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PP 319986/101

Volume 17 Number 1




The Hotel Engineer The Official Publication of the Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering



elcome to the latest issue of Hotel Engineer, the one prior to our special on the 2012 Conference and Exhibition on the Gold Coast. In that edition there will be a comprehensive run-down on each of the guest speakers and details of the big event being held on August 9 and 10th. Much effort has gone into organising this years conference by the State Presidents and their committees, particularly the host state Queensland. For those of you whom have never previously been to an AIHE National Conference, please try and get along as there will be some excellent lectures throughout the two days, a trade show with companies showing their range of products and services for the industry, and of course it’s a great way to meet new friends and network with your fellow engineers. Back to this issue, it includes our feature on swimming pools in hotels, along with a range of articles we trust you will find most informative in the assistance of the daily operations of your hotel. The front cover is the Melbourne Park Hyatt to go with a case study on their present project, which follows on from the feasibility

study carried out by Enman Pty Ltd. It involves the implementation of energy and environmental improvements to the hotel. Several of our regular writers are back, The Hendry Group’s Wendy Hird with further information on Carbon Management. Peter Swanson has almost out-done himself with his excellent article titled ‘The Networked Age’. Greg Blain, principal of Greg Blain Architects, discusses environmentally responsible design in hotels, his next contribution in a regular series that he providing for you. Then there is Davide Ross whom recently travelled to America where he attended two of the largest energy efficiency conferences in that part of the world. In the next few issues Davide will be bringing us some of the knowledge he gained from these. In his first article, he looks at the most recent developments in motor technology, that allows direct drive of Cooling Tower fans, a vital part of all Hotel HVAC systems. There are other features for you to also read and enjoy, including Ted Horner’s look at Hotel room technology trends in 2012 and into the future. So there is plenty of good reading to maintain your interest. Our best regards until next time. Neil Muir

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ADVERTISING Melbourne: Neil Muir T: (03) 9758 1433 F: (03) 9758 1432 E: neil@adbourne.com Adelaide: Robert Spowart T: 0488 390 039 E: robert@adbourne.com PRODUCTION Emily Wallis T: (03) 9758 1436 E: production@adbourne.com

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AIHE State Presidents Ian Crookston, QLD E: ian@hyatt.com Anura Yapa, NSW E: H2977-TE@accor.com David Zammit,VIC E: david.zammit@hyatt.com Tony Fioraso, WA E: tony.fioraso@burswood.com.au

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AIHE State News


AIHE 2012 Conference & Exhibition

10 The Networked Age a Brave New World 14 Top Hotel Technology Trends in 2012 18 Hotel Engineer Regulation Update 20 Improving Energy Efficiency in a Business Hotel 24 Carbon Management: Managing the Scope 3 Data 28 Hotels Environmentally Responsible Design (ERD) 32 Hotel Managers Reminded of the Importance of Fire Safety Training 36 What Project Management Can Offer Your Next Big Development 39 Something For Everyone at ARBS 2012 40 Mobile Keys – The Future of Electronic Locks? 42 Improve Reliability & Reduce Maintenance with Direct Drive for Cooling Tower Fans 51 Commercial Energy Management 101: (Picking the Low Hanging Fruit) 58 Neil Weenink’s Back of House 60 Modern Hotel Control Delivering greater customer comfort and reduced operating costs


63 Who to Choose to Look After Your Lifts, Escalators & Moving Walks 64 Unwelcome Compliance Surprises for Building Owners 69 The Tallest Pool in the World 70

Sanitising Your Pool

74 Pool Heating 78 Robot Pool Cleaners vs Manual: Economic & Environment Benefits 82 Filtering the Facts 85 Ozone Systems 86 Leasing the Hotel Pool 89 AIHE Membership form


92 Product News



NEWS QUEENSLAND At the end of last year a special QLD meeting was held with the Gold Coast Engineers where a think tank was conducted. It was discussed on how we could improve the meetings to provide more benefit and greater meet the members needs.

WESTERN AUSTRALIA Greetings from the WA Chapter. This year has started full steam ahead with record summer temperatures in Western Australia, the highest recorded in over 50 years. The weeks of over 30ºC temperatures have put a massive strain on plant and equipment and Hotel Engineers have had to work overtime to keep customers happy during this period. Hotels have been at capacity with strong room occupancies recorded and that trend looks like continuing for some time. The Western Australian chapter took a break in January but met on February 28th at the Hyatt Hotel with two guest presenters:


From the discussions and points raised, it has been decided to conduct the meeting four times a year. The meetings to vary between Breakfast and Dinner meetings with meals included. Presentations on chosen topics with a desired tour of the different technology that has been implemented through the host hotels if time permits. There will be a QLD AGM being held on Wednesday 28th March so the first meeting is scheduled now for April and being held at the Gold Coast Marriott. Qld members look out for the meeting invite in the coming weeks.

A great range of topics with well qualified speakers will be presented to all attendees during the conference. So be sure to register your name as a attendee and remember if wishing to take advantage of the Early Bird Discount, get in before the end of April. Those interested in being part of the Trade Show there are still some booths available and would love to have you involved. If interested or wishing to obtain more information email Bev Allan on admin@aihe.com.au. Look forward to welcoming you all to the QT Hotel on the Gold Coast.

Much work has continued by the committee with the organising of the forth coming Update Conference in August.

Ian Crookston President AIHE QLD Chapter

Jeff Jumonville form EnerNOC who presented: Demand Side Management.

The organisation the institute agreed to partner with is the Master Plumbers & Gasfitters Association of WA | Master Painters Australia WA Association | MPA Skills Training & Employment

Utilisation of standby generation to create another income stream or upgrade equipment at no cost to your business. Rod Van Gass who presented: How to use performance contracting services to stay competitive. Take advantage of guaranteed compounding savings on the latest technologies to keep miles ahead of current and increasing Utility charges with no new Capital Expenditure How the latest high efficiency ‘natural hydrocarbon’ refrigerants can save your business Up to 30% of the energy consumption of all your chillers and compressors. Over 25 members attended the meeting with much discussion around the impact of the carbon cost to the Hotel business. The Western Australian chapter also discussed the sponsorship of an apprentice award which was agreed by all.

This award will be presented to two pre apprentices each quarter for the most improved and most safety conscious, each winning pre apprentice will receive a $100 voucher from the institute. Going forward we have moved our next meeting which was our AGM to May so the team can concentrate on the annual golf day which will be held at the Joondalup golf resort in April. The conference in August and the new website are really taking shape and I’m sure all states are excited about the next step the institute is taking for growth. I urge all General Mangers of hotels to encourage there engineers to join and make use of the networking advantages of the AIHE. Tony Fioraso President AIHE WA Chapter

VICTORIA The year is certainly well underway, it’s already March, as we all see ourselves working towards the goals we need to achieve during 2012. Our committee met in January to plan ahead the next 6 months, considering venues and guest presenters that would be popular and informative to our members. Our first meeting kicked off in February at the Novotel St Kilda, where we recorded one of our best attendances with a total of 35 Members present, 18 of which were hotel engineer’s, including 8 newcomers. This was encouraging as Michael Klarenaar and Zoran Blagojevic from Clevertronics presented an overview of their product range relevant to our industry. This made for an informative evening, leaving us all better educated in the field of emergency lighting along with an introduction to innovations that are coming our way in the near future. We are grateful for their time and

NEW SOUTH WALES Greetings from the NSW Chapter. Welcome back everyone! After a long break, we had our first monthly meeting for the year in February at The Sebel Surry Hills. We had a good attendance of both Hotel Engineers and Corporate Members and Wendy Hird from Greenbriar, enlightened us with her presentation on Carbon Management on the night. Andy Goonesekera Director of Engineering of Intercontinental Sydney talked about the upcoming 2012 Earth Hour, it was

contribution; we also thank Greg Mallett for hosting this fabulous evening. March will see us meet at the Stamford Plaza Hotel. It has been some time since we have had the opportunity to host a meeting there, Ponce Casas, Chief Engineer, has secured the venue on this occasion, where Chris Roberts Of Humitech will be our guest presenter. April and May’s meetings are being finalised with both Clipsal and Feltex Carpets earmarked to present, with the possibility of securing the Windsor hotel as our meeting venue. Confirmation will be forthcoming as we get closer to the dates. We are also planning to secure a site tour of yet another iconic Melbourne landmark, as we have found these tours to be very popular with our members over the past years and our committee is keen to lock in a venue for this year. We are aiming to increase our member base in 2012 through the support of the committee, our hotel engineers and corporate members spreading the news about our meetings. By encouraging new members to our chapter, this will enable us to further develop a linked community of hotel engineers within Victoria. If you wish

an opportunity to learn more about implementing energy saving measures and assist with changing attitudes towards energy consumption. Thanks for the Hotel General Manager Mr Paul Connelly and Carl Van Den Heever the Regional Engineer of Mirvac Hotels for sponsoring and arranging the venue. We were able to complete the event calendar for the year and I’m pleased to say that there are some exciting site visits and informative sessions lined up. The final stage of developing the AIHE website is currently under way and will be up and running shortly. All renewal of membership invoices have been sent to the members and special thanks to Elizabeth Tam the Treasurer and

to become a member or require further information about our meetings, feel free to contact me via email, david.zammit@hyatt.com or use the membership form published in this magazine. The chapter presidents met in Melbourne on March 9th as part of our ongoing commitment in keeping the chapters communicating on a national level. Main topis of discussion were centred around the ongoing development of the AIHE web site, where Anura is working closely with our web designer in finalising the release of the site which is planned Q2 of this year. The Other main topic was the 2012 AIHE Update conference set for August. Ian who has successfully organised many of the conferences has been working tirelessly with his team to ensure the success of this one. Booth sales are on track, with all of the Gold booths already sold out and the Silver and Bronze booths selling fast. Conference information is available within this publication. Once the web site is active, we will also post details on line for your perusal. In the mean time, please contact your state president if you require any further information about this great event. David Zammit President AIHE Victoria Chapter

Anna Kovaleva of the Menzies for their efforts. We had our State President’s meeting in Melbourne on the 9th of March which proved to be a productive and successful meeting once again. We are still in the early stages of the year so there are only a few announcements however there will be more involvement including the AIHE conference being held in Queensland in August etc. I’d like to take this opportunity to thank the NSW Chapter members and the committee for their continuing support for this year. Until next quarter, Anura Yapa JP President AIHE NSW Chapter


AIHE 2012 CONFERENCE The Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering would like to invite your company to participate in AIHE’s update conference and Exhibition to be held August 9-10 at QT Gold Coast, Surfer’s Paradise

Program Day One – Thursday 9th August 7.45 Registration


here are numerous sponsorships available, with your trade booth, dinners, trade drinks, lunch, morning and afternoon teas all included in your sponsorship. All sponsors are welcome to attend any of the Engineering lectures during the conference. The trade exhibition will be officially opened at the morning tea break on the first day of the conference. The exhibition will be advertised throughout the Australian Hotel Engineering industry. Should you be interested in a booth for your company, please contact us as soon as possible as numbers are limited and will be allocated on a first cheque received basis. Our Sponsors for 2012 are as follows: Gold 1 Vintech


Welcome by the AIHE Queensland President


Key note address by AIHE Founder – Neil Wenick


Topic 1: Guestroom Technology Trends


Official Opening of Trade Show & Morning Tea


Topic 2: Carbon Tax


Lunch & Viewing of Trade Show


Topic 3: WH&S Legislation Changes


Afternoon Tea & Viewing of Trade Show


Topic 4: Waste Management

4.00 – 5.00 Trade Drinks 6.30 – 10.30 Cocktail Party – Surfers in Paradise Band Day Two – Friday 10th August 8.00 Coffee 8.30 Welcome by AIHE New South Wales & Victorian Presidents 9.00

Topic 5: Hotel Engineering (The evolution Continues)


Morning Tea & Viewing of the Trade Show


Topic 6: Carbon Management


Lunch & Viewing of the Trade Show


Topic 7: NABERS ratings – energy use

Gold 2 Clipsal


Afternoon Tea & Viewing of the Trade Show

Gold 3 Usher & Son


Topic 8: Intelligent Buildings Systems Integration

Silver Available


Closing address by AIHE Queensland President

6.00 – 7.00 Pre-Dinner Drinks

Bronze Available

7.30 – 11.00 Gala Dinner

IHE conference & exhibition registration (All prices are inclusive of Cocktail Party & Gala Dinner)


Both Days

Day 1 Only

Day 2 Only

Delegates Partners to attend

Member Price




Cocktail Party – Thursday $60

Non Member Price




Gala Dinner – Friday $100

For further details contact Bev Allen




























EXHIBITION BOOTH: Includes – 1. Wall partitions of velcro compatible covered panels. Area enclosed will be 3.0 x 2.0 m 2. A fascia across the top front of the booth on which will be mounted your company name. This will be in a single digital colour on a white background. 3. 1 x 150 watt spotlights mounted on the inside of the fascia, and one wall mounted power outlet. (4amp)

 


PASSPORT: 1. A passport will be provided in each satchel and all sponsors will be provided with a stamp. Prizes will be drawn at the Gala Dinner (you must be present to win)



 



2. Nominated person from each sponsor to award their prize

 


3. Each sponsor will be introduced by the Qld President

Accommodation with QT Accommodation bookings are to be made Direct: +61 7 5584 1200 EVENT Gold AIHE CONFERENCE 2012 7 Staghorn Avenue, Surfers Paradise, Coast QLD 4217 VENUE QT Hotel - Surfers Paradise


PO Box 809 Main Beach Qld 4217 Phone 1300 833 377 Website: www.sssevents.com.au Email: admin@sssevents.com.au


  Excluding Breakfast


Including Breakfast x1


Including Breakfast x2


No. Sites Booth Size

35 + 11 3m x 2m + 1m Panels

Drawing No.

Q013 – 01273 - 02

Plan Created


1st August 2012 

Payment Details Payment by Direct Credit Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering National Australia Bank BSB: 084 462 Account Number: 20 512 6424 By Cheque PO Box 5118 GCMC QLD 9726

Phone: 0414 181135 I Email: admin@aihe.com.au

The Networked Age a Brave New World

Peter Swanson I Regional Sales Manager, amx australia

For the past few years, technology companies have been promising the world – actually, make that forever! But, one of the important changes of the past 3-4 years is that this promise is starting to be deliverable with real benefits and opportunities for your hotel.


ome of you out there may already be living in this bold new, integrated world and I congratulate you! Sadly, many more of you may be making do with systems that promised a lot, but never quite actually got there. Somewhere between the initial design briefing sessions, the inevitable “value management”

(don’t get me started on where the “value” is “managed” to in these processes!), site delays, pressure to open and get operating, frequently the vision of integrated technology gets lost. For those of you that stick with me to the end of this article, I hope you’ll have some ideas on both the levels of integration you want to achieve in your next upgrade, the tools to start building a roadmap for where you want technology to go and an awareness of some of the pitfalls that can present in the process of a major technology upgrade. First, the shiny things! Everyone loves shiny things, right? Especially if they’ve got winking blue lights, or a fancy new acronym or some slick marketing packages! And there are lots of shiny things out there right now. This is not a guide to all the possible pieces of technology you might wish for, but rather a selection to highlight examples of how you can innovate and advance with them. Pervasive wireless networking is the first example and one close to my heart since arriving at a hotel 16 hours ago. This particular hotel works pretty well – I get decent coverage, it’s not too hard to login, but for some inexplicable reason whenever I move between the restaurant/bar and my room I have to re-authenticate my login. Personally, this is just a bit annoying, but I can imagine for those who have a less intimate relationship with technology it could be confronting. Why can’t I login just once and then use the WiFi throughout? Surely my login and the dollars I’ve paid are just as viable in the public areas as in my room? If you’ve read some of my recent articles, you’ll know my focus is on the guest outcome that all these shiny things provide and in this case, it’s just missing the target. Why should you care? Because your guests care – and in the absence of any other significant differentiators, they’ll pick the hotel with better WiFi. So, WiFi everywhere, and integrated. What about the events areas? Wouldn’t it be great to be able to download a copy of the presentation you’re watching while you’re watching it? How about an ad-hoc subscription or an “app” that allows you to follow along


manage these two systems more intelligently should be a boon to the bottom line.

with the presentation on your chosen iDevice or Android? What about ad-hoc social media collaboration for the event you’re attending? I can think of a number of events I’ve attended in the past 18 months where Twitter feeds or other more exotic options were used to allow delegates to communicate together. Imagine having your event space setup with not just a main screen for the presentation, but also a separate display showing the live social media feed – anyone watched Q&A recently? Taking this a step further, what about the ability for delegates to watch the event from their room? If you have an IPTV system, this is not far from reality at all. However, here are some of the things you’d need: 1. An encoder device to take the images and sound from your presentation room and stream them over your presentation area network 2. An IPTV system – with the ability to make ad-hoc changes to which rooms/receivers can view what channels 3. Integration between the two networks (or one common network around the hotel) Assuming you already have a decent IPTV system in your hotel with some way of accessing it at a management level and you are already recording events, you could be streaming from presentation rooms with just a few extra encoders and network ports. And of course, once you’ve gone this far, there’s no reason you couldn’t be streaming easily to other locations including your digital signage solution. That even means that your information screens outside each event space could show a live image of the event currently in progress. We’ve talked previously about the various opportunities to enhance technology and its integration within guest rooms themselves. There are of course various capabilities here including tying the lights in to the room locking system, cross-checking rooms with the Property Management System (PMS) so that other than for cleaning the lights are off when nobody’s home – and ditto for the cooling system. As you’re likely aware, between them lighting and cooling can account for 60-70% of all energy costs in a building so any opportunity to

But of course, Rome was not built in a day and there is no question that the full integration of technologies in buildings is probably a decade or two away as a commonplace occurrence; which leads to my point on roadmapping. I firmly believe that provided we have enough imagination we can envisage the perfect guest environment, supported by successful technology integration. The key is to set aside the chains of what is possible now and think about what your hotel would be like if technology limitations and cost were no obstacle. The much-maligned PIR occupancy sensor is often blamed for guests in meeting rooms or other areas suddenly finding themselves in the dark. But, imagine if we had a sensor that could 100% reliably detect if someone was in the room. You would definitely want automated lighting then – and while you’re at it, why not tie that in to daylight sensors, motorised shades and so on in order to maintain a consistent, comfortable light level throughout day and night. And what if you could tie that lighting system in to the TV so that when the screen comes on any lights near the TV automatically dim so they aren’t glaring on the screen or causing visual discomfort? That’s just one example of some of the things that could be achieved. The next step in the roadmapping process is to tie it back to what is available now, what you have heard will be coming soon and what you know may be years away – also balancing the cost of each of the actually available elements. This then allows you to consider what you can implement now, what might be achievable with a reasonable budget increase and what you should shelve for the foreseeable future. I’m sure you’ve already done this with many of the systems that you currently manage, but now is the time to start roadmapping for fully integrated technology if you haven’t already done so. As I mentioned at the start, the road to technology integration is not without pitfalls. The three most common issues that I have witnessed are: • Technology that over-promises and under-delivers • Unexpected security issues • Challenges in successful delivery across a broader construction project team As with all new products, there is the risk that the published specifications may not entirely match the actual capability of the system. This is multiplied when you are considering integrating a number of new systems together and the best antidote I can suggest is to proceed with caution. Start with a demonstration, or proof-of-concept exercise. If all is well, move to a small scale pilot to test the solution in the “real world”. Assuming things go well there, you can then consider moving to a total deployment. Of course, you may assess the risk to move straight to full installation if a system is either sufficiently proven in the market, low cost or the impact of a failure is minimal, but in the majority of cases with integrated technology I would recommend erring on the side of caution. Substantial test environments also give you the chance to see the system in action – and often it’s only at this time that desirable features (or the lack thereof) become obvious.


As we move into a more integrated, networked world, there is greater risk of an intrusion into a system having significant and unexpected impacts. If your TV system is traditional RF, then there is no real facility for a guest to try and “hack” into it to access free channels or perhaps free internet. But, if you have IPTV a techsavvy guest might well be able to access the back-end of your system – and if that system is connected to your overall PMS they might even be able to access and manipulate their billing details or other elements. In this particular example, there is a relatively easy solution through locking down the IPTV port to a specific MAC address (the unique identifier associated with any Network port on a device). This solution means that nothing other than the originally installed IPTV receiver will work on that port, but of course it also means that if you want to swap out a faulty receiver you need to update the authorised MAC address to match the new receiver. There are of course more serious examples than this – and it’s a good reason to think about how your guest WiFi is managed compared to any WiFi access you might use for POS functions or otherwise. Few if any of the security considerations are unanswerable, but it’s far better to think about them prior to commencing the project than trying to retrospectively apply them once you realise you have a problem! The last challenge is that of the overall project delivery team – and this is particularly true where you are undertaking an extensive renovation or building a new hotel. The contract structure on most projects does not encourage separate contractors to coordinate together beyond the minimum extent required to satisfy their contract. You therefore need to make certain that all relevant contracts indicate the required level of coordination between lighting, HVAC, security, IT, audiovisual, event management, PMS and so on. This does not just mean stipulating that they shall “interface together”, but rather defining exactly what you require each system to do. You can best think of this as a brief that describes all possible actions – and a handy way to build it is usually a matrix with systems on one axis and scenarios on the other. For example, what state should all systems in a guest room be in when there is no booking? How do you manage the cleaners accessing the room if you answered “lights off ” to the above? What configurations do you require for systems in hallways and corridors throughout day and night? How does the AV event system integrate with telephony, IT networking, lighting, etc? If this is starting to sound like a lot of work, it is. Various independent engineering consultancies are beginning to offer these sorts of services of brief collation, management and oversight. Of course, depending on your role and the size of your team you may also be able to handle this in house. But remember, you first need to develop the brief – complete with stakeholder consultation at all levels – and then you need to ensure that through all the changes and iterations of design on a building program your priorities are maintained. It’s a challenging exercise and even with a strong internal team you may well decide you want some external help! However you choose to proceed though, remember that if your initial functional brief made sense from an operational and business perspective, the outcome is worth working for so that you can reap the benefits throughout the years of operation.



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TOP Hotel Technology Trends in 2012

Ted Horner I Senior International Hospitality Consultant, jba Consulting Engineers Las Vegas

1. The iPad Revolution This device in my opinion is going to redefine how guests are going to use technology in hotels in the future particularly in the guestroom. Consider these points: a. It is the fastest selling consumer electronic device in history with Gartner Group predicting that Apple will sell 100 million units by 2012. b. iPad is the first video centric guest internet device. c. It has a very simple GUI (Guest User Interface) and new users both young and old are able to use it almost immediately with little or no training. d. iPad is already placing huge demands on Hotel WiFi systems consuming much more bandwidth and data than in the past with people doing emails etc... NB.While I have focused on the iPad we cannot forget other tablet devices that are also gaining market share namely the Samsung Galaxy, plus the new Kindle Fire and of course other smart phones that use the Android operating system from Google.

What does this mean for hoteliers? a) Many hotels WiFi systems are suffering from a lack of available bandwidth and as result are getting overloaded as guests wish to download their own content. The result of this is that many guests are complaining about poor download experience and are using sites such as Trip Advisor to express their negative opinions. b) Guests want the same technology experience they have at home or office


and if they have a bad experience may not return to hotel. c) With the increasing demand for more bandwidth and the subsequent costs to provide this it is in my opinion going to be difficult for hotels to agree to offer anything other than a limited free WiFi mainly for emails. d) iPads that are made available to guests to use in the guestroom open up a world of new opportunities for hotels to deploy in guestrooms to handle the following applications. • Room Service ordering (one Five Star Hotel has seen a 13% increase in room service revenue since offering guests the

option of ordering room service on the iPad as compared to ordering over the phone. The room service ordering on the iPad is fully integrated with the Point of Sale so once the items are ordered it is automatically sent to the kitchen plus it also posted to the guests folio without any more manual entries required. This integrated process plus the ability to showcase dishes on the iPad with photos plus preparation notes etc. has in my opinion led to the increase in room service orders. • Concierge services where the guest has the ability to access the full range of hotel services on the iPad without the need to call down to the concierge desk.

• The iPad can have a range of application software installed on it that is fully integrated with all the in room facilities such as lights, air conditioning, TV, curtains etc. whereby if a guest wishes, can turn on or off these facilities simply by using the iPad application. • Another advantage of offering in room iPads is the elimination of the printed guest compendiums as these can all be accessed via the iPad. The GM of the hotel I visited believes that he will save between $30-40,000 in annual printing costs as compendiums need to be constantly updated. e) With the above application now available on the iPad, it is my belief that these devices if installed, are going to fundamentally impact the guest user interface (GUI). This will make it simpler for guests to access the in room facilities, as many guest find the TV remote control or the buttons on the wall to turn lights on and off too complex. f) As WiFi becomes the dominant platform for guests to access their applications

what does the future hold for the historic requirement for multiple Cat 6 cabling to each room? g) Many guests are bringing their own content on the iPad and are happy to watch it on the iPad screen. So does that mean less watching of traditional TV or do hotels need to install expensive IPTV systems at all? I recently came across this statement which I think sums up the current situation, “Customers will arrive at your hotel and will want what they want when they want it and the key for hotels is provide them with the infrastructure and the bandwidth to achieve this”. If this is indeed what guests want then how can hotelier’s monetise the investment they make in new wireless access points, increased bandwidth etc. – The answer I believe is to offer tiered bandwidth where guests are offered a range of fees directly related to the amount of bandwidth they

require. In other words the bigger the pipe a guest wants the more they should pay? In summary the iPad has changed the way customers are using technology on the road and while it creates a great challenge for hotels, it is now up to the industry to embrace this device so guests can have the same download experience they have at home.

2. Mobility Mobile devices are now part of our everyday life and for many travellers they are now replacing the laptop, PC, telephone, kiosk, and boarding pass as part of the booking activity. A guest’s handheld device is now an integral part of the entire journey, not just from pre-trip planning and booking, but through the actual trip itself. According to a recent survey that identifies traveller’s attitudes to mobile services, it shows how emerging mobile technologies will revolutionise each stage of the travel experience in the future:



1. Pre-trip (i.e. plan, book and board); 2. At the airport (i.e. lost bags, seating and disruption); 3. On-board (i.e. enhanced services); 4. At the destination (i.e. explore, connect and share experiences) and; 5. Post-trip (i.e. social media for immediate feedback). These trends will become increasingly important and the challenge will be how hotels and other service providers will meet the expectations of the always connected traveller. Are the smart phone applications that guests can access going to replace the traditional check in experience or the need to use a magnetic card to gain access to a guestroom? Does this now allow hotels to develop new on demand revenue generating opportunities? In the future how will this change the relationship between the guest and the hotel?

3. Cloud Computing There has been a lot of talk about this subject and I believe 2012 will be when this technology takes off as a number of PMS vendors release their cloud version, where hotels will have the ability to access their major software applications on a web browser. Cloud computing offers many benefits to hotels not the least is a more cost effective way to deploy technology without the large up front capital expenditure and the need for a lot of hardware on premise. Furthermore, hotels that adopt this technology will have the opportunity to enter into Service Level Assurance (SLA) agreements with the vendors offering this service, where if predetermined service levels are not, then the contract can either be cancelled at short notice or financial penalties can apply.

4. Social Media Wikipedia defines Social Media as “media designed to be disseminated through social interaction, created using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques.” The reach of Social Media is growing substantially and now hotels are using it more than ever to engage with both new and existing customers.

It is important for hotels to actively monitor comments on Trip Advisor and do not allow negative comments to go unanswered. Also hotels should consider Trip Advisor Apps for Facebook and LinkedIn where they can link up client’s social media platforms and online communities to share information about the hotel where appropriate Facebook has created enormous changes in social networks and now with the release of their latest version it is now possible to use Facebook as a booking channel. Recent research from PhocusWright reveals that 66% of travellers are on Facebook and they spend an average of 46 minutes a day over a 30 day period. So based on this why would you not consider using the Facebook booking App to allow your guests to book your hotel on Facebook. Another App is Facebook Places and this provides an excellent tool in providing viral exposure which may assist in generating more web traffic and brand recognition hotels. Twitter is another social media juggernaut that provides a free tool for guest and hotels to interact with each quickly and effectively. Hotels need to harness the power of social media in order to stay ahead of their competitors.

at more sophisticated systems than the traditional magnetic stripe cards in the slot. Hotels that have invested in sensor based occupancy systems, or those where the door lock systems are integrated to the PMS, have shown dramatic reductions in energy bills. When a person leaves a room, the EMS via an occupancy sensor, can detect that no one is in the room and then automatically lower the air conditioning to a designated set back position and also turn all the lights off. ROI on these systems has shown pay back on the investment can be between 2 and 3 years, and can be less if hotels qualify for government rebates on the original investment.

7. Lighting Another major contributor to excessive power bills is the type of lighting that is installed in hotels. With replacement of lights to LED and Halogen, hotels can save up to 30% and have lights that have a long life up to 12,000 hours. While the costs of these lights are more expensive in the first instance, their shelf life and the energy savings they generate, more than compensate for the initial costs.

5. Hosted PABX For many hotels one of the largest capital expenditure has been the PABX. In the past, revenue from guest phone calls justified this large capital outlay, but the advent of mobile phones and the cost of making calls from a hotel guest room have left hotels reeling from the costs of providing and maintaining this service. Hosted PABX provides many benefits not the least is that a new PABX requires minimal up-front costs and a monthly subscription based fee which can be based on the preceding month’s occupancy. There are still some challenges in putting this model together but for the first time it offers an alternative to hotel owners who have a very old PABX which has passed its use by date.

6. Energy Management (EMS) With the cost of electricity continuing to raise, hotels have to start looking seriously


Hotel Engineer Regulation Update


Revolving Doors: AS 1428: AS 1288: Building Code of Australia (BCA)


UST-Hotel engineers are reminded that Building Regulations recognise that the use of revolving doors have inherent hazards. For example, the Building Code of Australia 2011 (BCA) does not permit revolving doors to serve as an exit door for evacuation purposes, while under the Disability Discrimination Access legislation of AS 1428.1-2009 ‘Design for access and mobility – General requirements for access – New building work’, revolving doors are also not permitted to serve as an accessible path of travel for people with disabilities into and throughout a building. If a revolving door exists in the building or is proposed to be installed, the architect, designer and hotel engineer will need to ensure the design and operation, including the speed and size of openings of the revolving door is suitable for the purpose, location, and is safe for the occupants and guests to use. The BCA provision applicable to the design of revolving doors and their associated curved panels, is the requirement for the installation of any glass to be in accordance with AS 1288-2006 ‘Glass in buildings – Selection and installation’.The requirements of AS 1288 are to reduce the risk of injuries that can result from glass breakage through the installation of safety glass, and the enhancement of a person’s awareness of the presence of glass through making the glass more visible (manifestation). Clause 5.19 of AS 1288 stipulates minimum requirements for markings on glass if the presence of glass in a door, side panel or a panel capable of being mistaken for a doorway or opening is not made apparent by transoms,


colonial bars or other decorative treatment. In these instances the glass must be marked to make it visible, and readily apparent. Whilst AS 1428.1-2009 does not apply to revolving doors, there are now increased markings required for glass doors and side lights that may still apply to the curved panels of revolving doors if they are capable of being mistaken for a doorway or opening and they are located adjacent to swinging entry and exit doors in an accessway.The markings must comprise a contrasting 75 mm wide solid line across the full width of the glazed panel in accordance with AS 1428.1-2009, and logos can be used, provided the minimum markings of a 75 mm wide solid line is maintained. Building owners and hotel engineers should consider whether a glazing audit should be performed to establish and mitigate any existing risks.

AS 1851: Fire Door Inspections: Fire Doors: Essential Safety Measures AUST – The Building Code of Australia nominates fire doors as essential safety measures in Part I1 Equipment and Safety Installations.Various state regulations nominate fire door inspections to be performed under AS 1851-2005 ‘Maintenance of fire protection systems and equipment’. Typical ‘critical’ defects to fire doors which occur frequently in buildings include dislodged or removed door closers, doors not selflatching, fire doors held open by devices, damage to the base of the doors, loose pins to fire door hinges, panic bolts fitted to fire doors, margins around the door exceeded, no identification tag fitted, no fire door signage, bolts through fire doors, and metal cladding fitted to fire doors.

Permanent maintenance records for fire door inspections may need to be kept in accordance with AS1851.7 ‘Maintenance of fire protection equipment’. Fire-resistant door sets information is usually provided in a fire doors logbook format. Maintenance records under various state essential safety measures regulations will dictate whether this provision is a statutory function under the regulation. Some States may nominate AS 1905.1 as the ongoing Standard for fire doors compliance. We strongly suggest you keep fire door inspections records under AS 1851 to protect all parties’ interests relative to fire doors. Most States will nominate fire doors as an essential safety measure where all fire door inspections verification and maintenance will form part of the Annual Essential Safety Measures Report/ Annual Fire Safety Statement.

Full Function Fire Systems Test AUST-Hotel engineers are reminded that an annual Full Function Fire Systems Test is a mandatory requirement of Australian Standard AS1851-2005, where applicable. To better facilitate operational reliability of fire protection systems, amendments were made to AS1851-2005 Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment and Systems to include a requirement to complete a Full Function Fire Systems Test annually. Put simply, this means where fire systems are interfaced with other building systems, these interfaces must be tested annually through a Full Function Fire Systems Test. Since a Full Function Fire Systems Test may be disruptive to building operations, it is recommended that hotel engineers engage an independent and suitably experienced consultant to minimise the time taken to complete the test, and to communicate with building owners, hotel

engineers, managers and contractors to coordinate and manage the testing of the interfaced fire protection systems.

sandwich and stairwell pressurisation testing, to ensure your services meet their designed criteria.

Depending on the size and type of occupancy, the test may require the services of a mechanical and hydraulic engineer, technicians specialising in fire alarms, sprinklers, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning), electrical power and control and building management systems. Accurate fire protection system interface documentation is critical to facilitating a successful test and must be provided, obtained or created prior to the test commencing.

Essential Property Services have provided independent supervision and coordination of Full Function Fire Systems Test to AS 1851-2005 standard for a number of clients at major and complex facilities, and are well placed to service the needs of building owners and managers.

The criteria and methods of initiating the Full Function Fire Systems Test are specified in AS1851-2005 under the respective sections for each type of fire safety installation. In order to comply with the requirements of AS 18512005, all of the system interfaces must be verified as operational. A Full Function Fire Systems Test is also an opportune time, while all of the services contractors are onsite, to check your systems capacity, to do annual flow, hydrostatic,

QFRS: Approval Documents: Fire Safety Installations: BFSR QLD – Essential Property Services alerts building owners, occupiers and hotel engineers that the Queensland Fire and Rescue Service (QFRS) is requesting approval documents during their regular fire safety installations auditing processes of occupied buildings. Most hotel engineers are now aware of the requirement to display the Certificate of Classification for a building if their building was completed after 1997.This provision

under Section 284 of the Building Act became mandatory on the 1st July 2009. The QFRS has been actively auditing buildings since the inception of this provision and requesting that buildings display relevant Certificates of Classification accordingly. In addition to the requirements of the Building Act the QFRS is also actively enforcing the requirements of Section 25 of the Building Fire Safety Regulation 2008 (BFSR).This legislation requires occupiers to take reasonable steps to obtain building approval documents and keep them with the fire evacuation plan. Section 25 of the BFSR is not restricted to buildings completed post July 1997 and applies to all buildings regardless of age. Hotel engineers, owners and occupiers should take reasonable steps to obtain approval documents before an audit by QFRS. Sourcing and/or finalising approval documents can often take considerable time and effort. Essential Property Services regularly provides a service to assist clients to meet their obligations in relation to building approval documentation for this purpose.


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...Energy Efficiency

in a Business Hotel Anwar Ahmed I Enman Pty Ltd

Introduction Many hotels are becoming increasingly aware of their environmental footprint, energy consumption and the energy efficiency of their facilities. Park Hyatt Melbourne, a five star, luxury appointed


hotel in the heart of Melbourne’s CBD applied for government funding through the Green Building Fund (GBF). This program is aimed at encouraging business owners to reduce Greenhouse Gas emissions by investing in energy efficient projects. This study describes the expected

achievements of the Park Hyatt Melbourne in reducing their energy consumption and environmental impact through innovative project implementation. A feasibility study on the Park Hyatt Melbourne was carried out by Enman

Pty Ltd in 2011. Possible energy saving opportunities were identified for the hotel and cost-benefit analysis conducted for each opportunity. Enman then developed a business case for the selected opportunities to apply for government funding through the Green Building Fund. Business cases were conducted on projects deemed to provide maximum energy savings and those that were the most economically viable. These projects are to provide a platform for further energy efficiency improvement of the hotel. The Green Building Fund was awarded to Park Hyatt Melbourne by AusIndustry based on the merit of the projects outlined in the Business cases. Enman Pty Ltd was then appointed to provide the turn-key supply of the project to deliver the energy savings predicted in the Green Building fund application at the estimated project costing. The project is currently under implementation and will increase the present NABERS rating by 1.5 to 2 stars.

Projects Room management system

It appears that around 30-40% of the time

The electronic room rooms are unoccupied, providing a potential management system is the recent trend in hotel for a reduction in energy consumption of energy management and 20-30%. is regarded as one of the major potential energy saving projects identified When the room is unoccupied the system during the feasibility resets the room temperature to a prestudy. Rooms are usually unoccupied for a defined set point around 26°C in summer substantial amount of time, however, the air and 18°C in the winter, It will also turn off conditioning and lights are normally left ‘on’ room lighting. by guests. To reduce energy consumption Park Hyatt Melbourne elected to implement a room management system. The Energy eye room management system has been selected to manage their guest rooms. The control system uses the existing Siemens room controller, monitored by the Siemens BMS to control the utility services of the guest rooms such as air conditioning and lighting. The room controller detects occupants via a door switch and motion detectors.

A number of rooms have been tested with this room controller at Park Hyatt Melbourne. After observation by the hotel management for a period of time the energy eye room controller has been accepted for implementation. It appears that around 30-40% of the time rooms are unoccupied, providing a potential for a reduction in energy consumption of 20-30%.

GUARANTEED TO SAVE 15-35% ON YOUR GUESTROOM HVAC EXPENSE www.energy-eye.com “The Energy Eye System is currently being installed for the automatic in Room Control of our HVAC and Lights. The system works well and helps us achieve our total savings goals”….. Gladstone Forbes Engineering Manager – Park Hyatt Melbourne

Smart Hotel Solutions Authorized Australian Distributor

Tel: 1 300 796 471 www.smartsol.com.au





Carbon Emission savings

JACE controller communicating with the Siemens BMS by BACNet.

1. Bms upgrade with vsd installation and energy management control

Install vsds on chiller plant pumps and cooling tower fans

Approximately 35% pump load, 30% chiller load, 30% cooling tower load, 200kw saving from demand management, 2% saving of hotel electricity use from improved housekeeping

1,407,386.15 Kg co2-e/kwh

Variable Speed Drives

Upgrade bms and implement energy management control functions including: optimal chiller control, optimal speed control for vsds, demand management and energy reporting 2. Guest room management system

Install room management system for 240 rooms, including: door switch, motion detector, fcu control

Approximately 21% of total chiller load, 40% in room fcu fan load and 40% of heating load of fcus

676,565.17 Kg co2-e/kwh

3. Fluorescent lamp replacement – option 2

Replace 2000 off 36w t8 fluorescent tubes with 18w led strip lamps

60% Of lamp load

780,800.96 Kg co2-e/kwh

4. Down light lamp replacement

Replace 1000 off dichroic down lights with led down lights

80% Of lamp load

694,044.74 Kg co2-e/kwh

Table 1. Predicted savings and project details

Energy Management System An energy management system is being installed at Park Hyatt Melbourne in a bid to reduce energy consumption and encourage efficient use of energy through advanced optimal control of the chiller plant and comprehensive energy and performance monitoring and reporting functions. These functions are: – Chiller optimal control: o Optimal chilled water temperature control o Optimal condenser water temperature control o Optimal chiller selection

variable speed drives on chiller pumps and fans to provide maximum savings in using VSDs – Demand management and housekeeping: o To monitor electricity demand and will control chiller loading if the demand exceeds the target. The control uses a load prediction algorithm to manage demand. This process is expected to reduce demand of the hotel by 5-10% o Providing comprehensive energy monitoring and reporting functions to improve housekeeping which is expected to improve energy efficiency of the hotel by another 2% Energy management is expected to reduce the chiller energy consumption by 30%, and run hours wattage by 20%.

LED lamps provide much lower consumption and therefore provide a much more energy efficient lighting option to Park Hyatt Melbourne.

– Variable speed drive optimal control: o To provide advanced optimal control of


The energy management system is to be provided by Enman. The system is called ‘ENTEROL’ energy management control, specifically designed to manage and optimise energy consumption of the hotel. This is based on the Tridium

Variable speed drives are being installed in the chiller plant to reduce energy consumption. This reduces the throttling of pumps to achieve flow and more precise control if cooling tower water temperature by varying fan speed. The ABB variable speed drives have been selected and installed at Park Hyatt Melbourne for the chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, hot water pumps and the cooling tower fans. The energy management system controls the speed of the pumps and fans through an optimal speed control algorithm which goes beyond the conventional VSD control, realising increased energy savings. Expected energy savings for pumps with VSDs are around 35%. Lighting Upgrade As a part of this energy efficiency initiative a large number of dichroic down lamps and fluorescent lamps are being replaced by cutting edge LED lamps. A large number of different types of LED lamps with different colour and appearances have been trialled to match the aesthetic requirements of the hotel. The LED lamps provide much lower wattage consumption and therefore provide a much more energy efficient lighting option to Park Hyatt Melbourne. The LED lamps have been tested and results suggest the down lights energy consumption will be reduce by 75% and fluorescent lamp energy consumption will reduce by 60%. The other advantage of these LED lamps include increased life expectancy from 2,000 -10,000 hours to 50,000 hours

Predicted Savings There have been many energy saving projects identified at the hotel. Table 1 shows these identified projects together with their expected savings.

Conclusion This project demonstrates how a government grant program, such as the Green Building Fund, encourages building owners to invest in energy efficiency projects. This case study also illustrates the obvious and viable energy saving projects available for a business hotel and the benefits of such activities for the organisation.

Ultra Plus 2124 Air Conditioning remote control


f you’re looking for ways to save on energy costs you will be glad to hear of a clever little invention designed to substantially decrease electrical usage – with the Ultra Plus 2124 Air Conditioning remote control. This is a universal remote with smart styling and loads of features. It reduces energy costs by limiting the temperature range a guest is able to use. This temperature range is between 21 and 24 and there is an optional two hour timer that will turn the Air Conditioner off after two hours use. Rob Livett of Thermo Controls explains how the Ultra Plus 2124 came about. “One of our customers asked if it was possible to develop a remote with a limited temperature range. This customer went on to explain a typical situation that occurs in motel operations every day in Australia.That is a guest checks in, proceeds to the room only, turns the air

conditioner on to the lowest setting then leaves for the day. The air conditioner runs all day in an empty room”. Rob goes on to explain they then started working on the narrow temperature range of 21 to 24 including a timer that will shut down the air conditioner after two hours. This has worked very well but we received comments from the tropical regions saying they love the idea of the energy saving 21 to 24 degrees but we need the air conditioner to say on all night for our guests. Since then the 2124-1 has been released without the two hour timer.

A one degree reduction of the temperature setting can reduce energy consumption by 10% or more.

Results have been positive with many installations all over Australia. Comments include: • What I like about the 2124 is the ease of use. Just change over the remote and start saving. Rex at Varsity Towers Robina (Bond University dormitory uses 300 of the 2124) • Grand Idea, I have been looking for this idea for ages. Jerry Gundy – Star Tourist Park • The 2124 obviously saves money; there is no two ways about it. It also takes the worry out of things. I don’t have to worry about the cost knowing the temperature will not be over 24 degrees. Geoff Wells Inglewood Motel & Caravan Park If you are looking to save money with air conditioning costs consider the Ultra Plus 2124 with or without the two hour timer. All you have to do is swap and save, it’s that easy.

Air-conditioning remote that saves you money

The Ultra Plus 2124 places a timer on your air conditioners and limits their temperature range to between 21°C and 24°C. Simply SWAP your current remote with a 2124 and SAVE!

Start saving now! Call 1800 300 661

I ordered the remote Sunday and it was delivered on Tuesday. Literally within two minutes of installing the batteries the remote was successfully operating my air conditioner. - G Cross of Frankston

Guests cannot turn it down to 16 degrees anymore. It has to make a difference. - Alan Mandarin Motel


Limited temperature range of 21°C ~ 24°C Compatible with thousands of AC units Works with splits, ceiling and cassettes Two hour timer with override

What I like about the 2124 is the ease of use. Just change over the remote and start saving. - Rex Varsity Towers Robina


1800 300 661

Carbon Management: managing the scope 3 data

Wendy Hird I Manager, Greenbriar Consulting


rom an engineering perspective carbon management is another tool, another angle to look at your resource use. While scope 1 and 2 emissions are easier to determine, investigating scope 3 emissions can still shake up the system and reveal ways you can save time and money.

represents a faithful, true, and fair account of an organisation’s GHG emissions.”

Scope 1: emissions from sources owned or controlled by the company

The data you use should comply with the GHG Accounting and Reporting Principles (see break out box).

In accordance with those principles, you should your record your estimating and auditing procedures so they can be duplicated in following years.

Scope 2: purchased electricity. Scope 3: emissions produced by others on your behalf.

GHG Accounting and Reporting Principles

Scope 1 and 2 emissions generally can be calculated from gas and electricity bills, and fuel cards and invoices (see Hotel Engineer 16-3 2011).

 Relevance. Ensure the GHG inventory appropriately reflects the GHG emissions of the company and serves the decision-making needs of users – both internal and external to the company.

Scope 3 emissions could include those produced in:

 Completeness. Account for and report all GHG emissions sources and activities within the chosen inventory boundary. Disclose and justify any specific exclusions.

• the growing and transportation of your food • losses from the transmission of your gas and electricity • the off-site laundering of your linen • the production of your linen, curtains and carpets • travel by staff and clients • waste to landfill. Most companies only do a limited scope 3 due to the difficulty in gathering data, or because a lot of the emissions data from contractors and suppliers is simply unavailable. Typical reported scope 3 emissions are waste, petrol use by couriers and taxis, flights and staff/guest travel. Part of the protocol in doing a carbon footprint is that “the reported information


 Consistency. Use consistent methodologies to allow meaningful comparison of emissions over time. Transparently document any changes to the data, inventory boundary, methods, or any other relevant factors in the time series.  Transparency. Address all relevant issues in a factual and coherent manner, based on a clear audit trail. Disclose any relevant assumptions and make appropriate references to the accounting and calculation methodologies and data sources used.  Accuracy. Ensure that the quantification of GHG emissions is systematically neither over nor under true emissions, as far as can be judged, and that uncertainties are reduced as far as practicable. Achieve sufficient accuracy to enable users to make decisions with reasonable assurance as to the integrity of the reported information.

Waste Waste is a commonly reported scope 3, as the data is available through undertaking a series of audits. By undertaking an audit of volume of waste in bins and type of waste, you can estimate scope 3 emissions. To ensure consistency you should ensure your audit methodology is recorded so it can be undertaken the same way next year. The first thing you should do to reduce scope 3 waste emissions is to maximise recycling and minimise waste. Only waste going to landfill has CO2-e emissions, recycling has no emissions. The audit itself can reveal issues such as: 1) Are your bins going out half full? You may be able to reduce the number of bins and save money. 2) Are staff complying with existing internal recycling procedures? Are internal policies not being followed because people aren’t clear what should be done, or because

the recycling bins location makes separation difficult? 3) Do the size or location of bins create an OH&S issue? 4) Can you improve separation of waste and recycling? Do you have separate recycling of, aluminium cans, steel food/ oil drums, newspapers/cardboard, liquid, paper board (milk and juice cartons), HDPE milk bottles, mixed plastics, glass, batteries, e-waste and printer cartridges. You can discuss with a recycler what other opportunities exist for you. 5) Can you change what is going to waste? i.e. Can you change non-recyclable takeaway cups, to recyclable ones? There are other existing programs which hotels are already involved in which would limit the amount of waste going to landfills. • Limit good food going to waste by donating good, unused food in programs such as OzHarvest http://www.ozharvest. org.au Every week OzHarvest collect over 25 tonnes a week of excess food. This results in delivering 330,000 meals a month from food donated that would otherwise have gone to landfill. • Stop food waste going to landfill completely by using a system like Pulpmaster, http://www.pulpmaster.com.au/ which pulps all food waste on site, and then the pulp is picked up and converted to green electricity and fertiliser.

Travel Some companies estimate staff and client travel as part of their scope 3 emissions.

Since the Pulpmaster’s installation in March 2011, Q Station has recycled 32 tonnes of food waste from our 3 kitchen outlets. This has reduced 10% off our normal waste removal bills, created a cleaner more hygienic environment around the kitchen service entries as all our food waste is stored in OH&S friendly, air-tight containers and we get the waste returned as fertiliser. Todd Durrant, Property Manager, Q Station Manly, Mirvac Hotels & Resorts. Guests You probably already do guest surveys to reveal where guests come from as part of assessing marketing programs. But how would you claim your fair share of a guests travel? If you are Sydney CBD hotel, between the backpacker having his one night of luxury in a 6 month holiday and the plane hopping business traveller, how could you accurately quantify your

portion of someone’s international and Australian travel? However if your hotel is in a remote island resort or eco-site, you would be able to directly quantify part of the travel that relates to accessing your site directly, because guests arrive and leave on the same boat or plane. In this case it is directly relevant to your hotel, as well as being accurate and consistent, so you probably should include that client travel in your scope 3. (If the boat or plane is yours it comes under scope 1.) Staff Why do you care where your staff travel from? A survey might reveal security issues such as staff walking back to train stations late at night. Of course, surveys have their inbuilt inaccuracies! A recent university knew they had a survey accuracy problem when the number of people who said they rode bikes

Picture 1, scope variance with in-house and out-sourced laundries.


to university that day was 7 times higher than the number of bikes actually counted that day. Executive travel Most travel places will calculate the CO2-e of your executives flights for you.

Laundry Laundry is a good example of transparency and completeness in carbon accounting. If hotels standard footprints only included scope 1 and 2, then any hotels with outsourced laundries – whose emissions would be in scope 3 – would automatically be perceived as better off (see picture 1). Outsourced laundries may use even more emissions due to the fuel used in the collection and transport of the linen. Your outsourced laundry should be able to calculate an average t CO2-e/ tonne laundry by using their own total scope 1 and 2 emissions from gas, electricity bills and petrol transport. But again, consider auditing the programs you have to minimise laundry use. • Voluntary towel reuse programs are standard, but how well do your staff comply with guests requests? • Voluntary linen replacement programs are becoming more common, with guests offered the choice to not have sheets

Save time, space & Pulpmaster 3000 –save Features and Benefits

improve your commercial

replaced every night. Apart from minimising laundry energy/water use, the reduced wear and tear on sheets from less laundering, and less requirement to have large stockpiles of sheets, can make a significant saving.

● Fully Stainless Steel for Durability OH&S ● kitchen’s Back to Base Communication ● Pulpmaster All machine functions 3000 monitored ● Food Liquid cycle for Waste organic liquid waste ● Category 4 Safety Recycling Machine. ● Low water use – average 20L per tonne waste ● Organic Reduction inmanagement waste of upisto 50% increasingly important ● becoming Reduced an Truck Movements issue within the Hospitality Industry.

The cost of sending food waste to landfill is increasing every year and the content of organic waste from Commercial Kitchens can be as high as 50% of the total waste stream. This challenge is currently being solved in many Commercial Kitchens by the Pulpmaster 3000 Food Waste Recycling Machine.

● Auto cycle for quick efficient use As carbon management becomes more commonplace, selected ● Tank level monitored electronically industries are setting standards to assist you in making decisions, ● All mechanical functions in the machine and to avoid confusion. ● Wash cycle for easy cleaning ● Can process 1 kilogram a second AIRAH ● Power usage – average 2.5kw per tonne AIRAH, Australian ● Cost per tonne approx. 1/3 ofInstitute landfill of Refrigeration, Air-conditioning and ● No transportHeating, chargehave recently closed a discussion paper setting a standard for calculating the emissions of a new, stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The TEWI – Total Equivalent Warming Impact • Fully stainless steel for – calculates the Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions from electricity and durability • Low water usage – refrigerant gas use for the life of the system. While it is still a draft average 20L per tonne paper, the intent is that – while at the project design stage – you can • Waste reduction up to 50% ask for a TEWI, so you can compare carbon emissions as well • Can process 1kg a second • Liquid cycle for organic as price. Setting an industry standard ensures you can be assured liquid waste of the accuracy of the data, www.airah.org.au. • Auto cycle for efficient use • Category 4 safety rating

For more information on the Pulpmaster 3000 visit

www.pulpmaster.com.au 02


or contact Pulpmaster Australia on 9525 5252 for a free no obligation quotation

Conclusion Trying to calculate your scope 3 emissions can provide an opportunity to review your processes and practices, and minimise your scope 3 emissions.

Otis Elite™ Service Beyond Maintenance At Otis we are leveraging technology to improve our service levels. In 2010 Otis introduced Elite™ Service whereby we can remotely access, diagnose and repair lifts.

REM® (Remote Elevator Monitoring system) monitors the operation of your lifts 24/7. Should a fault occur, REM® automatically notifies our highly trained Elite engineers and by using sophisticated technology they access lift controllers to carry out diagnosis remotely. In over one third of cases Elite Engineer’s have been able to repair the lift without dispatching a technician, greatly reducing repair times and inconvenience to passengers and owners.

Where lifts are not able to be repaired remotely, diagnosis is communicated via our Next Generation™ Mobile Mechanic Handtool to the attending technician, minimising site repair time. This combination of innovative technologies takes service reliability to the next level. To enhance customer communication Otis offers Event Driven E-mails (EDE) and eService, Otis online reporting service;

ensuring customers are well informed on operational and maintenance status. “Otis Elite™ Service is a comprehensive and new approach to lift service. Effectively, along with NextGeneration™ Service it represents the future of lift service. For an Otis Elite™ service customer, the future is now.” said Craig Sheppard, Director of Service at Otis Elevator.




INTRODUCTION In the building Industry, the pursuit of environmentally sustainable design (or ecologically sustainable development – ESD) is now commonplace. I prefer environmentally responsible design (ERD) due to debate about sustainability assessment, and also not to be bound by ultra-complex ESD rules. This article will focus on ERD in building design.

BUILDING DESIGN AND ERD General ERD affects building design through: 1. Energy minimisation. 2. Material minimisation. 3. Water minimisation. 4. Emission minimisation. 5. Embodied energy. 6. Life cycle assessment. 7. Sustainable development. 8. Recycling. 9. Passive energy use. Energy Minimisation Energy minimisation is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, use of alternative energy sources, reduced


construction times, minimal construction waste, and construction waste recycling.

re-use, reduced construction times, and minimising and recycling construction waste.

Design for energy minimisation also includes using:

Low flow water supply includes low flow taps and shower roses, and dual flush WC cisterns. Furthermore, taps and shower roses can still be effective at even lower rates than what is standard ‘low flow’.

1. Off-peak electrical supply. 2. Passive energy principles. 3. Daylight inside to reduce daytime electrical lighting. 4. Light internal colours to reduce electrical lighting. 5. Non-dark external colours to minimise solar heat absorption. 6. Low energy lighting and appliances. 7. Alternative energy source products (solar and wind). 8. Insulation. Material Minimisation Material minimisation is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, and minimising and recycling construction waste. Design can also incorporate materials with recycled content, and using materials with future recycling potential. Water Minimisation Water minimisation is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, use of alternative energy sources, use of low flow fixtures, rainwater collection and

Also, rainwater tank stored water (for gardening, washing and WC flushing) and use of grey water (waste from basins and sinks) for gardening purposes are water conservation methods (to Local Authority advice). Emission Minimisation Emission minimisation is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, use of alternative energy sources, reduced construction times, and minimising and recycling construction waste. All manufacture, transport, and construction creates emissions. Intelligently designed generous landscaping helps improve air quality, counters emissions and provides amenity. Embodied Energy Embodied energy is the measure of the energy used in the extraction, manufacture and installation of a building material. It is the start of life cycle assessment and needs to be considered against total life cycle. The science is not exact as many variables exist.

Assessment of embodied energy needs balanced consideration. For example, some high embodied energy materials (including concrete and aluminium) have very high strength, corrosion resistance, and life expectancy compared to other low embodied energy materials. Life Cycle Assessment A buildings life cycle relates to assessment of building life including manufacture, construction, operation, maintenance and durability, refurbishment, demolition and recycling. This assessment can be broken down further for specific materials within the building. The science is not exact as many variables exist. Some materials have lower embodied energy, but may have short life expectancy and/or require more maintenance. Examples include timber versus aluminium, and timber framing versus concrete block construction. Timber is claimed to be sustainable, however timber needs cleared land, to be farmed (planted, fertilised, harvested), transported, milled, transported again, chemically treated, stored, delivered and erected. Timber also can be attacked by insects and termites, suffer from moisture/humidity, and can burn. Timber framed construction needs to have bracing/strapping/linings/ insulation/claddings fixed, termite barriers installed, continuous checking for termites, can harbour vermin, and has low resistance to wind-blown/blast debris. Concrete blocks are made from mined earthen materials and includes high embodied energy cement. Blocks also need to be transported, stored, delivered, erected, and construction involves the use of reinforcing steel and concrete filled cores. However no linings or claddings are fundamentally essential, no termite protection/chemicals/maintenance inspections are required, it will not harbour vermin, suffers little humidity and moisture movement, it doesn’t burn, is resistant to wind-blown/blast debris, is hugely superior in strength to timber, and will last decades without maintenance. Sustainable Development Sustainable development is the theoretical effective balance between economic

progress and environmental conservation, including intergenerational goals of maximising wealth and utility, and minimising resources and impact over the life of the development. But what is sustainability really? Timber is claimed to be sustainable but this is debatable, and it is renewable but at significant cost. Concrete is claimed to be unsustainable however concrete can be re-cycled, can contain recycled content, and concrete structures have superior strength and last decades without maintenance. Also, sustainability assessment does not analyse material performance during crisis. Crisis can include flood, cyclone, bushfire, or man-made crisis (e.g. civil unrest, terrorism). Assessment should not only include crisis performance but also the aftermath resource expenditure including emergency services work, rebuilding, and personal and community loss. In crisis, high sustainability materials (timber) rate low, while low sustainability materials (steel, concrete) rate high. Recycling Recycling sounds sensible, but it depends on the material and it’s recycling cost. Different materials have different recycling capabilities. How easy it is to first re-claim the recycled material? How much energy is required to complete the recycling process which could mean building new recycling factories and industries? Also, some materials may require more energy to recycle than to produce new. Use of second hand materials for new construction also sounds sensible. Unfortunately it is often not commercially viable due to the costs of increased time to source and prepare materials, unknown quality, and no Manufacturer support or warranty. The most economical way to incorporate second hand materials is Owner sourcing, supply, and preparation. Contractors then need to inspect the materials, however with the still unknown qualities and the possibility of damage occurring between Contractor inspection and Site fixing, Contractors still need add contingencies.

ENVIRONMENTAL RATING SYSTEMS There exist various environmental rating systems for buildings. Their purpose is to assess environmental credentials of a design. Participation in the rating system is largely voluntary. Many Owners seek environmental rating for promotion for marketing or for higher rent or sale. The rating systems assess applicable aspects of a building including energy, water and emission minimisation. However as the sciences are not exact, there is debate about environmental rating system effectiveness. There are other significant aspects not assessed including negative impacts of: 1. Complex aesthetics (or folly) creates high materials and energy wastage, which can nullify a positive rating. 2. Bad design, which means materials wastage and Occupant loss of wellbeing and efficiency. 3. Natural or man-made crisis repair. 4. High material and energy consumption in construction, operation and maintenance of excessively large buildings. 5. High and raked ceilings (making internal spaces difficult to heat).

PASSIVE ENERGY USE General Passive energy use is the harnessing natural energy sources (mainly sun and wind) for heating and cooling. Also thermal mass is used to control temperature and insulation is used to regulate temperature transfer. Use of passive heating and cooling principles reduces a buildings need for powered heating and cooling.



The first thing I consider with a new design, is north orientation for sun control.

habitable Rooms may be located east or west to bar sunlight from habitable areas.

North winter sun should be let into a building. Australian winter sun generally rises and sets slightly north of east and west, and has a much lower northern noon elevation.

Summer sunlight exclusion can be also be done by appropriate window placement, external window sun shading, and suitable roof overhangs. Window curtains do not work as the heat is then already inside. Optimum glass area is vital, as glass is a poor insulator allowing heat transfer in during summer.

Summer sun should be kept out of a building. Australian summer sun generally rises and sets slightly south of east and west, and is almost directly overhead at noon.

Passive heating of a building can be done by excluding external cold, and allowing direct sunlight in, to heat materials of thermal mass.

Ventilation removes internal vapour, heat, stale air and odour, and helps prevent mould growth and condensation forming. It also creates air movement which often has a cooling effect in tropical and temperate climates.

In winter, northern glazed openings allow sunlight in. Ideally, all rooms should have northern exposure, but this may be impractical. Habitable rooms used during the day should have exposure.

In tropical and temperate climates, buildings should allow entry of cool (not hot) breezes, which usually come from known directions. Cross ventilation helps air movement and replacement.

Winter sunlight entry is facilitated by northern glazed openings, suitable roof overhang, and adjustable external window sun shading (to stop sunlight entry when inter-season temperatures are sometimes too hot). Optimum glass area is vital, as glass is a poor insulator allowing heat transfer out during winter.

Hot air needs to escape the building, by use of cross ventilation, and higher vents and higher ceilings (hot air rises). High ceilings however create problems including difficult light and smoke detector access and ceiling fan cleaning, and warm air is lost upwards in winter.


Building arrangements to facilitate heating include lower flat insulated ceilings (to contain rising heat), and facility to compartmentise the building interior to retain heat. Adjustable compartmentalisation can be done by use of operable walls (opened during warm seasons for air flow and cross ventilation), but these walls are expensive. Large, high double doors in permanent walls are an alternative.

Environmentally responsible design (ERD) of buildings can significantly affect the future health of the planet. The basic principles are sound and correct. There is however a lot of misconception surrounding ERD and ESD, caused to a degree by Authorities and Academia saturating issues in ultra-technical data that only Scientists understand. This complication can be avoided somewhat by Designers and Owners concentrating on basic principles. The reasoning behind ERD after all is more moral than technical.

Induced ventilation uses the creation and release of high level hot air to induce low level cool air into the building, through cool shaded or moist areas (moist areas however may be susceptible to bacterial contamination). Use of thermal mass is an extremely viable means of passive temperature control.


Thermal mass is the amount of potential temperature storage capacity of a material. Concrete and masonry are excellent thermal mass materials.

Summer sunlight will likely enter a building in the early morning and late afternoon. Morning summer sunlight inside will cause the building to be heated all day. Non-


Designs which rely solely on natural air movement for cooling, fail when there is no breeze or where breezes are hot. Induced ventilation may be an option.

Open Stair Wells allow rising heat to escape from lower to upper floors, hampering lower floor heating.

Passive cooling of a building in summer can be done by excluding external heat, preventing direct summer sunlight entry, by cool (not hot) breeze capture and cross ventilation, by hot air extraction, and by use of thermal mass.

Cooling is achieved by allowing cooled thermal mass materials to release coolness into the building interior during a hot day, while excluding hot outside air. An example is a cool internal concrete floor on a hot day.

Thermal Mass

Thermal mass heating and cooling works on a daily cycle. Heating is achieved by exposing thermal mass materials to direct sunlight, while excluding cold outside air. The materials absorb the heat which is then released during the cooler night into the building interior.


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Hotel managers reminded of the

importance of fire safety training

John Lynch I GM Business Support Services, Wormald

Fire is a risk for every hospitality facility and hotel and can pose a serious threat to guests, property and a business’ reputation. Busy kitchens, careless guests and equipment malfunction can all contribute to the risk of fire and with high occupancy loads, minor mishaps can quickly become serious threats.


lthough it is not always possible to prevent a fire, hotels and hospitality facilities must be adequately prepared by having the correct fire protection systems and equipment in place. Furthermore, owners and managers must recognise the importance of investing in staff fire safety training. Training helps to ensure that effective plans and procedures are formulated and ready to be executed if there is a fire. Management should make their employees aware of evacuation procedures, the latest regulations and how to use fire protection equipment so as to confidently manage an emergency situation. To be prepared, an effective fire prevention plan should be developed in accordance with the Australian Standard, AS 3745 – 2010 Planning for Emergencies in Facilities. Emergency related training is a vital element of this fire prevention plan. The Standard outlines the minimum requirements for the development of the emergency plan and also provides guidance for the planning and implementation of an effective Emergency Planning Committee, Emergency Control Organisation (ECO) and emergency response procedures. Recent amendments to AS 3745 require that training be conducted for at least one member of the Emergency Planning Committee, for the ECO and for the facility occupants.

Furthermore, ECO members must attend skills retention training every six months.

The importance of fire safety training Hotels invest significantly in fire safety solutions in the form of fire protection systems and equipment to help minimise the impact of fire to people and property. Thorough assessments must be carried out to identify if the installed fire protection equipment and systems are fit for the purpose intended. This can include fire extinguishers, fire hose reels, fire hydrants, fire detection systems, gaseous suppression systems and fire sprinkler systems. In addition to having a comprehensive and effective fire management system in place, it is equally important to have an effective response and evacuation procedure and a trained emergency response team. When a fire breaks out, the highest priority is to get the guests and personnel out of harm’s way and trained staff will provide the best chance for this to happen in a methodical and efficient manner. Fire safety training is a vital step towards helping to protect the occupants of hotel or facility and it provides staff with the knowledge, skills and confidence to make the right decisions and act quickly in the event of a workplace fire. The impact of a crisis can be substantially reduced when people are trained to respond appropriately. Employers must ensure that each employee is familiar with the emergency procedures in the workplace.

What training is available? Every piece of fire safety equipment is very specific and training should be provided to those responsible for using them.


Furthermore, those working in close proximity to fire safety equipment should have a basic understanding on its exact operation. Training is an essential line of defence against fire and can also provide employees with an awareness of how different types of fires can start and give them the confidence required to respond effectively. To outline some of the courses available: Warden training: A facility’s fire warden has a considerable amount of responsibility for everyone’s wellbeing in the event of a fire. Warden training equips wardens with the skills and knowledge to carry out their duties in an emergency situation. Courses typically cover emergency procedures, site familiarisation, understanding fire protection equipment and how to use fire extinguishers. There is also the opportunity to take this training further, for example addressing how a warden should respond in the event of a bomb threat. Wardens working in premises where emergency warning and communication systems are installed are also recommended to undertake training on how to use these systems so as to understand their duties and responsibilities and how to accurately keep records. Emergency awareness training: While not everyone within a facility has the same responsibilities as the warden and the ECO team, all staff should have a basic understanding of how to react safely in an emergency situation. Should a fire occur, anyone could be required to help others safely out of the building. On this type of course, trainees typically learn about the emergency procedures set up in their workplace such as the structure of the Emergency Control Organisation, alarm activation in the building, responding to emergencies and the location of assembly areas. Evacuation training: Workplace evacuation exercises are designed to train staff to effectively evacuate in the event of an emergency. This type of training is often conducted using the most likely emergency scenarios to occur in each individual workplace and the evacuation exercise would include a risk assessment of the premises. Evacuation training can also help staff prepare to deal with the fear and panic of occupants associated with a fire and how to quickly evacuate the building. These evacuation procedures may be useful during emergency situations when visibility might be greatly reduced. Fire extinguisher training: Fire extinguishers are an essential element of fire safety in the workplace. Training can help to educate staff about the relevance of State fire safety regulations and develop operational techniques for using fire equipment in the workplace. If employees aren’t shown how to use the fire extinguishers located in their workplace, they can prove to be more of a hazard than a help in an emergency situation. Having all the safety equipment and necessary accessories in place for a fire occurrence is important but it is also vital to have a staff that knows how to use these safety devices during emergency situations. A confident team that is able to respond appropriately in the event of a fire is an invaluable investment for a business. For further information about Wormald’s products and services, call 133 166 or visit www.wormald.com.au


We’re right behind you, and your guests Whether through unruly guest behaviour, accidents or equipment malfunction, leisure and hospitality facilities face significant fire risks. With Wormald, you have an organisation that is always right behind you when you need us most. We’ve helped businesses prevent and protect against fires for over 120 years. From resorts, hotels and casinos to sports arenas, museums and restaurants, Wormald’s end-to-end systems include kitchen fire suppression, automatic sprinklers, centralised control panels, guest evacuation systems, fire extinguishers, fire hose reels and staff training. So, you can get on with looking after your guests, confident that your people, property and reputation are supported by one of the world’s fire safety leaders. That’s peace of mind. Trust the hospitality fire safety experts. Call 1300 556 015, email wormald.ads@tycoint.com or visit wormald.com.au/hotel


What Project Management CAN OFFER your next big development

Emma Chessell I CAT Projects


o one knows the intricacies and interactions of a hotel’s services infrastructure better than the inhouse maintenance manager, and it is often the maintenance manager that will signal the opportunities to be gained from services upgrades. However, there are a number of advantages in engaging the services of an external project manager for major construction projects or upgrades to existing services. Quality project managers should be able to work with hotel engineers and management to define the key objectives of services upgrades, and deliver efficiencies in the design and implementation of large projects that more than justifies their involvement.

It can also include an understanding of financing sources for various projects, including green business grants for clean power and energy/water efficiency projects as well as advice on the relative merits of engaging separate design consultants versus utilising design and construct contracts.

Risk Management

As noted, while an internal engineering manager will no doubt have the greatest understanding of a given hotels infrastructure, shortage of time, competing priorities, unfamiliarity with new technology, and significant cost pressures, may all weaken the capacity for a inhouse engineering or maintenance manager to effectively deliver the outcomes desired.

The logistics of exceptional projects are the core business of project managers, not the unique situations they may represent for site managers, whose prime focus is generally on operations and maintenance. Project managers who deploy a strategic approach to risk, formalised through risk assessment and avoidance processes will give confidence to a hotel embarking on major works, and allows maintenance managers to input their technical advice with confidence into a process that is established to quantify risk.


Stakeholder Management

Why seek external advice?

A good project manager should specialise in structuring procurement for significant construction projects, they bring a unique insight into how to best achieve outcomes, rather than to replace plant equipment as an end goal. For example, a set of works might most advantageously be divided, so that a portion might be offered for quote to local or proven contractors and other work submitted to open tender. Tenders themselves can be formatted as detailed component supply briefs, or as performance-based specifications that articulate the outcomes required and offer proponents flexibility in serving these requirements. A project manager will work closely with hotel engineering staff and existing contractors to define the priorities and requirements for an upgrade. An experienced project manager who is active in services design will input a useful perspective into this discussion, in terms of their exposure to new products and solutions through the range of operations. This can include the application of solutions from other


sectors, such as energy efficiency hardware that has been developed in off-grid contexts that becomes cost effective for wider use as electricity tariffs rise.

Capital works are undertaken to achieve the objectives of hotel owners and their management; however the stakeholder base of a major project will include management, maintenance staff, guests, and potentially local government, authorities, neighbours and the public. Maintenance managers who employ project managers take advantage of the third party’s role to represent their interests appropriately in negotiations with management, and that ongoing maintenance work, OH&S and serviceability are taken into consideration. Project managers take a proactive approach to identifying relevant affected persons, and establishing an appropriate framework for their input. This has the most obvious advantage of avoid delays and project variations, but it can also optimise the amenity of a project’s outcomes and help make guests feel welcome and included.

Contractor Management Project managers oversee the interface between installed equipment for complex projects, and coordinate the interaction of contractors on site. Their role as integrators begins in the design stage, with project managers ensuring appropriate consultation between the client, hotel engineers and maintenance staff, architects, and mechanical and specialist engineers. Project Managers are engineers that will assess the compatibility of components proposed through the design process. A construction staging program is prepared with the technical design process, defining a critical pathway, or the sequence of involvement required for a seamless installation.

Integration Project Managers integrate all aspects of a development, including tasks that would otherwise be split between hotel management, legal consultants and accounts, as well as engineering and maintenance staff. Project Managers are experts in preparing tender documentation, grant acquittal, development permits, and contractual documentation, and execute these processes in the context of technical understanding of the project. They also conduct feasibility assessment that combines technical evaluation of a proposal, with the lifecycle cost and financing considerations, so that effective decisions can be made.

Case Study – Crowne Plaza Alice Springs When the Crowne Plaza Hotel in Alice Springs covered the north surfaces of its extensive sawtooth roof with a 300kW solar array in 2008, the installation broke records as the largest roof mounted solar PV system in Australia. Initially the hotel owners had independently approached the major solar retailers in Australia for design and quotation. After being unsatisfied with the initial proposals that were received, the hotel owners engaged a third party project manager and engineering consultant CAT Project, the works were thoroughly documented and specified and reissued as a competitive tender that invited proponents to respond with detailed solutions that fit a high-level system design. Compared with the originally received proposals, this process reduced capital costs by 12% on the $3.1 million dollar project. The project management and consulting fees to achieve this cost reduction were approximately 2.5% of the total project budget. Construction at Crowne Plaza was completed by ten different local contractors, each of them extending their capacity to deliver projects of this type. The project required integration of building and structural elements, and integration of new and old DC and AC electrical distribution networks, and communications and monitoring systems. CAT Projects coordinated the design of these project elements so that they integrated seamlessly, including with the existing building fabric and existing services. Through the construction process, CAT Projects oversaw staging and construction so that work could progress without delays, and the hotel maintained full service through peak season.


The ONE event that connects the Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Building Services industry

“ Could not be better. We attend a number of shows and no one does it as well as ARBS ”

“ An excellent show. Very well organised. Good cross section of trades. Great location ”

“ Well organised. It is a true global exhibition in terms of quality ”

ARBS 2012 is Australia’s ONLY International Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Building Services trade exhibition. Showcasing the very latest innovations and industry technology ARBS connects over 250 local, national and international manufacturers and suppliers with thousands of decision makers, designers, specifiers, engineers, contractors and technicians. Save the date for this HVAC & R and Building Services mega event held over 3 days and featuring the trade exhibition, an informative seminar program and the national awards gala event.

Register NOW at www.arbs.com.au 7 - 9 May, 2012 Melbourne Convention & Exhibition Centre


Something For Everyone

at ARBS 2012

Jane Burren I ARBS


n the biggest show in its 14 year history, ARBS 2012 will pack more than 250 exhibitors under one roof at the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre. Open over three days to allow visitors plenty of time to browse and converse with exhibitors and their peers, exhibitors will showcase their latest products and services across all facets of the HVAC&R and building services industries.

Held at the Savoy Ballroom, The Grand Hyatt Hotel on Tuesday 8th May, the evening will be hosted by Shane Jacobson, award winning actor, presenter and star of Kenny, Charlie and Boots and Top Gear Australia. Bookings are available on the ARBS 2012 website, www.arbs.com.au. Book for yourself, or tables of 10 are available.

Alongside the show runs the respected ARBS technical seminar series. This year’s line up includes international thought leader and green building evaluator Jerry Yudelson, and a range of Australian experts covering both practical and legislative topics. Steve Anderson of AREMA will discuss the new refrigerant levy and a panel including Pat McInerney of the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities and industry and education players will explore what this new levy means to Australian industry. Bring along your questions.

ARBS Young Achiever Award 2012

• ESP Ultima – Actron Air

To see a full seminar listing or to book, visit www.arbs.com.au

• F. Mayer Imports – Bitzer Australia & Strathbrook Industrial Services

• Air Change Dehumidification Unit (ACDHUM) – Air Change Australia Pty Ltd

• Tip Top Butchers – Trent Refrigeration & Heatcraft Australia

• JetVent Digital EC‐– Fantech

Outstanding Industry Education/Training Award 2012

HVAC Project Excellence Award 2012

• Certificate in Drafting – AMCA

• 1 Bligh Street, Sydney – Hastie Australia & Dexus/CBUS

• Air Conditioning Training Academies – LG Electronics

• Pixel Building, Melbourne – James L Williams Pty Ltd

• Managing for Profit Program – AMCA

• ANZ Docklands – Norman Disney Young

ARBS Hall of Fame 2012

ARBS Industry Awards Finalists 2012 This year’s ARBS Industry Awards gathered many nominees over the full range of award categories. Judges had a tough time as they whittled down the list to the top three nominees in each category. Winners will be announced at a gala dinner held during ARBS 2012. Come along to network with your peers and support the cream of our industry.

The finalists are:

• Will Mason – Norman, Disney & Young • Daniel Tan Teng Yeow – Fantech • Robert Stoddart – Norman, Disney & Young Outstanding Service and Maintenance Provider 2012 • James L Williams • Hi Flow Industries • A.G. Coombs Pty Ltd ARBS Product Excellence Award 2012

Refrigeration Project Excellence Award 2012




THE FUTURE OF ELECTRONIC LOCKS? Gidon Sattinger I Vintech Systems


lectronic locks have traditionally relied on information that is encoded on magnetic stripe. The introduction of smart cards (sim card) allowing retention of data within the card gave hotel staff greater ease and flexibility of information management when introduced in the early 1990’s. A further step towards technological sophistication has been taken with the introduction of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) contactless Proximity locks and cards in the last few years. The benefits of this advanced technology far surpass those of traditional magnetic stripe. RFID proximity cards are capable of retaining the audit trail within the cards themselves, not only within the lock as was the case in the past, thus allowing accommodation Management to effectively track the movements of the card user, and not only the activity of a single lock. For property owners and engineers the cost effective benefit of RFID is that, contrary to magstripe locks, there is no direct card contact with the lock and reader and thus no wear and tear. There is only the mere presentation (and not physical insertion) of card to reader. Yet the biggest advantage of the MiFare RFID Proximity Card is that it is designed to carry information that can be used on multiple applications including interfacing with other systems such as POS, kiosks, self-check-in kiosks and building/ property management systems.

Go Green with Electronic Locks Modern electronic locking systems such as the Messenger system by Saflok are capable of fully integrating and interfacing with the most advanced room automation and energy control systems. These kind of locking systems have the capability of


wirelessly communicating via the latest Zigbee Prostack protocols to these room control systems in order to notify the Energy Management system when a guest is in or out of the room so that it can effectively switch on or off services within the room saving up to 20-30% of the general energy bill of modern Hotels. Innovative recycled and even biodegradable RFID cards from Kaba are now available to Hoteliers, as well as other methods of RFID medium such as wrist bands, fobs, labels and Limitless other variations.

OpenWays Using a Mobile phone as a mobile key to access an electronic lock replaces the need for a keycard, and reduces operating and staff costs by motivating travellers to choose the alternative and bypass the Front Desk and enter a booked room directly with keyless access. This cuts congestion at Front Desk and allows businessmen and late arrivals flexibility and convenience previously unattainable in the industry.

OpenWays has developed a very powerful, secure, multi technology and fully interoperable method of delivering a mobile key wirelessly. Guests can check into a pre-booked Hotel room using any mobile phone – smart, android and old-style – as a mobile key. Regardless of whether the phone is old or new, smart or not, it can be used to gain entry to the room in exactly the same way as a keycard would. The guest gains access by holding his/her phone against the electronic lock. The phone emits a sound which allows access only to that guest and only to that pre-booked Hotel room for the duration of his stay only – simple and easy keyless access employing the latest in technology for the benefit of the guest, Hotel and the environment. The acoustic key signal is absolutely secure using an impenetrable technology called Crypto Acoustic Credential (CAC™). Studies show that, when given a choice, 87% of guests will choose self service “sometimes’ or “always” rather than assisted interaction with staff. 86% of customers are more likely to do business with a company that offers that flexibility. Statistically, there are 6.9 billion people worldwide. Remarkably, 5.8 billion of those people have a mobile phone in service! More and more businesses are taking advantage of this and are using technology to change the way of doing business to take advantage of mobile applications such as OpenWays.

e-transactions with immediate payment and reduced desk transactions increasing profit and cash flow. Other benefits of keyless entry via mobile phone key is smooth and efficient last minute room changes, extended or changed stay conditions, room ready notifications and more effective group management.

Doing so allows these companies (Hotels, Backpackers and the like) to reduce operating costs by allowing guests to bypass Front Desk check-in and go directly to their rooms. This application of technology also allows organisations to use direct sales channels to produce greater income from this mobile key service. Hoteliers can take the initiative back by increasing direct

The operating system requirements are an OpenWays chipset, listening device, an internet connection and an OpenWays acoustic credential translator. OpenWays interfaces with Kaba electronic locks regardless of the card technology that is being used and Kaba already has working sites with more than 3000 locks utilising the technology and operating successfully. Pending sales and market interest in OpenWays will reach up to a predicted 20,000 rooms in 2012. OpenWays already interfaces with the Hotel’s PMS systems such as Opera by Micros and can facilitate mobile bookings, mobile confirmations, e-payments and more.

The interaction between the two solutions enables the guest to securely receive their room number and room key via phone, thereby streamlining the check-in and check-out and payment process. This system can be compared to that which the airline industry introduced in recent years to streamline passenger bookings and payments. What is of most interest to Hoteliers is the cost-effective nature of its introduction in that OpenWays can be fitted onto most existing electronic locking systems without the need to replace hardware. This solution allows for better guest services, reduction in operating costs, the improvement of margins and the answering of the expectations of modern travellers / hotel guests. Furthermore, whilst NFC in mobile telephony is still not finalised worldwide, OpenWays has developed an easy and secure solution to these issues. From this year all OpenWays CAC devices will carry the NFC chip within it, making it ready to adapt to any and all of the potential eventualities within the industry.


Improve Reliability & Reduce Maintenance

with Direct Drive for Cooling Tower Fans

Dr Davide Ross

In July and August of last year, I had the pleasure of attending two very informative conferences in the USA on energy efficiency; these being the ACEEE 2011 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry (Niagara Falls, New York) and the GovEnergy 2011 workshop (Cincinnati, Ohio). I have often heard that Americans know how to do trade shows and they’re always big, in fact, really big events. GovEnergy certainly lived up to this expectation. A small thank you must also go to the GovEnergy organisers who had arranged for all attendees to visit the local ballpark and attend America’s national pastime of a major league baseball game.


he downside of such events is that you just can’t physically attend all the great sessions of topical interest. Fortunately, one of those that I did walk in to at the ACEEE conference was a presentation by Baldor motors on advances in motor efficiency given by John Malinowski, who is a Senior Product Manager with the company. John presented a very informative session with part of his talk covering motor ratings and this is essentially covered in Australia under MEPS, so no need to discuss this matter further. The main topic of interest that I want to share with the readership of Hotel Engineer, were some field results from recent installations of newer motor design and drive systems and their use in real world cooling tower solutions. So before going any further, Adbourne Publishing and I would like to acknowledge the authors Robbie McElveen and


Bill Martin from Baldor Electric Company, USA, for granting permission to use exerts from their original authored article, as titled here and first published in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 2009 Cooling Tower Technology Seminar and Symposium. In addition, Adbourne Publishing in part facilitated my attendance at the GovEnergy workshop and I gratefully acknowledge their assistance.

COOLING TOWERS Cooling towers are a vital component in a hotel’s HVAC system. With rising energy costs, stagnant or reduced O&EM budgets and ever more stringent environmental requirements, requiring new solutions that improve reliability and reduce maintenance will be welcome by any hotel engineering manager. In short, this article presents recent developments in motor technology that allow for the direct drive of cooling tower fans which can ultimately reduce

maintenance or failure of the right angle gearbox and associated components (drive shaft, couplings, etc.) which has been problematic in tradition installations. For more than thirty years, the most common solution for driving the fan has used an induction motor, driveshaft, disc coupling, and gearbox arrangement, as shown in Figure 1. Few changes have been made during this time. Historically, the mechanical components of the fan drive system have been the largest maintenance issue for cooling tower installations1. Gearbox failures, oil leaks, oil contamination, failed drive shafts, misaligned drive shafts and excessive vibration are all significant problems related to this type of fan drive system2, 3. Based on recent developments in motor technology this article will introduce with the aid a real world design,

Fig. 1: Typical Fan Drive Arrangement.

the installation of a 50 horsepower, 208 rpm Permanent Magnet (PM) motor for a retrofit application. It is demonstrated how these innovations can be used to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs associated with today’s cooling tower installations. I will not delve into discussing the evolution of PM rotors, perhaps a topic for another article, but will say PM motors have long been recognised as providing higher efficiencies than comparable induction motors. However, limitations in terms of motor control, as well as magnet material performance and cost, have severely restricted their use in the past. Due to dramatic improvements in magnetic and thermal properties of PM materials over the past 20 years, synchronous PM motors now represent viable alternatives. Just to capitalise the efficiency gains for these

motors, Figure 2 highlights the efficiency and power factor for various motor types4. In combination with developments of laminated frame motor technology and improved cooling methods, power density is increased. Air is used to cool the motor and is in direct contact with the stator laminations, thus fins have been added to the exterior of the stator laminations to further increase the surface area available for heat dissipation. The result is improved heat transfer and a typical power increase of 20-25% for a given lamination diameter and core length is achieved. Two small items of attention. A PM motor must be used with a variable speed drive (VSD) system. The energy savings realised by using a VSD are well recognised and

documented, so no further discussion will be introduced here. Secondly, a PM motor will act as a generator when the shaft is driven by a mechanical means, such as wind milling of the fan. The voltage generated at the terminals on open circuit is typically in the range of 1-2 Vrms line-to-line per revolution per minute (1-2 Vrms/rpm). This is not a particularly high voltage at low rpm, but it is necessary from a OH&S basis that maintenance and other personnel are made aware of the potential of generated terminal voltage even on a disconnected motor.

IMPROVED RELIABILITY AND REDUCED MAINTENANCE The question of how this type of direct drive PM motor can help reduce maintenance cost and decrease

Fig. 2: Typical partial load efficiencies and power factors of 50 hp (36.7 kW), TEFC, 1800 rpm motors.


Fig. 3: (a) Original Installation (b) PM Motor Installed in Place of Gearbox & Driveshaft.

downtime can be answered with one word – “simplicity”. The installation of the low speed motor in place of the gearbox greatly simplifies the installation and reduces the number of moving parts. Not only is there a reduction of moving parts, but now the “high speed” parts are only operating at a fraction of the relatively high speed induction motor, bearings, driveshaft, couplings, and input gears on the planetary gearbox found on the geared design. In traditional fan drive designs, the gear ratio is typically from 4:1 to 12:1, resulting in speeds of mechanical rotation from 4-12 times that of the fan rpm. For motor/gearbox combination drives, the lubrication interval is determined by the high speed gear set. The recommended lubrication interval for this type of gear is typically 2,500 hours or six months, whichever comes first. In addition, gear manufacturers recommend a daily visual inspection for oil leaks, unusual noises, or vibrations. As these units are installed in areas that are not readily accessible or frequented, this is an unreasonable expectation and burden on maintenance personnel. When a gear is to be idle for more than a week, it should be run periodically to keep the internal components lubricated because they are highly susceptible to attacks by rust and corrosion. Because the high speed input has been eliminated with the slow speed PM motor design, the lubrication cycle can now be extended to one year. The PM motor need not be inspected daily for oil leaks, as the motor contains no oil. With the elimination of the high speed input to the

gearbox, the system dynamics from a vibration standpoint have been simplified. There are no longer any resonance issues with the driveshaft. The maximum rotational excitation is now limited to the rotational speed of the fan. The number of bearings in the drive system has been reduced from six to two for a single reduction gearbox and from eight to two for a double reduction gearbox. This reduces the number of forcing frequencies present in the system. For added protection, a vibration switch can be used as with typical gearbox installations. To this end, a flat pad may be incorporated on the side of the motor, which can be drilled and tapped to accept commonly used vibration sensors. The case study involves the retrofit of an existing cooling tower constructed in 1986 servicing a university. This tower is comprised of two identical cooling cells. For this study, one cell was retrofitted with a slow speed, direct drive PM motor and VSD while the other was left as originally configured. This allowed for a direct comparison of the two fan drive solutions.

The cooling tower information is as follows: • Fan Diameter: 18’-0” • Flow rate: 16,000 litres per minute (LPM) per cell – 32,000 LPM total • Original Motor: Frame – 326T induction HP – 50/12.5 Speed – 1765/885 rpm • Gearbox: Size – 155, Ratio – 8.5:1 A power meter was used to measure the input power to both solutions and results are displayed in Table 1. The fans were both running at 208 rpm. Data was taken at both the input and output of the drive to allow for a direct comparison of the induction motor / gearbox combination to the PM motor. Power measurements were made and a third party testing service was engaged to verify the results. Many cooling towers are in locations where airborne noise can be an issue. One of the additional benefits of installation of a PM motor is the reduction in noise. Taking the installation example cited, average weighted sound pressure results are shown for both the high speed and low speed operation. Measurements are expressed as dBA, meaning a sound level filter in the A scale High Speed

Low Speed


82.3 dBA

74.4 dBA



77.7 dBA

69.0 dBA




Volts, mean

Amps, rms

Input kW

Input to Induction (Cell #1)



Input to VSD, PM (Cell #2)


Reduction %

Table 1: Power consumption and sound pressure data comparisons, 12o bade pitch.


was used. Using this common filter scale, the sound level meter is thus less sensitive to very high and very low frequencies. An “A weighting filter� is used because the human ear does not respond equally to all frequencies and is more sensitive to sounds in the frequency range about 1kHz to 4 kHz. At high speed, the PM motor cell was 4.6 dBA lower than the induction motor cell. For low speed operation, the PM motor cell was 5.4 dBA lower. The removal of the higher speed induction motor from the outside of the fan stack appears to have the biggest influence on the overall noise level of the tower itself.

CONCLUSIONS Cooling tower fan drives have changed very little over the past few decades. Failures of the gearbox, driveshaft, or disc couplings have been the biggest reliability issue facing tower manufacturers and end users. Increasing energy costs have placed a premium on power consumption for all motors and applications.

Many of the problems associated with cooling tower maintenance and reliability are solved with a direct drive, low speed, PM motor. The relatively high speed (typically 1,750 rpm) induction motor has been eliminated. The motor itself has not historically been a problem, but the associated resonances and potential vibration concerns have been an issue. The driveshaft and associated disc couplings have been removed, thus eliminating problems associated with misalignment, improper lubrication, natural frequencies, or delaminating of the driveshaft itself. The right angle spiral-beveled gearbox has been removed. Difficult maintenance issues associated with changing the oil, proper oil fill levels, contamination of the oil, oil leaks, and gearbox failures are no longer a concern. New motor technology now provides an alternative solution, the direct drive of cooling tower fans. PM motor technology combined with a finned, laminated frame or water jacket design makes possible the construction of low speed, compact motors

for use in place of the existing gearbox. By eliminating the gearbox, which is a significant source of loss in the system, improved system efficiencies may be realised. There is no reason this technology cannot be applied to towers requiring 200 horsepower or more. The biggest concern may be the weight of the motor as compared to the gearbox, but with the use of appropriate cooling method this may be overcome.

REFERENCES [1] Jim Horne, How to Address Your Cooling System Woes, PTOnline, 2008. [2] Dave Gallagher, Condition Monitoring of Cooling Tower Fans, Reliability Direct. [3] Philadelphia Gear,The Cooling Tower Gear Drive Dilemma:Why Applying Commodity Products to an Engineered Solution Can Cause Premature Failure. [4] Steve Evon, Robbie McElveen and Michael J. Melfi, Permanent Magnet Motors for Power Density and Energy Savings in Industrial Applications, PPIC 2008.

Cool 50 floors without cooking the planet.

Energy efficiency is increasingly seen by many building owners and operators as an inescapable part of managing their bottom line and many are appointing energy managers to keep their use of this expensive commodity within reasonable limits. Pressure and encouragement from government, combined with the help and expertise of private industry, are making ABB drives and motors the technology of choice for cost-conscious building managers. To discover how to control your building’s climate without harming the environment, visit www.abbaustralia.com.au

ABB Australia Pty Limited Phone: 1300 782 527




he Australian Government has legislated that from 2013 all new constructions are required to restrict the opening distance of windows that are 2 metres or more from the ground to a maximum opening of 125 mm. Future legislation may also impose a duty on the accommodation sector to reduce the risk of window falls through the installation of window restrictors. The LEVCOL Jackloc window restrictor has been specifically designed to balance guest security with comfort by allowing a maximum opening distance of 125 mm (we recommend 100 mm opening) whilst still providing natural ventilation. In addition to a reduction in window falls, the installation of the Jackloc has also prevented situations in which guests have thrown items

out of windows creating a serious risk to the public’s safety on the street below as well as causing damage to surrounding infrastructure. The Jackloc is easily installed and requires very minimal maintenance. A common problem occurring in windows with built-in restrictors is that the restrictor wears out over time and can be very expensive, if not impossible to replace. Maintenance of built-in restrictors can also be easily overlooked as they are concealed in the window frame and are not easily accessible. The Jackloc provides a simple and affordable solution to all these problems. Jackloc is an ISO accredited company and their restrictor is manufactured in the UK to ensure a high quality, reliable product.The Jackloc has been British Standard Tested and complies with BS EN 14351-1:2006.

The Jackloc has over 1,000,000 installations worldwide. Some of Jackloc’s customers include Hilton Hotels, Holiday Inn Hotels, IBIS Hotels & The Travelodge Hotel Group all using the Jackloc nationwide in their UK properties. Travelodge alone has installed the Jackloc to all its properties with over 22,000 Jackloc’s currently in operation. Here in Australia there are thousands of Jackloc’s securing properties within the Accor Hotel Group right through to budget motels and serviced apartments. The Jackloc has also been listed on the “Deemed to Comply Product Register” with Housing NSW. LEVCOL is able to offer the Jackloc as ‘supply only’ or ‘supply and install’ anywhere in Australia. For more information on the Jackloc window restrictor please visit www.levcol.com.au or call 1300 664 688


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LED Lighting Australia is currently leading the world in its ban against inefficient lighting. Starting in 2009, the Australian government placed import restrictions on incandescent globes and introduced MEPs for existing lights available in the market. In May this year Australia will restrict halogen imports, further fuelling the adoption of LED lighting. As a result, more and more hotels are looking at replacing their existing downlights with LED bulbs.


fter labour, energy is typically the highest cost for a hotel with interior lighting accounting for an average 28% of a hotel’s energy bills. This is because halogen bulbs and incandescent globes convert 90% of their energy into heat, and only 10% into light. Although they offer a bright, high quality light, they are extremely wasteful, expensive and a hassle to maintain due to their short life span. LED downlights were for a long time inferior to their halogen counterparts, but they can now match and even surpass halogens for quality. This means you can now retain the same design aesthetic and guest satisfaction when you retrofit. The Australian standards for lux levels will also be meet, ensuring your hotel meets the necessary OH&S guidelines for lighting and promoting employee satisfaction. In the last two years, a number of new LED products and manufacturers have entered the market with varying features and prices. To help you differentiate a quality product from an inferior product, and ensure you a getting the most from your investment, we’ve made an LED checklist for you: • Choose a LED that offers 720 lumens brightness or more. This means it will match the brightness of an average 50W halogen (according to the Department of Climate and Energy Efficiency). At this level of brightness hotel staff and guests

will not notice any difference in the light output of the light. • Now that you have an adequate amount of brightness chose a wattage that is between 10 to 16 watts. If a light can produce 720 lumens and is 10 watts, it will demonstrate super efficiency (69 lumens per watt), a benefit that will transfer directly into savings on electricity bills, without sacrificing light quality. • Check that the CRI (measure of a light’s quality) is 80 or more. This is very important as a high CRI will make interiors and furnishings look their best.

If you follow the first two criteria for brightness and wattage and then space the lights accordingly you will meet these regulations. • Finally, a warranty of 3 years or more should support the product, giving you peace of mind for your investment. Originally the only drawback for LED lights was that they have a much higher initial cost then traditional sources of light. However, these days the payback period is short, at an average of one year for hotels, and there are government incentives to retrofit.

• 100% dimmability and 100% dimmer compatibility will allow flexibility in lighting levels and help contribute to an easy retrofit.

The NSW government is offering a rebate for LED bulbs as part of their Energy Savings Scheme (ESS). The initiative encourages and gives financial incentives for businesses to reduce their electricity consumption through more efficient energy use. Up to $30 can be saved per bulb, which can reduce the initial cost by up to half.

• Ensure the life span of the light is at least 70,000 hours. This will guarantee the light is made to last and decrease the maintenance costs associated with lower life spans.

Also for engineers thinking of retrofitting before the end of the financial year, the cost can be claimed as a deductible expense. More information on this can be found on the Australian Taxation website.

• Make sure the bulb is compatible with all transformers and is designed to fit into any fitting. This will enable a fast, simple and hassle free retrofit.

• Australian designed LEDs will ensure the life span of the product will perform in hot Australian climates, as the products are built to last. • All commercial businesses must adhere to the Australian standards for lux levels.

When you add to this the long life of the product, the reduced maintenance costs, the reduction on electricity bills, and the fast payback, it will take virtually no time to reach a return on investment.

The10W LED bulb that delivers 50W of light. The DR700 Retrofit is the only LED downlight bulb with exactly the same brightness*, beam width and light colour as a 50W halogen. With a lumen efficacy of 69 Lm/W, the DR700 also provides a super fast payback with all the advantages of a 50W halogen without sacrificing any of the advantages of a premium LED.



* According to the Department of Climate and Energy Efficiency. # Customers in NSW eligible for ECC rebate. Search our ‘Where to buy’ page. Select ‘Retrofit’ for agents. » Easily disassembled for gimbled fittings with a limited hole cutout and designed to fit into all downlight fittings without changing any drivers.

Super Efficient at 69 Lm/W = Fast Payback LUMENS PER WATT 70










With the DR700 payback can be as fast as 1 year if the lights are used for 19 hours a day. At 69 lumens per watt, the DR700 is almost twice as efficient as any other bulb on the market, a benefit that translates directly into savings on your electricity bills. This level of efficiency demonstrates our unique approach to inventing premium long lasting products that are extremely eco-efficient.

Brighter than a Halogen at 720 Lumens LUMEN RATING

At 10W, the DR700 has a total light output of 720 lumens, the same as an average 50W halogen (according to the Department of Climate and Energy Efficiency). In reaching this optimal brightness as a stand-alone bulb that does not require a specific driver to be used the DR700 is a world first. It also overcomes a range of technical challenges and offers twice the brightness offered by its nearest retrofit LED competitor.











Long Lasting with a Three Year Warranty Like all Brightgreen products, the DR700 is designed to last. With its large heat sink and innovative thermal materials it maintains 80% of its original light output after 40,000 hours with a target life of 70,000 hours. This applies even in hot Australian climates that are notorious for affecting LED product life.





To see how fast your payback period will be or to find your nearest stockist please visit: www.brightgreen.com


Picking The Low Hanging Fruit

Commercial Energy Management 101 in 5 Steps Step 1. Carry out market research to ensure you have the lowest contract rates possible for the electricity and gas you consume at all your facilities Step 2. Conduct network tariff reviews to ascertain if your network tariffs have been optimised for your current demand and consumption circumstances Step 3. Have mechanisms or systems in place that continuously record your consumption and demand profiles. This will aid in the preparation of mandatory environmental reporting Step 4. Rigorously check your bills for accuracy, utilising billing meter data if possible to ensure you are paying for what you have actually received. “In the 2010-2011 financial year the NSW Energy & Water Ombudsman resolved a whopping 17,559 complaints about energy and water bills in NSW.” Step 5. Prepare a strategic energy management plan that includes both the commercial and technical aspects for minimising your cost of energy

“For some obligation free advice on the above topic give us a call or consider sending us a copy of your current bills for an opinion on your current position” 1300 577 741

Also visit

www.powerandgasassist.com To understand what we do & our service guarantee


Energy Brokers & Managers

Commercial Energy Management 101

(Picking the Low Hanging Fruit) Brian Warwick I MANAGING DIRECTOR, POWER & GAS ASSIST


ike most industries in the western world the hotel and resort industry sectors are searching to cut costs. Energy is a key area of concern in Australia as the forward prices for energy are on a steep upward trend. The key area for controlling and reducing energy cost often falls on the shoulders of engineering. Whilst there are a myriad of opportunities to reduce costs through the installation energy efficient plant and equipment these opportunities are generally capital intensive and carry medium to long term ROI’s. This puts the engineer in the position of having to compete with other business units like marketing to win financial approval for cost reduction productions. It is often the case that engineering managers have substantial KPI’s surrounding cost reductions so energy cost minimisation becomes a double edged sword. Currently the hotel and resort industry has to contend with lower occupancy rates as a result of falling overseas visiting tourist numbers and increasing numbers of Australians holidaying overseas as a result of high dollar situation. Within a well-constructed strategic energy plan commencing with strategic procurement and working through to the many energy efficient plant and equipment opportunities there are many avenues to make substantial cost gains with little monetary investment to pick the low hanging fruit.

Low Hanging Fruit Opportunities – (High Returns for Little Outlay) The energy industry, especially electricity is a very complex beast that takes years of direct industry experience to fully comprehend. Over 30 years’ experience has taught me that most commercial electricity users are missing opportunities to minimise their energy costs because of the complexity that surrounds this unique market. I find that the majority of engineering managers and experts on technical energy efficiency solutions for plant and equipment but few have the time or even the inclination to learn the complexity of the markets, and it is here where the devil lays in the detail.

Developing an Energy Plan – Stage One 1. Strategic energy procurement

a. Timing to market strategies

i. Short term contracts

ii. Long term contracts

iii. Hybrid contracts

b. Result measurement either by mark to market or mark to budget

c. Use of brokerage services

2. Network management and tariff optimisation 3. Systematic data management and reporting

a. Billing verifications

b. Management reporting

c. Mandatory and voluntary environmental reporting

d. Efficiency and demand reporting

i. Regular

ii. By exception

e. NMI and MIRN management and tracking especially multi-facility operations

Strategic Energy Procurement – Timing to Market The general way in which businesses purchase their energy is to renew current contracts as they are due to expire with an excepted contract term being 3 years. However this methodology is substantially floored from a cost minimisation point of view. On any given day the actual cost of physically generated electricity sold on the national electricity market pool can vary immensely with this variance being in the realms of less than 2 cents per kWh to a cap of $12.50 per kWh. These price swings are as a result of instantaneous supply and demand scenarios that occur throughout the day. Electricity is despatched in 5 minute increments with prices being averaged over every half hour throughout the year, this equates to 17,520 price points in any given 12 month period.


Most commercial consumers of electricity are shielded from this price mechanism as a result of entering into a retail contract with an electricity retailer which in turn makes them a party to a futures contract or hedging arrangement. Not only is the physical electricity market or pool a very volatile the forward contract market is also an extremely volatile market and it is here that the price danger trap is set and waits for unsuspecting purchases. If we leave our electricity re-contracting to one particular day or time period at the conclusion to our current period to renew our contracts we will be stuck with the prevailing contract cost for that day. This means we are subject to a lucky dip scenario and I would estimate that in excess of 90% electricity purchases do this very thing. When clients ask me when they should start to look for their next contact my advice is always the same, the day after you sign your current agreement. The wholesale or forward contract price for electricity varies on a daily basis and often on an intraday basis. Throughout a year there can be variances of $12.00 per MWh, so timing to market becomes one of the easiest cost control mechanisms available to energy purchases. By comparison, the difference between competing retailers for your business when procuring will generally be less than $2.00 per MWh. This leads the adoption of the a strategic energy procurement plan where the goal is to gain a large proportion of the $12.00 / MWh market price swing and as much as possible of the $2.00/MWh on offer by competing retailers.


The Use of Energy Brokerage Services

brokerage service can provide value to a client.

Unless engineering or procurement have an abundance of time and energy (forgive the pun) to study the daily market happens and trends as well as maintain a comprehension of the various retailers market hedge positions, short or long the engagement of a reputable energy broker will pay very large dividends.

Systematic Meter Data Management and Reporting

A good broker will continually monitor a client’s energy profile and match it against the daily changes in the wholesale market. This enables the broker to offer advice to clients when the timing is right to go and test the market to see what actually is on offer by competing retailers. This process is continues a good brokers have the systems and market knowledge to deliver cost beneficial results.

Network Management and Optimisation Around half the cost of your electricity is made up of other components than just the power that your facility consumes; by far the largest cost in this area is your network changes. These are a complicated set of tariffs that must be utilised by the consumer to keep these costs to a minimum and it is up to the consumer not the retailer or network provider to determine what the optimal tariff a facility should be on. I recommend to clients that they should undertake an annual review of their network tariffs to ensure they are not leaving money on the table unnecessarily. This is another area where the right

The commodity billing meter situated within the consumer’s facility is a wonderful source of information and data relating to the facilities energy consumption and demand patters. By making arranges with the meter provider this data can be captured and used to; 1. Prepare load profiles which are essential in getting a good retail contract price for the energy component of the facilities usage 2. Analysis demand scenarios in the selection of appropriate network tariffs 3. Prepare the ever growing number of mandatory environmental reports 4. Check retail bills for accuracy making sure you are only paying for what you get

In Conclusion I hope this article has been of interest to you and that it helps relieve the pressure on those who are responsible to reduce or a least minimise energy costs. These measures can be implemented in house or outsourced to reputable energy managers & brokers at very little cost and will generally return a more than adequate return on investment.


the Largest Hotel Refurbishment & Design event in the Southern Hemisphere

14 – 16 may 2012 Sydney convention centre

Refurbish with confidence for a positive return on investment Hotel Hospitality + Design is Australia’s only accommodation focused expo, gathering the best suppliers in hotel refurbishment and technology to boost your occupancy rates and keep you ahead of the competition. See over 100 top brands and be inspired by the latest design.

RegiSteR foR fRee entRy at www.HHDexpo.com.au Use registration code: ENG StAge SponSor:


Supported by:

Co-loCAted with:

brought to you by:

Hotel Hospitality + Design Expo 2012 returns to Sydney

Hotel Hospitality + Design (HHD) returns to Sydney 14- 16 May, 2012 at the Sydney Convention & Exhibition Centre, co-locating for the first time with Australia’s largest interiors, architecture and design event, designEX.


wo of Australia’s premier design shows are joining forces to create a larger, more comprehensive design show with more to see. designEX and HHD will focus on new design directions for both residential and commercial constructions including hotels, bars, resorts spa and hospitality venues drawing on the most inspired interior trends right now. The state of the Australian hospitality industry is crucial to the ongoing stability of business travel and the tourism industry which contributes significantly to the healthy economy we benefit from today. Refurbishment and redevelopment are two of the most important factors in keeping a hotel, motel or hospitality venue appealing and our industry up to date. Modern technology has made the world a very small place and our competitive playing field is now the world stage. In order to maintain the great reputation Australia’s hotel and hospitality industry has worked so hard to achieve, it is paramount to maintain relevance to the modern day traveller, whether they be business, leisure, domestic or international.

the top of their game. Designers, architects, hotel owners and hospitality venue operators who wish to gain insight into the latest trends in technology, design and fitout will turn to Hotel Hospitality + Design 2012 for inspiration and ideas.

industry’s design and refurbishment needs in one place and will also reveal the latest new products. Seminars will once again include the Refurbishment Stage featuring internationally recognised design teams.

The expo will present over 120 exhibitors covering all aspects of the design and refurbishment process. HHD will be divided into eight areas of focus including; Design; Stepping Out (Outdoor); Hotel Essentials (soft and hard furnishings); Resort & Spa (luxury goods); Hotel Mechanics (operational equipment to sustainable solutions); Behind the Scenes (finance and recruitment); Play (entertainment systems); and Technology. HHD offers all the hotel

Hotel, Hospitality + Design 2011 14-16 May 2012 Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre www.hhdexpo.com.au

Hotel Hospitality + Design 2012 will address all aspects of the refurbishment process in the hospitality arena and offer the knowledge, skills and know-how for our industry representatives to remain at


An integrated approach to Guest room entertainment & internet ROSS COLDWELL I MD of Lifestylepanel Pty Limited

Convergence of all the key elements of a Guest’s expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment into a single easy-to-use interface.


he Challenge: Hotels often have to deal to the all too common difficulties and frustration guests have trying to work or being informed or entertained in their hotel room. The simple things, like internet, movies, television and other hotel services, and being able to easily communicate with their business, family and friends while away from home. So what is needed to meet those needs neatly and simply? The ideal is the true integration of the range of guest services, all streamlined to the guest room via a quality High Definition LED TV with easyto-use remote control and keyboard. These services include movies-on-demand, freeto-air and subscriber TV, Internet via the TV, cable and WiFi, Skype, hotel information, advertising and online shopping. Foreign language support is also important. Connectivity: Laptop Internet access should work regardless of the Guest’s computer setup, be it DCHP or Static IP, Guest email not requiring changes to their POP or SMTP settings and support for corporate guest VPNs. Above all, the Guest expects and should experience: • available, fast, secure and discreet internet browsing • access to WebMail and Skype services, and • secure print services from the room

WiFi Services: Now requisite in any hotel it must be a quality providing optimum coverage to each room and the hotel environs. Regardless of price, even if free to the guests, it has to deliver high quality dependable service. Movie Time: The service providing the most complaints for hotels. Movies-ondemand does not mean having to join a queue or wait for some rotation of titles. It means being able to select from a quality library and watch it immediately, or at any time, with full trick play for the guest’s convenience. All, of course, in digital High Definition quality on a screen sized appropriately for the room. Competitive Costs: Hotels can face high cost capital outlays to upgrade their outdated TV’s and services, often having to deal with multiple vendors. Securing a competitive upgrade by purchase or rentto-own options with little or no disruption to existing guest services is essential, as is a quick efficient Install leaving a tidy room setup. Being able to utilise your existing coax infrastructure to carry IP services to the rooms is a compelling advantage. A Fair Share of Revenues: Having a fair revenue sharing arrangement gives a hotel the incentive to promote in-room services and improve the bottom line. Single Supplier Simplicity: For in-room delivery of content the hotel ideally has only the one vendor to deal with. One vendor who

All the key elements of the Guest’s expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment converge into a single easy-to-use interface.

controls and manages the entire process, from installation through ongoing provision and management of the system including movies and other entertainment content Access to Information: Real time online reporting with simplified billing integrated with the PMS systems is desirable, with a guest interface customised for the Hotel’s brand. Online compendiums and information pages offer significant savings over traditional hardcover printed versions. Not to be overlooked is foreign language menu support especially for Chinese, Japanese and Korean guests. Energy Saving: Ideally, guest entertainment systems should run through the hotel rooms’ non-essential power supply to assist in meeting your energy saving goals. These represent the key elements to satisfy guest and hotel management expectations alike. The majority of guests are prepared to pay for quality of service. The challenge is to keep that cost to Guest affordable and delivering a high quality dependable service. Lifestylepanel Pty Ltd develops and delivers leading-edge in-room entertainment and information technologies for use in the international hotel market. Ross Coldwell can be contacted at: ross@lifestylepanel.com


Neil Weenink’s

Back of House March 2012

My first hotel. Ugh. The man said there’s the chillers, the boilers, and the tower’s are up on the roof. I was a shift engineer, first time on duty, first time in a hotel plant room, and I wanted desperately not to be seen as a complete jerk.


said the towers must give a grand finish to the building – do guests go up there to look at the city? He said the cooling towers is what I refer to; do you know about them my bucko? I said yes sir of course sir; the air comes in through the car park, cools the hotel and goes out through the roof. The Senior Shift Engineer gave me a look of complete disdain. You were dreaming of those medieval wind towers as still used in Persia you silly boyo. When you stop dreaming I want you to go up that fire stair, yers, all of seventeen floors, and find the cooling tower up there. Yers and here is paper and pen for you to write me a story on how the thing works. Now get going you silly boyo!

Of course when we got on to chillers, all suddenly became serious. These after all are the heart of the hotel. Thus my introduction to the mysteries of hotel HVAC and it did not help that the aforesaid incident took place in the late afternoon, so that the horrendous first experience of the mighty cooling towers was in sound only. Could hardly see a thing; just this almighty dark monstrous thing lurking there. And the noise… Cascading water and gale force wind with the eerie sound of giant reduction gears growling away. Some of you may remember the early all-wood Marley towers. Huge things. Scared the pants off me that night, and OK there were lights if you could find the switching – hidden away from the mist they were, “Keeps the Leckies happy boyo an’ if yers stay on long enough yer’ll find the ruddy things!” said the Senior Shift Engineer doubled over


with his own mirth after I had clambered down the seventeen floors again. It took a deal of coaxing before the penny finally dropped (or if you will, the Apple fell) and I began to understand the M&E systems and servos within a large hotel. And they are numerous. Molto numerous. As an example H2O systems: soft and hard water, grey and black water, hot and cold water, chilled and condensing water, potable & raw water, boiler feed water, central heating water, fire extinguishing water, untreated sea & river water….. so on & so forth.

The old Chief Engineer had more on his plate than to teach we exmarine now would-be hotel engineers the finer points of the game (he with the General Manager being appreciative of a wee dram now and then, the two being strong mates over many years in the industry; no Mavis, not Single Malts, I mean the hotel industry.) We were accordingly left under the wing of the Senior Shift Engineer. And what joy to get one over this rascal! He had us all in the central AHU plant room and was holding forth on the tricky business of fan scroll design, inferring that as we were still wet behind the ears, we would not have any useful queries. Ho I thought, here we go! Can you please tell us who invented the rotary fan, says I. Humph says the Senior Shift Engineer, must have been old Willis Carrier being the lad who kicked off the AC business. No sire I say, it was the 2nd-century Chinese inventor Ding Huan invented a rotary fan for air conditioning, with seven wheels 3 m in diameter and manually powered! Fact is I had made sure I had that off parrot fashion you bet! Of course when we got on to chillers, all suddenly became serious. These after all are the heart of the hotel. These machines are the Achilles heel of the operation. The day we threw away window

latches, the chillers cranked up – and have never stopped… Sobering thought that. Try starting up a chiller on your back-up generator. A bit easier with an air-cooled chiller. What’s the difference? Air-cooled chillers have a full load kW/ton of approx. 1.25 while water-cooled chillers have a full load kW/ton of between 0.55 and 0.8 kW/ton. For an even comparison, the kW draw of the water-cooled cooling tower fans and condenser water pump should be added to the water-cooled chiller kW/ton. Even after accounting for this added auxiliary energy draw, water-cooled chilled-water systems normally have an efficiency advantage over air-cooled. Fascinating stuff. Particularly now the cost of water has gone through the roof. Better get the latches back on the windows, if you can find the windows!! Stay well Neil


future of

window cleaning

When most people think of window cleaning they imagine a man with a ladder, a squeegee and a bucket of soapy water. However, like so many other industries window cleaning has moved on. Today windows can be cleaned using a specialised waterfed pole and pure water. From the safety of the ground, using no chemicals or detergents, windows, glass, sills, frames and building facades can be cleaned safely and efficiently. Pure water means you can clean up to 8 stories from the ground and your glass will dry sparkling clean and spot free. Call Ionic Systems Australia to find out more today


Modern Hotel Control Delivering greater customer comfort and reduced operating costs


The drive towards increased guest comfort and security can be combined with cost efficient management thanks to innovative electrical installation and automation technology.


raditionally in Australia there has been limited choice for control solutions which has also driven higher pricing. However with technological advancements such as the introduction of KNX an open architecture system there is not only greater choice but also greater tailoring, flexibility and seamless integration into an existing building. KNX bus technology – a standard recognised the world over makes it possible to implement a networked installation and effectively integrate it into other hotel systems. It is the interaction between the functions that creates new opportunities and offers a real benefit for both guests and operators. With KNX many separate commands such as lighting, heating, blinds, air-conditioning, state and consumption-monitoring are connected and form an intelligent system. KNX bus system unites under one roof functions which were previously controlled separately.

According to a ZVEI (Association of the German Electrical Industry) study, energy consumption can be reduced across a range of function using intelligent control systems such as KNX. The energy savings alone have been proven across hotels around in the world. In Saudi Arabia hotels across the region have enjoyed up to 30% energy savings based on power consumption after installation of KNX intelligent building control solutions. Not only are savings achieved through energy consumption alone. The use of open standard technology such as KNX can deliver further cost savings through: • Reduced installation costs • More efficient commissioning

Hotels spend approximately 20% of their operating budgets on energy. Of this total, an average 70-75% is spent on energy consumed in guest rooms. This translates into guest room energy expenses of around 15% of a hotel’s overall operating budget and is therefore a prime candidate to look at for savings opportunity. Reduced energy consumption by using home and building control systems


• Reduced facility management and maintenance costs as there is transparent acquisition of important building data and processing of fault messages • Automated alarms or emergency calls can be communicated • Remote monitoring or control can be effected • Technical extensions or changes can be realised easily There is a range of control functions. Dependent on the needs of your hotel the correct design may contain; 1) Heating, ventilation and air conditioning – independent of whether the desired temperature is given by the guest, automatically according to the room usage or centrally from the facility management. 2) Hotel room lighting. Intelligent building control allows all lighting-related functions to be combined in a single installation solution. This ensures intuitive and simple operation by guests, increased safety and convenience through, e.g. situation-based operation and not least energy saving through occupancy based lighting functions. 3) Shutter/curtain control – automate daily routines, offering increased convenience for guests and reduced running costs such as the flexibility of deciding whether shading is controlled according to guest requirements, based on the actual room status and usage or according to central facility commands.

Summary • Substantial energy and cost savings can be achieved with intelligent control in comparison to conventional technology. • The maximum energy saving potential is achieved using a combination of different control functions. • The savings are fundamentally in the double-figure % range. • The required investment in intelligent lighting control is generally low in comparison to structural modifications to buildings. • The pay back periods are relatively short and are generally within one to five years.

4) Guest communication – remain in continuous contact with the room at all times. Automatic system messages to hotel service staff are enabled ensuring high levels of service. In addition security is heightened via networked communication. The forwarding of safetyrelevant messages and the ability to take appropriate action from an external location, e.g. the reception or the maintenance centre. Applications such as emergency call and panic functions as well as automatic switching of lighting should a potential situation arise can be easily added on. So what are the critical things to look out for when assessing control systems? • An all in one system, instead of separate control solutions, it is important that the system you choose is capable of all possible functions/applications. • Flexibility, supporting all communication media as well as adaptable to both new and old buildings. Building can be quickly adapted to accommodate new demands. • Durability, a system that has been used around the world for a considerable period. It is also important that components from the first generation are still compatible with present product lines. • Communication, system implementation has the ability to use a buildings existing communication infrastructure. Additionally data can be transmitted externally for security or maintenance purposes.





Vertical transport is often referred to as the “heart” of your building. This metaphor is often met with raised eyebrows and a smirk, but it’s not a far stretch when you consider what your lift does. Just as your heart pumps blood through your veins your lift pumps people throughout your building, when it stops so does the access to your building.


ust like your heart requires a healthy eating plan and exercise to keep it working properly your lift requires proper maintenance to keep pulsing people though you’re building. This being said many Building Managers are given the often difficult task of choosing a lift maintenance provider (Heart Specialist) with potentially limited knowledge to assist with decision making. Should price be the only factor? Would you choose your Heart Specialist based on the cheapest price?

Lifts are not all created equal:

available, which are suitable for the lift/ escalator installed at your premises?

Apples for Apples or Will You get a Lemon? Service Agreements can be complicated documents to comprehend. You should ensure that you are comparing like for like terms and conditions. Among the many things to consider are :-Guaranteed numbers of service visits, Are after hours calls included? Are all replacement parts included? Look closely at the exclusion clauses, having “access” to a service doesn’t necessarily mean it’s free of charge.

Vertical Transport continues to see increasing technological advances, software and programming. Does the company you have asked to tender have trained technicians in the software make and model of your lift equipment?

Ask for Assistance:

Each make and model of Lift, Escalator and Moving Walk have spare parts that are specific. Does the company you have asked to tender have a stock of spare parts readily

Independent Advice:

If you are unsure of anything in relation to offers provided seek clarification from tendering Company’s, ask questions, do your research.

If you are still not sure you may like to seek some independent expert advice so, use the services of a Lift Consultant.

True Value for Money: Don’t just look at the dollar figure on the offer. Remember that lifts and escalators are an expensive and technologically advanced item of plant, to ensure that your lifts/escalators safely reach their full life expectancy they need to be service correctly by trained and qualified technicians. Needless to say that lifts and escalators move precious cargo, mums, dads, children, you and me, and need to be serviced correctly for SAFETY. For more information on Liftronic products and services contact the Liftronic offices on 1800 663 922. “Elevate your expectations for reliable lift service”


Unwelcome Compliance Surprises for Building Owners



uilding owners and hotel engineers need to be aware that a majority of buildings do not comply with the current Building Code of Australia (BCA). Each year various aspects of the BCA are enhanced or amended according to industry and community consultation and feedback, and also according to the agenda and direction identified and adopted by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG). Recent examples of these are the enhancements to Bush Fire protection requirements, the adoption of the Disability Access provisions within the BCA, and the inclusion of energy efficiency provisions for commercial and residential buildings. Since premises are designed and constructed to comply with the BCA applicable at the time (as an absolute minimum), it stands to reason that as each new edition of the BCA is published, there will be a growing list of building elements that will, in compliance terms, become outdated. As these buildings become increasingly non compliant with the current BCA, factors such as whether the building still serves the original designed intent, and whether the building elements in question are still ‘fit for purpose’ and still provide for the health, amenity and safety of the building occupants sufficiently enough, come into question. These questions are generally considered when a particular trigger initiates the review process, culminating in the need for either, or all of, an update to the building itself, a change of building classification, or an


update to the procedures practiced within the building. Following are some of the most common triggers and outcomes for building updates:

Council Notices, Building Notices or Building Orders Building notices or building orders can cover the broad aspect of public health and safety such as dangerous buildings, fire report matters, and closure of unsafe public assembly buildings, and only a local authority (because of the restrictions in legislation) can serve building notices or building orders in relation to public safety measures provided in an existing building. Building notices provide the means by which the municipal building surveyor can require the building owner to show cause as to why an existing building should not be subject to building work in order to provide a level of public safety which meets with community expectations. An existing building does not have to be upgraded to the same standard as is required for new buildings under building orders or building notices. If the owners do not respond satisfactorily to building orders or building notices by undertaking the required works, then the municipal building surveyor/council can proceed to issue building orders or take court action which, if not complied with, will ultimately incur penalties, or even closure of the building.

Extensive Alterations While most building control legislation is not retrospective for existing buildings, some State legislation do contain provisions that can trigger an upgrade of an existing building. Where alterations to a building exceed more than 50 per cent by volume (within a three year time-frame in the case of Victoria), the event can trigger a requirement for the whole building to comply with all the current regulations (the whole BCA). Other states have no time limits applicable, and calculations may vary in the interpretation of the volume. For example, some building surveyors include simple partition changes in the volume calculations, while others only calculate the volume associated with a refurbishment which includes significant modifications to services. An upgrade to fire safety and/or structural capacity may also be determined because the modifications to services may compromise the essential safety measures contained in the building, and may be determined to be inadequate to protect persons using the building. Upgrades may be determined to facilitate egress from the building in the event of a fire, and /or to restrict the spread of fire from the building to other buildings nearby.

Disability Access Recent moves to improve the commonality of the disability access provisions for buildings in the Building Code of Australia

(BCA) and the Disability (Access to Premises – Buildings) Standards 2010 have substantially harmonised the BCA with the Disability Discrimination Act. As a result, the integration of the disability access code with the BCA carries significant implications for building owners, tenants, property managers and hotel engineers. The Premises Standards contain detailed disability access information specifying the circumstances and types of building where the Standards apply, and they apply to a new building, a new part of an existing building, and the affected part of an existing building. For disability access, the affected part of a building means: • the principal pedestrian entrance of an existing building that contains a new part and • any part of an existing building that contains a new part, that is necessary to provide a continuous accessible path of travel from the entrance to the new part Generally speaking, the affected part of a building must comply with the new access requirements where alterations and/or additions are proposed to an existing building, and the proposed work is subject to a building permit/complying development certificate or a construction certificate/ building permit. The affected part of the building, relative to disability access, does not apply to: • existing parts of buildings outside the area of the new work and the affected part upgrade • an accessway from the allotment boundary, from any accessible car parking space on the allotment or between other buildings on the allotment Upgrading works for an affected part may include the following disability access works: • accessibility of upper floors to new work • providing lift access features such as Braille or tactile buttons • signage • removing a step at a building entrance • upgrading handrails on a ramp • minimum width requirements of doorways or passageways, including passing and turning spaces

As a consequence of the new disability access provisions, the BCA more extensively covers features such as lifts, stairs, ramps, toilets and corridors in buildings such as office blocks, shops, hotels, motels, and common areas of new apartment buildings.

Energy Efficiency Compliance Energy efficiency requirements, as detailed in Section J of Volume One of the Building Code of Australia (and applicable to all building Classes 2-9, unless otherwise stated), apply to the construction of all new buildings, as well as the refurbishment, alteration or extension of any existing building. The energy efficiency requirements allow commercial and public buildings to achieve minimum levels of energy efficiency compliance through the performance-based provisions of the BCA. In essence, these measures are designed to reduce the use of artificial heating and cooling, improve the energy efficiency of lighting, air conditioning and ventilation and reduce energy efficiency loss through air leakage. Assessments generally cover building elements such as the building fabric, external glazing, building sealing, air movement, air conditioning and ventilation systems, artificial lighting and power, and access for maintenance. Energy efficiency compliance with the BCA can be achieved by complying with the deemed to satisfy requirements of the BCA or by developing an energy efficiency alternative solution that demonstrates that the proposal meets the relevant BCA performance requirements. Where energy efficiency alternative solutions are sought or additional information is needed, software-based energy efficiency analysis can also be deployed to assess the energy contribution of various building components such as building fabric, air filtration and natural ventilation, internal heat sources, air conditioning systems and vertical transport systems.

Emergency Planning Emergency plan development, emergency response procedures, evacuation diagrams, emergency procedures training, and emergency response exercise program implementation are just some of the requirements of the emergency planning obligations under AS 3745-2010 Planning for emergencies in facilities. When a building undergoes alterations, some or all of these requirements can be impacted by the changes in the building, and building owners need to give due consideration to ensuring their emergency planning remains effective, up to date and AS 3745-2010 compliant, in order to provide a safe work environment for staff, building occupants and visitors alike. While the basic intent of the BCA is to ensure the provision of safe buildings for occupancy that provide a level of amenity commensurate with public expectations, the application of the BCA can be open to interpretation. Building Surveyors are quite often called upon to provide expert advice or witness , and to provide sound planning advice in maximising your building asset. Where possible, ensure you receive sound and professional advice before calling in the builders.

About the HENDRY Group Derek Hendry is the Managing Director of the HENDRY group of consulting companies that include HENDRY Building Surveying Consultants, HENDRY Disability Access Consultants, Essential Property Services and Emergency Plan. HENDRY pioneered the private certification system of building approvals in Australia, and the consultancy assists clients nationally in all facets of building control and disability access compliance, essential safety measures audits and emergency planning requirements. HENDRY publish a monthly e-newsletter entitled ‘Essential Matters” and provide a subscription service, BCA Illustrated, which provides over 3000 illustrations that interpret and explain the BCA as it applies to your building.




PowerPax Chillers

Feature Heavily In Green Star Projects

John Wisdom I PowerPax

PowerPax is a Melbourne based chiller manufacturer of ultra high efficient oil free fluid chillers. In recent years PowerPax chillers have featured in more Green Star and Nabers rated projects than any other type of chiller available, pushing the product to be the most preferred in the Australian market and enabling the company to expand its operations offshore.


nown overseas as Smardt, the company now boasts manufacturing facilities in Melbourne, Montreal Canada, Plattsburg in the US, Stuttgart in Germany, and a facility being completed in Guangzhou in China. All of these manufacturing plants are needed to meet the growing need for the company’s chillers in these regions of the globe. PowerPax – Smardt chillers exclusively use the Danfoss Turbocor range of oil free magnetic bearing compressors. Invented and developed in Melbourne, the compressors are now produced in the USA, a joint venture of Danfoss and mainly Australian contributors. PowerPax were the first OEM chiller manufacturer to take up the technology, and with their experience now have the largest range of oil free chillers available, as well as more than 3500 chillers installed globally – over 1300 in Australia. The chiller range is constantly expanding in capacity and also features innovative concepts designed specifically for the needs of the existing building/retrofit market. The range now includes: • Water Cooled chillers 200 – 4000 kWR. • Air Cooled chillers 200 – 1200 kWR (new release in 2012).

• Evaporative chillers 200 – 1200 kWR. • Condenserless chillers (remote cooled) 200 – 1800 kWR. • A range of “split vessel” chillers to 2000 kWR. All chillers feature high efficiency, especially at part load, and multiple compressors. A unique combination of both efficiency and redundancy. “Split vessel” chillers were developed specifically for the retrofit market. These water cooled chillers are unique in that their heat exchangers can be split down their length and re-assembled in existing plant rooms. The design, in most instances, eliminates the need for expensive cranes and building modifications. The chillers can also be easily manoeuvred through narrow passages and openings to reach their final installation situation. A patent is pending on the design.

many cases better, than traditional water cooled chiller plants – without the need for any condenser water reticulation system, associated maintenance and health risks. The Australian market, particularly Energy rated buildings and retrofit, has driven PowerPax development of these unique products. Product which are now finding favour in the Smardt Chiller Group’s overseas markets. Australian built Evaporative and split vessel chillers have recently starred at the AHR Expos in Chicago and Las Vegas. The previously “little” Aussie company as grown and come of age on the world stage. Visit PowerPax at ARBS 2012 in Melbourne. Stand #146

The PowerPax evaporative chillers feature a purpose built evaporative condenser NOT an air cooled chiller retrofitted with an evaporative pad kit. These provide predictive performance similar, and in




118 floors above the harbour, this Hong Kong pool has quite the impressive view!


pened in March 2012, The Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong offers design and style that are taken to new heights. It is strategically situated on West Kowloon waterfront, a truly unique location, offering unrivalled views of the city and the Victoria Harbour. All rooms provide state-of-the-art technology including WiFi, iPod docking stations, blu-ray DVD players and stylish flat screen TV’s. The Ritz-Carlton Spa by ESPA is located on the 116th floor – making it the highest hotel spa in the world, featuring 11 treatment rooms with sweeping views across the city. The indoor infinity swimming pool and outdoor jacuzzi are located on the top floor of the hotel. The highest swimming pool in the world features 144 LED screens on the ceiling that can display images, so if guests are tired of the view, they can watch videos instead. For more information visit www.ritzcarlton.com


Sanitising Your Pool

Liz Hollingdale I Pool controls

A swimming pool should be the sparkling jewel in any hotel or resort. An attractive pool will always feature in any marketing material – and can be a real asset. In addition to looking the part, the pool should be a pleasure to swim in, and hotel management need to be sure that it is safe and hygienic for guests of all ages.


ood sanitation can mean the difference between an aquatic facility being the star attraction – rather than a costly hole in the ground. The consequences of getting it wrong can be serious. There is the risk of serious infection from waterborne pathogens such as E.coli – not to mention the public relations disaster of an unattractive green and murky appearance. In addition, public swimming pools and aquatic facilities are regulated by a plethora of laws, regulations and guidelines that vary slightly from state to state. This article aims to shed some light on the key points that need to be addressed to ensure compliance with these laws – and maximise return on the investment in swimming pools and spas.

Choosing a sanitiser A sanitiser must be able to kill pathogens quickly and effectively, and there must also be a residual effect to protect the pool as it is being used. Popular (and approved) sanitation methods include the use of chlorine, bromine and ozone, or combinations of these. The most commonly used chemicals are chlorinebased or bromine-based. Both chlorine and bromine are strong oxidising agents and provide a lasting residual. Some chemicals only do part of the job – for example, ozone is a powerful oxidiser and


has a strong initial bactericidal effect, but dissipates too rapidly to provide ongoing residual. A combination of methods may be the best approach – for example, ozone with a chlorine residual. Choice of sanitiser will also depend on whether the pool is indoors or outdoors. An outdoor pool will almost always be better ventilated than the best designed indoor pool, meaning that any chloramines present will have less of an impact. However, ultra violet light from the sun will result in considerable loss of free chlorine which should be protected with the addition of stabiliser (cyanuric acid). Of all the chemical sanitisation methods, chlorine is undoubtedly the most widely used. Bromine is often preferred for indoor pools and spas because bromamines (produced when bromine combines with nitrogenous compounds) are better tolerated by the human body than the equivalent chloramines, and are sanitisers in their own right.

Monitoring the situation It’s also important to be able to measure and monitor what’s going on in the pool water at all times. Obviously, you can’t judge sanitiser levels by the naked eye – and by the time the pool looks different, it could have been unsafe for some time. Most

states require that public aquatic facilities have continual dosing systems and also recommend using automatic controllers that are capable of constantly measuring levels of sanitiser. Regular manual testing of pool water is also mandated in most states.

Killing Power So how do these different sanitisers actually operate? Essentially, molecules of the disinfectant are capable of passing through the cell walls of water-borne bacteria and once inside the bacteria cell, set about oxidising the various enzymes found there – resulting in the death of that bacteria. Because it is oxidation that kills the bacteria, one of the most accurate means is to measure the “oxidation-reduction potential” or ORP of the water. ORP is most easily described as the “bacteria killing power” of the chlorine (or other sanitiser) in water. It is a measure of how quickly the oxidising agent is going to be able to inactivate the bacteria. ORP is measured in millivolts using an electrode (often referred to as a “probe”). Research has shown that 650mV is the lowest level required to kill the bacteria in water quickly (in a few seconds). If ORP is maintained at 500mV it will take several hours to kill the same bacteria. However, state health authorities prefer to measure sanitiser levels more indirectly

by measuring parts per million (ppm) of chlorine or other sanitiser. The difference between measuring chlorine content using ORP rather than in ppm is that the ORP reading relates directly to the time it takes to kill bacteria while a ppm reading does not. A ppm reading (usually via a colorimetric test e.g. DPD) will usually provide the same result independent of pH and stabiliser level – whereas the actual effectiveness of that chlorine will vary significantly.

the specified levels are for your particular state. The table below gives an indicative range that will satisfy most standards:

Optimising water chemistry

The effect of changes in pH

It’s really important that swimming pool chemistry be maintained within the correct range. It’s no good having too much or too little of anything – because the overall effectiveness of the pool sanitiser will be compromised – not to mention the consequences for human health and the pool infrastructure itself!

When chlorine-based compounds are added to water, hypochlorous acid is produced. It is this compound that is the most effective sanitiser, because it is small enough to pass easily through bacterial cell walls and it does not carry an electrical charge.

State authorities each publish their own requirements and it is worth checking what


1.0 – 3.0 ppm


7.2 to 7.8

Calcium hardness

90 to 300 ppm

Stabiliser (recommended in outdoor pools)

30 to 50 ppm

Total Dissolved Solids

300 to 1500 ppm

However, hypochlorous acid will itself dissociate into hydrogen ions and hypochlorite ions in a pH dependent equilibrium. This dissociation will increase

as pH is allowed to rise. So, the lower the pH, the more hypochlorous acid will be present in the water and the more effective the sanitisation will be. The pH range of 7.2 to 7.8 will result in good levels of hypochlorous acid, without being uncomfortable to bathers or injurious to pool surfaces. pH also affects the formation of chloramines – particularly trichloramines, which are often the culprit in cases of eye irritation. Trichloramines are more likely to result where the pH of the water is below 7.2 – another reason for maintaining pH within the specified range.

Stabiliser – “sunscreen” for outdoor pools Stabiliser, also known as cyanuric acid, is widely used in outdoor pools and spas sanitised with chlorine to prevent the UV rays in sunlight from destroying free chlorine residual. Cyanurates bind with free chlorine in complex molecules that are less susceptible to decomposition in UV


light. Tests have shown that in an outdoor pool without stabiliser, chlorine residuals are 90% destroyed in six to eight hours, while in pools with stabiliser, only 10-15% of chlorine residual is lost in the same period of time. Without stabiliser, there is a risk that chlorine residuals will not be adequately maintained – and the expense of additional chlorine required in an unstabilised pool is not inconsiderable. In water without stabiliser, an ORP of 650mV will give a reading of 0.05-0.5ppm chlorine. If 50ppm of stabiliser is added, the ORP reading will remain at 650mV, but the chlorine ppm will rise to approximately 2.53ppm. The sanitiser will kill bacteria quickly and ensure that the ppm levels meet Health Department requirements. Stabiliser can reduce the effectiveness of chlorine when levels exceed 80ppm (particularly if there are high levels of TDS) and while the addition of stabiliser to an indoor pool may assist in raising ppm levels of free chlorine, it does not really play a useful role in the absence of

It is also important to have good management systems in place so that chemical levels are constantly within the correct ranges – and a good water monitoring system that will alert you if something needs attention. This is where technology can assist, with automatic monitoring and dosing systems now capable of doing most of the heavy lifting – although it goes without saying that any system is only as good as the person driving it!

It’s really important that swimming pool chemistry be maintained within the correct range. It’s no good having too much or too little of anything.


UV and actually decreases the efficacy of the sanitiser. In NSW and South Australia, regulations preclude the use of stabiliser in indoor public aquatic facilities.

Australian Standard AS 3633 Government of NSW – Public Swimming Pool and Spa Guidelines 1996

Technological Assistance

Government of SA – South Australian Health Commission – Standard for the Operation of Swimming Pools and Spa Pools in South Australia

This has been a brief introduction to some of the key aspects of pool water chemistry. It is a fairly complex area and it is vital that those responsible for maintaining public pools have a good understanding of how the various components interrelate.

Government of WA Department of Health – Code of Practice Aquatic Facilities

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here are four basic types of pool and spa heating systems.These are Solar, Gas, Electric Heat Pumps and Electric Element.The best system for any project is determined by numerous factors including the intended manner of operation, length of season, budget and physical location of the pool and the plant itself.Your location in Australia will also play a significant part of this decision, as our varying weather patterns and differing energy pricing structures by State greatly influence the overall equation.

Solar Pool Heating Solar pool heating is extremely popular because of its obvious advantage in using free energy from the sun. Solar heating systems work by direct heat transfer.The water from the pool is circulated through the collector, which is usually located on a roof. Most systems utilise a digital controller, which sends water to the roof whenever there is sufficient sunshine, provided that the pool is not already at the desired temperature. Solar heating is perfect for those recreational pool owners looking for a heating system that has minimal operating cost and which provides a warm pool when people most want to swim.That is, on fine summer days. After the initial installation cost, the only additional expense is the operation of the booster pump. Because of its reliance on weather conditions, the solar system will provide a consistency of temperature in summer and a variable temperature rise at the edges of the season in Spring and Autumn. Clearly, the output of the solar system will vary significantly dependent on geographic location. When considering the installation of a solar heater, the all-important factors are the collector area proposed, collector design and quality of material. In simple terms, the larger the collector or more water brought to the collector area, the more heat will be gained. As a general rule the collector should be equal to at least 80% of the area of the pool, although 100% coverage would be more typical. Results improve

Mark Crowther I Rheem Pool Heating

as the collector size is increased. Other points that are important when considering solar are the pitch and directional aspect of the roof. A roof facing north is most favourable because it will receive the maximum amount of sunlight. Shading of the roof by large trees will detract from the outcome. In a commercial setting such as a Hotel, it is unlikely that solar can provide the consistent level of heating sought without the installation of a gas heater or heat pump.

Electric Element Electric element heating works much like an electric kettle in that there is a direct heat transfer between the immersed element and the pool water.The small physical size of the units makes them ideal for use where plant space is at a premium or where gas supply is not available and the special installation needs of a heat pump cannot be met. The 1:1 efficiency of the element heater sees this option as the least environmentally friendly option. Connection to an off peak electricity rate would also be essential to avoid a significant penalty in heating costs.

Electric Heat Pump The electric heat pump is sometimes called a “solar heat pump” because of its unique ability to capture heat value from air temperature and turn this to water heating at high efficiency.The technology best suits commercial pools where the heating requirement is constant for all or most of the year. The characteristic of the heat pump of absorbing heat value from air means that the unit has a low electrical input relative to its heat transfer. Heat pumps output heat at a rate of around 5:1, relative to their energy input.This greatly reduces total energy consumption.This factor is called the heat pump’s co-efficient of performance or COP. The capture of solar energy from air means that the heat pump’s output and efficiency will vary with air temperature. Higher efficiency is gained in more

Heater capacity (MJ)

120 MJ 164 MJ 200 MJ 280 MJ 350 MJ 420 MJ Note: Temperature rise is provided as a guide only and is based on outdoor installations and an average wind speed of 2.2km/h and depth of 1.3m. Temperature rise will be greater with indoor installations or lower with higher wind speeds.


temperate locations but heat pumps are capable of maintaining pool temperatures year-round in nearly all areas of Australia. Combined with their high-energy efficiency, heat pumps are ideal for connection to off peak or time-of-use electricity pricing, as is becoming more available through the introduction of digital or smart meters. Where off-peak or time-of-use electricity pricing is are available, heat pumps become the lowest operating cost system.

Gas Heating Gas heaters are used in large numbers on pools and spas and give great flexibility to the pool owner, because of their rapid heating ability and robustness. Gas heaters can easily maintain any desired water temperature as typical sizing is based on providing heater capacity capable of achieving a 14°C rise in water temperature in 24 hours.This allows a cold pool to be heated to a beautiful 28°C-30°C in around one day, even in winter. This heating strength makes gas perfectly suited for pools that are used for entertaining. From the point of view of heating costs, the constant maintenance of pool temperature with gas is quite viable during the warmest months of the year. Whereas the solar heated pool will vary in temperature during this season, the gas-heated pool is maintained at the owner’s preferred temperature. Gas heating costs will be modest, as the heating requirement of the pool is relatively low. Likewise, the resort owner with a gas heater owner has the added flexibility to heat for specific events or for longer periods such as school holidays or periods of high occupancy. A gas heater is ideally suited to be added to a solar system, as it will offset solar’s inability to work at night or in poor weather.

Spa Heating The heating of a spa requires one of the powered forms of heating, that is, either gas, heat pump or element. Ideally, the spa would be heated by a dedicated heater but it is possible to heat a pool and spa, even at different temperatures, from a single heater.This may involve automated switching/valves or the use of secondary heat exchangers. Once you have determined whether your pool heating needs will be best met by solar, heat pump or gas, the next decision will be how to select the correct sized heating system and how to differentiate differing quotes for installation. Heating capacity should be your first point of comparison of heating systems. It will be the size of heater selected that determines the temperature, swimming season and length of time to heat the pool.

Heater Capacity Solar systems will be compared according to the total collector area, measured by m2 and expressed as a percentage of the pool surface area. Increased collector provides a direct proportional increase in heat transfer.The base guideline has been that the area of solar collector should equal the total surface area of the pool, with this being denoted as 100% cover. Gas heaters are rated by energy input, expressed as Megajoules (MJ) per hour.The higher the MJ rating, the higher the heat output.


Heat pumps are rated by heat output, in this case expressed in Kilowatts (KW).The manufacturer determines the KW output at a specific water/air temperature and relative humidity value.To accurately compare one unit to another, these test values must be the same. Look for the KW output and efficiency at a common rating value to ensure a valid comparison.This is a complicated issue for potential heat pump purchasers but critically important if correct product selections and price comparisons are to be made. We have provided more advice on this in a separate page.

What size best suits you For pool owners who have chosen gas heating and want to achieve maximum flexibility in heat-up times to suit ad-hoc use of the pool or spa, the input MJ rating is the key.The larger the figure, the faster the heat rise per hour.The relatively small increase in price between the smallest and largest of the typical commercial heaters (200MJ to 500MJ) means that the larger heater can be readily chosen.

Selecting the right size gas heater for your pool or spa The simplistic approach of heat-up times which may be used for gas heater sizing is not transferable to the selection of heat pumps because of the substantially different cost of these technologies. For example, the list price of the Raypak 430 (420MJ natural gas input, 94KW output) is $7,898 while the equivalent heat pump would be in the vicinity of a $30,000 to $40,000 project. But for much of Australia, the heat pump would be the more economic choice based on commercial payback. Its sizing will be based on meeting heat-loss, with the heat-up time being ignored.The selection will rely on a detailed evaluation of the pool’s heat loss characteristics, a thorough understanding of the heat pump’s rating and potentially some site specific aspects such as required run-hours or electricity tariff structure.

Pool Heat Load Modelling Each pool is unique but most of the heat loss is suffered through the surface. A pool loses heat whenever the surrounding air temperature is less than the pool water temperature.The rate of heat loss is quantifiable, and this rate is used to determine the amount of heat needed to keep a pool at a given temperature.The determination of the rate of heat loss for a pool is based on several factors, including the size and shape of the pool, pool shading, geographic location, swimming season, desired pool temperature, wind exposure, blanket use, etc. Hotel Engineer’s looking for advice in heater selection will find that many sellers in the market base their advice on a heating simulation created by the University of New South Wales, known as the Poolheat. This program examines the hourly heat loss characteristics of a pool based on all the variables of design such as wind and sun exposure. It is vitally important that purchasers are able to understand the data available from such modelling facilities and also verify the design assumptions which have been applied. Such data is essential in allowing a comparison of the relative economics of the gas and heat pump options and will also allow us to review the impact of differing energy price options on heater sizing and overall heating costs.



Robot Pool Cleaners  vs Manual Economic & Environment Benefits

Dan Kwaczynski I Maytronics Australia


obot Pool Cleaners are not new technology, but even today many pools continue to be cleaned manually when technology has advanced to the point where virtually any hotel pool can be cleaned efficiently, with much less disruption to customers, with big environment and economic benefits when compared to traditional manual cleaning. Some of the new innovations mean robots can now work in pools with: 1. Beach Entries 2. Sand Entries 3. Islands and poles 4. Biopools Of course this depends on the company and the product, so shop around and make sure you get the right advice! Now let’s explore some of the key reasons that a Robotic Pool Cleaner makes sense for Hotel pools:

Dolphin Wave scanning pattern

Superior Cleaning Ability a. Systematic – Many robot cleaners are systematic. The ones that are systematic have in built electronics, with sensors, logic and controls to enable the robot to navigate the pool, the better ones actually map the pool each time they are installed. This means they provide superior coverage and they don’t get stuck. In comparison manually cleaning, entirely relies on the person to be systematic – this is difficult for anyone in the best of circumstances.


b. Brushing, scrubbing & strong suction power – Robots are designed not simply to suck debris, like a manual vacuum does, but also to actually scrub the surface as well. Combine this with an extremely strong suction power and they really leave manual cleaning far behind.

Easy to Use / Cost Effective a. Easy to use – Robots are extremely easy to use – simply place in the water and press on. No more hoses, floats and bumps, booster pumps. They are simple and ease to set up and simple and easy to use!

Dolphin Wave corner brushes in action

get filtered. The water is filtered in the pool. This is backed by Independent studies by Electrical Companies have shown that annual savings can be around $300 per annum for domestic pools – let alone commercial pools where the savings will be in the thousands per year (even after the small running cost of a Robot is taken into account). Note – pool filtration is still needed – just not to anywhere near the level required by other cleaners.

Top: Manual filtering – hose back to filter; Below: Robot Filtering in the pool

b. Save Water – Because Robots filter in the water, they remove the debris from the system. This in turn means that the main pool filter unit does not become clogged as quickly, which results in fewer backwashes. Estimates are that backwashing is reduced by up to 30% when using robots compared to all other cleaning methods.

b. Robots are designed to turn off at the end of the cycle – The great thing about this is that when staff finish for the day, they can place the Robot in the pool, press on and return the next morning to remove it from the water – with a clean pool and no disruption to guests.

c. Save Chemicals – Robots help to reduce chemical requirements. By removing debris and matter from the pool system altogether, including skin cells and other organic matter, the chemical load on a pool is reduced.

c. Cost effective – Compared to the average manual pool cleaner, a robotic pool cleaner will generally pay back well within 1 year, in fact, in most cases the payback will be less than 6 months. And where leasing plans are offered the payback will most likely be immediate.

So in summary, Robotic Pool Cleaners should form as a key component of every commercial pool. They provide a win-win on all fronts:

Environment Benefits Perhaps one of the biggest benefits is that Robots provide not just an economic benefit but also a substantial environment benefit. This is a significant advantage as Hotels across the globe promote and market their green credentials (or as part of any ISO 14001 process). a. Save Power – Robots operate and filter inside the pool. They are completely independent of the pools main filtration system. The great benefit of this is that water does not have to be pumped 20 up to 100 metres through piping, bends, elbows, etc just to

1. Cleaner Pool for guests 2. Less Disruption for guests 3. Strong Economic savings 4. Strong Environment benefits For more information on any of this article, please feel free to contact Maytronics (the original pioneers of the electrical robot technology) and the author at dan@maytronics.com or visit their website at www.maytronics.com.


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Bryan Goh I Waterco

Waterco is one of Australia’s largest swimming pool product suppliers. We asked Bryan Goh their group marketing director, about some of their latest developments.


iltering a swimming pool effectively and efficiently is essential to removing fine particles of dirt, debris, algae and organisms from pool water. And how effective the filter system is depends largely on the type of pool filter media the pool owner chooses. Traditionally, sand filters dominated the Australian pool market, along with DE (Diatomaceous Earth) filters, but now there’s a whole host of new options ranging from glass beads and granular filters to eco-friendly systems – all offering extremely fine filtration. “Granular filters were always the most popular pool filters, largely due to how convenient they are to clean,” says Bryan Goh. “All you need to do is regularly backwash the pool water through the filter media to remove all the trapped dirt and you’re done.” In recent times, however, pool filtration systems that are economical to run and have the environment in mind are becoming increasingly popular. “Over the past few years there has been a significant move to green solutions, with pool owners looking for chemicals and equipment that are more eco-friendly,” Goh says. “And there’s now significant pressure on the industry to develop energy efficient products, with a number of manufacturers working to meet this demand.”


It’s easy being green

S av e t i m e , wat e r a n d e n e r g y

With energy bills skyrocketing and the threat of drought an everpresent blip on our radar, environmentally friendly pool products have become the preferred choice for pool owners. An example of catering to this growing demand is Waterco’s Micron S602 ECO granular filter, which has been created with energy efficiency and water conservation firmly in mind. A key addition to the EnviroPro suite of products, Micron ECO features unique ‘fish tail’ laterals that ensure better water flow distribution through the filter’s media bed. “The effective coverage of the lateral system virtually eliminates any dead areas of flow and provides an even up-flow through the filter bed during backwashing,” Goh explains. “The Micron ECO’s backwashing time is reduced significantly, leading to savings of backwash water of up to 30 per cent.” Reducing flow restrictions of multispeed and variable speed energy efficient pumps significantly improves their performance, without increasing their energy requirements

Waterco’s EnviroPro range: pool equipment that not only maximises your time in the pool, but also deliver energy efficiency and water savings

“The main aim of these pumps is to operate at the lowest motor speed settings to provide the minimum required flow for the swimming pool – without affecting the pool’s water quality – to maximise its energy savings,” Goh says. Micron ECO’s eco-friendly features is backed by robust construction, which sees an inner shell of fibreglass reinforced polyester resin strengthened with multiple layers of continuous strands of fibreglass filaments. “Our digitally controlled filament winding machine faultlessly winds continuous strands of high quality fibreglass filament under controlled tension filament,” says Goh. “ This creates a seamless, one-piece vessel with refined consistency and superior quality.”

Good things come in small packages For something that only measures 0.6 mm x 0.8 mm in size, Waterco’s Glass Beads are a hot topic in water cooler conversations. Manufactured from 100% virgin glass, Waterco’s Glass Beads are therefore capable of providing

The EnviroPro range consists of a select number of Waterco’s high quality, energy efficient and award-winning water saving product, from the latest energy efficient pool pump, centrifugal pre-filters, water saving cartridge and media filters, to the latest LED, solar pool heaters, heat pumps and robotic pool cleaner.

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“Unlike crushed glass, Glass Beads are spherical and do not have sharp edges, making them really safe to use,” Goh says. “And, if there’s ever a failure of the filter’s laterals and glass beads flow into the swimming pool, they pose no risk of injury to swimmers.” Glass beads are also easy to install, enabling a rapid start up of the media filter. Plus its high purity means very little backwashing is required to cleanse the filter media prior to commissioning the filter.

MULTI-TASKING FILTRATION With its dual stage filtration, ultra compact design, easy to maintain construction, and efficient use of water and energy, the MultiCyclone and the next generation MultiCyclone Ultra are revered as much for their versatility as for their commitment to sustainability.

DCC300 Pool Package The ProMinent® DCC300 pool package is the ideal system for monitoring and controlling water chemistry parameters on a pH and ORP basis in hotel swimming pools.

Applications Retirement Village pools. Hotel pools.

Package includes 2 x Compact Controller. pH probe, ORP probe. Probe holder & flow switch. Inline filter assembly. 25m roll of PE sample tube.


outstanding water purity and clarity (filtration below 3 microns) while using 20% water for backwashing when compared to sand filters.

“In short, the pool water ends up cleaner with less upkeep,” says Goh. “The MultiCyclone gathers dirt that would normally go into the filter and drains it out. In doing so, this cuts 80% of the dirt that clogs your filter, eliminates backwash by up to 40% and extends the life of your filter. It only takes 15 litres of water to flush the MultiCyclone, which saves time and money.”

Features & Benefits Single point calibration of probes. Optimum adjustment of the controller to the control process by selecting either P or PID control characteristics and control direction. Pulse frequency relay for controlling pumps. Illuminated display. Isolation of probes possible. Power relay can be configured as an alarm, limit value or pulse with modulated control. Analogue output 0/4-20 mA for measurement/control output.

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Ozone Systems

David Brauer I Ozone1


e recently spoke to David Brauer of Ozone1 whom have been working in partnership with industry leaders, such as Swim Australia, to develop a unique Secondary Disinfection System. This cost effective and proven technology has been well-received by both patrons and employees from numerous indoor heated swimming complexes. Extensive trials in these complexes have resulted in a significant increase in overall air and water quality. Specifically, Chloramines levels have been reduced to levels of 0.2ppm and below.

How do Ozone systems benefit hotel patrons and the engineer? A common complaint amongst pool users is poor Air and Water quality (e.g. the strong chlorine smell), and ongoing irritation the eyes and skin. These issues are significantly reduced when using an Ozone sanitation system. Ozone significantly reduces the formation of chlorinated by products, notably Chloramine.

How do Ozone Systems reduce Chloramines and Chlorine usage? Ozone gas dissolves in water to kill mirco-organisms, destroys organics that create chloramines, and breaks down existing Chloramines by oxidation. This oxidation happens immediately at the Ozone gas injection point and continues within our proprietary mass transfer chamber. A small residual (-0.1ppm) of dissolved Ozone (no longer in gaseous state) then enters the pool, providing further oxidation of contaminants.

Do Ozone systems save water? Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are a measure of all soluble matter dissolved in pool water. Mains water often has a TDS of several hundred mg/1. All chemicals added to a pool, particularly chlorides and sulphates, increase the TDS level. A high TDS level is an indication of chemical overload or a lack of dilution of pool water. By having an Ozone system in place the chemicals added are reduced, hence the TDS will increase at a slower rate so less dumping of water is required.

How is the Government regulated chlorine residual maintained when using an Ozone system? Ozone systems break down organics (Chloramines), impurities, bacteria and viruses within pool water; hence the chlorine has little work to do and acts as more like a residual rather than the primary disinfectant. This means to maintain the regulated residual less chlorine is required, furthermore NSW Heath recognises Ozone and allows chlorine residuals to be reduced.



the HOTEL POOL alan lewis I Pool Consultant, Aquazure

Hotels have just as much obligation to maintain high standards when they consider the pool as another potential income source.


hotel looking to raise more revenue from their facilities may look to lease out their pool to local swim teachers or aquarobics instructors. Whether or not this can work in harmony with the regular objectives of the hotel will depend on the quality and size of the pool and the type of patrons the management wishes to attract. In considering this proposition the Hotel Engineer must approach the challenge with some clear objectives in mind. The demands and requirements for the pool as an exercise and teaching facility are considerably greater than that of an aquatic recreational facility with families simply looking for a break from their regular routines. Here are some of the considerations in need of scrutiny:

3. THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE SHOWERS, TOILETS, AND CHANGING ROOMS Hotel patrons using the pool are able to come to the pool ready for bathing, but mothers and children attending a swim lesson or aquatic exercise group would need the normal facilities of any aquatic centre. These include:


• Warm deck showers to allow for pre lesson showers. These are essential to ensure the reduction of bather contamination of the treated pool water.

Pools which were planned and built 15 years or more ago often provided for only light bather loads with very occasional peaks in mid-summer. Outdoor pools are in general more adaptable to extra demands, but indoor pools in hotels are often built in positions which offer little opportunity for upgrades. Such upgrades may require expensive structural changes to the building which would cancel the economic viability of the project. In some cases heavier bather load demands can be overcome with Advanced Oxidation Processes which would afford a satisfactory way of controlling and reducing the extra disinfectant by-products such as tri-chloramines and tri-halomethanes. The extra costs of installing and maintaining these AOPs would have to be weighed against the expected additional revenue.

• Adequate changing rooms for un-toilet trained tots; and/or disabled people in wheel chairs; with appropriately placed basins and changing tables.

2. THE FILTRATION RATE AND THE TURNOVER TIME OF THE POOL Heavier bather loads would bring a new demand for swifter chemical responses to sudden influxes of bathers. This too can be achieved only if there is easy access to the shell of the pool, so as to allow the introduction of more or larger diameter suction and return lines from the pool plant room. This also includes the


possible need to get larger filters into the plant room and the safe positioning of CO2 and Chlorine storage and handling. Where the original pool had a turn-over of say 6 or 8 hours – this might have to be reduced to 2 hours or even less depending on the other conditions.

• All of these would need to be in close proximity to the pool to ensure immediate access.

4. SAFE NON SLIP SURFACES AROUND AND IN THE POOL ITSELF Modern aquatic facilities are all too aware of the liabilities involved in safety issues around pools. The most important of these is the need for non-slip finishes in the wet area (including the showers). Investment in these can save huge insurances bills. There are good answers to these safety issues today and without them the hotel leaves itself unprotected against litigants.


a) pH CONTROL In the plant room the most important aspect of good pool water management is pH control. The safest answer to this is the use of CO2 gas for pH reduction. Many installers are unaware of the need to ensure that all of the gas in totally dissolved into the recirculation stream well before it reaches the main return to pool line. Ignoring this leads to considerable wastage of the gas. CO2 has the added advantage over mineral acids (Hydrochloric or Sulphuric Acids) in that it does not reduce the Total Alkalinity as it reduces the pH. This avoids the need for constant rebuffering of the Alkalinity which needs to be kept in the range 90 – 125 mg/l. b) MINIMISING THE CHLORINE FEED The added advantage of this method (of pH control) is that it reduces the dangers in storage and handling of both strong acids and Chlorine in the one space of the plant room – leading to corrosive fumes and potentially dangerous “chemical accidents”. By keeping the pool pH as low as possible the (7.1 – 7.3) the pool operator reduces the need for copious injection of chlorine. Reducing the chlorine feed to a safe minimum means that there will be less chloramines in the water and air of the pool room – thereby reducing the need for expensive AOPs, and a better air handling system in the pool hall. This is where the advice of a pool consultant experienced in managing pool chemistry can save the hotel considerable outgoings in chemical; water; energy and manpower.

health concerns. Nevertheless the time has come to do whatever is possible to reduce and control these undesirable DBPS which have been shown to lead to Bladder Cancer. Recent statistics show that Australia is now witness to an exceedingly high percentage of asthmatic competitive swimmers. Scientific research has found that teaching children to swim at a young age exposes them to trichloramines (liquid and gas) which damages the epithelium of the lungs- usually associated with Asthma.

6. IMPROVING THE REMOVAL OF TOXIC CHLORINATED VOLATILE GASES FROM THE POOL HALL Trichloramines and trihalomethanes easily transform from liquids to gases at the surface of the pool. This is helped along by swimmers splashing down the lanes or around indoor spray water features in aquatic play parks. These gases have been shown to be heavier than air. Hence they sit over the pool surface which is usually the lowest area in the pool hall. The air handling seldom takes this into consideration. Any upgrading must attend to the removal of these gases from the pool hall as efficiently as possible. This is yet another area where the advice of a knowledgeable pool consultant can bring healthier results to the hotel pool upgrade.

c) ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES It is commonly thought in Australia that UV or Ozone are the best answers for the reduction and control of chloramines in heavily loaded pools including swim schools and hydrotherapy pools. Both of these work well in reducing the disinfectant by-products (DBPs) produced in such pools. However there are still numerous DBPs that are little understood and the chemistry of which is still undefined. d) CHLOROFORM AND OTHER TRIHALOMETHANES (THMs) Muckross Park Hotel – UK

One of the by-products which is commonly ignored and remains in the “grey area” between guidelines and legislated requirements, are Trihalomethanes. Recent research has shown that these DBPs – such as chloroform and bromoform – are created by the reaction between Free chlorine and/or bromine and human skin. Skin cells are minute and commonly ignored because they are not visible. We all shed skin cells every day of our adult lives. Showering prior to bathing can reduce their build up in the pool. They gather in poorly circulated areas of the pool and in particular get caught in the media of the filter. So long as there are bathers in the pool and skin cells in the filter or on the floor chloroform will continue to be created and can build up to dangerous levels if ignored. While UV has been shown to have no effect on the creation or the reduction of chloroform, Ozone treatments do in fact readily oxidise the skin cells safely and hence work to remove the main precursor of trihalomethanes – namely the skin cells. While some countries in Europe require a maximum presence of 20 micrograms/litre of THMs – Australia has set the limit at 100 micrograms/l. This area of pool water treatment has, thus far, slipped through the net of local legislation. There is no requirement to test for THMs and it is rarely brought as an issue – in environmental

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WA 

I WISH TO APPLY FOR: Renewal of my Membership 

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(a) Fellow – a member of at least 10 years standing who has made an outstanding contribution to the advancement of hotel engineering (as determined by the management committee) or this association may be advanced by the management committee to the grade of Fellow. This membership class is a life membership of the institute. (b) Honorary Fellow – any person who has rendered conspicuous service to the hotel industry (as determined by the management committee), or any person prominently connected with but not necessarily in the hotel industry who may be approved by the management committee, shall be eligible as an Honorary Fellow. This membership class is a life membership of the institute. (c) Member – a person shall be eligible as a Member if the applicant holds a certificate, degree or diploma or such other qualification in engineering approved by the management committee, and has at least 5 years experience in a head of engineering position and shall be directly engaged in hotel engineering. (d) Associate Member – a person shall be eligible as an Associate Member if the applicant holds a qualification in engineering approved by the management committee and is directly engaged in hotel engineering and his/her qualifications and/or experience do not in the opinion of the management committee entitle him/her to admission as a Member. (e) Student Member – a person who is attending an appropriate course of instruction at an Institution approved by the management committee shall be eligible as a Student Member

Membership  Corporate Membership  Associate Membership  Student Membership  Affiliate Membership  Honorary Fellow Membership (no fee)  Fellow Membership (no fee)  SURNAME: GIVEN NAME(S): COMPANY NAME: POSITION: POSTAL WORK ADDRESS:


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Yearly Renewal AUD$100 Yearly Renewal AUD$60 Yearly Renewal AUD$550

PAYMENT CAN BE MADE BY: NSW Chapter: Cheque payable to:

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NEWS SPLASH! Pool & Spa Trade Show 25-26 July 2012, Jupiter’s Casino & Hotel Gold Coast, Australia SPLASH! Pool & Spa Trade Show, the award winning event for engineers, contractors, architects, landscapers, manufacturers, retailers, pool builders and service technicians to stay ahead of market directions as the wet industry continues to expand and take on new dimensions and international trends.

Envent Envent is pioneering the use of outdoor interactive and multifunctional Directories. The Envent Directory kiosk has been designed as premium large format touchscreen Directory. The landscape 1500 mm high enclosure houses a 42” Ultrabright LCD touchscreen, PC, ventilation hardware, sound system and illuminated signage to both the front and rear of the Directory through backprinted toughened glass panels. The Envent Directory has no peers in terms of high quality and upgradeability and aesthetic appeal. The Envent Directory design can be easily adapted to suit any décor by replacing the high quality glass panels with any material or finish that is required, this will dramatically change the aesthetics whilst maintaining the extremely high quality of the terminal. The kiosk offers high definition 42” LCD technology to the front of the directory,

Some of the exhibitors at SPLASH! include Sky Pebble, Designrite, Blue Glass Pebble, Jewels for Pools and The Pool Tile Company who all offer tiling and finishing solutions for pools. Robert James from The Pool Tile Company says that today’s pool owners are opting away from traditional picture mosaics of dolphins and opting for humpback whales, turtles, stingrays, crocodiles and compasses. “They are ideal for inserting into pebble or render finish pools prior to the pool interior being laid,” he says. “However, some picture mosaics are inserted into fully tiled pools which makes more work for the tiler but offers an amazing end result.”

The Pool Tile Company has a range of standard designs but also offers clients an opportunity to create their own design for their pool or feature wall. Alongside the 100+ exhibiting companies there is a two day seminar program with additional pre show workshops and site visits. The 3rd SPLASH! Environmental Awards will be presented at a gala dinner on the 26 July. Don’t miss the SPLASH! Andrew Simons Memorial Golf Day on the 27 July 2012. For the latest information or to register to attend the expo for FREE visit www.splashexpo.com.au

with “traditional” static (Printed) maps to the rear of the directory as an entry level option. The client can then upgrade to a double sided (LCDs to both sides) of the directory without any additional design changes. This Envent Directory caters for clients who want the flexibility to use existing static wayfinding signage to one side of the directory or a mixture of static and interactive wayfinding to both sides. The Envent Directory has been designed to take into consideration the servicing aspects of technicians and staff onsite. With easy access to changing paper and all other internal electrical components, the is simple and intuitive in its design and user friendliness. The ergonomics of the Envent Directory screen height and angle take into consideration of the Australian standards from freestanding, seated and disabled access. All of the relevant Australian electrical and certification standards have

also been adhered to with the Envent Directory. This design also encompasses the latest in air temperature regulation. Envent has designed a proprietary air conditioning system to keep the internal space within Continued on next page


the enclosure cool and circulating whilst maintaining a dust free environment. Rubber seals and positive ventilation with insulation ensures the internal cabinetry is kept clean and dust free during operation. The Envent Directory kiosk is ideal for stand alone environment, hardware accessible from the front via high quality a compression lock/s. The Envent Directory has a host up easily upgradable features that be installed easily onsite. The compact cabinet with upgradable hardware and interchangeable parts, allows technicians to upgrade the kiosk with the following; Thermal Printer, Intercom, Card Reader and Dual LCD technologies. Envent can add additional peripherals to the enclosure depending on the clients requirements. These Directories are set to be installed throughout Australia in 2012. For more information visit www.envent.com.au

DR700 RETROFIT BULB The only retrofit bulb that is one-for-one with a halogen The LED Lighting revolution has arrived. Brightgreen’s DR700 offers the same. Same Brightness as a 50W halogen At 720 lumens the DR700 has the same brightness and light output as an average 50 watt halogen. This gives you the Same Dimmability as 50W halogen The DR700 works with all leading edge and trailing edge dimmers as well as home automation systems such as Clipsal C-Bus. It offers a good dimming performance on most dimmers (flickering may occur at low dimming levels on some systems. Same Beam Width as 50W halogen The DR700 has a 60 degree beam making it ideal for general lighting in


Total Facilities Live 19 to 20 JULY 2012 Sydney Convention & Exhibition Centre To run your facilities smoother, cleaner and more cost efficiently, you need to stay on top of your game. You need to know what’s new, what works, and what’s next in FM. You need to be connected, and well versed with the latest advancements in technology and suitability. The easiest way to achieve this is to attend Total Facilities Live (TFL) – the largest exhibition and conference in Australia for people like you! At TFL, you’ll discover tools to make your job more satisfying and productive. You’ll unearth products and services that will save you money. You’ll connect with like-minded professionals, find answers to your toughest challenges, and identify new opportunities to fuel your success. Encompassing Total Facilities Expo, Safe Buildings Expo, Energy Solutions Expo, and

Total Facilities Conference, TFL is the biggest gathering of building owners, operators, facility managers, maintenance engineers, heads of facility operations and management, and other facility professionals in Australia. From safety and security to maintenance repairs and building services, office fit-outs and workplace environments to energy management solutions and predictive and preventative maintenance technologies – TFL features hundreds of ideas and solutions to help you run your facility smoother, cheaper and cleaner. Attend the Expo and gain free entry to the International Keynote Series featuring presentations from N.A.S.A, Marriott International, US Federal Office of High Performance Green Buildings, and Johnson Controls/Empire State Building. For revolutionary ideas and career-boosting inspiration, attend the two-day Conference where you’ll be exposed to a cast of brilliant minds that’ll have you rethinking your approach to facilities management. www.TotalFacilities.com.au

both commercial and residential spaces. A lot of our competitors provide narrow beam widths of only doesn’t comply with OH&S regulations. High Light Quality automatically dims. This increases the The DR700 has an impressive CRI life of bulb the that product and reduces the risk The only retrofit is one-for-one with a halogen of 83 making interiors, furnishings The LED Lighting revolution has arrived. Brightgreen’s DR700 offers the same of overheating. and people look at their best. The DR700 has a better light quality then competitorSame Brightness as a 50W halogen Heat Monitoring System Easy Retrofit LED bulbs which have a CRI of 80 or less. The DR700 comes with a detachable heat Same Dimmability as 50W halogen Same Driver Compatibility sink so the doesn’tEasy require an electrician. Retrofit as a 50W halogen Award Winning Same Beam Width as 50W halogen The DR700 is compatible with all electronic, Award Winning Brightgreen was thrilled to receive a iron core transformers. The bulb is free Good Design award at last year’s Australian from capacitive buck systems used in 3 Year Warranty High Light Quality Design Awards, recognising innovation many other LED bulbs that lead to current and sustainability. surges and subsequent failure in dimmers Same Driver Compatibility as a 50W halogen and transformers. 3 Year Warranty At 720 lumens the DR700 has the same brightness and light output as an average 50 watt halogen. This gives you the

The DR700 works with all leading edge and trailing edge dimmers as well as home automation systems such as Clipsal C-Bus. It offers a good dimming performance on most dimmers (flickering may occur at low dimming levels on some systems.

The DR700 has a fail safe thermal monitoring device that activates as soon as the light is exposed to ambient temperatures of 45 degrees celsius or more. If the device is activated, the light automatically dims. This increases the life of the product and reduces the risk of overheating

The DR700 comes with a detachable heat sink so the doesn’t require an electrician.

The DR700 has a 60 degree beam making it ideal for general lighting in both commercial and residential spaces. A lot of our competitors provide narrow beam widths of only doesn’t comply with OH&S regulations.

The DR700 has an impressive CRI of 83 making interiors, furnishings and people look at their best. The DR700 has a better light quality then competitor LED bulbs which have a CRI of 80 or less.

Heat Monitoring System The DR700 has a fail safe thermal monitoring device that activates as soon as the light is exposed to ambient temperatures of 45 degrees celsius or more. If the device is activated, the light

Brightgreen was thrilled to receive a Good Design award at last year’s Australian Design Awards, recognising innovation and sustainabilty.

If the features above haven’t already sold you, the DR700 is supported by a 3-year warranty giving you peace of mind that you’ve made the right decision.

The DR700 is compatible with all electronic, iron core transformers. The bulb is free from capacitive buck systems used in many other LED bulbs that lead to current surges and subsequent failure in dimmers and transformers.

If the features above haven’t already sold you, the DR700 is supported by a 3-year warranty giving you peace of mind that you’ve made the right decision.

For more information visit www.brightgreen.com

For more information visit www.brightgreen.com

A large proportion of businesses have reported 21% plus increases in energy prices over the past 5 years. Some are reporting increases of more than 50%. The same levels of increase or higher are expected in the next 2 years! Source: Australian Industry Group

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Hotel Engineer 17_1  

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