer grain urban street grid will be introduced comprised of both public and private streets that providing better connectivity and support walking, cycling and transit use. An important element of the new urban grid is the creation of a north-south mixed use main street on the west side of the plan area between 66 Street and Youville Drive.

The construction of the Valley (Southeast) LRT Line will allow for the redesign of 28 Avenue as a pedestrian friendly, mixed use main street with a wide generous public realm that is well integrated with the LRT station and transit centre. Project Timeline

64 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


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The Mill Woods Station Area Redevelopment Plan was approved by City Council September 16, 2013. Development of the LRT station will proceed as part of the future Southeast LRT extension known as the Valley Line. Preliminary engineering design is currently underway and scheduled to be complete by the end of 2013. If funding is obtained, construction of the 13.1 km section of the Valley Line from Mill Woods to Downtown will begin in 2015 and be completed in 2019. A Public-Private Partnership long-term contract will be used to deliver LRT infrastructure and services. Project Management The Mill Woods Station redevelopment planning project is led by the Sustainable Development Department supported by the consulting firm of Pario Plan.

McKernan-Belgravia Station Area Redevelopment Project Overview The McKernan/Belgravia Station Area Redevelopment Plan is centered on the LRT Station at 76 Avenue and 114 Street and encompasses both Belgravia and McKernan neighbourhoods. The McKernan/Belgravia station area will accommodate transit oriented development by focusing redevelopment and intensification on the periphery of the neighbourhoods, along major arterial and collector roads, and adjacent to the LRT station. The fundamental character of these neighbourhoods will be maintained by limiting the type and form of development within the interior of the neighbourhoods to be compatible with the existing character.

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The vision of the plan is intended to increase oil min No housing choice, increase transit use, add local cpci man 11:331a Ch:13013M 1 l a3; ZIP -Etti commercial amenities and support the evolution 9=1;i1P291?,° of these neighbourhoods into more complete Figure 87: McKernan-Belgravia Station Area Redevelopment and sustainable community. Public realm improvements will enhance and build on the physical character and attractiveness of the neighbourhoods. Physical improvements will enhance connectivity both through and beyond the neighbourhoods with the provision of additional pedestrian and bicycle amenities. New development coupled with public realm improvements will permit greater opportunities for family, student

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development

65


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and seniors housing with improved access to local amenities and services in an improved physical environment, while preserving the fundamental nature of this well-loved and desirable community. Project Timeline The McKernan-Belgravia Station Area Redevelopment Plan was approved by City Council July 2, 2013. Development around the existing LRT station is expected to occur incrementally over the next 25 years depending on market conditions. Project Management The station area planning project is led by the Sustainable Development Department supported by the consulting firm of Pario Plan.

Blatchford Redevelopment Project Overview The Blatchford Redevelopment is the most ambitious redevelopment project ever undertaken in Edmonton. The City Centre Area Redevelopment Plan approved in 2012 anticipates the closure and redevelopment of the City Centre Airport in north central Edmonton. The site is 217 hectares in area, and its boundary generally defined by Yellowhead Trail to the north, Kingsway Avenue and Airport Road to the southwest, Princess Elizabeth Avenue to the southeast, 109 Street and 121Street to the east and west respectively. The site will be a home to 25,000 - 30,000 Edmontonians living, working and learning in a sustainable community that will ideally use l00% renewable energy, be carbon neutral, significantly reduce its ecological footprint and empower residents to pursue a range of sustainable lifestyle choices. It will encompass housing for all stages of life, a town centre featuring retail, offices and homes, approximately 74 hectares of parkland and open spaces, excellent access to the LRT and transit, a district heat and power plant, community garden plots and a large stormwater lake with natural landscaping and a boardwalk. The plan will establish a community that's green, walkable, transit-oriented, and within minutes of downtown Edmonton. This plan will transform the City Centre Airport into a mixed-use urban community that meets the City of Edmonton's goals of building strong, vibrant neighbourhoods and increasing density to make best use of existing infrastructure. Project Timeline The master plan for Blatchford will be completed early 2013, and detailed design will take place later that year. Shovels will be in the ground in 2014, and the first people

66 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development.,


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could be living and working on site as early as 2016/17 Project Management The project is led by the Sustainable Development Department supported by the consulting firm of Perkins + Will.

CALGARY

IS

PLANNING TOD

Calgary's CTrain is a 48.8-kilometre system with branches from downtown to Crowfoot (Red Line), Somerset (Red Line), and Westwinds (Blue Line). The system has 37 stations. The first segment (part of the south Red Line) opened in May 1981. The system has approximately 220,000 daily riders. Completion of the West Light Rail Line is expected in 2012. A new downtown corridor is also in planning stages. Four of the TOD planning efforts currently underway in Calgary are: • • • •

Brentwood SAP-32 hectares adjacent to and surrounding the existing Brentwood LRT Station Anderson SAP—approximately loo hectares surrounding the existing Anderson LRT Station Hillhurst/Sunnyside ARP—approximately 42 hectares adjacent to the existing Sunnyside LRT Station Chinook SAP—approximately 67 hectares surrounding the existing Chinook LRT Station

Brentwood Station Area Plan Project Overview Located near the University of Calgary, the Foothills Medical Centre and immediately adjacent to the University Innovation Park, Brentwood is already a significant employment node. Brentwood acts as a major transit centre and is a hub for bus lines. It has one of the city's largest park & ride lots. Brentwood Village Shopping Centre and the other commercial uses serve as a regional commercial destination in northwest Calgary.

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The station area acts as both a major employment node and a shopping destination. Along with the University of Calgary, Innovation Park is one of the few major employment clusters outside of the downtown core. Growth at the University and Innovation Park will have a

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Brentwood Station Area Plan

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development 67


Transit Oriented Development PlanningAca d e my Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

significant impact on the role of the Brentwood station area into the future. Location Brentwood is located between 4o Avenue/Briseboise Drive and 32nd Avenue/Charleswood Drive, and Brentwood Boulevard and the south parcels along Crowchild Trail. Ultimate Goal The Brentwood Station Area Plan focuses on creating a pedestrian-friendly environments with transit-supportive levels of development. The plan supports the development of underutilized areas immediately surrounding the LRT station to create a livable community. Main Components The plan identifies a transit hub designation directly surrounding the station, with a mixed-use precinct designation just beyond the hub and locates a retail village southeast of the project The plan includes two commercial streets on either side of Crowchild Trail (the main highway that runs along the LRT track and bisects the planning area) with improved mixed-use streets and mandatory sidewalks on either side of street. It locates an off-street bicycle trail along Crowchild Trail that connects into regional on-street dedicated lanes. Project Timeline The Brentwood Station Area Redevelopment Plan was given final approval by City Council on November 30, 2009. Project Management The project was completed by Calgary's Planning Policy BranchTOD team and Urban Strategies. Anderson Station Area Plan Project Overview The Anderson Station Area Plan is located adjacent to the Anderson LRT station and is generally bounded by 6 Street SW/Sacramento Drive to the west, Bonaventure Drive SE to the east, Anderson Road to the north and a line contiguous with 99 Avenue SE to the south. The ultimate goal is to enable the transformation of the Anderson Station Area from a disconnected

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68 City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


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auto-oriented and pedestrian-unfriendly district into a diverse, walkable and complete TOD precinct. The primary emphasis of this station area plan is a large-scale central park connected to the LRT station by a pedestrian-friendly plaza and bridge. The park is envisioned to be urban in character and provide a dramatic 'front door' to the TOD precinct. Another vital aspect is the redevelopment of large parcels to introduce a finer-grained street grid composed of shorter blocks. Project Timeline The proposed plan is expected to be presented to City Council in 2014 Project Management The IBI Group and Calgary's Planning Policy Department TOD team is managing the project.

Hillhurst/Sunnyside TOD Area Project Overview Location The Hillhurst/Sunnyside TOD area is located adjacent to the Sunnyside LRT station and generally includes _J the parcels along the following corridors: 14 Street NW, Kensington Road NW, 5 Avenue NW; and a two-block width along 9A Street NW. The vision of this project is it to create a place for residents "to live, work, shop and Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; play without the need of a car" within the context of ] Figure go: Hillhurst/Sunnyside TOD Area an established community with a unique and historic identity. This vision emphasizes medium-density, mid-rise development located on major streets and locations where development supports transit use, creates a vibrant pedestrian realm, and maintains existing community character. The primary elements are high-density development along the trackway, an urban plaza featuring curbless streets for a high-pedestrian emphasis, and a green corridor created by a series of triangular parks along the eastern trackway. Project Timeline The project was adopted by Council in March

2010.

Project Management: The project was managed by City planning staff, the Co-Design Group, and the IBI Group.

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Chinook Station Area Plan Project Overview

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Chinook Station Area Plan

V :_â&#x20AC;˘ The Chinook Station Area Plan is located _ adjacent to the Chinook LRT Station and is bounded by the Glenmore Trail to the south and 5th Street SW to the west. The station area boundaries also extend east of the LRT tracks to an area generally bounded by 6o Avenue SE to the north, 62 Avenue SE to the south and to the east by parcel boundaries that are generally in alignment with i Street SE. The ultimate goal of the plan is to create 1 1 7 an attractive, walkable and complete urban r111 I precinct. The area will contain a mixture of pronisl FREIT -1 ---r, I uses and have a variety of services within walking distance. Buildings will be oriented to the street, pedestrian and bicycle connections will be safe and convenient, and the LRT station will have greater prominence in the area as the public centre of a diverse, mixed-use TOD area.

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The plans primary elements are the creation of a grand boulevard along 63. Avenue running perpendicular to the LRT with fronting retail mixed uses of highest densities and a new pedestrian bridge that links to Macleod Trail. This plan also features a transit plaza next to the platform with adjoining retail uses. Project Timeline Adopted June 2008. As directed by Council, the City will begin land use re-designations for properties along 61 Avenue that will be brought to Council for approval in the fall of 2010.

Project Management This project was managed by the City of Calgary's Planning Policy DepartmentTOD team and the IBI Group.

DENVER IS PLANNING TOD

The Regional Transit District (RTD) of Denver, Colorado has developed a 39.4-mile LRT system with ten corridors. Existing LRT corridors include the Central, Southwest, and Southeast corridors and the Central Platte Valley Spur. Planned TastTracks' corridors

70

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development


Transit Oriented Development PlanningAcademy ,11r Planning, Building and Living in Edmonton

include the West (2013), East (2015), 1-225 (2016), and North Metro corridors (2016), as well as the Gold Line (2015) and the Central Corridor Extension (2015). The system's first LRT line opened in 1994 and today, the system carries approximately 70,000 daily riders. There are many TOD planning efforts underway in Denver, including plans for the following station areas: •

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Decatur Station—approximately 5o hectares surrounding 1 \ ,---- athe proposed Decatur LRT Station \ \ \ 17 ,-. r:::,...-7-r-r-,-Auraria West Station—approximately 40 hectares \ V-'r:::adjacent to the existing Auraria West Campus LRT =-_-= r Station Alameda Station—approximately 45 hectares Figure 92: loth & Osage Station Area Plan surrounding the existing Alameda LRT Station

loth & Osage Station Area Plan

Project Overview The loth & Osage Station is located on the Central Corridor light rail line. The goal of the plan is to encourage a vibrant, transitsupportive, mixed-income urban environment. The plan locates a broad mix of residential, employment _ and retail uses, maximizes pedestrian and bicycle access between land uses, establishes a vibrant public realm, and maximizes housing opportunities for a range of income levels. The plan's fundamental objectives are to: • • • • • • •

Create a safe and direct link between adjacent light rail stations for pedestrians and bicyclists Provide access to the regional transportation system Improve vehicular access to the station Create a central open space amenity to support Figure 93: loth & Osage Station Area View transit-supportive densities Activate the station platform Provide a commercial hub to serve new and existing residents Provide a transit-supportive mix of housing types

City of Edmonton Sustainable Development 71


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Project Timeline The draft loth and Osage Station Area Plan was adopted by City Council in

2010.

Project Management The project was led by the City of Denver's Community Planning & Development Department staff and the consulting firm of Crandall Arambula.

Decatur Station Area Plan Project Overview Denver's Decatur Station serves the Denver Broncos lnvesco Field Stadium. The station area includes considerable frontage along the South Platte River, a new recreation center and the Denver Human Services Facility. Current land uses in the area include industrial, many parking lots that are often vacant except for game day, 333 public housing units, and a few low-density, single-family residential houses. The Decatur Station Area Plan provides direct, \ pedestrian-friendly access to the station, TEN PL. housing for a diverse range of household types and incomes located around a network of public park blocks, and opportunities for employment Figure 94: Decatur Station Area Plan and commercial uses that support existing neighborhoods. Plan implementation is projected for the next two to ten years. The plan anticipates retail, commercial, office, housing and open space development. Project Timeline The draft Decatur Station Area Plan was adopted by City Council in 2013. Project Management The project was led by the City of Denver's Community Planning & Development Department staff and the consulting firm of Crandall Arambula.

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Adjacent—immediately preceding or following, in close proximity, without anything of the same kind in between Block—the land area bounded by public rights-of-way Block Face—the length of one side of a block as measured between two public rightsof-way Block Perimeter—the sum of an individual block's faces Building Area—total square metres of floor area in a building Carbon Dioxide (CO2)—a heavy odorless colorless gas (aka greenhouse gas) that is associated with global climate change and results from the combustion of fossil fuels or the burning of vegetable matter, among other chemical processes Carbon Monoxide (C0)—a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas which may be produced in lethal quantities by the incomplete burning of carbon-based fuels, including gasoline, oil and wood Centre—a developed area that is typically 1-2 kilometres in radius centered around an urban core and has a gridded, urban block pattern. Dedicated Lane—a roadway travel lane reserved for the exclusive use by transit Density—determined by dividing the number of dwelling units (du) by the net area in hectares (ha) of a given site Engage—to adjoin or be adjacent to Embedded Tracks—Rail tracks that have been set flush in the paving surface of the trackway Employment Uses—Land uses that are designated for office or commercial use Exclusive Guideway—a controlled transit right-of-way that is not accessible to the public except at station locations; may be at-grade, elevated, or below ground Fenestration—an opening, such as a window or door, in a building wall Floor Area Ratio (FAR)—the total floor area of all buildings or structures divided by the total area in square metres (m2) of a given site Greenfield—land that is undeveloped except for agricultural use, especially one considered as a site for expanding urban development Ground-floor Retail—retail land use located on the level of a building that is accessible from the public boulevard Guidelines—a course of action, a guiding principle

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Headways—the time between the arrival of transit vehicles at a stop. A shorter headway signifies a more frequent service Intensity—determined by dividing the square metres (m2) of building floor area dedicated for commercial or employment use by the net area in square metres (m2) of the site Infill Development—the development of undeveloped, or the redevelopment of underutilized, parcels within an existing developed area Metro Region—an area comprised of a primary urban centre, adjacent regional centres and any developed areas that have a high degree of social, economic, and geographic integration with the primary city centre Nitrogen Oxides (NOX)—a generic term for mono-nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). These oxides are produced during combustion and are contained in exhaust emissions New growth—areas without an existing roadway network that are developing under an Area Structure Plan Openings—a wall element that can be seen through or opened Park & Ride—a parking facility that serves a transit hub or station and that allows commuters and others wishing to travel into city centres to leave their personal vehicles at the station or hub Platform Environment—the area within 200 metres of a station platform Redevelopable—undeveloped or underutilized land Regional Centre—centres with populations under loo,000 that are linked to and support an urban centre within a metropolitan region Regional Destination—A culturally significant public gathering place, may include stadiums, arenas, cultural facilities, and museums Retail—businesses that engage in the sale of merchandise or that are restaurants Roadway Vehicles—vehicles with rubber tires that travel on paved surfaces and are powered by diesel, electric, hybrid, or other engine types Railway Vehicles—vehicles with metal wheels that travel on a fixed trackway consisting of two rails and are powered by diesel engines or electricity (with the exception of maglev vehicles which levitate over a fixed magnetic railway) Standards—regulatory requirements Station Area—the area defined by a circle with an 800 metre radius (1,600 metre diameter) that is centered on a fixed-alignment station platform

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Glossary

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7my Edmo nanin B uilding and e nton Transit Corridor—a linear area between two centres, generally 1-2 kilometres wide, containing one or more transit lines with land uses clustered in nodes around transit stops or stations Transit Mode—transit vehicles and the associated operational characteristics that are used to transport passengers Transit Oriented Development (TOD)—development within a station area that is designed to support high levels of public-transit ridership with a relatively highdensity mix of residential and employment uses within 400 metres of the station platform. Densities typically remain high throughout the station area, but sometimes decrease between 400 and 800 metres from the station Transit Line—the trackway, guideway or roadway on which a transit mode travels and its associated stops or station; a transit route Transit Service Area—a city or region served by one or more transit modes Transparency—fine or sheer enough to be seen through from both sides Undeveloped Land—land that has not previously been developed, vacant land Underutilized Land—developed that is insufficiently utilized or is serving below its full potential, e.g. old strip mall, surface parking lot Urban Centre—a centre that serves as the economic and social focus of a metropolitan region with a minimum population of loo,000 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)—carbon-containing compounds that emit vapors into the air during evaporation; VOCs contribute to the formation of smog and/or may themselves be toxic chemicals Walkability—a measure of how friendly an area is to walking

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References , PPhinarirringBrIL ,idili ngg andAbvemagindEdmo

nton

2010 Public Transportation Fact Book, American Public Transportation Association,

Washington, D.C., April 2010. Adams, Cecil, Did General Motors Destroy the LA Mass Transit System?, The Straight Dope, Retrieved June 30, 2010 from http://www.straightdope.com/columns/ read/551/did-general-motors-destroy-the-la-mass-transit-system, January 1986. American Public Transportation Association, Retrieved May 26, 2010 from www.apta.com. Calgary LRT Network Plan, Retrieved June 2, 2010 from http://www.calgarytransit.com/pdf/ct_Irt_network_plan.pdf Calgary Transit Park & Ride Policy, Retrieved June 2, 2010 from http://www.calgarytransit.com/html/park_n_ride_policy.html Condon, Patrick M. and Kari Dow, A Cost Comparison of Transportation Modes, Foundational Research Bulletin, November 2009. Design Criteria, TRIMET, Portland, OR, January 2010. Destinations Matter: Building Transit Success, Reconnecting America, Center for Transit-Oriented Development, May 5, 2009. Dong, Hongwei, John Hunt, and John Gliebe, Linking Oil Prices, Gas Prices, Economy, Transport, and Land Use: A Review of Empirical Findings, Portland State University, 2008. Edmonton Transit Planning Handbook: A Development and Infrastructure Design Guide, Edmonton Transit System, 2004. Edmonton Transit System (ETS): About ETS, Retrieved June 4, 2010 from http://www.edmonton.ca/transportation/ets/about-ets.aspx Edmonton Transportation Galleries, Retrieved June io, 2010 from http://photos.edmonton.ca/Transportation Envision Midwayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;A Collaborative Planning Project, Overview of High-Capacity Transit Station Location Criteria, Retrieved from http://www.envisionmidway. com/Documents/Transit%200riented%20Development.pdf, May 21, 2008. Fischler, Stanley I., Moving Millions: An Inside Look at Mass Transit, Harper & Row, NewYork, NY, 1979 Fort Road Old Town Master Plan Implementation Report, City of Edmonton Planning and Development Department, August 2003. Fort Road Old Town Master Plan, City of Edmonton Planning and Development

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Department, November 2002. Fortin P., DiGrande L., Glaser M., Stayton C., and NewYork City Child Fatality Review Team, City Child Fatality Report, NewYork Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, NewYork, NY, June 2010. Goodwill, Julie and Sara J. Hendricks, Building Transit Oriented Development in Established Communities, Center for Urban Transportation Research, 2002. Gorman Community Concept Plan, City of Edmonton, May 2009. Gray, George E., and Lester A. Hoel, Public Transportation, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992. Hatcher, Colin K., Edmonton's Electric Transit, The Story of Edmonton's Streetcars and Trolley Buses, Railfare Enterprises Limited, Ontario, Canada, 1983. Heritage Valley Town Center Vision and Key Features, City of Edmonton Planning and Development Department Hook, Walter, Bus Rapid Transit: A Cost-Effective Mass Transit Technology, Air & Waste Management Association, 2009. Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, Retrieved May 26, 2010 from www.itdp.org Lewis Farms Area Structure Plan, City of Edmonton, Planning and Development Department, September 2007. Light Rail Transit Systems, European Conference of Ministers of Transport, Paris, France, 1994. Litman, Todd, Rail Transit in America: A Comprehensive Evaluation of Benefits, Victoria Transport Policy Institute and American Public Transportation Association, July 2010. Mathur, Shishir Dr. and Dr. Christopher E. Ferred, Effect of Suburban Transit Oriented Developments on Residential Property Values, Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose, CA, Created by Congress, 1991. Middleton, William D., Metropolitan Railways: Rapid Transit in America, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, ID, 2003. Mineta Transportation Institute: Glossary, Retrieved June 3, 2010 from hap:// transweb.sjsu.edu/MTIportal/research/Glossary.html Moore, Terry, and Paul Thorsnes, The Transportation/Land Use Connection: A Framework for Practical Policy, American Planning Association, Chicago, IL, 1994.

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44;

References PFir Plain r ingAca d e my pla nnin g, uH ding and Living in Edmonton National BRT Institute, Retrieved May 26, 2010 from www.nbrti.org Nordahl, Darrin, My Kind of Transit: Rethinking Public Transportation in America, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 2008. Ohland, Gloria and Shelley Poticha (eds.), Street Smart: Streetcars and Cities in the Twenty-First Century, Reconnecting America, Oakland, CA Om, Joshi B., TOD in Greenfield Edmonton, AACIP Planning Journal, Spring 2010. Plan Edmonton: Edmonton's Municipal Development Plan, City of Edmonton, Planning and Development Department, September io, 2008. Portland Streetcar: Development Oriented Transit, City of Portland Office of Transportation and Portland Streetcar, Inc., April 2008. Public Transit Improvements TDM Encyclopedia, Retrieved June 3, 2010 from http:// www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm47.htm, February 8, 2010. Public Transportation Takes Us There, Retrieved June 2, 2010 from http://www. publictransportation.org/contact/stories/calculator_o8.asp Public Transportation: Leading the Way, American Public Transportation Association, Visual Reference Publications, Inc., NewYork, NY, 2008. Public Transportation: On the Move, American Public Transportation Association, Visual Reference Publications, Inc., NewYork, NY, 2005. Puderer, Henry, Defining and Measuring Metropolitan Areas: A Comparison Between Canada and the United States, Statistics Canada, 2008. Region 2040 Decision for Tomorrow: Concepts for Growth, Metro Report to Council, June 3_994. RTD Transit Access Guidelines, Regional Transportation District, RTD Transit Access Committee, January 2009. S7o Light Rail Vehicle, Portland, OR, Siemens Service and Ridership Information, TRIMET, Portland, OR, October 2009. Sleek, Modern and Ready for Riders: Edmonton's New State-of-the-Art Light Rail Transit Vehicle Unveiled, Retrieved June 7, 2010 from http://www.edmonton. ca/transportation/RoadsTraffic/NewsRelease-LRTUnveilling.pdf, June 23, 2008. Smith, Jeffery J. and Thomas A. Gihring, Financing Transit Systems Through Value Capture: An Annotated Bibliography, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, October 2010.

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Snell, Bradford, The StreetCar Conspiracy: How General Motors Deliberately Destroyed Public Transit, Lovearth Network, Retrieved June 29, 2010 from http://www.lovearth.net/gmdeliberatelydestroyed.htm Span, Guy, Paving the Way for Buses: The Great GM Streetcar Conspiracy, Retrieved June 29, 2010 from http://www.baycrossings.com/Archives/2oo3/03_April/ paving_the_way_for_buses_the_great_gm_streetcar_conspiracy.htm, April 2003 Strategic Plan for Transit Oriented Development, Regional Transportation DistrictFastracks, 2008.

The Private Sector and Public Transit Service in Canada, Transport Canada, Retrieved July 15, 2010 from http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/programs/environnnentutsp-privatesectorcanada-974.htm The Way Ahead: City of Edmonton Strategic Plan 2009-2018, City of Edmonton The Way We Grow: Municipal Development Plan, City of Edmonton, May 26, 2010. The Way We Move: Transportation Master Plan, City of Edmonton, September 2009. Transit on the Move, Tucson Department of Transportation, Retrieved June 23, 2010 from www.tucsontransitstudy.com Transit Oriented Development 2009 Status Report, Regional Transportation DistrictFastracks Transit: Intermodal and Capacity, Light Rail, Commuter Rail and Rail Transit, and Major Activity Center Circulation, National Research Council (U.S.), Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2007. Transit: Management, Technology, and Planning, National Research Council (U.S.), Transportation Research Board Washington, D.C., 2007. Transportation Riders United: Understanding TOD, Retrieved June 24, 2010 from www.detroittransitorg/cms.php?pageid=44 Tumlin, Jeffrey and Adam Millard-Ball, How to Make Transit-Oriented Development Work, American Planning Association, May 2003. Vasconcellos, Eduardo A., Urban Transport, Environment and Equity: The Case for Developing Countries, Earthscan Publications, Ltd., London, UK, 2001. Vuchic, Vukan R., Transportation for Livable Cities, Center for Urban Policy Research, New Brunswick, NJ, 1999. Vuchic, Vukan R., Urban Public Transportation: Systems and Technology, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981.

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Edmonton (Alta.) - 2015 - Transit Oriented Development  
Edmonton (Alta.) - 2015 - Transit Oriented Development  
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