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Vol. 61, No. 4 – September 2018

AEG/IAEG 2018 San Francisco Program with Abstracts


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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

AEG News (ISSN 0899-5788; USPS 954-380) is published five times a year by the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), with the regular issues Nos. 1–3, published in April, July, and December, respectively. The Annual Report and Directory issue is published in March. The Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts is published in September. Print copies are distributed at the meeting. Association members receive the electronic copy of all five issues of the AEG News as part of their dues. Print subscriptions for Association members, which includes all five issues of the AEG News, is $30 in addition to annual membership dues. Nonmember annual subscription is $40, and includes only the three regular issues (#1–3) of the News. The Annual Report and Directory issue is priced separately. Back issues of AEG News are $12 each. Inquiries should be sent to AEG Headquarters: Association Manager, 201 East Main St., Suite 1405, Lexington, KY 40507 859-469-5800.

Periodical Postage paid at Lexington, KY, and additional mailing offices: POSTMASTER: Send address changes to AEG News, 201 East Main St., Suite 1405, Lexington, KY 40507, USA. AEG News is printed by Allen Press, Lawrence, KS, 66044, USA. © 2018 Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists—All Rights Reserved Views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those officially representing the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists except where expressly stated.

AEG News Co-Editors Anna Saindon Chrissey Villeneuve Geotechnology, Inc. chrissey.aeg@gmail.com 11816 Lackland Road, Suite 150 Ashley Wachhaus St. Louis, MO 63146 ashley.aegnews@gmail.com 314-581-6286 General Submissions: news@aegweb.org news@aegweb.org

Managing Editor/Production Andrea Leigh Ptak Communicating Words & Images 6542 52nd Ave. So. Seattle, WA 98118 206-300-2067 www.andrealeighptak.com andrealeighptak@me.com

Submission Information

Table of Contents Table of Contents Hotel Layout Schedule of Events Technical Session Numbers and Names Meeting Committee Chairs Acknowledgements and Special Thanks Welcome Letters AEG 2018 Awardees AEG Foundation 2018 Scholars

4 9 14 17 18 20 26 27

Exhibitors, Sponsors and Acknowledgements Exhibitors Sponsors

29 35

2018 Technical Program Program Keynote Speakers The 2017–18 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer The 2018–19 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer Outstanding Environmental & Engineering Geologic Project

41 41 47 48 49

Technical Program Schedule Monday, September 17 Tuesday, September 18 Thursday, September 20 Friday, September 21 Poster Sessions

63 66 72 79 84 89

Meeting Abstracts Author and Title Index

229

In order of preference:

List of Full Papers Published in the Congress Proceedings

271

1. Send files via email, preferably as attachments, to both email addresses above. Optimum file format is MSWord 2011. Users of other software programs should convert their file to ASCII or text only.

The association

2. Images should be sent as high-resolution jpeg or tiff files. Questions? Contact Andrea Ptak at 206-725-9169/andrealeighptak@me.com. 3. The policy of AEG News editorial staff is to limit the credentials of an individual to two. For example, if John Smith has a MS, a PhD and a PG plus a CEG and a CGWP, his credentials would be limited to John Smith PhD, PG, the two principal credentials. BS/BA and MS degrees will not be recognized. No effort will be made by the AEG News editorial staff to determine if individuals whose credentials are missing from the submitted copy actually have academic or professional credentials, nor will the staff verify the existence or correctness of the credentials submitted. For detailed guidelines visit: www.aegweb.org/?page=SubmitToAEGNEWS

Advertising in the News

2017–18 Officers President: GREGORY (GREG) L. HEMPEN Geophysical Consultant, 314-608-5843, president@aegweb.org Vice President/President Elect: DAVID F. FENSTER Retired, 301-520-6507, rockpic001@gmail.com Treasurer: CYNTHIA PALOMARES Texas Engineering Extension Service, Texas A&M University, 979-567-6372, cynthiapalomarescon@gmail.com Secretary: WILLIAM GODWIN Consulting Geologist, 831-884-3308, aegodwin312@gmail.com Past President: DALE C. ANDREWS Carmeuse Lime & Stone, 412-995-1036, dale.andrews@carmeusena.com

Association Contacts

Submission Deadlines

Headquarters: Association Manager: KRISTY HOWARD AMR Management Services 201 East Main St., Suite 1405, Lexington, KY 40507 859-469-5800, manager@aegweb.org

www.aegweb.org/?page=SubmitToAEGNEWS

AEG Foundation—President: KERRY CATO, president@aegfoundation.org

Contact AEG Headquarters at manager@aegweb.org.

Canada Agreement number: PM40063731; Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: Station A, PO Box 54; Windsor, ON N9A 6J5; Email: returnsil@imex.pb.com

September 2018

Communications Co-Directors: MATT BRUNENGO, 503-534-0414, mbrunengo@aol.com, and RYAN MARSTERS, marsters.ryan@gmail.com

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

3


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

HYATT REGENCY SAN FRANCISCO 5 Embarcadero Center San Francisco, California 94111, USA T +1 415 788 1234 F +1 415 398 2567 sanfrancisco.regency.hyatt.com

FLOOR PLAN Street Level

REGENCY

PLAZA

A

B

ROOM

VALET ENTRANCE

REGENCY

GRAND GRAND

BALLROOM

BALLROOM

A

DRUMM STREET

FOYER

ENTRANCE

MAIN HOTEL

ELEVATOR

GRAND

GRAND

BALLROOM

BALLROOM

B

C

WOMEN'S LOUNGE

MEN'S LOUNGE ESCALATORS

MARKET STREET VALET PARKING

FOYER ELEVATORS

CAR RENTAL DESK

MARKET STREET

4

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

HYATT REGENCY SAN FRANCISCO 5 Embarcadero Center San Francisco, California 94111, USA T +1 415 788 1234 F +1 415 398 2567 sanfrancisco.regency.hyatt.com

FLOOR PLAN Bay Level

WOMEN'S LOUNGE

GOLDEN GATE

MEN'S LOUNGE

BAYVIEW

MARINA

STAIRS TO ATRIUM

FOYER

ROOM

ROOM

B BAYVIEW ROOM B

SEACLIFF D BAYVIEW ROOM SEACLIFF

A

SEACLIFF FOYER

DRUMM STREET

C

BAYVIEW

SEACLIFF

WOMEN'S LOUNGE

FOYER

B

A

MEN'S LOUNGE

SEACLIFF A

ELEVATOR

ESCALATORS

SALES & EVENTS BUSINESS CENTER

MARKET STREET

September 2018

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

HYATT REGENCY SAN FRANCISCO 5 Embarcadero Center San Francisco, California 94111, USA T +1 415 788 1234 F +1 415 398 2567 sanfrancisco.regency.hyatt.com

FLOOR PLAN Atrium Lobby Level

GARDEN ROOM B

GARDEN ROOM A STAIRS TO BAY LEVEL

WATER FRONT A

B

WATER FRONT HOTEL STORAGE

C

D

E

KITCHEN STAIRS TO BAY LEVEL & JUSTIN HERMAN PLAZA

LOWER ATRIUM ECLIPSE KITCHEN & BAR THE MARKET

BOARD ROOM C

UPPER ATRIUM WOMEN'S LOUNGE ECLIPSE SCULPTURE

DRUMM STREET

REGISTRATION

MEN'S LOUNGE

BOARD ROOM B CONCIERGE

ADMINISTRATION OFFICE

BELL STAND

BOARD ROOM A

GIFT SHOP

ESCALATORS

ELEVATORS

STAYFIT GYM

MARKET STREET

6

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Exhibit Hall Layout See Page 29 for list of exhibitors and their booth numbers.

September 2018

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

7


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

HYATT REGENCY SAN FRANCISCO 5 Embarcadero Center San Francisco, California 94111, USA T +1 415 788 1234 F +1 415 398 2567 sanfrancisco.regency.hyatt.com

FLOOR PLAN 3-D Levels GARDEN ROOM A

GARDEN ROOM B

WATER FRONT STAIRS TO BAY LEVEL

KITCHEN

A

ECLIPSE KITCHEN & BAR

THE MARKET

WATER FRONT

B

C

D

LOWER ATRIUM

UPPER ATRIUM ECLIPSE SCULPTURE

REGISTRATION CONCIERGE ADMINISTRATION OFFICE BELL STAND

GIFT SHOP

ESCALATORS

E

STAIRS TO BAY LEVEL & JUSTIN HERMAN PLAZA

BOARD ROOM B

BOARD ROOM A

MEN'S LOUNGE

BOARD ROOM C

WOMEN'S LOUNGE

STAYFIT GYM ELEVATORS

WOMEN'S LOUNGE MEN'S LOUNGE

MARKET STREET

GOLDEN GATE ROOM

MARINA ROOM

STAIRS TO ATRIUM

ET

SEACLIFF FOY ER

SEACLIFF D DRUMM STRE

BAYVIEW FOYER B

BAYVIEW ROOM B BAYVIEW ROOM A

SEACLIFF C

WOMEN'S

BAYVIEW FOYER A

SEACLIFF B

MEN'S

LOUNGE

LOUNGE

SEACLIFF A ELEVATOR ESCALATORS SALES & EVENTS

BUSINESS CENTER

MARKET STREET

PLAZA ROOM

REGENCY B

VALET ENTRAN

CE

REGENCY A

GRAND BALLROOM A

ENTRANCE

MAIN HOTEL

GRAND BALLROOM FOYER

GRAND BALLROOM B ELEVATOR

GRAND BALLROOM C

WOMEN'S LOUNGE MEN'S LOUNGE

ESCALATORS

ELEVATORS

VALET

MARKET STREET FOYER

CAR RENTAL DESK

PARKING

C

D

K

L

E

J

M

F

I

N

G

H

O

B

A

PACIFIC CONCOURSE FOYER

WOMEN’S LOUNGE MEN’S LOUNGE

ELEVATOR

MARKET STREET

8

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Schedule of Events This schedule is subject to change. Schedule updates will be listed in the Guidebook Mobile App. EVENT

PLACE

TIME

IAEG Executive Committee

Waterfront A

9:00am–6:00pm

IAEG Executive Committee Dinner

Waterfront B

6:00pm

Field Course #2: Yosemite National Park (2-day)

Depart from Hotel Lobby *returns at 5:00pm on 9/16

7:00am*

Registration

Atrium

7:00am–5:00pm

IAEG Executive Committee

Waterfront A

9:00am–6:00pm

IAEG Executive Committee Dinner

Waterfront B

6:00pm

Registration

Atrium Grand Ballroom Foyer

7:00am–12:00pm 12:00pm–7:00pm

Field Course #5: San Francisco Mélanges and Bimrocks

Departs from Hotel Lobby

7:00am–5:00pm

Short Course #2: geoDRONEology©: Geoscientific Mapping by Drone

Seacliff CD

8:00am–5:00pm

K–12 Teacher Workshop – Sponsored by California Geological Survey

Marina

8:00am–12:00pm

AEG Executive Council Meeting

Boardroom A

8:00am–5:00pm

AEG Foundation Board Meeting

Boardroom B

8:00am–5:00pm

IAEG Council Meeting

Garden Room

8:00am–5:00pm

Exhibitor Set Up

Pacific Concourse

12:00pm–5:00pm

AEG Chapter Chair/Advisory Panel

Regency AB

3:00pm–6:00pm

Student/Professional Networking Reception

Waterfront CDE

5:15pm–6:15pm

Welcome (Icebreaker) – Sponsored by Geobrugg

Pacific Concourse

6:30pm–8:30pm

Speakers and Moderators Breakfast

Waterfront CDE

6:30am–7:30am

Registration

Grand Ballroom Foyer

7:00am–5:00pm

Speaker Preparation Room

Boardroom C

7:00am–5:00pm

Committee Room 1

Boardroom A

8:00am–4:00pm

Committee Room 2

Boardroom B

8:00am–4:00pm

Poster Session Presentations

Pacific Concourse

8:00am–7:00pm

Exhibitors

Pacific Concourse

8:00am–5:00pm

Opening Ceremony/Greetings

Grand Ballroom

8:00am–8:15am

CA State Geologist: John Parrish

Grand Ballroom

8:15am–8:45am

Keynote: Dr. David Rogers – The Origins of Engineering Geology are in California

Grand Ballroom

8:45am–9:15am

Keynote: Dr. Runqiu Huang – The Chain of Geohazards Induced by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake – Ten Years of Lessons, Advances, and Challenges

Grand Ballroom

9:15am–9:45am

Guest Tour #1: Presidio and Walt Disney Family Museum (Golden Gate National Recreation Area)

Departs from Hotel Lobby

9:00am–3:00pm

Morning Break

Pacific Concourse

9:45am–10:15am

AEG Outstanding Environmental & Engineering Geologic Project

Grand Ballroom

10:15am–10:40am

AEG Foundation Awards

Grand Ballroom

10:40am–10:55am

IAEG Awards

Grand Ballroom

10:55am–11:10am

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 15

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 16

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 17

September 2018

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

9


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS EVENT

PLACE

TIME

Grand Ballroom

11:10am–11:35am

Introducing the 2O18/2019 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Applied Geology: Deborah Green Grand Ballroom

11:35am–12:00pm

Exhibitor Hosted Luncheon – Sponsored By ConeTec/California Push Technologies

Pacific Concourse

12:00pm–1:30pm

Technical Session #1: Dam Symposium – Part I

Grand Ballroom B

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #2: Geology in the Community Symposium

Marina

1:40pm–3:20pm

Technical Session #3: Environmental Characterization of Minerals & Pipe Erosion Modeling

Bayview A

3:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #4: Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping

Seacliff AB

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #5: Aggregates Symposium

Garden Room

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #6: Tunnel Symposium – Part I

Grand Ballroom C

1:35pm-5:00pm

Technical Session #7: Seismogenic Landslide Hazards

Seacliff CD

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #8: Quantifying Climate Change

Bayview B

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #9A: Mineralogy/Rock Mechanics

Waterfront AB

1:40pm–3:20pm

Mid-Afternoon Break

Pacific Concourse

3:20pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #9B: Geochemical/Water Contamination

Waterfront AB

3:40pm–5:00pm

IAEG Richard Wolters Prize Competition

Marina

4:15pm–5:30pm

IAEG Commission 37 Meeting: “Landslide Nomenclature”

Boardroom B

4:00pm–5:30pm

IAEG Commission 17 Meeting: “Aggregates”

Boardroom A

5:00pm–6:00 pm

Poster Reception with Happy Hour – Sponsored by SFB Consulting

Pacific Concourse

5:00pm–7:00pm

IAEG C29 Structure and Behavior of Soil and Rock Mass Workshop

Boardroom B

5:30pm–6:30pm

AEG Publications Committee

Regency AB

5:30pm–6:30pm

Young at Heart Student/Professional Special Event – Ticketed Event, Sponsored by: AEG SYPSC Committee, AEG San Francisco Bay Area Chapter, AEG Foundation and Kumar and Associates

Pedro’s Cantina

7:00pm–9:00pm

Speakers and Moderators Breakfast

Waterfront CDE

6:30am–7:30am

Registration Desk

Grand Ballroom Foyer

7:00am–5:00pm

Speaker Preparation Room

Boardroom C

7:00am–5:00pm

Committee Room 1

Boardroom A

8:00am–5:00pm

Committee Room 2

Boardroom B

8:00am–5:00pm

Poster Session Presentations

Pacific Concourse

8:00am–5:45pm

Exhibitors

Pacific Concourse

8:00am–5:00pm

General Session Keynote: Dr. Atiye Tugrul – The State of Aggregates in the World Today

Grand Ballroom A

8:00am–8:30am

General Session Keynote: Dr. Alessandro Gualtieri – Naturally Occurring Asbestos, a Global Concern? State of Art and Open Issues

Grand Ballroom A

8:30am–9:00am

Morning Break

Pacific Concourse

9:00am–9:20am

Technical Session #10: Dam Symposium – Part II

Grand Ballroom B

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #11: Lidar/Technology: Landslide Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Symposium – Part I

Bayview A

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #12: Landslides and Infrastructure

Seacliff CD

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #13: Landslides and Society: Hazards, Risks, and Communication Symposium

Seacliff AB

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #14: Tunnel Symposium – Part II

Grand Ballroom C

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #15: Engineering Geology of Mélanges, Bimrocks and Soil/Rock Mixtures Symposium – Part I

Garden Room

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #16: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part I

Bayview B

9:20am–12:00pm

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 17 continued… 2017/2018 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Applied Geology: Dr. John Wakabayashi

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18

10

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS EVENT

PLACE

TIME

Technical Session #17: Geotechnical/Site Characterization for Infrastructure: High Speed Rail, High Rise Buildings, Bay Mud, Coastal Development – Part I

Waterfront AB

9:20am–12:00pm

“Get a Job & Make It Your Own” Session

Marina

9:20am–12:00pm

Guest Tour #2: Taste of Chinatown Walking Tour

Departs from Hotel Lobby

9:30am–1:00pm

Morning Break

Pacific Concourse

10:00am–10:20am

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 18 continued…

Lunch on Your Own

12:00pm–1:30pm

AEG 2019 Dam Risk Forum Planning Committee Meeting

Boardroom B

12:00pm–2:00pm

Technical Session #18: Dam Symposium – Part III

Grand Ballroom B

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #19: Improving Engineering Geology: Relationships among Education, Licensure, Guidelines, and Practice – A Global Perspective

Marina

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #20: Lidar/Technology: Landslide Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) – Part II

Bayview A

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #21: Landslides and Society: Hazards, Risks, and Communication II Symposium – Part II

Seacliff AB

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #22: Tunnel Symposium – Part III

Grand Ballroom C

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #23A: Engineering Geology of Mélanges, Bimrocks and Soil/Rock Mixtures Symposium – Part II Garden Room

1:40pm–3:20pm

Technical Session #23B: Miscellaneous Geological Topics

Garden Room

3:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #24: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part II

Bayview B

1:00pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #25: Geotechnical/Site Characterization for Infrastructure: High Speed Rail, High Rise Buildings, Bay Mud, Coastal Development – Part II Waterfront AB

1:40pm–4:40pm

Mid-Afternoon Break

Pacific Concourse

3:20pm–3:40pm

Poster Reception with Happy Hour – Sponsored by GEO-HAZ Consulting, Inc.

Pacific Concourse

4:00pm–5:45pm

IAEG Commission 1 Meeting: “Engineering Geological Characterization and Visualization”

Boardroom A

4:40pm–5:40pm

IAEG Commission 32 Meeting: “Engineering Geology and Rural Infrastructure”

Boardroom B

4:40pm–5:40pm

AEG NOA Technical Working Group Meeting

Recency Room AB

5:00pm–5:45pm

Special Event (Offsite) – Cruise on San Francisco Bay – Ticketed Event

Departs from Hotel Lobby

6:00pm–10:00pm

Guest Get Together (Guest Registration Only – Ticket Required)

Grand Ballroom Foyer

9:00am–10:00am

All-day Field Courses (includes box lunch)

Various Departure Times from Grand Ballroom Foyer

Times Vary

Speakers and Moderators Breakfast

Waterfront CDE

6:30am–7:30am

Women in AEG/AWG Breakfast – Ticketed Event, Sponsored By Steele and Associates

Regency Room

6:45am–7:45am

Registration Desk

Grand Ballroom Foyer

7:00am–5:00pm

Speaker Preparation Room

Boardroom C

7:00am–5:00pm

Committee Room 1

Boardroom A

8:00am–1:30pm

Committee Room 2

Boardroom B

8:00am–5:00pm

Poster Session Presentations

Pacific Concourse

8:00am–7:00pm

Exhibitors

Pacific Concourse

8:00am–5:00pm

General Session Keynote: Dr. Simon Loew – Long and Short Term Response of Rock Slopes to Deglaciation

Grand Ballroom A

8:00am–8:30am

General Session Keynote: Dr. Kerry Sieh – A Meteorite Impact and a Dam Failure in Southern Laos

Grand Ballroom A

8:30am–9:00am

Mid-Morning Break

Pacific Concourse

9:00am–9:20am

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19 Registration Closed

Exhibit Hall Closed

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20

September 2018 AEG and 61stField Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts Technical Session #27: Landslide Case Histories Methods I Seacliff CD

11 9:20am–12:00pm


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS EVENT

PLACE

TIME

Technical Session #26: Rockfall I: Case Histories and Hazard Studies

Garden Room

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #27: Landslide Case Histories and Field Methods I

Seacliff CD

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #28: Oroville Dam Symposium – Part I

Grand Ballroom B

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #29A: Professional Development

Seacliff AB

9:20am–10:00pm

Technical Session #29B: Debris Flow and Steep Creek Hazards Symposium – Part I

Seacliff AB

10:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #30: Environmental: Site Characterization, Soil and Groundwater Contamination/Remediation – Part I

Bayview A

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #31: Land Subsidence Symposium – Part I

Grand Ballroom C

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #32: Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium – Part I

Waterfront AB

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #33: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part III

Bayview B

9:00am–12:00pm

Guest Tour #3: The Other Side of the Golden Gate – Muir Woods and Sausalito

Departs from Hotel Lobby

9:30am–4:00pm

Mid-Morning Break

Pacific Concourse

10:00am–10:20am

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 20 continued…

Lunch on Your Own

12:00pm–2:00pm

AEG Corporate Business & Recognition Luncheon – Ticketed Event

Waterfront CDE

12:15pm–1:45pm

Technical Session #40: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part III

Bayview B

1:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #34: Rockfall II: Emerging Technology and Mitigation

Seacliff CD

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #35: Debris Flow and Steep Creek Hazards Symposium – Part II

Seacliff AB

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #36: Oroville Dam Symposium – Part II

Grand Ballroom B

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #37: Land Subsidence Symposium – Part II

Grand Ballroom C

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #38: Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium – Part II

Waterfront AB

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #39: Emergency Response to Natural Disasters

Garden Room

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #41A: Environmental: Site Characterization, Soil and Groundwater Contamination/Remediation – Part II

Bayview A

2:00pm–3:20pm

Mid-Afternoon Break

Pacific Concourse

3:20pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #41B: Loess

Bayview A

3:40pm–5:00pm

Poster Reception and Happy Hour – Sponsored by SFB Consulting

Pacific Concourse

5:00pm–7:00pm

AEG International Region Meeting

Boardroom A

5:00pm–6:00pm

IAEG Commission 36 Meeting: Engineering Geology for Waste Disposal

Boardroom B

5:00pm–6:00pm

IAEG Commission 34 Meeting: Marine Engineering Geology

Boardroom B

6:00pm–7:00pm

AEG/IAEG Banquet – Ticketed Event

Grand Ballroom

7:00pm–10:00pm

Speakers and Moderators Breakfast

Waterfront CDE

6:30am–7:30am

Registration Desk

Grand Ballroom Foyer

7:00am–5:00pm

Speaker Preparation Room

Boardroom C

7:00am–2:00pm

Committee Room 1

Boardroom A

8:00am–5:00pm

Committee Room 2

Boardroom B

8:00am–2:00pm

Exhibitors

Pacific Concourse

8:00am–11:00am

General Session Keynote: Dr. Jean Hutchinson – Engineering Geology Considerations for Stability Assessment of Rock Slopes Adjacent to Infrastructure

Grand Ballroom A

8:00am–8:30am

General Session Keynote: Dr. William Haneberg – Transformative Integration and a New Kind of Engineering Geology

Grand Ballroom A

8:30am–9:00am

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21

12

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS EVENT

PLACE

TIME

Morning Break

Pacific Concourse

9:00am–9:20am

Technical Session #42: Landslides Monitoring and Prediction

Seacliff CD

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #43: California Earthquake Clearinghouse & Mini-Drill for Emergency Response

Seacliff AB

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #44: Getting the Geology Right – the Practical Application of Engineering Geology Models Symposium – Part I

Bayview A

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #45: Dam Symposium – Part IV

Grand Ballroom B

9:20am–10:00pm

Technical Session #46: Hydrogeology/Groundwater Symposium

Garden Room

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #47: Mining, Mine Reclamation – Part I

Bayview B

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #48: Earthquakes/Faulting: Ground Motion/Rupture – Part I

Grand Ballroom C

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #49A: Geotechnical Research

Waterfront AB

9:20am–10:00pm

Guest Tour #4: Fisherman’s Wharf and Pier 39

Departs from Hotel Lobby

10:00am–3:00pm

Mid-Morning Break

Pacific Concourse

10:00am–10:20am

Technical Session #49B: Coastal Hazards: Marine & Coastal Processes Symposium

Waterfront AB

10:20am–12:00pm

Past Presidents' Lunch (Invitation Only) – Sponsored by Department of Geology, San Jose State University

Regency AB

12:00pm–1:30pm

FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 21 continued…

Lunch on Your Own

12:00pm–1:30pm

Dams Technical Working Group

Boardroom A

12:30pm–1:15pm

Technical Session #50: Landslide Case Histories and Field Methods 2

Seacliff CD

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #51: Dam Symposium – Part V

Grand Ballroom B

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #52: Getting the Geology Right – the Practical Application of Engineering Geology Models Symposium – Part II

Bayview A

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #54: Earthquakes/Faulting: Ground Motion/Rupture – Part II

Grand Ballroom C

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #55: Technology

Seacliff AB

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #56: Geotechnical Investigations/Soil Amendments for Foundations & Infrastructure

Waterfront AB

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #57: Karst & Slope Deformation

Marina

1:40pm–3:40pm

AEG Board of Directors Orientation

Boardroom B

2:00pm–4:00pm

Mid-Afternoon Break

Grand Ballroom Foyer

3:40pm–4:00pm

Closing Ceremony: IAEG Officers Awards; Richard Wolters Award; IAEG President Summary of Past 4 Years; IAEG New President - Future of IAEG; IAEG SE Asia Regional Conference in Korean - 2019; IGC in Delhi in 2020; IAEG in 2022 in China; AEG 2019 Asheville, NC

Grand Ballroom A

4:00pm–5:00pm

Wine/Beer Reception – Sponsored by SFB Consulting

Grand Ballroom Foyer

5:00pm–6:00pm

Field Course #6 – Scour in Rock: Engineering Geology Considerations for Sierra Foothills Dams and Spillways

Depart from Hotel Lobby

7:00am–7:00pm

Field Course #7 – Marin and Sonoma Geology: Geohazards and WINE

Depart from Hotel Lobby

7:00am–6:00pm

AEG Board of Directors’ Meeting

Garden Room

8:00am–5:00pm

AEG Board of Directors’ Meeting

Garden Room

8:00am–12:00pm

FedIGS Board Meeting Dinner

Waterfront AB

6:00pm–8:00pm

Boardroom A

8:00am–5:00pm

SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 22

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 23

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 24 FedIGS Board Meeting

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session Numbers and Names See page 63 for full Technical Session listings. SESSION

TIME

MONDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 17 Opening Session Welcome (AEG President Greg Hempen/IAEG President Scott Burns) Sponsored By Gannett Fleming

8:00am–8:05am

Congress Co-Chairs Welcome (Sarah Kalika and Gary Luce)

8:05am–8:10am

Keynote: John Parrish, California State Geologist

8:15am–8:45am

Keynote: J. David Rogers – The Origins of Engineering Geology are in California

8:45am–9:15am

Keynote: Runqiu Huang – The Chain of Geohazards Induced by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake – Ten Years of Lessons, Advances, and Challenges

9:15am–9:45am

Mid-Morning Break

9:45am–10:15am

Outstanding Environmental & Engineering Geologic Project Award (Bradley Erskine)

10:15am–10:40am

AEG Foundation Awards (Kerry Cato)

10:40am–10:55am

IAEG Awards (Scott Burns)

10:55am–11:10am

2017/2018 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Applied Geology: John Wakabayashi

11:10am–11:35am

Introducing the 2O18/2019 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Applied Geology: Deborah Green

11:35am–12:00pm

MONDAY AFTERNOON, SEPTEMBER 17 Technical Session #1: Dam Symposium – Part I

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #2: Geology in the Community Symposium

1:40pm–3:20pm

Technical Session #3: Environmental Characterization of Minerals & Pipe Erosion Modeling

3:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #4: Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #5: Aggregates Symposium

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #6: Tunnel Symposium – Part I

1:35pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #7: Seismogenic Landslide Hazards

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #8: Quantifying Climate Change

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #9A: Mineralogy/Rock Mechanics

1:40pm–3:20pm

Technical Session #9B: Geochemical/Water Contamination

3:40pm–5:00pm

TUESDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 18 General Session Sponsored by Pyramid Environmental & Engineering, P.C. General Session – Keynote Speaker #1: Atiye Tugrul – The State of Aggregates in the World Today

8:00am–8:30am

General Session – Keynote Speaker #2: Alessandro Gualtieri – Naturally Occurring Asbestos, a Global Concern? State of Art and Open Issues

8:30am–9:00am

Technical Session #10: Dams Symposium – Part II

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #11: Lidar/Technology: Landslide Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Symposium – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #12: Landslides and Infrastructure

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #13: Landslides and Society: Hazards, Risks, and Communication Symposium

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #14: Tunnel Symposium – Part II

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #15: Engineering Geology of Mélanges, Bimrocks and Soil/Rock Mixtures Symposium – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #16: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #17: Geotechnical/Site Characterization for Infrastructure: High Speed Rail, High Rise Buildings, Bay Mud, Coastal Development – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS SESSION

TIME

TUESDAY AFTERNOON, SEPTEMBER 18 Technical Session #18: Dam Symposium Part III

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #19: Improving Engineering Geology: Relationships among Education, Licensure, Guidelines, and Practice — A Global Perspective

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #20: Lidar/Technology: Landslide Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Symposium – Part II

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #21: Landslides and Society: Hazards, Risks, and Communication Symposium – Part II

1:40pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #22: Tunnel Symposium – Part III

1:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #23A: Engineering Geology of Mélanges, Bimrocks and Soil/Rock Mixtures Symposium – Part II

1:40pm–3:20pm

Technical Session #23B: Miscellaneous Geological Topics

3:40pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #24: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part II

1:00pm–4:40pm

Technical Session #25: Geotechnical/Site Characterization for Infrastructure: High Speed Rail, High Rise Buildings, Bay Mud, Coastal Development – Part II

1:40pm–4:40pm

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 19 – NO TECHNICAL SESSIONS DUE TO FIELD COURSES THURSDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 20 General Session–Keynote Speaker #1: Simon Loew – Long and Short Term Response of Rock slopes to Deglaciation

8:00am–8:30am

General Session – Keynote Speaker #2: Kerry Sieh – A Meteorite Impact and a Dam Failure in Southern Laos

8:30am–9:00am

Technical Session #26: Rockfall I: Case Histories and Hazard Studies

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #27: Landslide Case Histories and Field Methods I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #28: Oroville Dam Symposium – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #29A: Professional Development

9:20am–10:00am

Technical Session #29B: Debris Flow and Steep Creek Hazards Symposium – Part I

10:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #30: Environmental: Site Characterization, Soil and Groundwater Contamination/Remediation – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #31: Land Subsidence Symposium – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #32: Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #33: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part III

9:00am–12:00pm

THURSDAY AFTERNOON, SEPTEMBER 20 Technical Session #34: Rockfall II: Emerging Technology and Mitigation

2:00pm–5:20pm

Technical Session #35: Debris Flow and Steep Creek Hazards Symposium – Part II

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #36: Oroville Dam Symposium – Part II

2:00pm–5:20pm

Technical Session #37: Land Subsidence Symposium – Part II

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #38: Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium – Part II

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #39: Emergency Response to Natural Disasters

2:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #40: Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part IV

1:00pm–5:00pm

Technical Session #41A: Environmental: Site Characterization, Soil and Groundwater Contamination/Remediation – Part II

2:00pm–3:20pm

Technical Session #41B: Loess

3:40pm–5:00pm

There’s an APP for this – Go Mobile! Last-minute SCHEDULE CHANGES, maps, networking and MORE on your mobile device—completely FREE! Visit https://guidebook.com/g/aeg2018/ OR scan the QR code using your smartphone to download. September 2018

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS SESSION

TIME

FRIDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 21 General Session: Keynote Speaker #1: Jean Hutchinson – Engineering Geology Considerations for Stability Assessment of Rock Slopes Adjacent to Infrastructure

8:00am–8:30am

General Session: Keynote Speaker #2: William Haneberg – Transformative Integration and a New Kind of Engineering Geology

8:30am–9:00am

Technical Session #42: Landslides Monitoring and Prediction

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #43: California Earthquake Clearinghouse & Mini-Drill for Emergency Response

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #44: Getting the Geology Right – the Practical Application of Engineering Geology Models Symposium – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #45: Dam Symposium – Part IV

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #46: Hydrogeology/Groundwater Symposium

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #47: Mining, Mine Reclamation – Part I

9:00am–12:00pm

Technical Session #48: Earthquakes/Faulting: Ground Motion/Rupture – Part I

9:20am–12:00pm

Technical Session #49A: Geotechnical Research

9:20am–10:00am

Technical Session #49B: Coastal Hazards: Marine & Coastal Processes Symposium

10:20am–12:00pm

FRIDAY AFTERNOON, SEPTEMBER 21 Technical Session #50: Landslide Case Histories and Field Methods 2

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #51: Dam Symposium – Part V

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #52: Getting the Geology Right – the Practical Application of Engineering Geology Models Symposium – Part II

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #54: Earthquakes/Faulting: Ground Motion/Rupture – Part II

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #55: Technology

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #56: Geotechnical Investigations/Soil Amendments for Foundations & Infrastructure

1:40pm–3:40pm

Technical Session #57: Karst & Slope Deformation

1:40pm–3:40pm

APPL IED ROPE A C CESS SAFETY ON ROCK SLOPES FOR FIELD ENGINEERING GEOLOGISTS AND GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERS

MCMJAC.COM

COURSE LENGTH: 3 DA AY YS (206) 496.4829 496 4829 CONT TA ACT: BILL GA AT TES, PHD, PE, PG

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

GA AT TES@MCMJAC.COM

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

The Planning Committee AEG Meeting Co-Chairs

Guidebook App

Special Event

Sarah Kalika Cornerstone Earth Group, sarah@georx.net Gary Luce Resource Concepts, Inc, garycluce@gmail.com Coralie Wilhite US Army Corps of Engineers, Coralie.P.Wilhite@usace.army.mil

Nate Saraceno DiGioia Gray, nrsaraceno@gmail.com Clayton Johnson Golder Associates, Clayton_Johnson@golder.com Nolan Walker Student, Western Washington University, nolanwalker3@gmail.com

E. Morley Beckman Kleinfelder, morley.beckman@gmail.com

IAEG Meeting Coordinators

K–12 Teacher Workshop

Scott Burns Portland State University, burnss@pdx.edu Jeffrey R. Keaton Wood, PLC, jeff.keaton@woodplc.com

Field Courses Chase White California Geological Survey, chase.white@conservation.ca.gov Drew Kennedy Sage Engineers, dkennedy@sageengineers.com Coralie Wilhite US Army Corps of Engineers, Coralie.P.Wilhite@usace.army.mil

Finance Gary Luce Resource Concepts, Inc garycluce@gmail.com

Guest Tours Alice Tepel amt99sjc@earthlink.net Linda Upp

Cindy Pridmore California Geological Survey, cynthia.Pridmore@conservation.ca.gov

Meeting Proceedings Abdul Shakoor Kent State University, ashakoor@kent.edu Kerry Cato California State University at San Bernardino, kerry@catogeoscience.com Karen Smith Kent State University, kesmith6@kent.edu

Publicity Nate Saraceno DiGioia Gray, nrsaraceno@gmail.com

Short Courses E. Morley Beckman Kleinfelder, morley.beckman@gmail.com Byron Anderson Kleinfelder, BAnderson@kleinfelder.com Chrissey Villeneuve Shannon & Wilson, Inc., chrissey.aeg@gmail.com

Sponsorship Courtney Johnson Sage Engineers, courtneyb.johnson@gmail.com

Student/Young Professional Events E. Morley Beckman Kleinfelder, morley.beckman@gmail.com Kevin Mininger RJH Consultants, kmininger@rjh-consultants.com

Technical Program Sarah Kalika Cornerstone Earth Group, sarah@georx.net

Meeting Management Heather Clark AEG, heather@aegweb.org

AEG Headquarters/ AMR Management Services manager@aegweb.org Kristy Howard DeLaine Bender Alex Goggin Candace Lovejoy Liz Fossett

Become an AEG Annual Meeting PLANNING COMMITTEE Member! AEG is always in need of VOLUNTEERS to help make our Annual Meetings a SUCCESS. You DON’T have to be a member of a SPECIFIC CHAPTER to volunteer. If you believe you could fill or assist one of the roles in the list above, contact AEG Meeting Manager Heather Clark at heather@aegweb.org for information on how you can put your skills to use for one of our upcoming meetings. September 2018

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Special Thanks AEG and IAEG wish to thank the following individuals for their assistance with the planning of the 2018 Joint Meeting:

Wednesday Field Course Leaders & Contributors: Mark Bailey, Asbestos TEM Labs Scott Burns, Portland State University Kevin Clahan, Lettis Consultants Ryan Coe, Terracon Pat Dedmon, East Bay Regional Park District Bradley Erskine, Kleinfelder George Ford, Geosyntec William Godwin, Consulting Geologist Jennifer Gomez, Syar Industries Karen Grove, San Francisco State University Chris Hitchcock, Infraterra Peter Holland, California Geological Survey Alan Hull, Golder Associates Mike Jewett, Miller Pacific Engineers Ken Johnson, wsp Drew Kennedy, Sage Engineers Chris Madugo, Pacific Gas & Electric Marina Mascorro, Langan William (Bill) McCormick, Kleinfelder Chris Risden, California Department of Transportation Frank Rollo, Rollo & Ridley Ted Sayre, Cotton, Shires and Associates, Inc. Ryan Seelbach, Geosyntec Gordon Seitz, California Department of Conservation Greg Stock, Yosemite National Park Janet Sowers, Fugro Morgan Sullivan Raymond Sullivan, San Francisco State University John Wakabayashi, Fresno State University John Wallace, Cotton, Shires and Associates, Inc. Donald Wells, AMEC / Foster Wheeler Hilary Whitney, ERM Tim Dawson, California Geological Survey Felix Desperrier, Graduate Student, Sonoma State University

Weekend Field Course Course Leaders: Ivano Aiello, San Jose State University Scott Burns, Portland State University Ed Clifton, United States Geological Survey Julien Cohen-Waeber, Exponent Tim Dawson, California Department of Conservation Mike George, BGC Engineers William (Bill) Godwin, Consulting Geologist Brian Gray, Lettis Consultants Chris Hitchcock, Infraterra Pete Holland, California Geological Survey Chris Hundemer, c2earth Andy Lutz, California Division of Safety of Dams William (Bill) McCormick, Kleinfelder Ed Medley, Consulting Engineering Geologist Nick Sitar, University of California at Berkeley Greg Stock, Yosemite National Park Chase White, California Geological Survey Gordon Seitz, California Geological Survey Holly Nichols, California Department of Water Resources

Symposia Conveners Aggregates Symposium: Atiye Tugrul, Istanbul University, tugrul@istanbul.edu.tr California Earthquake Clearinghouse & Mini-Drill for Emergency Response Symposium: Anne Rosinski, California Geological Survey, anne.rosinski@conservation.ca.gov Coastal Hazards: Marine & Coastal Processes Symposium: Xiaolei Liu, Ocean University of China, xiaolei@ouc.edu.cn Debris Flow and Steep Creek Hazards Symposium: Kevin McCoy, Colorado Geological Survey, kemccoy@mines.edu and Jennifer Bauer, Appalachian Landslide Consultants, PLLC, jennifer@appalachianlandslide.com Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium: Robert E. Tepel, r_e-3399tep@earthlink.net Improving Engineering Geology: Relationships among Education, Licensure, Guidelines, and Practice — A Global Perspective : Keith Turner, Colorado School of Mines, kturner@mines.edu and Fred Baynes, fredb@iinet.net.au Engineering Geology of Mélanges, Bimrocks and Soil/Rock Mixtures Symposium: Julien Cohen-Waeber, Exponent, jwaeber@gmail.com and Ed Medley, Consulting Geological Engineer, edmedley@geopractitioner.com

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

General Dams Symposium: Brian H. Greene, Gannett Fleming, bgreene@GFNET.com; Kerry Cato, California State University at San Bernardino, kerry@catogeoscience.com; Ed Friend, RJH Consultants, Inc., efriend@rjh-consultants.com; Kevin Mininger, RJH Consultants, Inc., kmininger@rjh-consultants.com; Donald Bruce, Geosystems, dabruce@geosystemsbruce.com; and Scott Walker Getting the Geology Right – the Practical Application of Engineering Geology Models Symposium: Steve Parry, Parry Engineering Geological Services, parrysteve@gmail.com; Fred Baynes, fredb@iinet.net.au; and Darren Paul, Golder Associates, dpaul@golder.com.au Geology in the Community Symposium: Bruce Hilton, brhhilton@gmail.com Hydrogeology/Groundwater Symposium: Lindsay Swain, Dudek, lindsay_swain@sbcglobal.net Landslides and Society: Hazards, Risks, and Communication Symposium: Kevin McCoy, Colorado Geological Survey, kemccoy@mines.edu and Jennifer Bauer, Appalachian Landslide Consultants, PLLC jennifer@appalachianlandslide.com Land Subsidence Symposium: Michelle Sneed, United States Geological Survey, micsneed@usgs.gov Lidar/Technology: Landslide Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Symposium: Thomas Oommen, Michigan Technological University, toommen@mtu.edu Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium: Mark Bailey, Asbestos TEM Labs, mark@AsbestosTEMLabs.com Oroville Dam Symposium: Holly Nichols, Department of Water Resources Oroville Spillway Recovery, holly.Nichols@water.ca.gov Tunnel Symposium: Mike Piepenburg, Mott MacDonald, michael.piepenburg@mottmac.com; Paul Headland, Aldea Services, PHeadland@AldeaServices.com; and Ike Isaacson, Brierley & Associates, iisaacson@brierleyassociates.com

Moderators Priscilla Addison, Graduate Student, Michigan Technical University E. Morley Beckman, Kleinfelder Cole Christiansen, BGC Engineering John Cripps, University of Sheffield Briget Doyle, University of South Carolina Upstate Julia Frazier, Cesare Inc. Fernando Garcia, Graduate Student, UC Berkeley Tej Gautam, Marietta College William Godwin, Consulting Geologist Suzanne Goldstein, San Francisco State University Erica Goto, Graduate Student, University of California Santa Barbara James Hamel, Hamel Geotechnical Consultants Charles Hammond, Landslide Technology Greg Hempen, Consulting Geophysicist Robert Huber, GSI Clay Johnson, Golder & Associates Jeffrey Keaton, Wood PLC David Korte, Graduate Student, Kent State University Jan Louis van Rooy, University of Pretoria James McCalpin, Geohaz Pedro Martins, BECA Tim Mote, Arup Nicholas Novoa, California Department of Water Resources, GESB/Project Geology Section Darren Paul, Golder & Associates Phyllis Steckel, Earthquake Insight, LLC Christina Villeneuve, Shannon & Wilson Ann Williams, BECA Weiwei Zhan, Graduate Student, Clemson University

Help AEG’s Foundation Stay Strong! Please stop by our AEG FOUNDATION SILENT AUCTION BOOTH in the Exhibitors’ Hall. Bid on one of our more than 80 items from 25 handmade and decorated InVest VESTS (a play on words— investing in your AEG Foundation!), vintage and classic geology books and other interesting books, rocks and minerals, items hand crocheted by a professor of geology, geodes, and much, much more. We can arrange shipping for those of you with limited luggage space. THANK YOU! To donate to the AEG Foundation, please visit www.aegfoundation.org.

September 2018

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

State of California • Natural Resources Agency Department of Conservation

California Geological Survey

Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor John G. Parrish, Ph.D., State Geologist

801 K Street • MS 12-30 Sacramento, CA 95814 (916) 445-1825 • FAX (916) 445-5718

WELCOME TO THE 2018 AEG ANNUAL MEETING / XIII IAEG CONGRESS We are most honored and very pleased that the AEG and IAEG have selected the City of San Francisco and the Great State of California for this year’s meetings. We hope you find your stays here to be socially exciting and professionally fulfilling – and, of course, adventuresome in all good ways. The City of San Francisco was founded by the Spanish on January 29, 1776. It became the first major commercial sea-port and financial center in California and on the Pacific Coast of the United States – and today, it remains a culturally diverse commercial center in northern California. The California Geological Survey unofficially began in 1851 under the first State Geologist, John W. Trask, and was formally created by the State Legislature in 1860. From 1899 until 1970, the Survey’s headquarters was in the Ferry Building in San Francisco, before moving to the State Capitol in Sacramento. It is most fitting that the AEG and IAEG should meet in California. The state operates the World’s fifth largest economy, has a population of about 40 million inhabitants, and has built it all atop the most seismically active land in the continental U. S. Sixty-two percent ($3.24 Billion) of the Nation’s annualized earthquake losses are in California. Seismically induced landslides and ground liquefaction, weather-induced debris flows and mudslides, geothermal and volcanic induced earthquakes, and tele-seismic generated tsunamis all add to the geological excitement in the State. Engineering Geology plays a critical role in making the State, its economy, and its people resilient to these hazards. California also offers beautiful and wonderous scenery, and is the most geologically diverse state in the U. S. I strongly encourage you to travel about while here, and experience the scenic beauty of the State’s mountains and forests, its deserts, the fertile agricultural Central Valley, and its extensive and dramatic coastline and beaches. Experience our State Motto – Eureka! (“I have found it!”) Best regards,

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September 2018 20


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR September 17, 2018

IAEG and AEG

On behalf of the State of California, it is my pleasure to welcome you to San Francisco for the XIII Congress of the International Association of Engineering Geology (IAEG) and the Environment and the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association of Environmental Engineering Geologists. California is honored to be the host of the first IAEG Congress held in the United States. Your work to raise public awareness of how environmental and engineering geology contributes to public safety and the protection of property is crucial in this era of global climate change. I applaud your advancement of Engineering Geology through technological activities and research. The more we know the better we can adapt to the changes that threaten our planet. I hope your event is a success and you have time during your visit to explore the city of San Francisco and the Bay Area region. Geological and man-made wonders abound! Sincerely,

EDMUND G. BROWN JR.

GOVERNOR EDMUND G. BROWN -5‡6$&5$0(172&$/,)251,$ ‡(916) 445-2841 September 2018

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

y g o l o e G g d l n r i r o e e W n i e l g b n a E n i a t s u S for a The 61st AEG Annual Meeting – San Francisco, California

Welcome to the Applied Geology Conference that has it all! The Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG) begins its seventh decade of service with Engineering Geology for a Sustainable World, in conjunction with our comrades from the International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG). AEG is elated to be involved with the XIII IAEG Congress—a unique synergy of two societies advancing applied geology. The closer alliance of the two associations is overdue; attendees collect the benefits of both associations’ activities. You are wise to attend. The 61st AEG Annual Meeting/XIII IAEG Congress will have special benefits, not all of which are typically offered at either associations’ premier event. Every attendee may attend a Wednesday Field Course of their choice, engage and mentor students, reflect upon two daily keynotes by international experts, attend innumerWe able technical sessions/symposia, receive a special six-volume collection of refereed papers offer particular (whose authors will be making presentations), gratitude to sponcontinue discussions at three poster sessions and varied group meetings, interact with sors and exhibitors, exhibitors, and celebrate Geologists’ Day. At whose resources and an additional cost are a score of wonderful, information make this pre- and post-meeting Field Courses, two premeeting Short Courses, daily Guest Tours, and event economically other special functions. feasible. Remember to resume past acquaintances and to make new friends while attending the Meeting/Congress. The camaraderie of AEG’s Chapters can easily be extended to San Francisco’s sites, just outside the hotel’s doors. Visit a new attraction or a favorite place, and take along a pal from the meeting. Both welcome and thanks to all those who have made this Meeting/Congress possible. The large organizing committee has worked tirelessly to make this event special; your work is appreciated. We offer particular gratitude to sponsors and exhibitors, whose resources and information make this event economically feasible. Speakers, symposia organizers, session chairs, and moderators are thanked for the information that you provide on applied geology and our profession. Now that you are here, greet, learn, relax and enjoy the 61st AEG Annual Meeting/XIII IAEG Congress and San Francisco! My warmest welcome to you,

Greg Hempen AEG President, 2017–18

September 2018

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l a n o i t a n r e t n I s t e s i m g o o l c l o e e G W g n i r e e n i Eng AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

The XIII IAEG Congress – San Francisco, California

It gives me great pleasure to welcome everyone from around the world to San Francisco, California! I spent five years in the San Francisco Bay area when I earned my first two university degrees—I love the area! It has great geology and great culture! Enjoy it! This is a meeting of firsts: the first time that IAEG has had a meeting in the United State in its 54-year history, the first time IAEG and AEG have had a combined meeting, the first time for IAEG to have an American President, and first time for AEG to have a five-day Annual Meeting! The meeting will be a combination of both meeting styles of the two organizations. Taken from the IAEG list of activities, we will have a five-day meeting (which is very common for international events), a mid-week field trip for all participants, plenary sessions to start every day with keynote speakers from around the world, and a closing ceremony on Friday. We will have morning breakfasts for all speakers and an evening banquet, which are both AEG common activities. AEG is the official meeting host, and many volunteers have been working very hard to make the event a success. Special thanks go out to General Co-Chair Sarah Kalika and Meeting Organizer Heather Clark who have worked so hard to ensure that this historic event goes off without a hitch. Also, special thanks to Abdul Shakoor and Kerry Cato who were editors of the Proceedings Booklet—a compilation of the papers slated for presentation. IAEG thanks AEG for hosting what promises to be an exciting and informative gathering. As I write this, we are expecting participants from over 50 countries around the world, which will be very special! For Americans, this means they can attend a very international meeting without having to leave the United States, and for non-Americans, they can experience one of the most famous cities in the world! While here, be sure to enjoy everything San Francisco and the surrounding area has to offer. Get out and see some of California, enjoy its world-famous wines, and ride a cable car! Have wonderful meeting! I hope to meet everyone who attends!

As I write this, we are expecting participants from over 50 countries around the world.

Professor Scott Burns President, IAEG

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

o t ! e y m a o c B l e e h W ity by t the C

On behalf of the 2018 AEG Annual Meeting/13th IAEG Congress Planning Committee, we’re pleased to welcome you to San Francisco, home of the first IAEG Congress in the United States! What’s not to love about our city? The San Francisco Bay Area is home to active earthquake faults, world famous namesake Franciscan melange, uplifted and rotated fossiliferous bedding, volcanics, and metamorphosed units, to name a few. San Francisco’s population boomed due to the California gold rush of 1849, transforming from a fishing village to a large city—then flattened and burned by the 1906 earthquake and fire. Much of the downtown area including land beneath the host hotel is landfill debris pushed into the bay after the 1906 earthquake. Another earthquake in 1989 reminded us that the San Andreas fault system is a powerful force that continues to shape the city and surrounding area. Today, the San Francisco area has rebuilt itself into a technology capital that draws millions of international visitors annually. We are truly a city and region built by geology and impacted by geologic hazards as we wait for the earth to shake us again. In addition to experiencing our fascinating geology, we hope you are able to get out and sample some of our city’s famous food; dungeness crab, sourdough bread, dim sum, and burritos are a few favorites! Be sure to venture across the street to the Ferry Building Marketplace, home to retailers of locally grown fresh produce, artisan cheese, sourdough bread, olive oil, oysters, ice cream, and locally roasted organic coffee. With Short Courses, weekend Field Courses, Guest Tours, a Special Event dinner cruise on the bay, Wednesday Field Courses, technical session presentations, poster presentations, and keynote speakers, you’re sure to be busy this week! We look forward to meeting you!

We are truly a city and region built by geology and impacted by geologic hazards.

Sarah Kalika, PG, CAC General Co-Chair

September 2018

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

Gary Luce, PE General Co-Chair

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

AEG 2018 Awardees Honorary Members

Schuster Medal

Dr. Kerry Sieh and Dr. Frank Netterberg AEG confers an honor of such high esteem that the distinction is recognized as a membership class: Honorary Member. This recognition is given to those persons whose careers have exemplified the ideals of AEG.

Scott F. Burns A joint award from AEG and the Canadian Geotechnical Society that recognizes excellence in geohazards research in North America. Nominees must be residents of North America and meet at least two of the following criteria: professional excellence in geohazards research with relevance to North America; significant contribution to public education regarding geohazards; international recognition for a professional career in geohazards; influential geohazards research or development of methods or techniques; or teacher of geohazards students.

Karl and Ruth Terzaghi Mentor Award

Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Engineering Geology

Donald ‘Don’ West

Deborah Green

This award, established in 2008, recognizes outstanding individuals for their achievements as Mentors throughout their career. The recipient should be an individual who has made lifelong efforts in providing professional, ethical, and technical mentoring for environmental and engineering geologists.

AEG COMMITTEE MEETINGS in San Francisco AEG International Region Meeting: Thursday, Boardroom A, 5:00–6:00pm

Dams Technical Working Group: Friday, Boardroom A, 12:30–1:15pm

AEG BOD Orientation: Friday, Boardroom B, 2:00–4:00pm

AEG Publications Committee: Monday, Regency Room 5:30–6:30pm

AEG NOA Technical Working Group Tuesday, Regency AB 5:00-5:45pm

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A joint committee of AEG and the Engineering Geology Division of the Geological Society of America selects the Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer. The Lecturer presents an annual series of lectures at academic institutions in order to increase awareness of students about careers in Engineering Geology.

NOMINATE a Deserving AEG MEMBER for One of Our 2019 AWARDS These are just a few of the AEG awards that recognize the contributions our members make to the Association and to the profession. It is our members that make the effort each day to provide public safety and protect property. For a complete list of the awards and requirements for each, visit the awards page on our website: http://www.aegweb.org/?page=Awards

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

AEG Foundation 2018 Scholars Beardsley-Kuper Field Camp Scholarship Tatjana Scherschel Colorado School of Mines

Kaitlyn Allen CSU Fresno

The Beardsley-Kuper Field Camp Scholarship Fund supports expenses for geology field camps with applied environmental and engineering geology components that will be useful to the students’ future profession as an environmental or engineering geologist. The scholarship was established in 2009 by Cathryne Beardsley with her daughter Dorian Kuper and son-in-law Tom Kuper.

Carolinas Scholarship Marissa Jerden NC State University Established in 2015 with a gift from the Carolinas Chapter, this scholarship supports geologic studies by undergraduate students enrolled in a geology or geoscience program at an accredited university in North Carolina or South Carolina.

Christopher C. Mathewson Scholarship Ruby Patterson University of Texas, San Antonio Established in 2007 as the Texas Section Scholarship, the Scholarship was renamed in 2011 to honor Dr. Christopher C. Mathewson. Recipients of the scholarship are undergraduate or graduate students enrolled in an accredited Texas college or university, or graduate students conducting field studies in Texas.

Shlemon Quaternary Engineering Geology Scholarship Hannah Chapella Kent State University The Shlemon Quaternary Engineering Geology Scholarship supports graduate geology students conducting Quaternary engineering geology research. Initial funding for the Scholarship was provided by a gift from Roy J. Shlemon, Honorary Member of the AEG.

West-Gray Scholarship Benjamin Hedin University of Pittsburgh

Marliave Scholarship

Graduate Division

Stephen Semmens Colorado School of Mines The Marliave Scholarship Fund was established in 1968 to honor the late Chester E. Marliave, Burton H. Marliave, and Elmer C. Marliave, outstanding engineering geologists and supporters of AEG. The funds are distributed as grants, which are intended to support academic activity and reward outstanding scholarship in Engineering Geology and Geological Engineering.

September 2018

Luke Weidner Michigan Technical University

Undergraduate Division Established in 2014 with initial funding provided as a gift from AEG Past Presidents Terry R. West and Richard E. Gray, this fund supports undergraduate and graduate geology students studying in the eastern half of the United States.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Susan Steele Weir (Women of “Steele’) Scholarship Anna Stanczyk University of Utah The Susan Steele Weir Scholarship Fund was established by the AEG Foundation in 2017 in order to create a scholarship fund that promotes and supports the continued development and advancement of women in the profession of engineering geology.

Norman R. Tilford Field Study Scholarship Victor Garcia University of Texas, El Paso

PhD Division

Kimberly Moore Kent State University Masters Division

Martin L. Stout Scholarship Anthony Moraes University of Wyoming

Graduate Division, 1st Place

Alyssa Kirkendall University of Texas, San Antonio

Graduate Division, 2nd Place

Caleb Ring Colorado School of Mines

Undergraduate Division, 1st Place

Jalise Wright Rutgers University Undergraduate Division, 2nd Place Dr. Martin L. Stout was Professor of Geology at California State University, Los Angeles from 1960 to 1990. He is remembered by his students for his passionate and insightful instruction in engineering geology. Dr. Stout was known for his expertise on landslides, his travels, his good humor, and his gracious manner. This scholarship supports his legacy.

Michael Ferraro Utah State

Undergraduate Division, 1st Place

Emily Geyman Princeton University Undergraduate Division, 2nd Place The Tilford Scholarships are awarded to both undergraduate and graduate students for the summer field season, and were established in memory of Norman R. Tilford, who was a leader in engineering geology and a professor at Texas A&M University. Norm died in 1997 while flying his small aircraft to meet a student field trip. Norm was dedicated to teaching geology in the field and these scholarships support his legacy.

Robert J. Watters Great Basin Chapter Scholarship Morgan Remick University of Nevada, Reno The Robert J. Watters Great Basin Chapter Scholarship Fund supports geoscience studies by students at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Student Scholarships Are Available through the AEG Foundation The AEG Foundation manages ten funds including four scholarships. Current applications and details are available at the AEG FOUNDATION website. DEADLINES FOR APPLICATIONS ARE FEBRUARY 1, 2019. For more information about the AEG Foundation: https://www.aegfoundation.org/applications/

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Exhibitors Our exhibitors offer an excellent platform to interact one-onone with you and your company. Your active interest and participation during the exhibit hours will help to ensure that vendor support will remain strong during the years to come. Remember, without these exhibitors, the AEG 2018/IAEG XIII Congress would not be successful.

Exhibit Hall Hours:

Be sure to: ● Visit each and every booth ● Express your needs ● Ask questions and get answers ● Learn about new products and services

36th International Geological Congress, 2–8 March, 2020, Delhi, India – Booth #410 Secretary General, 36th IGC Society, New Delhi, India 110019 http://36igc.org/ Contact: Saibal Ghosh, saibal.ghosh.gsi@gov.in India had the privilege of organizing the 22nd session of IGC at New Delhi in 1964. This was the first IGC in Asia. Thus, the IGC is returning to Indian subcontinent after a gap of 56 years. The event theme is “Geosciences: The Basic Science for a Sustainable Future.” 36th IGC is a Government of India funded project under the aegis of Ministry of Mines and the Ministry of Earth Sciences. Geological Survey of India is the Nodal agency for organizing this conference with active support of Indian National Science Academy (INSA) and the support of science academies of Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Organizing this event envisages support and cooperation from all geoscientific organizations, institutes and geoscientists of India and Indian sub-continent.

Access Limited Construction – Booth #209 1102 Pike Lane, Oceano, CA, US 93445 www.accesslimitedconstruction.com Contact: Simon Boone, PG, simon@alccinc.com Access Limited Construction is a general contractor located in San Luis Obispo, CA. An industry leader, we provide rockfall mitigation, slope stabilization, and difficult drilling services for transportation, energy, mining and private sector clients. With our fleet of Spyder Excavators, we can access steep terrain and hard to reach projects throughout the United States from the East Coast to Hawaii.

Sunday

September 16

6:30pm–8:30pm

Monday

September 17

8:00am–7:00pm

Tuesday

September 18

8:00am-5:45pm

Wednesday

September 19

Exhibit Hall Closed

Thursday

September 20

8:00am–7:00pm

Friday

September 21

8:00am–11:00am

Adam Technology – Booth #513 Suite 3, 41 Belmont Ave., Belmont, Perth 6104 Australia www.adamtech.com.au Contact: Kevin Ha, kha@adamtech.com.au Digital Photogrammetry software for Civil, Mining and Engineering companies of Survey, Geological and Geotechnical analyses in Aerial, Open pit and Underground environments.

Asbestos TEM Labs – Booth #210 600 Bancroft Way, Ste A, Berkeley, CA 94710-2224 www.asbestostemlabs.com Contact: Mark Bailey, mark@asbestostemlabs.com

AEG – Registration Area 201 E. Main Street, Suite 1405 Lexington, KY, US 40507 844-331-7867 x3229, Fax 740-452-2552 www.aegweb.org Contact: aeg@aegweb.org AEG welcomes you to San Francisco! We hope your stay is filled with informative technical sessions, great meals, and of course lots of networking. Stop by our booth to see some of the latest publications and merchandise available. We will also have information on the various committees and what each has been working on to advance the AEG and the profession.

AEG 2019 Annual Meeting – Booth #103 Contact: Paul M. Weaver, PG, AEG 2019 Annual Meeting Co-Chair 336-294-1633 pweaver@espassociates.com Mark your calendar to join us for the 62nd AEG Annual Meeting “Old Mountains – New Beginnings, Using the Past to Map the Future” in Asheville, North Carolina, September 17–22, 2019. Stop by our booth to get all of the details.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

AEG Foundation Silent Auction – Booths 503/5

California Geological Survey – Booth #101

4123 Broadway #817, Oakland, CA, US 94611 www.aegfoundation.org Contact: Alex Vazquez, vazquezam@gmail.com

801 K Street, MS 12-31, Sacramento, CA, US 95814 916-324-5572 http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs Contact: Cynthia L. Pridmore, Cynthia.Pridmore@conservation.ca.gov

Established by three Past Presidents of the Association of Engineering Geologists (AEG) in 1992, the AEG Foundation plays a key role in the success of our profession. The AEG Foundation’s vision is to create a culture of giving back to the profession,and to instill complete confidence in donors that their money is well-invested and well-spent. Our core programs emphasize scholarship, research, and professional development to improve professional practice. We support outreach to increase the public’s appreciation of environmental and engineering geology in geo-hazard evaluation and risk reduction.

Beta Analytic – Booth #312 4985 S.W. 74th Court, Miami, FL, US 33155 www.radiocarbon.com Contact: Matt DeBone, mdebone@betalabservices.com ISO 17025-accredited Beta Analytic is a dedicated radiocarbon dating laboratory with standard turnaround time of 14 business days for its AMS Dating service. Expedited services are available (2–6 business days). All analyses are performed in-house. Respected worldwide for accuracy, quality, and customer care. Results are accessible 24/7 via web access.

California Push Technologies/ConeTec – Booth #300 20 Aladdin Avenue, San Leandro, CA, US 94577 www.conetec.com Contact: John Rogie, jrogie@cptinc.com As an international full-service geotechnical and geoenvironmental site investigation contractor, ConeTec and California Push Technologies offer clients superior project management and site investigation services across the globe, with a large presence in North and South America. With one of the largest fleets of modern, purpose-built deployment equipment in the industry, the ConeTec Group provides in-depth geophysics, CPTu, in-situ testing, drilling, instrumentation, and final data reporting and analysis services. All field investigations are performed by specially trained personnel and supported by experienced site investigation professionals in order to provide the highest quality site investigation. This is the ConeTec difference— better information, better decisions.

Cascade Drilling – Booth #211 2232 Edgevale, Columbus, OH, US 43221 www.cascade-env.com Contact: Steve Bratton, sbratton@cascade-env.com Cascade provides full service geotechnical and environmental contract drilling, high-resolution site characterization, and contaminated site remediation services.

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The California Geological Survey is regarded as the primary source of geologic information used for decision-making by California’s government agencies, its businesses, and the public. Stop by our booth and find out what’s new as we demo our new earthquake hazard zone app EQ Zapp.

Clean Vapor, LLC – Booth #213 148 Route 94, PO Box 688, Blairstown, NJ, US 07825 www.cleanvapor.com Contact: Thomas Halton, THatton@cleanvapor.com Clean Vapor, LLC, is a design-build vapor intrusion mitigation company with 30 years of experience with offices in New Jersey and North Carolina. We specialize in existing building and new construction mitigation. Our focus is on integrating advanced pressure field mapping as a foundation to efficient designs coupled with energy efficient dynamic controls and remote management technology.

Collier Consulting, Inc. – Booth #217 P.O. Box 1137, 590 East South Loop, Stephenville, TX 76401 www.collierconsulting.com Contact: John Jansen, gabriela@collierconsulting.com Geoscience and engineering firm focusing on groundwater resources and water treatment. Offers all surface and marine geophysical services for engineering, environmental, groundwater, and mining applications.

EAGE – Booth #310 PO Box 59, 3990 DB HOUTEN, The Netherlands www.eage.org Contact: Ilaria Meggetto, imo@eage.org EAGE is a professional association for geoscientists and engineers. It is an organization with a worldwide membership, providing a global network of commercial and academic professionals and students. With close to 19,000 members from over 100 countries, the association is truly multi-disciplinary and international in form and pursuits. EAGE operates two divisions: the Oil & Gas Geoscience Division and the Near Surface Geoscience Division.

EMSL Analytical Inc. – Booth #400 200 Route 130 North, Cinnaminson, NJ, US 08077 www.EMSL.com Contact: Kelley West, kwest@emsl.com EMSL Analytical operates over 40 laboratories throughout the United States and Canada. EMSL specializes in fast

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS laboratory results for industrial hygiene, microbiology, asbestos, lead. EMSL also offers a full line of sampling products, supplies and equipment.

Exponent – Booth # 316 475 14th St, STE 400, Oakland, CA, US 94612 www.exponent.com Contact: Julien Cohen-Waeber, jwaeber@gmail.com Exponent is a multidisciplinary organization of scientists, physicians, engineers, and regulatory consultants bringing together over 90 disciplines to address complicated technical and regulatory issues facing industry and government today. The firm is best known for its expertise in forensic analysis and risk assessment worldwide.

Gannett Fleming – Booth #200 Foster Plaza 8, Suite 400, 730 Holiday Drive, Pittsburgh, PA, US 15220 www.gannettfleming.com Contact: Brian Greene, bgreene@gfnet.com Gannett Fleming provides a full range of geotechnical and geological services, ranging from foundations, dams, and levees, to earth retaining structures, tunnels, and mining operations. These services include geotechnical analysis, digital photogrammetry, geophysics, site characterization, instrumentation, ground modification, design of earth structures, rock and soil slope stabilization and groundwater studies and groundwater studies. We are ISO 9001:2008 certified.

Geokon, Inc. – Booth #309 48 Spencer Street, Lebanon, NH, US 03766 www.geokon.com Contact: Joelle Lang, jlang@geokon.com Geokon, Inc., manufactures a full range of high quality geotechnical instrumentation suitable for monitoring the safety and stability of a variety of civil and mining structures including dams, tunnels, foundations, mine openings, piles, etc. Geokon’s sensors exhibit excellent long-term stability, accuracy and reliability even in the most adverse conditions.

Geometrics – Booth #304 2190 Fortune Dr., San Jose, CA, US 95131 www.geometrics.com Contact: Linda Phillips, linda@geometrics.com Geometrics manufactures, sells, rents, and services magnetometers, seismographs, and electrical conductivity and resistivity systems for land, marine, and air investigations of the subsurface.

GEOSLOPE International Ltd. – Booth #301 1200, 700 - 6 Ave SW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2P 0T8 www.geoslope.com Contact: Paul Grunau, janet.wu@geoslope.com Since 1977, GeoSlope International Ltd. has developed, marketed and supported the most popular geotechnical modelling software worldwide. Our geo-engineering software is used in over 150 countries for the last 40 years.

Gehrig Inc. – Booth #204 POB 46, 212 N. Main St., Muenster, TX, US 76252 www.gehriginc.com Contact: Rusty Branch, rusty@gehriginc.com Gehrig, Inc., provides surface and borehole geophysics services for exploration, engineering, and environmental projects throughout the United States. Our toolbox includes seismic, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, microgravity, ground penetrating radar, and a full suite of borehole tools. Recent projects involved high-speed rail, dams, levees, tunneling, landfills, karst and voids, faults, USTs, and general site characterization.

GeoBrugg – Booth #313

Geostabilization International (GSI) – Booth #212 1220 S. St., Suite 150, Sacramento, CA, US 95811 www.gsi.us Contact: Andy Bowman, andy@gsi.us GeoStabilization focuses on bringing new technologies to the geohazard repair industry to reduce project time, cost, and minimize environmental impact. Through many years of training, experience, and this founding philosophy, GeoStabilization engineers and constructors now stand as the most qualified and most experienced in the industry.

22 Centro Algodones, Algodones, NM 87001 909-706-8964 www.geobrugg.com Contact: Saleh Feidi, saleh.feidi@geobrugg.com

Geovert – Booth #311

For over 65 years, Geobrugg has been producing solutions made from high-tensile steel wire to provide reliable protection against natural hazards. Intensive collaboration wit industry, universities and research institutes has made Geobrugg a reliable partner when it comes to protection and safety solutions. Our systems are fully tested against rockfall, landslide, and debris flow.

Geovert is a specialist geotechnical construction contractor founded in Christchurch, New Zealand in 2000. Since our inception, we have grown to become an internationally recognized leader in ground improvement, slope stabilization, and rockfall protection using rope access techniques.

September 2018

1919 W Elk Pl., Denver, CO 80211 www.geovert.com Contact: Steve Farrand, steve.farrand@geovert.com

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

GEOVison Inc. – Booth #509

IAEG – Booth Next to Registration

1124 Olympic Dr., Corona, CA US 92881-3390 603-448-1562, Fax: 603-448-3216 www.geovision.com Contact: John Diehl, jdiehl@geovision.com

Secretary General, IAEG No. 508 Huanchengxilu, Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, 312000, China http://iaeg.info Contact: Professor Faquan WU, iaegsg@163.com

Specializing in an understanding of subsurface geologic and hydrologic conditions, subsurface infrastructure, engineering properties of soil and rock, and earthquake hazards.

Gregg Drilling & Testing Inc. – Booth #205 950 Howe Road, Martinez, CA, US 94553 www.greggdrilling.com Contact: Timothy Boyd, tboyd@greggdrilling.com Gregg Drilling and Testing, Inc., is a diversified site investigation contractor that provides drilling and testing services to the geotechnical, environmental, water resources and construction industries. Gregg performs work throughout California and the West Coast and has offices in Martinez and Signal Hill, California.

Engineering Geology is the science devoted to the investigation, study and solution of the engineering and environmental problems, which may arise as the result of the interaction between geology and the works and activities of man as well as the prediction and the development of measures for prevention or remediation of geological hazards. The International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG) was founded in 1964 and is affiliated with the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). IAEG is a worldwide scientific society with more than 4,600 members and 61 national groups. The official languages of the IAEG are English and French.

Keynetix Limited – Booth #308 Hayward Baker Inc. – Booth #119 1870 Cordell Court, Suite 201, El Cajon, CA, US 92020 Contact: Rick Walsh, rwalsh@haywardbaker.com Hayward Baker is North America’s leader in geotechnical solutions, continually evolving and expanding to meet the increasingly complex needs of the construction community. Hayward Baker is a contractor specializing in all ground improvement, structural connections, and earth retention techniques.

HI-TECH Rockfall Construction, Inc. – Booth #208 PO Box 674, Forest Grove, OR, US 97116 www.hitechrockfall.com Contact: Dane Wagner, dane@hitechrockfall.com HI-TECH Rockfall Construction, Inc., founded in 1996, is located in Forest Grove, Oregon, USA. HI-TECH is a general contractor specializing in rockfall mitigation and slope stabilization systems, and is considered to be the industry leader in designing and installing rockfall protection and slope stabilization systems throughout the United States.

hydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc. – Booth #109 5020 Campus Drive Suite #7, Newport Beach, CA US 92660 www.hgiworld.com Contact: Nigel Crook, ncrook@hgiworld.com hydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc. (HGI) has decades of experience providing geophysical services to the environmental, engineering, groundwater, and mining industries. We represent value and reliability in a geophysical service provider—our geophysicists, geologists, hydrologists, and engineers are dedicated to finding solutions using custom-tailored geophysical services with a focus on safety, quality, and innovation. 32

Systems House, Burnt Meadow Rd, Redditch, WOR, United Kingdom B989PA www.keynetix.com Contact: Gary Morin, gary.morin@keynetix.com Keynetix prides itself on its data management expertise. Geotechnical and environmental data management software is all they do—and they’re good at it, which is why Autodesk choose them to be their worldwide geotechnical industry partner. HoleBASE SI is a state-of-the-art geotechnical knowledge management system that will help you stay in control of your geotechnical project data and archive. HoleBASE SI’s extension for AutoCAD® Civil 3D allows quick and easy inclusion of all your geotechnical data in the BIM process and CAD drawings.

Lettis Consultants International, Inc. – Booth #417 1981 N. Broadway, Suite 330, Walnut Creek, CA, US 94596 www.lettisci.com Contact: Melody Wade, wade@lettisci.com Lettis Consultants International, Inc. (LCI) offers hightechnology, innovative Earth science consulting services to clients around the world. LCI geologists, seismologists, and engineers have comprehensive worldwide experience providing earthquake hazard analyses, engineering geology and geotechnical services, water resources expertise, and licensing and regulatory strategy and compliance.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

LIM/Electromind – Booth #408 lim sas, 86 rue jean bertin, villeurbanne, France 69100 www.lim.eu Contact: François Simand, lim@lim.eu LIM/Electromind is specialist in instrumentation while and after drilling. We are developing and manufacturing Monitoring System While Drilling (MWD) to record drilling parameters and provide geotechnical report, geophysical logging probes for mining exploration, geotechnical and environmental purposes: optical and acoustical televiewers, Gamma Ray, and Sonic.

Maccaferri – Booth #201 9210 Corporate Blvd Ste 220, Rockville, MD, US 20850 www.maccaferri.com/us Contact: Michael Koutsourais, mkoutsourais@maccaferri-usa.com Maccaferri’s extensive engineering capabilities and range of products help clients overcome challenges associated with geohazards, landslides, and other natural disasters. Maccaferri, known for its Double-Twist Wire Mesh Gabions, has developmental product lines for rockfall mitigation, retaining wall and soil reinforcement, natural disaster response, and other critical infrastructure needs. We are global engineers with 140 years experience, providing local solutions for complex projects around the world.

NHAZCA S.r.l. – Booth #216 Via V. Bachelet 12, 00185 Rome (Italy) Ph. +39 06 95 065 820 www.nhazca.com Contact: Paolo Mazzanti, paolo.mazzanti@nhazca.com NHAZCA provides cutting-edge solutions for the management, control and monitoring of natural and man-induced hazards, supporting key international owners in the following markets: hydrogeological and seismic risk management, infrastructures, hydroelectric, oil & gas, and mining. To provide its solutions, NHAZCA makes use of the most advanced remote sensing technologies, among which are: Satellite & Terrestrial SAR Interferometry, PhotoMonitoringTM and Terrestrial Laser Scanner.

NORCAL Geophysical Consultants, Inc., a Terracon Company – Booth #105 321 Blodgett St., Cotati, CA, US 94931-8710 www.norcalgeophysical.com Contact: William Henrich, whenrich@norcalgeophysical.com Terracon is an employee-owned consulting engineering firm providing environmental, facilities, geotechnical, surface-borehole geophysical and materials services. We offer practical, costeffective solutions suited for projects of all sizes in California in particular and all 50 states.

September 2018

Northern California Geological Society – Booth #111 www.ncgeolsoc.org Contact: Thomas Berry, Thomas.Barry@conservation.ca.gov The Northern California Geological Society is a non-profit organization for promoting the scientific and educational aspects of geology through monthly meetings, field trips, publications, scholarships and awards.

RIZZO International, Inc. – Booth #303 500 Penn Center Boulevard, Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 http://www.rizzointl.com/ Contact: Michael Rosenmeier, michael.rosenmeier@rizzoassoc.com RIZZO is a women-owned engineering and earth sciences consulting firm with expertise in civil, geotechnical, and structural analysis and design; geologic and hydrogeologic investigations; hydrologic and hydraulic analyses; and construction management, testing, and inspection. Our team provides these engineering services for dams and water resources, infrastructure, and power generation projects.

Rocscience – Booth #416 54 Saint Patrick St., Toronto, ON, Canada M5T1V1 www.rocscience.com Contact: Jeff Lam, jeff.lam@rocscience.com Founded in 1996, Rocscience is a world leader in developing 2D and 3D software for civil, mining, and geotechnical engineers. For over 20 years, we’ve built on leading-edge research to create the best geotechnical software available. As engineers ourselves, we know the importance of having reliable and easy-to-use software. That’s why we constantly develop and refine our programs to make expert solutions that work for you.

RST Instruments Ltd. – Booth #305 11545 Kingston St., Maple Ridge, BC Canada V2X 0Z5 www.rstinstruments.com Contact: Etienne Constable, econstable@rstinstruments.com RST Instruments Ltd. is a world leader in the design, manufacturing, and sale of innovative geotechnical, environmental, and structural monitoring instruments. RST’s monitoring instruments are integral components for major dams, mines, tunnels, pipelines, bridges, and buildings around the world. Since 1977, our customers have trusted our reliability & accuracy to help them make sound decisions to: manage risks, improve safety, optimize design, increase productivity, and reduce costs. Automated data acquisition systems (ADAS) are a specialty for RST—custom designed to customer requirements. RST takes pride in providing custom-engineered solutions to site-specific problems and is committed to quality and customer satisfaction. The RST Instruments Ltd. quality management system is certified ISO 9001:2015.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Ruen Drilling – Booth #404

Stantec – Booth #113

3441 Todd Ct., Modesto, CA, US 95350 www.ruendrilling.com Contact: Jerry Marasovich, jerry.marasovich@ruendrilling.com

8211 South 48th St., Phoenix, AZ, US 85044 www.stantec.com Contact: Ryan Redalen, ryan.redalen@stantec.com

Ruen Drilling provides drilling services including surface, underground, and horizontal directional core drilling for the geotechnical, exploration, and geothermal industries throughout the US, South America and Asia. Drilling equipment includes truck, track, skid, and helicopter-supported core drills. Rig capacities are to 10,000 ft. vertical or angle and 3,000 ft. horizontal. Crews are all trained in achieving a high degree of core recovery for the client. Recent projects include: Devils Slide Tunnel, Irvington Tunnel, Caldecott Tunnel 4th bore, Route 9 Tunnel in Hong Kong, Highway 53 Tunnel in Puerto Rico, White Sands Missile Range, and Mt. Olympus Pipeline No. 6.

The Stantec community unites approximately 22,000 employees working in over 400 locations across 6 continents. Our geotechnical engineers and material specialists are focused on solving design, construction, and rehabilitation issues impacting the communities where we work and live. By pairing cutting-edge site investigation technology with tried-andtrue experience, we bring unparalleled expertise to the entire geotechnical spectrum—from planning, investigation, and design to execution and quality control.

Sage Engineers – Booth #202 2251 Douglas Blvd., Suite 200, Roseville, CA, US 95661 www.sageengineers.com Contact: Megan Malmgren, mmalmgren@sageengineers.com For more than 20 years, SAGE has specialized in water resources, infrastructure, dam, and levee safety engineering, hydropower, and asset management projects throughout California and the western United States. Our team of professionals provides multidiscipline engineering design, geologic, and bid-support services.

268 Hayden Hall, 240 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, US 19104 www.upenn.edu/msag Contact: Yvette Bordeaux, bordeaux@sas.upenn.edu The Master of Science in Applied Geosciences (MSAG) offers students a specialized degree that combines knowledge in theoretical areas of geology with technical expertise in geochemistry, geophysics, hydrogeology, and engineering geology with a focus on professional development. Students pursuing their MSAG at Penn may concentrate in one of three areas: Environmental Geology, Engineering Geology, and Hydrogeology.

Woodward Drilling – Booth #302

Seequent – Booth #402 20 Moorhouse Ave., Christchurch, 8011 New Zealand +64-27-308-6035 www.leapfrog3D.com/works Contact: Emma Gray, emma.gray@seequent.com Seequent is a global leader in the development of visual data science software and collaborative technologies. Our solutions enable you to turn complex geological data into dynamic, clear and easy to interpret 3D models. Our latest solution, Leapfrog Works, is specifically designed for the Civil Engineering and Environmental industries.

Springer – Booth #203 1 New York Plaza, Suite 4500, New York, NY, US 10004 www.springer.com Contact: Petra van Steenbergen, exhibits-ny@springer.com Looking to publish your research? Discover Springer’s print and electronic publication services, including open access! Get high quality review, maximum readership and rapid distribution. Visit our booth or springer.com/authors. You can also browse key titles in your field and buy e-books at discount prices. With Springer you are in good company.

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University of Pennsylvania – Booth #412

PO Box 336, 550 River Rd., Rio Vista, CA, US 94571 www.woodwarddrilling.net Contact: Wayne Woodward, wayne@woodwarddrilling.com Woodward Drilling a DBE enterprise provides drilling services for the geotechnical, exploration, construction and environmental industries throughout California. Specializing in rock coring, mud rotary, over water, auger and direct push. Equipment includes track, truck, over water barge, direct push, high capacity/pressure grouting and development rigs.

The Exhibitor-Hosted Luncheon Monday, September 17 12:00–1:30pm in the Pacific Ballroom Enjoy a delicious buffet lunch, connect with friends and associates, and make new contacts while browsing through our exhibitor booths.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Sponsors Without the help and financial support of the following individuals and companies, it would be impossible to plan the quality meeting to which AEG members have become accustomed.

Premium Sponsors Exhibitor Hosted Luncheon ConeTec/California Push Technologies 20 Aladdin Avenue, San Leandro, CA, US 94577 www.conetec.com Contact: John Rogie, jrogie@cptinc.com As an international full-service geotechnical and geoenvironmental site investigation contractor, ConeTec and California Push Technologies offer clients superior project management and site investigation services across the globe, with a large presence in North and South America. With one of the largest fleets of modern, purpose-built deployment equipment in the industry, the ConeTec Group provides in-depth geophysics, CPTu, in-situ testing, drilling, instrumentation, and final data reporting and analysis services. All field investigations are performed by specially trained personnel and supported by experienced site investigation professionals in order to provide the highest quality site investigation. This is the ConeTec difference— better information, better decisions.

Opening Session Gannett Fleming Foster Plaza 8, Suite 400, 730 Holiday Drive, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 15220 www.gannettfleming.com Contact: Brian Greene, bgreene@gfnet.com Gannett Fleming provides a full range of geotechnical and geological services ranging from foundations, dams, and levees, to earth retaining structures, tunnels, and mining operations. These services include geotechnical analysis, digital photogrammetry, geophysics, site characterization, instrumentation, ground modification, design of earth structures, rock and soil slope stabilization and groundwater studies. We are ISO 9001:2008 certified.

Icebreaker Reception Geobrugg North America, LLC 22 Centro Algodones, Algodones, NM 87001 909-706-8964 www.geobrugg.com Contact: Saleh Feidi, saleh.Feidi@geobrugg.com For over 65 years Geobrugg has been producing solutions made from high-tensile steel wire to provide reliable protection against natural hazards. Intensive collaboration wit industry, universities and research institutes has made Geobrugg a reliable partner when it comes to protection and safety solutions. Our systems are fully tested against rockfall, landslide, and debris flow. September 2018

Lanyard Sponsor Maccaferri 9210 Corporate Blvd Ste. 220, Rockville, MD, USA 20850 www.maccaferri.com/us Contact: Michael Koutsourais, mkoutsourais@maccaferriusa.com Maccaferri’s extensive engineering capabilities and range of products help clients overcome challenges associated with geohazards, landslides, and other natural disasters. Maccaferri, known its Double-Twist Wire Mesh Gabions, has developmental product lines for rockfall mitigation, retaining wall and soil reinforcement, natural disaster response, and other critical infrastructure needs. We are global engineers with 140 years experience, providing local solutions for complex projects around the world.

Sponsors Women in AEG/AWG Breakfast Steele and Associates 2390 Forest St, Denver, CO 80207 303-333-6071 Contacts: Susan Steele Weir and Bob Weir, steeleweir@aol.com Provide consulting and project peer review for slope stabilization, dam and tunnel projects.

Past President’s Luncheon Department of Geology, San Jose State University San Jose, CA, 95192-0102 408-924-5011 www.sjsugeology.org Contact: John W. Williams, Professor of Geology, Williams@geosun.sjsu.edu This academic program in Geology leads to a Master’s Degree with an emphasis in engineering geology.

Student/Professional/ Networking Reception Gary and Leigh Luce Contact: Gary Luce, lucegc@charter.net

Jeff and Julie Keaton Contact: Julie Keaton, aegjuliek@aol.com

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

General Session Tuesday

Poster Reception and Happy Hour

Pyramid Environmental & Engineering, P.C.

Tuesday

PO Box 16265, Greensboro, NC 27416-0265 336-335-3174, x121 www.pyramidenvironmental.com Contact: Doug Canavello, doug@pyramidenvironmental.com Pyramid Geophysics provides professional geophysical and utility location services including transportation, geo-technical and construction, and environmental projects: seismic, resistivity, conductivity, ground penetrating radar, downhole, and other capabilities as required to get you the answers you need.

GEO-HAZ Consulting, Inc.

All Day Coffee Stations Monday

HI-TECH Rockfall Construction, Inc. PO Box 674, Forest Grove, OR, USA 97116 www.hitechrockfall.com Contact: Dane Wagner, dane@hitechrockfall.com HI-TECH Rockfall Construction, Inc., founded in 1996, is located in Forest Grove, OR, USA. HI-TECH is a General Contractor specializing in rockfall mitigation and slope stabilization systems, and is considered to be the industry leader in designing and installing rockfall protection and slope stabilization systems throughout the United States.

Tuesday

PO Box 837, 600 East Galena Ave., Crestone, CO, USA 81131 719-588-4279 www.geohaz.com Contact: James McCalpin, mccalpin@geohaz.com GEO-HAZ is an international consultancy in geological hazards and engineering geology. We specialize in analyzing seismic hazards and slope stability. Since 1990 we have performed >175 projects in 45 countries on nuclear facilities (power plants, repositories), high-hazard dams, and landslide areas (inventory mapping, susceptibility calculations/mapping, and comprehensive site studies).

Student Travel Grant PanGEO, Inc. 1061 NE 102nd St., Seattle, WA USA 98125-7519 206-262-0370 www.pangeoinc.com Contact: Stephen Evans, sevans@pangeoinc.com PanGEO is a full service geotechnical consulting firm based in Seattle, WA. We provide geotechnical studies for infrastructure on public and private projects, including bridges, high rise buildings, seismic retrofit and landslide stabilization efforts.

Access Limited Construction

Gill Editing Online

1102 Pike Lane, Oceano, CA, USA 93445 www.accesslimitedconstruction.com Contact: Simon Boone, PG, simon@alccinc.com

Jane Gill Shaler Contact: Jane Gill Shaler, janehgillshaler@gmail.com

Access Limited Construction is a general contractor located in San Luis Obispo, CA. An industry leader, we provide rockfall mitigation, slope stabilization, and difficult drilling services for transportation, energy, mining and private sector clients. With our fleet of Spyder Excavators, we can access steep terrain and hard to reach projects throughout the United States from the East Coast to Hawaii.

Thursday

Earth Consultants International, Inc. www.earthconsultants.com Contact: Tania Gonzalez We specialize in helping our clients develop solutions to their complex earth science issues, anywhere in the world.

Friday

AEG Carolinas Chapter 919-623-3511; http://aegcarolinas.org/ Contact: Maddie German, maddie.german45@gmail.com

Teachers Workshop California Geological Survey 801 K Street, MS 12-31, Sacramento, CA 95814 916-324-5572 http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs Contact: Cynthia L. Pridmore, cynthia.Pridmore@conservation.ca.gov The California Geological Survey is regarded as the primary source of geologic information used for decision-making by California’s government agencies, its businesses, and the public. Stop by our booth and find out what’s new as we demo our new earthquake hazard zone app EQ Zapp.

Closing Ceremony Reception Drinks SFB Consulting Contact: Scott Burns, burnss@pdx.edu

We serve the environmental and engineering geology profession for the Carolinas. 36

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Sessions Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium

California Geological Survey 801 K Street, MS 12-31, Sacramento, CA 95814 916-324-5572 http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs Contact: Cynthia L. Pridmore, Cynthia.Pridmore@conservation.ca.gov The California Geological Survey is regarded as the primary source of geologic information used for decision-making by California’s government agencies, its businesses, and the public. Stop by our booth and find out what’s new as we demo our new earthquake hazard zone app EQ Zapp.

Technical Session Breaks Sarah Kalika sarah@georx.net

Monday

AEG Oregon Chapter www.aegoregon.org Contact: Chris Humphrey, geohumphrey@yahoo.com

Field Courses Field Course #2: Yosemite National Park

Gill Editing Online Jane Gill Shaler Contact: Jane Gill Shaler, janehgillshaler@gmail.com

NOA Symposium

Kleinfelder 1330 Broadway, Suite 1200, Oakland, CA, USA 94612 510-628-8122 www.kleinfelder.com Contact: Morley Beckman, MBeckman@kleinfelder.com We are engineers, scientists, and construction professionals providing solutions that improve our clients transportation, water, energy, and other private infrastructure. Kleinfelder is an integrated, cross-disciplinary team of bright, curious, innovative problem-solvers dedicated to doing the right thing every day, on every project.

Dams Symposium – Parts I & II

RJH Consultants

Field Course #6: Scour in Rock: Engineering Geology Considerations for the Oroville Dam Spillways

BGC Engineering 701 12th Street, Suite 211, Golden, CO, USA, 80401 www.bgcengineering.ca Contact: Mike George, mgeorge@bgcengineering.ca BGC Engineering Inc. (BGC) is an international consulting firm that provides professional services in applied earth sciences with a specialized appreciation of the impacts of geology on engineered structures.

Field Course #9: The Streets of San Francisco Geologic Walking Tour

9800 Mt. Pyramid Court, Suite 330, Englewood, CO, USA 80112 303-225-4611 www.rjh-consultants.com Contact: Edwin Friend, efriend@rjh-consultants.com

LANGAN

RJH Consultants, Inc., is a geotechnical and water resources firm specializing in evaluation, design, and construction engineering for raw water supply systems: dams, reservoirs, and water conveyance infrastructure. RJH manages projects with overall costs ranging from several thousand dollars to in excess of $200 million.

Langan provides an integrated mix of engineering and environmental consulting services in support of land development projects, corporate real estate portfolios, and the energy industry. Our clients include developers, property owners, public agencies, corporations, institutions, and energy companies around the world. Our mission is to contribute to the success of our clients by providing an unmatched combination of our people’s technical excellence, practical experience, and responsiveness. Our vision is to be recognized by our clients, employees, and competition as being “the best” engineering and environmental consulting firm. To be “the best” we will hire only people who can demonstrate the potential to grow; constantly seek to transfer our values and technical knowledge internally; relentlessly pursue improvement in the quality of our work; and know our clients and their needs better than any other firm in our field.

Dams Symposium – Parts III & IV

Schnabel Engineering 11-A Oak Branch Drive, Greensboro, NC 27407 336-274-9456 schnabel-eng.com Contact: Gary Rogers, grogers@schnabel-eng.com Schnabel is a leading provider of dam, tunnel and geotechnical engineering solutions nationally and abroad, with risk management rounding out a full-service approach. Our 300+ employee/owners in 19 locations have a passion for client service and tough technical challenges. September 2018

555 Montgomery Street, Suite 1300, San Francisco, CA 94111-2554 www.langan.com Contact: Shannon Daggett, sdaggett@langan.com

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Field Courses Field Course #10: Coastal Geologic Hazards, San Francisco Upper Peninsula

AEG Sacramento Section http://www.aegsacto.org/ Contact: Meredith Beswick, mbeswick@kleinfelder.com

Field Course #13: Yosemite Highlights Single-Day Tour

Abdul Shakoor Contact: ashakoor@kent.edu

Field Course #16: San Andreas and Range Front Reverse Faults, San Francisco Peninsula

Sage Engineers

International Delegation Sponsorship Asbestos TEM Labs 600 Bancroft Way, Ste A, Berkeley, CA 94710-2224 Contact: Mark Bailey, mark@asbestostemlabs.com www.asbestostemlabs.com

Young at Heart Event AEG Foundation 4123 Broadway #817, Oakland, CA 94611 www.aegfoundation.org Contact: Alex Vazquez, vazquezam@gmail.com

For more than 20 years, SAGE has specialized in water resources, infrastructure, dam, and levee safety engineering, hydropower, and asset management projects throughout California and the western United States. Our team of professionals provides multidiscipline engineering design, geologic, and bid-support services.

Established by three Past Presidents of the Association of Engineering Geologists (AEG) in 1992, the AEG Foundation plays a key role in the success of our profession. The AEG Foundation’s vision is to create a culture of giving back to the profession,and to instill complete confidence in donors that their money is wellinvested and well-spent. Our core programs emphasize scholarship, research, and professional development to improve professional practice. We support outreach to increase the public’s appreciation of environmental and engineering geology in geo-hazard evaluation and risk reduction.

Field Course #19: West Napa Earthquake and Wine

AEG San Francisco Bay Area Chapter

Kumar and Associates, Inc.

Contact: Julien Cohen-Waeber jwaeber@gmail.com

5020 County Road 154. Glenwood Springs, CO 91601 www.kumarusa.com Contact: Robert Duran, rduran@kumarusa.com

AEG’s San Francisco Bay Area Chapter is proud to sponsor this year’s event. Our thriving chapter holds monthly meetings in Oakland/Berkeley. Find out more at www.aegsf.org!

2251 Douglas Blvd., Suite 200, Roseville, CA, US 95661 www.sageengineers.com Contact: Megan Malmgren, mmalmgren@sageengineers.com

Kumar & Associates, Inc. (K+A), a consulting engineering firm since 1989, provides professional and technical services in the areas of geotechnical engineering, engineering geology, environmental services, and construction materials testing and observation/third-party testing. Our offices are located in Denver, Parker, Colorado Springs, Fort Collins, Glenwood Springs, and Summit County, Colorado.

Field Course #20: Environmental Geology in the San Francisco Presidio

Geosyntec Consultants, Inc. 1111 Broadway, 6th Floor, Oakland, CA 94607 www.geosyntec.com Contact: George A Ford, GFord@geosyntec.com Geosyntec is a specialized consulting and engineering firm that works with private and public sector clients to address new ventures and complex problems involving our environment, natural resources, and civil infrastructure.We deliver solutions through Geosyntec and our seamlessly integrated divisions SiREM, Savron, and Geosyntec Europe), with a combined staff exceeding 1,200 engineers, scientists, and related technical and project support personnel. We serve our clients from more than 80 offices in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia. 38

AEG Student & Young Professional Support Committee (SYPSC) Committee Contacts: Co-Chairs: Kevin Mininger, kmininger@rjh-consultants. com and Morley Beckman, MBeckman@kleinfelder.com The SYPSC is responsible for the development and implementation of strategies related to supporting and increasing student and young professional members, and related goals in the association’s Strategic Plan.

Kumar and Associates, Inc. 5020 County Road 154. Glenwood Springs, CO 91601 www.kumarusa.com Contact: Robert Duran, rduran@kumarusa.com Kumar & Associates, Inc. (K+A), a consulting engineering firm since 1989, provides professional and technical services in the areas of geotechnical engineering, engineering geology, environmental services, and construction materials testing and observation/third-party testing. Our offices are located in Denver, Parker, Colorado Springs, Fort Collins, Glenwood Springs, and Summit County, Colorado.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Teacher Workshop Plate Tectonic Puzzle Maps Southern California Earthquake Center 3651 Trousdale Pkwy, Los Angeles, CA USA 90089-0742 SCEC.org Contact: Mark Benthien, benthien@usc.edu

Prize Giveaway – Software Golden Software 809 14th Street, Golden, CO, USA 80401-1866 303-279-1021 www.goldensoftware.com Contact: Blakelee Mills, info@goldensoftware.com

Poster Reception & Happy Hour Monday and Thursday

SFB Consulting Contact: Scott Burns, burnss@pdx.edu

Student Poster Competition SFB Consulting

Participating Countries’ Flags Jeffrey and Julie Keaton Contact: Julie Keaton, aegjuliek@aol.com

Mobile App Push Notifications The University of Texas at Austin Contact: Kevin Weir, kevin.Wier@austin.utexas.edu www.groutingfundamentals.com Grouting Fundamentals & Current Practice - 40th Annual Short Course • 3.5 CEUs - March 4–8, 2018 • The University of Texas at Austin. Join the leaders in Grouting for world-class training and hands-on learning. Since 1979, the 5-day Grouting Fundamentals & Current Practice course has covered pressure grouting as a method to improve geotechnical characteristics of soils and rock masses. The 40th annual course will again be held at The University of Texas at Austin and involve a notable faculty of recognized international authorities and leaders in the grouting industry. The course is designed for owners, regulators, consultants, and contractors who have interest in a broad range of grouting procedures and applications that are relevant to dam construction, safety and rehabilitation, and other geo-structural construction remediation techniques. Also for petroleum engineering well drilling and operations.

Contact: Scott Burns, burnss@pdx.edu Association of Environme ental & Engineering Geologist s s 62nd Annual Meeting Asheville, North Carolina

Renaissance Asheville Potential Filed Courses • Norfolk Reservoir B wery • River Arts District/Bre • Landslides • Spruce Pine Mines

September 16-21, 2019

Potential Guest Tours • Biltmore Estate and Gardens • Lake Lure/Chimney Rock • Linville Caverns o • Wine Tour Potential Short Courses • Drones for Reconnaissance • Characterization of Rock Core and Borehole Conditions • Geologic Mapping (mostly field) • Groundwater Modeling Special Event - “A Night in The Mountains” Country Barbecue on Private e Farm

Asheville, North Carolina is situated in the heart of the Blue Ridge Mountains and is one of America's most vibrant destinations. The breathtaking mountain sce s nery is met with a sophisticated yet bohemian culture and provi v des an ideal backdrop for inspired meetings. The area boasts a thriving arts community, diverse outdoor adventure r s, a fun and inviting downtown, numerous historic attractions and amazing food. Photo Credit: Explore Asheville

September 2018

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Coastal Hazards Forum 2019:

Engulfing January 7–10 theCoast

Dauphin Island, Alabama Sea Lab Campus

Storms, tsunamis, and rising sea levels threaten U.S. coastal communities, ecosystems, and economies. Much of the nation’s existing coastal infrastructure must be adapted to expected future conditions or relocated away from hazards. New coastal development and post-storm reconstruction must be planned, sited, and maintained with coastal geologic hazards clearly in mind. The Coastal Hazards Technical Working Group of AEG is hosting its first Coastal Hazards Professional Forum at Dauphin Island Sea Lab and is currently accepting abstracts for presentations at this three-day forum event. The forum includes a one full-day and two half-day sessions devoted to technical and regulatory policy issues plus a half-day field trip around the barrier beach island, as well as an optional half-day tour of the marine laboratory facilities. Keynote speakers, student poster sessions, exhibitor displays, and a banquet will be available to attendees.

Potential session topics are anticipated to include: Sea Level Rise & Impact on Addressing Coastal Emergencies

The forum will offer the opportunity to discuss current shoreline protection methods, coastal hazard policies, and project planning with increased attention to sea level change resiliency and long term public use regulations in the geologic environment.

Abstracts Due by September 1, 2018 Abstracts should be submitted by September 1 and be limited to 500 words for publication in the program with abstracts. Abstract submissions will be reviewed and selected for presentation at the forum by the Coastal Hazards Technical Working Group. Notification of acceptance/rejection will be provided via e-mail by November 1, 2018. The weblink to submit abstracts will be available soon. If you need additional information, please contact Cynthia Palomares at cynthiapalomarescon@gmail.com.

AEG’s Coastal Hazards Technical Working Group is charged with disseminating information, organizing conferences and workshops, developing training, and writing general and technical articles regarding geologic hazards along the coasts of the United States—Atlantic, Arctic, Caribbean, Great Lakes, Gulf, and Pacific. This group will foster the integration of engineering and environmental geologic information into policy and management actions in order to reduce the nation’s future vulnerability to these hazards and to create more resilient and sustainable environments along the nation’s coasts.

Wetland Loss - Does It Increase Coastal Hazards? Sediment Transport Modeling & Long Range Planning Coastal Subsidence & Salt Water Intrusion Issues Coastal Engineering & Storm Damage Reduction Urban Development & Coastal Hazards Developing Sustainable & Resilient Projects What are the Impacts of Regulatory Policies? Reducing Emergency Response Time Intergovernmental Policies Improving Communication & Public Outreach 40

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

T

2018 Technical Program

he 2018 Planning Committee has put together a technical program that is sure to provide an outstanding educational experience for attendees. PDHs will be available for all technical sessions and short courses. A Speaker’s Preparation Room will be open from September 17–21, from 7:00am–5:00pm on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday, and from 7:00am–2:00pm on Friday. A computer and projector will be available for presenters to practice their presentations. AEG/IAEG provide an open forum for the presentation of varying opinions and positions. However, opinions expressed by speakers do not necessarily represent the views or policies of AEG or IAEG.

Technical Program Sponsors Opening Session – Gannett Fleming General Session – Pyramid Environmental & Engineering, P.C. NOA Symposium – Kleinfelder Dams Symposium Parts I & II – RJH Consultants Dams Symposium Parts III & IV – Schnabel Engineering Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium – California Geological Survey

Opening Session Keynote Speakers Dr. J. David Rogers Dr. Rogers is a professor and the Karl F. Hasselmann Chair in geological engineering at the Missouri University of Science & Technology (Missouri S&T). His extensive research has focused on regional landslide hazard mapping and evaluations, earthquake site response-liquefaction-lateral spread features, levee and flood control/protection, fluvial geomorphology, geohydrology, natural and man-made dams, passive detection of tunnels/conduits, virtual geotechnical databases, geoforensic studies, karst features, and evolution of geotechnics in professional practice. Rogers received his BS in geology from Cal Poly Pomona (1976), and both his MS in civil engineering (1979) and PhD (1982) in geological and geotechnical engineering from Cal Berkeley. From 1984–2001, he operated consulting firms with offices in the San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Honolulu metro areas. He served on Berkeley’s civil engineering faculty from 1994–2001 prior to accepting his position at Missouri S&T. He is a registered civil engineer, geologist, engineering geologist, and hydrogeologist in California, and a Fellow of ASCE and GSA.

September 2018

Abstract: Origins of Engineering Geology in California California is a cornucopia of geologic conditions and natural hazards hastened by its unique position astride the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Its major enterprise is agriculture, made possible through manipulation of precious water resources: requiring not only dams and aqueducts, but unprecedented volume of earth moving to create irrigable agricultural tracts and hillside housing developments, as well as the most sophisticated transportation network in the US. The value of its real estate is intimately tied to the availability of water, frequent droughts and flood cycles are a result of the most severe coefficients of variability with respect to annual precipitation of any location on Earth. Between 1906 and 1934, the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco completed the longest municipal aqueducts in world history. Only a few geologists provided cursory advice for the construction of the dams, tunnels, siphons, and open channel elements of the aqueducts. In the early 1930s the state’s first engineering geology firm was established in Palo Alto to provide consultation in harnessing groundwater, and Stanford University emerged as the nation’s first institution with a focus on groundwater hydrology. Most of the state’s faults were accidentally discovered by these pioneer engineering geologists while exploring groundwater basins for agricultural clients. As the state’s population centers have continued to expand, its sustainability is routinely challenged by the impacts of droughts, floods, slope instability, seismic hazards, settlement related to fluid withdrawal, saltwater intrusion, selenium buildup, solid and toxic waste disposal, and the long-term impacts of mining, forestry, and urban and industrial pollution. By 1968, these factors led California to pass legislation as the first state to license professional geologists and certified engineering geologists.

Dr. Huang Runqiu Dr. Huang started his education in the hydrology department of the Chengdu Institute of Geology (currently known as the Chengdu University of Technology) in September 1979. In September 1988 upon graduation with a PhD in engineering, he began working at the university—successively as Assistant to the President, Dean of the Hydrology Department, and Dean of the College of Environment and Civil Engineering. In November 1997, he was elected Vice Chairman of the Sichuan Provincial Committee of the Jiusan Society. In November 2001, he was appointed Vice President of the Chengdu University of Technology and Director of the State Key Laboratory of Geo-hazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection. He was elected Chairman of the Sichuan Provincial Committee of Jiusan Society in May 2007

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS and Standing Committee Member of the Central Committee of Jiusan Society in December 2007. In January 2008, he was elected Vice Chairman of the Sichuan Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). In January 2014, he was elected Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Sichuan Provincial People’s Congress. In March 2016, he was appointed Vice Minister of the Ministry of Environmental Protection. In December 2017, he was elected Vice Chairman of the 14th Central Committee of Jiusan Society. He was a member of the 9th, the 10th, and the 11th CPPCC National Committees. Currently, he is a deputy to the 12th National People’s Congress. Abstract: The Chain of Geohazards Induced by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake: Ten Years of Lessons, Advances and Challenges The magnitude Mw 7.9 earthquake that shook the Longmen mountains at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (Sichuan, China) has deeply altered the landscape and the surface processes not only with its shaking, but especially through the chain of geohazards that unfolded in the subsequent years. It was the largest known earthquake in terms of geohazards triggered. One of the largest landslides ever 9 3 observed, the 10 m Daguangbao rock avalanche, was caused by this earthquake. Many other landslides dammed the course of rivers, forming over 800 barrier lakes that threatened to flood millions of people downstream. The artifi8 3 cial burst of the 3×10 m Tangjiashan barrier lake to reduce this hazard remains the most outstanding intervention of its type ever performed. Almost 200,000 co-seismic landslides 3 were identified in total, that generated several km of loose debris, most of which was deposited on steep slopes or in low-order channels. Many of these deposits were remobilized by rainstorms and often evolved into catastrophic debris flows. The frequency and magnitude of the geohazards remained high for years, disrupting and questioning our reconstruction and risk mitigation strategies. On the other hand, the Wenchuan earthquake has taught us several lessons and strongly motivated our research on the earthquake-induced geohazards and the way they are linked in a chain. The mechanisms of initiation and triggering of the coseismic landslides, their rain-induced remobilization and their progressive healing, the generation of debris flows, the evolution of the factors that control their occurrence and characteristics, the transport of sediments by the rivers and, finally, the comprehensive role of strong earthquakes in shaping the mountain topography in the long term, are all hot research topics for which important results have been accomplished. With ten years of research behind and much still left to do, this talk summarizes our improved understanding of the earthquakerelated chain of geohazards and highlights the outstanding issues that are the object of our current research efforts.

Dr. Atiye Tugrul Professor Atiye Tugrul graduated from Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geological Engineering, ranking first in her class. In 1988, she worked as a Quality Control Engineer, responsible for concrete and asphalt production with aggregate production facility at 2nd Bosphorus Bridge and its connection roads project in Istanbul. She started to work as a research assistant at the Applied Geology Division, Department of Geological Engineering in Istanbul University in 1989. In 1995, she completed her PhD thesis at the same department. She received her Associate Professor title in 1999 and Professor title in 2005. She is currently Head of Applied Geology Division at the same department and responsible for Natural Stone Laboratory. In 2011, She worked as a visiting professor at Kent State University, Department of Geological Engineering and Virginia Tech University, Department of Mining Engineering in the United States. She served as a Vice President for Europe in the International Association for Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG) between 2010 and 2014. She also served as a Vice President of IAEG Aggregate Commission from 1998–2004, and as a President since 2004. She organized Aggregate Commission meetings and technical visits to aggregate quarries, marble quarries, and recycling aggregate plants in the United States, Canada, Brasil, New Zealand, Australia, China, France, Norway, Greece, Slovenia, Portugal, Russia, Italy, and South Africa. She is also a member of the IAEG Commission on Ornamental and Building Stones. The IAEG Aggregate Commission is cooperating with the European Aggregates Association (UEPG). Dr. Tugrul is a member of UMREK (Turkish National Resource and Reserves Raporting Committee), vice president of YERMAM (Association of Geosciences, Mining and Metallurgy Professionals), and honorary member of the Aggregate Producer Association (AGUB) in Turkey, She was Vice Head of the Department of Geological Engineering from 2008–11 and a member of the IAEG Turkish National Committee from 2000– 14. She was Secretary General of the same Committee between 2004 and 2010. In 2014, She became a founding board member of the Turkish Society for Engineering Geology, remains on the board today. She has been an Advisory Board Member of the Turkish Mining Development Foundation since 2005. She is mainly working on natural stone (Aggregate, marble, etc.) quality and engineering properties of rocks and soils, stability and rehabilitation studies in quarries, weathering of rocks, protection of stones used in historical buildings. She has over 150 national and international scientific publications. She gave a speech at more than ten international and national congresses or symposium as an keynote/invited speaker. In 2002, She received the Richard Wolter’s award from IAEG. Abstract: The State of Aggregates in the World Today In addition to the increasing population and structuring in the growth/development process of a country or megacity, the obligation to maintain industrial and infrastructure investments

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS makes aggregate one of the most consumed building materials per capita. Aggregates are sand, gravel, crushed rock, recycled and manufactured aggregates. They are clearly essential not only as asphalt and concrete aggregate, railway ballast, armor stone, gabion, foundation material for the roadbed, embankment materials etc., but also as cement raw material. According to the reports of non-governmental organizations; most of the aggregates come from hard rock quarries and, sand and gravel deposits. The remaining 10% comes from recycling of industrial waste; such as slag and ashes, construction and demolition waste (8%). The rest come from marine deposits and industrial manufactured aggregates (4%). Aggregate quality is very important especially for those countries under high earthquake risk. Unfortunately, there is lack of knowledge and experience in the less developed countries. As mentioned in many report and papers; quality of construction materials is far from the acceptable limits, and safe construction practices are applied poorly. These factors are the main reasons of damage and collapse thousands of buildings. Besides quality, quality continuity, durability, and innovations (ways to increase resource efficiency, production, product range, productivity, usage of waste materials), recent researches and development efforts are generally directed towards new and more efficient uses of aggregates. On the other hand, many research projects are focused on economic, environmental, political and societal issues for optimum management of aggregate resources and production of concrete, asphalt production, etc. with limited environmental impact. The average aggregates demand is five tones per capita per year in developed and developing countries. Aggregate consumption in developing countries will likely to be more than 50% by the 2020s because of growth in their superstructure and infrastructure needs. Most of the aggregates are bulky and heavy, and therefore difficult to transport efficiently. The shipping costs can quickly exceed the production costs. Thus, the market for aggregates tends to be very localized around quarry sites. In regions that do not possess commercially viable aggregate resources, materials are transported by truck, rail, barge or ship. Significant delays due to hard weather conditions or increased costs affecting these transportation methods could concretely affect operations. Due to the relatively high transportation costs inherent in the business, aggregate producers operate in a highly competitive industry within local market. Each type of aggregate is sold in competition with producers of different types of aggregates, as well as the same type of aggregate. Significant competition could lead to lower prices. Therefore, access to resources within the market is vital. One important factor for the aggregate industry is sustainability in aggregate production with relation to mineral resources. In some regions, Europe in particular, it is reported that sand and gravel deposits are being depleted and the last trend is using crushed, manufactured, and recycled aggregates. Conflicts due to land use for quarrying are common all over developed/developing countries and the need for longterm planning is a pressing social, economic, and political issue. The necessary matter is to reduce surplus materials. The September 2018

focus should be on zero-waste production in the aggregate industry. The energy consumption for aggregate production is more than for production of concrete and hot mix asphalt. Transportation cost of aggregates from quarry to customer is increasing in general in the world, due to permitting procedures and lack of aggregate resources within or the vicinity of the cities. Safeguarding of aggregate resources is one of the important aspects of sustainable development for future generations. Due to increased pressure on land use in the world, aggregate resources are under the threat of limitation. On the other hand, new quarry sites often take a number of years to develop, and therefore strategic planning and new site development must stay ahead of actual growth. Additionally, it is increasingly difficult to permit new sites or expand existing sites due to community resistance in some urban and suburban areas. Thus, planning aggregate supply and sustainable aggregate resource management is essential; especially for megacities. Planning requires consideration of expected demand, aggregate resources and constraints. In addition, the current policy, legal and regulatory framework and its effectiveness, and many other variables should be taken into account. Countries and regions should improve their aggregates planning processes, integrate planning for primary and secondary (manufactured) aggregates to increase resource efficiency, and raise communication among stakeholders, such as competent authorities, industry and civil society with respect to aggregates management, planning and supply. Staying competitive in today’s aggregate industry is also related to the right information. Risk evaluation, risk assessment and risk management are critical. Economic risks are directly controlled by geological (geological uncertainty, aggregate resource and reserve, material quality and quality continuity), geotechnical (quarry design according to material stability), hydrogeological, environmental (dust, noise etc.) operational (operation, safety and equipment) and social risks. It is necessary to learn from industry leaders on subjects regarding energy efficiency to asset management and economic trends that analyze and forecast industry performance to predict market demand. Local laws and regulations are generally related to environment, and to health and safety; including noise, water discharge, air quality, dust control, zoning and permitting. Changes in legal requirements and governmental policies concerning zoning land use, environmental and other areas of the laws impact aggregate business. Aggregate Producers should have a particular focus on health, safety, access to local resources, recycling, excellence in environmental stewardship and biodiversity. As thoroughly been demonstrated above, the aggregate industry is a large contributor to economic growth and social development of countries. Multiple factors come into play when evaluating the aggregate industry; many of which are crucial to the development of this line of commerce. One substantial takeaway would be the significance of collaboration within professions such as mining and engineering geologists, hydrogeologists, survey, civil, mining, enviromental, forest and

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS industrial engineers, landscape architects, urban planners, biologists, zoologist, archeologist, economist etc. It is also paramount to further note that entities such as politicians, government officials, universities, private corporations and nongovernmental organizations should work on existing problems in unison to discover their respective solutions.

Dr. Alessandro Gualtieri A.F Gualtieri is a full professor of mineralogy at the Chemical and Earth Sciences Department, the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy). Since 1995 he has been involved in the study of mineral fibers, structure, and thermal transformations of asbestos minerals. From 2010–15, he was the scientific coordinator of an Italian-granted project on mineral fibers (PRIN 2010–2011 “Interaction between Minerals and Biosphere: Consequences for Environment and Human Health”) aimed at investigating the crystal-chemistry and bio-toxicity of mineral fibers of social and economic importance. He is the author of 269 papers. Abstract: Naturally Occurring Asbestos. A Global Health Concern? State of the Art and Open Issues. Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) has raised concern worldwide since the appearance of evidences in the scientific literature of increased risk of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in the population exposed to airborne asbestos released from natural occurrences. A striking example is represented by the California case, where residential proximity to naturally occurring asbestos was significantly associated with increased risk of mesothelioma (Pan et al., 2005). The risk of mesothelioma decreased approximately 6.3% for every 10 km increase in residential distance from the nearest asbestos source (LaDou et al., 2010). Because NOA is widespread on the Earth’s crust, it represents today a global public health issue. The presence of NOA in the environment affects all the human activities aimed at its modification (e.g. mining activity, tunnels/bridges/dams construction, roads/highways pavement). Specifically, all engineering/geological activities in the natural environment should take into account if NOA is present. If so, dedicated procedures for sampling, evaluation of environmental risk, and monitoring must be applied in order to minimize the risk of exposure for the workers and population. Unfortunately, shared clear operational procedures are missing to date because basic issue have not been solved yet: first of all, there are overlapping and contradictory definitions for asbestos, elongated mineral particles and asbestiform particles, and their discrimination and counting in NOA is often troublesome or impossible. It is important to show the limits of the existing definitions and make it clear that not even a unique definition of asbestos exists to date. There are open issues that the engineering/geological community must

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be aware of. For example: (i) when a mineral fiber can be actually classified as asbestos? (ii) how to properly measure a mineral fiber and classify it as asbestos? (iii) how to determine the concentration of asbestos and mineral fibers in general in massive (e.g. soils)?; (iv) do elongated mineral particles represent an hazard? If we are not aware of these basic issues and attempt to solve them, there will always be controversial positions that make legal issues and outcome of lawsuits very subjective. Recent examples of how these issues impact mining activity in areas possibly “contaminated” with asbestos will be described (Gualtieri et al., 2018). Examples of natural occurrence of unclassified mineral fibers which may represent a potential hazard in Europe and United States will also be discussed.

Dr. Simon Loew (Löw) Simon Loew has been a full professor of engineering geology at the Institute of Geology of the ETH Zurich since September 1996. He studied geology at the University of Basel (Switzerland). After completing his dissertation in 1985 on the tectonic and metamorphic history of a crystalline nappe in the Alps, he took up a post as project geologist with an international consulting company working in the area of energy and environmental technology. In late 1980, Loew became project leader of several large interdisciplinary projects related to the geological disposal of nuclear and toxic wastes, large traffic tunnels (NEAT, AlpTransit), and natural hazards. From 1993–96, he was director of the profit center “Groundwater Management and Waste Disposal” in the same company. In 1996 Loew was appointed as Chair of Engineering Geology at ETH Zurich and started to develop a new research and teaching program in engineering geology. His main research interests at ETH concern hydro-mechanical processes in fractured rocks at project relevant scales. Major ongoing research projects of his group are related to HM coupled rock mass behavior of deep tunnels and repositories for nuclear wastes; permeability structure, heat flow and regional ground water circulation in fractured rocks; and formation mechanisms and progressive failure of larger rocks slope instabilities. Many research projects involve comprehensive hydro-thermo-mechanical in-situ investigations, both at ground surface and in boreholes, with newest testing and monitoring technologies. Today the Chair of Engineering Geology directed by Loew includes approximately 20 scientists with backgrounds in geology, hydrogeology, geophysics, rock mechanics and engineering, supported by administrative and technical specialists. Loew is strongly linked to the private industry and public administration sectors. He acts as keynote lecturer and international expert/reviewer in the fields of deep tunneling, geological waste disposal and rock slope instabilities. Currently he is president of the Swiss Commission for Nuclear Waste Disposal EGT and supports the Swiss Site Selection Program.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Abstract: Long and Short Term Response of Rock Slopes to Deglaciation

Abstract: A Meteorite Impact and a Dam Failure in Southern Laos

In this presentation, Loew will report about a long-term research project on paraglacial rock slope mechanics located at the Great Aletsch Glacier in Switzerland. This largest glacier of the European Alps has experienced several minor glacial cycles during the Lateglacial and Holocene period, which have been studied by previous investigators in great detail. The project has investigated the physical relationships of rock slope response to glacial advance and retreat cycles at different time scales: 1) Late Pleistocene and Holocene, 2) since the Little Ice Age (1850), and 3) during the last 5 years. Loew and his team have intensively instrumented different types of crystalline rock slope sections (stable, meta-stable, unstable) along the glacier with surface and subsurface monitoring systems, continuously recording 3D regional and local strains and small scale fracture dislocations occurring in response to glacial retreat and downwasting, as well as temperature and water pressure cycles below and above the glacier margin. We show how long-term glacier retreat results in elastic rebound and exposes rock walls to a “paraglacial thermal shock,” and how subglacial meltwater pressures interact with groundwater conditions in proximal valley flanks under regional annual recharge variations. Together these long- and short-term hydro-thermo-mechanical processes lead to effective stress changes and cyclic loading in the adjacent rock slopes. These stress changes drive irreversible fracture propagation and rock mass damage, which can be recorded even in “stable” slopes. As such, they can document for the first time how stable rock slopes transition into rock slope instabilities through geologic time, and how “mature” rock slope instabilities dramatically respond to ongoing glacier retreat accelerated by climate change.

The Earth Observatory of Singapore began a decade ago with the mission to conduct basic geohazards research about earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, sealevel and climate change, as well as to create a new undergraduate program in Environmental Earth Systems Science at our host institution, Nanyang Technological University. We’ve made good progress on all this and are now a well-recognized player in earth science research and education in Southeast Asia. The level of research and training in geohazards in Southeast Asia is at least an order of magnitude lower than it is in the West. And so we’ve been able to expand geohazards knowledge there at a very rapid pace. I’ll briefly discuss two research examples, one primarily academic and the other mostly applied. A few years ago, I began searching for the point of origin of an 800,000-year-old field of tektites strewn over the earth’s surface between southern China and Australia. The impact crater from which these obsidian-like blobs of melted crust originated had been estimated to be at least 15 km in diameter and to reside somewhere in northern Indochina. But decades of searching had failed to find it. Through the use of satellite imagery, geochronology, gravimetry and field studies, my colleagues and I believe we have discovered the site of the impact, buried beneath an extensive volcanic field just east of the Mekong River in southern Laos. In addition, we’re finding that the volcanic hazard posed by the volcanic field is far higher than had been appreciated. Coincidentally, in the course of conducting fieldwork there we became acquainted with the construction of a very large hydroelectric-power project and were able to gain access to previously inaccessible parts of the plateau and to study some of the exposures made for construction of the project’s roads, dams and conduits. Filling of the dam began in May 2017 and was nearly complete by this July. Sadly, one of the “saddle” dams, meant to allow the reservoir to be filled above saddles along the drainage basin’s perimeter, failed after heavy rains on July 24, just as the reservoir was nearly full. I’ll report what we’ve learned about this catastrophe.

Prof. Kerry Sieh As Director, Earth Observatory of Singapore, Kerry Sieh studies the geological record to understand the geometries of active faults, the earthquakes they generate, and the crustal deformation their movements produce. His early work studying geological layers and landforms along the San Andreas fault led to the discovery of how often and how regularly it produces large earthquakes in southern California. A few years ago, he investigated Taiwan’s multitude of active faults and figured out how their earthquakes are continuously creating that mountainous island. Currently, he and his colleagues are studying the active faults Myanmar and the surrounding region. One of Sieh’s long-standing research interests is the subduction megathrust that has been producing great earthquakes offshore Sumatra throughout the past decade. His and his students’ and colleagues’ paleoseismic work has led to an understanding of the repeating nature of such earthquakes. He also instigated the creation of the Sumatran GPS Array, a network of continuously recording GPS stations, to record deformations during and in between large earthquakes. September 2018

Dr. Jean Hutchinson Professor Hutchinson is the current department head for Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, a registered professional engineer in Ontario, and a Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada. A geological engineer by training, she practiced as an engineer for several years, first with the Ontario Ministry of Transportation and later with Klohn Crippen Consultants before joining the University of Waterloo and then moving to Queen’s University. She specializes in rock engineering, site characterization, and risk management for mining and transportation infrastructure, with a focus on landslide hazards. Her research

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS interests include multi-criteria risk assessment and management for geological engineering projects. She is interested in using new techniques for site investigation, including applications of terrestrial and aerial lidar and photogrammetry and development of better tools for characterizing rockmasses for engineering design. She has worked on developing risk-based decision making, using geomatics and monitoring tools for large slopes. She has also conducted research on ground subsidence and the geomechanics aspects of mine closure planning in the past. Currently, she is a principal investigator on the Canadian Railway Ground Hazard Research Program. Her research is funded by NSERC, as well as CP and CN Rail and Transport Canada. Abstract: Engineering Geology Considerations for Stability Assessment of Rock Slopes Adjacent to Infrastructure Instability of rock slopes can have a profound effect on the capacity, reliability, and safe operation of infrastructure. Our ability to manage the risk posed by rock slopes on infrastructure depends on the volume of material involved, ranging from rockfalls to large deep seated instabilities; the rate and pattern of movement, ranging from slow, continuous creep to rapid, stick slip deformation; our understanding of the conditioning and triggering factors related to the anticipated failure mechanism, and the type of infrastructure under consideration: whether the infrastructure is used by the public such as highways and railways, or whether the infrastructure is associated with critical commodity delivery, such as powerlines, pipelines or hydro reservoirs. Our ability to monitor and understand the deformation and instability of rock slopes is evolving as new techniques and tools become available, providing more information, more rapidly about the rock slope behavior, and as long-term detailed inventories of slope behavior are increasingly being developed and made available. In this talk, Hutchinson will discuss the geological setting of a variety of rock slopes, and how this influences the failure mechanism, the expected detectable behavior and the lessons learned about rock slope instability and risk management, drawing from cases in western Canada.

Dr. William C. Haneberg Bill Haneberg is the state geologist and director of the Kentucky Geological Survey with a faculty appointment as a research professor in the Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, all at the University of Kentucky. His expertise includes digital terrain modeling and geologic characterization using high-resolution topographic and bathymetric data, computational geology and GIS applications, geomechanics, and geohazard and risk assessment. Before moving to Kentucky in 2016, he spent 17 years as a consulting geologist, first as a sole practitioner based mainly in the Seattle area and then with Fugro in Houston, Texas, where he led a team of geologists, geophysicists, and

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engineers working on quantitative geohazard and risk assessments for deep-water oil and gas projects around the world. Bill previously spent 11 years at the New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, rising to the position of senior engineering geologist and assistant director of the New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources before leaving to establish his consulting practice. He has been author or coauthor of 160+ published papers and abstracts, co-editor of 3 GSA or AGU monographs, and author of the AEG Claire P. Holdredge award-winning book Computational Geosciences with Mathematica. Bill was the 2011 AEG-GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Engineering Geology and has held adjunct faculty positions at New Mexico Tech, Portland State University, and the University of Cincinnati. He earned a BS in geology from Bowling Green State University in 1982 and his MS and PhD in geology from the University of Cincinnati in 1985 and 1989, respectively. Abstract: Transformative Integration and a New Kind of Engineering Geology We live and work in a time of accelerating change. Concepts like sustainability, big data, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and the internet of things are moving from the realm of visionaries and academics in research labs to everyday conversation and the popular media. Perhaps most importantly, this time of change offers engineering geologists an opportunity to increase both the breadth of our contributions and value to society; however, this will occur only if we, as a profession, are willing to think boldly and transformationally about what we do and how we do it. The alternative? If engineering geologists do not step up the challenge then others will, and that has the potential to greatly diminish our role in society. Four areas in which engineering geologists have the opportunity to significantly increase our value to society are: 1) understanding, visualizing, and communicating the significance of increasingly large amounts of sensor data such as satellite imagery and ultra-high resolution digital elevation models; 2) quantifying and communicating the uncertainty associated with our data and conclusions in ways that are useful to nongeological end users in fields such as insurance, disaster planning, and project management; 3) learning to leverage to power of artificial intelligence and machine learning to interpret constantly increasing amounts of data in ways that are more robust, reproducible, and objective than traditional methods; and 4) mastering the incorporation of geological information into formal decision support methods such as multi-attribute utility theory and analytical hierarchy process, especially incorporating spatial and temporal variability, in order to provide information relevant to policy and project decision-makers. None of these four topics is independent of the others; in fact, they are highly interdependent and offer opportunities for synergistic advances if we are willing to take up the challenge of integrating them to create a new kind of engineering geology.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

The 2017/2018 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Engineering Geology John Wakabayashi, PhD John Wakabayashi is a San Francisco Bay Area native who moved to Fresno in 2005 to begin his academic career as a geology professor at California State University, Fresno. He received his BA in Geology in 1980 from UC Berkeley, and his PhD in Geology in 1989 from UC Davis. He is a Professional Geologist (California) and a Fellow of the Geological Society of America. After graduating from Davis he worked as an engineering and environmental geologist for 16 years (1989–2005), the last 13 years as an independent consultant based in Hayward, California, before becoming an academic. He worked on a variety of different types of projects, including seismic hazard evaluation/paleoseismology, slope stability, engineering and forensic petrography, naturally occurring asbestos, and two Superfund projects on which his primary specialty was evaluation of ambient concentrations of metals of environmental concern in soils and rock. He was a member of the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities. When not doing project work, he conducted independent research, some of which derived from his project work, but most of which dealt with more esoteric research issues such as subduction initiation processes, metamorphic P-T paths and metamorphic contrasts as tectonic indicators, emplacement of ophiolites, subduction interface processes and development of subduction complexes, evolution of orogenic belts, development of strike-slip fault systems, and long time and length scale geomorphology. He incorporated academic research of his own and others into all of his project work, trying to bridge the academic-applied geology gap from the standpoint of a practitioner. After becoming an academic he has continued his efforts to bridge this gap, with realization that the vast majority of geology professors have never been employed in the engineering and environmental geology profession that most geology graduates will work in. He incorporates both his professional and research experience into his teaching so as to better prepare students for professional careers, as well as providing a foundation for students who wish to undertake graduate study. His research has resulted in 82 published papers, over 100 abstracts tied to presentations at major geoscience meetings. The breadth of his research has broadened rather than narrowed over time. In spite of the wide range of research interests, the geology of that beguiling train wreck of rocks known as the Franciscan Complex of coastal California remains his chief interest and the many aspects of mélanges have become his main focus since 2009. At Fresno State he teaches non-major introductory geology, geology major undergraduate courses in petrology, geomorphology, and structural

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geology, graduate courses on active tectonics/seismic hazard analysis and orogenic belt tectonics, and his bread-andbutter undergraduate course in advanced geologic field mapping (he makes his students map Franciscan along with landslides, flights of stream terraces and some potentially active faults). He has supervised or is supervising a large number of graduate and undergraduate student researchers, and this includes a number of students from outside of Fresno State.

The 2017–18 Jahns Lectures Included: ■ Insight into Geologic Mapping of Mélanges from Structural Geologic Research: Implications for Engineering Geologic Analysis and Illustration of the Value of Field Geologic Training ■ A Field-Based Alternative to Subduction Channel Models: Insight from Mélange Studies ■ Attempting to Bridge the Growing Gap between Academic and Applied Geology: A Personal Odyssey ■ Evolution of Step-overs and Bends along Strike-Slip Faults: Implications for Seismic Hazard Assessment ■ Geomorphic Evolution and Cenozoic Tectonics of the Sierra Nevada, California, and Alternatives Interpretations of Paleoaltimetry Data

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

INTRODUCING THE 2018/2019 AEG/GSA Richard H. Jahns Distinguished Lecturer in Engineering Geology Deborah Green, PG Deborah Green is a licensed professional geologist with 34 years of experience in environmental and engineering geology projects across the United States. She received a BS in geology from the University of Rochester in 1982 and an MS from Texas A&M’s Center for Engineering Geoscience in 1984. She began her career with a large consulting firm, working on site selection and environmental investigation and remediation projects, including RCRA-regulated and Superfund sites. She then took a job as a remediation project manager in industry where she coordinated diverse teams of scientists, engineers, and contractors, and negotiated cleanup targets with state and federal regulatory agencies. For more than 20 years, Deborah has been a self-employed consultant, working on varied projects from RCRA site closures to water resource evaluations to paleoseismology studies. Now, semi-retired from geological consulting, she’s written a novel whose protagonist is an engineering geologist working on a dam with a problematic foundation and slope stability issues in the reservoir area. Her website, www.geologistwriter.com, is populated with short essays on geology, the natural world, and human interactions with them. Throughout her career, Deborah has been active in professional associations, particularly the Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists (AEG), which she’s been a member of for 36 years. While serving as AEG’s Strategic Planning Committee Chair, she became particularly interested in advocating the value of the profession to the public and policy makers, and she helped form AEG’s Advocacy Committee to spearhead that work. Deborah has attended STEM Congressional Visit Days, educating her congressional representatives and their staff members on environmental and engineering geology issues. She supports students and young professionals, formally as the Chair of the Tilford Field Studies Scholarship Committee of the AEG Foundation, which has awarded 49 scholarships to students from more than 30 colleges and universities, and informally as a mentor to young professionals, particularly women launching their careers. The majority of Deborah’s professional work has had a practical perspective, and her Jahns presentations will as well. 48

As an undergraduate at a research-oriented university, she didn’t learn about many opportunities in applied geology, though she did find her way there and is grateful to have crafted a career she loves. As the Jahns Lecturer, Deborah hopes to speak with as many students as possible about working in environmental and engineering geology, where they can make a living and make a difference. Her lecture topics include: ■ You Don’t Look Like a Geologist – A Conversation on Diversity (or the Lack Thereof) in Our Profession ■ How to Build a Geology Career You Love ■ A Tale of Two Waste Sites ■ Let’s Talk – A Conversation on How We Communicate about Science ■ Always Book a Window Seat – The Lens Through Which We View the World as Geologists Deborah welcomes invitations to speak at your college, university, and professional or civic organization—please email your request to deb@geologistwriter.com to schedule a presentation between October 2018 and September 2019.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

AEG’s Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award – 2018 Calaveras Dam Replacement Project

Introduction The Calaveras Dam is the largest drinking water reservoir in the Bay Area, and its replacement was required due to concerns of potential failure during an earthquake along the nearby Calaveras fault. The design and construction of this major seven-year project required the expertise of numerous geologists and engineering geologists with diverse areas of specialization, including fault and seismic hazards, landslides and paleo landslides, rock and soil stability, regional geology and tectonics, field mapping, mineralogy, and paleontology. This team of geologists worked closely with engineers, biologists, archeologists, and construction workers to help bring the project to a successful conclusion.

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The CDRP included a major environmental geology component that is unique in its scope, size, and technical level: Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA). The NOA program was directed and managed by a California Engineering Geologist with a specialty in mineralogy, underscoring the role of geologists in NOA investigations and air monitoring programs. This program—the largest and technically elevated ever undertaken in the world— is showcased in this submittal.

Regional Significance The Hetch Hetchy Regional Water system is a complex water supply system stretching from the Sierras to San Francisco. This system features a complex series of reservoirs, tunnels, pipelines, and treatment systems and is almost entirely gravity

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS fed, requiring almost no fossil fuel consumption to move water from the mountains to your tap. The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is the third largest municipal utility in California, serving 2.7 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in the Bay Area. Approximately one-third of our delivered water goes to retail customers in San Francisco, while wholesale deliveries to 26 suburban agencies in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo counties comprise the other two-thirds. The Water System Improvement Program (WSIP) is a $4.8 billion, multi-year capital improvement program to upgrade the SFPUC’s regional and local water systems. The program will deliver projects that enhance the SFPUC’s ability to provide reliable, affordable, high quality drinking water in an environmentally sustainable manner. The program consists of 83 projects: 35 local projects located within San Francisco and 48 regional projects, spread over seven counties from the Sierra foothills to San Francisco. The WSIP is one of the largest water infrastructure programs in the nation and the largest infrastructure program ever undertaken by the City and County of San Francisco. The WSIP objectives include: ■ Improve the system to provide high-quality water that reliably meets all current and foreseeable local, State, and Federal requirements ■ Reduce the water system’s vulnerability to damage from earthquakes ■ Increase system water delivery reliability by providing the redundancy needed to accommodate outages ■ Provide improvements related to water supply/drought protection ■ Enhance sustainability through improvements that optimize protection of the natural and human environment

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Built in the early to mid-1900s, many components of the water system were nearing the end of their working life, with crucial facilities crossing or in close proximity to three major active faults: Calaveras, Hayward and San Andreas. The SFPUC initiated the WSIP to repair, replace, and seismically upgrade the system’s aging pipelines, tunnels, dams, reservoirs, pump stations, storage tanks, and treatment facilities within the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System.

Project Overview: Calaveras Dam Replacement Project Calaveras Dam was rebuilt in 1925, after the collapse of an earlier dam built in 1918 (see Appendix A for a photographic history of the older dams). Although engineers at the time tried to remove remaining debris, loose materials were still left in the foundation, making it susceptible to liquefaction and failure during an earthquake. The dam is also located within 1,500 feet of the active Calaveras fault. In 2001, the California Division of Safety of Dam’s ordered the SFPUC to reduce the amount of water in the reservoir by 40 percent, citing earthquake safety concerns related to the dam. (See Appendix B for a photographic history of the CDRP project). The Calaveras Replacement Project (CDRP) began in 2011. The Project consists of building a new 220-foot zoned earth and rock fill embankment dam immediately downstream from the existing dam. The work started with the excavation and on-site landfilling of more than 7 million cubic yards of rock and soil to establish the foundation and abutments on bedrock, followed by the construction of a 3.5 million cubic yard zoned earthen dam of clay, sand and rock materials. The new dam has a robust design: wide-centrally located core, wide filters, and internal drainage. In addition, several appurtenances including the existing spillway, stilling basin, intake

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tower and transmission pipeline were removed and replaced with new facilities. Pipelines were constructed to allow the release of water into Calaveras Creek in a manner that controls water temperatures and flow rates depending upon the life cycles of fish. As part of a sub-project of the CDRP, we also installed a fish ladder at Alameda Creek Diversion Dam to support the restoration of Steelhead Trout to the Alameda Creek Watershed. The new fish ladder structure is comprised of four teeshaped fish screens, an intake manifold with three adjoining concrete-box culverts and landslide stabilization walls. The complexity of the project required the coordination and interaction of team members with a diverse range of expertise, including engineering geologists, paleontologists, mineralogists, geotechnical and civil engineers, biologists, archeologists, industrial hygienists, toxicologist as well as experts in the fields of hazardous materials, toxicology, noise, cultural resources, and community outreach.

Environmental and Engineering Geologic Principles Applied Geologists with a diversity of expertise were instrumental to the success of the project, and they were involved from the early planning stages. Field geologists mapped the complex geology of the Franciscan Complex and overlying marine sedimentary rocks, providing the basis for planning and exploratory investigations. Geologists with expertise in geological hazards conducted fault and landslide investigations to assess foundation suitability. Engineering geologists conducted preliminary subsurface investigations, and remained

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through the project to identify, assess, and mitigate unforeseen geologic hazards such as large hidden paleo landslides and potential active faults. Paleontologists identified, collected, and preserved significant paleontological resources in the Temblor sandstone during excavation. Mineralogists characterized each rock unit, reservoir water, and air samples for Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) to protect on-site workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The NOA program implemented at the CDRP site was significant due to its complexity and the coordination required to ensure its success. NOA is highly regulated by each of the four environmental and worker protection regulatory agencies in California. In addition, all investigation and characterization of rocks and soil that may contain these carcinogenic particles are required by statute to be conducted by a certified California Professional Geologist, following guidance criteria issued by the California Geological Survey. The NOA program was implemented and managed by a California Certified Engineering Geologist, producing the largest data set of its kind in the United States and providing fundamental research of national and international significance. The program includes quantifying the concentrations of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos in serpentinite and blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks, chemical fingerprinting the on-site and off-site amphiboles using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, conducting dimensional analysis of asbestos particles in rock, soil, water and air samples, and performing a source-toreceptor analysis. The results of this program have been showcased at many professional meetings and regulatory agencies, including those invited or convened by the Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists (AEG), National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), California Air Resources Board (CARB), American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and Association for Environmental Health and Science Foundation (AEHS). The role of the geologist within this discipline is central and singular, and the CDRP has been doing its part to demonstrate to toxicologists and air quality experts that any significant conclusions regarding exposure to the public or workers are inadequate without a sound geological and mineralogical characterization by a competent and professional geologist.

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Unique Geological Component: Naturally Occurring Asbestos The Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) program at the CDRP is the most comprehensive investigation and monitoring program in the United States. It was designed to exceed current regulatory standards and to be consistent with recent findings by researchers, including mineralogists and toxicologists at the National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH). The following section illustrates an example of how geologists at the CDRP site applied geologic principals and investigatory techniques to assess the potential for off-site exposure from asbestos and the efficacy of dust control measures used at the site. The Role of Geologists in the Field of Naturally Occurring Asbestos The investigation of rocks and soil for NOA and the resulting opinion and interpretation is a discipline that falls under the California Business and Professions Code Chapter 12.5 Section 7800: Geologists and Geophysicists Act. As such, CARB, CGS, Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH–known as Cal/OSHA), and Water Resources Control Board (WRB) require that NOA investigations be conducted by a California-licensed Professional Geologist. Investigations into this geological hazard must be conducted in conformance with CGS Special Publication 124: Guidelines for Geologic Investigations of Naturally Occurring Asbestos in California. Geologists conducting investigations of this EPA-listed carcinogen require skills in field mapping, petrography, mineralogy, laboratory test methods, and other skills acquired by a practicing Professional Geologist. Characterization of Geologic Materials at the CDRP Site

During the design phase of the project, geologists mapped the lithologic units underlying the site, which consists of Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Complex mélange overlain by Miocene Temblor sandstone and other younger marine sedimentary rocks. The initial samples of each rock type were collected from cores produced during the geotechnical investigation. These were tested for asbestos content using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which is much more 52

sensitive than the standard protocol using Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM). During the excavation, additional samples were collected and subjected to advanced characterization for dimensional analysis of asbestos fibers. Petrographic analysis of thin sections provided additional information of fabrics and textures, which helped provide an understanding of the nature and basis for a source-to-receptor analyses. Additional information was provided using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD). This information was combined with a field investigation that focused on the relationships between rock units, fabrics, and metamorphic processes that created the fibrous minerals. It was found that the driver for asbestos risk was fibrous glaucophane and winchite, formed during blueschist-grade metamorphism of oceanic basalt during subduction (these rocks are informally referred to as “blueschist”). Fingerprinting the Amphiboles for a Source-to-Receptor Analysis Most NOA construction projects simply measure the total asbestos concentration and compare it to a pre-determined standard threshold. The standard methodology, and the protocol required by regulation, includes only chrysotile and the five regulated amphiboles that were incorporated in building materials: actinolite, anthophyllite, tremolite, riebeckite (“crocidolite”), and grunerite (“amosite”). However, amphibole compositions in reality are complex, with compositional variability due to solid solution across most compositional end members. Also, current research indicates that all amphiboles have similar toxicity, and omitting 25 of the 30 fundamental amphiboles will underestimate the risk. Therefore, the CDRP project self-regulates all amphiboles in the counts, and uses an amphibole-specific risk-based threshold independently from the less toxic chrysotile. Since standard test methods are designed to identify the five regulated amphiboles only, a CDRP mineralogist and a geologist at the testing laboratory developed a method to identify each of the 30 amphiboles using TEM and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). To fingerprint the amphibole composition, a test pad was constructed where blueschist rip rap was drilled, and a series of eight down-wind monitors were placed to collect the fiber emissions. More than 2,000 fibers were analyzed, which showed that the composition of the fibrous amphiboles ranged from the sodic species glaucophane (Na2Mg3Al2[Si8O22]OH2) to the sodic-calcic species winchite ((NaCa)Mg4(Al,Fe3+)[Si8O22]OH2). This investigation provided the basis of the source-to-receptor analysis where on-site and off-site amphiboles can be compared and correlated with their respective sources. Source-to-Receptor Analysis A geologic investigation in the Sunol Valley where the CDRP ambient stations were placed showed that the valley is underlain by alluvium that is an off-site source of NOA (note: this is not unusual because amphiboles are a common component in dust). Unlike the blueschist, the off-site amphiboles are dominated by the calcic amphiboles hornblende (Ca2(Mg, Fe,

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Al)5 (Al, Si)8O22(OH)22) and actinolite (Ca2(Mg,Fe)5Si8O22(OH)2). The CDRP has analyzed more than 140,000 fibers from more than 33,000 samples. A subset representing days where winds were entirely unidirectional were selected to assess the contribution of CDRP amphiboles to off-site samples. The analysis showed that the percent of calcic amphiboles (hornblende-actinolite) did not change significantly when CDRP activities occurred upwind of receptors. This analysis showed that emissions from CDRP blueschist dissipated quickly over short distances, and do not contribute significantly to the risk of exposure off-site. This finding is consistent with air modeling results and direct measurements at perimeter stations.

Protection and Enhancement of the Environment In October, 2009, SFPUC prepared an extensive 1,200 page Environmental Impact Report (EIR) that analyzed the CDRP project, identified potential environmental impacts, and developed appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigations were integrated into the project, and monitored by professionals who specialized in each resource area. For example, gasoline exhaust emissions were minimized by requiring personal vehicles to park at the entrance to the site, and workers were then caravanned to the worksite. Diesel exhaust emissions were minimized by implementing best management practices such as limiting idling times for haul trucks. Hazardous spills and releases were prevented by establishing storage and collection facilities with secondary containment. Compliance with project noise thresholds was verified by on-site and off-site sound measurements. Protection of endangered species and their habitat was protected by daily on-site inspections by biologists. Impacts to surface waters by storm water runoff was prevented by constructing a storm water collection system where storm water was collected in basins and channeled to a water treatment system prior to discharge to the reservoir. Asbestos exposure was mitigated by the use of HEPA-filtered respirators, aggressive dust control, and daily personal and perimeter monitoring. Cultural resources were protected through on-site inspections by archeologists. Soil containing the natural seed stock was removed and stockpiled for re-vegetation during the restoration phase of the project. Acorns from the site were collected, germinated and planted in areas where oak trees were removed. Steelhead trout habitat was enhanced by constructing a fish ladder that bypasses the Alameda Creek diversion dam.

Benefit to the Public Calaveras Dam plays an important role in ensuring the SFPUC can continue to provide a reliable water source to the Bay Area’s growing population, especially with the ongoing effects of climate change. This November, the new Calaveras Dam will be restored to its original capacity, helping ensure that the SFPUC has a reliable and sufficient water supply in times of drought or other emergencies. The new seismic improvement methods used to construct Calaveras Dam will keep communities living adjacent to the dam September 2018

safe. Seismic upgrades in the new design include a wide core, careful placement of filters and drains within the dam, and extensive grouting and sealing of the foundation. A robust core and heavy compaction of all materials enable the replacement dam to withstand a 7.2 magnitude earthquake and serve our customers for generations to come. Another incorporated feature of the dam is that it can accommodate a growing population. In the future, it could be enlarged to provide an additional 386,000 acre-feet of water by raising the dam another 140 feet.

Advancement of the Public’s Understanding of Environmental and Engineering Geology The team has coordinated more than 300 tours of the construction site to students, university and industry professional groups in order to educate and inform the general public. Included in each tour is a discussion of the regional and local geology, as well as the geological hazards that were mitigated on the site. In addition, our geologists have presented over 25 presentations to professional geological and engineering organizations such as AEG, regulatory agencies, and at academic symposiums. Since before construction began, the public outreach team met with key stakeholders to go over the NOA program and the plans for monitoring during construction. The outreach team also developed and maintains an updated section of the sfwater.org website that specifically contains information on monitoring NOA levels within and around the project.

Enhancement of Local Cultural and Historical Understanding The protection of cultural and historical resources is of paramount importance on this project. The CDRP site is located in the Alameda Watershed, an area with rich cultural and historical significance. Underscoring SFPUC’s commitment to preserving the past is its upcoming construction of an interpretive center, the Alameda Creek Watershed Center at the Sunol Water Temple. The center will provide exhibits and educational activities for visitors to learn about, and further appreciate, the significance of the Alameda Creek over time, its biological diversity, and its role in the SFPUC water system. The CDRP is also partnering with University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) to preserve over 2000 specimens found during the construction of the dam. Fossils are considered a nonrenewable scientific resource to be protected. Among the findings are a total of 20 whale skulls and 3 desmostylus specimens, an extinct order of marine mammals that lived during the Oligocene and Miocene periods. Beside the desmostylus and whales, the CDRP has preserved: pinnipeds (seals), dolphins, a number of different shark species including Megalodons, invertebrates (clams and snails), and plants including pine and palm trees. SFPUC is working closely with UCMP to preserve and archive these specimens for scientific research. The abundance of fossil specimens at Calaveras Dam site is an important paleontological find, (this partnership is not yet released to the general public; please embargo this information until after May 2018).

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APPENDIX A Photo History of the Previous Dams 1902 – 2010 FIGURE 1.

FIGURE 3a.

FIGURE 1. Exploratory adits were started in 1902 with the intent to build a concrete dam across blueschist buttresses on either side of Calaveras Cree, the left buttress is shown in this photograph. Exploratory adits at the right buttress indicated that these outcrops were large blueschist knockers within the Franciscan Assemblage mélange (named by Andrew Lawson seven years earlier), and the proposed location was deemed unsuitable and the plans abandoned. FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 3b. FIGURES 3A/B. Construction of the outtake structure in 1913 and 1916. The purpose of the outtake is to allow free passage of the Calaveras creek beneath the dam, allowing construction to be conducted in the dry. The outtake structure was then plugged by concrete after completion, allowing the reservoir to be filled.

FIGURE 2. Further exploration of rock stability provided a site upstream of the earlier location, and an earthen dam was designed. Construction began in 1911 with the establishment of rail lines, roads, and infrastructure such as electrical lines and a pump house (visible in the earlier photograph). By 1913, excavation of valley gravels was well underway to allow construction of an 18-foot-diameter water outtake structure. In the background, beneath the bunker oil smoke, is the temporary water flue and one of the exploratory adits, dug in the Franciscan mélange by hand. 54

FIGURE 4a.

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FIGURE 6a. FIGURE 4b. FIGURES 4A/B. The dam was built by constructing two earthen embankments, and infilling the central portion using hydraulically mined onsite Temblor sandstone. Soil for the earthen embankments was mined on site, loaded onto side-dump flat cars, and transported by rail, and dumped. Hydraulic head was provided by a large pump, powered by electricity generated by an on-site steam boiler.

FIGURE 6b.

FIGURE 5. FIGURE 5. The photo shows the dam near completion in 1916. To the left is the intake structure. Workers tents at “Desmond Camp” are in the background. In the center is the excavation for the impermeable curtain designed to restrict flow of water below the dam. The excavated areas are the hydraulic mining sites, which provided material for the central dam zone. FIGURES 6A/B. The dam was completed in 1918. Although the hydraulic engineering methods employed to build the dam was common at the time, the Calaveras dam was by far the largest dam ever constructed using this technique. As a result, the upstream face failed shortly after completion. FIGURE 7. After a failure analysis, much of the failed dam was excavated, and then rebuilt using more advanced engineering methods. This photos shows the new dam and intake structure at completion in 1925. The hill to the left is observation hill, which is currently the left abutment of the Calaveras replacement dam.

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FIGURE 7.

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July 2011

FIGURE 8. FIGURE 8. Because the dam is located adjacent to the seismically active Calaveras fault and was determined to be seismically vulnerable, the California Department of Water Resources, Division of Safety of Dams, restricted the reservoir to 30% of its capacity. As a result, SFPUC decided to construct a replacement dam that is seismically sound and will provide a reliable source of drinking water for many decades.

July 2011

FIGURE 9. FIGURE 9. The Calaveras dam in 2010 showing the reduced water level, shortly before commencement of the CDRP project. The hill to the right is Observation Hill, which is the future location of the left abutment of the replacement dam.

May, 2012: The CDRP project began with the excavation of the two abutments and foundation. The abutment to the left, called the right abutment (as viewed from the existing dam top), was cut into metagraywacke, phyllite, greenstone, blueschist and serpentinite mélange of the Franciscan Complex. Excavation of the left abutment (on Observation Hill, upper right) was stalled due to a determination by engineering geologists that the rock was faulted, fractured, jointed, with evidence of large paleo-landslides. The left abutment required re-engineering, removal of an additional three million tons of material, double-handling as the material was stockpiled, and extending the schedule from four years to seven years.

APPENDIX B Photo History of the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project 2011 – Present July, 2011: Supplementary geotechnical investigations were conducted shortly before notice to proceed because of environmental constraints during the planning phase. The top photo shows drilling on the Calaveras fault where a foundational rock dike for a soil disposal site was to be located. The subsurface material was found to be too weak to support the landfill, and a solid foundation was placed using deep soil mixing technology (bottom photo).

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS December, 2012: Excavation of the left abutment, comprised of Miocene Temblor sandstone, is underway. The stilling basin cut through Miocene Temblor and underlying Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Complex greenstone and blueschist is well underway (at the cut near the right of the photograph). To the far right is Borrow Area B, the asbestiform blueschist that is will be mined to build the upstream shell of the replacement dam.

May 2012

December 2012

May, 2012: View of Disposal Site 3 at the early stages of accepting unusable material from the right abutment and foundation. Note the foundational dike at the base, referenced in the first photograph of this section.

July, 2013: The left abutment and stilling basin cut are about half completed. July 2013

January 2012

November, 2013: Photo of the left abutment illustrating faulting and folding of the Temblor sandstone reflecting high strains resulting from transpressional activity on the Calaveras fault, located approximately 2,000 feet behind observation hill. The observations and resulting mitigation of the geological hazards made at the onset of the excavation by the engineering geologists proved to be correct. November 2013

January 2012 January, 2012: Construction of the new water intake structure was conducted by drilling 200 feet down through Franciscan mĂŠlange serpentinites. The ventilation system was designed to provide workers in the confined space fresh air, and filter chrysotile asbestos from the serpentinite as it was discharged to the outdoors. The completed intake structure is shown in the bottom photo. Below the structure is the upper of three intake manifolds that are screened to prevent inadvertent entry by fish. September 2018

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March 2014

October 2014

March, 2014: The right and left abutments have been completed. The foundation for the spillway has started. Several paleo-landslides required removal to sounds bedrock, and replaced with concrete to provide support of the new spillway. December, 2014: Construction of the spillway is well underway. Note the deep keys into the sandstone foundation that provide resistance to drag as water runs down during overflow events. December 2014

July 2014 July, 2014: Construction of the spillway began. The spillway was constructed using reinforced concrete keyed into the underlying sandstone.

October, 2014: A deep grout curtain was injected along the axis of the clay core of the dam to prevent water seepage beneath the dam foundation. In the bottom photo are two engineering geologists and a Certified Industrial Hygienist conducting daily inspections. Note the fault to the right of the geologists.

September, 2015: The spillway is nearly complete. Construction of the outlet pipe that delivers reservoir water to the offsite water treatment system is observable below the spillway. September 2015

October 2014

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS July, 2016: The spillway, stilling basin and outlet pipe is complete. Excavation of the foundation is nearly complete. These rocks are Franciscan Complex mĂŠlange consisting of high-pressure low-temperature blueschist-grade metamorphism, caused by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the North American plate. With the infrastructure completed, the site is now ready to accept earth fill materials.

November 2016

July 2016

November, 2016: Construction of the new replacement dam is underway. The dark brown area in the center of the photograph is the central clay dam core.

November 2016

November 2016 November, 2016: In addition to the serpentinite that contains chrysotile asbestos, blueschist-grade metamorphic rocks within the Franciscan Complex contain fibrous asbestiform glaucophane, the blue index mineral of blueschist facies rocks. OSHA and Cal/OSHA regulations require that all workers disturbing these materials (naturally-occurring asbestos) wear HEPA-filtered respirators at all times. To the left are workers scrubbing and vacuuming the foundation rocks in preparation of the first layer of the clay core. To the right is signage and control of the entrance to the asbestos Regulated Area. March, 2017: The zoned dam is beginning to take shape, and has reached the elevation of the water outlet pipe (encased in concrete. The dark brown material is the clay core of the dam. On the left is the upstream shell of blueschist mined on-site. To the right is the Temblor sandstone downstream shell. This material was stockpiles during the excavation of the left abutment, and now is returned by conveyor rather than haul trucks.

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March 2017

January, 2018: The replacement dam is nearly complete. This photo shows the site during its winter lockdown. In the center is the dark clay core. To its left is the upstream shell built of blueschist mined on site. To the right is the brown downstream shell composed of Temblor sandstone, also mined on site. The embankment is expected to be completed by November 30, 2018. (image on page 55)

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Figure 2A.

January 2018

Figure 2B.

APPENDIX C Naturally Occurring Asbestos Program Figure 1. Photograph of the right abutment illustrating the complex geology of the Franciscan complex mélange. Near the top are brown meta-graywacke sandstone. The bluish patch, center left, is phyllite (metamorphosed shale). At center is siliceous schist (metamorphosed radiolarian chert). The resistant blocks protruding from the phyllite are megaclasts of glaucophane blueschist. To the lower right is serpentinite. This mélange is a mix of upper mantle peridotite, oceanic basalt, deep sea pelagic radiolarian chert and claystone, and nearshore continental sands of the Farallon plate that were subducted beneath the North American plate in the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous. Figure 1.

Figure 3A.

Figure 2 A/B. Chrysotile in serpentinite. The upper photo is a photomicrograph of a micro vein of chrysotile within antigorite, shown in thin section. The lower photo is a macro vein (approximately 5mm across) in a brecciated serpentinized olivine pyroxinite. Both photographs show the typical habit of chrysotile fibers in California serpentinite where the fibers are oriented normal to the vein. Figure 3 A/B. Specimens of asbestiform glaucophane (“blueschist”) in greenstone. The top photograph shows glaucophane crystallization in veins, whereas the bottom photo shows a strong foliation where fiber crystallization resulted from dynamic recrystallization under shear. Note the velvety to silky luster of glaucophane, which is indicative of the fibrous habit.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Figure 5. Photograph of Franciscan eclogite at the CDRP. At deeper crustal depths, the glaucophane recrystallizes to form euhedral non-asbestiform chemically zoned crystals. The zonation illustrates how both regulated and non-regulated amphibole particles may be produced from the same crystal.

Figure 3B.

Figure 6A/B. Crushed blueschist in immersion oil showing the fibrous habit glaucophane in blueschist. The top sample is from the CDRP. The bottom sample from the southern Diablo Range near Pacheco Pass. Asbestiform glaucophane may be characteristic of glaucophane in blueschists world-wide, rather than restricted and unusual in occurrence. Figure 6A.

Figure 4.

Figure 6B.

Figure 4. Thin section showing fibrous glaucophane in a greenstone mylonite. Glaucophane crystallizes initially within and at the expense of greenstone (note the glaucophane in the relic greenstone porphyroclast at the top of the photo). Crystallization continues through the process of dynamic recrystallization as the material is subjected to directional shear (note the sigmoidal S-C asymmetric structure of the fibrous mass in the center of the photograph, providing directional sense of shear. Figure 5.

The Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award was established in 1993. For information on award conditions and selection procedure, with AEG’s webpage at https://www.aegweb.org/page/ OEEGProjectAward September 2018

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Figure 7A.

Figure7B.

Figure 8A.

Figure 8A.

Figure 7 A/B. Scanning electron Micrographs of asbestiform glaucophane at the CDRP. Note that the fibrils separate to diameters of 0.3 microns on average, a characteristic of the asbestiform habit.

Figure 9.

Figure 8 A/B. Examples of the air monitoring equipment used to sample airborne asbestos fibers. At each station, where asbestos is sampled in 24-hour cycles six days a week, meteorological data including wind speed, wind direction, and rainfall is simultaneously collected. Figure 9. Test pad and monitoring array where dust-capture systems were tested. The data was used to identify the composition of more than 2,000 amphibole fibers released from blueschist rip rap as it is drilled. The fingerprint was determined to be approximately 90% Fe-glaucophane and glaucophane and 10% Fe-Winchite and Winchite. Compositions offsite included the calcic amphiboles Hornblende and Actinolite. The different fingerprints allowed a forensic assessment of the fate and transport of the blueschist amphiboles generated on the CDRP site.

The 2018 Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award will be presented at the OPENING SESSION on Monday, September 17 at 10:15 am.

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Technical Program Schedule (Schedule changes can be found in the Guidebook Mobile App: https://guidebook.com/g/aeg2018/)

Monday, September 17 – Afternoon Technical Session #1

Dam Symposium – Part I Sponsored by RJH Consultants The Dams Technical Working Group of AEG is pleased to host the General Dams Symposium at the 13th IAEG Congress and AEG Annual Meeting being held in San Francisco, September 2018. The theme of this year’s symposium is “Infrastructure Improvements to Dams and Levees.” Topics of keen interest include international dam infrastructure and improvements to existing structures as well as a variety of case histories from the United States and other countries. There will be two keynote lectures. The first, by Professor J. David Rogers, deals with California’s experience with dams and disasters. The second keynote lecture, delivered by Dr. Donald A. Bruce, will focus on the application of the deep mixing method for dam and levee remediation. The many speakers participating in the General Dams Symposium will come from a range of backgrounds including international government agencies, US federal and state agencies, hydropower companies, academia, and private consulting firms. The focus of the General Dams Symposium will be on dams and levees and the important remediation and dam safety work being accomplished on the aging inventory of key water resource structures. Given the international flavor of the Congress, there will be many lessons learned from notable projects located around the world.

Room: Grand Ballroom B

Conveners: Brian Greene and Ed Friend

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:40

J. David Rogers

Keynote: California’s Experience with Dams and Disasters

2:40–3:00

Todd Loar

Failure, Emergency Response, Mitigation, and Engineering Geology of Guajataca Dam Spillway, Puerto Rico

3:00–3:20

David Simpson

25 Years of Dam Foundation Investigations in California, or What I Have Tried to Learn Along the Way?

3:40–4:00

Holly Nichols

Seismic Remediation of Perris Dam – Foundation Improvement Design and Construction Geology

4:00–4:20

Visty Dalal

Rehabilitation of the Historic Devil’s Backbone Dam, Washington County, Maryland

4:20–4:40

Kenneth Pattermann

Folsom Dam Auxiliary Spillway Rock Anchor Installation (Presented By Kylan Kegel)

4:40–5:00

Gary Rogers

Geologic, Construction and Technical Challenges at the Expansion of the Terror Lake Hydroelectric Facility on Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA

Technical Session #2

Geology in the Community Symposium As professional geologists, we provide a valuable service to public health and safety, which, in its own right, is a tremendous community service. However, there is so much more that we can offer our communities given our skills and knowledge. This symposium will spotlight multiple examples of geologists’ participation internationally in projects where an understanding of geology is rarely available due to cost and/or education. Providing drinkable water resources and protecting communities against landslide hazards are among a few of the examples of how we can offer our capabilities to under-privileged communities and populations. Please join us for powerful and emotional presentations and discussion and how YOU can become involved in these rewarding opportunities!

Room: Marina

Convener: Bruce Hilton

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Bruce Hilton

Expanding Clean Water in a Rural Town in Shisasari, Kenya

2:00–2:20

Marina Drazba

Building Coping Capacities to Landslide Risk Within a Refugee Camp, a Case Study

2:20–2:40

David LaPorte

Evaluating Landslide Risk Management in Guatemala City through a Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Changes

2:40–3:00

Ethan Faber

Guatemala City Landslide Risk Evaluation and Reduction Tool Project (CERRPED) Status: Successes and Lessons Learned

3:00–3:20

Ethan Faber

Engineers Without Borders Projects in Landslide Terrain: Engineering Geologists as “Consultants” for Non-Profit Work

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Technical Session #3

Environmental Characterization of Minerals & Pipe Erosion Modeling Room: Bayview A

Moderator: Pedro Martins

Time

Speaker

Title

3:40–4:00

Louis Wong

Modeling Grain Size Heterogeneity Influences on Mechanical Behavior of Crystalline Rocks under Compressive Loading

4:00–4:20

Hasan Arman

Degradability Characteristics of Evaporite Rocks from Al Ain City, United Arab Emirates

4:20–4:40

Yang Yang

Influence of Fine Content on the Mechanical Properties of Sand Subjected to Local Particle Loss by Piping

4:40–5:00

Pedro Martins

Internal Erosion in Volcanic Soils – Challenges for Infrastructure Projects in New Zealand

Technical Session #4

Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping Room: Seacliff AB

Moderator: Erica Goto

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Anika Braun

Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, with Data Mining Methods

2:00–2:20

Mohammad Feruj Alam

Weathered Rock Slope Stability Assessment and Risk Mitigation Measures – A Case Study from UKM Campus, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

2:20–2:40

Xiangrui Duan

Probabilistic Stability Analysis of Soil Slope Reinforced with Anchors

2:40–3:00

Hannah Chapella

Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Models, Prestonsburg 7.5-Minute Quadrangle, Kentucky, USA

3:00–3:20

Paz Fernández

2D Horizontal Landslide Displacement Estimation by Multitemporal Image Correlation

3:40–4:00

William Burns

Inventory Mapping of Large Deep Landslides in Oregon

4:00–4:20

Julia Frazier

Regional Susceptibility Modeling Using Multiple Methods, with an Example from Boulder County, Colorado, USA

4:20–4:40

Erica Goto

Modeling Slope Instability for Shallow Landslides at Sedgwick Reserve Using SHALSTAB Equations in RStudio

4:40–5:00

Chyi-Tyi Lee

Comparison of Landslide Susceptibility Models Trained from Inventories of Different Triggering Events in the Same Basin

Technical Session #5

Aggregates Symposium Room: Garden Room

Convener: Atiye Tugrul

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Stephen Wilkinson

An Assessment of Particle Characteristics for the Analysis of Wind Turbulence Generated Gas Transport

2:00–2:20

Isabel Fernandes

Study of Hungarian Rocks Regarding Potential Reactivity to Alkalis (Presented by Ákos Török)

2:20–2:40

Kitty Chan

The Search for New Aggregate Sources in Hong Kong

2:40–3:00

Atiye Tugrul

Aggregate Mining in Megacities and Existing Problems: An Example from stanbul, Turkey

3:00–3:20

Balázs Czinder

Long-Term Wear of Aggregates Assessed by Micro-Deval Tests (Presented by Ákos Török)

3:40–4:00

Dennis Anderson

2018 Electrical Density Gauge Model E for Compacted Base Foundation Construction Quality Control

4:00–4:20

Maria del Pilar, Durante Ingunza

Petrographic Characterization of Waste Rocks: Applicability as Concrete Aggregates

4:20–4:40

Aderbal Correa

Aggregates for the Greater Sao Paulo Megacity – An Undeveloped Resource Case Study

4:40–5:00

Geoffrey Rigsby

Vibration Considerations for a New Aggregate Operation Next to a RCC Dam

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Technical Session #6

Tunnel Symposium – Part I The 2018 Tunneling Symposium features twenty-two presentations from around the world demonstrating the importance of engineering geology as one of the key tenants of good underground construction project design and implementation.

Room: Grand Ballroom C

Conveners: Paul Headland/ Ike Isaacson/Mike Piepenburg

Time

Speaker

Title

1:35-1:40

Gary Brierley

Introduction of Keynote Don Deere

1:40–2:20

Don W. Deere

Tunnel Symposia Keynote: Lessons Learned from Dr. Don U. Deere, The Consummate Engineering Geologist

2:20–2:40

Jeb Pittsinger

First Use of SEM Tunneling Methods in Vermont – Interstate 89 Culvert Replacement (Presented by Eric Prantil)

2:40–3:00

Jon Pearson

Culvert Construction under I-89 in Vermont Using the Sequential Excavation Method

3:00–3:20

Richard DePew

Tunnel Boring Machine Utilization as a Viable Alternative to Designed Hand Mining Methods on the Dugway South Relief Sewer Project

3:40–4:00

Jon Y. Kaneshiro

Engineering Geological Considerations and Case Histories for Bored Tunnels in Mixed Face Rock/Soil Ground

4:00–4:20

Peter Ellecosta

Wear Phenomena in TBM Hard Rock Drilling – Reasons and Consequences

4:20–4:40

Kurosch Thuro

Prediction of Drilling Rates and Bit Wear in Hard Rock Drill and Blast Tunneling

4:40–5:00

Giulia Bossi

Four Years Monitoring Experience of Displacements Induced by a Large Landslide in a Tunnel Serving a National Road

Technical Session #7

Seismogenic Landslide Hazards Room: Seacliff CD

Moderator: Weiwei Zhan

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

D. Scott Kieffer

Landslides Triggered in Sindhupalchok During the M 7.8 Nepal-Gorkha Earthquake of April 25, 2015

2:00–2:20

Zang Mingdong

Coseismic Landslide Hazard Map after the 20 April 2013 Lushan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

2:20–2:40

Chao Wei-An

A Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring of Active Landslides: Precursor, Sliding and Afterslide

2:40–3:00

Chandani Bhandari

Risk Understanding of People after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in the Pokhara Valley of Nepal

3:00–3:20

Weiwei Zhan

Size-Frequency Characteristics of Landslides Induced by Three Recent Major Earthquakes in the Longmen-shan Belt, Southwestern China

3:40–4:00

Kafle Kumud

Landslide Hazard Mapping In Melamchi Municipality: In Context of Nepal Earthquake 2015

4:00–4:20

Wang Tao

A Preliminary Study on Earthquake Induced Landslide Hazard Assessment of China

4:20–4:40

Yang Zhihua

Predicting Landslide Scenes under Potential Earthquake Scenarios in the Xianshuihe Fault Zone, Southwest China

4:40–5:00

Cao, Chen

Landslide Susceptibility Analysis in Vertical Distribution Law of Precipitation Area: Case of Xulong Hydropower Station Reservoir, Southwestern of China

Technical Session #8

Quantifying Climate Change Room: Bayview B

Moderator: Briget Doyle

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Maria Ferentinou

A Coastal Sensitivity Index Assessment of KwaZulu-Natal, East Coast of South Africa

2:00–2:40

Angelo Doglioni

Effects of Climatic Changes on Groundwater Availability in a Semi Arid Mediterranean Region

2:40–3:00

Flora F. Menezes

Geomechanical Behavior Changes of a Bunter Sandstone and of a Borehole Cement due to scCO2 Injection Effects

3:00–3:20

Regina Pläsken

Analyzing the Sensitivity of a Distinct Element Slope Stability Model: A Case Study on the Influence of Permafrost Degradation on Infrastructure Stability

3:40–4:00

Yonggang Jia

Dominant Role of Sediment Fluidization in Determining Seabed Erosion

4:00–4:40

Jasper Cook

Engineering Geology and Climate Impact Adaptation for Rural Access Road Networks in Developing Countries

4:40–5:00

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Technical Session #9A

Mineralogy/Rock Mechanics Room: Waterfront AB

Moderator: Tej Gautam

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Martin Potten

Geomechanical Investigation of High Priority Geothermal Strata in the Molasse Basin, Bavaria (Germany)

2:00–2:20

Tej Gautam

Slaking Progression of Clay-Bearing Rocks under Natural Climatic Conditions

2:20–2:40

Yilin Gui

Modeling of Soil Desiccation Cracking with a Hybrid Continnuum-Discrete Element Method

2:40–3:00

Elena Mraz

Diagenesis of the Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks within Deep Geothermal Boreholes of the North Alpine Foreland Basin in Germany

3:00–3:20

Nicholas Vlachopoulos

The Effect of Jointing in Massive Highly Interlocked Rockmasses under High Stresses by Using a FDEM Approach

Technical Session #9B

Geochemical/Water Contamination Room: Waterfront AB

Moderator: Christina Villeneuve

Time

Speaker

Title

3:40–4:00

Linlong Mu

Analytical Method for Monopiles under V-H-M Combined Loads in Sandy Seabed

4:00–4:20

Angelo Doglioni

Identification of Anomalous Morphological Landforms and Structures Based on Large Scale Discrete Wavelet Analysis

4:20–4:40

Hu Zheng

On the Application of Photo-Elasticity Techniques in Geotechnical Engineering

4:40–5:00

Discussion: Led by Moderator

Tuesday, September 18 – Morning Technical Session #10

Dams Symposium – Part II Sponsored By RJH Consultants Room: Grand Ballroom B

Conveners: Holly Nichols & Visty Dalal

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Kevin Richards

Evaluation of Design Alternatives to Address Internal Erosion Risk: Moose Creek Dam

9:40–10:00

Christopher Goetz

Engineering Geologic Considerations for the Trampas Canyon Dam and Reservoir Project; Orange County, California

10:20–10:40

Scott Walker

Assessment of Concrete Chute and Unlined Spillways within the Tennessee Valley Authority Dam Inventory

10:40–11:00

Thomas Terry

Guajataca Dam – Risk informed Interim Risk Reduction Measures

11:00–11:20

Scott Ball

One Way to Build an Earth Fill Dam – a Case Study

11:20–11:40

Ed Friend

Rehabilitation of North Lake Dam

11:40–12:00

Carrie Randolph Loar

Chimney Hollow Reservoir Geotechnical Investigation for the Deeply Weathered Bedrock in the Left Abutment

Happy

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Technical Session #11

Lidar/Technology: Landslide Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Symposium – Part I Remote sensing technology encompasses different types of sensors (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (lidar), Thermal, Optical, Multispectral, and Hyperspectral) and platforms (e.g., Satellites, Aircraft, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)). These sensors and platforms enable us to collect data and monitor earth surface for engineering geology applications at different spatial scales at locations where comparable physical measurements are difficult/impossible. The recent advancements in UAV deployment have extended the use of remote sensing technology and enabled to overcome some of the challenges related to temporal and spatial resolution associated with satellite platforms. This technical session would broadly cover the application of remote sensing technology for engineering geology and landslide applications.

Room: Bayview A

Convener: Rudiger Escobar Wolf

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–10:00

Wendy Zhou

InSAR Applications for Landslides

10:00–10:20

John deLaChapelle

Evaluation of InSAR Methods to Identify Historical Landslide Movement in Dense Landslide Terrain in North Dakota, USA

10:20–10:40

El Hachemi Bouali

Landslide Monitoring at Three Orders of Magnitude: PSI, COSI-Corr, and GPS Measurements at the Portuguese Bend Landslide Complex in Southern California, USA (Presented by Rudiger Escobar-Wolf)

10:40–11:00

Joshua Wagner

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Improved Rock Mass Structural Data Acquisition and Analysis

11:00–11:20

Qian Liu

Three-Dimensional Data Model Based on UAV Photogrammetry for Reconstructing the Geometry of Blocky Rock Mass on Natural Rock Slopes (Presented by D. Scott Kieffer)

11:20–11:40

Kong Deheng

A New Approach for Automatic Identification and Characterization of Rock Mass from 3D Point Clouds

11:40–12:00

Bryan Simpson

DRONES! Geologic Discontinuity Mapping Using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) Technology and Photogrammetric Methods for Rock Fall Mitigation

Technical Session #12

Landslides and Infrastructure Room: Seacliff CD

Moderator: Stephen Evans

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Robert Givler

Penitencia Creek Landslide Evaluation and Seismic Retrofit of Large Diameter Water Conveyance Pipelines in San Jose, California, USA

9:40–10:00

Marinos Vassilis

Landslide Geohazard and Risk Assessment along a Natural Gas Pipeline in European Territory

10:20–10:40

Stephen Evans

The SW 10th Place Landslide Remediation

10:40–11:00

Singh Ankit

Continuous Slope Mass Rating and Kinematic Analysis for Slope Stability Along the Larji-Sainj Road, Himachal Pradesh (Presented By Tarun Singh)

11:00–11:20

Stuart Millis

An Example of Landslide Scar Remediation by Soil Bioengineering from Hong Kong

11:20–11:40

Richard Gray

Colluvium in the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province

11:40–12:00

Nicholas Farny

Utilization of the Unstable Slope Management Program for FHWA-Western Federal Lands Projects

Technical Session #13

Landslides and Society: Hazards, Risks, and Communication Symposium Room: Seacliff AB

Convener: Jennifer Bauer

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Stuart Millis

Assessment and Mitigation of Natural Terrain Hazards: A Case Study from Sham Wat Village in Hong Kong

9:40–10:00

Ann Williams

Should We Close the Road?

10:20–10:40

Emil Tsereteli

Methodological Aspects for Hazard Risks Assessment of Geological Disasters Occurred in Georgia (Presented by George Gaprindashvili)

10:40–11:00

Lun-Wei Wei

Applying Susceptibility and Rainfall Threshold to the Establishment of Landslide Early Warning System in Western Taiwan

11:00–11:20

Jason Woodward

Decreasing Erosion Rates on Industrially Managed Timberlands

11:20–11:40

John Cripps

A Review of Some British Mixed Lithology Mudstone Sequences with Particular Emphasis on the Stability of Slopes

11:40–12:00

Joe Smith

Slope Stability in San Francisco: A Practical Approach to Managing Urban Geotechnical Risks

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Technical Session #14

Tunnel Symposium – Part II Room: Grand Ballroom C

Conveners: Paul Headland/ Ike Isaacson/Mike Piepenburg

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–10:00

Gary Brierley

Engineering Geology as Applied to Tunneling Projects

10:20–10:40

Carrie Randolph Loar

Chimney Hollow Reservoir Inlet/Outlet Tunnel Geotechnical Investigation Design

10:40–11:00

Marlène Villeneuve

Using Tunnel Boring Machine Penetration Tests to Quantify Performance in Hard Rock

11:00–11:20

Kenneth Johnson

Estimating Groundwater Inflow in Tunneling: A Case History for the Lower Meramec Tunnel, St. Louis, Missouri

11:20–11:40

Filipe Jeremias

Engineering Geological Studies for the New Drainage Tunnels of Lisbon

11:40–12:00

Haris Saroglou

ARMR, a Classification System for Rating of Anisotropic Rock Masses

Technical Session #15

Engineering Geology of Mélanges, Bimrocks and Soil/Rock Mixtures Symposium – Part I Mélanges are rock bodies composed of complex geological mixtures of strong hard blocks within weaker sheared matrices. Mélange rock masses are often the most intractable members of the family of heterogeneous rocks known as “bimrocks” (block-in-matrix rocks), which also includes sheared serpentinites, fault rocks, weathered rocks, lahars, etc. Bimsoils are analogous soil/rock mixtures such as colluvium and saprolites. Mélanges, bimrocks and bimsoils are found at all scales of engineering interest and cause engineering problems around the world. This Symposium highlights a wide range of recent international engineering geologic experience in development of rational and novel approaches to characterize the geological chaos of mélanges, bimrocks, bimsoils and other soil-rock mixtures. A one-day Field Trip complements this Symposium by introducing the Franciscan Complex in the San Francisco Peninsula where original contributions for understanding these materials were developed in the 1990s, and explores the engineering geology experience advanced by local geopractitioners and researchers.

Room: Garden Room

Conveners: Ed Medley and Julien Cohen-Waeber

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Ed Medley

Keynote: 25 Years of Characterizing Melanges, Bimrocks, and Similar Rock-Soil Mixtures

9:40–10:00

Ed Medley

Keynote: Years of Progress in Characterizing Melanges, Bimrocks, and Similar Rock-Soil Mixtures (Part 2)

10:20–10:40

John Wakabayashi

Insight into Geologic Mapping of Mélanges: Implications for Engineering Geologic Investigations

10:40–11:00

George Freitag

OR 242 Burma – A Challenging Oregon Mélange Landslide, Coos County, Oregon, USA

11:00–11:20

Exneyder Montoya-Araque

Automatic Generation of Tortuous Failure Surfaces in Bimsoils to Evaluate the Stability of 2D Slopes (Presented by Ludger Oswaldo Suarez-Burgoa)

11:20–11:40

Julien Cohen-Waeber

A Characterization of Precipitation-Modulated Complex Landslide Behavior in Franciscan Mélange from InSAR Time Series of the San Francisco East Bay Hills, California, USA

11:40–12:00

Marcos Musso

Mechanical Behavior of Residual Granitic Soil As Road Raw Material

Technical Session #16

Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium Part – I Sponsored By Kleinfelder This is a rare opportunity to hear how industrialized countries from around the world are dealing with NOA issues. From the Alps, to the Australian outback, to the Andes to the California Coastal Ranges and Sierra Foothills, the issue of NOA, how it occurs, how it is identified, how it is regulated and controlled will be explored on a global scale.

Room: Bayview B

Convener: Mark Bailey

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Mark Bailey

Introduction to the IAEG NOA Symposium

9:40–10:00

Martin Harper

Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA): Risks and Regulations

10:20–10:40

Chris Kirkham

Cal/OSHA Regulation of Work with Naturally Occurring Asbestos (Presented by Jeff Ferrell)

10:40–11:00

Brad Erskine

Applying the OSHA Asbestos Standard for Building Materials to NOA on Excavation Projects: An Example from the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project

11:00–11:20

Rob Krieger

California Air Resources Board – NOA Regulations

11:20–11:40

Brad Erskine

The CARB Asbestos ATCM: A Challenge to the Professional Geologist

11:40–12:00

Francesco Turci

New Tools for the Evaluation of Asbestos-Related Risk During Excavation in NOA-Rich Geological Setting

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Technical Session #17

Geotechnical/Site Characterization for Infrastructure: High Speed Rail, High Rise Buildings, Bay Mud, Coastal Development – Part I Room: Waterfront AB

Moderator: James Hamel

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Afolabi Olaniyi Adebayo

Foundation Analyses Using Geotechnical Investigation for Proposed Offices and Warehouse Development along Lagos Ibadan Expressway, Ewu Osi Village Sagamu Local Government Area Ogun State, Nigeria

9:40–10:00

Luke Brouwers

Beneath the Sands: A Glimpse of Engineering Geological Conditions of Dubai, UAE

10:20–10:40

Dru Nielson

Geomorphology, Provenance, and Depositional Models: Application to Trenchless Infrastructure Design and Construction

10:40–11:00

Mario Quinta-Ferreira

Geological-Geotechnical Studies for the Ore Transport Railway Line “S11D—Sudeste do Pará,” Brazil

11:00–11:20

S. Lindsay Poluga

Rock Mass Characterization of Mount Rushmore National Memorial, Keystone, South Dakota, USA

11:20–11:40

James Hamel

Harry Ferguson’s Theory of Valley Stress Release in Flat-Lying Sedimentary Rocks

11:40–12:00

Murad Abu-Farsakh

Design and Load Testing Program on Instrumented Large Diameter Open Ended Test Piles

Tuesday, September 18 –Afternoon Technical Session #18

Dam Symposium – Part III Sponsored by Schnabel Engineering Room: Grand Ballroom B

Conveners: Kerry Cato and Cassandra Wagner

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:20

Donald Bruce

Keynote #2: The Application of the Deep Mixing Method to Dam and Levee Remediation

2:20–2:40

Scott Walker

Boone Dam Part 1: An Overview of the Issues at an Earth Embankment Founded on Karst

2:40–3:00

Scott Walker

Boone Dam Part 2: A Summary of the Seepage Mitigation Project

3:00–3:20

Don Hoirup

West Shore Lake Oroville Lineament Geologic Investigation, Northern California (Part 1)

3:40–4:00

Don Hoirup

West Shore Lake Oroville Lineament Geologic Investigation, Northern California (Part 2) (Presented by Ozgur Kozaci)

4:00–4:20

Scott Lewis

Spontaneous Exfoliation of Granitic Dome Damages Overlying Concrete Dam – Case History

4:20–4:40

Hawkins Gagnon

3D Geologic Modeling of Boundary Dam, Metaline Falls, Washington: A Modern Approach to Understanding Foundation Geology

Technical Session #19

Improving Engineering Geology: Relationships among Education, Licensure, Guidelines, and Practice — A Global Perspective Symposium This session explores the status and future of engineering geology practice, licensure and education. The session explores current and future contributions of engineering geologists to urban development, the greatest challenge to the global construction industry in the 21st century, and to geo-disaster management in southeast Asia. Additional presentations address licensure/registration in Canada and Europe, and challenges for engineering geology education.

Room: Marina

Conveners: Turner, Alan Keith, Fred Baynes, Fred, and Marlène Villeneuve

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Ian Jefferson

A Future Role for Engineering Geology (Presented by Martin Culshaw)

2:00–2:20

Nicholas Vlachopoulos

Improving Public Safety through Engineering Geology: Relationships among Education, Licensure, Guidelines and Practice Required by Law – A Canadian Perspective

2:20–2:40

Fintan Buggy

Registration of Ground Engineering Professionals – A European Perspective (Presented by Kurosch Thuro)

2:40–3:00

Marlène Villeneuve

Engineering Geology Education in Australasia

3:00–3:20

Ranjan Kumar Dahal

South Asian Perspectives in Understanding Role of Engineering Geology for Geodisaster Management

3:40–4:00

Marcos Musso

Active Learning Teaching in Geotechnical Courses in Uruguay

4:00–4:40

September 2018

Discussion: Led by Conveners

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Technical Session #20

Lidar/Technology: Landslide Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Symposium – Part II Room: Bayview A

Convener: Rudiger Escobar Wolf

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:20

Mathew Lato

Good Data, Good Decisions: Applying 3D Technology to Solve Practical Engineering Geology Problems

2:20–2:40

Richard Steckel

Current Requirements for FAA Commercial Remote Pilot Operations and Process for Obtaining Access to FAA Controlled Airspace

2:40–3:00

Georg Erharter

UAV Based Analyses of Discontinuities and Mechanics of Rockfall Events in Alpine Terrain (Pletzachkogel/Tyrol/Austria) (Presented by D. Scott Kieffer)

3:00–3:20

Efstratios Karantanellis

Multitemporal Landslide Mapping and Quantification of Mass Movement in Red Beach, Santorini Island Using Lidar and UAV Platform

3:40–4:00

Peter Bobrowsky

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Mapping and Monitoring of Landslides in British Columbia, Canada

4:00–4:20

Vitor Santini Müller

UAS Use in 3D Geotechnical Slope Stability Analysis

4:20–4:40

Joshua Wagner

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Datasets: A Powerful Tool for Spillway Condition Assessments

Technical Session #21

Landslides and Society: Hazards, Risks, and Communication Symposium – Part II Room: Seacliff AB

Convener: Jennifer Bauer

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Jennifer B. Bauer

Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Jackson County, North Carolina, USA – A Public/Private Partnership

2:00–2:20

Timothy Blackwood

Risk-Based Rockfall Mitigation Strategies in Hawaii, USA

2:20–2:40

Jordi Corominas

Landslide Hazard: What Does it Mean?

2:40–3:00

Erica Goto

Spatial Distribution and Kernel Density of Landslide Risk Areas Impacted by Anthropogenic Activities in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

3:00–3:20

William Pollock

Quantitative Co-Seismic and Precipitation-Induced Landslide Risk Mapping for the Country of Lebanon

3:40–4:00

Valentina Svalova

Monitoring Risk Management for Landslide Hazard in Taiwan

4:00–4:20

Phil Flentje

Landslide Total Susceptibility

4:20–4:40

Filipe Jeremias

Assessment Proposal for Definition of Slope Stabilization Measures in Urban Areas: the Fontaínhas Scarp, Oporto (Portugal)

Technical Session #22

Tunnel Symposium – Part III Room: Grand Ballroom C

Conveners: Paul Headland/ Ike Isaacson/Mike Piepenburg

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Ashton Krajnovich

A Bayesian Approach to Adaptive and Predictive 3D Geologic Modeling for Tunneling Projects

2:00–2:20

Nora Lewandowski

Updated PSHA for San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s Mountain Tunnel, Sierra Nevada Foothills, California

2:20–2:40

Masashi Nakaya

Fundamental Study on Three Dimensional Seismic Reflection Method Using Excavation Blasting of Mountain Tunnel as Source

2:40–3:00

Chunxiao Liu

Destruction Law of Rectangular Tunnel Structure Based on the Theory of Plastic Hinge

3:00–3:20

Linde-Arias, Emilio

Development of the Ground Model and Depressurization Design for the Construction of a Cross Passage in London Tertiary Basin

3:40–4:00

Yiguo Xue

A New Risk Prediction Model of Water or Mud Inrush in a Cross-harbor Tunnel

4:00–4:20

Kazuhiro Onuma

Evaluation Method for Rock Condition by Spectrogram of Seismic Waves Generated at Tunnel Excavation Blasting

4:20–4:40

Xiaojun Li

Stochastic,Goal-oriented Rapid Impact Modeling of Uncertainty and Environmental Impacts in Poorly-Sampled Sites Using Ex-Situ Priors

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session #23A

Engineering Geology of Mélanges, Bimrocks and Soil/Rock Mixtures Symposium – Part II Room: Garden Room

Conveners: Ed Medley and Julien Cohen-Waeber

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Vassilis Marinos

Geotechnical Characterization of Tectonically Disturbed Heterogeneous Rock Masses with the GSI system

2:00–2:20

Haris Saroglou

Characterization of Bimrocks Using a New Classification Index (BCI)

2:20–2:40

Julien Cohen-Waeber

Geological Engineering of Mass-Excavations in a Chaotic Rock at Landfill Sites in the San Francisco Bay Area

2:40–3:00

Akos Török

Engineering Geological and Geotechnical Site Characterization of Two Highway Tunnels: Hard Soil – Soft Rock Transitions

3:00-3:20

Discussion Led by Conveners

Technical Session #23B

Miscellaneous Geological Topics Room: Garden Room

Moderator: Greg Hempen

Time

Speaker

Title

3:40–4:00

Greg Hempen

Reducing Impacts Potentially Triggered By Blasting

4:00–4:20

Martin Culshaw

A Short History of Engineering Geology and Geophysics at the British Geological Survey – Part 2: Engineering Geological Mapping

4:20–4:40

Yaoru Lu

Intelligent Ecological and Sustainable City Clusters

Technical Session #24

Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part II Sponsored By Keinfelder Room: Bayview B

Convener: Mark Bailey

Time

Speaker

Title

1:00–2:00

Expert Panel

Discussion on NOA Regulations Around the World (Chaired by Mark Bailey)

2:00–2:20

Stefan Pierdzig

Regulations concerning Naturally Occuring Asbestos (NOA) in Germany – Testing Procedures for Asbestos

2:20–2:40

Marc Hendrickx

NOA in Australia: History of Investigation, Regulation and Emerging Issues

2:40–3:00

Erell Leocat

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in France: a Technical and Regulatory Review

3:00–3:20

Florence Cagnard

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in France: Geological Mapping, Mineral Characterization and Regulatory Developments

3:40–4:00

Sungiun Yoon

NOA Management Status in S. Korea and NOA in Janghang Double Track Railway Project (Presented by Yul Roh)

4:00–4:20

Leticia Lescano

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Argentina. A Compilation of Case Studies

4:20–4:40

Mark Bailey

Asbestiform Minerals of the Franciscan Assemblage in California with a Focus on the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project

How to Schedule a Jahns Lecture The individual Jahns Lecturer does almost all of their own scheduling and logistical coordination with the local Chapter. In addition, the Lecturer is conducting talks in other areas— all while trying to perform their "real" day job back home." Setting up a Jahns Lecturer takes patience and understanding on both ends, but the product is invaluable in its knowledge transfer, career guidance, and mentoring to students. If your AEG Chapter would like a Jahns Lecturer’s visit to your area, check out the helpful tips on our website at: www.aegweb.org/?page=LecturerVisit or www.aegweb.org/page/JahnsLecturer2018

September 2018

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session #25

Geotechnical/Site Characterization for Infrastructure: High Speed Rail, High Rise Buildings, Bay Mud, Coastal Development – Part II Room: Waterfront AB

Moderator: Ann Williams

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Siqi Xiao

Model Test of Single Pile Installed into Clay under Vertical Dynamic Load

2:00–2:20

Takuya Urakoshi

A Flood And Slop Failure Disaster Mitigation System for Train Operation Using the Precipitation Forecast Data

2:20–2:40

Charles Wilk

Estimating Sustainability Benefits from Use of Blended Cements and Slag Cement at Geotechnical Projects (Presented by Joshua Patterson)

2:40–3:00

Afolabi Olaniyi Adebayo

Assessment of Lithological Layers for a Shallow Foundation Using Integration of Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigation at IGBOBI Boys College, Yaba, Lagos, South-Western Nigeria

3:00–3:20

Afolabi Olaniyi Adebayo

Evaluation of Sub Base/Subgrade Soils Along Ikorodu-Shagamu Road, Shagamu, Southwestern, Nigeria

3:40–4:00

Lynne Yost

“Poop, Power & Plant Food” Recycling Human Waste Using Methane Digestion in a Historic Peat Marsh, Irvine, California, USA

4:00–4:20

Ann Williams

Designing our Future Infrastructure to Clean up the Past

4:20–4:40

Discussion: Led by Moderator

Thursday, September 20 – Morning Technical Session #26

Rockfall I: Case Histories and Hazard Studies Room: Garden Room

Moderator: Tim Mote

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Tim Mote

Site-Specific Rockfall Risk Assessments and Rockfall Protection Structure Design Following the 2010/2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence

9:40–10:00

Carl Jacklitch

Factors Contributing to Rockfall Occurrence and the Associated Risk in Rockville, Utah

10:00–10:20

Jordi Corominas

Effects of Rockfall Fragmentation in the Assessment of Hazard and Risk

10:20–10:40

Eric Smith

What If the Rock Only Threatens to Fall? Emergency Response to a Decoupled Cliff Face in Washington State

10:40–11:00

Louise Vick

The Influence of Inherited Bedrock Structure on the Deformation of Unstable Rock Slopes in Northern Norway

11:00–11:20

Maria Ferentinou

Rockfall Hazard Assessment at the World Heritage Site of Giants Castle Main Camp, Drakensberg, South Africa

11:20–11:40

Kristofer Marsch

Comparison of mechanically determined with profile-based Joint Roughness Coefficients

11:40–12:00

Xuefeng Mei

Study on Coefficient of Restitution and Peak Impact of Rockfall Based on Elastic-Plastic Theory (Presented by Xiewen Hu)

Happy

Geologist’s Day! THURSDAY Sept. 20, 2018

Geologists Day is a professional holiday of geologists, geophysicists, and geochemists.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session #27

Landslide Case Histories and Field Methods I Room: Seaciff CD

Moderator: James McCalpin

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

James McCalpin

Trenching Helps Landslide Investigations in Areas of Complex Structure and/or Quaternary Deformation

9:40–10:00

Charlie Wildman

Geologically Value Engineering a Geotechnical Solution: Geological Evidence for Limiting the Extent of Remedial Ground Improvement within a Failing levee along the Rio Grande in Brownsville, Texas, USA

10:00–10:20

Ranjan Dahal

The Value of Urban Geology for Rising Cities in Nepal

10:20–10:40

Scott Burns

Aldercrest-Banyon Deep-Seated Landslide, Kelso, Washington, USA, 1998: North America’s Third Largest Involving Homes

10:40–11:00

Christian Zangerl

Formation and Deformation Characteristics of Deep-Seated Compound Rock Slides in a High Alpine Environment

11:00–11:20

Andrey Kazeev

New Technology for Calculation of a Slip Surface Depth of Deep Landslides

11:20–11:40

Luke Weidner

Investigating Large Landslides along the Ontonagon River, Michigan, Using Combined Physical, Statistical, and Hydrologic Modeling

11:40–12:00

Margaret M. Darrow

Frozen Debris Lobes: A Look Back at a Decade of Exploring These Permafrost Slope Instabilities

Technical Session #28

Oroville Dam Symposium – Part I The Oroville Dam Symposium will showcase a range of topics regarding the facility, spillway events of 2017, and recovery design and construction efforts. The Symposium will start with a presentation about the history of the dam and spillway complex, followed by insights from the Independent Forensic Team’s geologist. The symposium will then take off with presentations describing the spillway events of February 2017, fast-tracked exploration to support fast-tracked design, forensic investigations, geologic controls on slope stability and rock erodibility, the use of drones and GIS to support real-time geologic mapping, groundwater conditions, the design and construction of a secant pile wall to resist headward erosion in the Emergency Spillway, chute anchor installation, slope monitoring using radar, and more. This great lineup will provide insight into the site geology and geologic factors considered during the emergency, and design and construction of the spillways repairs.

Room: Grand Ballroom B

Conveners: Holly Nichols and Hans AbramsonWard

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

J. David Rogers

Design and Construction History of Oroville Dam

9:40–10:00

TBD

10:20–10:40

Robert Barry

The Oroville Spillways – Setting the Stage for the Incident

10:40–11:00

Andrew Tate

Geologic Exploration for the Oroville Spillways Emergency: A Multi-Agency and Multi-Discipline Effort

11:00–11:20

Michael Gray

Investigations of the Oroville Spillway Chute

11:20–11:40

Jennifer Dean

Structural Controls on Rock Slope Stability, Oroville Dam Spillways, California, USA

11:40–12:00

Jennifer Bauer

Rock Slope Stability Evaluation along the Oroville Dam Spillway, California, USA

Technical Session #29A

Professional Development Room: Seacliff AB

Moderator: Phyllis Steckel

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

James Hamel

Ten Lessons Learned in Geotechnical Practice

9:40–10:00

Phyllis Steckel

AEG Advocacy Committee Report: A Few Interesting Takeaways for the Geoscience Professional

September 2018

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session #29B

Debris Flow and Steep Creek Hazards Symposium – Part I Room: Seacliff AB

Convener: Kevin McCoy

Time

Speaker

Title

10:20–10:40

Jeremy Lancaster

The Santa Barbara and Carpenteria Debris Flows of January 9, 2018: Post-Fire Debris Flow Initiation Areas and Triggering Precipitation

10:40–11:00

Klaus-Peter Keilig

Comparison of Multi-Temporal Elevation Models of a Debris-Flow Channel

11:00–12:00

Discussion: Led by Convener

Technical Session #30

Environmental: Site Characterization, Soil and Groundwater Contamination/Remediation – Part I Room: Bayview A

Moderator: Elinor S. Utevsky

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

James Helge

Case Study – Characterization, Risk Management, and Remediation Strategies to Shorten Timeline for Potential Site Reuse

9:40–10:00

Oyelami Charles

An Integrated Approach to Vadose Zone Characterization as it Relates to Burial Practices and Its Impact on the Immediate Environment

10:20–10:40

Oyediran Ibrahim Adewuyi

Leachate Effects on some Index Properties of Clays

10:40–11:00

Shi Lei

An Assessment Method to the Functional Efficiency of the Water Curtain System of an Underground Storage Facility

11:00–11:20

Charles Wilk

Soil Mixing for Remediation of Contaminated Sites (Presented by Jeff Wykoff)

11:20–11:40

Elinor S. Utevsky

Roadside Runoff and Shoulder Material Investigations: Contributing Factors to Non-Point Source Contaminant Loading

11:40–12:00

Belacem Moussai

Effect of Water Salinity and Leaching on the Behavior of a Road Embankment

Technical Session #31

Land Subsidence Symposium – Part I Room: Grand Ballroom C

Convener: Michelle Sneed

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

James Borchers

Land Subsidence in California

9:40–10:00

James Borchers

Land Subsidence from Groundwater Use in California

10:20–10:40

Bradley von Dessonneck

Sinking California’s Water – Subsidence and Its Effects on the California Aqueduct

10:40–11:00

Bill Mok

Subsidence-Induced Changes to Floodplain Patterns

11:00–11:20

Zhuping Sheng

Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Withdrawal and Rebound/Uplift with Mitigation Measures

11:20–11:40

Aranya Fuangswasdi

Addressing Subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand and Houston, Texas: Scientific Comparisons and Data-Driven Groundwater Policies for Coastal Land-Surface Subsidence (Presented by Sachin D. Shah and Surin Worakijthamrong)

11:40–12:00

Neil Deeds

Assessing Subsidence Risk from Brackish Groundwater Development on the Texas Gulf Coast – Houston, Texas, USA

There’s an APP for this – Go Mobile! Last-minute SCHEDULE CHANGES, maps, networking and MORE on your mobile device—completely FREE! Visit https://guidebook.com/g/aeg2018/ OR scan the QR code using your smartphone to download.

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AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session #32

Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium – Part I Sponsored By California Geological Survey Statutory professional licensure exists to assert and protect the public’s interest in the practice of a profession that impacts the public health, safety, and wellbeing. This symposium explores the history, operation, and maturity of professional licensure for geologists and engineering geologists in the United States. How is the future of our profession linked to geologic practice performed to support client/employer compliance with statutes, cods, and regulations that require a report by a licensed professional geologist? Join us for your choice of 15 presentations that explore and explain the history of licensure for geologists and the growing influence of licensure in undergraduate programs and early career decisions. The symposium closes with three papers on political geology: come and learn about lobbyists and how to shake hands with a legislator.

Room: Waterfront AB

Convener: Robert Tepel

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Robert E. Tepel

The Causes, Chronology, Operation, and Future of State Licensure of Geologists in the United States

9:40–10:00

C. Dale Elifrits

Accreditation of Geology Degree Programs by the ANSAC of ABET – A Brief History and Current Status

10:20–10:40

Christopher C. Mathewson

Engineering Geology Education in the United States; a Survey of Curricula and an Assessment of Viability

10:40–11:00

Edmund D. Medley

Career Development–Encouragements to Young Geoprofessionals

11:00–11:20

Laurie Racca

50 Years of Protecting the Public: The California Professional Geologist License

11:20–11:40

John W. Williams

Development of the National Association of State Boards of Geology (ASBOG®) and the Licensure Examination

11:40–12:00

J David Rogers

Origins of Excavation and Grading Statutes Requiring Engineering Geologic Input (1952–69)

Technical Session #33

Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part III Sponsored By Kleinfelder Room: Bayview B

Convener: Mark Bailey

Time

Speaker

Title

9:00–9:20

Bart Eklund

NOA – Applying Lessons Learned During Calaveras Dam Replacement Project to a New Site

9:20–9:40

Dan Hernandez

Exposure to Mesotheliomagenic Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) During Dam Construction

9:40–10:00

Bradley Erskine

Asbestiform Glaucophane-Winchite in the Franciscan Complex of Northern California: Another Unrecognized Naturally Occurring Asbestos Formation with Probable World-Wide Occurrence

10:20–10:40

John Wakabayashi

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks and Sedimentary Mélanges: Newly Recognized NOA Occurrences (Amphibole and Serpentine)

10:40–11:00

Rod Metcalf

Petrogenesis of Fibrous Amphiboles in Hydrothermally-Altered Granitoid Rocks: An Unusual Setting for Naturally-Occurring Asbestos

11:00–11:20

Fabrizio Piana

Overview of the Geotectonic History of the Western Alps with Special Attention to the NOA-Bearing Rocks (Meta-Ophiolites)

11:20–11:40

Elena Belluso

Naturally Occurring Asbestiform Minerals in the Italian Western Alps and in Other Italian Sites

11:40–12:00

Alessandro Cavallo

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy): from Quarries and Mines to Stream Sediments

Save the Date!

For these AEG-Sponsored Events September 2018

Coastal Hazards Forum: Englufing the Coast Dauphin Island, Alabama, Sea Lab Campus • January 7–10

Shlemon Specialty Conference State of the Science: Investigations of Active Faults in the Basin and Range Province Las Vegas, Nevada at UNLV Campus • March 28–29

Workshop on Risk Assessments for Dam and Levee Foundations Denver, Colorado, Denver West Marriott • April 24–26

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Thursday, September 20 – Afternoon Technical Session #34

Rockfall II: Emerging Technology and Mitigation Room: Seacliff CD

Moderator: Robert Huber

Time

Speaker

Title

2:00–2:20

Simon Loew

The Transition from Toppling to Sliding in Deep Rock Slope Instabilities

2:20–2:40

Nicholas Farny

Snow Avalanches, Rockfall, and Wild Game: Repairing Rockfall Attenuator Systems in Sawtooth National Recreation Area, Idaho, USA

2:40–3:00

Matthias Brugger

The Scope of TLS and Photogrammetry in the Context of Geomechanical Discontinuity Analysis

3:00–3:20

Sunil Poudyal

Axial Monotonic Pullout Performance of Fully Grouted Tension Anchors in Rockfall Barrier Foundation

3:40–4:00

D. Jean Hutchinson

Illuminating our Understanding of Rock Slope Behavior, by Integrating Engineering Geology Concepts into Interpretation of Remotely Sensed Data

4:00–4:20

Robert Huber

Design and Construction Considerations for Innovative Rockfall Protection Systems

4:20–4:40

Greg Stock

Rapid 3D Analysis of Rockfalls in Yosemite Valley Using Terrestrial Lidar and Structure-from-Motion Photogrammetry

4:40–5:00

Tai-Tien Wang

Risk Identification and Mitigation for Potential Rock Falls through Point Clouds Obtained by Lidar Techniques: A Case Study in Eastern Taiwan

5:00–5:20

Ranjan Kumar Dahal

Rock Fall Mitigation Practices in Nepal

Technical Session #35

Debris Flow and Steep Creek Hazards Symposium – Part II Room: Seacliff AB

Convener: Kevin McCoy

Time

Speaker

Title

2:00–2:20

Corinna Wendeler

Flexible Ring Net Barriers for Debris Flow Protection – Learning from More than 10 Years of Experience

2:20–2:40

Arpita Mandal

Comparison between Radar Estimated and Rain Gauge Measured Precipitation in Debris Flow Studies, Great Smoky Mountains National Park

2:40–3:00

Fu Sheng

Hazard Assessment of Rainfall-induced Shallow Landslides in Cili, China

3:00–3:20

Emil Tsereteli

Hazard Risk of Debris/Mud Flow Events in Georgia and Methodological Approaches for Management (Presented by George Gaprindashvili)

3:40–4:00

Kevin McCoy

Parameterizing GIS-Based Debris Flow Models Using High-Resolution Digital Elevation Datas

4:00–4:20

Paul Santi

Predicting Long Run-out Landslides

4:20–4:40

Jianping Chen

Geological Features of Natural Dams in Suwalong Reach at the Upstream of Jinsha River

4:40–5:00

Discussion: Led by Convener

Technical Session #36

Oroville Dam Symposium – Part II Room: Grand Ballroom B

Conveners: Holly Nichols and Hans AbramsonWard

Time

Speaker

Title

2:00–2:20

Stephanie Briggs

Geologic Influences on Slope Stability and Foundation Design, Oroville Dam Spillway, California, USA

2:20–2:40

Nick Hightower

Using GIS and UAV Imagery for Geologic Mapping during the Oroville Spillway Emergency Recovery

2:40–3:00

Justin Cox

Oroville Spillway Chute – Geologic Mapping Program for Exposed Foundation Rock

3:00–3:20

Rebekah Cesmat

Determining Groundwater Conditions in Fractured Rock – Oroville Spillways Recovery

3:40–4:00

Mike George

Geologic Controls on Spillway Erodibility: Insights from Oroville

4:00–4:20

Chad Carlson

Geologic Considerations and Observations of Secant Pile Wall Construction: Oroville Dam Emergency Spillway, California

4:20–4:40

Alberto Garrido

Rock Dowel Anchor Design and Installation – Oroville Dam Spillway Chute

4:40–5:00

Stephen Fuemmeler

Slope Monitoring at Oroville Dam Spillway – Ground-based Radar, UAV Photogrammetry, and Boots on the Ground

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session #37

Land Subsidence Symposium – Part II Room: Grand Ballroom C

Convener: Michelle Sneed

Time

Speaker

Title

2:00–2:20

Ryan Smith

Improved Modeling of Land Subsidence through the Integration of InSAR and Airborne EM Data

2:20–2:40

Joseph Hughes

Simulating Aquifer-System Compaction and Land Subsidence with MODFLOW 6

2:40–3:00

Kenneth Fergason

Earth Fissures and Infrastructure: A Case History at the Siphon Draw Detention Basin, Central Arizona, USA

3:00–3:20

Kenneth Fergason

Mitigation Strategies and Engineering Solutions for Infrastructure at Risk from Earth Fissures

3:40–4:00

David Wilshaw

Spring Hill, Florida: Engineering Geology of the Sinkhole Insurance Epicenter

4:00–4:20

Domenico Calcaterra

Detection of Subsidence by Radar Interferometric Data in the Seruci-Nuraxi Figus Coal Mine Area (Sardinia, Italy)

4:20–4:40

David Knott

Stabilization of Abandoned Coal Mine Workings by Grouting

4:40–5:00

Edmund Medley

The Sea Cliff Incident: A Catastrophic San Francisco “Sinkhole”

Technical Session #38

Education, Professional Licensure, Practice Standards and Guidelines: The American Experience Symposium – Part II Sponsored By California Geological Survey Room: Waterfront AB

Convener: Robert Tepel

Time

Speaker

Title

2:00–2:20

J. David Rogers

Administrative Review of Geologic Site Characterization for Development Applications

2:20–2:40

Timothy Dawson

The Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act: A Review and New Developments Regarding the Assessment of Surface Fault Rupture Hazard in California

2:40–3:00

Chase White

An Overview of the California Geological Survey School and Hospital Project Review Program with Historical Perspective

3:00–3:20

Michael Silva

California’s Seismic Hazards Mapping Act: Improving the State of the Practice in Engineering Geology (Presented by Tim Dawson)

3:40–4:00

Steven D. Bowman

Guidelines for Geologic-Hazard Investigations, Engineering-Geology Reports, and Geologic-Hazard Ordinances in Utah (Presented by Robert Tepel)

4:00–4:20

James H. Williams

Politics and Survival

4:20–4:40

Christopher Stohr

How We Saved the Illinois Professional Geologist Licensing Act (Presented by Patricia Bryan)

4:40–5:00

Kenneth Neal

The Impacts of Cooperation between West-Coast State Licensure Boards on Professional Specialty Licensure and the Corresponding Effects on the Geotechnical Professions (Presented by Laurie Racca)

Technical Session #39

Emergency Response to Natural Disasters Room: Garden Room

Moderator: Priscilla Addison

Time

Speaker

Title

2:00–2:20

Jia-Jyun Dong

Rapid Identification of Damming Event and Hazard Assessment of Landslide Dam – A Review

2:20–2:40

Don Lindsay

Emergency Assessment of Post-Fire Debris Flows that Impacted the Communities of Montecito and Carpinteria, Santa Barbara County, California, on January 9, 2018 (USA)

2:40–3:00

Priscilla Addison

Integrating Synthetic Aperture Radar Data and Classifier Tree Algorithm to Analyze Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence in California

3:00–3:20

Zbigniew Bednarczyk

Emergency Warning of Landslide Natural Hazard Using Nearly Real-Time Monitoring Data

3:40–4:00

Yasuhito Sasaki

Lessons from Geological Disasters and Accidents on Civil Engineering Structures over the Last 10 Years in Japan

4:00–4:40

Chris Massey

An Earthquake-Induced Landslide Forecast Tool for New Zealand; Using the 2016 MW7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake as an Example

4:40–5:00

September 2018

Discussion: Led by Moderator

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Technical Session #40

Naturally Occurring Asbestos Symposium – Part IV Sponsored By Kleinfelder Room: Bayview B

Convener: Mark Bailey

Time

Speaker

Title

1:00–1:20

Luca Barale

Geological Model for NOA Content Prediction in the Rock Excavation of a Long Tunnel

1:20–1:40

Jasmine Petriglieri

Not-Regulated Mineral Fibers. From the Identification to the Toxicity of Fibrous Antigorite from New Caledonia

1:40–2:00

Julie Wroble

Refinement of Sampling and Analysis Techniques for Asbestos in Soil

2:00–2:20

Leticia Lescano

Mineralogical Composition and Structure of Fibrous Anthophyllite: A Case Study in Argentina

2:20–2:40

Marc Hendrickx

Fibrous Temolite in Central New South Wales, Australia

2:40–3:00

David Sederquist

Update on Management and Mitigation Strategies for Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California

3:00–3:20

Dave Berry

Detection of Erionite and Other Zeolite Fibers in Soil by the Fluidized Bed Preparation Methodology

3:40–4:00

Ed Cahill

The Complexities of Soil Sampling, Analysis, Data Interpretation and Risk Assessment for Asbestos and Other Mineral Fibers

4:00–4:20

Robyn Ray

Discerning Erionite from Other Zeolite Minerals – What You Should Know when Seeking Analysis

4:20–4:40

Cristina Pavan

Revisiting the Paradigm of Silica Pathogenicity: Silanols, Not Crystallinity, as Key Determinant

4:40–5:00

Vigliaturo Ruggero

Naturally Occurring Asbestos and Cleavage Fragments, Their Localization and Transformation in Epithelial Cells

Technical Session #41A

Environmental: Site Characterization, Soil and Groundwater Contamination/Remediation – Part II Room: Bayview A

Moderator: Willliam Godwin

Time

Speaker

Title

2:00–2:20

Jacob Gallagher

Dewatering a Coal Ash Basin Using Directionally Drilled Horizontal Wells

2:20–2:40

Stephen Wilkinson

An Electron Microscope Study of Biomineralisation for Geotechnical Engineering Purposes

2:40–3:00

Tyler Gilkerson

Understanding Carbon Nanoparticle Transport in Saturated Porous Media: Influence of Dissolved Organic Matter

3:00–3:20

Shruti Lakkaraju

Impact of Environmental and Land Cover Changes on the Water Quality Characteristics of East Tennessee Watersheds

Technical Session #41B

Loess Room: Bayview A

Moderator: Morley Beckman

Time

Speaker

Title

3:40–4:00

Katherine Yates

Preliminary Investigation of the Soil-Water Characteristics of Loess Soils in Canterbury, New Zealand (Presented by Clark Fenton)

4:00–4:20

Zelin Zhang

Seismic Performance of Loess-Mudstone Slope in Tianshui – Centrifuge Model Tests and Numerical Analysis

4:20–4:40

Yunsheng Wang

The Typical Characteristics of Large-scale Landslides in the Transition Belt between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Loess Plateau

4:40–5:00

Hong Zhang

Dynamic Strength Properties of Loess Discharged from the Yellow River into the Bohai Sea, China

There’s an APP for this – Go Mobile! Last-minute SCHEDULE CHANGES, maps, networking and MORE on your mobile device—completely FREE! Visit https://guidebook.com/g/aeg2018/ OR scan the QR code using your smartphone to download.

78

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Friday, September 21 – Morning Technical Session #42

Landslides Monitoring and Prediction Room: Seacliff CD

Moderator: Charles Hammond

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Paolo Allasia

Near Real-Time Monitoring Systems and Periodic Surveys Using a Multi Sensors UAV: The Case of Ponzano Landslide

9:40–10:00

Brian Collins

Basal-liquefaction-induced Mobility of the 2014 SR530 (Oso) Landslide (Washington, USA)

10:20–10:40

Chih-Ping Lin

Better Practice of Implanting Geo-Nerves for Landslide Monitoring

10:40–11:00

Wen Baoping

Variation in Residual Strength of the Large-Scale Landslides’ Slip Zones in the Three Gorges Reservoir of China

11:00–11:20

Charles Hammond

Predicting Failure at Rattlesnake Hills Landslide Using Inverse Velocity

11:20–11:40

Hengxing Lan

Large Landslide Precursor Analysis Using Remote Sensing

11:40–12:00

Arindam Basu

Effect of Water Saturation on the Shear Behavior of Sandstone Bedding Planes

Technical Session #43

California Earthquake Clearinghouse & Mini-Drill for Emergency Response Using Your Experience as a Professional Geologist to Help Your Community: Post-Earthquake Clearinghouse Participation by You! Have you given any thought to what you will do after the ground stops shanking when the next big earthquake happens? Consider joining your nearest earthquake clearinghouse. Every earthquake will be different, but there will always be a need for professional geologists and their subject matter expertise on local geologic hazards and conditions. The goal of this symposium is to encourage partnerships between members of local chapters of professional societies such as AEG and clearinghouse operators. The intellectual resource represented by licensed professionals such as members of AEG is invaluable, and the more closely we can coordinate response efforts of professional geologists ahead of the next big earthquake, the more efficiently we will be able to support our local communities with response, and improve resiliency. In this symposium you will hear about successful post-earthquake clearinghouse operations in different states, and around the world; how you can participate; how to put your professional experience to use collecting field observations about geologic impacts and turning that information into actionable intelligence in support of situational awareness and decision support for emergency managers and local community response.

Room: Seacliff AB

Moderator: Anne Rosinski

Time 9:20–12:00

Technical Session #44

Getting the Geology Right – the Practical Application of Engineering Geology Models Symposium – Part I Engineering geological models are fundamental to for any engineering problem that involves an interface with the ground. In recent years there have been significant advances to the tools available for providing three dimensional ground models and to communicate the uncertainty and limitations of the ground model. This session explores practical advances in the application of engineering geological models, provides case studies and importantly explores how engineering geological models are fundamental tools for managing geotechnical risk.

Room: Bayview A

Convener: Darren Paul

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–10:00

Mark Eggers

Managing Risk when Building the Engineering Geological Model: Importance of Understanding the Regional Geological Setting

10:20–10:40

Steven Parry

Conceptual Engineering Geological Models (Presented by Fred Baynes)

10:40–11:00

Richard Hosker

A 3D Geological Model for Characterization of Geological Faults at the Proposed Site for the Wylfa Newydd Nuclear Power Plant, Wales (Presented by Matthew Free)

11:00–11:20

Brian Gray

Assessing Geologic Hazard Constraints for Hydroelectric Infrastructure through Detailed Mapping of Volcanic Stratigraphy in Northeastern California

11:20–11:40

Holger Kessler

Applications of Geological Models: Managing Sustainable Groundwater Resources and Reducing Geotechnical Risk (Presented By Keith Turner)

11:40–12:00

Aliki Kokkala

Assessment on the Engineering Geological Conditions of the Eastern Urban Area of Thessaloniki Basin, in Northern Greece, Using a Geotechnical Database (Presented by Marinos Vassilis)

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Technical Session #45

Dam Symposium – Part IV Sponsored By Schnabel Engineering Room: Grand Ballroom B

Conveners: Kevin Mininger & Scott Walker

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–10:00

Pieter Michiel Maurenbrecher

Decrypting the Stereographical 3D Analysis of the 1959 Malpasset Dam Disaster

10:20–10:40

Junxue Ma

Sedimentary Characteristics of Outburst Deposits Induced by Diexi Paleo-Dammed Lake in the Upper Minjiang River, China and Its Historical Maximum Peak Discharge

10:40–11:00

Liang Ning

Predictive Analysis on Surge Caused by a Potential Large-Scale Reservoir Landslide in SW China

11:00–11:40

Pete Nix

Portage Lakes, Ohio – East Reservoir Dam: History, Evaluation and Remediation

11:40–12:00

Zheming Shi

3D DEM Investigation on the Characteristics of Landslide Dam Formed by Dry Granular Flows (Presented by Yuanyuan Zhou)

Technical Session #46

Hydrogeology/Groundwater Symposium Room: Garden Room

Convener: Lindsay Swain

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Kevin Hayes

Hydrostratigraphy and Hydrogeology of the Intermediate Aquifer System, Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, USA

9:40–10:00

Chiara Morstabilini

Innovative Approach against Debris Flow. Mini Skirt Check Dam: Design and Applications (Presented by Marco Deana)

10:20–10:40

Adela Beauty Adu Agyemang

Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations and its Relation to Landcover, Buncombe County, NC (Presented by Arpita Nandi)

10:40–11:00

Brendon Jones

On the Differing Role of Contact Obstacles on Variably Saturated Flow in Vertical and Horizontal Fractures

11:00–11:20

Malcolm Schaeffer

Carolina Piedmont Groundwater System – Existence of the Transition Zone between Regolith and Bedrock

11:20–11:40

David Schug

The “Coastal Plain of San Diego” – A New Groundwater Basin for Sustainable Management of the San Diego Formation

11:40–12:00

Matthys Dippenaar

Vadose Zone Characterization for Hydrogeological and Geotechnical Applications

Technical Session #47

Mining, Mine Reclamation Room: Bayview B

Moderator: Clay Johnson

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Zbigniew Bednarczyk

Geotechnical Investigations of Mine Induced Ground Movements in Polish Opencast Mines

9:40–10:00

Egerton Hingston

The Petrographic and Geotechnical Properties of a Dolerite Intrusion in the Assessment of Its Blasting Performance at the Magdalena Colliery, Dundee, South Africa

10:20–10:40

Alexey Kindler

Chemical Composition of Mine Waters in Post Exploitation Period in the Urals

10:40–11:00

Egerton Hingston

The Use of JBlock in the Analysis of Potential Rock Falls at the Magdalena Colliery, Dundee, South Africa

11:00–11:20

Chandan Kumar

Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping Using AVIRIS-NG Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data

11:20–11:40

Terry West

Prevention of Coal Mine Subsidence below City Streets and Highways, Southwest Indiana – A Continuing Program

11:40–12:00

Jéssica Marques

The Potential Use of Residual Soil from Ribeira Valley (Brazil) in Mitigating Metal Contamination: A Geotechnical Characterization (Presented By Orencio Vilar)

There’s an APP for this – Go Mobile! Last-minute SCHEDULE CHANGES, maps, networking and MORE on your mobile device—completely FREE! Visit https://guidebook.com/g/aeg2018/ OR scan the QR code using your smartphone to download. 80

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Technical Session #48

Earthquakes/Faulting: Ground Motion/Rupture – Part I Room: Grand Ballroom C

Moderator: Fernando Garcia

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–10:00

Kenneth Hudnut

Keynote: The HayWired Scenario—How Can the San Francisco Bay Region Bounce Back Better?

10:20–10:40

Fernando Garcia

High-Performance Discrete Element Modeling of Free-Field Surface Fault Rupture

10:40–11:00

Clark Fenton

Surface Rupture Hazard Zonation: Lessons from Recent New Zealand Earthquakes

11:00–11:40

Eldon Gath

Tectonic Geomorphology and Paleoseismology of the Whittier Fault in Southern California

11:40–12:00

Steven Kolthoff

Neotectonics of the Hollywood Fault, Central Hollywood District, Los Angeles, California, USA

Technical Session #49A

Geotechnical Research Room: Waterfront AB

Moderator: Julia Frazier

Time

Speaker

Title

9:20–9:40

Nicola Mazzon

DEM Simulations of Punch Tests for the Mechanical Characterization of Cortical Meshes (Presented by Marco Deana)

9:40–10:00

Rolando Orense

Correlation between CPT and Screw Driving Sounding (SDS)

Technical Session #49B

Coastal Hazards: Marine & Coastal Processes Symposium Room: Waterfront AB

Moderator: Xiaolei Liu

Time

Speaker

Title

10:20–10:40

Yin Wang

Study on the Relationship Between Strength Characteristics and Microstructure of the Representative Deepwater Soft Clays

10:40–11:00

Fengyan Wang

Discontinuity Information Acquisition of Lithological Slope Based on Photogrammetry and Its Precision Analysis

11:00–11:20

Xiaolei Liu

In Situ Observations of Wave-Induced Fluid Mud Layers on the Yellow River Subaqueous Delta

11:20–11:40

Wen, Mingzheng,

Structure Characteristics and Control Factors of Near-Bed Suspended Sediment in Yellow River Subaqueous Delta, China (Presented By Jia Yonggang)

11:40–12:00

Discussion: Led by Moderator

Friday, September 21 – Afternoon Technical Session #50

Landslide Case Histories and Field Methods 2 Room: Seacliff CD

Moderator: David Korte

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

J. David Rogers

The 1998 Mission Peak Landslide in Fremont, California, USA

2:00–2:40

Keng-Hao Kang

Geomorphological Evolution Model of a Paleo-landslide in Luchang, Taiwan

2:40–3:00

David Korte

Landslide Susceptibility and Soil Loss Estimates Impacting Streams in the Drift Creek/Siletz Watershed, Lincoln County, Oregon, USA

3:00–3:20

Paolo Mazzanti

The 2015 Scillato Landslide (Sicily, Italy): Deformational Behavior Inferred from Satellite & Terrestrial SAR Interferometry

3:20–3:40

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Technical Session #51

Dam Symposium – Part V Room: Grand Ballroom B

Conveners: Kevin Richards & Bill Roman

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Georg Stockinger

Geomechanical Model for a Higher Certainty in Finding Fluid Bearing Regions in Non-Porous Carbonate Reservoirs

2:00–2:20

Alex Rutledge

Stabilization of a Potential Rockslide at Boundary Dam, Washington, USA

2:20–3:00

Daniel Stare

Buckeye Lake Dam – History, Evaluation and Remediation

3:00–3:20

Makoto Katozumi

Concordance Rate of Geology and Rock Mass Class between Estimated and Excavated Maps in Dam Foundation Surfaces

3:20–3:40

Discussion: Led by Conveners

Technical Session #52

Getting the Geology Right – the Practical Application of Engineering Geology Models Symposium – Part II Room: Bayview A

Convener: Jeffrey Keaton

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Darren Paul

A Simple Method of Estimating Ground Model Reliability for Linear Infrastructure Projects

2:00–2:20

Pavel Pospíšil

The Pitfalls of Creating an Engineering Geological Model of the Rock Environment on the Example of Landslide near Dobkoviky in the Czech Republic

2:20–2:40

Jeffrey Keaton

Suggested Enhancements to the Geologic Model Complexity Rating System

2:40–3:00

Alan Keith Turner

Using 3D Models to Support the Total Geological History Approach for Site Characterization

3:00–3:20

Rosalind Munro

Review of the Geologic Model Complexity Rating System Components

3:20–3:40

David Shilston

Advanced Engineering Geological Models – Examples of an Essential Tool for Sustainable Development (Presented by Rob Hunt)

Technical Session #54

Earthquakes/Faulting: Ground Motion/Rupture – Part II Room: Grand Ballroom C

Moderator: Nicholas Novoa

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Nicholas Novoa

Collecting Downhole Shear Wave Velocity Measurements to Calculate Vs30 Values and Ground Accelerations at California Dam Sites

2:00–2:20

Julia Yeakley

Measuring Fault Displacements Caused by Salt Tectonics Using Marine Geophysical Data

2:20–2:40

Yongshuang Zhang

Geohazard Effect of Active Fault in Eastern Margin of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

2:40–3:00

Issa El-Hussain

Seismic Microzoning and Design Response Spectra for an Area East of Wadi Rusayl in Muscat Region, Sultanate of Oman

3:00–3:40

Krishna Prasad Kaphle

General Geology, Tectonics and Frequent Earthquake Hazards in the Nepal Himalaya

Technical Session #55

Technology Room: Seacliff AB

Moderator: Cole Christiansen

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Hana Lee

GigaPan Image-Based 3D Reconstruction for Engineering Geological Investigations (Presented by D. Scott Kieffer)

2:00–2:20

Xinghong Liu

Study of the Technique for Landslide Rapid Recognition by InSAR

2:20–2:40

Kendall Wnuk

InSAR Analysis of Surface Subsidence above a Headrace Tunnel in the Sri Lankan Highlands

2:40–3:00

Dimitrios Bolkas

Discontinuity Trace Detection from Laser Scanner Point-Clouds Using Space-Frequency Transforms

3:00–3:20

Chen Jianqin

Automatic Characterization of Rock Mass Discontinuities Using 3D Point Clouds (Presented by Xiaojun Li)

3:20–3:40

Cole Christiansen

Use of Mixed Reality and 3D Visualizations to Compare Alternative Alignments for US Highway 101

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Technical Session #56

Geotechnical Investigations/Soil Amendments for Foundations & Infrastructure Room: Waterfront AB

Moderator: John Cripps

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

Tim McMorran

Geotechnical Investigations at Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica

2:00–2:20

Mourice Czerewko

The Consequences of Pyrite Degradation During Construction (Presented by John Cripps)

2:20–2:40

So-ngo Clifford Teme

Geotechnical Characteristics of Sites For Construction of Fuel Depots in the Marginal Lands of the Nigerian Niger Delta Sub-Region

2:40–3:00

Nazli Tunar Özcan

Assessment of Compressibility and Settlement of a Peat Deposit at an Industrial Zone (Turkey) Using Laboratory Experiments and Long-Term Field Loading Test (Presented by Resat Ulusay)

3:00–3:20

Gary Luce

Investigation of Soil Moisture and Soil Strength Conditions, 2018, Black Rock Playa, Washoe County, Nevada, USA

3:20–3:40

Abdul Ghani-Rafek

A Low Cost Alternative Approach to Geological Discontinuity Roughness Quantification (Presented by Abd Rasid Jaapar)

Technical Session #57

Karst & Slope Deformation Room: Marina

Moderator: Jan Louis van Rooy

Time

Speaker

Title

1:40–2:00

George Brink

Developing a Dolomite Land Risk Management Strategy for a Surface Coal Mining Operation – A Case Study (Presented by J Louis van Rooy)

2:00–2:20

Qi Liu

Experimental Study on Coupled Mechanical-Dissolving of Carbonate Rocks in Rocky Desertification Area of Karst Plateau, Guizhou, China

2:20–2:40

Constantin Prins

Geoelectrical Karst Reconnaissance on the Swabian Alb High Plain, New Line WendlingenUlm, Southwestern Germany

2:40–3:00

Jan Louis Van Rooy

Integrating Engineering Geological and Hydrogeological Site Investigations in Dolomite Karst Land Management

3:00–3:20

Marc Ostermann

Dating Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the Austrian and Italian Alps

3:20–3:40

Discussion: Led by Moderator

Did you know?

AEG has INTERNATIONAL Memberships too. Join AEG while you are in San Francisco! Applied Geologists residing outside the United States may join as international members and gain online access to the E&EG Journal, AEG Member Directory, AEG News & Insider, and other collective benefits. Your AEG membership could enhance your existing local applied geoscience organization or allow you to form an AEG Chapter to have a locally meeting body. Through AEG you may develop a local or regional AEG Chapter or have specialty groups of multinational, national, regional or local extent. Join while at the IAEG Congress/AEG Annual Meeting and become an AEG member for the remainder of this year and all of 2019 at the discounted annual membership rate of $15 US. [That is less than the cost of an average lunch in San Francisco.] Simply submit this form, including your contact information below, with your $15 US payment at the registration desk and join today. Stop by the registration desk for more information.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Poster Sessions See each poster for their available schedule.

Vote for Your Favorite Poster! We will once again be holding a student poster competition. There will be three cash prizes ($300, $150, $50) for the top three vote recipients for each day of the poster sessions. Voting will be conducted exclusively through the Guidebook app, so bring your mobile device to vote for your favorite. Monday Poster Competition Winners will be awarded at the Tuesday General Session, Tuesday Poster Competition Winners will be awarded at the Thursday General Session, and Thursday Poster Competition Winners will be awarded at the Closing Ceremony on Friday.

Poster Receptions Monday 5:00–7:00pm, Tuesday 4:00–5:45pm and Thursday evening from 5:00–7:00pm. Cash Bar. Each Full, Three-Day and Student Registration receives one drink ticket for each poster reception. Location: Exhibit Hall in the Pacific Concourse

Monday, September 17, 2018 – 8:00am–7:00pm Presenter

Title

Okechukwu Aghamelu

Sustainable Highways in Northeastern Nigeria: Impacts from the Road Materials

Bryan Allen

Use of Multi-Temporal Ground Penetrating Radar to Locate the Slip Surface of a Western Cascade Landslide Complex

Candan Alptekin

Abrasiveness Properties at Different Temperatures of Basalt, Marble and Limestone in Turkey

Lucas Alves

Evaluation of Geotechnical Parameters of Slopes at Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil (Presented by Vitor Santini Müller)

Sofia Anagnostopoulou

The Behavior of the Highly Weathered and Partially Decomposed Flysch in the Reactivation of Landslide Phenomena in Greece

Robert Anderson

Geology of the Cities of the World – Sacramento, California, United States

Robert Anderson

Geology of the Cities of the World – San Francisco, California, United States

Debora Andrade Targa

Integration between Physiographic Compartmentation and Rock Masses Characterization

Pedro Andrade

Applied to Landslide Susceptibility at the Rio-Santos Highway (BR-101) in São Sebastião (SP) – Brazil Slope Stability of Benguela and Lobito Urban Areas, Western Angola, Using RHRS

Nadezhda Anisimova

Assessment of Geological Conditions for the Allocation of Recycling Facilities for Solid Municipal Waste in Central Russia

Luis Bacellar

Identification of Mudflow-Prone Areas in Southeastern Brazil

Yong Baek

The Study on Prevention of Urban Ground Subsidence in South Korea

Lucas Barbosa

Model of Distribution and Permanence of Fipronil Pesticide in Sandy Aquifers Located at a Rice Crop of Southern Brazil

Sarah Bastin

Geologic and Geomorphic Influence on the Occurrence and Extent of Lateral Spreading in Christchurch, New Zealand

Norberto Jorge Bejerman

Environmental Evaluation of the Plaza España Tunnel Project, Córdoba, Argentina

Eduard Bergillos

Landslide Prevention Costs in Road Construction Projects: A Case Study of Diezma Landslide (Granada, Spain) (Presented By Jesús Garrido)

Zhang Bin

Numerical Simulation of Saltwater Intrusion in Underground Oil Storage Cavern in Island Environment

Fan Binqiang

Reliability-Based Robust Design of Rock Wedge Slope Using Sensitivity Index of Variability as Robustness Measure

Eduardo Bontempo Filho

Geological-Geotechnical Characterization and Rockfalls Analysis in the Serra das Russas, Northeastern Brazil

Nacira Bouaziz

Vulnerability to Landslides in the Coastal Town of Tigzirt, Algeria

Teresa Butler

Preliminary Geotechnical Subsurface Exploration, Salton Sea Species Conservation Habitat Project (SCH)

Domenico Calcaterra

Application of a Statistical Approach to Landslide Susceptibility Map Generation in Urban Settings

Xiaoli Chen

Assessment of Landslides Triggered by Earthquakes Based on the Combination of Peak Ground Motion and Critical Acceleration Analysis

Sibonakaliso Chiliza

A Petrographic and Geotechnical Study of the Sandstone of the Fundudzi Formation, Lake Fundudzi, South Africa (Presented By Egerton Hingston)

Kwang Chun

From Lidar Scanning to Geotechnical Stability Analysis of the Kartchner Caverns in Arizona with 3D Visualization Computing Solution

Artem Demenev

Microbial Changes of the Earth Dam Mechanical Properties and the Improvement of Them

Zhifei Deng

A Study on Debris Flow Insurance Premium Based on Flo-2D Model

Bryan Dussell

Engineering Geologist’s Role in Emergency Response Efforts for Oroville Dam

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Monday, September 17, 2018 – 8:00am–7:00pm Presenter

Title

Svetlana Elokhina

The Influence of Technogenic Factors on the Intensification of Karst on the Eastern Slope of the Urals in Russia

Rudiger Escobar-Wolf

Developing a GIS Tool for Infinite Slope Stability Analysis (GIS-TISSA)

Sage Evans

Debris Flow Barrier Protects Caltrans Hwy 152 From Shallow Landslide (Presented By Adam Malsam)

Anne Fehrenbach

Reducing Landslides on Steep Streamside Slopes through Improved Timber Retention Prescriptions

Leah Feigelson

Seepage Investigation along the South Bay Aqueduct at Mile Post 7.61 in Livermore, California

Flora Feitosa Menezes

Anisotropy of Volumetric Strain and Permeability in Hard Sandstones under Triaxial Stress Conditions

Clark Fenton

Fault-Landslide Interactions: Examples from the 2016 M7.8 ‘Kaik ura,’ New Zealand, Earthquake

Maria Ferentinou

Action Research to Enhance Student Engagement in Geotechnical Engineering

Yannia Fourniadis

Engineering Geological, Geotechnical and Geohazard Modeling for Offshore Abu Dhabi, UAE (Presented By Matthew Free)

Jesús Garrido

Natural Hazards and Medieval Defensive Earth Architecture in South-Eastern Spain

Chris Higgins

Mapping of Potential Mineral Hazards That May Affect State and Federal Highway Projects in California

Rochin Hirales

Geo-Hazards Associated with the Urban Geology of the City of La Paz, B.C.S., México (Northwest Portion)

Peter Holland

New Geologic Mapping of the Sierra Nevada Foothills in the San Andreas 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California

Hiro Ikemi

Process-Base Topographical and Geochemical Approaches to Rainfall-Induced Landslides Adjacent to Tectonic Faults

Hisatoshi Ito

Gigantic Eruption History of the Kikai Caldera, Japan, with Reference to the Long Valley Caldera, USA

Bo-An Jang

Characteristics of Fracture Development in Cement Samples by High-Voltage Electrical Discharge

Kenneth Johnson

Geology of San Francisco, California, USA

Phillip Johnson

Evidence for Holocene Rupture on the Valley Side Fault, Eastern Coast Ranges, California

Martha Kopper

Arkansas Landslide Inventory Project Development

George Reid

Construction Contractor v. Groundwater Monitoring Well

George Reid

Conversion of a Brownfield/RCRA Site to Technology Office Complex, Southern San Mateo County, California

Sergio Sepúlveda

Numerical Analyses of a Large Earthquake-Induced Rock Slope Failure in Punta Cola, Chilean Patagonia

Stephen Wilkinson

A Case Study on the Microstructure of Fibrous Peat (West Lake, China)

Tuesday, September 18, 2018 – 8:00am–5:45pm Presenter

Title

Robert Anderson

Geology of the Cities of the World – Sacramento, California, United States

Robert Anderson

Geology of the Cities of the World – San Francisco, California, United States

Eduardo Bontempo Filho

Vulnerability Analysis to Natural Disasters in the Municipality of Olinda, Northeastern Brazil

Giulia Bossi

The Boolean Stochastic Generation Method for Addressing the Effect of Marked Soil Heterogeneity in Natural and Anthropic Slopes

John Cripps

Styles of Instability in Abandoned Limestone Quarries in the Peak District National Park, UK

Rachael Delaney

Comparing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Terrestrial Lidar, and Brunton Compass Methods for Discontinuity Data Collection (Presented By Abdul Shakoor)

Svetlana Elokhina

Chemical Composition of Mine Waters in Post-Exploitation Period in the Urals

Michael Fuller

Rapid Assessment of Unpaved Road and Trail Facilities

Jesús Garrido

Disaster Risk Reduction and Land Use Planning: Opportunities to Improve Practice

Ephrem Getahun Gure

Comparative Analysis of Residual Shear Depiction and Grain Distribution Characteristics of Slided Soil Profile Sections (SSPS)

Suzanne Goldstein

Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Flood Extent and Community Vulnerability: Novato Creek Watershed, Marin County, California

Lei Gui

Deformation Characteristics of Masonry Buildings on Slow Moving Landslides

Sebastião Guimarães

Study of the Phenomenon of Quicksand in the Geotechnical Laboratory

Jianxian He

Response of a Rock Slope under Wide Frequency Shear Loads Using Large-Scale Shaking Table

Don Hoirup

Shear Zone Fault System, Not the Foothill Fault Zone

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Tuesday, September 18, 2018 – 8:00am–5:45pm Presenter

Title

Kumud Raj Kafle

Impacts of Long-Term Flood-Induced Sedimentation on Agricultural Land: Case Study of the 2008 Koshi Flood in Eastern Nepal

Andrey Kazeev

Regularities in the Development of Geological Processes Upon Collapses at the Undermined Territories of the Potassium Salt Deposit in the Perm Region, Russia

Teruyuki Kikuchi

Application of Evaluate to Landslide of Lidar Data Using ICP Analysis

Daehyeon Kim

Development of a New Flat Type TDR System for Evaluating Dry Density and Water Content of Geomaterials

Matheus Klein Flach

Landslide Susceptibility Geotechnical Mapping of Jos Boiteux, Santa Catarina, Brazil

Irina Kozliakova

Revealing Sinkholes of Karst-Suffosion Origin in Moscow

Twin Kristyanto

Dynamic Soil Bearing Capacity of Padjadjaran University Campus Area, Indonesia

Oil Kwon

Automation Method to Identify the Geological Structure of the Deep Seabed Using Spatial Statistical Analysis

Hengxing Lan

Fractal Characteristics of Natural Fracture Network of Longmaxi Gas Shale

Yonghee Lee

Slope Deformation Analysis Using Terrestrial Lidar in Nuclear Power Plants

Cheng Li

Use of Micro-electromechanical Systems Inertial Sensors as a Geotechnical Monitoring Method for Slope Deformation

Xin Liao

Study on the Effects of Chemical Weathering of Black Shale on the Concrete

Jiamei Liu

A New Empirical Estimator of Newmark Displacement from Arias Intensity and Critical Acceleration Based on the Strong Motion Data of Wenchuan Earthquake

Wanli Liu

Experimental Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Mudstones with Two pH Values under the Dry-wet Cycle

Xiaoyi Liu

Research on the Slow-Moving Landslides Characteristics and the Xianshuihe Fault Zone Based on the SBAS-InSAR

Fabio Luino

Hydrological and Geomorphological Processes in Northern Italy: 12 Years of Collecting Data for Managing Landslide and Flood Hazards and Risk Reduction

Fengshan Ma

Study on Mechanism of Deformation and Failure of Overlying Strata induced by Metal Mining

Lina Ma

Study on Coarse Soil of Chenjiaba Landslide by Ring-Shear Test

Vassilis Marinos

3D Modeling of the Underground Old Quarries in Paros Island in the Aegean Sea, Greece and their Stability Assessment by Using Lidar Scanning

Gregory Martin

The Rocky Ledge Fault, Shasta County, CA: Development and Morphology of a Quaternary Normal Fault in Basalt

Xianglian Meng

Study on Engineering Geological Characteristics of Permafrost and Railway Design for Qinghai-Tibet Railway in China

Xue Mengqi

Research on the Form and Mechanism of a “Strange” Tuff Landslide

Fasheng Miao

Centrifugal Model Test on a Retrogressive Landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir Subjected to the Rainfall and Water Level Fluctuation

Charlie Narwold

“No Easy Answers to Last Chance Grade” Managing a Large Coastal Landslide in Northern California

Xu Nengxiong

Discrete Element Modeling of Strata and Surface Movement Induced by Mining under Open-Pit Final Slope

Vanessa Noveletto

Litho-Structural Control on the Geotechnical Properties of Colluvial Deposits, Rio do Sul City, Santa Catarina, Brazil (Presented By Vitor Santini Muller)

Takehiro Ohta

Experimental and Numerical Study on to form the Groundwater Quality in Altered Volcanic Rock Area

Ibrahim Adewuyi Oyediran

Strength and Compaction Characteristics of Some Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

Yii-Wen Pan

Evidences and Modeling of Multi-Scale Mechanisms of Riverbed Erosion in Bedrock Rivers

George Papathanassiou

Liquefaction Susceptibility Map of the Broader Thessaloniki Urban Area (Presented by Vassilis Marinos)

Hyuck-Jin Park

Probabilistic Kinematic Analysis of Rock Slope Stability Using Terrestrial Lidar Data

Giacomo Pepe

Extreme Flood and Landslides Triggered in the Arroscia Valley (Liguria Region, Northwestern Italy) During the November 2016 Rainfall Event

Jasmine Rita Petriglieri

Environmental Risk of Fibrous Minerals in New Caledonia: a Monitoring Strategy

Joaquim Pombo

Geotechnical Characterization of Sands from the Portuguese Continental Shelf to Support the Design of Renewable Energy Converters Installation

Laurie Racca

What is Professional Practice? An Introduction to Geology Licensure and its Impact on Your Career in the Geosciences

Emanuele Raso

Landslide Inventory of the Cinque Terre National Park, Italy

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Tuesday, September 18, 2018 – 8:00am–5:45pm Presenter

Title

Vincenzo Simeone

Environmental and Geological Characteristics Conditioning the Development and the Safety of the Historic Centre of Matera (South Italy) European Capital of Culture 2019

Bowen Zheng

Effect of Normal Loading Condition on the Dynamic Shear Characteristics of Granite Discontinuities

Thursday, September 20, 2018 – 8:00am–7:00pm Presenter

Title

Robert Anderson

Geology of the Cities of the World – Sacramento, California, United States

Robert Anderson

Geology of the Cities of the World – San Francisco, California, United States

Chiara Avataneo

Innovative Sampling and Analytical Procedures for the Evaluation of Asbestos-Related Health Risk in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA)-Rich Areas

Ying Chunye

Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Mud Cake and Majiagou Sliding Mass Soil Under Slurry Soaking

Brian Conway

Arizona Department of Water Resources Land Subsidence Monitoring Program

Thomas Dewez

Naturally Occurring Asbestos Sampling Strategy Based on Digital Outcrop Mapping and Conceptual Geological Modeling (Presented By Florence Cagnard)

Sean Fitzgerald

Quarried Serpentine Aggregate As Plausible End-User Causes of Mesothelioma

Yaofei Jiang

Formation Mechanism and Failure Mode of Cataclastic Rock Mass at the Surface Layer of Slope in High Altitude Mountainous Area

Cathleen Jones

Recent Subsidence in the California Central Valley: Observations with a High-Resolution Airborne Radar

Wooseok Kim

Risk Management for Grading by Risk Route in Ground-Excavation Work

Matheus Klein Flach

Geomechanics Parameters Variation Analysis in Different Weathering Levels in a Natural Slope, Nova Trento, SC, Brazil

Irina Kozliakova

Mapping Geological Risk in Urban Areas

Didier Lahondère

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in an Alpine Ophiolitic Complex (Northern Corsica, France)

Shouding Li

Combined Tension-Shear Experimental Study of Rock Failure

Don Lowry

Fault Rupture Hazard Analysis for Mining Operation Pipelines, Antofagasta and Tarapaca Regions, Northern Chile

Bill (Chin Man) Mok

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Subsidence-Induced Track Curvature near a Single Well

Gisele Marilha Pereira Reginatto

Rio Cunha’s Watershed Landslide Modeling at Rio dos Cedros Municipality, Brazil

Marcelo Rosensaft

The Active and Potentially Active Faults in Israel, a Web Portal Application

Michael Rucker

Land Subsidence in the Tulare Basin, CA 2008-2016, with Compressible Alluvium Evaluation

Michael Rucker

The Pixley Fissure Revisited – Understanding an Old Geohazard to Safeguard New Infrastructure

Tsuruta Ryosuke

Development of a System for Automatic Evaluation of the Geological Conditions of Tunnel Faces Using Artificial Intelligence and Application to a Construction Site

Ligia Sampaio

Study of Gully Erosion in South Minas Gerais (Brazil) using Fractal and Multifractal Analysis

Regiane Sbroglia

Use of Borehole Shear Test to Obtain Shear Strength Data: Comparison to Direct Shear Test

Ryu Seongjin

Effect of Curtailment in Fracture Size Distribution on 2D DFN Block Hydraulic Properties

Alejandra Serey

Geomodels for Coseismic Landslides Induced by Shallow Crustal and Megathrust Earthquakes in the Andes of Central Chile

Milena Silva

Collapse Susceptibility Analysis of Podzolised Quartz Sands in the East of Santa Catarina State - Brazil (Presented By Vitor Santini Muller)

Vincenzo Simeone

Secondary Groundwater Resources Exploited by Traditional Knowledge Systems in a Semiarid Region of Southern Italy

Young-Suk Song

Field Observation of the Unsaturated Characteristics in a Mine Waste Dump during Rainfall

Eric Stiffler

The Evolution of Remediation in DNAPL Impacted Low Permeability Soils from Pre-RCRA to 2018 – A Site History

Meg Sumner-Moore

Unregulated NOA-containing Aggregate on California Roadways (Presented By JoAnn Huerto)

Kristoff Svensson

Impact of scCO2 injection and Chloride Rich Brine on a Slag Cement at Lithostatic Conditions

So-ngo Teme

Impacts of Crude Oil and Biosolids on the Geotechnical Engineering Properties of Soils in the Nigerian Niger Delta Sub-Region

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Thursday, September 20, 2018 – 8:00am–7:00pm Presenter

Title

Akos Török

Non-Destructive Surface Strength Test – Duroskop a Forgotten Tool; Comparison to Schmidt Hammer Rebound and Laboratory Strength Tests of Rocks

Francesco Turci

Potential Toxicity of Fibrous Antigorite from New Caledonia: Variability and Similarities with Chrysotile Asbestos

Michael Turco

Groundwater Use, GPS Geodetic Monitoring, and Recent Subsidence – Houston, TX

Balázs Vásárhelyi

Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Dry, Saturated and Frozen Porous Rocks (Presented By Ákos Török)

Evgeny Voznesenskiy

Threshold Strains in Soils

Phuong Thanh Vu

Flow and Particle Tracking in Fractured Rock in Kinmen Island, Taiwan

Yasuhiko Wakizaka

Estimation of Continuity of a Fault Based on its Composite Planar Fabric

Qing Wang

Dredger Fill Consolidated in Process of Grading Vacuum Preloading

Qiang Wang

Compaction Characteristics and Meso-mechanism of Soil-Rock Mixture with Soft Rock Blocks

Hudson Washburn

Geomorphic and Paleoseismic Study of Pillar Point Bluff along the Seal Cove Fault, Northern California

Yao Wenmin

Reliability-Based Optimal Design of Landslide Defense Structures Considering System Performance

Qiong Wu

Shear Properties of Discontinuities between Different Rock Types in the Badong Formation, China

Zhao Xiaoyan

Classification and Sudden Departure Mechanism of High-Speed Landslides Caused by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

Chu Xu

Development and Application of Similar Material for Reservoir Landslide Model Test

Sadao Yamamoto

A Case Study on Hazard Evaluation of Shallow Landslides Using Soil Strength Probe

Ichin Yen

Surface Rupture of the 2018 Hualien Earthquake (Taiwan) and Its Implications for Seismic Hazard

Murat Yýlmaz

Investigation of the Effects of Petrographic Properties of Basaltic Rocks on Ballast Fouling

Mingdong Zang

Mapping Hazards of Earth Fissures in Taiyuan Watershed, Northwest of Chin

Wen Zhang

Two New Methods for Discrete Fracture Network Modeling

Nenghao Zhao

A Quasi Two-Dimensional FTHM Model in Shear Band for High-Speed Landslides

Chang Zhou

Failure Mechanism of Majiagou Landslide-Stabilizing Piles System under Reservoir Water Fluctuation and Rainfall

IAEG COMMISSION MEETINGS in San Francisco COMMISSION 1: “ Engineering Geological Characterization and Visualization” Tuesday, Boardroom A, 4:40pm–5:40pm

Commission 17: “Aggregates” Monday, Boardroom A, 5:00pm–6:00pm

IAEG C29 Structure and Behavior of Soil and Rock Mass WORKSHOP Monday, Boardroom B, 5:30-6:30pm

COMMISSION 32: “Engineering Geology and Rural Infrastructure” Tuesday, Boardroom B, 4:40pm–5:40pm

COMMISSION 34: “Marine Engineering Geology” Thursday, Boardroom B, 6:00pm–7:00pm

COMMISSION 36: “Engineering Geology for Waste Disposal” Thursday, Boardroom B, 5:00pm–6:00pm

COMMISSION 37: “Landslide Nomenclature” Monday, Boardroom B, 4:00pm–5:30pm 88

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Abstracts Orange Asterisk (❋) recognizes authors with full papers included in the Congress Proceedings. See Pg. 271 for full listing Congress Proceedings published by Springer are uploaded onto the Congress USB handed out at registration. Design and Load Testing Program on Instrumented Large Diameter Open Ended Test Piles Abu-Farsakh, Murad, Louisiana State University, United States, cefars@lsu.edu; Md. Nafiul Haque, mhaque3@lsu.edu (TS #17) This paper presents the results from a pile load testing program for a bridge construction project at New Orleans of Louisiana. The load testing includes three 66-in spun-cast post tensioned open-ended cylinder piles and one 30-in square, prestressed concrete (PSC) pile driven at four different locations along the bridge site. Both Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) and soil borings/laboratory testing were used to characterize the subsurface soil conditions. All the test piles were instrumented with strain gauges to measure the load distribution along the length of the test piles and measure the side and tip resistances, separately. Dynamic load tests were performed on all test piles at different times after pile installations to quantify the amount of setup (i.e., increase in resistance with time). Case Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP) analyses were performed on the dynamic Load test data to calculate the resistance distributions along the test piles. Static load test was performed only on the PSC pile and statnamic load tests were conducted on the open-ended cylinder piles. The load test results showed that statnamic load test overestimate the tip resistance compared to dynamic and static load tests. Moreover, the tip resistance was almost constant during the testing period and setup was mainly attributed to increase in side resistance with time. Design parameters such as the adhesion factor, α, and the effective stress coefficient, β, were also back-calculated. The α values ranged from 0.41 to 0.86, and the β values ranged from 0.13 to 0.29.

Integrating Synthetic Aperture Radar Data and Classifier Tree Algorithm to Analyze Post-Wildfire Debris Flow Occurrence in California Addison, Priscilla, Michigan Technological University, United States, peaddiso@mtu.edu; Thomas Oommen, toommen@mtu.edu (TS #39) Increasing trends in wildfire frequency in western United States is increasing the risk of hazards associated with these fires. Fire-related hazards continue even after fire containment. These hazards include erosion, sediment flows, rockfalls, flash floods, and debris flows. Debris flows, arguably the most hazardous of the spectrum, are known to cause fatalities and catastrophic destruction to infrastructure. As a first step to countering this hazard, researchers have been working to develop statistical models that predict the probability of debris flow occurrences after wildfires. Some algorithms that have been considered include logistic regression, naïve Bayes, mixture discriminant analysis, and C5 decision tree (C5DT). These models help isolate vulnerable areas and equip emergency personnel to make informed decisions on where to apply stabilization measures. In this study, we apply a new model based on the C5DT algorithm. This model considers nonlinear relationships between descriptive information of a burned area such as burn severity, basin morphology, soil properties, and rainfall characteristics and relates them to the probability of debris flow occurrence. Validation of the C5DT model showed it to have an accuracy rate of 82%. The model was therefore applied to five debris flow events in California that occurred from 2015–18, to investigate its applicability to new data. We also used a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) based burned severity input instead of the September 2018

optical based differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) used in model development, to test model’s robustness in accepting alternate data sources. This was of specific interest because it might be a necessity to use SAR data, which can penetrate clouds, in emergency situations where optical data cannot be utilized due to contamination by cloud coverage. The results show good promise in advancing our modeling efforts and overcoming challenges associated with obtaining dNBR data when cloud and smoke corrupt optical data.

Foundation Analyses Using Geotechnical Investigation for Proposed Offices and Warehouse Development along Lagos Ibadan Expressway, Ewu Osi Village Sagamu Local Government Area Ogun State, Nigeria Adebayo, Afolabi Olaniyi, AOA Geo-Net Limited/NAEGE, Nigeria, adebayoafolabi09@gmail.com (TS #17) The new office and warehouse development is proposed for construction along Lagos - Ibadan expressway Ewu Osi village Sagamu Local Government Area, Ogun State, investigation was to determine the foundation analyses, their thicknesses, to determine the bearing pressure and competency of each layer for foundation proposed for the offices and warehouse structure. The different subsurface soil layers delineated by carrying out 8No CPT and 4No Borehole include the topsoil, Lateritic clay, clayey sand and sand. Of dominant occurrence are the lateritic clays and silty sands derived from the tropical weathering of the Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks of extensive occurrence in southwestern Nigeria. The cone penetrometer test indicated one lithogical layer between 0–6.0 m depth, the lateritic clay, which occurs immediately beneath the mantle of loamy topsoil to the end of the tests in the CPT, is appreciably sandy and gravelly and exhibits a firm to stiff becoming very stiff consistency which can support foundation of engineering structures. The first occurs from the ground surface to depths between –0.25m and –2.0m as reveal from the borehole drilled. Within this material the end resistance, qc, values obtained in the course of testing are generally between 4kgf/cm2 and 30kgf/cm2, with an average around 20kgf/cm2, indicating a soft to firm becoming stiff consistency. The clay here possesses relatively low shear strength and a moderate potential for volume compressibility on load application in comparison with the underlying material. As commonly observed in other regional areas where the laterite occurs, this reduction in strength is thought to be generally caused by the exposure of the original material to the surface conditions. This exposure has resulted in some weakening and softening of the clay due to the effects of weathering.

Evaluation of Sub Base/Subgrade Soils Along Ikorodu-Shagamu Road, Shagamu, Southwestern, Nigeria Adebayo, Afolabi Olaniyi, Department of Geosciences, University of Lagos, Nigeria. adebayoafolabi09@gmail.com; Oloruntola M.O, oloruntolamoroof@yahoo.com (TS #25) The Sagamu Ikorodu highway especially around Sagamu has been largely characterized by remarkable waviness, potholes and other forms of failure despite consistent reconstruction. This study intends to investigate the geotechnical properties of subgrade soils in the unstable locations with a view to establishing the geotechnical factors responsible for the incessant failure. Bulk soil samples were collected from 4 No trial pits along the road alignment and one from borrow pit, Test which include Soil

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Classification (particle grains size distribution, Attertberg limit tests, specific gravity), compaction test and Soaked and Unsoaked Califormia Bearing Ratio (CBR), 12 Nos Dynamic cone penetration tests (DCP) were carried out; 2D electrical resistivity survey was used to delineate the subsurface lithology across the study section. The result of 2D survey showed within the subgrade layers resistivity values that range from 4–40 m. The geo-electric layer delineated for the subgrade layer composed of clay/sandy clay soil. This relatively thick clay/sandy clay material will cause road failure having low level of competency. The sieve analysis revealed that subgrade soils have fines of 17%– 22% and percentage sand are 34% -65%, all the sample that was found from the failed section and the borrow pit have moisture content range from 35%–55.1%, specific gravity range from 2.3 – 2.7, liquid limit range from 32.9%–58.2%, plastic limit range from 10.4%–17.6%, plasticity index range from 22.8%–40.5% and fall within fair to poor highway material, amount of fines is much higher than the recommended 15% maximum value, they can be said to have poor geotechnical properties and all locations fall under group A-7-5 and A-7-6 of AASHTO classification. This grading represents fair to poor sub grade materials under the same specification. The compaction characteristics of the soil maximum dry density range from 1670 kgm -3 to 1800kgm -3 and optimum moisture content ranging from 17.7% to 21.1%. The unsoaked and soaked CBR varies from 8.23– 14.67 and 1.98–6.89 respectively, CBR under the modified AASHTO. DCP test gives insitu estimate of the bearing capacity between 12.73KN/m2–167.1KN/m2 of highway subgrade materials and fall within the A-C curves of number of vehicles per day exceeding 3 tons laden weight thickness of pavement layers curves for respective traffic volume. This investigation of soils in the unstable section of the Ikorodu–Sagamu highway has that soil from the road alignments have a low level of laterization, poorly graded and rich in fines, and the soil loses strength significantly when wet , hence poor as subgrade material.

Assessment of Lithological Layers for a Shallow Foundation Using Integration of Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigation at IGBOBI Boys College, Yaba, Lagos, South-Western Nigeria Adebayo, Afolabi Olaniyi, University of Lagos/NAEGE, Nigeria, adebayoafolabi09@gmail.com; Bashorun Ololade, taradalah@yahoo.com (TS #25) The study area is located at Igbobi Boys College, Yaba, is a suburb part of Lagos State located within the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It lies within latitude 6°31%39;44.5”N, longitude 3°22%39;12.4”E and latitude 6°31’47.4”, longitude 3°22’12.9”, investigation was to determine the number of lithological layers, their thicknesses and to determine the competency of each layer for shallow foundation of proposed structure. The different subsurface soil layers delineated by their electrical resistivity include the topsoil, clayey sand and sand. The cone penetrometer test indicated one lithogical layer between 0–4.75 m depth indicating loose becoming medium dense sand, which can support foundation of engineering structures. The first occurs from the ground surface to depths between –0.25m and –2.5m. Here, the sands exhibit a loose becoming medium dense relative density as shown by end resistance, qc, values rising from figures as low as 10kgf/cm2 near the ground surface to values as high as 130kgf/cm2 at the base of the zone. Immediately underlying the fill material, the original in situ occurring subsoil, was encountered to depths around 2.25m. Here sands were proved predominantly. The results obtained from the Vertical Electrical Sounding Resistivity method reveals that the first geo-electric layers represent the topsoil with resistivity and thickness values that vary between52–410 m and 0.9–1.6 m respectively. This first geo-electric layer is composed of clayey sand and sand. This layer constitutes sand and correlates well with the CPT 90

results showing an increase in cone resistance with depth. Beneath the topsoil, is the second geo-electric layer composed of sand with resistivity and thickness values that vary between 95–578 m and 1.7–16.5 m within the depth range of 2.6–17.8 m respectively.

Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations and Its Relation to Landcover, Buncombe County, NC❋ Adu Agyemang, Adela Beauty, East Tennessee State University, United States, ADUAGYEMANGB@mail.etsu.edu; Arpita Nandi, nandi@etsu.edu; Ingrid Luffman, LUFFMAN@mail.etsu.edu; Andrew Joyner, JOYNERT@mail.etsu.edu (Presented by Arpita Nandi) (TS #46) High concentrations of nitrate (NO3) in groundwater can be harmful to human health if ingested, and the primary cause of blue baby syndrome, among other health impacts. In this study, the spatial distribution of NO3 in groundwater for 610 private drinking water wells in Buncombe County, North Carolina was modeled. While NO3 concentration in the sampled wells did not exceed the 10 mg/L limit established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, some wells had NO3 concentrations approaching this limit (as high as 8.5mg/L). Kriging interpolation was implemented within a Geographic Information System to predict NO3 concentrations across the county, and a cokriging model using land cover type. Cross validation statistics of root mean square and root mean square standardized for both models were compared and the results showed that the predicted NO3 layer was improved when land cover type was integrated into the model. The cokriging interpolated surface with land cover as a covariate had the lowest root mean square (0.979) when compared to the kriging interpolated surface (0.986), indicating a better fit for the model with land cover. High NO3 value of 2 mg/L and above were concentrated in hay/pasture land, developed open space, and deciduous forest containing 37%, 34%, and 29%, respectively. The study did not reveal any statistically significant difference in the presence of high NO3 concentration between these landcover types, indicating they all contribute to high NO3 content.

Sustainable Highways in Northeastern Nigeria: Impacts from the Road Materials Aghamelu, Okechukwu Pius, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, NdufuAlike, Ikwo, Nigeria, aghameluokeey@gmail.com; Celestine Obialo Okogbue, celeokogbue@yahoo.com; Suleiman Magaji, magaji.s@yahoo.com (Poster) Highways in northeastern region Nigeria are critical in the transportation of goods and services in that region of the country and beyond. Owing to pavement failures, these highways most often do not adequately serve the purpose for which they were constructed. In this work, the impacts of the road construction materials on/with, which the highway pavements are constructed are evaluated. These materials are mainly residual or lateritic soils formed from weathering and lateritization of different parent rock types such as sandstone, limestone, gneiss, granite, basalt and migmatite. Results of geotechnical analyses indicate that the highways in this region of the country are likely to be stable and sustainable when they are constructed mostly on/with laterite soils formed from sandstone, gneiss and granite parent rock types. Unlike others, basalt and migmatite residual soils and laterites would be generally be poor as road materials owing to their failure to meet most or all the standard specifications and requirements (e.g., Atterberg limits, optimum moisture content, fines content and strength) for such purposes. Quality compliance to the findings of this study or proper designs that would mitigate inflow of moisture into the pavement materials is therefore required when constructing highways in this region to ensure sustainability of the projects.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Weathered Rock Slope Stability Assessment and Risk Mitigation Measures: A Case Study from UKM Campus, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia❋ Alam, Mohammad Feruj, Urban and Engineering Geology Branch, Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), Bangladesh, ferujgsb@yahoo.com; Animesh Talukder; Tajul Anuar Jamaluddin (TS #4) A cut slope is located in front of the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanity (FSSK), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Selangor has failed after a heavy rainfall in November 2012. The main objectives of this study are to assess and characterize the landslide hazards to identify the geological parameters contributing towards the hazards and to recommend suitable risk mitigation measures. The study has been carried out by discontinuity survey, soil and rock testings and kinematic stability analysis. The studied slope is made up predominantly of highly to completely weathered phyllite, graphitic phyllite and quartzite. The phyllite is generally weak rock and very low durability, while graphitic phyllite and quartzite are generally medium strong rocks and low durability. The slope is dissected by at least five sets of discontinuities (mainly joints and foliations), which exerted profound control on the geometry of the slope failure. Kinematic stability analyses indicated that the slope is unstable and have undergone planar, wedge and/or combined modes of failure. To mitigate the risk for retrogressive failure, the slope has been stabilized with active netting (wire mesh with soil nails). The slope is also equipped with sufficient drainage system to control surface runoff and vegetation cover by applying hydroseeding method. This study has shown a typical example of the importance of geological studies in identifying the root causes for a failure of weathered cut slope and recommended methods for stabilization and remediation of a failed weathered cut slope in a wet tropical country such as Malaysia.

Near Real-Time Monitoring Systems and Periodic Surveys Using Multi-Sensors UAV: The Case of Ponzano Landslide❋ Allasia, Paolo, Italian National Research Council - IRPI, Italy, paolo.allasia@irpi.cnr.it; Marco Baldo, marco.baldo@irpi.cnr.it; Daniele Giordan, daniele.giordan@irpi.cnr.it; Danilo Godone, danilo.godone@irpi.cnr.it; Aleksandra Wrzesniak, aleksandra.wrzesniak@irpi.cnr.it; Giorgio Lollino, giorgio.lollino@irpi.cnr.it (TS #42) Following the heavy snowfalls occurred in the central and southern Italy at the end of winter 2017, the reactivation of many landslides in the Apennines area has been observed. This paper will show preliminary results concerning the Ponzano landslide activity (Civitella del Tronto - Italy), located in the central Italy at about 40 km from the 2016 main earthquakes areas. This landslide has reactivated in the last days of February 2017 with displacements over 8 meters in the first few days, probably due to the fast snowmelt (about 1,2 meters snowpack, accumulated in the middle of January). In accordance with the Department of Civil Protection, a different monitoring system has been foreseen in order to describe the behavior of the landslide and to monitor the oldest part of the village. In order to reach these goals, a near-real time monitoring approach was implemented by means of a robotized total station. Additionally, a series of UAV aerial surveys were accomplished with the aim of a multi-temporal site analysis. The first approach allowed us to perform a continuous displacement monitoring (frequency of measurements 0,5h÷2h) and to detect new landslide movements due to spring rainfalls. The second one allowed us to perform a rapid mapping of the area just after the main reactivation, but also an evaluation of its evolution after few months. Thanks to a modular fixed wing multisensor UAV recently developed in our institute, it was possible to perform a survey using optical and multispectral sensors. September 2018

Use of Multi-Temporal Ground Penetrating Radar to Locate the Slip Surface of a Western Cascade Landslide Complex Allen, Bryan, Portland State University, United States, Bryan23@pdx.edu; Adam M. Booth, BoothAD@pdx.edu; Curt Peterson, Curt.D.Peterson@gmail.com (Poster) Landslides pose a significant hazard worldwide. Slope stability assessments have been reliably used to investigate the causes of failure and to forecast susceptibility. However, they rely on an accurate representation of geometry and subsurface conditions (e.g. slip surface depth and soil strength). Methods such as boreholes or shallow trenches have poor spatial resolution and may be inadequate for large, deep-seated landslides. This investigation combines traditional geomorphic mapping with ground penetrating radar (GPR) to identify surficial deformation features, estimate the depth and shape of the basal failure plane, and locate subsurface water bearing zones across a 3.5 km long reactivated landslide complex in the Western Cascades near Mill City, Oregon. Reactivation of the slide began in the summer of 2014 following a large debris flow affecting the upper part of the landslide. Mapping of the entire landslide complex was conducted in the summer of 2017 to produce a detailed surface geomorphic map and cross-section. Features such as shear margin, tension cracks, tilted trees, and ponded water are found proximal to the debris flow and become subdued or absent distally. Multitemporal scans using GPR were performed in the summer of 2017 and spring of 2018 using a 50 MHz antenna on two transects that cross the main transport zone of the landslide. These produced near-continuous, high-resolution profiles with subsurface reflectors that extend to an average depth of 15 meters. Reflector anomalies in the GPR profile suggest that the basal failure plane is at an average depth of 6.5 m with an irregular surface and sub-vertical shear margins. Surface tension cracks were identified extending to depths of 4 m. Strong spatial similarities were observed between surface and subsurface geomorphic features. Combining high resolution GPR scanning with traditional methods provides increased detail of landslide geometry and subsurface conditions for slope stability assessments.

Abrasiveness Properties at Different Temperatures of Basalt, Marble and Limestone in Turkey❋ Alptekin, Candan, Avclar Istanbul Turkey, candanalptekin@gmail.com; Selman Er; Murat Ylmaz; Atiye Turul; Erdi Avc (Poster) Turkey located as bridge between Europe and Asia. There are a lot of historical monuments and they were built by using natural stones. Due to the geographical features of Turkey, natural stones were exposed to different climatic conditions over time. Temperature and humidity changes have affected physical and mechanical properties of natural stones. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of basalt, marble and limestone, which are frequently used in historical buildings in Turkey, in saturated and dry state at different temperatures. For this purpose, basalt, marble and limestone samples were collected from their today’s quarries. The obtained samples were dried and saturated with water, cooled to –15°C and heated to 105°C. Every 5 minutes, temperature values of samples were measured to reach up to room temperature (about 23°C), thus their CERCHAR abrasiveness index were determined. According to the results obtained CERCHAR abrasiveness index increased when the temperature value exceeded 40°C. In water saturated samples CERCHAR abrasiveness index didn’t change when the temperature value exceeded 30°C.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Evaluation of Geotechnical Parameters of Slopes at Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil❋ Alves, Lucas, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, lucas_card.as@hotmail.com; Vitor Santini Müller, vitor@mullergeo.com; Murilo da Silva Espndola, muriloespindola@gmail.com (Presented by Vitor Santini Müller) (Poster) The state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, has climatic, biological, geomorphological and geological characteristics that contribute directly to the occurrence of landslides. From the geological point of view, colluvial materials resulting from land sliding deposited in the lower parts of the slopes are denominated as hillslope deposits, although they do not necessarily originate from the same rock. This study evaluated the geotechnical parameters of the slopes at Blumenau, where intense rainfalls and potentially instable soils are present on steep hill-sides, that gives rise to slopes underlain. These factors resulted in a large presence of slopes filled by colluvial deposits. However, in geotechnical mapping these kinds of materials are treated as “hillslope deposits” units, with similar behaviors even though they have different geological-geotechnical evolutions and have also experienced distinct processes of pedogenesis. The paper covers the classification of themes as colluvial soils and landslides, as well as the use of geotechnical laboratorial tests and geotechnical mapping. The evaluation of the geotechnical behavior of the soils was based on geotechnical characterization tests and drained direct shear tests in which parameters of cohesion and internal friction angle were obtained. Thus, the main goal of this study was to understand the variability of the geotechnical parameters of these colluvial soils that were inserted in the “hillslope deposits” units in Davison Dias methodology, so that they could be classified from their lithotypes. As well as contributing to urban planning in Blumenau to contribute to safety and predictability of possible areas subject to landslides.

The Behavior of the Highly Weathered and Partially Decomposed Flysch in the Reactivation of Landslide Phenomena in Greece❋ Anagnostopoulou, Sofia, University of Patras, Greece, geo09008@upnet.gr; Vasileios Boumpoulis, billbouboulis@gmail.com; Paraskevi Lampropo, uloup.lampropoulou@upatras.gr; Aikaterini Servou, geo09124@upnet.gr; Nikolaos Depountis, ndepountis@upatras.gr; Nikolaos Sabatakakis, sabatak@upatras.gr (Poster) Some of the most serious landslide movements in Greece are often observed in the upper zone of weathered flysch and can be classified as composite landslides. This paper describes the landsliding behavior of highly weathered and tectonically decomposed flysch in a characteristic landslide in Western Greece, focusing on its physical and mechanical parameters, such as moisture content, clay percentage and shear strength. Back analysis was carried out in order to estimate the cohesion and angle of friction at the time of failure. The behavior of the flysch formation was also examined with the use of shear-related tests. All results were cross-examined, and it was concluded that weathered flysch in Western Greece is a landslide-prone material with small amounts of clay minerals, and its sliding behavior is mainly controlled by the rising of the water table and the tectonic activity.

2018 Electrical Density Gauge Model E for Compacted Base Foundation Construction Quality Control Anderson, Dennis, Electrical Density Gauge, LLC, United States, arai01@sbcglobal.net; Stephan Fuelling, sfuelling@outlook.com (TS #5) The Electrical Density Gauge LLC was formed to develop the new density gauge technology. The Electrical Density Gauge Model D is currently used in over 40 countries and has the ASTM D 7698 Standard and a provisional AASHTO Standard. Electrical Density Gauge Model E 92

(EDG – E) has significant improvements over the EDG – D. Several obstacles had to be overcome in developing an independent/nonnuclear soil density gauge instrument. The EDG – E manages the complexity of electrical parameters that are affected by the aggregate’s mineralogy, chemistry, its physical properties, and the electrolyte content of the water that is used as the aggregate wetting agent. Research and development took over 26 years during which time we had only five technology breakthroughs, with the latest breakthrough occurring in the fall of 2017. To develop EDG – E the research team had to integrate and utilize electrical geophysics to achieve geotechnical engineering results. The research team developed new tools and hardware, new electronics, new software and firmware, new algorithms a new methodology. The use of the EDG – E includes the following steps: 1) collection of an aggregate sample from the project site, 2) performance of a proctor test in the lab to measure the physical and electrical properties of the aggregate, and 3) performance of a field test, which takes around two minutes to measure the in situ electrical signals. The EDG – E then calculates, records and reports the aggregate in situ density and moisture content, and its relative compaction along with the GPS location, the date and time. The EDG – E technology is an easy to use, fast, efficient, accurate, lightweight, and non-nuclear method for the determination of in situ aggregate density and moisture content.

Geology of the Cities of the World – Sacramento and San Francisco, California, United States Anderson, Robert, Alfred E. Alquist Seismic Safety Commission, United States, robert.anderson@ssc.ca.gov; Mike Anderson, Tom Barry, Meredith Beswick, Chris Bonds, Mike Conway, Christopher Dennis, William A. Fraser, Fred Gius, Jeffrey Hess, Richard Hilton, Jonathan Manke, Garry Maurath, Eldridge Moores, Matt O’Neal, Kent Parrish, Nicholas Pinter, Roy J. Shlemon, Stephen Testa, Jeff Unruh, John Wakabayashi, and Jeremy Zorne (Poster) Sacramento is the state capitol of California and is located in the southern portion of the Sacramento Valley at the confluence of the Sacramento and American rivers. Local and regional geology has played a large role in the history and development of the city and adjacent areas. Its location and proximity to the Mother Lode made it a bridgehead for the California Gold Rush in the mid-1800s and subsequent post-civil war expansion for the western United States. The paper is the 26th contribution to the Geology of the Cities of the World series. The purpose of this paper is to convey to practitioners, government officials, graduate students, and the public background information useful for discovering and understanding geology and geologic issues in the Sacramento region. Presented is a limited overview of the history, geology, paleontology, hydrogeology, dams, and natural resources, as well as geologic hazards, highlighting flooding and flood protection in the Sacramento region. Also included is an overview of the impacts of climate change, and environmental issues including impacts from past mining activities and military base operations. A discussion of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is not included since a limited discussion of the delta would dominate the paper.

Slope Stability of Benguela and Lobito Urban Areas, Western Angola, Using RHRS❋ Andrade, Pedro Santarém, Centro de Geociências, Dep. Earth Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal, pandrade@dct.uc.pt; Cipriano Lialunga, clialunga@gmail.com; Rufino Camela, crufino03@gmail.com; David Muquepe, davidmuquepe@gmail.com (Poster) A study of slope stability in the Benguela and Lobito areas in Western Angola was carried out. Seven slopes are studied, three of which are located at the urban area of Lobito, three are situated at Catumbela,

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS and one is located in the Caota’s area. The majority of the slopes are essentially composed by intercalations of limestone and marls belonging to the Quissonde Formation of the Cretaceous period. The methodology adopted in this work was useful to identify and characterize the different stability problems of the slopes. The Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) established by Pierson et al. [1] was used to define the potential hazard for the roadways users. RHRS permits an analysis of the rockfall on roadways with relative low costs and can be applied in undeveloped countries, where the measurements devices are limited or scarce. Different types of slopes failures have occurred such as; rockfalls, flows and landslides. The main causes of the slope movements are rainfall, slope geometric modification, rapid urbanization and roadway construction deprived of the necessary geological and geotechnical characterization. The areas, of the studied slopes belong to dry tropical climate of arid and semi-arid characteristics; nevertheless torrential rainfall episodes can occur and initiate hazardous landslides. The majority of results of RHRS for the different slopes lie between 300 and 500. The results analysis allowed the adoption of mitigation and prevention measures.

Integration between Physiographic Compartmentation and Rock Masses Characterization Applied to Landslide Susceptibility at the Rio-Santos Highway (BR-101) in São Sebastião (SP) – Brazil❋ Svalova, Valentina, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS, POCCUR, inter@geoenv.ru (TS #21) Andrade Targa, Debora, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Brazil, debora.targa@gmail.com; Fbio Augusto Gomes Vieira Reis, fabioreis@rc.unesp.br (Poster) The purpose of this paper is to assess the areas that are most susceptible to land-slide occurrence along the Rio-Santos Highway in São Sebastião – SP (Brazil) based on the integration of the physiographic compartmentation and the geome-chanical characterization of the study area. To produce physiographic compart-mentation, the study area was subjected to photointerpretation to identify areas with homogenous textures and similar geomorphologic features. Moreover, DEM, slope maps and landslide scar mapping were used to complement the geomorphologic characterization of the region. A geological and geotechnical sur-vey was used to obtain the parameters to classify rock masses according to the RMR classification and Q-System. Four units were delimited and described based on their geological, geotechnical and geomorphologic aspects. The units are considered to be the most susceptible to the occurrence of shallow landslides are III and IV.

Assessment of Geological Conditions for the Allocation of Recycling Facilities for Solid Municipal Waste in Central Russia Anisimova, Nadezhda G., Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS, Russia, smallruna@gmail.com; Irina V. Kozliakova, kozlyakova@rambler.ru; Irina V. Kozhevnikova (Poster) The Central federal region of Russia is the most densely populated and industrially developed. Waste burial at the disposal sites is the principal method of solid municipal waste (SMW) treatment in this region. Waste processing appears to be a very acute problem there. It may be solved via construction of a limited number of large industrial complexes that include a combustion plant, a waste recycling facility and a waste disposal site. Sites for allocation of these complexes should be chosen on the basis of sanitary norms imposing constrains and prohibitions on the territory use. In terms of geology, waste processing facilities should be allocated in the areas with low-permeable clay soils occurring on the top of geological cross-section. These strata prevent pollutant penetraSeptember 2018

tion from the surface to the underlying aquifers. We have built the schematic map of engineering geological zoning for the Central Federal region of Russia to a scale 1:2 500 000 by the conditions of allocation of waste processing complexes. The map distinguishes favorable, conventionally favorable, conventionally unfavorable, unfavorable, and very unfavorable regions. The assessment of territories was made on the basis of geological structure, hydrogeological conditions, thickness and bedding of low-permeable deposits in the upper part of the massif. The compiled schematic map gives us the general idea about the favorability of the planned disposal sites at the initial stage of designing industrial complexes for recycling and storage of solid municipal waste. This schematic map permits planners to outline the possible key sites for the further engineering survey. The performed zoning proves that in the bulk of territory the construction and operation of these facilities is impossible without taking additional preventive measures for geoenvironment protection from contamination. This research was financially supported by the Presidium RAS Program no. 39.

Degradability Characteristics of Evaporite Rocks from Al Ain City, United Arab Emirates Arman, Hasan, United Arab Emirates University, harman@uaeu.ac.ae; osman.abdelghany@uaeu.ac.ae; Ala Aldahan, aaldahan@uaeu.ac.ae; Mahmoud Abu-Saima, m.abusaima@uaeu.ac.ae; Baha Mahmoud, bahaa.mahmoud@uaeu.ac.ae; James Fowler, afowler@uaeu.ac.ae; Saaed AlRashdi, saeed.alrashedi@milmail.ae; Saber Hussein, s_hussein@uaeu.ac.ae (TS #3) Durability of a rock is an indication of its ability to resist degradation and the rate of occurrence of such changes. This rock physical property has a great importance for engineering applications to control the stability of surficial and underground excavations as well as the evaluation and stability of natural and artificial slopes. Degradability behavior of rocks as result of wetting-drying processes can be assessed with the slake durability test. Evaporites occur in outcrops and in the subsurface as interbedded layers with carbonate and clastic rocks in the eastern and southeastern part of Al Ain City, which is one of the fastest developing cities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Data on the durability of the evaporite rocks are presently lacking in the area and this study here present data from slake durability tests for a variety of evaporite. Representative evaporite rock blocks were collected from outcrops and excavations for the study. 26 slake durability samples were prepared and tested according to ASTM standards. In addition, the mineral composition and textural features of the evaporite rocks were examined by means of thin section, XRD and SEM. The slake test data indicate medium to very low values after multiplecycling, Id1 to Id4. The weight loss values from the first to the fourth cycles (Id1 – Id4) of all samples are around 45–65 wt%. This feature could be related to chemical and mineralogical properties of the evaporite where hydration-dehydration effects may occur within short time. The results provide better understanding of the evaporites durability problems and will help mitigate expenses associated with engineering contraction that deal with stability of evaporites.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Innovative Sampling and Analytical Procedures for the Evaluation of Asbestos-Related Health Risk in Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA)-Rich Areas Avataneo, Chiara, Geological Risk Analysis, Gi-RES S.r.L, Turin, chiaretta.avataneo@gmail.com; Maura Tomatis, m.tomatis@unito.it; Ingrid Corazzari, ingrid.corazzari@unito.it; Silvia Fraterrigo-Garofalo, silvia.fraterrigogar@edu.unito.it; Maria Carmen Valsania, mariacarmen.valsania@unito.it; Fabrizio Piana, f.piana@csg.to.cnr.it; Roberto Compagnoni, roberto.compagnoni@unito.it; Francesco Turci, francesco.turci@unito.it. (Poster) The management of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) in excavation areas represents a common problem in Northern Italy, especially in the Alpine zone and the Alps-Apennines junction. The construction of large infrastructures requires an enhanced geological risk evaluation to assure workplace safety from asbestos. Furthermore, the disposal of asbestospolluted rock and soil introduces significant handling costs that must be carefully estimated in the preliminary phases of work engineering. A proper risk assessment of asbestos requires, at first, a detailed geological model representative of the possible occurrence of NOA. The model requires in turn a representative sampling strategy combined with a correct analytical approach. This enables to estimate the content of naturally occurring asbestos before excavation activities take place. This work describes the crucial elements required to achieve a good asbestos risk analysis, starting from the setting up of a representative sampling strategy. Since the quantification of NOA still requires some criteria to be unambiguously defined, including the definition of “fiber,” a special attention was devoted to systematically categorize asbestos fiber appearance under electron microscopy, including ambiguous objects, such as non-divided bundles and nanofibers with sub-micrometric diameter. The necessity to improve the quantitative determination of NOA with innovative approaches, such as automatic microscopic analysis that yield results with increased accuracy and reproducibility, was strongly envisaged and a new method proposed (Cossio et al., accepted). This work represents a first attempt to draw guidelines for the quantitative analysis of asbestos-bearing natural materials. These guidelines will allow a more effective evaluation of geological risk linked to NOA to enforce environment, health and safety (EHS) procedures.

Identification of Mudflow-Prone Areas in Southeastern Brazil❋ Bacellar, Luis, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Brazil, luisapbacellar@gmail.com (Poster) Mudflow accidents have occured in Southeastern Brazil—some of them involving huge volumes of organic clay, causing economic losses and casualties. Usually, these mudflows occur in amphitheater-like headwaters of hilly areas of basement rocks. These amphitheaters are filled with layers of soft organic clay, characterized by low values of Nspt and UU shear strength, interfingered with or partially or totally covered by colluvium, with higher Nspt. The organic clay layer can reach 6 m in thickness. It overlies thin pebbly sand layers or silt-rich saprolites. This stratigraphy is a natural consequence of climate oscillations that have prevailed since the Upper Pleistocene/Holocene, causing advances or retreats of the fluvial system and, consequently, of the headwater zones. It is not easy to identify the triggering mechanism of these movements, but a retrogressive rupture model is possible, since these clays present some strength sensitivity. Groundwater uplift pressure on the less permeable organic clay is probably an important triggering mechanism for mudflows and it hinders the clay consolidation throughout the geological time. A detailed geomorphological mapping of a hydrographic basin near Belo Horizonte (State of Minas Gerais) helped identify several amphitheater-like headwaters with similar characteristics to those identified at accident sites. The 94

description of outcrops, auger, cable percussion boring samples and geophysical surveys validated the above-mentioned stratigraphy, proving that this configuration is common in basement areas of southeastern Brazil. With the growth of Brazilian cities towards regions with these characteristics, greater care should be taken to prevent the repetition of mudflow accidents.

The Study on Prevention of Urban Ground Subsidence in South Korea Baek, Yong, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, baek44@kict.re.kr; Wooseok Kim, kws@kict.re.kr (Poster) A preventive and preemptive disaster management and rapid restoration system for underground structure in urban area has been under the development in South Korea and with 15% reduction target to be achieved through technical development for preemptive response to construction disaster, specific technology development for "Maintenance of the facilities in preparation for disaster and construction safety" is essential. Though ground subsidence and safety have been emerged as the nationwide hot issues, the technologies required for analyzing the ground behavior resulting from internal factors (groundwater level, damage to underground utilities) and external factors (vehicle load, earthquake, ground excavation) as well as ground subsidence forecast and evaluation have yet to be established. Among the causes of ground subsidence are damage or deterioration of underground utilities such as water pipe, groundwater leakage due to excavation and poor construction and the accident caused by excavation at construction site totaled 108 corresponding to 33% in terms of number and 14.5% in terms of monetary loss. Thus the studies to prevent the land subsidence occurred during excavation in urban area is hereby introduced. Major technical chapters are classified into the "Ground subsidence prediction / evaluation and policy/system to predict, evaluate and prevent the potential ground subsidence risk, second, %39;Complex detect system technology for developing the technologies to investigate the cavity, underground utilities and ground relaxation, third, "Cutoff reinforcement technologies for developing excavation face cutoff material and method, fourth, "Rapid restoration technologies for developing ground subsidence remedial material and method and fifth, "Displacement control excavation technologies for developing displacement control wall and non-open cut crossing method. This research was supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean government (Project Number: 18SCIP-B108153-04).

Introduction to the IAEG NOA Symposium Bailey, Mark, Asbestos TEM Labs, United States, mark@asbestostemlabs.com (TS #16) Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) is a phenomenon that occurs in many different geologic rock types and environments, almost always as the result of metamorphism of pre-existing rocks. NOA-containing rocks are found around the world, though most often concentrated in areas that have experienced some degree of mountain building where tectonic plate collisions have occurred. Unlike building materials where asbestos is found in specific man-made materials of a limited range, the range of NOA-bearing rocks is still being discovered. An example of the rapid change in our understanding of NOA, just four years ago something happened which I, and many other geologists knowledgeable in NOA occurrences, thought would never happen – NOA was found in granitic rocks in Nevada and nearby Arizona, in two separate plutons within miles of each other with each containing asbestiform amphibole minerals of very different chemistries and genesis. Today

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS we will hear talks discussing NOA occurrences around the world, some with similar, others with very different, geologic rock types and metamorphic histories. A general review of the topics for discussion will be presented, including regulations concerned with protecting workers and the public from exposure to NOA in the various countries represented at the meeting.

Asbestiform Minerals of the Franciscan Assemblage in California with a Focus on the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project Bailey, Mark, Asbestos TEM Labs, United States, mark@asbestostemlabs.com (TS #24) The San Francisco Bay Area is underlain by bedrock of the Franciscan Assemblage, which outcrops in numerous places. A significant number of these outcrops consist of rock types which contain both regulated and un-regulated asbestiform minerals including ultramafic serpentinites, various greenstones, amphibolites, blueschist, and other schists (talc-tremolite, actinolite, etc.). These rocks are a legacy of tectonic activity which occurred on the west coast margin of the North American plate ~65–150 MY ago during subduction of the East Pacific plate. The Calaveras Dam Replacement Project (CDRP), located in Fremont, CA, is an example of an area within the Franciscan Assemblage which is substantially underlain by metamorphosed oceanic sedimentary, mafic and ultramafic rocks in a tectonic subduction zone mélange with highly disrupted relationships between adjoining rock bodies with different pressure/temperature metamorphic histories. In order to protect the health of workers and residents in the surrounding area, an extensive effort was taken to identify, categorize and monitor the types, locations and concentrations of asbestos at the site. Using a combination of geologic field observations and TEM/EDX/SAED analysis of airborne particulate and rock/soil samples, the CDRP was discovered to contain chrysotile-bearing serpentine as well as a range of amphibole-containing rocks including blueschist, amphibolite schist and eclogite, with at least 19 different regulated and non-regulated fibrous amphibole minerals identified. The extensive solid solution behavior of the amphiboles make definitive identification difficult, though a scheme was created which allowed asbestos mineral fingerprinting of various areas of the project site.

One Way to Build an Earth Fill Dam – A Case Study Ball, Scott, Mott MacDonald, United States, scott.ball@mottmac.com; Susan Hou, SHou@sfwater.org; Glen Gorski, GGorski@sfwater.org; Brandon Brockett, BBrockett@sfwater.org (TS #10) Calaveras Dam and Reservoir are significant components of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System. Constructed in 1925, the original Calaveras Dam retains 96,850 acre-feet of runoff. The SFPUC’s concerns regarding the seismic stability of the original dam and mandates from the California Division of Safety of Dams in 2001, resulted in lowering the reservoir water level to approximately 40 percent of its maximum capacity. The original dam is being replaced with a new 1,170-ft-long, by 1,200-ft/80-ft base/crest wide, by 220-ft-high, clay core, earth embankment dam located downstream of the original dam. The new dam’s design could potentially accommodate enlargement in the future for up to 386,000 acre-feet with an additional raise of approximately 140 ft The new dam includes a foundation grout current, new intake tower, spillway and outlet works. This presentation briefly presents the local geology, summarizes the design criteria that provided the basis for the selection of an earth fill dam, and describes how the grout curtain, clay core, downstream and upstream filters/drains and embankments are being constructed. Due to the diverse geologic setting of the site including its close proximity to an active fault, an earth fill dam September 2018

was selected and designed for long-term stability and maximum flexibility in the event of a large earthquake. A deep bedrock grout curtain was engineered to minimize and control groundwater migration beneath the dam. The primary features of the dam are a substantially wide clay core and broad, zoned upstream and downstream embankments. The upstream embankment consists of four zoned fill materials including a double filter against the clay core, a coarse rock foundation fill and a finer upper fill. The downstream embankment consist of five zoned fill materials including a double zoned chimney and embankment foundation drains, a zoned foundation blanket drain consisting of five materials and a finer upper fill. A substantial portion of these materials is taken from alluvial deposits, excavated bedrock and a rock quarry on the project site. Specific types of filter/drain materials were not readily available on site and were imported. Some of the unique design elements of this dam are the thickness of the clay core, filters and drains and the extent of the downstream drainage blanket.

Geological Model for NOA Content Prediction in the Rock Excavation of a Long Tunnel Barale, Luca, CNR-IGG (Italy), luca.barale@igg.cnr.it; Fabrizio Piana, f.piana@csg.to.cnr.it; Roberto Compagnoni, roberto.compagnoni@unito.it; Sergio Tallone, s.tallone@csg.to.cnr.it; Chiara Avataneo, chiaretta.avataneo@gmail.com; Serena Botta, sereseryb@gmail.com; Igor Marcelli, marcelli.igor@gmail.com; Roberto Cossio, roberto.cossio@unito.it; Pietro Mosca, piero.mosca@igg.cnr.it; Francesco Turci, francesco.turci@unito.it (TS #40) For a reliable evaluation of the geo-environmental risk due to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) in rock excavation of large infrastructures, a proper procedure is needed. First it is necessary to provide a detailed geological model, tailored to the NOA-related issues that should drive the rock sampling procedures in order to get a representative sampling. The sampling procedures should take into account the lithological variability as the relative spatial distribution. The geological model for NOA should be thus constrained by the main “NOA-related petrofacies” occurring in a given geotectonic context—which takes into consideration both the mineralogical and structural features—and the identification of “homogeneous zones” into which the NOA petrofacies are subdivided. In this paper some geo-environmental problems faced during the excavation, in meta-ophiolites, of a long motorway tunnel in are described. The geological model of the complex setting of the tunnel area (Northern Italy, Alps-Apennines junction) is described focusing on how the NOA-related problems have been addressed to allow reliable and detailed estimations of NOA contents for each homogeneous zone and the relevant tunnel layout segment.

Model of Distribution and Permanence of Fipronil Pesticide in Sandy Aquifers Located at a Rice Crop of Southern Brazil Barbosa, Lucas, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Brazil, lnorenberg@edu.unisinos.br; Osmar Wohl, osmar@unisinos.br; Gabriela Kern, gabrielakern@unisinos.br (Poster) Fipronil is an active principle of insecticides commonly used in rice crops to eliminate pests such as fleas and ticks. Although it is a very restrictive substance in countries of Europe and North America, because of the diverse human health problems, in Brazil still have large use because the absence of regulation and unknown of this problems that can be caused. Given this importance, the presence of Fipronil was detected in the groundwater of a rice crop in the region of Santo Antônio da Patrulha municipality, southern Brazil, to create a model of distribution and permanence of Fipronil in sandy aquifers, which are present in these areas and represent a high vulnerability to contaminations, because the sandy bodies have a high permeability.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS The study was based on data obtained from temporary monitoring wells located in the locality of Tapumes. The Fipronil content in the wells ranges from 160 to 166 µg.L^-¹ decreases in the N-NE direction and too decreases with the increase of depth of water level in the wells. In this area, sandy soils are predominant, and the quantities of fine sediments found in this soil do not offer a physical-chemical barrier to contaminants. The hydraulic gradient is so low than causes the underground flow velocities to be almost zero, increasing the residence time of this pesticide in the groundwater. From this, a trend curve of the distribution was determined as a function of the distance, depth and time of permanence of Fipronil, generating multivariate regression analyzes whose equations reflect the contaminant conditions in this aquifer, and can be applied in other rice crop with the same characteristics.

The Oroville Spillways – Setting the Stage for the Incident Barry, G. Robert, California Department of Water Resources, United States, rob.barry@water.ca.gov; Holly Nichols, holly.Nichols@water.ca.gov; Nicholas Hightower, nicholas.Hightower@water.ca.gov (TS #28) The Oroville Dam is located in northern California just outside the town of Oroville. The dam and appurtenant structures were constructed in the mid-1960s. There were two spillways: a gated, concrete-lined chute and a concrete monolith weir with an unlined spill area. On February 7, 2017, the concrete spillway was significantly damaged. Events occurred that led to the use of the unlined Emergency Spillway. The significant details about the dam and spillways will be discussed to set the stage for later geology-related presentations.

Geologic and Geomorphic Influence on the Occurrence and Extent of Lateral Spreading in Christchurch, New Zealand Bastin, Sarah, QuakeCoRE, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, sarah.bastin@canterbury.ac.nz; Misko Cubrinovski; Sjoerd Van Ballegooy; James Russell (Poster) Liquefaction-induced lateral spreading poses a significant hazard to the built environment, as observed in Christchurch, New Zealand following the 2010–11 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). It is critical that lateral spread hazards and associated displacements can be be adequately assessed for design purposes. However, measured displacements have been shown to vary significantly from those predicted from the published empirical and semi-empirical models in parts of Christchurch following the CES. The extent and severity of lateral spreading spatially varied along the Avon River in eastern Christchurch and appeared to correspond with local geomorphic and topographic features. The effects of these features has not previously been studied in detail, nor are they explicitly accounted for in the available predictive methodologies. Extensive lidar and Satellite derived horizontal displacement datasets available for the CES, along with lidar derived ground surface subsidence, documented land damage, and ground surveyed lateral spread displacements, enable the maximum extent of lateral spreading to be examined, irrespective of the inherent limitations of each dataset. In this study, the maximum inland extent of lateral spread displacements greater than 0.5 m is derived for a study area in eastern Christchurch from the available CES datasets. The influence of geomorphology and river morphology on the occurrence of lateral spreading is then quantitatively examined, and supplemented with detailed geotechnical characterization of the subsurface soil profiles. The occurrence of lateral spreading is shown to be influenced by variations in subsurface soil types, and the thicknesses of the potentially liquefiable sediments, which closely corresponds with basic depositional processes of meandering rivers. Severe lateral spreading is observed in point-bar deposits, while limited to no lateral spreading is 96

observed in remnant higher elevation ground. The results highlight the potential benefits of incorporating geomorphic and topographic variability into standard geotechnical approaches for assessing lateral spread hazards.

Effect of Water Saturation on the Shear Behavior of Sandstone Bedding Planes Basu, Arindam, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India, abasu@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in; Hemant K. Singh, hemant@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in; Bikash K. Ram, bikashram@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in (TS #42) The stability of a rock mass is dominantly controlled by the shear behavior of discontinuities (e.g. joints, faults, bedding planes, laminations, foliations etc.). Although the study of rock discontinuity shear behaviors has remained an important research theme over the last decades, only a limited number of studies have demonstrated that the shear behavior of a natural rock discontinuity is influenced by water saturation. With due need, this study aimed to explore the influence of water saturation on the shear behavior of sandstone bedding planes at the laboratory by investigating the Mungra Sandstone from India. Direct shear tests were carried out under dry and wet conditions on a total of 10 natural encapsulated samples (containing planar unmatching bedding planes) at three consecutively increasing normal stresses within a range of 0.22–0.24, 0.45–0.47 and 0.68–0.70 MPa. It should be noted that out of ten natural samples, five were tested under dry condition whereas the remaining samples were tested under water-saturated condition. It was apparent from the test results that water-saturation deteriorates both peak shear strength and peak friction angle of the sandstone bedding planes. It was also noted that the influence of water saturation on peak shear strength and peak friction angle is more prominent at relatively higher normal stress. Plausible reasons behind the obtained results were explained.

Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Mapping in Jackson County, North Carolina – A Public/Private Partnership Bauer, Jennifer B., Appalachian Landslide Consultants, PLLC, jennifer@appalachianlandslide.com; Stephen J. Fuemmeler, Stephen@appalachianlandslide.com (#21) The Jackson County Landslide Mapping project resulted in countywide landslide inventory and susceptibility maps. The geodatabase inventory includes locations of 461 known landslides and 22,772 acres of landslide deposits to help users become more aware of where landslides have occurred and what impacts they have had. The inventory includes 60 locations of subsidence along road corridors indicating areas that can be repaired before they completely fail. Database fields indicate the relative potential for future movement, water quality impact upon failure, and public safety impact upon failure. These fields make it easy to sort the database for locations that have the highest likelihood of failing and impacting public safety and water quality, providing prioritization for repair or for evacuation during sustained heavy rain events. The susceptibility maps indicate areas that are more prone to being affected by landslides during heavy rain events. Eighty-three percent (83%) of debris flow-type landslides on unmodified slopes are captured within the “Where Debris Flows Might Start” empirical model area. Areas that could be impacted downslope of debris flow initiation zones are modeled in the “Where Debris Flows Might Go” layer. Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the landslides that start on constructed slopes fall within the Slope Construction Caution Area. These maps show areas that might be impacted by natural debris flows, areas that need special care when developing to prevent destabilization of a slope that may be near instability in its natural state, and areas where constructed slopes

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS may be more likely to fail if not built properly. Production of the maps is not enough to create awareness, so this project included 4 stakeholder meetings, >65 property owner meetings, and multiple media articles. These outreach and education components helped to increase citizens’ awareness about landslides in Jackson County and how to protect themselves and their investments.

Rock Slope Stability Evaluation along the Oroville Dam Spillway, California Bauer, Jennifer B., Appalachian Landslide Consultants, PLLC, United States, Jennifer@appalachianlandslide.com; Stephen J. Fuemmeler, Stephen@appalachianlandslide.com; Michael Gray, mgray@lettisci.com (TS #28) The lined spillway at the Oroville Dam in California was originally excavated into bedrock, leaving steep rock slopes parallel to the spillway walls. The spillway incident in spring 2017 and subsequent reconstruction exposed new faces and areas of rock slopes parallel to the spillway. As part of the reconstruction, the California Department of Water Resources requested an evaluation of these rock slopes and recommendations for rockfall protection during and after reconstruction efforts. For this evaluation, Appalachian Landslide Consultants, PLLC, developed an ArcGIS geodatabase inventory of rock slope characteristics, slope movements and associated sliding plane structures, and rankings of the stability of the rock slopes using two different ranking systems. The first is a modification of the quantitative Federal Highway Administration’s Rockfall Hazard Rating System. The second is a subjective relative ranking system based on observations and judgement, which was used to validate the results from the modified RHRS. Subjective relative rankings were assigned for overall potential for future movement, potential for future movement via wedge slides, planar slides, and rock topples, and potential impact to construction activities. The highest modified RHRS-scored slopes were cut during original spillway construction, are the tallest on site, and experienced slope movement during initial construction and in the years since. The largest wedge slides were controlled by weathered shear zones parallel to joints. The largest planar slide was controlled by weathered dipslope joint faces combined with weathered back-release surfaces dipping steeply into the slope. In general, the modified RHRS scores correlate well to the subjective relative rankings for potential impact to the spillway walls. Rankings combined with slope movement observations led to recommendations for protection and mitigation, including scaling, slope drape, pinned mesh, and rock bolting.

Emergency Warning of Landslide Natural Hazard Using Nearly Real-Time Monitoring Data❋ Bednarczyk, Zbigniew, Poltegor-Institute” Institute of Opencast Mining, Poland, zbyszbed@gmail.com (TS #39) This paper discusses the monitoring systems used by the author to monitor ground deformations in relation to groundwater and rainfall conditions at natural and opencast mine slopes. Selected case monitoring locations were located in the flysch Carpathian Mountains and at the Belchatow Opencast Mine. Monitoring instrumentation includes on-line shape-accelerated arrays, in-place inclinometers, pore pressure transducers and rainfall gauges. These systems were used to determine the depth, rate, direction of displacements and the pore pressure response in selected slopes. The internal geological and external triggers of landslides are very complex and diverse in Carpathian flysch natural slopes and clayey mine slopes in Belchatow mine (which is the largest excavation in Europe). These factors, usually make predicting landslide activation time precisely, nearly impossible. Therefore an effective identification of the main triggers September 2018

requires a multitude of integrated variables. Identification of movement acceleration in relation to pore pressure and rainfall data could be very important. In prior research, the existence of the strong relationship between observed displacements, pore pressure, and rainfall data has been investigated. The ground movement and pore pressurous monitoring data were found to be critical for identifying approaching hazardous conditions. These data could also be useful for taking proactive risk mitigation measures. However, identification of the complex triggers is usually difficult.

Geotechnical Investigations of Mine Induced Ground Movements in Polish Opencast Mines❋ Bednarczyk, Zbigniew, “Poltegor-Institute” Institute of Opencast Mining, Poland, zbyszbed@gmail.com (TS #47) Mine-induced landslide hazard is common in Polish opencast mines and spoils dumps. It is caused by a high depth of exploitation, low strength parameters of clayey soils on the slopes, geological, and groundwater triggers. In the paper chosen examples of landslides occurring in the largest Polish lignite opencast mines together with implemented investigation and counteraction measures are presented. These included the latest monitoring results obtained inside EU Euracoal Slopes project Smarter Lignite Open Pit Engineering Solutions conducted by six European partners. The Polish part of the investigation in this project was performed in the largest lignite opencast excavation in European length of 13 km and width of 3 km. Belchatow, mine with a depth of 310 m, is affected by numerous landslides volumes of few thousand to 3.5 mln m3. Geotechnical investigations carried inside the Slopes project on the western slope of the mine included 100 m depth on-line shape accelerated inclinometer and pore pressure transducer at 30 m depth. Obtained data should allow for better risk management and were implemented in numerical modeling of instability associated with the pit slope.

Environmental Evaluation of the Plaza España Tunnel Project, Córdoba, Argentina Bejerman, Norberto Jorge, UCIS Consultores, Argentina, jorgebejerman@gmail.com (Poster) The Plaza España tunnel project is located in a sector of the Cordoba city characterized by an intense transit of cars and buses and an intensive social use due to the urbanistic characteristics of the zone. Furthermore this zone connects the south zone of the city with the downtown and is the main access way to universities located in the area. The project includes the execution of an under level of 440 m length by cut and cover method with contiguous pile wall. This will include the construction of a drainage system related to the tunnel that includes the system to collect the water and the system to evacuate the recollected water. Another component of the project is a new street that will improve the circulation of vehicles in the zone. The environmental impact assessment study has defined mitigation measures for the execution stage in order to minimize the influence of the different works on people living in nearby sectors and also for those who cross the area. Additionally this assessment has determined the obligatory presence of a responsible environmental professional, by the contractor, supervising the execution stage in order to guarantee the correct implementation of the mitigation measures, the environmental management plan and the monitoring plan. The environmental impact assessment study has concluded that the main percent of the impact that will be produced at the execution stage can be mitigated because it has been classified as moderate with the used methodology in the study.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Naturally Occurring Asbestiform Minerals in Italian Western Alps and in Other Italian Sites

Detection of Erionite and Other Zeolite Fibers in Soil by the Fluidized Bed Preparation Methodology

Belluso, Elena, Department of Earth Sciences and Interdepartmental Centre for Studies and other Toxic Particulates and G. Scansetti Interdepartmental Center for Studies on Asbestos and other Toxic Particulates, Silvana Capella; Alain Baronnet (TS #33)

Berry, David, U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, United States, berry.david@epa.gov; Jed Januch, Jed januch.jed@epa.gov; Lynn Woodbury, woodburyl@cdmsmith.com; Douglas Kent, kent.doug@epa.gov (TS #40)

The natural occurrence of asbestos (NOA) in rocks and soil has been known for many years in several areas of the world. Differently, the discovery of the natural presence of asbestiform minerals is closer. In Italy the mapping of NOA is mandatory according to the March 23, 2001 Law, n. 93 and to the related March 18, 2003, Environment Ministry Decree, n. 101. The investigation, not yet concluded, has revealed that in Italy NOA are represented by chrysotile, tremolite asbestos with minor amount of actinolite asbestos and anthophyllite asbestos. A field survey carried out in the Italian Western Alps (IWA), dealing with the naturally occurring of asbestiform minerals non-asbestos classified (NONA) and not regulated in Italy, started many years ago and is still ongoing. It revealed that many kinds of asbestiform silicates are present, sometimes in very high amount. In decreasing order of frequency, they are: asbestiform polygonal serpentine and asbestiform antigorite, asbestiform diopside, asbestiform carlosturanite, asbestiform forsterite, asbestiform sepiolite, asbestiform balangeroite, and asbestiform talc. Two asbestiform non-silicates have been detected in a few sites: brugnatellite carbonate and brucite magnesium hydroxide. Outside the IWA, asbestiform zeolite (erionite and offretite) and asbestiform sodium amphibole (fluoro-edenite) have been also detected.For some asbestiform minerals, the identification is not so easy and in often it needs the use of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) combining either the imaging at high magnification as the electron diffraction and the chemical data. This investigation is particularly important to distinguish four kinds of asbestiform minerals (antigorite, polygonal serpentine, carlosturanite, and balangeroite) from chrysotile since only the last one is regulated, being asbestos classified. The issue is very complicated because usually, at the scale of little thousands or even hundreds micrometers, the fibers of two to four mineral species are intergrown (owing to solid state transformations). Several TEM images will be presented and discussed to illustrate the different intergrowths.

Erionite is a zeolite mineral that can occur as fibrous particles in soil. Inhalation exposure to erionite fibers may result in increased risk of diseases, such as mesothelioma. Low-level detection of mineral fibers in soils has traditionally been accomplished using polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods to analyze bulk samples providing detection limits of around 0.25% by weight. This detection level may not be sufficiently low enough for protection of human health and is subject to large variability between laboratories. The fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS) soil preparation method uses air elutriation to separate mineral fibers, such as erionite, from soil particles with higher aerodynamic diameter and deposits those mineral fibers onto filters that can be quantitatively analyzed by microscopic techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, performance evaluation (PE) standards of erionite in soil with nominal concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 0.0001% by weight were prepared, filters were loaded using the FBAS soil preparation method, and the resulting filters were analyzed by TEM. The analytical results of this study illustrate a linear relationship between the nominal concentration of erionite (as % by weight) in the PE standard and the concentration estimated by TEM analysis expressed as erionite structures per gram of test material (s/g). A method detection limit of 0.003% by weight was achieved, which is approximately 100-times lower than typical detection limits for soils by PLM. The FBAS soil preparation method was also used to evaluate authentic field soil samples to better estimate the concentrations of erionite in soils on a weight percent basis. This study demonstrates the FBAS preparation method, which has already shown to reliably detect low levels of asbestos in soil, can also be used to quantify low levels of erionite in soil.

Landslide Prevention Costs in Road Construction Projects: A Case Study of Diezma Landslide (Granada, Spain)❋ Bergillos, Eduardo, University of Granada, Spain, eduardobergillos@correo.ugr.es; Jesus Garrido ,jega@ugr.es; Javier Ordoñez, javiord@ugr.es; Jose Delgado, jose.delgado@ua.es; Jesus Bueno (Presented by Jesús Garrido) (Poster) During the construction of many roads, slope stability problems can occur, resulting in a delayed completion of the construction as well as an increased final budget. However, there is still few data collected that reveals the actual costs of geotechnical issues. The Diezma landslide, affecting the A-92 highway (Granada, SE Spain), is a great example of this situation. The construction project, which was started in 1988, did not identify the geotechnical instabilities of this zone, thus no preventive measures were recommended. The landslide-induced disruption of the highway involved economic losses related to the implementation of corrective measures and to indirect costs. In this paper, an evaluation of direct and indirect costs induced by the landslide is developed, and as a result, the potential cost savings of an adequate geotechnical survey are obtained.

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Risk Understanding of People after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in the Pokhara Valley of Nepal Bhandari, Chandani, Institute of Crisis Management Studies, Tribhuvan University, Geotech Solutions International, Nepal, chandanibhandari09@gmail.com; Ranjan K. Dahal, rkdahal@gmail.com (TS #7) Earthquakes in Nepal have been documented since 1255. The 2015 Gorkha Earthquake measuring Mw 7.8 occurred at 11:56 a.m. Nepal Standard Time on April 25, 2015, with an epicenter 77 km northwest of Kathmandu at Barpak village of Gorkha district and killed about 9,000 people in Central Nepal. However, the Western part of Nepal has not experienced earthquake for more than 200 years after 1803 Uttarkashi Earthquake (Bilham et al. 1997). Thus, it is a well-understood fact that Western Nepal is waiting for another major earthquake in the future. Pokhara is a growing city of Western Nepal and it has building construction rate more than 4,000 houses/ year (UNDP and ERRRP, 2009). A study comprising 150 household surveys has been done in a core city of Pokhara. This paper will describe the level of understanding of people about disaster risk in Pokhara valley and what brought about the change in people’s perception of risk posed by the recent extreme disaster event i. e, 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. Some sociodemographic and experiential characteristics parameters are considered through various social surveys and technical interviews to evaluate people’s perceptions towards disaster preparedness. The data analysis suggested that people are taking the recent earthquake as a past event and its future consequences of a similar earthquake are very low, even

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS though, scientists are mentioning that Western Nepal is at great risk of earthquake. Overall, results showed that most of the respondents of a valley were not well prepared to deal with future disasters and are not well aware of the risk associated with the lack of building codes, sinkhole free area for settlement, settlement on debris flow fan and landslide-prone area. This paper will also describe the theoretical and practical implications of the findings and suggestions for the future plan of disaster risk management in the Pokhara valley.

Numerical Simulation of Saltwater Intrusion in Underground Oil Storage Cavern in Island Environment Bin, Zhang, School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), sc_zhb@cugb.edu.cn; Yutao Li (Poster) Seawater intrusion is an important factor for the safety construction and operation of underground water-sealed oil caverns. To be specific, seawater intrusion will increase the risk of water inrush. What is more, the corrosivity of chloride ion in the seawater may reduce the service life of underground oil storage cavern. Therefore, attention must also be paid to seawater intrusion constructing underground oil storage cavern in island environment. Scientifically, setting water curtain systems can effectively reduce the risk of seawater intrusion. The study is based on the related theory of pollution transport and finite element numerical simulation method. A simulation of seawater intrusion is carried out for a proposed underground oil storage cavern of Huangzeshan Island in Zhejiang province. It is conclude that excavation of underground caverns will cause seawater intrusion without fresh water curtain system. A horizontal water curtain system can weaken seawater intrusion to a certain extent on the basis of satisfying the reliability of water-sealed. A vertical water curtain system can obviously inhibit the occurrence of seawater intrusion. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the study of seawater intrusion in underground oil storage cavern in island environment.

Risk-Based Rockfall Mitigation Strategies in Hawaii Blackwood, Tim, Pali Consulting Inc., United States, tim@pali-consulting.com (TS #21) Rockfall hazards are common within the State of Hawaii, exposing the public to property damage and physical harm along roadways, in public gathering spaces, and within their homes. Three approaches to address rockfall hazards include Indeterminate, Relative, and RiskBased methods. The Indeterminate Method identifies a hazard and mitigates it regardless of the level of risk. The Relative Method classifies or ranks the hazard compared to others within a discrete population and mitigates based on a selected relative threshold. The Risk-Based Method uses a quantitative risk-based assessment and mitigates where the risk exceeds a uniform level in society. The Indeterminate Method is limited in that the risk is neither ranked nor quantified, resulting in potential higher expense, construction of unsightly structures, and damage to natural areas to mitigate hazards that may present a low risk. The Relative Method addresses relative risk within a selected hazard population, but not relative to other populations, and may also lead to high expenses to mitigate hazards with low risks compared to other populations. The Risk-Based method has the benefit of calculating a numerical risk, which can be compared to other risks to which society is exposed. This presentation discusses the application of the Risk-Based Method to three sites in Hawaii: the Palolo Valley and Kaiwi Shoreline sites on Oahu, and the Ko Road site on Kauai. The presentation will describe the analytical methods used, selection of parameters for input, and the results and mitigation strategies selected for each site. September 2018

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Mapping and Monitoring of Landslides in British Columbia, Canada Bobrowsky, Peter, Geological Survey of Canada, peter.bobrowsky@canada.ca; David Huntley; Roger MacLeod; Gwyn Lintern; Olaf Niemann (TS #20) Landslides in British Columbia, Canada, are frequently located in remote regions with poor to no access, thereby limiting researchers in their efforts to effectively observe and assess such features using a “boots on the ground” approach. This physical constraint has hindered landslide research progress in Canada. The widespread availability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) technology promises to change this working constraint. UAVs offer a perfect low cost, high yield solution for surveying remote, inaccessible areas. This paper demonstrates how UAVs are utilized to monitor, characterize, and map landslides in the province of British Columbia. Imagery acquired from these platforms was processed through modern photogrammetry techniques to build concurrent high-resolution, 3D digital surface models, and orthophotographs. These datasets, and their subsequent derivatives, were used to better document landslide traits such as failure size, slope morphology and variation, surficial geology, and soil moisture. The high spatial and temporal resolution associated with these processed datasets allow for mutli-temporal quantification of terrestrial change, and for facilitating the identification and monitoring of small surface features such as scarps and landslide piping. This paper illustrates and discusses how simple commercial off-the-shelf UAVs, recent innovations in photogrammetry methodology (Structure from Motion (SfM)), and image/data classification can better support landslide research. Our UAV data were collected using a DJI Phantom 4 and DJI Mattrice 600 Pro Hexacopter. We focus on data comparisons between the UAV and that derived from satellite and ground-based InSAR, permanent GPS station monitoring, GNNS GeoCubes, lidar and other conventional data collection and mapping technologies to evaluate the efficacy of UAV technology to landslide studies.

Discontinuity Trace Detection from Laser Scanner Point-Clouds using Space-Frequency Transforms Bolkas, Dimitrios, The Pennsylvania State University, Wilkes-Barre Campus, United States, dxb80@psu.edu; Ioannis Vazaios, ioannis.vazaios87@gmail.com; Athina Peidou, peidou@yorku.ca; Nicholas Vlachopoulos, vlachopoulos-n@rmc.ca (TS #55) Rockmass assessment requires information such as discontinuity number, density, intensity, size etc., which are obtained by mapping discontinuity traces on exposed rockmass surfaces. Nowadays and with the advancement of remote sensing techniques, discontinuity traces are extracted from terrestrial laser scanning, which allows the collection of point-clouds of the exposed rockmass with high accuracy (mm level) and high density (mm to cm level). Traces are often manually extracted from the point-cloud or derived surface models. However, this is a laborious task that requires a lot of time and effort. Automatic-detection of discontinuity traces is a recent topic in the field of geotechnical engineering that aims to automate the extraction process of traces from laser scanning data. In this study, space-frequency transforms are tested to automatically extract discontinuity traces from surface models. Space-frequency representations are ideal for detecting edges due to their localization in space and frequency. The space-frequency methods that are tested namely are: (i) wavelet, (ii) contourlet, and (iii) shearlet. In addition, a comparison with existing edge-detection methods such as Sobel, Prewitt, and Canny is presented. The performance of the six methods is tested in a laser scanner dataset collected from the Brockville Tunnel in Ontario, Canada. Validation is conducted by means of comparison

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS with manually extracted traces. Results of numerical and visual assessment show that contourlets and shearlets achieve a better agreement with the manually extracted methods than the other tested methods. This shows the potential of the said two methods for automatic fracture-trace extraction. Therefore, space-frequency methods can increase efficiency of geometric modeling of rockmasses in tunnels, mines, slopes, and related applications.

Geological-Geotechnical Characterization and Rockfalls Analysis in the Serra das Russas, Northeastern Brazil Bontempo Filho, Eduardo, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, edu_bomtempo@hotmail.com (Poster) Rockfalls are high-speed landslides and difficult to predict. Rockfalls occur when the strength factor or factor of safety is less than unity. Factors of different kinds can initiate the process of rock block movement, which trajectory and reach are influenced by the boulder and the impact surface’s intrinsic parameters. Events related to rockfall in Brazil have caused an increasing amount of damage in recent years. The study area is located in the Serra das Russas, belonging to the municipality of Gravatá, Pernambuco State (Northeastern Brazil), region susceptible to rockfall events. Concerning geological characterization, the Serra das Russas is composed of metamorphic rocks (mylonite and ultramylonite) formed as a result of ductile deformation, which occurs in crustal rocks at temperatures generally higher than 250–350ºC, usually occurs in a ductile shear zone (East Pernambuco Shear Zone). They are find antiform and synform folds of easy identification with amplitude that can reach around 9m, parallel and perpendicular fracture planes, in addition to very well developed stretching lineaments. It is proposed, as aim of this study, to investigate the behavior of the boulders’ reach in relation to topographic surface and boulders’ properties.

Vulnerability Analysis to Natural Disasters in the Municipality of Olinda, Northeastern Brazil Bontempo Filho, Eduardo, Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil, edu_bomtempo@hotmail.com; Roberto Coutinho, rqc@ufpe.br (Poster) The present work aims to provide subsidies for the mitigation and prevention of the impacts of natural disasters (landslides and floods) in the municipality of Olinda, Pernambuco State (Northeastern Brazil), through the following specific objectives: 1) characterize buildings, infrastructure in risk sectors and Institutional structure within a 3-km radius of these sectors; 2) analyze vulnerability to natural disasters in risk sectors and subsectors; 3) assess the municipality’s natural disaster protection capacity; 4) formulate intervention proposals for the prevention of natural disasters; and, 5) to draw up sliding and flood risk maps. To achieve the objectives, the methodology presented in the Term of Reference of the Electronic Call Notice No. 29/2012 (TR 29/2012) is used. Thus, the procedures adopted were based on the application of four forms. In the entire municipality of Olinda, 12 risk sectors were mapped and divided into 120 subsectors. As a product of the results found, maps of risk of landslide and flood of the mapped areas were generated. With regard to structural interventions, proposals are present for risk mitigation, aiming at the best cost and the least technical and specific complexity for each identified situation. The results achieved in this research made possible the knowledge and understanding of the risk of natural disasters, of fundamental importance for municipal management as an instrument of urban planning, aiming at reducing human losses and material damages resulting from these natural events.

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Land Subsidence in California Borchers, James, Consulting Hydrologist/Hydrogeologist, United States, jimborchers@sbcglobal.net (TS #31) In California, land subsidence primarily occurs as a result of groundwater extraction, but can also result from collapse of underground cavities, tectonic activity, natural consolidation of sediment, oxidation of organic deposits, hydrocompaction of moisture deficient soil and sediments, development of geothermal energy, and extraction of hydrocarbons. Land subsidence from groundwater use has lowered the land surface— 30 feet in some areas—and damaged infrastructure in vast areas of California Central and Santa Clara Valleys. Groundwater use has caused subsidence in coastal areas and fissuring in desert basins. Collapse of underground cavities can be catastrophic, but is rare in California. Tectonic activity has substantially deformed the land surface either episodically or at slow and continuous rates. Sediments buried deeply in tectonic basins compress, expel water, and consolidate, thinning in the vertical dimension and causing overlying materials and the land surface to settle downward at slow rates. Draining water from peat deposits in marshes allows oxygen to reach organic-rich soil layers, and promotes the growth of aerobic bacteria, which rapidly decompose organic materials, and lowers the land surface (more than 15 feet in large areas of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta). Development of geothermal resources to produce electric power causes subsidence by reducing the pressure in fractures and pore space, and by thermal contraction of hot bedrock. Hydrocompaction after wetting of desiccated debris flow and dry alluvial has substantially damaged surface infrastructure in the San Joaquin Valley and parts of Orange County in Southern California. Compaction from extraction of hydrocarbons and associated formation water lowered the land surface more than 29 feet at the Wilmington oil field, Long Beach, causing coastal flooding and severe infrastructure damage. Distinguishing the quantitative contributions of active subsidence processes to the total change in land surface elevation at a particular locale is sometimes not possible without substantial investigation.

Land Subsidence from Groundwater Use in California Borchers, James, Consulting Hydrologist/Hydrogeologist, United States, jimborchers@sbcglobal.net; Vicki KretsingerGrabert,vkretsinger@lsce.com, Michael Carpenter, mccarp@dakotacom.net (TS #31) In California, land subsidence from groundwater extraction has created what has been called the largest human alteration of the Earth’s surface— subsidence in excess of 1 foot occurred over more than half of the San Joaquin Valley (5,200 square miles; 13,500 km2) between 1926–70. Maximum subsidence was about 8.5 meters (28 ft) southwest of Mendota and damaged canals, wells, roads, bridges, and pipelines throughout the valley. Groundwater extracted at rates much higher than it could be naturally replenished between 1910 and 1969 caused subsidence that put 44 square kilometers (17 mi2) of the northern Santa Clara Valley below the level of high tides in the adjacent San Francisco Bay. Downtown San Jose subsided 4.3 meters (14 ft). Land subsidence during droughts, or in areas underserved by surface water, destroyed wells in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Santa Clara Valleys, and in coastal and arid southern California basins. Reconnaissance surveys by radar satellites during 2007–16 indicate that high rates of groundwater extraction in the San Joaquin Valley have reinitiated land subsidence at historically high rates of about 0.3 m (1 ft) per year in two areas—one centered on Corcoran and extending about 97 kilometers (60 mi) to the northwest affecting the California Aqueduct, and a second about 40 kilometers (25 mi) in diameter centered on El Nido. In Southern California desert basins where groundwater pumping often vastly exceeds aquifer recharge,

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS large earth fissures resulting from differential compaction formed in Fremont Valley, Lucerne Lake, Chino, Coachella Valley, Edwards Air Force Base, and Fort Irwin National Training Center. Land subsidence from groundwater mining is expected to worsen during future droughts, unless new sustainability laws are successfully implemented.

The Boolean Stochastic Generation Method for Addressing the Effect of Marked Soil Heterogeneity in Natural and Anthropic Slopes Bossi, Giulia, CNR-IRPI, Italy, giulia.bossi@irpi.cnr.it; Lisa Borgatti, lisa.borgatti@unibo.it; Guido Gottardi, guido.gottardi2@unibo.it; Gianluca Marcato, gianluca.marcato@irpi.cnr.it (Poster) Soil heterogeneity plays a crucial role in affecting the stability of natural and artificial slopes. Many authors estimated the uncertainty linked with soil heterogeneity using continuous functions that represent the range of variation of soil parameters within a uniform, single layer. However, in several geomorphological processes, the sediment deposition follows a bimodal pattern resulting in two different types of soil displaying markedly different rheological properties that can alternate in thin layers. The Boolean Stochastic Generation (BoSG) method addresses the uncertainty linked with the mechanical effect due to marked soil heterogeneity through the stochastic generation of numerous soil configurations. The method is called Boolean since the material could be either matrix, with specific properties, or randomly generated layers with another set of parameters. Analyzing the results of the cumulated pool of configurations, it is possible to address the range of variation of target quantities such as displacements or saturation in the entire numerical domain or in specific locations. This could be useful for reliability assessment but also for planning a secondary investigation campaign since it is possible to highlight the areas where uncertainty is higher and where new data would be useful. Moreover, it is possible to select from the pool the configuration appearing more congruent with monitoring data and use the BoSG technique for back analysis. The BoSG method has been applied to study natural and artificial slopes both with two-dimensional and tri-dimensional models, allowing to: estimate the reliability of slope stability assessment, select automatically the best fit model for large landslides and target secondary investigation campaigns where uncertainty is higher, and evaluate the hazard of backward erosion in levees.

Four Years Monitoring Experience of Displacements induced by a Large Landslide in a Tunnel Serving a National Road Bossi, Giulia, CNR-IRPI, Italy, giulia.bossi@irpi.cnr.it; Giacomo Tedesco, giacomo.tedesco@irpi.cnr.it; Luca Schenato, luca.schenato@irpi.cnr.it; Gianluca Marcato, gianluca.marcato@irpi.cnr.it (TS #6) In Passo della Morte, UD (46° 23%39;49 “N, 12° 42%39;51” E), in North East Italy, the National Route SS52 across a mountain ridge through a 2200 m long tunnel. However, the presence of a 24*106 m3 block-slide that is intersected by the tunnel, causes problems to the infrastructure management since its first stages of construction (1992–2008). This work describes the Structural Health Monitoring system that controls since 2014 the crack pattern of the portion of the gallery mainly affected by landslide’s slip surface activity. The monitoring system within the tunnel encompasses 4 bi-axial clinometers, 24 crackmeters, and a low-cost plastic optical fiber sensor plastic. Along, two thin plate weirs allow to measure the discharge of the internal drainage system of the tunnel while outside, on the surface, GNS benchmarks, in-place inclinometers and piezometers gather realtime data on the landslide dynamic. On the base of the four years monitoring experience, a simplified static scheme that accounts for the evolution of the crack with respect of the landslide displacements September 2018

and allows defining a damage prognosis (DP) for the tunnel, is presented. The results will be used for the design of the most appropriate and effective mitigation measures to reduce the progression of damage within the tunnel. Meanwhile, the monitoring system acts like a non-structural mitigation measure assessing in real-time the structural status of the tunnel, supporting the infrastructure management in assessing each day the safety for road transit and giving indications for the drafting of maintenance protocols.

Landslide Monitoring at Three Orders of Magnitude: PSI, COSI-Corr, and GPS Measurements at the Portuguese Bend Landslide Complex in Southern California Bouali, El Hachemi, Michigan Technological University, United States, eybouali@mtu.edu; Thomas Oommen, toommen@mtu.edu; Rudiger Escobar-Wolf, rpescoba@mtu.edu (Presented by Rudiger Escobar-Wolf) (TS #11) The destructive potential of a landslide is directly related to its peak velocity, cumulative displacement, and activity duration. A combination of radar, optical, and GPS data were used to monitor continuallymoving portions of the Portuguese Bend Landslide complex on the Palos Verdes Peninsula in southern California. Forty radar images from COSMO-SkyMed, acquired between July 19, 2012, and September 27, 2014, were processed using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI). Ten optical images from WorldView-2, acquired between February 20, 2011 and March 6, 2016, were processed using the Co-registration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) technique. Data from 66 GPS monuments were acquired between September 2007 and May 2017. PSI, COSI-Corr, and GPS allowed for deformation measurements spanning three orders of magnitude, from m-scale to mm-scale. Each technique provides an advantage where the others might be limited. COSI-Corr and GPS provide detailed coverage of m-scale deformation. COSI-Corr is not prone to loss of data due to rapid movements (e.g., destruction of GPS monuments); GPS is not affected by systematic remote sensing noise (e.g., COSI-Corr signal-to-noise ratio). PSI can measure extremely slow deformation (e.g., mm-scale), which COSI-Corr and GPS cannot do reliably. PSI, COSI-Corr, and GPS results were combined to monitor peak velocity (>1.6 m/year), cumulative displacement (>10 m), and activity duration (some locations continuously active for over 12 years), allowing for detailed spatial and temporal analyses of landslide deformation across the Portuguese Bend Landslide complex.

Vulnerability to Landslides in the Coastal Town of Tigzirt, Algeria Bouaziz, Nacira, University of mouloud mammeri, Algeria, nacirabouaziz87@gmail.com; Bachir Melbouci, melbouciba@hotmail.fr (Poster) Vulnerability to landslides is the most complex term to assess because it is a function of the hazard. The definition widely used is the level of foreseeable consequences of a natural phenomenon on the issues, in the bibliography Two types of vulnerabilities are differentiated: Economic vulnerability and human vulnerability. In this paper we focus on the economic vulnerability that assesses the degree of loss or damage to the goods and activities exposed to the occurrence of a natural phenomenon for a given intensity. The landslide of Tigzirt is located at 39 km north of Tizi-Ouzou, characterized by strong urbanization. Since its beginning in 1973, the landslide has seen several reactivations in 2002, 2012, and 2014. It appears on a coastal catchment of a slope ranging from 15 to 25, this movement is active and expanded; it affects an area greater than 136 ha and extends over a length of about 1390 m. The probable causes of this landslide are all natural and human (the topography of the site, the

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS site geology, seismicity, water infiltration mainly due to the breakdown of the water supply network and unplanned urbanization…). Many types of landslides were observed, the level of the bungalows, the first completely damaged and overturned, others also have fairly significant cracking, Sliding City Tigzirt threat several new buildings along the RN24.This work will focus on the vulnerability of these structures in the landslide hazard area of Tigzirt.

Guidelines for Geologic-Hazard Investigations, EngineeringGeology Reports, and Geologic-Hazard Ordinances in Utah Bowman, Steven D., Utah Geological Survey, United States, stevebowman@utah.gov; William R. Lund, williamlundugs@gmail.com; Robert Tepel, r_e_3399tep@earthlink.net (Presented by Robert Tepel) (TS #38) Geologic hazards in Utah affect life safety, health, property, and the state’s economy. Since 1847, approximately 5800 fatalities, and a significantly higher number of injuries, from geologic hazards have been documented in Utah. Radon gas is historically Utah’s deadliest geologic hazard with an estimated 5630 fatalities since 1973, followed by landslides (337 fatalities) and flooding (101 fatalities). Not all geologic hazards are life threatening; however, when not recognized and accommodated in project planning and design, all geologic hazards may result in significant additional construction or maintenance costs. To protect Utah’s citizens from geologic hazards, the Utah Geological Survey (UGS) recommends that a comprehensive, site-specific, engineering-geology investigation be performed for all development to document geologic hazards and provide hazard-mitigation recommendations. Beginning in the 1980s, the UGS published individual guidelines for investigating several geologic hazards and preparing engineering-geology reports. The guidelines provided minimum techniques, standards, and report content for geologic site investigations. Additionally, the UGS urged adoption of geologichazard ordinances at municipal and county levels, and provided guidelines to the Utah State Office of Education for engineering-geology evaluations of new school sites. In 2015, the UGS updated its existing guidelines, and added new guidelines for investigating rockfall and land subsidence and earth fissures related to groundwater mining. The updated and new guidelines were combined into a single publication and released as UGS Circular 122 Guidelines for Investigating Geologic Hazards and Preparing Engineering-Geology Reports, with a Suggested Approach to Geologic-Hazard Ordinances in Utah. Circular 122 includes guidelines for conducting engineering geology investigations and preparing engineering-geology reports, and for investigating surface-fault-rupture, landslides debris-flows, land-subsidence and earth-fissure, and rockfall hazards. Additionally Circular 122 contains guidelines for implementing geologic-hazard ordinances and preparing and reviewing engineering-geology reports for school sites. The UGS is presently preparing new guidelines for site-specific investigation of radon gas hazard.

Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, with Data Mining Methods❋ Braun, Anika, Technische University Berlin, Germany, anika.braun@rwth-aachen.de; Elias Leonardo Garcia Urquia, elias.urquia82@gmail.com; Rigoberto Moncada Lopez, rigoberto.moncada@unitec.edu; Hiromitsu Yamagishi, hiromitsuyamagishi88@gmail.com (TS #4) Being located in a mountainous area in the heart of Central America, with a young and partially very soft volcanic geology under the influence of a humid tropical climate with high rainfall during the rainy season, the area of the Honduran capital city, Tegucigalpa, is highly 102

prone to landslides. Due to rapid and uncontrolled urbanization, especially on the slopes that surround the city, there is a strong interaction between human activities and landslides, further in-creasing landslide occurrences and causing a high vulnerability of the poorest part of the population. We here employed a landslide inventory, a geological map, and a dataset of landslide related factors, generated from data that is freely available for the analysis of landslide susceptibility with the help of data mining techniques. An input dataset of 21 variables, such as lithology, landform and drainage characteristics, and road density, was pre-processed, explored, coded in the IBM SPSS Modeler software, and implemented for the prediction of landslide occurrences with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Bayesian Networks (BN), and Decision Trees (DT). Different techniques were applied to enhance the performance of the model predictions by preparing the dataset to make it mathematically more accessible. The models with the balanced dataset yielded promising overall correct predictions of landslide and non-landslide cases of 85% (ANN) to 90% (DT) and correct predictions of landslides of 35% (BN) to 63% (ANN).

Engineering Geology as Applied to Tunneling Projects Brierley, Gary S., Doctor Mole Incorporated, gbrierley@drmoleinc.com (TS #14) The definition of a successful tunneling project is the creation of the finished facility for no more money and in no more time than is required for the existing ground condition! Hence, and as a result of this definition, the question then becomes; How well do you know the existing ground condition? Engineering geologists who are experienced and qualified to participate in the subsurface investigations for tunneling projects and absolutely crucial for providing an answer to the above question. A vast array of different methods for investigating the ground are available to tunnel engineers but all of the subsurface data acquired by those methods must be “interpreted” specifically for the intended size, shape, depth, and alignment of the proposed tunnel and it is during this interpretive effort that the services of an engineering geologist become paramount. It is also important to note that most of the risks associated with tunneling projects are related to how the ground behaves and/or reacts to the process of tunneling. Dr. Brierley will discuss what he has learned during his 50 years of experience designing and helping to construct tunneling projects specifically as related to accomplishment of subsurface investigation and about how that information must be presented in the contract document. Special emphasis will be provided during this presentation about the input of engineering geologists to the accomplishment of this important objective especially with respect to the preparation of Geotechnical Data Reports and, importantly, Geotechnical Baseline Reports.

Geologic Influences on Slope Stability and Foundation Design, Oroville Dam Spillway, California❋ Briggs, Stephanie, Lettis Consultants International, United States, briggs@lettisci.com; Matt Huebner, huebner@lettisci.com; Hans AbramsonWard, abramsonward@lettisci.com; Justin Cox, justinhcox@smeinc.com; Jennifer Dean, Jennifer.dean@water.ca.gov; Bryan Dussell, bryan.dussell@water.ca.gov; Holly Nichols, holly.nichols@water.ca.gov; Brad von Dessonneck, Bradley.vonDessoneck@water.ca.gov; Coralie Wilhite, Coralie.p.wilhite@usace.army.mil; Justin Zumbro, justin.zumbro@water.ca.gov (TS #36) Beginning in February 2017, California Department of Water Resources engineering geologists mapped newly exposed Middle– Late Jurassic Smartville complex rocks in the immediate vicinity of the eroded Oroville spillway. The purpose of the mapping was primarily to characterize rock strength, weathering properties, and

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS discontinuities to support slope-stability analysis and foundation design. At the site, the Smartville complex consists of an assemblage of deformed, mafic metavolcanic rocks. Metamorphic fabrics consist of pervasive northwest-striking, moderately northeast-dipping foliation defined by alignment of characteristic greenschist-facies index minerals. Several orientations of prominent brittle shear zones were observed within the Smartville complex rocks; many of these appear to reoccupy pre-existing joint sets and the pervasive northwest-striking metamorphic foliation. These shear zones strongly influence the slope stability and weathering profile of the foundation rock for two reasons: 1) They are often filled with clay, breccia, decomposed rock, or other weak material; and 2) These zones are planar discontinuities that permit water infiltration and concentrate chemical weathering within the adjacent metavolcanic rocks. This paper presents: 1) the magmatic, metamorphic, and deformational characteristics of the Smartville complex in the vicinity of the Oroville Dam; 2) an assessment of the geometry of mapped planar fabrics; 3) the nature of observed shear zones; and 4) potential crosscutting relationships that provide insight regarding the interpreted multi-phase deformation history at the Oroville dam site.

Developing a Dolomite Land Risk Management Strategy for a Surface Coal Mining Operation A Case Study Brink, George, WSP Opus, New Zealand, george.brink@wspopus.co.nz; J Louis van Rooy, louis.vanrooy@up.ac.za (Presented by J Louis van Rooy) (TS #57) Dolomitic rock, composed predominantly of the calcium and magnesium carbonate mineral dolomite, underlies large areas of the Republic of South Africa (RSA). The dissolution of the constituent calcium and magnesium even under weakly acidic environments (i.e., percolation of water enriched with carbon dioxide) can result in the development of karstic features such as caves and voids. This karst landscape can develop under the cover of overlying geological strata or weathered material, where the collapse or transport of the overlying material into the available void manifests on the surface in the form of sinkhole or doline development. The case study area comprises an opencast coal mining operation in the Highveld region of Mpumalanga, RSA. In this mining area, the coal succession overlies a horizon of glacial tillite (Dwyka Group, Karoo Supergroup), which in turn disconcordantly overlies chert and dolomite (Malmani Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup). Dolomitic bedrock is not expected to occur at depths shallower than 40–60 metres below natural ground level in any of the areas of permanent infrastructure development (i.e., outside the mining areas), where it is overlain by a sequence of sedimentary and intrusive volcanic strata of the Karoo Supergroup. This case study aims to summarize the method of evaluation of the dolomite-related instability risk for the study area and considers the available geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical information. This assessment will form the basis for proposed site-specific monitoring and maintenance actions and Triggered Action Response Plan (TARP), together to be implemented as a Dolomite Risk Management Procedure (DRMP) for the mine.

Beneath the Sands: A Glimpse of Engineering Geological Conditions of Dubai, UAE❋ Brouwers, Luke, Fugro Middle East, United Arab Emirates, l.brouwers@fugro.com (TS #17) Recent large-scale civil infrastructure developments in Dubai have led to the completion of remarkable engineering feats. These achievements are only matched by the aspirations of future projects, which continue to push the boundaries of engineering by seeking bigger, September 2018

stronger and deeper developments while simultaneously being more economical. However, future ground development in Dubai faces unique challenges and information currently available to assist engineers in solving these problems is limited. To combat this, this paper presents results from 87 boreholes drilled throughout Dubai. The general lithographic sequence comprises of Quarternary Aeolian sand deposits overlying the thinly bedded calcareous sandstones of the Ghayathi Formation underlain by interbedded conglomerates and siltstones of the Barzaman Formation before encountering the thinly bedded claystones of the Gachsaran Formation. Laboratory results show that 90% of all unconfined compressive strength (UCS) results classify as very weak or weaker with an overall average UCS value and elastic modulus of 2,24 MPa and 2,058 MPa respectively. The average bulk and dry densities are 1,960 Kg/m3 and 1,630 Kg/m3 respectively, with an average moisture content of 19%. Discussion of the laboratory results illustrates some engineering geology challenges currently being faced in site investigations for Dubai and identify the important role engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers play in ensuring that suitable site investigation methods and techniques are performed correctly to ensure that an accurate and thorough understanding of subsurface conditions is obtained to minimize the associated risk of development.

The Application of the Deep Mixing Method to Dam and Levee Remediation Bruce, Donald A., President, Geosystems, United States, dabruce@geosystemsbruce.com (TS #18) The various families of the Deep Mixing Method (DMM) of ground treatment have been utilized in the remediation of dams and levees across the United States since the early 1990’s. DMM involves the in situ mixing of the native ground (soils or fills) with some type of cementbased grout (“binder”). The resultant composite material has a strength, permeability and deformability, which can be closely controlled in order to satisfy the design intent. Applications have generally been in three fundamental groups, namely seepage cutoff, seismic stabilization, and foundation remediation for static slope stability. The presentation describes the various families of DMM, specifically “conventional” vertical axis mixing; Cutter Soil Mix (CSM); and continuous wall (TRD and “One Pass”). The presentation then provides details from a number of major recent case histories, including Herbert Hoover Dike, Florida; Sacramento, California; LPV 111, New Orleans, Louisiana; Perris Dam, California; Buckeye Lake, Ohio; Linville Dam, North Carolina; and Portage Lake, Ohio.

The Scope of TLS and Photogrammetry in the Context of Geomechanical Discontinuity Analysis❋ Brugger, Matthias, Technical University of Munich, m.brugger@tum.de; Bettina Sellmeier, sellmeier@tum.de; Heiko Käsling, heiko.kaesling@tum.de; Florian Menschik, menschik@tum.de; Kurosch Thuro, thuro@tum.de (TS #34) Discontinuity analyses along rock slopes become more and more important due to increasing safety requirements, especially for steep slopes like in quarries. The focus of this work is to determine quantitative discontinuity parameters such as orientation, persistence, and spacing, in relation to the slope orientation. In applied projects, the question for an optimized workflow in terms of discontinuity evaluation often arises. An integral approach of discontinuity set extraction can be provided by the combination of the following methods: 1) a quantitative manual recording of discontinuities (scanline sampling), 2) a semi-automatic technique (stereo-photogrammetry with the software ShapeMetrix3D), and 3) an evaluation applying an automatized

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS algorithm to the point cloud data obtained by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). These methods are applied at several quarries located in Variscan granitoids in the southwestern part of the Bavarian Forest (Germany). This contribution aims to discuss the possibilities and limitations of each method for discontinuity set evaluation in the context of applied failure analysis. Knowing geological structure will help us to determine the geomechanical behavior of the rock mass comprehensively, objectively, and reproducibly in further research, as well as to save resources and time.

Registration of Ground Engineering Professionals – A European Perspective❋ Buggy, Fintan, Roughan & O’Donovan, Ireland, fintan.buggy@rod.ie; Kurosch Thuro; thuro@tum.de (Presented by Kurosch Thuro) (TS #19) Registration of professionals involved in ground engineering including the disciplines of soil mechanics, rock mechanics, geo- environmental science and engineering geology has slowly evolved over the past decade. The paper discusses the history and current status of national registration systems in Europe and provides commentary on the need for and advantages of such systems. The variation in attitudes and legal implications for national registration within Europe is large and some discussion contrasting the various systems, traditions and experience to date is presented. The potential advantages to be gained from ultimately gaining adoption of a “common platform” as a legal definition consistent with the European Directive 2005/36/EC on Recognition of Professional Qualifications are outlined. Lastly, the anticipated development of an Informative Annex to the revised Eurocode EN1997 (expected to be formally adopted in 2022) is described, which defines the term “appropriately qualified and experienced personnel” cited in the code by means of national registration. Member countries of CEN may each choose to adopt or ignore the Informative Annex.

Aldercrest-Banyon Deep-Seated Landslide, Kelso, Washington, 1998: North America’s Third Largest Involving Homes Burns, Scott, Portland State University, United States, burnss@pdx.edu (TS #27) One of North America’s most devastating landslides occurred in April 1998 in Kelso, Washington, in the Aldercrest-Banyon Subdivision. A total of 60 houses were destroyed and 77 houses above the scarp were left to ask, “What do we do?” It was declared a federal disaster area—the first time that FEMA had done such a thing for a landslide in the United States. Losses amounted to $26 million in private property and $6.2 million in city infrastructure. In the end homeowners got $0.30/dollar for the value of their homes from FEMA and the state of Washington. A near-record high amount of precipitation fell in the previous three years and re-activated an ancient deep-seated landslide in the Troutdale Formation that moved over a failure plane of weathered soils in the underlying Cowlitz Formation. Signs that the ground was creeping were seen in February, but a two meter high cut near the toe of the ancient slide to put a road into six new lots for development caused the slide to move. This movement broke the two main storm water drains, which then fed water into the slide increasing the movement. Some houses that were above the storm water pipes moved 300m down the slope. An inclinometer placed in between the two main storm water drains did not move. In the end 125 houses were deconstructed leaving 12 houses at the top that remain today. A lawsuit by the homeowners against the city failed. Today, it remains North America’s third most devastating landslide involving homes and residential property.

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Inventory Mapping of Large Deep Landslides in Oregon Burns, William, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, bill.burns@oregon.gov; Nancy Calhoun, Nancy.calhoun@oregon.gov; Justin McCarley, Justin.mccarley@oregon.gov (TS #4) Detailed lidar-based landslide inventory mapping in Oregon is revealing the significant density of deep landslides. The current version of the Statewide Landslide Information Database for Oregon (SLIDO) 3.4 contains 44,929 landslide deposit polygons. 20,070 of these landslide polygons have been mapped using airborne lidar, following the DOGAMI Special Paper-42 protocol. The remainder of SLIDO landslide deposits are a compilation derived from a broad array of geologic and hazard maps from several decades of mapping in Oregon. 10,335 landslides are classified as deep landslides, with greater than 15 feet depth. Twenty nine percent (2,955) of the deep landslide polygons are determined to be historic (<150 years) in age, with the remaining classified as prehistoric (>150 years old). Twelve percent of the land surface in the total mapped area is covered by deep landslide deposits in Oregon (682 of the 5,968 km2 area mapped). However, within the total area mapped there is a range from approximately none to 45% landslide density. In areas of recent mapping, up to half of the area of a susceptible geologic unit has been covered with existing landslides deposits. Thirty-six percent of all deep landslide deposits intersect spatially. A quarter (695/2,855) of the historic deep landslide deposits intersect with prehistoric deep landslides. These findings suggest that likely locations for future deep landslides (deep landslide susceptibility) are within an existing deep landslide (reactivation) or directly adjacent to an existing deep landslide. This relationship underscores the importance of having a deep landslide inventory as a fundamental dataset when trying to predict future deep landslide susceptibility. Furthermore, a recent landslide risk analysis of the City of Portland found approximately 2,196 buildings, $1.5B in land and buildings value, and 6,129 people are located on existing deep landslides highlighting demand for deep landslide risk reduction.

Preliminary Geotechnical Subsurface Exploration, Salton Sea Species Conservation Habitat Project (SCH) Butler, Teresa, Department of Water Resources-Project Geology Section, United States, teresa.butler@water.ca.gov; Roy Kroll (Poster) Salton Sea (Sea) spans about 340 square miles and is located in the San Andreas rift valley (Salton Trough) as part of the Colorado Desert geomorphic province. The Sea’s water level is about –235 feet below mean sea level. During the Pleistocene, the Colorado River inflows, combined with runoff from the Wisconsin glaciation, formed paleo-Lake Cahuilla. The lake spanned a surface area of 2,200 square miles and reached elevations of up to 100 feet above sea level. The last stand of Lake Cahuilla occurred in the late 16th century. The present day Salton Sea was created in 1905 when human intervention to divert the river water for farming developed a large-scale breach that caused the Colorado River to change course and empty into the trough. For two years, the river flooded the trough until 1907, when the breach was finally repaired, leaving the modern-era Sea. The Sea is a key rest stop along the migratory birds’ Pacific Flyway to feed off fish and rest. Without a natural drainage, the Sea’s salinity levels are rising due to evaporation, and the Sea has been experiencing fish die-offs. In 2014, California’s Governor Brown initiated the Salton Sea Management Program. Phase 1, implemented in 2016, is the development of a 10-year plan to construct wildlife habitat ponds and devise a plan to reduce dust pollution from wind erosion the enlarging playa poses. The SCH focuses on construction of large ponds and “backbone” infrastructure both east and west of New River. Preliminary studies consisted of onsite CPT, hand auger borings, laboratory testing, and vane shear

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS testing. The testing results demonstrate that the Sea’s playa contains a thin surficial crust of dry clay soil that caps a weak saturated clay under-body. Preliminary design parameters are based off of limited current exploration and laboratory-predicted performance.

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in France: Geological Mapping, Mineral Characterization and Regulatory Developments Cagnard, Florence, French Geological Survey, France, f.cagnard@brgm.fr; Lahondere, Didier, d.lahondere@brgm.fr (TS #24) In France, the ban on asbestos is subject to a national decree (n° 96–1133), published in 1996. The regulatory texts and standards adopted to control this banning concern, in particular, asbestosbearing manufactured products, but remain difficult to apply to asbestos-bearing natural materials (ie. rocks, soils). Considering problems related to such asbestos-bearing natural materials, the Ministry of Ecological and Solidary Transition has mandated the French Geological Survey to locate the impacted areas. Mappings were priority carried out in geological domains where NOA was predictable (French Alps, Corsica). These studies integrated field expertise, sampling and laboratory analyses, in order to characterize the potential of geological units to contain NOA. Furthermore, some expertises were carried out on geological formations exploited in France to produce aggregates. These studies concerned the quarries exploiting massive basic or ultrabasic rocks, likely to contain NOA, and quarries exploiting alluvium likely to contain asbestos-bearing rock pebbles. These studies highlight the difficulty of establishing robust diagnoses for natural materials. Indeed, distinction between cleavage fragments resulting from the fragmentation of non-asbestos particles and proper asbestos fibers is particularly problematic for laboratories. Thus, a recent study of the National Agency for Health Safety, Food, Environment and Work (2015) recommends applying the asbestos regulation for elongated mineral particles (L/D > 3:1, L > 5 m, D < 3 m) with chemical composition corresponding to one of the five regulated amphibole species, irrespective of their mode of crystallization (asbestiform or non-asbestiform). The upcoming regulatory changes are part of a decree published in 2017, including the prior identification of asbestos in natural soils or rocks likely to be impacted by the execution of work. Specific protocols will be defined for sampling, analysis and characterization of natural materials that may contain asbestos.

The Complexities of Soil Sampling, Analysis, Data Interpretation and Risk Assessment for Asbestos and Other Mineral Fibers Cahill, Ed, EMSL Analytical Inc., United States, ecahill@emsl.com (TS #40) When trying to properly assess Asbestos and other mineral fiber content, soil is a problem matrix in all respects. Even defining what is the sample to be collected is not a straightforward question. Are we concerned with contamination from asbestos containing building materials or is this a potential naturally occurring asbestos site? Do we want to sample just the first few inches of topsoil or are we concerned with a particular stratum? Where and how may samples do we collect from a sampling site of many acres? Shall we collect grab samples or incremental samples and composite? Each of these approaches will be discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages. Once the samples are sent to the lab for analysis there are still many issues, questions and hurdles to overcome in order to obtain quality data in a metric that is useful to the end user. Various pre-analysis preparation steps including riffle splitting, Turbula mixing, sieving into fractions, particle size reduction with milling/grinding (via puck mills, freezer mills, plate grinders), gravimetric reduction of organic and acid soluble September 2018

components, etc. all can increase the sensitivity and accuracy of subsequent analysis but each approach has its pros and cons. Each approach will be described and the pros and cons of each discussed. There are a multitude of analysis options including observation in the field, stereomicroscopy, PLM, SEM, TEM and XRD. All of these can provide a piece of the puzzle. Advantages and disadvantages of each will be discussed. TEM is considered by many to be the gold standard for many reasons including its ability to detect and identify single fibers. A typical PLM/TEM prep and analysis by the EPA 600 method will be described in detail. The sampling, preparation and analysis steps should all be chosen with an eye towards the final data analysis. What does a percent result tell us? What does it NOT tell us? Is it time for a different metric (% vs fibers/gram vs respirable fibers per gram). For risk assessment, ABS (Activity Based Sampling) and now the FBAS (Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator) may give us additional insight into risk. Both of these approaches will be discussed.

Detection of Subsidence by Radar Interferometric Data in the Seruci-Nuraxi Figus Coal Mine Area (Sardinia, Italy)❋ Calcaterra, Domenico, Federico II University of Napoli, Italy, domcalca@unina.it; Diego Di Martire, diego.dimartire@unina.it; Nicola Mondillo, nicola.mondillo@unina.it; Lorenzo Ammirati, Serena Tessitore, tessitoreserena@gmail.com; Maria Boni, maria.boni@unina.it (TS #37) In the present work, an Advanced Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been used to measure deformations related to Seruci-Nuraxi Figus underground coal mine, located in the Carbonia-Iglesias mining district (Sardinia region, Italy). Specifically, COSMO-Skymed (CSK) data, obtained in the framework of the Third Not-ordinary Plan of Environmental Re-mote Sensing project by PSP-IFSAR technique, have been used to analyze the de-formations occurred between 2011 and 2014 in the study area to improve the phenomenon knowledge. Availability of images acquired in ascending and descending geometries has permitted to calculate the vertical displacement component. Accordingly, a maximum subsidence of about 25 cm has been measured in the time span 2011–14. Furthermore, time-lapsed vertical deformation profiles have also been carried out to analyze the dynamic grounddeformation development. DInSAR measurements have allowed obtaining information on the spatial and temporal development of a phenomenon, very useful to the cause-effect mechanism understanding aimed to improve the resources management.

Application of a Stastical Approach to Landlside Susceptibility Map Generation in Urban Settings Calcaterra, Domenico, Federico II University of Napoli, Italy, domcalca@unina.it; Ciro Sepe, ciro.sepe@unina.it; Anna Claudia Angrisani, annaclaudia.angrisani@unina.it; Pierluigi Confuorto, pierluigi.confuorto@unina.it; Diego Di Martire, diego.dimartire@unina.it (Poster) Landslide susceptibility maps are effective tools for the mitigation of risks caused by such geological events. In line with recent scientific trends and thanks to the availability of detailed geological data, landslide susceptibility modeling, by means of statistical methodologies, has gained increasing consideration. The pre-sent work is based on a methodology widely employed in the field of ecology to draw prediction maps for the occurrence probability of certain species (MaxEnt). The study area is located in Palma Campania, a town sited in the perivesuvian area (in the province of Napoli, southern Italy) and characterized by a significant presence of pyroclastic soils, affected by several landslide events, one of which killed eight people in 1986. In this work, eleven geomorphological and geological predisposing factors were

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS selected, based on previous experiences of landslides in peri-vesuvian areas and following several field surveys. Results were critically evaluated using a validation dataset, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, by means of Sensitivity-Specificity graphs estimating Area Under Curve (AUC), and other tests such as the Jackknife and response curves, which high-lighted the major role played by a number of factors. The consistent agreement between our results and the existing official map demonstrates the validity of the adopted procedure for emergency and land planning.

Landslide Susceptibility Analysis in Vertical Distribution Law of Precipitation Area: Case of Xulong Hydropower Station Reservoir, Southwestern of China Cao, Chen, College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, China, ccao@jlu.edu.cn; Wang Qing, wangqing@jlu.edu.cn; Chen Jianping, chenjp@jlu.edu.cn (TS #7) This study focused on the landslide susceptibility analysis for the reservoir of the Xulong hydropower station which was located in the upstream of Jinsha River, a rapidly uplifting region of the Tibetan Plateau region. The rate of bedrock uplift could have reached 5.8 ± 1.0 mm a year in this study area. The increase of landslides is proportional to the increase rates of bedrock uplift. Nine factors were employed as landslide conditioning factors in the landslide susceptibility analysis. These factors were slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, geology, distance-to-fault, distance-to-river, vegetation, bedrock uplift and annual precipitation. The rapid bedrock uplift factor was represented by slope angle. The former eight factors were processed with the information content model. Because this area has a significant vertical distribution law of precipitation, the annual precipitation factor was analyzed separately. The analytic hierarchy process weighting method was used for calculate the weights of the nine factors. Thus, this study proposed a component approach to combine the normalized eight-factor results with the normalized annual precipitation distribution result. Subsequently, the results were plotted in ArcGIS and a landslide susceptibility map was produced. The evaluation accuracy analysis method was used as validation approach. The landslide susceptibility classes were divided into four classes, including low, moderate, high and very high. The result shows that the four susceptibility class ratios are 12.9, 35.06, 34.11, and 17.92% of the study area, respectively. Red belt in high elevation area were very high, susceptibility zones, which were the results of the vertical distribution law of precipitation. The prediction accuracy was 85.74%, which meant that the susceptibility map was confirmed to be reliable and reasonable. This susceptibility map may contribute to avoiding the landslides risk in the later construction of Xulong hydropower station.

Geologic Considerations and Observations of Secant Pile Wall Construction: Oroville Dam Emergency Spillway, California Carlson, Chad W., InfraTerra, Inc., United States, carlson@nevada.unr.edu; Reid I. Yano; Holly J. Nichols (TS #36) The rapid headward erosion observed near the crest of Oroville Dam’s Emergency Spillway initiated the decision-making process to evacuate nearly 200,000 downstream residents on February 12, 2017. To ensure that the emergency spillway would be protected against such headward erosion, if the emergency spillway were to be used again, a subsurface erosion cutoff wall was designed. Because the less-weathered foundation materials at the Oroville dam site tend to be very strong (up to 50,000 psi), the design called for the installation of a secant pile wall (SPW), which could use drilling methods that would penetrate very hard rock. In order to locate the SPW, subsurface geologic information was required to confirm that reasonable pile depths 106

within competent bedrock could be achieved. Seismic refraction, borehole data, and a quantitative scour analysis were integrated to determine the design depths for the SPW. Seismic P-wave velocities of ≥8,000 ft/s were estimated to represent slightly weathered, or better, bedrock adequate for pile embedment. The geophysically interpreted weathering profile along planned alignment of SPW was complimented and verified with pre- and syn-construction rock core borings. During pile-drilling operations, field geologists monitored, sampled, and logged cuttings from all 363 primary piles. These cuttings were used to verify that the pile embedment criteria were met. Observations of slightly weathered, or better, cuttings commonly correlated with expected depths from pre-construction exploration. Most instances of weathered bedrock were associated with shears zones and resulted in the deepening of piles. The field geologists’ real-time observations of these shear and weathered zones during drilling verified that construction of the SPW met the required embedment criteria and aided in the rapid completion of a key element of the Oroville Spillways repairs.

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy): from Quarries and Mines to Stream Sediments Cavallo, Alessandro, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milan-Bicocca, Italy, alessandro.cavallo@unimib.it; Jasmine Rita Petriglieri (TS #33) The Valmalenco area (central Alps, northern Italy) is characterized by huge outcrops (130 km2) of serpentinites of the Malenco nappe, at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Chrysotile asbestos mining occurred in the past, from the XIX century until 1975, whereas at present times serpentinite quarrying (dimension stone) and talc mining represent an important industrial activity. To evaluate asbestos exposure and contamination, extensive sampling of rocks, stream sediments, soils and airborne particulate was carried out since 2004, in cooperation with INAIL. “Massive” samples where characterized by OM, XRPD and SEM-EDS, considering specific criteria for the NOA environment. The commercial dimension stone varieties are virtually asbestosfree, largely below the 1,000 ppm threshold. Some critical issues were identified in serpentinite quarries, especially quarry-floor contamination and micro-fractures filled with chrysotile. Little amounts of chrysotile (generally < 400 ppm) were detected in stream sediments and soils, as well as traces of asbestiform tremolite (< 150 ppm, probably linked to talc lodes close to dolomitic marbles). Larger amounts of chrysotile (> 1000 ppm) occur close to abandoned asbestos mines, especially in debris and mining wastes. The analysis of air samples (PCM, SEM-EDS and TEM) showed a complex environment, especially due to abundant pseudo-fibrous antigorite fragments (falling into the WHO fiber definition criteria) and in some cases abundant chrysotile “micro-fibrils” (< 5 µm). The assessed occupational exposure levels in serpentinite quarries were mainly below 100 ff/l, except for some specific cases. Critical issues were also detected during processing (especially multi-blade gangsaw cutting) of blocks with external chrysotile contamination. The asbestos concentrations at quarry property borders and at nearest villages were always below the Italian environmental exposure limit (2 ff/l). Prevention actions were planned based on the analytical results, and are in progress, under coordinated supervision of the local authorities, with appreciable improvements over time.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Determining Groundwater Conditions in Fractured Rock – Oroville Spillways Recovery

A Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring of Active Landslides: Precursor, Sliding and Afterslide

Cesmat, Rebekah, Department of Water Resources, United States, rebekah.cesmat@water.ca.gov; Holly Nichols, holly.Nichols@water.ca.gov; Andrew Tate; Nicholas Hightower, nicholas.Hightower@water.ca.gov (TS #36)

Chao, Wei-An, Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, vvnchao@nctu.edu.tw (TS #7)

During spillway design and reconstruction for the Oroville Spillways Recovery, 64 piezometers were installed throughout the site to better understand general site groundwater conditions, the relationship between geology and groundwater flow, how groundwater might affect construction activities, and how slope stability may be impacted by groundwater. Prior to piezometer installation, packer tests and downhole televiewer surveys were performed at each monitoring location to document subsurface conditions. After piezometer installation, most of the locations were instrumented and telemetered into a real-time network connected to a web-based application; a few piezometers require manual download. Groundwater flow directions and migration pathways in fractured rock are better understood by correlating subsurface geological data and groundwater contours with observable surface seepage. Generally, groundwater in fractured rock is controlled by pathways through bedrock joints, shears, and weathered rock zones. The geology at the Oroville Dam Spillways consists of fractured, strongly foliated, and sheared amphibolite rocks of the Smartville Complex. Since groundwater monitoring began, groundwater trends across the site have been relatively stable. However, during precipitation events, water levels increase rapidly in some piezometers, while others experience little change. Groundwater contour maps have been used to predict or confirm areas with observed seepage. Real-time groundwater monitoring has provided insight into areas experiencing slope deformation. This presentation will discuss the installation of piezometers and how the data has been used during the Oroville Spillways Recovery project.

The Search for New Aggregate Sources in Hong Kong❋ Chan, Kitty, Ove Arup and Partners Hong Kong Limited, Hong Kong, kitty.chan@arup.com; Stuart Millis, stuart.millis@arup.com (TS #5) Hong Kong is often described as a “concrete jungle” and aggregate sourced from local hard rock quarries has formed an essential construction material for the development of the cityscape seen today. However, the continual expansion of the urban area coupled with increasing environmental controls and awareness means that most of the local quarry sites providing aggregate to the construction sector have been closed down and rehabilitated over the last 20 years and, despite an abundance of hard igneous rock suitable for aggregate generation, no new local quarries have been established in almost 50 years. The decline of aggregate supply from local sources arising from this has resulted in an increased reliance on imported materials, with associated implications in terms of supply, cost and quality control as well as a reduced ability to sustainably process good quality rock generated by construction projects. With these concerns in mind the HKSAR Government initiated a review of short and long-term aggregate supply strategies for Hong Kong, including territory-wide searches for potential aggregate reserves, both surface and underground, that took due account of the associated technical, environmental and socio-political aspects affecting reserve accessibility and extraction potential. This paper explores some of the key factors associated with the past, present and future supply of aggregate in Hong Kong and outlines some of the ways in which the future of quarrying might be considered for the territory.

September 2018

Seismological methodologies have been adopted to widely study the landslide mechanisms using a wide frequency range of seismic signals. The long-period (10–120 sec) broadband waveforms can provide an understanding of unloading and reloading of landslide mass acting on the Earth surface. In Taiwan, a real-time landslide monitoring system (RLMS, http://collab.cv.nctu.edu.tw/main.html) based on the real-time broadband seismic network has been online operated in 2015. The RLMS includes four automatic procedures: 1) detection, 2) identification of source types (e.g., earthquake, explosion, and landslide), 3) location determination, and 4) landslide force mechanism. Above seismic technique uses the signals generated directly from landslide event. Before the occurrence of event, the seismic wave interferometry technique using ambient noise (1–20 Hz continuous signal recordings) can help us to the triggered mechanisms of active landslide, such as fluid injection, fracture development caused by earthquake-induced ground vibration and geometrical deformation of landslide area. In a case of fluid effect, a proposed mechanism leading to landslide mass sliding is the increase in water pore pressure in the landslide material with generating partial liquefaction. Thus, the seismic ambient noise cross-correlograms can provide crucial information of ground water level (GWL) from the relative seismic velocity variations (dv/v) related the changes of rigidity in the mass material for studying the landslide prediction. In our case studies, with comparison between synthetic date (GWL and dv/v) and observations, the similarity between synthetic and observed data supports the hypothesis of fluid driven velocity fluctuation. Seismic signals recorded by a few closer stations (epicenter distance less than 30 km) provide not only the precursor of tremor signals corresponding to the stick-slip motion along the destabilization surface but also an opportunity to study the activity of afterslides in the landslide area.

Landslide Inventory and Susceptibility Models, Prestonsburg 7.5-Minute Quadrangle, Kentucky❋ Chapella, Hannah, Kent State University, United States, hchapell@kent.edu; William Haneberg, bill.haneberg@uky.edu; Matthew Crawford, mcrawford@uky.edu; Abdul Shakoor, ashakoor@kent.edu (TS #4) The Cumberland Plateau of eastern Kentucky is a forested and landslide prone mountainous area dominated by narrow ridges, steep slopes, and, in many places, terrain disturbed by past and current coal mining. The bedrock geology of the region consists of flat-lying Paleozoic shales, sandstones, siltstones, and coals; the vegetation is temperate deciduous forest sustained by average annual precipitation of about 125 cm. We undertook a pilot project to develop an extensible airborne lidar based landslide mapping protocol and create landslide inventory maps of the Prestonsburg, Kentucky, 7.5-minute quadrangle, which we will ultimately use to support landslide susceptibility models of the areas. Arcuate head scarps, bulging toes, displaced drainage paths, and hummocky topography define landslides throughout the study area. Supplementary topographic roughness, topographic curvature, and bedrock geology maps, along with aerial photographs and a focused program of field checking, help to confirm mapped features as landslides. We will collect samples for geotechnical testing and combine the results with a lidar based DEM to create susceptibility maps using both the physicsbased probabilistic computer code PISA-m and empirical logistic regression models. If successful, our protocol may be implemented statewide and the results made available through an online database, serving as a valuable resource for residents and professionals.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Geological Features of Natural Dams in Suwalong Reach at the Upstream of Jinsha River

A Petrographic and Geotechnical Study of the Sandstone of the Fundudzi Formation, Lake Fundudzi, South Africa❋

Chen, Jianping, College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, China, chenjpwq@j126.com (TS #35)

Chiliza, Sibonakaliso G., Council for Geoscience, South Africa, gchiliza@geoscience.org.za; Egerton D.C. Hingston, hingstone@ukzn.ac.za (Presented by Egerton D.C. Hingston) (Poster)

As the highest plateau on Earth, the Tibetan Plateau is an excellent natural laboratory to study the interactions between human activities, tectonics, climate, geological hazards and drainage evolution. Upstream of Jinsha river is located in central part of Hengduan mountains at the southeast margin of Tibetan plateau, which is known as one of the steepest slope gradient zone in the world. Particularly, the upstream of Jinsha river is coincidence with plate tectonic suture zone with a complexed structure of rock mass. In addition, the uplift rate is about 5 mm/a, numerous active tectonic structures, which are particularly prone to earthquake and denudation, therefore, mass movements are fairly common in this area. Four natural dams by mass movements developed in Suwalong reach at the upstream of Jinsha river, Nowadays�four residues of natural dams is still existed, from downstream to upstream named Wangdalong residues dam, Roncharon residues dam, Suoduoxi residues dam and Gangda residues dam in the reach only about 30 km, respectively, Wangdalong residues dam is the largest one in this reach, has the length of 5.6 km, the widest section is 5.19 km, the accumulated area is 8.9 km2, the thickest residues dam is 393m, the main material is recognized as fluvioglacial deposits, and still has debris flows and landslides from different direction according to the field investigation. Roncharon residues dam is the smallest one in this reach, Suoduoxi residues dam is the second in this reach, Gangda residues dam is the third in this reach. Field investigation also found that lacustrine deposits by dammed lake at the upstream side of every residues dam, and the thick of the lacustrine deposits is from 40 m to 60 m, which indicates some evidence of natural dam origination and failure background.

Assessment of Landslides Triggered by Earthquakes Based on the Combination of Peak Ground Motion and Critical Acceleration Analysis Chen, Xiaoli, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, China, chenxl@ies.ac.cn; Liu Chunguo, liuchguo@126.com (Poster) Quick assessment of the distribution of earthquake-triggered landslides is a part of effective seismic risk mitigation. As a triggering factor, peak ground acceleration (PGA), which is a measurement of the magnitude of seismic ground motion, has a close relationship with the landslides occurrences and usually is used as an indicator in the assessment of landslides hazards. However, the landslides triggered by the 2014 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China show an exception. Different from other events, the landslides exhibit a particular pattern of spatial distribution. They did not occur along a fault or structural zone linearly, instead being relatively concentrated in several locations southeast and west of the epicenter. The usually used factors for landslides assessment such as earthquake magnitude, the distance to epicenter or faults as well as PGA cannot give a reasonable explanation to this phenomenon. Considering the physical mechanism of earthquake triggered landslides, a slope performance during a shaking event mainly depends on two parts: one is the stability of itself, which can be represented by critical acceleration obtained by Newmark method model analysis, and the other is the trigger intensity, which can be measured by PGA. Thus, for a given PGA, whether or not a landslide occurs depends on not only the PGA, but also the stability of the slope itself. Based on these, we use the Newmark’s method model to analysis critical acceleration in the landslides affected area during the Ludian earthquake, and find that the results can make it explicable for the particular distribution patter. 108

The Fundudzi Formation is one of five formations of the Soutpansberg Group, which consists essentially of reddish, arenaceous and minor argillaceous deposits. Little is known about the sandstone of the Fundudzi Formation apart from a massive rockslide event that occurred in the Soutpansberg Mountains approximately twenty thousand years ago, which blocked the course of the eastern flowing Mutale River forming Lake Fundudzi, the only true inland lake in South Africa. A study of the petrographic and geotechnical properties of selected samples of sandstones of the Fundudzi Formation has been undertaken in order to contribute to the geotechnical knowledge of this material. Detailed petrographic analysis has been undertaken by analyzing thin sections of selected samples of the sandstone obtained in close proximity to Lake Fundudzi. The geotechnical tests conducted include Schmidt hammer rebound test, point load test, Brazilian strength test and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test on representative samples of the sandstone. Based on a detailed petrographic analysis, the sandstone can best be described as quartzitic sandstone. The correlated UCS values derived from Schmidt hammer tests, point load corrected size index strength and UCS values from direct testing of the quartzitic sandstone show that the material classifies as medium to very high strength. The mineralogy, grain size, deformation, grain-to-grain contact (almost interlocking due to recrystallization) and silica cement were found to significantly affect the strength of Fundudzi Formation sandstone.

Use of Mixed Reality and 3D Visualizations to Compare Alternative Alignments for US Highway 101 Christiansen, Cole, BGC Engineering, cchristiansen@bgcengineering.ca; Scott Anderson, scanderson@bgcengineering.ca; Dave Gauthier, dgauthier@bgcengineering.ca; Lucy Lee, llee@bgcengineering.ca; Sebastian Cohen, sebastian.cohen@dot.ca.gov (TS #55) US Highway 101 in northern California climbs a grade to an elevation of several hundred feet above the coastline before descending to Crescent City. For decades, this grade, known as Last Chance Grade, has been the site of landsliding. Caltrans is interested in an alternative route to bypass most of the known sliding areas, but the coastal terrain is steep and within the Franciscan Mélange and Broken Formation, which are composed of intensely sheared and fractured sandstone, siltstone, and shale. This topographic and geologic setting, combined with a climate including nearly 100 inches per year of precipitation, means there are no easy solutions. Caltrans recently conducted a risk assessment to compare the future risks of ownership, based on the judgment of a panel of experts. The panel had to use the limited information available to predict how the various alternatives would perform in the future, and 3D visualizations from oblique aerial photography and mixed reality were key in doing so. Oblique aerial photographs of the slope were collected from a moving helicopter, and a 3D model was created to afford the panel a perspective from off the coast. Visualization of topography, bare-earth lidar, geology, landslide mapping, and the interrelation with proposed 3D roadway prisms was achieved using mixed reality. HoloLens headsets enabled the panel to simultaneously view the features from any perspective as they walked around a 100-square-foot virtual model in a meeting room. These powerful tools provided insight and improved the expert’s understanding and interpretation of the geologic hazards and the impact on proposed alternative alignments.

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September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS From Lidar Scanning to Geotechnical Stability Analysis of the Kartchner Caverns in Arizona with 3D Visualization Computing Solution Chun, Kwang, University of Arizona, marine3454@email.arizona.edu; John Kemeny, kemeny@email.arizona.edu (Poster) Light detection and ranging (lidar) has been a prevalent remotesensing technology applied in the geological fields due to its high precision and ease of use. One of the major applications is to use the detailed geometrical information of underground structures as a basis for the generation of a three-dimensional numerical model that can be used in a geotechnical stability analysis such as FEM or DEM. To date, however, straightforward techniques in reconstructing the numerical model from the scanned data of the underground structures have not been well established or tested. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive approach integrating all the various processes, from lidar scanning to finite element analysis with 3D visualization computing solution, ParaView. The study focuses on (1) acquisition of 3D point clouds from lidar scanning, (2) reconstruction of the geological model from the clouds set, (3) conversion into a 3D FEM model, and (4) 3D FEM stability analysis and visualization. This methodology has been applied to Kartchner Caverns in Arizona, where detailed underground and surface point clouds can be used for the analysis of underground stability. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element code Abaqus and the Abaqus output is converted to ParaView’s input by user-defined python script for 3D scientific visualization. The results are useful in studying the stability of all types of underground excavations including underground mining and tunneling.

decade of design and construction experience related to cut slope optimization, ease of excavation planning, and minimization of waste materials in one such formation. The Upper Cretaceous Panoche formation is a complex sequence of deep marine sedimentary deposits formed by turbidity currents and submarine landslides. Now severely faulted, sheared and disturbed, the bedrock is a complex mixture of thinly bedded and weak mudstones, with discontinuous lenses of medium grained moderately hard sandstone and randomly distributed, very hard concretionary rock blocks. With such variable material types and strengths, it is especially important to recognize that traditional investigation and characterization methods produce unconservative characterization biases toward uniformly competent rock mass properties. Additionally: there is a tendency to under-estimate the volume and distribution of the concretionary rock blocks. The design phases included: 1) best-effort characterization of the weak rock mass (which controls slope stability), 2) extensive field mapping program to characterize the prevalent geologic structures, 3) development of depthvarying strength profiles, with general concurrence with the laboratory shear strength results of carefully sampled materials, 4) analysis of kinematic slope stability of the rock mass structures, 5) for construction planning: estimation of volumetric block proportions of each material type and their distributions, and 6) performance of a program of construction observation of the excavated slopes over several years. The long-term performance of the excavated slopes and completed projects is compared to the original design recommendations.

A Characterization of Precipitation-Modulated Complex Landslide Behavior in Franciscan Mélange from InSAR Time Series of the San Francisco East Bay Hills, California

Experimental Study on Strength Properties of Mud Cake and Majiagou Sliding Mass Soil Under Slurry Soaking

Cohen-Waeber, Julien, Exponent, United States, jwaeber@gmail.com (TS #15)

Chunye, Ying, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, cy.ying@cug.edu.cn; Xinli, Hu, huxinli@cug.edu.cn; Chu, Xu, xc1994@cug.edu.cn; Qiang, Wang, wangqiang@cug.edu.cn (Poster)

Long-term landslide deformation is disruptive and costly in urbanized environments. The San Francisco East Bay Hills (EBH) are home to a number of deep seated (~30 m), very slowly moving (~20–30 mm/yr), earth and rock flow-type landslide complexes, including the particularly active and well-studied Blakemont landslide (BLS). The BLS is composed of a chaotic mix of gravels, clays, clays with rock fragments, and hard blocks within a weaker sheared matrix of clay and shale, all derived from the Franciscan Complex Mélange bedrock. Subsurface investigations show that on average, active deformation is distributed within the upper 10-20 m of the slide mass with a majority of the displacement known to occur along discontinuous shear zones near the ground surface (up to 1.5 m depth), at depths of 5 to 10 m, and as deep as 15-19m. Relying on TerraSAR-X satellite images (2009–14) and an improved data processing algorithm (SqueeSAR™), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time series analysis produces a record of ground deformation of the BLS, with exceptionally dense spatial coverage. Independent and principal component analyses of the time series reveal four distinct spatial and temporal surface deformation patterns, which relate to different geomechanical processes. Two components of time-dependent landslide deformation isolate continuous motion and motion driven by precipitation-modulated pore pressure changes controlled by annual seasonal cycles and multiyear drought conditions. Two components capturing more widespread seasonal deformation separate precipitationmodulated soil swelling from annual cycles that may be related to groundwater level changes and thermal expansion of buildings. A comparison of the spatial distribution of seasonal landslide deformation with extensive subsurface investigation records allows a unique characterization of this landslide’s complex behavior and its constraints in a chaotic mélange. It shows that differential mobility across the slide mass is clearly related to variability in the slide body materials.

In the construction of round-section anti-sliding piles, the mechanical hole-forming method with high-quality slurry is often used. Under the effect of liquid column pressure, thin and dense mud cake will be formed, but there is still a small amount of slurry that infiltrates into the sliding mass, resulting in weakening of the sliding body. In the case of a certain quality of the pile, the formation of wall protection mud cake and the weakening of the sliding body soil will affect the anti-slide pile-soil system, and then affect the performance of the anti-slide pile. Taking the construction of anti-sliding piles in the Majiagou landslide in the Three Gorges reservoir area as an example, this paper selects several kinds of engineering fluids commonly used in the construction of landslides, and systematically studies the main mineral components and mechanical parameters of different mud cakes. The changes of the strength parameters of the sliding mass soil after the immersion in the slurry were studied, and the optimal slurry formulation with the minimum change of the strength parameter was given. FlAC3D was used to simulate the effect of mud cake thickness, height, surface roughness and the weakening effect of the sliding mass soil on performance of anti-slide piles.

Geological Engineering of Mass-Excavations in a Chaotic Rock at Landfill Sites in the San Francisco Bay Area Cohen-Waeber, Julien, Exponent, United States, jwaeber@gmail.com; Medley, Edmund edmedley@geopractitioner.com (TS #23A) The greatest difficulty in engineering, open-cut mass-excavations in chaotic rock or soil is properly characterizing the subsurface. For two canyon landfill sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, we present over a September 2018

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Basal-Liquefaction-Induced Mobility of the 2014 SR530 (Oso) Landslide (Washington)

Engineering Geology Research and Rural Access in Support of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals❋

Collins, Brian D., US Geological Survey, United States, bcollins@usgs.gov; Mark. E. Reid (TS #42)

Cook, Jasper, ReCAP, United Kingdom, jcook@otbeng.com; Phil PaigeGreen, paigegreenconsult@gmail.com (TS #8)

High mobility landslides pose complex challenges for hazard prediction due to the need to understand both their initiation and runout. Communities and infrastructure located distant from a landslide source can be subject to large catastrophic effects from the rapid and fluidized characteristics of far-traveled landslide materials. The recent landslide near the town of Oso, Washington, is one such landslide that caused massive destruction to a community seemingly far from the landslide source. Here, the landslide source area had been active multiple times over an 80-year period during which time homes and roads were built on the adjacent flat valley, yet the landslide had never traveled far beyond the river at the base of the slope that separated the landslide from the community. On March 22, 2014, the landslide behavior changed dramatically, this time mobilizing about ten million cubic meters of both intact and previously failed glacial deposits, some of which subsequently crossed the river and inundated the entire community and road network. The landslide traveled 1.4 km and killed 43 people. To understand the mobility of this landslide, and potentially others like it, we performed detailed field mapping of both the source and deposit areas to ascertain characteristics of the landslide structure and stratigraphy. Our mapping documented hundreds of liquefaction features. In addition, we conducted geotechnical testing on key stratigraphic units presumed to aid in the landslide’s highly mobile behavior. Analyses based on these data revealed several plausible mechanisms for liquefaction-induced mobility caused by elevated pore-water pressures beneath the overriding landslide deposit. We posit that enhanced mobility was directly related to the generation of this pore water pressure regime through basal liquefaction, such that the initial momentum of the landslide was not immediately arrested by the flat valley where the community had been built.

It has been clearly established that effective infrastructure, and access roads in particular, play a crucial role in rural socio-economic development and in reducing poverty. Rural road networks, however, are highly vulnerable to climate threats and associated impacts. The risks arising from these impacts are considerably increased under the threats of future climate change scenarios. Limited funds, allied to ineffective design, construction and maintenance policies for adaptation are challenging developing countries to identify and deal with the threats that are posed by climate change impacts. In addition, the constraints of current practice, such as engineering design standards, do not always cater for climate extremes and do not allow sufficient flexibility in the design and selection of locally appropriate solutions and adaptation costs can comprise a larger proportion of their basic costs than for higher volume roads. It is therefore a major challenge, within acceptable budgets, to ensure that the rural access is made more resilient to climatic threats and impacts and the consequent risks to rural mobility. Engineering geology has an important role to play in providing the tools to deliver a holistic approach to rural access strengthening within an environment of low budgets and low resource allocation. This paper, within the context of the IAEG Commission C32 (Engineering Geology and Rural Infrastructure) describes the key contribution that Engineering Geology through issues such as the more appropriate use of locally available materials; innovative approaches to cut and fill slope design and erosion prevention and the protection of key bridge structures against flood impact. Examples are taken from current and recent research and application measures in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia funded by the DFID-funded Research for Community Access Partnership (ReCAP) as well as the by the Word Bank,the Asian Development Bank and other funding agencies.

Arizona Department of Water Resources Land Subsidence Monitoring Program❋

Effects of Rockfall Fragmentation in the Assessment of Hazard and Risk

Conway, Brian, Arizona Department of Water Resources, United States, bdconway@azwater.gov (Poster)

Corominas, Jordi, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Spain, jordi.corominas@upc.edu; Gerard Matas, gerard.matas@upc.edu; Roger Ruiz-Carulla, roger.ruiz@upc.edu (TS #26)

Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho, Arizona. In some areas of the State, groundwater level declines of more than 120 meters have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 meters has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy, Arizona. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona since 1998 using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) Data and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Data. The ADWR InSAR program has proven to be a critical resource for monitoring land subsidence throughout Arizona and has resulted in the identification of more than twenty-six individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 square kilometers. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are both a challenge for future groundwater availability and for mitigating land subsidence. ADWR’s InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

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Rockfalls often fragment in their detachment from the source area or when impacting on the ground surface. Fragmentation generates a number of rock blocks, which frequently follow divergent downslope trajectories, defining a cone. Despite fragmentation significantly affects the trajectories, the run-out and the impact energies, it is rarely taken into account in the rockfall models and in the analyses of risk. We have simulated fragmentation using the RockGIS code (Matas et al. 2017), a lumped mass 3D rockfall propagation model. It is observed that if fragmentation is omitted, the trajectories simulated overestimate the kinetic energy of the blocks and their runout while the impact probability over the exposed elements is underestimated. Including the fragmentation in risk analysis requires the redefinition of the probability of reach and refining the procedure to determine the impact probability. The simulations show that fragmentation has a significant but contrasting effect in both hazard and risk. Compared to the unfragmented events, fragmental rockfalls generate a lower level of risk if the slope where blocks propagate is both long and gentle enough. This is because the newly generated fragments travel shorter distances, with less kinetic energy. Conversely, risk increases when rockfalls propagate over steep slopes or in case of occurrence of large events. The reason is that the cone of fragments generated increases the probability of impact on the exposed elements.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Landslide Hazard: What Does it Mean? Corominas, Jordi, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Spain, jordi.corominas@upc.edu; Scott McDougall, smcdouga@eos.ubc.ca; Phil Flentje, pflentje@uow.edu.au; Anthony Miner, aminer@pipeline.com.au; Alexander Strom, strom.alexandr@yandex.ru; Christian Marunteanu, crimarunteanu@yahoo.com; Fausto Guzzetti, fausto.guzzetti@irpi.cnr.it; Renato Macciotta, macciott@ualberta.ca; Hengxing Lang, lanhx@igsnrr.ac.cn (TS #21) Defining terms is necessary to develop a common understanding among researchers, decision makers, organizations, and neighboring disciplines. In 2016, a Working Group was set up within the C37 Landslide Nomenclature Commission of the IAEG to prepare a multilingual glossary of Landslide Risk terms. The term Landslide Hazard, despite being widely used, is still controversial. The broad practical usage of the term internationally indicates to the committee that it has three different meanings: a) a qualifier of the natural phenomenon, meaning it has the potential to produce harm although it has yet to occur (e.g. landslide hazard); b) generically, a harmful process (e.g. landslides are natural hazards); and c) an event or phenomenon that causes harm to humans or the things that humans value. Only the first two are considered acceptable. The event (the landslide) is the realization of a hazard. The rationale behind the concept of Hazard (a condition with the potential of causing an undesirable consequence. Mathematically, the probability of a particular threat occurring in an area within a defined time period) and its derivatives Hazard level (a measure of the intensity and probability of occurrence of a hazardous event) and Landslide Hazard Map (a map in which different areas are related to particular landslide hazard level) are discussed.

Aggregates for the Greater Sao Paulo Megacity – An Undeveloped Resource Case Study Correa, Aderbal, Maneschy-Correa Consulting, United States, aderbal.correa@gmail.com; Erasto Boretti de Almeida, geoeba@uol.com.br; Francisco Jose Capatto, franciscocapatto@hotmail.com (TS #5) The number and size of megacities in the world keeps growing as residents of rural areas migrate to urban centers. This trend is observed globally. Sao Paulo routinely attracts domestic migration. Historically the city received waves of European and Asian immigrants and it is now a focus of migration from Bolivia. Sao Paulo is the largest South American megacity with an estimated population of more than 21 million. During the last decade its population grew by over one million and urban sprawl includes more than 39 municipalities. Sao Paulo shares most of the positive and negative characteristics of other large cities, but this paper is concerned only with aggregate (crushed stone and sand) supply issues. The depletion of present sources of aggregates causes concern because of existing land use zoning laws. An undeveloped aggregate deposit in the Greater Sao Paulo is reviewed to present the main logistic, technical and legal issues considered by a potential producer. The deposit is near Campinas, a municipality with a population of more than one million in the Greater Sao Paulo. If the new deposit is put into production with an optimum mining plan and applies industrial automation technology to benefit productivity, equipment maintenance and operational safety it will acquire a niche in the market. The Brazilian aggregate industry suffered with the economic downturn of 2014, but it re-started its historical growth. Mining laws support 20-year mining licenses and unlimited renewals. High resource demand is supported by the need to update and expand the urban infrastructure (roads, expressways and railroads) and to build housing for more than 7.5 million people.

September 2018

Oroville Spillway Chute – Geologic Mapping Program for Exposed Foundation Rock Cox, Justin, CA Dept of Water Resources, United States, Justin.Cox@water.ca.gov; Stephanie Briggs; Joseph Mason; Chantel Jensen; Nicholas Hightower; Andrew Barron (TS #36) On February 7, 2017, the Oroville Dam Flood Control Outlet (FCO) Spillway chute suffered a failure in the lower chute area while releasing water during routine operation. The emergency repairs required removal of the damaged spillway chute and loose rock, cleaning of the rock foundation, geologic mapping, and then concrete placement. During construction, California Department of Water Resources (DWR) geologists and supporting consulting geologists documented geologic conditions exposed in final subgrade elevations through a detailed mapping program. Basemaps utilized high-resolution drone-acquired aerial imagery at a scale of 1:60. Map sheets covered approximately 40 ft by 60 ft of the spillway foundation, with a total of roughly 365 map sheets. Each map sheet was assigned a unique ID number that was tied to an overall project grid system. Primary objectives of the mapping were to characterize rock strength, weathering properties, and discontinuities to support slope-stability analysis and foundation design. Along with lithologic contacts and shear zones, zones of weathering intensity and fracture density were mapped and checked for continuity across map boundaries. Geologists recorded attributes of every measured discontinuity, including width, shape, roughness, filling or coating, and any interpretation of past movement or sense of shear. Notable features in each map sheet were captured with photographs that included location, view direction, and a brief description. The GIS database developed for the project includes aerial imagery, overlying mapped linework, locations of each discontinuity measurement (~20/map sheet), attributes of each measured discontinuity, and locations of photographs. Mapping of the exposed FCO Spillway chute foundation was completed in September 2017 resulting in an extremely detailed, georeferenced geologic map of the foundation conditions for the reconstructed spillway that was used for to support slope-stability analysis and foundation design.

Styles of Instability in Abandoned Limestone Quarries in the Peak District National Park, UK Cripps, John, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, j.c.cripps@sheffield.ac.uk; Vassilis Roubos, vassilis.Roubos@dmtgroup.com; Mourice Czerewko, mourice.czerewko@aecom.com (Poster) Due to their high strength and durability, hard rocks commonly occur at outcrop with limited overburden thickness. Such rocks are beneficially exploited for use as aggregates and raw materials for cement and other industrial uses. At present high-energy bulk blasting techniques are used to provide the required fragmentation of the rock mass to assist with recovery and processing, whereas in former times low-energy extraction methods were used. Historically, the UK’s hard rock reserves have been quarried from countryside locations and many of the most extensively exploited reserves lie within areas now designated as National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The particular case of Carboniferous Limestone quarrying is considered, in that 35% of its outcrop is located within designated areas in which there is a long-term expectation of open public access and managed recreational end-use. These circumstances mean that slopes should not pose an unacceptable hazard to the public or intended end-use, or that hazardous areas are identified so that either suitable stabilization measures can be implemented or public access managed accordingly. The paper describes research into the impact of weathering processes on the long-term stability of rock faces quarried using bulk-blasting and low-energy methods. Data from the in situ

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS monitoring of the stability of selected quarry slopes demonstrates the importance of accurately assessing the structural features in faces and in anticipating the impact of natural weathering and ground water conditions in controlling both the style and incidence of failure.

A Review of Some British Mixed Lithology Mudstone Sequences with Particular Emphasis on the Stability of Slopes❋ Cripps, J. C., Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, j.c.cripps@sheffield.ac.uk; Mourice Czerewko, mourice.czerewko@aecom.com (TS #13) Ancient marine sedimentary mudstone sequences of Carboniferous to Cretaceous age account for upwards of 60% of the land surface in the UK and are frequently encountered during urban infrastructure and route-way development. These sequences often consist of alternating series of horizontally bedded, competent, well-jointed sandstone or limestone units interbedded with mudstones of an erodible nature and susceptible to rapid deterioration on exposure to surface weathering conditions. This type of mixed lithology is conducive to rockfall and slumping failures in cut slopes, whereas underground structure foundations and retaining walls may be compromised due to ground softening and development of chemically aggressive ground conditions. This paper explains some of the reasons mixed lithology formations are particularly susceptible to instability. The paper also reviews cases where the juxtaposition of units of different performance has had a significant impact and discusses ways of avoiding and overcoming the problems these conditions cause.

A Short History of Engineering Geology and Geophysics at the British Geological Survey – Part 2: Engineering Geological Mapping❋ Culshaw, Martin, Culshaw Geoscience, United Kingdom, martin.culshaw2@ntlworld.com; Kevin Northmore, kevin.northmore@tiscali.co.uk; David McCann, dmccann2@btinternet.com (TS #23B) The British Geological Survey (BGS) formally included engineering geology as one of its key activities in 1967. As part of a government initiative to build new towns to accommodate an increasing population, from 1968 the BGS carried out an engineering geological survey of the proposed site of the new town of Milton Keynes in the south Midlands of England. This involved analysis of extensive site investigation data and the production of an engineering geological map and a table of summarized geotechnical data for each geological formation. This work led to a much more extensive project for the then proposed Third London Airport in the estuary of the River Thames in South Essex, in south east England and two further mapping projects in development areas adjacent to the Firth of Forth and Cromarty Firth in Scotland. These projects were completed during the 1970s and early 1980s. The experience gained on these projects was then used in a series of urban geological/engineering geological mapping projects in urban areas of England, Scotland and Wales. The paper discusses the engineering geological mapping techniques developed in the first two decades of engineering geological survey and research at the BGS and where this work led in subsequent years.

The Consequences of Pyrite Degradation during Construction❋ Czerewko, Mourice, AECOM, United Kingdom, mourice.czerewko@aecom.com; John Cripps, j.c.cripps@sheffield.ac.uk (Presented by John Cripps) (TS #56) Whilst it is recognized that aggressive ground conditions are associated with a wide range of factors encompassing physical, chemical and biological processes, a high proportion of such problems relate to 112

the presence of sulfate ions in groundwater. Such conditions, which are implicated in the degenerative attack on ground-placed engineering materials and sometimes to volume changes, arise due either to the dissolution of primary sulfate minerals or, more commonly, to the oxidation of sulfide minerals, where in the latter case the groundwater may also become acidic. Notwithstanding that pyrite-bearing strata are distributed widely across the UK and are frequently encountered in foundation works and during the construction and improvement of the arterial highway infrastructure, consideration of the possible adverse implications of pyrite for construction and highway works tends to be overlooked. Furthermore, adverse impacts can develop rapidly during construction in periods of adverse weather, whereas under favorable conditions they would not be suspected. Equipping the design team with the necessary information to identify and address the problems should enable an optimum construction sequence and on-going management during the design life of the structure to be used. British, European, and other standards promote good practice in carrying out ground investigations, but often potential problems are not adequately anticipated and catered for. The paper discusses reasons for this and provides guidance on avoiding problems, without the need to preclude the inclusion of the sulfur bearing materials from projects.

Long-Term Wear of Aggregates Assessed by Micro-Deval Tests❋ Czinder, Balázs, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary, czinder.balazs@epito.bme.hu; Akos Török, torokakos@mail.bme.hu (Presented by Ákos Török) (TS #5) Tests used worldwide to assess the durability of aggregate tare used to assess the durability of crushed stone. These standardized test methods aim to determine the resistance to wear by using given rotations as it is described in the European Norm of Micro-Deval test (EN 1097-1:2012). It recommends 12,000 rotations to determine the Micro-Deval coefficient of a rock. The present paper goes a step further since it aims to describe the long-term wear resistance of tested volcanic rocks (Nógrádkövesd, Hungary). Micro-Deval coefficients were determined after gradual increase of rotations from the suggested 12,000 to 780,000. The material loss was recorded in 65 steps, i.e. after each increment of 12,000 rotations. Not only the material loss but also grain shapes were documented. As it was expected the grains became smaller and more subspherical with the increasing number of rotations. Regression analyses were used to describe the material loss. Correlation between the number of rotations and the Micro-Deval coefficients were also outlined. Pearson coefficient of correlation was also calculated. Our test results suggest that during the long-term Micro-Deval tests the aggregate durability properties change due to long-term wear. The regression analyses of the results give a strong indication that polynomial and exponential curves are suitable to describe the changes in MicroDeval coefficients on a long-term wear. These tests also demonstrate that it is possible to predict the long-term behavior/wear of andesite under investigation by using the applied equations.

South Asian Perspectives in Understanding Role of Engineering Geology for Geodisaster Management❋ Dahal, Ranjan Kumar, Tribuvan University, Nepal, rkdahal@gmail.com (TS #19) Loss associated with geodisasters is immense in South Asia, and it is not only in terms of human lives, but also in terms of property destroyed. Despite increasing geodisaster risk in the South Asian Region, awareness and understanding of georisks among people and governments remains low. Exposure and vulnerability to geohazards and their consequential impacts are not yet at the forefront of

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS development agendas in the all South Asian countries. Situations are worst in Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. In many cases, the disaster management authorities in these countries could not accept the fact that the geohazards in this region are directly associated with fragile geological settings and weak understanding of engineering geology of the region. This paper describes importance of engineering geological study in south Asia for geodisaster management.

Rockfall Mitigation Practices in Nepal❋ Dahal, Ranjan Kumar, Tribuvan University, Nepal, rkdahal@gmail.com (TS #34) Nepal is earthquake-prone country and earthquakes have been documented there since 1255. The 2015 Gorkha Earthquake measuring Mw 7.8 occurred at 11:56 a.m. Nepal Standard Time on April 25 with an epicenter 77 km northwest of Kathmandu at Barpak village of Gorkha district and killed about 9,000 people. Earthquake-induced landslides, mainly rockfall are major geological issues after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in central Nepal. Rockfall and dry debris fall are major earthquake-induced landslides after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. Many hydropower projects and roads of central Nepal faced rockfall problems after the earthquake and the damaged area needs extensive support of research and mitigations. As a result, a mitigation plan is initiated in a hydropower project. Detail investigation has been done to understand the rockfall problems and suitable remedy for the selected project site was implemented. This paper will describe rockfall problems in central Nepal after the 2015 quake and their analysis. It will also give brief information of all problematic locations of rockfall with suggestions for new technology of rockfall protection systems for the Himalaya.

The Value of Urban Geology for Rising Cities in Nepal Dahal, Ranjan, Tribuvan University, Nepal, rkdahal@gmail.com (TS #27) The Himalayan geosciences have an important, but underappreciated role, in the development of sustainable cities in the Himalayan country of Nepal. Since, the area is very vulnerable to geohazards, the Nepalese urbanization is always facing challenges in the engineering geological issues associated with various kind of geodisasters such as earthquakes, large- and small-scale landslides, and floods. Nepal needs a strong urban geological science to support urban innovation and city performance as well as to reduce urban environmental degradation and ensure cities are resilient to geodisasters. Generally, in planning of urban area, a comprehensive study is necessary for the urban geological point of view. In Nepal, the traditional and basic geological studies are usually not concentrated on the needs of the urban community, urban engineering geological settings, and the kinds of information needed by planners. This paper highlights recent progress on urban geological study in major cities of Nepal. Mainly studies on seismic microzonation, landslide hazard and susceptibility study, sink hole study, geoheritage study and disaster risk management awareness programs are started in the urban area. The preliminary findings reveal that the Nepalese city authorities and local people are unaware of the extent to which geoscience is influencing their daily lives. It is already understood that awareness of urban geology can help people avoid misconceptions and deal with potential geohazards in the urban area more effectively. These ongoing research findings also help to start new masters course in the university and now urban geology and engineering geology is becoming a part of the curriculum in geology departments of national university of Nepal from last three years.

September 2018

Rehabilitation of the Historic Devil’s Backbone Dam, Washington County, Maryland Dalal, Visty, MDE – Maryland Dam Safety Program, United States, visty.dalal@maryland.gov (TS #1) The historic Devil’s Backbone dam is located on the Antietam Creek in Washington County, Maryland. The 8-foot-tall stone masonry (gravity) dam was built in 1910 with large stones and mortar. The dam is located within the confines of the Devil’s Backbone Park, the second oldest park in Washington County that offers recreational facilities like canoeing, trout fishing (both natural and stocked), park trails, etc. to its citizens. The dam has helped in controlling the Antietam creek during flood periods and also attenuated its erosional power. Over the 100-year period that the dam had been actively controlling the flood waters, the mortar in the dam gradually washed away leaving large voids and crevices in the dam. Even some of the large stones that the dam is made of washed out on the downstream toe of the dam rendering the dam unsafe in all conditions. The Maryland Department of the Environment’s Dam Safety Division issued a ‘Notice of Violation’ (NOV) and signed a consent decree with Washington County to repair the dam or to breach it. After prolonged discussions, negotiations and deliberations, the owners of the dam—Commissioners and the Division of Public Works—Washington County, approached the State of Maryland legislators to request funding to repair the dam and to carry-out stream restoration. The dam repairs that spanned from May 2011 to May 2012 cost $1.6 million dollars and utilized 450 cubic yards of reinforced concrete to backup existing stone masonry dam. Restoration was also done along both flanks downstream of the dam. The project won two awards for its outstanding effort in restoring a historic structure to its original design as well as completing the work in record time and with limited funding: 2012 ‘Project of the Year’ by the County Engineers Association of Maryland (CEAM); and 2013 ‘Outstanding Civil Engineering Achievement – Minor Construction Project Category’ awarded by the Maryland Section of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).

Frozen Debris Lobes: A Look Back at a Decade of Exploring These Permafrost Slope Instabilities Darrow, Margaret M., University of Alaska Fairbanks, United States, mmdarrow@alaska.edu; Ronald P. Daanen,ronald.daanen@alaska.gov (TS #27) Frozen Debris Lobes (FDLs) are slow-moving landslides in permafrost. Over 200 FDLs have been identified in the Brooks Range, Alaska, with 43 located within the Dalton Highway corridor. These features are composed of a heterogeneous mixture of frozen silt, sand, gravel, and organic debris, with massive ice present in cracks that form from ongoing movement. We started measuring the rates of movement of selected FDLs in 2008. The fastest FDLs move at average annual rates of over 15 m yr-1. FDL-A, the largest of the studied FDLs and the closest to the Dalton Highway, currently moves at approximately 6 m yr-1, and its rate is steadily increasing. We project that this landslide will reach the current Dalton Highway alignment by 2023, placing an estimated 46,800 tons of debris onto the roadway every year. In this presentation, we summarize a decade of field investigations, including drilling, sampling, instrumentation installation, and measuring surface movement using a differential global positioning system (DGPS); and analysis of historic imagery to determine long-term movement rates, subsurface measurements of ground temperature and strain rates, and remote sensing using Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS The Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act: A Review and New Developments Regarding the Assessment of Surface Fault Rupture Hazard in California Dawson, Timothy, California Geological Survey, United States, timothy.dawson@conservation.ca.gov (TS #38) The Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning (AP) Act was passed in California in 1972 following the 1971 Mw 6.6 San Fernando earthquake. The law was motivated by the recognition that surface fault rupture disproportionally damaged structures located across traces of faults that moved during that earthquake. The AP Act prohibits most structures for human occupancy from being placed over the traces of Holocene-active faults, which are faults that have moved during the past 11,700 years. The State Geologist, through the California Geological Survey (CGS), is mandated to issue Earthquake Fault Zone (EFZ) Maps, which delineate areas where fault investigations are required prior to development. Site-specific fault investigations are conducted by project geologists, which are then reviewed by local lead agencies for approval. The AP Act provides a relatively simple and effective means to protect lives and property through regulation: If a fault is found at a site, then only the recency of activity needs to be determined and setbacks are required for faults identified as Holocene-active. Despite the simplicity of mitigation by avoidance, complex regulatory language and inconsistencies in standards of practice during investigations and review have led to frustration among geoscience practitioners, lead agencies, and property owners. In 2018, CGS released a revised version of Special Publication 42 to serve as a guidance document to bring more consistency to the implementation of the AP Act. Another issue facing those affected by the AP Act is that, in some circumstances, fault activity cannot be determined at a site due to limitations of site geology, or practical considerations that preclude subsurface investigative methods. New methods such as Probabilistic Fault Displacement Hazard Analysis offer potential alternatives to current approaches and are being evaluated by CGS for potential application of surface rupture hazard assessment for projects affected by the AP Act.

Effective Post-fire Debris Flow Mitigation in Forested Terrain De Graff, Jerome V., Department of Earth & Environmental Science, California State University, Fresno, United States, jdegraff@csufresno.edu (TS #39) Watersheds recently burned by wildfires are recognized as having an increased susceptibility to debris flow occurrence. These debris flows are generated primarily through the process of progressive entrainment of material eroded from hillslopes and channels by surface runoff. The great majority occur within the first two years following wildfires. Increased debris flow susceptibility immediately following recent wildfire appears independent of the type of vegetative community burned. The decreased likelihood of debris flows over time is linked to the restoration of hydrologic function as vegetative cover and soil infiltration functioning return to pre-fire conditions. An exception to this pattern of post-wildfire debris flow susceptibility occurs in burned drainage basins with forest cover. A second, later period of increased debris flow susceptibility due to infiltration-triggered landslides can occur in burned forested basins. This later period of debris flow susceptibility is largely attributable to the fire-induced tree mortality and subsequent decay of tree root networks decreasing soil stability on steep hillslopes, which produces an increased likelihood of debris flow occurrence 4 to 15 years after the wildfire. Consequently, post-fire mitigation measures in forested terrain must address the risk posed by debris flows during the two years following the wildfire and 4 to 15 years later. Mitigation design should take into account the difference in debris flow initiation mechanism where appropriate. 114

Structural Controls on Rock Slope Stability, Oroville Dam Spillways, California Dean, Jennifer, California Department of Water Resources, United States Jennifer.dean@water.ca.gov, Stephanie M. Briggs, briggs@lettisci.com (TS #28) Immediately following the Oroville Spillway incident in February 2017, the steep slopes adjacent to the eroded Oroville Flood Control Outlet (FCO) spillway chute highlighted the influence of rock discontinuities on slope stability and rock strength. Subsequent slope stability analyses for a variety of purposes have relied heavily on a catalog of field discontinuity data, including foliations, joints, and shears compiled from many sources. These sources included original mapping from dam and spillway construction, reconnaissance-scale mapping conducted on the site in the spring of 2017, detailed 1:60 scale mapping of the FCO spillway chute foundation from the summer of 2017, and downhole geophysical data from more than 130 borings drilled since March 2017. This presentation will discuss the types of discontinuity datasets available, describe the methodologies used to analyze these data, and summarize the key observations regarding the common discontinuity populations. Additionally, the presentation will provide some examples of slope stability analyses conducted for the Oroville Spillways site, with a discussion of the challenges and limitations.

Assessing Subsidence Risk from Brackish Groundwater Development on the Texas Gulf Coast â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Houston, TX Deeds, Neil E, INTERA Inc., United States, ndeeds@intera.com; Van A. Kelley; Michael J. Turco (TS #31) Recently, there has been significant interest in Texas in brackish groundwater resources as a water supply alternative. Significant brackish groundwater resources exist in the Gulf Coast Aquifer System within the boundaries of the Harris-Galveston and Fort Bend Subsidence Districts (the Districts) and, recently, projects have been proposed to produce brackish groundwater both in Fort Bend County and in Harris County from the Jasper Aquifer. This study develops a risk assessment of the potential for subsidence that may result from development of brackish groundwater resources in the Jasper Aquifer within the Districts. A conceptual model of compaction was developed for the Jasper Aquifer, focused on the brackish portion, mostly below 2,000 feet below ground surface. Numerical models that utilized the MODFLOW-SUB package were developed for multiple locations in the study area, and parameterized based on the conceptualization of compaction properties, and lithologic information from nearby geophysical logs. About 50 models were constructed to simulate Jasper Aquifer groundwater development at these multiple locations, and the magnitude of compaction assessed under a set drawdown condition of 500 feet. The spatial distribution of compaction risk was created by interpolating the results of these simulations and normalizing the result. The compaction risk model results were combined with two additional risk categories including land subsidence from subsurface compaction, and consequence from subsidence. The performance measures for each risk category are respectively: 1) simulated compaction at 50 years, 2) depth of burial of the top of the Jasper Aquifer, and 3) vulnerability to flooding. Each of the performance measures were evaluated on a spatial grid, and assigned a utility score from zero to one. Relative weights were applied and the performance measures were combined to produce a relative risk value throughout the study area.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Lessons Learned from Dr. Don U. Deere, The Consummate Engineering Geologist Deere, Don W., Deere & Ault Consultants, Inc., United States, don.deere@deereault.com (TS #6) Dr. Don U. Deere (1922–2018) inventor of RQD and Co-inventor of the GIN (Grout Intensity Number) grouting method was a teacher throughout his career, not only as a Professor of Geology and Civil Engineering at the University of Illinois, but also on every heavy construction job site he ever visited. This keynote summarizes his most important lessons on the role of the engineering geologist on tunnels, dams, and heavy civil projects. This includes the investigation for “Singular Geologic Features,” such as a foliation or bedding plane shear that often control rock mass behavior and a project design and cost. His contributions on major world-class mega-projects, such as the Channel Tunnel, World Trade Center, and Itaipu Hydroelectric Project will be presented. His working relationship with his mentors and colleagues, Dr. Karl Terzaghi and Dr. Ralph Peck will be highlighted.

Petrographic Characterization of Waste Rocks: Applicability as Concrete Aggregates❋ del Pilar Durante Ingunza, Maria, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Brazil, durante@ct.ufrn.br; Antonio Carlos Galindo, galindo@geologia.ufrn.br; Ana Beatriz Azevedo de Medeiros, bia.azedo87@gmail.com (TS #5) Petrographic characterization showing mineralogical, textural and structural aspects of rocks is an essential technique in the study of the performance of concrete aggregates, specifically on the investigation of the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). The assessment of this deleterious reaction, considered as one of the most important pathologies, is a required test in the waste utilization programs. In this paper, waste rocks samples of a feldspar mine were studied by optical microscopy, approaching aspects related to morphology, texture and alteration degree to determine the potential alkali reactivity for use as aggregates in cementitious mixtures. The rock studied shows characteristics that make it susceptible to be a reactive aggregate, due to, mainly, the strained quartz and the microcrystalline quartz. However, these results must be confirmed by standard mechanical test methods.

Evaluation of InSAR Methods to Identify Historical Landslide Movement in Dense Landslide Terrain in North Dakota deLaChapelle, John, Golder Associates Inc., United States, jdelachapelle@golder.com; Giacomo Falorni, giacomo.falorni@trealtamira.com; Danielle Ambs, danielle.ambs@tre-altamira.com (TS #11) A historical Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis was performed to identify and measure landslide-related ground movement for a portion of the Little Missouri River valley, North Dakota. Publicly available SAR data was processed to provide 2D measurements (vertical and E-W horizontal) of ground movement over a study area of about 700 square kilometers that was selected for the presence of thousands of coalescing and nested landslides. The landslides range in size from relatively small (1,000 square meters) to very large (>2 square kilometers) and range in age/activity from recently active to ancient. The study area is mostly pasture land used for grazing but is also crossed by several buried pipelines, several state and county roads, and includes the Theodore Roosevelt National Park North Unit. The study area provides an ideal test for InSAR methods for landslide mapping as it contains rugged terrain with few hard reflective targets (e.g., buildings, roads) that September 2018

advanced multi-image InSAR typically rely on to measure ground movement. The challenging site conditions included the presence of different types of vegetation, seasonal snow coverage, active surface erosion/deposition on the landslides, and the presence of moisture-sensitive bentonitic (shrink/swell) soils. InSAR was used to identify very subtle ground movements in previously unknown active landslides, to redraw active landslide boundaries, and to measure rates of ground movement. The discussion will focus on the application of InSAR for historical landslide analyses, including an assessment of measurement point density for different vegetation types, and the strengths and limitations of InSAR methods for these types of applications.

Comparing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Terrestrial Lidar, and Brunton Compass Methods for Discontinuity Data Collection❋ Delaney, Rachael, Kent State University, United States, rdelane2@kent.edu; Abdul Shakoor, ashakoor@kent.edu; C. F. Watts, cwatts@radford.edu (Presented by Abdul Shakoor) (Poster) Traditionally, discontinuity measurements have been collected manually using a Brunton compass. Ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar) scanning has, in recent years, been included as a more efficient method of structural data collection. Emerging technology in the realm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) focuses on the use of aerial photogrammetry in order to collect data from regions that would be otherwise difficult or impossible to access, and has the added benefit of eliminating “shadow zones” (gaps in data) that are typically a limitation of terrestrial lidar methodology. This study compares discontinuity data acquisition using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to these established methods in order to determine if UAV technology can be used reliably to collect structural data. Two field sites in Virginia were scanned for this study: a shale pit in Cove Mountain and a cut slope in Deerfield along highway 629. Approximately 300 Brunton compass measurements of orthogonal joint sets and other discontinuities were taken at each site in order to provide a “control group” for orientation data. In addition, ground-based lidar scans and UAV photogrammetric data were collected at each location. Scans from the lidar unit and the UAV were converted into 3D point clouds for statistical comparison with manually collected data. Stereonets of each data set were also prepared for further comparison. Preliminary results indicate that discontinuity data collection from UAV closely matches the data collected using lidar or Brunton compass.

Microbial Changes of the Earth Dam Mechanical Properties and the Improvement of Them❋ Demenev, Artem, Institute of Natural Science of Perm State University, Russia, demenevartem@gmail.com; Vadim T. Khmurchik, khmurchik.vadim@mail.ru; Nikolay G. Maksimovich, nmax54@gmail.com; Aleksey M. Sedinin, sedinin_alexey@mail.ru (Poster) Earth dams are subject to raised liability because changes of their planned engineering and geological indices could lead to weakening or failure of the dam. Microbial processes are the significant but insufficiently studied factor affecting rock/soil properties. When large quantities of water-dissolved organic substances enter earth dam, the increased activity of soil’s microorganisms is able to cause a number of negative effects. We studied one of the largest earth dam in Perm region (Russian Federation) using complex of field survey techniques. Some signatures of suffosion process were observed during field examination of the dam. Extensive laboratory investigations were carried out and the reasons of observed phenomena were determined. The study of microbial processes influence on dam’s soil showed that its deformation modulus changed

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS by a factor of two and more in some circumstances. Such changes of soil properties should be taken in account at planning stage of dam construction. Up-to-date microbiological techniques allow to improve properties of soils during exploitation of the dam. The laboratory experiment on biocementation (i.e. microbially induced calcite precipitation) of dam’s soil showed 80% increasing of deformation modulus compared to natural untreated soil. This paper describes the results of laboratory investigations of dam’s soil properties. The results of biocementation experiment are also discussed.

A Study on Debris Flow Insurance Premium Based on Flo-2D Model Deng, Zhifei, Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster of Ministry of Education, Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, China, dengzhifei@mail.bnu.edu.cn; Liu Guoyan, 201421480038@mail.bnu.edu.cn; Liu Jifu, liujifu@bnu.edu.cn (Poster) Many large-scale debris flow disasters occurred in Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, one of the most affected areas after the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, which caused great adverse impact to the resettlement sites and the restoration of the ecological environment. The results of the questionnaire in Mianyang city show that: there is a large potential threat of debris flows in Mianyang, however, the risk transfer methods are confined; at present, disaster relief fund from the government, which are mainly relied on, are seriously insufficient for the masses to quickly resume daily life and production; insurance as a modern risk management measure for risk transfer, are accepted by most people, especially government-dominated policy insurance; most people are more willing to insure themselves and their houses, but most of the respondents are reluctant to invest too much premium due to many factors. According to the survey, we take Anzhou (a country of Mianyang) as a case to assessment the risk of debris flow based on Flo-2D model and the real information of the local debris flow gullies, establish the relationship between the risk parameter of debris flow and insurance loss data by designing an index system of the debris flow insurance, and estimate the expected loss of insurance combined with housing distribution data. Finally, we calculated the local mudslide disaster insurance premium rate for house on the basis of insurance actuarial principles, and concluded that the gross premium for each house is 8.68 yuan.

Tunnel Boring Machine Utilization as a Viable Alternative to Designed Hand Mining Methods on the Dugway South Relief Sewer Project Depew, Richard, Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District, United States, depewr@neorsd.org (TS #6) The Dugway South Relief and Consolidation Sewer (DSRCS) is a Consent Decree project for the Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District (NEORSD) situated in the Glenville neighborhood of Cleveland and a portion of East Cleveland. The project consists of 2,666 l.f. of 90-in and 2,648 l.f. of 42-in trenchless sewer construction with ancillary surface structures and sewer connection points. This presentation focuses on a 467 l.f., 250-ftradius section, of 90-in trenchless sewer at the down-stream end of the project alignment. This section of tunnel was originally designed to be constructed with hand-tunneling excavation methods due to a variety of ground conditions along this short reach of tunnel. The anticipated ground conditions included very stiff to hard cohesive glacial till with possible cobble and boulder obstructions, mixed face conditions with soil and weathered shale and eventually sound shale bedrock. Groundwater levels were above the tunnel grade. As an alternative to the designed method of excavation, the DSRCS contractor opted to utilize a conven116

tional 112-in Lovat Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) outfitted with a combination of bullet teeth, rippers and nose cone cutters to advance the excavation through the mixed face conditions. In conjunction with a change in excavation methodology, a revised tunnel alignment was implemented to allow for improved efficiency in advancing the TBM through the mixed-face conditions. Despite owner/designer concerns due to the possibility of glacial boulders and cobble obstructions and the related risk of ground settlement in the area, the contractor was able to successfully complete the tunnel alignment with the TBM and with little to no impact to the urbanized ground surface.

Naturally Occurring Asbestos Sampling Strategy Based on Digital Outcrop Mapping and Conceptual Geological Modeling Dewez, Thomas J.B, French Geological Survey, France, t.dewez@brgm.fr; Didier Lahondère, d.lahondere@brgm.fr; Florence Cagnard, f.cagnard@brgm.fr; Hubert Haas, h.haas@brgm.fr; Guillaume Wille, g.wille@brgm.fr; Simon J. Buckley, simon.buckley@uni.no; Tobias H. Kurz, tobias.kurz@uni.no; Nicole Naumann, nicole.naumann@uni.no; Kari Ringdal,kari.ringdal@uni.no; Benjamin Dolva, benjamin.dolva@uni.o; Marcel Naumann, marcelinnorway@yahoo.de (Presented by Florence Cagnard) (Poster) On future or current working sites, determining the presence of Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) to trigger the well-known range of preventive measures, is based on collecting rock samples and analyzing them with standardized laboratory practices. While laboratory uncertainties are dealt with in a series of procedures (replica, multiple observations…), field sampling remains wildly uncertain. This is mostly due to the broad range of natural variation of petrology and mineralogy. Sampling uncertainty is addressed by collecting many rock samples instead of a few very likely candidates. In this presentation, we show case a recently excavated section on road E39 in Sande, Western Norway, where NOA was identified fortuitously by mineral collectors. This fresh outcrop is made of banded leucocratic gneisses with intercalations of basic metamorphic rocks showing boudinage structures. Fractured boudins and layers interfaces host ferro-actinolite fibers. This site serves as a demonstration of a new integrated method. We use Digital Outcrop Modeling tools (short-wave infrared imagery for lateral mineralogical variations, Structure-fromMotion from photos for 3D reconstruction and digital interpretation software LIME) for (i) mapping the geological layers of the outcrop for NOA putative host/non-host parent material; (ii) tracing 3D structural features (foliation, faults, fractures) as hydrothermal fluid pathways. Given expert knowledge of NOA locations, sampling was targeted to the most likely host features based on a conceptual NOA enrichment model quantified with 3D rock architecture enrichment function. We contend that such an approach will fulfill the following needs: (i) reduce the burden of laboratory analyses with a smaller number of more likely NOA-rich samples (one certain positive sample of NOA will trigger preventive measures); (ii) support independent expert scrutiny for sample choice based on explicit 3D map.

Oroville Dam Spillway Incident: Some Geologic Perspectives from the Independent Forensic Team Dickson, Peter, Stantec, United States and Member of Independent Forensic Team, peter.dickson@stantec.com (TS #28) After the Oroville Dam spillway incident in February 2017, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) was required to engage an Independent Forensic Team (IFT) to develop findings and opinions on potential causes. The IFT concluded the incident was caused by a long-term systemic failure of practices employed by

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS DWR, its regulators, and the US dam industry, including leading consultants retained by DWR, to recognize and address inherent project design and construction weaknesses, poor bedrock quality, and deteriorated physical conditions. The incident was preceded by a complex interaction of physical, human, organizational, and industry factors, which went back a half century to the design of the project. The physical factors fall into two general groups: a) inherent vulnerabilities in the spillway designs and as-constructed conditions, made worse by subsequent deterioration of the chute slab and foundations, and b) poor spillway foundation conditions in some locations. The principal geological perspectives brought to this meeting include: • Historical difficulties in developing and retaining a thorough understanding of project geology and associated engineering implications, including degree and depth of bedrock weathering, through the lifetime of the project. • Lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities of project geologists during investigation and design, through construction and operation, and as input to critical decision-making. • Underestimation of the required knowledge and experience for engineering geologists on projects of this importance. • Inadequate review of project design and spillway geology as part of project inspections and during potential failure mode analyses. There are many lessons to be learned, for both DWR and also the broader dam safety community, especially when dealing with older projects and aging infrastructure. These are being actively discussed at forums such as this. Challenging current assumptions on what constitutes “good” or “best” practice in our industry is long overdue.

Vadose Zone Characterization for Hydrogeological and Geotechnical Applications❋ Dippenaar, Matthys, University of Pretoria, South Africa, matthys.dippenaar@up.ac.za; Louis van Rooy, (louis.vanrooy@up.ac.za (TS #46) Rapid urbanization is resulting in increased vertical development and use of anthropogenic materials. Geotechnical site investigation is well established in assessing ground conditions, and moisture specifically is a standard descriptor in soil profile logging and is addressed through a variety of laboratory tests. However, changing moisture conditions, occurring in the vadose zone between land surface and the groundwater table, results in highly variable conditions. Noting the presence and variability in moisture is not sufficient to ensure longevity of engineering structures and protection of water resources. Water at partial saturation is proposed to impact infrastructure and the vadose zone moisture budget as: perching above lower permeability (lower-K) materials; perching as waterlogged lower-K materials above capillary barriered higher-K materials; both resulting in possible; imbibition into less saturated low-K materials; under further wetting; lateral interflow can occur under a hydraulic gradient, gravity-driven flow can breach capillary barriers and result in translatory downward flow; or unsaturated fracture flow. All these mechanisms combine to result in complex moisture implications on infrastructure during project lifecycle, as well as on recharge and contaminant transport rates above the phreatic surface. These are further exacerbated by anthropogenic materials (e.g. made ground) replacing natural materials and infringing on the natural and pre-development subsurface water cycle, as well as climate change, and more elaborate engineering development. Contrary to saturated systems, unsaturated systems result in alternating wetting-drying cycles causing continuous changes in effective stress and redox conditions. This paper addresses some key findings and examples from experiments and case studies.

September 2018

Effects of Climatic Changes on Groundwater Availability in a Semi Arid Mediterranean Region❋ Doglioni, Angelo, Politecnico di Bari, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Italy, angelo.doglioni@poliba.it; Vincenzo Simeone, vincenzo.simeone@poliba.it (TS #8) The effects of climatic changes on rainfall amount and distribution during the year together with the consequences on availability of water resources are ongoing challenges. These problems are particularly striking on semi-arid regions, which are traditionally affected by water scarcity. The Mediterranean basin is characterized by semi-arid climate, moreover, some Mediterranean regions have high-permeability karst areas, with poor availability of shallow water. Therefore, in these regions groundwater constitutes the main autochthonous water resource. Aquifers are mostly fed by direct rainfalls, whereas these produce an effective infiltration. However one effect of climatic changes is the decreasing of precipitations and the change of their distribution during the year, conditioning the amount of infiltrating water. This is due to the increasing number of high intensity rainfall events as well as to the increasing of summer precipitations. These events notoriously produce high runoff, while infiltration is quite limited. Here this issue is investigated looking at long timeseries of precipitations and piezometric data for two aquifers in south Apulia, southeast Italy.

Identification of Anomalous Morphological Landforms and Structures Based on Large Scale Discrete Wavelet Analysis Doglioni, Angelo, Politecnico di Bari, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Italy, angelo.doglioni@poliba.it (TS #9B) Identification and delineation of morphological patterns trough quantitative approach constitute an important stage both for the geomorphological characterization of a region and for the interpretation of landforms for engineering geological purposes. This task is usually based on the expert judgment of terrestrial and aerial surveys or of thematic maps. This is potentially a cause of uncertainty, since personal and empirical opinions may bias the procedure. Here an automatic numerical approach, based on 2D discrete wavelet transform, is applied in order to map the anomalies of the topographic surface at large scale. The approach focuses on the digital elevation model of Salento peninsula in Southern Italy denoted by a widespread outcropping of quaternary sedimentary units largely covering an intensively fractured Cretaceous limestones substratum. The used data-mining procedure allowed for emphasizing details, related to morphological structures.

Rapid Identification of Damming Event and Hazard Assessment of Landslide Dam – A Review Dong, Jia-Jyun, Graduate Institute of Applied Geology, National Central University, Taiwan, jjdong@geo.ncu.edu.tw (TS #39) After the formation of a landslide dam, the related impacts can be divided into upstream (rising backwater) and downstream (dam breaching with outburst flood and debris flow) components. The landslide dams could fail soon after their formation, especially those formed by heavy rain-induced events. The allowable response time to implement a hazard mitigation plan is accordingly limited. A rapid assessment of the hazards caused by a landslide dam event is required from the hazard mitigation viewpoint. This study reviewed the recent development of the rapid hazard assessment of landslide dams. The technologies of quick identification of the occurrence of landslide dams are introduced. Combining the seismic signals, temporal variation of the stream flow rate of a blocked stream, and the remote sensing images,

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS the formation of a landslide-dammed lake could be identified with acceptable confidence. After the landslide dam-forming event was identified, the elevation of the landslide dam top, dam geometry, and catchment area should be determined based on the satellite images and DEM. It follows a production of the water level–lake storage curve of the natural lake. Subsequently, the upstream and downstream hazards can thus be assessed rapidly. First, the backwater buildup can be evaluated and the inflow rate upstream of the dam can be estimated. Second, the time to overtopping and the backwater flooding area can be determined. Moreover, the failure probability of the landslide dam and the flooding hazard level can be used to evaluate the risk to the landslide dam. To conclude, rapid assessment of the hazards posed by landslide dam formation is a potential input for decision-making that would prevent or minimize losses soon after the formation of a landslide dam.

the system reliability of slopes reinforced with anchors considering a large number of potential slip surfaces. First, an improved response surface method is suggested to model the relationship between FOS and the soil parameters of a slope with anchors reinforcement, based on which the system reliability can be calculated efficiently. Then, the representative slip surfaces that govern the overall stability of the slope are identified systematically considering the correlation between FOS along different slip surfaces. The system reliability is then studied based on the representative slip surfaces. The optimal anchorage angle with and without considering the uncertainties in the soil property will be studied. The results from this study will provide insights on how to choose a better anchorage measure to enhance the slope stability.

Building Coping Capacities to Landslide Risk Within a Refugee Camp, a Case Study

Dussell, Bryan, California Department of Water Resources Division of Safety of Dams, United States, bryan.dussell@water.ca.gov; Holly Nichols, holly.nichols@water.ca.gov; John Curless, john.Curless@water.ca.gov; Andrew Tate, andrew.tate@water.ca.gov; Stephanie Briggs, briggs@lettisci.com (Poster)

Drazba, Marina C., University of Auckland, New Zealand, marina.drazba@gmail.com; Suzanne Wilkinson, s.wilkinson @auckland.ac.nz; Alice Chang-Richards, ycha233@aucklanduni.ac.nz (TS #2) During the last six months over 600,000 Rohingya people have fled their home state of Rakhine Myanmar and been granted refugee status in Bangladesh. Land settlements are being granted as refugees arrive, but the sheer number of people, coupled with the steep terrain and precarious geology has led to slope stability issues. The common practice for home building is to cut the slope and build over the cut and cast. The geology in the allocated land is mainly comprised of clay, silt and unconsolidated sand, creating ideal conditions for landslides. The Cox’s Bazar region has both a monsoon and a typhoon season making the situation even more precarious. In preparation for the wet seasons, communities participated in a Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) program by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR). The DRR Program considered the inability for the refugees to move and worked within the communities to shape a plan based on what could feasibly be done and understood in a short period of time. The information was distilled into key points: warning signs of landslides and slope disturbances, mechanisms of failure through water and slope loading, and mitigation by looking at slope shape and deforestation practices. The researchers needed the refugees to recognize their own risks and through community-based mapping the red flags of landslides such as tensions cracks were pointed out. Once the community understood what they were looking at, the mechanisms of landslides were discussed to help them reduce their exposure to the risk. They were equipped with sandbags, bamboo and makeshift rain gauges to help them predict the onset of landslides. With a large population living in a dense environment, landslide awareness within the community is paramount to keeping them safe, and cutting down the reaction time to warning signs is key.

Engineering Geologist’s Role in Emergency Response Efforts for Oroville Dam

Engineering geologists have been involved with the Oroville Dam and Spillway facilities since the 1950s, during planning and construction of the dam and its spillways. Detailed geologic mapping of foundation conditions exposed during original construction provided critical details of rock structure and quality that served as a basis for initial failure analysis and risk assessments for the 2017 spillway incident. During the 2017 emergency response, engineering geologists provided continuous slope instability site characterization around the eroded spillway to establish exclusion areas for monitoring teams and inform the incident command team of potential growing risks to operation of the spillway. Site characterization was accomplished using a combination of historic data, field mapping, examination of aerial photographs, drone video, and observations of rock behavior within the eroded spillways. Once water stopped flowing over the spillways, engineering geologists inspected and mapped exposed rock within the eroded spillway channels to document conditions that may have led to the observed erosion and evaluate potential erosion hazards associated with continued use of the spillways. Critical joints and shears near the emergency spillway weir were identified and designated for fortification with grouted rip-rap. Placement of armoring below the emergency spillway weir and removal of debris from the diversion pool required construction of numerous access roads and the creation of massive spoil piles. Engineering geologists provided continuous observation of grading activities and helped direct stabilization measures as new conditions developed. During the spillway emergency, water within Oroville Lake rose to record levels. Engineering geologists participated in inspections the dam, abutments, and auxiliary dams for evidence of seepage and instability.

Managing Risk when Building the Engineering Geological Model: Importance of Understanding the Regional Geological Setting

Probabilistic Stability Analysis of Soil Slope Reinforced with Anchors

Eggers, Mark, Pells Sullivan Meynink, Australia and University of Canterbury, New Zealand, mark.eggers@psm.com.au (TS #44)

Duan, Xiangrui, Tongji University, China, ceduanxr@gmail.com; He Wang, wh_1878@163.com; Jie Zhang, cezhangjie@gmail.com (TS #4)

Success in geotechnical engineering is fundamentally linked to identifying, understanding and characterizing the key geological factors that will control design. Obtaining this understanding is a principal objective of the engineering geological model. Development of the model can often be restrained by questions over the accuracy and representativeness of the site investigation data. This can result in significant gaps and uncertainties in the engineering geological

Anchors are widely used to reinforce slopes. Many uncertain factors are involved in the design of slopes reinforced with anchors. Probabilistic methods can be used to quantify the effect of uncertainties in slope stability analysis. However, evaluating the reliability of slopes reinforced with anchors is seldom reported. This paper investigates 118

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS model. Project risk can be effectively managed by interpreting the site investigation data within context of a good appreciation of the regional scale geological setting. This understanding should be formulated early in the model building process, preferably as part of the Conceptual model compiled in the desk study. This approach is a key premise in the concept of Total Geology. The importance of generating a ‘big picture’ understanding of the geological setting is demonstrated for the Huntly Section of the Waikato Expressway project in New Zealand, which crosses the Taupiri Range about 90 km south of Auckland. The range forms an elevated block of ground about 14 km long, 4 km wide and up to 260 m high relative to surrounding lowlands and floodplains. It is geologically distinctive comprising Murihiku Terrane rocks that are exotic relative to its position in the regional setting. Usually geological structure is comparatively simple in Murihiku Terrane. However, in the Taupiri block the simply folded and block faulted greywacke rock mass is overprinted with a complex system of structures associated with rotation and basal thrusting followed by faulting in a dextral strike-slip extensional duplex. Understanding the regional scale controls on the structural architecture of the Taupiri block provides the key to interpreting the geological and geomorphological features observed in the project mapping and borehole data. This approach forms an important tool in the management of risk when designing cut slopes along the alignment.

NOA – Applying Lessons Learned During Calaveras Dam Replacement Project to a New Site Eklund, Bart, AECOM, United States, bart.eklund@aecom.com; John Roadifer; Noel Wong; Michael Forrest (TS #33) The Calaveras Dam Replacement Project (CDRP) pioneered technical approaches for addressing community exposure to Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) via the inhalation pathway. Over the course of the CDRP, approaches were developed for key issues including what NOA particles are of interest, what toxicity to apply to various types of NOA, dust control, and appropriate feedback loops for using lab data. In addition, emission factors were developed for various construction activities. Specific issues of interest include whether to count only structures above a certain length and what inhalation unit risk value to use for amphiboles. The knowledge gained on the CDRP is being used to optimize NOA evaluation and control at another large dam replacement project in California. The state of knowledge at the start and at the completion of the CDRP work is summarized, which highlights the contribution of the CDRP work to our understanding of these issues. How the CDRP findings are being applied to a new site is discussed along with differences in evaluation and control for NOA versus total suspended particulate (TSP).

Seismic Microzoning and Design Response Spectra for an Area East of Wadi Rusayl in Muscat Region, Sultanate of Oman El-Hussain, Issa, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, elhussain@squ.edu.om; Adel M.E. Mohamed, geotec_04@yahoo.com; Ahmed Deif, adeif@squ.edu.om; Mohamed Abozaid, ezzmabd@yahoo.com; Yousuf Al-Shijibi, alshijibi@squ.edu.om (TS #54) Site characterization of an area east of Wadi Rusayl in Muscat Governorate is conducted utilizing the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) from ambient noise measurements technique, shallow seismic refraction, and the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) in addition to the available geotechnical boreholes. Measurements were performed at more than 150 sites in the area. These extensive surveys were performed to evaluate the fundamental frequency at each location and to evaluate the local soil characteristics in terms of compressional and shear-wave velocities, and the thickness of soil layers. September 2018

The results are used in combination with suitable input of strong motion seismic records to obtain the site soil effect and consequently mapping the seismic hazard at the surface for microzoning purpose. The maximum seismic hazard at the surface level of the sites is provided for 5% damped PGA and different periods of spectral acceleration. The highest ground-motion was calculated at sites of thick soil covers in the middle and northern parts of the study area. The results show maximum PGA of 131 and 288 cm/sec2 for 475 and 2,475 years return periods, respectively. The highest spectral acceleration is calculated for a period of 0.2 sec with 439 cm/sec2 for 475 years return period and 945 cm/sec2 for 2,475 years return period. Based upon the adjusted hazard values for the site effects at the study area, the design spectral acceleration at short period and at 1.0 sec (SDS and SD1) are calculated and several design response spectra were provided for different hazard levels at the study area.

Accreditation of Geology Degree Programs by the ANSAC of ABET – A Brief History and Current Status Elifrits, C Dale, Missouri University of Science and Technology and Northern Kentucky University, United States, elifritsc@nkku.edu (TS #32) Accreditation of geology degree programs by ABET was initially examined in the 2002 “Visioning the Future of Engineering Geology: …” symposium held in Reno, NV, at the AEG Annual Meeting. Such symposia continued for a few years and included further examination of the topic. Efforts were renewed when the Executive Director of ABET appointed an Ad Hoc committee in 2015 to examine how ABET, via its Applied and natural Science Accreditation Commission (ANSAC) might become engaged in the accreditation of science degree programs, geology being the area that partially motivated this, since the geology degree program faculty at the University of Arkansas Little Rock had petitioned ABET for accreditation. This author was appointed to the Ad Hoc committee as the geology discipline representative. He was the Program Evaluator for the ANSAC/ABET accreditation visit to this university degree program. This paper will trace the activities since 2002 that have led to the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) becoming the Interim Lead Society for geology and geological science degree programs within ANSAC/ABET. This paper will also examine how draft program criteria for the accreditation of geology and geological science degree programs have been developed by SME committees in collaboration with other groups, e.g., ASBOG® , geology/geological science professionals, organizations, and agencies. These draft geology degree program criteria, as approved by the various education committees of SME and the SME Board of Directors were forwarded on 27 March 2018 to ABET headquarters and are in the hands of the ABET and ANSAC leadership for consideration of adoption for use in the evaluation and accreditation of geology and geological science degree programs. The contents of these degree program criteria will be given and the processes and procedures required of a degree program to be considered for accreditation by ANSAC/ABET will be described.

Wear Phenomena in TBM Hard Rock Drilling – Reasons and Consequences❋ Ellecosta, Peter, Technical University of Munich, Germany, p.ellecosta@tum.de; Heiko Käsling, heiko.kaesling@tum.de; Kurosch Thuro, thuro@tum.de (TS #6) In hard rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) drilling, wear issues play a crucial role in the success of a tunneling project. Thus, excavation tools must be selected carefully and adapted to ground conditions. The shape and the material-quality of the cutters have to be adjusted and possible alterations of the tool, caused by the excavation

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS process, must also be taken into account. This is because of the stress applied on the steel during the drilling process. Due to the knowledge of the wear processes by the interaction of the steel with the rock surface and the resulting material changes, it is possible to draw conclusions about the choice of the ideal excavation tool. In our paper, five basic macroscopically wear types will be distinguished: 1) abrasive/normal wear, 2) tapering, 3) mushrooming as, 4) brittle failure of the cutter ring, and 5) blockade of the roller bearing. These basic wear types lead to distinct cutter ring shapes, which allow deriving some fundamental characteristics of the interacting rock types. In addition to an assessment on this macroscopic level, a microscopic analysis is necessary too. For this purpose, the surfaces and associated metallographic sections of worn disc cutters are analyzed. As a result, the tribological processes under the disc cutter, leading to tool wear, can be better understood. In summary, the investigations may contribute to a better understanding to make it easier choosing the proper TBM disc cutter for a distinct rock type in order to minimize the risk of tool related downtimes.

The Influence of Technogenic Factors on the Intensification of Karst on the Eastern Slope of the Urals in Russia❋ Elokhina, Svetlana, Federal State Budgetary Institution, Russia, kindler@gmsn-ural.ru; Gorbova Svetlana, elohina.s@mail.ru (Poster) The article deals with two aspects of increased karst risk at the border of Europe and Asia caused by the processes of leaching and dissolution of rocks. Their activation and occurrence occurs in manmade conditions, including in areas of mining. Territories refer to the first group in limits karst rocs, where technical activation of a karst is created by the following technical factors: chemical, geodynamic, mechanical and hydrodynamic. The territories of the second group are not associated with natural karst rocks. Here, the processes of dissolution and leaching of rocks occur outside the zone of development of karst rocks in various subsurface and surface cavities flooded with groundwater in the post-operational period of mining production. Similarly to karst massifs, under certain conditions, an outflow of mine waters is formed from flooded mine workings, similar to karst siphon springs, with increased salinity, and other parameters. The activity of destruction and offset mineral components exceeds natural on 1-2 order, according to the analysis of leachings with sulphuric acid.

Chemical Composition of Mine Waters in Post-Exploitation Period in the Urals Elokhina, Svetlana, Ural State Mining University, Russia, Elohina.s@mail.ru; Vladimer A. Elokhin; Alexey A. Kindler (Poster) Within the old mining regions, which include an old part of the Urals there are a lot of abandoned not reclaimed or partially reclaimed mining complexes (mines) in which ground (mine) waters have a special chemical composition. Non-stability of chemical composition of these waters was traced for several decades at a number of objects with or without chemical recultivation. In the second case hydrogeomigration processes depend on mineralogical specifications, water-balance situation characteristics, intensive water-exchange, etc. The hydrochemical model of formation of mine waters during post-exploitation period for sulfide objects of the Urals is based on practical data.

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UAV Based Analyses of Discontinuities and Mechanics of Rockfall Events in Alpine Terrain (Pletzachkogel/Tyrol/Austria)❋ Erharter, Georg, Graz University of Technology, Austria, georg.erharter@live.at; D. Scott Kieffer, kieffer@tugraz.at; Christoph Prager, prager@alps-gmbh.com (Presented by Scott Kieffer) (TS #20) Three major Holocene rock avalanches have sculpted the morphology of Mount Pletzachkogel (Tyrol, Austria), and rockfall processes continue to show recent activity. Coalescing sets of discontinuities and block moulds exposed in the steep and rugged limestone cliffs exemplify the broad spectrum of rotational and translational block failure modes to which the mountain is prone. As personnel safety concerns strongly limit the ability to access the 200 m-high rock cliffs to make traditional structural field measurements, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetric surveys were performed with a compact portable multicopter. The UAV survey provided a georeferenced point cloud and Digital Terrain Model of sufficient resolution and accuracy to permit efficient extraction of structural geologic measurements by using different open source software packages. This research focuses on comparing discontinuity measurements extracted from the point cloud using manual, semiautomated, and automated techniques, to field measurements made with a geologic compass. The overall workflow of digital image processing and related structural measurement extraction is described, together with data validation procedures. The workflow described herein provides an efficient means for obtaining comprehensive and accurate data sets that mitigate personnel access constraints, are fully auditable and archivable. With increased applications of UAVs for geologic mapping and documentation, such procedures are sure to see rapidly increasing deployment, particularly in alpine terrain.

The CARB Asbestos ATCM: A Challenge to the Professional Geologist Erskine, Bradley G. Kleinfelder, United States, bradley.erskine@outlook.com (TS #16) The CARB Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction (ATCM) provides requirements for the evaluation for NOA on a construction site. There are two compliance triggers. The first is a determination that the site is located within a “geographic ultramafic rock unit” (GURU), defined as a geographic area designated as an ultramafic rock on referenced maps. Most of the maps referenced are large-scale state compilations from the late 1950s and 1960s. There is no requirement for field investigation, verification, or assessment. The second trigger is the presence of NOA, serpentinite, or ultramafic rock; however, there is no requirement for field investigation, or verification. Following state law, the California Geological Survey (CGS) requires that NOA evaluations, which would include interpretation of geologic maps, be conducted by a Professional Geologist (PG). However, under the ATCM, a PG is required only when a property owner wishes to demonstrate that a site, which occupies a mapped GURU is not actually underlain by serpentinite or ultramafic rocks. This Geologic Exemption applies to these rocks only. The licensed geologist who must advise whether the ATCM applies at a construction site is therefore placed in a precarious position. Does a limited desktop review of geologic maps, with uncertain quality and accuracy meet any standard of practice? If the ATCM is triggered by the presence of asbestos, is the geologist negligent if no evaluation is recommended or conducted? Could geologic units be pre-screened for asbestos potential to assess whether a geologic investigation is required to conclude that asbestos is not likely to be present? Using case studies and geologic data in the City of San Francisco and East Bay, this presentation reviews these

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS issues and provides a context for the geologist to conduct the appropriate level of investigation for compliance with the ATCM.

Asbestiform Glaucophane-Winchite in the Franciscan Complex of Northern California: Another Unrecognized Naturally Occurring Asbestos Formation with Probable World-Wide Occurrence Erskine, Bradley G., Kleinfelder, United States, bradley.erskine@outlook.com; Mark Bailey, mark@asbestostemlabs.com (TS #33) This paper presents the procedures and findings of a geologic and mineralogical investigation of a previously unrecognized asbestiform amphibole from blueschist in the Diablo Range in northern California. Standard geological field and investigatory techniques commonly employed on construction projects by practicing geologists and industrial hygienists were utilized, as were standard, but enhanced, laboratory techniques including petrographic analysis, polarized light microscopy (PLM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many of the testing methods are mandated by regulation for asbestos projects. The analysis of fibers in air samples show that the dominant blueschist amphibole composition ranges from glaucophane and Fe-glaucophane to Winchite and Fe-Winchite. In hand sample, blueschist amphibole exhibits a velvety luster that is characteristic of asbestos. In thin section, blueschist amphibole occurs as fibrous packets with asymmetrical fabrics typical of tectonites formed by dynamic recrystallization under shear. TEM and SEM photographs reveal a highly fibrous habit typically associated with asbestiform amphibole. Dimensional analysis reveals a mean fiber width of 0.27 microns, and lengths and aspect ratios are shorter than reported for commercial asbestos, with a mean length of 2.8 microns and mean aspect ratio of 11.5. The blueschist asbestos is not unique to the study site- the asbestiform habit was found at two other locations in the Diablo Range, suggesting that blueschist amphibole asbestos may be a characteristic of blueschist throughout the world, and rock formations containing amphibole NOA may be more common and widespread than previously thought.

Applying the OSHA Asbestos Standard for Building Materials to NOA on Excavation Projects: An Example from the Calaveras Dam Replacement Project Erskine, Bradley G., Kleinfelder, United States, bradley.erskine@outlook.com; Dan Hernandez (TS #16) The OSHA and Cal/OSHA Asbestos in Construction Standards regulate and provide requirements for disturbing and removing asbestos in buildings. Classes of work, wet methods, construction of negative pressure enclosures, demarcation of Regulated Areas, work practices, and decontamination procedures are but a few of the many subjects that are addressed, and most are not directly transferrable to an outdoor construction where NOA is disturbed during excavation. In fact, the terms rock, soil, excavation, drilling, hauling, bulldozing, and other materials, equipment, and disturbance activities common to excavation and grading sites are not mentioned. In addition, training required under the Standards such as the four AHERA certifications provide no training related to NOA. Contractors and consultants who do not have experience with large construction sites find it challenging to design and implement a NOA project when compliance is based on buildings and building materials. Using the site controls measures and personal protection and decontamination procedures established for OSHA Hazwoper sites, the Calaveras dam Replacement Project successfully implemented an OSHAcompliant program during a seven-year project that moved more than 10 million tons of NOA. This presentation summarizes the successful program elements and lessons learned during the project, including challenges related to identification and demarcation of Regulated Areas, September 2018

personal decontamination where showers are not feasible, vehicle and equipment decontamination and trackout prevention, respiratory protection and protective clothing on hot days, training, personal monitoring, and other procedures that may be useful to those who must apply the regulations to outdoor excavation projects.

Developing a GIS Tool for Infinite Slope Stability Analysis (GIS-TISSA) Escobar-Wolf, Rudiger, Michigan Technological University, United States, rpescoba@mtu.edu; Jonathon D. Sanders, jsander1@mtu.edu; Thomas Oommen, toommen@mtu.edu; Sajin Kumar, skochapp@mtu.edu (Poster) Shallow landslide occurrence in soil and regolith covered slopes are often modeled using the infinite slope model, Haneberg (2004) introduced the use of the First Order Second Moment (FOSM) method to propagate input uncertainty through the infinite slope model, further developing the model and implementing it in the PISA-m software package. Here we present an AcrPy implementation of PISA-m algorithms, which can be run from ESRI ArcMap in a fully consistent georeferenced framework, the “GIS Tool for Infinite Slope Stability Analysis” (GIS-TISSA). Users can select between different input options e.g. similar input style as for PISA-m, using an ASCII .csv parameters input file, or providing each input parameter as a raster or constant value, through the program graphic user interface. Analysis outputs include the factor of safety (Fs) mean and standard deviation estimates, the probability of failure (Fs < 1), and reliability index calculations for Fs. Seismic Newmark acceleration and displacement analysis can also be done. Verification of the code is done by replicating the results obtained with the PISA-m code within a 10-5 relative error. Monte Carlo modeling is also applied to validate GIS-TISSA outputs, showing an excellent overall correspondence. GIS-TISSA provides a user-friendly interface, particularly for those users familiar with ESRI ArcMap, fully embedded in a GIS framework and which then can be used for further analysis and visualization without having to change software platforms and do data conversions. A detailed user manual and the toolbox will be available through a forthcoming publication.

Debris Flow Barrier Protects Caltrans Hwy 152 from Shallow Landslide Evans, Sage, Maccaferri, Inc., sevans@maccaferri-usa.com; United States, Michael Koutsourais, mkouts@maccaferri-usa.com (Poster) State Route 152 (SR 152) is a California state highway that runs from Watsonville to Route 99 near the latitudinal middle of the state. Its western portion (which is also known as Pacheco Pass Road and Pacheco Pass Highway) provides access to and from Interstate 5 toward southern California and most of the San Francisco Peninsula. After exiting the large commercial developments near US 101, Route 152 consists of a single lane in each direction, with narrow shoulders, rain ditches on either side of the road, and no center dividers. This segment is a significant bottleneck for traffic traveling along Route 152 between the San Francisco Bay area and the Central Valley. In January 2017, Highway 152 was closed at Watsonville Road in Santa Clara County due to a major mudslide. This shallow, slow moving landslide was bringing full grown ponderosa pine trees, still standing, down past the shoulder of the highway. As time was of the essence to clear the road and stabilize the landslide-prone area, Caltrans identified debris flow barriers as a feasible solution to mitigate the hazard. The contractor, Access Limited, selected the Maccaferri debris flow barrier for installation. The barrier was installed approximately 20 feet upslope of Route 152. The structure was 13 feet high and 100 feet long and designed to be in place for 5 to 10 years.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS The SW 10th Place Landslide Remediation Evans, Stephen, PanGEO, Inc., United States, sevans@pangeoinc.com (TS #12) During a severe weather event in the spring of 2017, a section of SW 10th Place in Burien, Washington, failed, cutting off access to a beachfront community. The residents of the community were advised to evacuate until such time as repairs could be effected, because emergency vehicles could no longer reach them. The residents declined, and they continued to come and go to their homes by walking past the slide. PanGEO was contracted by the Southwest Beach Homeowners Association to conduct a geotechnical study of the slide and to offer remedial options. We conducted an on-site investigation consisting of two borings using a hand portable Acker drill, which we boomed into the slide zone. Based on the subsurface information and a filed developed profile of the slide, we analyzed the stability of the site using Slide 6.0 by RocScience. Based on cost analysis, we recommended reconstruction of the slope with a rock buttress. Stability analysis indicated that a slope of 1½H:1V would be required to achieve a safety factor of 1.25 for the buttress. Plans for the buttress were developed by Duncanson Company of Seattle, and work on the buttress began on August 22, 2017, with the removal of slide debris from the gut of the slide, and the excavation of a keyway into the underlying glacially consolidated soil. Remediation of the slide was completed by November 1, 2017, and access to the beach community restored.

Stability Analysis of Some Surface Excavations for Barite Exploitation in Southeastern Nigeria Ezekwesili, Ene, University of Nigeria, Nigeria, ezekwesili.ene@unn.edu.ng; Basil Okwuolisa; Chidozie P. I. Dim, Emedo Chidubem (TS #53) Exploitation of ore reserves using surface excavation requires rock cuts to remain stable over the projected mine life span due to the implications of unanticipated and uncontrolled slope failures. Such implications range from environmental effects of water resource impairment, ecosystem destruction and soil devaluation from relinquished open holes and mine spoils, and economic impacts resulting from decreased income and employment deprivation to safety of machinery and humans. These implications will be more exacerbating in regions where ores are hosted in inherently delicate, soft, fractured, and clastic rockmass. Geologic field mapping and laboratory testing techniques were used to investigate the main influencing factors that control rockmass cut performance in some excavations experiencing stability challenges for active fields as well as already mined out or abandoned excavations by forensic analyses of existing cuts and failed excavations in some barite fields of southeastern Nigeria. The results interpretations using numerical modeling and stereographic projections adduce that the stratigraphic setting, lithologic variations, structural styles and architecture and fluid dynamics in ore hosts are the key factors that influence excavation stability. These factors collaborate to trigger and sustain large scale slides and groundwater incursions in excavated pits, both of which not only escalate production cost and predict high risk in mine safety but also predicate the abandonment of the open excavations. Although excavation location is ultimately determined by the pattern and structural style of the target ore bodies, optimum design requires apt consideration of ore body morphology, stratigraphic and structural settings relative to the host rocks geologic setting and water flow dynamics. These factors are considered important reference issues in economic and safe design of the surface excavations and rehabilitation of mined regions. 122

Guatemala City Landslide Risk Evaluation and Reduction Tool Project (CERRPED) Status: Successes and Lessons Learned Faber, Ethan, BGC Engineering Inc., United States, ethan.j.faber@gmail.com; Alex Strouth, astrouth@bgcengineering.ca; Lauren Hutchinson, lhutchinson@bgcengineering.ca (TS #2) CERRPED is a project developed from 2014 to 2016 to empower members living in precarious urban settlements of Guatemala City to understand and reduce their risk to small landslides. The background, research, and methods for developing this project have been published and presented before, including at AEG’s North American Symposium on Landslides 2017 and AEG 2014 National Conference. Since the tool was handed off to the Guatemalan government in 2016, the tool has been used by one non-profit organization in a community, had its impact assessed by a Masters student, and is currently proposed to be applied in communities on the island of Fuji by a Doctoral student. However, widespread implementation in Guatemala City has stalled. This talk will explore the questions of “What barriers to implementation has CERRPED faced? How can these barriers be overcome?” and “Should more resources be invested to try and revitalize CERRPED?”

Engineers Without Borders Projects in Landslide Terrain: Engineering Geologists as “Consultants” for Non-Profit Work Faber, Ethan, BGC Engineering Inc., United States, ethan.j.faber@gmail.com; Karlee Isfeld, kisfelder@bgcengineering.ca; Alvaro Puente, apuente@bgcengineering.ca; Lauren Hutchinson, lhutchinson@bgcengineering.ca; Strouth, Alex, astrouth@ bgcengineering.ca (TS #2) Most chapters of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) are comprised of members with the common engineering disciplines (civil, environmental, mechanical, etc.) needed to implement the various technical projects on which EWB focuses. However, landslides present a unique problem that most members in EWB have no experience addressing. The EWB Denver Professional Chapter (EWB Chapter) has been working on water distribution projects in two communities in the Ecuadorian Andes region. One of the main issues affecting these two communities is severe erosion and landslides, which occur because of steep slopes, weak volcanic soils, heavy rainfall, and farming-induced vegetation removal common to this region. This presentation will describe the partnership between a private, applied earth sciences consulting firm with expertise in landslide management and the EWB Chapter to reduce the impact of landslides on the EWB projects.

Reliability-Based Robust Design of Rock Wedge Slope Using Sensitivity Index of Variability as Robustness Measure Fan, Binqiang, China University of Geosciences, China, fanbq@cug.edu.cn; Wang Liangqing, wlq027@126.com (Poster) This paper proposed a new, efficient robustness measure to address the calculation dilemma during implementing robust geotechnical design whose objectives are safety, design robustness, and cost efficiency. For the reliability-based robust design in this paper, the key is a robustness measure that can be quantifiable evaluated while the system response of concern is evaluated simultaneously so that the robust design optimization which considers the uncertainty statistical characterization of all noise factors can be effectively and efficiently performed; obviously, the sensitivity index of variability proposed herein that is derived from reliability analysis in the step of system response computation can play such a key measurement. Based on the computational coupling between robustness measure and safety, the traditional framework of the reliability-basedRGD approach is simplified. Within the simplified framework, taking design robustness and

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS cost efficiency as two objectives, the robust design optimization is conducted under satisfying the design constraint (safety) that is set up to a certain reliability index. After using NSGA-II, the result is a set of design solutions rather than a single best one because of the conflicting relationship between the two objectives, which forms a tradeoff Pareto front. Through a classical illustrative example of the design of a rock wedge slope, the magnitude un-limitation of variables and the coupling for computational efficiency and significance of this new RGD approach is demonstrated.

Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Landslides after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Consequent Changing Risk Fan, Xuanmei, State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, China, fxm_cdut@qq.com; Guillem Domènech; Gianvito Scaringi; Runqiu Huang; Qiang Xu; Lanxin Dai; Qin Yang (TS #7) Strong earthquakes in mountainous areas induce massive landslides, generating large deposits of loose and unconsolidated debris across the landscape. These deposits are highly prone to sliding again and again in the following years, triggered by rainfalls, with the movement frequently evolving into catastrophic debris flows and avalanches. This fate happened to many of the 200,000 deposits of co-seismic debris produced by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan, China. We presented one of the first studies on the evolution of these post-seismic landslides through a detailed multi-temporal inventory that covers a significant portion of the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area (462.5 km2). We quantified changes of size-frequency distribution, active volumes and types of movement. We analysed the possible factors controlling their activity and we discussed the significance of the mapping uncertainties. We observed that the total number of active landslides decreased with time sharply (from 9,189 in 2008, to 221 in 2015), and that post-seismic landsliding soon after the earthquake (2008–11) occurred stochastically with respect to the size of the coseismic deposits. Subsequently (2011–15), landslide rates remained higher in larger deposits than in smaller ones, particularly in proximity to the drainage network, with channelised flows becoming comparatively more frequent than hillslope slides. However, most of the coseismic debris remained along the hillslopes and it is largely stabilised, urging to rethink the way we believe that seismic activity affects the denudation of mountain ranges. Using the multi-temporal inventory of the landslides after the Wenchuan earthquake and investigation of changing elements at risk, we evaluate the consequent changing risk.

Snow Avalanches, Rockfall, and Wild Game: Repairing Rockfall Attenuator Systems in Sawtooth National Recreation Area, ID Farny, Nicholas J., FHWA-Western Federal Lands, douglas.a.anderson@dot.gov; Todd Butikofer, todd.butikofer@dot.gov; Boyan Dobrev, DobrevB@wsdot.wa.gov; Nicholas J. Farny, nicholas.farny@dot.gov (TS #34) In 2013 through 2015, a series of midslope, flexible rockfall impact attenuator systems, utilizing the Washington State Department of Transportation standard design, were designed and constructed along a 1.3-mile, rockfall-prone stretch of US 75 in Custer County, Idaho by the FHWA-Western Federal Lands Highway Division (WFLHD) and their consultant, Cornforth Consultants, Inc. These rockfall attenuator systems are located along the Wild and Scenic Designated Salmon River corridor within the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. During the winter of 2016–17, the area received a 30-year snow pack with approximately 6 to 8 feet of snow before a rapid warming triggered region-wide snow avalanches in February, causing up to week-long closures of the highways leading into and out of Stanley, Idaho. Along the September 2018

stretch of the recently constructed rockfall attenuator systems, elk and deer grazing on the slopes above triggered a series of snow avalanches that damaged or destroyed several attenuator systems, but in some cases the forensic analyses of the damaged and destroyed structures suggested that creep pressure of the abnormally heavy snowpack also caused damaged to the attenuator systems. With emergency funding through FHWA and the Idaho Department of Transportation, WFLHD visited the sites in the summer of 2017 to evaluate the damage and to design repairs to the attenuator systems. This visit and subsequent analysis lead to several improvements to the original design that are intended to increase the resiliency of rockfall impact attenuator systems to both rockfall events and snow-creep pressures. The new design elements and repairs will be constructed in the summer of 2018.

Utilization of the Unstable Slope Management Program for FHWA-Western Federal Lands Projects Farny, Nicholas J., FHWA-Western Federal Lands, United States, nicholas.farny@dot.gov; Nathan Jenks, nathan.jenks@dot.gov (TS #12) Transportation corridors for roads and trails on United States’ federal lands contain numerous unstable slopes—both natural and manmade. These slopes range from simple maintenance nuisances to serious problems that can cause loss of life, injury, property damage, and can limit access to public and private lands. Consistent with federal efforts for asset management and risk reduction, many transportation agencies are moving towards proactive risk management strategies to partially, or fully mitigate unstable slopes. The Unstable Slope Management Program for Federal Land Management Agencies (USMP for FLMAs) was developed to assist in assessment and management of unstable slopes on federal lands using methods based on transportation asset management practices. The USMP incorporates standardized rating and tracking forms, a database and GIS-based map with searching and reporting capabilities, an assortment of benefit/cost analysis tools, and a quantitative risk analysis procedure. The result is a flexible and scalable tool that provides a proactive approach to inventorying, assessing, and prioritizing unstable slopes. The USMP has been implemented in several projects at Western Federal Lands, including both road and trail corridor projects at the planning and project delivery level for a variety of partners. Specific examples include Cleetwood Cove Trail at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon, and Icicle Creek Road in OkanoganWenatchee National Forest, Washington. These projects have provided Western Federal Lands with insights and lessons learned on the utilization of the USMP. These include how to adequately represent various situations with the USMP, such as forest damping of rockfall, recreational climber activity on unstable slopes, transportation corridors with varying annual average daily traffic values, and rockfall at trail switchbacks.

Reducing Landslides on Steep Streamside Slopes through Improved Timber Retention Prescriptions Fehrenbach, Anne, Green Diamond Resource Company, United States, annie.Fehrenbach@greendiamond.com; Jason Woodward, JWoodward@greendiamond.com (Poster) Within Northern California, mass wasting events on land managed for timber were historically very prevalent. One area highly sensitive to slope failure in this region is the steep streamside slope (SSS). In previous decades these sensitive areas were not protected, and management techniques resulted in extensive ground disturbance and landsliding. Efforts to reduce erosion and sediment delivery to aquatic habitats resulted in the implementation of laws and regulations such

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS as the California Forest Practice Rules (FPR) in 1973, Watercourse and Lake Protection rules in 1983 and the Threatened and Impaired (T&I) rule package in the early 2000s. Additionally, in 2006 Green Diamond Resource Company (GDRCo) adopted an Aquatic Habitat Conservation Plan (AHCP) in agreement with National Marine Fisheries Service and United States Fish and Wildlife Service, which provides even more stringent regulations on timber harvest activities in areas sensitive to mass wasting, including steep streamside slopes. Specifically, SSS buffers were designed to reduce management related landsliding in these sensitive areas. The SSS buffers were established in 2006 and reevaluated in 2014, and are designed specifically for individual Hydrographic Planning Areas (HPAs). Effectiveness monitoring of these areas is an ongoing project that involves spatially distributed random sampling of the SSS protection zones that have been implemented during Timber Harvest Planning. The selected areas are reviewed periodically for renewed landslide activity. Our preliminary investigation has demonstrated that our SSS zones are effectively reducing landslide activity, as we have seen only 4 post-harvest slides compared to 48 pre-harvest slides observed in these same sample areas, and only one of the 4 post-harvest slides has been attributed to management related activities.

Seepage Investigation along the South Bay Aqueduct at Mile Post 7.61 in Livermore, California Feigelson, Leah, DWR, United States, Leah.Feigelson@water.ca.gov; Roy Kroll, Roy.Kroll@water.ca.gov; Rob Barry, Rob.Barry@water.ca.gov (Poster) The Department of Water Resources (DWR), Project Geology section was notified of concerns of possible seepage along the South Bay Aqueduct (SBA), Livermore Valley Canal, at approximate Mile Post (MP) 7.61. The adjacent farm property owner was concerned that the SBA seeps water onto his property. The property is located downslope and southwest of the SBA at MP 7.61, south of Interstate I-580, in Livermore, California. Project Geology conducted a seepage investigation that included a review of previous DWR reports, aerial photograph interpretation, geologic fault map review, and a site inspection. The findings from the investigation concluded that the site appeared to be wet prior to SBA construction, and the water did not appear to be a result of the SBA seeping into the adjacent farm property. The water on the farm property is likely a result of rainfall ponding against the active Greenville fault in the area at MP 7.61, where there is a topographic depression, possibly creating a fault related sag pond.

Anisotropy of Volumetric Strain and Permeability in Hard Sandstones under Triaxial Stress Conditions Feitosa Menezes, Flora, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, flora.menezes@student.uni-halle.de; Christof Lempp, christof.lempp@geo.uni-halle.de, Tom H. Huber (Poster) Volumetric strain and permeability are strictly interconnected properties and important controlling parameters for deformation patterns in rock masses. Under reservoir conditions, stresses may be highly inhomogeneous and anisotropic, leading to porosity changes and consequently affecting fluid flow. Therefore, it turns out be a challenging issue in rock mechanics to evaluate volume change based on traditional soil mechanics background, originally intended for soft materials under low and mostly isotropic pressures. In this respect, we carried out triaxial compression tests to describe the interplay between effective porosity, volume change and permeability of two hard sandstones by quantifying porefluid (water) volume change with fully water saturated rock specimens (14 cm length and 7 cm radius). We investigated the greyish Trendelburg beds, a silica cemented subarkose 124

Bunter Sandstone of Triassic age (porosity of ca. 12%), and the redbrownish Rotliegend Sandstone (Bebertal), a carbonate and silica cemented sandstone of Permian age, clearly less porous (ca. 6% of effective porosity) and less permeable (3.5 x 10-10 m/s) than the Bunter Sandstone. As both sandstones are clearly layered, we consider the directions parallel and perpendicular to bedding as planes of anisotropy. Peak strength and peak compression were evaluated after the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, by which we observed a pronounced brittle behavior influenced by coring direction in both sandstones. Permeability and volumetric strain are also directionally anisotropic. For both materials, increasing porefluid pressure leads to an earlier microcracking stage, which induces a more pronounced dilatant behaviour and therefore decreases compressive strength. In order to frame physical with mechanical properties better, sandstones were compared to rocks with pronounced plastic behavior, such as the Opalinus Clay and Keuper mudstones (Stuttgart Formation) in the same experimental approach.

Failure Mechanism of The Lotus Pond Landslide: A Relict Landslide from Large-Scale Cataclinal Slope Failure in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China❋ Feng, Zhen, Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China, fengzhencgs@126.com; Tiangui Zhang, 410709072@qq.com; Bin Li, 52572706@qq.com; Kai He, 492644728@qq.com (TS #50) Under influence of tectonic movement and river undercut, large-scale cataclinal slopes, on which bedding dip is in the same direction as the slope, are widely distributed in the Three Gorges Reservoir area of China. Relict landslides from these massive rock slope failure is universal on the banks of the Yangtze River, such as the Lotus Pond Landslide. The volume of Lotus Pond landslide is approximately 90 Mm3 and maximum depth of depleted mass reaches up to 115 m at the toe. Based on field investigation and geological survey, this paper presents characteristics and failure mechanism of the Lotus Pond landslide. Unlike translational slide in most cataclinal slopes, the Lotus Pond landslide illustrates successive and composite movements of displaced mass. Buckling failure occurred in the lower part of the slope and provided open air for translational slide in the middle part. The controversial upper part is most likely a toe-break translational slide by cutting through bedding rock mass. The aging tests showed that three successive slides took place about 4.7~13 million years ago, and each slide were in agreement with warm climatic periods. Rainfall and gravitational creep may be the main reasons for landslide initiation.

Surface Rupture Hazard Zonation: Lessons from Recent New Zealand Earthquakes❋ Fenton, Clark, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, clark.fenton@canterbury.ac.nz; Natalie Hyland natalie.hyland@pg. canterbury.ac.nz; Blake Hoare, blh40@uclive.ac.nz (TS #48) Engineered structures crossing active faults are vulnerable to damage during surface faulting earthquakes (e.g. Darfield 2010; Kaikoura 2016). The design and location of mitigation measures to counteract fault rupture requires detailed knowledge of the location of the active fault traces, fault geometry, including the width of the fault zone at the surface, and the distribution of strain within the fault zone. The current understanding of fault geometry and displacement profiles is based on predominantly subsurface data through essentially isotropic ground conditions. Although empirical relationships among fault parameters, such as rupture length, earthquake magnitude and average or maximum displacement, can be used to characterize potential surface rupture hazard for an entire fault zone, the behavior of a fault at a specific

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS location, as is required for engineering design, can be harder to forecast. For hazard planning and front-end engineering design, rupture zonation is a useful approach (e.g., NZ Ministry for the Environment; California’s Alquist-Priolo Zonation maps). To produce meaningful fault rupture zonation maps requires an integration of data on tectonic geomorphology, paleoseismology, and both crustal and near-surface fault geometry. The results of detailed surface rupture mapping, lidar image interpretation and shallow geophysical investigations following the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake are used to highlight some of the problems in determining potential fault rupture hazard zones. Existing zonation approaches are evaluated in light of this complex, multi-fault rupture. Rather than define narrow prescriptive fault avoidance zones, a better approach is to develop a broader zonation that highlight areas where there is the need for detailed fault rupture mitigation studies to be performed for all significant developments.

Fault-Landslide Interactions: Examples from the 2016 M7.8 “Kaik ura,” New Zealand, Earthquake❋ Fenton, Clark, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, clark.fenton@canterbury.ac.nz; Natalie Hyland, natalie.hyland@pg.canterbury.ac.nz; Mark Gray, mrg77@uclive.ac.nz; James Smith, jas351@uclive.ac.nz (Poster) The surface rupture generated by the 14th November 2016 M7.8 ‘Kaik ura’ earthquake ruptured multiple faults over a distance of approximately 200 km. The southern extent of the rupture in northern Canterbury displays a remarkable complexity of rupture style, geometry and surface expression. Much of the surface trace is closely associated with a number of large, complex mechanism coseismic landslides. The spatial proximity of landslides and fault rupture through a region of elevated topography has resulted in areas where the determination of the origin of surface deformation features becomes difficult. The identification of primary fault rupture is vital for surface rupture hazard determination, especially for the development of fault avoidance and setback zones. We present the results of detailed field investigations showing the relationships between primary and secondary surface faulting and areas of slope failure. The geomorphological characteristics of each deformation mechanism are discussed, and approaches to developing criteria for distinguishing the origin of upland surface deformation are presented.

Action Research to Enhance Student Engagement in Geotechnical Engineering❋ Ferentinou, Maria, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, mferentinou@uj.ac.za; Zach Simpson (Poster) In recent decades, much attention has been given to students’ classroom participation, with many academics and institutions arguing that the traditional lecture format is no longer conducive to student learning in higher education. This has prompted much investigation into alternative methods of teaching, including: online learning, flipped classroom approaches, and myriad others. Engineering educators, specifically, face varied challenges regarding provision of quality instruction, and their efforts are bounded by diminishing credit hours, increased workload, programme accreditation bodies, assessment, and decreased student engagement. This research takes places in a large university in Johannesburg, South Africa, where student exam results, as well as feedback obtained through teaching and module evaluations, indicate that undergraduate students lacked interest in geotechnical engineering and felt that course content was poorly communicated. In order to address these concerns, this study applies an action research methodology aimed at enhancing student engagement in geotechnical engineering study. Action research is a cyclical approach to research, September 2018

in which a series of interventions are designed, implemented and assessed, before being re-designed. Generally, a number of such iterations are undertaken. In this study, these interventions were aimed at improving teaching practice, enhancing student satisfaction, instilling confidence within the students, and improving the teaching and learning experience for both the lecturer and students. The interventions designed include: in-class participation, interactive lecturing, strategies to relate current learning to future practice, increased use of software applications, and weekly quizzes. The interventions were assessed through student surveys, teaching evaluations, and the lecturer’s personal reflection journal. In this paper, the results of the first iteration of this action research are presented, wherein the preliminary results are encouraging regarding increased student engagement in geotechnical engineering study.

A Coastal Sensitivity Index Assessment of KwaZulu-Natal, East Coast of South Africa❋ Ferentinou, Maria, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, mferentinou@uj.ac.za; Shanganlall Arissa, ashanganlall@gmail.com; Efthimios Karymbalis, karymbalis@hua.gr; Alan Smith, asconsulting@telkomsa.net (TS #8) The KwaZulu-Natal coastline on the east coast of South Africa is one of the most densely populated coastlines in Africa and has been subjected to human developments over the last 18 years. In recent years, extreme coastal events, due to a rapidly changing climate have caused much damage along the coast and are predicted to increase in intensity and frequency with the rise in eustatic sea-level. Therefore, assessing the coastal susceptibility in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) attempts to identify the most sensitive locations along the coast to anticipated sealevel rise and related coastal hazards. This study discusses the application of the Coastal Susceptibility Index, which incorporates and ranks six physical variables, namely: geomorphology, coastal slope, historical shoreline change rate, significant wave height, mean tide range, and relative sea-level rise, to calculate the CSI. This information was displayed based on quartiles, indicating sections of the coastline with a very high, high, moderate or low susceptibility. The majority (34.33%) of the studied KZN is ranked as high susceptibility. More than half the coast (56.72 %) is characterized as highly and very highly sensitive, primarily due to the susceptible geological landforms, low lying topography, high erosion rates and a highly significant wave height. The study provides a framework for decision-makers to prioritize coastal zones that require enhanced natural resilience and adopt appropriate management strategies within the study area.

Rockfall Hazard Assessment at the World Heritage Site of Giants Castle Main Camp, Drakensberg, South Africa❋ Ferentinou, Maria, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, mferentinou@uj.ac.za (TS #26) The Drakensberg, is a steep, mountainous terrain, where rockfalls hazard widely occurs along the slopes of the V-shaped valleys, threatening mountain ecotourism. Rock fall events often responsible for casualties, have occurred in the past and they do occur sporadically in that mountain range. Rockfall accumulation zones, talus zone, in medium and local scale, were mapped, and a data set of 208 rockfall boulders was developed. According to the findings of this study, the predominant failure mechanism propagating to rockfalls is wedge failure. The falling blocks measured size range from (1m3 to 4 * 10m3 size); the shape for the majority of the blocks is either cube or prism. A good agreement between the measured cumulative distribution and a fit by a power-law distribution, for volumes larger than 20m3 and 50m3, is identified. The rockfall trajectory paths and envelopes,

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS maximum run-out distances, involved kinetic energies, and rockfall velocities were estimated, running 2D rockfall analysis. CONEFALL, a pseudo 3D analysis tool based on the shadow angle principle, was applied, to account for the lateral disperse of the falling blocks. The outcome of the rockfall analyses revealed that falling blocks would reach the Giants Castle Main Camp. A qualitative risk assessment was undertaken delineating zones of different risk level within the studied area. Flexible protective measures, such as barriers and mesh installation are proposed to mitigate rockfall hazard, and ultimately reduce the risk of rockfall to life and property at Giants Castle main camp.

Earth Fissures and Infrastructure: A Case History at the Siphon Draw Detention Basin, Central Arizona❋ Fergason, Kenneth, Amec Foster Wheeler, United States, ken.fergason@amecfw.com; Michael Rucker, michael.rucker@amecfw.com (TS #37) The Siphon Draw Wash (SDW) Detention Basin in Apache Junction, Arizona, provides a unique opportunity to observe the impact of an actively propagating earth fissure. Earth fissures were first identified in the area in the 1990s. In the mid-2000s, plans were developed to construct a basin to provide flood control along Siphon Draw Wash. A series of land subsidence and earth fissure investigations were performed as part of the design process for the SDW Detention Basin. During investigations, the Southwestern Earth Fissure (SWEF) extended over 200 feet overnight following a rain event. Later during the investigation a trench located at the termination of the fissure extension was flooded by another rain event. The SWEF extension terminated just upstream of the boundary of the basin. It was determined that the consequence of failure of the basin due to the earth fissure was low enough that avoidance wasn’t necessary. However, it was decided to implement some mitigation. Mitigation strategies included constructing two, slurry cut-off walls along the fissure extension, placing an embankment over the fissure extension, and a placing geomembrane liner in part of the basin. Construction of the SDW Detention Basin and Meridian Channel was completed in 2010. An annual monitoring program has been implemented that includes evaluation of satellite-based interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR), real-time kinematic GPS survey, analysis of high-resolution aerial imagery, and annual ground inspection.

Mitigation Strategies and Engineering Solutions for Infrastructure at Risk from Earth Fissures❋ Fergason, Kenneth, Amec Foster Wheeler, United States, k en.fergason@amecfw.com; Michael Rucker, michael.rucker@amecfw.com (TS#37) Land subsidence can severely impact infrastructure and alter existing flood-plain designations by changing the ground elevation, ground slope (gradient), and through the development of ground cracks known as earth fissures that can erode into large gullies. Mitigation strategies and engineering solutions for infrastructure at risk from earth fissures are not widely available in existing literature. Guidance on mitigation strategies intending to reduce the level of risk associated with the infrastructure exposed to earth fissure hazards has been developed. The following options are intentionally flexible, allowing the design team can develop solutions that conform to the risk tolerance of stakeholders. • Inadequate review of project design and spillway geology as part of project iHigh Hazard Areas (earth fissures known to be present). Avoidance and/or significant engineered mitigation solutions. • Moderate Hazard Areas (earth fissures could be present or develop in the future). Consider avoidance or implement 126

engineered mitigation efforts such as structural elements and/or subsidence and earth fissure monitoring. • Low Hazard Areas (earth fissures unlikely to be present or to develop in the future). Typical safety monitoring and maintenance for the infrastructure type. Several engineering solutions have been designed and constructed throughout the Southwestern USA. These solutions are dependent on the consequence of failure for the infrastructure at risk and include a variety of design goals, such as prevention of catastrophic failure, reduction of maintenance needs, and monitoring of the hazard. Constructed engineering solutions include monitoring instrumentation, surface water diversion, cut-off walls, geotextile encapsulating aggregate ‘burrito’ wrap, structurally reinforced embankments, reinforcement of engineered fill, reinforced concrete lining, and geotextile liners.

Study of Hungarian Rocks Regarding Potential Reactivity to Alkalis❋ Fernandes, Isabel, Faculty of Sciences University of Lisbon, Portugal, mifernandes@fc.ul.pt; Akos Török, torokakos@mail.bme.hu (Presented by Ákos Török) (TS #5) The durability of concrete can be affected due to internal reactions between the alkalis of the cement paste and certain forms of silica present in the aggregates. Petrographic examination provides a useful tool to assess the alkali reactivity of aggregates. In the present work, Hungarian stones that are used as aggregates were analyzed for alkali reactivity. Sandstone, two granitic rocks, one andesite and one diabase were studied using petrographic microscopy in order to identify the presence of potentially reactive forms of silica and to classify these rocks accordingly. Complementary methods such as scanning electron microscopy and electron micro-probe analysis were also applied. Our results confirm that all studied rocks, except diabase, contain silica that has a potential of alkali reaction. Hence analyzed rocks are classified to Class II from the alkali reactivity point of view, while diabase is in Class I.

2D Horizontal Landslide Displacement Estimation by Multitemporal Image Correlation❋ Fernández, Paz, University of Granada, Spain, pazferol@ugr.es; Jesus Garrido, jega@ugr.es; Jose Delgado, jose.delgado@ua.es (TS #4) Geomatic techniques based on digital images have become a very useful tool for landslide monitoring, quantifying landslide movements over a long period of time. One of these techniques is based on digital image correlation. Digital image correlation estimates 2D displacements by means of statistical techniques, automatically matching identical points in the two digital images. It may be applied using remote sensing or aerial images. Digital image correlation has been applied to multi-temporal aerial photographs at the Cerro Gordo landslide (Granada, Spain), which is badly affecting an urbanized area. This landslide consists of a main deep slide and several minor shallow slides, located around the head scarp or affecting some parts of the main landslide body. Slides involve existing landfills used for urban works as well as in situ materials (colluvial deposits and weathered schists). The period under study (2002–10) has been divided into four subperiods of approximately two years each. Results provide horizontal displacement in the landslide area and surroundings, which allow assessment of the landslide movement evolution at different stages according to triggering factors and structural measures that were carried out to stabilize the affected area. Over the period of 2002–04, displacement rates varied from 2–6 cm, meanwhile for the periods of 2004–06 and 2006–08 displacements continued with 4–6 cm rates. Then, the

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS period of 2008–10 generally shows a higher activity with more areas showing 6 cm displacement rates. Surface observations of these periods go along with both location and direction of displacements as shown by the results of digital image correlation techniques. Image correlation results have provided with very useful information to understand the complex movements of the landslide as well as the effectiveness of the structural measures implemented.

Quarried Serpentine Aggregate as Plausible End-User Causes of Mesothelioma Fitzgerald, Sean, Research & Legal Services Scientific Analytical Institute, United States, sfitzgerald@sailab.com (Poster) Although asbestos is no longer mined in the US, asbestos is still shoveled from the earth, processed, and sold under many guises. Reviewing that statement many would think of asbestos as a contamination of other resources, such as vermiculite or talc (as we have spent a good deal of our time and efforts on those two especially, and the potential for inclusion of asbestos now well-recognized). This presentation however, the asbestos being included in mined products is the very host rock itself of most of the asbestos in the world: Serpentinite, as crushed aggregate for road construction, where serpentine deposits are currently being mined intentionally for use as gravel. One farming extensively serpentinized mafics between the Melones and Bear Mountain fault zones near the famous California Motherlode belt, in and the other in Paleozoic ultramafics of the mid-Atlantic. In both quarries, rocks containing both chrysotile and asbestiform amphiboles have been repeatedly found. Further, exposure to dust from the resulting gravel has been attributed to mesothelioma causes: rock truck drivers afflicted in the east, and end-users of somewhat surprising occupations and exposure paths from the gravel in the west. I have been to both quarries and will provide first-hand accounts and photographic confirmation of asbestos in both open quarries, as well as present previous geological and EPA studies relevant to the sites. EPA studies confirm my own findings where gravel from the plaintiffs is consistent with rock from the quarries, and has proven capable of releasing airborne asbestos, both amphibole and chrysotile varieties. Also, ASTM sampling and dust sample protocols were implemented to correlate source-rock asbestos and other mineral particulate.

Landslide Total Susceptibility Modeling❋ Flentje, Phil, University of Wollongong, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, pflentje@uow.edu.au; David Stirling, stirling@uow.edu.au; Darshika Palamakumbure, dp770@uowmail.edu.au (TS #21) This paper discusses the progress of landslide susceptibility modelling of the Sydney Basin study area within the state of NSW in Eastern Australia. The University of Wollongong Landslide Inventory that represents the entire Sydney Basin study area includes 1,840 landslides (132 falls, 273 flows, and 1,435 slides) to date. The Sydney Basin study area region extends from Newcastle in the north to Batemans Bay in the south and west to include the Blue Mountains, an area of 36,225 square kilometres in NSW, Australia. The Australian Bureau of Statistics and the 2011 census data reports that the population within this area is 5.4 million people, approximately one quarter of the population of Australia. After compiling major datasets for the entire Sydney Basin study area, individual susceptibility models for both slide category and flow category landslides have been developed. Rockfall Susceptibility models have now also been developed for large portions of the Wollongong Local Government Area. The authors see the susceptibility models are suitable for use at local scale Advisory level Local Government Area Development Control Plans. As the models now cover the September 2018

three dominant landslide types identified within the landslide inventory, it has now been possible to consider the development of a Total Landslide Susceptibility model. As each individual landslide susceptibility model is a 10m pixel resolution floating point numerical grid, with values ranging from 0 to 1, the total susceptibility model has been developed, quite simply, by summing the three individual models, producing a 10m pixel resolution Total Susceptibility floating point numerical grid with values ranging from 0 to 3. However, classifying this grid into zones is not simple. Furthermore, the regulatory outcomes are complex involving a spatial query of the total susceptibility grid, and also its three contributing landslide susceptibility grids.

Engineering Geological, Geotechnical and Geohazard Modeling for Offshore Abu Dhabi, UAE❋ Fourniadis, Yannia, Arup, United Kingdom, yannis.fourniadis@arup.com; Matthew Free, matthew.Free@arup.com; Esad Porovic, esad.Porovic@arup.com; Jason Manning, jason.Manning@arup.com; Richard Lagesse, richard.lagesse@arup.com; Ricky Terrington, rte@bgs.ac.uk; Andrew Farrant, arf@bgs.ac.uk; Tarek Omar, tomar@adma.ae (Presented by Matthew Free) (Poster) This paper presents the development of an engineering geological, geotechnical and geohazard models for four oil and gas fields offshore of Abu Dhabi in the Arabian Gulf. The purpose of the model was to characterize the shallow ground conditions for the design of offshore platforms and other infrastructure. The model was developed based on the interpretation of nearly 60 years of ground engineering data including vast amount of boreholes, laboratory test results and cone penetration tests. Carbonate-rich sediments dominate the shallow geology of Abu Dhabi offshore region. The main lithological units of Miocene to Pleistocene age comprise weak carbonate rocks, calcarenite and calcisiltite, with frequent lenses and pockets of gypsum. These units are overlain by recent carbonate marine deposits. The geological models for the region were developed using the software package GSI3D™. Geostatistical methods were applied in the treatment of geo-logical uncertainty in the model, and the analysis of the associated geotechnical design recommendations. The model also includes a detailed review of local and regional natural hazards, including seismic and submarine geohazards, with the potential to affect existing and proposed offshore infrastructure. Interrogation of the model enables effective decision-making on oil and gas development issues related to offshore ground investigation for the siting of new developments. This model can allow these works to be optimized at the advanced stages of planning, saving on time, cost and significantly reducing health, safety and environmental risks.

Regional Susceptibility Modeling Using Multiple Methods, with an Example from Boulder County, Colorado Frazier, Julia, Cesare, Inc., jfrazier@cesareinc.com; Alexander Ivey, lex@terracognito.com (TS #4) After an extreme rain and flood event devastated parts of Colorado in September 2013, the Boulder County Planning Department took a proactive step towards updating geologic hazard datasets and maps. The geologic, topographic and geomorphic diversity across Boulder County required the application of multiple modeling methodologies. A series of geologic hazard susceptibility datasets were produced by coupling machine learning with hazard inventories, geologic data, lidar, and other high-resolution remote sensing datasets. Landslide susceptibility was modeled by analyzing a mapped landslide inventory and multiple predisposing factors using the Modified Information Value (MIV) method (Wang et al, 2015). The MIV method is data-driven and objectively quantifies the predictive power of each predisposing factor by

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS analyzing the prevalence within each landslide class compared to that within the entire study area. Predisposing factors for landslides included slope angle, terrain ruggedness index, slope height, topography-bedding angle, geology, topographic wetness index, and root strength index. Debris flow and rockfall susceptibility models were produced through logistic regression (LR) analysis and the Gravitational Process Path (GPP) method (Wichmann, 2017). For debris flow susceptibility modeling, LR analysis was applied to 841 shallow landslide and debris flow scarps mapped by the USGS after the September 2013 rain event along with a set of nine predictor variables. LR was also used to derive rockfall source zones using training points selected from high-resolution ortho-imagery in conjunction with a set of predictor variables. The GPP method was then applied to the results of the LR analysis for both debris flow and rockfall to model the initiation and runout zones for each gravitational phenomenon. The outcomes of this effort will be used to support land use planning and site review processes, and to help determine appropriate site-specific studies throughout Boulder County.

and addressed accordingly to reduce the financial impact on the owner. Rehabilitation included slip lining the multilevel intake and installing new outlet pipes, demolishing the existing spillway and installing a new pipe spillway on the left abutment, and constructing filters and drains below a downstream stability berm. Analyses included 1) two-dimensional settlement analysis was performed to evaluate potential settlement of the existing outlet pipe below the stability berm, 2) finite-element seepage modeling to size filters and drains, and 3) stability modeling that included consideration of residual strength in the claystone bedrock, three-dimensional influences from the irregular downstream geometry, and artesian pressure in the foundation. Construction was performed with the reservoir nearly full, and parts of the work were modified and sequenced based on observed conditions during construction. The rehabilitation was completed in 2014. This paper discusses the evaluations, challenges and associated remedies during construction and a summary of post construction performance.

OR 242 Burma – A Challenging Oregon Mélange Landslide, Coos County, Oregon

Fu, Sheng, China University of Geosciences, China, cug_fusheng@cug.edu.cn; Yong XU, 651369246@qq.com; Kunlong YIN, yinkl@126.com; Lixia CHEN*, lixiachen@cug.edu.cn; Xin LIANG, 413720362@qq.com (TS #35) Landslide hazard assessment has been emphasized by land planners and policy makers in the mountainous urban cities. However, landslide risk management progress has been largely impacted by hazard assessment in Cili, west Hunan Province, China. It is difficult to obtain basic database in a regional scale area, and with low accuracy result. The paper aims to realize landslide hazard by applying TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope stability) model, based on several geological factors (soil depth, water table depth, and so on) in Cili City. Firstly, the paper attained 65 geological units (with 80% training data and 20% testing data) to simulate the distribution of soil depth by applying maximum likelihood estimation method, with six factors including elevation, slope, aspect, curvature, wetness index and soil. Secondly, several parameters were set for the TRIGRS model, such as rainfall intensity, which was set as 71.0mm and 145.6mm per day, according to landslide occurrences in July 2015 and July 2013.The case study was considered into unsaturated flow for estimating infiltration at the ground surface. The paper computed the changes of transient pore water pressure and the factor of safety during the rainfall infiltration based a simple infinite-slope model. Finally, landslide hazard was achieved after three rainfall scenarios determination, considering the combination of rainfall intensity and duration. The paper concluded that the efficiency of landslide hazard simulation was enhanced by the regional estimation of soil thickness and the depth of water table, comparing the landslide hazard result based on the statistics model. With the increasing of rainfall, the factor of safety declined, especially on the slopes with historical landslides. The results can be used for landslide risk reduction and early warning in rainfall days in Cili, China.

Freitag, George, GRI, United States, gfreitag@gri.com; Chris Ell, cell@gri.com (TS #15) OR 242 is a 900–1400 ADT road in southern Coos County, Oregon and is a main transportation connection for the community of Powers and access into the Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest. Near MP 8, OR 242 was constructed across the lower portion of the Burma Landslide, a very large, active complex on the order of 2,700 ft in length, 1,000 ft in width, and over 0.2 sq mi in area. The landslide occurs in an area mapped as Otter Point Formation (Jurassic/Cretaceous), part of the Franciscan Complex. Burma is located about 10 miles south of the northern outcrop limit of the Franciscan in Oregon. A linear spring band is present near the landslide crown on the Whobrey Mountain upland at about elevation 750 ft. The landslide toes out in the South Fork of the Coquille River at about elevation 60 ft OR 242 has undergone at least two realignments since 1936 and abandoned sections of highway are present downslope of the existing road. The most active portion of the landslide affects about 650 ft of road, with landslide debris generally clayey silt with gravel. At the road, inclinometers show compound shear zones around 28 and 65 ft depth. The landslide debris overlies block in matrix rock material (mélange) generally consisting of highly sheared siltstone with varying amounts of sand-to boulder-sized sandstone fragments. Mitigation options being considered to reduce roadway maintenance include surface water management, trench/horizontal drains, toe scour protection, a tied-back soldier pile wall, and ground-anchored bearing pads.

Rehabilitation of North Lake Dam Friend, Ed, RJH Consultants, Inc., United States, efriend@rjh-consultants.com; Kevin Mininger, kmininger@rjh-consultants.com (TS #10) North Lake Dam is a high-hazard embankment dam about 600 feet long and 70 feet high, built in 1964 about 35 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado in Las Animas County. Concentrated seepage through the right abutment has been observed since the 1970s and numerous dam safety issues were identified in the following years, including seepage stability, slope stability, outlet works deterioration, and spillway deterioration. The existing dam embankment did not have filters or an internal drainage system and the spillway was built over the maximum section of the dam and suffered from settlement and concrete damage. The rehabilitation was performed in several phases over a period of about 15 years. Dam safety issues were prioritized 128

Hazard Assessment of Rainfall-induced Shallow Landslides in Cili, China

Addressing Subsidence in Bangkok, Thailand and Houston, Texas: Scientific Comparisons and Data-Driven Groundwater Policies for Coastal Land-Surface Subsidence❋ Fuangswasdi, Aranya, aranya.f@dgr.mail.go.th; Surin Worakijthamrong, worakij_s@yahoo.com; Sachin D. Shah, sdshah@usgs.gov (Presented by Sachin D. Shah and Surin Worakijthamrong) (TS #31) Land-subsidence in coastal regions of the world is a common occurrence. In large metropolitan areas such as Bangkok, Thailand, and Houston, Texas, land subsidence occurs as a direct result of ground-

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS water withdrawals for municipal supply, industrial use, and irrigation that depressurize and dewater aquifers. The pressure change is reflected by water level declines in wells as the pressure decreases in the aquifer-system. The impacts of subsidence are exacerbated in both cities because of flat, low-lying topography and the presence of unconsolidated clay layers within the aquifer sediments. The compaction of these sediments leads to land-surface subsidence, increasing flooding risk and infrastructure and engineering problems. The aquifers in Bangkok are divided into eight water-bearing units with the Upper Bangkok aquifer (20 to 30 m thick) being the principal aquifer. In the Houston region, two primary aquifers, the Chicot and Evangeline (200 and 500 m thick, respectively), comprise the Gulf Coast aquifer system and are susceptible to compaction, with 111.13 cm and 47.98 cm of cumulative compaction recorded at the Addicks and Seabrook extensometers. Scientific advancements in data collection and analysis has helped policymakers implement various groundwater management strategies as populations increase. Both the Thailand Department of Groundwater Resources and US Geological Survey have more than 40 years of subsidence data to compare how data is collected and analyzed within their respective areas. This paper illustrates scientific efforts to study subsidence in Bangkok and Houston by correlating long-term groundwater withdrawals, sediment compaction, and population data as drivers to groundwater policy changes.

Slope Monitoring at Oroville Dam Spillway – Ground-Based Radar, UAV Photogrammetry, and Boots on the Ground Fuemmeler, Stephen J., Appalachian Landslide Consultants, PLLC, United States, Stephen@appalachianlandslide.com; Jennifer B. Bauer, jennifer@appalachianlandslide.com; Michael Gray, mgray@lettisci.com (TS #36) The reconstruction efforts of the Oroville Dam Spillway in Oroville, California, led to the need to construct many temporary fill slopes on the site for equipment pads and access roads. Due to the scale of the site, and around-the-clock construction schedules, CA Department of Water Resources (DWR) requested monitoring of the stability of constructed and natural slopes on the site. To facilitate monitoring such a large area, a terrestrial interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) was used in conjunction with photogrammetry and field-based observations. The radar instrumentation used was an IDS GeoRadar IBIS-FM interferometric radar that was located approximately 4,000 feet away from the spillway, and has a horizontal scanning angle of 80 degrees. The radar data was collected and processed in IDS GeoRadar’s IBIS Guardian software. Precipitation data obtained from DWR’s Oroville Dam (ORO) weather station for significant rain events was entered into Guardian to analyze the correlation between rain events and displacement data. Imagery and terrain data, generated from UAV photogrammetry, were used as a base layer for displaying displacement data in ESRI’s ArcMap and ArcGlobe. Displacement graphs (generated using the Guardian software) along with maps (generated using ESRI’s software) indicating displacement were used to direct and prioritize field inspections by site geologists on a daily basis. Geologists reported back with field observations related to any slopes indicating displacement. Radar and field data indicated that the non-engineered fill slopes are highly responsive to rain events, and that displacement velocity significantly decreases at the end of rain events. However, we hypothesize that displacement continues longer after rain events for slopes showing deeper movement. Information from these real-time slope monitoring methods have been successfully used to protect onsite staff and equipment by restricting access beneath slopes indicating field-verified displacement.

September 2018

Rapid Assessment of Unpaved Road and Trail Facilities Fuller, Michael, California Geological Survey, Michael.fuller@ conservation.ca.gov (Poster) Data about the current conditions of facilities that could inform decision-making is often outdated, incomplete, or nonexistent. The road/trail assessment process provides an inventory of road/trail facilities, their components, a condition assessment, and preliminary recommendations. Environmental risk factors associated with sediment production along unpaved roads and trails are derived from inventory datasets. Datasets include metrics from which indices relating to drainage structure condition and water quality concerns are calculated. The analyses of the condition assessment data provide findings on deficiencies, risks, and projected costs. Indices and metrics developed from the raw data provide measures of where the road/trail system is in its functional lifecycle. Such information is fundamental to the development of program objectives for road and trail management. The vulnerability of the road/trail infrastructure to natural hazards including climate change is evaluated from the condition assessment data. The assessment collects data wherever the road/trail shows either pronounced deterioration or suffers from, or produces, concentrated erosion. Facility deterioration signifies functional impairment and vulnerability to stressing events such as natural hazards. The data collection process relies on easily repeatable and non-controversial measurements of features and conditions that include erosion. Terminology and methods are standardized and are applicable throughout the state and across various environments. This standardization allows for reliable comparisons between watersheds, parks, or other geographic areas. Analyses were developed to provide consistent bases for interpretations of conditions and concerns. Repeat assessments and analyses of an area can serve as a basis of a monitoring program.

3D Geologic Modeling of Boundary Dam, Metaline Falls, WA: A Modern Approach to Understanding Foundation Geology Gagnon, Hawkins, Schnabel Engineering, United States, jgagnon@schnabel-eng.com; Robert Cannon, rcannon@schnabel-eng.com, Fred Snider, fsnider@schnabel-eng.com (TS #18) The history of dam failures often reflects failure to fully understand the nuances of the foundation geology, and its’ interaction with the manmade structures. Dam site investigations generally consist of borings, soils and rock laboratory testing, water pressure testing in borings, downhole and/or surface geophysical profiling, air photo or lidar lineament analysis, geologic mapping, and instrumentation data. Each of these data sets tends to be large and difficult to synthesize due to the nature of numerous paper and electronic reporting formats. With current computer software we can integrate these data sets with geospatial data, existing and/or planned structures, and other static and dynamic geologic, hydrogeologic, and geotechnical data sets, all of which can be compiled into one master electronic database. Ultimately, this database can be rendered in 3D allowing for a more comprehensive visualization of the site, manmade structures, and the site geology. At Boundary Dam, a roughly 340-foot-tall double-curvature arch dam along the Pend Oreille River near Metaline Falls, WA, a recent potential failure modes analysis (PFMA) resulted in the observation that although the Dam and associated hydropower plant have been in safe operation for more than 50 years, a comprehensive understanding of the dam foundation geology was lacking. With the backing of Seattle City Light’s (SCL) Department of Dam Safety, we integrated extensive geological and geotechnical data, dating back to the 1920s, with modern day lidar and laser scanning data to create a 3D geologic model of the site. Using the 3D model, we reinterpreted

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS the site geology, identified potential stability issues, provided SCL with an effective communication tool, and created a living electronic repository in which they can continue to view and store their data.

Dewatering a Coal Ash Basin Using Directionally Drilled Horizontal Wells Gallagher, Jacob, Directed Technologies Drilling, United States, jacob@horizontaldrill.com; David Bardsley; Michael Lubrecht (TS #41A) Coal combustion residuals (CCRs), or coal ash, are a byproduct of burning coal. The ash has a variety of constituents including silicon, iron, and aluminum oxides along with trace amounts of heavy metals such as arsenic, selenium, mercury, boron, and chromium. Power plants are the main generator of CCRs and normally the ash is beneficially used or stored onsite in landfills or impoundments. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are over 1,000 active coal ash sites in the United States. In 2015, in response to several ash basin failures, the EPA published rules regulating the management and disposal of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste; under these regulations, CCR impoundments are required to have groundwater monitoring programs while active and for 30 years after closure. Many coal ash basins will require dewatering before remediation and/or closure activities can occur. This presentation details the design, construction, and results of a 650-foot-long dewatering well installed in a 9-acre closed ash basin using horizontal directional drilling methods. The CCR materials at the site were characterized as fly ash (10–100 m) and bottom ash (5–38 mm). Design challenges included well screen and casing selection and drilling/installation methodology. Well installation challenges included geometry of the landfill and unexpected site conditions encountered during well completion. Once installed, the horizontal well performed better than anticipated; the level of water in the basin was drawn down by ~18 feet in less than four months and CCR-related constituents in the surrounding groundwater declined considerably.

High-Performance Discrete Element Modeling of Free-Field Surface Fault Rupture Garcia, Fernando E., University of California, Berkeley, United States, estefan31@berkeley.edu; Jonathan D. Bray (TS #48) Fundamental aspects of earthquake surface fault rupture propagation through granular media are captured with the Discrete Element Method (DEM). DEM captures the kinematics of individual grain movements and the interactions between contacting grains. Hence, it can naturally accommodate the large shear deformations associated with strain localization. The principle hindrance to the application of DEM techniques to the analysis of large-scale problems is its burdensome computational demands. Earthquake surface fault rupture is a large-scale boundary displacement problem involving orders of magnitude more grains than contained within a standard laboratory test. Therefore, analyses of surface fault rupture using DEM necessitate high-performance computing. In this study, earthquake fault rupture propagation through granular media is simulated in three dimensions (3D) using the highly efficient, parallel DEM code LIGGGHTS on a high-performance computing cluster. Particle assemblages are prepared with over 400,000 non-spherical sphere-clusters consisting of over 1 million constituent spheres. The proposed particle assemblage preparation procedure produces a nearly uniform void ratio and a lateral earth pressure coefficient of approximately 0.45. The out-of-plane boundaries are periodic, which approximates an infinitely long model by allowing particles on one boundary to interact with particles on the opposite boundary. Reverse and normal fault ruptures are simulated with fault dip angles ranging from 30° to 90°. The characteristics of the shear rupture surface are captured using signatures of strain localization including particle rotations. The computational speed-up with 130

LIGGGHTS facilitates performing comprehensive sensitivity analyses to evaluate the effects of grain size, relative density, and rate of rupture, among other factors. The resulting surface deformations are not affected by particle size in medium-dense particle assemblages and only slightly affected by particle size in dense particle assemblages. Key insights are garnered by examining micro-mechanical parameters such as particle contact forces.

Rock Dowel Anchor Design and Installation – Oroville Dam Spillway Chute Garrido, Alberto, Lettis Consultants International, Inc., United States, garrido@lettisci.com; Stephanie Briggs, briggs@lettisci.com; Craig Hall, chall@geiconsultants.com; Kate Krug; kkrug@infraterra.com; Bradley von Dessonneck, bradley.vonDessoneck@water.ca.gov; Justin Zumbro, justin.zumbro@water.ca.gov (Ts #36) As part of the Oroville Flood Control Outlet (FCO) spillway chute replacement, chute dowel anchors were installed within the newly constructed spillway. The anchors were used to secure the structural concrete slabs to the underlying rock foundation. The Department of Water Resources (DWR) and its consultants aided in the design and Quality Assurance during installation of the chute dowel anchors. The anchors are 1.41-inch-diameter rods of continuously threaded, epoxycoated rebar with lengths of either 15 feet or 25 feet. To design the appropriate length of each anchor, geologists and geotechnical engineers determined the minimum bond length required within the rock foundation based on the design uplift pressures. Preliminary criteria for the anchor lengths were determined based on the weathering characteristics, rock fracture intensity, and presence of shears and discontinuities within the exposed foundation surface. After the damaged spillway chute was demolished and removed, and the rock foundation prepared for new construction, detailed geologic mapping was performed for the entire spillway foundation. Pre-production pull tests were performed to confirm rock pullout resistance for the various weathering intensities of the foundation rock. The mapped geology and pre-production pull tests were used to refine the chute dowel anchor plan. During anchor installation, a team of field geologists and geotechnical verified anchor installation. Field geologists logged the drill cuttings and observed drill rates to evaluate the weathering of the rock beneath the concrete and modified dowel anchor lengths accordingly. Water pressure testing helped identify zones of increased water infiltration; those associated anchors were proof-tested after installation. The field inspection team determined and observed anchors for proof testing on approximately 35 percent of the anchors installed in 2017. Approximately 2,700 anchors were installed in 2017.

Natural Hazards and Medieval Defensive Earth Architecture in South-Eastern Spain Garrido, Jesús, University of Granada, Spain, jega@ugr.es; M.L Gutierrez, mlgutier@ugr.es; E. Molero, emiliomolero@ugr.es (Poster) Medieval defensive earth architecture is usually known by big and wellmaintained castles, lookout towers or defensive walls, but most of the time it is represented just by a few pieces of defensive walls or tower walls. Natural hazards studies have been reported for the first ones, but there are no studies for the second ones. From a cultural heritage point of view both of them are important, despite of the last ones are less known for the general public. In South Eastern Spain, most of this architecture has been affected, and sometimes reconstructed, by destructive earthquakes or landslides, according to historical chronicles or field evidences, but there are no records of the small ones. Floods are not usually affecting medieval defensive earth architecture because it is located on the top of hills. A national emergency and risk

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS management plan for cultural heritage has been enacted by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. It establishes that natural hazards studies should be conducted in order to protect the cultural heritage, but they are not usually performed, maybe because they are expensive. However, there are many natural hazards studies published in scientific journals, mainly signed by university researchers or different Spanish institutions (Spanish Geological Survey, Spanish Seismic Network or Ministry of Environment). In this paper, a methodology for conducting studies of natural hazards in medieval defensive earth architecture will be presented.

Disaster Risk Reduction and Land Use Planning: Opportunities to Improve Practice Garrido, Jesús, University of Granada, Spain, jega@ugr.es; W.S.A. Saunders, w.saunders@gns.cri.nz (Poster) The Sendai Framework for Action identified land use planning and legislation as a priority action for disaster risk reduction (DRR). Socioeconomic losses associated with natural hazards are increasing, particularly from inappropriate land use. The mechanisms of hazard mapping and structural/non-structural measures to reduce the exposure and vulnerability of elements at risk are outlined in this paper. Concepts and requirements for natural hazard assessments need to be documented and applied to ensure their success. These measures need to be applied at a local level to ensure a more efficient level of risk reduction. Due to financial constraints, councils do not always undertake appropriate hazard mapping; however, they can partner with institutions such as universities to develop hazard and/or risk maps to reduce the costs. Local level decision-making is constrained by political and economic pressures, resulting in some natural hazard prone areas being developed. Tools such as explicit civil or administrative responsibilities for risk reduction should be promoted to avoid arbitrary decisions in those areas. Examples showing how DRR can be improved are presented in this paper.

Tectonic Geomorphology and Paleoseismology of the Whittier Fault in Southern California Gath, Eldon, Earth Consultants International, United States, gath@earthconsultants.com; Tania Gonzalez, gonzalez@earth consultants.com; Tom Rockwell, trockwell@mail.sdsu.edu (TS #48) The 40-km-long Whittier fault bounds the southern margin of the Puente Hills in the eastern Los Angeles Basin, right-laterally deflecting all fault-crossing stream channels. This fault accommodates the westward extrusion of the basin due to the oblique northwesterly convergence of the Santa Ana Mountains with the north-vergent Puente Hills thrust, south of the San Gabriel Mountains. The Whittier fault began as a Miocene normal fault, but geomorphic reconstructions of the deformed fluvial system and dating of a suite of fill terraces indicates that it has reactivated as a right-lateral strike-slip fault. 3D trenching of the fault within the Olinda oil field exposed seven late Quaternary alluvial channels, with increasing displacement with age from a main feeder channel. Three of the channel deposits were radiocarbon dated; one channel (10,600 BP) is displaced 11 m, another (14,700 BP) 18 m, and the oldest channel (17,700–19,000 BP), 27 m. These yield a minimum displacement rate of 1-1.5 mm/yr, as there is a second, geomorphically similar and parallel fault trace. If both strands transfer similar amounts of slip, as suggested by their geomorphology, then we estimate a dextral slip rate of 2.0–3.0 mm/yr for the entire Whittier fault zone. Stratigraphic relationships permitted the interpretation of at least five surface offsets between <10 ka and >19 ka, yielding a recurrence interval of >2–2.5 ka. Studies about 3 and 8 km farther September 2018

southeast constrained the MRE to between 1,400–2,200 BP, and the penultimate event to ~3,400 BP. Given that our results indicate the Whittier fault has one of the highest slip rates in the Los Angeles basin, and that it may have accumulated as much as 4–5 m of potential slip since its last surface rupture, it may be one of the most dangerous structures in the greater Los Angeles region.

Slaking Progression of Clay-Bearing Rocks under Natural Climatic Conditions Gautam, Tej P., Department of Petroleum Engineering & Geology, Marietta College, tej.gautam@marietta.edu; Abdul Shakoor, ashakoor@kent.edu (TS #9A) Clay-bearing rocks are highly susceptible to slaking upon changes in natural climatic conditions. This study investigated progression of slaking for 20 clay-bearing rocks (5 claystones, 5 mudstones, 5 siltstones, and 5 shales) by exposing them to natural climatic conditions for a period of one year. The samples were also tested in the laboratory for clay content, absorption, and second-cycle slake durability index (Id2). The progression of slaking over time was assessed using the disintegration ratio (DR), defined as the ratio of the area under the grain size distribution curve of the slaked material for a given rock to the total area encompassing all grain size distribution curves for the 20 rock samples. Samples with higher clay content, higher absorption, and lower Id2 values slaked more rapidly compared to other rock types. After one month of exposure to natural conditions, the average DR values for claystones and siltstones were 0.333 and 0.900, respectively, with values for mudstones and shales falling between these end members. For claystones, the slaked material after one to three months of exposure to natural conditions showed significant proportion of finer fragments, indicating their higher susceptibility for long-term slaking. Clay-bearing rocks with relatively low values of DR after one month of exposure were nearly completely slaked during the year-long experiment as compared to the samples with high DR values. Determining DR values of the slaked material for different rock types, after varying periods of exposure to natural conditions, provided insights into the nature of slaked material and helped understand the long-term slaking behavior of clay-bearing rocks.

Geologic Controls on Spillway Erodibility: Insights from Oroville George, Michael F., BGC Engineering, Inc., United States, mgeorge@bgcengineering.ca; Holly Nichols; Leslie F. Harder, Jr. (TS #36) The 2017 flood events at Oroville Dam were an important reminder of the extreme forces associated with flowing water. Formation of a large scour hole in Flood Control Outlet (FCO) Spillway as well as rapid head-cutting erosion in the Emergency Spillway ultimately led to the evacuation of nearly 200,000 downstream residents. While work in the last couple decades has significantly improved knowledge of the erosive capacity of water, geologic controls facilitating scour progression are less represented. This presentation provides an overview of the current understanding of scour mechanisms in rock and how geologic conditions influenced erosion of the FCO and Emergency Spillways at the Oroville site along with other known scour case studies. A discussion on the applicability and challenges associated with existing methods for prediction of scour in rock is also presented. The latter is important from a dam safety perspective, as meaningful quantification of the scouring process is necessary to promote reliable operation of these structures.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Comparative Analysis of Residual Shear Depiction and Grain Distribution Characteristics of Slided Soil Profile Sections (SSPS)

Understanding Carbon Nanoparticle Transport in Saturated Porous Media: Influence of Dissolved Organic Matter

Getahun Gure, Ephrem, Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ephrem0693@yahoo.com; Qi Shengwen (Poster)

Gilkerson, Tyler, Colorado State University Department of Geosciences, United States, tyler.gilkerson@colostate.edu; William E. Sanford, william.sanford@colostate.edu (TS #41A)

Residual shear characteristics of slided soil profile sections (SSPS) were examined using ring shear tests to understand the relative residual shear behaviors among soil sections. Multi stage–multi phase shearing techniques were employed to experiment each soil specimen continuously towards large displacements that can attain their residual shear conditions. Soils was graded as poorly graded sandy fines along basal shear zones to well graded sand and gravel with fines that portray coarsening upward from bottom to top section of soil profile. Vertical displacement analyses show that there is 1–2.5mm axial displacement on each stage of loadings and shearing phases that indicate significant effect of dilation and compression on soil during shearing tests. The influences of shear rate and large displacement on the shear behavior were clearly shown by incremental friction angle resistant values that led to get some effects of dilatant strengthening of peak shear stress (160–185kPa); and proceed to post peak soil softening dropping residual shear (155–120kPa) to attain their residual state at maximum normal stress (240kPa) with incremental fast rate and large displacements ensued. Comparison of the residual shear values indicates that the top and basal slip surface friction angle values increased quickly at slow rate and small displacement, and depicted continuous post peak lowering at fast rate and large displacement; while the middle sections develop increased values at third phase of shearing and lowered on final phase shearing to attain their residual state variably in respect of the sectional mechanical gradational characteristics.

The environmental prevalence of harmful nanoparticles (NPs) and limited understanding of NP fate and transport behavior threatens ecosystems and human health. Yet, little is known about NP transport in heterogeneous porous media, and no reference NP capable of mass-conservative transport has been identified. This reference NP would enable future studies to better explain transport behaviors of NPs that are more prone to sorption, diffusion, settling, and porethroat filtering. Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are reference NP candidates due to their inert, hydrophilic, and submicroscopic qualities. Furthermore, CNPs are non-toxic, inexpensive, and detectable at low concentrations. Such qualities also imply their potential value as applied groundwater tracers. Recent one-dimensional (1D) column experiments suggest that CNPs transport conservatively through homogeneous quartz sand, surface modified zeolite, and soda lime. However, additional column experiments should independently examine relationships between natural conditions and CNP transport. This study employs 1D columns packed with porous media to investigate CNP transport in ionic solutions containing dissolved organic matter (DOM). Considering DOM’s ubiquity in natural settings and ability to affect NP surface properties, this study aims to clarify the appropriateness of characterizing CNPs as reference NPs. This presentation will discuss results of such 1D column experiments and whether findings support or reject the general hypothesis that CNPs will exhibit mass-conservative transport under natural conditions.

A Low-Cost Alternative Approach to Geological Discontinuity Roughness Quantification❋ Abdul Ghani, Rafek, University Technology PETRONAS, Malaysia, ghani.rafek@utp.edu.my; Goh Thian Lai, gdsbgoh@gmail.com; Ailie Sofyiana Serasa, ailie.serasa@gmail.com (Presented by Abd Rasid Jaapar) (TS #56) The surface roughness of geological discontinuities can be considered a key parameter in the evaluation of the stability of structures constructed within rock masses. Several different methodologies can be applied to determine this parameter and they vary in their complexity. The aim of this study is to correlate the peak friction angle, (fp) of discontinuity planes of fresh bedrock with the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC). A simple, low-cost approach is presented based on the determination of JRC and the application of derived polynomial equations to determine the peak friction angle, fp of the surface roughness of geological discontinuities for the major lithologies found in Peninsula Malaysia. 8607 tilt tests were conducted to obtain the correlations between peak friction angles with the JRC of granite, schist, limestone, quartzite and sandstone. The respective polynomial equations are as follows: • for granite fp= -0.071 JRC2 + 3.56 JRC + 35.6° • for schist fp = -0.022 JRC2 + 3.21 JRC + 28.1° • for limestone fp= -0.0635 JRC2 + 3.95 JRC + 25.2° • for quartzite fp = -0.083 JRC2 + 4.17 JRC + 27.6° • for sandstone fp = 0.0424 JRC2 + 1.13 JRC + 29.2° For all the derived polynomials, the coefficient of determination, R2 was greater than 0.9. The JRC can be determined as part of an engineering geological investigation and the respective polynomial applied to determine the peak friction angle, fp for the specific lithology.

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Penitencia Creek Landslide Evaluation and Seismic Retrofit of Large Diameter Water Conveyance Pipelines in San Jose, California Givier, Robert, Lettis Consultants International, Inc., United States, givler@lettisci.com; John Baldwin, baldwin@lettisci.com; Andrew Seifried, seifried@lettisci.com; William Godwin, godwin@lettisci.com; Mark Myers, MMyers@caleng.com; Phil Gregory, pgregory@caleng.com; Darren Baune, DBaune@carollo.com; James Nelson, pacrim1463@aol.com; Karl Neuman, KNeuman@valleywater.org; Jim Crowley, JCrowley@valleywater.org (TS #12) This abstract presents an engineering geologic case history for the Santa Clara Valley Water District%39;s Penitencia Delivery Main and Penitencia Force Main Seismic Retrofit Project (Project) located in San Jose, California. The Project construction cost was approximately $21.5 M. The Project seismically retrofits three large diameter (>60”) water transmission pipelines at the Penitencia Water Treatment Plant (PWTP) that are actively being deformed by a creeping 240-acre, 270-ft-deep landslide known as the Penitencia Creek Landslide (PCL), that moves approx. 0.1 to 0.4 in/yr. The three pipelines cross the toe of the PCL nearly parallel to the direction of landslide displacement resulting in almost pure compression. Continual historic distress at the toe resulted in rupture of one pipeline. Previous studies of past moderate earthquakes in the region and landslide modeling concluded that large nearby earthquakes could trigger dynamic displacement of the PCL. This project was tasked with designing improvement to these critical water delivery pipelines to accommodate landslide displacements. This project included subsurface investigations to characterize landslide geometry, geotechnical properties, and seismic response. Buried soils and inclinometers were used to map the location and direction of PCL deformation at the pipeline crossing. Finite element analyses,

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS coupled with development of scaled time histories, were performed to estimate approximately 9.4 ft of displacement at the toe crossing (e.g., 1.7 ft of active creep (50-year design life) plus 7.7 ft from a single design-level earthquake). Geologic models, quantifying the distribution and style of landslide deformation at the pipeline crossing, were key inputs into pipeline deformation modeling. Observations during construction validated the geologic models used in the retrofit design—a large diameter earthquake-resistant ductile iron pipe (ERDIP). This presentation describes the geologic/geotechnical challenges and the technical approach used to characterize the landslide and estimated displacement for the seismic retrofit from initial characterization through construction.

Engineering Geologic Considerations for the Trampas Canyon Dam and Reservoir Project; Orange County, California Goetz, Christopher, AECOM, United States, christopher.goetz@aecom.com; Adam Avakian, adam.avakian@aecom.com; Bob Mutchnick, bmutchnick@gmugeo.com; Paul Salter, paul.salter@aecom.com; Dustin Williams, dwilliams@gmugeo.com (TS #10) Trampas Canyon Reservoir will be a 5,000 acre-foot reclaimed water reservoir in south Orange County that will have the capacity to hold more than half of the recycled water that the Santa Margarita Water District will generate from its Chiquita Water Reclamation Plant. The project involves the reconfiguration of the existing Trampas Canyon Dam and Reservoir to convert it from a tailings retention facility to a reclaimed water supply reservoir. The project includes raising the existing earth fill embankment (Main Dam) and constructing two saddle dams (East Saddle Dam and West Saddle Dam) and appurtenant facilities. The project dams will be founded on the Santiago Formation, which is a weakly lithified sedimentary rock unit that consists of a shallow, westerly dipping Eocene, marine sequence of sandstones interbedded with less frequent siltstones. Foundation excavations for the dams will require the removal of overburden fills, alluvium, and weathered materials to reach the design objective of firm, unyielding bedrock. Following bulk excavation to foundation objective, all loose and disturbed materials will be removed to clearly expose the surface for geologic mapping and inspection. The core trench will be excavated at least 4 feet deeper than the adjacent inboard and outboard shells. Inspection of the core foundation will include identification of any foundation defects (e.g. joints or shears) requiring treatment by dental excavation/concrete or slush grouting. The preliminary and final geologic/geotechnical exploration for the project, which was completed in 2015, identified borrow sources for the dam embankment and supported the geotechnical design of the project dams and facilities. Construction for the project commenced in January of 2018 and is anticipated to be completed in the spring of 2020. This presentation will provide a summary of the key findings of the geologic/geotechnical exploration, and report on the progress of the foundation mapping and inspection process.

Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Flood Extent and Community Vulnerability: Novato Creek Watershed, Marin County, California Goldstein, Suzanne, San Francisco State University, United States, sgoldst1@mail.sfsu.edu; Gurdak, Jason J., jgurdak@sfsu.edu; Sklar, Leonard S., leonard@sfsu.edu; Maurer, Edwin P., emaurer@scu.edu; Leventhal, Roger, rleventhal@marincounty.org (Poster) Flooding is the most common and costly natural hazard affecting communities of all types in the US and worldwide. In California, 70% of the state’s population lives in coastal counties, many in areas that have September 2018

been developed on coastal floodplains and are vulnerable to flooding, particularly when intense rainstorms are coincident with storm-driven high tides. Research using Global Climate Models (GCM) indicates that many parts of California will experience more intense storms and larger flooding events in the future. Such flooding could be particularly severe in coastal areas where high stream flows will be compounded by backwater effects of sea level rise and storm surge along bays and estuaries. This study examines the impacts of changing climate on flood hazard in the Novato Creek watershed in Marin County, California. Originating in the hills of the California Coast Range and flowing into San Francisco Bay, Novato Creek is the largest watershed in eastern Marin County and is exemplary of many small coastal watersheds in California. Downscaled precipitation data from an ensemble of 10 GCMs under two different greenhouse gas concentration trajectories (RCP 4.5 and 8.5), are combined with projected sea level rise and storm surge scenarios. The resulting future climate scenarios are used to drive a HEC-HMS hydrologic model of surface runoff coupled to a HEC-RAS 1D/2D hydraulic model of the channel and bay outlet flow. Preliminary results show significant increases in rainfall intensity for all storm durations, with as much as a 20% increase in intensity of 24-hour storms by the year 2100 for the RCP 8.5 climate scenario. The study will present the corresponding increases in flood extent and estimate socio-economic impacts to explore whether vulnerable populations, e.g., low-income families, senior citizens, minority populations, will be disproportionately impacted.

Spatial Distribution and Kernel Density of Landslide Risk Areas Impacted by Anthropogenic Activities in Sao Paulo City, Brazil Goto, Erica, UCSB, United States, ericagoto@gmail.com; Jefferson Picano, jeffpicanco@gmail.com (TS #21) Landslides are common in many parts of Brazil, especially during summer when intense and continuous rainfall can trigger them. Geomorphology and climate are factors that contribute to the manifestation of landslide risk areas, but the rapid and disorganized urbanization plays a significant role in the risk. Sao Paulo city, in the southeast of Brazil, is an example, where the anthropogenic activities impacted more than half of these landslide risk areas. These activities change the stability of the slope by adding water, adding garbage, or cutting part of the slope. We discuss these activities and illustrate the spatial distribution of the landslide risk areas and high and very high (R3 and R4) risk areas through maps. In the map, high and very high landslide risk areas occur with more frequency on the outskirts of the city and areas with more informal settlements.

Modeling Slope Instability for Shallow Landslides at Sedgwick Reserve using SHALSTAB Equations in RStudio Goto, Erica, UCSB, United States, ericagoto@gmail.com; Keith Clarke, kcclarke@ucsb.edu; Edward Keller, keller@geol.ucsb.edu (TS #4) In 1998, hillslopes of the Sedgwick Reserve, in the Santa Ynez Valley, California, experienced shallow landslides triggered by uncommon intense rainfall. This study illustrates the spatial distribution of slope stability-instability in on of these sites using SHALSTAB equations in RStudio environment. We use high-resolution DEM, hydrologic conductivity data, and soil data (cohesion and angle of internal friction) from previous studies as input to the model. We applied sensitivity analysis on the shear strength computed considering three parameters: soil cohesion, angle of internal friction of the soil, and normal stress. The final map shows that most of the areas are stable and around 10% are unstable.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Assessing Geologic Hazard Constraints for Hydroelectric Infrastructure through Detailed Mapping of Volcanic Stratigraphy in Northeastern California Gray, Brian, Lettis Consultants International, Inc., United States, bgray@lettisci.com; Matthew T. Huebner, huebner@lettisci.com; John N. Baldwin, baldwin@lettisci.com; William D. Page, WDP7@pge.com; Brian Hausback, hausback@csus.edu; Markus I. Bursik mib@buffalo.edu (TS #44) Volcanic rocks are typically difficult to differentiate in engineering evaluations due to their often-complex stratigraphy, highly-variable distribution, and localized mineralogical and textural differences associated with emplacement and alteration. This complexity can lead to oversimplification of stratigraphy, errors in unit designation, misinterpreted structures (faults or folds), and missed opportunities to recognize key stratigraphic relationships necessary for the evaluation of landslide, seepage, or other geologic hazards. We outline an approach used to create a stratigraphic model associated with an extinct, eroded, and faulted Plio-Pleistocene stratovolcano bordering a hydroelectric dam in northern California. This approach reduced uncertainties related to unit designations through detailed geologic mapping complemented with petrographic and whole-rock geochemical analyses. Detailed geologic mapping was completed in phases, as the results of petrographic and geochemical analyses provided useful information regarding the determination of stratigraphic units. In turn, results of laboratory analyses informed and focused subsequent field efforts. Where applicable, bedrock mapping was augmented with geochemical fingerprinting of tephra, 40Ar-39Ar age dating, and paleomagnetic analysis to assess stratigraphic age, unit identification, and structural deformation. This comprehensive approach yielded a detailed understanding of the volcanic stratigraphy, emplacement history of the lavas, insights into the Quaternary erosional history, and a 1:600-scale geologic map used to assist an ongoing geotechnical and seismic hazard assessment. The success of the study involved participation from volcanology experts and collaboration with US Geological Survey in the sharing of information on the evolving geologic models. The results were extensively utilized to evaluate long-term fault displacement parameters (e.g. location, orientation, and displacement, sense of slip), foundation geology, and as a test for other geologic and geomorphic models.

as-built foundation conditions of the FCO spillway. Maps of foundation geology and cleanup of chute foundation were developed during this original construction. These historic geologic foundation maps coupled with new data collected for the replacement spillway design proved invaluable in confirming the foundation conditions mapped during the initial spillway construction and assessments required to evaluate damage to the FCO Spillway.

Colluvium in the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province Gray, Richard, DiGioia Gray & Associates, United States, dick@digioiagray.com (TS #12) The Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province is the largest landslide risk area on the United States Landslide Hazard Map. This distinction is the result of bedrock geology and precipitation. Rocks are generally flat lying, interbedded Paleozoic age claystone, shale and sandstone with a few limestone and coal seams. Weathering of rocks in valley walls plus downslope creep and sliding of the weathering products, particularly those derived from claystone and shale, produce colluvial masses of various thicknesses and lateral extents which exist in states of marginal equilibrium on many, if not most slopes. Most of the present slope stability problems in the region involve slump type slides, or slow earthflows of colluvial soil. The precarious equilibrium of these masses is frequently upset by man’s activities, e.g., removal of toe support, loading the slope, or changing surface and subsurface drainage. Abnormally high precipitation also initiates movement of colluvial masses. The colluvial soil tends to be stiff to hard, with no discernible layering or structure. However, creep and sliding processes create a series of shear surfaces within the soil mass and at the soil-rock interface. Due to slope creep the colluvium exhibits residual strength characterized by negligible cohesion intercepts and friction angles of 8°–20°. Measured residual friction angles for most claystone derived colluvium are on the order of 11°–16°. Geotechnical engineers have understood the formation of colluvium and its resulting low shear strength since the late 1960s. These specialists have generously shared their knowledge through technical papers, workshops and field trips. Yet numerous slides occur because some geologists and geotechnical engineers do not recognize the unique properties of colluvium.

Investigations of the Oroville Spillway Chute

Deformation Characteristics of Masonry Buildings on Slow Moving Landslides❋

Gray, Michael G., Lettis Consultants International, Inc., United States, mgray@lettisci.com, Holly J. Nichols, holly.nichols@water.ca.gov, Jennifer Dean, jennifer.dean@water.ca.gov, Brad von Dessonneck, bradley.vondessoneck@water.ca.gov, Les Harder, Les.Harder@hdrinc.com (TS #28)

Gui, Lei, China University of Geosciences, China, lei_gui@yeah.net; Kunlong YIN, yinkl@126.com; Juan DU,dujuan_0709@126.com; Yiping WU, ypwu@cug.edu.cn; Bo CHAI, chai1998@126.com; Deying LI, li_deying@163.com; Yang WANG, wangyangcug@126.com;Yuanyao LI, liyuanyao2004@163.com (Poster)

Following the February 7, 2017, Oroville Dam Flood Control Outlet (FCO) Spillway Chute incident, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission required the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to engage an Independent Forensic Team (IFT) to develop findings and opinions on the causes of the initial concrete failure. This presentation focuses on the details of DWR’s investigation that was conducted to support design efforts and potential physical factors identified by the IFT. DWR’s investigation integrated new subsurface data obtained for the design of the replacement spillway and historic geologic mapping from the original construction of the FCO spillway chute. Contemporary geologic explorations within and adjacent to the FCO spillway supported two primary objectives: 1) obtain high-quality geologic data to support the design of the replacement spillway and 2) assess foundation conditions of the spillway chute. As part of the original spillways construction, DWR engineering geologists mapped the

Landslides have caused considerable economic loss and causalities around the world. Since the vulnerability of the elements at risk is the key component for risk analysis, numerous studies have been carried out on quantifying the physical vulnerability of the built environment to landslides. These studies focus on three approaches, including vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators. However, although it is recognized that the physical vulnerability of buildings to landslides depends on the effect of landslide and the characteristics of the buildings, the deformation process of landslide and buildings were seldom considered systematically in these approaches, especially for analyzing the physical vulnerability of buildings to slow moving landslide. There is a large amount of residential masonry buildings on slow moving landslides in China. These buildings have been affected by landslides for years and are facing different degrees of landslide risk every day. So far, it is difficult to quantify the risk in a

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS dynamic way. Therefore, it is significant to establish the correlation between the damage situation of the buildings and the deformation process of landslides. With this purpose, the primary work was to investigate the deformation characteristics of the buildings on slow moving landslides. In this study, landslide deformation mechanism and evolution process were considered to distinguish landslide-affected forms on masonry buildings first. Then, for each landslide-affected form, the numerical and laboratory experiments would be performed to test and summarize the deformation characteristics of masonry buildings under different intensities of landslide moving effect. Finally, the relationship between landslide intensity and the damage of buildings would be assessed and quantified. The achievements from this study would not only make an effort to understand the deformation mechanism between landslide and buildings, but also make sense in building design for the reduction of landslide risk.

Modeling of Soil Desiccation Cracking with a Hybrid Continnuum-Discrete Element Method Gui, Yilin, Newcastle University, United Kingdom, yilin.gui@newcastle.ac.uk (TS #9A) Shrinkage induced crack pattern is a universal phenomenon, soil cracking due to drying shrinkage is not an exception. In geotechnical engineering, desiccation shrinkage induced cracking has a profound effect on the engineering properties of soils as it can considerably increase the hydraulic conductivity and decreases the shear strength of a soil. Thus, it poses a significant threat to the hydraulic and structural integrity of earthworks. This paper presents the application of the hybrid continuum-discrete element method to simulate soil desiccation shrinkage and cracking with a mix-mode cohesive fracture model. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated through numerical simulation of laboratory and field desiccation tests. The simulation results have shown good agreements with the laboratory and field observations.

Study of the Phenomenon of Quicksand in the Geotechnical Laboratory❋ Guimarães, Sebastião, Instituto Federal de Educao, Cincia e Tecnologia de Gois, Brazil, sebastiaoggj@gmail.com; Isabella Valarades, isabellamv.civil@gmail.com; Jaquelline Feitoza, jaquelinef@gmail.com; Marcus Mendes, mvasmendes.ifg@gmail.com (Poster) The quicksand phenomenon occurs when the sand particles are saturated by an upward flow of an aqueous fluid and microscopically the particles of the mineral lose contact. Thus, the tension of the soil weight equals the water pressure value making the effective tension of the soil null. The sandy soil does not present plasticity and cohesion, when saturated the sand loses its mechanical characteristics and acts like liquid. The objective of this paper is the elaboration of a didactic physical model, in laboratory, that simulates the phenomenon of quicksand and developing a better understanding on its occurrence operations and characteristics. The methodologies used were quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative methods were geotechnical characterization tests, such as the classification of sands in terms of granulometry (ABNT NBR 7181: 2016), specific mass test and the development of a permeameter capable of determining the permeability coefficient in a BMA (system that is composed of gravel, geodrenant mesh and sand). The methods of quantitative character were the analyzes of the phenomena in reduced scale and the behavior of the sands in the BMA system. The results found coincide with the expected physical properties. This was possible due to the fact that the glass apparatus was adequate to promote and watch the quicksand phenomenon, besides, the BMA system was important to maintain the permeability constant in all the simulations carried out in the laboratory. September 2018

Harry Ferguson’s Theory of Valley Stress Release in Flat-Lying Sedimentary Rocks❋ Hamel, James, Hamel Geotechnical Consultants, United States, jvhamel3918@gmail.com (TS #17) Harry Ferguson developed his theory of valley stress release in flatlying sedimentary rocks by observing rock characteristics, behavior, and discontinuities in foundation excavations for navigation locks and dams and flood control dams in the Upper Ohio River Basin during the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. He first presented his theory at the AEG Annual Meeting in 1966, then published it in the AEG Bulletin in 1967. Over the past five decades, this theory has provided a unifying framework for world-wide geologic observations and geotechnical interpretations in flat-lying sedimentary rocks. It is appropriate here to review this theory for an international audience and a new generation of engineering geologists. Essential elements of the theory are: 1. Flat-lying sedimentary rocks near the earth’s surface typically have horizontal stresses equal to or greater than vertical stresses corresponding to existing overburden. 2. River (or stream) erosion removes horizontal support from valley walls and vertical support from the valley floor. 3. Valley walls deform inward and the valley floor deforms upward in response to this loss of support. 4. These deformations relieve stresses in rocks of the valley walls and valley floor. 5. Deformations and stress release produce characteristic types and patterns of fractures and other discontinuities in rocks of the valley walls and floor. This theory of valley stress release has both geologic and engineering implications. Geologic implications include a mechanism for on-going valley development independent of tectonic processes; groundwater flow through stress release fractures with processes of weathering and alteration plus solution in soluble rocks; mass-wasting processes, e.g., rock slides, rockfalls, rock block creep, colluvium development, on valley walls. Engineering implications include layout and interpretation of subsurface exploration programs; foundation depths and treatments; slope and foundation stability; rock excavation and support, both surface and underground; excavation dewatering; dam foundation and abutment grouting.

Ten Lessons Learned in Geotechnical Practice Hamel, James, Hamel Geotechnical Consultants, United States, jvhamel3918@gmail.com (TS #29A) Reflecting on my past 46 years of experience in geotechnical consulting practice, I offer for young engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers the following ten lessons I have learned along the way. Older personnel may also find these useful. 1. It takes a long time and a lot of thinking to sort out and truly understand complex geological and geotechnical problems and phenomena. 2. Large projects, especially those with large excavations and large exposures of soil and rock, offer the best opportunities to observe and recognize patterns of features which lead to better understanding of geological and geotechnical processes, phenomena, and behavior. 3. Stick with the basics; always develop the geotechnical framework of a site and draw cross-sections. 4. Always visit and inspect the site and adjacent areas (including any open excavations and surface exposures of soil and rock) and check all available soil samples, rock cores, aerial photographs, mine maps and other maps, and geological, historical, and other background information (including as-built drawings, if available) on the site, project, and adjacent areas.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS 5. Spend as much time in the field as possible. 6. Casual observations are extremely important, even years later; keep notes, sketches, photographs, and other records of field observations for future reference and re-evaluation. 7. Read as widely as possible in relevant technical areas (e.g., geology, civil and geotechnical engineering, mining, construction) and related non-technical areas (e.g., history); keep re-reading classic papers, books, case histories to gain additional insight as observations and experience are accumulated. 8. Spend as much time as you can talking with and learning from knowledgeable “old-timers” in geology, engineering, construction, mining and related fields. 9. Remember “Our practice falls short of our knowledge.” (Peck, 1973) 10.Always drain everything. (after Philbrick, 1950)

Predicting Failure at Rattlesnake Hills Landslide using Inverse Velocity Hammond, Charles M., Landslide Technology, a division of Cornforth Consultants, Inc., United States, charlieh@landslidetechnology.com; Thomas M. Westover, thomasw@landslidetechnology.com; George Machan,georgem@landslidetechnology.com; Adam D. Koslofsky, adamk@landslidetechnology.com; Noah B. Kimmes, noahk@landslidetechnology.com (TS #42) The Rattlesnake Hills Slide is 3 miles (5 km) south of Yakima, Washington. The 200-foot (61 m)-thick basalt block slide is 1,700 feet (518 m) long, 850 feet (260 m) wide, and has a volume of 4 million cubic yards (3.1 mcm). It’s constrained by geologic structures and translating on a 5-foot (1.5 m)-thick sedimentary interbed on a 5–15° dipping flank of a tectonic anticline. An accelerating rate of movement was monitored between October 4 and mid-December 2017. Using Inverse Velocity plots, extrapolation predicted an “event” on January 16. An error band was selected for a failure event between early January and late February. Examination of the data revealed periods of constant acceleration, separated by abrupt changes in acceleration. Individual periods lasted between 9 and 18 days. Velocity of 1.4 feet/week (0.43 m/week) was reached on December 22, at which time acceleration started to decrease until a constant velocity of 1.7 feet/week (0.52 m/week) was reached by January 10, 2018. Inverse Velocity plots no longer indicated a potential failure “event” when acceleration decreased. Geotechnical conditions of the landslide (angle of basal shear, its residual strength, and hydrostatic pressure) resulted in failure developing into constant translational movement. Landslide movement was initially apparent below the headscarp but the toe did not entirely daylight until early December. This mechanism is supported by the monitoring data and is consistent with degradation of higher strength materials within the shear zone. When the landslide achieved a constant velocity, a fully residual condition is interpreted to have been reached.

Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA): Risks and Regulations Harper, Martin, Zefon International, University of Florida, United States, MHarper@zefon.com (TS #16) When considering the hazard presented by natural occurrences of asbestos and other elongate mineral particles it is important to realize that there is very little evidence that undisturbed natural occurrences have resulted in disease. Where clusters of human disease associated with elongate mineral particles (fibers) in the environment have been found in the past, there has been an associated disturbance of the natural environment resulting in the release of fibers into the air. This included the use of rocks in building construction and 136

soils for whitewash as well as the deliberate mining of fibrous minerals. The most important industry sectors with worker exposure to asbestos in the ground are mining, as should be expected, and construction. In construction the appearance of elongate mineral particles may come as a surprise when the construction is not taking place in areas of known asbestos mining activity. One of the rocks hosting asbestos is serpentine and serpentine is so common in California that it is considered the official State rock. Given the widespread occurrence of serpentine and the generally dry climate, the Californian experience has been important in developing management strategies for natural occurrences of asbestos in construction. While serpentine typically hosts the mineral chrysotile, amphiboles may also be encountered in a fibrous habit, i.e. asbestiform or intermediate. A particular suite of amphiboles is regulated because these minerals were most commonly mined for asbestos, but other compositions exist with different names and these can also be problematic. Finally, unrelated non-asbestos minerals also can exist as fibers in dimensions similar to asbestos fibers. This presentation will briefly touch on situations of concern in the USA where elongate mineral particles have been encountered in construction. While regulations from Federal and State Occupational Safety and Health Administrations, and local and federal environmental agencies can generally ensure risk reductions in construction activities, there is more difficulty with respect to identifying risk in situations where construction is not necessarily a route of exposure, for example, where deposition of chrysotile has occurred in homes and farms from floodwaters in Washington State and where erionite, a fibrous zeolite, is encountered in rocks and soils of several western states.

Hydrostratigraphy and Hydrogeology of the Intermediate Aquifer System, Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida Hayes, Kevin R., US Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District, United States, kevinhayespg@gmail.com (TS #46) A basic hydrostratigraphic framework and summary of hydrogeologic properties are presented for the Intermediate Aquifer System (IAS) in Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida. The IAS is comprised of the complex, heterogeneous sediments of the Miocene-age, Hawthorn Group, which exceeds 500 feet (152.4 meters) in thickness in northeastern Florida. The IAS is typically used as a water supply source for private domestic and landscape irrigation wells in Duval County. The IAS overlies the Floridan Aquifer System, which serves as the primary water supply source for the area. Four aquifers were mapped and characterized within the IAS of Duval County: the Shallow Carbonate Rock Aquifer (SCRA), the Deep Carbonate Rock Aquifer (DCRA), the Phosphatic Sands Aquifer (PSA), and the Carbonate Rock and Phosphatic Sands Aquifer (CRPSA). Each of the four aquifers, ranging from 20 to 80 feet (6.1 to 24.4 meters) in approximate thickness, occupies a unique geographic extent with some noted areas of overlap, particularly within the southern and western portions of the county. The most productive of the IAS aquifers, the SCRA, is characterized by solution channels and conduit-dominated intervals. The SCRA exhibited average transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity values of 4,323 feet2/day (401.6 meters2/day) and 214 feet/day (65.2 meters/day), respectively. The DCRA and CRPSA both exhibited average transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity values within the general range of 600 to 650 feet2/day (55.7 to 60.4 meters2/day) and 20 to 30 feet/day (6.1 to 9.1 meters/day), respectively. The PSA, which includes shallow and deep zones consisting of phosphatic sands with interbedded clays and silts, exhibited the lowest aquifer productivity with average transmissivity and hydraulic conductivities within the general range of 300 to 400 feet2/day (27.9 to 37.2 meters2/day) and 2.0 to 4.5 feet/day (0.6 to 1.4 meters/day), respectively.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Response of a Rock Slope under Wide Frequency Shear Loads using Large-Scale Shaking Table He, Jianxian, Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qi Shengwen, Zhan Zhifa (Poster) The study on response of the rock slope is of significance in revealing the mechanism of co-seismic landslide and also taking measures in prediction and prevention. In this paper, a largescale shaking table test is conducted to deeply investigate the response of the rock slope under dynamic loads with wide frequency and amplitudes. Results show that AFF-X (the acceleration amplification factor in X direction) amplify at the slope surface especially at the crest and the AFF-Z (the acceleration amplification factor in Z direction) amplify at the lower part of the slope. Meanwhile, it might be distinguished that the resonance frequency of the slope model in horizontal direction is between 45 and 60 Hz and the vertical is beyond 75 Hz through transfer function method. It can be concluded that the AFF-X and AFF-Z depend on excitation frequency, and also amplify at different part of the slope. Furthermore, with increasing of amplitude the structure of slope weakened and damping increased which resulted in dissipating more energy and dynamic response characteristics decreasing. It is helpful to reveal the slope failure mechanism under earthquake, and provide valuable acknowledgement for engineering prediction and prevention.

Case Study – Characterization, Risk Management, and Remediation Strategies to Shorten Timeline for Potential Site Reuse Helge, James, Fugro USA Land, Inc., United States, jhelge@fugro.com; Jeriann Alexander, jalexander@fugro.com; Karen Emery-Tonkovich, kemery@fugro.com; Jennifer Wilson, jm.wilson@fugro.com; James Whearty, jwhearty@fugro.com; Kyle Johnson, kejohnson@fugro.com (TS #30) Releases of chlorinated solvents (primarily tetrachloroethene and its breakdown by-products), and various petroleum hydrocarbon compounds, have impacted soil, soil vapor, and groundwater at a drycleaning facility in a dense urban setting in Sacramento, California. Plumes of the various chemicals of concern are commingled onsite and the dry-cleaning facility is in active use. Neighboring properties are occupied by commercial and residential uses including a restaurant, senior housing and a day-care. Fugro was retained by California Department of General Services to evaluate past investigation data and to conduct a multi-prong investigation to assess and mitigate risks to receptors. Concurrent with the investigation plan, Fugro implemented risk management and remediation tasks to support fluid management of risks. Site management strategies implemented concurrently are outlined above right in Table 1. By implementing these strategies simultaneously, human health risks have been managed while assessing the nature and extent of the contaminant plumes at the site. Initial results have been well received by the regulator and client as reductions in the concentration of various chemicals throughout the site have been achieved in a fraction of the time normally required. This has resulted in expediting the pathway toward site reuse and eventual regulatory closure, and minimizing the client’s overall risks.

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HELGE TABLE 1. Characterization

Risk Management Strategies

Remediation Strategies

Identify Risk Driver– Vapor Intrusion

Human Health Risk Assessment

Vapor Control through Soil Vapor Extraction

Indoor Air Studies

Early Notification to Receptors and Relocation of Tenant

Source Removals – USTs, Piping, Contaminated Soil, Building Demolition

Sanitary Sewer Surveys

Early Coordination with Regulators

Source Area Removal Action/Thermal Desorption

Data Gap Studies

Community Outreach

Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination

Forensic Remedial Investigations

Engineering Controls

Monitored Natural Attenuation

Source Area Definition Pilot Studies

Impacts Potentially Triggered by Blasting❋ Hempen, Gregory, EcoBlast, LC, United States, hempen69@sbcglobal.net (TS #23B) Ore extractions, rock excavations and structures’ demolitions have been quickly and cost-effectively conducted by blasting. Blasting, when cautiously performed, will have lessened the potential of vibratory impacts to nearby structures. Adverse impacts may not only affect structures, but may involve workers’ harm, the public’s response, historic or vibration-sensitive features, geologic hazards (slope instability, sinkhole collapse…), and natural-resource (flora and fauna) concerns. Documented cases have noted these adverse impacts triggered by blasting. Merely monitoring air blast and vibration has no ability to identify or minimize the array of potential adverse impacts. The three primary and many secondary impacts (described in the paper) can be controlled by the blasting parameters used and, for some projects, by additional mitigating measures. Typically, the blasting contractor has the understanding and capability to avoid the impacts to workers and structures, and to lessen the public’s response. Achieving the required goal of the blasting project may require reduced blasting efficiency to minimize the risk of inducing secondary impacts. Detailed investigations of the potential impacts, geophysical assessments of both the sites and triggering parameter levels for those potential impacts, and/or the necessity for mitigating actions may be required for some blasting projects. Two case histories cite the proper approach toward lessening the potential for human, geologic-hazard, natural resource, and structural impacts without diminishing the capacity to effectively perform the blasting. Blasting can be conducted to achieve the project’s goals with a low potential of triggering adverse impacts.

Fibrous Tremolite in Central New South Wales, Australia Hendrickx, Marc, marchgeo.com, marchgeo@gmail.com (TS #40) Tremolite schists in Ordovician meta-volcanics in central New South Wales mainly comprise fibrous tremolite-actinolite. They are associated with tremolite asbestos occurrences, and small quantities of asbestos were mined from narrow vein deposits in this area last century. When pulverized the host tremolite schist releases mineral fragments that fall into the classification range for countable mineral fibers and may be classed as asbestos, despite not having an asbestiform habit. The ambiguity in classification of this type of natural material raises significant health and safety, legal and environmental issues that require clarification. While the health effects of amphibole asbestos fibers are well known, the consequences of

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS exposure to non-asbestiform, fibrous varieties are not well studied. This group of minerals deserve more attention due to their widespread occurrence in metamorphic rocks in Australia, and their potential disturbance through mining, civil construction, forestry and farming practices. Toxicological studies for instance would assist in clarifying the risk of exposure.

NOA in Australia: History of Investigation, Regulation and Emerging Issues Hendrickx, Marc, Marc Hendrickx and Associates, Australia, marchgeo@gmail.com (TS #24) Health concerns about incidental disturbance of natural occurrences of asbestiform minerals in eastern Australia can be traced back to the 1980s. Little scientific work was done on the issue until the early 2000s. The potential for small levels of exposure through ground disturbance by road construction, farming, forestry and leisure activities was seen as geologically feasible, but it took some time for authorities to formally recognize the issue and develop regulations, guidelines and maps to help reduce the risks of disturbance and exposure. Mapping of potential NOA areas has substantially reduced the risk of accidental disturbances. NOA is now recognized and managed as an environmental mineral hazard. Emerging issues include: QRA: What are the actual risks? Lack of quantitative information about actual fiber levels and types of fibers in air at work sites operating in NOA affected areas. Quantitative Risk Assessments are not undertaken, risk is assumed. NOA is managed in a way that regards it as being the same as commercial asbestos. Cancer Registry Databases lack key details to support epidemiological studies. Cancer registry data does not provide sufficient historical information about mesothelioma cases to be useful for epidemiological research. Need to have details about patients residential and work histories that might permit NOA to be identified as a potential source. Toxicological properties of non-asbestiform, fibrous amphiboles are not well known and more research is required to understand health risks of these ambiguous materials.

Exposure to Mesotheliomagenic Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) During Dam Construction Hernandez, Dan, Flatiron Construction Corporation, United States, dhernandez@flatironcorp.com (TS #33) The CDRP is a major construction project involving hundreds of workers using heavy earth moving equipment, and mining operations including blasting, drilling, rock crushing, and other operations designed to move 13 million cubic yards of earth. Much of this material is composed of serpentinite, blueschist, and other rocks that contain chrysotile, and a variety of amphibole minerals including glaucophane, winchite, actinolite, tremolite, and other asbestos related amphiboles. This presentation will explore the unique characteristics of the blueschist that required extensive protective measures to be undertaken by the contractor to protect workers and surrounding sensitive receptors. This presentation will provide an overall summary of the extensive NOA monitoring data for this project, including the dimensional characteristics of the elongate mineral particles encountered during construction activities in order to compare and contrast current understandings of cleavage fragmentation versus asbestiform mineral fibers.

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Mapping of Potential Mineral Hazards That May Affect State and Federal Highway Projects in California Higgins, Chris T., California Geological Survey, chiggins@ conservation.ca.gov; Ronald K. Churchill; John P. Clinkenbeard; Milton C. Fonseca (Poster) The California Geological Survey (CGS) is finishing a series of maps and reports prepared under contract for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that show potential for mineral hazards within the twelve districts administered by that agency. The maps, which are plotted at 1:250,000-scale, function as initial screening tools for Caltrans staff to improve planning of new construction projects, routine maintenance of highways, and emergency removal of debris deposited on roads by natural processes. The maps display natural and man-made features that may be potential sources of mineral hazards. These features include: 1) geologic units that may contain naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA), fibrous erionite, or elevated concentrations of various regulated metals (Ag, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Zn) and metalloids (As, Sb, Se); 2) faults, which can be sites of increased potential for certain types of mineralization; 3) mines and prospects, which can be sources of anomalous concentrations of metals as well as ore-processing chemicals; 4) oil and natural-gas seeps; 5) thermal springs and fumaroles; and 6) oil, natural-gas, and geothermal wells. Watershed boundaries and streams are also shown to help determine if drainages that intersect highway corridors may contain deleterious materials eroded and transported from upstream geologic features or mining areas. Besides the maps described above, small-scale maps of geochemical data are compiled for each district. In addition, individual digital thematic layers of all features are prepared for use in GIS software. These layers, which are being merged as a seamless statewide set, provide substantial additional information not displayed on the paper maps (e.g., characteristics of geologic units and individual mines), which allows more-sophisticated analysis for possible mineral hazards.

Using GIS and UAV Imagery for Geologic Mapping during the Oroville Spillway Emergency Recovery Hightower, Nicholas, California Department of Water Resources, United States, Nicholas.Hightower@water.ca.gov; Andrew Barron, abarron@infraterra.com; Holly Nichols,, holly.Nichols@water.ca.gov (TS #36) Construction to repair and replace the damaged Oroville Flood Control Outlet (FCO) spillway chute and the Emergency Spillway began in May 2017. During the 2017 construction season, approximately 2,300 linear feet of the 3,000-linear-ft FCO spillway chute was cleaned of eroded and demolition debris and rock, and replaced with roller-compacted concrete and structural concrete. Portions of the emergency spillway apron were excavated and concrete was placed on top of the cleaned rock surfaces. Prior to placement of any new concrete, the foundation rock was geologically mapped. With extremely tight construction schedules, there was typically one to two days to complete geologic mapping. Low-altitude, high-resolution UAV imagery was taken the morning that geologic mapping was to be conducted. The UAV-acquired photos were processed using AgiSoft Photoscan to form a single orthomosaic. The orthomosaic was roughly georeferenced in AgiSoft then further refined in ArcMap using flight control points and the built-in georeferencing tools, which created orthomosaics to nearly survey-grade levels. Field-ready basemaps were produced using data-driven pages within a couple hours of the original UAV flight. Data recorded on the maps included shears (lines

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS and polygons), weathering and fracturing domains (polygons), and structural data (points). Each of these feature types were digitized and added to a multi-user SDE geodatabase. The resultant dataset documents in detail the new foundation conditions for the reconstructed spillways. The imagery was also used to create inspection approval maps to ensure the concrete was being placed on rock surfaces that had been approved. The use of UAV imagery, rapid processing into orthomosaics, georeferencing in ArcMap, and using data-driven pages to create basemaps for immediate deployment, significantly changed and improved the geologic mapping workflow during construction.

Expanding Clean Water in a Rural Town in Shisasari, Kenya Hilton, Bruce, Kleinfelder, United States, brhhilton@gmail.com; Byron Anderson; Joseph Zilles; Carla Aguilar; Sandy Hilton (TS #2) As a joint effort between AEG and Engineers without Borders (EWB), a group of five members of both organizations designed, sought and received approval, raised funds for, and oversaw the construction of a spring box in Shisasari, a small village about 2 hours east of Nairobi, Kenya. Prior to this project, the community relied entirely on one spring source that flows overland and was surrounded by bacterial contaminant sources such as animals, birds, human waste, and exotic bacteria from extensive foot traffic. The existing spring was visited by at least one member of every family of the village of nearly 6,000 people who’s average life expectancy was 38 years and extensive poverty and a huge orphan population. Our sponsor, a member of the village from birth to the age of 18 when he left to go to college and now relocated to the San Francisco Bay Area, has made a lifetime mission of returning to his community for months out of the year and spending his time in the US seeking funding and resources to improve the health, education, and general well-being of his family and community members of Shisasari. Our sponsor sought EWB to assist in developing a new water source and improving the existing spring primarily to support the newly constructed and operated secondary school in the community. In many other countries, a primary school provides education for youth from our grade ages of K–6 and, should they be uniquely fortunate as is Shisasari, a secondary school to provide grade 7–12 high school education at their “New Hope High School.” Our team identified a much larger spring source near the former primary spring used by the village and built a spring box that entrains and filters water into a pipe system allowing the village now to go the same spring location but now with filtered water from both villages in a volume now adequate to support the Shisasari community. Although bacterial filtration is accomplished using “Waterguard,” a diluted form of chlorination, even at a cost of 25 cents/bottle that can provide clean water for a family for nearly a month, it is an extremely imposing cost and is seldom used. In conjunction with our team’s effort to build the spring box, an educational program focused on water quality and bacterial sources was developed and taught at both the primary and secondary schools and continues to be part of the schools’ curriculum. A future project is planned to expand that educational process to the community members not in school and to provide and maintain a chlorination system and secure barrier to prevent vandalism and damage to this vital system to the community.

September 2018

The Petrographic and Geotechnical Properties of a Dolerite Intrusion in the Assessment of its Blasting Performance at the Magdalena Colliery, Dundee, South Africa Hingston, Egerton, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, hingstone@ukzn.ac.za; Quinton Nankua, qnankua@gmail.com; Sihle Mtshali, sihle.mtshali8@gmail.com; Cebolenkosi Khumalo, cebokh@gmail.com (TS #47) The presence of dolerite intrusions in underground collieries often causes damage to mining equipment, delays in mining schedules and loss in production. This is often exacerbated by inadequate pull from the blasting operations along the intrusion. Thus, the proficient removal of dolerite intrusions through efficient blasting techniques plays a vital role in the economic output of a colliery. This study is focused on one such intrusion within the Magdalena Colliery, wherein a 13.88 m dolerite dyke resulted in the replacement and displacement of the Alfred seam. Selected sampling was conducted along the length of the intrusion in order to determine the petrographic and geotechnical properties influencing the blasting performance of the dyke. A detailed petrographic analysis was done by analyzing thin sections of the dolerite in order to identify the major minerals present. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also conducted to determine the percentage com-position of minerals along the intrusion. Geotechnical tests were also conducted in order to assess the technical properties of the dolerite. The geotechnical tests conducted included point load test, sound velocity test, uniaxial compressive strength test and Brazilian disc strength test. The study conducted demonstrates that a strong correlation exists between the blasting performance and geotechnical and petrographic properties of the dyke.

Geo-Hazards Associated with the Urban Geology of the City of La Paz, B.C.S., México (Northwest Portion) Hirales Rochin, Joel, Department of Earth Sciences, Instituto Tecnológico de La Paz, Mexico, joelhirales@itlp.edu.mx; Francisco J. Cazares Urcadiz, urcadiz@me.mx (Poster) Geology as a tool for identifying geological risk zones is useful to determine the close relationship between the geological space and the urban development of a city. Based on this interaction can respond to the growing demand for solutions of environmental and urban nature. The first is formed by geology, biology, and soil science and the second is anthropic, represented by cities, infrastructure, public works, populations, etc. Both environments interact constantly and for the case of the study area, a planned and sustainable relationship that allows a harmonious relationship between the two has not yet been established. The search for this empathy between the geological environment and the human being has come to form disciplines such as Urban Geology, which in recent years has gained relevance in Mexico and is becoming an important tool for planning urban development. At the national, regional and local level where the study area is located, there is a growing need to create new urban areas, but these are not linked to an adequate analysis of the geological environment and knowledge of the main factors that control risk conditions. This research will illustrate the zoning of some geological risks at local scale of the city of La Paz in its northwest portion, which shows the need to initiate an update of the geological-urban knowledge that allows the capital of the state a sustainable growth of the city population, the improvement of the current construction standards and the corresponding zoning to anticipate their development in an orderly manner.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS West Shore Lake Oroville Lineament Geologic Investigation, Northern California (Part 1) Hoirup, Don, California Department of Water Resources Division of Engineering Project Geology Section, United States, don.Hoirup@ water.ca.gov; Ozgur Kozaci, okozaci@infraterra.com ((TS #18) The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) owns and operates the California State Water Project (SWP). The SWP comprises more than 700 miles of canals, pipelines, and tunnels as well as 34 storage facilities, 30 dams, 23 pumping plants, and 9 hydroelectric power generation plants all spanning two-thirds of the length of California. It supplies water to more than 26 million people throughout California. SWP water also irrigates about 750,000 acres of farmland, mainly in the San Joaquin Valley. The flagship structure of the SWP is Oroville Dam, part of the Oroville-Thermalito Dam Complex. At 770 feet, Oroville Dam is the tallest dam in the United States and the most voluminous dam in California. Oroville Dam was constructed between 1961 and 1967. The reservoir filled for the first time in 1968. Power generation from Oroville Dam is regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). On August 1, 1975, the ML 5.7 Oroville earthquake occurred along the Cleveland Hill Fault (CHF) damaging the town of Oroville, located a few miles downstream of Oroville Dam, and causing little to no damage to the dam. The Oroville earthquake resulted in previously unrecognized Quaternary fault activity along the foothills of the northern Sierra-Nevada. In December 2014, Independent Consultants for FERC recommended that DWR inspect the northern projected trace of the CHF to determine whether the fault continues north passing less than one mile upstream of Oroville Dam. In 2015, DWR began a phased geologic investigation of the northern projection of the CHF. Due to several years of drought, low reservoir water levels allowed opportunity to view shoreline areas typically submerged. Using lidar, supplemented with multi-beam survey data, DWR identified anomalous geomorphic features resembling active faults north of the mapped trace of the CHF along the West Shore of Lake Oroville (WSLO).

West Shore Lake Oroville Lineament Geologic Investigation, Northern California (Part 2) Hoirup, Don, California Department of Water Resources Division of Engineering Project Geology Section, United States, don.Hoirup@water.ca.gov; Ozgur Kozaci, okozaci@infraterra.com; Judith A Zachariasen; Chris Bloszies; Christopher S Hitchcock: Rich David Koehler; Scott C Lindvall; Eric McDonald; Leah Feigelson; Hans Abramson-Ward; Ross Hartleb; Matt Huebner (Presented by Ozgur Kozaci) (TS #18) The ML5.7 1975 Oroville earthquake occurred seven years after construction of Oroville Dam, the tallest earth-fill embankment dam in the United States. The Oroville earthquake and aftershocks resulted in recognition of Quaternary activity along the Cleveland Hill fault (CHF), Swain Ravine fault zone (SRF), located west of the Foothills fault system, where the seismic hazard is relatively low based on moderate earthquake activity and small co-seismic displacements. For relicensing, lidar data was acquired to evaluate the possible northward extension of the CHF. An approximately 10 km-long, northsouth oriented zone of topographic lineaments were identified in the lidar along the West Shore of Lake Oroville (WSLO) north of Oroville Dam. The lineaments are coincident with the northern projection of the CHF and are expressed as scarps, benches, and saddles along the steep slopes of WSLO. In order to assess the origin of the lineaments, and determine whether or not the prominent lineament is related to recent fault activity that could pose a co-seismic surface rupture potential at Oroville Dam, our study integrated geomorphic 140

mapping, field reconnaissance, and four trenches across the lineament. Detailed mapping documented a roughly north-south oriented bedrock fabric throughout the region associated with a series of parallel lineaments. Field reconnaissance and trench exposures revealed a robust correlation between strength of the Jurassic metavolcanic bedrock and localized erosion and slope failures. These surface processes exploit weaker zones within the bedrock, resulting in differential erosion and stepped topography. The stepped topography is accentuated by side-hill benches formed by colluvium that infills areas between resistant bedrock zones. The result is a youthful zone of topographic lineaments. Furthermore, a clay-rich saprolitic unit (~175 ka) was mapped in trench T3 that crosses the lineament in Bear Meadow. No faulting or deformation was observed in the saprolite; therefore, precluding an active fault consideration.

Shear Zone Fault System, not the Foothill Fault Zone Hoirup, Don, California Department of Water Resources, United States, don.hoirup@water.ca.gov; Sean Dunbar, sean.dunbar@water.ca.gov (Poster) Oroville Dam is located within the “Shear Zone†Fault System (SZFS), which traverses the northwestern Sierra-Nevada Foothills of California. The SZFS includes the Swain Ravine Fault Zone, Paynes Peak Fault Zone, Cleveland Hill Fault (CHF), Long Ravine Fault Zone, and the Prairie Creek Fault (PCF). Previous work has documented evidence of late Cenozoic activity along the CHF and the Swain Ravine Fault Zone, as well as possible evidence of activity along the PCF. Faults within the SZFS were formed by a late Neogene to present period of east–west extension that has resulted in high-angle normal faults that occur along pre-existing Paleozoic and Mesozoic structures. Previous work by Unruh (1990) notes that faults of the SZFS occur almost entirely within the Smartville lithotectonic complex and do not separate rocks of appreciably contrasting stratigraphy or structure. Faults and lineaments in the SZFS commonly dip west, as shown by detailed mapping and by patterns of seismicity following reactivation of the CHF during the August 1, 1975, magnitude (Ml) 5.7 Oroville earthquake. Previous professional references to faults in the vicinity of Oroville Dam have identified the Eastern California Foothill Fault System (Foothills Fault System, or FFS) as the fault system controlling the Oroville Dam area. In fact, the FFS is located about 20 to 30 kilometers east of Oroville Dam well outside the mapped limits of the SZFS.

New Geologic Mapping of the Sierra Nevada Foothills in the San Andreas 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California Holland, Peter, California Geological Survey, United States, peter.holland@conservation.ca.gov; Carlos, Gutierrez; Marc Delattre (Poster) The California Geological Survey (CGS) is engaged in a multi-year project to prepare new 1:24,000-scale geologic maps for selected 7.5-minute quadrangles in the central Sierra Nevada foothills region of California. Thus far, through the STATEMAP Program administered by the USGS, preliminary geologic maps of the Ione, Wallace, Valley Springs, Irish Hill and San Andreas 7.5-minute quadrangles have been completed and are available from the CGS. New detailed mapping of the Angels Camp and Valley Springs Southwest 7.5-minute quadrangles are planned to be released in 2018. The western foothills of the Sierra Nevada is a region of geologic complexity, primarily because of accretionary tectonics and interactions between the western margin of the North American plate and adjacent plates during Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. Several belts, often interpreted as accreted terranes, are within the mapping area. These include, from west to east, the Jurassic Foothills terrane, a serpentinite belt, a mélange belt, and

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS the Mother Lode belt. Separating the Foothills terrane and the serpentinite belt is the Bear Mountains fault zone. Reactivation of this fault zone during the Quaternary has manifested along the Waters Peak, Ione, and Poorman Gulch faults. CGS mapping has better characterized the location of and movement along these reactivated faults where they have displaced Cenozoic units. Overlying the highly deformed tectonically emplaced Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks is a sequence of mostly non-marine sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of Eocene to Miocene age that occurs discontinuously in the higher elevations of the quadrangle. These units were typically deposited in paleochannels and now form inverted topography. The Oligocene to Miocene Valley Springs Formation is in part smectitic and poses a potential slope stability hazard. The Eocene Ione Formation occurs mostly in the western portion of the mapping area and is an important economic deposit of kaolinite clay.

A 3D Geological Fault Model for Characterization of Geological Faults at the Proposed Site for the Wylfa Newydd Nuclear Power Plant, Wales❋ Hosker, Richard, Arup, United Kingdom, richard.hosker@arup.com; Matthew Free, matthew.free@arup.com; Ben Gilson, ben.gilson@arup.com; Jason Manning, jason.manning@arup.com; David Schofield, dis@bgs.ac.uk; Martin Walsh, martin.walsh@horizonnuclearpower.com; Mark Doherty, mark.Doherty@Horizonnuclearpower.com (Presented by Matthew Free) (TS #44) Nuclear energy is an important part of a sustainable, economic and secure energy balance for the United Kingdom (UK). Horizon Nuclear Power commissioned Arup to provide seismic hazard assessment (SHA) consultancy services for the proposed Wylfa Newydd Nuclear Power Station in Anglesey, Wales, UK. Advanced Boiling Water Reactors are proposed to provide at least 5,400MW, enough to power around 10 million homes. The SHA comprises a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of ground motion, a tsunami hazard assessment and a capable faulting assessment. The capable faulting assessment included thoroughly identifying and investigating geological faults at the site, with due consideration of the geological seismological and tectonic setting. The objective of the capable faulting assessment was to demonstrate that faults are not capable of surface rupture within the current tectonic setting. Should evidence suggest that faults with the potential to affect the safety of the nuclear installation are capable, IAEA guidance dictates that an alternative site shall be considered. A project 3D Geological Fault Model was developed to characterise geological faulting at the site for the capable faulting assessment. A systematic methodology that incorporates expert judgment was developed and applied to the investigation and correlation of geological faults between site investigation data points. A total of 36 geological faults were mapped across the site and three fault sets were identified. Absolute age dating of the fault gouge on a representative selection of samples was subsequently undertaken to demonstrate that faults at the site are not capable in accordance with IAEA guidelines.

Research Actuality and Evolution Mechanism of Post-Fire Debris Flow Hu, Xie Wen, Southwest Jiaotong University, China, huxiewen@163.com; Yan Wang, 1508357959@qq.com; Ying Yang, 2388378686@qq.com (TS #29B) The post-fire debris flow is another special type of debris flows that closely related to forest fire and generate in burned area, obvious difference in term of the initiation mechanism has been fined between post-fire debris flows and general debris flows. Fire combust the surface vegetation and further destroy the texture of overlying soil for the September 2018

high temperature of fire, the unit weight, pore porosity, permeability and other physical and hydrological properties of the fire-infected soil are changed dramatically in fire, and abundant residual ash layer and loose debris accumulated on the slope after fire, Therefore, post-fire debris flows usually has the characteristics of high unit weight and viscosity. A review of research on the generation mode, kinetic mechanism, influence factors, debris flow forecasting and mitigation measures of this kind of debris flows was concluded. Referring to relevant literature at home and abroad, post-fire debris flows are first studied in 1935. Detailed study on them are mostly conducted in America, Australian and Spain, but few can be found in China, except the researches in agroforestry, in which the studies are mainly about water and soil loss, vegetation combust, and recovery. As another special type of debris flow hazards, systematic study of post-fire debris flows has not attracted enough attention in China, and result in the poor study of this kind of debris flow. Based on the key problem mentioned above, we developed some suggestions to enhance the research on the generation and spatial-temporal evolution mechanism and effective protection of post-fire debris flows.

Design and Construction Considerations for Innovative Rockfall Protection Systems Huber, Robert, GeoStabilization International, United States, robert.huber@gsi.us; Martin Woodard, marty@gsi.us (TS #34) As professional engineers and geologists, we are tasked with providing solutions to protect people and infrastructure from geohazards such as rockfalls—both during and after construction or remediation of existing slopes/highwalls. Rockfall hazards can be found in a variety of business locales including mining operations, highway transportation, and railroad corridors, just to name a few. These settings necessitate unique project requirements including work time availability, maintaining proximity access to the slope (travel lanes open to the public), environmental and aesthetic constraints, etc. The presentation will discuss unique strategies dealing with both temporary and permanent rockfall protection systems used to achieve successful and safe project completion. Included are the construction of permanent rockfall barriers using above-grade footings for rockfall retention systems in place of traditional anchor systems and a variety of temporary rockfall protection systems. The primary benefit of these solutions includes minimal disruption to production or transportation routes while mitigating the rockfall hazard. The methods used to determine the design criteria for the systems will be discussed, as well as the selection of design parameters and the mechanics behind the solution’s design. Construction techniques and the unique challenges associated with these systems will be highlighted, and the effectiveness of the solutions will be demonstrated through case studies and testing. By utilizing these systems, mining operations and transportation entities will be able to reduce the impact of rockfall hazards in their daily activities.

The HayWired Scenario: How Can the San Francisco Bay Region Bounce Back Better? Hudnut, Kenneth W., US Geological Survey, United States, hudnut@usgs.gov; Anne M. Wein, Dale A. Cox, Suzanne C. Perry, Keith A. Porter, Laurie A. Johnson, Jennifer A. Strauss (TS #48) The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical yet scientifically realistic and quantitative depiction of a moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 earthquake (mainshock) occurring on April 18, 2018, at 4:18 p.m. on the Hayward Fault in the east bay part of the San Francisco Bay area, California. The hypothetical earthquake has its epicenter in Oakland, and strong ground shaking from the scenario causes a wide range of severe impacts throughout the greater bay region. In the scenario, the

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Hayward Fault is ruptured along its length for 83 kilometers (about 52 miles). Building on a decades-long series of efforts to reduce earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region, the hypothetical HayWired earthquake is used to examine the well-known earthquake hazard of the Hayward Fault, with a focus on newly emerging vulnerabilities. After a major earthquake disaster, reestablishing water services and foodsupply chains are, of course, top priorities. However, problems associated with telecommunication outages or “network congestion” will increase and become more urgent as the bay region deepens its reliance on the “Internet of Things.” Communications at all levels are crucial during incident response following an earthquake. Damage to critical facilities (such as power plants) from earthquake shaking and to electrical and telecommunications wires and fiber-optic cables that are severed where they cross a fault rupture can trigger cascading Internet and telecommunications outages, and restoring these services is crucially important for emergency-response coordination. Without good communications, emergency-response efficiency is reduced, and as a result, life-saving response functions can be compromised. For these reasons, the name HayWired was chosen for this scenario to emphasize the need to examine our interconnectedness and reliance on telecommunications and other lifelines (such as water and electricity). Earthquake risk in the San Francisco Bay region has been greatly reduced as a result of previous concerted efforts. For example, a roughly $50 billion investment in strengthening infrastructure was motivated in large part by the 1989 magnitude (M) 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. The earthquake hazard from the Hayward Fault remains high, however, and work still needs to be done to ensure that the region is ready for an earthquake like that in the HayWired scenario. Already, there is a renewed commitment from the newly formed HayWired Coalition—consisting of numerous government, academic, utility-provider, and community stakeholders—to bring new, varied perspectives to bear on the problems that remain.

Simulating Aquifer-System Compaction and Land Subsidence with MODFLOW 6 Hughes, Joseph D., US Geological Survey, United States, jdhughes@usgs.gov; Devin L. Galloway; Stanley A. Leake; Jeremy T. White (TS #37) Compressible fine-grained sediments are susceptible to inelastic compaction in response to groundwater withdrawals in many aquifer systems in the world. Inelastic compaction of the fine-grained sediments results in land subsidence, which can damage infrastructure and increase the frequency and intensity of flooding. The adverse effects of inelastic compaction resulting from groundwater withdrawals have been observed in many unconsolidated, heterogeneous aquifer systems including the Central Valley in California; the Houston-Galveston region in Texas; the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh; the Jakarta basin, Indonesia; the lower Mekong Delta, Cambodia and Vietnam; and the Virginia Coastal Plain. A skeletal storage, compaction, and subsidence (CSUB) package has been developed for MODFLOW 6 that can simulate elastic compaction of coarse-grained sediments and elastic and inelastic compaction of fine-grained sediments resulting from changes in hydraulic and geostatic stresses in an aquifer system. The CSUB package incorporates the functionality of the earlier subsidence and aquifer-system compaction packages for MODFLOW-2005 (SUB, SUB-WT) that related compaction directly to head changes. Unlike SUB and SUB-WT packages, the CSUB package can simulate compaction of fine-grained sediments that respond quickly (no-delay) and slowly (delay) to effective-stress changes. The CSUB package has been applied to a model of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in Houston, Texas. Fine-grained interbeds in the aquifers have an average thickness of 5 meters and total interbed thicknesses 142

that range from 150 to 760, and 30 to 210 meters, respectively. The fine-grained sediments in the aquifers were simulated as no-delay interbeds, assuming individual interbeds remain in equilibrium with heads in the permeable, coarse-grained aquifer sediments. Simulated model results indicate that maximum compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers is 3 meters and 2 meters, respectively, which contribute to a maximum of 3 meters of land subsidence in the Houston area since 1891.

Illuminating Our Understanding of Rock Slope Behavior, by Integrating Engineering Geology Concepts into Interpretation of Remotely Sensed Data Hutchinson, D. Jean, Queen’s University, Canada, hutchinj@queensu.ca; Emily Rowe, emily.rowe@queensu.ca; Megan van Veen, MVanVeen@bgcengineering.ca; Alex Graham, alex.graham@queensu.ca; David Bonneau, david.bonneau@queensu.ca; Ryan Kromer, ryan.kromer@queensu.ca; Dave Gauthier, dgauthier@bgcengineering.ca; Matt Lato, mlato@bgcengineering.ca (TS #34) Several active rock slopes in western Canada adjacent to linear infrastructure have been under investigation using remotely sensed data since 2012, as part of the Canadian Railway Ground Hazard Research Program. Remote sensing methods have proven useful in understanding the geohazards present along these slopes, which are mainly inaccessible due to their size, geometry, and the active railway running along their base. Regular field visits to the various rock slopes have been undertaken to collect detailed geometric surface data, including lidar and photography data from terrestrial and aerial (UAV and helicopter) platforms. This provides a superb data set for spatial and temporal evaluation of slope processes and changing morphology, in this case rockfalls and debris flows, by comparing three-dimensional (3D) data collected over sequential time periods. Rock slope failure processes including deformation, detachment of blocks, and movement of debris can be tracked in detail (mm scale precision) for slopes at significant distances from observation sites. Applying engineering geology knowledge to the quantified slope changes, considering lithology and rockmass features and condition, permits hypothesis of expected failure mechanisms and potential volumes, which can be related to a deformation threshold for warning of failure. Comparisons of the failure mechanism specific analysis using these techniques, for slopes in different geological settings, permits us to move ever closer to rock slope failure predictions, and more informed management of rock slope hazards affecting the railways.

Process-Base Topographical and Geochemical Approaches to Rainfall-Induced Landslides Adjacent to Tectonic Faults Ikemi, Hiro, Kyushu University, Japan, ikemi@kyudai.jp; R. Nakanishi, A. Baba, Y. Okajima, Y. Mitani (Poster) In July 2017, terrible sediment disasters hit the northern part of Kyushu, Japan, due to heavy rain that would occur once in 200 years. According to the government agency, in the Otoishi River Basin, which is the study area, rainfall exceeding 500 mm in 12 hours was recorded, and a lot of landslides and debris flows occurred. Total area affected by slope failures was over 300,000 square meters corresponding to about 5% of the catchment, and 1.6 million cubic meters of sediment flowed down. In addition, due to the erosion of riverbed, outcrops of lateral faults were also newly confirmed. The faults show NW-SE strikes with dips of around 60 degrees to west, of which direction is same to river direction of the Otoishi River. According to the observation of the faults outcrops, the east side of the river seems to have raised relative to the west side. In this study, the impact of

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS crustal deformation on occurrence of this sediment disaster has been examined from the process-based topographical analysis and from the distribution of silica fluxes from mountain streams. As a result, it was revealed that the curvature of ridges in the eastern sub-catchments (the right bank) shows lower values, which indicate convex, and the silica flux was spatially varied more than the western (the left bank). The eastern sub-catchments have larger area rates of landslides. It is suggested that the difference in crustal deformation due to the fault has changed the occurrence of landslides.

Gigantic Eruption History of the Kikai Caldera, Japan, with Reference to the Long Valley Caldera Ito, Hisatoshi, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba, Japan, ito_hisa@criepi.denken.or.jp (Poster) The Kikai Caldera, situated ~50 km south of the Kyushu Island, experienced a gigantic eruption at ~7,300 years ago (or 7.3 ka) with a total volume of erupted products of >500 km3. The Long Valley Caldera, eastern California, also experienced a gigantic eruption at ~766 ka with a volume of >600 km3 ejected as the Bishop Tuff. It is of prime importance for humankind to understand how these super-eruptions occurred in order to mitigate secondary disasters. Zircon, an accessory mineral usually contained in gigantic eruption products, is unique in that it can be used to determine eruption date, estimate magmatic residence time (i.e., whether an eruption happened soon after the magma generation or it took long time for the magma to erupt), and estimate how magma was generated. So far, there are many literatures on these topics using the Bishop Tuff zircon. Here I used zircons of the Kikai Caldera origin and the Bishop Tuff to reveal the gigantic eruption history of the Kikai Caldera. To date, I have dated zircons of the Kikai Caldera origin, using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb method, and speculated that the Kikai Caldera experienced several super-eruptions at ~700, ~600, and ~100 ka before the 7.3 ka eruptions (Ito et al., 2017). I am now trying to reveal at what temperature zircons were crystallized using Ti-in-zircon thermometry. Reference: Ito, H., Uesawa, S., Nanayama, F., and Nakagawa, S., 2017. Zircon U–Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS: Quaternary tephras in Yakushima Island, Japan. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 338, 92–100.

Factors Contributing to Rockfall Occurrence and the Associated Risk in Rockville, Utah❋ Jacklitch, Carl, Gannett Fleming, United States, cjacklitch@gfnet.com; Abdul Shakoor, ashakoor@kent.edu (TS #26) The east–west trending, south-facing, slope in Rockville, Washington County, Utah is well known for experiencing large-size rockfalls, including the fatal rockfall of 2013 that destroyed a home and killed two people. The stratigraphic units present in the area include the well-indurated, Upper Triassic, Shinarump Conglomerate member (cliff-forming unit) of the Chinle Formation that caps the less resistant, Lower Triassic, Moenkopi Formation (slope-forming unit). We performed a detailed study to investigate the factors that contribute to rockfall occurrence and the associated hazard in the Rockville area. To accomplish this objective, we selected four representative sites along the slope. The results of our study indicate that the main factors contributing to rockfall occurrence and rockfall hazard include: unfavorable orientation of discontinuities, differential weathering resulting in undercutting, regional climate (infrequent, high precipitation events; freeze-thaw cycles), high slopes, presence of gullies that channelize rockfall debris, and proximity of homes to the slope toe. The results also show that the western portion of the study area poses the highest hazard due to the presence of higher slopes, larger September 2018

exposure of the Shnabkaib member (the weaker rock unit), higher number of deep gullies, and the higher density of residences closer to the slope toe. Based on the contributing factors, we developed a modified rockfall hazard rating system for the Rockville area.

Characteristics of Fracture Development in Cement Samples by High-Voltage Electrical Discharge Jang, Bo-An, Kangwon National University, Republic of Korea, bajang@kangwon.ac.kr; Hee-Sung Riu, turtleking07@gmail.com (Poster) Laboratory-scale fracturing by high-voltage electrical discharge was conducted to investigate the characteristics of fracture development. Cubic samples with 20 cm sides were produced using cement and cured in water for more than one month. Samples were placed in a true tri-axial compressive machine and then a borehole was drilled. A probe was inserted into the center of the borehole and high-voltage electricity was discharged. The patterns of fractures produced by highvoltage discharge were investigated. Samples were fractured by highvoltage discharge under various hydrostatic pressures to investigate the discharge energy required for cracking. When the stress condition was equal to atmospheric pressure, cracks began to propagate with a discharge energy of about 6.3 kJ. Discharge energy increased exponentially as hydrostatic pressure increased. Discharge energy was about 17.9 kJ for cracking under a pressure of 25 MPa. Between two and eight cracks propagated radially from the boreholes; the numbers of cracks increased as the discharge energy increased. Samples were fractured by high-voltage discharge under three different principal stresses that represented in situ stress conditions. Fracture development differed with the two-dimensional stress state on a plane perpendicular to the borehole axis. When the differential stress (i.e., the difference between the maximum and minimum principal stresses on the plane) was 3 MPa, two or more cracks propagated radially from the borehole. However, when the differential stress was 8 MPa, only one fracture propagated along the direction of maximum principal stress, which is similar to hydraulic fracturing.

A Future Role for Engineering Geology Jefferson, Ian, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, ijefferson@bham.ac.uk; Martin Culshaw, martin.culshaw2@ntlworld.com; Helen Reeves, hjre@bgs.ac.uk (Presented by Martin Culshaw) (TS #19) Engineering geology has played a vital role in the development of society, allowing ever better understanding of a range of natural and increasingly anthropogenic geohazards. It is well known, yet sometime forgotten, that a sound knowledge of the engineering geology of the ground is essential for safe, cost effective engineering that feeds directly and indirectly into civil engineering and construction projects. However, the landscape is changing as through this century 70% to 80% of the ever-growing world population will be urban dwellers. This provides new challenges and opportunities for engineering geology as there is a growing realization that the surface and underground environment is an urban resource that is currently under-utilized. This is not to say it is limitless but that significant opportunities exist for developers and planners to use the subsurface in ever more imaginative ways. Thus, engineering geology will have to respond to the new environment and its demands, moving beyond the traditional approaches to enable broader engagement with many more disciplines actively involved in current and future urban development. This includes planners, social scientists and ecologists, amongst others. Engagement with these many, seemly disparate, disciplines is vital if the finite underground space is to be used sustainably, balancing out

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS often counteracting economic, environmental and social pressures. This paper will first give a brief historical view of the key skills required, and the contribution that engineering geologists can make in the context of future urban development. The many interchanges and the key role engineering geologists can play in the urban development process will be highlighted noting that this is arguably the greatest global construction project faced by society in this century.

Assessment Proposal for Definition of Slope Stabilization Measures in Urban Areas: the Fontaínhas Scarp, Oporto (Portugal)❋ Jeremias, Filipe, LNEC, Portugal, ftelmo@lnec.pt; Rute Ramos, rramos@lnec.pt (TS #21) The Fontanhas scarp on the right bank of the Douro River, between D. Lus and D. Maria Pia bridges, presents a historical record of slope failures since 19th century, important on risk management for the use of the area as well as for the surrounding streets. In order to help future decision-making processes related to interventions on the escarpment, a study was carried out to characterize the stability conditions of the scarp, based on existing bibliographic information, detailed field surveys and risk situations identified. In order to systematize the problems identified in the field, the study area was subdivided in sectors. Taking into account the characterization analysis carried out, for which sector a remedial measures proposal for the risk situations identified on field was presented.

Engineering Geological Studies for the New Drainage Tunnels of Lisbon❋ Jeremias, Filipe, LNEC, Portugal, ftelmo@lnec.pt; Rute Ramos, rramos@lnec.pt; Laura Caldeira, laurac@lnec.pt (TS #14) The municipality of Lisbon is currently planning the construction of two drainage tunnels in order to control the periodically floods that occur in the city during the winter. The first one is 5 km long with DN5500 diameter and crossing the downtown through a NW-SE trend and it mostly probably should be constructed by TBM. The second tunnel is located in the north part of Lisbon. This tunnel is 1 km long and it is planned to be constructed by TBM or by NATM. The main tunnel crosses first volcanic rocks and calcareous rocks from the Cretaceous and after detrital and calcareous rocks from Miocene. The second tunnel only intersects Miocene detrital and calcareous rocks constituted mostly by sand, silty sand, clay and biocalcarenite. For engineering geological characterization of alignments of tunnels, a site investigation program was planned and carried out, including boreholes, in situ (SPT, self boring pressumeters tests, packer tests, pumping tests and laboratory tests (index, oedometer and triaxial compression tests). An integrated analysis of the data obtained from the site investigation works was performed in order to define the engineering geological conditions along the alignments of the tunnels.

Dominant Role of Sediment Fluidization in Determining Seabed Erosion Jia, Yonggang, Ocean University of China, China, yonggang@ouc.edu.cn; Shaotong Zhang, coastalboy@163.com; Yaqi Zhang, 496762162@qq.com; Hongxian Shan, hongxian@ouc.edu.cn (TS #8) Erosion of single sediment particle at water-seabed interface has been assumed to be the dominate cause of seabed erosion all over the world, with most previous estimates of erosion rates linearly based on the counterbalance between a dynamic bottom shear stress and a quasi-constant critical shear stress for a given substrate. However, our 144

previous works in the Yellow River Delta have revealed the important role of pore pressure build ups in fluidizing bottom sediments, therefore causing an attenuation of erodibility (Zheng and Jia, 2013), due to both uplifting seepage forces acting on surface sediments (Jia and Zhang, 2014) and sub-bottom sediment pump action (Zhang and Jia, 2016), thus invalided traditional opinions in the aspect of mechanism. Recently, our research works further established the relationship between fluidization and erodibility, thus successfully parameterized the effect of seabed fluidization into erosion constants of commonlyemployed power law erosion model (e.g. Maa et al., 1998), through both controlled laboratory annular flume (self-designed) experiments (Zhang and Jia, submitted) and in situ waveCcurrent annular flume (newly-developed) observations in the real environment (Zhang and Jia, submitted). Comparison of laboratory and field results well demonstrated a better effect of our modified erosion model in reproducing SSC variations in the Yellow River Delta. We suggest that pore pressure buildups are valuable metric for predicting future seabed vulnerability to oceanic forcing. Severe erosion and great losses due to geologic hazards is therefore hopefully constrained.

Automatic Characterization of Rock Mass Discontinuities Using 3D Point Clouds Jianqin, Chen, Tongji University, China, 88jianqin@tongji.edu.cn; Xiaojun Li; Hehua Zhu (Presented by Xiaojun Li) (TS #55) Information on discontinuities is difficult, time consuming, biased, and often dangerous to obtain by direct measurement. A method for characterization of rock mass discontinuities using photogrammetry is presented in this study. First, it employs the photogrammetry technology to acquire 3D point clouds. Second, discontinuity information such as orientation, trace length, spacing and roughness can be obtained automatically from 3D point clouds. Orientations are extracted from rock mass surface using the improved K-means clustering method. Traces are detected by the Normal Tensor Voting Theory and four post-processing techniques to overcome the segmentation of extracted traces. Spacing is calculated by plotting the virtual scan lines normally on the projected traces. Roughness is obtained by the Root Mean Square of 2D surface profiles of the discontinuity surfaces and the statistical correlation with Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC). The method is applied to the characterization of the excavation face of a drill-andblast tunnel under construction. Quantitative discontinuity parameters extracted from point clouds can reduce the degree of uncertainty in the determination of RMR value and GSI value. It could be used to supplement conventional field work approach.

Response of a Rock Slope under Wide Frequency Shear Loads Using Large-Scale Shaking Table Jianxian, He, Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qi Shengwen, Zhan Zhifa (Poster) The study on response of the rock slope is of significance in revealing the mechanism of co-seismic landslide and also taking measures in prediction and prevention. In this paper, a large-scale shaking table test is conducted to deeply investigate the response of the rock slope under dynamic loads with wide frequency and amplitudes. Results show that the acceleration amplification factor in X direction (AFF-X) amplifies at the slope surface especially at the crest and the acceleration amplification factor in Z direction (AFF-Z) amplifies at the lower part of the slope. Meanwhile, it might be distinguished that the resonance frequency of the slope model in horizontal direction is between 45 and 60 Hz and the vertical is beyond 75 Hz through transfer function method. It can be concluded that the AFF-X and AFF-Z depend on

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS excitation frequency, and also amplify at different part of the slope. Furthermore, with increasing of amplitude the structure of slope weakened and damping increased which resulted in dissipating more energy and dynamic response characteristics decreasing. It is helpful to reveal the slope failure mechanism under earthquake, and provide valuable acknowledgement for engineering prediction and prevention.

Formation Mechanism and Failure Mode of Cataclastic Rock Mass at the Surface Layer of Slope in High Altitude Mountainous Area Jiang, Yaofei, Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China, jfei90@cug.edu.cn; Wang Liangqing, wangliangqing@cug.edu.cn (Poster) In western China, the landforms are mainly alpine valleys. High altitude, little vegetation, earthquakes, high ground stress, large temperature difference, and strong unloading are the main characteristics of this area. After a long period of geological evolution, the slope surface is severely weathered and often forms loose rock mass. These were defined as cataclastic rock masses (CRM), which are generally products of hard rock after long-term strong weathering, and are often found in high-stress unloading areas with open fractures. On the high slope of a hydropower station in western China, CRM are widely distributed. Due to the high location and steep terrain, in addition to traditional methods, new technological methods are used in this research, for example, photogrammetry, 3D laser scanning technology, UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) aerial technology, geological radar, seismic exploration technology. And traditional geological mapping and borehole exploration methods are used to investigate the development of CRM. According to the statistics, there are 21 CRM in the slope of the reservoir bank and four with the volume more than 2 million m3, which are No. SL6, SL18, SL19 and SL24. The diameter of the rock block is generally 0.1–1.0 m, a few of which are even more than 2 m. The depth is generally 5–10 m, and the local depth is up to 15 m. The opening of the fractures is generally within 30 cm. The deformation of the deep part in the CRM is small, the surface deformation is large, and there is obvious dilatancy phenomenon, but the nature state is stable. Through analysis, the potential failure modes of CRM are toppling deformation failure mode, and freeze-thaw and weathering failure mode. Therefore, during the process of slope excavation or prevention and control, the two failure modes should be considered for corresponding treatment.

Estimating Groundwater Inflow in Tunneling: A Case History for the Lower Meramec Tunnel, St. Louis, MO Johnson, Kenneth A., WSP USA, United States, Kenneth.johnson@wsp.com (TS #14) Estimating groundwater inflow in tunneling projects is one of the most challenging and important elements of tunnel design and construction. Many tunnels are excavated below the groundwater table and hence groundwater control is critical to face stability, excavation operations, and health and safety for tunnel projects. Tunnel dewatering can also have a significant impact on overlying groundwater resources that may need to be mitigated during tunnel construction. The Lower Meramec Tunnel (LMT) in St. Louis, Missouri, is part of the Lower Meramec River System Improvements – Baumgartner to Fenton Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) Project being undertaken by the Metropolitan St. Louis Sewer District. The LMT will be an approximately 6.8-mile-long tunnel with a finished 8-ft-diameter and will connect the existing Baumgartner Shaft with a new shaft to be constructed at the existing Fenton WWTF. The geology of the tunnel alignment is comprised of a series of limestone and shale members of the Pennsylvanian and Mississippian Series of sedimentary rocks. Groundwater inflow estimate utilized data September 2018

from packer tests and long-term constant discharge aquifer testing to develop hydraulic conductivity estimates for various reaches of the tunnel alignment. Methods proposed by Heuer and Raymer were used for initial inflow estimates, and modifications were made to the analysis to account for discrepancies between the packer test data and aquifer test data, and also incorporated influence from regional hydraulic gradients in one portion of the alignment. The data and analysis suggest that the two testing methods for hydraulic conductivity characterization display systematic differences that should be considered in developing groundwater inflow estimates.

Geology of San Francisco, California, United States of America Johnson, Kenneth A., WSP USA, Kenneth.johnson@wsp.com; Bartow, Greg, greg.bartow@parks.ca.gov; John Baldwin, George Ford, Jeff Gilman, Robert Givler, Sarah Goodin, Russell Graymer, Darrell Klingman, Keith Knudsen, William Lettis, William Motzer, Dorinda Shipman, Lori Simpson, Philip Stuecheli, Raymond Sullivan (Poster) This paper is the 27th in the series, Geology of the Cities of the World, sponsored by the Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologists. The City of San Francisco is located at the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula on the west edge of the North American Plate, within the San Andreas transform boundary zone with the adjacent Pacific Plate. The geologic and tectonic setting of San Francisco are inextricably linked to this active plate margin and its evolution from its previous life as a convergent subduction margin to its current transform margin tectonic setting. The geologic history of the San Francisco Bay Area is summarized, and the structure and lithology of primary geologic units are described. The basement geology of the city is nearly entirely comprised of the world famous Cretaceous Franciscan Complex, which represents an accretionary wedge complex related to the prior subduction zone. Franciscan Complex rocks crop out atop the many hills of San Francisco. Quaternary and Neogene sedimentary deposits are draped over the Franciscan Complex rocks and comprise the surficial geology between these outcrops and along the shoreline. San Francisco has a colorful history and the growth and development of the City was strongly influenced by the local geology and the geologically rich region of central California. Shaped by several significant earthquakes, the discovery of gold and other significant mineral resources, economic booms and bust periods, the geology of San Francisco continues to present challenges for the City. Hazards related to the tectonic setting, slope stability, coastal erosion, and climate change are described. A summary of the engineering characteristics of geologic units, geologic hazards, water resources, infrastructure development, environmental issues, and geologic issues associated with major engineering structures built in San Francisco are presented.

Evidence for Holocene Rupture on the Valley Side Fault, Eastern Coast Ranges, California Johnson, Phillip, Cotton, Shires and Associates, Inc., United States, pjohnson@cottonshires.com; George Reid, greidpl@att.net; Glenn Borchardt, gborchardt@gmail.com (Poster) Geologic exploration has revealed preliminary evidence for two Holocene fault-rupturing events on the Valley Side fault, which is an east-dipping, northwest-striking reverse fault that places Cretaceous Cortina Formation over Pliocene Tehama Formation in the eastern Coast Ranges of northern California. The fault is believed to be a backthrust related to an extensive blind detachment system located along the boundary between the Coast Ranges and Sacramento Valley. Previous mapping depicted the fault as discontinuous based on a few outcrops of the Cortina Formation along the hanging wall. The Tehama Formation was deposited unconformably over folded Cretaceous bedrock across an irregular,

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS erosional surface. Given the variation in thickness of the Tehama Formation, the throw of the Valley Side fault may have been locally inadequate to expose the Cortina Formation. Where this occurs, the fault may place older Tehama Formation over younger Tehama Formation near the surface. This makes the fault difficult to locate and makes it appear discontinuous. Where the fault appears to end, the thickness of the Tehama Formation may be greater than the throw of the fault. An exploratory trench exposed the fault where Cortina Formation is thrust over colluvium and provided evidence for two surface-rupturing events. The first event (estimated at about 7 ka, based on soil development) resulted in over 180 cm of vertical offset and generated a wedge of scarp-derived colluvium. The second event (about 5.5 ka) produced a vertical offset of 45 cm along with a second colluvial wedge. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that the Valley Side fault is a continuous fault with evidence for Holocene rupture. Additional trenching may improve the event chronology, especially if supplemented with radiocarbon dating of Quaternary deposits.

On the Differing Role of Contact Obstacles on Variably Saturated Flow in Vertical and Horizontal Fractures Jones, Brendon, GaGE Consulting (Pty) Ltd, South Africa, brendon@ gageconsulting.co.za; Louis Van Rooy, louis.vanrooy@up.ac.za (TS #46) A series of flow visualization experiments is developed in order to observe the different role that contact obstacles have on variably saturated flow in a vertical fracture compared to a horizontal fracture. The model fracture consists of a single rough-walled quartzite fracture wall mismatched with a second transparent smooth replica wall. Results drawn from this research show that contact obstacles result in longer flow paths of between 4 and 14%, with longer flow paths observed in horizontal fractures. Furthermore, contact obstacles result in different unsaturated flow mechanisms when present in vertical compared to horizontal fractures under low flow rates. Contact obstacles enhance the variably saturated flow process in vertical fractures, but act as choke points in horizontal fractures.

Recent Subsidence in the California Central Valley: Observations with a High-Resolution Airborne Radar Jones, Cathleen E., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, cathleen.e.jones@jpl.nasa.gov (Poster) In 2014, as drought conditions in California dramatically worsened, water resource managers at the State of California Department of Water Resources (DWR) became increasingly concerned about potential subsidence in the Central Valley from high levels of groundwater withdrawal. To assess the capability of radar remote sensing to monitor surface changes, DWR engaged researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to measure subsidence in the Central Valley using satellite and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The study continues today, having well demonstrated the capability of SAR interferometry to measure conditions across the valley. The aircraft-based observations, made with NASA’s UAVSAR instrument, were undertaken specifically to identify subsidence-related impact to the California Aqueduct. However, they revealed a number of interesting features related to both groundwater and oil extraction including ‘hot spots’ of subsidence associated with individual wells or clusters of wells; more generalized broad-area subsidence; smaller scale subsidence adjacent to the aqueduct that appears to be caused by hydro-compaction, most likely the result of seepage from the aqueduct; and uplift/subsidence at oil extraction facilities. The airborne study was initially undertaken as a test of whether the higher resolution subsidence map could provide useful information to inform operation and maintenance of the California Aqueduct, and within that context has been used to identify 146

new and rapidly developing subsiding sections of the structure. In addition, and beyond that application, the subsidence hot spot identification enabled with high-resolution instruments is now recognized as a valuable capability for identifying impact to other infrastructure; for detailed situational awareness of developing conditions, particularly at early stages when root cause can be determined; and as a potential tool for monitoring compliance with groundwater regulation in the future. This paper presents the results of the study to date.

Impacts of Long-Term Flood-Induced Sedimentation on Agricultural Land: Case Study of the 2008 Koshi Flood in Eastern Nepal Kafle, Kumud Raj, Kathmandu University, Nepal, krkafle@ku.edu.np (Poster) Flood of August 2008 in eastern lowlands of Nepal affected around 2.64 million people in India and Nepal, including 65,000 people and 700 ha fertile land in Nepal. It is estimated that 20% of land is still barren even after 8 years of flooding. The long-term effect of flood fed sedimentation in context of agriculture practices is the foci of this research. Information from questionnaire survey, field measurement and lab analysis are the adapted methods for the assessment. The affected area is divided into four zones with respect to the depths from 0.10m to 5.0 m. The area where sedimentation thickness is less than 0.5m is in manageable condition within a year and in between 0.5m to 1.5m thickness could not be suitable for traditional crop even after 8 years. The thickness existed more than 2m is not suitable for any crop even after the 8 years. The assessment shows that the sediment thickness more than 2m has long-term impact on cultivation in context of flood fed sedimentation and recovery. From NDVI analysis also indicated that the recovery with vegetation trend is about 10% per year in less than 2m of thick sedimentation zones. Size of sediments and sedimentation thickness are the significant parameters to recover flood fed sedimentation zone.

Landslide Hazard Mapping In Melamchi Municipality: In Context of Nepal Earthquake 2015 Kafle, Kumud Raj, Kathmandu University, Nepal, krkafle@ku.edu.np; Sumeet Moktan, sumeet.moktan@gmail.com; Manita Timilsina, manitatimilsina@gmail.com (TS #7) Landslides are one of the major natural disaster that occur on a frequent basis, mostly in the Himalayan range causing loss of life and property particularly during summer monsoon season. Landslide hazard mapping is an essential tool for the management of disaster activities and consideration of safe mitigation measures. The present study focuses on the landslide hazard mapping of the areas around Melamchi municipality using Geographic Information System (GIS). The landslide hazard map was prepared using the Information Value (InfoVal) analysis method. The causative factors considered for the study were slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, land use, distance from the drainage, and distance from the road. For the study, the regional scale of 1:25,000 was considered. Suitable thematic maps representing various causative factors were generated using GIS techniques. The landslide events before and after the earthquake of 25thApril 2015 were taken. The landslide hazard map produced by the InfoVal method showed that 62.32% of the observed landslides fall under the high susceptibility zone. Thus, these maps can be used for the disaster management, slope management, land use planning, etc. by the concerned authorities.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Engineering Geological Considerations and Case Histories for Bored Tunnels in Mixed Face Rock/Soil Ground Kaneshiro, Jon Y., Parsons, United States, jon.y.kaneshiro@parsons.com; Frederick C. Kintzer, fred.kintzer@parsons.com; Pooyan Asadollahi, pooyan.asadollahi@parsons.com; Sangyoon Min, sangyoon.min@ parsons.com (TS #6) With increasing urbanization and population demands on infrastructure, underground projects are going where tunneling technology had not gone before—through increasingly difficult ground conditions. Many projects, which involve rock and soil and under high external groundwater pressures, considered pressurized face tunneling methods including earth pressure balance, slurry, or hybrid methods. Optimizing the cutterhead configuration to be as universal as possible for cutting hard rock and excavating soft soils requires different cutter tooling. Finding locations for interventions to change tooling of the cutterhead underground is another issue. Also, the (open/non-pressurized or closed/pressurized) mode of tunneling for earth pressure balance, slurry, or hybrid machines can drastically affect the efficiency of excavation, advance rate, machine wear, and amount of settlement. The driving factors in choosing pressurized face tunneling under mixed face conditions are the ability to increase the face pressure instantaneously and control the mixed ground conditions. This presentation discusses the attributes of pressurized face TBMs in dealing with various ground types and a survey of case histories in mixed face materials. Example tunnel projects include both planned and completed projects in the San Francisco Bay Area’s soft Bay Mud, late Tertiary sediments, and the Franciscan formation (including fractured serpentinite and block-in-matrix rocks); Las Vegas’s Lake Mead Intake No. 3 (including Paleozoic amphibolite, Tertiary-aged weak mudstone and fractured volcanic rocks); Sweden’s Hallandsas project (including highly variable Precambrian shield rock and raveling, running and flowing ground); and Singaporean subway, cable and gas tunnels (including marine clays, Old Alluvium, and Bukit Timah granite).

Geomorphological Evolution Model of a Paleo-Landslide in Luchang, Taiwan Kang, Keng-Hao, Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, Taiwan, kangkanghk@gmail.com; Yen-Chieh Huang; I-Wen CHIEN; Ting-Hua Wei; Chien-Cheng Chen; Yii-Wen Pan; Jyh-Jong Liao (TS #50) A large-scale landslide may occur in a sudden and result in devastating consequences with huge casualties and/or property loss. Knowing paleo-landslides may help to understand the principles of a landslide failure and its results. This paper aims to investigate the geomorphological evolution of a paleo-landslide in Taiwan. A site in Luchang (in the Miaoli County, Taiwan) is taken as a case study for studying the geomorphological evolution of a high-relief-mountain slope subjected to very large paleo landslides. Multi-stage stereoscopic pairs of aerial photographs from 1980 to 2009 were used to understand the geomorphology and identify the slope failure area. Field investigation and borehole exploration were conducted to investigate the bedding attitudes, joints distributions and structures around the Luchang area. The rock formation of this site is Miocene sedimentary rock composed of sandstone and shale. An anticline structure and an inactive fault are present on the west and east of Luchang area, the anticline axis extends approximately along the crest of the mountain. The rock strata dip toward the Luchang river, and high angle open joints are approximately parallel to the Luchang river. This high-relief slope contains obvious scarps near the crest as well as wide and thick (over 100 meters) colluvium. These features

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strongly indicate that large-scale landslides likely had occurred in the past. A conceptual model is proposed to explain the geomorphological evolution of the paleolandslide and the formation of the very thick colluvium.

General Geology, Tectonics and Frequent Earthquake Hazards in the Nepal Himalaya Kaphle, Krishna Prasad, Nepal Geological Society, Lainchaur, Kathmandu, Nepal. kpkaphle@gmail.com (TS #54) Nepal Himalaya occupies almost one-third parts in the center of lofty Himalayan range, which terminates at Indus River in the western and Brahmaputra River in the eastern syntaxial bands. The northward drifting Indian continent collided with the relatively passive Eurasian continent 40–55 million years ago; as a result Himalayan mountain range and Tibetan plateau were developed. The northern margin of the Indian plate was deformed as a result of drastic collision and under plating of the Indian craton with Lhasa block of Tibet. Because of continued convergence against the Eurasian plate and subduction major thrusts/ faults, nappes/ klippen and folds were developed; the rocks of Higher Himalaya suffered regional metamorphism and evolved younger leucogranites. Nepal Himalaya is divided into five morphogeotectonic zones separated by a series of prominent north dipping linear geological structures like South Tibetan Detachment Fault (STDF), Main Central Thrust (MCT), Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) between the two consecutive zones and they play major role in the geo-dynamics of the Himalayan region. From north to south they are named as Tibetan Tethys, Higher Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Sub Himalaya and Terai Plain. It is believed that MCT, MBT and MFT come together in a low angle decollement which is known as Main Himalayan Thrust deep below the Himalayas and separates the upper and lower continental crust. Continuous geodynamics and seismic activities in the Himalayas and existence of many active thrusts and faults, Himalayan regions are frequently suffered from earthquake hazards. Microseismic activities recorded in Nepal by Department of Mines and Geology is intense in eastern and far-western Nepal. Major historical earthquake disasters in the past: the 1934 Nepal – Bihar earthquake (8.4Mw) and 2015 Gorkha earthquake (7.8 Magnitude), as well as the earthquakes of 1950 Assam/ India (8.5Mw), 1905 Kangara/India (8Mw), and 2005 Kashmir/ Pakistan (7.5Mw) are the distinct evidences of active tectonics and possible future earthquakes in the Himalayan region. Among 200 countries Nepal stand 11th with respect to earthquake hazard.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Multitemporal Landslide Mapping and Quantification of Mass Movement in Red Beach, Santorini Island Using Lidar and UAV Platform❋ Karantanellis, Efstratios, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki - Geology, Greece, skarantanellis@gmail.com; Vassilis Marinos, marinosv@ geo.auth.gr; George Papathanassiou, gpapatha@geo.auth.gr (TS #20) Santorini Island constitutes one of the most unique geological structures as it compromises a Miocene volcano. Rockfalls and landslides are widespread phenomena in Santorini due to the steepness of the cliffs. Especially, those events in high vulnerable areas can cause significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Following a landslide hazard, comprehensive and reliable information on the geotechnical and geometric properties but also on the actual consequences of the phenomenon is mandatory. Nowadays, the evolution of geoscience enables the use of innovative tools such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to address emergency response in disastrous situations, as a result, landslide identification and monitoring of large areas can be accomplished costly and timely. The last decade, UAV platforms constitutes a useful and reliable research tool in emergency situations such as land-slide monitoring. The current research performs a semi-automated method to evaluate and quantify site-specific landslide hazards in Red Beach, Santorini, Greece. Red Beach shows very high tourist activity during the summer, so it is mandatory for safety reasons to establish guidance to eliminate landslide hazard in prone areas. Considering the availability of high spatial and spectral datasets, multitemporal change detection techniques performed between two datasets acquired in February and September of 2017 with a UAV. The methodology implemented in the current research is revealing the accumulation area of failure but also the quantification of the mass movement. The outcome of the current research aims to highlight the usefulness of photogrammetry and UAVs to assess and mitigate the potential negative consequences of landslide hazard.

A Comparison of Two Methods of Sequential Extraction in a Former Mining Waste Deposit of Pb – Adrianópolis (Brazil)❋ Kasemodel, Mariana, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, makasemodel@yahoo.com.br; Valria Guimares Silvestre Rodrigues, valguima@usp.br (TS #47) Sequential extraction methods (SEM) have been developed to study potentially toxic metal (PTM) fractionation in soil. Although many procedures have been suggested in literature, these methods are usually developed for temperate soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare a SEM developed for temperate soils with a SEM developed for tropical soils. The soil samples chosen for this comparison were collected in a former deposit of slag enriched in lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), located in Adrianópolis (Brazil – tropical soil). These samples were collected in profile to verify metal mobility in depth. Since it is known that soil characteristics affect metal mobility, the soil pH, the soil organic matter content (SOM), the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the pseudo-total concentration of Pb and Zn were determined. Zn and Pb were predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxides and the residual fraction. Using methodology developed for tropical soils, it was possible to distinguish Fe-Mn oxides and verify that Pb and Zn were mainly associated with the less mobile form (crystalline Fe oxides). Metal associated with the mobile fraction varied significantly, being more abundant when us-ing the temperate soil method. It is concluded that the procedure for tropical soils is more adequate for distinguishing different forms of Fe-Mn oxides in soil, but the temperate soils procedure was more effective in extracting exchangeable and organic matter fractions.

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Concordance Rate of Geology and Rock Mass Class between Estimated and Excavated Maps in Dam Foundation Surfaces Katozumi, Makoto, Yachiyo Engineering CO, Ltd, Japan, katozumi@yachiyo-eng.co.jp; Sasaki Yasuhito, ya-sasa@pwri.go.jp; Ryoji Isida, ishidar@jrseg.co.jp; Tatsuya Matsuo, t-matsuo@pwri.go.jp; Hiroyuki Watatani, watatani@ctie.co.jp; Norikazu Abe, a4009@nkoei.co.jp; Tetsuya Shiomi, shiomitt@newjec.co.jp; Etsu Shiraishi, etshiraishi@yachiyo-eng.co.jp; Dai Nishizuka, d-nishizuka44@pwri.go.jp; Yoshiya Hitomi, yh1195@docon.jp; Shigeru Miyamura, a7249@nkoei.co.jp; Yoshiki Mori, yiorso8544@pasco.co.jp (TS #51) The Dam Working Group of the Research Group on Engineering Geology in the Japanese Society of Engineering Geology (JSEG) has been working to clarify appropriate geological survey method and geological survey density for each geological type. So far, we have quantified the concordance rate between “geological map or rock mass class map of foundation surface of gravity type concrete dam in investigation stage and excavation stage” by overlay analysis using GIS, and discussed the relationship between the concordance rate and survey density and characteristics by geological type. A total of 18 dams were analyzed: 3 for normal sediments, 4 for accretionary deposits, 5 for volcanic rocks, 5 for plutonic rocks, and 1 for metamorphic rock. We defined the concordance rate as the ratio of the area where the dam foundation area of that at the time of survey matches the actual result. In rock mass class map, in comparison with that at the time of survey, we defined the ratio of area where the result is the upper rock class as S, and where the result is the lower rock class as R, and where the result matches as “Perfect Concordance Rate (P).” We also defined the sum of P & S as “Safety Side Concordance Rate (P+S).” We regarded survey density as the sum of surface area of investigation borehole per 100m2 and wall area of investigation edit and shaft per 100m2. In this report, we organize the relationship between concordance rate map and the density of geological survey and the relationship between Perfect Concordance Rate and Safety Side Concordance Rate of rock mass class map, and finally report on engineering geological factors of dams with low concordance rate.

Regularities in the Development of Geological Processes upon Collapses at the Undermined Territories of the Potassium Salt Deposit in the Perm Region, Russia❋ Kazeev, Andrey, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS, Russia, kazeev@yandex.ru; German Postoev; Ksenia Fedotova (Poster) Deep block-type landslides are widespread on plain territories. Particularly big troubles concerning deep landslides appear on urban territories. It’s enough to say that landslides occur in more than 700 cities in Russia. Among them are Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Volgograd, Cheboksary, Saratov, Saransk, Perm, Sochi et.al. Landslide cirques can reach impressive sizes (up to 4,5 km, with slip surface depth more than 100 m). Slow development of deformations on landslide areas provides illusion of relative stability of the considered territory. But periodic destructive landslide activizations usually make the protection of objects and infrastructure unrealizable. There are 15 large landslide cirques on Moscow territory in which new landslide activizations recently occurred. We have shown that deep landslides in Moscow are characterized by mechanism features of deep extrusive landslides. We have investigated numerous deep-seated landslides in different engineering geological conditions and have revealed specific regularities in slope morphological parameters, which allowed us to develop theoretical explanation of mentioned dependences. A new approach for identification of critical states of soil masses was elaborated. The

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS equations for assessment of a limited state of a soil mass prior landslide formation were obtained. Also the equation for calculation of a landslide slip surface depth was obtained, using slope morphological and soil strength parameters. The developed technology for calculation of a slip surface depth is demonstrated on different examples of deep landslides. The protection strategy for territories with deep landslides was suggested which bases on theoretical solutions of preparation of a destructive phase of landslide deformations, on taking into account mechanism peculiarities of deep block-type landslides, and also on investigation experience of such landslides in different engineering-geological conditions.

New Technology for Calculation of a Slip Surface Depth of Deep Landslides❋ Kazeev, Andrey, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS, Russia, kazeev@yandex.ru; German Postoev opolzen@geoenv.ru (TS #27) A new approach for identification of critical states of soil masses was elaborated. The mechanism of formation of the limiting state in a soil mass during the preparation of the landslide is considered. The equations for assessment of a soil mass limited state prior landslide formation were obtained. Also the equation for calculation of a landslide slip surface depth was obtained, using slope morphological and soil strength parameters. The developed limit state criteria were tested on specific landslide slopes. The results of these calculations have shown a good agreement with the actual data. For example, the calculated depths of sliding surfaces for deep landslides sites in Moscow coincide with depths, which were identified by inclinometer measurements with accuracy of 0.5 m. The received equation is suitable for slopes composed of different soils, from weak loams to very strong lithified Sarmatian clays of Balchik (Bulgaria), which are characterized by structural strength equal to 1 MPa.

Suggested Enhancements to the Geologic Model Complexity Rating System❋ Keaton, Jeffrey, Wood, United States, jeff.keaton@woodplc.com; Rosalind Munro, rosalind.munro@woodplc.com (TS #52) The Geologic Model Complexity Rating System was developed considering the four-level Oregon rockfall hazard rating system. Five of the nine Geologic Model Complexity Rating System components pertained to geologic complexity; four regional components (genetic, structural/deformation, alteration/dissolution, and weathering/erosion) and one site-scale component. Other Geologic Model Complexity Rating System components were: terrain features, information quality, geologist competency, and effort level. A pairwise comparison of components for landslide hazard studies, using a multi-factor decision analysis procedure called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), weighted geologist competency highest (20%), followed by genetic complexity and deformation (each 18%) and site-scale complexity and level of effort (each ~11%). The other four components had weights from 8% to 3%. The 1-9 scoring for AHP (1 indicates equal importance, 9 indicates extremely more important) appeared to be useful for objective comparisons. The AHP matrix configuration lists components in the same order in rows and columns. Regional complexity is now being considered as a single four-element component that depends not only on the basic geology of the site area, but also on the purpose of the geologic evaluation. Thus, the suggested enhancements streamline the Geologic Model Complexity Rating System, reducing it from nine components to six, but also complicating it by considering basic geology and purpose of evaluation as fundamentally important to the geologic model. These enhancements bring the suggested Geologic September 2018

Model Complexity Rating System into alignment with the Oregon rockfall hazard rating system, which included facility components (i.e., what is at risk) for which the hazard was being rated.

Comparison of Multi-Temporal Elevation Models of a Debris-Flow Channel❋ Keilig, Klaus-Peter, Technical University of Munich, Germany, kp.keilig@tum.de; Andreas Dietrich, a.dietrich@tum.de; Michael Krautblatter, krautblatter@tum.de (TS #29B) Debris flows are among the most hazardous landslides. Additionally, their relevance increases as a consequence of global climate change, a phenomenon, which has already been observed by other authors. In June 2015 two debris flows occurred due to a radar-inferred rainfall intensity of about 90 mm in 45 min near Oberstdorf (Bavaria, Germany) in the Northern Alps. The debris flows lead to damage costs of several million euros and more than 300 people were evacuated. To monitor geomorphic changes and a potential channel refill after the event, high resolution (5 cm grid size) digital elevation models (DEMs) were derived from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in May, July and August 2017 in the Roßbichelgraben, one of these channels. Therefore, the 800 m-long channel was observed with 72 to 78 laser scan positions on each date and DEMs of difference (DoDs) with spatially variable uncertainty were calculated. Simultaneously, DEMs were derived by photogrammetric surveys using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Photos taken by the UAV were photogrammetrically reconstructed into point clouds using the structure from motion – multi-view stereo workflow (SfM-MVS). The results show a good correlation of detectable areas with geomorphic changes between both methods. However, the accuracy of the SfM-MVS derived DEMs remains inaccurately in steep parts of the channel. Nevertheless, the current contribution demonstrated that SFM-MVS offers great potential for topographic surveying and is a promising tool to quantify geomorphic changes in the near future.

Applications of Geological Models: Managing Sustainable Groundwater Resources and Reducing Geotechnical Risk Kessler, Holger, British Geological Survey, United Kingdom, hke@bgs.ac.uk; David C. Entwisle, dce@bgs.ac.uk; Jonathan R. Ford, jford@bgs.ac.uk; Lee D. Jones, ldjon@bgs.ac.uk; Helen Burke, hbu@bgs.ac.uk; Alan Keith Turner, kturner@mines.edu (Presented by Keith Turner) (TS #44) In the last three decades, the advancement in the processing power of computers has enabled scientists to create digital 3D models of geological structures. Early model development, supported by the hydrocarbon and mining industries, used complex proprietary modeling software. Currently, intuitive affordable software solutions permit the creation of solid models of highly complex structural features or entire sedimentary basins. The British Geological Survey (BGS) employs these techniques to produce 3D geological models of the shallow sub-surface (0–200m) with emphasis on major urban areas and aquifers. These models commonly include detailed information on anthropogenic (man-made) deposits, as well as superficial and bedrock geology. The BGS has carried out extensive geological mapping and modeling for the past decade in the Vale of York in northern England. Examples from this area illustrate how advancements in our understanding of its complex glacial history produce solutions to sustainable resource management. An early application of this geological model supported the Environment Agency’s management of groundwater abstraction from one of the UKs major aquifers (Triassic Sherwood Sandstone Group), which underlies heterogeneous glacial deposits. Initially models supported

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS regional assessments; recent work has focused on abstraction sites that are particularly vulnerable to nitrate pollution. High-resolution models, with hydrogeological and geotechnical characterizations, are being prepared for water companies to understand potential nitrate pathways. The geological model has also been used to provide detailed information on ground conditions affecting mast foundations required for the electrification of a railway line. The advent of accessible modeling software has enabled a stepchange in the way in which geological data is used by the environmental and infrastructure sectors. Our enhanced conceptualization of the shallow sub-surface contributes to improved sustainable management of the natural environment.

The Use of JBlock in the Analysis of Potential Rockfalls at the Magdalena Colliery, Dundee, South Africaâ?&#x2039; Khoza, Khethani, 212539743@stu.ukzn.ac.za & Egerton D.C. Hingston hingstone@ukzn.ac.za; University of KwaZulu-Natal, Republic of South Africa; Sihle Mtshali sihle.mtshali@buffalocoal.co.za; Cebolenkosi Khumalo cebokh@gmail.com; Nomonde Mabago nst.mabogo@gmail.com (Presented by Egerton Hingston) (TS #47)

landslides are more common on south to southeast sloping hillsides. Furthermore, landslide occurrence increases for slopes steeper than 350 and in shale and limestone formations. Within the major drainage basins of Sinduhupalchok, the maximum surface area affected by landsliding was approximately one percent, and approximately 75% of the documented landslides occurred within 120 km of the M7.8 epicenter. The compiled landslide inventory provides a detailed account of the performance of steep mountain terrain subjected to strong ground shaking, as well as valuable insights for assessing future seismic slope performance in Sinduhupalchok and neighboring districts of Nepal.

Application of Evaluate to Landslide of Lidar Data Using ICP Analysis Kikuchi, Teruyuki, JP Design.Co., Ltd., Japan, kikuchi-t@mbj.nifty.com; Teruyoshi hatano, Teruyoshi_Hatano@jpower.co.jp; Takao chaishi, chaishi@jpde.co.jp; Satoshi Nishiyama, nishiyama.satoshi@okayamau.ac.jp (Poster)

Rockfalls are a major cause for concern at the Magdalena Colliery, where mining of bituminous coal has been going on for the past twelve years. Potential key-blocks are the result of numerous joint intersections that result in many unstable blocks that fall off the roof, when the weight exceeds the support capacity. Several attempts have been made in the past to accurately predict rockfall occurrence. This paper describes the use of the computer program JBlock to simulate keyblocks in the roof at Section 1, Panel 417 at the Magdalena Colliery and to predict the probability of occurrence of rockfalls. Scanline mapping was undertaken in the roof followed by cluster analysis in DIPS to determine the major joint sets for input into the JBlock program in order to identify potentially unstable keyblocks. Laboratory tests were also conducted on selected samples in order to determine the geotechnical properties of the material and also to carry out a rock mass classification. The program tested the generated keyblocks for the current support system and a proposed support system, which was based on the rock mass classification. Results obtained show that the current support system is inadequate at Section 1, Panel 417.

Three-dimensional laser group point obtained by airborne laser survey system has been often utilized as measurement data for disaster measures. For example, the airborne laser survey is the effective method for estimating the amount of soil moved within a wide-area landslide. The measurement accuracy of the laser group point, however, is not high so as to detect the precursory phenomena of slope collapse. We propose data processing to improve the accuracy of three-dimensional laser group point and estimate the minute movement of the slope in this paper. Our proposed method is the application of the DEM data processing in which detailed topography from the original laser data can be extracted by using only the laser data set of less than a certain height from the surface. Moreover, we developed a matching method by ICP analysis from the limited laser point group data to compute displacements using time series laser data. Experimental trials were performed to verify the applicability of our proposed method, and the results show that more than approximately 0.4 m changes in the displacement of the slope could be detected in the area where a debris slide occurred. We have demonstrated that it is possible to expand the applicability of airborne laser surveying to monitor slope failure by using the method proposed here.

Landslides Triggered in Sindhupalchok During the M 7.8 Nepal-Gorkha Earthquake of April 25, 2015

Development of a New Flat Type TDR System for Evaluating Dry Density and Water Content of Geomaterials

Kieffer, D. Scott, Graz University of Technology, Austria, kieffer@tugraz.at; Mirjam Ziselsberger, ziselsberger@student.tugraz.at; Surendra Awasthi, asurendra71@yahoo.com (TS #7)

Kim, Daehyeon, Chosun University, South Korea, dkimgeo@chosun.ac.kr (Poster)

The April 25, 2015 MW 7.8 Nepal-Gorkha earthquake triggered thousands of landslides throughout the epicentral region. This research focuses on characterizing the distribution and patterns of earthquake induced landslides within the district of Sindhupalchok, which is located northeast of the capital city Kathmandu and suffered some of the most devastating cases of seismic slope instability. By comparing pre- and post-earthquake high-resolution satellite imagery, over 5,000 landslides have been documented in Sinduhupalchok. Approximately 70 % are new landslides and 30 % represent existing deposits that were reactivated during the earthquake. Data recorded for each landslide includes surface area, aspect ratio, elevation, slope angle and azimuth, and this information is combined with geologic and seismic datasets in a GIS framework to assess patterns and trends of occurrence. The compiled dataset shows landsliding is concentrated between elevations of 1,500 and 2,500 meters, the surface area of landsliding tends to increase with elevation, and 150

Dry density and water content are two important factors affecting the degree of soil compaction. Conventional methods such as the sand cone test and the plate load test are used to measure such properties for evaluating the degree of compaction and the stiffness of soil in the field. However, these tests are generally time consuming and are inherent with some errors depending on the operator. Although a rod type TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) system has been recently proposed to overcome some shortcomings of the conventional methods (particularly the sand cone test), it requires driving the probes into the ground, thus implying that it is still a timeconsuming and destructive testing method. This objective of the study is to develop a new non-destructive TDR system that can rapidly measure the dry density, water content, resulting into a nondestructive TDR system. The new TDR system developed is light enough for an engineer to carry. Results of the standard compaction and TDR tests on sand showed that the dry densities and the moisture contents measured with the new TDR system were in good

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS agreement with those measured with the standard compaction test, respectively. Consequently, it appears that the new TDR system developed will be very useful to advance the current practice of compaction quality control.

Cal/OSHA Regulation of Work with Naturally Occurring Asbestos

Risk Management for Grading by Risk Route in Ground-Excavation Work

Two representatives of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), the State agency responsible for protecting worker safety, will review the current Asbestos in Construction Standard (t8CCR 1529), as this regulation relates to work with Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA). They will also discuss the ongoing rule making process that seeks to clarify these requirements.

Kim, Wooseok, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Republic of Korea, kws@kict.re.kr; Dongmin Kim; Oil Kwon (Poster) Various studies have been underway to deal with the ground subsidence in an urban area, which has frequently occurred recently in South Korea. This study thus is aimed at identifying and categorizing the ground subsidence risk factors, potential risk route, modeling and evaluating the economic loss by risk route to come up with the techniques to forecast and evaluate the potential ground subsidence during design and construction. Based on the above, design considering the risk factors, intensive management of risk route, requirements for maintenance depending on risk category and ground stabilization measures were proposed. It’s necessary to review the appropriateness and reliability of the plan and design based on analysis of the risk factors and risk routes that may be encountered during design and construction. Furthermore, evaluation of the probability of ground subsidence and resultant economic loss is needed to establish the intensive management and prevention measures. To that end, an event tree from each method was evaluated after classifying the excavation into the open-cut method and non-open-cut method. Then, uncertainty analysis method based on analysis of weighted value by risk factor, risk occurrences function form and parameters was applied to propose the probability by risk factor. Based on such application, probability was calculated after confirming the risk occurrence curve. Through the process above, the standard to determine the risk category, which is practicable and applicable to domestic excavation work was proposed based on analysis of risk management in the United States, Germany and Korea. This research was supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement under the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean government (Project Number: 18SCIP-B108153-04).

Chemical Composition of Mine Waters in Post Exploitation Period in the Urals Kindler, Alexey, Federal State Budgetary Institution , Russia, kindler@gmsn-ural.ru; Elokhina Svetlana, elohina.s@mail.ru (TS #47) Within the old mining regions, which include an old part of the Urals there are a lot of abandoned not reclaimed or partially reclaimed mining complexes (mines) in which ground (mine) waters have a special chemical composition. Non-stability of chemical composition of these waters was traced for several decades at a number of objects with or without chemical mixing. In the second case hydrogeomigration processes depend on mineralogical specifications, water balance situation characteristics, intensive water-exchange, and other factors. The hydrochemical model of formation of mine waters during post-exploitation period for sulfide objects of the Urals is based on practical data.

September 2018

Kirkham, Chris, California Division of Occupational Safety and Health, ckirkham@dir.ca.gov; Jeff Ferrell, jferrell@dir.ca.gov (Presented by Jeff Ferrell) (TS #16)

Geomechanics Parameters Variation Analysis in Different Weathering Levels in a Natural Slope, Nova Trento, SC, Brazil Klein Flach, Matheus, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, matheus.k.flach@gmail.com; Vitor Santini Mller, vitor@mullergeo.com; Rafael Augusto dos Reis Higashi, rrhigashi@gmail.com; Murilo da Silva Espndola, murilo.espindola@ufsc.br; Regiane Sbroglia, regi_sb@hotmail.com; Gisele Marilha Reginatto, gireginatto@gmail.com; Renata De Lucca Pizzolo, renatapizzolo@gmail.com; Fornasa, T.L, narafornasa@gmail.com; Mateus Zanini Broetto, mateuszanini7@gmail.com (Poster) Landslides are natural events, caused by gravitational strength, that modify the landscape. The south of Brazil is a region of many disasters related with landslides in large slopes as Serra Geral and high pluviometric levels during the year. Those instability phenomena can involve huge amount of land, what, sometimes, is a difficult situation in a geotechnical view. The fast urbanization in Brazil, took an uncontrolled way and many towns were formed in risk areas. The aim of this paper is to measure the different geomechanics parameters in different weathering levels in a natural slope. Samples were collected in the field and analyzed in Soil Mechanics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina, to determine cohesion, friction angle, Atterberg limits, specific mass of solids, granulometry and another general characteristics. The results were analyzed to com-pare data with other authors, what enable a discussion about geomechanics parameters variation in different weathering levels.

Landslide Susceptibility Geotechnical Mapping of Jos Boiteux, Santa Catarina, Brazil Klein Flach, Matheus, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, matheus.k.flach@gmail.com; Vitor Santini Mller, vitor@mullergeo.com; Rafael Augusto dos Reis Higashi, rrhigashi@gmail.com; Murilo da Silva Espndola, murilo.espindola@ufsc.br; Regiane Sbroglia, regi_sb@hotmail.com; Gisele Marilha Reginatto, gireginatto@gmail.com; Renata De Lucca Pizzolo, renatapizzolo@gmail.com; Fornasa, T.L, narafornasa@gmail.com; Mateus Zanini Broetto, mateuszanini7@gmail.com (Poster) The regional variability of geographic and environmental parameters makes territorial planning and management paramount. The geotechnical parameters obtained were used in the classification, according to the suitability for urbanization, of the different geotechnical units and topography forms. The study area is located in the municipality of José Boiteux, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, that has an area of 405,519 km². The geotechnics of the study area are formed by residual soils of the arenitic and pelitic rocks of the region with 1.26 km² and 0.72 km² respectively. The geotechnical units generated for the study area and their respective areas of occurrence are redyellow podzolic soil of substrate clay (PVag) with 3.28 km², cambisol of substrate sandstone (Ca) with 34.92 km², cambisol of substrate argillite (Cag) with 47.16 km². The direct shear tests results of cohesion and friction angle, respectively, were equal to 19.1 kN/m² and

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS 26.7° for PVag, 25.9 kN/m² and 45.4° for Ca and 12.9 kN/m² and 28° for Cag. The main geomorphological form is classified as strong wavy, or 20 to 45% slope. From the results of shear strength and limit angle evaluations for each safety factor and the relief maps, the high, medium and low aptitude areas for urbanization in the face of rotational landslides were delimited for each geotechnical unit. It should be emphasized that results do not replace point studies, but serve to indicate their need.

Stabilization of Abandoned Coal Mine Workings by Grouting Knott, David L.; WSP, Newcastle, NSW Australia DavidL.Knott@WSP.com; Athena Livesey, athena.livesey@wsp.com; Robert Kingsland, Robert.Kingsland@wsp.com (TS#37) Stabilization of abandoned mine workings by injection of cementitious grout through boreholes drilled into the workings from the surface is performed to mitigate subsidence risks. Considerations include: Type of subsidence • Sinkhole mitigation - Full grouting of the workings is generally performed • Trough mitigation - Full and possibly strategic grouting of selected rooms to increase pillar strength is performed; Selection of appropriate mix – Strength and flowability to meet ˜ stabilization criteria; materials availability, such as fly ash; water quality; and grout trials; ˜ Grout hole pattern – Grid or mine map based with potential angle holes due to surface features or access; ˜ Drilling conditions – Stable/unstable ground due to caving or casing in alluvial soils to keep hole open; ˜ Mine gas issues - Grout holes venting methane or changing the mine atmosphere due to air being injected into the workings from drilling can result in explosive conditions; ˜ Drilling monitoring - Assessing conditions encountered and connectivity of workings based on air/water coming out of other grout holes; ˜ Mine level conditions – The openness of the workings may impact the flowability of the grout and presence of gob and/or rooffall may impact grout penetration; ˜ Assessment of conditions after drilling – Use downhole techniques - borehole camera, sonar, downhole geophysical logging, and deviation; ˜ Production grout monitoring – grout strength and flowability testing including curing procedure and testing multiple samples at various curing times and assessment of grout flow in grout holes; ˜ Displacement of mine water by grout – Water can flow up and out of grout holes if workings are confined and / or seep from entries or outcrops; ˜ Verification – grout coring (need to allow grout to set up or it “washes” away), downhole techniques including velocity, grout core strength, and verification hole grout take. Proper assessment of these considerations leads to a successful project.

conditions is a crucial factor for planning and designing geotechnical works. A large amount of geological and geotechnical data is being stored in a georeferenced database for that purpose. The data that are processed are based on borehole geological information, laboratory testing, geotechnical characterization and in situ field tests. The processing and assessment of this information leads to the identification of useful value ranges for several physical and mechanical geotechnical parameters, for instance SPT, uniaxial compressive strength, Atterberg limits, permeability tests and particle size analyses. Thematic maps that reference geological and geotechnical factors were constructed by means of data analysis and correlation procedures. These maps provide public and private information serving multiple purposes such as new construction projects, seismic hazard design and management of natural disasters. This study focuses on the Eastern part of urban Thessaloniki, highlighting the in situ conditions of Quaternary and Neogene deposits with the construction of 2D profiles and 3D models. In addition, hazardous zones are identified in order to illustrate the regions geotechnical properties. The purpose of this investigation, besides incorporating new data, is to provide a tool for summarizing data into useful information formats in order to estimate the geological conditions and geotechnical properties of formations similar to the study area while providing a detailed outline of the methodology which was followed.

Neotectonics of the Hollywood Fault, Central Hollywood District, Los Angeles, California❋ Kolthoff, Steven, SK Geological, Inc., United States, stevenk.skgeo@gmail.com; Michael F. Mills; peninsula.mfm@gmail.com; Roy J. Shlemon, rshlemon@jps.com (TS #48) We present new data and analyses indicating that the inferred “active” Hollywood Fault is not mainly left-lateral, strike slip, as previously postulated, but rather, as now shown for the Central Hollywood District of Los Angeles, is mainly driven by crustal shortening indicated by uplift of the adjacent Santa Monica Mountains, by presence of the Hollywood Syncline and by the asymmetric (south verging), newly discovered “Yucca Street Anticline.” This crustal shortening follows a regional structural fabric developing since at least Miocene time. Evidence stems from interpretation of historic earthquake momenttensor solutions, from regional GPS plate velocity data, and from new, site-specific engineering-geological trench exposures and related subsurface investigations. Based on exposures in approximately ~213 m long and up to 10 m deep trenches, on advancement and interpretation of 100+ cone penetrometer tests (CPT), and on excavation and collection of over 304 m of continuous cores, we conclude that—at least in the Central Hollywood area—the presumed Hollywood Fault is not an active, mainly strike-slip fault but rather is structurally expressed by several near-surface folds indicative of compression normal to the inferred trace. Inherently, therefore, any assumed “active” Hollywood Fault in the Central Hollywood area of Los Angeles may trend outside the study area, may have slip taken up in contemporary folding, or—though less likely—be obscured by thick wedges of Holocene alluvium.

Assessment on the Engineering Geological Conditions of the Eastern Urban Area of Thessaloniki Basin, in Northern Greece, using a Geotechnical Database❋

A New Approach for Automatic Identification and Characterization of Rock Mass from 3D Point Clouds

Kokkala, Aliki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, kokkalaa@geo.auth.gr; Marinos Vassilis, marinosv@geo.auth.gr (Presented by Marinos Vassilis) (TS #44)

Kong, Deheng, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, China, kongdeheng@tongji.edu.cn; Haris Saroglou; Faquan Wu; Dimitrios Zekkos; John Manousakis (TS #11)

The design and construction of underground and above ground projects in the urban environment of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece face several geological challenges. Determination of engineering geological

The routine application of remote surveying techniques such as photogrammetry, Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for structural geology and rock

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS mass characterization has rapid growth over the past decade. The traditional manual survey by compass and tape measures can sometimes be a biased, time consuming and limited in its coverage method. Furthermore, these new contact less techniques can quickly and accurately acquire a large number of digital data with high resolution, which also challenges our ability to extract effective information about geometric characteristics of rock mass. A new method for automatic identification and extraction of rock mass discontinuities, clustering of discontinuity sets and characterization of discontinuity orientation, persistence and spacing using 3D point cloud data is presented in this paper. The proposed method employs a five stage procedure consisting from: 1) calculation of every points’ normal vectors using singular value decomposition (SVD) method, 2) discontinuity sets clustering by Fast Search and Find of Density Peaks (CFSFDP) method and Fisher constant K calculation to eliminate noise points, 3) discontinuity segmentation using density-ratio method, 4) discontinuity plane fitting using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm, and 5) persistence and spacing calculation using the theory of analytic geometry. The method is applied to selected cases of rockmasses in slopes, considering point cloud data, which were collected by lidar and UAV. The results are compared with manual measurements performed in the field and also with the results acquired using the software developed by Riquelme et al. (2014). The results indicate that the presented method is reliable and yields high accuracy as it is characterized by less user bias.

Arkansas Landslide Inventory Project Development Kopper, Martha, Arkansas Geological Survey, martha.Kopper@arkansas.gov; Ty Johnson (Poster) The Geohazards Section of the Arkansas Geological Survey initiated a landslide inventory in early 2016. This inventory is being developed utilizing: 1) field mapping, 2) collaboration with others, and 3) remote sensing imagery. Two landslide inventory studies are presently being conducted in Arkansas. The first is a field-mapping project within the Mountainburg and Fern Quadrangles, Crawford County, Arkansas. Over 55 landslides have been delineated in the Crawford County project. Results from the field study are summarized. The second is an ongoing project utilizing 1-meter lidar coverage to delineate landslides within Cleburne County, Arkansas. Using this remote imaging technique, preliminary findings indicate that there are significantly more unstable slopes than what was once thought. Field check will be conducted on approximately 10 percent of the landslides. Collaboration with others encompasses geohazard education/outreach with: 1) county and regional planning districts, 2) local, county and state emergency operations management and hazard mitigation officials, and 3) local, county, state and federal elected officials. This inventory will be utilized to produce online and hard copy geohazard maps, which will delineate landslide locations as well as landslide susceptibility areas. These products are expected to be utilized by the public and local, county, and state agencies in response to the various needs.

Landslide Susceptibility and Soil Loss Estimates Impacting Streams in the Drift Creek/Siletz Watershed, Lincoln County, Oregon❋ Korte, David, Department of Geology, Kent State University, United States, dkorte@kent.edu; Abdul Shakoor, ashakoor@kent.edu (TS #50) The Drift Creek watershed is a source of drinking water for the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians (CTSI), and Lincoln City and is also a reproductive habitat for endangered salmon and trout species. The watershed has been designated as “Impaired by Unknown Stressors” September 2018

by the MidCoast Watersheds Council Biological Monitoring Results Survey (2013). The Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and the CTSI suspect that landslides may be causing water quality deterioration. This study maps landslide susceptibility and estimates soil loss resulting from landslide-derived sediment within 30 m of Strahler 3rd order or higher streams in the Drift Creek watershed. Logistic regression was used to determine the most significant variables contributing to the probability of landslide occurrence and to create a watershed scale landslide susceptibility map. The most significant variables are slope angle, terrain elevation, soil erodibility factor, and plan curvature. The soil loss model points out the exact landslide deposits and stream channels where the DEQ should focus their resources concerning landslide-derived sediment entering stream channels. Estimated average annual soil loss from landslide deposits within 30 m of the 3rd order or higher stream network in Upper Drift Creek was 65 tons/acre/year vs 29 tons/acre/year for Lower Drift Creek. The highest landslide-derived sediment soil loss estimates near stream channels occurred in logging areas. Recent logging activity was found to substantially affect landslide-derived sediment contribution to the stream channels in the Upper Drift Creek component of the watershed.

Mapping Geological Risk in Urban Areas Kozliakova, Irina, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS, Russia, kozlyakova@rambler.ru; O.N. Eremina, sci-council@geoenv.ru; O.K. Mironov, M.N. Komarevskaya (Poster) The geological risk of economic losses was qualitatively assessed for the Moscow megacity proceeding from the combined consideration of geohazards operating in this territory and the vulnerability of urban environment. The map of geoecological conditions was built on the basis of assessing karst-suffosion, waterlogging and landslide hazards in Moscow, and the schematic map of geological risk (scale 1:50 000) was compiled for the Moscow territory, representing risk as an integral parameter of probable damage caused by the considered geohazards and the anthropogenic load on the urban territory. The mapping procedure included the following steps: grading and mapping exogenous geohazards; grading and mapping vulnerability of urban environment (which is taken to mean the city territory with the surface infrastructure) to these geohazards; distinguishing risk categories by the analysis of geohazard impact on urban environment; and compilation of the risk map by superposition of the integral map of exogenous geohazards and the vulnerability map. Being qualitative, this approach provides reliable enough data permitting urban planners to optimize investments in the Moscow city development.

Revealing Sinkholes of Karst-Suffosion Origin in Moscow❋ Kozliakova, Irina, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS, Russia, kozlyakova@rambler.ru; A.V. Anikeev, O.N. Eremina, o_eremina@mail.ru; N.A. Ustinova (Poster) Nearly 30 ground collapses were registered in the northwestern district of Moscow in the 1960–70s. These catastrophic phenomena were triggered by the in-tense technogenic intake of groundwater from the Carboniferous aquifer, which caused the downward migration of Quaternary sand to the underlying karstified limestone of Carboniferous age. Since those years, the northwestern district of Moscow has been considered to be particularly prone to karstsuffosion phenomena. IEG RAS has collected a substantial database on sinkholes of different origin that occurred in Moscow since the early 20th century. Using this database, we attempted to identify sinkholes of karst-suffosion origin in other districts of Moscow. Our

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS research procedure included the following stages: analysis of engineering geological conditions around the sinkholes using the borehole data obtained in different years and stored in the IEG RAS database; calculation of pos-sible sinkhole diameter using the original computational models; comparison of calculated to actual sinkhole diameters. This approach permitted us to identify the collapses in the historical center of Moscow as of karst-suffosion origin. This unexpected conclusion contradicts with the former boundaries of regions showing the different degree of karst-suffosion hazard outlined on engineering geological maps earlier.

A Bayesian Approach to Adaptive and Predictive 3D Geologic Modeling for Tunneling Projects Krajnovich, Ashton, Colorado School of Mines, United States, akrajnov@mymail.mines.edu; Wendy Zhou, wzhou@mines.edu; Marte Gutierrez, mgutierr@mines.edu (TS #22) A 3D geologic model is inherently a predictive model of the true subsurface geology, fitted to sparse observations in the subsurface and guided by interpretations from an expert geologist. For effective use of a 3D geologic model as a design tool in engineering projects, the uncertainty associated with the predictions made must be quantified. Bayesian inference can be applied to a predictive model to assess the combined effect of various sources of uncertainty on the prediction, including from observed data, model parameterization, and use of prior knowledge. In the context of hard rock tunneling projects, the relevant predictions made by the geologic model are the expected locations where the tunnel alignment crosses geologic interfaces; geologic interfaces to be considered include both regional and local geologic structures (i.e., rock macro-structures such as bedding, folds, faults and rock micro-structures such as fractures). In this research, the prediction of geologic structures along a tunnel alignment is posed in a Bayesian framework to assess and adapt these predictions in light of the actual conditions encountered while excavating. Predictions of regional and local structures, while interrelated, are considered as distinct problems. The former is chiefly concerned with assessing the quality of different predictive models by validation against new observations, while the latter is more concerned with updating a single predictive model to incorporate additional information gained from new observations. A data-driven 3D geologic modeling scheme acts as the functional relationship between model parameters (3D geologic interfaces) and predictions (observations on the interface); implicit geologic modeling workflows provide the necessary reproducibility for use in the Bayesian framework.

California Air Resources Board – NOA Regulations Krieger, Robert, California Air Resources Board, United States, robert.krieger@arb.ca.gov (TS #16) The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has adopted two Airborne Toxics Control Measures (ATCMs) for natural occurring asbestos. The first of these, the Asbestos ATCM for Surfacing Applications (adopted in 1993) and secondly, required projects conducting surfacing applications to reduce or eliminate asbestos emissions. This same ATCM was amended in 2000 to further reduce the levels of asbestos exposures from these applications. CARB has developed a guidance document to assist the local air pollution control districts (districts) in the implementation of this ATCM. The guidance report provides the districts with information that further explains the requirements of the ATCM. The second of these, Asbestos ATCM for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations (adopted in 2001), was designed to reduce the asbestos dust-containing levels from for construction, grading, quarrying, and surface mining operations in areas known to 154

have natural occurring asbestos. Some of the requirements include dust control measures such as vehicle speed limitations, use of water prior and during ground disturbance and wet/covered storage piles in order to prevent visible emissions crossing the project boundaries. CARB continues to answer questions and provide guidance on the two ATCMs, however, the districts have been granted primary authority for implementation and enforcement of the regulations.

Dynamic Soil Bearing Capacity of Padjadjaran University Campus Area, Indonesia Kristyanto, Twin H. W., Graduate Institute of Applied Geology, National Central University Taiwan, twin.hosea@sci.ui.ac.id; C. T. Lee (ct@ncu.edu.tw); Dicky Muslim (dickgeo86@yahoo.com); and Zufialdi Zakaria (zufialdizakaria2006@yahoo.co.id) (Poster) Eastern Bandung, where Padjadjaran University lies, is an area that is planned as a higher education district of the Great Bandung Area. It triggered the area to experiences physical changes from the 1970s until now. The development of the area went faster due to the establishment of several universities and institutes. Based on the seismic hazard susceptibility map of Bandung Area, the campus area is in a zone of high susceptibility of seismic hazard effects. Even a seismic hazard occurred with epicenter 15 km east part of campus area in 1972 and 8 km west part of the research area in 2000. Furthermore, in the northern part the area, ranges the active Lembang Fault that could raise the peak ground acceleration of the area. Thus, it is significant to evaluate the relationship between those seismic factors with bearing capacity to prevent undesired failure when the seismic hazard occurs. Then, the purpose of this paper is to calculate how much the paring of the seismic bearing capacity value from static one. This research used several methods that consist of: 1) site investigation: engineering geological mapping, soil and rock sampling from outcrops and bore holes; 2) laboratory test for getting the physical and engineering properties of the soils; and 3) desk works: analysis of engineering geological map, static bearing capacity (Terzhagi’s Formula), dynamic bearing capacity analysis (Kharni, 1993); and geostatistics analysis to zone the location based on the value of either static or seismic bearing capacity. The results show that: seismic factors in research area has potential to curtail the bearing capacity about 8–20% and 3–4.5% for depth of footing 1 m and 2 m respectively. Geostatistics analysis shows that the area with a lower soil bearing capacity expanding when the seismic factors was considered in the calculation.

Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping Using AVIRIS-NG Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Data Kumar, Chandan, Michigan Technological University, United States, ckumar@mtu.edu; Snehamoy Chatterjee, schatte1@mtu.edu; Thomas Oommen, toommen@mtu.edu (TS #47) Hyperspectral based detection and mapping of hydrothermally altered minerals have been used as a useful proxy to locate and understand the geological significance of ore bodies and mineralization zones of copper, lead, zinc, and gold. The present study exploits Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer – Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) hyperspectral data to map the hydrothermally altered minerals using spectral angle mapper (SAM) and spectral information divergence (SID) algorithms. The investigated site (Hutt-Maski, India) is composed of amphibolites, gneiss, granite, schist, and metavolcanics as major lithographic units, which host major gold mineralization. The study incorporates preprocessing, spectral and spatial data reduction, endmember extraction followed by spectral mineral inspection using USGS mineral spectral library, and spectral classification. The identified minerals

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS such as chlorite, goethite, muscovite, muscovite-chlorite, and chloritegoethite (mainly at the mine site) have a strong relation with phyllic and propylitic hydrothermal alteration systems. The virtual verification method, which utilizes image information itself to evaluate the results, has been used to formulate the confusion matrix to assess the performance of SAM and SID. SID performs superior to SAM with an overall accuracy (OA) of 96 % and kappa coefficient (k) of 0.96 whereas SAM achieves an OA and k of 84 % and 0.8 respectively. Mapping illustrates that southern portion of the area has a higher intensity of propylitic and phyllic alteration whereas the northern area exhibits mainly phyllic alteration. Mineral mapping using hyperspectral data can be a valid baseline data to understand the geological significance and to further explore the relation of hydrothermal alteration with the gold mineralization in the area.

Automation Method to Identify the Geological Structure of the Deep Seabed using Spatial Statistical Analysis Kwon, Oil, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Republic of Korea, kwonoil@kict.re.kr; Wooseok Kim, kws@kict.re.kr; Jinhwan Kim, goethite@kict.re.kr (Poster) For safe construction of a subsea tunnel, identifying the geological structure including faults at design and construction stage is more than important. It’s very difficult to obtain the data on geological structure because of the limits in geological survey. This study is intended to challenge such difficulties in a way of developing the technology to identify the geological structure of seabed automatically by using echo sounding data. When investigating a potential site for a deep subsea tunnel, there is a technical and economical limit with boreholes of geophysical investigation. On the contrary, echo sounding data is easily obtainable while information reliability is higher compared to above approaches. This study is aimed at developing the algorithm that identifies the large scale of geological structure of seabed using geostatic approach. This study is based on theory of structural geology that topographic features indicate geological structure. The basic concept of the algorithm is outlined as follows: 1) convert the seabed topography to the grid data using echo sounding data, 2) apply the moving window in optimal size to the grid data, 3) estimate the spatial statistics of the grid data in the window area, 4) set the percentile standard of spatial statistics, 5) display the values satisfying the standard on the map, and 6) visualize the geological structure on the map. The important elements in this study include optimal size of moving window, kinds of optimal spatial statistics and determination of optimal percentile standard. To determine such optimal elements, numerous simulations were implemented. Eventually, a user program was developed that leads to easy analysis of geological structure depending on variation of spatial statistics and percentile standard. This research was supported by KAIA under MOLIT of the Korean government. (Project Number: 13 Construction Research T01)

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in an Alpine Ophiolitic Complex (Northern Corsica, France) Lahondère, Didier, BRGM, d.lahondere@brgm.fr; Cagnard Florence, f.cagnard@brgm.fr (Poster) Northern Corsica is characterized by the occurrence of large masses of serpentinites, locally exploited in the past to produce asbestos (Canari deposit). These serpentinites are closely associated with ophiolitic meta-gabbros and meta-basalts representing the relics of an ancient oceanic domain. Most of these units underwent a high pressure–low temperature (HP-LT) metamorphism during their burial and a greenschist facies metamorphism during their exhumation. Contacts separating the geological units are mostly tectonic ones. Several types September 2018

of fibrous occurrences were identified within ultramafic (serpentinized peridotites, serpentinites) and mafic rocks (meta-gabbros, metabasalts), some of them corresponding clearly to Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA). Classical occurrences of chrysotile are ubiquitous in serpentinites. In the outer parts of the serpentinite massifs, close to basic surrounding rocks, chrysotile veins and planes coexist with tremolite-bearing veins of pluri-millimeter to pluri-decimeter thickness. Subjected to weathering and erosion, these tremolite veins evolve to give clumps of long and tangled fibers. Within strongly deformed meta-gabbros, meta-basalts and talcschists, two main types of fibrous occurrences were identified. They correspond either to amphiboles defining the HP-LT foliation or to amphiboles filling late metamorphic veins intersecting foliation planes. These amphiboles have always actinolite or tremolite compositions. The amphiboles in foliation planes are mostly characterized by prismatic to acicular morphologies, while the amphiboles of the veins consist in tufts of white and very flexible fibers, which may correspond to NOA. SEM and EPMA studies on veins amphiboles intersecting ultramafic and mafic rocks indicate the coexistence of very thin and long fibers (D<1 m, L/D>50), generally curved, and much thicker fibriform particles. Significance of such mixed associations is discussed in terms of crystallization modes and dissociation processes.

Impact of Environmental and Land Cover Changes on the Water Quality Characteristics of East Tennessee Watersheds Lakkaraju, Shruti, Texas Southern University, United States, s.lakkaraju9612@student.tsu.edu (TS #41) Over the past 20 years, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) watershed has received wastewater discharges and pollutants from a major US Department of Energy (DOE) facility, which is located in the headwaters of the EFPC watershed in Tennessee. The Hg is a potent neurotoxin affecting the human and animal health. The symptoms of Hg toxicity include neurological disturbance, loss of sensations in the face, bad vision, deafness, loss of coordination, and impaired speech. Water quality changes due to the presence of mercury (Hg) in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) watershed and surrounding watersheds is being analyzed in this study. The objectives of our study are to analyze the temporal land cover changes in EFPC and other watersheds using ASTER satellite imagery and to develop a geospatial database to map the Hg accumulation and distribution patterns in EFPC. The ASTER satellite imagery of the years 2001 to 2013 were and processed for the study area. A geospatial database was developed for Hg accumulation patterns in Redbreast Sunfish (RBSF) and Bluegill Sunfish (BGSF) with the use of Geographical Information System (GIS). Biota-data was downloaded and processed from the Oak Ridge Environmental Information Systems (OREIS) database. From the Hg bioaccumulation data a regression equation was developed to show the correlation between total Hg accumulation, length and the body weight of female BGSF at EFPC. Also a total of 28 water samples were collected from EFPC in summer of 2015 and these samples were analyzed for turbidity and metal concentrations using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our results indicated that vegetation cover in the study area decreased from 16,637 acres to 16,169 acres and the impervious surface cover increased from 2,263 to 2,631 acres from 2004–07 at EFPC. Our results also indicate that the increase in the impervious area along the Lower.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Large Landslide Precursor Analysis Using Remote Sensing Lan, Hengxing, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, lanhx@igsnrr.ac.cn; Quanwen Li, liquanwen@lreis.ac.cn; Xiaoxia Zhao, zhaoxx@lreis.ac.cn (TS #42) Identification of large landslide precursor is of great significance for the prevention of landslide hazards. There are a variety of precursors before large landslides occurring, such as the landslide rupture and tear in the upper of the slope and displacement in the foot part of the slope, etc. And the change of internal hydrological conditions in the slope is also an important characterization of the landslide precursor, such as the abnormal changes of pore pressure in the slope. Due to the restriction of the terrain and other environmental factors, it is a challenge to identify the large landslide precursor effectively in a traditional way. Back analysis for pre-existing large landslide is also difficult due to the lack of relative monitoring data. The advanced remote sensing technology could facilitate the research of the large landslide precursor in different aspects and perspectives with abundance remote sensing imagery. This paper mainly explore the changing features of the slope critical conditions showing in the remote sensing images using the pre-existing large landslides case studies. Precursor information is obtained associated with geological, hydrological and meteorological conditions etc. using the remote sensing technology. InSAR technology is used to detect the slope deformation in a long time series manner. The long timespan of the thermal infrared images were used to analysis differences between the slope hydrological conditions changes and surrounding environmental changes. A variety of precursors characteristics are discussed to detect the critical change information of big landslides before their occurrence. Southwest China landslide-prone area is chosen as the case study area.

Fractal Characteristics of Natural Fracture Network of Longmaxi Gas Shale Lan, Hengxing, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, lanhx@igsnrr.ac.cn; Yuming Wu, wuym@lreis.ac.cn; Quanwen Li, liqw@lreis.ac.cn; Junhui Chen, chenjh@lreis.ac.cn; Xiaoxia Zhao, zhaoxx@lreis.ac.cn (Poster) Small samples of gas shale as big as core samples are often used to study the fracturing behaviors. The overall in situ natural fracture characteristics are usually difficult to obtain from the small samples. A relatively large sample of gas shale with the dimension of 2mX1.5mX1m samples was taken from the Longmaxi formation in Shizhu County, Chongqing, China. The longer axis of sample is parallel to the maximum principal stress to facilitate the analysis of the effect of in situ stress on the natural fracture network. The big sample is cut into several cubic samples with the size of 30cm. A 3D natural fracture network of large sample is rebuilt by tracing the natural fracture of each cubic sample. General characteristics of natural fracture of Longmaxi gas shale is obtained and analyzed. Fractal analysis is then conducted based on this big natural fracture network. The effect of in situ stress on the fractal features is discussed. The result shows that the complexity of natural fractures on the different surfaces can be depicted by a fractal dimension number. The fractal dimension number for the natural fractures along the maximum principle stress direction is bigger than other directions indicating the higher complexity, while the natural fracture perpendicular to the maximum principle stress shows smaller complexity.

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The Santa Barbara and Carpenteria Debris Flows of January 9, 2018: Post-Fire Debris Flow Initiation Areas and Triggering Precipitation Lancaster, Jeremy, California Geological Survey, United States, jeremy.lancaster@conservation.ca.gov; Brian Swanson, Brian.Swanson@conservation.ca.gov; Nina Oakley, Nina.Oakley@dri.edu; Don Lindsay, Don.Lindsay@conservation.ca.gov; Bill Short, bill.Short@conservation.ca.gov (TS #29B) Post-fire debris flows (PFDF) present a significant hazard to life and property in southern California’s Transverse Ranges. Many destructive debris-flow events have occurred over the past few decades, and, most recently, the tragic Santa Barbara post-fire debris flows killed more than 20 people and destroyed over 100 homes. Post-event observations demonstrate that the debris flows were generated by the concentration of overland flow into swales and larger order drainages, the progressive erosion and entrainment of sediment stored on hillslopes and channels, bulking and development of debris flow surges within confined canyons from Montecito to Carpenteria and in the wildland areas north of the Santa Ynez ridgeline. The occurrence of fire and short-duration, highintensity rainfall, were key in triggering these post-fire debris flows, but the difference between rainfall intensities known to trigger PFDF in the Santa Barbara coastal area and the intensities achieved on January 8–9, 2018, suggest that this event was extreme. Empirical models developed by the US Geological Survey that describe debris flow likelihood, indicated that precipitation intensity-durations of 24 mm/hr (0.94 in/hr) for 15 minutes yielded a moderate to high debris flow potential within the Santa Ynez Mountains. According to the NOAA Atlas 14, this equates to less than a 1-year recurrence storm. However, during the January 9, 2018, event, numerous precipitation gages within and around the Thomas Fire burn area reported rain rates that are triple the modeled thresholds. These observations generally range from a 2- to 50-year recurrence at the 15-minute duration based on Atlas 14 estimates. Here we compare the January 9, 2018, event rainfall observations with observations of debris flow occurrence and magnitude, with historical rainfall and debris flow observations from the region, to evaluate the nature of this event.

Evaluating Landslide Risk Management in Guatemala City through a Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Changes LaPorte, David, Colorado School of Mines, United States, dwlaporte@mines.edu; Paul Santi, psanti@mines.edu; Ethan Faber, ethan.j.faber@gmail.com (TS #2) In October of 2015, a devastating landslide killed an estimated 350 people in the community of El Cambray II, located in a Guatemala City ravine, highlighting the need to manage landslide risk in precarious urban settlements in the area. The goal of this project is to evaluate and improve landslide risk management in the Guatemala City metropolitan area, and to encourage at-risk community members to change behaviors to reduce landslide risk. To evaluate specific risk management initiatives, the authors are tracking changes in community members’ risk perception and behaviors by surveying communities at different points in time during the implementation of initiatives. Using these factors as metrics, we demonstrate the degree to which these factors will change when a community-based risk management initiative is implemented in a precarious settlement. To characterize landslide risk perceptions, perception of landslide risk is compared to perception of other societal risks to which community members are exposed, and a rubric of relative knowledge of landslide risk is developed. A preliminary F-N (frequency of events vs number of fatalities) plot quantifies societal acceptance of landslide risk. Landslide risk faced by settlement residents is estimated with a preliminary

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS landslide event database, for comparison to a quantified perception of risk to understand if communities perceive risk accurately, and to identify the level of intervention that would encourage behavioral change. The results of this study are being shared with risk managers to improve their selection of initiatives, and to empower at-risk communities by incorporating their knowledge and perception of risk into risk management strategies.

Good Data, Good Decisions: Applying 3D Technology to Solve Practical Engineering Geology Problems Lato, Matthew, BGC Engineering Inc., Canada, mLato@bgcengineering.ca; Andrew Mitchell; Mike Porter; Scott McDougall; Matthieu Sturzenegger; Steph Bale, Anne Clayton, Chris McKane, Clint Logue (TS #20) Engineering geologists, particularly those who specialize in landslide geohazards, typically work in data poor environments. Project sites are unique, inconveniently located, and spatially expansive. Uncertainty as it pertains to site behavior, rate of activity, and spatial extent is accepted due to the high cost of traditional data collection. Engineering geologists understand good engineering decisions are based on a combination of knowledge derived from data, and judgement derived from experience. To make good decisions, we require good data. Recent advancements in the collection, analysis and interpretation of remotely sensed threedimensional (3D) topography data, particularly lidar and photogrammetry, is reducing these uncertainties; it is changing how geohazards are identified, mapped, monitored, and managed. Three case studies will be presented that demonstrate the use of 3D remote sensing, collected from three different platforms: helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and tripods. The first case study demonstrates how Airborne Lidar Scanning (ALS) datasets spanning a 750 km2 region, collected ten years apart, were used to map landslide activity, guide field site prioritization, and understand the evolutionary geomorphology in the region. The second case study demonstrates how UAV photogrammetry data collected regularly over a four-year period is being used to track surface subsidence and cracking, and facilitate an understanding of the development and extent of ground deformation due to an adjacent block cave mine operation. The third case study demonstrates how using ALS and Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) data collected over the past ten years at a high temporal and spatial frequency is being used to monitor a 1 million-cubic-metre, slow moving landslide that threatens the safe operation of a highway and railway line. The 3D remote sensing data is being used to understand the landslide velocity and identify regions requiring detailed analysis prior to failure. Working with high accuracy 3D datasets we are able to derive information and generate knowledge to support judgement-based decisions. This approach is becoming particularly critical in the realm of performance-based design. Understanding ground deformation and movement in 3D provides engineering geologists confidence, in combination with traditional tools and numerical methods, to effectively manage landslide geohazards and surface subsidence. Practical applications of advanced 3D data analysis and visualization will be presented and discussed in parallel with lessons learned and anticipation of future developments.

Comparison of Landslide Susceptibility Models Trained from Inventories of Different Triggering Events in the Same Basin Lee, Chyi-Tyi, National Central University, Taiwan, ct@ncu.edu.tw (TS #4) In this study, we select nine independent rainstorms or typhoon events at the Zengwen Reservoir catchment to build nine event-based landslide susceptibility models. Each model was built by logistic regression of topographic factors, geological factors, location factors, and triggering factors of landslide grids and non-landslide grids. It was evaluated by using success rate curve method firstly. And then, the nine September 2018

models were crossvalidated between one event and another event by using prediction rate curve method. Results reveal that the prediction rates are fair to good and the performances of the nine different models are stable. We compare the nine event-independent susceptibility maps and compare these with a traditional susceptibility map, which was trained from a multi-temporal landslide inventory at the same region, and we found that they are similar in pattern, revealing that a common susceptibility pattern exists in the study region. This common susceptibility pattern was called basic susceptibility of the region (Lee and Chung, 2017), and can be used to construct a probability of failure relationship for further landslide prediction.

GigaPan Image-Based 3D Reconstruction for Engineering Geological Investigationsâ?&#x2039; Lee, Hana, Graz University of Technology, Austria, hana.lee@tugraz.at; Mostegel Christian, mostegel@icg.tugraz.at; Fraundorfer Friedrich, fraundorfer@icg.tugraz.at; Kieffer D. Scott, kieffer@tugraz.at (Presented by Scott Kieffer) (TS #55) Image based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction is a powerful technique for quantifying the shape of complex objects, and interactive gigapixel panoramic photographs provide multi-scale imagery that facilitate unprecedented long-range qualitative observations. This research examines approaches for combining these technologies with the goal of generating 3D reconstructions from multiple ultra-long-range gigapixel panoramas. Because restricted access to the geological object is often an issue for a close-range observation. The overall workflow involves: 1) acquiring multiple overlapping gigapixel panoramas from various viewpoints providing a triangulation angle of approximately 5-degrees, 2) camera calibration, and 3) creating a 3D model using specifically adapted Structure-from-Motion and subsequent Multi-View-Stereo techniques. Initial studies performed at a dolomite quarry located near Graz, Austria, show that a dense and accurate 3D point cloud can be obtained at a range of 630 meters. Rock discontinuity orientations measured directly from the model are in excellent agreement with traditional compass measurements, model dimensions (lengths and slope angles) agree with actual physical quantities, and geologic features can be mapped and projected into the 3D model in very high detail. These initial results indicate the developed methodology can greatly assist engineering geologists making quantitative measurements and analyses of outcrops and exposures that are inaccessible or at such great distances so as to preclude traditional photogrammetric techniques. To better define the limits of application, ongoing research is focused on evaluating range effects, in particular the maximum range (and associated parameters) to which this methodology can be reasonably applied in the context of engineering geological investigations.

Slope Deformation Analysis Using Terrestrial Lidar in Nuclear Power Plants Lee, Yonghee, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Korea, dragon202@khnp.co.kr; Choi Weon-Hack, whchoi777@khnp.co.kr (Poster) Since the great earthquake of east Japan had occurred in 2011, embankment slope at the Nuclear Power Plants site caused a station blackout, which led to loss of cooling function and ultimately resulted in release of radioactive materials to the outside environment (JNES, 2014). Slope stability in NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) became one of the most important factors. KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd.) has been regularly carrying out inspection for the slopes nearby safety-related structures. Section monitoring (directly installing the monitoring devices in slope) has been widely used to check the slope

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS behavior. These methods can monitor the slope behavior precisely but can be applied to restricted points that installed monitoring devices. In case of large and complicated shape slopes, section monitoring is not efficient because high cost and difficulty in finding the potential failure area. For the wide range of deformation evaluation, terrestrial lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) used to analyze the behavior of long and large NPPs slope (slope length is 1.7km, max. height is about 80m). First and second measurements were performed at each 53 points in June 2015 and at 91 points in April 2016. And also GNSS coordinates were measured for more precise positioning at the 2nd measurement location. After data acquisition, merging (station adjustment) and noise (like tree, grass, fence, transmission tower, building, lamp etc.) elimination procedures were performed. Using DEM (Digital Elevation Model) point clouds, triangular DEM meshes were generated. Finally, slope surface comparison for first and second DEM mesh has been performed. Local scour was observed in the some range of slope but large deformation was not observed from the surface comparison results. Terrestrial lidar is one of the useful methods to check the overall slope deformation especially in long and high slopes.

An Assessment Method to the Functional Efficiency of Water Curtain System of an Underground Storage Facility Lei, Shi, School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 3002160018@cugb.edu.cn; Bin Zhang (TS #30) This research focuses on the functional efficiency of water curtain system, which is an important factor to evaluate the performance of an underground storage facility. Auto-correlation and cross-correlation models were used to analyze the monitoring hydrologic data to access the water curtain system functional efficiency. Specifically, a perfect monitoring system was built in a certain project in China to collect the water inflow, water injection, average pressure of water curtain boreholes, and underground water level. A method to access the functional efficiency was proposed based on the correlation analysis of the collected data. It was concluded that it is not a good way to set water-curtain system in traditional way in every case. Finally, some advice was given to the construction and optimization based on the water-sealed efficiency.

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in France: A Technical and Regulatory Review Leocat, Erell, Asbestos Testing Laboratory, France, leocat.erell@gmail.com (TS #24) Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) has been a well-known issue for rock quarries for a long time. In France, the subject has recently become a more controversial problem, particularly since 2013. In fact, some mineral fibers with the chemical composition of regulated asbestos, i.e. actinolite, have been discovered in road-base aggregates and associated air filter samples. Do these elongated mineral particles belong to asbestiform fibers? In the case they are non-asbestiform fibers, what is their health effect as they are counted as fibers according to the standard? Presently, in France, the asbestos analysis of building material is based on a “yes or no” result. The detection limit is 0.1 weight percent, according to European decree based on asbestos having been added in building materials only in greater concentrations. Counted fibers must have width under 3 microns, a length over 0.5 microns, and an aspect ratio of less than 3:1. This method has limitations for analyzing NOA as NOA may be present in lower concentrations in natural materials, especially in road-base aggregates. The French government asked the national agency for sanitary security (ANSES) to make a review of what is known about cleavage fragments. The conclusions of ANSES reports highlight the fact that elongate mineral particles (EMPs) are 158

up for debate and a lot of questions remain. The French CEREMA institute is working on an experimental process to study EMP potential release during wearing down of gravels. The next fundamental step is to classify the different kinds of EMPs in the aim of counting them systematically for comparing the different studies. As the fragment cleavage formation is a random process, it is very difficult to get reliable results. Additionally, the uncertainty of the counting method based on morphological criteria must be taken into account.

Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Argentina. A Compilation of Case Studies❋ Lescano, Leticia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina, leticia.lescano@uns.edu.ar; Locati Francisco, locatifrancisco@gmail.com; Marfil Silvina, smarfil@uns.edu.ar; Sfragulla Jorge, sfragulla@gmail.com; Bonalumi Aldo, bonalumi.aldo@gmail.com; Maiza Pedro, pmaiza@uns.edu.ar (TS #24) Minerals of the asbestos group with asbestiform morphology according to the World Health Organization criteria naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) have been recognized in the provinces of Córdoba, Mendoza, and San Juan, Argentina, mainly associated with metaultramafic rocks, talc, vermiculite and marbles in minor proportion. Meta-ultramafic bodies are generally serpentinized and locally steatized leading to talc ores. In the contact to/with the host rock (mainly gneisses, schists, or igneous rocks) a narrow zone rich in biotite and/or vermiculite is generally recognized. Asbestiform amphiboles— mainly tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite—have been found in the talc ores or in the contact with the host rocks frequently associated with a non-asbestiform counterpart. Chrysotile was mainly recognized filling veins, as slip and cross fibers along shear zones, within serpentinites or associated rocks. Marbles from the province of Córdoba appear as lens or tabular banks with different metamorphic grades associated with gneisses, migmatites, amphibolites, and ultramafic rocks. In some sectors metasomatic processes produce biotite and amphibole-rich zones (tabular and prismatic hornblende/tremolite) in the contact with the host rock. Next to the contact zone, white asbestiform tremolite has been found filling veins. Asbestos has been banned in Argentina since 2000, and therefore the mines are currently closed. However, the exploited materials are still in waste piles and exposed to the environment, representing a potential health problem. In addition, there are currently many quarries exploiting meta-ultramafic rocks as well as marbles for different purposes. However, studies on the potential presence of asbestiform morphologies in the range of breathable particles are very scarce. This paper summarizes the results from studies on quarries from the provinces of Córdoba, Mendoza, and San Juan, Argentina, in relation to the presence of asbestiform minerals, their morphology, and size of the fibers to evaluate their potential hazardousness.

Mineralogical Composition and Structure of Fibrous Anthophyllite: A Case Study in Argentina❋ Lescano, Leticia, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina, leticia.lescano@uns.edu.ar, Silvina Marfil, smarfil@uns.edu.ar; Jorge Sfragulla, sfragulla@gmail.com; Aldo Bonalumi, bonalumi.aldo@gmail.com; Pedro Maiza, pmaiza@uns.edu.ar (TS #40) In this work a multi-methodological approach is taken, complementing field studies with petrographic-mineralogical, compositional and morphological analyses of anthophyllite in the “Coco Solo” mine from the province of Córdoba, Argentina. Fibrous minerals were studied by stereomicroscopy, polarizing light microscopy and SEM. The fibers have positive elongation, straight extinction and slight pleochroism. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS calorimetry (TG/DSC) da-ta allowed the determination of the structural water content and temperature stability. X-ray diffraction was used for the characterization of the mineral fibers before and after heating at 1000°C to identify the products of thermal decomposition. The crystal structure determined corresponds to anthophyllite. Finally, morphological analyses on acicular and fibrous phases were conducted. Particles up to ~1 µm were analyzed by optical microscopy, while particles up to ~ 0.1 µm were examined by SEM. When complemented, these two techniques are useful to characterize the morphologies of the particles.

Updated PSHA for San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s Mountain Tunnel, Sierra Nevada Foothills, California Lewandowski, Nora, Lettis Consultants International, Inc., United States, lewandowski@lettisci.com; Matthew Huebner, huebner@lettisci.com; John Baldwin, baldwin@lettisci.com; Andrew Seifried, seifried@lettisci.com; Steve Thompson, thompson@lettisci.com; Patricia Thomas, thomas@lettisci.com; Ivan Wong, wong@lettisci.com (TS #22) The 93-yr-old Mountain Tunnel is an 18.4-mi-long tunnel located in the Tuolumne River watershed of the western foothills of the central Sierra Nevada, California, and is part of San Francisco Public Utilities Commission’s (SFPUC) Hetch Hetchy water conveyance system. The tunnel conveys water via gravity from east to west. Due to the age of the tunnel and critical seismic performance ranking, SFPUC is evaluating the reliability of the tunnel to deliver water and meet future population demands. As part of the reliability study, a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was performed. The PSHA used a seismic source model that consisted of 82 fault sources and 6 areal source zones. The latter represent background earthquakes that are not associated with known geologic structures and are modeled with both uniform and spatially smoothed seismicity rates. Site response analysis was also performed to deconvolve the outcrop ground motions to “in-layer” ground motions at tunnel depths. The tunnel lies within the relatively rigid and low seismicity Sierra Nevada microplate, with the largest historical earthquakes and highest rates of seismicity located tens of kilometers from the tunnel. The closest seismic sources include the Melones and Bear Mountains fault zones which are part of the reactivated Mesozoic Foothills fault system (FFS) and the source of the 1975 M 5.7 Oroville earthquake. Although the closest of these FFS faults are important for deterministic hazard, very low slip rates (≤ 0.02 mm/yr) make them small contributors (relative to the areal source zones) to the probabilistic seismic hazard at a 975-yr return period. The hazard at the tunnel is controlled by seismic sources located at distances > 40 to 50 km, such as background seismicity, faults within the Coast Ranges and Coast Ranges/Great Valley Boundary zones, and the Walker Lane/Sierran Frontal fault system.

Spontaneous Exfoliation of Granitic Dome Damages Overlying Concrete Dam – Case History Lewis, Scott, Condor Earth, slewis@condorearth.com (TS #18) In August 2014, spontaneous exfoliation of the Twain Harte Dome, located in Twain Harte, California, caused emergency evacuations owing to potential dam failure concerns. The popular recreational reservoir was immediately drained pending investigation of the event and structural repairs to the multiple arch concrete dam. The dam was originally completed in 1928 and is founded on exposed granitic rock of the Sierra Nevada batholith, the left abutment being occupied by a classic granitic dome. During the 2014 site investigation, a second more powerful exfoliation event occurred that was September 2018

eye-witnessed by the author and others, including video documentation. The concrete dam structure and left abutment sustained significant damage during the events. The following investigation and analyses included engineering and scientific paths, as the events caught the attention of scientists worldwide. Geologic mapping, core drilling and various instrumentation were used to identify the depth, extent and activity of the sheet jointing. The data showed that the exfoliation was likely prompted by thermal stresses (hot summer periods), and that cumulative stress and accelerating deformation may have been precursor signals. Although several other exfoliation events occurred over the following two years, modifications to the dam and abutment were made to allow refilling of the reservoir and opening of the recreational facilities in the summer of 2015. Facility modifications included foundation deepening, isolation, rock bolting, and structural strengthening of dam arches.

Use of Micro-electromechanical Systems Inertial Sensors as a Geotechnical Monitoring Method for Slope Deformation Li, Cheng, Chengdu Engineering Corporation Limited, China, licheng@chidi.com.cn; Yueping Yin, yyueping@mail.cgs.gov.cn; Shengwu Song, sshengwu@chidi.com.cn (Poster) The rapid growth in performance and cost reduction of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) makes it possible to apply inertial sensors to slope deformation monitoring. In this paper, we propose a slope deformation monitoring means that measures and tracks displacements and movements without external georeferencing. The measuring unit consists of triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers and gyroscopes. It can be deployed either on the slope surface or underground. Making use of its measurements appropriately, we can derive the deformation or displacement at different phases of the slope deformation process. Gyroscopes and accelerometers are used to measure rotational rate and linear acceleration respectively, and magnetometers are used as a heading reference. Applying the inertial navigation algorithms, we cannot only achieve the velocity but also the attitude and position of the observed target. Unlike most of the existing deformation geotechnical measuring methods, the provided method measures the deformation of a slope until it fails, and allows continuing movement surveillance after the failure, which facilitates the local authorities in the implementation of effective and sustainable mitigation measures. By means of Kalman filter that combines the provided deformation monitoring means with GPS measurements, a more accurate result can be realized.

Combined Tension-Shear Experimental Study of Rock Failure Li, Shouding, Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geo-engineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, lsdlyh@mail.iggcas.ac.cn;Linan Liu; Xiao; Jingyun1 Guo; Jianming, Yanhui Liu (Poster) This paper deals with the experimental study of rock failure under combined tension-shear conditions. Combined tension-shear stress state was achieved using self-developed apparatus. Tension-shear tests were conducted on brittle granite sample to investigate the characteristics of tension-shear failure. The failure criterion for whole stress state was obtained, a modified Mohr-Coulomb criterion, with consideration of tension-shear stress state, was proposed by analyzing the experimental results. The obtained failure envelope presents continuous double-lined variation, with relatively steeper slope in tension-shear zone. To quantitatively characterize failure surfaces under tension-shear conditions, fractal dimension (FD) was introduced to represent the roughness of failure surfaces. The techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS and 3D laser scanning were utilized to observe failure surfaces morphology. Analytical results suggested the variation of FD values calculated from the two methods coincide with each other, and that the roughness of failure surfaces increase with tensile stress. Different from the situation in compression-shear stress condition, under combined tension-shear stress condition, when applying a constant tensile load, the strength decreases with the increment of shearing rates.

Stochastic, Goal-Oriented Rapid Impact Modelling of Uncertainty and Environmental Impacts in Poorly Sampled Sites Using Ex-Situ Priors Li, Xiaojun, Tongji University, China, lydstudy@tong.edu.cn; Yandong Li, lystudy@tongji.edu.cn; Ching-Fu Chang, chingfuyc@berkeley.edu; Ziyang Chen, zychen0404@126.com; Benjamin Zhi Wen Tan, btan029@e.ntu.edu.sg; Jon Sege, jonsege@gmail.com; Changhong Wang, changhong.wangsir@gmail.com; Yoram Rubin, yoram.rubin@gmail.com (TS #22) This paper investigates the environmental impacts of a major tunneling project in China. Of particular interest is the drawdown of the water table, due to its potential impacts on ecosystem health and on agricultural activity. Due to scarcity of data, the study pursues a Bayesian stochastic approach, which is built around a numerical model. We adopted the Bayesian approach with the goal of deriving the posterior distributions of the dependent variables conditional on local data. The choice of the Bayesian approach for this study is somewhat non-trivial because of the scarcity of in situ measurements. The thought guiding this selection is that prior distributions for the model input variables are valuable tools even if that all inputs are available, the Bayesian approach could provide a good starting point for further updates as and if additional data becomes available. To construct effective priors, a systematic approach was developed and implemented for constructing informative priors based on other, well-documented sites which bear geological and hydrological similarity to the target site, the Mingtang tunneling project. The approach is built around two classes of similarity criteria: a physically based set of criteria and an additional set covering epistemic criteria. The prior construction strategy was implemented for the hydraulic conductivity of various types of rocks at the site (Granite and Gneiss) and for modeling the geometry and conductivity of the fault zones. Additional elements of our strategy include 1) modeling the water table through bounding surfaces representing upper and lower limits, and 2) modeling the effective conductivity as a random variable (varying between realizations, not in space). The approach was tested successfully against its ability to predict the tunnel infiltration fluxes and against observations of drying soils.

Predictive Analysis on Surge Caused by a Potential Large-Scale Reservoir Landslide in SW China Liang Ning, Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Institutions of Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, liangning320@qq.com; Wu Faquan; Luo Hao; Liu Tong (TS #45) Landslide hazard in a reservoir will trigger severe surge disaster, such as the Vajont landslide on the 9th October 1963. A mass of approximately 270 million m3 of the landslide collapsed into the reservoir generating a huge surge which overtopped the 264.6m-high dam and hit the town of Longarone and other villages within 10 km. Almost 2,000 people lost their lives. With different storage water level in the reservoir, a predictive analysis is carried out on the surge caused by a mass of approximately 21 million m3 of the potential large-scale landslide collapsed into the reservoir, resulted from an earthquake of mag-

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nitude 8 near a dam in SW China. Adopting the IWHR experience formula and Pan Jiazheng methods, when the large-scale landslide slides along the strong unloading boundary in different storage water level, the landslide hazard is discussed in details, such as initial height of surge, height of surge in across river bank and maximum height of surge in distances. Through the sensitivity analysis on surge impact factors in this landslide hazard, general conclusions are achieved that, as for a large-scale landslide, different storage water levels are not significantly related to affect landslide velocity into the water, initial height of surge, and height of surge across the river bank. However, different landslide velocity into the water is significantly related to height of surge. In different storage water levels, different distances are not significantly related to height of surge. Finally, different landslide angel and internal frictional angle are significantly related to height of surge.

Study on the Effects of Chemical Weathering of Black Shale on the Concrete Liao, Xin, Southwest Jiaotong University, China, xinliao@swjtu.edu.cn; Wencan Wang, 51099156@qq.com; Zhiqiang Zhang, zhangzhiqiang880@qq.com; Wenjun Li, 170739239@qq.com; Xiyong Wu, wuxiyong@126.com (Poster) The black shales containing sulfide minerals such as pyrite are prone to acidify environment water after rock–water interaction in oxidizing condition. The acid environmental solution is characterized by rich in iron and sulfate ions. When engineering constructions are built in black shale areas, concrete as the common engineering material will inevitably interact with the acidic water produced by the chemical weathering of black shale. This paper summarizes the results of immersion experiments intended to investigate the rock–water-concrete interactions at different immersion height. Electrical conductivity (EC) and pH values of the solution were monitored at intervals. Concentrations of major ion species were determined for solutions collected in the end of the experiment. Micro-fissure development within the rock and concrete samples was determined by ultrasonic tester before and after the experiment. Mineral and strength analysis were conducted with X-ray diffraction and uniaxial compressive strength apparatus. The results indicate that 1) chemical reaction of black shale mainly occurred in the upper part of rock above the water, and capillary action was significant for the water-solid interactions for black shale and concrete; and 2) the immersion solution caused corrosion in the surface of black shale and concrete, which dramatically reduced the compressive strength of black shale but increased that of concrete slightly in the immersion period. This change can be attributed to the products formed by the chemical reaction between sulfate-rich ion solution and concrete filled in voids and micro-fissures.

Better Practice of Implanting Geo-Nerves for Landslide Monitoring Lin, Chih-Ping, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, cplin@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chung, Chih-Chung, ccchung@ncu.edu.tw; Lin, Chun-Hung, chlin.geo@mail.nsysu.edu.tw (TS #42) Implanting a geo nerve into the ground for monitoring development of localized shear deformation can be realized by pulsing an embedded coaxial cable based on time domain reflectometry (TDR). The TDR method is based on transmitting an electromagnetic pulse into a coaxial cable grouted in rock or soil mass and watching for reflections of this transmission due to cable deformity induced by the ground deformation. The TDR reflection in response to shear deformation is affected by many factors, including cable type, cable resistance, soil-grout-cable interaction, and shear bandwidth. These factors were systematically investigated through laboratory tests, numerical simulations, and large physical model tests. We focused

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS overtop the banks and result in flooding or flow avulsion, 3) rapidly assess and map potential hazard areas associated with near future debris flows and sediment-laden floods; and, lastly, and 4) assist the County of Santa Barbara Office of Emergency Management and CalOES in the rapid development of an emergency response decision matrix based on four levels of risk tiered to four different triggering rainfall events that could be used by emergency response managers and personnel to develop appropriate operational needs and logistics. The presentation discusses the steps taken and the results obtained in completing these tasks.

the discussions on the implications to enhancing TDR response and quantifying shear deformation. A better field practice is induced from these investigations to guide how to select cable and grout, correct resistance effect, reduce reflection signal, and quantify shear deformation. Several field case studies in different geological settings were presented to validate our recommendations. These field experiences demonstrate that TDR is a cost-effective, efficient, and distributed technique for early-warning monitoring system for landslide hazard. To make this technique even more attractive, the feasibility of integrating TDR sensing cable with conventional inclinometer casing is being investigated. Preliminary results are very encouraging provided that the sensing cable is properly constructed in the borehole with the inclinometer casing.

Destruction Law of Rectangular Tunnel Structure Based on the Theory of Plastic Hinge

Development of the Ground Model and Depressurization Design for the Construction of a Cross Passage in London Tertiary Basin

Liu, Chunxiao, Beijing University of Technology, China, liuchunxiao17@outlook.com; Lianjin Tao, ljtao@bjut.edu.cn; Jin Bian, bianjin66@126.com (TS #22)

Linde-Arias, Emilio, Blackrock Expert Services, United Kingdom, elinde@blackrockx.com (TS #22) The Crossrail project in London comprises twin TBM driven railway tunnels. The scheme includes several short cross-link tunnels between the TBM drives to house switchgear, sumps and for access. Cross passage CP6 is 14 m long and includes a central sump. This cross passage is at 48 m depth and lies within the Lambeth Group soils present immediately below the London Clay. The Lambeth Group soils are predominantly cohesive but include intermittent, water bearing channel sands with excess pore pressures of 1 to 2 bar. The cross passages are constructed using SGI rings with reinforced concrete collars. Temporary ground support during excavation was provided using timber headings requiring dry, stable face conditions. Probe drilling undertaken from the running tunnels in advance of CP6 excavation identified the presence of water bearing granular horizons, above, within and below the tunnel and sump horizon. The probe holes were completed as wellpoints or piezometers with the borehole logs used to update the ground model. The ground model was essential for the development of a temporary in-tunnel dewatering scheme to target the water bearing horizons and facilitate cross passage construction in dry stable conditions.

Emergency Assessment of Post-Fire Debris Flows that Impacted the Communities of Montecito and Carpinteria, Santa Barbara County, California, on January 9th, 2018 Lindsay, Don; California Geological Survey, don.lindsay@conservation.ca.gov; Jeremy Lancaster; Janis Hernandez; William Short (TS #39) The Thomas Fire began on the evening of December 4, 2017, and burned a total of 281,893 acres in portions of Ventura County and Santa Barbara County, California, making the fire the largest in modern California history. The fire was still burning when on January 8/9, 2018, the western margin of the burn area was impacted by very intense rainfall associated with a Narrow Cold Frontal Rainband (NCFR). The NCFR was the primary trigger of deadly and destructive post-fire debris flows, mudflows, and sediment-laden floods that impacted downslope communities of Montecito and Carpentaria, in Santa Barbara County. In response to the impacts, the county requested assistance of a team of scientists composed of GIS specialists, geologists, engineers, geomorphologists, and hydrologists to rapidly assess the area of impact. The team was deployed on January 17, 2018, and tasked to: 1) preliminarily map the extent of the January 9 debris flows and sediment-laden floods, including their lateral extent and deposit characteristics such as depth, grain size, and run-up and superelevation heights, 2) map and catalog areas of local channel constriction that could control flow conveyance and may force future flows to September 2018

A large scale of liquefiable soil is distributed in the east of Beijing, so an underground structure constructed in this area is inevitably encountering liquefied soil. The study has been performed using fullcoupled FDM modeling of FLAC. The east extension of Beijing metro line 7 has been analyzed. The present paper deals with the destruction mode and mechanism of the tunnel with transverse section of double-cross. Two cases when the structure is on liquefied site and on non-liquefied site are compared here. In simulation, take rectangular tunnel section structure components as bar system, plastic hinges are arranged in turn at the place where compressive damage occurred in reinforced concrete. The development of internal force can then be controlled, but the deformation where plastic hinge locates can still increase. Base on this theory, during the process that structure changes from geometrically stable system to geometrically unstable system and ultimately damaged, internal force development, transfer law and failure mode of structure were studied here. Different reactions of structure were compared when is on liquefied site and on non-liquefied site. Before the tunnel structure become a geometrically variable system, the order of the generation of plastic hinge occurs in accordance of time is when on non-liquefied site�joint of side wall and floor�joint of side wall and roof and position that is close to the middle of side wall, on liquefied site�joint of side wall and floor, joint of side wall and roof, and middle of side wall. The main reason to explain the difference is the increase of pore pressure caused by liquefaction that led to the redistribution of stress of soil around side walls and the buoyant force acting on the floor. The research method based on the theory of plastic hinge adopted here to study destruction mode and mechanism of underground structure, and conclusions in this paper, can provide a basis for evaluating aseismic behavior, when an underground structure interacts with liquefied soil or non-liquefied soil, especially in Beijing area.

Effects of Water Content and Dry Density on Color of Expansive Soil Based on Photographic Image Liu, Guanshi, Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. gsliu@whrsm.ac.cn; Ruyi Chen, zgchenruyi@163.com (TS #9B) The change of physical parameters of soil, such as water content and dry density, usually leads to changes of soil color, which is generally ignored. Taking expansive soil from Nanyang, Hebei Province of China as objective, the relationships between soil color and water content and dry density were studied by photographic image analysis through drying and wetting tests on soil samples. The results show that the RGB value of expansive soil decrease at first and then increase with the water content reducing from about 35% to 8%, and a color change

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS curve with water content can be divided into three stages of slow-fall, fast-fall, and slow-rise. Color curve of expansive soil during drying is different from that during wetting, for the fast-fall stage the wetting curve moves left apparently relative to the drying curve, especially the B value is more sensitive to the path of moisture change. A simplified model for color change of soil is forwarded to tentatively explain the three stages of color curve of expansive soil with the change of water content. The soil color is mainly determined by its water content and the form of bound water, so photographic image may be potential for measurement of physical properties such as water content.

A New Empirical Estimator of Newmark Displacement from Arias Intensity and Critical Acceleration Based on the Strong Motion Data of Wenchuan Earthquake Liu, Jiamei, Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China, ljm19870918@126.com; Tao Wang, wangtao_ig@163.com; Jusong Shi, shijusong@126.com; Shuren Wu, shrwu@cags.ac.cn (Poster) Using the strong ground motion of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, we analyzed the relationship among critical acceleration (ac), Arias intensity (AI), and Newmark displacement (Dn). We found that the logarithm of Dn decreases linearly with the increase of ac through all AI values and the variation rate decreases with the increase of AI. We also found that the logarithm of Dn is proportional to the logarithm of AI when ac is large and the linearity becomes less as ac gets smaller, which reveal that the coupling effect of AI and ac should be taken into account. Thus different from previous studies, we make the coefficient of ac changed with AI in addition to its logarithm. Previous empirical equations are also developed with new fitting coefficients. Comparing our refined Newmark displacement formula with previous studies, our modified model has a better fit and a smaller estimation error, and could predict the displacement more accurately, especially for the slops with small ac values. In this sense, the resulting correlation equations presented in this article represent a significant advancement since landslides are more likely to occur on hillsides with small ac values.

Experimental Study on Coupled Mechanical-Dissolving of Carbonate Rocks in Rocky Desertification Area of Karst Plateau, Guizhou, China❋ Liu, Qi, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, China, liuqi472@163.com; Yaoru Lu, 82609535@qq.com; Zhuping Sheng, zsheng@ag.tamu.edu (TS #57) The karst rocky desertification is one of the major bottlenecks for the eco-environmental safety and economical sustainable development in karst areas of China. The lithological difference of carbonate rocks determines its weathering process and the different way of the accumulation and loss of surface soil, which makes diversity of the origin and space-time evolution rules and the difficulty of control of rocky desertification. In this paper, the limestone and dolomite of the moderate to severe karst rocky desertification control demonstration regions of Guizhou plateau are selected as the research object. The mechanical-chemical dissolving experiments of carbonate rocks are carried out by simulating the open system of the water environment of epikarst zone. The differences in deformation and dissolution characteristics of limestone and dolomite under different stress conditions are analyzed. In addition, the characteristics of surface and internal pore structure of the rocks are analyzed from the microscopic view. The results further explain why the rocky desertification of dolomite area is less in quantity and lighter in degree than the limestone area,

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but the rocky desertification control of the dolomite area is more difficult than the limestone area. These results provide a theoretical reference for the rocky desertification control according to local conditions.

Three-Dimensional UAV-Based Photogrammetric Structural Models for Rock Slope Engineering Liu, Qian, Graz University of Technology, Austria, qian.liu@tugraz.at; Scott Kieffer, kieffer@tugraz.at; Maja Bitenc, bitenc@tugraz.at (Presented by Scott Kieffer) (TS #11) This research describes a methodology for acquiring, visualizing, and reconstructing three-dimensional representations of blocky rock masses based on the coordinates of dense surface points. In general, the surface points can be obtained with a variety of sensors and sensor platforms. The workflow described herein considers photogrammetric data sets acquired with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In the overall, the steps for constructing high resolution 3D geological structural models are: 1) a photogrammetric survey of the investigation area is performed to obtain a true-color georeferenced 3D point cloud; 2) structural geologic measurements are extracted directly from the point cloud or associated digital terrain model (DTM); 3) the 3D rock structure is represented as a discrete fracture network (DFN); 4) identification, computing and visualization of blocks; and 5) on the basis of Block Theory, kinematically removable blocks are identified directly on the point cloud/DTM with embedded DFN and classified according to their criticality.

Experimental Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Mudstones with Two pH Values under the Dry–Wet Cycle Liu, Wanli, Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences, China, lwl8056@qq.com; Echuan,Yan; Jingsen,Cai; Dan,Zhang, lwl8056@qq.com (Poster) Slopes in reservoir areas are usually under the dry–wet cycle, which is due to the period of reservoir water level. Under this circumstance, the rock-soil strength decreases and the degradation effect accumulates until the slope fails. In this paper, mechanical characteristics of red-bed mudstones in the Badong Formation in Three Gorges reservoir areas are investigated through tensile test, uniaxial and triaxial compression tests after dry–wet cycles (n=1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15) in water environments of pH=3 and pH=7. Results indicate that the elastic modulus, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, cohesion and internal friction angle of mudstones decline after dry–wet cycles, compared with dry specimens without dry–wet cycle. Besides, after the specimens are saturated for the first time, these mechanical parameters drop dramatically, and with the increasing of n, the amount of decrease in each cycle time reduces and the parameters finally become stable. The values of mechanical parameters of mudstones in the acidic solution environment decrease more than those in the distilled water environment. Specifically, the value of the uniaxial compressive strength decreases more than that of the elastic modulus. This is due to the reaction of mineral particles in mudstones and the ions in acidic solution, which accelerates the formations and developments of micro-pores and micro-fissures of the specimens and declines their strength. In addition, the value of the cohesion decreases more than that of the internal friction angle. This is because of the weakening of cements among the mineral particles under the lubrication, dissolution and softening effects of water, leading to the decreases of cohesion with a large margin. Theoretical guidance for stability developing trend and early identification of potential hazards of mudstone-slopes in Badong Formation in reservoir areas under long-term fluctuations of reservoir water level can be provided according to the research results of this paper.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS In Situ Observations of Wave-Induced Fluid Mud Layers on the Yellow River Subaqueous Delta

along the Xianshuihe Fault zone and the geological disaster research of similarly tectonically active areas.

Liu, Xiaolei, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Geological Engineering, Ocean University of China, China, xiaolei@ouc.edu.cn; Lukuan Ma, 1181121773@qq.com (TS #49B)

Study of the Technique for Landslide Rapid Recognition by InSAR

As one of the most complex hydrodynamics and sedimentary geological conditions in the world, he Yellow River Estuary has typical characteristics of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and sedimentary landforms. On the face of the subaqueous delta (8–10 m water depth) where two submarine cables had been cut off in the past, a quadripod observation system is deployed and wave, current, seabed elevation and SSC (both single-point and vertical profiles estimated by conversion of optical backscatter data) are measured to investigate wave-current-sediment interaction. Two storm events in December 2017 featured > 24 h in lifetime and > 2 m in significant wave height of energetic ocean conditions. The calibrated optical backscatter sensor array measured near-bed (< 1.5 m above bed) SSC < 4.0 g/l under fair-weather while > 10.0 g/l under the storm, with a strong erosion occurring > 2 cm below the seafloor, subsequently resulting in ~8 cm deposition. The layers are episodically formed (lifetime of < 20 h) prior to significant settling of sediment, with a relatively higher flowing velocity to seaward (downslope). The results suggest a sequence of near-bed fluid mud generation processes, triggered by the storm wave induced sediment responses (bed liquefaction, resuspension and advection, modulated by the bathymetric characteristics of the small clinoform) that contribute to the sediment cross-shelf transport and formation of stratigraphy of muddy subaqueous deltas.

Research on the Slow-Moving Landslide Characteristics and the Xianshuihe Fault Zone Based on the SBAS-InSAR Liu, Xiaoyi, Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China, liuxiaoyi1018@sina.com; Guo, Changbao, guochangbao@163.com; Zhang, Yongshuang, zhys100@sohu.com; Ren, Sanshao, rensanshao123@163.com; Shen, Wei, shenwei@cugb.edu.cn; Su, Fangrui, sufangrui@163.com (Poster) The Xianshuihe Fault is an important boundary fault of the Chuandian block; the fault has been active since the Holocene, and with significant earthquakes. The geo-hazards include intense activity along the fault, a high density of large–giant landslides, with great harm. On the basis of previous studies, in this paper we use the SBAS-InSAR method based on 15 PALSAR scene data between 2007 and 2011 that comes from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS-1) of Japanese to analyze and calculate the activity rate from Daofu to Luhuo in Xianshuihe Fault zone, and the time series deformation characteristic of five years about the creep landslide that occured along the Xianshuihe Fault zone. The results show that in recent years the Xianshuihe Fault zone from Daofu to Luhuo creeps sliding as the main characteristic. The creep rate of the Fault zone from Daofu to Luhuo is about 9.4±0.78mm/yr. The creep effect of the Xianshuihe Fault has an important influence on the occurrence of landslides in this area. The closer the distance to the Xianshuihe Fault zone, coherence between images is stronger. We have more stable coherent points, the interference effect is better, and the landslide has greater cumulative displacement. We have identified 98 creep landslides along the Xianshuihe Fault zone from Daofu to Luhuo, the creep landslides developed linearly on both sides of Xianshuihe Fault zone. We have also analyzed the surface deformation characteristics of the typical creep landslide. Based on SBAS-InSAR radar data processing method, we can effectively analyze the slow deformation of the surface and analyze the laws of changes and developments of this regional creep landslide, which has a certain guiding role on disaster prevention and mitigation September 2018

Liu, Xinghong, Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Science, m15773261806@163.com;Yao Xin, Zhou ZhenKai, Li Lingjing, Yao Jiaming (TS #55) This paper presents a new method utilizing InSAR observation to recognize those landslides with creep deformation in a case study in Leibo County, Sichuan Province, China, by selecting four types of SAR input data in two sets: PALSAR-1/2 as-/descend and Sentinel-1A/B de-/ascend. The study recognizes a total of 163 landslides and analyzes spatial and temporal distribution to develop four important conclusions: 1) InSAR can record the deformational history of landslides, and gain insight into their level of activity; 2) Multiple types of InSAR data can be used overcome the distortion or effects within InSAR, such as layover, shadow, incoherence, and thereby improving the efficiency; 3) Compared with field investigation results, landslides recognized by InSAR are more rounded and accurate, especially for high-position landslides, so InSAR is recognized as one of the important methods for landslides surveys; and, 4) The landslides of Leibo County occur mainly in areas with slope angles from 30° to 40°, with most moving northward within soft and clastic rocks along the Jinsha and Meigu Rivers.

Failure, Emergency Response, Mitigation, and Engineering Geology of Guajataca Dam Spillway, Puerto Rico Loar,, Todd N., Senior Geological Engineer, USACE-RMC, United States, todd.n.loar@usace.army.mil; Dennis Zeveney, dennis.j.zeveney@usace.army.mil (TS #1) Guajataca Dam is a 121-ft (37 m)-high, semi-hydraulic fill embankment dam located in North West Puerto Rico. Designed and constructed in the early 1920s and owned by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, the project supplies irrigation and municipal water to approximately 300,000 residences in the region. Hurricane Maria traversed the island on September 20, 2017, as a strong Category 4 storm resulting in extensive damage and issuance of a Presidential major disaster declaration (FEMA-4339-DR). The heavy precipitation lead to 3.3 to 6.5 feet (1 to 2 m) of flow over the spillway crest causing significant foundation erosion and partial embankment buttress removal, head-cutting and undermining of spillway slabs, and ultimately failure of the lower 330 feet (100 m) of the chute. The active failure and damaged condition of the spillway raised concerns that additional flows would further erode the foundation and enlarge the scour hole resulting in head-cutting of the upper part of the spillway and/or re-activate landslide features, both of which could jeopardize the integrity and safety of the dam. PREPA, FEMA, and USACE performed an emergency engineering assessment prompting an immediate military-supported response to protect the exposed spillway foundation, provide hydraulic energy dissipation, and lower the reservoir elevation. In addition, USACE engineering teams were engaged to evaluate the geologic and geotechnical conditions to develop interim risk reduction measures and preliminary design and construction plans to remediate the structure. This assessment revealed complex geologic and hydrogeologic conditions consisting of highly karstic limestone layers broken into large to small blocks floating within a large-scale translational landslide complex failing on weak, dip-slope clayey bedding surfaces that comprise the entire left of the dam and spillway foundation. This presentation gives a summary of the spillway failure, emergency

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS response, mitigation design concept, and engineering geologic conditions contributing to the failure of the Guajataca Dam spillway.

The Transition from Toppling to Sliding in Deep Rock Slope Instabilities. Loew, Simon, Department of Earth Sciences, Switzerland simon.loew@erdw.ethz.ch; Franziska Glueer; Jordan Aaron; Andrina Vlasek (TS #34) Toppling phenomena are mainly observed and described as ground surface phenomena and little is known regarding the true geological structures and kinematics of deep toppling slopes at depth. In this presentation we discuss detailed structural and kinematic observations of two deep-block toppling slopes from crystalline rocks in the Swiss Alps, both from very rapid and slowly moving slopes. The detailed structural and kinematic observations from ground surface and a deep unlined tunnel are compared with results from Base Friction Table experiments and analytical displacement vector plunge analyses. The analysis of transient ground surface displacement vectors and accumulated slope displacements (as recorded by a Total Station), together with monitored changes in toppling plane dip angles, allows to unravel 1) the depth of sliding and toppling, 2) the sliding plane dip angle, and 3) the ratio and magnitude of toppling and sliding displacement. We can show that in both cases significant sliding overprints topping. The transition to sliding corresponds to rapid acceleration, which either transitions into catastrophic slope failure or a (meta-) stable situation of a heavily damaged rock mass.

Fault Rupture Hazard Analysis for Mining Operation Pipelines, Antofagasta and Tarapaca Regions, Northern Chile Lowry, Don, Golder Associates Inc., United States, dlowry@golder.com (Poster) Mining operations throughout northern Chile continue to thrive and take advantage of widespread zones of mineralization. In 2014, Chile was the world’s primary producer of copper and a strong global supplier of gold, silver and various industrial minerals (nitrates, boron, iodine, potassium) (Wacaster 2017). This level of production requires a solid infrastructure to support on-going production operations, including abundant sources of fresh water. Given the hyperaridity of the northern Chile region and sparse recharge of groundwater basins through the Quaternary, mining companies are finding their local sources of surface and subsurface waters depleted. This has led to a recent push for development of desalination plants for freshwater production from the Pacific, with pipeline infrastructure back to the mining operations. Based on interaction over the last decade with mining clients and the local regulating authority, Sernageomin, Golder has adopted and implemented a methodology of Fault Rupture Hazard Analysis (FRHA) for pipelines proposed or located in an active tectonic regime. This methodology was previously devised for use with oil and gas pipelines, but due to the long distances traversed and lead-times potentially needed for pipeline repair due to rupturing events, a new standard of practice is developing in Chile. Golder has performed two FRHA studies in the northern Chile region since 2017 with area of study ranging from about 20° to 24° south latitude. Various desktop and field reconnaissance methods—including aerial image review, sitespecific geomorphic mapping, and aerial drone surveys—have been employed to evaluate tectonic evidence over the full length of the pipeline alignments. Conclusions from these studies indicate that Quaternary-active crustal tectonics are largely confined to the Coastal Cordillera (Atacama Fault Zone (AFZ) and associated structures) and Western Cordillera geomorphic provinces.

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Intelligent Ecological and Sustainable City Clusters Lu, Yaoru, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University and Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, China, yrlu@tongji.edu.cn; Qi Liu, liuqi472@163.com (TS #23B) The city is the place inhabited by people. The development of the city is closely related to the development of human civilization and society. It has just taken thousands of years for people to advance from living in natural caves, to the humble thatched house, the connected villages, and in today’s skyscrapers and intertwining traffic. In China’s 5,000 years of civilization and history, the city’s development is an important display. The slogan of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo “Better City, Better Life” received world attention, and the Shanghai Expo stressed that “The better geo-environment, the better sustainable development for cities.” Good ecological environment is essentially the sustainable development for cities. The different geology-ecological system is discussed in this paper. Two major constraints on urban development include resource conditions, such as mainly water resources, land resources, energy resources and biological resources, and disaster conditions like mainly surface, landslides-debris flow, karst, collapse, typhoons, storm surges, snow and ice disasters. The occurrence of a disaster chain must be paid close attention to. Ten main measures to protect the city are put forward: 1) The development of a city must be in harmony with the environment; 2) Urban development must follow the right functions; 3) Urban development should be provided with adequate resources and ability to efficiently conserve and utilize relevant resources; 4) Urban development should be able to prevent and mitigate local disasters; 5) Urban development should protect the ecological environment and maintain a better ecological environment; 6) Urban development should be sustainable with better prospects; 7) Urban development should have a corresponding convenient transportation system; 8) Urban development should facilitate and complete neighboring cities and form interdependent relationships; 9) Urban development should have historical and cultural heritages and values; and, 10) Urban development should show the image of a new era. Future directions for urban development are to build an intelligent eco-city.

Investigation of Soil Moisture and Soil Strength Conditions, 2018, Black Rock Playa, Washoe County, Nevada Luce, Gary C., Resource Concepts, Inc., United States, lucegc@charter.net; Lynn Zonge (TS #56) Burning Man is an event originated in San Francisco on Baker Beach in 1986. Burning Man moved to the Black Rock Playa, Nevada, in 1990 and has been held annually each year since growing in size and intricacy. The Black Rock Playa is located approximately 100 miles northeast of Reno near the town of Gerlach. Over 70,000 people now attend the event requiring substantial civil infrastructure and major art structures. The winter of 2016–17 was record setting for the western Great Basin and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Snow totals on April 1, 2017, were from 110% to 220% of average for western Nevada. Reports of kayakers and rafters on the playa brought into question the viability of the event at its planned location due to the excessive moisture. The playa is famous for trapping unsuspecting motorists in a sea of mud during the spring months. Concerns grew on the part the Bureau of Land Management regarding the water on the playa. Resource Concepts Inc. was retained to develop a testing and monitoring program for the playa conditions to determine if the site was likely to be dry and stable. Testing and monitoring were conducted from May into late July. Soil moisture sampling was conducted to depths of two feet and moisture density curves were performed on

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS representative samples to use as an indicator of soil moisture drying trends relative to “optimum moisture and density.” RCI also performed pullout tests on various ground anchors and plate load tests in areas of structure loading. In June and July record temperatures were experienced and conditions on the playa began improving rapidly. The 2017 festival was successful. The results of the study are presented with lessons learned and insights into additional playa characterization studies that would be interesting.

Hydrological and Geomorphological Processes in Northern Italy: 12 Years of Collecting Data for Managing Landslide and Flood Hazards and Risk Reduction Luino, Fabio, CNR-IRPI, fabio.luino@irpi.cnr.it; Laura Turconi, laura.turconi@irpi.cnr.it (Poster) Almost every year, Italy is hit by more or less severe damages due to slope instability and flood processes, which are sources of heavy losses of human beings and their assets. These impacts adversely affect both the private and public economies. Following a tradition started in 1970, CNR-IRPI Institute of Research of Turin have recently concluded 9 years of research to collect documentation of significant and important flood, mud-debris flow, landslide, and glacial dynamic events during the period of 2005–16 in northern Italy. As a result of this effort, 2,125 records have been obtained from throughout all the regions with information recorded and imported in a GIS environment. The geo-hydrological processes involved took into account human lives, built-up structures, and other man-made artifacts. In this 12-year period, 77 human victims were seriously affected, of which 52 were due to stream flood or debris flow and 25 resulting from slope failure. The processes of natural instability that occurred during the period considered as a whole confirms that northern Italy is exposed to notable natural hazards and risks. The increase in urbanization, especially since the mid-1950s, has not been given due consideration to these processes. As a result, an anthropogenic effect has been introduced affecting the hydrographic network and slope instability. An ever-increasing economic and social damage is the direct consequence. The historical research for past hazard events in a given area appear increasingly important. It would be a good practice to do a parallel search about the development of the urban expansion that took place. When the historical data collected are sufficiently abundant to be able to draw useful statistical information about the spatio-temporal variations of the physical processes under study, the possibility arises to obtain information of great importance for future territorial planning.

Study on Mechanism of Deformation and Failure of Overlying Strata Induced by Metal Mining Ma, Fengshan, Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, fsma@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Ding Kuo; Guo Jie; Lu Rong (Poster) Due to the complexity of the engineering geological conditions of a metal mine, the problem of deformation and failure mechanism of the overlying strata caused by the exploitation of the metal mine is a challenge. Deformation inevitably leads to mining goaf surrounding rock natural stress state and the overlying strata within the original stress balance is destroyed, the stress within the strata by redistribution to achieve the new stress balance, and gradually increase the development of rock mass deformation in some discontinuities or the weak parts of discontinuities in rock creep, and through constant evolution, resulting in overlying strata movement and deformation, the final transfer to the surface, causing the surface movement and subsidence. In this paper, the main research object is Xinjiang Jingerquan and Gansu Jinchuan mining area in China, which is typical of a steeply September 2018

inclined metal ore body with complex geological conditions. During its use of caving mining, a large number of joints in mining disturbance development and breakthrough, eventually led to the roof collapse. Another ore body in the Gansu mining area of Jinchuan is near a strike slip fault, the ore body and faults are in direct contact, and the fault activation caused by the overlying rock instability will also bring serious damage to the mine. Therefore, according to the actual engineering geological conditions of the two mining areas, the practical problem is abstracted as the problem of the instability of the overlying strata disturbed by the joint disturbance and the instability of the overlying strata. This paper, through data collection, engineering geological survey, ground movement GPS monitoring, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation methods, discusses the structure of metal mines in different surface conditions and deformation regularity of overburden failure surface stability problems related to characteristics and mechanism of deformation.

Sedimentary Characteristics of Outburst Deposits Induced by Diexi Paleo-Dammed Lake in the Upper Minjiang River, China and its Historical Maximum Peak Discharge Ma, Junxue, China University of Geoscience (Beijing), sdnj2mjx@163.com; Chen Jian, jianchen@cugb.edu.cn (TS #45) A distinct damming incident occurred during a prehistory period in the upper Minjiang River, at the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which formed a giant dammed lake. The dammed lake breached and caused a large outburst flood at about 27 ka BP. Between the section of the prehistoric ancient dam-body and its downstream areas (5 km), an abundance of diamicts have been observed for the first time. We determine that it is outburst deposits which was induced by breaching of the Diexi paleolandslide-dammed lake. This type of deposit has seldom been seen. As material records, the outburst deposits of landslide-dammed lakes are known to contain abundant geologic and geomorphologic information, which become an important way to understand the dam-break process, along with the mountain environment evolution law of landslidedammed lakes. This information has an important guiding function for the effective prevention and control of future geohazards. The sedimentary characteristics of outburst deposits was the most direct indicator of the outburst flood induced by paleo-dammed lake breaching, and can be used to reconstruct paleohydraulic conditions of the paleoflood. Paleohydraulic reconstruction of past flow conditions not only potentially provide references for a deeper understanding of the material composition, mechanical properties, and seepage performance of the barrier dam-body, but also provide a basis for the future study of the hydrodynamic environmental information, as well as the environmental and hazard significance in this area. This paper will reconstruct historical maximum peak discharge of the paleoflood induced by Diexi paleo-dammed lake by a theoretical approach (flow energy approach) to provide guidance for future research on outburst floods induced by paleo-dammed lake breaching.

Study on Coarse Soil of Chenjiaba Landslide by Ring-Shear Test Ma, Lina, Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1571122655@qq.com; Qi Shengwen (Poster) Chenjiaba landslide is a typical long-runout landslide; it is significant to research on its mechanism of high-speed and the evolution process about landslide material during the motion of landslide. A series of ring-shear tests were performed by ring shear apparatus on the coarse soil of Chenjiaba Landslide under different size range (0.075mm-5mm) and different normal stress (50Kpa, 100Kpa,

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS 150Kpa and 200Kpa), in which the maximum shear displacement and shear rate were 795mm and 0.55mm/s. Test results indicate that the coarse particles are squeezed, rolled and rearranged during the shear process, resulting in the curves between shear stress vs. Shear displacement are fluctuant and wavy. Then, some datum and graphs show that there are particles crushing during test, and it demonstrates the process of fine grading. Especially, the average particle size of the first groups is decreased from 1.1mm before shearing to 0.59mm after shearing. Plus, in the later stage of landslide, these soil materials are squeezed and crushed, tending to be fine, then sliding zones are gradually formed. And in this process, the friction coefficient gradually reduce(C dropped from 16.7Kpa to 10.95Kpa, dropped from 31.9°to 27.3°), so most of these soil materials can move on the sliding zone rapidly and remotely. And the residual strength can’t tend to be stable, but always stay wavy. So there are some non-negligible errors for coarse soil to obtain residual strength.

Comparison between Radar Estimated and Rain Gauge Measured Precipitation in Debris Flow Studies, Great Smoky Mountains National Park Mandal, Arpita, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica, arpita.mandal@uwimona.edu.jm; Arpita Nandi, nandi@etsu.edu (TS #35) Debris flows are recurrent events in the Southeastern Appalachians, United States, primarily triggered by summer storm induced rainfall. Due to poor coverage of gauging stations, rainfall data estimations from gauges become insuf-ficient in the area. Instead, weather radar data that overlays a larger spatial extent has become a valuable tool for providing average rainfall information. This paper develops a framework for debris flow studies by comparing the per-formance of NEXRAD Level III and rain gauge collected rainfall data. The study area is West Prong Little Pigeon Riv-er (WPLPR) watershed, Great Smoky Mountains along Tennessee–North Carolina border in the southeastern USA. A recent storm induced debris flow in August 6, 2012 is chosen to evaluate rainfall triggers using NEXRAD rainfall and gauging station rainfall in the study area. A 42 days period from July 3-Aug12, 2012 was used for the rainfall-runoff analysis. The HEC-HMS rainfall–runoff model is used to convert precipitation excess to channel runoff, conse-quently to infiltration estimation. While the highest recorded rainfall in rain gauge was 93 mm (119 mm in Radar rain-fall data) for August 6, average daily rainfall from gauging station was 12 mm, while radar rainfall was 17 mm for the 42 days period. The t-test indicated no statistical difference between the two rainfall data (p=0.07). The infiltration reduced from 33 mm to 1.5 mm, from beginning of the monitoring period to the day of debris flow, indicating a satu-rated condition from seven individual above average rain events. The results of this research will benefit future mod-eling efforts by providing a tool for hydrological forecasts of debris flow where direct rainfall measurement is not pos-sible using rain gauge data.

3D Modeling of the Underground Old Quarries in Paros Island in the Aegean Sea, Greece, and Their Stability Assessment by Using Lidar Scanning Marinos, Vassilis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, marinosv@geo.auth.gr; Vazaios I., 13iv@queensu.ca; Papathanassiou G., gpapatha@geo.auth.gr; Kaklis T., kaklis@geo.auth.gr; Goula E., gevmorfi@geo.auth.gr (Poster) Remote sensing techniques have become increasingly popular within the engineering geological field with multiple applications, such as the detection, identification, and evaluation of the structural features of rockmasses, stability analysis and assessment of slopes, underground excavations, mines, rockmass assessment, 166

etc. Within this concept, Light Detection And Ranging (lidar) can be proven quite useful in the stability assessment of underground openings as the recording of millions of high accuracy points (pointcloud) can be used to create 3D surface models of them. The 3D surface models can be further processed to evaluate the stability of an underground project by assessing the structural features of the rockmass present. It is of note that when compared to other remote sensing techniques that utilize external light sources (i.e. photogrammetry), lidar has the advantage of using its own light source, which minimizes the equipment and time required for the work conducted in an underground environment. In the present study a series of scans obtained from underground old quarries in Paros Island in the Aegean Sea, in the well-known Parian marbles (Lychnites) were executed and analyzed. The scans were used to assess the rockmass conditions, identify its structural features and determine the geometrical characteristics of the excavations. Several of these tunnels can be visited. The structural analysis of the openings using lidar data was complemented by performing joint orientation measurements in the field to verify the virtual measurements within the 3D surface models. Furthermore, strength measurements of the exposed joint surfaces by using Schmidt Hammer readings were conducted. Rockmass data obtained from the lidar scanning and the in situ measurements were processed further in order to determine the input parameters required for numerical software packages used to describe the potential failure mechanisms and evaluate the stability of the underground excavations at various locations along the quarries.

Landslide Geohazard and Risk Assessment along a Natural Gas Pipeline in European Territory Marinos, Vassilis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, marinosv@geo.auth.gr; George Stoumpos, g_stoumpos@yahoo.co.uk; Costas Papazachos, kpapaza@geo.auth.gr (TS #12) Landslides represent a significant hazard for pipelines because they can generate permanent ground displacement and tend to result in complete failure or significant leaks, major environmental impacts, and long periods of service disruption. Landslide-related incidents are regarded as a significant operational risk. The avoidance of significant landslides that go across mountain terrain for the pipeline Right of Way (RoW) is the most important outcome of the routing process. The paper mainly focuses on the assessment of landslide hazard and risk along or across a natural gas pipeline project and on the identification of these hazards. The assessment must be based on extensive fieldwork evaluation of all findings along the pipeline route, desk study of available data, and ground investigation campaigns. Whether the “expected” landslide event reaches the RoW and impacts the pipeline, is influenced by the nature and size of the expected landslide event, controlled by the site geology and geomorphology, the proximity of the existing landslide feature to the pipeline and the position of the pipeline relative to the landslide. It is important to be realistic about the precision and reliability of the assessed levels of hazard in the various identified sites. The results should provide a “high level” indication of how landslide hazard and risk is expected to vary through a mountain terrain and have to conclude identifying “hot spots” along the route where risk reduction measures should be prioritized. This information can be used to perform numerical analyses for slope stability assessment and the corresponding pipeline verification, in order to provide quantitative support to an expert classification of landslide risk. Experiences from a pipeline along Greek and Albanian territory in Europe are presented as part of an implemented geohazard and risk assessment along a challenging geological environment.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Geotechnical Characterization of Tectonically Disturbed Heterogeneous Rock Masses with the GSI System

Comparison of Mechanically Determined with Profile-Based Joint Roughness Coefficients❋

Marinos, Vassilis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, marinosv@geo.auth.gr (TS #23A)

Marsch, Kristofer, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany, kristofer.marsch@tu-berlin.de; Tomas Fernandez-Steeger, fernandezsteeger@tu-berlin.de (TS #26)

Many locations of tectonically disturbed heterogeneous rock masses such as flysch exist in the margins of major mountain chains worldwide. Flysch formations create particular rock masses due to the varying petrographic heterogeneity, the participation of low strength members and the tectonic disturbance until the complete distraction of the initial structure. The complexity of this geological formation needs a particular geological characterization due to the special features of its rock masses. Geotechnical design requires numerical estimation of a series of geotechnical properties and parameters of the geomaterial for a safe, sound and realistic analysis of an engineering project. Use of the GSI rock mass classification system and the associated parameter relationships linking GSI with the Hoek-Brown failure criterion provides a proven, effective and reliable approach for prediction of rock mass strength and deformability. One of the most significant problems of numerically based classification systems is that they suffer markedly when stretched to cover the wide range of geological conditions met in actual situations, including weak and complex ones. The experience gained from the design and construction of the 62 tunnels along the Egnatia Highway in Northern Greece in difficult and diverse geological conditions (Marinos, 2012) using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion and the GSI system led to one of the first geological extensions of the GSI geotechnical classification approach to weaker, geologically more complex and heterogeneous rock masses. After more than a decade of application of GSI for the classification of these heterogeneous rock masses, a re-evaluation and verification is attempted to the original values (Marinos and Hoek, 2001). Flysch formations are classified into 11 rock mass types (I to XI) according to their siltstone-sandstone participation and their tectonic disturbance and a revised GSI chart is presented.

The Potential Use of Residual Soil from Ribeira Valley (Brazil) in Mitigating Metal Contamination: A Geotechnical Characterization❋ Marques, Jéssica P., University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, jessica. pelinsom.marques@usp.br; Valria Guimares Silvestre Rodrigues, valguima@usp.br; Orencio M. Vilar, orencio@sc.usp.br; Edmundo R. Esquivel, esquivel@sc.usp.br (Presented By Orencio Vilar) (TS #53) The incorrect disposal of hazardous waste causes serious problems around the world. For instance, mining waste is one of the main sources of potentially toxic metals in the environment. In the Ribeira Valley region of Brazil, residues generated during lead ore smelting were improperly deposited in the Ribeira de Iguape River and on the soil’s surface without protection. An alternative solution for mitigating local contamination is verifying whether a local residual soil is appropriate to compose a mining waste landfill liner. The soil is sandy silty clay, with a plas-ticity index of 24%, an optimum water content, wopt, of 26.3% and a maximum dry density, dmax, of 1.515 g/cm3 from the Standard Proctor test. Specimens molded at an optimum compaction condition showed hydraulic conductivity of 10-9 m/s and effective shear strength parameters of c’ = 22 kPa and ␸’ = 26.8°. The soil is acidic (pH 4.6), exhibits low CEC (41.4 mmolc/dm3) and presents a predominance of negative charges on the particle surface (PZSE 3.6 < pH), favoring cation retention. The hydraulic and mechanical characteristics together with the chemical properties suggest that this soil is a candidate for use as a liner. Further studies are underway to characterize its chemical contaminant retention and to complete the analysis about its suitability for the desired purpose. September 2018

The most popular index for the geometrical characterization of rock discontinuities in engineering practice is the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC). The coefficient is best determined by direct shear tests or mechanical index tests such as tilt- and/or push-tests. An often-used engineering approach is determining the JRC by means of ten standard-profiles from which the value can either be set by visual matching or calculated using correlations with statistical or fractal parameters. However, this method implies that a surface can be represented by profiles. Naturally, different profile directions and starting points on the surface lead to different JRC values even when quantitative statistical or fractal methods are used. In this study, the question whether it is possible to determine a reasonable representative JRC for a surface from profiles is elucidated. For that purpose, rock blocks were split to produce fresh tensile fractures. The mated samples were then tested in tilt- and push-tests from which their JRC was back-calculated. Additionally, 3D models of the surfaces were assembled as a basis for the calculation of the JRC from statistical parameters. Numerous profiles are extracted from the 3D data and their vast amount offers the possibility to reasonably define a JRC and to assess its variability on the surface. Based on a comparison of the population of JRC values from all possible 10cm-profiles with the mechanically determined index it can be stated, that it is not possible to define a reliable JRC from a few profile measurements only. Moreover, there exists no viable connection between the experimental results of the aforementioned differing measurement approaches.

The Rocky Ledge Fault, Shasta County, California: Development and Morphology of a Quaternary Normal Fault in Basalt Martin, Gregory, Portland State University, United States, grego@pdx.edu; Ashley Streig, streig@pdx.edu; Ray Weldon, ray@uoregon.edu (Poster) The Rocky Ledge Fault (RLF), in tectonically complex northeastern California, is the northwestern boundary of the Hat Creek graben in the southern Cascade arc, southeast of the Klamath Mountains, west of the Basin and Range province, and near the northwestern boundary of the Walker Lane Seismic Belt. A large natural gas pipeline crosses the central RLF and a major hydroelectric dam spans the Pit River within 5 km of the northern-most area of surface fault expression. An east-dipping normal/oblique fault cutting ~205 kya Rocky Ledge Basalt, the RLF exhibits unique scarp morphology, simple to complex structural geometries, and variable amounts of vertical separation along its length. Using lidar, aerial imagery, and an existing dataset of cosmogenic exposure dates collected along fault scarps, we generated and field verified strip maps of fault scarp units and structural features. We used topographic profiles, oriented perpendicular to RLF strike, to estimate maximum vertical separation (MVS) along the entire RLF and to develop area-balanced cross-sections to estimate the throw, heave, and fault angle in each section. We sub-divide the RLF into three sections from south to north: Section A (~ 7 km long, ~74m MVS), Section B (~ 3.5 km long, ~40m MVS), and Section C (~3 km long, ~28m MVS). Vertical separation per section appears to increase dramatically in the south and terminate more gradually to the north. The longest, most vertically separated segment is in the south, while the shortest, least offset segment is in the north, suggesting the fault may be propagating northward. The presence of larMartinsge, fragile infrastructure at and near the RLF underscores the importance of understanding the seismic risk

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS potential and possible fault growth mechanisms. This study will aid hazard assessment in the area and will inform the overall understanding of this complex region.

Internal Erosion in Volcanic Soils – Challenges for Infrastructure Projects in New Zealand❋ Martins, Pedro, Beca Ltd, pedro.martins@beca.com (TS #3) Internal erosion is a well-documented process in the geotechnical literature. Whilst the process is typically associated with water-retaining structures, it can also occur in natural terrain. Internal erosion and sinkholes have historically posed significant challenges for infrastructure projects in New Zealand. This paper discusses some historical and recent examples of these challenges. Volcanic soils, in particular those associated with pyroclastic environments, such as the central segment of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in the North Island of New Zealand, are particularly prone to internal erosion. The potential risks arising from internal erosion should not be underestimated for projects in volcanic areas, in particular for projects involving water retaining structures and/or stormwater disposal by soakage. A robust design, supported by a detailed geotechnical investigation specifically targeted at identifying internal erosion potential is recommended to better manage these risks.

An Earthquake-Induced Landslide Forecast Tool for New Zealand; Using the 2016 MW7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake as an Example Massey, Chris, I.; Biljana Lukovic. GNS Science, Avalon, New Zealand. c.massey@gns.cri.nz (TS #39) The New Zealand GeoNet Project gathers data on earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes and tsunami in New Zealand, and provides the infrastructure to make the information freely available via www.geonet.co.nz in near-real time. In addition to the landslide monitoring activities, GNS Science maintains a full 24-hour landslideresponse capability for advice and investigation of significant landslide occurrences and threats in New Zealand. A recent example was our response to the MW 7.8 14 November 2016 Kaikoura Earthquake, which triggered more than 10,000 landslides over an area of 3,600 km2. The purpose of these responses is to provide advice to maximize public safety, and to collect reliable, consistent and often ephemeral data for research. Here we present details of a prototype near-real time earthquake-induced landslide (EIL) forecast tool that will produce outputs (advisory information) for the GeoNet landslide duty officers, in near-real time following the occurrence of a significant Earthquake. The prototype EIL forecast tool is the first of several to be developed as part of a larger landslide forecast project being carried out by the GNS Science landslide and social science teams and others. The aims of this project are to: 1) Rapidly identify whether an earthquake or a rain event can generate landslides and the severity of landsliding; and 2) Rapidly generate advisory information such as a spatial representation (map) of where landslides could occur in a significant earthquake or rainfall event. We use the 2016 Kaikoura Earthquake and the landslides it generated, as an example of how the prototype EIL forecast tool works. We then use this example to discuss how the advisory information it produces would have saved time and help direct response-efforts more efficiently immediately after the earthquake.

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Engineering Geology Education in the United States: A Survey of Curricula and an Assessment of Viability Mathewson, Christopher, Geology, Texas A&M University, United States, mathewson@geo.tamu.edu (TS #32) Academic programs in “applied geology” have changed since about 2000, when environmental geology/geoscience became a significant academic path that did not require the significant levels of mathematics, physics, and chemistry as in engineering geology programs. The decline in engineering geology programs in Tier 1 academic institutions was also expanded by a general attitude that “applied research does NOT belong in a research university.” Research that led to “improved state or federal regulations” was not considered to be research in a true sense. I have experienced the termination of my own engineering geoscience program before I retired when the dean informed me that the program did not belong in the institute and it would be closed. As a long-term member of the ASBOG® Council of Examiners, Fundamentals of Geology Examination, and a member of the Texas Board of Professional Geoscientists, I have traveled to numerous universities to make presentations about licensure and the licensure examination. The interest in the seminar at Tier 1 universities was shown by the complete absence of anyone at the seminar. At one Tier 1 institute there were no students and no faculty at the seminar, which equaled a complete lack of any interest in licensure and applied geology that impacts the health, safety, and protection of the public. In strong contrast, the seminars at Tier 2 institutions were standing room only. At two Tier 2s, the participants included the college deans, all faculty members, and the entire student body. How are their students learning about applied geology and engineering geology? The department hires Adjunct Professors, who are retired or practicing engineering geologists—licensed PGs, with real world experience to offer to the students. The generation of PhD Engineering Geologists may depend upon the Geological Engineering degree programs, usually associated with mining related programs.

Decrypting the Stereographical 3D Analysis of the 1959 Malpasset Dam Disaster Maurenbrecher, Pieter Michiel, TU Delft/ Retired assistant professor, The Netherlands, pmmaurenbrecher@icloud.com (TS #45) Subsequent to the Malpasset arch-dam failure by sliding of the east (left) abutment foundations, the dam designers Coyne & Belier embarked on an investigation as to its cause. Ten years later two papers appeared in the ASCE Journal of SM &FE. The papers are significant as 3D parametric analysis revealed that sliding could occur on a discontinuity plane revealed after the failure. The method of analysis was based on a simpler rock sliding model developed by K.W. John in the 1960s, which preceded a year earlier the publication by the Coyne and Belier authors Londe, Vigier, and Vormeringer, in the same ASCE journal. What is not clear from these papers is the graphical technique to develop the chart showing stable and unstable zones with the parameters of shear friction angles, ground-water hydraulic pressures and orientation of discontinuities (dip and dip direction). The poster shows step-by-step how the graphical chart for the Malpasset Dam can be made using stereographical equal-angle projection grid-net of lines of latitude and longitude. Subsequently finite element techniques and other methods have been used to analyze stability of dams, which are considered superior to the stereographic method and may have caused the stereographic analyses demise. The method may have its drawbacks according to proponents of FEM at a meeting on failures of dams (Elseviers Engineering Geology, 1989), but unlike the FEM, the stereographic method can be used in the field whilst the field survey is taking place without the aid of computers. Poster footnote: The para-

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS digm of the dam failure has produced a spate of papers but none about opening the bottom valve followed two hours later by the failure. Could it be impingement of the water jet on a critical left abutment foundation rock discontinuity?

The 2015 Scillato Landslide (Sicily, Italy): Deformational Behavior Inferred from Satellite & Terrestrial SAR Interferometry Mazzanti, Paolo, NHAZCA S.r.l., Italy, paolo.mazzanti@nhazca.com; Francesca Bozzano, francesca.bozzano@uniroma1.it; Alessandro Brunetti, alessandro.bruneti@uniroma1.it, Marta Della Seta, marta.dellaseta@uniroma1.it; Serena Majetta, s.majetta@stradeanas.it; Serena Moretto, serena.moretto@nhazca.com, Alfredo Rocca, alfredo.rocca@nhazca.com; Mario Valiante, mario.valiante@uniroma1.it (TS #50) This study is focused on a landslide that occurred on April, 10, 2015, in Northern Sicily (Southern Italy), involving the lower portion of a slope on the left bank of the Imera River. The landslide had a great impact for the transportation network, as it produced the collapse of the Imera viaduct (Catania-Palermo Highway - A19) and it severely damaged an important connection road (SP24). After the landslide event, a monitoring plan aimed to ensure the safety conditions during the work for the restoration of the viability has been developed. Among the activities, a continuous monitoring with Terrestrial SAR Interferometry (TInSAR) technique has been performed with the following purposes: 1) control the deformational behavior of the slope, particularly in correspondence of main structures, and 2) provide an alert system for the operation of the remaining viaduct. In addition, in this paper we present the pre-failure deformations analysis of the slope retrieved by A-DInSAR (Advanced Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) technique, exploiting a dataset of COSMO-SkyMed images collected between 2013 and 2015. The 2015 landslide developed in flysch deposits predominantly composed of clay materials. It has been classified as a composite landslide, triggered by heavy rainfall. The Satellite and Terrestrial InSAR analyses have allowed us to characterize the deformational behavior of the slope before and after the failure occurrence, highlighting the activity of the slope affected by the Scillato landslide.

DEM Simulations of Punch Tests for the Mechanical Characterization of Cortical Meshes Mazzon, Nicola, Maccaferri Innovation Center Srl, Italy, n.mazzon@it.maccaferri.com; Fabio Gabrieli, fabio.gabrieli@unipd.it; Antonio Pol, antonio.pol@unipd.it; Marco Deana, m.deana@ maccaferri.com (Presented by Marco Deana) (TS #49A) In this work, a plain, steel wire, double-twisted hexagonal mesh is modelled with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for the evaluation of its mechanical behavior. A preliminary experimental campaign based on laboratory punch tests was carried out. The achieved results are subsequently used to calibrate the implemented models. These analyses constitute the first step to investigate the interaction behavior between cortical meshes and retained soil. This improved knowledge will finally lead to both an enhanced design and a better evaluation of mobilized displacements. In the current numerical simulations, the wires are replaced with long-range interaction forces between nodes of the mesh. The implemented force-displacement curves for the basic elements, i.e. single wires and double-twists, are derived from laboratory tensile tests. The results of these numerical analyses allow us to highlight two subsequent phases linked to the geometric distortion of the hexagons and to the tensile properties of the materials respectively. An anisotropic stress-strain distribution was September 2018

also observed, which reveals a preferential direction of tensile forces in the mesh panel. Furthermore, the presented analyses show the ability of the mesh to uniformly redistribute both stresses and strains over the whole surface, thus guaranteeing an improved overall behavior in terms of strength as well as stiffness. The results also highlight a good exploitation of materials, being the number of yielded elements higher than 90% when the maximum strength is reached. Finally, a new parameter is introduced and this defines the mean increment of tensile strain on the considered elements. This is helpful to investigate at small scale how each element, namely single- and double-twisted wires, behaves during the test and how this is contributing to the overall strength and deformation capabilities.

Trenching Helps Landslide Investigations in Areas of Complex Structure and/or Quaternary Deformation McCalpin, James P., GEO-HAZ Consulting, Inc., United States, mccalpin@geohaz.com (TS #27) The “toolbox” for engineering geologic studies of landslides has traditionally included geologic and geomorphic mapping, geophysics, and boreholes (including bucket auger). The head and toe locations were defined by mapping, and geophysics and borings were used to delineate the subsurface failure plane and to obtain material strength values. However, some hazard-related questions cannot be answered by these tools. For example, the movement history of a landslide cannot be reconstructed from geophysics or borings. However, it can be deduced by paleoseismic-style trenching of the landslide margins and body. Trenching the headscarp and toe of a landslide reveals the number of past landslide movements, their approximate displacement, and their age. Knowing the age of past landslide movements then permits testing whether they might have been seismically triggered, via comparison with the ages of historic and prehistoric earthquakes. In turn, this knowledge provides a “reality check” on the static and dynamic factors of safety. In areas of complex structure and/or Quaternary deformation, trenching can help distinguish Quaternary landslide deposits from non-landslide materials, and distinguish landslide scarps from fault scarps (primary and secondary), and from scarps created by Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD). In a case history near the Wasatch Fault in Utah, all three types of structures existed in the study area. Trenching provided key data to separate the three types of structures, with the result that some of the “landslide blocks” mapped in the initial landslide inventory turned out to be fault-bounded blocks of intact but heavily faulted bedrock. To complicate matters, the faulted bedrock at the site was a Tertiary volcaniclastic formation classified as a “block-and-ash-flow,” which is basically a volcanic landslide deposit. Within the past ten years trenching has begun to justify its addition to the landslide analyst’s toolbox.

Parameterizing GIS-Based Debris Flow Models Using High-Resolution Digital Elevation Data McCoy, Kevin, Colorado Geological Survey, United States, kemccoy@mines.edu (TS #35) The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) has been using the GIS-based debris flow source area and runout model Flow-R to prepare countywide debris flow susceptibility maps for 43 counties in 13 Priority Areas comprising the mountainous portions of the state. The program was developed in response to severe flooding and debris-flows that occurred along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in September 2013 and initial model parameters were selected based on observations from that event. As the program has expanded, CGS has begun mapping debris flow susceptibility in areas with significantly different

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS geologic conditions and limited records of recent debris flow events to use when parameterizing the models. The size of the counties, limited personnel, and limited site access further constrain CGS’s ability to use field observations for model parameterization. In response to these limitations, CGS has developed a set of GIS tools to leverage recently available high-resolution (e.g., 1-m) digital elevation data to parameterize debris flow source area and runout models for characteristic regions within each county where historical records of debris flow events are limited or nonexistent. These tools have improved the process of model parameterization in areas with historical debris flow observations and have allowed CGS to expand the model-based mapping program into areas with little or no record of recent events.

Geotechnical Investigations at Scott Base, Ross Island, Antarctica Mcmorran, Tim, Golder, New Zealand, tmcmorran@golder.co.nz; Sophie Bainbridge, sbainbridge@golder.co.nz; Joel Bensing, jbensing@golder.co.nz; Mark Musial, mmusial@golder.com (TS #56) New Zealand developed a permanent scientific base on Ross Island, Antarctica, during the International Geophysical Year in 1957. While ongoing development has occurred at both bases in the intervening 60 years, some facilities remain outdated. Antarctica New Zealand plans major redevelopment of Scott Base in the coming years. As part of this project, geotechnical investigations have been completed to support preliminary design of foundations for a range of buildings, cut platforms, fills and retaining walls. Golder engaged a drilling contractor with experience in Antarctica and completed an investigation program that included fully cored boreholes to sample the frozen Quaternary age scoria soils and volcanic rock underlying the sites. The use of air flushed cored drilling methods was a unique approach that used precooled air to achieve excellent sample recovery in the permafrost, including ice lenses and other types of distributed ground ice, without using scarce water resources. The drilling program characterized the distribution and concentration of ice within the subsurface to evaluate the potential vulnerability of foundations to future climate conditions and site development. Thermistor array data was used to measure seasonal variations in ground temperature and to define the depth to which thaw effects the soil profile during the summer. A range of foundation and anchor options were evaluated to support structure loads and uplift forces. An assessment of seismic hazard was completed as an input to structural design.

KEYNOTE LECTURE: 25 Years of Characterizing Melanges, Bimrocks, and Similar Rock-Soil Mixtures Medley, Edmund, Principal Consultant, Terraphase Eng., United States, edmund.medley@terraphase.com (TS #15) Many geologists come to Northern California to study the famous melanges of the tectonically contorted Franciscan Complex. San Francisco is thus an appropriate city to host the Symposium on “The Engineering Geology of Melanges, Bimrocks, and Rock-Soil Mixtures.” Although geologists enjoy melanges, it is geopractitioners who must work with their chaotic mixes of hard blocks of rock within weak matrix. Elsewhere in California there are also geological engineering problems with decomposed granites, fault rocks, sheared serpentinites, lahar deposits, and saprolites—all of which can be thought of as heterogeneous “rock-soil mixtures.” In 1993, the author coined the word “bimrocks” by contracting the term “block-inmatrix rocks” used for melanges and olistostromes. In 1994, the concept of bimrocks was broadened to encompass the wide range of complex geological mixtures of strong blocks of rocks within weak matrix, such as melanges, fault rocks, lahars and weathered rocks. Bimsoils are analogous rock-soil mixtures like colluvium and 170

well-graded rock fills. Scales of interest are important; bimrocks are not pebbly mudstones, conglomerates, and so on—unless one is working at laboratory scales of interest. (Neither are they BIM rocks, bimsteins, or the blocks themselves.) Bimrocks and bimsoils present major challenges to geopractitioners because successful and economical characterizations are frustrated by the spatial, lithological and mechanical variability of the components. But, inadequate characterizations lead to unforeseen economic losses and geofailures. Since 1993, there has been much advancement in the research for practical geological engineering approaches to characterize bimrocks. This keynote lecture presents some of the broad concepts that have been, and are being developed for characterization, design, and construction in bimrocks; suggests where further research is required; and, corrects misunderstandings about bimrocks.

Career Development – Encouragements for Young Geoprofessionals Medley, Edmund, Principal Consultant, Terraphase Eng., United States, edmund.medley@terraphase.com (TS #32) I have enjoyed almost 50 years of international adventures of the applied geology kind. My eclectic collection of life and job lurches could be called a “career”: an early background in mineral exploration prospecting, substantial experience in geotechnical engineering consulting, a long stint as an investigator of geofailures, a smidgen of academia, and, my professional passion of research into the geological engineering of bimrocks (block-in-matrix rocks - complex geological mixtures such as melanges and fault rocks.) After relishing a long, random walk of a “career,” I nowadays encourage young people to consider developing their own life histories, rather than planned careers—life histories that could have chapter titles like “Dream Projects,” “Nightmares,” “Successes,” “Failures,” and, “Lessons.” “Lessons” may or may not be short but could be valuable reading for others seeking guidance and mentoring. “Lessons” include the future values of present endeavors: working hard and working honestly, learning when/when not to be a team member, seeking adventures, doing dirty work, enjoying worthwhile mentor/protegee relationships, discovering the joys of going back to school, benefitting from professional licenses (and the pesky exams that go with them), and, hardest of all—when to retire.

The Sea Cliff Incident: A Catastrophic San Francisco “Sinkhole” Medley, Edmund, Principal Consultant, Terraphase Eng., United States, edmund.medley@terraphase.com (TS #37) Shortly after midnight on December 11, 1995, stormwater started to leak from a 100-year-old 6-foot combined stormwater/sanitary brick sewer below the prestigious Sea Cliff neighborhood of San Francisco. The leakage rapidly eroded vulnerable dune sand soil, which caused undermining and eventual rupture of the sewer. A pit, popularly referred to as a “sinkhole,” formed to over 250 feet wide and 40 feet deep. Neighbors were evacuated, and, elsewhere in Sea Cliff, residents were awakened by power failures and geysers of sewage that discharged onto the streets and flowed into one home. Shortly after dawn, a multi-million-dollar house and portions of other properties fell into the pit, a sight that was televised around the world. Before the sewer was eventually plugged with concrete, discharge from the sewer destroyed part of the Presidio National Park, and overflowed across the Great Highway and Ocean Beach and into the Pacific Ocean more than two miles away. Sewage and stormwater disposal in the Sea Cliff area was severely affected for several months after the failure. The failure caused over $30 million of damage. The City of San Francisco commissioned an independent investigation to determine the causes of the failure. The investigation discovered two causative factors. One

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS cause was that the sewer had been pressurized downstream from the erosion pit by a partial blockage due to ongoing construction. The other principle cause was that failure of the pressurized sewer had initiated adjacent to a small sinkhole that had formed during nearby tunneling construction more than a year earlier. The Principal Investigator of this catastrophic urban geofailure failure presents a summary of the investigation findings as well as some of the background curiosities associated with this urban catastrophe.

Study on Coefficient of Restitution and Peak Impact of Rockfall Based on Elastic-Plastic Theory Mei, Xuefeng, Southwest Jiaotong University, China, 785021402@qq.com; Xiewen Hu, huxiewen@163.com; Gang Luo; Yingjin Du; Hongsheng Ma; Jianli Wu (Presented by Xiewen Hu) (TS #26) Considering the elastic-plastic characteristics of soils and using the classical contact theory, a new model for calculating the tangential force is proposed based on the incident conditions. The calculation formula of energy coefficient of restitution and impact force during the collision process is deduced. And the change rule of the coefficient of restitution and the impact force under the initial incident rate and the incident angle are obtained. The results show that when the incident velocity is the same, the coefficient of restitution is positively correlated with the incident angle. When the impact angle is the same, the coefficient of restitution is negatively correlated with the velocity, and the impact force is linearly related to the velocity. The movement state of the rockfall depends on the initial incidence conditions, through the slope conditions and the incident conditions on the possible decline of the dangerous rock body to determine the form of movement; the current commonly used Thornton coefficient of restitution of speed is too large, will cause the failure of the protective structure or material waste.

Geomechanical Behavior Changes of a Bunter Sandstone and of a Borehole Cement Due to scCO2 Injection Effects❋ Menezes, Flora F., Martin-Luther-University Halle Wittenberg, Germany, flora.menezes@student.uni-halle.de; Christof Lempp, christof.lempp@geo.uni-halle.de; Kristoff Svensson, kristoff.svensson@gmx.de; Andreas Neumann, andreas.neumann@geo.uni-halle.de; Herbert Pöllmann, herbert.poellmann@geo.uni-halle.de (TS #8) Geomechanical behavior changes caused by supercritical (sc) CO2 in an analogue reservoir formation and in borehole cement are described after physical and mechanical evaluations. To simulate reservoir conditions, rock and cement specimens were conditioned during five weeks with scCO2 at 333 K, brine at 16 MPa of hydrostatic pressure. Geomechanical experiments, such as traditional triaxial compression test and Brazilian tests, were executed with untreated and treated samples. First, results of the effects of CO2 injection are presented through changes in physical and mechanical properties, as well as visual evaluations of the sandstone matrix and pore structure.

Anisotropy of Volumetric Strain and Permeability in Hard Sandstones under Triaxial Stress Conditions Menezes, Flora Feitosa, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, flora.menezes@student.uni-halle.de; Christof Lempp, christof.lempp@geo.uni-halle.de (Poster) Volumetric strain and permeability are strictly interconnected properties and important controlling parameters for deformation patterns in rock masses. Under reservoir conditions, stresses may be highly inhomogeneous and anisotropic, leading to porosity changes September 2018

and consequently affecting fluid flow. Therefore, it turns out be a challenging issue in rock mechanics to evaluate volume change based on traditional soil mechanics background, originally intended for soft materials under low and mostly isotropic pressures. In this respect, we carried out triaxial compression tests to describe the interplay between effective porosity, volume change, and permeability of two hard sandstones by quantifying porefluid (water) volume change with fully water saturated rock specimens (14 cm length and 7 cm radius). We investigated the greyish Trendelburg beds, a silica cemented subarkose Bunter Sandstone of Triassic age (porosity of ca. 12 %), and the red-brownish Rotliegend Sandstone (Bebertal), a carbonate and silica cemented sandstone of Permian age, clearly less porous (ca. 6 % of effective porosity) and less permeable (3.5 x 10-10 m/s) than the Bunter Sandstone. As both sandstones are clearly layered, we consider the directions parallel and perpendicular to bedding as planes of anisotropy. Peak strength and peak compression were evaluated after the MohrCoulomb failure criterion, by which we observed a pronounced brittle behavior influenced by coring direction in both sandstones. Permeability and volumetric strain are also directional anisotropic. For both materials, increasing porefluid pressure leads to an earlier microcracking stage, which induces a more pronounced dilatant behavior and therefore decreases compressive strength. In order to frame physical with mechanical properties better, sandstones were compared to rocks with pronounced plastic behavior, such as the Opalinus Clay and Keuper mudstones (Stuttgart Formation) in the same experimental approach.

Study on Engineering Geological Characteristics of Permafrost and Railway Design for Qinghai-Tibet Railway in China Meng, Xianglian, Fujun Zhou, China Railway First Survey and Design Institute Group CO., Ltd, China, 287283980@qq.com; Xingqiang Chen; Xinyu Wang (Presented by Fujun Zhou) (Poster) Qinghai-Tibet railway is the highest longest railway on the plateau in the world; the length of line through the continuous permafrost region is 550 km. Permafrost is one of the three major technical problems associated with ecological fragility and plateau hypoxia. During the course of engineering survey and railway design, a lot of different investigation methods are used in different seasons and times. These methods and means are used to ascertain the engineering geological characteristics parameters of permafrost, such as the southern and the northern boundary, frozen and thawed areas, permafrost limit or active layer thickness (ALT), annual mean temperature of strata. According to the characteristics of permafrost in Qinghai-Tibet railway, the design idea of “active cooling, cooling foundation and protecting permafrost” is established. The air-cooled subgrade of flag, gravel or stone revetment, ventilation pipe, thermal pipe are taken for roadbed design. Bridges instead of roadbed are used during permafrost regions with unfavorable geological phenomena. The tunnel is provided with heat insulation material. At the same time, many more environmental protection designs and measures were adopted in the railway construction, such as rail route optimization across nature reserves, wildlife conservation design, environmental protection design of permafrost, grassland and wetland conservation measures, surface soil conservation and turf transplantation measures. After 11 years of railway operation, it shows that the structure of the project is reasonable and safe railway engineering and surrounding environment are sustainable development.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Petrogenesis of Fibrous Amphiboles in Hydrothermally Altered Granitoid Rocks: An Unusual Setting for Naturally Occurring Asbestos Metcalf, Rodney V., Dept of Geoscience, University of Nevada Las Vegas, United States, metcalfr@unlv.nevada.edu; Brenda J. Buck, buckb@unlv.nevada.edu (TS #33) Mitigation strategies aimed at reducing non-occupational exposure to amphibole asbestos (AA) requires an understanding of AA petrogenesis and the geologic settings where they can form. Here we report on an unusual occurrence of AA found in bedrock samples of hydrothermally altered Miocene-age granitoid plutons (Hoover Dam area, Arizona-Nevada), including locations with calcic amphibole (actinolite) and sodic amphibole (winchite, magnesioriebeckite). Two main textural modes of AA are recognized and are key to understanding the petrogenesis: Mode (1) monomineralic fracture-fill veins; and Mode (2) partial to complete pseudomorphic replacement of non-fibrous igneous amphibole by AA. Mode 1 resulted from neocrystallization, the direct precipitation of new mineral structures from aqueous solution. Mode 2 resulted from recrystallization of an existing mineral structure, non-fibrous igneous amphibole. Within two million years of pluton solidification, a hydrothermal system channeled aqueous solutions (Na-Ca-Si-bearing brines) along active faults and fracture zones. Initially these fluids permeated from fracture/dike conduits into surrounding pluton host rocks driving the recrystallization growth of fibrous amphibole by replacement of primary igneous amphibole. Permeating fluids migrated through rocks along grain boundaries, via micro-fractures, and as migrating fronts of dissolution-precipitation reactions. During recrystallization fluidmineral reactions buffered the fluid to equilibrium with fibrous amphibole product, the composition of the latter controlled by Ca/Na activity in the fluid. AA in fracture-fill veins precipitated directly from these evolved hydrothermal fluids. Thus, the critical component in this process is the initial intersection of hydrothermal fluids with rocks that contain pre-existing non-fibrous amphibole. The key to amphibole fibrous morphology appears to be the introduction of crystal defects (chain multiplicity faults or Wadsley defects observed using high resolution TEM) during low T [300–400ºC] mineral growth, including both recrystallization and neocrystallization. Thus, we suggest that any amphibole-bearing rocks subjected to hydrothermal alteration at T = 300–400º C represents a potential source for amphibole asbestos.

rainfall and drainage. Such a deformation appears to be closely related to the hydrodynamic pressure variation; the deformation is observed to progress from the surface to the center and from the toe and middle to the rear of the slope, showing good consistence with the evolution law of the retrogressive landslide. The mechanism of deformation and failure mode under the actions of rainfall and reservoir water level fluctuation are revealed by the test, which supplies an important basis for the prevention and control of landslides in the reservoir area.

Assessment and Mitigation of Natural Terrain Hazards at Sham Wat Village, Hong Kong❋ Millis, Stuart, Ove Arup and Partners Hong Kong Limited, Hong Kong, stuart.millis@arup.com (TS #13) In 2010 the Geotechnical Engineering Office of the HKSAR Government launched its Landslip Prevention and Mitigation Programme to actively catalog, study, and mitigate hazards from critical natural terrain hillside catchments in Hong Kong in a systematic manner. Using a case study for the hillside catchments overlooking Sham Wat Village in Lantau Island, this paper presents an overview of the full sequence of works commonly undertaken as part of the programme, from the initial natural terrain hazard assessment and determination of mitigation requirements through to the design and construction of the mitigation works and the approaches and considerations required by this.

An Example of Landslide Scar Remediation by Soil Bioengineering from Hong Kong Millis, Stuart, Ove Arup and Partners Hong Kong Limited, Hong Kong, stuart.millis@arup.com; Robbin Sotir (TS #12)

Centrifugal Model Test on a Retrogressive Landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir Subjected to the Rainfall and Water Level Fluctuation

The topographic and climatic conditions of Hong Kong result in frequent landslides within the natural hillsides surrounding much of the urbanized and developed area. When failures do occur and in view of the high-risk levels associated with retrogression/reactivation of landslide scars, urgent repair works comprising of debris clearance and minor trimming back and shotcreting of landslide scars are frequently undertaken. Although effective in terms of reducing further landslide risk in the short term, these approaches have resulted in many unsightly concrete ‘scars’ within otherwise naturally vegetated slopes. To counter these impacts and enhance slope stability in a more sustainable and sympathetic manner, soil bioengineering techniques have recently been implemented within natural terrain catchments on Lantau Island that were subject to intense landsliding and subsequent emergency works in 2008. This paper discusses the design and implementation of some of the techniques implemented for landslide scar.

Miao, Fasheng, China University of Geosciences, splendidmiao@126.com; fsmiao@cug.edu.cn; Yiping Wu,, ypwu@cug.edu.cn, Linwei Li, Longfei Zhang, Kang Liao (Poster)

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Subsidence-Induced Track Curvature Near a Single Well

Frequent soil retrogressive landslide events are recorded in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, making it necessary to investigate the failure mode of such riverside landslides. In this study, a representative example with typical geologic settings, the Liangshuijing landslide, is selected for a scaled centrifugal model experiment. In the conducted test, a water pump system is used to simulate the rainfall condition. Using the techniques of digital photography and pore water pressure transducers, water level fluctuation is controlled in the test, and multiphysical data are thus obtained, including the pore water pressure, earth pressure, surface displacement and deep displacement. The analysis results indicate that during waterflooding stage, the model deforms slightly, and a large deformation tends to occur as a result of

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Mok, Bill (Chin Man), GSI Environmental Inc., United States, cmm@gsienv.com; Bibhuti Panda, bibhuti.panda@amecfw.com; Jim French, jim.french@amecfw.com; Barbara Rudnick, barudnick@ gsi-net.com; Michael L. Rucker, michael.Rucker@amecfw.com (Poster) The California High Speed Rail (HSR) will pass through parts of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) that have subsided more than 23 feet in the past 90 years, and with recent rates as high as 20 inches in 12½ months due to groundwater drawdown. The HSR is most impacted by changes to vertical (and to a lesser extent, horizontal) track curvatures induced by differential subsidence, as well as the potential for local subsidence-induced compaction faulting and ground fissures. We performed 3D finite element modeling using an

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

September 2018


AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS axisymmetric model, with groundwater drawn down from either a shallow upper aquifer, or from both a shallow/upper and a deeper/lower aquifer. An example of InSAR subsidence patterns at a presumed single well (as identified from Google Earth imagery) was compared to modeled single well subsidence results. Vertical deformation results were reasonably close to actual deformations identified by InSAR subsidence patterns, which increased confidence that the model could provide meaningful information regarding both horizontal and vertical deformation patterns.

Subsidence-Induced Changes to Floodplain Patterns Mok, Bill (Chin Man), GSI Environmental Inc., United States, cmm@gsienv.com; Barbara Rudnick, barudnick@gsi-net.com; Jim French, jim.french@amecfw.com; Michael L. Rucker, michael.Rucker@amecfw.com; Dave O’Shea, dave.Oshea@amecfw.com; Yichun Xu, yichun.xu@gric.nsn.us (TS #31) The California High Speed Rail (HSR) will pass near the eastern limits of the historical Tulare Lake in the San Joaquin Valley, where there has been more than 23 feet of subsidence over the past 90 years, with rates as high as 20 inches over one recent 12½-month period. The historical Tulare lakebed is a broad and very gently sloping area of about 687 mi2, with a mean historic lake depth of only about 33 feet. Our evaluations of surface water hydrology suggest that historical subsidence has already altered the topography of the lakebed such that the footprint of any future flooding of Tulare Lake will be shifted toward the east, and forecast ongoing subsidence will cause further shifting of the Tulare Lake floodplain further toward the east. This shifted floodplain is expected to have a greater potential impact to the HSR alignment as well as local communities that include the Town of Corcoran and the California State Prison, Corcoran. It is proposed that the preferred method of flood protection should be to improve capacity and operational controls for bypass canals to transport water from the Kings River around the Fresno Alluvial Fan.

Automatic Generation of Tortuous Failure Surfaces in Bimsoils to Evaluate the Stability of 2D Slopes Montoya-Araque, Exneyder Andres, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia, eamontoyaa@unal.edu.co; Ludger Oswaldo Suarez-Burgoa, losuarezb@unal.edu.co (Presented by Ludger Oswaldo Suarez-Burgoa) (TS #15) An application software (AS) was developed in order to assess the stability of slopes modeled in two dimensions, slopes composed by a geomaterial characterized by competent blocks of rock surrounded by a weak matrix (i.e. block-in-matrix geomaterial, called Bimsoil). With the AS one is able to define the critical tortuous failure surface in an automatic way by implementing many times the A-star (A*) pathfinding algorithm. Here, the problem is considered as an imperfect maze, where the competent blocks are the maze walls and the soil-matrix is the space of the maze paths. The A* pathfinding algorithm will obtain the optimum path by a trial and error search among many possible solutions obtained in the imperfect maze, where the endpoints define the extremes of the failure surface in the slope. The geological-geotechnical model of the slope is required to be discretized in a gridded graph (i.e. lattice graph) where the block and matrix cells have values of one and zero respectively, and those cells that are outside the slope have a value of minus one. With plenty possible tortuous failure surfaces obtained with the A* algorithm and each of them evaluated with the limit equilibrium method, the surface with the lowest safety factor is finally adopted as the critical. This algorithm with the AS could be a powerful tool for the industry and research purposes. September 2018

Innovative Approach against Debris Flow. Mini Skirt Check Dam: Design and Applications Morstabilini, Chiara, Maccaferri Innovation Center, United States, c.morstabilini@it.maccaferri.com; Deana, Marco Luigi (Presented by Marco Deana) (TS #46) Since the number of settlements started to grow increasingly, the problem of landslide protection has been faced by engineers to have the most effective design with the highest standard of safety. One of the hardest challenges is the construction in areas prone to debris flow, a hyper-concentrated sediment transport that affects slopes during the rainfall seasons. This phenomenon is particularly difficult to predict due to its rapid activation and violent amount of material flowing. The research project carried out by Maccaferri Innovation Center aims at investigating an innovative apparatus capable of cutting the peak of the debris and regulating the sediment flow after the estimated time of maximum amount of flow-rate, as to have better performances with less maintenance. This special object is called Mini Skirt Check Dam and it is composed by two parts: 1) lateral wings which are rigid symmetric walls that could be made with gabions or concrete and could be designed like a simple open weir, and 2) in the middle there is a ring net with an optional double torsion net (its presence is a function of the d50 of the sediment) that is lifted from the ground as to leave a certain amount of material flowing. The research has identified an equation set for both hydraulic and dynamic impact calculation as a function of the rain and the characteristics of the basin. The design allows the ordinary sediment transport to flow, stops big stones and logs (the most dangerous part of the debris), cuts the peak of the flow, and leaves its release after a time that is designed as a function of the volume estimated and de availability of space before the apparatus.

Site-Specific Rockfall Risk Assessments and Rockfall Protection Structure Design Following the 2010/2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence❋ Mote, Tim, Arup, Australia, tim.mote@arup.com; Mark Skinner, mark.skinner@arup.com; Merrick Taylor, merrick.taylor@arup.com (TS #26) The 2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence triggered widespread rockfall, causing fatalities and damage to property and infrastructure. In response, immediate area-wide risk analysis was carried out to assess risk to residents and direct recovery. These used lidar, aerial photograph and mapping of rockfall runout to map baseline loss of life risk in the Port Hills communities. The analysis influenced zoning decisions, insurance payouts and property values and have had a significant impact on the recovery process. Subsequent to the baseline mapping, site-specific assessments were carried out on residential properties to confirm the risk and inf orm rockfall risk reduction design. Differences between the assessed level of risk to life between the area-wide and site-specific studies were in many cases two orders of magnitude different, lower and higher. The characterization of site-specific rockfall source size, probability of detachment, and topographic controls on run-out ultimately controlled rockfall protection structure design for residential properties in the Port Hills. Case studies will exemplify the interplay between the two assessments. Understanding the advantages and limitations between area-wide and site-specific rockfall assessments, respectively is integral to disaster response, recovery and rebuild process.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Effect of Water Salinity and Leaching on the Behavior of a Road Embankment Moussai, Belkacem, USTHB University, Algeria, bmoussai@yahoo.com; Ali MESSAD; Oussama Yahia DEBBAB, bmoussai @yahoo.ca (TS #30) In Algeria, a recent road 23 km long has been constructed through the sabkha basin of Chott El-Hodna (saline deposit characterized by low strength and high compressibility) connecting two cities Ain El-Khadra and Mcif. A 1m-diameter tube is placed through the road embankment at 25m intervals along the road in order to allow water to flow from one side to another in the sabkha basin. Although these tubes have been placed, a large lake with a water depth that may reach 50cm forms during the rainy season on one side of the road embankment and remains for a long period (about 8 months per year). This implies that the accumulated water can flow through the sabkha soil under the embankment causing it to leach. The leaching phenomena may lead to the increase of settlement and therefore may cause damage to the road embankment. Keeping the above-mentioned aspects in view, numerical analyses were performed using the finite element software Plaxis 2D to investigate the effect of pore fluid salinity and leaching on the behavior of the road embankment. The soil parameters used in the numerical analyses were obtained from laboratory tests. The compressibility characteristics and strength parameters of this problematic soil were determined on natural and leached samples. The compressibility characteristics were obtained using conventional and modified oedometers and the void ratio used to establish the graph (e versus log s) was determined using conventional water content and fluid content methods. The results showed that the use of compressibility characteristics of sabkha soil determined on the basis of conventional water content method and conventional oedometer as well as the strength parameters of unleached samples would result in unconservative estimates of the embankment settlements.

Diagenesis of the Upper Jurassic Carbonate Rocks within Deep Geothermal Boreholes of the North Alpine Foreland Basin in Germanyâ?&#x2039; Mraz, Elena, Technical University of Munich, Germany, e.mraz@tum.de; Markus Wolfgramm, Markus.Wolfgramm@gtn-online.de; Inga S. Moeck, Inga.Moeck@liag-hannover.de; Kurosch Thuro, thuro@tum.de (TS #9A) Upper Jurassic carbonates serve as a geothermal reservoir within the north Alpine foreland basin (so-called Molasse basin). The pore space development of the Upper Jurassic is an important factor for the success of geothermal projects or any other reservoir production. Hitherto, successful geothermal projects have cumulated in the area around Munich (Germany), as porosity and permeability of the southward dipping strata decrease with depth towards the Alps. The porosity decline can be caused by a change in facies or by a different grade in diagenesis, which has not been sufficiently analyzed yet. The diagenesis of the Upper Jurassic, especially the porosity, was analyzed in the southern part of the Molasse basin in depths lower than 3.500 m. The first step in our approach was the microfacies analysis of rock samples to characterize the primary pore space. The microfacies results show a change in facies (transition zone) southwards indicated by planktonic organisms in black, low porose carbonate rocks. Due to Alpine tectonics and the formation of the typical wedge shaped north Alpine foreland basin, synsedimentary fractures and fault zones developed in the carbonates. Compared to the matrix those fracture and fault systems provide the main pathways for fluid flow. In the second step, diagenetic fluids were analyzed by fluid inclu-

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sion and cathodoluminescence measurements within calcite and dolomite crystals at different cement phases to understand the diagenesis of those deep buried carbonates. The microfacies analysis is important for the identification of high porosity domains and should be considered in reservoir exploration.

Analytical Method for Monopiles under V-H-M Combined Loads in Sandy Seabed Mu, Linlong, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Tongji University, China, mulinlong@tongji.edu.cn (TS #9B) The monopiles of offshore wind turbines are always subjected to multi-directional loads. The vertical and lateral behaviors of monopiles are designed separately in practice. While many researches show that the vertical load has remarkable influences on the lateral behavior of the monopiles. The coupled effect is influenced by the seabed soil properties. The influence of the vertical load on lateral behavior of the monopiles can be divided into three aspects: 1) the influence of the friction stress on the ultimate resistance pu of p-y curve, 2) P- effect, and 3) the MR effect induced by the friction stress. Based on the passive strain wedge theory, the influence of the friction stress on the ultimate resistance pu is introduced into the p-y curves. Taking the P- effect and MR effect into considerations, an analytical method for monopiles under combined loads, including the lateral load, vertical load and moment, in sand is proposed based on elastic-foundation beam theory coupled with p-y curves. Then, the method is verified by analyzing several existing cases. It has been proved that the method is reasonable to calculate the responses of the monopile under multi-directional load in sand.

Review of the Geologic Model Complexity Rating System Components Munro, Rosalind, Wood, USA, rosalind.munro@woodplc.com; Jeffrey Keaton, jeff.keaton@woodplc.com (TS #52) Geologic conditions must be expressed explicitly in terms that describe variability to have value in reliability-based design projects. Geologists use solid, dashed, dotted, and queried lines to convey confidence in interpretation of locations and nature of formation boundaries and faults. The lines have location error related to map scale, terrain, vegetation, and field methods, and uncertainty related to the competency of the geologist and the allotted field mapping time, as well as the intrinsic nature of the site geology. The uncertainty inherently understood by geologists is not readily translatable into a covariance term that engineers can integrated with other geotechnical measurements to allow reliability-based design to include geology. The complexity rating scheme originally suggested for quantifying geologic conditions had components related to geologic factors (genetic, epigenetic, and site-scale) and other factors (terrain, available information quality, geologistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competency, and time used to prepare the geologic model). These components evolved from consideration of concepts such as outcrop confidence, subsurface utility engineering quality levels, a pioneering rock-fall hazard rating system for highway cutslopes, a Glossop Lecture by a rock mechanics engineer, and recognition that a geologic map is a geologic model. Geologic maps and sections are artistic representations of one interpretation of geologic features and relationships inferred from limited observations of the distribution of rock types, surficial deposits, and geologic structures often with little or no subsurface data or laboratory test results. A way was needed to put numbers to the geology to help engineering geologist contribute geologic information in site development projects that engineers could understand and use.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Active Learning Teaching in Geotechnical Courses in Uruguay❋ Musso, Marcos, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad de la Repblica, Uruguay, mmusso@fing.edu.uy; Leonardo Behak, lbehak@fing.edu.uy (TS #19) Since 1960, different teaching approaches have been developed based on how the people learn. All of them supported that learning is an active, contextualized, and personal process where people construct their own knowledge from experience activities and reflection about them. This background encouraged us to introduce changes in how we were doing teaching activities. The Soil Mechanics course for geologist degree was modified. First, the goals were reformulated to include among soil mechanics practice and theory, skills as group work, writing, and oral presentation. Second, field and laboratory experiences were elaborated to do as a group. Third, exposure lecture was developed including solve exercises, student oral presentations from laboratory results, and congress or journal paper. Finally, each group elaborates and defends a report about field and laboratory data and activities, including in this report background and methods used during the process. Each student had an oral theoretical evaluation. The experience was a challenge for teachers and students. In this course, the student groups live a similar event than the future work as geotechnical geologist. They had a project that they needed to understand what was needed to do: how to obtain laboratory and field data, analyze, write, and defend a report. Then, our evaluation is positive because they comprehend some useful tools for the professional future.

Mechanical Behavior of Residual Granitic Soil as Road Raw Material Musso, Marcos, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay, mmusso@fing.edu.uy; Gonzalo Bango, cbangos@fing.edu.uy, Leonardo Behak, lbehak@fing.edu.uy (TS #15) In Uruguay the sub-base and base layers of pavement are built using residual soils produced by rock weathering. These soils are generated from different lithologies such as granite, gneiss, basalt, metamorphic, or sedimentary rocks. As a consequence heterogeneity and anisotropy are very common aspects of quarry products. Many times, these geological characteristics are unknown or not identified in the characterization tests. In this research, La Paz granite is studied because its residual soil is very used as raw material in the Montevideo metropolitan area. Weathering profile soil was analyzed and different samples were collected and separated taking account of geological and mineralogical observations, alteration processes, textures, fractures and diaclases as well as field tests. In the laboratory, grain-size distribution and Atterberg limits were determined using the Soil Unified Classification System (SUCS) and American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO) classifications. Compaction properties as optimal moisture contents and maximum dry specific weights were obtained through modified Proctor tests, and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) was carried out. The characterization tests show horizontal and vertical variations in soil characteristics, which is a detriment to use in road building. Therefore an intensive characterization program should be done to identify, understand and plan the quarry exploitation. An adequate quarry management could generate homogenous raw material to have a controlled performance on low-volume roads.

September 2018

Fundamental Study on Three-Dimensional Seismic Reflection Method using Excavation Blasting of Mountain Tunnel as Source Nakaya, Masashi, Civil Engineering Headquarters, Hazama Ando Corporation, Japan, nakaya.masashi@ad-hzm.co.jp; Kazuhiro Onuma, onuma.kazuhiro@ad-hzm.co.jp (TS #22) We have been working to develop a system that utilizes waves from tunnel excavation blasting to evaluate the rock conditions and geology ahead of the tunnel face without interrupting other work. In previous research, we found that good one-dimensional measurements of elastic waves could be obtained by mounting a seismometer on a rock bolt embedded in the rock. In this study, we verified the effectiveness of a three-dimensional extension of this system for evaluating the rock conditions and geology ahead of the tunnel face. To do so, we measured excavation induced blast waves with four different three-dimensional sensors, all installed in the same location and each based on one of four methods. By comparing measurement data from each sensor, we assessed the effect of (a) rock bolt mounting and (b) wall mounting of the sensors on the results. Also, by comparing measurement data to “true” data (i.e., accurate data obtained from a rock embedded sensor), we confirmed that the system is capable of accurately determining the direction of P wave propagation.

An Investigation of the Petrographical and Geotechnical Properties of Dolerites in the Assessment of their Blasting Performance at the Magdalena Colliery, Dundee, South Africa❋ Nankua, Quinton, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Republic of South Africa, 214510462@stu.ukzn.ac.za; Egerton D.C. Hingston hingstone@ukzn.ac.za; Sihle Mtshali sihle.mtshali@buffalocoal.co.za; Nomonde Mabogo nst.mabogo@gmail.com; Cebolenkosi Khumalo cebokh@gmail.com (TS #53) Dolerite intrusions are ubiquitous within the confines of the Klip River Coalfield. Dolerite dykes encountered in Magdalena are masked below the plateau and have only been located where exposed along the scarp flanks and in the Magdalena underground workings. The heat of the dolerite intrusions burnt the coal by causing a series of reactions in which oxidation lead to devolatilization of organic matter. The presence of the dolerite dykes intruding the coal often causes damage to mining equipment and brings about delays in mining schedules. This could be primarily attributed to the lack of information pertaining to the blasting and fragmentation of the dolerite dykes within the colliery. This study examines the petrographical and geotechnical properties of the dolerite dyke intrusions within the Magdalena Colliery in order to assess their blasting performance. Selective samples were taken along a 14 m dolerite dyke intrusion within the colliery. A detailed petrographic analysis was done by analyzing thin sections of the dolerite in order to identify the major minerals present. Geotechnical tests were also conducted in order to assess the geomechanical properties of the dolerite. The geotechnical tests conducted included point load tests, Schmidt hammer rebound tests, uniaxial compressive strength tests and Brazilian tensile strength tests. The information obtained from the analysis has been used for adaptive blasting techniques that can be adopted based on the petrographical and geotechnical properties of the dyke along the course of the intrusion. This may influence the performance and efficiency of the blasting operation.

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS “No Easy Answers to Last Chance Grade” – Managing a Large Coastal Landslide in Northern California Narwold, Charlie, California Department of Transportation, United States, charlie.narwold@dot.ca.gov; Marietta James, marietta.j.james@dot.ca.gov; Eric Wilson, eric.a.wilson@dot.ca.gov (Poster) Highway 101 is the primary north–south route along the coast in Northern California. A section of Highway101 in Del Norte County, California, was dubbed “Last Chance Grade” by roadway builders in the early 1900s. The highway traverses a large coastal landslide complex with failure surfaces ranging in depth from 30–290 feet below the roadway. The three prominent landslides along the grade have moved at different rates over the last several decades. Since 2012 the maximum cumulative displacement of the roadway has been approximately 11 feet horizontally and 8 feet vertically. Closure of the highway would result in a 350-mile detour. The California Department of Transportation is currently investigating alternatives to bypass this section of highway. Until then, keeping the highway open presents geotechnical challenges. Mitigation efforts have included construction of solider pile ground anchor and soil nail walls to restore the highway to two lanes and prevent sudden loss of the roadway. Movement of the highway is monitored via a network of survey points. At the most critical location movement of the highway is monitored using a near real-time monitoring system that includes GPS units, a rain gauge, and a horizontal shape accelerometer array. Other instrumentation includes strain gauges on ground anchors, which document the response of landslide loading on a soldier pile ground anchor wall. This poster will present results of the landslide investigations, data from the monitoring network, and highlight some of the mitigation efforts. A summary of the preliminary geotechnical investigations of the alternative highway alignments will also be presented.

The Impacts of Cooperation between West Coast State Licensure Boards on Professional Specialty Licensure and the Corresponding Effects on the Geotechnical Professions Neal, Kenneth, Retired, United States, kengneal@aol.com; Laurie Racca, California Board for Professional Engineers, Land Surveyors, and Geologists (Presented by Laurie Racca) (TS #38) Since 1990, state geologist licensing boards have been working in a cooperative effort to develop examinations for licensure mainly through the National Association of State Boards of Geologists ( ASBOG®). As of 2017, ASBOG® has grown to 32 member boards. Oregon established the engineering geologist specialty as part of their licensure act enacted in 1977, and developed its own specialty exam. In 2001, Washington enacted a licensure law that designated the engineering geologist specialty and allowed for designation of specialty licenses. Later that year, the Geologist Licensure Board established the hydrogeologist specialty. The Washington Department of Licensing contracted with a psychometrician from California to manage the development of their specialty exams. Oregon and Washington agreed to share their engineering geology exam, and Oregon participated in the engineering geologist exam development. In 2003, the first Oregon-Washington engineering geologist and the first Washington hydrogeologist examinations were held. Also in 2003, the Washington and California Geologist Boards agreed to accept each other’s examinations as qualifying for the engineering geologist and hydrogeologist specialty licenses. However, following the combining of Californias Engineers and Geologists boards, California could not identify, and Washington could not find, any formal agreement between the two states. In fact, none had ever been

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completed; the agreement was recorded in meeting minutes of the two respective boards. This led to a new comparison of exam content specifications and, ultimately, a formal agreement between the two states. The establishment of engineering geologist licensure has also progressively improved understanding between the geology and engineering professions.

Discrete Element Modeling of Strata and Surface Movement Induced by Mining under Ppen-Pit Final Slope Nengxiong, Xu, School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), China, xunengxiong@cugb.edu.cn (Poster) Ore mining under the open-pit final slope will result in caving and large displacement movement of rock-masses surrounding the goaf. It is difficult for numerical methods that equate jointed rock-masses to a continuum to simulate the aforementioned mechanical behavior of rock-masses. However, the placing of joints in a calculation model according to their actual distribution characteristics will result in an excess of model blocks, which renders the calculation impossible. To solve this problem, a numerical modeling method based on an Equivalent Jointed Rock-mass Model (EJRM) is proposed in this paper. First, the rock-masses in the research area are simplified as an EJRM; then, a back analysis method, combining orthogonal design and numerical simulation with Discrete Element Method (DEM), is used to invert the mechanical parameters of the model; lastly, the DEM is utilized to analyze the movement and failure of the strata and surface induced by mining under open-pit slope. The Yanqianshan iron ore mine was treated as an example in the present study. Mining under the eastern slope of the open pit of the mine was simulated by means of the aforementioned method. The patterns of the failure and movement of the strata and slope at different mining stages were obtained. This numerical modeling method proposed can be used to simulate complex mechanical behaviors of rock-masses induced by underground mining.

Seismic Remediation of Perris Dam – Foundation Improvement Design and Construction Geology Nichols, Holly J., California Department of Water Resources, United States, holly.nichols@water.ca.gov (TS #1) Perris Dam is a prominent engineered structure in the Inland Empire, in Southern California. Lake Perris is also the most visited recreation area in the entire California State Parks system. The dam was constructed in the 1970s to hold the terminal reservoir of the Department of Water Resources’ State Water Project. Perris Dam consists of a zoned earthen embankment on a predominantly alluvial foundation. Since the 1970s, advances in liquefaction analysis initiated re-evaluation of most dams across the country, including at Perris Dam. Extensive subsurface investigations suggested that much of the upper, younger alluvium left in place under the left reach of the dam would be susceptible to liquefaction, settlement, and potential failure in the event of a large earthquake. This potential for failure led to a 25-foot pool restriction in 2005, and the subsequent design of a repair to strengthen the foundation and buttress the dam by constructing a stability berm. This presentation will discuss the main design concepts of the repair, challenges with constructing the repair in a high-use recreation area, and the construction geology highlights.

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS Geomorphology, Provenance, and Depositional Models: Application to Trenchless Infrastructure Design and Construction Nielson, Dru R., McMillen Jacobs Associates, nielson@mcmjac.com; Justin Reeves, reeves@mcmjac.com (TS #17) Phase 1 of the North Valley Regional Recycled Water Program (NVRRWP)—a regional solution to water-supply shortages in the central California’s San Joaquin Valley—was successfully implemented in 2017 with the design and construction of infrastructure to deliver recycled water produced at local wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to the US Bureau of Reclamation’s Delta-Mendota Canal (DMC). The 117-mile-long (188 km), concrete-lined, open-channel DMC was completed in 1951 to convey Sacramento−San Joaquin River Delta water from the Tracy Pump Station/Clifton Court Forebay, southward along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley for agricultural irrigation and wildlife refuge use. As a result of the NVRRWP, 15 million gallons (57 mL) of recycled water produced daily at the City of Modesto’s WWTP (El. 40 feet [12 m]) that would have otherwise been discharged to the San Joaquin River are now pumped through a 42-in (1,065 mm) inside diameter welded steel pipeline over a lateral distance of 6 miles (10 km) and a vertical height of 150 feet (46 m) to the DMC (El. 190 feet [58 m]). NVRRWP pipeline construction included: 1) a 2,820-foot-long (860 m) horizontal directional drilled undercrossing through Sierra Nevadan– derived (granitic rich) micaceous channel sands at depths to 70 feet (21 m) below the thalweg of the San Joaquin River meander belt, and 2) a 250-foot-long (76 m) pipe-jacking tunnel through Coast Range–derived alluvial fan deposits below State Highway 33 and the Union Pacific Railroad (i.e., from sedimentary formations of the Great Valley Sequence and radiolarian chert, metasedimentary and ultramafic rock types of the Franciscan Complex). Accurate modeling of geomorphology and fluvial/alluvial sediment provenance and depositional data from engineering geologic investigations was vital for the proper selection and use of trenchless equipment and tunneling methods for the NVRRWP.

Portage Lakes, Ohio – East Reservoir Dam: History, Evaluation and Remediation Nix, Pete, Tetra Tech, Inc., United States, pete.nix@tetratech.com; Donald A. Bruce, dabruce@geosystemsbruce.com (TS #45) East Reservoir Dam is a high-hazard, sand fill embankment located just south of Akron, Ohio, that is owned and operated by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR). The dam was constructed in the 1830s as part of the feeder system for the Ohio and Erie Canal system. The existing dam is approximately 1,300 feet long, is comprised of three separate embankment sections, and has a maximum height of 23 feet. There is significant residential development around the lake and a heavily traveled road, Portage Lakes Drive, runs along the crest of the embankment. The embankment was constructed using the natural fine sands at the site, and the foundation soils also consist of fine sands and silts. The dam failed by overtopping during the flood of 1913, sending floodwaters into downtown Akron. The embankment was rebuilt in 1915 with a new spillway and outlet works. Unfortunately, the 1915 spillway and outlet works are significantly inadequate by current dam design standards and only pass around 25% of the PMF without overtopping. Tetra Tech’s challenge on the project was to design an overtopping solution that solved the dam safety issues while minimizing the impacts to the local property owners and Portage Lakes Drive. Due to the overtopping and erodibility of the embankment and foundation, the overtopping solution had to essentially be a three-story structure that could retain 23’ of water with no passive resistance. RCC, a new downSeptember 2018

stream structure, and new overtopping structures constructed in the lake were all considered as remedial options. The upstream overtopping structure was determined to be the most economical solution that minimized impacts to adjacent property owners. Large diameter sheet pile cells, capped with concrete, were originally considered for the new structure. However, a more economical solution was developed using deep mixing techniques to construct a gravity dam and cutoff wall within a berm placed in the lake. This gravity section was designed using the USACE’s Gravity Dam Design requirements. Global stability, as well as overturning and sliding, were also considered in the design. This innovative design technique solved the dam safety issues and minimized impacts while providing the most economical solution to ODNR.

Litho-Structural Control on the Geotechnical Properties of Colluvial Deposits, Rio do Sul City, Santa Catarina, Brazil❋ Noveletto, Vanessa, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, vanessa.noveletto@gmail.com; Marivaldo S. Nascimento, marivaldo.nascimento@ufsc.br; Murilo S. Espndola, muriloespindola@gmail.com; Vitor Santini Muller, vitor@ mullergeo.com (Presented by Vitor Santini Muller) (Poster) Mountain regions are characterized by high instability and geodynamic processes which result in a wide variety of mass movement, rockfalls and debris flow or avalanches. Mass movement constitutes one of the major hazard in the Rio do Sul city, northeast Santa Catarina state, Brazil. This work investigates the relationship between lithology, tectonic structures, geotechnical properties and landslides processes in the study area. Results showed that lithological control is expressed in alteration grade of different rocks and materials, which is evident by the higher weather susceptibility of shales and colluvial deposits, as well as in clay content, which it is primarily represented by illite in the stratigraphic units. Structural control is marked by two failures and fractures sets that affect all stratigraphic units, with NE–SW as the major strike and NW–SE as the subordinate one. Colluvial deposits present in the study area are the result of landslides processes. Geotechnical properties and shear resistance parameters showed a good correspondence between granulometric texture, which is related with mineral composition of parent rock as well as with weathering and erosion processes. Therefore, it is possible to assume that landsliding in the Rio do Sul city can be explained and predicted by the nature of the geological framework and geotechnical behavior of the rocky masses and soil.

Collecting Downhole Shear Wave Velocity Measurements to Calculate Vs30 Values and Ground Accelerations at California Dam Sites Novoa, Nicholas, California Department of Water Resources, United States, Nicholas.novoa@water.ca.gov; Sean Dunbar; Bradley Von Dessonneck; Don Hoirup; Roy Kroll; Mark Pagenkopp; Scott Sochar; Teresa Butler (TS #54) Vs30 values are one of the primary input parameters used to calculate spectral accelerations using the Next Generation Attenuation Relationships for Western US, version 2 (NGAW2). Site-specific shear wave velocity measurements can be difficult and expensive to obtain. The California Department of Water Resources (DWR) used downhole geophysics to measure shear wave velocities at 16 dams and associated structures between July 2016 and January 2018. DWR drilled 33 holes between 49 and 515 feet below the ground surface using various drilling methods. After drilling was completed, in situ horizontal shear and compressional wave velocity measurements were

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS obtained using an OYO PS Suspension Logging System. During the drilling and testing program, DWR encountered difficult drilling conditions at remote sites, which included caving holes, dry holes, artesian conditions, excessive noise, loss of circulation, petroleum hydrocarbon intrusion, and large density contrasts between geologic units. In the majority of the cases, DWR was able to overcome the encountered obstacles and collect the desired shear wave velocity measurements. The shear wave velocity measurements obtained at each drill hole location were used to calculate Vs30 values and to generate spectral accelerations using the NGAW2 relationships. The calculated Vs30 values generally increased compared to previous estimates, which resulted in decreased spectral accelerations for most project sites. Although costly to obtain, site-specific shear wave velocity measurements can provide reduced conservatism and lower design spectral accelerations.

Experimental and Numerical Study on to Form the Groundwater Quality in Altered Volcanic Rock Area❋

were conducted to determine the shear strength properties of the banks followed by bank stability analysis and evaluation of erosion potential of the riverbanks using the bank stability and toe erosion model (BSTEM), and bank erosion hazard index (BEHI), respectively. An analysis of the geomorphic and lithological characteristics of the bank materials indicates three dominant lithological units: composite banks, layered banks, and homogeneous banks. The BSTEM results indicate that factor of safety (Fs) decreased from initial values of 2.64 and 4.42 to 1.09 and 0.51 under a flow duration of 120 and 312 hrs, respectively. Further correlation of Fs with root depth and depth of tension crack showed that Fs was positively correlated with root depth but decreased with an increase in the depth of tension crack. The high BEHI values of 26 and 32 gave credence to the assumptions regarding the high erosion potential of the Iju riverbanks. These research findings are essential for the development of a watershed-scale natural disaster mitigation measures for the southwest region of Nigeria.

Ohta, Takehiro, Yamaguchi University, Japan, takohta@yamaguchiu.ac.jp; Shuichi Hattori; Yoshihiro Kikuchi; Dai Shimofusa (Poster)

Evaluation Method for Rock Condition by Spectrogram of Seismic Waves Generated at Tunnel Excavation Blasting

Groundwater geochemistry which is distributed at the Hakkouda Tunnel in the Sankakudake Mountains, Aomori prefecture, northern Japan, was surveyed in experimental and numerical to understand the mechanism forming the groundwater quality in altered volcanic rock mass. We already made clear that the groundwater quality in this area correspond with the mineral assemblages in the rock masses. Altered volcanic rock samples were tested by batchleaching test to estimate rock-water reaction model in equilibrium conditions, in which 100g crushed rock samples under 10mm in diameter were shaken with 500g pure water. The results of this test show that the chemical quality of the leaching water from an altered rock sample is similar to that of groundwater distributed in same rock mass. The numerical simulations using PHREEQC verified the results of the leaching test for altered volcanic rock samples. The calculation results support that the water reacts with rock (minerals) in equilibrium. From these results, we can estimate that the quality of fissure groundwater in hard rock mass depends on the equilibrium reaction with co-existing minerals in aquifer and that the geochemical homogenization of groundwater by diffusion and/or dispersion do not influence to groundwater quality.

Onuma, Kazuhiro, Hazama Ando Corporation, Japan; onuma.kazuhiro@ad-hzm.co.jp; Nakaya, Masashi, nakaya.masashi@ ad-hzm.co.jp (TS #22)

Monitoring of Riverbank Stability and Seepage-Undercutting Mechanisms on the Iju (Atuwara) River, Southwest Nigeria Okeke, Chukwueloka Austin Udechukwu, Covenant University, chukwueloka.okeke@covenantuniversity.edu.ng (TS #8) The southern region of Nigeria, which occupies a total area of 206,888 km2, has witnessed many geoenvironmental challenges including coastal erosion, and land degradation. These problems, in concert with climate change, have altered the ecohydrological and sedimentological regimes of the Nigerian coastal floodplains and inland fluvial systems leading to stream channel avulsion, riverbank erosion and widespread destruction of the riparian zones. A monitoring program was set up on the lower reaches of the Iju River in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State, southwest Nigeria to investigate the inherent factors contributing to channel instabilities and riverbank retreat. Detailed reconnaissance surveys coupled with field measurement of bank face length, bank height, bank angle, channel width, bankfull depth, root depth and root density, and vegetation cover were made to determine the geomorphological characteristics of the riverbanks at more than 15 locations along the river channel. A series of laboratory tests 178

Seismic survey using tunnel excavation blasting has been studied, distributions of seismic velocity in a tunnel are estimated, and changes of geological condition ahead of tunnel face are predicted. A spectrogram is a visual representation of sound or other signal’s frequency spectrum in time domain. Spectrograms can be used to identify spoken words phonetically, and to analyze the various calls of animals. They are used extensively in the development of the fields of music, sonar, radar, speech processing, seismology, and others. Rock conditions are not the same in a tunnel, so it is thought that spectrograms of seismic waves generated during tunnel excavation blasting will have several characteristics of a tunnel. Seismic waves were measured at all excavation blasting in a tunnel; the spectrograms were evaluated. In this paper, the evaluation method for tunneling is reported, and the effects are studied.

Correlation between CPT and Screw Driving Sounding (SDS)❋ Orense, Rolando, University of Auckland, New Zealand, r.orense@auckland.ac.nz; Yasin Mirjafari; Naoaki Suemasa (TS #49A) Cone penetration test (CPT) is probably the most popular in situ testing method in the world today. Various design parameters, such as undrained strength and relative density, as well as indices for liquefaction assessment, can be derived from the CPT. However, the use of CPT in many roading projects and in subdivision developments may be constrained by the number of tests or project cost, hence, alternative in situ testing technique to supplement the CPT is necessary. Screw Driving Sounding (SDS) is a new in situ test in which a machine drills a screw point into the ground in several loading steps while the attached rod is continuously rotated. During the test, a number of parameters, such as torque, load, speed of penetration, and friction are measured at every rotation of the rod; these provide a robust way of characterizing soil stratigraphy. In this paper, the principle of SDS testing is described. SDS tests were performed at various sites in New Zealand where CPT data are available. Then, a side-by-side comparison between CPT and SDS was performed to derive correlations between the CPT tip resistance (qc), sleeve friction (fs) and soil behavior type index (Ic) and the SDS parameters. Based on the results, it was observed that qc correlated well with the penetration energy in SDS while fs

AEG 61st Annual Meeting/IAEG XIII Congress – Program with Abstracts

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS and Ic are related to the average torque and change in torque, respectively. The good correlation obtained between CPT and SDS indicates that SDS can supplement CPT results for a more costeffective geotechnical investigation.

Dating Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the Austrian and Italian Alps Ostermann, Marc, Geological Survey of Austria, marc.ostermann@geologie.ac.at; Christian Zangerl, christian.j.zangerl@boku.ac.at; Susan Ivy-Ochs, ivy@phys.ethz.ch; Jürgen Reitner, juergen.reitner@geologie.ac.at (TS #57) Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) are large to extremely large, slow moving mass movements generally affecting the entire length of high-relief valley flanks, extending up to several hundred meters in depth, which can frequently spread beyond the slope ridge and they have been recognized to affect different lithologies at many sites worldwide. Large parts of a DSGSD can accelerate and result in catastrophic rock-slope failures and secondary landslides are common in the lower part of these slopes. One of the most pending questions concerning DSGSDs are their long-term evolution as their dynamics on centennial to millennial time scales is difficult to capture. Because DSGSDs last for ≥102 to 105 years and are characterized by complex and temporally variable displacement behavior (two basic long-term movement patterns, i.e. slow continuous creep and discrete episodic movements), constraining the timing of such movements is of paramount importance. Although there are several geochronological and stratigraphical methods, which have been used to constrain the chronology of DSGSDs, dating of DSGSDs is still in its infancy. We present some examples from the Austrian and Italian Alps, where the (joint) application of different dating methods (cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, U-series disequilibrium dating, radiocarbon dating) achieved reliable results on the long-term evolution of DSGSDs. This data is fundamental in the view of engineering geological modeling and extents the time-frame of DSGSD displacement measurements (D-GPS, DInSAR, precise leveling…) from a few decades to several thousand years.

Strength and Compaction Characteristics of Some Crude Oil Contaminated Soils Oyediran, Ibrahim Adewuyi, Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, oyediranibrahim2012@gmail.com; Nchewi I Enya, enyason04@yahoo.com (Poster) The effects of curing time and environment on strength and compaction characteristics of crude oil contaminated soils was investigated. Crude oil—2 to 10% by weight—was added to the soils as a simulation of contamination and cured under room temperature (unexposed) as well as outside in the open air (exposed) for 21, 63, and 189 days. Results indicates that the UCS and Maximum Dry Density (MDD) of the unexposed samples (devoid of sunlight, rainfall and excessive air), increased with increase in Crude Oil Concentration (COC) up till 4%, after which it decreased with further increment in COC across all curing periods (CP). The Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) did not show a consistent trend as COC and curing time increased. Furthermore, UCS decreased as the CP increased to 63 days but slightly increased as CP reached 189 days. On the other hand, MDD increased with increase in CP up to 63 days and decreased with further increase in CP to 189 days. However, for the exposed samples, the UCS after 21days increased initially upon addition of crude oil up to 4%, after which it decreased with further increase in COC. Moreover, as the curing time increased from 21 to 63 days, the UCS decreased but later increased continuously as the September 2018

CP reached 189 days. Furthermore, crude oil contamination also brought about variations in the MDD and the OMC of the exposed contaminated soil. However, the trend of variation was not consistent across all CPs as was the case in the unexposed samples. This is attributable to a high evaporation rate due to sunlight and moisture variation. Care must therefore be taken when making inferences from laboratory tests on soil samples not subjected to real situations that in situ soils are exposed to in addition to taking into account the exposure time.

Leachate Effects on Some Index Properties of Clays❋ Oyediran, Ibrahim Adewuyi, Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, oyediranibrahim2012@gmail.com; Olalusi David Ayodele, ayodeleolalusi@gmail.com (TS #30) Bulk disturbed samples of two clays soils were respectively obtained from different parent rocks, mudstone, and migmatite gneiss. The clays were permeated and cured with natural leachate from an old active dump site and investigated with a view to understanding the effect of leachate interaction on some engineering index properties including grain size distribution, consistency limits and specific gravity, typically used in their identification and hence classification. Results show that addition of leachate to the soils resulted in varying responses in terms of amounts of fines and clay size fraction with respect to soil type. In addition the consistency limits of the soils including liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index and linear shrinkage also varied with soil type. However, while variation in responses was observed for the two different soils in terms of particle size and plasticity, leachate addition lowered the specific gravity of both soils, signifying similar response by the soils to leachate contact. The responses observed are thought to be attributable to organic matter presence and varied soil structure and composition traceable to parent material influence.

An Integrated Approach to Vadose Zone Characterization as It Relates to Burial Practices and Its Impact on the Immediate Environment Oyelami, Charles A., Osun State University, charlibot@gmail.com; Ojo Olabanji. A. (TS #30) Cemeteries in Africa are sited within or very close to residential communities without regards to their potential impact on the environment viz a viz groundwater pollution and potability of the water within the vicinity. This study is aimed at investigating the soil-water interaction within the vicinity of a cemetery in order to establish the potential risk or otherwise associated with it. An integrated approach involving geotechnical characterization, vertical electrical sounding and groundwater quality assessment was adopted. Field investigation shows that the cemetery was sited in a wetland that slopes into a gaining stream located less than 10 meters from the cemetery. The soil within the cemetery has a coarse grained porous lateritic soil, having natural moisture content above 15%, very low percentage of clay and silt (0.22–3.88%), high percentage of gravelly sand (73.50– 83.96%), maximum dry density (MDD) of 0.98-1.53Mg/m3, optimum moisture content (3.45–26.32%), LOI(7.81% -9.46%). XRD and XRF revealed a typical lateritic soil rich in kaolinite, quartz, microcline with sesquioxide-rich chemistry (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, etc.). Water analysis revealed a high total coliform content between 14–89, except in the control well with less than 10. Fecal streptococci content was near zero; total hardness ranged in concentration from 86– 380mg/L and magnesium concentration ranged between (as Mg) 5.5–52.2 mg/L. With most values higher than MPL as compared with WHO drinking water standard and the Nigeria drinking water

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS

Evidences and Modeling of Multi-Scale Mechanisms of Riverbed Erosion in Bedrock Rivers

the historical seismicity background of the area. The result obtained by this study is that the industrialized area, located to the western edge of the urban area, is constructed upon sediments classified as high to very high liquefaction susceptibility. In addition most of the railway network connecting the city with the capital of Greece Athens and the capitals in Balkans crosses high liquefaction susceptibility deposits. On the other hand, the central area of Thessaloniki had been constructed upon non susceptible to liquefaction soils and accordingly the liquefaction hazard can be neglected. The outcome of this study can be used by urban planners for the future extension of the city of Thessaloniki.

Pan, Yii-Wen, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, ywpan@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Kuo-Wei Li, mauber0919@gmail.com; Jyh-Jong Liao, jjliao@mail.nctu.edu.tw (Poster)

Probabilistic Kinematic Analysis of Rock Slope Stability Using Terrestrial Lidar Data

standard. Geophysical investigation revealed that the depth to contamination varies between 1.3 m around the stream to a depth of about 3.9 m, a depth, which correspond to the depth to the aquifer in the study area. The study concluded that the siting of the cemetery has a high-risk potential of environmental impact on groundwater quality, judging from the thin unsaturated zone which was confirmed by the results obtained from VES soundings and groundwater quality assessment.

Bedrock erosion is an irrecoverable process that may threaten the stability of a cross-river or riverbank structures. The erodibility and erosion rate in a bedrock river are largely dependent on the mechanisms of rock erosion. Field observation data reveals that there is usually a dominant mechanism controlling the erosion on bedrock; various mechanisms may be different in the scale of erosion. The presented work classifies the possible scales of erosion into the grain scale, the block scale or the rock-mass scale. The abrasion by bed shear or by the saltation of bedload particles is in “grain scale.” For a bedrock without abundant discontinuities, saltation abrasion is often the dominant mechanism. Plucking is a mechanism of erosion removing sub-meter blocks in a bedrock channel subjected to intense water current. This plucking mechanism is in “block scale.” In case of a steep rock outcrop (e.g., near a knickpoint or a steep river bank), the mass loss because of the instability of the rock mass may be in “mass scale.” Accordingly, it is logical to establish multi-scale erosion models by taking the erosion scale into account. This paper explores the multi-scale mechanisms of rock erosion that may control channel incision and bank scour by providing examples of various scales of rock erosion and interpretation with models. Elaboration on how and why rock-mass scale erosion may take place is a special focus in the presented work.

Liquefaction Susceptibility Map of the Broader Thessaloniki Urban Area❋ Papathanassiou, George, Aritstole University of Thessaloniki, Department of Geology, gpapatha@auth.gr; Vassilis Marinos marinov@geo.auth.gr (Presented by Vassilis Marinos) (Poster) It was well known that the occurrence of liquefaction and the generation of liquefaction-induced deformations have a huge economical cost particularly in urban areas constructed in coastal areas. The first event that occurred close to an urban environment and studied in detail was the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The last decade, severe structural damages such as building settlement, lifeline failures and quay wall displacements were induced due to soil liquefaction. Such structural damages were triggered by the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence 2010-2011, Great East Japan 2011, Emilia Romagna 2012 and Cephalonia 2014 earthquakes. In order to prevent the occurrence of soil liquefaction and to minimize its effects to the manmade environment, studies regarding the susceptibility of the geological units should initially take place. In general, the susceptibility to liquefaction of a geological unit can be evaluated based on its depositional environment. The goal of this study is to delineate susceptible to liquefaction geological units within the broader Thessaloniki urban area. In order to achieve this, information regarding the surficial distribution of geological units, as it was provided by published geological maps, was taken into account in conjunction with 180

Park, Hyuck-Jin, Sejong University, Republic of Korea, hjpark@sejong.ac.kr; Jung-Hyun Lee, jhlee6086@gmail.com; Sung-Wook Park, wook@nexgeo.com (Poster) The stability of rock slope is mostly controlled by unfavorably oriented discontinuities in rock mass. Therefore, in order to evaluate the stability of a rock slope, the structural condition of the discontinuities in rock mass should be investigated and analyzed, and subsequently, the analysis procedure needs a large number of discontinuity orientations measured directly from the field investigation. In addition, since the probabilistic analysis has been widely used in rock slope stability to deal properly with the uncertainties inevitably involved in the analysis procedure of rock slope stability, an adequate number of reliable data for discontinuity orientation should be obtained to analyze random properties of discontinuity for the probabilistic analysis. However, traditional structural mapping (line or window mapping) of surface rock outcrop performed to obtain discontinuity characteristics is tedious and time-consuming task. Therefore, in this study, terrestrial lidar (light detection and range), which is the efficient remote sensing data acquisition technique using a light in the form of pulsed laser, was used to obtain the discontinuity orientation data in order to overcome the shortcoming of the traditional structural mapping method. To this end, the point clouds for slope face were obtained from lidar sensor and then the digital surface model (DSM) was constructed after the filtering and interpolation procedure. From this procedure, we obtained a large number of a reliable joint orientation data and then these orientation data were used for the probabilistic kinematic analysis. In this study, the probabilistic analysis was carried out for kinematic analysis using discontinuity orientation data obtained from lidar. For that, the discontinuity orientation was considered as random variable and its random properties were evaluated. Then, in order to evaluate the probability of kinematic instability, Monte Carlo simulation technique was used for the probabilistic analysis.

Conceptual Engineering Geological Models❋ Parry, Steven, South of Ivy Bank, Great Britain, parrysteve@gmail.com; Fred Baynes, fredb@iinet.net.au; Jan Novotny, jan.novotny@geology.cz (Presented by Fred Baynes) (TS #44) Engineering geological models should form a fundamental component of any geotechnical project as they provide a systematic methodology to support all of the engineering geological thought processes that must be worked through for successful project completion. The use of models as an approach to solving engineering geological problems, with the inherent requirement for prediction and verification, is also ideally suited to training and education. IAEG Commission C25 (Parry et al., 2014) proposed that engineering geological models could be divided into two profoundly different

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AEG 61ST ANNUAL MEETING/IAEG XIII CONGRESS approaches and therefore different model types: Observational and Conceptual. However, the C25 Report perhaps lacks clarity regarding the differences between these two types of models and the way in which they work together. The conceptual approach is based on understanding the relationships between engineering geological units, their likely geometry, and anticipated distribution. This approach and the models formed are based on concepts formulated from knowledge and experience. When these models are proficiently developed they provide an extremely powerful tool for appreciating and communicating what is known about a site, what is conjectured and where significant uncertain-ties may remain. The conceptual model provides a framework for the evaluation of observational data, which then forms an observational model which is constrained by real data in 3D space and time. The development of conceptual models should be a core activity for engineering geologists. The paper discusses the generation of conceptual models, gives examples of the problems that can arise when they are not used, and provides guidelines for their development.

Folsom Dam Auxiliary Spillway Rock Anchor Installation Pattermann, Kenneth, Geotechnical Engineer, US Army Corps of Engineers, United States, kenneth.r.pattermann@usace.army.mil; Kylan Kegel, kylan.a.kegel@usace.army.mil; Coralie Wilhite, coralie.p.wilhite@usace.army.mil (Presented by Kylan Kegel) (TS #1) The recently completed Folsom Dam Auxiliary Spillway along the American River (Folsom, California) consists of an approximately 150-foot-tall concrete control structure with six steel tainter gates (23’ x 45’ each), an approach channel that is approximately 1,000 feet long, and a release channel (concrete chute) that is approximately 3,000 feet long. Thousands of rock bolts were used extensively to support temporary excavations and completed slopes. Over a thousand rock dowels were installed to anchor concrete slabs to the foundation rock (quartz diorite of the Rocklin Pluton). The project was constructed in several phases, which consisted of standalone plans and specification packages, many contractors and subcontractors, and therefore several different installation techniques for both active (post-tensioned) and passive anchors. Approach channel slopes extended to a maximum completed free height of 110 feet and were supported with post-tensioned anchors of many different types and design loads. The approach and release channel concrete slabs were anchored to foundation rock that also included two shear zones. The release channel also includes a stepped concrete chute that was anchored to rock. The near-vertical rock slope (approximately 30’ tall) across the American River from the exit channel of the new spillway was also reinforced with rock bolts to reduce the potential for erosion or block instability from spillway releases. Rock bolt installations varied from double corrosion protection systems with cement grout to galvanized bolts in resin grout. The site had several challenges related to access and testing and required careful planning to reach the bolt locations. Bolt and dowel arrangements typically started with a diamond pattern that had to be adjusted in the field to optimize the bolt locations for stability, long-term performance, and constructibility. A well-coordinated effort led to a successful completion of the project.

A Simple Method of Estimating Ground Model Reliability for Linear Infrastructure Projects❋ Paul, Darren, Golder Associates, Australia, dpaul@golder.com.au (TS #52) The ground model is fundamental to any engineering project with ground structure interaction. Linear infrastructure projects have many forms of ground interaction and ground models are essential. All September 2018

ground models are hypothetical. Interpolation or extrapolation from known data is required in order to form a prediction of the ground characteristics at any particular location. There is therefore i