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The Aeneid Written in Latin in by Virgil (70-19 BC) paraphrased by Marie Sontag, 2004 from an English translation by John Dryden Illustrations by Daniel Sontag

Chapter 1 Lost at Sea Jealous Juno, the wife of Jove, (Jupiter) looked out from her celestial palace and, to her dismay, spotted Aeneas and his crew sailing for Italy. Juno poured out her anger to Aolus, god of the wind. "A race of wandering slaves, abhorred by me, with prosperous passage cut the Tuscan sea; to fruitful Italy their course they steer, and for their vanquished gods design new temples there. Raise all thy winds; with night involve the skies; sink or disperse my fatal enemies." Aolus knew better than to ignore the wrathful request of the goddess queen. She had hated Aeneas, the hero of Troy, ever since Jove's daughter, the goddess Venus, had arranged Aeneas' escape from the defeated Troy. The Trojans sailed toward Italy to make a name for themselves there.

2 "Tis yours, O queen, to will the work which duty binds me to fulfill." Aolus bowed low. "These airy kingdoms, and this wide command, are all presents to me from your bounteous hand." Having said this, Aolus hurled his quivering spear against a mountainside. Raging winds rushed out of the hollow opening, skimmed along the ground and then roared out to the sea. The fierce wind, Boreas, drove against the flying Trojan sails and rent their sheets. The helpless vessels tossed toward the skies. Three ships, hurled by the southern blast, crashed against hidden rocks. Aeneas saw the pilot of another ship torn from his rudder as the wind hurled him headlong into the deep. Above the violent waves Aeneas could see weapons, pictures, precious goods and floating men. Neptune, god of the sea, heard the sound of the raging billows breaking above him. Displeased, and fearing for his watery reign, he reared his awful head above the main. Serene in majesty, he rolled his eyes around the space of earth, and seas, and skies. He saw the Trojan fleet dispersed, distressed, and by stormy winds and winter's heaven, oppressed.


Full well the god his sister's envy knew, and what her aims and what her arts pursued. He summoned the wind Eurus and also the western blast. At first an angry glance on both he cast. Then, he thus rebuked them: "Audacious winds! From whence this bold attempt, this rebel insolence? Is it for you to ravage seas and land, unauthorized by my supreme command?" Thus shamed by Neptune, Aolus, god of the wind, hoarsely recalled his subject blasts. Neptune smoothed the seas with his trident and dispelled the darkness. He ordered beauteous seagreen nymphs to remove the vessels that had crashed on the rocks and to gently set them on the beach. Neptune himself heaved the ships that had landed on the shoals and placed them on the shore. Once on land, Aeneas, leader of the remnant band of Trojans, surveyed the damage. Only seven ships remained of the scattered fleet. Achates, Aeneas' good friend, repeatedly struck a flint until he got a fire going. Some men dropped wet on the ground near the fire. Others scoured their ships in search of corn to grind. Aeneas chose to climb a nearby hill and scout out the strange new land upon which they had been cast.

He first turned his gaze out to sea in search of other lost 4 ships, but he saw none. Aeneas then looked inland and saw a grassy plain on the other side of the hill. There, in a meadow just below him, he spotted seven stags. He pulled out a supply of quivers and his trusty bow. Within minutes he had dropped seven stags - one for each of the crews of the remaining seven ships. His men heartily enjoyed their venison feast. When all had eaten their fill, Aeneas addressed the ragged Trojans. "We will endure and conquer!" he began. "Jove will soon dispose to future good our past and present woes. What greater ills with pleasure you will relate your sorrows past, as benefits of Fate. Through these various hazards and events we move on to Latium, and the realms predicted for us by Jove. There our Trojan kingdoms once again will rise. Endure the hardships of your present state; live and reserve yourselves for better fate." These words Aeneas spoke, but not from his heart. His outward smiles concealed his inward smart.

Chapter 1 Review


To see how well you understood this first section, take the online quiz at: Study the vocabulary words below, then try your hand at this online cloze (word pop-up) review:


Chapter 1 - Vocabulary Words, Continued audacious – bold, daring, fearless insolence- insulting behavior trident- a three-pronged spear

Chapter 1 - Vocabulary Words celestial - heavenly dismay - sudden fear, to lose courage abhorred - to hate or shudder disperse - to break up or separate wrathful- violent anger

beauteous- full of beauty, perfection nymphs- lesser goddesses of nature, represented as beautiful maidens shoals- a narrow part of the sea; a bank or bar of sand remnant- a small fragment, a surviving trace stags- the adult male of a large deer

bounteous - plentiful, generous

quivers- a case or sheath for carrying arrows; also, the arrows in such a case

rent - an opening made by tearing

dispose- the power to deal with or settle an issue

billows - a great wave or surge of water

woes- grief, sorrow

main - the high seas

smart- a stinging pain of grief and sadness

audacious - daring, bold

Chapter 2 Carthage


8 Jove bent down and lightly kissed his daughter's head. "No councils have reversed my firm decree," he quietly began.

Venus gazed down upon her son from her throne in Mt. Olympus and uttered a motherly, heartfelt sigh. She then addressed her father, Jove (Jupiter).

"O King of Gods and Men, whose awful hand disperses thunder on the seas and land. How could my pious son thy power incense? Or what, alas, is vanished Troy's offense? Our hope of Italy not only is lost, on various seas by various tempests tossed, but shut are the Trojans from every shore. My earthly son is barred from every coast. Oh father, you promised once a progeny divine of Romans, rising from the Trojan line. But now, what can I hope? What worse can still succeed? What end of labors has your will decreed?"

"I have searched the mystic rolls of Fate. Thy son (nor is the appointed time far) in Italy shall wage successful war. He shall tame fierce nations in the bloody field and sovereign laws impose, and cities build. From Aeneas' line shall come a fair priestess and a queen. She shall, along with Mars, give birth to twins. This, and more I deem. The royal babes a tawny wolf shall drain. Then Romulus his grandfather's throne shall gain. A military power the founder shall become. The people will be called Romans, and their city, Rome. To them no bounds of empire I assign, nor term of years to their immortal line. An age is ripening in revolving fate when Troy shall overturn the Grecian state. Sweet revenge her conquering sons shall call, to crush the people that conspired Troy's fall. Then Caesar from the Julian stock shall rise, whose empire will swell across the tide, and whose fame the skies alone shall bound."

9 Meanwhile, Aeneas, cast upon the north African shore, tossed and turned, unable to sleep. When the sun finally restored the cheerful day, he rose, and, taking along his good friend Achates, he purveyed the coast, eager to discover where they had landed. Suddenly, out of the woods emerged a beautiful woman, dressed as a maid. Her long, brown hair hung loosely around her shoulders. In her hand she held a bow. Her quiver hung behind.

"Ho!" Aeneas called out to her. "Fair maid, could you tell a stranger, long in tempests tossed, what land we tread, and who commands the coast?"

Unknown to Aeneas, the fair maid was Venus, his mother, in disguise. "Know, gentle youth," the maid began, "in Libyan lands you reside. The rising city, which from far you see, is Carthage, and a Tyrian colony. The Phoenician, Queen, Dido, rules the growing state, who fled from Tyre, to dodge her brother's hate. No more advice is needful; but pursue the path before you, and the town in view."

10 Shrouded in a mist that was a parting gift from Venus, Aeneas and Achates took the path she had shown them. Unseen, the two Trojans entered the Carthaginian city. In the center of the town loomed a temple dedicated to the goddess, Juno, protector of Carthage. These words they saw in order, painted on the outer wall:

"Whatever did unhappily to Troy befall? What happened to that city whose fame around the world has blown the lives of every leader known?" Aeneas wept as he read these words. "Even here," he said to Achates, "The woes of Troy are known!" They continued to scan the scene. To their left they saw an image of Achilles sculptured into the side of the temple. It showed Achilles riding in his chariot, driving over the bodies of the slain Trojans. Suddenly, behind them, a commotion filled the air. Beauteous Queen Dido, with a numerous guards, ascended a sacred outdoor throne. She began to take petitions from the citizens and to hear their cases. Aeneas saw the mist around them lift and they now appeared in open sight. The guards gathered around the queen's throne as the citizens stepped back. Aeneas approached Dido's throne and knelt on one knee.

111 Before you kneels a prince who owes his life to you alone," Aeneas began. "Fair majesty, receive the shipwrecked on your friendly shore, I plead. With hospitable rites receive us, and in your palace entertain. What thanks can we wretched fugitives return, who, scattered throughout the world, in exile mourn? Behold. Before you kneels Aeneas of Troy."

The crowd gasped. Dido rose from her throne. Can, can it be?" she haltingly began. "Enter, my noble guest, and you shall find, if not a costly welcome, yet a kind one at best. For I myself, like you, have been distressed, until heaven afforded me this place of rest. Like you, an alien in a land unknown, I have learned to pity those

12 Having said this, she led Aeneas and Achates to the palace. There she offered incense, and proclaimed a feast. She ordered servants to deliver twenty fat oxen to Aeneas' men waiting on the shore, along with a hundred boars, lambs and jars of wine. Aeneas asked Achates to accompany the servants to the ships. He instructed his friend to return to the palace with precious gifts from the Trojan ships that he would offer to Dido, in return for her hospitality. "When you return to the palace," Aeneas instructed, "also bring my son, Ascanius, with you." Achates nodded and left.

Venus frowned on this turn of events. She knew that Juno watched over the city of Carthage. Venus also knew and feared Dido's double-tongue. She called upon her son, the god Cupid, for help. "You know, my son, how Jove's revengeful wife, by force and fraud, attempts thy half-brother Aeneas' life. How often you have mourned with me his pains he whom Dido now, with flattery, detains. I, however, do not trust this town where Juno reigns."

13 "Young Ascanius," Venus informed Cupid, "has been asked by Aeneas, his father, to come with presents from the port in order to gratify the queen, and gain favor with the court. However, I will plunge the boy, Ascanius, into a pleasing sleep, and you, taking on his form, will maintain a sweet deceit. When the queen draws you close, and with a kiss constrains, you will then your venom of love infuse in her veins." Cupid obeyed his mother and took on the form of Aeneas' son, Ascanius. When Ascanius and Achates returned to Dido's palace laden with gifts from the ships, Dido gratefully received the gifts and gave Ascanius a queenly kiss. Cupid seized the moment and filled her with love's toxin. Suddenly, only thoughts of the Trojan leader, Aeneas, filled her mind.

14 befall - to come to pass; to happen woes - grief, sorrow beauteous - full of beauty; perfection petitions - requests rites - conducting a ceremony wretched - very miserable fugitives - fleeing from danger; roaming exile - to be banished; cast out distressed - great suffering of body or mind; worry, anguish double-tongue - to lie; to say one thing and mean another infuse - to introduce gradually toxin - a poison produced by a living organism, such as bacteria

Chapter 2 Vocabulary Practice these words by going to the website at: can play Concentration, Matching, Flash Cards, or Word Search at

venom – a poisonous fluid; someone full of anger

15 Chapter 2 Vocabulary – Continued incense, as in, “How could my pious son thy power incense?” – to inflame with anger


shrouded – that which covers or hides something detain - to delay or make late

incense, as in, "There she offered incense." - material used to produce a perfumed odor when burned; often used in religious ceremonies

port - a harbor

tempest – a violent wind with rain

constrain - to hold back by force

deceit - to trick; fraud; cheat

barred – to prevent someone or something from going somewhere; a barrier progeny – descendants; offspring decreed – an authoritative order or command mystic – mysterious sovereign – highest authority impose – to lay down a law or a consequence tawny – yellowish-brown; tan conspired – to make an agreement in secret; to plot together swell – to increase in size; puff up

The goddess, Venus, tries to help _________?

The goddess, Juno, tries to help ____________?

Chapter 3



The Wedding When the goddess Juno realized what Cupid had done to Queen Dido, Juno angrily confronted Venus.

"What good does all this scheming do? How is Olympus honored by this fighting between me and you? Your Trojan with my Carthaginian, let us join. Dido shall be yours and Aeneas shall be mine. Together, they shall form one common kingdom, one united line." How well Venus knew the cunning Juno. Jupiter's wife really had only one purpose; she wanted to keep Aeneas in Carthage - to keep Aeneas from fulfilling his destiny in Italy. Venus, however, had her own scheme in mind.

"You are right, dear Juno. Do as you see fit. Only one question I ask. Will Jupiter allow it? Can such a marriage last?"

"I will tend to Jupiter." The crafty Juno smiled. "Tomorrow, when Dido and Aeneas go hunting, a dark cloud shall cover the plain, with hail and thunder, and a tempestuous rain. The fearful hunters shall take their speedy flight. All will disperse into the gloomy night. One cave a grateful shelter shall afford for the fair queen and the Trojan lord. I myself will the bridal bed prepare, if you, fair Venus, to bless their vows, will be there." The next morning, unaware of their fate, the regal group set out. Dido's charger, in bright gold and crimson, foamed at the bit and tossed its head. Aeneas rode up to her side, more lordly than Apollo, with laurel in his hair and golden weapons shining across his shoulders. Both a Trojan escort and a Carthaginian train attended the couple.

19 Before long, the hunting party reached the mountain heights, the hiding places where no trail runs. Suddenly, the skies darkened and thunder rolled. Rain and hail flooded down in torrents. Now, instead of hunting for beasts, they all hunted for shelter. Trojans and Carthaginians dashed wherever they could as streams poured down the mountains. Dido and Aeneas spotted a cave up ahead. They dismounted and rushed inside.

There, alone in the dark with only the two of them to keep themselves warm, Cupid's fire burned hot within Dido's veins. Poor Aeneas could not resist the beautiful queen. With Juno as bridesmaid and with the blessings of Venus, the two exchanged vows - the two became one When Jupiter (Jove) turned his eyes to Carthage, he could not believe what he saw. He swiftly summoned Mercury.

"Go forth, my son, my words relate. 20 Remind this Trojan of his fate. This hero is destined to command a powerful race and the Latian lands. Bid him with speed Queen Dido to forsake; with this command, the slumbering warrior wake."

Mercury passed over the seas and crossed the sands until, closing his wings, stopped on Libyan lands. Arriving there, he found the Trojan prince raising new ramparts for the town's defense. A purple scarf with gold embroidered over, (Queen Dido's gift) he wore about his waist. A sword, ornamented with glittering gems, hung idly by his side. Then, with winged words, the god began his rebuke. "O useless man, you woman's property, what are you making here, these foreign walls and Libyan towers to rear? Jove has sent me down with this severe command. What do you mean by lingering in the Libyan land?"

21 The pious prince was seized with sudden fear. Mute was his tongue, and upright stood his hair. Three of his chiefs he quickly called. He commanded them to repair the fleet and then prepare to sail with silent care. In the meantime, Aeneas pondered how he would tell Dido that he must leave at once. Surely Jupiter would inspire him, he thought. But he could not think of an easy way to break the news. Before Aeneas could approach her, Dido's servants informed her that the Trojan ships were preparing to leave the Libyan shores. Stunned, Dido confronted Aeneas. "Does our love mean nothing to you, or our exchange of vows? And so, betrayer, you hoped to hide your wickedness, to go sneaking off without a word?"

22 Aeneas longed to soothe her pain, but Jupiter did not inspire him with any words of comfort. The gods had given their orders. He must obey. Sadly, he turned toward his fleet and prepared for their departure.

Chapter 3 Vocabulary Words regal - royal, splendid charger - An officer's horse for battle or for parades crimson - a bright, dark-red color laurel - a small, evergreen shrub of southern Europe, used as a crown of honor train - a number of followers or attendants forsake - to leave, abandon ramparts - a defensive barrier, such as a fort

"Good queen," Aeneas began. "I must do as Apollo's oracle commands. Fate invites me to the Latian lands.� “That is the promised place to which I steer, and all my vows will be ended there. Fair queen, oppose not what the gods command. I am forced by my fate, thus I leave your happy land."

rear - to build or construct mute - speechless



Chapter 4 Sicily As the ships of Aeneas sailed across the sea, they looked back to shore and saw great flames rising up into the sky. What this meant they did not know; but they were sure that Dido was very angry and they feared she might do something terrible. Before long, there were signs of a great storm. The chief pilot, Palinurus, saw how dark the sky had grown and said to Aeneas, "What do these clouds mean? What is Father Neptune going to do next? We cannot get to Italy while the wind blows like this. Let us clear the decks and have the men put out their oars. We can shift the sails and enter the harbors of Sicily."

In honor of his father, Aeneas decreed that great games be held. They held ship races, running, javelin throwing, archery, and boxing. People came from all over the island to compete. While the Trojans were busy with the games, Juno was busy doing mischief. She looked down from Mt. Olympus and saw the women who had come with the Trojans sitting near the ships, crying. "Surely," one young maiden wailed, "we have traveled enough. Shouldn't we just settle here in Sicily?"

"You say well," Aeneas replied. "My dear father, Anchises is buried there. We will stop in Sicily."

Juno sent her messenger, Iris, to trick the women. Iris took the form of one of the Trojan woman named Beroe.

Now Acestes, the king of Sicily, was the son of a Trojan woman. He had entertained Aeneas before, and his people were very kind. When he saw the Trojan ships coming toward the land, he made haste to meet them. He came to shore wearing a lion's skin about his shoulders, and carrying a spear in his hand. He greeted them with many words of kindness, and sent a supply of food and drink to the ships.

"Surely," Beroe said as she approached the women by the ships, "it would have been better for us to have been killed by the Greeks when they took Troy. Seven summers have come and gone since we left our native country, and we are still wandering over sea and land. We seek this land of Italy, but it seems to be always flying before us. Here we have friends and kinfolk. Why don't we burn these accursed ships? I saw the prophetess, Cassandra, in a dream last night. She seemed to say, 'Here is your Troy; here in Sicily. ' And she put a torch in my hand. See now, my sisters, there are altars here with fire upon them. " She took a torch from one of the altars and threw it at the ships.


The women thought about what Iris (whom they thought was Beroe) said. Then, they also grabbed torches from the altars and tossed them at the ships. In a moment, the flames ran over the benches, the oars and the stems of pine. Someone ran at once to the Trojans as they sat watching the games. They looked up and saw a great cloud of smoke coming up from the sea. Ascanius, Aeneas' son, heard of the matter and immediately galloped down to the shore. When Ascanius got to the ships, he cried out, "What are you doing? This is not the camp of the Greeks you are burning. You are burning your own hopes! See, I am your own Ascanius." He took off his helmet and jumped off of his horse. Soon after, Aeneas and the other Trojans came. When the women thought about what they had done, they were much ashamed. Aeneas tore his robe and cried out, "O Jupiter, if you care for us at all, save our ships! If you are angry with me for some reason, if I have done something wrong, then slay me with your thunderbolts. But save my people." While he was still speaking, a great storm came up from the south, with thunder and lightning and a great rain. So the fire was put out. Nevertheless, four of the ships were burned entirely.


Aeneas was much troubled. Should he stay in Sicily, where he had friends? Even though the Fates had called him to Italy, there was always something to hinder his going. Then a certain priest, a wise man, one who knew better than all others the mind of the gods, said to him, "Surely we must go to the place that the gods call us. However, see now we have four ships burned. There are too many people here to take all of us to Italy. However, some do not want to go. There are old men and women who are weary of the sea. There are some who are weak, and some whose courage fails them. Let King Acestes, if he will, take these for himself. He can build a city for them and call it Acesta, after his own name." Aeneas went to sleep, thinking about what the priest had said. During the night his father appeared to him saying, "My son, Jupiter has sent me to you. Take the advice which has been given you. Choose out the best and strongest of your people to go with you, for you will face a strong and fierce people in this land of Italy. But first come and see me in the place where I dwell below the earth. The Sibyl, whose abode is in Cumae in Italy, will show you the way. There you shall hear all that shall come to you and to your children after you. And now I must go, for the morning is coming." Aeneas took counsel with the chief of the Trojans and with King Acestes. And so it was decided that some Trojans stayed in Sicily, and the rest sailed with Aeneas for Italy.


Chapter 4 – Vocabulary

Practice these words with a Hangman Game at: Flash Cards, Concentration and Word Searches for Chapters 3 and 4 at: decree - an authoritative order; command accursed – enduring the effects of a curse; horrible or hateful Sibyl - prophetesses of the ancient world abode - residence, dwelling counsel - advice or instruction Go to the website at practice vocabulary words from chapters 1-4.



Chapter 5

The Underworld After nine days of feasting on the island of Sicily, Aeneas and his men departed. The south wind blew softly, and the god of the sea gave them a smooth passage. So they came to the land of Italy, to Cumae, the dwelling of the Sibyl. The men pushed the ships onto the beach, making them fast with anchors and ropes. While they were busy with this, Aeneas went up to the temple. At the temple, he was met by the Sibyl, who was a prophetess. Aeneas implored her, "O Lady, I have something to ask of you. My father, Anchises, has bid me to go down to the place where he dwells among the dead. Will you, therefore, be my guide to Hades?"

30 Centaurs stood by the door. At the dark entrance to the river Styx stood the horrid Hydra, and Briareus with all his hundred hands. Stepping past these, the Sibyl and Aeneas climbed aboard Charon's boat and were led away downstream by the boatman. Aeneas noticed that the dank musty smell of the Underworld grew stronger the further downstream they went. On the left shore Aeneas saw husbands and wives, boys, unmarried maids, and mighty heroes from the past reaching out their hands toward Aeneas. They moaned with hollow groans, shrieks and feeble cries as they crowded the shore. Aeneas watched with curiosity as the boatman ferried some of the people over to the other side, but refused others. "Why are these people moaning?" Aeneas asked the Sibyl. "What do they want?"

The Sibyl said, "It is easy to go down to the dwellings of the dead, but it is hard to come back. Nevertheless, if it is lawful for you to go, then I will go with you. This is how you will know if it is lawful. There is, in the very middle of the woods, a tree on which there grows a branch of gold. If you can find this bough and are able to pluck it from its place, then you may know that it is lawful for you to go."

"Those on shore," Sibyl quietly explained, "died without receiving a proper burial. They must wander on the shore for 100 years. After that, Charon ferries them over to the other side."

So Aeneas went into the woods. The doves of his mother went before him, guiding him to the place where the golden bough was growing. When he saw it, he plucked it and it came off at once. Then he went back to the Sibyl, and the two went together to the Underworld.

Soon the boatman was rowing them across the Stygian lake and then left them off at the other side. Immediately, Aeneas faced Cerberus, the great three-headed dog, crested with snakes. The beast reared up on his back legs. His hair

Sadly, Aeneas recognized the faces of his comrades who had recently perished at sea. Aeneas looked away.


32 Anchises led Aeneas and the Sibyl to a hill. From there Aeneas could see a long procession of people below. Anchises waved his hand toward the throng of people below. "These are people yet to come. They form a procession of your progeny, my son. Notice the first in line."

bristled as he let out a loud growl. Sibyl threw out a large piece of bread soaked in honey that she had prepared beforehand. Cerberus' three greedy, grinning jaws gaped open, and then he lunged at the bait. A few seconds later he reeled, fell and filled up the entrance to the spacious cave behind him. Sibyl had soaked the bread not only with honey, but also with powerful drugs to charm the three-headed guard. They first passed Minos, the strict inquisitor who forgives the just and dooms the guilty souls. Next, they passed the place of punishment where fools repined their wretched state. Beyond the place of punishment Aeneas heard the groans of ghosts, the sounds of lashes and the dragging of chains. At last, they arrived at their desired destination. Before them lay extended plains of pleasure. Happy souls filled verdant fields. Above them hung a purple sky filled with stars and suns. Some people wrestled on the grass. Others sung heroic songs, while still others recited wondrous poetry. And there, sitting with the poets, sat Aeneas' father. Aeneas ran to him. Anchises stood and embraced his son. "Welcome, my son," Anchises greeted. "I bless the gods that once more it has been granted me to behold your face!"

Aeneas strained forward to see more clearly. A youth led the group, leaning on a shining spear. "His name is Silvius," Aeneas' father began. "He will be born of your fair wife, Lavinia, whom you shall meet in Italy." It seemed as if they stood on that hill for hours with Anchises pointing out name after name. Finally he paused, and then pointed once more. "Ah, see now, Romulus the great. And from his line shall come the Roman race!" Aeneas leaned forward again to see more clearly. A tall, handsome youth in the middle stood head and shoulders above the rest. Anchises slipped into poetry. "Two rising crests, his royal head shall adorn; born from a god, himself to godhead born!" Anchises predicted Romulus' birth from the god Mars, and a mortal, Latium woman. He also predicted that Romulus himself would one day become a god. "And now, see that group of soldiers dressed in the red and gold armor?"


Once again, Aeneas strained forward to get a better look. Below he saw a group of soldiers marching in formation. At their head stood a muscular looking leader.


Hydra -a serpent with nine heads; if any were cut off, two more would grow back in its place Briareus - a monster with 100 hands

"Those men, my son," Anchises continued, "are your Julian progeny. At the head is the mighty Caesar, impatient for the day when he will rule the world! Behind him is a form divine; the great Augustus, born to restore a better age of gold."

Charon - son of Erebus who ferried souls of the dead over the Styx (river of the Underworld dank - disagreeably moist musty - having a disagreeable odor caused by an object spoiling in close, muggy weather hollow - sunken, empty, not filled out ferried - to cross over a body of water

The trio stood a while longer on the hill, gazing at the descendants of Aeneas yet to come. Soon, however, the time came for Aeneas to return to the land of the living. Chapter 5 – Vocabulary Chapters 5 Review - fast - strong, secure Centaurs - a race of half man and half horse

crested - usually refers to a tuft or comb on the head of a bird or animal; the plume worn on a helmet inquisitor - an official investigator repined - to feel or express discontent verdant - green with growing vegetation


Chapter 6 Italy After they set sail, the south wind again blew softly, carrying them on to the place they sought. As they went, they passed by the island where Circe lived. She used to sit all day and weave on her loom. As she sat, she sang with a very sweet voice. If any traveler went in to see who it was that sang so sweetly, she would give him a cup of wine. But this wine was poisoned, and when the man had drunk it, Circe would wave a wand over his head, and he became a beast: a lion, a bear, a wolf, or a pig. The Trojans, as they sailed by, heard these creatures growling and roaring. But Neptune made the wind blow more strongly, so that they passed very quickly by, for he was afraid that they might come to some harm.

36 After a time, they came to a place where there was a great woods along the shore, and in the midst of the woods, a river called Tiber. Here they brought their ships to land. Aeneas, his son Ascanius, and some of the Trojans got out on to the shore and sat down under one of the trees to have their dinner. They made plates of dough, and on these they put such fruits as they could find. It was but a scanty meal, and when they had eaten all the fruits they were still hungry. Then they began to break up their platters of dough and to eat them. Ascanius began to laugh. "What are we doing? Do we even eat our tables?" When Aeneas heard these words, he was very glad, and he caught his son in his arms and kissed him, saying, "Now this is a good word that you have said! Long ago that dreadful creature, the Harpy, said that some day we should be so pressed by hunger that we would eat our tables. My father also prophesied that when we did this, we might know that we had indeed come to the land where we were to have a home. And now, this has come to pass. This is our home, and as for the hunger which I feared, lo! We have endured it, and are yet alive!" The country to which they had come was called Latium, and the name of the king was Latinus. Latinus was the greatgrandson of the god, Saturn. Saturn was the king of gods and men until his son, Jupiter, turned him out. Saturn then fled to Italy where he set up a kingdom and reigned in peace and happiness.

37 King Latinus had no son. He only had a daughter, named Lavinia, who was now of age to be married. Many chiefs of Italy wanted to marry her, but her mother, the queen, liked a certain young man, Turnus, the best. He was a good soldier and also the son of a king. King Latinus almost consented to have Turnus for a son-in-law, but the wise men, the priests and the prophets told Latinus that the gods did not wish for Turnus to marry Lavinia. They predicted that one day strangers would come to his land and that their king would marry his daughter. Aeneas learned of these predictions when he questioned people of the country upon his arrival. “I will send an embassy to this King Latinus, and beg of him that there be peace between his people and my people. But lest by chance either he or any one of the princes hereabouts should seek to do us harm, I will provide a place of defense.” So he chose a hundred men who should be ambassadors for him, and put crowns of olive on their heads, and sent them with gifts in their hands to the king. When these had set out, he marked out a place for a camp, and he commanded the people to work as hard as they could, making it strong with a mound and a ditch. The ambassadors, going on their way to the city, came to a great plain where the young men of the place were amusing themselves with contests and games. As soon as the Trojans were seen, one of the horsemen rode as fast as he could to the city, and told the king, “Some men in strange clothes have come, desiring to see you.” Latinus said: “Bring them before me.” And he put on his king’s robes, and sat on his throne.


King Latinus said, “Men of Troy, tell me why you have come to this land?” The chief of the ambassadors answered, “O king, we have not wandered out of our way, nor have storms driven us to this coast. We have come here on purpose. I doubt, not, O king, that you know how we were driven out of our own country. Who, indeed, is there on the whole face of the earth who does not know what a great destroying storm came out from the land of Greece and laid the great city of Troy even with the ground? What we ask of you, O king, is a parcel of ground on which we may build a city to dwell in; also that we may breathe the air and drink the water of this land. Be sure, O king, that we shall do no harm to this country, and that you will not be sorry for having received us. Of truth, many nations have desired for us to join them. But the gods laid a command upon us that we should come to this land of Italy. We pray you, O king, to receive these gifts which our lord Aeneas sends by our hands. This is the scepter which King Priam used to hold in his hand when he did justice among his people. These garments the ladies of Troy worked with their own hands.”

39 The king replied, “May the gods grant peace and friendship between us and you. We grant, men of Troy, the things for which you ask – a parcel of ground, and air and water. We also thank your king for his gifts. As for your king, Aeneas, if he wishes to be our friend, let him come and look upon us, face to face. Take also this message to him: ‘I have a daughter, whom the gods forbid me to marry to any prince of this land. For they say that there shall come a stranger from over the sea to be my son-in-law, and that from him shall come a race which shall raise the name of Italy even to the stars of heaven.’” Then Latinus said to his people, “Bring forth horses for these men.” Now there stood in the king’s stable three hundred horses, the swiftest of their kind: of these the servants brought forth a hundred, one for every Trojan. All of them had trappings of purple and bits of gold. To Aeneas himself the king sent a chariot drawn by two horses, which were of the breed of the horses of the Sun. So the ambassadors went back to the camp with noble gifts and a message of peace. When Juno saw that the Trojans were come to the land of Italy, and that they were building houses in which to dwell, and that King Latinus was showing them no little kindness, she said to herself, “So this wicked race has vanquished me. The flames of the burning city of Troy did not destroy them, nor did the sea swallow them up. They have come unharmed to the river Tiber, to the very place which they desired. Ah, but there is something I can do. The gods of heaven will not help me, so I shall go to the powers of hell. I shall see that

40 he buys his kingdom at a great price – the blood of Italy and the blood of Troy.”

Juno went down to the lower parts of the earth, and called to her Alecto, one of the Furies, who loved anger and war and treachery, and all evil and hateful things. Juno said to her, “Daughter of Night, I have suffered a wrong and disgrace. A man whom I hate, Aeneas, desires to have a kingdom in Italy. Keep him from it. He wishes to have Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus. See that he does not. Break this peace that the Latins and Trojans are making.” Alecto went to the palace of Latinus. She found the queen, Amata, in great anger. She did not wish to have Aeneas for her son-in-law. She wanted her daughter to marry Prince Turnus. The Fury thought, “The queen hates Aeneas already. I will turn her hatred into madness.” So she took a snake out of her hair and thrust it upon the queen. The evil beast crept about her so the poison got into her heart, then changed itself into a collar of gold around her neck, poisoning her very breath. The next thing the Fury did was to visit the city of Turnus. She took the shape of an old woman, the priestess

41 of the Temple of Juno. Standing by Turnus’ bedside, she spoke to him in his sleep. “Turnus,” she whispered, “are you content to lose that which is yours? King Latinus takes from you the wife he promised, and is about to hand over his kingdom to a stranger from over the sea. Juno sent me to tell you to arm your people. Drive these strangers from your land. Burn their ships with fire. It King Latinus will not give you his daughter as he promised, let him learn for himself that Turnus is not one who will suffer wrong.” Turnus awoke with a start. He did not know whether the things he had seen and heard in his sleep were true, but he felt his heart full of anger. He called for his arms and commanded all the young men to make ready for war. “I will drive these Trojans out of Italy,” he cried, “and if Latinus stands by them, he shall go also.” Now all that remained was for the Fury to create a quarrel between King Latinus and the Trojans. King Latinus had a man to keep his cattle and this man’s daughter, Silvia, had a tame stag. Silvia was very fond of her tame stag because her brothers had found it when it was a fawn and had brought it to her when she was young. Silvia would put garlands of flowers about its neck, comb its hair, and give it a bath. As it so happened, Ascanius, with other Trojans, was hunting that day, and his dogs caught the scent of the stag and followed it. When Ascanius saw the stag he shot an arrow and hit it. The Fury made sure the arrow did not miss. The stag, with its dying breath, ran back to Silvia’s house. Silvia

42 cried out for help. The Fury, hiding in the woods, made sure everyone in the area heard Silvia’s cries. Country folk came together, each picking up a weapon with which to fight the Trojans. One carried a firebrand, another a great club. Silvia’s father carried an ax. On the other hand, the Trojans ran together to help Ascanius, and soon there was a battle. When it was over, the Trojans, being more used to war, drove the Latins back. The Latins cried to the gods and to the king for vengeance. King Latinus said, “foolish Latins, you will pay for this madness with your lives. And Turnus will suffer even worse things than you. When you cry to the gods, they will not help.” In spite of the king’s warnings, the Latins made ready for war. They polished their shields, and sharpened their swords, spears and battle-axes.

Vocabulary - Chapter 6 Matching 1. scanty - barely sufficient 2. Harpy - One of a group of filthy, evil creatures, part woman, part bird, that snatched away the souls of the dead, or seized or defiled the food of their victims.



Chapter 7

seek King Evander. Say to the king that Aeneas, prince of Troy, wishes to make an alliance with him."

When Aeneas heard that the nations of Italy were gathering together against him, he did not know where to look for help. He knew that he and his Trojans were but few against many. While he was thinking about these things, he fell asleep. In his dreams the god of the river, Father Tiber, appeared to him.

Evander eagerly received Aeneas. "I know of you, Aeneas, Prince of Troy," Evander said. "We are both of the race of Atlas and we are both strangers in this land. The Latins hate us both. I am very sure that if they overcome you, they will also overcome me. Therefore, we will provide you with all the help we can. But now, you have come on a good day. Sit down and join us at our feast."


"You are welcome in this land," Father Tiber told him. "Do not be troubled by wars and rumors of wars, nor give up the work you have begun. It is the will of the gods that you shall prosper in the end. And now you are looking for help. Certain men from the land of Arcadia came to this country of Italy with their king, Evander, and have built a city that they call Pallanteum. These men are always at war with the Latins. Go to them, therefore, and make a treaty. The way you must go is by my river, north." When Aeneas awoke, he immediately took enough men to fill two ships and left the rest to work as hard as they could making the walls of their camp strong, and the ditch deep. By noon they had traveled some 20 miles, for Father Tiber had made their work easy. So they came to a place where there were seven hills, and a citadel was on one of them. There were also some houses scattered about. This was the city of Evander. Aeneas stood on the stern of his ship, holding out an olive branch in his hand. He cried out with a loud voice, "We are men of Troy; the Latins are our enemies; we

The next morning, old King Evander got up early from his bed, put on his tunic and sandals, girded his sword, and, with the skin of a panther over his left shoulder, went to call Aeneas. Pallas, the king's son, went with him. They found Aeneas already awake and dressed, for, indeed it was not a time when a man who had so much to think about could sleep long. "Great chief of Troy," Evander began, "we have all the good will in the world for you, but, as you see, there are but few of us in this little town. However, I have an idea. There is a city not far from this place that was built long ago by men from the land of Lydia. You know the Lydians well, for they are neighbors of Troy and fought alongside you against the Greeks." Evandar led Aeneas over to a morning fire and handed him some baked bread. Then he continued. "Long ago, when there

45 was a famine in the Lydians' country, some came over the sea to Italy and built a city named Agylla. The king of this city, Mezentius, was one of the most wicked of men, and after a while his people made a rebellion against him and set fire to his palace. He escaped with his life and fled to Turnus. So there is war between the people of Agylla, the Tuscans they are called - and Turnus. For Turnus wishes to bring back the king and to set him over the Tuscans again. However, the Tuscans do not want him back. When the Tuscans gathered their army together, they would have gone forth to war, but a prophet said to them, 'Tuscans, you do well to be angry with your king, and to fight against him and his friends. However, mark this. No man of Italy must be your leader. You must have a stranger to command you.'"

46 Then the horsemen rode out from the city, four hundred of them all, with Prince Pallas in the midst, fair as the Morning Star. And they came to a grove where the Tuscans, under their leader, Tarchon, had pitched their camp.

"When the Tuscans heard the prophet say this, they came to me and asked me to lead them. However, I am old and feeble. They then asked my son, Pallas, to lead them, but the prophet forbade it because the mother of Pallas was a woman of Italy. You, therefore, Aeneas of Troy, are the man whom they look for. You are in your prime, and you are altogether a stranger in race. Do you then stand forth and be the leader of these Tuscans? If so, Pallas shall go with you and learn from you to be a good soldier. Two hundred horsemen I will send with you, and there are two hundred men who follow Pallas, my son."

Meanwhile, back on Mt. Olympus,Venus had not forgotten her dear son. She said to Vulcan, her husband, "My dear husband, while the Greeks were fighting against Troy, I never asked you to make arms for my son, as did the goddess of the morning for her son, Memnon. For I said to myself, 'The gods have decreed that Troy shall fall. Why should my son waste his time and labor in giving help where help cannot be of any use?' But now, all things are changed. My son is come to this land of Italy by the will of the gods, but all the nations are gathering themselves together against him. I pray Thee, therefore, to help him and me that he may more easily gain the Latium lands. Make weapons for him that he may conquer his enemies and be safe against their spears and swords."

While the king was still speaking there was a great clap of thunder, and then the sound of a trumpet such as the Tuscans use. Aeneas knew these were signs of good and he said to the king, "Be of good cheer; all shall go well."

Vulcan agreed and set his workers to the task. When the weapons were finished, Venus laid them at Aeneas' feet. "These the god of fire has wrought for you. With these you need fear no enemy, no, not Turnus himself." Then she vanished.

47 While Aeneas was away gathering allies, Juno did not fail to see how she might do harm to the Trojans. "Now," she said to herself, "now is the time to attack, while their chief is away, and while their camp is but half finished." So she sent Iris, her messenger, to Prince Turnus with these words. "The chance which neither I nor anyone else, whether god or man, could promise you has come of itself. Aeneas has gone away to the city of Evander, hoping to make him his ally. He has left his ships and his camp, which is but half finished. Take the chance and attack them now." When Turnus heard these words, he called his army together and set forth, marching toward the camp which the Trojans had pitched by the seashore. The men who were watching on the wall saw a great cloud of dust and one of them cried out, "To arms, my friends! Make ready to defend the camp. The enemy is at hand." Then the Trojans shut the gates and manned the walls. For Aeneas had said to them, "Do not fight in the plain, whatever may happen. The enemy is too strong for you. Keep behind the walls." Turnus, riding on a Thracian horse, came up to the wall and threw his spear over it. So he began the siege. He rode around the camp, looking for a weak place by which he might enter. But he could find none, and the Trojans would not come forth. "Well," he thought to himself, if I cannot get at them, cowards as they are, at least I can burn their ships." So he called for torches and they rushed to the ships.

48 Chapter 7 Vocabulary Go to practice Matching Games for Chapters 6-9 vocabulary words citadel - a fort, a stronghold prime - the period in life of greatest health and strength wrought - beaten into shape; formed Thracian - From the area of Thrace that is near Greece siege - A continuing attempt to get possession of something



Chapter 8

The Battle at Camp As soon as it was light the battle began. The Latins put their shields together over their heads so closely that no one could thrust a spear through it. They called this tactic a "tortoise", because this creature has a very thick and strong shell. The Trojans, however, rolled up a great rock from the inside on to the wall, and this they pushed over the wall so that it fell down upon the "tortoise" and broke it down. Many Latins were crushed to death, and, after this, the Latins were not willing to fight any more in this way. Some put scaling ladders up against the wall, and climbed up to the top. But the Trojans thrust at them with poles and spears as they climbed, killing some and wounding some, pushing others off the steps of the ladders so that they fell to the ground. And, if by chance, a Latin did make it to the top of the wall, he was one among many and was either killed or cast down to the earth. The battle took a turn for the worse against the Trojans when Turnus threw a lighted torch at the great tower upon the walls. The fire caught the wood and inched its way from story to story, for the wind was blowing and made the flame fiercer by the minute. In a short time, the lower part burned away, and then the whole tower fell forward. At this, Aeneas' son, young Ascanius, took an arrow from his quiver and put the notch upon the string. He drew the bow with all his strength, saying a prayer and making a vow at the same time to Jupiter. Jupiter heard, and thundered on the left hand; and even as the thunder was heard, the arrow hissed

through the air and struck one of the Latins on the head, piercing it through from temple to temple. And so the battle raged, hour after hour, until dark. Only then did the weary warriors lay their arms down and rest.

While these things were going on at the camp, Aeneas made an alliance with the Tuscans under their chief, Tarchon. Aeneas went back in the first ship, along with Pallas, the son of Evander, at his side. After him came the ships of the Tuscans, and with the Tuscans came others from the northern parts of Italy, some 8,000 men in thirty ships. All that night they rowed down the river, and Aeneas sat at the helm of his ship, his heart too full to care about sleep. About midnight he saw a strange sight. There came up to the side of his ship a nymph. She laid one hand upon the ship, and with the other she swam. She then related this message to him. "Know that your son and your people are besieged in the camp. Put on the armor that the Fire-god made for you and hasten to help them." When she had said this, she put her hand under the keel of the ship and pushed it on. Her companions did the same to the other ships. Quickly did they pass through the water and when the day began to break they were at their journey's end.

51 Aeneas passed the word along the fleet that everyone should make himself ready for battle. He himself stood up on the stern of his ship and lifted his shield in his left hand. It shone brightly in the sun. All the Trojans in the camp saw it and were glad, for now, they knew, their chief had come back to them. Turnus and his men also saw it and were much astonished. For the sea was covered with ships and Aeneas was in the midst of them. From his helmet and from his shield there shone a terrible light, like the light of a comet when it flares in the sky at midnight. Nevertheless, Turnus did not lose courage for a moment. "Now you have what you wished for, men. Your enemies do not hide themselves behind walls, but are come to meet you face to face. Let us make haste and fight before they can get firm footing on land." By the time Turnus and some of his men arrived at the shore, many of their enemies were already making their way to shore. The battle raged on long and hard. Aeneas slew the tallest man in the army of Turnus. Theron was his name. He wore a heavier and stronger coat of mail than any other man, but Aeneas drove his spear right through it. He then slew the two sons of Melampus, who was the companion of Hercules. They, too, were giants among men, but they could not stand against Aeneas. In another part of the field Pallas and his Arcadians were fighting. The Arcadians were used to fighting on horseback,

52 but now they were forced to fight on foot. Many Arcadians fled before the enemy. Pallas cried out to them. "Now, by the name of your king, Evander, stand firm!" So saying, he rushed into the thickest of the fight, and his people followed. And now the nymph, Juturna, the sister of Turnus, hastened to her brother, and told him what havoc Pallas was making among the Latins. At once Turnus left the place where he was fighting. As he drove his chariot through the ranks of his army he cried, "Leave Pallas to me. He is mine. Let no one presume to meddle with him." Pallas heard him speak, and looked at him, noticing his noble look. "This is one worth fighting with," he said. "I shall either win spoils that will make me famous forever, or I shall die with honor." Then he rushed forward to meet the enemy. The Arcadians, however, stood cold with fear. Then Turnus leaped down from his chariot. He would meet this bold youth on equal terms. Pallas, before he threw his spear, breathed a prayer to Hercules. "O mighty hero, if you remember the house where of old you were a guest, help me today. Maybe I am too bold to meet so great a chief, yet, if it may be, help me to lay that proud warrior level with the ground and to spoil him of his arms." Hercules heard the prayer where he sat on his throne in heaven, and it grieved him to the heart that he could not help. Then Jupiter said, "My son, the days of man are but short, and each has his appointed time. But the brave man lives after death by the praise that men give to noble deeds. This

53 youth must die, but he shall not be forgotten. And for Turnus, too, the day of death is near." First Pallas threw his spear. It pierced the shield of Turnus. It pierced his coat of mail, and it grazed the skin of his shoulder. Turnus stood awhile, balancing his spear. Then he threw it, with a better aim. It pierced Pallas' shield, the stout bull's hide and the iron, and the coat of mail. It struck Pallas full in the chest. From chest to back it passed, and in a moment Pallas fell dead upon the plain. Then Turnus stood over the dead man and said, "Men of Arcadia, take this message to your king. I send him back his Pallas. Let him bury his son with all honor." So saying, he put his foot upon the body and dragged from it the belt, a wonderful work heavy with figures wrought in gold. Before many days had passed, he would wish that he had never taken it. Then the Arcadians lifted up the body of their young chief and laid it on the shield and carried it out of the battle. When Aeneas knew that Pallas had been slain and that his people were being beaten in the battle, he made all the haste he could to help them. Many of the enemy he killed.

54 Chapter 8 Vocabulary Go to practice Matching Games for Chapters 6-9 vocabulary words besieged - to surround with armed forces keel - a series of timbers extending along the center of the bottom of a vessel stern - the rear end of a vessel meddle - to interest oneself unnecessarily; to interfere spoil - to rob arms - weapons

Chapter 9


The Final Battle The Trojans and Latins called for a 12-day truce to bury their dead. Queen Amata and Princess Lavinia led the women of the city to the Temple of Juno and prayed for victory against the Trojans. After the twelve days, Turnus gathered his men and led them out the city gates, where he met Camilla and her maidens on horses, all armed and ready for battle. Camilla offered to meet Aeneas head-on, while Turnus and his men waited in ambush in the valley by which Aeneas would approach the city. Since only a child, Camilla could sling a stone, hitting cranes and wild swans as they flew high in the air. Loved and protected by the goddess Diana, Camilla grew strong and beautiful, but never had a thought of marriage, having fallen in love with hunting and fighting. The goddess Diana sat in the heavens and watched as Camilla and her maidens rode out to battle the Trojans. Diana instructed Opis, chief of the nymphs who waited on her, “Camilla goes to fight in this war. There is not a girl in Italy that I love more, but her fate is on her. I give you this charge, Opis. Go down to the Latin land, taking your bow and arrows, and see that any man who harms her shall himself be slain. And when she is dead, no man shall take her weapons. I, myself, will

carry back her body and belongings to her native land.”


Aeneas and the Trojans came towards the city with the horsemen in front. Camilla charged the Trojans from the front, and then Turnus and his men charged from the side. One of the Trojan allies, a Tuscan, charged one of the Latin chiefs, and drove him from his horse, making him fly through the air. Many Latins turned and fled, with the Trojans and Tuscans following close behind. When the Trojans neared the city walls, the Latin boys and women threw sticks at the Trojans from the heights above, so the Latin soldiers took courage and faced the Trojans. Camilla, atop her horse, fought the enemy with her battleax and sometimes with her bow and arrows. Ornytus, the tallest Tuscan, fell beneath her blade. “Did you think, O Tuscan,” Camilla mocked as Ornytus lay dying on the ground, “that you were hunting wild beasts today? A woman’s arms have brought all your boasts to nothing.” As Camilla continued to slay man after man, her arrows never missing a mark, her blade never failing to bring down an opponent, Tarchon the Tuscan shouted out to his horsemen, “What is this, you cowards? Shall a woman drive you before her? Follow me!” Tarchon rode at Venulus, prince of Tibur, and dragged him from

his horse.


Arruns, a great archer, took courage and looked for a chance to kill Camilla. He noticed that Camilla suddenly grew fascinated with the purple Tyrian robe and gold armor worn by a priest riding splendidly in the midst of the battle. Camilla, having a woman’s love of beautiful things, followed the priest, thinking how she might take these splendid spoils. Arruns saw his chance and drew his bow. Having hit his mark, Camilla reeled upon her horse. Her companions closed round her and caught her as she fell. Camilla laid her hand on the arrow to pull it out, but it had gone too deep. Her eyes swam in death, and the color that was as the color of a rose faded from her cheek. Arruns, at first, lay in hiding, but now came out to boast. Then Opis drew her bow with all her strength, until the ends almost came together, and let the shaft fly. Arruns herd the twang, and even while he heard it, he fell dead upon the plain. Great confusion ensued. Some were trodden down by their own people. The keepers of the gates shut them close, so that their own friends were left outside. After much passage of time, both sides wearied of the battle. Turnus called a herald to his side and said, "Go to the Trojan king and bear this message. Tell him that the two of us will fight, man to man, tomorrow in an open space. The one who prevails shall have Lavinia for his wife."

58 The next day the men of Italy and the men of Troy measured out a piece of ground where Aeneas and Turnus would fight each other. The Trojans sat on one side with their allies, and the Latins on the other, their spears fixed in the earth, and their shields laid by their sides. All the walls of the city were crowded with women and old men to see the fight. When everything was ready, the two kings came to make the agreement. First, they offered sacrifice on the altar that was erected on their battleground. After prayers and sacrifices were offered, they cast their spears at each other. Then they ran together, their shields striking with a great crash. First Turnus struck a great blow with his sword, and all the Trojans and all the Latins cried out when they saw him strike - one side with hope, the other with fear. But Turnus' sword broke in the blow. When Turnus saw the empty hilt in his hand, he turned to flee. Aeneas pursued him. Turnus' sister, the nymph, appeared a put a sword into Turnus' hand. When Venus saw this, she too came down and gave Aeneas a spear. Then Jupiter said to Juno as they sat watching the battle, "How long will you fight against fate? Should the nymph have given back Turnus his sword? You have driven the Trojans over land and sea, filled Italy with death, and turned the marriage song into mourning. You may not go any further. I decree it!"

Juno answered humbly, "This is your will, and I will yield. But grant me this. Do not let the Latins be called by the name of Troy, or change their dress or their speech. Let Rome rule the world, but let Troy perish forever."

Jupiter answered, "It shall be so. All you have asked I will give. The Italians shall not change name, or dress or speech. The men of Troy shall become Latins, and you will be honored by them all." Turnus saw a great stone nearby, so, rather than use his sword, he lifted it from the ground. Running forward, he cast it at Aeneas. The stone fell short. Aeneas' dreadful spear pointed at him. For a while, Aeneas stood, shaking it in his hand, waiting until his aim was sure.

Then he threw it with all his might. It came like a whirlwind, and pierced the seven folds of Turnus' shield, making a deep wound in his thigh. Turnus dropped with his knee on the ground, and all the Latins groaned aloud to see it. Then he said, "I have deserved my fate. Take what you have won. And yet, have mercy on me. Pity the old man, my father. You had such a father as I. Give me back to my own people. They have seen me beaten. They see me beg my life from you. Lavinia is yours. Therefore spare my life." Aeneas stood in doubt. He thought of sparing Turnus, but then his eye fell on the belt of Pallas, now fastened around Turnus' waist. He cried out with a dreadful voice. "Shall I spare you when you wear the golden belt of my friend, Pallas? Not so. Take this. It is Pallas who slays you!" And he drove his spear into Turnus' chest. So the spirit of Turnus passed into the darkness. Aeneas married the fair Lavinia and built a city which he called after her name. This city soon grew to be a great place, for the people in the country round about heard the fame of the great Aeneas, how brave he was in battle, and how just, and they came in great numbers to be his subjects. Lavinia had a son, and Ascanius thought it would be well for him to leave the city of Lavinium to his young brother, so he went to start a city of his own. He built a new town for himself and called it Alba Longa - that is, the Long White Town.



Years later, a wonderful thing happened. Two babies, children of a princess descended from Aeneas, were left out to die by a cruel uncle. But a she-wolf that had lost her own cubs nursed them, and they grew up to be the strongest men in the country. As time went on, the village was turned into a town, and the town was made a strong place. The people who lived in it called themselves Romans. Little by little they made wider their boundaries and increased their power. More than once their city was taken. Still, however low it fell, it rose again, stronger than before. It conquered first all Italy, and then countries nearest to it, then faraway nations in Asia and Africa. Most wonderful of all, I say, is that we have from them Law and Order. But this is a matter of which you will hear more when you are older. Chapter 9 – Vocabulary Go to practice Matching Games for Chapters 6-9 vocabulary words herald - an officer who makes public announcements sure – firm, secure, steady

Years later, a wonderful thing happened. Two babies, children of a princess descended from Aeneas, were left out to die by a cruel uncle. But a she-wolf that had lost her own cubs nursed them, and they grew up to be the strongest men in the country. As time went on, the village was turned into a town, and the town was made a strong place. The people who lived in it called themselves Romans. Little by little they made wider their boundaries and increased their power. More than once their city was taken. Still, however low it fell, it rose again, stronger than before. It conquered first all Italy, and then countries nearest to it, then faraway nations in Asia and Africa. Most wonderful of all, I say, is that we have from them Law and Order. But this is a 58 57 matter of which you will hear more when you are older. Chapter 9 – Vocabulary Go to to practice Matching Games for Chapters 6-9 vocabulary words herald - an officer who makes public announcements sure – firm, secure, steady


An abridged, paraphrased version of Virgil's Aeneid, describing the beginnings of ancient Rome.


An abridged, paraphrased version of Virgil's Aeneid, describing the beginnings of ancient Rome.