HOTEL ENGINEER The Official Publication of the Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering
Volume 16 No. 4 2011
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HOTEL ENGINEER The Hotel Engineer The Official Publication of the Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering
Adelaide: Robert Spowart Ph: 0488 390 039 Email: email@example.com
Editorial Contributor Thomas Johnson
AIHE State News
8 AIHE Conference Details
Reducing water good for the 11 hotel business
28 Pivit delivers next generation network
Hotel Fire Detection Systems
33 In-Room Entertainment
35 Sound in Hotels 41 Chiller Maintenance 44 A Success with Lift Security at Intercontinental Sydney
45 Seven Steps to Maximising Central Plant Efficiency
50 Saving water by improved monitoring 53 So much more than a window – glass
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The energy of Surfers, the style of Hilton
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20 Hilton Surfers Paradise
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16 Hotel Engineer – Regulation Update
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55 Building Commissioning and the
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64 Hotel design – Avoid Design Folly
Neil Weenink’s Back of House
68 Serendipity will not Eradicate Chloroform
72 ARBS 2012 The Biggest Yet
Front Cover: Hilton Surfers Paradise
AIHE Membership Form
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his is the last issue for 2011, having just made the mailing on this 24th day of December. As such most of you will receive this over the break and early January so we hope you have enjoyed your Christmas and New Year. This year will be highlighted by the AIHE Conference in the second half of 2012, with an enormous amount of planning and effort having already been spent to hopefully make it the best ever. The latest details are within this issue, please note if you are contemplating in exhibiting there, don't delay making your booking as all stands seem certain to be filled rather early. In this issue we look at the new Hilton Surfers Hotel, concentrating on the technology that made this project special. Particularly looking at the latest in internet and fire technology that was used. Thank you to the people at Hilton Surfers, especially their engineer Tim Murray and Chelsea Steber for their time in putting this together as it was done in the very busy lead up to Christmas. There are two articles within that focus on water management in hotels. Wendy Hird again demonstrates why she is such a respected name in her field when writing about water monitoring and metering, while Jessie Cochrane, from the Western Australian Water Corporation, provides details and results from their recent project working with HFM Asset Management where they did a water review of some 13 hotels in the Perth CBD.
Maximising chiller efficiency and running costs is something all Hotel Engineers aspire to, we asked BallTech how their system can assist in this process. Greg Blain, whom in our previous issue, discussed architects and building designs, is back with another article for you, he will be a regular contributor throughout the year, so if you have any subjects you may like him to discuss please let us know. Thanks to Grant Wilkins of Domoco Intertouch, he writes about the current trends in In-Room Entertainment, while Peter Swanson deals with sound, and of course, there is a regular update from the Hendry Group. Good luck to all writers, readers and those advertisers who service this industry for 2012. n
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Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 3
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AIHE State News Queensland Only the one Qld meeting was held in the Oct – Dec quarter 2011. A special invite was made to all Hotel Engineers on the Gold Coast both current and non members of the AIHE. It was decided to have a “Think Tank” regarding what expectations and needs were members requiring. Meeting times, meeting frequency, subject matter etc where discussed in understanding the reason for the progressive decline in Hotel Engineers attending recent meetings. The meeting was conducted at the Gold Coast Marriott and pleasingly there were a good number of new faces in attendance. The Qld president addressed all attending, providing an over view regarding the history and purpose of the AIHE. General comments and thoughts were made by all and noted. A questionnaire was also provided to those both attending and those that were unable to attend the meeting. It was greatly appreciated that they could be completed and returned. It was also decided a similar meeting be held in Brisbane. It would be arranged in the New Year for Hotel Engineers in this area and unable to attend on the Gold Coast. Special thanks to Quantum Technical Services and Pro-Lamps who sponsored the evening and provided drinks and eats at the conclusion of the evening.
All the necessary plans and arrangements are well underway for the forthcoming Update conference in August 2012. All “Gold Sponsor” positions have already been purchased. Congratulations to Usher & Son
Gold – 1
Gold – 2
Gold – 3
Take a moment to read though the information regarding the conference and lock the dates into your diaries. Apologies to all members for the inability to access the AIHE website over recent months. Due to technical difficulties the Website and email address has not been functioning. It is intended that the firstname.lastname@example.org email address will be operational again this month and a new Website early in the new year. On behalf of all the Committee we wish everyone a merry and safe Christmas / New Year. Ian Crookston AIHE Qld Chapter President
New South Wales Greetings for the new year from the NSW Chapter. In the September issue I wrote a detailed overview on the Chapter activities over the past months. The AGM was held in September at the Menzies Hotel, since then we have not had general meetings. Also at the Menzies, we held the October committee meeting to discuss and plan the activities for the New Year. Our ‘Chapter Christmas Dinner’ was held on the 18th November at the Blackbird Café, Cockle Bay wharf. There were valuable gifts presented on the night thanks to Sunlite Commercials, Business Development Asia Pacific, Adi Colour and the Menzies Hotel. The event was organised by Event Coordinator Jason Manley. Unfortunately I was unable to attend the dinner as the pre-arranged AIHE Chapter Presidents meeting was scheduled on the same day. However I was happy to hear that the members enjoyed the night with delicious food. I hope the next Christmas dinner will be bigger, better and even more enjoyable. During 2011, we were able to make great progress within the chapter. A few things we achieved were; the implementation of a new chapter constitution, the ability to encourage and engage more hotel Engineers to get involved with chapter activities, increase the number of members attending meetings etc.
The State Chapter Presidents meetings are continuing to be very successful. They bring together all the Chapters from each state and provide a common ground to discuss, make decisions and finalise matters concerning all. We had our last Presidents Meeting for this year at the Hyatt Regency Sanctuary Cove where we discussed the development of the AIHE website, the AIHE national member database and finalised the 2012 Update conference etc. We have planned to further develop the Institute next year. It was also great to see a large number of Hotel Engineers representing the committee this year. I look forward to working with you all in 2012. In conclusion I would like to thank everyone, the Hotel Engineers, Corporate Members and the Hotel General Managers who contributed in various ways. My special thanks to Carl Van Den Heever and the committee for their support towards the betterment of the association. I wish you and your families a wonderful festive season and a prosperous New Year. Anura Yapa JP President – AIHE NSW chapter
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A I H E S TAT E N E W S
Western Australia Greetings from the WA Chapter. The Perth market has been extremely vibrant in the last quarter with the CHOGM event taking up most available hotel rooms during that period and a general up trend in events and conferences. There have also been a number of concerts and events such as Dolly Parton, SADE, Top Gear and Elton John to name a few. In October our monthly meeting was at the Holiday Inn City Centre with 25 attendees.
In November we moved to the Novotel Perth Langley Hotel with guest presenter: Jeremy Stamkos from Total Ventilation Hygiene. The presentation highlighted the importance of a maintenance plan in relation to correct filtration and air conditioning maintenance, particularly to supply air/return air ducted systems.
There were two presentations:
December was our annual Christmas Party held at the Brisbane Hotel which was well represented by Engineers and our corporate members.
Ian Knox from HFM Asset Management and Jessie Cochrane from the Water Corporation presented on the recently completed water research project which captured a number of hotels within Western Australia.
Also a big congratulations to Kris Snelling from Rendezvous Hotel Perth who won this years Engineering and Maintenance Award at this years Accommodation Industry Awards.
The results clearly show that Hotels have been water wise and are working towards reducing there water consumption through various initiatives.
The Western Australian Chapter also welcomes new members: Steve Dartnall-Honeywell, Jeff JumonvilleEnerNOC Pty Ltd, Bryan Burrows-State Manger Hobart Food Equipment.
Gidon Satinger from Vintech Systems also presented the latest hotel locking technology, mini bars, hotel safes and other hospitality related products. Thanks to Mitch French (Hotel Engineer) and the Holiday Inn team.
The most exciting challenge for the AIHE in 2012 is the new website and the conference which Western Australia will provide two guest presenters. The challenge for the Western Australian Chapter is to continue to grow its Hotel Engineering member base and for that we ask all General Managers that read this magazine to encourage there Engineers participation in the monthly meetings. Tony Fioraso President AIHE Western Australia
VICTORIA Its that time of the year again, with the festive cheer in the air, as we wind down for some relaxing time with our families. I am sure many of you have worked tirelessly over the year to maintain and enhance your properties, deliver on your KPI’S and ensure your owner share profits are realised… 3 cheers for us hotel engineers. The Victorian chapter has certainly enjoyed some growth over the past 12 months, with many new corporate’s showing an interest and becoming members, along with several hotel engineers also joining us. In November, our annual AGM was held in conjunction with our last meeting for the year. This was hosted by Sharp at their Collins street offices. Attendance numbers were great, as Ian Wallice, Branch Manager, delivered an excellent informative session, presented the latest technology offerings from sharp. We thank both Ian and Madeline
Vol 16 No. 4 |
McLagan for their ongoing support towards our chapter. We welcomed back Mr. Jeremy Stamkos, founder of the AIHE Victorian chapter. As Jeremy has relocated back to Melbourne, he was able to join our meeting and share some insight and direction with several of our committee members, as we plan activities for 2012. Jeremy, great to have you back in town again. The outcome of the AGM returned all of the existing committee, that are still within the industry, back to their positions. We also welcomed 2 new members joining us. The 2012 committee now consists as follows. Committee Members: New appointments, Madeline McLagan & David Jones. Reelected, Adam Vince,
Don Robertson, Ian Charman, Ponce Casass, Greg Mallet, Andrew Eldred and John Appleyard Meeting Coordinator: Stephen Docherty Secretary: Peter Barbour Vice President: Anton Van Den Brink President: David Zammit I would like to thank all committee members for their assistance over the past 12 months and certainly look forward to their support in further growing the chapter in 2012. A special thank you to Peters ‘s other half, Monica Barbour, who has assisted Peter behind the scenes in the role of secretary. I sincerely thank Monica for her support to our chapter in her administrative capacity.
presidents meeting in November, I know all 3 gentlemen have been working in different capacities to keep the momentum going on our 2 key objectives for 2012. These being the re launch of our web site and the national conference set for August. Their efforts have been tremendous and the passion behind the success of both projects, will surly deliver great results. We will all meet in ¼ 1 of 2012 to continue our national focus and further strengthen the AIHE within our industry. In closing, I take this opportunity to wish all our members, readers and their families a very happy Christmas, a safe & healthy 2012, I sincerely thank you for your ongoing support. David Zammit AIHE Victorian Chapter President
A note of personal thanks also goes out to my fellow presidents. I was unable to attend our last quarterly
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Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 7
AIHE 2012 CONFERENCE The Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering would like to invite your company to participate in AIHE's update conference and
Exhibition to be held August 9-10 at QT Gold Coast, Surfer's Paradise There are numerous sponsorships available, with your trade booth, dinners, trade drinks, lunch, morning and afternoon teas all included in your sponsorship. All sponsors are welcome to attend any of the Engineering lectures during the conference. The trade exhibition will be officially opened at the morning tea break on the first day of the conference. The exhibition will be advertised throughout the Australian Hotel Engineering industry. Should you be interested in a booth for your company, please contact us as soon as possible as numbers are limited and will be allocated on a first cheque received basis. Our Sponsors for 2012 are as follows: Gold 1 Vintech Gold 2 Clipsal Gold 3 Usher & Son Silver Available Bronze Available
Day One – Thursday 9th August 7.45............... Registration 8.30............... Welcome by the AIHE Queensland President 8.40............... Key note address by AIHE Founder – Neil Wenick 9.00............... Topic 1 9.45............... Official Opening of Trade Show & Morning Tea 11.15............. Topic 2 12.00............. Lunch & Viewing of Trade Show 1.30............... Topic 3 2.30............... Afternoon Tea & Viewing of Trade Show 3.15............... Topic 4 4.00............... Closing address for the day 4.00 – 5.00..... Trade Drinks 6.30 – 10.30... Cocktail Party – Surfers in Paradise Band Day Two – Friday 10th August 8.00............... Coffee 8.30............... Welcome by AIHE New South Wales and Victorian Presidents 9.00............... Topic 5 9.45............... Morning Tea & Viewing of the Trade Show 11.15............. Topic 6 12.00............. Lunch & Viewing of the Trade Show 1.30............... Topic 7 2.30............... Afternoon Tea & Viewing of the Trade Show 3.15............... Topic 8 4.00............... Closing address by AIHE Queensland President 6.00 – 7.00..... Pre-Dinner Drinks 7.30 – 11.00... Gala Dinner
AIHE conference & exhibition registration (All prices are inclusive of Cocktail Party & Gala Dinner) Both Days Delegates Member Price $350 Non Member Price $400
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Day 1 Only $200 $225
Day 2 Only $200 $225
Delegates Partners to attend Cocktail Party – Thursday $60 Gala Dinner – Friday $100
For further details contact Bev Allen
& EXHIBITION EXHIBITION BOOTH:
Includes – 1. Wall partitions of velcro compatible covered panels. Area enclosed will be 3.0 x 2.0 m 2. A fascia across the top front of the booth on which will be mounted your company name. This will be in a single digital colour on a white background. 3. 1 x 150 watt spotlights mounted on the inside of the fascia, and one wall mounted power outlet. (4amp)
PASSPORT: 1. A passport will be provided in each satchel and all sponsors will be provided with a stamp. Prizes will be drawn at the Gala Dinner (you must be present to win)
2. Nominated person from each sponsor to award their prize
3. Each sponsor will be introduced by the Qld President
Accommodation with QT Accommodation bookings are to be made Direct: +61 7 5584 1200 7 Staghorn Avenue, Surfers Paradise, Gold Coast QLD 4217 Rates Excluding Breakfast Including Breakfast x1 Including Breakfast x2
AIHE CONFERENCE 2012
No. Sites Booth Size
PO Box 809 Main Beach Qld 4217 Phone 1300 833 377 Website: www.sssevents.com.au Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
QT Hotel - Surfers Paradise
1st August 2012
35 + 11 3m x 2m + 1m Panels
Q013 – 01273 - 02
$185 $207 $229
Payment Details Payment by Direct Credit Australian Institute of Hotel Engineering National Australia Bank BSB: 084 462 Account Number: 20 512 6424 By Cheque PO Box 5118 GCMC QLD 9726
Phone: 0414 181135 I Email: email@example.com Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 N
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Chilled water/direct expansion cooling Hot water/electric heating 150Pa external
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Chilled water cooling Hot water/electric heating
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Reducing water good for the hotel business Jessie Cochrane I Water Efficiency Project Officer, Water Corporation
ow would you like to reduce your water use by over 25 per cent? Holiday Inn Perth Burswood in Western Australia (WA) has done just this simply by being more water efficient. Since 2006 the Perth hotel has implemented a number of water efficiency initiatives resulting in savings of over 10 million litres. This is a great example of how hotels can easily reduce their water use without changing the level of service they provide to their customers. Being water efficient simply means that you use less water to deliver the same service and Holiday Inn Perth Burswood is not alone. The Water Corporation has worked with HFM Asset Management to complete a review of water use in 13 hotels in the three, four and five star market in the Perth CBD, plus a five star resort in the South West of the state. The results confirmed a significant reduction in water use across the hotels of approximately 13 per cent from 2006 to 2011. This is a particularly great result considering the 2010/11 period recorded the highest occupancy rates over a five year period. The review also included an “Indicative” NABERS Water Rating for the business hotels participating in the study. The average NABERS Rating was established at 3.4 Star (2.5 being the average). This is considered a very good result indicating the hotels in WA are performing very efficiently. Reducing water use is important for a number of reasons in the hotel industry. With growing pressure to initiate environmentally sound practice,
a proactive approach to reducing water use means hotels can reduce their impact on the environment and send a positive message to their customers. With the cost of water on the rise hotels can also save money while providing the same range of services to their customers. HFM Director and founding member of the Australian Institute of Hotel Engineers (AIHE WA Chapter) Mr Ian Knox, said it is was rewarding to see a declining trend across the sector with hotels considering water efficiency as business as usual. “Hotels are considered reasonably proactive in the area of water conservation and management, with many hotels carrying out low cost water efficiency retrofits such as shower heads and taps,” Mr Knox said. “There are also many hotels and resorts taking an innovative approach to reducing their water use, take Eco Beach Wilderness Retreat in Broome as an example, which recycles 100 per cent of its grey water.” As discussed previously, one of the easiest and most cost effective ways to see immediate water savings is to retrofit appliances, with items such as water efficient showerheads and taps. The Corporation’s review confirmed many hotels in WA had already retrofitted their premises with these appliances, which is an encouraging sign for the industry. It is also good practice to have a monitoring and maintenance program in place to monitor flow rates and test for leaks regularly.
Failing to plan is planning to fail Nine of the hotels included in the Corporation’s review are currently involved in the WA State Government’s Water Efficiency Management Plan (WEMP) program. This program requires all businesses using over 20,000 kilolitres of water per year to complete a compulsory WEMP. Collectively these hotels have achieved a 20 per cent reduction in their water consumption since the program commenced in 2007, which equates to a saving of over $2 million in water charges alone. This demonstrates the benefits of knowing exactly how much water a hotel uses and having a plan in place with a dedicated team to manage it. Water Corporation Water Efficiency Projects Manager Ben Jarvis said the WEMP program has been an effective tool to raise the profile of water use and help businesses gain a better understanding of where savings can be made. “The WEMP program has achieved savings of over six billions litres of water to date,” Mr Jarvis said. “This is a great achievement and shows that businesses are committed to changing their approach to water use and this continues to achieve real savings.” The Water Corporation encourages all businesses to create their own water savings plan even if you don’t use over 20,000 kilolitres. The Corporation’s website has a template to help you
Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 11
prepare an action plan including tips on how to help assess your current scheme water use, identify inefficiencies and potential water savings.
Where is your water used? In order to develop an effective water savings plan, hotels must know where and when water is being used in order to manage it efficiently. A comprehensive water audit of the premises by a qualified water auditor will provide a breakdown of water use then identify what water efficiency initiatives are appropriate to suit the needs of the hotel. Figure 1 below shows where water is used in a typical air cooled and water cooled hotel. The primary water using areas in a hotel are the cooling towers
(in water cooled hotels), kitchen, swimming pool, guest rooms and irrigation. This information can be used as a guide to where water may be used in hotels, however the best way to accurately establish where and when water is used is to install sub-meters. Sub-meters help to get the most out of your monitoring program to allow tailored water efficiency initiatives to be implemented in high consumption areas. Holiday Inn Perth Burswood sub-meters their kitchen and pool and plans to install more sub-meters along with telemetric metering. This means that all meters are hardwired back to their Building Management System (BMS). This system enables staff to download reports to monitor water consumption and target water savings in high consumption areas.
Once sub-metering has been installed, hotels can monitor and set trends for normal water use across key water using areas. This makes it easy to detect water use that is higher than usual, which may be a leak that needs to be investigated. The sites in the review that carried out active monitoring of water use were generally the sites that performed efficiently. The Corporation study will continue for a further 12 months with HFM tracking the water use at the participating hotels using an online platform. This will assist hotels to establish further water use improvements and changes.
Environmentally friendly, customer focussed General Manager of Property Services for the Burwood Entertainment Complex and President of the AIHE WA Chapter, Tony Fioraso said being environmentally aware has a growing importance to customers. “More often we are being asked by customers about our environmental policy and what action we are taking to be more sustainable in our business,” Mr Fioraso said. “By taking a proactive approach we are staying one step ahead of what our customers expect as well as enjoying the financial savings associated with reducing our water use.” To successfully achieve water savings there is also advantages in involving all of your staff in various water saving initiatives, not just those responsible for the day to day maintenance.
Figure 1: Water balance for a typical water cooled and air cooled hotel.
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Holiday Inn Perth Burswood encourages all staff to take an active role in water conservation by regularly communicating information about water efficiency. Internal communications tools such as staff alerts, electronic messaging and the internal television channel allow management to spread the water efficiency word. Best practice water saving information also forms part of the induction process for all new kitchen staff.
Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 13
Staff members are encouraged to take note of inefficient practices they witness and report faults such as leaking taps or toilets through Burswood’s work order system. There is also a hotel maintenance program, which checks every hotel room on a quarterly basis for any leaks or plumbing issues that might have an effect on water use. “There is no reason for any taps or toilets to be wasting water, as reporting any issues immediately has become business as usual,” Mr Fioraso said. To read the full review report or to find out more ways to save water in businesses use the checklist below or visit the Water Corporation’s website watercorporation.com.au n
Have you installed WELS 3 star rated showerheads? Yes No
Check the flow rate of your shower and if it is greater than 9 litres per minute replace with a WELS 3 star rated showerhead. Make sure you monitor flow rates regularly to ensure that showerheads are working efficiently.
Have you installed WELS 6 star rated tap ware or flow restriction devices in your tap ware? Yes No
Restrict basin tap ware to 4.5 or less litres per minute and sink tap ware to 9 or less litres per minute via aerators in line restrictors.
Have you installed waterless or low flow urinals? Yes No
Install waterless or low flow urinals to all rooms and staff areas.
Have you installed WELS 4 star rated dual flush toilets? Yes No
Install WELS 4 star rated dual flush toilets to all rooms and staff areas.
Have you completed a water audit of your hotel? Yes No
Engage a water auditor to complete a comprehensive review outlining where your water is being used and what water efficiency initiatives are appropriate for your site. A list of WA Waterwise Water Auditors is available on the Water Corporation website.
Do you have a water saving plan? Yes No
A water saving plan can help you get a better understanding of your water use and identify potential water savings. A template is available at www.watercorporation.com.au
Do you have a monitoring and maintenance program? Yes No
By monitoring your water use you can detect unusual water use or leaks and repair them as soon as they are identified.
Do you read your main meter? Yes No
Initiate regular meter reading. Download a template from the Water Corporation website www.watercorporation.com.au
Have you installed sub meters to allow accurate separation and monitoring of water use? Yes No
Sub meter primary water consumers (identified as cooling towers, kitchen, swimming pool and irrigation) to detect problems before they become large leaks. Don’t forget to monitor sub meters once they are installed.
Do you provide water saving educational materials to staff and your customers to create awareness of water saving initiatives? Yes No
A number of water utilities, including the Water Corporation, provide a range of waterwise educational materials. Visit the Water Corporation website to download the clip “Water Saving Tips for WA tourists”.
Do you use scheme water to irrigate? Yes No
If yes, perhaps consider using an alternative source such as installing a bore or using rainwater. Remember to choose waterwise plants, visit www.watercorporation.com.au for a full list of waterwise plants. Reference: Hotel Water Efficiency Trial Report, Water Corporation, 2011.
Vol 16 No. 4 |
Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 15
Hotel Engineer – Regulation Update Warning Signs – Essential Safety Measures
Essential Safety Measures Audit – Warning Signs
AUST – Hotel engineers are reminded that the Building Code of Australia contains a number of provisions that require warning signs to be installed in a building. A number of Australian Standards applicable to buildings also carry provisions requiring certain warning signs to be installed and maintained. Warning signs are nominated by the building surveyor/ certifier in the essential safety measures determination/ schedule.
Numerous warning signs are installed throughout a building at the time of construction. The essential safety measures auditor appointed by the hotel engineer should check the essential safety measures determination/ schedule for warning signs installed and actively look for them. An essential safety measures auditor should be aware from experience where warning signs should be installed and check whether they have been painted over. All defective warning signs should be recorded in the building's essential safety measures logbook.
Building Code of Australia The following warning signs are nominated as Essential Safety Measures in clause I1.1 Safety Measures, with the appropriate Standard nominated.
Essential Safety Measures
Exit signs and directional exit signs
Specification D1.12, E4.5,
AS 2293.1-2005 Emergency escape lighting and exit signs for buildings – System design, installation and operation
Signs warning against the use of lifts in the event of fire
D1.12 Warning signs in sliding fire doors and doors to non-required stairways, ramps and escalators C3.6, Specification Signs alerting persons that operation of doors must not be impaired
Signs required on doors, in alpine arrears, alerting people that they open inwards
Signs, intercommunication systems, or alarm systems on doors of fire-isolated exits stating that re-entry to a story is available
Fire order notices required in alpine areas
Vol 16 No. 4 |
Essential Fire Safety Measures to be verified before the Annual Fire Safety Statement NSW – Hotel managers and engineers need to be reminded of their legal obligation, under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000 (EPAR), to supply an annual fire safety statement to Council and the Fire Commissioner (NSW Fire Brigades) and have the annual fire safety statement prominently displayed in the building verifying that the Essential Fire Safety Measures. The annual fire safety statement is a statement issued by or on behalf of the owner of the building to the effect that each essential fire safety measure for the building specified in the annual fire safety statement has been assessed by a properly qualified person and was found, when it was assessed, to be capable of performing to a standard no less than that: (a) specified in the fire safety schedule for the building; or (b) to which the measure was originally designed and implemented, where the measure was provided prior to a fire safety schedule. Hotel managers and engineers must be mindful that the assessment and inspection of an essential fire safety measure must have been carried out within the period of 3 months prior to the date on which the annual fire safety statement is issued. The owner also chooses the person to carry out the inspection or assessment of the measure/s and it is up to that person to verify the performance of each essential fire safety measure being assessed before the building owner signs the annual fire safety statement. The annual fire safety statement for a building must be given within 12 months after the date on which an annual fire safety
statement was previously given or within 12 months where a final/ interim fire safety certificate, provided for occupation of the building, has been issued.
and measures is contained in the Building Act 2000, the General Fire Regulations 2010 (GFR), Building Regulations 2004 and Building Code of Australia.
Failure to give the annual fire safety statement to Council within 12 months constitutes a separate offence for each week beyond the expiry date of the previous annual fire safety statement or the issue of the fire safety certificate.
Fire Safety Advisor – BFSR QLD – Hotel engineers are reminded that the Building Fire Safety Regulations 2008 (BFSR) requires the appointment of a Fire Safety Advisor for high occupancy buildings or for those buildings above 25 metres in effective height. A hotel engineer appointed EPS Fire Safety Advisor can manage and review all the fire safety needs with regards to Building Fire Safety Regulations 2008 (BFSR) compliance, by offering consultation services, and liaison with regulatory authorities. The Fire Safety Advisor can also review fire and evacuation plans, evacuation signs and evacuation coordination procedures, and set up Evacuation Coordinators within the workplace to ensure compliance is maintained within each building under the Building Fire Safety Regulations 2008 (BFSR).
Recent legislation changes have resulted in maintenance requirements falling within the new Building Regulations 2004 along with the existing General Fire Regulations 2010. The Building Regulations 2004 requires that the building surveyor who issues an Occupancy Permit for a building is to determine for, and attach to the occupancy permit, a schedule of the prescribed essential safety and health features and measures appropriate to the building. Hotel managers and hotel engineers must now maintain or cause to be maintained the prescribed essential safety and health features or measures applicable to the building. This applies to all features or measures that are found within a building, whether or not building work has been carried out on the building; that is, where the building was constructed or alterations completed prior to the commencement of the new legislation. A current annual maintenance statement is also to be displayed adjacent to the occupancy permit of the building that is in a prominent place at the principal public entrance area.
• Fire Safety Advisor – BFSR Services can include: • Fire Safety Advisor Consultancy • Fire & Emergency Planning Management • Warden Training and Evacuation Control Exercise Co-ordination
Specialist independent project managers and engineers in energy, renewable energy and energy efficiency.
• General Evacuation and First Response Instructions by the Fire Safety Advisor • Annual prescribed Fire Safety Installation Inspection and Audits • Bi-annual Passive Prescribed Fire Safety Installation Inspection and Audits by our Fire Safety Advisor • Fire and Smoke Door Inspections • Fire Safety Installation-Logbooks • Auditing Maintenance Contractors by the Fire Safety Advisor • Statement Monitoring and Annual Occupier's Statement.
WA Building Act to commence 2 April 2012 WA – The Minister for Commerce, Hon Simon O'Brien MLA, has agreed with industry and local government to delay the proclamation of the Building Act 2011 for three months to allow time to prepare systems for implementation. The delay also applies to the 0.09% Building Services Levy applicable to building and demolition permits under the Act.
Tasmanian Fire Safety and Health Features or Measures
Talk to CAT Projects today to find out how we can help you reduce your energy costs and the impact your operations have on your environment.
For information contact 08 8959 6242 ‘Managing energy is more than just keeping the lights on.’
TAS – Essential Property Services reminds hotel engineers that in Tasmania, the maintenance of fire safety and health features
Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 17
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In addition safety and health records that relate to maintenance undertaken for the last 10 years must be kept in a secure place away from the building, with a copy kept on site and accessible by authorities. Application Applicable to all Class 1b, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 buildings. Recommendations 1. Obtain copies of lists of “fire safety and health features/ measures” installed in the building. 2. Ensure statutory requirements of the regulations are met for all “fire safety and health features/ measures” to be tested in accordance with the relevant Australian Standards. 3. Ensure Occupancy Permits are displayed within a prominent position at the principal public entrance. 4. Ensure an annual maintenance statement is displayed adjacent the occupancy permit within 14 days of the Occupancy Permit or within 1 year from the date of the commencement of the regulations. 5. Ensure testers hold the required relevant valid Commission permit as an approved person. 6. Ensure logbooks are developed and implemented to reflect the regulation requirements and record all pertinent information. 7. Ensure an evacuation plan is incorporated in the essential safety measures logbook. n
About the HENDRY Group Derek Hendry is the Managing Director of the HENDRY group of consulting companies that include HENDRY Building Surveying Consultants, HENDRY Disability Access Consultants, Essential Property Services and Emergency Plan. HENDRY pioneered the private certification system of building approvals in Australia, and the consultancy assists clients nationally in all facets of building control and disability access compliance, essential safety measures audits and emergency planning requirements. HENDRY publish a monthly e-newsletter entitled ‘Essential Matters” and provide a subscription service, BCA Illustrated, which provides over 3000 illustrations that interpret and explain the BCA as it applies to your building. http://www.hendrygroup.com.au
Hilton Surfers Paradise
The energy of Surfers, the style of Hilton
roviding the ultimate comfort and convenience, one of Australia’s most dynamic hot spots now has a wonderfully stylish addition – Hilton Surfers Paradise.
Hilton Surfers Paradise is the first leisure-focussed hotel and residence offering by Hilton Hotels & Resorts in Australia. The $700 million Hilton Surfers Paradise is a two-tower property, with the Boulevard Tower opening in November 2010 and the Orchid Tower opening in September 2011. The two-tower development contains a combination of 169 stylish hotel rooms and 250 spacious residences available in one, two and three bedroom configurations. All rooms and residences offer spectacular views of either Surfers Paradise beach, the Gold Coast Hinterland or the city and are complemented by the signature restaurant Salt grill by Luke Mangan, FIX cocktail bar, The Food Store delicatessen, a spectacular executive lounge and meeting areas, two levels of retail, a recreation level and five levels of basement parking.
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Architecture Both towers were designed by acclaimed architects, the Buchan Group, designers of The Wharf at Woolloomooloo in Sydney, Raffles City Shopping Centre in Beijing, No.1 Martin Place in Sydney, Westfield London and Robina Town Centre on the Gold Coast. The brief was to create a sophisticated residences and hotel offering unrivalled on the Gold Coast, capturing stunning views of long white beaches to the east and mountain ranges and winding canals to the west. The buildings showcase strong external design features and synergy, with a significant difference in height ensuring the individual identity of each building. The result is two visually impressive buildings of stunning form and simplicity. Despite the structural differences, each part has a logical, functional purpose and each is inextricably related to the building’s use and location. The great arcs responding to water
and land are represented in the building curvature, while at the same time stabilising the relationship between them.
Interior Design The majority of the hotel’s interior design was completed by the Buchan Group, with the food and beverage areas including the restaurant, deli and bar in Orchid Tower completed by design and brand consultants Landini Associates. Landini Associates is a design agency specialising in retail design, hospitality and corporate identity. Recent clients include Woolworths, Thomas Dux, Selfridges food hall (London), Jurlique, Jones the Grocer (internationally), Loblaws in Canada, Harrods and David Jones. The brief was to design spaces of international quality that also challenged traditional perceptions of hotel interior design.
Air Conditioning Central Plant A central chilled water system has been provided in the Stage 1 Basement Mezzanine Level to serve the following areas of the Hilton project: Residential Apartments (Stage 1 – Boulevard Tower & Stage 2 – Orchid Tower) Retail Shops Stage 1 & 2 All Residential and Retail Lift Lobbies Stage 1 & 2 All Hilton Hotel rooms Stage 2 – Orchid Tower Hilton FOH and BOH areas Stage 2 The central chiller plant located at basement mezzanine level consist of 3 base load York R134a centrifugal chillers all sized to cater for the total block cooling load of the complex. The efficiency of the machines complies with section J of the BCA and chiller MEPS. The chillers serves primary and secondary chilled water pumps, thermal storage tank and insulated reticulation pipe work and valves. Pipe work construction is a combination of copper tube and ERW steel both selected to suit the operating conditions within the centre. The central plant design is based on the use of low flow chilled and condenser water heat exchangers. Secondary chilled water pumps are provided to serve the following areas: Hilton Hotel and Orchid Tower, 2 pumps at 50% flow Boulevard Tower, 1 pump Retail, 1 pump Standby, 1 pump The standby pump is configured to act as a light load circulating pump that will supply chilled water to all of the above circuits during light load operation. The pump will use the system intertia by circulating water through 3 way valves at the extremities of each circuit. Therefore this pump shall only operate to circulate water when all chillers are off line.
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Chilled water energy meters are provided to calculate the chilled water consumption to each of the: Individual apartments Retail tenant/Retail tenancy Hilton main FOH/BOH areas The chillers are water cooled with heat rejection provided from 3 equal sized, low noise, fibreglass and induced draft cooling towers located on the roof of the West apartment tower. Water treatment consists of sacrificial anodes to each chiller condenser water box with automatic biocide and inhibitor dosing provide to the cooling tower plant. Condenser water is reticulated in prefabricated seamless steel pipe work with stainless steel used on the L 33 roof. Variable speed drives are provided to all pumps and cooling tower fans and these shall be controlled by the BMS system to optimize energy consumption during periods of reduced load operation.
Minor areas that require continued cooling have been provided with local split systems as follows: Hilton Comms Rooms Stage 2
Life Motor Rooms Stage 1 & 2 The chilled water system via heat two plate exchanges have been used to remove the water heats from the Hilton
Car Park Attendants office Stage 1
Professional maintenance extends equipment lifetime KONE maiNtENaNcE FOr ElEvatOrs, EscalatOrs aNd dOOrs
KONEâ€™s industry-leading maintenance methods keep your elevators, escalators and automatic doors operating efficiently throughout their lifecycle.
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Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 23
refrigeration system at basement level 1 and podium level 1.
Boulevard Tower L2 Gym & lobby
All components are monitored and controlled by Johnston Control Building Management System and as such it is automatically started and stopped by the DDC/BMS. All apartment FCU’s have local control stations which enable the occupants to manually select the unit operation, fan and either heating or cooling modes.
Boulevard Tower Ground lobbies
CHW Energy Metering
The Basements are protected with sprinklers in all areas with smoke detection in the lift lobbies and also have emergency warning speakers throughout.
Chilled water energy meters have been provided to the following areas to enable the monthly billing of CHW energy to each user. Each Retail tenancy Stage 1 & 2 Each apartment Stage 1 & 2 Each Hilton Hotel level (levels 3 to 15) All Hilton BOH/FOH areas (2 meters in total)
Boulevard Tower L 1 lobbies
Fire System The site consists of two towers. East Tower has 56 floors and West tower 33 floors. These sit over 5 levels of combined basement and three interconnecting level of Ground Podium, Level 1 Podium and Level 2 Podium.
The retail areas are protected with automatic WRT pipe sprinkler system and emergency warning speakers throughout. West Tower and Levels Sixteen to Fifty Five of the East Tower are protected by sprinklers in all areas and have Fire Brigade connected smoke detectors in
the common areas and 240 volt non Fire Brigade smoke alarms in the units of the class two floors. The class three floors, level 2 to 15 of East Tower are also protected by sprinkler in all areas and have Fire Brigade connected smoke detectors in the common areas and in the units. The Emergency Warning System will sound through all areas. Immediately a fire causes the opening of an automatic fire sprinkler head, water flows through the main stop valve via sprinkler pumps drawing from dedicated fire sprinkler tanks. The flow of water raises the seat in the alarm valve and allows water to flow via the alarm port to the local alarm gong and activates a direct brigade alarm pressure switch. The sprinkler system is comprises the following basic components: sprinkler heads, alarm control valve, water motor
fire protection we have you covered...
Aztech Fire Protection is proud to be associated with the Hilton Gold Coast in providing fire alarm services. Aztech Fire Protection is an Australian owned company specialising in Fire Systems Installation and Routine Inspection & Testing. We can provide installation of your Special Fire Services, including;
Pivit is a boutique carrier specifically established to support community based networks and service delivery. Pivit is based in Brisbane and has expanded rapidly over the past 7 years as it develops more community-based networks.
1. Fire Alarm & Occupant Warning Systems 2. VESDA Systems 3. Gas Suppression Systems 4. Tenancy Upgrades
We manage a number of integrated networks including both optical fibre and wireless solutions.
For our clients we are available 24 hours a day, for emergency callouts and over the phone assistance. Just the one phone call 07 3422 2124 will put you in touch with our “on call” team. If you would like a quote on your installation project or upgrade, please contact us.
07 3422 2124 www.Aztechfire.biz 24 |
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Pivit works closely with each of its clients and partners to deliver the services required. We have the flexibility to customise solutions to meet the specific needs of our customers.
For more information please call our sales line
1300 663320 or Peter Thompson on 0403 044 456
alarm, fire sprinkler pumps, floor isolating valves. The fire system is a modern analogue addressable smoke detection system. (Please see article page 31).
BMS Controls Two front end PR workstations provide access to the system. BACnet DDC controllers are housed within purpose built BMS control panels located in various mechanical plant rooms, for the control and monitoring of mechanical plants and other services throughout the complex. Hotel room and retail tenancy air conditioning units are each fitted with a BACnet DDC controller dedicated to maintaining conditions within their associated space. BACnet VAV controller provide zone temperature control for the Ground Floor FOH area and level 2 Podium dining. The BMS has BACnet High Level Interface connections to the Chillers, Variable Speed Drive’s and the chilled water energy metering system. A low level control of selected “house” lighting systems has also been installed. Chilled water energy meters have been provided to enable the collection of CHW energy usage data of each retail tenancy, each apartment and the Hilton Hotel. Other BMS services include the control and monitoring of miscellaneous plant including the main electrical switchboard, lighting control, hydraulic pumps, fire system. One operator workstation is located in the Engineering Workshop. Additional staff access is available via web interface. Password protected access via web browser is also possible from any PC on the network.
17 Lifts The east and west towers comprise 7 KONE “MiniSpace” and “Alta” elevators operating at speeds of up to 5 m/s, while the Hotel has 3 KONE MonoSpace guest elevators that operate at 2.5m/s and 2 dedicated back of house
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MonoSpace elevators that operate at a top speed of 2m/s. Each lift has a light and fan standby system to automatically turn off the lift car interior lighting and ventilation fans at predetermined times after the lift answers the last call, this reduces heat in the lift car and increases the life of the lighting system while saving power. When the elevator is used again the lights and fan automatically switch back on. The lifts installed at the Hilton also use KONE EcoDisc™ a synchronous, rare earth permanent magnet motor with an axial design. What does this mean? Basically it ensures it is both the most efficient machine possible to minimise power consumption and takes up a very small amount of space in the property. The KONE MX machine can save up to 50% in energy consumption in comparison to traditional geared machine lifts.
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The machines and diverter sheaves are sound isolated from their supports to reduce operating noise transfer and emergency hand winding. Brake release equipment for “emergency” manual raising or lowering of the lift cars by the lift mechanics has been installed.
Flooring The floor coverings in the Hilton Hotel were project managed and installed by Gold Coast Wholesale Floors Pty Ltd. The project was Managed by Doug Grevett. The project had a combined area of over 30,000 sqm of carpet to be supplied and installed in both towers. The carpet in the Residential and Hilton Hotel apartments was a 100% Modulated wool carpet supplied by Godfrey Hirst Carpets. The corridors were a 40 oz Commercial wool Loop carpet supplied by Feltex carpets.
All apartments were installed on Bridgestone Gold Rubber Underlay with the Corridors being Dual Bonded on Sensi Slab underlay. The Ballrooms, Executive offices and Level 15 Corporate lounge in the East Tower had Brintons Axsminister. Due to the up and down climate of Level 15 corporate lounge, having floor to ceiling glass giving extreme temperatures from the outside and air conditioning inside, 11 mm Felt was used for underlay to allow movement in both the sub floor and carpet. With these extremes movements in temperature it can put excessive forces on both the adhesives and carpet and can cause the carpet or adhesive to let go of sub floor. Level one Restaurant, Bar and Lounge was installed with a custom made carpet manufactured in Germany and supplied by Whitecliffe Imports Sydney. The carpet was a first of its kind in manufacture.
The carpet yarn itself is 5 mm thick however it then has a 5 mm felt backing applied to it in manufacture in Germany. Some would call it a built in underlay system. The carpet is a printed pattern however unlike most printed carpets its preciseness at manufacture allowed for joins and the keeping of the pattern straight effortless during install. This carpet was directly stuck to the concrete sub floor. There was also over 5000 sqm of commercial vinyl installed throughout staff rooms,commercial kitchens and back of house corridors and offices.
Lighting State-of-the-art digital lighting controlled by Dynalite dimmers has also been installed to create an ambient mood. Special lighting scope included internal and external lighting installation, lighting controls and BMS interface. Electronic
transformers suitable for dimming by leading edge equipment with transformer losses not exceeding 5% of the load. Lighting control is a local area network (LAN) distributed control system type with local control panels and sensors.
Guest Rooms & Residences Now that the hotel is complete, it is comprised by a total of 419 hotel rooms and residences including 169 hotel rooms, and 250 residences (13 one-bedroom residences, 215 two-bedroom residences, 22 three-bedroom residences.) The hotel itself also contains a range of hotel room types including Guest Rooms, Deluxe Rooms, Executive Rooms, Relaxation Rooms, Relaxation Suites. The rooms are all state-of-the-art having luxurious furnishings featuring king size Hilton serenity beds supplied by Wonderest Sleepyhead Bedding. They all
include Samsung 37 inch LCD TV's supplied by Harvey Norman Commercial, whom also supplied the latest white goods by Fisher and Paykel. Rooms have panoramic views, iPod docking systems and the latest high speed internet installed and supplied by Pivit, (see article on page 28).
Leisure Facilities Resort-style leisure facilities at Hilton Surfers Paradise include an Indoor lap pool and spa, Sauna, Gymnasium, Grassed pavilion in Tower One (Boulevard Tower) and the restaurant, bar, deli, three outdoor pools, Pool bar, Day spa, Outdoor terrace, Poolside deck, Podium area, Movie theatre, Business Centre, Gymnasium and an Executive Lounge in Tower Two (Orchid Tower). We thank Chief Engineer Tim Murray and Chelsea Steber, Marketing & Communications Manager, Hilton Surfers for this article. n
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Pivit delivers next generation network for the Hilton Surfers Paradise Hotel and Residences Peter Thompson Introduction The Hilton Surfers Paradise Hotel and Residences combines more than 400 strata-title apartments and 169 hotel rooms across two towers in the heart of Surfers Paradise. Cornerstone to the value offered to apartment investors by developer Brookfield Multiplex was the ability for apartments to not only be available as Hilton apartment stock but also for the same apartment to potentially be a private residence. This would normally have required the expensive duplication and maintenance of voice, television and data communications systems within each apartment. The fibre optic based telecommunication system installed and maintained by Telecommunications carrier Pivit effectively combined the requirements for residences and hotel rooms on to a single fibre optic backbone across the two towers in the complex. The carrierclass network enabled television, telephone and internet access services to be delivered to suit the needs of either a hotel room or a residence. The technology also integrated other services including building management systems, access control, security, Wi-Fi internet and the Hilton back-of-house telephony system across the network.
Television Services The next-generation system provides local free-to-air digital television services in each room and selected Foxtel channels for Hotel rooms along with the latest High Definition Movies-on-Demand
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system that can support many hundreds of simultaneous movie downloads. Residents can also subscribe directly to Foxtel for standard residential subscription television services if desired.
Telephone Services Multiple telephone lines were established in each room to allow for standard concierge and hotel-like telephony services along with private telephone services for residents. Standard analog telephone handsets are supported along with advanced IP telephony handsets including video conferencing handsets. Advanced telephony functionality including voicemail, voicemail to email and sophisticated forwarding and conferencing is available to every room. The telephone system is also used for residents to allow guests on to the complex, eliminating the requirement for a separate system.
in the building backbone. Most on-floor systems are plug-and-play and can be replaced by the Hilton Team as required. The core network is also remotely managed and monitored by the Pivit Network Operations Centre. These elements combine to provide hotel and residential telecommunications infrastructure that is reliable and robust while being flexible and straightforward to maintain. Apartments that move in or out of the hotel stock from being a residential apartment need only be changed electronically on the management console from a telecommunications point of view.
Construction and Developer Benefits
The system is designed to support internet speeds beyond 1,000Mbps for both uploads and downloads. These high speed Internet access services are provided to hotel guests and residents via a simple wall outlet that does not require a modem or router. The network effectively delivers the fastest internet access services available to hotel guests or residents anywhere in Australia.
The network required less space in the building riser cupboards and also in central communication rooms relative to the space required for multiple systems. Key to the design was for the system to operate in the first stage of 186 apartments while construction of the second stage of more then 400 hotel rooms and apartments was being completed. Additionally, the network was installed was completed during the building construction as each group of floors was made available, eliminating the need for time delays at the end of the project.
Management and Maintenance Benefits
Building Owner and Body Corporate Benefits
The system is inherently simple to maintain with fewer systems to manage
As the needs of residents change, and as technology changes over the next ten
Internet Access Services
Premises (FTTP) business and housing estates across Australia. Multiple Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) are deployed on alternate floors of the hotel and are connected by the fibre backbone to Optical Line Terminals (OLTs) in the communications room in the basement of the hotel. Each ONT includes physical ports for television, analog telephones, and Ethernet ports for Internet and other building service. Each ONT is also individually backed up with battery power to ensure service delivery in the event of a power interruption. to twenty years and beyond, the fibre optic infrastructure will enable new technologies to be integrated as required without substantially refitting the network infrastructure in the building. This so-called â€˜future proofingâ€™ provides long-term value to investors and owners while providing residents and hotel guests with state of the art services within their apartments and rooms today.
Technical Information The network is based on Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) infrastructure that supports speeds up to 2.5 Gigabits per second (Gbps). The technology is similar to that being deployed by the Federal Government for the National Broadband Network and has been deployed by Pivit in Fibre-to-the-
Internet access is also delivered to the complex via a fibre-optic connection to multiple upstream Internet Service Providers. The network is an openaccess network that enables licensed telecommunication carriers to deliver services across the infrastructure to residents as required. n
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Hotel Fire Detection Systems David R Percy FIPENZ I Managing Director, Pertronic Industries Pty Ltd
n all Hotel fire detection systems the prime requirement is to provide fast accurate information to key response personnel. One of the greatest life safety risks from fire is the “sleeping risk” situation. Many fire incidents have shown that people simply do not wake up in a fire, even if they are in the room where the fire starts. They succumb to the smoke and collapse in the room. The challenge for designers of hotel fire detection systems is to get the earliest possible response to a fire situation, while avoiding unnecessary false alarms. Modern “Analogue Addressable” smoke detection systems, such as that installed in the Hilton Surfers Paradise Hotel, offer far superior detection and false alarm rejection capabilities, when compared with older technologies. Although the initial cost may be higher than a more basic system, the cost savings that result from a superior false alarm performance gives a very rapid payback to the hotel operator.
David Percy FIPENZ, is the Managing Director of Pertronic Industries Pty Ltd. The company specialises in the design and manufacture of large automatic fire detection systems. The company has offices in Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Auckland, Wellington, Shanghai and Bangkok
A modern “Analogue Addressable” smoke detection system can be configured to ensure that key response personnel can quickly identify the “at risk” situation to a single room and eliminate the need for the evacuation of an entire floor or the entire hotel in a false alarm situation. The specific advantages of these newer high tech systems are as follows: 1. U nique identification of the activated device. The Pertronic F120 system as installed in the Hilton Surfers Paradise
Hotel provides detailed information on the exact location of the fire incident. All events are stored in a non volatile 2000 event log for later analysis if required. 2. Multiple detector operation within the same detection zone – Analogue Addressable systems permit multiple detector operation and reporting of operated devices within the same zone or circuit. This can provide key personnel with vital information regarding the severity of the situation. A display showing multiple device operation is much less likely to be a false alarm. 3. The individual sensitivity of each detector can be changed (within the limits permitted by Standards) and the Pertronic F120 system as installed in the Hilton Surfers Paradise Hotel can be set to give automatic day/night sensitivity adjustment to give maximum “sleeping risk” night protection while minimising false alarms during the day. 4. Pre Alarm information – Each detector in the system has a pre alarm trip level set so that a very early warning of a potential problem can be signally to key staff. This warning can be in the form of a message to maintenance staff or night duty staff, allowing them to check out the situation before a full alarm is generated. The pre alarm signal may have been generated by excessive levels of cigarette smoke in a room, or by environmental contamination of the detector and
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appropriate investigation of this warning can prevent an unnecessary false alarm evacuation. By comparison, a cheaper conventional smoke detector may have been operating near its trigger point for days or even months, without any external warning or indication. In this situation a very minor environmental change can easily trip the detector into an alarm condition with a resultant (unnecessary) false alarm. 5. Individual detector isolation – If there is a need to disable one or more detectors (for example to enable building work to be carried out in a particular area) then those devices can be selectively isolated from the fire control panel as required. In this way the majority of the system can be left operational to ensure that the highest possible level of fire safety can be maintained. 6. Automatic detector testing – the Pertronic F120 system is designed so that once every 24 hours it sends a “fire test” command to the system detectors.
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On receipt of this command, the detector replies with a fire signal response. This response is measured at the control unit which records a “pass’’ or “fail” for that detector. If a failure is recorded a fault signal is generated. This automatic testing of all detectors greatly enhances the integrity of the system. 7. Detector Interrogation – the Pertronic F120 system allows for the condition of each detector to be interrogated by the control unit and for the result to be displayed on its LCD display. Additionally at annual survey time the results can be down loaded on to a PC and stored or printed for further analysis. In this way detectors that need maintenance can be identified and those that do not, need not be subjected to unnecessary work. In this way costs can be minimised and false alarms can be prevented. In addition to the capabilities that can be provided by a modern Analogue
Addressable smoke detection system, a further enhancement that is now finding acceptance is the installation of a Pertronic “FireMap” graphical display which shows the location of the operated device on a wide screen PC monitor. This enables staff such as receptionists or night duty porters to have an “easy to understand” PC based floor plan display of the location of a fire incident. While graphical map displays are not completely new, the availability of lower cost PCs and monitors have made such systems much more affordable. These systems are now finding increasing use in hotel, hospital, and shopping mall applications. Additionally the Pertronic F120/FireMap combination can be set up to “take over” selected LCD or plasma monitors in a fire situation so that key personnel can see the location of the problem from a number of locations within the hotel, without the hotel having to go to the expense of dedicated displays for the fire system. n
In-Room Entertainment Grant Wilkins I Global Product Manager – In-Room Entertainment, Docomo • What should I look for in a Hotel In-Room Entertainment System? • What feature do Guests really use on the TV? • How do I find a system that is as future ready as possible? • How do I get the best of breed at the best price? • Aren’t in-house movies a thing of the past? • How much should I spend? • Will the IRE vendor pay for everything? • Should we bundle it with HSIA? • May be I should engage a consultant? • Should I pull it out altogether?
hese are all really relevant questions that I hear asked all the time. Everyone seems to have their own view, and those views change according to their location, their clientele, their star rating, and of course the most important, the guest feedback on the current system.
So where do you start? Identify what you currently have installed. Not in terms of who installed it and services it, but what your guests are forced to watch. In many cases, if your In-Room Entertainment, including the free-to-guest television offering, is not up to the standard of the guests home TV system, then your feedback on those guest questionnaires will be less than desirable, but probably a true reflection. Guests pay a premium for a nice room, and if they are forced to look at anything less than a good range of digital quality TV with a convenient Guest friendly interface, then you are behind the times. Identify what TVs you have installed. Don’t be fooled by the ‘HD’ logo on the front panel. Identify if it has a HD Digital tuner inside (Google the model number). Also count the number of HDMI inputs. Your IRE system may use this meaning your guests cannot..... or shouldn’t. You will need this information for your tender. Get a qualified survey of your MATV network, not just a quote. These sometimes cost $1000-$1500 and it is money well spent. A qualified survey report will identify how digitally ready your MATV infrastructure is. It should also suggest what is required to return it to industry best standard. Even if you don’t currently use the MATV because you have IPTV, you should know what is there and what condition it is in. You may open up new options in your tender. It should be made very clear to
the surveyor that this will be issued to MATV contractors for quoting purposes. That should keep them honest. Get a qualified survey of your Ethernet network. Whether it is currently only used for HSIA, or whether it is converged with IP telephony, IPTV or more, or even if it is only a few years old, it may not be up to standard. Once again, spend some money on a written report with sample cable and fibre tests results and re-map the network design. Most network schematics are pre-installation, not as-installed. Ask the surveyor what the network is capable of delivering in terms of services. If you have a wireless network installed, ask for heat maps to determine its coverage and specify the model number of the access points. Most importantly, whether you have an Ethernet or wireless network installed or not, insist of a scope of works required to have industry best standard. This is going to be essential in your tender process, and essential for providing a service to your guests for the term of your service agreement. Now the really tough part, predicting what will be required to cover the next few years. Today’s technologies are changing so quickly, it is cost prohibitive to keep up to date. Hotels normally only get one opportunity in every 5 years to upgrade their IRE systems. Bringing yours up to the industry best standard will only get you half way through your 5 year term. Re-align your IRE CAPEX cycle for a tweak after a few years. The Prediction; there is no formula for this. Your IRE service providers will be very reluctant to share with you their technology roadmap. It is a guessing game for them as I know only too well. Your consultants sometimes have a good idea of what is currently in the marketplace because they attend all the trade shows all over the world. But that
Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 33
doesn’t necessarily mean it will be right. Remember Beta – vs – VHS...... should I mention Blu-Ray – vs – HD-DVD. Here’s one way to make a reasonable sound prediction of what the market will do in a 2-3 years. Firstly look at it in reverse. Where were we five years ago. Hotels were just starting to install Cat 5e cable to guest rooms. Digital free to air TV was available in 4:3 aspect and only very limited widescreen, IP video on demand was in its infancy. VCR player IRE systems were starting to be phased out, and LCDs were being phased in. Now, look at where we are today (in hotels). Nearly all movie content comes from a digital source. IP Video on Demand is installed in nearly all five star properties. LCD’s are installed in nearly all hotel rooms. Digital TV in 16:9 aspect is available in about half of all hotel rooms. If we think about this in hindsight, it was fairly predictable. Sure it’s getting a little trickier, but let’s have a look at what’s kicking off now in the entertainment side of technology. Smart TV’s; downloading movies off the net (legally); watching them in 3D; watching your home TV via a Slingbox from your hotel room on other side of the planet; airplay your own content from your Apple or Android device wirelessly to your TV; controlling the TV with your phone instead of a remote. This is all happening now, and when we think ‘this is really out-there’, take a look at the Gen X’s, Gen Y’s and even the naughty’s. They are connectivity dependant; they can’t go to the shops without updating their facebook. They are content dependant; they can’t get on a bus without their iPod blasting their eardrums. God help us when they join the business ranks.
Now how do we prepare for this? Allow me to predict it, It’s like that 1989 film, Field of Dreams. To give your hotel the best chance, build the infrastructure behind the system properly. This is less likely to
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have major changes over the next 5 years and it is the most costly. A consultant should be advising you to install industry best standard cabling (Cat 6a or better), Broadcast grade MATV networks and head-ends, and Commercial grade wireless networks delivering Wireless ‘N’ technology at 5GHz. Have your network designed by a certified network engineer and the cabling certified by the manufacturer. Engage a network service provider that is ITIL, COBIT or ISO compliant and certified. Ensure your network service provider will work with other vendors. Ensure they have enough feet on the street to support your SLA. Your in-room technology WILL be governed by your network capabilities. Also keeping this ahead of your tender will put in the best position.
What do I install? The bleeding edge of technology is often painful. Sure, go with the latest but also ensure the products they are installing meet a high standard in both manufacture and OEM support. Google will tell you a lot about the gear, good or bad. Ask to the model numbers of the equipment, the redundancies and remote monitoring capabilities. Try to choose a vendor that embraces open-source operating systems in their
servers and in-room set-top-boxes. This way, whether you purchase the equipment yourself, or you go vendor financed, you have far more opportunities to revive them with new soft technologies mid-term. Closedsource technologies have a history of being on the end-of-support pile before the end of term. They also rely on the IRE vendor to retain a development license beyond their period of development. This is of course whether they are the developers. Ensure your service providers content is really late release. These days three months is out-of date in relation to content for those Movie Buffs. Just remember, Movie Buffs account for most in-house movie purchases, excluding the adult content. Give your hotel the edge. Make the choice between digital TV (DVB-T) and IPTV very carefully. Every hotel has different circumstances. Some factors include TV make and model, Pay TV providers, network infrastructure and CAPEX funds. Ensure you in-room equipment is Guest Proof. Minimize the cabling behind the TV. Lock up the set-top-box. Purchase only hotel grade televisions. And the most import, check out the tendering vendors recent installations. Stay at the hotel for a night and do your best to break it (not smash it..... please!). n
Sound in Hotels Peter Swanson NSW/ACT Business Manager AMX Australia I www.amxaustralia.com.au Sound, along with smell, is one of the most pervasive human experiences. If you see a painting you don’t like, you can just turn away. If you touch a fabric that feels unpleasant, you can simply remove your hand from the thing you’ve touched or stand up if the offending article is a chair.
owever, sound is much harder to get away from. If there’s an annoying sound in a room, it won’t go away until you leave the room!
As I’ve written about before, the perception of sound is equally dependent on good quality acoustic treatment as it is on a quality sound system. And, in fact, if I had to choose, I would always proscribe good acoustic treatment in a space at the expense of the sound system. The reasons are twofold – firstly, acoustic treatments are essential to a space “working” for its occupants irrespective of whether a sound system is installed; secondly, effective acoustic treatment often allows you to get more out of a sound system – you spend less on mitigating acoustic challenges and more on getting good quality sound and other features like ambient level control and so on. So, first up, try and make sure there is a clear acoustic brief whenever you embark on a new project, be it a refurbishment of a ballroom or a whole new hotel function centre. An acoustic brief typically suggests the involvement of a consultant to develop, interpret, design and cost a technical solution to the brief. I would strongly recommend making sure that you engage an acoustic consultant – and include a post-construction review in their scope – whenever you are looking at substantial new building works or upgrading of function spaces. Assuming that you are able to secure funds and commitment for the acoustics, you can then turn your attention to the actual sound systems you might want to deploy around the hotel. There are 3 main uses of sound systems typically found in the public areas of a hotel:
• Background music and paging for Circulation/Foyer/Lobby areas • Background/Foreground music for Bar/Restaurant areas • Music / Speech Reinforcement for Function rooms/ conference centres These 3 uses have different focuses and as a result quite different types of systems are utilised. As we look at the options you have in each area, we’ll be considering the 3 main components of any sound system: • The source – be it a microphone, CD player, music server, iPad or other device • The processing and amplification – the parts that take the source signal and make it suitable for distribution to the loudspeakers • The loudspeakers – the devices that take the source electronic signal and turn it into sound for people to hear If you want to achieve a quality sound system, you need to make sure that each of these three components in the chain is up to the task. Doubtless you’ve heard the Hi-Fi lover’s adage that on buying a great new CD player they discovered “problems” in the quality of their amplifier and speaker that had previously gone unnoticed. The same is true in professional audio systems, so don’t get the world’s best microphone and then use a half-way decent processor and loudspeakers. However, within reason it is a good idea to have better quality source devices where you can. This is because each component in the system is dealing with the signal produced by the previous one – so a great processor can only do so much if it gets a poor quality, noisy signal from a microphone. Of course, quality is subjective too, so a decent studio microphone is unlikely to be what you want at the reception desk – perhaps a good, robust gooseneck microphone with nice, clear “Push to Talk” buttons on the base is a better option. With that in mind, let’s take a quick look at the three key components and what you should look out for in our three main applications.
Circulation Areas Microphones should be robust – they will be handled by a variety of staff, often in somewhat of a hurry. They should also be good at rejecting background noise – you want the paging announcement coming through loud and clear.
Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 35
CD players, music servers and other devices should have a professional balanced or digital output where possible (look for XLR, AES-EBU, “Phoenix” terminals or the like). They should also have the ability to interface to a control system for automated selection of tracks and the like. This would typically be through RS-232 or Ethernet. Processors and amplifiers for circulation areas are mainly concerned with good quality signal passage and plenty of “channels” or separate zones so that the volume and equalisation can be tailored to each individual lobby, foyer, lift or corridor where the speakers may be located. As such systems are typically on 24/7, it’s also worth paying some attention to the energy consumption of the amplifiers in particular. Digital amplifiers have come on in leaps and bounds over the past few years and now offer very energy efficient amplification with little or no compromise in quality for a paging/background music application. They are also typically smaller than traditional analogue amplifiers which helps with minimising storage space requirements. As these systems cover large areas, normally with a big quantity of small speakers, you will normally be using “high impedance” or “100V line” amplifier and speaker pairings. These solutions use the same sort of approach as electricity distribution between cities – the voltage is increased at the source (the
amplifier) by a transformer and then “stepped down” at the destination (the speaker) to a usable level. This approach improves efficiency as higher voltage signals are more easily sent over longer distances. However, bear in mind that the use of transformers typically impacts “bottom end” or “bass” performance so while 100V line can be very useful in distributed systems like foyer areas it is less desirable for applications where better music performance is required. The speakers of choice in such applications are usually ceilingrecessed or wall-recessed. There are many, many options in the market today with some costing as little as $10 and some into the many hundreds. There’s always a reflex to ask why you’d spend more, but consider the following points when you assess what to put in your next system: •S peakers with backcans or backboxes significantly improve the performance and reliability of the sound produced •F or distributed systems with many overlapping locations between multiple speakers, it is well worth getting “concentric” loudspeakers where possible. These units have the “tweeter” and the “woofer” on the same axis which improves their overall acoustic performance. •T he quality of the transformer and the number of “taps” or level options it gives can dramatically affect the overall speaker sound performance in a system
Bars and Restaurants The requirements in bar and restaurant areas are similar to circulation areas, but with more of an emphasis on musical performance. Usually, it is a good plan to allow for the system to provide background/foreground music but to exclude live music and get bands to bring their own systems – or have a dedicated “portable” system that is setup when required.
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It’s likely that most of the source usage in these areas will be music-based and automatically programmed. If you don’t already have a music-server subscription program, it’s well worth reviewing the options out there – many of these will enable you to not just keep your music selection up to date but also automate what you are playing at different times of day based on your guest demographic. Processors and amplifiers are likely to need a higher power specification in these areas, though by how much depends on whether you plan for your guests to be chatting or dancing to the music. One of the useful functions of the latest digital signal processors (DSPs) is the ability to monitor ambient noise levels via dedicated microphones around the venue and adjust the sound system zones accordingly. Ambient level control can be particularly effective when coupled with automated settings for different times of day / events. As music becomes a higher priority, the focus will shift to “low impedance” amplifiers rather than 100V line. This means that the amplifier directly outputs voltage at a level appropriate to drive the loudspeakers. In such systems, there are usually only 1-2 loudspeakers per amplifier channel and there will often be dedicated channels for subwoofers to provide bass boost. The result is that you will generally need much more space in your
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Vol 16 No. 4 |
The latest innovation from Kärcher Microfibre roller technology With the world innovation of the microfibre, Kärcher combines the excellent properties of microfibres with the benefits of roller brushes. The microfibre cloths that you are using in everyday cleaning are now available on all the Kärcher roller scrubbing machines. From the smallest 30 cm/4 litre upright style scrubber drier BR 30/4 C, right through to the 90 cm/140 litre ride on machine, B 140R Bp. Microfibres are extremely fine and extremely sturdy synthetic fibres. They are used wherever cleaning into the finest surface structures is required. The very large number of fibres means every spot on the floor is covered multiple times. Using microfibre rollers with fibres of 0.5 dtex allows these fibres to reach the finest pores. Numerous adjacent fibres remove the dirt with the help of water due to the high capillary power of microfibre. The microfibre roller reaches the smallest pores and effortlessly removes the film from fine stoneware tiles that accrues with time. Suitable for almost all floors, e.g. linoleum, PVC, natural stone, tiles or synthetic resin coverings (safety flooring). Even uneven floors and crevices are cleaned very well. Microfibre rollers clean themselves by means of a high motor speed (up to 1500 rpm). The high cleaning power makes lower dosages of
cleaning agents possible, saving money on the cost of detergents.
Fast and Continuous Steam Cleaning Time is money – this is especially true with commercial cleaning. The DE 4002 commercial steam cleaner from Kärcher features an ingenious filling method with a two-tank system. Heating time is very short as the heating tank is replenished by a second tank that can be
refilled during operation. There is no need to wait for the steamer to cool down for refilling or having to wait for it to reheat. Fitted with “Vapo-Hydro”, you have infinitely variable regulation from steam to a hot water jet; ideal for flushing of dirt removed by steam. Supplied complete with steam hose, wand (2 pieces), floor tool, hand tool, detail tool, power nozzle and round brush. Options include microfibre cloths, terry cloths or a carry cart with tool holder.
Continued from page 36 equipment rack for amplifiers and processors and you may also need to consider active cooling of the space depending on how serious your system is. Loudspeakers for the bar environment will almost certainly be “surface mount” cabinet style. There are a huge variety of sizes and specifications of loudspeakers for these applications. One point to be aware of is that within reason “less is more”. The main aim is to cover all the seating / dancing areas with the same, consistent level of sound. “Stereo” is by and large not important as you are not courting a single user sitting in their lounge chair. Rather, focus on a good quality distributed “mono” system and try to avoid having more than one speaker pointing to a particular area.
Function/Event Spaces The function and event environment really combines the needs of circulation and bar/restaurant areas. There is usually an expectation of high quality speech reinforcement combined with the need for good background or foreground music. The first challenge is that the person using the microphone is usually not a trained staff member, it’s one of your guests. This means that the system needs to be far more forgiving in terms of the microphone pick up pattern and feedback settings.
Getting these factors right will mean your guests can stand comfortably at the lectern and focus on their presentation rather than nervously leaning in to the lectern trying to work out the balance point between being inaudible and creating a feedback howl. The key here is a good quality microphone that has a pickup pattern matched to the way the speakers are laid out. There is no simple answer to really getting this right, but making sure you involve an experienced audio designer will help the process along. Remember again the point on acoustics – this is particularly critical when you are trying to get the best possible speech reinforcement. The processing and amplification needs are similar to those described for Bars and Restaurants, but with a much higher emphasis on speech quality. Often, the conflicting needs of powerful music sound systems and clear speech reinforcement lead to people installing two systems. This can be a very effective solution, but it’s important to work out whether the two systems will be completely separate or whether there is a link to allow the sources to be mixed between the two systems depending on the particular event or other requirements. You may also find that with the size of some larger spaces you are looking at 100V line for distributed speech and low impedance for music. Again, there is no reason why this cannot be done, but it’s important to be clear on the expectations for each system before you commit to either option. Loudspeakers may be a mixture of recessed and cabinet types depending on the overall styling of the room – and how reliant it is on hired-in equipment. Many hotels use professional AV providers to equip such rooms on an event-by-event basis so in practice you may be looking at providing cabling and power points rather than all of the installed systems.
Assuming that you are going for a fully installed solution, it is worth considering installation capabilities such as whether the higher power loudspeakers may be on winches so that they can be lowered into place when required. This enables a discreet look when full music capability is not needed.
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There are a huge variety of options for loudspeaker types in these sorts of spaces and if you have an existing space to equip, it is often worth requesting an audition so that you can see and hear the options available to you. If that’s not practical, consider getting along to a trade show to check out the options – as often as not there will be live demos and listening rooms available. As with bars, it is often wise to leave bands to their own devices and simply cater for power and basic cabling options – this puts the responsibility of maintaining (and not blowing up!) the sound system on the band rather than you. I hope this article has given you a further insight into sound systems and some of the considerations associated with their design. As always, I’d recommend you engage a professional audio designer to take you through the best options for your particular venue. n
Chiller Maintenance The BallTech automatic chiller cleaning system takes all the
drop recovered immediately once the BallTech was back in service.
fuss of chiller maintenance
Advantages over other cleaning methods
away. It is an online system
• No harsh or abrasive chemicals
that uses the condensing
• No manual handling issues
water pressure to push sponge
• No loss of performance over the year
balls, 1 mm larger than the
• No downtime
tube size, through the tubes
• No fuss
every 30 minutes to maintain
• Fully automated
tube cleanliness. Fully automated, it takes the fuss out of chiller operation and maintains a consistent year round performance.
ver time chiller tubes foul up with either scale, biofilm, or other contaminants like algae and sludge that increase thermal resistance and hinder cooling ability, by as much as 30%. Typically chiller manufacturers recommend annual cleaning, which require your system to be offline while you manually clean chiller tubes. This can be anything from laborious mechanical means like rod and brush systems, high pressure water blasting to chemical cleaning. Having only annual cleaning means your loss in performance increases over the year. This loss of performances can be picked up, depending on your monitoring, as an increasing difference in the two media temperatures, or an increase in pressure loss across the chiller tubes. A common reporting tool is COP – Coefficient of Performance, a ratio of the cooling capacity and power input. Over time you‘ll find your COP dropping as the power required to produce the same cooling affect increases. Chillers trend logs from several sites clearly indicate COP drop of 8%-13% within two weeks of BallTech being switched off: this COP
Scale: a hard calcium coating that builds up due to water quality. Needs to be removed with chemical cleaning and can reduce thermal performance by 10-20% Biofilm: an invisible sticky coating of microorganisms that needs to be removed by mechanical and/or chemical methods. Biofilm can reduce thermal performance by 15-20% Biofilm has 1/5th the thermal conductivity of scale, so biofilm can be 1/5th the thickness of scale but have a similar affect.
Why do you care about performance? Poor chiller performance directly impacts on power demand, with chillers on a higher load to maintain performance, resulting in higher energy costs and possible maintenance issues in associated pumps.
BallTech Installation chiller No 5 Austin Hospital
balls at 30 minute intervals removes biofilm and prevents scale or other deposits from forming. If scale or deposition is a problem, the chiller unit should be cleaned prior to commissioning, so the BallTech system starts on a fresh surface. BallTech can be fitted to any tube size from 8 mm – 30 mm. Over 30 mm you need a customised injector. Pictures 2 & 3. The pictures show boroscope views of Chiller 3 and 4 in the Alfred Hospital. Both had manual cleans and operated for 12 months, Chiller 3 had BallTech Installed. 12 months later Chiller 3 – with BallTech installed – looks as good as the day it was cleaned. Picture 2
How does it work? An injector and ball capture are installed on the inlet and outlet of your chiller with a bypass line connecting them (See photo 1, Austin Hospital). The system can be installed in a day. The sponge balls are injected into the condensing water every 30 minutes, upstream of the heat exchanger and collected downstream in the ball capture. The balls are 1 mm larger than the tubes’ internal diameter therefore they continually polish the tubes’ internal surfaces and prevent any fouling accumulation. The balls are captured, rinsed and stored for the next cycle. The regular passing of the sponge
Hotel Engineer | Vol 16 No. 4 | 41
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Pictures 1, 4, 5 & 6. Austin Hospital, views as found (4), after acid cleaning prior to commissioning with BallTech (5), and after 20,000 hours of operation with BallTech (6).
Ongoing maintenance. Monthly – check the control system readout. Replace sponge balls every 1000 hours of chiller use. This can be done while the chiller is online. The number of balls is based on number of tubes and passes. A 2 pass condenser with 420 tubes requires 70 balls. At $80 per 100 balls, this would require 2 or 3 bags/year – $160 – $240.
Benefits Consistent chiller performance. With traditional annual tube cleaning,
performance starts to drops off immediately once the chiller is back in service, as much as 8%-13% within the first few weeks BallTech maintains a consistent chiller performance (COP) all year, with subsequent power savings and performance benefits. BallTech guarantee a 10% improvement in efficiency, though they regularly see 18-20%. 133 Castlereagh St. Sydney (a 32 story office building), installed BallTech with no other operational changes and saved 172,000kWh over 10 months (over the previous two years average). This was a 2 year payback (considering 2008 electricity tariff) on initial installation/ capital costs and an increase in COP that ranged from 3.5 to 16.9% dependent on operating load.
Where are they installed? In Australia since 2000, they are mainly in commercial and industrial premises, including Melbourne Airport, Stockland, Investa, Colonial First State, Charter Hall, AMP and several public hospitals though they are in hotels in Europe, Asia and Israel. After a successful trials and verified on-going energy saving at several sites, state governments and some of the leading property groups are planning to roll out BallTech installations across their entire portfolio.
Conclusion BallTech is a simple, easy to install and fully automatic system that maintains a consistent chiller performance all year round with minimal maintenance. n
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A Success with Lift Security at Intercontinental Sydney
ituated in the heart of Sydney’s financial and cultural precincts, it was once upon a time the site of the first Government House and later the Treasury Building. Today it is the location of InterContinental Sydney. In its conception and design, the Hotel perfectly captures the Australian mood. Set in the city’s historical Treasury Building, it displays a blend of rich colonial heritage and the robust contemporary architecture of a young nation. In line with conservation plans for the heart of Sydney, it was proposed in 1982 to incorporate the old Treasury building with a new hotel. The final design for the InterContinental Sydney called for restoration of the 1851 Treasury Building on Macquarie Street and the addition of a tower wing along the Phillip Street frontage to provide 28 floors above and five floors below road level. Careful and painstaking restoration of the three storey building gave the Hotel its elegant public rooms (now updated with discreetly installed fire protection and air conditioning services), while the tower block provides the 509 guest rooms with spectacular views of Sydney Harbour and the Royal Botanic Gardens. The Hotel has three major food and beverage outlets, 24 hour room service, health club, three kitchens and an in-house laundry. During design stage no technology was introduced and every piece of equipment was controlled and operated manually. The Hotel has come a long way with regards to embracing technology and has also been at the forefront in trialling new products and concepts, specifically relating to energy and water management. In 2004 after a major renovation the Hotel was transformed with the creation of the unique Club Lounge which included panoramic views of the Harbour. One of the challenges that the Hotel faced was the lift security system. The system installed in the late 90’s incorporated two lift card readers in each lift car, running parallel and interlinked to the guestroom door locks. This system was run using
the lock provider’s signal, through a multiplexer and then interfacing to the Otis lift operating system. The major challenges were the readers not being able to synchronise when two cards were used simultaneously in the lift car. The second challenge was that when the key card was inserted, the guest had difficulties in finding the location of the relevant button and when they eventually did find it, the lift had already passed the floor. The final problem was the key cards getting de-magnetised. The constant challenge that the Hotel had was the lock provider and Lift Company not being able to identify at which end the problems were occurring. The Hotel came up with an innovative idea and worked in conjunction with Otis to develop a failsafe solution. Firstly the card de-magnetisation problem was eliminated very easily by replacing the key cards with a HICO type card. The lock provider signal was directly taken out of the lift at each end and Otis took control of this signal through an Allen Bradley controller. The Hotel’s vision was to latch in the floor button immediately when a guest key card was inserted, so that the customer did not have to be distressed in looking for the relevant floor. The Hotel also required the two readers in each lift to work independently so that speed and efficiency could be achieved for the customer. Otis in conjunction with their development team achieved a positive outcome with some added features incorporated, so that flexibility of the system was possible for various applications and requirements. The system has now been running for over four months with not a single failure. Not only are the customers happy, but our receptionists are equally delighted as they are no longer being confronted by unhappy guests. n
For further information on the installation, please contact:Andy Goonesekera Director of Engineering InterContinental Sydney Andy.Goonsekera@interconsydney.com 9240 1215
Vol 16 No. 4 |
Michael Benikos Business Development Manager Energy Management Systems Asia Pacific ASSA ABLOY Hospitality Oceania email@example.com 1300 796 233 0448 955 086
Stuart McNaughton Field Engineering & Process Manager, Service Division Otis Elevator Company firstname.lastname@example.org 02 8338 2738 (direct) 0418 671 169 (mobile) 02 8338 2799 (fax)
Seven Steps to Maximising
Central Plant Efficiency
David Klee I Director, Channel Marketing & Strategy, HVAC Johnson Controls, Inc Gary Gigot I Vice President, Business Development Optimum Energy, LLC Central Plant Optimisation A holistic approach that allows central plants to reach and sustain their high-performance, high-efficiency potential.
Are you getting the most from your central plant? As commercial building owners search for ways to be more competitive, earn green building certification and anticipate government mandates for higher levels of energy efficiency, growing attention is being paid to the central plant. It’s a logical place to turn. Buildings are the largest consumer of energy worldwide. Within a building, the HVAC system consumes the most energy. And among the various HVAC systems such as airside, chillers and boilers, the chiller plant uses the most energy. As a result, there is mounting pressure to increase plant efficiency through something called optimisation.
A Shift in Thinking Will Deliver Results Today, the HVAC industry is a world driven by bills of materials. Optimal chiller? Check. Energy-efficient pump? Check. The latest cooling tower? Check. Yet, even best-in-class components cannot deliver the levels of energy and operational savings today’s consulting engineers and building owners demand. The reason is twofold. First, the industry is quickly approaching the theoretical limit of how much efficiency can be expected from individual components. Granted, HVAC equipment manufacturers have made great strides in the past 25 years, increasing the efficiency of components by as much as 40%. But we can’t expect the same gains in the future. Moving forward, engineers and building owners will have to look beyond the component level to reach increasingly aggressive energy-efficiency goals.
Secondly, even the most efficient central plants often fail to maintain their promised efficiency over time. This performance drift happens because traditional methods of plant operation and maintenance are based on a static operating model that treats the plant as a series of disparate pieces of mechanical equipment. In reality, today’s high-efficiency components are designed to work optimally when they are part of a networked, interrelated system. For both of these reasons, the focus is beginning to shift away from componentbased efficiency targets toward a broader, holistic approach to achieving persistent, peak performance. This emerging, ‘whole-building’ philosophy is known as Central Plant Optimisation and it has the potential to deliver energy savings previously unattainable.
What is Central Plant Optimisation?
Optimisation is generating quite a buzz in the industry, but because the concept is still in its infancy, there’s been a great deal of confusion about what it means. Is it hardware? Software? A third-party add on? Truth is, Central Plant Optimisation is all those – and more. Central Plant Optimisation is an approach. A philosophy. A methodology. And when fully implemented, it will allow a chiller plant to reach and sustain its high-performance, high-efficiency potential. To get there, however, the industry is going to have to change the way it thinks about efficiency. The seven steps to achieving Central Plant Optimisation.
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York YK variable speed open drive centrifugal
Ask 10 people to define “optimisation” and you will likely get 10 different responses. It’s an algorithm. It’s an application. It’s an energy-efficient component. Don’t be fooled by those who claim any one of these pieces is the silver bullet that leads to optimisation. Central Plant Optimisation is a process. As shown in the pyramid below, there are seven key steps to achieving Central Plant Optimisation, encompassing everything from infrastructure design and component selection to measurement and maintenance. When implemented holistically, Central Plant Optimisation can deliver sustained energy savings of up to 60%.
presented by Central Plant Optimisation. This article will demonstrate how, by implementing each of the seven steps to optimisation, it’s possible to reach the pinnacle of efficiency today.
Optimisation Step 1: Design of System Infrastructure The foundation of any optimisation plan is a well-designed system infrastructure that supports central plant efficiency. In new construction, the key is to design with operational flexibility in mind. For example, in a chilled water system, the most flexible, efficient system infrastructure combines a headered pumping system with variable primary flow. Variable-speed drives increase efficiency potential and headered piping allows for operational flexibility.
This ‘whole-building’ philosophy is garnering industry attention. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is developing new energy targets based on the performance of a building as a whole. According to a recently-released committee report, one of the Society’s goals is to develop standards for the calculation of building-wide energy use so that ASHRAE 90.1 can include system-level efficiency targets beginning in 2016.
In existing buildings, it is possible to correct design deficiencies to achieve similar results by taking steps such as:
Even as those new energy targets are being defined, however, consulting engineers and building owners can take advantage of the opportunities
It may be more expensive to install this type of infrastructure, but the up-front cost of well-designed infrastructure typically pays for itself because it enables
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• Upgrading system configurations • Adding VSDs to chillers, pumps and cooling tower fans • Automating the plant, if it is operated manually • Reviewing and improving automation sequences • Replacing equipment at the end of its life
a plant to run at a higher level of efficiency over its entire lifecycle, leading to improved return on investment.
Optimisation Step 2: Selection of Components The next step to achieving optimisation is the smart selection of system components. Here, the primary objective is to choose components that will perform efficiently in real-world operating conditions. Well-intentioned consultants and building owners will often purchase the most efficient components available, sized for the worst-case scenario or to accommodate future growth, and believe they’ve made the smartest choice. Components are chosen, for example, based on full-load kW/ton or the efficiency of the plant on the hottest August day with the mall full of shoppers. Instead, best practices call for selecting plant components that will operate most efficiently at the load where they are going to run the most. A chiller with a more favorable part-load efficiency profile will be the better performer in the real world.
Optimisation Step 3: Application of Components Have you ever used a screwdriver to pound nails? It gets the job done, but not as efficiently as a hammer. The same holds true for energy-efficient components. To achieve peak performance, the equipment must
be applied and operated properly; step three in the optimisation pyramid. When installing or evaluating the performance of components, follow these best practices: • R un the plant at its designed chilled water temperature. If the plant was designed to run at 44 degrees, running it at 42 degrees will reduce its optimisation potential. • D on’t push too much or too little water through the chiller. Too much water will decrease the efficiency of the pumping; too little will diminish the efficiency of the chiller itself. • T ake advantage of the environment. Install equipment that is capable of taking advantage of colder condenser water temperatures, when available, to make the plant run more efficiently. Improper component application diminishes system efficiency, although the impact may go unnoticed unless central plant performance is being effectively monitored. (See Step 7.)
Optimisation Step 4: Automation of the System The next step in the pyramid is a prerequisite to optimisation: building automation. Owners who already have a building automation system (BAS) in place are well-positioned to take advantage of optimisation. Those who don’t must make the shift, because even the most skilled human operators in the world would have a hard time operating a plant as efficiently and effectively as a current BAS. Today’s BAS doesn’t just start and stop equipment to maintain set points. It starts the right equipment at the right time to maximise efficiency based on its run history and its efficiency profile.
York YMC2 magnetic bearing permanent magnet motor drive-line
With variable speed drives, the BAS also selects the right speed at which to operate pumps and tower fans. Top-tier building automation systems enhance plant efficiency further with tuning algorithms that continually adjust control routines based on system dynamics and seasonal changes. Today’s best-in-class building automation systems also offer monitoring and reporting tools so that a central plant’s efficient performance can be sustained over time.
Optimisation Step 5: Networked Optimisation Software Networked optimisation software is the intelligent logic that holistically operates the plant in the most efficient manner. It’s the brain behind the operation, and step five in the strategy to achieve Central Plant Optimisation. Today’s optimisation software takes advantage of building automation systems to maximise central plant efficiency. It is standardised and scalable yet takes into account the specific energy characteristics of a plant’s equipment. The most advanced optimisation software offers relational-control algorithms that optimise all the equipment so each component uses the least amount of power required to maintain occupant comfort. Control set points are automatically calculated based on real-time building load information inputs received from the building automation system, and the optimisation software then evaluates that data and makes recommendations back to the BAS to improve performance. Until recently, such state-of-the-art software was available only as a custom-built solution. But today, optimisation software is standardised, documented, tested and proven – decreasing both cost and risk for the purchaser. Top-tier solutions are also scalable. Building owners can test drive the optimisation software at one location, then scale it across an entire enterprise or portfolio of buildings.
York YVAA air cooled variable speed screw chiller
These networked solutions also deliver web-based, real-time measurement, verification and management of central plant operating performance, making it possible for building owners and operators to increase and sustain energy savings month after month, year after year.
Optimisation Step 6: Maintenance With Central Plant Optimisation, service is no longer a “set it and forget it” proposition. Just as central plants have evolved and become more sophisticated over time, so has the role of maintenance. A century ago, uptime was the critical measure of system success. For the most part, maintenance was reactionary; if cold air wasn’t being delivered, something got fixed. That was followed by a focus on maintaining occupant comfort and increasing efficiency, which meant maintenance became more routine, more proactive. With today’s ultraefficient components and optimised central plants, maintenance is predictive. In fact, predictive maintenance – the ability to identify issues before they become problems – is essential to maintaining the optimisation of today’s central chiller water plants. Predictive maintenance also places an inherently-different responsibility on the people who are providing service. To make sure efficiency levels are being maintained over the plant’s entire life cycle, performance data must be regularly measured, verified and managed as part of a continuous commissioning process.
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Optimisation Step 7: Measurement, Verification and Management The pinnacle of the optimisation pyramid is measurement, verification and management. When real-time data is available anytime, anywhere, issues such as performance drift can be identified long before the degradation results in significant loss of efficiency or, at worse, equipment failure. Today, web-based tools are available 24/7 and act as a continuous feedback loop by providing detailed, real-time and historical performance data so operators can quickly detect diagnose and resolve system faults. Data is made visible via easy-to-read graphs and charts and analysis tools allow for the quick diagnosis of faults. Alerts and notifications are sent automatically.
York YMC2 magnetic bearing oil free centrifugal chiller
Sophisticated yet simple to use, these emerging measurement tools enable continuous commissioning to be more effective. Early adopters say they’re amazed at the level of available, actionable data these tools provide. ASHRAE is taking notice of the value delivered by real-time measurement, verification and management data. The Society is considering the development of a building classification system that would require owners to continuously measure the performance of the central plant, and regularly post updated efficiency levels.
Taking the Steps to Achieve Central Plant Optimisation As shown in this article, it takes a holistic approach, a “wholebuilding” philosophy known as Central Plant Optimisation, to provide the levels of energy and operational savings today’s consulting engineers and building owners require. Anything less delivers disappointing results. Don’t be fooled by those who claim that any one step, or any subset of these seven steps, provides the silver bullet that leads to optimisation. Instead, take the time to think critically about your current situation. Perhaps you’ve already implemented some of these seven steps to optimisation. Use this as a guide to show you what’s missing, so you can maximise the investments in efficiency you’ve already made to achieve peak performance. Once fully implemented, Central Plant Optimisation can deliver central plant energy savings of up to 60%. Achieving true Central Plant Optimisation will also require partnering with a provider who embraces this holistic approach, offers standardised, scalable solutions and can demonstrate proven performance. With the right partner, the right mindset and a commitment to take each of the seven steps to Central Plant Optimisation, you can reach the pinnacle of efficiency today. Why wait? Today’s opportunity may be tomorrow’s mandate. n
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by improved monitoring Wendy Hird I Manager Greenbriar Consulting
The water research discussed
Monitoring and Sub-metering
in Hotel Engineer 16-2,
The advantage of sub-metering and monitoring has been discussed previously. Putting sub-metering in allows you to figure out where you have leaks or where you should focus your efforts to reduce water use. Based on average break up of hotel water use, sub-meters should be at least on roof tank (exit), cold water supply to guest rooms (to each floor even), hot water supply, cooling towers, laundry, kitchens, public/staff amenities.
showed that most business hotels in the study had saved on average 240L/guest/night in the last five years, mainly by reducing leaks through better monitoring and maintenance and by lost cost retrofits. Low cost retrofits was covered in the article, but what is
But all the sub-meters in the worlds don’t help unless you read them, regularly.
Chart 1 – Typical breakup of water use in business hotel.
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Read the meters weekly – even better, daily, and I know of one hotel who has the sub-meters read every shift. This will allow you to keep a track on your water use and see where it increases. Just don’t expect people to look at the numbers on a sheet and expect it to mean anything. Put the data into a spreadsheet to produce a graph – it is obvious and easier to understand.
On-line monitoring On-line monitoring allows to you to see the flow of the water over the day, 5 to 15 minute accrued samples should be sufficient. Whether you have monitoring as part of your BMS or you have an independent system that reports to an internet site, you should make the most of the systems at hand.
Don’t have on-line monitoring?
A lot of hotel engineers look at their system daily, and while that is great it isn’t hard to envisage a time where, due to emergencies you forget to look one day, and the next day, and then you get a phone call from the accountant asking why the water bill is so high. It then gets embarrassing when, having looked back at your system, you have to admit you know exactly where and when the leak appeared but you missed it as you weren’t looking at your monitoring. I’m not saying you shouldn’t look at it every day – it’s a great habit to get into – but by setting up the alarms you can get usually get an SMS or an email to prompt you to look when something goes wrong. Before setting alarms you should look at your system every day for a few weeks to get an idea of the pattern of your water use in your hotel,
Baseflow (flowrate L/min, L/sec) Your system may give you a figure for the lowest flow in your hotel over the day. Does it look across the whole day or only over the lowest flow in a set period, presumably early in the morning. Does it look at the lowest average figure over five minutes or an instantaneous reading. In a perfect world, at some point in the early morning in a hotel, regardless of size, the flow from your hot water system should be zero. (See chart 2). You can set a ‘zero’ alarm – if the baseflow is ‘not zero’ at any time over the 24 hr period you get an alarm. See Chart 2. This chart shows a meter on a hot water service. It is obvious that the hot water system has no leaks in it as the hot water flow returns to zero every night.
The larger hotels, with a regular occupancy, might find the highest daily total on the Saturday, consistent with the largest use of bars and restaurants and highest occupancy. But the laundry flow meter, would possibly have the highest daily total flow on Monday, when the largest volume of linens from all the Sunday checkouts are washed. Your pattern will change with the seasons – particularly the cooling tower system – and after every major retrofit or renovation. Get a good handle on your pattern before you set your alarms, otherwise you’ll get a high flow alarm every time the pool backwash filter turns on. There are normally several typical alarms you can set to each monitored meter: baseflow, peak flow and total daily.
Daily Flow. Normally a cumulative flow over 24 hrs. (Volume kL) This is one alarm that must be set. Having looked at your water use pattern for the last few weeks, pick your typical large daily use for EVERY meter and set the alarm 10% higher..
Create virtual meters. Does your system allow you to create virtual meters – it allows you to create a new fake or virtual meter and add a calculation to sum and subtract meters from one another, and display that result on a separate graph. This allows you to: • s um multiple main meters to give an overall flow
Patterns? Every business has pattern to its flow: when does cold water to guest rooms peak for morning toilets/shower use; when do the cooling towers kick in; when does the kitchen start up. And how does it vary day to day, and winter to summer. You can’t set alarms without understanding how your hotel uses water.
the afternoon on Tuesday you might not trigger the alarm but at least the alarms not going to be going off every day when 500 guests use the showers.
• s um guest room usage over the other hotel sections
Chart 2: sub-meter on hotel hot water service from “Water Saving” software by Department of Finance and Services (Water Saver section, Public Works)
But if you know you have a leak and you either: can’t find it; found it but can’t fix it yet due to budget considerations or bookings; found it but can’t fix it without ripping up the heritage listed tessellated floor and you are stuck with it till the major renovation in two years, then use that flowrate as a nominated ‘non-zero baseflow’ and set your alarm for 10% above that. That way if another leak appears you will be notified.
Peak or high instantaneous flow (flowrate L/min, L/sec) This is to alert you to bigger leaks. After watching your flow for a few weeks you should have a fairly good idea of what ‘normal’ instantaneous peak flow use is. If the highest cold water flow in L/sec is between 6 am and 8 am on a Sunday morning, then set 10% above this as your high flow. OK, if a low leak occurs at 4 in
•m ake a miscellaneous meter. Subtract the sub-metered sections from the main meter and you can track the ‘other’ unmetered bits of the hotel. You may then see a pattern there was no data for before, and see a leak before it brings down the ceiling. •A ll of these virtual meters should have their own alarms, and their own graphs.
Fig 1, virtual meter screen shot from “Water Saving” software by Department of Finance and Services (Water Saver section, Public Works)
There are two sorts of bad alarms •A larms that go off all the time. They get ignored, or ‘accepted’ which means you’ll miss the one time it really is a true alarm.
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• Having an alarm that never goes off. An alarm that is too high to ever go off is as bad as having no alarm at all. Having set up your alarms you need to review them: • yearly at least • seasonally for the cooling system • after every major refit/renovation • after you fixed that leak you’ve had for two years. Once you have set your alarms up you can rest assured that even if you skip a day (or week) looking at your monitoring system, you need not get caught out again. n
Author: Wendy Hird, Manager Greenbriar Consulting, has a background working with hotels in water efficiency and running water management education programs. Wendy Hird is available to run a workshop or awareness campaign with your staff about carbon footprints or carbon management or water efficiency. Wendy Hird, Manager Greenbriar Consulting www.greenbriar.com.au 0434 336 468 email@example.com Sydney Water Paper, Water Efficiency in Business Hotels, Wendy Hird, presented at Australian Water Association Conference, March 2011
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So much more than a window –
glass innovations changing the way we live
lass as a key element of modern architecture isn’t a revelation. Architects, building designers and home owners have long been using glass to transform spaces from ordinary to outstanding, create light-filled living environments, evoke a sense of spaciousness and to take advantage of views, to name but a few. In recent years, glass has also earned a reputation for its performance capabilities, in particular its ability to improve building energy efficiency and enhance occupant comfort. Impressive as all this might sound, it is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to just what glass can do. As glass companies invest heavily in research and development, glass is evolving from a simple building material to an intelligent component that can change the way we live. Just recently, Corning, a US manufacturer of specialty glass and other materials, released a video ‘A Day Made of Glass’, depicting a world where interactive glass surfaces and technology combine to allow people to carry out everyday activities. While some of the applications depicted in the video may be futuristic, there is no doubt that glass and innovation go hand-in-hand. With the video notching up more than six million views on YouTube in one week alone, it seems the public is starting to get excited about glass.
Foreground: The memorial (Michael Arad and Peter Walker). Towers clockwise from left: Tower One (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP); Tower Two (Foster and Partners); Port Authority transportation building (Santiago Calatrava); Tower Three (Richard Rogers Partnership); Tower Four (Maki and Associates). Image © Silverstein Properties, Inc./dbox Studio
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“Ordinary glass is old technology. These days there’s a growing range of performance glass that can offer so much more than many people are aware of, for applications that most people wouldn’t traditionally associate with glass. Glass provides a solution for a range of everyday issues such as thermal comfort, solar control, noise control and even security,” says Nigel Carpenter, Executive Director of the Australian Glass and Glazing Association, (AGGA). Brian Perkins from Melbourne’s Fethers Architectural agrees. “Not only is glass becoming more energy efficient it is also becoming more intelligent,” referring to glazing systems that are electronically tinted, incorporating Low-E insulating glass that changes from clear to dark grey, and all with the push of a button or on command from a building management control system. It allows for both passive solar heat gain in winter and minimises solar heat gain in summer. In its tinted state, it significantly reduces glare, ideal for late summer evenings facing west. “It is a far more appealing solution than using mechanical window shades and blinds. Such options may block out glare, but they’ll also block views to the outside world,” says Brian. Suitable for windows, skylights and curtain walls, the glass is already installed in hundreds of buildings, and with the construction of the world’s largest and most advanced electrochromic glass manufacturing facility underway in the US, higher production volumes will make this technology more affordable for the masses. Further north, Queensland’s G.James Glass is constantly researching new energy efficient glass innovations. Together with the US based PVB manufacturer Solutia, G.James developed an interlayer which uses ‘nanoparticles’ in the interlayer as a means of reducing heat transfer, by scattering the light and reducing direct transfer of energy into the building. “Glass has become a multi-purpose building material. Architects are always going to consider aesthetic criteria when selecting glass, but now they can meet performance objectives at the same time. We’re constantly working on expanding our energy efficient glass range, which includes improving existing products and creating unique colours that enhance the palette available to architects and designers without sacrificing performance,” says G. James Research and Development Manager, Gavan Harrop. Currently, G.James’ coatings are being used for research into transparent photovoltaic solar cells
Image © Silverstein Properties, Inc./dbox studio
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which, if successful, could eventually see transparent windows acting as solar panels becoming a reality. Australia’s only local glass manufacturer, Viridian, is now manufacturing world class energy efficient coated products specifically suited to Australia’s unique climatic conditions. Lachlan Austin, National Marketing Manager – Viridian says “providing the maximum level of thermal efficiency, these CVD coated products will go a long way to ensuring compliance with more stringent energy building regulations can be easily achieved”. Though energy efficiency is the highest priority at present, Lachlan believes that these applications are only scratching the surface of what its pyrolytic coating process has to offer. “On-line coating allows the glass we make to take on a wide range of new properties, essentially at the flick of a switch – different optical, electrical, physical and even biological properties are possible.” “Innovation is now often being lead by the unique specification of the glass type and window systems combined – to improve thermal performance, save lives and properties in high risk bushfire regions, address improved occupant safety, reduce noise in city dwellings, and even combine colour and art in glass,” says Lachlan. The AGGA has recently launched a new website www.agga.org.au, which features a dedicated consumer section to enable users to learn about the benefits of glass. “The site aims to provide an easy-to-use resource for consumers that will enable them to find out more about the difference glass can make and its potential applications. As well as information on using glass to achieve greater energy efficiency and the different types of glass, the site features a directory that allows consumers to quickly find the glass, glazier or services and products they need in their area,” says Nigel. n About the AGGA The AGGA is a member-based association, representative of glaziers, glass processors, wholesalers, importers, manufacturers and suppliers. The AGGA aims to heighten awareness of the benefits glass can provide, including increased energy efficiency, improved safety and outstanding design freedom. For further information 03 9941 3130 or visit www.agga.org.au
Building Commissioning and the Building Surveyor Greg Payne I General Manager, Hendry Group Pty Ltd
or project managers and hotel engineers, the successful delivery of a complex building project on time, on budget and according to plan can be a process fraught with difficulties and challenges. Chief among these challenges is to integrate all the newly designed and constructed elements of the project into a commissioned whole. The coordination and overseeing of whole of building commissioning are also important issues from a building surveyorâ€™s perspective, since complex
projects can be time consuming and can be difficult to approve and sign off when changes have occurred during construction, or when inadequate documentation is provided at the end of a project. One primary concern building surveyors are confronted with is the growing gap between the role, functions and responsibilities of the building surveyor when compared to those of the designer, consultant, contractor, owner and builder or project manager. At the core of the
concern is the fact that project contractors including architects, designers and construction firms are typically paid on a fee for service basis and may have limited supervision roles during construction. With supervision responsibilities being constrained, there is little or no incentive to take responsibility for the final outcomes or learn from the projectâ€™s shortcomings. Tight project deadlines, increasing cost constraints and competing resource and time demands also place increasing
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pressure on the effective supervision of the project and as a result of all these factors, building surveyors are often called upon to manage construction changes or departures from codes, after the event. The following provides an outline of a building surveyor’s role and obligations when inspecting and signing off a project.
Role, Responsibilities and Legislation The power, role and responsibilities of a building surveyor are set out in an Act of Parliament and subsequent Regulations in each State and Territory. Some states such as South Australia and New South Wales have a combined Development Act and Regulations, whilst in Victoria there is a separate Act and Building Regulations applying to planning and building. The building surveyor’s role therefore comes from a legal perspective, since their functions are carried out pursuant to some form of law. This imposes a community interest and duty of care obligation on the building surveyor and makes them responsible to ensure buildings are safe, generally comply, are built to the applicable Standards as shown in the building permit/ approval or construction certificate issued, and are suitable to occupy. The legal obligations empowered by the legislation in turn sets out a hierarchy of control on a development through the legislation. The requirements of the legislation can sometimes be at odds with industry best practice or the use of newly issued codes or overseas codes such as the (American) National Fire Protection Standards. Building Code of Australia (BCA), Australian Standards (AS) and Approvals Building control legislation in Australia is structured as follows: 1. Acts 2. Regulations 3. Building Code of Australia (BCA) 4. Australian Standards (AS)
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Acts provide the framework and outline the intent of the legislation, whereas Building Regulations generally detail how the intent of the Act would be applied in practice. Furthermore, it is the Building Regulations that may or may not call up (or adopt) specific sections of the Building Code of Australia (BCA) and (to a lesser degree) specific Standards.
for a short period of time the building surveyor and designer were at cross purposes. In essence, the 2002 Standard provided advantages to the designer. These were accepted, and the adoption of the 2002 Standard was ratified through an Alternative Solution based on equivalence to the DTS (deemed to satisfy) provisions.
Since new or improved products and practices are continually coming onto market, these products are subjected to the compliance requirements demanded by Standards. The Standard’s testing and compliance requirements in turn, are developed by committees that may be represented by industry, technical testing bodies and government.
Most competent building surveyors will accept an Alternative Solution to adopt Standards other than those specified in the BCA, but they must be informed early in the design process.
Building Regulations are generally updated regularly with a full revision usually every ten years. The BCA in turn, is updated every year, but may or may not call up new or revised Standards to meet it’s deemed to satisfy provisions for building integrity and occupant safety. Being a performance-based Code however, the BCA is open to the application of Alternative Solutions where it can be demonstrated that the Alternative Solution meets or exceeds the existing BCA deemed to satisfy provisions. Therefore while industry might say that they should also be designing to the latest Australian Standard or internationally recognised Standard, the BCA states which Standard one should use in the design, and the BCA may well be calling up an earlier version of a particular standard. Adoption of nonreferenced standards can result in a departure from the BCA which needs to be properly considered and addressed and can lead to misunderstandings if the building surveyor is unaware that the designers have used a Standard that is not nominated in the BCA. A recent example was a designer who was designing to the latest Standard for air conditioning AS 1668.2: 2002, while the building surveyor was checking to the 1991 Standard which is called up by the current BCA. The use of the 2002 Standard was not immediately made aware to the building surveyor and so
It is also important to note that where an alternative solution applies because of the adoption of a different Standard to that specified in the BCA, the long term affect could be reflected in the ongoing essential safety measures maintenance regime for a building following the issue of a final certificate, occupancy permit, certificate of classification etc. at the end of the project by the building surveyor. An alternative solution acceptable to the building surveyor could also have an impact on the commissioning of an installation, factors which need to be made known to the contractor.
Design Compliance and Construction In the increasing high technology building environment, designers and contractors need to become more involved with the intricacies of a performance design or referral authority approved departures prior to lodging a building permit application with the building surveyor. This is of particular importance during the construction phase where typically, what is being built is not necessarily what is reflected in the original design that has been approved by the building surveyor which make up the permit documents. Buildings such as shopping centres, places of public assembly, hospitals and multi storey buildings are particularly at risk of as built changes, since they are required to have complex fire safety features that are included in passive construction or active systems, as set out in the originally approved design/ building permit by the building surveyor.
Building surveyors and others who have spent enormous time and effort to have a design documented to an approval stage often find an ill informed Contractor, Owner, Builder or Project Manager have affect changes during construction which have a negative impact on the original design intent. To overcome this, it is important for Design Consultants to be engaged to supervise, inspect and approve installations progressively during the construction of a building and for Contractors, particularly Design and Construct contractors, to constantly query that their installation is complying with the original approval. Further approvals and permits by a building surveyor must be put in place should a design be changed well before the installation is commissioned at the end of the project. Building surveyors see this as being an area of concern when Consultants are not adequately engaged to inspect the work relative to their expertise. This causes the building surveyor to escalate their due
diligence when faced with the completion phase of a project.
Inspecting and Commissioning Inspecting and signing off a project can be a time consuming and complex task. Unfortunately from a building surveyor’s perspective, too little regard is given to progressively documenting the actual construction and testing an installation during a project, resulting in embarrassments and time driven contract pressures not allowing sufficient resources to be devoted to commissioning at the end of a project. The building surveyor considers the signing off of a project as being a separate “permit” in its own right. For example, this is presently the case in Victoria at the moment as an applicant must submit a Form 5 “Application For Occupancy Permit”. Consequently, an acceptable level of documentation will be demanded by the building surveyor. Provision of as built plans will most likely be required and a
delay can be expected for the as builts to be re-examined. This means that if you have failed to collate evidence of the installation during construction or have not followed the approved plans, you will be faced with significant delays and the need to back track and explain what was installed and to update permits. An experienced building surveyor is well versed with this important step in the project and they will also liaise with the relevant authorities such as a Fire Brigade. Fire Brigades are also becoming increasingly diligent in this area and will want to inspect and witness commissioning tests. In New South Wales and Victoria for example, if a Fire Engineer has been originally engaged to issue an Alternative Solutions report, the building surveyor and the Fire Brigade will require a sign off on the completed project by that Fire Engineer. So with the scene set, what are the expectations for the Whole of Building
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Commissioning and how should this be achieved.
Their credentials and experience would need to be established and agreed.
When considering this aspect, one could consider two types of projects:
If one considers a typical multi storey building, the Whole of Building Commissioning will usually involve the key steps outlined below. (The same philosophy will apply to other projects, while the complexity may alter).
•O ne that is in essence an alteration to an existing installation. •N ew installations whether simple or complex. It is likely, when dealing with alterations to an existing installation, for the building surveyor to accept Contractor statements, commissioning reports, consultant inspection reports together with their own inspection regimes. The building surveyor will also check that the original permit documents have been complied with. Independent verification could be required for some installations.
Contractors and Consultants would be expected to follow the same logic prior to the Building surveyor or a Fire Brigade attending site.
Step One – Commissioning Phase • Verification and check that installation complies with approved plans or if not, amended approvals are in place.
For new work, in particular complex installations, the building surveyor will be requiring Consultant statements outlining their supervision of the work, Contractor statements and independent verification by a suitably qualified and experienced person, together with documentary evidence for the work done by the Contractor. An independent person could be one that is listed by the Australian Fire Safety Practitioner Accreditation Board or other Registered Practitioner. The building survey will also wish to witness commissioning tests and may require several tests to be carried.
• Carry out commissioning of individual installations by the contractor.
The Australian Fire Safety Practitioners Accreditation Board has a list of practitioners who are accredited to have proficiencies in certain key categories. Typically, these are:
• Fault rectification and certification.
• Hydrants and hose reels.
• Labeling, identification, signage, tactical fire plans etc. in place.
• Automatic sprinkler systems. • Detection and alarm systems. • Portable fire equipment. • Fixed suppression systems. • Emergency warning and evacuation. • Smoke exhaust systems. You will note that air conditioning zone smoke or stair pressurisation systems are not listed, therefore the person or organisation to provide the independent verification for these systems will need to be approved by the Building surveyor.
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• Document commissioning. • Inspection and report by relevant consultant. • Independent certification.
Step Two – Verification Phase • Inspection of installations by the Fire Brigade and building surveyor. • Witness of tests by building surveyor and the Fire Brigade. • Integrated testing of complete installations. • Re-inspection and testing.
Step Three – Sign Off Phase
• Submission of test reports, component information, as built drawings, commissioning reports, consultant reports and independent certification etc. to building surveyor. • Inspection and report by the fire engineer. • Submission to Fire Brigade. • Fire Brigade approval and sign off. • Building surveyor final approval leading to project sign off. • Witness that on site documents are provided.
So specifically what does all this mean? Historically, building surveyors were comforted in the knowledge that projects were being well supervised, inspected and that safe guards were in place to ensure projects were completed in compliance with the approved plans. Traditionally this happened through the understanding that the Consultant was knowledgeable and doing regular inspections, the Contractor performing the work was competent, the Project Manager had measures in place to validate the work and the Owner had their Clerk of Works on site. Today, there is more reliance on Design and Construct where Contractors need to operate as if they were Consultants. This means that the building surveyor must place more emphasis on proving the compliance of installations towards the end of a project and their commissioning. Consequently, a building surveyor will be requiring an Owner or Builder or Project Manager to furnish a significant amount of documentation to prove the installation complies. This in turn means that consultants, who may not be engaged sufficiently during the project and the contractors must more adequately document and prove what is being installed as they go. Doing catch up from a list of final inspection issues by a building surveyor at the end of project may be too late. This philosophy outlined above will equally apply to other installations in a building such as: •S moke and thermal detection systems (includes VESDA) and occupant warning systems. •S moke exhaust systems (arcades, atriums, large buildings). •H ydrants, hose reels, fire mains, pump sets and static water supplies. • Sprinkler systems. •E mergency lights and exit signs (too a lesser degree when they are a single point unit). • Stair pressurisation. • Lifts (including emergency lifts). • Kitchen exhaust systems.
â€˘ Emergency warning and intercommunication systems. â€˘ Fire rated switchboards, sub boards and cabling. It needs to be emphasized that where buildings containing complex active fire safety systems, where each contractor does their own bit, it is mandatory that a number of integrated fire alarm tests be conducted. This is usually based on a fire alarm being triggered via a number of inputs and the reaction of each installation is witnessed for correct operation. Fire alarms would be triggered through various smoke detectors for example and one would note whether the smoke detector locations are correctly displayed at the fire indicator panel. Similarly, sprinkler activation would be simulated and the response of the installation recorded and measured. Air handling system operation can then be established concurrently.
The building surveyor will expect this testing to be properly documented and presented as a report and certification. One may question why the building surveyor will go to such lengths of requiring adequate proof of operational compliance of installations in buildings. It is important for Consultants, Contractors and Project Managers etc to note that the building surveyor will issue a list of Essential Safety Measures applying to the building or the building work either at the issue of an approval or at the issue of an occupancy permit etc., depending on your State or Territory requirements. It is expected by law, that an Owner must maintain the items listed to the standard and frequency specified in the schedule. This means that if an installation is poorly installed, or does not comply with the approval or does not perform as required, how is an Owner expected to maintain the installation to the correct standard?
The discovery of poor quality or non compliant installations leads to litigation and practitioners will be disciplined for their inappropriate actions by the relevant State/ Territory Regulatory Boards. The flow down consequence is that there is a duty of care obligation on the building surveyor (putting aside negligence) and this means that the building surveyor will not sign off a project unless completely satisfied with the compliance and performance of its installations. Compliance in this case means compliance with the BCA and the approved documents. Whilst this might sound overwhelming, experienced Contractors, Consultants and Project Managers will foresee these issues and plan their installation and commission phases to incorporate establishing proof of compliance and demonstrable operational compliance early during the completion of a project. n
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Don't Re-buy Re-dye Australian carpet dyeing Lorraine Pearson
here is a saying that says “Nothing is new for ever” and when it comes to carpet this is a very true statement. Not only is it one of the biggest expenses in any decorating budget it is also visually one of the largest and most impacting in the overall interior décor scheme. So what happens after a few years of wear and tear? Your beautiful luxurious carpets are starting to show their age and the cost of replacement is out of the question. Well that’s when you give your carpets a ”MAKEOVER”. We have the solution for many carpet ailments. From the re-colouring of bleach marks to complete colour change, Australian Carpet Dyeing can literally save clients thousands of dollars when compared to the cost of replacement.
Is it Green? Our process is non toxic and environmentally friendly. Also you will be helping the environment in reduction of land fill by choosing to keep and extend the life of your existing carpets. Will it cover the stains? Yes in most cases. Our Carpet dye technicians will strip clean all carpets prior to dyeing to ensure they are unsoiled and free from residual cleaning products. Then by choosing a new colour that is conducive to the colour scheme but deeper than the original colour most stains will be covered permanently. How do I choose a colour?
We customize and mix colours to suit our client’s décor. If you have a fabric or paint swatch we will formulate a colour to suit your existing carpet colour.
Why should one consider re dyeing?
Will it wash out?
It is very cost effective saving owners between 40%-80% when compared to the cost of replacement.
No Our Carpet dye is 100% colourfast when used on either wool or nylon
Case Study 2. Two year old chocolate brown carpet. Shag pile carpet has come in contact with chemicals or harsh cleaning products causing the blue and red pigments to leach out leaving the area orange/yellow. Solution: Rather than replacing the entire stair case or doing a carpet patch we can do a colour repair.
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Case Study 1. High demand holiday apartment. The carpet was very faded and had been a blue/ green colour. As the apartment was in the holiday letting pool it was time for the owners to upgrade and give the apt a more modern look. They selected a charcoal colour.
Case Study 3. Eight year old blue carpet. 8 year old blue nylon plush pile carpet has gone pinkish due to colour fading out. Solution: rather than replacing we matched and did a complete colour restoration.
carpets Polypropylene and acrylic fibres aren’t dyeable. Can I have my carpets steam cleaned? Yes, but be careful not to use high chemically based detergents as this can strip the colour and speed up the fading of new and recoloured carpet. At Australian Carpet Dyeing we’ve been rejuvenating carpets since 1993 and put simply the transformation is amazing. Our aim is to provide our client’s the highest level of service and best quality products that are available. So if for any reason your carpets aren’t looking as good as they could then call Australian Carpet Dyeing and speak with Lorraine (on mob. 0417 574 614 or 07 5559 1382) to arrange a free appraisal and discuss the options before replacing. n
Case Study 4. Eight year old carpet losing colour. 8 year old carpet began losing its colour after 18 months. Not covered under warranty. The owners had the option of either replacing all of it which would have cost $6,000 or redyeing it for $1,300. They chose the latter.
Case Study 5. Pale seafoam green carpet. 6 years old and whilst still in very good condition, over the years it had faded down to a very insipid yellowish green. The owners request was to return it to it's original colour. They were delighted with the finished result.
Save thousands of $$$
Australian Carpet Dyeing
compared to buying a new carpet! “The difference is amazing” This is a common reaction from our clients who have used Australian Carpet Dyeing (ACD) system. Established in 1993, ACD offer the most advanced on-floor carpet restoration service available today – anywhere.
ACD technicians use the finest quality pigments and cleaning agents to thoroughly clean your carpets prior to them being re-dyed into more modern or serviceable colours. Original colour restorations are also available.
07 5559 1382 or 0417 574 614 www.aust-carpetdyeingqld.com.au ph
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An Integrated Approach to Guest Room Entertainment & Internet Ross Coldwell I Managing Director of Lifestylepanel Pty Limited Convergence of all the key elements of a Guest’s expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment into a single easy-to-use interface.
he Challenge: Hotels often have to deal to the all too common difficulties and frustration guests have trying to work or being informed or entertained in their hotel room. The simple things, like internet, movies, television and other hotel services, and being able to easily communicate with their business, family and friends while away from home. So what is needed to meet those needs neatly and simply? The ideal is the true integration of the range of guest services, all streamlined to the guest room via a quality High Definition LED TV with easy-to-use remote control and keyboard. These services include movies-on-demand, free-to-air and subscriber TV, Internet via the TV, cable and Wi-Fi, Skype, hotel information, advertising and online shopping. Foreign language support is also important. Connectivity: Laptop Internet access should work regardless of the Guest’s computer setup, be it DCHP or Static IP, Guest email not requiring changes to their POP or SMTP settings and support for corporate guest VPNs. Above all, the Guest expects and should experience: • available, fast, secure and discreet internet browsing • access to WebMail and Skype services, and • secure print services from the room Wi-Fi Services: Now requisite in any hotel it must be a quality providing optimum coverage to each room and the hotel environs. Regardless of price, even if free to the guests, it has to deliver high quality dependable service. Movie Time: The service providing the most complaints for hotels. Movies-on-demand does not mean having to join a queue or wait for some rotation of titles. It means being able to select from a quality library and watch it immediately, or at any time, with full trick play for the guest’s convenience. All, of course, in digital High Definition quality on a screen sized appropriately for the room. Competitive Costs: Hotels can face high cost capital outlays to upgrade their outdated TVs and services, often having to deal with multiple vendors. Securing a competitive upgrade by purchase or rent-to-own options with little or no disruption to existing guest services is essential, as is a quick efficient Install leaving a tidy room setup. A Fair Share of Revenues: Having a fair revenue sharing arrangement gives a hotel the incentive to promote in-room services and improve the bottom line.
All the key elements of the Guest’s expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment converge into a single easy-to-use interface
Single Supplier Simplicity: For in-room delivery of content the hotel ideally has only the one vendor to deal with. One vendor who controls and manages the entire process, from installation through ongoing provision and management of the system including movies and other entertainment content Access to Information: Real time online reporting with simplified billing integrated with the PMS systems is desirable, with a guest interface customised for the Hotel’s brand. Online compendiums and information pages offer significant savings over traditional hardcover printed versions. Not to be overlooked is foreign language menu support especially for Chinese, Japanese and Korean guests. Energy Saving: Ideally, guest entertainment systems should run through the hotel rooms’ non-essential power supply to assist in meeting your energy saving goals. These represent the key elements to satisfy guest and hotel management expectations alike. The majority of guests are prepared to pay for quality of service. The challenge is to keep that cost to Guest affordable and delivering a high quality dependable service. n
Lifestylepanel Pty Ltd develops and delivers leading-edge in-room entertainment and information technologies for use in the international hotel market. Ross Coldwell can be contacted at: email@example.com
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Hotel design – Avoid Design Folly Greg Blain I Architect Pty Ltd Introduction In my last article, I discussed the basic principles in the process of getting a building designed and built. In this article, I will discuss getting better value out of the design process and a better building solution, focusing on one, often overlooked design factor. Buildings are very complex and need to be designed by competent and experienced professionals. In my opinion, it is a crime to design poor quality buildings. Not only do Owners get less value for money, but the environment suffers because the large amounts of the energy and resources required are squandered. There are many things which need to be resolved by the Designer during building design including cost, climate control, efficient planning, appropriate materials selections, durability, environmental resourcefulness, and much more. This article will concentrate on one basic but significant building design factor which nearly always significantly reduces building quality. I am referring to design folly. My Dictionary of Architecture defines folly as ‘A costly but useless structure built to satisfy the whim of some eccentric’. I can add to this definition with ‘…and based on aesthetics to the detriment of all other design factors’. Folly is rampant
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and the cost is huge. Designers often claim it is necessary to avoid boring buildings (perhaps an admission of design skill). In my 30+ years in the building industry, I am yet to see one practical reason in favour of using folly. The common cause for folly is aesthetics, and that is a problem because aesthetics is based on opinion, not fact, science or common sense. I will show how folly can impact negatively on virtually the whole building by breaking the discussion into two parts, fashion and decoration, and complex aesthetics.
Fashion and decoration Fashion can provide change and variety but it eventually makes the unique common. This may be acceptable for disposable items such as clothing or cars. For buildings, which can stand for many decades, fashion can lead to expensive failure. Fashion in building is superficial, favouring transient whim and shallow logic over well reasoned, timeless and creative design. It is a temporary fad-based aesthetic with no relationship to Owner, building or Site. Fashion used to display progressive modernity can be cheap folly at an expensive price, forcing premature refurbishment due to its temporary nature. Fashion often leads to over-reliance on add-on decoration. Decoration including complex aesthetics, should not be
necessary on a well-designed building, and may be aesthetic relief to bad design. Fashion and decoration can be cost in-effective as these extra decorative materials are first required to be provided and then refurbished prematurely. Essential materials only should be used to create the aesthetics and every component should have a practical function. Complex aesthetics (sometimes called art, not fashion) is often used as decoration at great cost to an Owner and the environment, and can promote unnecessary, dysfunctional and expensive problems.
Complex aesthetics Use of complex aesthetics (including curves and irregular shapes) is often for fashion or decoration, with no planning, technical, construction, environmental, or cost benefit. Buildings that shout loudly demanding attention have had resources dedicated to that purpose for little gain at the expense of more important needs. Claims of boring buildings without complex aesthetics are incorrect and short sighted. Claims that curves are needed to soften building lines ignore simple beauty and elegance. Claims for organic form (or free form) ignore the fact that buildings are not grown and it is unnatural to spend so much time, energy and money to re-work materials. Undulating floors, step treads, bench tops, doors, pipe work, etc always seem to be absent from the curved and pro-organic spin. An important question needs asking of any design decision, â€œWhat is the point?â€? If aesthetics is the only answer, then aesthetics (being only one design factor) dominates at the expense of other factors. Every component should have a practical function and curves and irregular shapes are unnecessary. Responsible design is the use of practical science ordered artistically, not the opposite, and Architecture has to be more than folly or gimmick made for visual entertainment. Countless global examples exist of great buildings using simple building form. Critical to responsible Architecture is to create an exciting design concept that optimises Site potential, materials, and Owner needs, in a well planned, efficient and beautiful way, not relying on aesthetic complexity.
Disadvantages of Complex Aesthetics Disadvantages of complex aesthetics (including curves and irregular shapes) include: 1. Risky aesthetics, as the radical (when built) may be less accepted by both the Owner and onlookers (the latter may lead to poor resale value). 2. Complexity has higher environmental cost, with increased energy and material use. 3. Straight line form and 90 degree jointing is basic to most manufacturing processes. Extra design, documentation, labour, energy, wastage and costs are required to alter this manufacturing basic. 4. When standard manufacturing practice of straight line form and 90 degree jointing is cut or altered, off-cuts result which need to be discarded or recycled, increasing energy and material consumption. 5. Complexity creates higher project costs, by increasing design and construction times, and labour, energy and material wastage. Also, longer design, documentation, and construction times increase building finance interest costs and lost revenue from an uncompleted project. 6. Complexity often creates the desire for expensive facelift more quickly, while simple practical shapes, often seen
Environmental morality is lost using complex aesthetics due to its huge consumption of energy and resources. Beautiful simple buildings can be inspirational and environmentally beneficial, and the finances saved can go towards investments which help the economy and the environment. If complex aesthetics can not be abandoned, consider only using complex aesthetic proprietary fixtures/fittings. This way, the aesthetic is achieved but reduced to an appropriate level of importance, without the extra costs and extended construction times, and can more readily change with fashion. Advantages of Complex Aesthetics Advantages of complex aesthetics (including curves and irregular shapes) include possibly aesthetically interesting (this depends on individual taste).
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in historic buildings, are still very relevant today. 7. Complexity likely increases chance of design or construction error. 8. Complexity can involve doing things which are not often done, so inherent problems may only be evident after construction is complete. 9. Complexity can create a higher Tender pricing mentality, to cover higher risk. When building demand is high, this mentality can be exacerbated if other less risky projects are available. 10. Building planning suffers when dictated by complexity (and less by Owner needs). In Plan view, angled and curved walls with perpendicular walls joining, can arrange like spokes on a wheel, converging into nusable, inaccessible sharp corners needing cross-walls to permanently close the sharp corner, resulting in more material use, in-efficient space, and loss of floor space. 11. In Plan view, 45 degree walls are expensive and time consuming to build and inefficient in planning and use. 12. Building members (e.g. “I”, “C” or “L” shapes) are hard to curve. Fold a long piece of cardboard into an “L” and bend it. The side that deforms or tears, in a building situation, either has to be a) multiple-cut along the length and re-joined after curving, b) have material thickness increased to enable heated rework, c) cut from flat material, then joined to the other leg (e.g. by welding). All options are expensive, and wasteful of energy, resources and materials. 13. Complex and intricate facades may be easily damaged by wind blown debris, and can produce unacceptable wind noise. 14. Curves in fabrication need extra work to set-out, hold temporarily, set the curve, and handle. Multiple on-site repetitions of identical curves can create consistency problems. 15. Curved and irregular shapes are difficult to join to, as evidenced by the planning, measuring, set-out,
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and cutting required joining a material neatly to a simple round pipe. 16. Curved and irregular shapes consume more space and need extra support during transport, adding to transport costs. 17. Curved shapes don’t fit with other straight elements, such as furniture, doors and windows. 18. Curved roof apex (roof top with falls either side) may retain dirt/debris (it is less likely to be rain washed off) maybe causing corrosion, and spring curved roofs (flat metal sheets pushed down over a curved frame) may induce more uplift force at fixings and exacerbate wind uplift force. 19. Sloping walls create wasted floor space, as people or furniture cannot be stood against them. 20. Sloping columns or posts can create a head or shoulder impact hazard, require extra set-out work and temporarily support, and experience eccentric gravity loads thus requiring bigger members. 21. Glass sloping inwards can create head impact hazard, as a person
walking towards the sloping glass may see the sill as the stop point, not the invisible, much closer glass at head height. 22. G lass sloping outwards can create a trip hazard, as a person walking towards the sloping glass may see the higher glass/frame further out than the bottom of the wall. 23. S loping glass and irregular shaped windows are difficult fit with furnishings (e.g. curtains, blinds) or operable sashes. Sloping glass also becomes dirty very quickly. 24. A complex aesthetic (especially smaller detail-type complexity) may not be noticed by anyone except the Owner and Designer.
Conclusion It is a fact that the more fashion, decoration and complex aesthetics is used, the poorer the quality of the building becomes. Beautiful, unique completely functional and simply constructed buildings can be made, giving Owners value for money (in initial building costs and in operational costs) and a memorable and admirable building which will aesthetically, physically and emotionally stand the test of time. n
Back of House
he solar collector panels are on the roof, the system is connected and ‘tis a grand sight to watch the old kWh meter turning backwards! So very simple; you have to ask yourself why the heck have we dithered so long, indeed why the heck don’t all of us connect with the great fire ball in the sky? Through a DC to AC inverter, the inverter being an inverted converter, the heart of the system if you will. Many years ago, and before the troubles in the foot-hills of the great Himalayas, I happened to be in an old British hotel perched high in one of the beautiful valleys in the Hindu Kush. I was The Engineer to whom the locals came for advice on just about anything – there being the belief that the engineer was some kind of witch doctor with associated mystic powers. Ho hum! So there I was, a couple of sizable diesels driving DC generators with the hotel just 2 km down the road. Managing 110 Volts on a good day giving around 100 Volts at the business end, the system worked albeit with huge losses. Interestingly The New Yorker Hotel, constructed in 1929 had a large direct-current [DC] power plant and did not convert fully to alternating current [AC] until well into the 1960s. When initially built the New Yorker Hotel had coal-fired steam boilers and generators sufficient to produce more than 2200 kilowatts of direct current electric power. At the time this was the largest private power plant in the United States. The hotel's own direct current generators were still in use during the Northeast Blackout of 1965, but by the late 1960s the hotel's power system had been modernized to alternating current. In a dedication ceremony held on September 25, 2008, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) named the New Yorker Hotel's direct current power plant a Milestone in Electrical Engineering. A bronze plaque commemorating the achievement was presented to the hotel by IEEE. ‘Courtesy Wikipedia’ Back to the Hindu Kush where the GM was not at all pleased with his new appointment. The word was that he had been a naughty boyoh so hence the posting. Whatever, I was frequently carpeted on matters more properly in the realm of Edison and Tesla and the Battle of the Currents. Not to mention Rudolph Diesel and his infernal heat engines. How in tarnation, the GM would bellow, am I to run this apology for a 3 star hotel when the lighting is up or down and mostly down, and the stink of engine exhaust is even in my bedroom! And so forth.
In truth the guests were not so unhappy. They had something to write home about, in addition to experiencing one of the most beautiful backgrounds on the planet. That is, excepting monsoons and avalanches of course. So I did my 2-years and slugged it out with Authority and head office in the US who only knew of AC/DC in the Rock form, a pun I remember being mighty proud of! Thing is that in the late 1880s there was indeed an intense ‘Battle of the Currents waged in the US, due to Thomas Edison’s promotion of direct current for electric power distribution over alternating current advocated by Nikola Tesla. It’s a fascinating story with even the invention and first use of the Electric Chair making headlines for the protagonists. By 1896 it was all over. Tesla’s AC plant at Niagara Falls with power stepped via the new transformer systems won the day. Hooray for Nikola Tesla! Meanwhile, back at the ranch so to say, the new General Manager of the hotel was working himself up into a pint size nuke incident. He had not been told about the state of affairs here he moaned; where were all the British staff, the expertise he was accustomed to, the decent lighting and decent power supply, in short how the blah blah was he to run this apology for a 19th century 3 star coach stop? Darn good question, I said. How would it be if we all sat down for Tiffin while I begin at the beginning? Once upon a time [I said] when the birds ate lime and monkeys chewed tobacco……… And so it came about that an old copy of Kipling was found in someone’s kit by an even older Indian fellah, and as quick as you might blink the page was opened with the story of Christmas. Ho Ho says I, never mind where we come from, no matter about the wretched smoke, the noise and the flickering, we nearly forgot the story of Christmas! That night all the staff and all the guests sat around a huge open fire beneath a wondrous moon, with the awesome Himalayas peering over the Hindu Kush, and then wonder of wonders our General Manager began to read the beautiful words of the Christmas tale…… We were at peace. Happy Christmas all From Neil and Madeleine
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Serendipity will not Eradicate Chloroform from our Public Swimming Pools – Part 1 Alan Lewis The Historical Background
Suspected carcinogen (tumorigenic) and teratogen (affecting the fetus) based on animal data.
At a very young age, I once had the experience of a rude awakening from a tonsillectomy operation, accompanied by induced nauseous vomiting. Yes this followed an operation in which the anaesthetic was Chloroform (Trichloromethane).
Human: passes the placental barrier, detected in maternal milk. Causes eye irritation, burning pain and reversible injury to corneal epithelium
While my tonsils were successfully removed without pain, and I have lived to tell this tale, surgeons and anaesthetists have since ditched the use of this narcotic. Intense and prolific research (particularly in Germany in the late 19th Century) showed that it’s use led to a substantial number of fatalities. In 1934 Killian compared the statistics and found that the chances of fatal complications under ether were between 1:14,000 and 1:28,000 while under chloroform the chances were between 1:3,000 and 1:6,000. Many efforts followed these findings to improve the equipment for administering anaesthetics, until the discovery of Hexobarbital in 1932 led to the gradual decline of chloroform narcosis (Wawersik J. 1998). The story of the clinical use of chloroform only finally ended in 1976. Toxicologists today are restricting the use of Chloroform in the workplace and requiring the use of protective gear to prevent incidental inhalation (of the gas) or exposure of the skin to the liquid. Furthermore there is now some evidence of mutagenic effects on mammalian somatic (body) cells and mutagenic or yeast damage to the kidneys, liver and heart. Toxic effects on humans include hazardous irritation of the skin (dermal contact); and defined hazards at specific concentrations of ingestion, or inhalation.
The Material Safety Data Sheets include: May affect genetic material (possible mutagen) and cause adverse reproductive effects (embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity)
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Inhalation: Causes irritation of the respiratory system (mucous membranes). May affect behaviour/Nervous system (CNS depressant, fatigue, dizziness, nervousness, giddiness, euphoria, loss of coordination and judgement, weakness, hallucinations, muscle contraction/spasticity, general anaesthetic, spastic paralysis, headache), anorexia (neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms resembling chronic alcoholism), and possibly coma and death. May affect the liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting). Ingestion: Causes gastrointestinal tract irritation (nausea, vomiting). May affect the liver, urinary system (kidneys), respiration, behaviour/nervous system (symptoms similar to inhalation) and heart.
Chronic Potential Health Effects Inhalation: Prolonged or repeated inhalation may affect the liver (hepatitis, jaundice, hepatocellular necrosis), metabolism (weight loss), respiration (fibrosis, pneumoconiosis), behaviour/central nervous system (symptoms similar to acute inhalation), blood, musculoskeletal system and kidneys. Ingestion: Prolonged or repeated ingestion may affect the liver, kidneys and metabolism (weight loss), endocrine system (spleen), blood (changes in cell count). Finally the carcinogenic effects on humans are now classified as proven; while recent longitudinal studies in Spain have found a strong correlation between Bladder cancer and chloroform and bromoform (Trihalomethanes). This list is quite awesome, but the current important and debatable issues concern the concentrations at which the toxicity of chloroform is harmful to swimmers – whether in water or in the ambient air. While countries like Germany; Austria, Denmark and Sweden and many other European countries, are requiring a limit of 20 µm (micro-mil)/litre in recreational water; Australia, USA, Canada, and many undeveloped countries, are allowing 100 µm/litre – as does the World Health Organisation
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(WHO). Likewise standards for THM concentrations in pool hall air also vary markedly from country to country.
How does Chloroform Develop in Swimming Pools? Hypochlorous acid (free chlorine HOCl) + SKIN ➞ chloroform (CHCl3)
The chemical reaction described in the equation above has been researched thoroughly and conclusively – particularly over the last decade. Therefore the development of Chloroform in a swimming pool is inevitable so long as there are bathers and the Free chlorine level in the pool is maintained automatically. Chloroform Trichloromethane
Although the chemical paths by which Trichloromethane develops in pools are not clearly defined, there is ample evidence that they are both created in on the surface of the skin and taken into the blood stream through the pores of the skin as well as by inhalation as they become gases at the surface of the pool from the splashing of the swimmers. Furthermore we know that whether the skin cells have fallen to the floor of the pool or been caught up in the filter, the chemical reaction continues until the cells are totally oxidised and converted to a volatile liquid. Consequently it is now apparent that media filters are basically “trichloromethane factories” unless they are backwashed on a very regular basis. The use of polymer coagulants will encourage their capture in the sand filter – but will not stop the growth of the THM residual.
The Human Skin Functions of the skin include: insulation, temperature regulation, sensation and the protection of vitamin D folates. When the cells are ready, they start moving toward the top of your epidermis. This trip takes about 2 weeks to a month. As newer cells continue to move up, older cells near the top die and rise to the surface of your skin. What you see on your
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hands (and everywhere else on your body) are really dead skin cells. Though you can't see it happening, every minute of the day we lose about 30,000 to 40,000 dead skin cells off the surface of our skin. So just in the time it took you to read this far, you've probably lost about 40,000 cells. That's almost 9 pounds (4 kilograms) of cells every year! But don't think your skin might wear out someday. Your epidermis is always making new skin cells that rise to the top to replace the old ones. Most of the cells in your epidermis (95%) work to make new skin cells. The average adult has about 2 square metres of skin in total and as such is the largest single organ of our body. To cool you down, sweat glands also swing into action by making lots of sweat to release body heat into the air. The hotter you are, the more sweat your glands make! Once the sweat hits the air, it evaporates (this means that it changes from a liquid to a vapor) off your skin, and you cool down. In a heated swimming pool you continue to sweat as you exercise, but instead of converting it to a vapour to cool the body, the sweat quickly combines with Chlorine to make monochloramines. n
To see this diagram enlarged please visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin
Part 2 of this article will look at the ways in which we can reduce the chloroform that develops in public pools and how to design pools and their plant rooms so as to reduce both chloramines and chloroform in pool water and pool hall air.
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The Biggest Yet
Next year’s Air Conditioning, Refrigeration and Building Services (ARBS) Exhibition in Melbourne will be the biggest yet. More than 200 Australian and international exhibitors will display current and new technologies of interest to professionals and tradespeople across the HVAC&R and building services industries.
he biannual Australian tradeshow is regarded as a launching platform for many vendors with new products and technologies to demonstrate. For example, Air Change will be showcasing its new dehumidification unit (ACDHUM-1). “ARBS is an important show for us, to ensure we get our products in front of the people who best understand their application and benefits,” says Shane Carmichael, NSW Sales Manager at Air Change. “It’s a great way for people to gain an understanding of our new products – they can experience them in action, within an interactive environment.” Alongside the exhibition runs a technical seminar series at which HVAC&R professionals, facilities managers and building services professionals can hear the latest on a range of topics and network with their peers. The three day series has a strong technical line up of national and international speakers. A mini-theme of the sessions is “promise versus performance” and speakers will address different aspects of green buildings and energy management: •A session on energy performance contracts (Bryon Price, AG Coombes) will be of interest to any architects, designers and constructors involved in new style contracts with environmental performance guarantees. •B uilding tuning case studies provide hard facts about “as designed” versus “as built” buildings. A notable Sydney building, designed to 4.5 stars, accomplished just 2.5 once commissioned. A specialist building tuner tweaked systems to achieve performance of 4.5 stars and continued making incremental changes during building maintenance and eventually achieved 5 star performance. •R oger Kluske (Umow Lai) discusses how a paradigm shift is required in the relationship between building owners and tenants in order to bring promise and performance into line. Industry hot topics Building Information Modelling (BIM) and cogeneration/trigeneration will be addressed by panels featuring mini-presentations from people working in different disciplines, followed by panel Q&A sessions.
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BIM is becoming increasingly important as all parties involved in design and construction seek to streamline processes and cut costs. The ultimate promise of BIM is to develop building models that are passed between the design team to the construction team and on to the building owner/operator, eliminating the use of draft drawings. Cogeneration and trigeneration continue to be hot topics, with the announcement late last year of a new five-block greenfields site in Victoria’s Dandenong that will use a central trigeneration facility to provide district heating and cooling. This is an ambitious project in an environment that can offer significant barriers to successful operation. A 2011 report from ClimateWorks Australia and Seeds Advisory, Unlocking Barriers To Cogeneration, reports that Australian property owners and developers “face a complex and burdensome connection process and regulatory barriers that inhibit them from deploying the technology”. Find out the pitfalls and the current state of play from the experts on our panel. Refrigerants are also topical, in light of the new carbon tax and the refrigerant levy. Both the tax and the levy will be discussed from governmental and industry perspectives, an a member of the working group on the revised refrigeration safety and environment standard AS/NZS1677-2 will discuss what you can expect in the new standard to be released late in 2012. A highlight of the three-day trade show is the gala dinner at which the ARBS industry award winners are announced. The awards recognise excellence in Australia’s HVAC, refrigeration and building services industries. Entry to the exhibition is free of charge. Seminar registrations are now open at the ARBS website, www.arbs.com.au n
ABOUT ARBS 2012 Where: Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, South Wharf, Melbourne, Victoria Exhibition dates: Monday 7 May – Wednesday 9 May 2012 Cost: Exhibition – free of charge, trade visitors only Seminars – costs to be advised with final programme (free to speakers) Info: www.arbs.com.au Twitter: arbs2012 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/ARBSMedia contact: Jane Burren, firstname.lastname@example.org, 0409 192 223
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Rheem pool heating delivers perfect temperature 365 days a year The Australian pool heating market is highly competitive and volatile. There is a myriad of brands and choices. It's scary. About the only thing that can be guaranteed is that you will always find something cheaper. At Rheem Pool Heating, we prefer to do business in the old fashioned way. We will look in detail at what you want to achieve. We will present you with options. We will look for the best option, regardless of price. We will seek a solution, not simply a sale. It is not one size fits all when you deal with a long-standing brand like Rheem that prides itself on its market reputation. We will treat your project as our own. We will be here for the long-term, providing support over the life of your heater. We will evaluate every option. We will give clear assumptions and expectations. We understand local conditions. We know electricity and gas pricing. We will give you all the information that you need to make a judgement as to what is right for you. We have sold pool heating technology for a combined 60+ years so please,ask us the hard questions.
RHEEM Pool Heating
Get online at www.rheempoolheating.com.au and forward the design questionnaire or contact us directly on 1300 132 950.
Phone: 1300 132 950 email: email@example.com web www.rheempoolheating.com.au
KONE Competence Centres Through global competence centers and Technical support structures KONE has been able to educate its Australia wide Service Technicians in the maintenance and repair of all types of lifts, escalators, auto doors and roller shutters. This has enabled KONE to provide a unique one stop service for vertical transport and door equipment in hotels across Australia. The competence centers gather the latest knowledge from the field and make it available to KONE personnel around the world. Maintenance and troubleshooting methods are developed in competence centers to support KONE Service Technicians and training is completed on elevator, escalator and building door simulators ensuring that
each Technician has the skills required to repair a variety of equipment. Individual expertise of the local KONE Technician is supported by the technical support structure, with local Technical Support Group Engineers to provide assistance through to Help Desks that provides front-line support. This global network ensures that each KONE Service Technician receives assistance to even the most complex cases quickly. “We are finding that many of our Customers are under pressure to consolidate the number of service providers on their properties, however still need to ensure that reliability, safety and the life cycle of their lifts or auto doors is protected.
A key to KONE success as a service provider for all types of lifts, escalators and building doors has been the technical support structures and training implemented with the support and data developed by the global competency centre’s” Michael Humphrey, National Account Manager. In recent years technology has diversified and service companies now face more varieties of technologies, spare parts and service tools than ever. KONE uses its vast experience to continuously develop its systems and network to ensure its Service Technicians are fully equipped to answer today’s Hotel industry requirements. For more information or support with your elevator, escalator or building door preventative maintenance or repair requirements visit www.kone.com.au
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Nothing is too hard for Sunlite Commercial…
• C ommercial Cleaning
Our specialty is ‘hard to find’ items.
• S afety –Personal protective equipment
Sunlite Commercial specialise in supplying Commercial Hardware and Electrical to hotels, building maintenance managers, food and beverage operators, housekeeping, facilities management in Sydney CBD and Australia wide. • Less than 3 hour response time to calls or e-mails • Wholesale electrical and plumbing, lighting and paint, • Hotel Supplies
• R estaurant Supplies
• S ite visits or regular visits • D elivery direct to site Sunlite Commercial has a team of knowledgeable and well trained Account Managers ready to help you and make a difference to your business. You can call up for a quote and discuss your needs over the phone, or have one of our account managers come to your site for a visit. If you are in the Sydney CBD, and are looking for someone to come to site to have a look at a special product or take orders for you, call us
up for a no obligation quote. We can take pictures, measurements and source what you need or help suggest options for different applications We understand the need to get the job done fast, the first time which is why we have a less than three hour response time by phone or e-mail. Nothing is too hard to find or source, so if we don’t have it we can special order it for you. We have a policy here at Sunlite Hardware. If you can’t find it and we don’t have it, we’ll do our best to get it. That’s our promise from Sunlite Commercial to you. Call John Brownlee today on 0450 069 965 74 Pitt Street, Sydney E: firstname.lastname@example.org www.sunlitecommercial.com.au
Mobile phone access cuts keycard and staff costs by motivating travellers to bypass the Front Desk and enter a booked room directly with keyless access OpenWays has developed a very powerful, secure, multi technology and fully interoperable method of checking in to a pre-booked Hotel room using any mobile phone as a mobile key. Regardless of whether the phone is old or new, smart or not, it can be used to gain entry to the room in exactly the same way as a keycard would. The guest gains access by holding his/her phone against the electronic lock. The phone emits a sound which allows access only to that guest and only to that pre-booked Hotel room – simple and easy keyless access employing the latest in technology for the benefit of guest, Hotel and the environment. The acoustic key signal is absolutely secure using an impenetrable technology called Crypto Acoustic Credential (CAC™). Studies show that, when given a choice, 87% of guests will choose self service “sometimes’ or “always” rather than assisted interaction with staff. 86% of customers are more likely to do business with a company that offers that flexibility. Statistically, there are 6.9 billion people worldwide. Remarkably, 5.8 billion of those people have a mobile phone in service! More and more businesses are taking advantage of this and are using technology to change the way of doing business to take advantage of mobile applications such as OpenWays. Doing so allows these companies (Hotels, Backpackers and the like) to reduce operating costs by allowing guests to bypass Front Desk key cutting and introduction and go directly to their rooms. This application of technology also allows organisations to use direct sales channels to produce greater income from this mobile key service. Hoteliers can take the initiative back by increasing direct e-transactions with immediate payment and
reduced desk transactions increasing profit and cash flow. Other benefits of keyless entry via mobile phone key is smooth and efficient last minute room changes, extended or changed stay conditions, room ready notifications and more effective group management. The operating system requirements are an OpenWays chipset, listening device, an internet connection and an OpenWays acoustic credential translator. OpenWays interfaces with Kaba electronic locks regardless of the card technology that is being used and Kaba already has working sites with more than 2000 locks utilising the technology and operating successfully. Pending sales and market interest in OpenWays will reach up to 20,000 in 2012. OpenWays already interfaces with the Hotel’s PMS systems and can facilitate mobile bookings, mobile confirmations, e-payments and more. The interaction between the two solutions enables the guest to securely receive their room number and room key via phone, thereby streamlining the check-in and check-out process by allowing the guest to bypass the front desk. This solution allows for better guest service, operating cost reduction, margin improvement, and guest channel shift. Furthermore, whilst NFC in mobile telephony is still not finalised worldwide. Openways has developed an easy and secure solution to these issues. From next year all OpenWays lock devices will carry the NFC chip within it making it ready to adapt to any and all of the potential eventualities.
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