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PP 319986/101

Volume 18 Number 1 March 2013


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The Hotel Engineer The Official Publication of the Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering



elcome to another edition of the Hotel Engineer magazine.

This issue is a little bigger than normal having our Swimming pool feature with numerous articles regarding products, services and regulation updates for the Hotel pool. A big thank you to those people whom gave us their expertise in this area, particularly Alan Lewis who is always happy to share his immense knowledge. If anyone has a technical question on anything to do with pool water chemistry or any other pool related problems, please let us know, he would be more than happy to answer any questions. In the last issue we asked Bryan Douglas CEO of the Australian lighting council to give us a run down on LEDs, this issue we look further at this subject thanks to Davide Ross of Pangolin associates. David visited GovEnergy2011 in America, it was from this he has put together his latest article on LEDs as he did last year, when he wrote about Cooling Tower technology. Since talking at the last AIHE Update conference, Soudi Noori has become a regular contributor to this magazine, this time looking at Building Condition Assessment. We have the second part of Brendon Granger’s article on guest room technology, an update on solar energy from Cat Projects, and our regular regulations update from Derek Hendry.

Adbourne Publishing 18/69 Acacia Road Ferntree Gully, VIC 3156 PO Box 735, Belgrave, VIC 3160 Editorial Consultant Max Agnew Editorial Contributor Thomas Johnson

ADVERTISING Melbourne: Neil Muir T: (03) 9758 1433 F: (03) 9758 1432 E: Adelaide: Robert Spowart T: 0488 390 039 E: PRODUCTION Emily Wallis T: (03) 9758 1436 E:

Peter Swanson is another regular contributor. Over the last 10 years there has been considerable advancement in technology for presentation equipment, as such InfoComm the AV Industry body is currently working on standards to assist in taking the guess work out of the audio and presentation industry. Peter was on the industry council and so gives an insight on what standards have currently been achieved and what to next expect. Ramiz Gabrial has over 25 years experience as a building consulting engineer working in many parts of the world, now residing in Melbourne his first article to appear in this magazine is titled “Green Washing”. In the next issue, he has written from his experience on what it is like to be an engineer overseas in the Gulf States. David Randal is a safety specialist whom has had a long association with the AIHE. David wrote for us in one of our first magazines some 17 years ago, it’s great to have him back in again, here he discusses contractor management. Finally, for all those readers that haven’t yet joined the AIHE, as you can see by the events in the news section there are some really informative meetings held each month by the state chapters. It is a great place to meet like minded people and gain knowledge on the many issues related to Hotel Engineering. Application forms are within the magazine or drop an email (shown below) to any of the state presidents. Till next time..... Neil Muir

Administration Robyn Fantin T: (03) 9758 1431 E: Marketing Tania Lamanna T: (03) 9500 0285 E: SUBSCRIPTIONS Enquiries: (03) 9758 1431 Fax: (03) 9758 1432 Email:

AIHE State Presidents Ian Crookston, QLD E: Anura Yapa, NSW E: David Zammit,VIC E: Tony Fioraso, WA E:

Adbourne Publishing cannot ensure that the advertisers appearing in The Hotel Engineer comply absolutely with the Trades Practices Act and other consumer legislation. The responsibility is therefore on the person, company or advertising agency submitting the advertisement(s) for publication. Adbourne Publishing reserves the right to refuse any advertisement without stating the reason. No responsibility is accepted for incorrect information contained in advertisements or editorial.The editor reserves the right to edit, abridge or otherwise alter articles for publication. All original material produced in this magazine remains the property of the publisher and cannot be reproduced without authority. The views of the contributors and all submitted editorial are the author’s views and are not necessarily those of the publisher.


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AIHE State News

13 Guest Room Technology 15 Building Condition Assessment 20 LED where to now? 26 F acilities Management and Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Hotel Industry 28 Green Washing 36 Standards in Presentation Technology


40 Regulation Update 42 IT’s All About Saving Your Money 47 Contractor Management 52 Thermographic (Infrared Imaging) 58 Back of House 60 Photovoltaic Dawn 62 WA’s Most Isolated Commercial Swimming Pool 64 Sink or Swim 68 FMG Engineering looks at european aquatic design 72 Laurie Lawrence Swim School Banora Point

80 Little Fins Swim School


84 Disinfection of Public Swimming Pools and Spa Pools 92 Is your power consumption going up? 93 Product News




74 Sand Filters Stimulate Biofilms


Front cover shows The Berkeley River Lodge north coast of The Kimberley’s in WA. More details on page 62

PP 319986/101

Volume 18 Number 1 March 2013




NEWS NEW SOUTH WALES Greetings from NSW Chapter. The new year of 2013 has been a great success leading up to April. I would like to welcome all new NSW Chapter members who have joined and thank those who have contributed to the success of 2012. It is looking to be a prosperous year for the AIHE. The NSW Chapter made a kick start to the year on 27th February with our first meeting at the Novotel Sydney Central. We were very fortunate to have guest presenter, Superintendent Warwick Isemonger, Manager Building Compliance of the NSW Fire Brigade. Isemonger briefed our members on isolation of fire systems, with focus on common pitfalls. We would like to thank Warwick for delivering an informative presentation. His expertise and continual support to the NSW Chapter is highly valued. Supt. Warwick Isemonger To follow, inspection of newly installed Chillers at Novotel Sydney Central were carried out. Jason Manly and his team of Chilltech Services who installed the equipment remained on standby to answer questions regarding the project.


The meeting was a great catch up to start the year. A special thanks goes to Edi Buffon for providing the venue, it was a great evening. Our next meeting for March was held at the Sydney Hilton Hotel with 32 attendees for the event. Unfortunately Chief Engineer, Craig Cavers of Hilton Sydney could not attend. Thankfully Nigel Way, Engineering Service Manager of the Hilton Sydney, was able to fill in for his absence.

for all his assistance with regards to the 2013 AIHE Chapter Survey. For the schedule, our next State Presidents Meeting will be held on the 12th April on the Gold Coast. Although it is early, the 2013 Christmas Party is looking to fall on the 7th of December 2013.

We were also fortunate to be joined by Mr. Felix Busch, Director of Operations for Hilton Sydney. Mr. Busch shared his thoughts and recognised the importance of our regular chapter meetings and its influence on the industry. His presence and speech was very encouraging for all attendees. Presenter Trevor Burrows from the Australian Essential Service Compliance Pty Ltd soon followed with a discussion on the Annual Fire Statement in NSW. This was an ideal topic as most of the engineers required insight and clarification on this area. Moving forward for 2013, our next NSW chapter meeting will be held in April. We will also be looking at finalising the 2013 event calendar at the committee meeting in April. Our intended plan is to have 5 informative sessions; 2 performed by our corporate members and 1 round table forum. Based on feedback, committee members would like to see more open discussion. Based on AIHE Survey results for 2013, majority respondents have voted to keep the NSW Chapter Meeting scheduled for a 4.30pm start. Our previous 2 meetings have run smoothly based on this timeframe. This will continue until any further changes. I would also like to thank Brendon Granger

Anura-President NSW, Arturo Abad (Centre), Trevor MaCarren – Accor NSW Regional Technical Services Manager

In recent events, a special congratulation is in order for one of our Chapter Members, Mr. Arturo Abad, Chief Engineer of Novotel Darling Harbour. Arturo has been presented the award of Accor Technical Services Manager of the Year. It is great to see such excellence amongst the NSW Chapter. In closing, I hope to increase member numbers throughout the year of 2013 and encourage all General Managers to get their engineers involved. It is a great way for the Engineering industry to communicate and grow. Regards, Anura Yapa JP President – AIHE NSW chapter

VICTORIA Blah David Zammit President AIHE Victoria Chapter

WESTERN AUSTRALIA Blah With over 30 yearsTony experience, FiorasoYardley Hospitality has served the hospitality industry as a central provider in the supply of electrical equipment and AIHE specialist hospitality items. Through every trend and development, our specialty within the President

Western industry has always been our deep understanding of your every need, and unique ability to fulfil those needs. This has garnered our long,Australia successful history of providing a wide range of products from many leading brands, to Hotels, Motels, Apartments, Resorts and Tourists Parks throughout Australia. Quality; pricing; consistency of products; energy efficiency; we supply only the highest standard of products, tailoring a complete package of electrical appliances to suit your needs.

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VICTORIA With record temperatures in Victoria over the past months, it has been pleasing to see some milder weather head our way, taking some stress off us and our plant. Hopefully your 2013 is off to a great start, as we face the challenges of this new year. Our committee met in early January to commence our meeting plans, considering venues and guest presenters that would be popular and informative to our members throughout this year. Our first meeting was held in February, hosted by Ganesh Sen from Eco Hospitality Refurbishment. As Ganesh has a close affiliation with RMIT, the meeting was held at the University. Ganesh presented in conjunction with KNX Intelligent Building Technology. The KNX team delivered a brilliant overview

WESTERN AUSTRALIA The Western Australian institute celebrated Christmas in December at the Brisbane Hotel with a great turnout of 50 members. We wished everyone a safe and happy Christmas and hoped that it was a prosperous new year. The WA Chapter rested over January with most Engineers and members on holidays. In February we visited the Ampac technologies team at there office/workshop in Balcatta. Ampac Technologies is the largest independent and privately owned supplier of fire detection and alarm systems in Australia. Ampac specialises in the design, manufacturing and technical support for a complete range of system solutions. Ampac supply systems for a vast variety of applications including commercial


of the world of KNX, taking us through the advantages of this versatile open architecture based system. Again we recorded one of our best attendances with a total of 27 members and 8 newcomers, a great way to start the year, showing amazing support of our chapter. March had us gather at the Swanston Hotel Grand Mercure. Credit and thanks to Lal Udagedara Maintenance Manager, for working with his management team to secure the venue for us to meet. Paul Calabro, General manager of Scholz Industries, made the trip over from SA to present on the evening. The presentation was focused on VEET and Paul presented a very informative overview and introduction to the currently offered incentive. I feel we all walked away with a sound understanding of what the scheme has to offer and how our hotel’s can possibly benefit from the scheme when implementing energy saving projects.

network of contacts to passionately arrange our meetings, thank you Stephen. As we do every year, we are aiming to increase our member base in 2013 through the support of the committee, our hotel engineers and corporate members spreading the news about our meetings. By encouraging new members to our chapter, this will enable us to further develop a linked community of hotel engineers within Victoria. If you wish to become a member or require further information about our meetings, feel free to contact me via email, or use the membership form published in this magazine. The chapter presidents are also set to meet in April as part of our ongoing commitment in keeping the chapters communicating on a national level. Highlights of this meeting will be shared in the next edition of the magazine.

April and May’s meetings are currently being finalised; meeting dates will be communicated once venues and presenters are confirmed. Stephen Docherty our meeting coordinator has been instrumental in this task, using his vast

David Zammit President – AIHE Victoria Chapter

and industrial buildings, mines, prisons, hospitals, hotels and multi-residential complexes.

President Tony Fioraso

Ampac Technologies operates Australia-wide through a network of branch offices.These offices provide sales and technical support for fire installation & EWIS contractors as well as fire discipline and electrical consulting engineers.They also work with building owners and maintenance engineers to make recommendations for future planning or budgeting. Ampac Technologies is also ISO 9001 accredited

Security Social coordinators Lee Binsted Doug Stemp Barry Haydinger

David Thomas (Ampac Sales Executive) provided a Smart Graphics Presentation on the night which was well received with lots of interest and ideas on improving our current fire systems. The site meeting was well represented with over 30 members. Many thanks go out to Joe Fusari-State Manager Western Australia, Ampac Technologies and his team who provided food and refreshments after the presentation. Pan Pacific Hotel hosted the Annual General Meeting in March with the committee for next year voted in as follows:


Treasurer Ian Amen

The meeting was well represented with 30 members and our thanks went out to Jason Navarro (Chief Engineer) and Stuart Birrell (Assistant Chief Engineer) for hosting the night and providing refreshments after the meeting. I would like to acknowledge Darryl Mason for his help over the last year. The committee is very excited about what we can achieve over the next year particularly with the support of our Engineers and corporate members gaining strength in numbers every month. The calendar of events has been circulated to all members with a variety of meetings, presentations and site visits planned throughout the year, but we continue to seek new and exciting topics for discussion. Thank you and I hope you all have a great year, Tony Fioraso President – AIHE Western Australia


QUEENSLAND The Qld chapters first quarterly meeting was the 27th February and held at the Mercure Gold Coast Resort. The evenings presentations were from Electrolux and Flood Restoration Australia (FRA). The first presenter, who is normally based in Melbourne was Electrolux Business Development Manager, Elver Pascolo. Elver explained, that as one of the world’s largest manufacturers, Electrolux offers the largest range of commercial washing machines, tumble dryers, ironers and finishing equipment to the Hotel sector. They also provide services including the design, installation and ongoing support and training. All of which could be bundled into a monthly finance package if desired. As a national organisation they provide sales and service in all states. Their equipment is promoted as the most energy and water efficient in the industry and would be happy to discuss & review with any of our members, their current laundry practices with a view of

assisting with cost savings and best practice processes where possible. Elver provided all attending members a saving wheel which quickly can show estimated costs and savings. Also in addition added they would be happy to do a complimentary laundry audit. Providing a report on current processes. For any other members wishing to take up this offer he can be contacted on The next presenter was Mike Pyke, who gave a overview about their company which has only recently started operating in Qld. The company FRA has however been in operation for 12 years in Victoria. Providing fast 24/7 comprehensive restoration services in the event of storm, flood and fire damage. Their portfolio of clients includes residential customers, Insurers, Commercial Property Managers, Real Estate Agents and Owners of Corporations. FRA are able to respond 24/7 to any storm, flood or fire damage you have experienced. They are an owner-operated business staffed by IICRC accredited professionals. Bill Strong and Mike have now opened up a branch of FRA in Queensland and have the manpower and state of the art equipment to attend to the smallest or largest of emergency jobs you may have. They currently have 3 teams operating from Byron Bay to the Sunshine coast and are

able to be onsite within 1 hour to most areas of South East Qld Locations. Mike advised of their good track record, stating they have 98% of jobs dry with in 48 hours of being called. Mike indicated there is a Science to properly drying building structures and furnishings after a flood event. Without applying industry standards and using accredited service providers to the way you clean up your asset. You may be inviting reoccurring issues like mould or other bacteria growth into your walls or under your carpets. In an environment of stringent workplace health and safety standards along with a duty of care to customers, they believe you as a property manager can’t afford to take any shortcuts when it comes to successfully drying structures after such an event. Collection of business cards was undertaken and a raffle price was kindly given by both presenting companies. The committee thanked both presenters and members for coming and particularly acknowledging those that had made the trip down from Brisbane to attend. The night concluded with light refreshments. Qld Chapters AGM will be held at InterContinental Sanctuary Cove Resort, Wednesday 17th April. Breakfast commencing at 7am and AGM from 8 – 9am. Ian Crookston AIHE – Qld Chapter President

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Guest Room Technology

What Guests Want! Brendon Granger

Today we continue our discussion about Guest Room technology and the global trends and how they impact what, we as hoteliers, need to provide our guests. Last time we looked a Ubiquity; the fact that many people have internet access and it is almost viewed as a utility, Mobility; internet access from the palm of your hand and Cloud Computing; access to business and personal data and productivity tools that are available via the internet. Today we will look at Social Media and iVideo and iTV.

Social Media


ocial Media, it’s here whether we like it or not. Facebook has 901 million active users. If Facebook was a country, it would be the third largest country in the world. There were 2.7 billion likes on Facebook every day. It is the second most visited website after Google. This is an interesting diagram. It shows how long it took each of these technologies take to reach 50 million users. It took the radio, 38 years, the television 13 years, the Internet 4 years and the iPod, 3 years to reach 50 million users. Whilst in less than a year, Facebook reached 200 million users. I think this helps to put a new perspective on things. There are a couple of other social media portals worth mentioning. LinkedIn is one, with 150 million members, two members joining every second. 80% of companies now are using social media for their recruitment and of that 95% of them are using LinkedIn. The other one we should mention is Twitter. There are 500 million active users and million accounts added daily. That’s 1 every 11 seconds. Then there is YouTube which is the third most visited website on the web. It has 2 billion views per day. That is 23,000 every second. YouTube now counts for 10% of internet traffic. There are 829,000 videos uploaded every day and that is about 100,000 videos uploaded every 4 minutes.

Pinterest is another relatively new social media site. It was launched in March 2010. It’s really about pinning images and videos that you like, to an online Pin board. The key thing about Pinterest; is it has grown faster than Google and Facebook ever did. It has been the fastest site to reach the 10 million unique visitor mark. And, in January 2012, it was driving more referral traffic to retailers than LinkedIn, YouTube and Google Plus. And of course we can’t forget TripAdvisor which we are all familiar with in the hotel industry. It is the largest travel website. There are 50 million unique visitors each month. 61% of people are now researching travel online and one in four people check TripAdvisor before actually booking. This is why a number of the chains are now putting TripAdvisor information on their website so potential guests don’t need to go off the TripAdvisor. They can actually get the information right there, because if they go away from the site, chances are, they might not come back. TripAdvisor has seen a strong mobile uptake since late 2011. Obviously, good things can be said about your property on TripAdvisor but on the flip side a poor technology experience could result in a bad review on the TripAdvisor. So, in summary social media, is a different way for people to interact. It’s a different way for companies to portray themselves and interact with their clients. It is very much in-the-moment technology and access from mobile devices is becoming extremely popular. More than half of the Facebook users these days access Facebook from a mobile device. So, if you weren’t paying attention before,


providing access to programs via the internet; iView from the ABC, Channel 10, Channel 7. They all have a website where you can go and watch a previous episode via the web. There are also movie subscription websites such as Bigpond movies which let you download Movies straight to your PC or T-Box. In 2011, online subscriptions for Netflix, which is a US based movie site, hit 23.6 million subscribers in the US plus another 26 million worldwide.

that means that more than 450 million people are accessing Facebook on a mobile device daily.

So, what is the impact of social media on hotels? Well, many guests will want to connect to social media when they are at your property. They may, well, update TripAdvisor so you need to make sure they have something good to say. But once again, we see an increased demand for internet access. Social media increases the frequency of the use of internet for your guests. It also increases the number of locations where the guest may wish to connect. Years ago, we would simply have wireless internet access in the lobby, then guests wanted it in their rooms. Now, they want and expect it everywhere; function areas, pool, restaurants, you name it.

iVideo and iTV The fifth and final trend is iVideo and iTV. Basically people’s viewing habits have changed. People no longer sit down at a particular time to watch a program that they want. Instead they want to watch, what they want, when they want. So, the TV networks are

Further to that, over recent months, BBC iPlayer which is equivalent to our ABC’s iView has seen a particularly significant growth in requests from tablets and internet connected TV’s. They are now making up 40% of viewing devices.

What’s the impact on hotels? Guests want to catch up on their favourite TV program from their room. So, as we’ve said before, there’s less dependence on in-house movies. There’s an increased need for internet access because they are streaming something over the internet. Because it’s streaming, there’s going to be an increased demand for bandwidth. There will also an increased demand for things like connectivity panels which will allow guests to connect their laptop or their tablet up to the TV so they can watch their content on the TV which these days will be a 40 or a 42 inch TV. We’ve talked about less dependence on in-house movies before. Many of you have probably seen a drop in video on demand revenue. Here are some statistics that the Mandarin Oriental Group put out probably just on 2 years ago now. They said that 30 to 35% of the guests were connecting to the internet whereas and only 4 to 6% were using video-on-demand. Given that the numbers are two years old (pre-iPad) internet connectivity is probably even higher and video-on-demand has decreased further.

In summary – what is the impact of these trends on hotel guest rooms? High speed internet access is expected from rooms and public spaces. There’s an increasing demand for more bandwidth and it’s only escalating. The demand for wireless networks is escalating and also there’s a need for greater signal strength for wireless as we see more smart phones and tablets being connected to hotel networks. Guests want to enjoy their own content from the comfort of their room so there’s an increased demand for connectivity to the TV as well. They’re demanding to connect multiple devices to the internet and the fact that they bring in multiple devices means there’s an increased demand for power outlets. For further information please contact Technology 4 Hotels Free call: 1300 503 657 Email: Web:


Building Condition Assessment, key to saving money

what maintenance is really necessary? Soudi Noori I Director of Safety and Risk Engineering Solutions BSc, MEngSci,Grad Dip OEH (MONASH) Professional Member of Safety Institute of Australia, RSP (AUST)


There are three common types of maintenance:

ccording to the European Standard EN 13306, maintenance concerns the “combination of all technical, administrative and managerial actions during the life cycle of an item intended to retain it in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform the required function”. Maintenance is a generic term for variety of tasks in very different types of sectors and all kinds of working environments. Maintenance activities include:

• Preventative maintenance, which is carried out on a piece of equipment at a certain interval.


• inspection • testing • measurement • replacement • adjustment • repair • upkeep • fault detection • replacement of parts • servicing • lubrication, cleaning Regular maintenance has an important role in eliminating workplace hazards and providing safer and healthier working conditions. Lack of maintenance or inadequate maintenance can cause serious and deadly accidents or health problems. Maintenance can be a costly element of facility operations in terms of dollars and impact on operations.

• Predictive maintenance, which is carried out when tests indicate that maintenance is needed and • Emergency repairs when something breaks

Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance (PM) is the practice of maintaining equipment on a regular schedule based on elapsed time. The intent of PM is to “prevent” maintenance problems or failures before they take place by following routine and comprehensive maintenance procedures. The goal is to achieve fewer, shorter, and more predictable outages. Some advantages of PM are: • It is predictable, making budgeting, planning, and resource levelling possible. • When properly practiced, it generally prevents most major problems, thus reducing forced outages, “reactive

maintenance,” and maintenance costs in general. • It assures managers that equipment is being maintained. • It is easily understood and justified. PM has proven generally reliable in the past and is still the core of most maintenance programs. However, care should be taken in applying PM recommendations. Implementation of PM recommendations without considering equipment condition may result in a workload that is too large to achieve. To mitigate this problem, maintenance managers may choose to apply reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) program.

Reliability-Centered Maintenance The goal of RCM programs is to provide the appropriate amount of maintenance at the right time to prevent forced outages while at the same time eliminating unnecessary maintenance. Some features of RCM are: • It may be labour intensive and time consuming to set up initially.


• It may require additional monitoring of quantities, like temperature and vibration, to be effective. This may mean new monitoring equipment with its own PM or more human monitoring with multiple inspections. • It may result in a “run-to-failure” or deferred maintenance philosophy for some equipment which may cause concern for some staff and managers. • It may require initial and later revisions to the maintenance schedule in a “trial-anderror” fashion depending on the success of the initial maintenance schedule and equipment condition. • It should result in a more manageable maintenance workload focused on the most important equipment.

Condition-Based Maintenance This program relies on knowing the condition of individual pieces of equipment. Some features of CBM include: • Monitoring equipment parameters such as temperatures, pressures, vibrations, leakage current, dissolved gas analysis, etc. • Testing on a periodic basis and/or when problems are suspected such as vibration testing, and infrared scanning. • Monitoring carefully operator-gathered data. • Securing results in knowledgeable maintenance decisions which would reduce overall costs by focusing only on equipment that really needs attention. A combination of CBM and PM is perhaps the most practical approach. Whether utilising a PM, RCM, or conditionbased maintenance (CBM) program, or a combination of these, scheduled maintenance should be the primary focus of maintenance staff. This will reduce emergency maintenance. Scheduled maintenance should have a higher priority than special projects and should be the number one priority. Condition assessments are an important aspect of effective maintenance planning. By “Condition Assessment” of the building, chief engineer or maintenance manager can determine what maintenance is really necessary.


Condition Assessment of Building It is critical that organisations have a clear knowledge of the condition of their assets and how they are performing. All management decisions regarding maintenance, rehabilitation and renewal revolve around these two aspects. Condition assessments (see Figure 1) are technical inspections by competent assessors to evaluate the physical state of building elements and services and to assess the maintenance needs of the facility. The process may include the following:

• visual inspections and assessment of straightforward building elements • review of on-site building asset management plans to identify building information relevant to the conduct of condition assessments (e.g. the presence of asbestos containing material on the site) • gathering information from maintenance records and communicating with maintenance personnel and building users to understand the complexity of the facilities to be assessed and any maintenance issues • capture of visual images on electronic or other media

Electrical Ele ctrical

Building Buildingstructure structure

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

• electrical electri cal supply and and distribution distri bution • lighting light ing • emergency emergency lighting lighting • standby/power stan dby pow er system(s) syst em(s) • telephone tele phone and a nd communications comm uni cations • cable cab le and andsatellite satel lite TV TV • security security

Mechanical Mecha nical

eating, • • hheat ing, ventilating, ventilat ing, air air conditioning conditi oning systems systems • • garage garageexhaust exhaustsystems syst ems • domestic • dom estic hot hot and and cold cold water wat er supply supply • • sanitary sanit ary equipment equipme nt and and sewers se wers • • storm sto rm sewers sewers and anddrainage drainage sprinkler pipe syst systems • • fire fire spr inkl er and and stand sta ndpipe ems • s  pecialised equipment such as • speci alized equipment such asgarbage garbage chutes chutes and andcompactors comp actors

Building BuildingEnvelope Envelope

Interior Finishes Inter ior Fin is hes

• C ommo • Common n areas areas,.ceilings walls, Walls ,floors floors, ceilings • Suites • Suites interior inter iorwalls w allsand and partit ions partitions floors floors ceili ngs ceilings doors doors

xterior • • eexter ior walls wa lls - masonry -masonry - exposed shear -exposed shear walls walls - exposed slab -exposed slab edges edges • • balcony bal conyslabs slabs indows • • wwindo wsand and doors doors • • roofs roofs • • foundation fou ndat ion walls w alls and slabs and s labs

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

underlying soils underlying soils footings footi ngs foundations fou ndat ions retaining walls reta ining walls walls walls columns col um ns decking decki ng guards/railings guards/ railings beams beam s trusses trusses slabs slabs shear walls she ar walls elevator cores ele vator cores cladding cla dding joints joints windows windo ws

Function Function •• Barrier free access access Bar rier free •• Pedestrian Pe destri an circulation circ ulati on •• G Ga arbage/recycling rbage/ recycli ng rooms rooms La undry rooms rooms •• Laundry •• Mail M ail rooms roo ms • Kitch ens, bath room s, •K  itchens, bathrooms, appliances appliances • S tor age lockers •• Storage lockers Suite i solat ion (odour, •noi S  uite isolation (odour, se, vermin) noise, vermin)

Figure 1 – Condition Assessment Checklists Competent and qualified professionals commonly have developed their own checklists and procedures that may differ from those outlined here.

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Window / Wall Type Room Air Conditioners Reverse Cycle & Cooling Only Models Suits screen sizes 10” to 42” (VESA compatible) 2.1 kW ~ 6.0 kW Models Bench Top 50L Bar Fridge

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Figure 1 (continued below) – Condition Assessment Checklists Ele vators Elevators

• physical Life Safety

Reviall ewmajor all major com ponents: Review components: • machines • mach ines • rotating sheaves • rotati ng sheaves • hoist ropes • hoist r opes • controllers • contr ollers • selectors • selectors • motor generator sets sets • motor generator • governors • gov ernors • hoistway • hoisequipment tway e quipm ent including the car • car• fixtures car fixtures incl uding the buttons car butt ons • position and posit ion indi cators • and indicators • fixtures hall fixtuincluding res inc luding the buttons hall buttons • hall the hall • hall andlanterns hall lan tern s • and • com municatequipment ion equipm ent • communication • protective door protective devices • door devices • emergency • emergency alarmalarm bell bell • centr al cont rol panel • central control panel

Passive Arc hitectu ral Elem ents

Revithe ew the quality of adjus tm ent withrespect Review quality of adjustment with res pect to industry stan dards. Assess all on to industry standards. Assess all functions functi ons on sta ndard service calls and fire standard service calls and fire emergency modes. emergency m odes . Measu re the following Measure the following performance parameters: perf ormance parameters:

• operating times • operat ing times • running speeds • running speeds • car and hall call dwell times • car a nd hall call dwell times • door open and close times • door open a nd close times • door operation noise levels • door operation noi se levels • levelling accuracy • level ling accu racy • fan• noise fan nlevels oise levels • door force • closing door clos ing for ce • machine temperature. • mach ine tem perat ure. • Review operation characteristics: • Revi ew operat ion charac teristics: • accel erat ion • acceleration • dec eleration • deceleration • quality ride quality • ride • contr dispatching oller dis patch ing • controller • (zon ing, weighing load weighing operations, • (zoning, load operations, etc.) etc.) Life LifeSafety Safety Passive Architectural Elements Arc hitectu ral Elem ents • Occupancy classification Occu pancyfire classificati on • • Structural resistance • Structu ral fire resist ance • Major fire separations • Major fire separations • Closures • Closu res • Means of egress • Means of egress • Smoke control strategy • Smoke cont rol strat egy • • Interior finishes Interi or finis hes • • Access firefifighting Access for for fire ghting


Active Mechanical Elements Active Mechanical El em ents • Sprinkler systems • • Standpipe andems hose system Spr inkler syst • • Special extinguishing systems Sta ndpipe a nd hose syst em • • Water Specialsupply extin guis hing systems • • Fire pumps Water supply Fire pu mps switches • • Supervisory Supervicontrol sory switc hes • • Smoke equipment Smoke cont rol equipment • • Explosion relief devices


all d fire wing

Exp losi on relief de vices

Active Electrical Elements • Emergency power Active E lectrical El eme nts supply (NFC) • Emergency lighting Emergency po wer supply (NF C) • • Smoke control (detection) Emergency lighting • • Fire alarm system • Smoke cont rol (detecti on) • Voice communication • Fire alarm syst em • Electrical vaults • Voi ce comm uni cation • Organizational Elements • Electri cal vaults • Fire safety plan • Organizati onal El eme nts • • Maintenance practices Fire safety plan •


Main tenance practi ces

measurements of a building, building elements and site elements

• inspections by closed circuit television • Occu pancy classificati on (e.g. of underground services)

• Structu ral fire resist ance Major separations • •taking offirenon-destructive samples •forClosu res testing • Means of egress ofcont disaster • •review plans, flood Smoke rol stratrecovery egy •lines Interi finisdetermine hes etcor to the likely effect • Access for fire fi ghting

of a natural disaster on the building and

• •infrared scanning Spr inkler syst emsfor thermal stress •(e.g. Staof ndpipe a nd hose syst em electrical services) Special extin guis hing systems

Supervi sory switc hes

• Accurate prediction of future expenditure requirements through understanding remaining asset life and capital investment needs. • Refinement of maintenance and rehabilitation strategies Not knowing the current condition or performance of an asset may lead to:

Active itsMechanical services El em ents

• Risk management associated with asset failures, and mitigation of the consequences of failure.

• •recordings of sound level, vibration Water supply other operating parameters •and Fire pu mps • •taking location coordinates using a Smoke cont rol equipment positioning system •satellite-based Exp losi on reliefglobal de vices • collection oreme confirmation of asset data Active E lectrical El nts load measurements of • •undertaking Emergency po wer supply (NF C) andlighting other services •electrical Emergency Smoke cont rol (detecti on) air quality measurements • •indoor

• Fire alarm syst em • •determining Voi ce commactions uni cationto mitigate any •immediate Electri cal vaults risk until remedial works • Organizati onal El eme nts (or other actions) can be taken to • Fire safety plan problems. •address Main tenance practi ces

The performance of the asset is the ability to provide the required level of service to customers. Generally this can be measured in terms of reliability, availability, capacity, and meeting customer demands and needs.

• unnecessary exposure to legal, social and other risks associated with deteriorated facilities, statutory non-compliance and hazardous materials • premature asset failures, shorter useful asset lives, higher repair and replacement costs, all of which ultimately affect service delivery capacity and quality. Our experience has shown that having a “Condition Assessment” of your property portfolio can help identify operational risks early and help plan for urgent works which would otherwise have a significant impact on not just cost but operational issues particularly if the building used 24/7, 365 days a year. If you are unsure of your property profile or condition – call us now for assessment and overview. We can save you money whether this is on running costs or maintenance over a period of time. We can make a difference.

All of this is critical information for determining the remaining useful life (see Figure 2) of an asset and more importantly the timing for possible intervention steps to bring levels of service, Figure 2 – Life Expectancy Guide for Building Assets & Equipment provided by the asset, back to a desired standard. The below listed life cycles very much depend upon equipment Understanding asset failure modes leads to better decision-making. Being aware of the failure modes allows effort to be focused on understanding the timing and consequences of the failure, and the expected expenditure patterns. The benefits of knowing the current condition and performance level of an asset are: • Ability to plan for and manage the delivery of the required level of service. • Avoidance of premature asset failure, leaving open the option of cost effective renovation.

The listedoflife cycles very given much over depend equipment typebelow and level maintenance theupon years, howevertype and ofismaintenance over the years, howeverout the in below is the level below based upongiven maintenance being carried based upon maintenance being carried out in accordance with accordance with manufactures instructions. manufactures instructions. Mechanical/Electrical • Air Handling Units - 12-15 Years Mechanical/Electrical • Fans, Exhaust - 12-15 Years • Air Handling Units - 12-15 Years • Chillers - 17-20 Years • Fans, Exhaust - 12-15 Years • Guest Room Fan Coil Units - 10 Years • Chillers - 17-20 Years • Cooling Towers - 15 Years • Guest • Pumps - 15Room YearsFan Coil Units - 10 Years • Cooling Towers -- 10 15 Years Years • Steam Generators • Pumps 15 Years • Boilers - 20 Years • Steam Generators - 10 Years- 15 Years • Water Heathers (direct fired) • Boilers - 20 Years • Pool Equipment - 10 Years • Water-Heathers • Elevators 20 Years(direct fired) - 15 Years • Pool Equipment - 10 Years(PABX) - 7 Years • Communication Equipment • Elevators - 20 Years • Laundry Equipment • Communication • Washers - 15 YearsEquipment (PABX) - 7 Years • Laundry Equipment • Dryers - 10 Years • Washers - 15 Years • Presses, Finishers - 15 Years • Dryers - 10 Years • Dry Cleaning Machine - 10 Years • Presses, Finishers - 15 Years • Kitchens, Catering Equipment • Dry Cleaning Machine - 10 Years • Oven Ranges,Catering Fat Fryers - 5 Years • Kitchens, Equipment • Small Appliances 2-3 Years • Oven Ranges, Fat Fryers - 5 Years • Reach-in - 10Years Years • SmallRefrigerators Appliances - 2-3 • Walk-in Refrigerators - 15- Years • Reach-in Refrigerators 10 Years • Pastry ShopRefrigerators Equipment -- 10 • Walk-in 15 Years Years • Butchers - 10 Years • PastryEquipment Shop Equipment - 10 Years • Dishwaters 10 Years • Butchers Equipment - 10 Years • Dishwaters - 10 Years

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where to now? Dr Davide Ross I Pangolin Associates


eading Bryan Douglas’ article in the last edition of The Hotel Engineer on “A Quality guide to LEDs”, made me renew with vigour my own promised article on solid state lighting (SSL), of which LEDs are one type. This article follows on from my prior Cooling Tower feature based on a visit to GovEnergy 2011 (Cincinnati, Ohio) my attendance in part facilitated by Adbourne Publishing. At this conference I had attended both a general session on LEDs followed by a 4 hour long breakout workshop session on “LED Lighting Basics” presented by Dr John (Jack) Curran, President of LED Transformations, LLC. Both were great talks and enjoyed by all who attended. Should it be of interest to readers, his powerpoint slides can be downloaded from http://www.ledtransformations. com/govenergy

procedures and measurements for SSL products It will come as a welcome relief to readers of this journal that a much needed local database is now available via the LED quality labelling certificate scheme developed by the Lighting Council Australia. The Lighting Council Australia has instituted this quality scheme for SSL based on the above DOE CALiPER program. Bryan’s article beat me to the lunch table, hence my review will dig a little deeper and perhaps try to guide some meaningful direction to the big question most clients will ask; is the time right to change my lighting to SSL? Do I buy now or wait for prices to come down further with subsequent quality and reliability improvements to come?

In his presentation, Dr Curran made reference to the US Department of Energy (DOE) CALiPER program. The DOE CALiPER program supports testing of a wide array of SSL products available for general illumination, using industryapproved test procedures. The CALiPER program has as its core an aim to: • Provide objective product performance information to the public in the early years, helping buyers and specifiers have confidence that new SSL products will perform as claimed • Guide the development, refinement, and adoption of credible, standardised test


Fig. 1 Haitz’s Law (Source Roland Haitz [1])

I am certain most ask this question with a premise to what they have seen and likely to have experienced first hand with the flat screen TV market over the last decade or so. Even the latest round of inflation figures released by the ABS has once again shown consumer electronics to suffer further price deflation to the angst of local retailers against a “modest” period of relatively high and stable AUD exchange rates.

Haitz’s Law So lets start with the forecast first presented in 2000 about the steady improvement of LEDs know as Haitz’s Law, named after Dr Roland Haitz of Agilent Technologies, who first observed this phenomena [1]. This law is considered the LED counterpart to its more

how does it happen” [2]. As is evident from Dorsheimer’s findings, one may conclude there is still much fat to trim (e.g. channel margin) and plenty of meat to come away from the bone before $4 is reached (e.g. LEDs and heat sink costs).


Fig. 2 Typical cost breakdown of LED lamp (Source Jed Dorsheimer [2])

famous cousin in the semiconductor industry known as Moore’s Law.

brighten a dull room. A limit will be reached that does not need to be crossed.

Simply put, Haitz’s Law states that every decade the price of LEDs decreases by a factor of 10, while the performance (measured in flux per unit) increases by a factor of 20 (for a given wavelength (colour) of light). In addition, it was forecast that the efficiency of LED-based lighting could reach 200 lm/W (lumens per Watt) in 2020 crossing 100 lm/W in 2010, as was indeed the case a couple of years ago. However, extrapolating forward there is an important distinction between these two laws. While our insatiable demand for contemporary computing power will continually grow until the physical limit of transistor count per integrated circuit is reached, we have no foreseeable reason in residential and commercial applications to strive to pack a bright glowing celestial star in a light bulb to

What does Haitz’s Law imply for the near term decade of lighting? • LEDs will continue to get brighter, run cooler, and become more efficient and will continue to get less expensive • LED fixture product generations will be measured in months, rather than years • LEDs will capture more of the lighting market, displacing traditional technologies, until they become the dominant lighting technology While reviewing literature for this article, I came across a presentation given at the DOE SSL Market Introduction Workshop in July 2012 by Jed Dorsheimer from Canaccord Genuity Corp. This contained an interesting cost breakdown by component for a 60W LED lamp titled “$40 to $4

For those inclined wanting to know more details, the DOE publishes CALiPER Summary Reports following the completion of each testing series. Starting in 2012, the Summary Reports focus on a single product type or application. Products are selected with the intent of capturing the current state of the market – a cross section ranging from expected low to high performing products – with the bulk characterising the average of the range. Given the current flavour of the month for energy efficiency improvements on a hotel’s shopping list is the likely replacement of MR-16 50W dichroic halogen lamps or recessed incandescent or CFL downlights with new LED based units, I would recommend reviewing Report 14 of testing [3] . This round focused on LED downlight retrofit units and provides an overview of photometric performance results and compares the results to similar products that use conventional light sources, results from earlier rounds of CALiPER testing and manufacturer ratings released in March 2012. Despite the fast changing nature of this industry, which would mean these products are well over a year old to market, it certainly provides some foundation and

Fig. 3 Certified compliance markings


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By using our fully accredited LED lighting products and services you can save: • Up to 80% energy consumption on artificial lighting • Additional energy savings from reductions to the lighting heat load on the air conditioning system • You can earn carbon credits, saving you even more $ • FUTUREBRITE™ is a member of the Australian Lighting Council • FUTUREBRITE™ is an Accredited Certificate Provider under the NSW Energy Savings Scheme • FUTUREBRITE™ will do all the paperwork for you so you can receive the maximum rebate.

The benefits of our LED lighting products to users are:• Easy Installations - Little to no modifications required • Instant Start-up • RoHS Compliance means no toxic materials used • Dimming available on some products • Environmentally friendly • Extremely long life up to 50,000 hours • Good Power Factor

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food for thought to counter the glossy sales promises of the multitude of cheap products flooding the local marketplace. All the LED products in Report 14 are retrofits for luminaires with a 6-inch round aperture. Considering only omnidirectional lamps installed in a typical recessed downlight, this is approximately equivalent to the output of a downlight with a single 60W to 100W incandescent or 13W to 32W CFL lamp. It was noted that the output of the Series 14 products did not reach the equivalent level of a downlight fitted with a single 42W CFL lamp or higher wattage incandescent lamps, and may not be appropriate in high-ceiling applications. I am certain this would contradict any number of products claims that would have recently fallen into your email inbox.

BE WISE WHEN SELECTING YOUR PRODUCT When selecting any lighting product, the old age saying applies, if it seems too good to be true, it probably is. Many wonderful claims are being made about LED performance on anything from lamp lifetime hours, lumen output to warranties on failure. In May 2012 the Electrical Regulatory Authorities Council (ERAC) published an information bulletin regarding buyer awareness of safety risks and proposed changes to electrical safety regulations [4] . Buyers should check for the electrical safety certification of equipment they purchase as the current system is essentially an honesty system – it is up to importers or manufacturers to make sure the product they import/make is compliant. Unfortunately in a lot of cases importers assume compliance and will even put compliance labels on products that haven’t been proved to be compliant through the necessary third party testing. Insurance contracts generally don’t cover claims where non-compliant electrical products have played a part, so it is important to ensure compliance and not just assume it. T5 adaptors involve modification of the existing lighting luminaire, which means that the operation of the lighting system is changed from that predetermined by the lighting manufacturer. This may void the warranty of the original lighting components and the person or company performing the retrofit will have to assume responsibility for all safety and performance aspects regarding the operation of the lighting system. ERAC requirements applying to lighting exist in the following areas: • Electrical Safety requirements under the Electrical (Consumer Safety) Act 2004; • ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements under the Radio Communications Act 1992 as administrated by the Australian Communication and Media Authority. ERAC recommends checking for compliance marks, such as C-Tick or RCM as shown in Figure 3 for products with the appropriate product approvals.

REFERENCES FUTUREBRITE™ Technology Pty Ltd Suite 2, 180 Main Road Speers Point NSW 2284 P: 02 4958 8588 | F: 02 4953 0805 E: W:


[1] Haitz’s law [2] Jed Dorsheimer, DOE SSL Market Introduction Workshop, Pittsburgh, 2012 [3] h ttp:// pdf [4] h ttp://

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WHERE YOUR MINIBAR IS ACTUALLY MAKING – NOT JUST LOSING – REVENUE FOR YOUR HOTEL With the advent in our industry of quality European, technologically sophisticated automated minibars, the situation above is becoming a reality for some hotels, and is certainly becoming more accessible for others.


utomated minibars and ’e-baskets’ are ideal primarily for the following reasons:

They provide real time, up-to-date information about stock levels, audit, invoice and report on guest preferences and purchases, reduce the number of denials, shrinkage, walk-outs and non-checked DND rooms. In fact, automation of minibar stock and processes has an answer for all situation currently contributing to the loss of revenue that occurs with manual minibars. Through an interface with the front office system and the minibar’s sensors, the automated minibar provides real time reporting to hotel front office systems about the time and date on which an item


is lifted from the minibar. The charge for the particular item is directly recorded onto the guest’s account. For extra control and protection, there is a charge time delay which prevents the guest from replacing or substituting the selected item. In terms of ease of maintenance, the system also provides realtime reports on the overall condition of the minibars. Technical faults are reported online immediately so that they can then be attended to, thus avoiding guest dissatisfaction and down time. Daily usage reports, popular item reports, use-by date lists, and other useful tools and reports are available and built in to be conveyed through the PMS interfaces in order to benefit and improve Hotel Operations. Having an automated minibar alleviates the time consuming necessity for a full-time employee to physically check each and every room to determine which products are missing in the non-automated minibar and whether genuine products have been tampered with. It avoids human error, which is bound to occur no matter how diligent a person is at their job. With “ordinary” minibars, stock of all items has to be on hand for replenishment, and it is

essential to get that right – wastage can occur if the hotel is overstocked, and guest dissatisfaction if the stock is unavailable. Quibbles over what was or was not consumed can also lead to unpleasant queries at check-out. According to Gidon Sattinger, the Managing Director of Vintech Systems, his company’s product – Bartech – can also pay its way in terms of energy saving and reduced staffing. “Instead of salaried staff having to manually process information regarding guests’ minibar consumption, an automated minibar can be a very good return on investment,” said Mr Sattinger. “Particularly if the hotel enters into a revenue sharing agreement with our company. It couldn’t be easier. And so simple to work. “The minibar’s temperature can be set and adjusted remotely from the server. Minibars in occupied rooms can be cooled to desired levels, and those in non-occupied rooms can be adjusted to appropriate warmer temperatures so that they use minimal energy. In this way, Bartech minibars provide tangible energy management, control and savings. “When the room is unoccupied, the minibar is locked and the inventory is protected against theft. When the legitimate guest arrives, the minibar unlocks. If an item is

taken out, there is a timed delay before the occupant is charged. We know which goods to replenish when the daily report is run. Very little manual checking is involved, and the guest cannot replace the item with another. At checkout time, the charge is already on the account with no room for excuses not to accept costs. “Bartech also checks the inventory automatically so there is no wastage with

expired products. This is coupled with a comprehensive reporting system which guarantees full control with very little effort. We’ve found that an energy saving of up to 50% is possible, with a 75% saving on staff costing. Overall, the return on investment for a well sized four or five-star city or airport hotel could be as little as three to four years depending on occupancy rates and how well the system is managed by the Food and Beverage department. We need no infrastructure in terms of cabling or special requirements for communication between the minibar and the main server. If there are budget restrictions, we can offer 4 different stages – the upgradeable minibar that starts the process with minimal budget, the semi-automatic, the fully automatic, and lastly online e-trays. Except for the first option, each will bring a return to the kind of profitable returns we have been discussing.”

of the minibar extends beyond the planning of an expensive and glamorous fit-out, and transforms it into a means of fiscal return. It is well known that up until now some hotels have removed all saleable goods from their existing minibars. This is due to the high running expenses – even losses – from high labour costs, shrinkage and disputes. From now on, this need not be the only option. At last, hotels can now confidently invest in top automated systems that guarantee the profitable running of the minibar with full control and ease. That is a good reason to celebrate with a long, cold drink – with nibbles of course!

This comment from Mr Sattinger illustrates the trend that the response to automation from top resorts and luxury hotels is growing as the attraction and convenience


Facilities Management and Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the Hotel Industry


acility management typically encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, places, process, assets and technology. The design and application of systems to properly maintain, repair, and replace all of the elements relating to the physical components of a hospitality structure or operation are key aspects of facility management. Modern solutions like that from FM:Systems are modular, allowing for scalability as required. Maintenance operations and space management are the primary areas of facility management. Inevitably, there comes a time in every establishment when wear and tear inside and outside of the premises lead to need of repair or replacement of the damage. If repairs are delayed through either lack of knowledge or restricted expenditure, then very much more costly and extensive repairs are likely to become necessary. In hotels, maintenance is usually the responsibility of the hotel ‘engineer’.This role originated in office properties, but has spread into various sectors including hotels, resorts and


restaurants. Faced with the same responsibilities as facilities managers of commercial properties, being able to manage all aspects of maintenance operations, asset management, space management and project management requires a solution that can do this seamlessly and efficiently. Oftentimes, the management of such information was in the form of a simple spreadsheet.This led to the formation of silos of disparate information floating around as each department would have its own way of keeping track of their respective area.Through the integration of Web technologies, modern FM solutions offer seamless connectivity within and outside of the facility, enabling internal users and external contractors, suppliers and consultants to access up to date information, thereby allowing everyone to be an integral part of the facilities maintenance process. In recent years, the introduction of new technologies such as Building Information Modelling (BIM), facilities managers and indeed hotel engineers can, through facilities management solutions such as FM:Interact, access accurate, timely, and relevant information that is centralised.This gives everyone

access to the same data, greatly improving communication, coordination and collaboration for all stakeholders. The typical benefits of FM+BIM integration allows hotel engineers to connect BIM data from design, construction and renovation, to facility management and operations, using FM:Interact, AutoCAD® and Autodesk Revit®. This integration ensures intelligent data within the BIM model to be stored in the FM:Interact database, ensuring data consistency between the two. Several local and state government organisations and commercial establishments are, through the integration BIM+FM, realising significant improvements in cost-efficiencies in managing their facilities. FM:Interact from FM:Systems is a modular and scalable solution that comprises a base suite of software and optional modules that can be added when needed. Being completely integrated and browser-based, it can be easily implemented within any facility. For more information on how FM:Interact and the adoption of FM+BIM can help you realise significant cost savings, visit



Ramiz Gabrial I P.E., M-ASHRAE, LEED AP




or many years scientists and environmentalists were warning the rest of us of the coming danger as a result of over consuming earth resources, yet their warnings did not get much attention. You would be surprised to know how early these warnings started. In 1914, Mr S. R Leweis, ASHVE president (later to become the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air conditioning Engineers – ASHRAE) said “Overshadowing everything else is the question of conservation of natural resources... For how much longer are we going to waste resources to save first-cost only of buildings?”A strong message to consider project life cycle cost rather than first cost from a man who did not have powerful computers to model building performance, or large data basis to compare different application results. The 1970s oil crisis flagged another major issue related to our heavy dependence on hydrocarbon energy resources. The oil crisis made all industrial countries start looking for innovative ways to become energy efficient, since oil is not a cheap commodity any more. Goals were set to come with more energy efficient industrial plants, transportation systems and building systems (commercial, industrial and residential). The main motive was to be able to face any oil supply problems. During that period, the aim was saving energy for the sake of reducing consumption, rather than saving the environment. Accordingly, engineers’ efforts were fluctuating with the oil market’s political situation. Efforts would intensify during periods of political tensions and relax as politics cooled down and oil supply ran smoothly. Major progress took place in developing good control systems to manage and monitor energy consumptions. On the construction sector, major development took place as building automation systems (BAS) were developed to control all building systems (HVAC, power, lighting, etc.). The big improvement in building equipment energy efficiency and the innovative electronic control systems reduced building energy consumption, yet did not reduce natural resource consumption. In fact the technological developments resulted in increased appetite to use more and more natural resources and build more. Hence

our energy consumption kept increasing as a result of increased construction. It was until the 1980s where engineers and architects started paying more attention to scientist’s pleas to watch out for the danger. Global warming, Green house effect, ozone layer depletion and rising sea level, became issues of major concern. Engineers started getting involved in the search for solutions. Building professionals started realising that something had to be done and solutions must be found to improve, not only, energy efficiency but many other issues within buildings. Issues such as materials, occupancy and health, lighting (day and artificial), water consumption, contamination of construction sites, recycling and reuse of building materials and dealing with construction waste (solid, liquid and gaseous) became prime focus. New design and thinking processes started to develop holistic approaches to bring all construction project stakeholders to gather around the design table and create a pool of thoughts where solutions proposed, criticised and developed by the whole design team to achieve integrated building designs that serve the three pillars of sustainability (the Economy, the Society and the Environment). Ambitious scientists, engineers and architects started studies to form systems that enable actual measurement and management of sustainable building designs. Different Green building rating systems, such as Green Start, NABERS, LEED, BREAME and others were developed in different parts of the world. The aim was to enable the design team to achieve calculated reduction of buildings’ carbon foot print through proper project site selection, conservation of materials, energy and water, use of selected materials, and reward new innovative design ideas (5 areas of LEED to be listed here). The whole process required a major change in the project team’s mind sets. More stakeholders needed to be involved, early enough, in the design process. Building Services engineers needed to give their opinion of the required, energy consuming, building systems at the concept design stage. Architects and design teams had to take early advice from parties that used to be called to offer their services at a very late stage of the project (e.g. commissioning agents). Building Information Modelling


(BIM) tools became more of necessity than a luxury to predict building performance and life cycle costing while the project is still on the drawing board.

Whether it is to increase profits or gain political support, Green Washing may be used to manipulate popular opinion to support otherwise questionable aims.”

On the other hand, this revolution created major need to raise sustainability awareness among building professionals, owners, users, managers, investors, local authorities, construction material manufacturers, real estate agents and any other parties that (somehow) deal with the built environment, such as banks, solicitors, etc.

When practiced unintentionally, Green Washing is considered a mistake. However, if Green Washing was practiced with wrong intentions, it is considered unethical behaviour. In both cases, there are laws and legislations that punish individuals and companies that provide misleading environmental claims or products.

With the green building rating systems being developed and improved, and while professionals were debating and discovering what is right and what is not right and awareness programs running at different speeds, with various intensities and quality levels. A situation developed in the market where some wrong perceptions were built in the mind of some professionals and others. On the other hand very big opportunities became available for new materials, systems, designs and equipment.

To have true sustainable solutions, we must satisfy the three sustainability pillars (the economy, environment and the society). Missing on any of the three pillars would mean that there is a price to be paid at later stage. That price could overweigh the benefit that were aped, earlier.

Green Washing Intentionally or unintentionally, mistakes started taking place. Whether it is system design, proposed solution or alternative materials, the whole market wanted to be associated with the ‘Green colour’ one way or another. Architects and designers started proposing solutions that implied being green without paying major attention to the extent of their (short and/or long term) benefits to the building, the economy or the environment. Local authorities started requesting certain green measures without looking at their long term feasibility and environmental impacts. ESD consultants started proposing green solutions to satisfy the green building rating system requirements and score, rating, points without deep consideration to pay back periods or long term environmental impacts. Developers focused on initial cost of construction rather than life cycle cost. The market started to focus on the “WOW factor” of looking green, rather than being green. This condition was defined as “GREEN WASHING”. According to Wikipedia, Green Washing is:“a form of spin in which green PR or green marketing is deceptively used to promote the perception that an organisation’s aims and policies are environmentally friendly.


Many have heard of the “three Rs” that should represent the thinking sequence for any sustainable solution. “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” represent that logical thinking sequence. For example, while having air conditioning units with outside air economiser cycles to provide free cooling under favourable weather conditions is a great way of saving energy, it is important first to start thinking of the first “R” – Reduce. How can I reduce the required air conditioning unit capacity? This could be achieved by improving the building thermal envelope (better insulation, optimised window area, optimised building orientation within the site, introduction of external shading, introducing structural thermal masses, etc). Such measure would result in smaller air conditioning unit that have smaller initial cost, need smaller power cable, smaller structural supports and consume less energy. Then, start thinking of the second “R” – Reuse. How can I reuse the conditioned air in different way? While such a thing is strictly governed by design standards (for this example, it is AS1668), one possible application that comes to mind is the possibility to use the conditioned air to provide make up air to a central kitchen hood exhaust air system. If there is no need for kitchen hood make up air, or the idea is not practically possible then start thinking of the third “R” – Recycle. How can I extract some energy from the conditioned air prior to exhausting it outside the building? This could be achieved through installing air-to-air heat exchanger, or run around refrigerant coils to pre-cool (or pre-heat)

the outside air before it enters the air conditioning device. When the “Three Rs” logical thinking elements are exhausted, the designer can proceed to establish the feasibility of adding outside economiser unit to the air conditioning unit. The above thinking process must not overlook the economical side of any part of the solution. Any solution must be economically feasible, or otherwise it will not prevail for a long time. Check the payback period of the added investment, is it going to be reasonable? (i.e. 3, 5, 8, 10 years, or 140 years!).Pay back periods that are longer than the anticipated system (or building) life is considered imaginary. The same thinking exercise must be applied to other ideas such as rain water harvesting system, solar heating system, photovoltaic or wind mill power generation, etc. It is important to note that the larger the capacity of the sustainable solution or system, the higher the chances that the solution is going to be economically feasible, have reasonable positive environmental impact and provide good service to the building and hence the society. In other words, the three pillars can, more likely, be satisfied. For example, a rain water harvesting system that collects rain water to serve the flushing requirements of a couple of water closets would have an extremely long payback period. While a similar system that flushes a large group of water closets, or is used to irrigate large landscaped area, could have reasonable payback period. Deep thoughts should be given to how much resource we can collect, as well as how much of the collected resource can be reused, and over what time period. For the same example, there is no point collecting 10,000 litres of rain water in a week to sit in the tank for months. Sustainable measures, feasibility thinking, should weight the rate that we can collect a resource and the rate that we can reuse it to determine the annual saving in ‘virgin’ resource usage. Hence we can determine the feasibility of the sustainable measure.

Cradle-to-Grave carbon emission It is important to evaluate the energy required (and hence carbon emission) to harvest the raw materials, transport, manufacture, market, sell and then disconnect, remove, transport and recycle


or destroy any system that we install today as it ends its useful life. The term “Cradle to Grave”is used to describe the total energy used/carbon emission by equipment or systems. It would not be very smart if we install a small photovoltaic system to generate clean power and save on carbon emissions today. Then generate more carbon emissions after its useful life to disconnect, remove, transport and recycle it. Another thought that supports larger, centralised, systems over small systems with limited capacity.

Who is responsible? It is easy to make a big statement and say “We are all responsible!” The problem, as they say “everybody’s business is nobody’s business!” While each and every stakeholder is responsible to contribute toward eliminating any Green Washing of taking place in the project, I believe that it is important to list specific responsibilities to different parties. Among those are;

Authorities Standardising, local authorities and certifying bodies have prime responsibility in setting benchmarks and constraints to eliminate Green Washing. These authorities should also work to issue legislations that enforce measures to prevent the developer of ignoring the project’s life cycle cost, since it does not serve their financial interests.


Design professionals Architect, engineers, ESD consultants and other design professionals have the professional and ethical responsibility to prevent Green Washing taking place in their projects. They are also to take the moral responsibility of advising their clients of the best solutions and alternative solutions to reach their Green goals. It is fair to note that, till now, the construction market has a lack of appreciation for the required time and effort to arrive at the optimum solution. Hence the sustainable design consulting fees does not reflect the actual required effort and time to research and evaluate different solutions.

Construction professionals Contractors and subcontractors should put the required time and effort to fully understand the sustainable elements of the project and the idea behind each design element. This would enable them to reflect the same spirit in their shop drawings and avoid cutting corners that negatively impact the sustainable design.

Market support Equipment and materials manufacturers and suppliers must support their products with genuine, full research information to make full product information available to the design team and other project stakeholders. Comprehensive technical catalogues must be developed to help the design team and energy modeller

to correctly evaluate equipment energy consumptions and performance under full and partial load conditions.

Project users Owners, owner users, developers, tenants, building managers, real estate agents, etc must educate themselves on all project sustainable elements. This knowledge would strengthen their ability to get the best value out of their investment. Appreciation of the required extent of research, modelling and design work required to come with the optimum sustainable option(s) for the project in hand, can help the project users to make the right decision on how to select the right design and sustainability professionals and get the best long term benefit. It would help understanding that consulting fees paid to the ‘right’ professional can payback, itself, multiple times over a very short period of time. Project stakeholders, always, look for value engineering exercises to be carried out. However, the unfortunate reality is that in the current economical conditions, many “Value Engineering” sessions turn into “Cost cutting” sessions, which result in reduced (rather than enhanced) project value. Green aspect of the design become the first features that get sacrificed

Useful tools to help avoid the fall in a Green Washing trap Today, we have ample amount of technical tools that, when properly utilised, can help us achieve great long term end results. However, the first and most important tool is the engagement of the correct human factor. That is the selection of the right project team with the proper project experience and the ability to think and act cohesively to achieve common project goal. Once the right project team is put together, the selection of any required design or evaluation tool becomes an easy task for the team. Among the important design tools are all BIM tools and softwares, computer simulation tools (energy, lighting, day lighting, structural, etc), Computer Fluid Dynamic analysis – CFD (thermal modelling, air movement modelling, contaminants modelling, etc). One important information resource is the information extracted from other sustainably designed projects, especially those that are equipped with the right metering devices and equipped with real time monitoring capabilities. Such projects provide invaluable information to make confident design decisions. Another important tool is the availability of sustainable material and high efficiency equipment data basis to help in selecting alternative materials and equipment to achieve optimum results. The larger the data base extracted from previous experiences, the more informed and better decisions we can make for future projects

Summary While we all strive to do our best and to pride ourselves with extraordinary results, it happens in practice and with tight economical conditions and business competition that we lose focus on our ultimate goals. When we discuss sustainability, the human race’s ultimate goal is saving the planet and enjoying cleaner environment. In achieving our ultimate goal, we can develop great business

opportunities, which in turn strengthen our businesses and national economy. By succeeding in doing the right thing, we can develop an international reputation that attracts overseas business our ways. With all the good intentions, wrong intentions will always exist. For our discussion ‘Green Washing’ will happen. However if we realise that ... there is no wrong way to do the right thing, we will find that segregating ‘Green Washing’ and branding it as unwanted and not tolerated practice would lead all parties to a win-win situation. Remember these; the three sustainability pillars, the “three Rs”, logical and ethical thinking is the key tool that we have and finally, there is no right way to do the wrong thing. This article is an open call to focus on sustainability’s ultimate goal – improving the environment, through raising awareness, rejecting design ideas, concepts, materials and equipment that are not supported by thorough research to proof their credibility. Ramiz Gabrial, P.E., M-ASHRAE, LEED AP is a Senior Project Engineer with ECM Group – Melbourne. A Building Services Consulting Engineer with 25 years of experience in the design management of variety of building types and major interest in Sustainability and Integrated Building Design. Ramiz is a technical public speaker who has participated in Sustainability awareness raising programs for professionals and the public. A registered Professional Engineer in Virginia – USA. He has worked with major consulting firms and client bodies in The United States, New Zealand, Qatar, UAE, Jordan and Iraq. He is founding member and the immediate past President of the Qatar Chapter of ASHRAE. Ramiz welcomes interaction and feedback from likeminded professionals on

Our water saving and pressure balancing technology has been installed into more than 70,000 hotel rooms throughout Australia and the Asia Pacific region. – These properties have maximised their water saving but have not compromised guest comfort and satisfaction. – The benefits JEM technology offers is not achievable by fitting a shower head alone.

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Delivering all the key elements of your Guest’s expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment into a single easy-to-use appliance and interface


he Challenge: Hotels often have to deal with the hassles and frustration guests encounter when trying to work or being informed or entertained in their hotel room. The simple things, like access to reliable high speed internet, movies, television and other hotel services, and being able to easily communicate with their business, family and friends while away from home. The second generation of the Lifestylepanel system meets that challenge and does so neatly and simply. It delivers true integration of a range of guest services, all streamlined to the guest room via a quality Lifestylepanel Android® High Definition LED Smart Hospitality TV. The easyto-use remote control and the wireless keyboard with touchpad introduces the guest to movieson-demand, free-to-air and cable TV, Internet via the TV, cable and Wi-Fi and hotel information. Foreign language menu support is also provided. Wi-Fi in the room: Wi-Fi availability in the guest room is now universally expected. Providing reliable Wi-Fi throughout the guest space is an expensive business, often requiring difficult and very costly cabling and deployment of hardware hotspots throughout the premises.


All,in digital High Definition quality on a screen sized appropriately for the room. Lifestylepanel means being able to select from a quality library and watch it immediately, or at any time, with full trick play for the guest’s convenience. All, of course, in digital High Definition quality on a screen sized appropriately for the room. Infrastructure Options: Hotels can face significant costs installing or upgrading data cabling for internet services. Lifestylepanel offers an ideal solution for hotels looking to save those costs. Using Ethernet-over-Coax technology the Lifestylepanel System delivers the movies and high speed internet services, including Wi-Fi, to the guest room via the existing MATV coax cable. The Lifestylepanel System is also engineered to utilise existing Ethernet infrastructure. Energy Saving: The energy efficient Lifestylepanel LED TV is designed to operate through the hotel rooms’ non-essential power supply where available, helping hotels meet energy saving goals. Minimising Costs of Deployment: Hotels face high cost capital outlays to upgrade their outdated TVs and services, often having to deal with multiple vendors.

Getting optimum coverage to each room can be a challenge. Again, the Lifestylepanel System meets that challenge by imbedding the room Wi-Fi into the TV. No extra cabling or deployment is required. Each room TV provides access to a quality Wi-Fi connection to a guest’s multiple devices.

Lifestylepanel offers a competitive upgrade of the TV fleet which includes installation of the Lifestylepanel System delivering Movies-onDemand and High Speed Internet and Wi-Fi to the guest room

Movies-on-Demand means just that: Legacy movie services are the source of many complaints for hotels. Movies-on- Demand does not mean having to join a queue or wait for rotation of titles.

Lifestylepanel does a quick efficient Install with little or no disruption to existing guest services, leaving a tidy room setup. No set top box or ugly tangle of cables. Being able to utilise your existing coax infrastructure to carry IP services to the rooms is a compelling advantage.

Lifestylepanel means being able to select from a quality library and watch it immediately, or at any time, with full trick play for guest convenience.

Single Supplier Simplicity: For in-room delivery of content there is only the one vendor to deal

SIMPLICITY: simultaneously connect multiple devices to dependable Wi-Fi in every guest room with. One who manages the entire process, from installation through ongoing provision and collaborative management of the Guest experience.. Sensible Competitive Finance options: The Lifestylepanel Hospitality TVs can be supplied on as Purchase or Rent-to-Own, complimented by a revenue share of flat rate commercial arrangement. We also offer a simple ZERO CAPITAL Facilities Management Program that includes full supply of the TVs and System and all box office movie and internet services to the guest for a simple monthly fee. Access to Information: The Lifestylepanel System provides real time online reporting with simplified billing integrated with the hotel PMS systems. Online compendiums and information pages offer significant savings over traditional hardcover printed versions. Not to be overlooked is foreign language menu support especially for Chinese, Japanese and Korean guests. These represent the key elements to satisfy guest and hotel management expectations alike. The majority of guests are prepared to pay for quality of service. The challenge is to keep that cost to Guest affordable and delivering a high quality dependable service. Lifestylepanel Pty Ltd develops and delivers leading-edge inroom entertainment and information technologies for use in the accommodation market. Ross Coldwell can be contacted at:



Standards in

Presentation Technology Peter Swanson I Regional Sales Manager, AMX Australia

The Gold Standard. Bog standard. Below standard. Above standard. A standard response. Standard delivery.


tandard is a word many of us use in a variety of contexts in our everyday life. For engineers, that is even more the case and I suspect many of you could comfortably recite the numbers of various standards relevant to keeping your hotel operational, safe and comfortable. AS3000, AS1668, AS1851 and so on.

is currently underway to begin converting these standards to ISO to make them truly international, but in any case the core of the functional and performance definitions is relevant and available to use today.

However, traditionally it has not been the case that you could call up standards in relation to presentation technology. This is primarily due to the historical size of the industry and the highly specialist skills required to successfully deploy presentation technology – in conjunction with the significant cost associated which made systems prohibitively expensive in all but the most important rooms.

1M:2009 – Audio Coverage Uniformity

The past 10 years have seen substantial change in this regard. Equipment performance has improved significantly, making it much easier to achieve an effective outcome. Likewise, cost has reduced so that it is entirely realistic to fit out all your meeting rooms and function spaces with permanently installed equipment. You need look no further than the Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre to see one practical example of this at great scale. However, while it is much easier to achieve good outcomes, it is not a given.There are still a variety of technical challenges and due to the growth of market demand, the number of rooms and systems to be built frequently outstrips the capacity of the available quality installers. There is also a lack of formalised technical training or industrywide certification/accreditation to help in identifying appropriately skilled companies and individuals. While InfoComm, the AV industry association, is working to address this it is very much a work in progress. This is where standards come in for presentation technology. For a number of years, standards have existed for equipment performance in isolation and signal transfer (e.g. MP3, WAV, WMV, SDI, RGBHV, HDMI, etc), but there have been few if any guidelines or standards on the “human experience” to be achieved in the room or function space. InfoComm has been working to address this for over 5 years now and in the past 4 years has released for standards jointly with ANSI. Work


The 4 current standards are:

2M:2010 – Standard Guide for Audiovisual Systems Design and Coordination Processes 3M:2011 – Projected Image System Contrast Ratio 4M:2012 – Audiovisual Systems Energy Management I will reference each of these standards throughout this article to provide an appreciation of how they might fit into a given project. There are a further 7 standards in development at present, some as sole InfoComm standards and others in conjunction with industry bodies such as the ISA, IES and CEA. In addition to these, there are a variety of topics and areas slated for future standards development. While the present standards therefore represent only a small portion of the complete picture that InfoComm is building, they already offer useful tools to assist in new projects. Independent industry standards are important in 3 aspects of your new system build process: 1. Defining the expected performance and corresponding budget from a planning perspective 2. Measuring, considering and balancing competing requirements during the design and documentation phase 3. Reviewing and testing the completed performance of the built systems against a known performance benchmark It is important to appreciate in conjunction with point 1 that not all standards must be met. There are of course safety-critical elements that legally must be adhered to, but in the context of presentation

technology standards are about achieving a performance outcome that does not have safety-critical considerations. Therefore, in the early stages of a project part of the decisionmaking process may well include whether or not to actually comply with one or more standards in part or in full. Standards compliance inevitably has cost considerations and your application may not need the performance achieved by full compliance so it’s important to understand that considering standards does not mean being fundamentally bound by them – they are there to help you! For 1M:2009, Audio Coverage, this might mean considering which of your spaces – and what percentage of the usable floor space – you want to achieve the standard. ACU as it is fondly known in the industry looks at ensuring that each seating location receives approximately the same sound level so that you don’t have “loud at the front, inaudible at the back” issues. This may be imperative in your large ballrooms, but perhaps less of a concern in small meeting rooms for example. 2M:2010, Design and Coordination, actually defines the stages of a project – this is ideal for mapping out how you plan to deliver the project, whether you intend to engage an external consultant, what level of testing and handover you require on completion and so on. 3M:2011, Image Contrast Ratio, establishes clear requirements for the difference between black and white levels on a projection screen. As most projection screens are white, this means considering how much ambient light falls on the screen and correspondingly how bright the image output from the projector is. If the ambient light is too high or the projector is too dim, a satisfactory image cannot be achieved. Definitive pass/fail criteria can be identified based on 4 types of viewing activity – Passive Viewing, Basic Decision Making, Analytical Decision Making and Full Motion Video. 4M:2011, Systems Energy Management, identifies mechanisms to reduce power consumption in presentation systems which may be relevant to your organisation either in conjunction with Green Star aspirations for the project or simply for the cost saving associated with energy saving. Deciding how closely you want to monitor and manage power consumption is a key part of the project definition phase. Assuming that you decide that you will aim to comply with some or all of the standards, the next phase is to work through the design implications of your choices. As with any design process, much of the effort is in balancing the objectives of a variety of competing standards, desires and budget imperatives to find the most coherent project outcome. Below are examples by standard of the type of challenges you might face: For 1M:2009 (Audio): • Coordinating suitable locations for loudspeakers in conjunction with other services and architectural features • Cost or quantity of loudspeakers required to achieve the specified performance • Potential impact on other services/finishes, for example the overall acoustic performance of the room. There is only so much that a sound system can achieve if the acoustic environment is poor (echoing, reflections, amplifying particular frequencies to excess)


For 3M:2011 (Projection): • Imperatives for high levels of daylight from an Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) or power-saving initiatives may challenge the ability to control light at projection screen locations • Size, cost or noise level of projectors may be unrealistic for the project • For 4M:2012 (Energy): • Cost associated with controlling/monitoring energy of the systems as compared with forecast savings • Added complexity for management/maintenance of systems There are of course many other factors that take place in any design phase and 2M:2010 (Project Coordination) can be an extremely useful tool at this time, whether in structuring your engagement with design consultants or D&C contractors, or simply in managing the project process. When designs have been decided and systems installed, it is then of course time to measure up the outcomes against the design intent. This is the final key to any standard – a meaningful, practical measurement and identified parameters to tell you whether the system “passes or fails”. Now, it’s important to remember that any standard is written with objectives in mind and that these objectives may not be the same as yours. It is possible to have a system that meets a standard, but does not meet your, or your guests, expectations. It is therefore important to understand what you are standardising on and that your applications may actually require you to exceed a given standard. One such example


is the Audio standard.The performance achieved may well represent a real improvement over the “status quo”, but for a high performance ballroom you may want to achieve an even better outcome. Any standard that you consider using, whether the ones mentioned in this article or others, must have clear parameters to enable testing and verification of the performance outcomes either by the installing contractor or a third party. All four InfoComm standards have detailed requirements for measurement, documentation and verification of adherence to the standard. In the case of 2M:2010, this is in the form of a detailed checklist confirming that each coordination & documentation item has been carried out. For 4M:2011 there is a mix of technical verification and procedural adherence, but for 1M:2009 and 3M:2011 the measurement and testing is of specific technical parameters. Depending on the complexity of the system and the quality of the results, it may be necessary to conduct a peer review to establish how well the final system has done in meeting the standard, but at least the use of the standard will enable a meaningful peer review – as opposed to prior experiences for many in which it has simply been “one company’s view against another”. The journey to full standards for presentation technology environments will continue over many years to come, but I hope you’ll be able to gain immediate benefit from those standards available presently. As always, I encourage you to engage with design professionals in the AV presentation technology industry when you contemplate scoping, designing and delivering your next project.


Regulation Update March 2013

Derek Hendry I Hendry Group

Sound Systems and Intercom Systems Training: AS 3745-2010


UST – Hotel Engineers are advised that Sound Systems and Intercom Systems (SSIS) for emergency purposes, Emergency Warning and Intercommunication Systems (EWIS) and Occupant Warning Systems (OWS) may be available to aid the occupants of a building in an emergency. The emergency response procedures will specify the use of these SSIS, EWIS and OWS systems during emergencies. It is important that the Emergency Control Organisation and in particular the Communications Officer (if appointed), Chief Warden and deputy Chief Warden understand the capabilities of these SSIS, EWIS and OWS systems and know how to operate them during an emergency. Building Code of Australia The Building Code of Australia requires high rise buildings to have a sound and intercom systems (SSIS) for emergency purposes. The installation is required by the Building Code of Australia when the building height exceeds 25m in effective height and a number of other criteria for class 3, 9a and 9b buildings. Previous to the sound and intercom systems they were known as emergency warning and intercommunication systems (EWIS). Either sound and intercom systems or EWIS would be nominated by a building surveyor/ certifier in an essential safety measures determination/ schedule. The Building Code of Australia requires a sound and intercom systems to comply with AS 1670.4-2004 Fire detection, warning, control and intercom systems – System design, installation and commissioning


– Sound systems and intercom systems for emergency purposes. A sound and intercom systems installation comprises a master control panel usually interfaced to the buildings fire panel, warden intercom points at each exit, manual call points, a master warden control point and warning speakers distributed throughout the building to achieve a defined level of audibility above background noise.

Full Function Fire Systems Test AUST – Hotel engineers are reminded that an annual Full Function Fire Systems Test is a mandatory requirement of Australian Standard AS1851-2005, where applicable. To better facilitate operational reliability of fire protection systems, amendments were made to AS1851-2005 Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment and Systems to include a requirement to complete a Full Function Fire Systems Test annually. Put simply, this means where fire systems are interfaced with other building systems, these interfaces must be tested annually through a Full Function Fire Systems Test. Since a Full Function Fire Systems Test may be disruptive to building operations, it is recommended that hotel engineers engage an independent and suitably experienced consultant to minimise the time taken to complete the test, and to communicate with building owners, hotel engineers, managers and contractors to coordinate and manage the testing of the interfaced fire protection systems. Depending on the size and type of occupancy, the test may require the services of a mechanical and hydraulic engineer, technicians specialising in fire alarms,

sprinklers, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning), electrical power and control and building management systems. Accurate fire protection system interface documentation is critical to facilitating a successful test and must be provided, obtained or created prior to the test commencing. The criteria and methods of initiating the Full Function Fire Systems Test are specified in AS1851-2005 under the respective sections for each type of fire safety installation. In order to comply with the requirements of AS 1851-2005, all of the system interfaces must be verified as operational. A Full Function Fire Systems Test is also an opportune time, while all of the services contractors are onsite, to check your systems capacity, to do annual flow, hydrostatic, sandwich and stairwell pressurisation testing, to ensure your services meet their designed criteria. Essential Property Services have provided independent supervision and coordination of Full Function Fire Systems Test to AS 1851-2005 standard for a number of clients at major and complex facilities, and are well placed to service the needs of building owners and managers.

Building Code of Australia (BCA): Slips and Falls AUST – HENDRY building surveyors remind hotel engineers and facility managers that compliant buildings and good documentation can reduce the risk of injury claims against them. This can be achieved by ensuring that new buildings are compliant with the Building Code of Australia (BCA)

and that existing buildings that have inherent non-compliances are audited and actioned accordingly. As legislation and standards evolve it is important that non compliances such as walking surfaces to stairs and ramps are checked to reduce claims against trips and slips. Other non-compliant risks such as handrail heights and compliant glazing to impact areas also need to be assessed especially during fit-outs or refurbishments. Slip Resistant Surfaces – The Building Code of Australia is limited in clarifying the issue of slip resistance under the deemed to satisfy provisions. The most appropriate section of the BCA to consider for new buildings or alterations is the Performance requirements under Part DP 2 of Volume 1 which states; “So that people can move safely to and within a building, it must have – (a) walking surfaces with safe gradients; and (b) any stairways and ramps with – (i) slip resistant walking surfaces on – • ramps; and • stairway treads or near the edge of the nosing;” There is also a small mention to slip resistance under part D2.10 of the BCA however this is limited to fire isolated ramps. For new buildings and building refurbishments we recommend a slip test be provided by the installing contractor for pedestrian areas identified in the above extract of the BCA.

Verification Evidence: Fire Door Installation: AS1905.1: Fire Door Inspections AUST – Essential Property Services advises hotel engineers, property managers and

occupiers of buildings relying on fire doors inspections for life safety during an emergency, e.g. a fire. Determining whether a fire door was suitable for its use is meaningless where the fire door failed and loss of life has occurred. Part of a building occupier’s protection is a requirement in AS1905.1-2005 ‘Components for the protection of openings in fire-resistant walls, Fire-resistant-doorsets’. Section 6.3 Evidence – Fire Door. Clause 6.3.1 Installation states: 6.3. EVIDENCE 6.3.1 Installation When the installation of a fire-resistant doorset in a building has been completed, the manufacturer or the certifier after fire door inspections have been performed shall provide to the building owner (or his or her representative) written evidence in the form of a numbered certificate indicating that – (a) fire door inspections of the installation has been carried out; (b) each fire-resistant doorset is identical with the tested specimen, or, where there are variations form the tested specimen, variations are in accordance with this Standard; and (c) as far as can be ascertained during fire door inspections, the fire-resistant doorset has been installed in accordance with this standard. AS1905.1 Clause 6.3.2 also requires a fire door schedule of fire door inspections evidence with the numbered certificate and the following information to be provided in a record system and made available if required: Fire door identification number. Fire door location, Fire door type, Frame type, Nominal dimensions of the door – width, height and thickness, Fire resistance level (FRL), Facing and edging material type, Lockset and closer type, Miscellaneous items (for example, vision panels), Test

opinion reference, Date of inspection and Manufacturer or certifier. Permanent fire door inspections maintenance records for fire doors may need to be kept in accordance with AS1851.7. ‘Maintenance of fire protection equipment’, Fire-resistant doorsets, are usually provided in a fire door inspections logbook format: fire door inspections maintenance records under various state essential safety measures regulations will dictate whether this provision is a statutory function under the regulation. Some States may nominate AS 1905.1 as the ongoing Standard for compliance. We strongly suggest you keep fire door inspections records under AS 1851 to protect all parties’ interests. Most States will nominate fire doors as an essential safety measure/ essential fire safety measures, where all fire door inspections verification and maintenance will form part of the Annual Essential Safety Measures Report/ Annual Fire Safety Statement.

About the HENDRY Group Derek Hendry is the Managing Director of the HENDRY group of consulting companies that include HENDRY Building Surveying Consultants, HENDRY Disability Access Consultants, Essential Property Services and Emergency Plan. HENDRY pioneered the private certification system of building approvals in Australia, and the consultancy assists clients nationally in all facets of building control and disability access compliance, essential safety measures audits and emergency planning requirements. HENDRY publish a monthly e-newsletter entitled ‘Essential Matters” and provide a subscription service, BCA Illustrated, which provides over 3000 illustrations that interpret and explain the BCA as it applies to your building.


IT’s All About Saving Your Money Power Factor Correction

Vitaly Vereshagin I Marketing & Sales Executive, Capacitor Technologies P/L

What solutions are readily available for electrical engineers to improve energy saving and reduce electricity costs in the hotel business sectors? Installation of power factor equipment (PFC) is one answer. Unfortunately PFC technology is poorly understood by many people in the industry.


mproving the power factor will reduce operating cost by eliminating or deferring the need for new equipment, help existing equipment last longer, and make future expansions less costly. Also, lower rating sized equipment can be used, saving unnecessary capital expense. All this is in addition to a quick return on

investment and long term savings that are realised from installing capacitor systems to improve power factor. From the utility company’s point of view, raising the average operating power factor of the entire grid network could reduce cost from inefficiencies in the network,

increase generation and distribution potential and reduce demand on the grid. The utility can save hundreds of thousands of tonnes of fuel (and produce fewer emissions), have more transformers available and reduce the likelihood of building new power plants and their support systems. For this reason, many utility companies charge a power factor penalty so they can recover the additional costs incurred from supporting an inefficient system.

What is Power Factor? Power Factor (PF) is the ratio of the active (in other words, useable) power in kilowatts (kW) to the total (active and reactive) power in kilovolt amperes (kVA), calculated as: kW / kVA = PF A PF of less than 1 (or 100 %) indicates the high level of reactive (magnetising) power load which causes



some additional energy loss and, as a consequence, customers are charged for the extra power. The extra or reactive power, from one side, is necessary to provide a magnetising effect required by inductive loads, as for example motors & fluorescent lighting, to perform their desired functions. However, reactive power can also be interpreted as wattless, magnetising or wasted power causes to additional charges.

What is Power Factor Correction? A magnetic field causes the current to lag behind the voltage (the current is not in phase with the voltage). Power Factor Correction (PFC) is the process of compensating for the current lagging by applying a leading current in the form of power capacitors. A poor power factor level requires more current to perform the same amount of work. The PFC equipment works as a silent reactive power “generator” so that the total

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benefits for CustoMers • Reduced cost of electricity • Increased available load/equipment capacity • Improved efficiency • Improved the quality of electrical supply • Reduced greenhouse emissions • Energy Star Rating • Electrical safety

OUR Suppliers: Frako (Germany), Block (Germany), Lifasa (Spain) Ducati (Italy) Bender (Germany)





25 Years in industrY for QualitY & reliabilitY engineering & Manufacturing in house short delivery time specific customised solutions flexibility in design life time product support

Capacitor Technologies Pty Ltd

13/40 Edina Road Ferntree Gully VIC 3156 Ph: 1300 280 010 Fax: 03 9752 2067 Email: Web: Facebook:

amount of electricity demand decreases. By optimising and improving the PF, the load on the electricity distribution system is reduced. The savings through installing power factor correction equipment depends upon the initial PF, the level you correct to and electrical equipment loading. Having a good power factor you can achieve the following advantages: • Reduce the cost of electricity • Increase available capacity therefore making room for additional load/ equipment

• Lowered electricity consumption in peak time The customer benefited from reduced costs of their electricity billing with less than a two year payback. When a manufacturing plant in Bayswater had its power factor correction equipment installed, it realised savings of approximately $8,000 per year and found it didn’t have to spend the planned $24,000 to upgrade its switchboard and submain feeder cable running under the concrete driveway.

To understanding power factor correction benefits let’s take for example 200 kW electrical motor at a given power factor 0.8 lagging. The total (apparent) power required by the motor is actually:

The CapTech PFC systems are useful wherever there is diverse or large machinery or where there is a high demand for electricity such as is necessary for lighting of large areas. An enormous advantage of the systems is that cost recovery is generally achieved within one to three years. Another advantage is the extended working life of machinery, with substantially reduced demand for replacement parts.

200 kW: 0.8 = 250kVA.

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By using power factor correction equipment we can improve the power factor as for example up to 0.95. In this case the total power drawn from the supply will be reduced to:

With the aid of Capacitor Technologies Pty Ltd (CapTech) you can access modern power factor designs and a full portfolio of technical solutions and services to make your business more energy efficient, productive and competitive. Founded in 1990, CapTech is an electrical power support company, specialising in the design, manufacture, and installation and commissioning of power factor improvement systems in a niche market. CapTech provides a hands-on turnkey solution tailored to each client’s needs. Technical experience is supported by German based Frako, which manufactures one of the most reliable power capacitors and components.

• Improve efficiency • Improve the quality of electrical supply • Reduce greenhouse emission • Comply with Supply Authorities

200 kW: 0.95= 210 kVa. So you will have a total power reduction of 40 kVA or an overall energy savings of 16%. This means you are able to achieve both significant energy savings and optimise your electrical power availability.

In case studies When one of a city council installed power factor correction equipment made by Capacitor Technologies (CapTech) in their administration buildings and the library, they are contributing around $14,000 a year in savings on their electricity bill. The city council also achieved: • Lower electricity charges by reducing demand • Increased power supply capacity for the local government area • Reduced heat load on power cables • Reduced voltage drop in cables, resulting in improved equipment operation

Hundred customers chose CapTech’s PFC equipment because compact design, reliable components, high efficiency, turn-key solutions and low pay-back period.

CapTech also provides more comprehensive services extending beyond the power factor systems. These include tailor-made systems which incorporate all areas of harmonics, surge and lightning protection, and measuring and monitoring instrumentation and software.

Immediate cost savings CapTech’s PFC systems increase the efficiency of power supply, delivering immediate cost savings on electricity. Other advantages of PFC include: • Reducing greenhouse gasses by minimising the amount of natural resources required • Reducing harmful system harmonics and therefore fewer occurrences of power quality-related equipment problems • Ability to free up spare capacity on the transformer and main switchboard, thereby providing additional capacity for future load growth without the need to upgrade infrastructure • More stable and improved voltage regulation ensuring motors and plant operate at maximum efficiency • Reducing strain on the network provider’s supply systems thus helping avoid possible blackouts in the area.

Product Range In addition to PFC equipment, Capacitor Technologies provides switchboards, filters, reactors, earth fault location systems and capacitors. The company does surge and lightning protection, energy monitoring and management systems and components. It also provides installation, service and maintenance of low and high voltage systems. For further information visit our website

In addition to its sales of many thousands of PFC systems in Australia, it has supplied power factor devices to The Republic of Yemen, Fiji, Hong Kong and Papua New Guinea. The company develops and supplies low and high voltage PFC equipment to the industrial, constriction, commercial and general business sectors.




David J. Randall I B.Sc., B.Eng.(Hons.), DipBus, DipMgt,

M.I.E.Aust.,C.P.Eng., C.F.S.I.A., R.S.P.(Aust.), RABQSA Certified Auditor, JP(Qual), MANAGING DIRECTOR. DRA SAFETY SPECIALISTS



his paper discusses the new requirements for the management of contractors (focusing on construction activities) under the harmonised legislation introduced on 1 January, 2012. The paper then reviews the current contractor management systems that have been implemented by various companies consulted to by DRA Safety Specialists. With over 22 years experience in developing and managing Safety Management Systems for medium to large size corporations, the contractor management system has undergone possibly the most change to comply with the ever increasing requirements imposed by the Regulator. Although the full contractor management system is not part of the paper, basic guidelines to what is required by companies is provided.

HARMONISED LEGISLATION Work Health and Safety Act 2011 Review Duties of Care – Businesses and contractors will now be persons conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) with duties clearly defined under the Act. The current obligation of a Principal Contractor (PC) under the WHS Act 1995 (QLD) was repealed on the 1st January, 2012 and hence, all contractors working for a business irrespective of their appointment as a PC who fail to meet their duty of care requirements will be prosecuted as a PCBU. WHS Regulation 2011 Review Construction Project – A construction project is one that involves construction work where the cost of construction work is $250,000 or more -refer WHS Regulation 2011 s292. Principal Contractor – A PCBU commissioning a construction project can engage another PCBU as PC for the construction project, and can authorise that person to have management or control of the workplace and discharge the duties of a Principal Contractor – refer WHS Regulation 2011 s293. Note – there can only be one Principal contractor at any specific time. The PC will also be required to comply with the WHS Act 2011 S20 regarding duties of a PCBU involving management or control of workplaces. Note: The Form 34 – Appointment of a Principal Contractor

ceased to exist on 1st January, 2012 and appointment of a Principal Contractor will be through normal contractual arrangements. Safe Work Method Statements – If a PC has been appointed by a business then the PC is required to obtain copies of safe work method statements (SWMS’s) for high-risk construction work before that work commences -refer WHS Regulation 2011 s301. It is the PCBU’s responsibility i.e. the contractor working for the PC, to review the SWMS and keep a copy of the SWMS. The PC must obtain a copy of the SWMS’s for all high-risk construction work -refer WHS Regulation 2011 s312. The PC must ensure the contractors compliance with the SWMS. WHS Management Plan – the PC must prepare a written WHS Management Plan before work on the project commences. The details of that plan are specified in WHS Regulation 2011 s309. The PC must, so far as reasonably practicable, ensure that each person on the site has been made aware of the contents of the WHS Management Plan before commencing work. The plan must be reviewed to ensure it remains up to date -refer WHS Regulation 2011 s310 & s311. If a notifiable incident occurs, the plan must be held for two years after the incident occurs. General Construction Induction – The PC (and all other PCBUs related to the project) must ensure all workers employed by them hold a current general construction induction card. (Must have performed construction work within the previous 2 years). Specific Risks – the PC is also responsible for the storage of materials and waste, the storage of plant that is not in use, traffic management in the vicinity of the workplace and essential services at the workplace. Amenities – The PC is required to provide the amenities as detailed in WHS Regulation 2011 Schedule 5A and ensure they are maintained in hygienic serviceable condition. In addition to the above requirements there are a number of elements in Part 3.2 and all of Part 4.4 of the WHS Regulations 2011 that are required to be complied with by the PC. For example, the PC is required to provide workplace facilities, first


aid, emergency planning, PPE, management of chemicals etc. This is in addition to all the other duties of a PCBU which are detailed within the WHS Regulations 2011 i.e. noise management, electrical compliance etc. Legal Duties Defined Before a Contractor Management System can be developed it is important to clearly understand the legal duties a PCBU has for a contractor working for the business. This legal duty of care requires a company as a PCBU to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the health and safety of other persons is not put at risk from work carried out as part of the conduct of the business or undertaking – refer WHS Act 2011 s18. Under the duty of care requirements a business is required to ensure that its workers, which include contractors, carry out their work in safe premises, using proper and safe plant and substances, employing systems of work that are safe, and in which there has been adequate, training, instruction or supervision– refer WHS Act 2011 s19. This duty applies to each and every aspect of work to be carried out by a worker or contractor. However, it is also the contractor’s duty to ensure these duties are fulfilled for their own employees and subsequent sub-contractors – refer WHS Act 2011 s20-s26. The duty is also owed to other persons who may be affected by what a business does, and will be higher where the location at which the work is performed is under the management or control of a business. Any attempt to exclude, limit or modify the operation of the WHS Act 2011 or any duty owed under the Act or to transfer to another person any duty owed under this Act will be void- refer WHS Act 2011 s272. This means that imposing responsibilities on a contractor in a contract will not remove a duty that is already owed. A business also has a legal duty to ensure that no person is exposed to risk from the way in which their business is operated, even those with which there is no direct or formal relationship e.g. members of the public. This duty requires a business to monitor and regulate the conduct of the contractor whilst working to ensure that their work does not place the safety of others at risk. For example, should a contractor be working at height and drop equipment which strikes a member of the public visiting the site, both the business and the contractor may have breached their duty of care for failing to established suitable controls to manage this foreseeable risk. Had the business required a SWMS for working at height that included controls for falling objects, and reasonable steps were made by the business to ensure compliance with the SWMS, and then the contractor subsequently removed those controls which allowed the incident to occur, then the business would be in a defendable position that they had done what was reasonably practicable. Having the management or control of a workplace sees a duty to monitor that the workplace and means of access and egress are safe and without risks to health. In some circumstances a business may be considered to have duties of management or control of the workplace even though a contractor has the practical day to day control of it. In the event an incident occurs and the Regulator arrives to investigate, the outcome will rely heavily on the


contractor management documentation produced by the business to manage the risks. Ultimately a business may be liable for prosecution for a failure to manage health and safety at work, where their reckless conduct results in a risk of injury to others. Apart from any financial penalty, the community outrage as a result may be detrimental to the ongoing success of the business.

CONTRACTOR MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Depending on the type of contract and the level of risk associated with it, the engagement of a contractor must be supported by a safety management system or safe method of work that clearly identifies the safety requirements of the contractor and the business. The standard process DRA Safety has adopted when assisting a client develop a Contractor Management System has been to follow the five important stages of the contracting process in which health and safety issues must be considered: Contractor Management Systems Pre Harmonisation Within small to medium sized businesses where contractors are predominantly used for the maintenance of plant, equipment and buildings etc, a procedure was developed which required contractors to provide the following information before commencing work: • Contractor licenses to undertake the work; • I nsurance coverage in both Public Liability, WorkCover and Professional Indemnity (if applicable); • Completion of a “minimum standards document” that sets out the minimum requirements expected of contractors whilst working within the business. When a contractor arrived at these businesses they were required to: • Be given a brief induction which was recorded on an induction check-sheet; • Receive a contractor’s visitors pass which was worn whilst onsite to clearly identify them from other persons; and • Sign-in the contractor’s register which identified whether they were undertaking any work that required permits and to acknowledge that they have read the asbestos register for the site. This simple system was working effectively for the management of non- construction contractors for businesses prior to the introduction of the harmonised legislation. When a major construction project was initiated at these workplaces, the company would appoint the builder as Principal Contractor who would then have the obligation to manage the safety of all persons on the construction site. The only obligation for the client was to consult with the Designer, Project Manager and Principal Contractor on how risks associated with the project could be minimised, and provide any information about hazards and risks relating to the site that they were aware of – refer WHS Act 1995 Section 30B. With the harmonised legislation, this ability to transfer the liability for the management of safety on a construction site by the appointment of Principal Contractor using the prescribed form

has been removed. This new joint PCBU responsibility on a site has created some confusion in industry, however, the basic premise of law that I always espouse is that “you should only be held liable over that which you have control”. To explain this I refer to the engagement of an electrician to perform electrical work at your business. The business has control to ensure they are licensed, carry appropriate insurance, have been inducted to the hazards in their workplace etc, but not how the electrician performs the electrical work. Contractor Control Systems after Harmonisation To satisfy the requirements of the new harmonised legislation contractor management systems have been reviewed to include all the requirements pre-harmonisation and have added the requirement to identify the level of risk associated with the contractor’s work, which will then determine the level of interrogation into the safety capability of that contractor. Utilising a risk management approach such as this allows contracts involving work which may pose a significant risk to health and safety to be identified, assessed and controlled appropriately. It is therefore important to review the Contract Risk Classification system that has been developed for DRA Safety Specialists clients. Contract Risk Classification Contracts are classified as high or low risk depending on the level of risk of workplace injury or illness associated with the activity being conducted. High Risk Contracts Contractors considered for high risk contracts are expected to demonstrate a higher level of development of their WHS management system than the low risk contracts. Contracted works are classified as high risk if they pose a significant risk of serious injury or illness. High risk contracts may involve any of the following tasks or conditions, but are not limited to: • Construction work; • Maintenance work; • Working in confined spaces; • Working at a height greater than 2 metres; • Demolition work; • Working with asbestos; • Working with gas; • Electrical work; • Use of hazardous substances; • Excavation work; • Use of subcontractors; • Contract value exceeding $250,000 Other contracted works may also be classified as high risk if significant risk is identified at the conclusion of a risk assessment. For high-risk activities the contractor will be required to produce evidence of their safety management system by completing questionnaires and providing evidentiary documentation that the safety elements have been implemented. This system will then be supported by ongoing monitoring of the contractors through a


formal auditing process to ensure their compliance with their safety management system (SMS). For companies, such as Rio Tinto concerns in Gladstone, contractors are required to be externally audited by a recognised safety professional against a Rio Tinto based audit tool. The audit tool assigns a 40% weighting to the desk top audit of the SMS, and 60% for the implementation of the SMS by the contractor. The requirement for licenses, insurance and a low LTIFR are also determined and if not met will automatically prevent the contractor from working on the site. The audit is paid for by the contractor who is then provided a certificate of compliance by the auditor which they can present with any tender work to Rio Tinto. These contractors are then monitored by contract supervisors when conducting work and non-compliances are recorded and issued against the contractor which will affect their future ability to tender for work. For some companies and state government departments, any construction work over $1million requires the implementation of the QLD Department of Works system which requires the contractor to appoint an accredited Pre Qualification Construction (PQC) auditor. This system will require the successful tenderer to undergo a Safety Management System Audit and regular compliance audits at their cost, and the audit reports are forwarded to the business and the Contractor. Non-compliances identified must be rectified within agreed time-frames, otherwise penalties apply, and for gross breaches, contracts may be terminated. This process has worked very effectively for the Queensland Government in the recent Education Construction (BER – Building Education Revolution) Program and has now been instituted into the private sector. Low Risk Contracts Low risk contracts are those where there is low to negligible risk of workplace injury or illness associated with the scope of operations. That is, it is unlikely that a significant injury or illness could occur during the contracted work, for example, labour hire of administrative staff. It should be noted that operations where hazards are controlled to minimise the risk are not classified as low risk unless the hazard has been eliminated. For example, the use of harnesses to control the risk of falling when working on roofs would still be classified as a high risk contract. The approach adopted for minor contracts should focus largely on undertaking a risk assessment of the work involved in the contract, ensuring that risks are suitably identified and controlled. Generally for low risk contracts, the contractor will be required to supply copies of licenses to perform work (where applicable), appropriate


insurance coverage for the work undertaken, ensure staff complete the induction requirements of the work place, SWMS where requested. The contractor’s work performance and compliance to legislative requirements should be monitored by the Contract Supervisor using a spot check audit sheet, and any non-compliance recorded against the contractor which may affect their ability to be re-engaged.




Management or Control of a Workplace




 Following the Contract and Contractor
 Risk Classification Matrix a performance
 contractor may be assigned Management or Control of a Workplace. This process will Outcomes,
 require additional instruction Contract
 to other workers in the area review
 to ensure that they do not encroach on the contractors work area and that contractors • For major construction work where the contract value is over ensure that this demarcation is maintained. This process of assigning $250,000 and a PC is appointed, the PC should be required as Management or Control of a Workplace must be documented in a condition of engagement, to have their safety plan audited by the Contractor Agreement to ensure both parties are clear on who an external safety professional who will provide a certificate to is responsible should an injury occur which results in prosecution or the business to say that the WHS Plan complies to the legislative a civil claim. requirements. Recent work on developing contractor management systems for clients has resulted in the development of a Contract and Risk Classification Matrix; refer Appendix A, which will guide the Contract Manager to a procedure which then details the steps and forms that must be completed for the engagement and management of the contractor. The development of this risk classification system does add some simplicity to what may otherwise be a complex process. Recommendations for Businesses For most businesses the following contractor management systems are recommended for consideration. • Develop a contractor management procedure for inclusion in the Safety Management System to outline the businesses requirements for engaging contractors utilising a contract risk classification system as described in this paper to determine the necessary steps to manage the risk.

• For major project work over $1M the Department of Works system which involves accredited PQC auditors should be instituted. The development and implementation of a comprehensive Contractor Management System will provide part of the necessary “due diligence” defence required after a contractor is injured at your workplace and the Regulator is investigating which PCBU “had control” and whether they exercised that control. To assist with the development of these systems please use a certified Safety Professional (CPMSIA) with a track record in the area of systems development. NOTE: DRA Safety Specialists Pty Ltd consultants are all Registered Safety Professionals with the Safety Institute of Australia and can assist your organisation with developing professional Contractor Management Systems, or developing a fully compliant online Safety Management System compliant to AS4801 with tablet based tools and forms to simplify the WHS compliance process. Please refer to our web site for full details of our services:


THERMOGRAPHIC (Infrared Imaging)

Electrical and Mechanical Surveys Thermal Imaging is a service that has been around for many years but the enhancement and development of applications has not evolved with the potential that it holds, particularly in the building management environment.


hermographic images graphically capture the temperature differential when looking at assets allowing a diagnosis to be made to assist with maintenance and life cycle decisions.

This diagnosis requires an in depth understanding of the asset, the industry (electrical and mechanical) issues of reflection, emissivity of materials and ambient temperature as well as weather condition (Wind, rain and sun). Thermal imaging has applications to review building performance, plumbing issues, electrical assets, mechanical areas like lifts, and HVAC assets. What is important that certain factors are taken into account when thermographic services are undertaken in house or through an outside contractor?

Emerging Issues in electrical thermal imaging of switchboards and electrical equipment There appears to be an anomaly that small items like drills and kettles have to be serviced through “test and tag� but there is not an equivalent expectation for switchboards, which would appear to have a greater risk factor in safety and company operations. In the USA there is a standard which is enforced called NFPA70 and has set guidelines for the survey review of electrical infrastructure. The following is a series of questions that can be used to review the parameters under which a thermographic survey is ordered.


The Most Important Factors to look for when choosing your Thermographer; Asset Management is vital to all organisations to ensure that there is continuity of business and that the asset life cycle is managed in the most cost effective way. Thermography is an established non destructive testing technique which plays a major part in asset management, protection and safety. To ensure that you receive the most accurate, reliable and effective results from your thermography services, there are crucial factors to review in selecting your thermography service provider; • Is your Thermographer Qualified to Level 1 or Level 2 Certification?


 • Electrical
 • Cold
 • Leak
 • Insulation
 • Building





Many people conducting thermographic surveys have simply purchased an infra-red camera and may have read the instruction book. They may have very little training or experience and have no knowledge of how issues such as heat transfer, emissivity, thermal physics, humidity and reflection can effect camera readings. • What Experience does your Thermographer have? Specialist Thermographers who are behind the lens of a camera 8 hours per day, every day, keep their skill set tuned and are adding significantly to their knowledge base each day. Likewise, the intuition that comes from greater experience leads to a Thermographer digging deeper to find hidden anomalies that may present only the slightest hint of such at a first look through the lens. Many electrical contractors “can do thermography surveys” but it is not the main part of their work, and so they don’t possess the same concentrated intuitive experience that an Specialist Thermographer has. • Is the Infra-red camera right for the job? Cameras range from low level, relatively cheap models up to sophisticated top range models. The low level cameras may not provide the right features for your job in relation to field of view, temperature range, resolution accuracy(range of pixels). Infrared cameras require regular calibration. If your thermographer does not have a current calibration certificate then can your rely on the accuracy of the readings?

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Be Impressed

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• How capable is your Thermographer in analysing and interpreting thermograms? People with some knowledge may be able to take an infrared image, but only someone with qualified training and a detailed understanding of thermal anomalies is able to accurately analyse and interpret thermograms and provide clients with detailed and comprehensive Reports and fault definitions.

Does your Thermographer follow Australian and International Standards and Protocols? There are International Standards for Thermography Surveys • (ASTM ES1934-99a), • Thermography Condition Monitoring (ISO18436) • Monitoring Asset Management Optimisation (PAS55). There are many applications that will assist in building asset management through the innovative application of thermography. This article was first run in the Building Services Journal,Volume 2, 2012.

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Saving energy through lighting management in hotels


ith the continued rise in energy costs impacting hotels across Australia, investing in energy efficiency makes more sense than ever. Energy efficient lighting is an obvious starting point for hotels looking to reduce energy consumption and demand across their business. Energy can be a significant and controllable cost for a hotel, particularly when energy efficiency is implemented. Return on investments can be attractive and lighting is a reliable and easily quantifiable investment. Since the 90s there has been a slow but steady trend towards increased lighting energy efficiency.This has predominantly been driven by environmental awareness and the opportunity to improve lighting efficiencies. Energy management company, Energy Action sees an increase in the number of hotels looking to review their lighting use due to rapid rises in electricity rates. Edward Hanna, Director of Sustainability at Energy Action said, “Energy efficient lighting is increasingly being sold as a commodity product, the lighting experience is a sensitive issue for many buyers. Every year hotels around the country use vast amounts of electricity. By installing more efficient lighting, hotels not only do their bit for the environment; but also cut costs, enabling them to increase their profits.” Energy Action offers tips for businesses looking to retrofit energy efficient lighting: 1.Think about the hotel’s needs.There can be a variance in the lighting levels used depending on the task being performed allowing the hotel to reduce the amount of energy that it uses. For example, the main reception area needs to be well lit at all times but rooms like meeting and board rooms should only have lights on when in use. Effective lighting needs to produce a comfortable and productive environment for hotel guests and staff.

2. Make lighting part of interior design discussions. In an upgrade or change in use of an area the lighting also needs to be considered. Once the overall architectural design and interior layout have been established, opportunities to provide a well-integrated, quality lighting solution can be limited. Early decisions such as ceiling height, window size, and placement of rooms are all critical to the effect lighting will have on a space. 3. Invest in lighting controls. Many existing fixtures are able to be integrated into current lighting control methodologies. Optimising existing lighting control systems or investing in in-fixture occupancy sensors and daylight sensors can lower your energy bills. This is particularly effective in low traffic areas such as stairwells, meeting rooms, utility rooms and car parks. Intuitive and in-fixture controlled lights are becoming increasingly cost effective for these environments. The use of flexible lighting solutions in areas that are not constantly in use can minimise your energy consumption. Most current energy efficient alternatives can dim or turn off when not in use, without worrying about long warm up times. 4. Make informed decisions when choosing suppliers and or technology. Choose your suppliers and installers on recommendations, referrals, experience and reputation, not just price. Always check your warranties, lead times and service expectations before

orders are placed. If hotel owners can’t find a lighting salesman they trust, consider seeking guidance from an independent lighting market consultant.There is a lot of information in the market that can help you make an informed decision about the best long term lighting solution for your business. Examine your options before you commit to a technology. Lighting and control technologies are evolving quickly. Assessing the market can be time consuming and complex. Taking all of this into consideration will ensure that a lighting strategy can successfully reduce energy use, lower energy bills and reduce the carbon footprint of the hotel.

About Energy Action Energy Action is Australia’s leading independent energy management company, offering comprehensive buying and management services aimed at reducing energy usage and saving businesses money. The company’s flagship service, the Australian Energy Exchange, allows energy suppliers to competitively bid against one another to supply an organisation’s energy – with a best fit contract secured in around 15 minutes.This unique platform has secured energy contracts in excess of $5 billion and delivered millions of dollars’ worth of savings for Australian organisations. Energy Action has leveraged the independence of this business model into the energy efficiency lighting market. They have utilised their relationships with lighting technology suppliers across Australia to design and implement energy efficient lighting solutions for their commercial and industrial customers.Visit and maximise your energy savings today.

The auction platform not only revealed the best retailer for Clarion Suites Gateway needs, but also attained an even better result by squeezing the last few percentages points out of the price offerings, revealing a clear winner. The process was transparent and viewed ‘online’ at a scheduled time and date. The follow-up reports with the auction results were easy to understand and comprehend. We saved nearly $78,000 over 4 years with the results from the reverse auction platform.’ Tony Cakmar, General Manager, Clarion Suites


Megaman LED’s save

620 Tonnes Carbon for Sofitel Cane Graoroski I MEGAMAN LIGHTING AUSTRALIA PTY LTD

The Sofitel Sydney Wentworth hotel has undertaken sustainable energy efficient lighting upgrades using Megaman Lighting’s innovative LED technology, now consuming 81% less energy and CO2 than previously. This was achieved by replacing its inefficient Halogen lighting, using a turn-key solution by Low Energy Supplies & Services (LESS). This generated over 10,000 Energy Savings Certificates (ESC) made eligible under the NSW Energy Saving Scheme (ESS), driven by the hotel’s environmental policy to achieve an increase in its NABERS ratings.


n total all 436 guest rooms of which 45 are luxury suites, and 11 floors of corridor area were changed over to eco-lighting solution using Megaman MR16 LED’s. This resulted in annual savings of over $100,000, or10% 620,000 kWh in total electricity savings annually. An estimated annual carbon reduction of 620 tonnes was achieved by Sofitel’s Chief Engineer Manual Wong in charge of the lighting upgrade project. Not only has the cost of maintenance been reduced from the frequent re-lamping of Halogen lamps using Megaman MR16 LED’s that are rated at 25,000 hours, further savings were achieved by reduced heat output from Megaman MR16 LED’s giving savings on air-conditioning costs. Megaman Lighting’s Managing Director Cane Graoroski said “it was important meeting Sofitel’s lighting design brief challenges using all their existing downlight luminaires to retro-fit Megaman 6 Watt 12 Volt MR16 LED’s with constant voltage drivers in 36 and 24 degree beam angles. Where dimmable eco-lighting solutions were required, 8 Watt 12 Volt LED’s were used proving additional savings when dimming. We worked directly with Manual Wong Sofitel’s Chief Engineer, with a number of trial applications to maintain and enhance Sofitel’s design finishes of rich contemporary yet classic tones throughout to achieve both dramatic accent illumination in common areas and ambient illumination in their guest rooms”. Sofitel’s lighting engineers recommended Megaman MR16 LED’s due to their innovative LED technology in light output performance, colour appearance and rendering, low glare, size and efficiency generating 81% less energy.


Andrew Williamson, Commercial Manager of Energy Efficiency from LESS said, “Megaman provided best value as well as meeting Sofitel’s lighting engineers recommendations”. A turn-key sustainable solution by LESS, generating over 10,000 Energy Savings Certificates (ESC) and managed the entire install program and ESC rebate for commercial lighting through IPART (and available in Victoria under the VEET scheme) and minimising the owner’s capital investment with the added benefits of ongoing savings. Megaman Lighting has an extensive range of eco-lighting LED solutions to replace existing Halogens either by retro-fit or new LED downlight solutions. Using non-reversible to halogen downlights to maximise ESC’s in the ESS-NSW and VEET-VIC rebates, as well as lighting payback scenario’s. Contact Megaman Lighting Australia head office today for your local Megaman lighting sales consultant on (02) 9557 9800 or email;

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MEGAMAN® LED Lighting Solutions

Your Partner in Sustainable Commercial Quality Lighting The international award winning MEGAMAN® LED lamps are the ideal solution for replacing your current energy wasting lamps. The high quality of light means a comfortable and memorable atmosphere for your customers without compromise. • Perfect alternative to traditional halogen and incandescent lamps • Excellent light quality, superb efficiency and comfortable warm light • Average lamp life starts at 25,000 hours • Available in various wattages, lamp shapes, types and beam angles • Extremely light in weight and ideal for almost any existing lighting fixture • Mercury-free and no UV radiation • Up to 80% energy saving when compared with traditional lamps • Patented design thermal management for high LED chip output • Unique Low Glare Technology using 2 vertically mounted LEDs • 98% Efficiency using Reflector Technology • Serviceable LEDs for low cost maintenance MEGAMAN® Lighting Australia 64/60-82 Princes Hwy, St Peters NSW 2044 Tel: (02) 9557 9800 E-mail:


Back of House 

Neil Weenink

The storm seemingly blew up out of the nether. The man in the Fiji bureau most decidedly caught with trousers down, and we were all caught otherwise as a result. Hell of a thing to be hit by a Force 5 or 6 in an International Hotel invariably hard by the sea, and with a full house to boot. So who or whom is responsible?


year-round warm tropical climate is one of the main aspects of Fiji that attracts visitors from all over. However, the hot weather, humidity and its South Pacific location can also lead to dangerous and life-threatening natural disasters, including cyclones, floods, droughts, earthquakes and tsunamis. A cyclone is a tropical type of hurricane and is the main and most wide-spread natural


disaster in the Pacific region. Severe tropical storms bring about massive rainfall; plus the low pressure may cause the sea to rise as much as two meters. Data from the last 150 years indicate that cyclones occur more frequently in the central and western Pacific both north and south of the equator than in the eastern Pacific. Destruction of houses, other infrastructure and gardens, loss of vegetation, flooding, land erosion, coastal inundation, destruction of coral reefs and sea grass beds, and pollution of water supplies are all effects of cyclones.

The islands of Fiji experienced 136 cyclones between 1880 and 1997. Fiji’s cyclone season is from November through April. In December of 2007, a cyclone with wind gusts up to 155 mph hit the northern part of Fiji, though fortunately none of the areas affected were heavily populated and no deaths were reported. In 1982 Madeleine and I were ensconced in the Hyatt Regency Hotel on Fiji’s northern coast. I was the Chief Engineer and she was my behind the scenes gofer. The hotel was just a few hundred metres from the sea,

Quickly, I said to Madeleine, get down there to the gen-set, locate the broom we use for cleaning out, and when the storm water gets up to about 2 foot on the handle, pull the All-Stop handle on the set, and get out of there. Which she did. Wonderful partner in an emergency. Then we only had oil lamps and the odd battery set. There was no power and no pumps. And at this point the General Manager lost his marbles. “I want airconditioning and I want it now” he yelled. Madeleine reached him just before he collapsed, and he was the first to receive a wee dram of medicinal Brandy. Fortunately I had a colleague in the Public Works Corp and through that long night I began to call in the IOU’s, as I had done him a favour or two in the past and now was the time to twist arms you betcha! Verily by 0700 next morning, down the driveway trundled a 20 wheel mammoth of a rig on which was secured a Cat gen-set/air-con plant combined. Huge as all get-out and as welcome as the lambs in spring. The General Manager stood by the truck and wore his cynical ‘See, trust me, I knew you could do it,’ look, to which I enquired if he had enjoyed the Brandy……….. By noon we had the unit wired and piped up. We had a dozen 44gll drums of diesel fuel and we had my blokes ready to close the breakers when I gave the word. Which I did, and there was this ear splitting 1000hp V16 Cat away with the seagulls. Bloody marvellous!

and we had just completed a rock formed Bar at the end of an over-sea approach. The Bar was named The Wicked Whalu which we reckoned appropriate for the parties envisaged. In testing out the radiophonics to the Bar I heard mention of a severe storm somewhat to the east and that we should be ‘kept informed.’ On top of which we were approaching a Spring high tide set up by an extraordinary full moon. The omens were not in our favour, and we began to do those things which, given the circs, you have to do. Now. We had a multitude of multitudinous nationalities in various levels of command – none of whom had ever experienced a

tropical hurricane in full fettle. And in full fettle it proved to be. First off, the darned system suddenly did a U-turn back out to sea. This was around 2.00 in the afternoon. The relief was palpable and for many meant OK lets get on with routine chores. Then came the icy realism. Somewhere after midnight the angry system, now a Force 7 turned again, and came roaring into Fiji’s eastern approaches with a frightening catastrophic destructive force one would not wish to experience again. We were actually holding a dance in the Lobby with the lively wind giving something of a backdrop. And then the roofing began to give way – and rain water made its entrance. Then the lighting slowly failed and wonder of wonders the emergency generator with a roar cut in.

And that as many of you will know was only the beginning. There was wiring and pipe work to re configure, fresh water to filter, sewerage systems to re-commission, roofing to make secure and so ad-infinitum. The Big One which I had neglected was the Day of Truth with the Insurance Inspector. I had no photographs, no reports, no back-up notes. Damn. But I must say she was a most charming lass sent out from NZ, and we did eventually manage to sort things out to our mutual advantage! Stay well and keep the camera dry. Neil


Photovoltaic Dawn

Australian Hotels Welcome Grid Parity Solar Emma Chessell I CAT Projects


verything has changed in solar photovoltaics over the past three years. A hotel that might have considered solar PV as part of an environmental strategy in 2010, may now be installing it in bulk as a cost saving measure. An installation that might have previously been dependent on grants, subsidies and feed in tariffs will now, in many areas of Australia, justify its own cost, effectively reducing the hotel’s consumption by generating power behind the meter.

The reason for these new economics of PV have been freefalling solar panel prices worldwide. An average 150W panel worth $525 in 2008, cost $150 by the start of 2012. This dramatic trend, initiated by increased production in China coinciding with a fall in demand in traditional European markets, continued through 2012, which saw a further 30% fall in PV prices. While many feel that the industry can’t sustain continuing module price reduction at these rates, there are indications that technology developments will continue to see a net decrease in the installed price per Watt. This revolution has occurred at the same time that drastic electricity price hikes have effected most Australian states in waves. For many businesses – especially those with ample appropriate roofspace – the cost of energy from a solar system is now at grid parity. The levelised cost of energy is the comparative measure to determine the cost of the energy-generating system over its lifetime: initial investment, operations and maintenance, cost of fuel, cost of capital, and its value relative to grid power. For hotels that considered PV two or three years ago, it’s now time to think again.

RECS Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) are the mechanism by which PV installations are recognised as clean energy generators, and rewarded for their contribution to the enhanced Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (eRET.) A PV installation is able to create RECs in proportion to the amount of clean energy it generates in its lifetime, which are sold in a market to energy retailers that are obliged to meet targets. These targets were reaffirmed last month, in a government announcement, as was the eligibility of systems under 100kW in size to qualify as “small generators.” Small scale certificates are called STCs. Systems at this scale have the option to create and sell the system’s anticipated lifetime’s RECs upfront, assisting with the significant capital costs. Larger systems are obliged to create RECs continually, based on metered production.This will generally



exceed the estimates used to calculate a lifetime’s production for a small system, so will lead to greater returns in the long run.

Know your load Depending on your location in Australia, it’s generally best to avoid exporting significant amounts of electricity to the grid, thereby avoiding the need to negotiate power purchase agreements with a utility or retailer. These arrangements are becoming more difficult to establish, and can be subject to change. A PV system sized for “behind the meter” operation will consider solar input and the hotel’s load profile in every month of the year, to balance the benefits of carving out summer aircon peaks with PV with avoiding excess export to the grid when daytime loads are low (e.g. Autumn and Spring.) In some situations, it may prove advantageous to orient the panels to produce greater afternoon loads by facing them west, sacrificing the optimal bulk production of north facing panels.

Know your power factor Solar power generation planning should be undertaken within a strategic whole-facility energy plan, which includes a review of power factor issues. Solar power generators will by default generate at unity. If your facility does not have power correction equipment installed, this can lead to a greater relative amount of reactive load being met by the grid, which can incur charges. Many PV systems can be configured to generate away from unity. The efficiency sacrifice this incurs should be considered against the cost of applying power factor correction equipment.

Know your tariff Monthly electricity charges for large consumers will generally be calculated according to a combination of flat rate charges, charges associated with bulk consumption, and charges associated with your monthly peaks. PV has the capacity to carve out peak loads, especially where peaks are caused by air conditioning, so the lifecycle cost savings of a PV investment should be calculated in consideration of its impact on all tariff elements, in addition to the bulk peak rate charged for power.

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Another tariff factor to check is whether you are charged a minimum amount for power, regardless of consumption – this has the capacity to limit savings for the duration of the retail agreement.


WA’s Most Isolated Commercial Swimming Pool

The installation of a 20m swimming pool on top of a sand dune in an environmentally delicate area involves a lot of innovative engineering and design. When combined with a site that is situated on the north cost of the Kimberley in Western Australia with no road access and is 170km from the nearest town (Wyndham), a great deal of planning and lateral thinking is required.


he required swimming pool was to be installed by Aqua Technics Commercial at The Berkeley River Lodge, a luxury accommodation facility. The Berkeley River Lodge features 20 chalets atop the sand dunes offering guests panoramic views of the seascape and surrounding scenery. With no road access


(the area is only accessed by seaplane out of Kununurra or by private vessel) it offers a truly outback experience, yet combines the foray into the wilderness with supreme comfort and service. The owners of The Berkeley River Lodge, Martin and Kim Peirson-Jones wanted to

minimise the impact the swimming pool installation had on the local environment. “A number of options were discussed with Aqua Technics Commercial, all of which had to allow for transport to Wyndham and then a barge trip to the site. We also had to discuss how to physically handle the pool

At low tide, an excavator crossed sand flats and unloaded the shells from the barge. They were then carried individually via a track through the dunes to the installation site, where they were suspended on steel bars over the excavated pool hole. A spillway spa was also installed adjacent to the swimming pool, the combination allowing The Berkeley River to offer guests both exercise and massage relaxation from a terraced location with uninterrupted views of the surrounding area. The Peirson-Jones’s are very happy with the end result, a testament to their hard work and a successful partnership with Aqua Technics Commercial. Kim adds, “The pool is a focus point of the entire development; something that is enjoyed by all guests and frequently commented upon.” Aqua Technics Commercial is a West Australian owned company, leading the industry for over 35 years in the design and construction of both concrete and fibreglass pools and spas.

with only a 20 tonne excavator to move and place it,” says Kim Peirson-Jones.

and materials and therefore minimal disruption to the environment.

The Peirson-Jones’ preferred option was a pre-fabricated, fibreglass pool that could be delivered to site and installed quickly, without requiring major technical resources

“A plan was developed using two 10m shells that would fold into each other for transport by ship to Wyndham and be joined on site by a flange moulded into the shells,” said Kim.

In 2009 Aqua Technics Commercial received the WA Pool of the Year award at the Swimming Pool & Spa Association of WA (SPASA WA) Awards of Excellence. Recent projects include a helicopter crash training pool in Jandakot, Regents Garden Residential Resort, Kirby Swim Centre in Mandurah and Cherratta Lodge in Karratha. This project also involved a custom-made fibreglass pool that was built in four sections that were joined and transported to the site in Karratha. It was one of the largest fibreglass shells ever to be transported from a WA pool manufacturing site.


Sink or Swim

Lyn Wicks I Business Development Executive, PoolWerx

Beautifully designed pools are an impressive asset for hotels, motels and resorts that can result in higher occupancy rates, command higher prices and their poolside bars and restaurants can add to the overall guest experience.


ith more holiday makers searching online for hotels with pools, having a swimming pool in your hotel can be a major point of difference.

There are a number of important areas for hotel facility managers to consider when looking after and maintaining hotel pools and spas.

Atmosphere and facility The hotel swimming pool or spa needs to be as clean and appealing as the rooms themselves. Hotel managers can create an atmosphere in the facility that is inviting and brings guests to the swimming pool or spa area. If the swimming pool is aged, featureless and unclean it may reflect on guests experience and affect the reputation of the hotel. A welcoming ambience can be created simply by using inexpensive energy saving lighting devices to accentuate the swimming pools appeal and camouflage flaws. Hotel’s can add to the relaxing or fun atmosphere around the pool or spa by providing music or hiring opportunities to the business traveller such as exercise swim jets, swim bands, goggles, swimwear and towels, hand paddles, or children’s safety floatation devices or pool toys increasing the appeal of the pool to guests for exercise or relaxation.

Maintenance Having standard operating procedures detailing regular and preventive maintenance program extends the life of the equipment, lessens the cost in chemicals and reduces water usage. This ensures continued operating of the pool during the peak season. Coupled with regulative maintenance of on-site log books all adds to a smooth trouble free pool or spa.

Water use Due to some hotel swimming pool and water features water volume can be great and lose a considerable amount of water through evaporation, water features and general use. There are a number of water loss factors that can be controlled including the plant rooms, inefficient filtration and backwash lines. Hotel facility managers can also reduce the amount of water lost by implementing excessive or lengthy backwash cycles do not occur


though ensure it is carried out in accordance with health codes. Pool covers are a great solution, when the pool is not in use, to reduce evaporation.

Equipment power consumption A great opportunity to consider is how to save more energy in and around the swimming pools or spa. There are a number of solutions in terms of pumps, plant and equipment, pool heating systems and lights, all of which are additional ways to save a considerable amount of energy and reduce current energy costs. Energy efficient pumps - In most commercial pools, pumps need to run for 24 hours a day to maintain optimum water turnover. Available now are a range of eight-star energy efficient singlephase variable speed pumps. When properly sized to the pool environment these energy efficient pumps save on the amount of energy used and maintain the necessary water flow needed to meet State Health requirements. Robotic Cleaners – Robotic cleaners reduce energy use as they are self-powered rather than relying on the suction power of a filtration pump at medium speed. It means the pool skimmer is free to skim the surface of the pool while the bottom of the pool is being cleaned. Using a robotic cleaner can reduce the load on a conventional filter, reduce backwash frequency and saving on additional chemicals and water top up.

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Filters – Changing the media in the filter from sand to glass increases the amount of debris captured by the filter providing better water clarity, reduce back washing and the bonus of making the pool more visually appealing. Heating – Extend your guest’s enjoyment of your facilities pool or spa through pool heating solutions. There are many options including energy efficient alternatives including solar, heat pumps or by diverting your current heat exchange system. Pool blankets – Automatic solar powered and hidden underground pool covers are becoming more common for commercial pools. Using an automated pool blanket system reduces work, health or safety issues by eliminating the manual handling needed to put on and off the pool blanket daily. Additionally a pool blanket can increase water temperature by up to 8oc by trapping heat from sunlight, keeping the pool insulated and warm and saving power costs and water evaporation.

When it comes to servicing commercial and hotel pools, ProGuard is the Service Professional’s choice. Our full range provides reliable pool care products at very competitive prices, delivering sparkling clear pool water. So, if perfect looking, healthy water is for you, then so is ProGuard. It’s the professional’s choice.

Health Safety and legislation: Hotel facilities have a number of requirements that they must meet, which vary from state to state. Pool equipment needs to be working at optimum levels to ensure no break down during opening hours, causing closure of the pool or may result in illness of guests. Operators of hotel swimming pools must ensure water quality is maintained to meet or exceed strict health codes, guidelines and regulations and water tested accordingly.

TRICHLOR PLUS GRANULES 20KG Patented, co-compacted and NDG sanitiser Skimmer-fed application • Concentrated, so you use less • Reduced skin/eye irritation • No pre-dissolving • •

Hotel pools or spa pools are captured under each state’s Public Health departments and are deemed to be ‘public’. There are different risk categories for pools or spas to meet or exceed compliance. To understand which category group of a hotel’s swimming pool or spa pool meets is based on assessment of risk for each pool or spa. This includes parameters such as bather load and likely use, ability of the pool operating system to respond to water quality changes, primary disinfectant used, water test method used, manual water testing frequency and logged, level of likely environmental contamination, the climate, health/age of bathers, if the pool or spa is heated and the location of the facility if indoors or out as a minimum.

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children, spa pools and hydrotherapy pools. Or a pool or spa with some of the following risk factors:

Managing Risks

• pH greater than 7.6 in a chlorinated pool

State public health acts and codes determine the level of maintenance and testing required for water quality control.

• Consistently poor disinfectant (previous chemical or bacteriological criteria failures) • High turbidity • Poor pool circulation and/or filtration • High bather loads • Presence of algae • Regular use by birds e.g.. ducks • Easy access of foreign material e.g.. litter • Biofilms detected • A high percentage of use by children below five years of age, people with special needs, older or handicapped persons. • A pool with a water turnover time in excess of six hours. • Wading pools, spas and hydrotherapy pools. • Pools with shared filtration and water circulation systems. Medium Risk – Pools in hotels, motels and resorts that are used daily and heated pools with temperatures greater than 26o. Low Risk – Hotels, motels and resorts with restriction to discrete user groups such as owner occupier residents and guests, low and infrequent bathing load pools.


Water Quality

New South Wales – The Public Health Act and Regulation commenced on 1 March, 2013. The occupier of the premises must notify the local council (Form c19), ensure an automated or continuous metered dosing system is fitted, primary disinfectant is chlorine or bromine and complies with the Prescribed Operative Requirements and Disinfection Standard, specified levels of bromine and chlorine, pH and alkalinity plus meet testing record keeping complying with all aspects of the Act and Regulation. Victoria – Hotel pools need to comply with Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008, requirements where updated 1 January 2010. Western Australia – The Aquatic Facilities Code of Practice was updated July 2011 and all pools or spas need to comply. South Australia – The state government is currently reviewing the public health including swimming pool laws and requirements. All other states and territories health of water quality remain at this time unchanged.





1. Pool Gates and Fences

Drowning & Immersion

State and Local Laws; Building Code; Swimming Pool Acts. AS1926: AS2818:

2. Unhealthy Pool Water

Disease; Infections; Impaired Visibility

State Public Health Acts ; Codes ; Guidelines: OH&S Act: WHS Act;

3. Dangerous Chemicals

Storage; Handling; Use; Disposal; Transportation

OH&S Act; WHS Act; AS3780: AS4326: DGSM Act

4. Signage

CPR, Depth Markers, Advisory

National Aquatic and Recreational Signage; AS1926; State Public Health Acts;

5. Plant & Equipment

Noise, Maintenance; Electrical; Sustainability; Suction Entrapment

DECCW: Electrical Safety Act; ACCC

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Pool Fences All states and territories have pool fencing laws. The authority on who enforces the laws is dependent on local governments. New South Wales – The Swimming Pool Act NSW was updated for pool fencing in October 2012 with a phase-in period for compliance. From April 2013 pool owners must register their pools or spas on a Statewide register. Mandatory inspections will be conducted by councils of tourist accommodation, visitor and multioccupancy developments every 3 years commencing 29 April, 2014. Queensland – December 2010 strict new laws are enforced by the State Government requiring all pools and spas to be registered and inspected. PoolWerx are Government licensed pool safety inspectors and all hotel pools must follow the state enforced fencing guidelines. However there are a few resorts that have their own strict exemptions.

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Hydron split-tank filters are part of Waterco’s comprehensive range of Micron fibreglass filters. Manufactured from the highest grade of non corrosive materials and employing the latest in fibreglass winding technology

Signage standards have recently been updated for signage in and around pools include pictograms for non-English speaking guests, size of font and the phase-in of triangles to align with the world standards.

NSW Qld vic SA WA NZ 02 9898 8686 07 3299 9900 03 9764 1211 08 8244 6000 08 9273 1900 09 525 7570


FMG Engineering

looks at european aquatic design FMG Engineering is a consulting firm that has been servicing and supporting domestic and commercial markets for 40 years. Their multi-disciplinary engineering services encompass aquatic, civil, structural, and geotechnical and support the Australian markets.


efficiency and sustainability are key performance measures. Identification of the most efficient pump and filtration system is a critical element in any design to ensure that water quality parameters are being met in the pools regardless of the size and shape.

ecognised as specialists in the design, construction and maintenance of community, commercial and residential swimming pools, the aquatic design division identified an area of rapid market growth following a research tour with AstralPools in early 2012. AstralPool Managing Director Peter Wallace says the study tour involved a number of influential consulting engineers and commercial builders who travelled to Spain to view the facilities that AstralPool and their parent company, Fluidra, has been involved in fitting; how they have been integrated into resorts, and how they could be incorporated into Australian resorts and hotels. FMG Engineering’s Structural Development Manager Neil Davey and Director John Goldfinch visited a number of European facilities with Davey saying the design, effect and creations of the pools throughout Europe is a benchmark for the Australian market. New pools will be a featured multi-purpose aquatic facility that serves the whole family; therapeutic air beds, shower streams, pools cascading over multi-levels together with large custom-made stainless steel spas that can be incorporated into feature pools. Mr Davey said “…the scope for the use of these new age pool and spa designs with Councils, hotels, health retreats, and the like is enormous…” , “Gone are the days of the rectangular pool with an area for laps and an area for recreational swimming…pools designs will see the pool travelling through external walls offering inside and outside enjoyment…commercially the design


evolution is allowing resort and theme parks to provide complex water slides and surf and wave pools. Mr Davey continued “…combine the Australian climate and our tourism trade, and we are in a prime position to provide state of the art, top-line designs and support for resorts, pools, spas, retreats, children’s recreation areas and wet areas”. New pool designs focus on environmental and sustainability and multi-use purpose, is a step forward in thinking for the pool industry; an industry that has already seen the design and integration of the personal swimming pool permeate into a holistic design within the home. The pool, wet area, spa or children’s activity area can now be integrated and designed into either the home environment or a business project – be that hotels, retreats, councils, community groups and the like. The future of these new aquatic designs supports two distinct areas: rebuilds and new builds. As with all developments, be they refurbishment or new builds, energy

Rebuilding and upgrading an old pool will offer a number of challenges. Pools built in the 1960s and 1970’s have out-dated technology and product; a time when sustainability was not considered. 60s and 70s pools are very expensive to run, have a huge carbon footprint and suffer from substantial water loss due to leakage and inefficiency. FMG estimate the use of modern equipment would reduce running costs by around 70% as well as delivering significant environmental sustainability performance. Often older installations need a total solution which could incorporate hydraulic design, water treatment, reticulation, recycling of water, capture and use of rainwater, integration of structures, feasibility studies, audit investigations through to geotechnical investigation to remedial solutions; all these reducing expensive power and water costs while extending the life of existing infrastructure. The new builds offer completely new and different challenges all together. The largest component of swimming pools for the future will be versatile and multi use pools where they are custom designed to meet a range of purposes. In the early 90’s there was a huge shift in pool design with infinity and wet-edge pools. It was at this point that the use and

With the advent of new pool design and incorporating more design elements we are seeing more and more compliance issues. Domestic and commercial consumers alike are investing in the compliance, safety and the efficiency of equipment that keeps their pool continually attractive and enjoyable.

integration of personal and commercial pools started to become more than just a child backyard play toy morphing into the focal point for a resort or home.

FMG would estimate that approximately 40% of inspections carried out on old pools aren’t compliant to current standards; some are fortunately for minor non-compliance issues.

Compliance will continue to be an engineering issue for the old pools and the new designs as environmental targets and safety performance is scrutinised even further. This scrutiny is seeing local councils and state governments increasing the compliance standards and auditing of swimming pools; in particular pools for public use.

Mr Davey said “..for an audit of an existing pool facility we would look at compliance to current standards, access for disabled, water quality and efficiency of pump and filter system and how the ageing infrastructure can perform better, all to bring the pool up to a more modern standard.”

Mr Davey concluded “..the future of pool design is incredibly exciting.The elements that can be incorporated into any element of design are extensive.The use of the pools and wet areas can cover a number of industries from hotels, recreation to health and wellness and their purpose and use can be that of things we’ve never seen before. But with this new element and opportunity do come some challenges that if identified and managed correctly from the commencement of the project will provide the client with an exemplary and unique project.” For more information, please contact Gray Management Group: Cathy McHugh – Managing Director 0412 515 819 – 08 8363 4496


Level 1, 2 Domville Ave Hawthorn,VIC 3122 P (03) 9815 7600 F (03) 9662 3879


Leading Aquatic Facility Solutions Experts in refurbishment and new aquatic design Cost effective solutions to suit your budget

PO Box 707 Kent Town, SA 5071 42 Fullarton Road Norwood, SA 5067 P (08) 8363 0222 F (08) 8363 1555




Laurie Lawrence Swim School Banora Point has raised the standards for pool water quality

James Parker I Ozone1

Upon beginning their tenure at the Banora Point facility there were a number of problems with the plant room which impacted on the quality of the water. Running standard ORP controllers and using Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrochloric Acid as the chemicals it was a typical swim school, and for the best part most Hotel or Resort swimming pool, plant room.


n order to obtain optimum water quality Ozone1 installed a unique total solution. What Ozone1 have been able to create is a very stable level of pool water quality.

Stage 1 was ensuring suitable chemical balance. To increase the consistency of the chlorine levels a new Blue-I chemical controller was installed. This unit conducts a dpd1 test every four minutes meaning the chemical controller is able to better monitor and maintain the chlorine level specifically, not just the potential chlorine level as is the case in the more common ORP based systems. The monitor also records this information and is set-up so that the data can be accessed remotely. Ozone1 also switched the swimming pool from Hydrochloric Acid to CO2 pH control resulting in softer water and a more favourable Alkalinity level. In order to ensure the power of the CO2 was being optimised Ozone1 utilised their unique contact chamber. The Ozone secondary disinfection system was part of our 2nd Stage. By utilising the power of Ozone which destroys all pathogens before the chlorine is utilised the combined chlorine levels that


cause so much discomfort to swimmers and staff are no longer present in the same quantities. The Ozone Skid, as is always the case, was tailored to suit the swimming pool size and predicted maximum bather load ensuring that even during the busiest periods the water

I always thought that I had good swimming pool water and maybe to a point I did. What I have now though is excellent swimming pool water. My water looks like glass and my pool hall is not filled with any form of odour. I have teachers excited about getting in the water and not suffering with any form of skin irritation, but what is even better is my customers are noticing the difference. I honestly could not be any happier with the team at Ozone1 and the quality of their workmanship. I cannot speak any higher of them. Laurie Lawrence

Consequence Descriptor

Prior to Installation

Post Installation

Cl Free


1ppm (a reduction of 71%)

Cl Combined


0.3ppm (a reduction of 85%)

Cl Total


1.3ppm (a reduction of 76%)










remains Ozone enriched maintaining only the best level of water quality.

We would like to extend our appreciation to Laurie Lawrence and his Banora Point Swimming School for embracing our total solution. It is not uncommon for swimming pools to smell, and that even after showering you and all those around you know that you have been for a swim. This smell is not from the chlorine to disinfect your pool, but rather from the chlorine that has been used, known as combined chlorine. Because Resorts and Swimming School pools have high bather load and turnover – hence constantly have pollutants added – the combined chlorine levels in the pool increase and can reach a point that eyes become sore and irritated, and rashes can form – especially on those that are exposed to your water the longest. Cloudy pools present an additional area of concern for pool operators as this visual indicator is more often than not noticed by your customers. The reasons for this cloudiness are many, but the end result is the same, complaints and poor memories. As we have just hit autumn there would have to no better time than to begin to prepare your pool for next spring and summers campaigns. Contact Ozone1 have a full range of solutions available to solve even the most complex of problems. Ozone1 pride themselves on their ability to assist all levels of Swimming Pool operators improve their operations and efficiency. Please contact Ozone1 for a free Energy, Chemical and Water efficiency review of your swimming pool now and let us show you how easy it is to give your customers the pool water they deserve.



Alan Lewis I Aquazure

There is no need to change the sand in your filter if you have biofilm contaminating it.


n the last 4-5 years there has been considerable progress in understanding how biofilms develop in sand filters and there are now many studies employing Electron Microscopy to provide better visualisation of this process. This has led to a better understanding of how we can better design filtration for both drinking water and swimming pools, The photograph below is one example where we can see the beginning of the growth of E. Coli bacteria commonly found in swimming pools that are not satisfactorily disinfected.

BACTERIA Bacteria (singular: bacterium) means “little stick or rod” – usually no more than a few micrometres in length. In spite of their name, they are often spherical or even shaped in the form of a spiral. These were among the first forms of life, and because of their ability to multiply and defend themselves against their natural enemies, or adapt to different and totally contrasting environmental conditions, are amongst the oldest living specimens on this earth. They live in soil; water; acidic springs; radioactive waste; deep in the earth’s crust, and in the bodies of animals, insects, or plants.

Most bacteria live in harmony with their hosts – but some are considered pathogens, that need to be avoided or “inactivated” so as to prevent disease in humans.That is why we need to keep a constant presence of disease controlling chemicals (disinfectants) in a swimming pool. Microorganisms abound in soil (about 40 million bacterial cells per gram) and in water (a million cells in a millilitre of fresh water). In total bacteria on earth form a far greater “biomass” than that of all the plants and animals put together.There are ten times as many bacteria on and in our skin; saliva; or gastro-intestinal tracts – than cells in our body. Most of these are rendered harmless by our immune systems, but we have learnt to be cautious with the pathogens such as legionella; cholera; tuberculosis; anthrax or leprosy. On the other hand we have also learnt to protect bacteria that can break down oil spills; or help render sewerage harmless; or even help fermentation of cheese or yogurt. The colonisation of sand by bacteria in a heated indoor pool with a heavy bather load is very rapid. Once the colony is well populated it begins to provide itself with a sticky protective glue-like layer of polysaccharides, which prevent chlorine and or bromine from oxidising them or rendering them inactive. All this happens well out of sight – in pipes; sand filters; heaters; and other apparatus which is hard to get to. Hence the importance of understanding how pathogens can suddenly appear as they are torn off from the biofilm and are then carried into the pool where they can potentially harm bathers.

Escherichia coli magnified 10,000 times



5 stages of biofilm development.

Stage 1, initial attachment; Stage 2, irreversible attachment; Stage 3, maturation I; Stage 4, maturation II; Stage 5, dispersion. Each stage of development in the diagram is paired with a photomicrograph of a developing Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. All photomicrographs are shown to same scale, (Wikipedia). Source From: Looking for Chinks in the Armor of Bacterial Biofilms Monroe D PLoS Biology Vol. 5, No. 11, e307 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050307

Bacteria can multiply at a tremendous rate in water above 25 deg C. In a matter of 60 minutes they can double their number. Fortunately this doesn’t happen in indoor swimming pools because their food supply is hampered by the filtration and the disinfection processes commonly required by local health authorities. However, in many western countries like ours, little attention is paid to the need to insist on bathers showering before they enter the water. Thus in spite of the warnings, and the signs posted, our bathers continue to contribute the very food matter that these bacteria thrive on. Their main contribution to this supply of food is urea. It is the ammonia in urea which reacts with the chlorine in the water to form nitrogen trichloride. Beyond this the dust and dirt from the atmosphere sticks to sweating bodies and contribute enough material to sustain the growth of bacteria.

In addition to that the local water supply might also contain phosphates, or surfactants (in cleaning agents) might be accidently washed into the pool by cleaners. These are also welcomed by bacteria as they assist in their rapid growth. That is why many public pools use flocculants such as polyaluminium chloride and or Ozone which help particles join together and hence are more readily caught in the filter.

not well thought out. Nor does it take into account that for the back washing process to succeed, it must fluidise the sand bed in a fashion which will allow the organic solid matter captured in the sand to be extracted easily to waste by the flow. On top of that, the microscopic layer of biofilm on each grain of sand needs to be “washed” away. That is simply not possible once the biofilm is well established.

It is the bacteria themselves that provide their own protective layer of polysaccharides and hence every contribution to the growth and development of that layer makes it more and more difficult to destroy them. We need to make bathers more aware of this so that they will understand how important it is to shower immediately before bathing.

Beyond that it is often the case that the pool operator needs to conserve water by backwashing at greater intervals. Knowing what we do now about the biofilm, it is vital that every filter be backwashed at the very minimum once a week, if we are to have any hope of keeping the filter clean. Any back washing frequency less than that, is asking for trouble.



Today most public pools have high rate filters so that the feed of the disinfectant can correct any fall in the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of the water. This is needed when large numbers of bathers enter the water at once. The pump should move the water through the sand in the filter at speed that will retain the safety level of the disinfection. In many cases the size ; design and the flow rate of the water driven through the sand is

Without a doubt removing the sand and replacing it with new will definitely get rid of it completely. This is time consuming; very messy; and very expensive. Considering the short time it will take for the biofilm to redevelop if good pool maintenance procedures are not in place, this “remedy” would be very short lived. We are fortunate in Australia that a prominent laboratory in Sydney has developed Multizyme. As the name implies this is a formulation which employs a choice of several enzymes which are capable


of breaking down the bonds that hold the biofilm together and make it possible to backwash away the bacteria together with the protective layer. Multizyme has been designed to clean the biofilm from medical instruments commonly used in the operating theatre and as such works speedily so that these expensive instruments can be used again with in a short time. Likewise the application in swimming pool sand filters can be applied over night, so that the pool can be opened at the normal time the next day. The procedure is simple: Turn off the pump and measure up the appropriate amount of Multizyme. Then pour it directly into the top of the filter (by removing a top mounted multiport valve) or a bolted cover. Alternatively open the lint pot of the pump and pour it in there so that it can be pumped into the filter in a few seconds.

This picture shows how a biofilm can build up in the filter sand. The “stickiness” of the polysaccharides of the “protective layer” can be felt as the hand digs into the top layer.

How the sand will look after cleansing with a good enzymatic formulation


Within six hours the Multizyme will have worked on the entire filter and freed the bacteria from their protective layer. By back washing and rinsing next morning very very thoroughly – until there is no evidence of dirt in the sight glass – the filter will be entirely free. It would only take a little more trouble to actually do a small test similar to the one below: Take out a handful of sand from the top layer of the filter – before and after this procedure so that you can prove to yourself that this process has been effective.

PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE Finally, it is important to know that a recent development in the US has made a big impact on the problem of continual maintenance of the sand in the filter. It was noticed by Dr Knighton of Creative Water Solutions, in his surgical experience and expertise with wound healing, that natural plant life could have an affect on bacterial growth. Dr Knighton noticed that the lakes in Northern Minnesota were always fresh and pristine. Furthermore, he noticed that the lakes and rivers in this area are surrounded by moss bogs.

Recycled glass has been promoted as a superior alternative to sand. It seems to function perfectly well as a filter medium, but additional claims are made. It is claimed that biofilms form less readily on glass than on sand, and that irritant trichloramines form within these biofilms.(It is well established, however, that trichloramines form in the pool water) PWTAG can find no peer reviewed, published evidence for these claims POST SCRIPT – TAKEN FROM A PWTAG STATEMENT ON GLASS FILTER MEDIA The Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group has been operating for 25 years and is the UK’s only independent source of guidelines in this field. As such it is a highly respected body capable of impartial opinions and referenced by bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive who are also represented in this group.

From there he and his partner Vance Fiegel began researching Sphagnum Moss in earnest until they found the right genus of moss which significantly inhibited bacterial proliferation. From this they developed products which can be used in pool filters, balance tanks or cartridge filters to make a significant improvement on the control of bacteria in pools and spas. In my direct conversations with CPOs using these products – I have had glowing reports and recommendations. Hopefully it will not be long before these products are available in Australia and we can find out for ourselves just how effective they are. I hope that soon I will be able to tell you more, from first hand experience, with this very “green” solution to the problem of minimising bacterial biofilms. You can find out more by visiting

THE PERIODIC MAJOR POOL REPAIR/ MAINTENANCE By now it should clear that regular cleaning of the sand in the filter does not treat all of the circulation system. Biofilm forms on any static surface including pipes, heaters and the like where water is in constant contact. Therefore it is necessary to note that when ever the pool or spa is about to be drained, that is the time for a good clean down of the rest of the circulation. On such occasions all it requires is to put the required dose directly in the pool or spa water and circulate for 6-8 hours before draining. The pool will become quite black with the released biofilm and so there will be no alternative but to drain it. All of the surfaces will have been cleaned down – so remember that having drained the pool itself you will still have to flush out the dirt in the filter and the pipes – into the pool and from there continue to remove all the dirt until every part of the biofilm has been deposited in the pool and then removed from the system. This opportunity does not arise very often so it is important to remember to make good use of the opportunity. Hopefully you will be able to see for yourself that such procedures will improve the long term quality of the pool water and bring a lot of smiles for the regular customers and the faithful staff.


Quality and efficiency In-built tariff intelligence reduces heating costs Demonstrating a commitment to design and effectiveness, the Rheem and Accent heat pumps are specially tailored for maximum heat transfer and efficiency. The company’s high-quality products are supported by Rheem Australia’s Psychrometic Type Test Room, where the heat pump design is constantly tested for efficiency, output and robustness. Rheem’s Accent heat pumps are now available with in-built tariff intelligence. This new central controller has been developed specifically to optimise the run-profile that is relative to electricity pricing. This in turn achieves the lowest possible heating cost. When programming the controller, Rheem evaluated every electricity price option. The controller’s programming now understands the off-peak, shoulder and peak structure of time-of-use tariffs, with some preprogrammed to aid ease of use.

In-built electricity pricing intelligence The Rheem IQ® tariff-optimising intelligent control includes programming logic that guarantees seamless off-peak operation through slight movements of the pool temperature.This ensures that the lowerpriced off-peak heat contribution is effectively stored in the pool. Differing temperature parameters are also available by time period, with the intention that peak operation may be postponed or avoided to the maximum extent feasible.This is consistent with your desired temperature of the pool at different times of the day. The Rheem IQ® tariff-optimising intelligent control gives you the tool to achieve substantial reductions in heating costs. With time-of-use or smart metering, heating costs during the day can be up to four times the cost of night running. Achieving a balance of off-peak and shoulder electricity use will see your pool heating costs almost halved in comparison to those with a connection to the standard flat rate.


Saving pump running costs The potential for reducing costs can be extended to your recirculating pump. The new Rheem IQ® controller can be linked to your pool pump so that it only runs in line with the run-profile and in the hours required for heating. This will further minimise electricity costs and increase the total saving. The tariff intelligence of the controller is only one of the new features offered with Rheem’s Accent heat pumps. Functionality extends to outdoor fan control, circulating pump control, de-ice management, alarm logging and PCo connectivity. The BMS interface capability of the unit also allows direct interrogation, status checking and performance data review. For more information visit the Rheem Pool Heating website. Rheem Pool Heating thrives on a reputation of providing the highest quality products

and advice when it comes to pool and spa heating solutions. The company is committed to innovation so, when choosing a Rheem Accent heat pump, you can be sure that you are receiving the utmost when it comes to efficiency.

Fact Sheet RHEEM POOL HEATING P: 1300 132 950 E: W:



Kirrawee NSW choose BECSys3 pool controller and Pulsar 3 system Matthew Brown, co-owner of the new Little Fins Swim School in Kirrawee, NSW wanted a chemical dosing and control system that was simple to use for his staff, but also one that would assure the best possible water quality for his young patrons. Matthew’s pool builder, Hank Van THE POOL MAN, recommended the BECSys3 pH & chlorine controller and Pulsar 3 dry chlorine briquette feeder.


rotection of the new vinyl liner in the pool was an important consideration and the Pulsar system would achieve constant disinfection, in compliance with NSW Health Pool guidelines, using the minimum amount of acid for pH correction. This is because Pulsar Briquettes dry chlorine includes a built-in antiscalant to make the Pulsar 3 feeder run smoothly, without the need for excessive acid dosing, as can be required with granular calcium hypochlorite feeders. The system consists of a booster pump to draw filtered water from the plant through a venturi eductor, taking chlorine solution from the feeder and effectively superchlorinating some of the

The “Little Fins” indoor pool


pool water before redistributing it to the pool. The small amount of acid dosing required to correct the pool pH, against the close to ‘pH neutral’ effect of the Pulsar Briquettes, is added in upstream of the venturi for best results. Typical water chemistry of the pool is pH 7.4, total alkalinity 80mg/L, calcium hardness around 300mg/L and free chlorine 2.5mg/L. Pool TDS is run much lower than in a pool using liquid chlorine, by as much as 50-75% – keeping the water ‘fresher’ for longer. Overall Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) water balance is an ideal +0.1 and therefore bather comfort and optimal plant performance is assured. The elevated calcium level acts as a mild coagulant and assists the sand filters in fine particle and metals removal, while protecting the plant and pool surfaces from corrosion or degradation. New to Australia, but recognisable to many from it’s former name of ‘Strantrol System 3’, the BECSys3 pool pH and chlorine controller uses a heavy duty ORPmV probe with a 2 year warranty and 5

Pulsar 3 feeder & Pulsar Briquettes, 20kg drum

year+ life expectancy to give continuous compliance with the latest ORP based NSW Health Department requirements for pools; ensuring disinfection at all times regardless of bathing load variations. Being the simplest to use of any controller on the market the Sys3 has a ‘CAL’ and ‘SETPOINT’ button, ‘UP’ and ‘DOWN’ arrow buttons and an ‘ENTER’ button. It is easy to use by any staff member and is protected by two

Don’t let your guest dive into a nasty cocktail! Guests should be able to enjoy a cocktail by the pool, not feel like they’re swimming in one. With hospitality clients across Australia and New Zealand, PoolWerx understands that a hotel pool needs to be as clean and inviting as the rooms themselves. We ensure that your pools and spas are healthy and comply with legislation to fulfil your duty of care. Our services include: • 24/7 emergency hotline as well as free professional problem solving and advice by phone or email • Independent, expert third-party support in the event of litigation • Service all year round, with options to suit your seasons and location PoolWerx can do as much or as little of the work you require. As a Registered Training Organisation, we can also provide training for work you wish to be performed in house. Starting with a complementary on-site visual inspection, PoolWerx will then tailor a solution, keeping your current resources and budget in mind.

Call PoolWerx today on 1800 009 000 or email


The Mirage Hotel, Las Vegas Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Kuala Lumpur Piscine Hotel Meridien, Tahiti Shangri-La, Pudong China Westin Hotel, Kuala Lumpur These are just some of the famous hotels around the world who rely on our salt water sanitisation for a perfect pool, day in day out. Our systems are also made right here in Australia. Luckily you don’t have to travel far to get Davey commercial quality and reliability.

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success with strong growth in patronage by 400% since it opened early this year. Having great water quality and a comfortable pool environment is a key part of the centre’s success. See Little Fins Swim School on their website – For more details please contact Tim Batt of Tim Batt Water Solutions (BECS Technology and Pulsar distributor for Australia and New Zealand) on ph 0438-889268 or e-mail:- Little Fins Swim School, Kirrawee NSW

BECSys3 controller with Remote Control Module (RCM)

levels of password access, if required. A reliable and very low maintenance direct free chlorine sensor for FAC based control is available as an option, if preferred. Although the Sys3 is simple to use, it has a highly sophisticated, optional BECS-RCM remote control module connected, which enables remote two way communication and download/graphing of readings to an Ethernet connected PC, using ‘BECSys for Windows’ software. This BECS Technology designed software is extremely simple to use and is immediately familiar to any regular PC user, being both Windows Vista and Windows 7 compatible and having a well laid out ‘user interface’ control panel, for changing of setpoints and alarm points remotely. The graphing page is fully configurable to show not just readings of the various pool parameters (pH, ORP, temperature, free chlorine, etc), but also chemical feed events, access by operators, alarm events and so on. Where this recording comes into it’s own is if the pool needs to be superchlorinated at night and a record of this kept to prove this has been done, for example after a faecal incident occurring in the pool water. There are many benefits to assist the pool owner in compliance with the latest regulatory requirements. A useful feature is the automatic alarm callout to Matthew’s PC or mobile phone if there is an alarm event of any kind. Matthew is extremely happy with his BECS/ Pulsar system and he has received many compliments on water quality and bather comfort from the parents of his young ‘Little Fins’ patrons. The swim school is a great

BECS Technology Pool pH & Chlorine Controllers by TBWS are •

EFFICIENT - Reduce chemical usage, improve water quality & assure compliance

ECONOMICAL - Long life, low cost, low maintenance pH, ORP & FAC probes

FLEXIBLE & VERSATILE - Advanced, adjustable control features to suit all pools. Super chlorination and low level night setpoints

EASY-TO-USE - Simple, intuitive menu systems. Single point pH calibration

EXPANDABLE - Datalogging, remote access, FAC/TCL, TDS & many other sensors

SAFE - Standard alarm and failsafe protection with auto ‘alarm callout’ feature

SECURE - Multi level password protection

RELIABLE - 5yr Electronics warranty 2yr Sensor warranty – no worries!

SUPPORTED - Factory trained service and support

Tim BaTT WaTer SoluTionS P/l PO Box 288 Balgowlah NSW 2093 Sydney Australia Phone: (02) 9948 4177 Fax: (02) 9907 0014 Mobile: (0438) 889 268 E-mail:


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of Public Swimming Pools and Spa Pools Infections are caused by many pathogenic microorganisms simply known as germs. Disinfection is a process that kills germs, but not their spores, and reduces the risk of disease transmission. Public swimming pools and spa pool must maintain recommended disinfectant, pH and alkalinity levels to minimise the risk of disease transmission.



nfections are caused by the transmission of certain pathogenic micro-organisms known as germs. Transmission in swimming pools and spas occurs when germs are introduced into the swimming pool water, mainly by bathers, and then other bathers come into contact with them. There are many infections that may be transmitted by swimming pools and spas. The infections mainly infect the skin, ears, eyes, noses, lungs and the gastro intestinal tract. The infections can give rise to symptoms such as pussy sores on the skin, conjunctivitis in the eyes, runny noses, sore ears and burst ear drums, pneumonia, vomiting and diarrhoea. The most serious risk to health is when there is a faecal accident in the pool. Faecal contamination is mainly caused by infants who are not toilet trained. It is important to minimise the entry of germs into a pool. Swimmers should always go to the toilet and shower before swimming. Cosmetics should be removed before swimming. There are some situations which may allow germs to thrive. These include dirty pools, warm pools, aerated pools, pools with too little disinfectant, pools with too much stabiliser and chlorine disinfected pools where the pH is too high. A combination of these situations can easily lead to infection transmission.

Disinfection Disinfection is a process which kills germs, but unfortunately not their spores. The aim of disinfection is to reduce the risk of transmission of infections. Disinfection is not an instantaneous process but takes time. The higher the concentration of disinfectant the more rapidly it kills. At the minimum recommended concentrations of chlorine and bromine, the kill time is about one minute or less for most germs. Most germs are easily controlled by disinfection but Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, which are types of spores, are resistant to disinfectants. Their transmission needs to be controlled by preventing these germs and their spores

from entering into pool or spa. There is a fact sheet about Cryptosporidium and Giardia which can be seen on the NSW Government website shown below. Disinfectant levels above the recommended minimum concentrations must be present in the pool water at all times. Disinfection must be provided by a disinfectant which leaves an effective residual in the pool that is not harmful to swimmers.

ineffective and chlorine levels should be increased if stabiliser is used. Stabiliser is not suitable for use with bromination. • Pools must be equipped with a circulation system and filters capable of producing clean, clear water. Filtered water is easier to disinfect, reduces contaminants and produces less by-products. Circulation systems must be active while the pool or spa is open and for at least one hour before and after the pool is open.

Suitable disinfectants


Chlorine and bromine based disinfectants are the only satisfactory pool and spa disinfectants recognised by NSW Health for use in public swimming pools and spa pools. They also oxidise and destroy some organic chemicals which may enter the pool. These disinfectants provide a readily measurable residual in the pool water. Each disinfectant has its advantages and disadvantages and pool operators should consider any disinfectant or disinfectant system carefully before use.

Some of the chlorine and bromine is consumed in oxidising organic matter. This reduces the power and speed of chlorine and bromine to disinfect germs. This in turn could increase the risk of disease transmission. Oxidisers can often be used to oxidise or burn up organic matter and increase the disinfection power of chlorine and bromine, but their use should be specifically targeted perhaps once a week or fortnight and not used continuously. Oxidisers may affect the test results for chlorine and bromine.

Dosing of disinfectants All public swimming pools and spas must, as a minimum, have continuous metered dosing equipment to continuously dose the disinfectant. Automatic dosing equipment should be used it is important to respond quickly to changes in chlorine demand in busy pools. Dosing systems must be active while the pool or spa is open and for at least one hour before and after the pool is open. Efficient chlorine pools operate on the chemical process known as breakpoint chlorination which can only be reliably and constantly achieved with dosing equipment (see separate Fact Sheet – Continuous Breakpoint Chlorination) on the NSW Government website.

Disinfection factors • Increasing pH decreases disinfection power so that above pH 7.6, chlorination is ineffective and above pH 8.0, bromination is less effective. • Stabiliser (cyanurate) should not exceed 50mg/L as disinfection becomes

Ultra violet light and ozone UV light lamps and ozone systems may be used in addition to, but not instead of, chlorine and bromine to disinfect and oxidise swimming pool and spa pool water. UV light lamps must be located in the circulation system and not in the pool. Ozone must be dosed in the circulation system and quenched using activated carbon before the water returns to the pool. Low dose ozone systems, at less than less than 2 grams/hour generation, if installed correctly do not need ozone quenching.

Further information The Public Swimming Pool and Spa Pool Advisory Document provides detailed explanations and information on disinfection, pool chemistry, risk assessment and other issues relevant to swimming pool operation. It may be found at the NSW Health swimming pool web site at: environment/water/swimming_pool_spa.asp


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Hotels across Australasia such as Hilton, The Westin, Novotel and Sheraton demand SKOPE products for their high levels of aesthetics, quality and food safety which is of vital importance to the industry.

At The Westin Sydney, an Irinox Blast Chiller has revolutionised the way the kitchen operates, enabling Chefs to expand their menu and giving greater flexibility in a kitchen that services several restaurants. At the Novotel Auckland Airport, a black SKOPE backbar is a key feature in the ‘living’ bar reception area.

Inspired by the European deli experience, goods at the Hilton’s ‘The Food Store’ in Surfers Paradise are displayed in towering

The SKOPE brand focuses on excellence, and it is the refrigeration brand of choice and a market leader in the industry.

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WA 

I WISH TO APPLY FOR: Renewal of my Membership 

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I WISH TO BECOME A NEW MEMBER VIA: (a) Fellow – a member of at least 10 years standing who has made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of hotel engineering (as determined by the management committee) or this association may be advanced by the management committee to the grade of Fellow. This membership class is a life membership of the institute. (b) Honorary Fellow – any person who has rendered conspicuous service to the hotel industry (as determined by the management committee), or any person prominently connected with but not necessarily in the hotel industry who may be approved by the management committee, shall be eligible as an Honorary Fellow. This membership class is a life membership of the institute. (c) Member – a person shall be eligible as a Member if the applicant holds a certificate, degree or diploma or such other qualification in engineering approved by the management committee, and has at least 5 years experience in a head of engineering position and shall be directly engaged in hotel engineering. (d) Associate Member – a person shall be eligible as an Associate Member if the applicant holds a qualification in engineering approved by the management committee and is directly engaged in hotel engineering and his/her qualifications and/or experience do not in the opinion of the management committee entitle him/her to admission as a Member. (e) Student Member – a person who is attending an appropriate course of instruction at an Institution approved by the management committee shall be eligible as a Student Member

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FEES: Membership/Associate Membership:

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Yearly Renewal AUD$100 Yearly Renewal AUD$60 Yearly Renewal AUD$550

PAYMENT CAN BE MADE BY: NSW Chapter: Cheque payable to:

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MAIL COMPLETED FORMS TO: NSW Chapter: The Secretary, AIHE NSW Chapter, PO Box H263, Australia Square NSW 1215 QLD Chapter: The Secretary, AIHE QLD Chapter, PO Box 5118, Gold Coast Mail Centre 9726 VIC Chapter: The Secretary, AIHE VIC Chapter, PO Box 2136, Caulfield Junction VIC 3161 WA Chapter: The Secretary, AIHE WA Chapter, PO Box 6191, East Perth WA 6892 Your membership application will be processed, which includes the following: o Certificate of membership

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WHO’S RESPONSIBLE or DONT SHOOT THE MESSENGER Don’t blame the person who brings bad news.

Detections in water systems do occur but if you have the correct procedures and action plan to respond when there is detection the risk is minimised. Major concerns for most authorities is when sampling and testing is performed and there is a conflict of interest (a situation in which decisions are influenced by personal interests)and testing reports consistently come back with no detections. Independent Monitoring Consultants is a professional sampling and accredited testing consultancy business with more than 20 years experience in sampling, testing and consulting to major Hotels, Property Management, Shopping Centres and Hospitals throughout Australia and Asia. IMC provides independent sampling of cooling tower water systems, swimming pools, spas, potable waters & ice, corrosion, indoor air quality and foods.

INDEPENDENT MONITORING CONSULTANTS Head Office: 23–25 Daking Street North Parramatta NSW 2151 1300 131 405 (02) 9890 5067 New South Wales: Ian Hartup 0411 109 353 Queensland: David Curry 0408 368 921 South Australia: Roz White 0431 503 195 Victoria: Troy Cairncross 0412 117 114


Is your power consumption going up? Are your guests leaving the air conditioner on all day while they are out? Are your guests running the air conditioners at 16 degrees?

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ow you can take control of how your guests use energy hungry air ­conditioners. The ultima remote allows you to control the temperature range at which your air conditioners will operate, having a direct and immediate effect on your power consumption. How hard is it? Swap your existing air conditioner remote with an Ultima remote, enter the code supplied and save save save. It is that easy and your payback can be measured in weeks not years. Call us and discover how inexpensive it is to save over 15% on your air conditioner’s energy use immediately. We have sold over 10,000 energy saving remotes in the past two years. Find out how you can start saving today. Find out why Varsity Towers, Beachfront on Trinity, Merimbula Beach Holiday Park, Beaconsfield Beach Apartments, Cedar Lodge Motel, Medina Executive, Ocean Beach Holiday Park, Santaanna by the Sea,


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hundreds of others have all had positive results with our energy savings remotes.

Being a manager of a Holiday building I see every day the unnecessary electricity usage from the air conditioners, Some guests set the temperature as low as possible on the control and leave it on 24/7 thinking nothing if they leave it on all day if they are out, or at Night time they put blankets on the bed as the rooms are so cold. The Ultima remote allows me to take some control over this, by setting the minimum Temperature at the recommended 24deg. This allows the air conditioner to quickly cool the apartment to be at a comfortable temp, Once there the compressor shuts down. Temperature settings lower than this create the compressor to work 24/7 to get the apartment at a lower temperature that it struggles to get to, or can never achieve. Some modern Inverter machines have features in them that shut down when they sense no movement in the rooms, (energy saving features) I can program the machine with the manufactures remote, then replace it with the Ultima remote, this gives me the control over the features so they can’t be de-programmed. Yes I am sold on the Ultima Remote as a great energy saving device Jack Santaanna by the Sea (Gold Coast)


NEWS Challenging environments see the rise of fibreglass pressure tanks Waterco rises to challenge with new split-tank filter; unprecedented 4 bar pressure rating With fibreglass pressure tanks rapidly replacing steel tanks in myriad commercial and industrial applications, leading manufacturer Waterco Ltd has launched a specially-designed fibreglass split-tank pressure vessel with an unprecedented pressure rating of 4 bars. And the Micron Split Tank filter has been intelligently designed with demanding environments in mind. “As it’s made from fibreglass, the Micron Split Tank filter can withstand high pressure, making it an ideal solution for a wide range of applications including water treatment and commercial swimming pool facilities,” explains Sam Schuckert, Waterco’s national commercial/water treatment manager. The fibreglass filter is also ideal for retrofitting. “It can be delivered in two parts and assembled on site in the plant room. The two halves seal perfectly, using an o’ring and held together by a flange using bolt and nuts. The filter is specifically designed to fit through existing plant room doors,” Schuckert adds. “Additionally, the split tank’s port connections are unique, as Waterco uses a proprietary boring method to enable tank penetrations.” This involves a CNC operation that is programmed into the machine to give the exact thickness that is needed in order to maintain the required wall thickness. As a result of the boring method and the flanged ring assembly, the inlet and outlet port are perfectly parallel to each other, therefore maintaining the external plumbing integrity. The Micron Split Tank is manufactured from the highest grade of non-corrosive materials using the latest in gel coated fibreglass

technology, in addition to the standard working pressure of 4 bars. “The Micron Split Tank filter is ideal for installations with challenging environments,” says Schuckert. “For example, it can be used as a pre-filter in seawater desalination processes. It provides a durable and effective alternative to filters currently made from expensive high-grade steel alloy.” Waterco’s Micron Split Tank also features a ‘fish tail’ lateral, which improves water flow distribution through the filter bed. “Conventional laterals are not suitable for larger size commercial filters,” says Schuckert. “‘Dead legs’ exist between the laterals, and the water flow is not optimised through the filter bed. Conversely, Waterco’s ‘fish tail’ lateral configuration eliminates any dead legs.” The split tanks offer the same flexibility of Waterco’s commercial filters, and different sight glass and manhole sizes can be included. The filter comes in four sizes – 48”, 56”, 64” and 72” – to deal with a variety of flow requirements. Fibreglass pressure tanks have a number of major advantages over steel tanks including: • Durability: Fibreglass vessels have a mechanical and chemical resistance superior to steel, plus fibreglass does not rust or corrode and is able to withstand damage from many types of water treatment chemicals. • More lightweight: Fibreglass tanks weigh only one third that of steel vessels, whilst maintaining the same level of strength. This makes them easy to ship and install. • Easy to maintain: Once installed they are virtually free of maintenance or repairs. This compares with steel vessels, which require the anti-corrosive coating to be maintained periodically, with certified welders required to make repairs to the lining with epoxy coating. For further information, please contact: Lisa Llewellyn Llewellyn Communications t: (02) 9970 5312 m: 0419 401 362 e:


Jands Appointed As Gator Cases Distributor In Australia Jands Pty Ltd, Australia’s leading audio, lighting and staging supplier, is now the exclusive distributor of Gator Cases in Australia. “Gator is a perfect fit for Jands” said Paul Mulholland, Jands Managing Director. “They are undoubtedly the world’s premier full range casing company, totally committed to quality and with an aggressive product development strategy”.

Have you received your complimentary saving wheel from Electrolux Laundry Systems? Take the load off with an in-House Laundry and save money.

Gator Cases forms an ideal partnership with Jands, whose product portfolio already reaches into all the relevant markets for the Gator product range. Gator Cases traditional market in Australia has been in the retail sector. However Jands are now excited to be able to offer their expansive range of specialist cases into the Production market and racks and accessories into the Contracting markets. “We look forward to both building on the considerable market share established by Music Link and finding new markets for the diverse range of protection cases. I expect Gator to quickly become a household name in Australia.” said Market Strategy Manager Geoff Smith. Gator Cases has a range of Audio and Video products suitable for hotel events and conferencing facilities, which include: racks, tablet and A/V stands, microphone and speaker stands, microphone, speaker, lighting and utility cases, as well as LED/LCD/Plasma covers and cases. For more information on Gator Cases visit or contact:

For your complimentary saving wheel please contact Electrolux Laundry Systems on:

1300 888 948 or email


Australia Sales: Jands Pty Ltd Tel: +61 2 9582 0909 Email:


For further information contact Commercial Sales


Melbourne 03 8551 0325

Sydney 02 9202 4400

briSbane 07 3723 5155

adelaide/nT 08 8114 1470

PerTh 08 9205 3300

Canberra 02 6233 8958

newCaSTle 02 4908 5880

TownSville 07 4762 7252

Hotel Engineer 18_1  

Hotel Engineer Magazine

Hotel Engineer 18_1  

Hotel Engineer Magazine