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HOTEL ENGINEER ARIA Hotel Canberra luxury, style and cutting edge technology


PP 319986/101

Volume 15 No. 3

HOTEL ENGINEER Adbourne PUBLISHING Adbourne Publishing 18/69 Acacia Rd, Ferntree Gully, VIC, 3156 PO Box 735, Belgrave, VIC 3160 Melbourne: Neil Muir Ph: (03) 9758 1433 Fax: (03) 9758 1432 Email: Adelaide: Robert Spowart Ph: 0488 390 039 Email: Production: Claire Henry Tel: (03) 9758 1436 Email: Administration: Robyn Fantin Tel: (03) 9758 1431 Email: Marketing: Tania Lamanna Tel: (03) 9500 0285 Email:


contents 07 3 4 7 10 17 23 25 31 Publishers' Message State News The Conference Room / Ballroom Sound System Reduce direct costs and save money Where is hotel technology currently headed? Regulation Update Canberra hotel dynasty Digital TV Reception: The Analogue "Switch-Off" and how it will affect you! Burj Khalifa: Living the high life An Integrated Approach to Guest Room Entertainment & Internet Optimum chiller design for low lift conditions Back of House Profile: Anura Yapa How Safe is Your Building? More-accessible hotels from 2011 Case Study: Shangri-La Hotel Sydney Building Management System Maximising your room profit Case Study: Chiller Performance Test Rig Living and Working in Clean Air as nature intended Mitigating disaster with accurate data In a `No Frills' World, Self Service Works Hotel lock supplier comes out swinging over allegations The Secret Code of Pest Management Another Look at Hydroxyl Radicals (OH�) Australia's toughest pool safety laws (Queensland) Product News

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38 43 45 48 51 52 57 59 63 64 69 71 73 75 76 79 81 82

DISCLAIMER Adbourne Publishing cannot ensure that the advertisers appearing in The Hotel Engineer comply absolutely with the Trades Practices Act and other consumer legislation. The responsibility is therefore on the person, company or advertising agency submitting the advertisement(s) for publication.

Front Cover: Aria Hotel, Canberra, ACT

Adbourne Publishing reserves the right to refuse any advertisement without stating the reason. No responsibility is accepted for incorrect information contained in advertisements or editorial. The editor reserves the right to edit, abridge or otherwise alter articles for publication. All original material produced in this magazine remains the property of the publisher and cannot be reproduced without authority. The views of the contributors and all submitted editorial are the author's views and are not necessarily those of the publisher.

Publisher's Message ou may have caught on Channel 7 early one evening in August, allegations of some hotel rooms being opened with other card keys, and claiming this was a real expos� to previously unproven rumours over the years. We spoke with one of our major hotel lock suppliers who has had to deal with this. Our story on page 75 will hopefully put these rumours to rest. Last issue we made mention of how this publication is now being made available to many high-rise buildings around Australia. We are currently expanding into this market which will give our advertisers the benefits of this extra readership. Several of our regular writers are back with further enlightening articles. Such as Derek Hendry with a list of new standards and regulations. Peter Swanson, formerly of WSP Lincolne Scott and now with AMX Australia, providing you with the next in his series about sound and music reproduction. Alan Lewis, our expert on pool and spa water, also has another fine story. Our front cover this issue is of the latest hotel in Canberra, the Aria � one of several family-owned hotels built by the Kappelle Group. We have an article from Ted Horner, writing about what technologies we should expect to see in hotels during 2011. Graham Orford writes about the latest in hotel kiosks and the huge step in technology and convenience they offer both the hotel and the customer in coming months. The Engineering Profile in this issue features Anura Yapa, who helped establish an AIHE chapter in Melbourne and today as the boss




with the Menzies in Sydney, is a most respected president of the AIHE in NSW. A special thanks to James Henry, Managing Director of the Logical Group, who took the time to prepare a study into Building Management Systems with his fine case study on the Shangri-La Hotel in Sydney. To all writers, we again thank you sincerely. Finally, on page 16, we say goodbye to Tony Rolland, familiar to many readers of this magazine as the owner of Thermoscan and a frequent attendee at AIHE conferences. He sadly passed away earlier this year. I had the pleasure of meeting Tony numerous times, he was a true gentleman. Condolences to his wife Anette and family.

Regards, Neil Muir Publisher, The Hotel Engineer

view this issue online: click on `The Hotel Engineer'

Canberra hotel dynasty See page 25


This meeting was at the Melbourne Exhibition Centre, which has the biggest operable walls in Melbourne. Another fantastic night had by all. In August, we had an awesome night at MSAC. We learnt how the 5.3 million litres of water was looked after. A truly magnificent experience. Our next meeting included a discussion with Bruno Tassone, state manager of Hufcor operable walls. We learnt the importance of maintenance, as we can face massive problems if they are not looked after properly. We have lots of exciting events planned for the rest of the year, and look forward to seeing everybody again soon. n

AIHE News � Victoria


ello to everyone! The Victorian Chapter of AIHE have been very busy with some excellent turn-outs to our monthly meetings.

In July, we had a very informative presentation from James and Daniel from Clipsal on the latest technologies they have to offer. Lots of laughs and a terrific evening had by all.




e had another great meeting in August at the Swissotel Sydney. There were over 30 attendees including 15 Hotel Engineering staff. An informative presentation on the "Annual Fire Safety Certification Process" by Adam Whitehouse, Senior Building Surveyor of City of Sydney Council, covered all aspects of the Annual Fire Safety Certification. Special thanks to Luke Farrell, Fire Safety Manager, City of Sydney Council for organising the presentation. Gidon Sattinger from Vintech Systems presented facts which discredited the claims of Channel 7's report about the flaws in the electronic door locking systems to Australian Hotel guestrooms. Channel 7's telecast was that by using certain techniques with the help of an electronic key card and a mobile phone, you are able to unlock guestroom electronic door locks. Vintech Systems provided the results of their experiments which had shown the mobile phone technique is technically impossible to unlock an electronic door lock. Many thanks to the Hotel Engineer David Uy of the Swissotel Sydney for providing the venue, drinks and wonderful food.

July meeting was at the Sofitel Wentworth Sydney, an exiting presentation on "Fire Safety and Emergency Procedures including the management of false alarm activity" by Superintendent Warwick Isemonger of NSW Fire Brigade. The night was fully sponsored by the Sofitel and again many many thanks to our Vice President Carl Van Den Heever. Our committee meeting was held on the 9th September with participation of 7 members. Phil McKendrick, Fleet Manager of Australian National Maritime Museum, has sent his apologies for not being available to attend committee business due to commitments at the museum and with all the capital works. Thanks, Phil one of our Ex-Presidents for his contributions, directions and support for the NSW chapter in the past. He will remain as a member of the Institute. The first State Presidents meeting was held at The Grand Hyatt � Melbourne on the 23rd July. All four presidents agreed upon on important matters related to the future directions of the Institute. Special thanks to David Zammit. Next meeting will be the AGM at the Menzies Hotel where election of new office bearers will take place for the next year. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the members and specially the committee for their hard work and commitment during last year. Regards, Anura Yapa JP President � AIHE (NSW chapter) Chief Engineer, The Menzies Sydney

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Crowne Plaza Canberra General Manager Matt Young and Finance Director Sebastian Wilson with the Tesla Roadster � the first electric car to be recharged at the hotel.

Crowne Plaza Canberra Welcomes First Guest with Electric Car

The battery pack in the Tesla Roadster uses Lithium-ion battery technology. The pack contains 6,831 lithium ion cells and stores 56 kWh of energy. Roadsters are engineered to charge from nearly any 120-volt or 240-volt charging station outlet. The Roadster battery charger is located on-board the car. Charge times vary based on the outlet voltage and Amperage. With the Tesla Home Connector, a Roadster charges in as little as 4 hours from empty, yet most Roadster owners simply "top off" after each trip and start each day with a full charge. At the end of each day, Tesla owners simply plug in their cars. The hotel's charging station features a 32 Amp 3 phase 5-pin outlet fixed to the wall of their carpark. Located in the valet car park area, the charging station will cost guests $25 per day which includes the power. The first all-electric mass-produced car to hit Australia's shores, the Tesla Roadster goes from 0km to 100km in 3.7 seconds and retails at around $225,000. n


rowne Plaza Canberra celebrated the arrival of its first guest with an electric car and the inaugural use of its newly-installed electric car recharge station.

Among the first hotels in the world to offer an electric car charging facility, Crowne Plaza Canberra was the final destination on a historic non-stop drive of the new electric Tesla Roadster sports car. Taken by Tesla Motors' General Manager Australia, Rudi Tuisk, the 290km Sydney-to-Canberra journey marked the first time an electric car had been driven between two Australian capital cities without recharging en-route.

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The Conference Room / Ballroom Sound System By PETER SWANSON NSW / ACT Business Manager, AMX Australia

What's the most common failure at a conference? The sound system. Think of the times you have sat in the audience and listened to the painful squeal of feedback, the annoying "duh-de-duh-de-duh-de" of a mobile phone interfering with a microphone or the almost-silence of the back few rows where you are clearly being punished for arriving late.

That quality sound experience is what every guest should expect when they attend the next conference or event at your hotel. And the fact is, it's surprisingly achievable if you set out with quality sound as your specific objective. Given that this article is a few pages rather than a few volumes, I'm going to be focussing on quality of speech for installed sound systems rather than the broader issues of music reproduction (live or recorded). However, if you get speech right you are well on track to having a halfway decent music reproduction system provided you don't want nightclub or live band sound levels. Before we get into real details, a few quick glossary points that will help with this article and hopefully your interpretation of your next discussion with an audio designer or installer. Audio signal � The sound received at the listener's ear from the sound system, including any impact on the signal due to the acoustic environment (noisy, reverberant, frequency specific impact) Acoustic environment / ambience � A description of the nature of the space in which the sound system is to be installed. Typical descriptions include: For quiet spaces � Damped, suppressed, dry, absorptive, etc (typical RT60 of 0.8 seconds or less) For moderate spaces � warm, full, reverberant, natural, etc (typical RT60 of 0.8 � 1.5 seconds) For noisy spaces � Loud, highly reverberant, "echoey", reflective (typical RT60 of 1.5 seconds or more) RT60 � "Reverberation Time based on 60dB decay". This is a common measurement used

eople say that lighting engineers and AV techs in general have a hard time because their art is only noticed when it's going wrong. But the sound engineer has the hardest time of all � you can withstand a dodgy projector or some poorly thought-out lighting levels as long as you can hear the presenter, right? It's on this premise that I make my call to arms for installed sound systems! No more mediocre sound quality, low intelligibility or excessive system noise! No more interference, uneven coverage of the audience or wailing feedback! Nothing brings more to a presentation than a clear, sonorous, rich delivery of the presenter's voice to their audience at a comfortable level, making the listener feel that they are being spoken to directly rather than as part of a large crowd.


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to quantify the reverberation of a given room or space and is measured in seconds. Frequency Response � The consistency of level of an audio signal between two parameters, typically: Speech Reproduction � 100Hz � 8000Hz Lower Quality Music Reproduction � 100Hz � 10000Hz Moderate Quality Music Reproduction � 80Hz � 15000Hz High Quality Music Reproduction � 50Hz � 18000Hz It's important to note that frequency response comparisons are not complete without understanding how much the level varies over the range. Typical limits on variation are: +/-1.5dB � Approaching studio quality +/-3dB � High quality sound reinforcement with no noticeable "colour" or bias towards particular frequencies +/-5dB � Significant variation between frequencies, sound system may sound biased towards particular frequencies (e.g. "tinny" or "bassy") Uniformity of coverage � Refers to the variation in level across the total listener area. Typically, a maximum variation of 6dB is acceptable as beyond this the levels will be noticeably different (for example, the system will sound too loud at the front and too quiet at the rear) Intelligibility � A measurement of the percentage of the speech signal that accurately arrives at the listener's ear. Common measurement parameters include STI, RASTI, STIpa, AlCons and others

The first step in effective sound system design is setting the right budget. Almost all audio visual projects struggle for budget as the original project finances get whittled away by costly marble, code compliance issues, fancy light fittings, hand-woven carpets, delays and site issues. This means that often the AV designer is fighting with one hand behind their back before they even hit their first technical challenge. So, here's an attempt to target some $/m2 figures so that AV budgets can start to be firmed up as early as possible in the piece. The assumptions behind these figures are: one wired microphone, single channel processing for equalisation, standard monaural reproduction (i.e. not stereo or surround sound). For any elements above these, add more money! These figures are not guarantees by any means, but if you at least start here you will know you have some chance of a reasonable implementation: Quality High quality speech intelligibility (STI 0.7 and above) Moderate quality speech intelligibility (STI 0.5-0.6) Minimum speech intelligibility (STI 0.5) 80m2-200m2 $70/m2 $50/m2 $45/m2 200m2 or more $75/m2 $65/m2 $55/m2

Now that we're armed with a few technical terms, let's talk about the fundamentals of sound system design for effective speech reinforcement. The first is an acoustically supportive environment. Despite what salesmen may tell you, there is no magic system that can just overcome a poor acoustic environment. So, first up focus on making sure that your environment supports speech. What do you need to do this? � Control the reverberation time in the room � ideally an RT60 of less than 1 second for rooms less than 20m x 10m and less than 1.5 seconds for larger rooms. Avoid parallel reflective surfaces � even with well controlled reverberation, "flutter echoes" set up between parallel surfaces can reduce intelligibility and lead to listener fatigue Treat the back wall with absorptive material � this helps to absorb energy from a directional sound system and prevent it being reflected back across the audience

Assuming you can secure a reasonable budget, it is then a matter of considering the most effective type of sound system for your space. Broadly speaking, there are three main choices � The single source sound system � one main loudspeaker or cluster of loudspeakers with the primary goal of supporting the impression that sound is coming from the presenter speaking into the microphone both in the sense of direction and sonic distance (delay). This approach is limited by the relative length / height of the venue and the reverberation time which will constrain the amount of sound energy that can be delivered into the space without harming intelligibility The single source sound system with delay speakers � as above, but with additional loudspeakers distributed at set distances from the main loudspeaker position. The objective is as for the single source, but uses additional loudspeakers relaying the same signal in order to combat acoustical issues or enable the system to cover a larger area while maintaining acceptable uniformity of coverage. It is important to employ separate amplifier channels for each delay speaker so that an electronic delay can be set to match the physical distance from the main source The distributed source sound system � a large number of loudspeakers spread over the listener area to achieve uniform coverage as the primary goal. This type of system is typically deployed in situations where acoustic conditions or architectural dimensions are challenging (for example, low ceilings relative to the room's length)

If you really can't achieve these things due to heritage constraints, lack of funds or other "immovable objects", then there is an exception that might just be magic for speech reinforcement � the beam steered line array. This loudspeaker solution is dependent on complex digital processing and can impact frequencies within and outside the speech range so is not ideal if you are also looking for high quality music reproduction, but it might just be your get-out-of-jail free card in the most challenging spaces. But, let's hope for now that you have a moderately acoustically supportive space and can turn your attention to an effective loudspeaker solution.

The three system types each provide their own benefits and the appropriate choice will be in large part determined by the dimensions and architectural / heritage constraints of the space. In general, single source sound systems are most effective in environments where the length of the room is less than 2-3 times the height of the room. Beyond this, it is prudent to consider delay loudspeakers in addition to the single source in order to maintain the desired uniformity of coverage.


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Hotel Engineer

For rooms that are particularly long or have particularly low ceilings, distributed loudspeaker systems can prove very effective in terms of maintaining the uniformity of coverage over a large listener area. The uniformity of coverage achieved by this solution is at the expense of gaining a sense of the speech originating from the presenter at the front of the room, but this can be mitigated through careful use of separate zones of loudspeakers through the room and delaying the signals sent to each zone. To achieve a good level of intelligibility from any system, it is critical that the sound system is properly configured once the loudspeakers and other equipment have been installed. This requires effective setting of output levels and equalising the system to provide a smooth response when taking into account the frequency response of the components and the acoustics of the room. The use of a closed loop analysis system enables the commissioning engineer

to measure both the output levels and the frequency response of the system so that they can efficiently configure the audio processors (commonly referred to as "DSPs") and the amplifiers. On any project, it is recommended that you request this approach be taken during configuration including provision of a report indicating the output results measured at regular positions throughout the audience area. While it is far from a complete "A to Z" audio standard, the ANSI-INFOCOMM 1M:2009 AUDIO COVERAGE UNIFORMITY standard, released last year, helps to set a standard approach to measuring and reporting on audio coverage uniformity. Together with requesting reports on intelligibility performance throughout the space, calling for conformance with this standard can help to achieve the goal of an effective, uniform, intelligible sound system. I hope this article has helped you to gain a greater appreciation of some of the

The Conference Room / Ballroom Sound System (continued)

subtleties of sound system design. As you'll have gathered, this is a complex area so please do not assume any figures or comments in this article are gospel, they are merely intended to give you a better appreciation of some of the issues that need to be addressed when considering the design of a new sound system. My advice in closing is to seek out and employ a professional sound system designer to help you on your journey to a better sound system for your venue. This approach, armed with an appreciation of the issues at hand will hopefully give you the best chance of a successful outcome. n Note � Peter Swanson is a member of the InfoComm Standards Planning Committee and was involved in the working group that developed the Audio Coverage Uniformity standard. To find out more about the standard, visit

Reduce direct costs and save money By Dr DAVIDE ROSS Director, Pangolin Associates

In the current economic climate, reducing your direct energy costs has never been more important. From the reverberations of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), the introduction of mandatory disclosure legislation and rising energy prices, the pressure to deliver on energy efficiency programs and cost savings is on in earnest.

Complacency is very easy when prices are low and especially if someone else is going to pay for it. It certainly hasn't translated to necessarily meaningful actions unless we're faced with hitting a speed hump or two, like past oil price shocks, current electricity price hikes or future government pricing of carbon pollution. For existing buildings, conducting a detailed energy audit, whether a level 1, 2 or 3 (as defined under AS 3598:2000), will help identify the sources of energy for a site, the amount of energy supplied, and what the energy is used for. It also identifies areas where savings may be made, recommends measures to be taken, and provides a statement of costs and potential savings. When conducting energy audits, Pangolin Associates have sought to use the following novel techniques and solutions to identify and target problem areas to save our clients money and improve building efficiency. (Image courtesy of Thermoview)

windows. While it seems that it is a simple process and cheaper cameras make it appear that way, it is a sophisticated service, and there are sophisticated guidelines that should be used. The above image shows a section of an office after a new fit out, it identifies thermal bridging from glue, missing insulation issues with joins and a cold window. This type of survey requires an understanding of field of view, reflectivity and emissivity of building materials, and how temperature, wind direction and humidity may impact the outcome. The example shown highlights issues that can be easily addressed and can save many hours in trying to overcome a "it's cold in here" cry from the tenant. Was it an unspecified short cut that the contractor glued to the wall rather than use framework and inserting insulation?

1. Energy audits up to and including Green Star or NABERS 2. Best operation methods, including risk management 3. The need to upgrade for mandatory disclosure This neatly summates some recent topics covered in Vol 15, No. 1 Hotel Engineer; or Vol 2 Australian Building Services Journal. It has always made sound financial sense to conduct an analysis of energy expenditure, but oddly it has been treated as a very poor second cousin when faced against building construction and other operational priorities.


s a colleague succinctly stated, it appears that there are three patterns emerging:

Thermography Thermography in Australia has been mainly used as a maintenance tool to check electrical switchboards. A professional electrical survey can be invaluable in identifying risks, assets to be repaired and assisting in insurance renewal, particularly in the hotel and entertainment industry. Thermographic images can point out insulation issues, thermal bridging, blocked pipes, moisture leaks or temperature differential in walls and

Voltage Optimisation Approximately 90% of buildings in Australia receive excess voltage, causing machinery to run inefficiently and energy to be wasted. An innovative high performance voltage optimisation device

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- called `The Ark', has successfully been introduced to the Australian market. This technology refines and optimises the quality of raw power supplied by the network authority - tailoring usage on a site-specific basis by optimising the voltage to a level that is suitable for each individual business premise, enabling electrical equipment to run more efficiently and creating significant electricity and carbon emission savings. The unit is effective at saving energy across nearly all types of electricity uses, including lighting, air-conditioning, refrigeration, computers and general plant and machinery. It is connected in series to all or part of the electrical load at its source (i.e. your switch room or distribution board), usually between the main switch and the three-phase bus bar system. No other connections are necessary. It can typically deliver a return on investment of between 2 to 3 years. Savings achieved on

electricity costs are up to 20% depending on site conditions and the types of loads connected. The Ark has successfully received funding under the AusIndustry `Green

Building Fund' program for installation in commercial buildings, as well as NSW DECCW funding for installations in Leagues Clubs.

Air Conditioning Air-conditioning systems are a major contributor to a building's electricity consumption. With the explosive growth in air-conditioner numbers over the last decade, the demands on the Australian national electrical grid are all to evident when exposed to recent enduring heat waves. Furthermore, conventional vapour compression electric air-conditioning systems operate at even lower efficiencies when ambient air temperatures are at the highest, and this increases the peak demand on the grid even further. A new evaporative cooling technologyThe Coolerado M50, can now deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity

(Image courtesy of Energywise)

as no water is added to the primary supply airstream. The effectiveness of the evaporative cooling process is demonstrated in that the unit can cool below the wet-bulb temperature. The technology evaporates water in a secondary (or working) airstream, which is discharged in multiple stages using a patented Heat and Mass ExchangerTM (HMX) to maximise the effectiveness of both direct and indirect stages of its cooling process. As a consequence, the technology uses as little as 10% of the energy that a conventional vapour compression

air-conditioning system (the maximum draw of the M50 is about 0.5kW)would to provide comfort cooling. The photo shows two Coolerado M50s installed at Sumudra Resort. This technology can also be used to pre-cool primary air into existing HVAC systems, taking the sting out of extreme heat events. In fact it works in complete opposite to a vapour compression system, the higher the temperature the more efficient the operation. Its modular design means it can be carried through existing doorways, and connected in series to deliver required cooling loads. Because water isn't added to the air stream like direct evaporative systems, a modified unit can be used in high humidity locations coupled with vapour compression air conditioners.

with a dark or mirrored tint on vehicles and buildings. The technology behind window films has come along way with the industry now producing high speciality, high performance and cost-effective solutions for all year-round energy savings. Research by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) in the UK shows that on average, 40% of the load placed on air conditioning in offices comes from direct solar gain through windows. Reducing solar energy transmitted by glazing before it enters the building (solar reflection) by installing speciality window films is often a very good solution when retrofitting commercial buildings. Window tinting will tackle the loss and gain of energy through windows, and is best thought of as `insulation for your glass'. When talking about thermal improvements of windows, people often first think of double or triple glazing. In fact, window tinting can give you results which are almost as good (and in some ways even better) as double glazing, but

Window films (Image courtesy of Clear Solar)

There are common misconceptions about today's window films that they are nothing more than simple sticky plastic associated

without the huge cost and the building works to replace your windows. In most cases tinting the windows in your building can be completed in a matter of hours or days. So what are the typical performances of solar control window films in rejecting solar radiation and reducing energy costs? Total solar energy rejection in the order of 50 to 80% is easily obtainable and it is possible to save big dollars in energy costs with payback times of less than 3 years being achievable. Understandably, the actual results depend not only upon the film selected but also upon the glazing specification and the building construction. To accurately estimate savings, you need a specialist that can call upon sophisticated computer software to model your building and provide proper cost/benefit and payback analysis to work out the optimal solution. The internationally recognised U.S. Department of Energy's sophisticated

DOE-2 whole-building energy analysis software calculates energy use and operating cost for each hour of the year. It has been successfully used to justify energy savings and payback claims for low emissivity window films. A great benefit with a detailed analysis is that one can tune windows to different orientations to independently control flow of light and flow of heat to end up with a building with different window film controls for each fa�ade. Other complimentary gains with the right film combination can include reduced glare, UV filtering to protect causes of fading and thermal damage and enhanced security protection from vandalism and graffiti.

assistance � inexpensive. Government funding that is designed to promote efficiency and up-skill the workforce across multiple disciplines is available right now. For those who are not sure where to start, there are options to enable a free assessment of your companies funding potential. Any full time employee is eligible for funding if they meet all the following criteria; Australian resident, must not be currently doing an apprenticeship and must not have applied for the same type of funding within the last seven years. If you would like any further information on the above services and products, please contact Pangolin Associates. n

Training and Grants Part of tackling energy efficiency improvements is to engage, educate and empower your staff to move forward. To engage in developing your people to deliver process and energy efficiency savings is easy, and with Government Davide Ross is a chemical engineer by profession with more the 15 years experience in the area of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas audit services. Davide is a director of Pangolin Associates and can be contacted at davide.ross@

Sustainability, energy & carbon management Pangolin Associates helps your business reduce its climate change impact through tailored and integrated sustainability services. We focus on cost savings and efficiencies. We conduct energy audits, greenhouse gas (GHG) assessments, as well as workplace educaon and training. Our sustainability consultants tailor advice for your business and deliver an easy to read report. Our support does not end there. As the carbon economy increasingly becomes a challenge for businesses, we're in it for the long haul. We work with you ongoing to meet key sustainability measures and reporng requirements: * Sustainability planning * Ongoing carbon measure and reducon strategies * Risk management * Carbon credit advice Put simply, we provide the tools to operate and prosper in a changing carbon economy.

SYDNEY Suite 212 377 Kent Street Sydney NSW 2000 t: 02 8005 6300 m: 0439 801 700 Iain Smale

ADELAIDE Unit 2 92-94 Unley Road Unley, SA 5061 t: 08 7200 1030 m: 0439 801 427 Mahew Curnow

PERTH Unit 28, Level 3 22 Railway Road Subiaco WA 6008 t: 08 9380 4088 m: 0401 918 100 Sco McIntosh

CANBERRA Unit 48 103 Tennant Street Fyshwick ACT 2609 t: 02 6239 1683 m: 0416 150 672 Ilea Buffier

Vale Tony Rolland (17 June 1941 � 12 April 2010) THERMOSCAN INSPECTION SERVICES


ony Rolland passed away on 12 April 2010, succumbing to an aggressive cancer.

By profession, Tony was a chemical engineer. He purchased Thermoscan in 1982, having been an employee for two years. Thermoscan then consisted of himself and a large Infra Red camera. Through his commitment to excellence and loyal customers Tony saw the business expand to service clients across Australia and in the South Pacific. Tony was passionate about thermal imaging and its capacity to identify mechanical and electrical faults in a wide range of industries before they manifested into serious problems. He was committed to developing leading thermal imaging techniques, and regularly communicated with other experts across the world. Tony was dedicated to making a difference and inspired others to carry on his work, to this end, Thermoscan will continue to grow and flourish. Tony leaves behind his wife, their children and grandchildren. He is fondly remembered as one of life's true gentleman. Tony was a long time supporter of The Hotel Engineer magazine and the Institute of Hotel Engineering where he was a regular conference and trade show attendee. Our condoloncences go to his wife Anette and his family. n

Where is hotel technology currently headed? By TED HORNER

In early January I had the opportunity to travel to Las Vegas to attend for the first time the largest consumer electronics show in the world CES and for an insight in where consumer technology is headed this is certainly the event to attend.


Tablet computing as an alternative to the traditional laptop with Apple releasing their new product following the success of Amazons' Kindle.

on-screen view to use the TV to set the systems in their rooms to their personal preferences, including lighting levels, room temperature, television/video systems, music, blinds and guest services. As part of the system, an automated "welcome experience" activates when guests open the door to their rooms. The lights gradually come on and the blinds open, the TV turns on to display a list of automated controls. After a guest has checked out, a room can quickly be put in "unoccupied" mode, which shuts off the lights, heating or cooling, entertainment systems, and any other electronic device in the room. Integration with property management systems has also been installed to deliver concierge-type services, as well as automate the guestroom, based on checkin/check-out status.

What does this all mean to hotels who are refurbishing their guestrooms is too early to say but in order to understand and plan for the future we must take our lead from where consumer technology is headed and plan accordingly. The other major highlight of the trip was to stay at the new 4,022 room MGM Mirage Aria Hotel which is part of the $12billion City Centre project on the Las Vegas strip . This new property opened on 16th December and features amazing new in room guest room technology which provides guests with the with the opportunity via a single remote and

F 1.

rom my visit to CES I gleaned the following: The emergence of 3D TV`s with all major TV suppliers rolling out new 3D TV's. The quality of 3D as a superior entertainment experience as evidenced by the huge success of Avatar in 3D has re-enforced this trend The emergence of LED TV with very thin panels plus also the release of the small 15" OLED screens has certainly raised the bar compared to the traditional LCD screens that many consumers and hoteliers alike have invested in to date The use of Skype on TV with 2 major vendors featuring in built Skype on their TV's as part of their TV offering. The rise and rise of IPTV as a major alternative to traditional co-axial based systems that allow guests to access the internet directly from their TV and furthermore to access sites such as MySpace , Face book and You Tube directly from the TV




Hotel Engineer | Vol 15 No. 3 | 17

Another example of the power of the system is that is has the capacity to send an alert to the technical systems staff regarding problems in the room, such as low batteries in remotes The great advantage of this system (see screen shot previous page) is that is allows guest to control everything in the room (if they wish) i.e. lighting, curtains, temperature, drapes, TV, music, concierge services and even to check airline arrivals and departures at nearby McCarron airport from their guestroom TV using the remote control device. Guest feedback to date has been very encouraging as the system is very user friendly. Other major technology trends to watch out for in 2010 include: Rise and rise of social networking Over the last 12 months we have seen the increasing importance of this social phenomenon and many hotels chains have announced booking applications

for the Apple iphone and now also the Blackberry. Many hotels have now launched Face book pages to reach new guest segments, and some have even begun to offer special deals and updates on Twitter. With this continued use of social networks it is imperative for hotels to manage their activity on multiple social media web sites and to monitor their on line reputation. Consumer technology With the increasing number of Apple iPhone' s sold worldwide we are now seeing many vendors incorporating the apple iPhone as an interactive device for both guests and staff Examples are as follows: � � � As a hand-held Point of Sale device Housekeeping software and productivity device Allowing guests to make on line bookings via the iphone

� � �

Allowing check in/check out, folio review Allowing restaurant reservations and room service bookings SMS texting from guests to staff in hotels and vice versa

Another example is the deployment of Microsoft's Surface Table Computing in several hotel lobbies in New York and Atlanta to encourage guests to use them for information purposes either for local attractions or hotel services. Energy Conservation It is my opinion that with the continued rise in costs for electricity, and water usage greater emphasis needs to be placed in investing in guestroom technology that allows consumption of both to be reduced without it being obvious to the guest. Greater integration is required between the hotel's front office systems, the guest door locking system and in room lighting and air conditioning systems so

Where is hotel technology currently headed? (continued)

that when a guest checks out or leaves the room for an extended period the lights are either dimmed or turned off automatically and the same applies to lighting and air-conditioning etc. Where hotels have invested in these automated systems a clear return on investment has been demonstrated in a very short time-frame. Summary It is clear we are witnessing some important new trends and if you intend to refurbish or a building new hotel then these are some of key things that you may need to consider: � Make sure you seek independent advice on the cabling into guestrooms as many of the new system need a different cabling platform than in the past. Do not rely on vendors alone to provide advise as they have their own interests to serve and the advise may not be 100% independent

The TV in the guestroom now has the capability to deliver a wider range of services than previously so make sure you spend time to review all the new systems in the marketplace. Investigate energy management systems that can integrate with your hotel front office system or door locking ( or both ) so that you take advantage of the savings in consumption they can deliver n

Ted Horner

Regulation Update By DEREK HENDRY Aust: Buildings Ready for Climate Change? Building owners, operators and users are coming under increasing pressure to prepare their buildings for climate change. What are the legal obligations? Are there any regulatory constraints? What practical options are available to combat climate change? Maddocks (Lawyers) in collaboration with HASSELL, has prepared a discussion paper on the impact of climate change on buildings. The paper provides a framework to assist building owners, operators and users in understanding the regulatory mechanisms that exist to address the challenges presented by climate change. In addition, the paper features real life case studies prepared by HASSELL, illustrating the practical options that are available for buildings to combat climate change. To view the paper, go to the Maddocks website Reading Room and scroll down the list. Aust: National Construction Code The National Plumbing Regulator Forum and the Australian Building Codes Board are working together to deliver consolidated building and plumbing codes in 2011. The National Construction Code Series will eventually include all on-site construction regulation (building, plumbing, electrical and telecommunications). Building and plumbing are currently regulated through separate legislative and administrative arrangements by State and Territory Governments. Building is regulated using the Building Code of Australia (BCA) which is adopted by all States and Territories. Some Sate and Territory governments regulate plumbing through the Plumbing Code of Australia but not all, and many with significant variations. Unlike building regulation, plumbing does not have a formal agreement such as an Intergovernmental Agreement) for national adoption. While regulated separately, the BCA and plumbing regulation are inherently linked, with both setting standards of practice for on-site construction of buildings. Aust: Out of Sight, Out of Mind Hotel Engineers and Managers looking at alterations or extensions to their buildings will need to bear in mind that main sewerage pipes are usually placed in a drainage and sewerage easement, which is identified on the title to your land. Sewerage authorities, however, have the authority to place a pipe across a property, and it may not necessarily occur within an easement. When planning to undertake building work, care must be exercised to ensure the building and footings are not placed over the sewerage pipe. Obtaining a property sewerage plan and locating main pipeline infrastructure will be an important first step. Similar precautions apply in country areas where septic systems are prevalent. These installations usually come under the control of the council's health surveyor who requires the septic tank and effluent lines to be located away from buildings in an absorption area sized to suit the building. Aust: BCA 2011 Draft Amendments While Hotel Engineers and Managers might be getting used to BCA 2010, adopted on 1 May 2010, the Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB) is already advising of important BCA 2011 amendments that might impact on their buildings. The BCA is amended on an annual cycle, and the ABCB has recently invited public comment on their draft of BCA 2011. Major amendments proposed for 1 May 2011 include: � � � Changes to the fire hazard property provisions; Slip, trip and fall provisions; New private bushfire shelter provisions.

For further information, go to the ABCB website homepage. QLD: Regulatory Impact Statement on Swimming Pool legislation The Queensland government has issued a newsflash 425, which covers regulatory impact statements for cyclone affected regions and saline soils, the draft national construction code (ABCB) and revised swimming pool barriers code. Of particular interest to Hotel Engineers and Managers will be the draft legislation governing the latest Building and Other Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 2) 2010 (the Bill), which was introduced into Parliament on 18 August 2010. Amongst other things, the Bill contains the final phase of stage two of the swimming pool safety improvement strategy. >

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Regulation Update (cont'd)

Application Part 8 Division 2 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000 (EPAR) sets out the procedures and relevant information required to be submitted for the assessment of the construction certificate by reference to Part 3 of Schedule 1. It is important to check with the relevant Accredited Certifier (AC) on how many copies of the required documentation will be required to be submitted. The relevant AC also has the power to require additional information to be submitted and is required to ensure that any necessary levies have been paid. NSW Fire Brigade Clause 144 of the EPAR sets out the criteria by which an application must be referred to the NSW Fire Brigades and the prescribed parameters by which the NSW Fire Brigades must reply back to the certifying authority. Alternative Solutions Alternative Solution reports must have been submitted to and accepted by the Certifying Authority prior to issue of the Construction Certificate. Where the Alternative Solution involves fire safety matters, the requirements of Clause 144A for peer review and issue of a Compliance Certificate by a third party fire engineer, or a written report by the designing fire engineer, must have been satisfied. Development Consent and Building Code of Australia (BCA) Part 8 Division 2 of the EPAR does not permit the issuing of the construction certificate unless the Certifying Authority is satisfied that the application in compliance with development consent and the BCA. Construction Certificate Issuing The construction certificate must contain the following information when being issued: 1. 2. Identity of the accredited certifier issuing the certificate. The accreditation number of the accredited certifier must be shown on the certificate.

3. 4. 5. 6.

The registered number and date of the development consent. Whether the application has been determined by approval or refusal. The date of the certificate. A statement verifying that work completed in accordance with the documentation accompanying the application for the certificate will comply with the requirements of the EPAR. The BCA classification of the building or structure. The construction certificate must be accompanied with a fire safety schedule for the building.

7. 8.

Notice to Consent Authority Within 2 days after the issue or refusal of the construction certificate the certifying authority must forward copies of the determination along with plans, application, specifications, fire safety schedule, or any other applicable documents to the relevant local council. VIC: RIS for BCA - Access to Premises Buildings The proposed amendment to align the BCA with the "Disability Access to Premises � Buildings) Standards (the Premises Standards), will no doubt have a profound impact on public buildings, including Hotels. The Final Regulation Impact Statement (RIS) has been prepared to assess the impacts of the proposal. The Premises Standards were developed to clarify the general non discrimination provisions of the disability Discrimination Act 1992 in relation to the design, construction and management of buildings. For more information go to the ABCB website, and type in "Disability Access" into the Search function. n

The Bill includes provisions to extend the pool safety laws to include pools associated with hotels, motels, other residential buildings, caretaker residences, caravan parks and indoor pools. For more information, refer to the Queensland Department of Infrastructure and Planning website and go to "Resources". NSW: Construction Certificates - What to Know Hotel Engineers or Managers wishing to undertake alterations or extensions to their buildings need to know how to apply for and obtain a construction certificate before considering the appointment of consultants and contractors to perform services on their behalf. The following article will clarify the process. Construction Certificates Part 4A of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 (EPAA) sets out the criteria for the application to and issuing of a construction certificate by an accredited certifier. The EPAA also describes the authorities having jurisdiction for assessment of a construction certificate and the right of the applicant to appeal to the Land and Environment Court upon failure or refusal to issue a construction certificate.

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Canberra hotel dynasty By MAX AGNEW

Kappelle have done it again! Director Ivan Krizaic has recently opened Canberra's newest hotel, the eight-level Aria Hotel with 128 rooms of luxury and style that includes cutting edge technology.

The plans included two atriums in the building � one near the entry (glass curtain window) and the other in the core of the building itself. This meant there would be seven actual levels above ground for apartments, totalling 128 rooms. An interesting aspect of what the architects also established within their plans for the future would include making provision if the day ever comes for all rooms to be easily converted into apartments. All the units would have balconies, with 74 of them constructed to be fully operable with kitchens and laundries.

Arthur also explained how the curtain windows and revolving door were made with Vitrapanel and Vitrabond feature panelling and recessed down-lighting. The vertical speedwall utilised in the scissor fire stairs were for fire separation, with curtain windows supported by fire rated structural steel beams.

Internal finish Hebel acoustic walls were used along with furring channel with 13mm Gyprock walls with fire-check and aqua-check utilised. Targeted recessed down-lights matched the furniture layouts, with frameless shower-screens of combination of both tiles and carpet. The kitchens were designed with thermal rap coated doors, soft close hinges, Caesarstone bench-tops, toughened heat resistant glass splashbacks, stainless fridge and stainless integrated dishwasher, with under-mount sinks and stainless tap-ware. Vintech was responsible for the automation, with the power and lighting controlled by a Vintech card reading system. This also now controls power to split system air conditioning (per unit) and is automatically shut down after the guest


hen making the decision to construct yet another hotel in Canberra, the Kappelle Group did not have to look far for finding the right designers as Renfree Hanrahan Architects is well known throughout the ACT. This company produced plans that would have this 4.5 star project a Class 3 building with 2A basement. The plans called for provision for the basement to include two storeys underground for a car park and a portion of the ground floor that would also be partly dedicated to car parking. It is on this floor that the hotel now has a service area for breakfasts and general reception.

External finish According to Arthur Pattison of Kappelle, the building technique called for post tensioned slabs (Cantilevers), concrete columns, block-work walls that were structural external shelf angles, with posts and lintels. The external finish was for smooth cement rendering with acrylic render on fibre cement sheet, and mac render applications. These would be sealed and painted with silicon joints.

Hotel Engineer | Vol 15 No. 3 | 25

Highland Proud to be associated with

Painting Services


Highland Painting Services Pty Ltd has worked in the Canberra Region for the past 10 years and was established by owner Alan Strachan. We have grown our business throughout the years and have a qualified team of painters and management staff. Highland Painting Services can manage Commercial, Government and Residential Projects large or small. We pride ourselves on providing quality services, being environmentally aware, working efficiently and safely, and being competitive in the market.

� Lead Stabilisation � Heritage Works

� Texture Coatings � Protective Coatings

Mailing Address: PO BOX 2124, Kambah, ACT, 2902 Office Address: 8/83-85 Gladstone St, Fyshwick, ACT, 2609 Phone: 02 6231 5998 Fax: 02 6231 5958 Email:

The Aria has its own dedicated fire service pump room that includes a diesel fire pump set triggered automatically in case there is a fire.

has removed the card after a little time has elapsed, thus proving a fine energy saving mechanism. All door hardware is electronic using the Saflock system with proximity reading devices that are controlled from reception.

Fire Services National Fire Solutions won the contract to establish fire control with the Fire Indicator Panel made fully addressable, allowing hotel management to identify the locale of any triggered fire alarm within the building from a central location Building Occupant Warning System. This means that the entire hotel can be informed of a fire or emergency via this BOWS speaker system, quite audible to all parts of the building. Sprinklers were included in basement levels, the ground floor and levels one and two, with hydrants on all levels. Additional handheld extinguishers on all levels of the hotel were included to assist in case of any emergency evacuation. With regards to climate detection, thermal and smoke detection are in the one device. Which means that should a guest burn their toast, the system will allow the guest time to clear the room of smoke without raising an alarm immediately. The Aria has its own dedicated fire service pump room that includes a diesel fire pump set triggered automatically in case there is a fire. This provides additional water pressure to all sprinklers and hydrants, even when the Fire Brigade is not onsite to boost the pressure themselves, or if the town mains are operating at low pressure. >

Hotel Engineer | Vol 15 No. 3 | 27

Millenium Heating and Cooling are proud to be associated with Aria Hotel Canberra

Canberra hotel dynasty (cont'd) < The hotel has an excellent rainwater retention tank for irrigating the entire landscaping around the area, something the Krizaic family enjoy maintaining for the pleasure of guests. Another part of the Green involvement at the Aria is how all windows are double glazed, providing additional savings on heating and cooling, a point also achieved with their acoustic internal Hebel wall system. Other services employed on completing the Aria Hotel included the carpets from Q Commercial Carpets; John Ayres Electrical; Toshiba Millennium Heating & Cooling; Bosch Australia providing the hot water system; Servitel Fyshwick the communications; Internode the Internet supplier, and Computer Setup & Hardware. Cutting Edge was responsible for the building's roofing, and Highland Painting carried out all painting. Foyer feature lighting was done by Yellow Goat Design. In the short time the hotel has been open for business, it is proving popular with Government and corporate guests during the week, and with families visiting Canberra at weekends. There is much for tourists to see when visiting the ACT, including the Australian War Memorial, Parliament House, the National Museum, National Gallery & Library, Australian Institute of Sport, and the new National Portrait Gallery. n

Toshiba multi-head units were installed in the rooms, and Toshiba SMMS VRF were used in all the public areas. Toshiba are the inventors of the inverter. They were selected due to their high performance, low running costs and reliability.

Millenium Heating and Cooling GPO Box 2850, Canberra City 2607 Fax 02 6286 4702 Mobile 0417 023 685

Smart Rooms and Wireless Access � The Way of the Future By GIDON SATTINGER | Vintech Systems here has been much talk and publication with regards to Wireless online electronic locking systems with standalone locks. The drawcard is less maintenance, no wires and access for Managers to top of the range sophisticated real-time reporting. In our region Vintech Systems supports the tried and trusted. SAFLOK Messenger, along with a range of other options to suit all budgets. The MessengerTM is a bi-directional wireless communication network that operates on the internationally accepted ZigBee Prostack protocol. It converts stand-alone, battery operated door locks into a bi-directional communication device. An important component of Messenger is Messenger LENS TM (Lock Event Notification System) that relays information in real-time � on the desktop computer as it is occuring at the lock. LENS enables properties to customise job-specific profiles, the types of notification that are received for these profiles, and also the notification delivery method (email, SMS, XML web service adaptors or a posting to a web page) This new system provides many levels of interoperability, both in a Smart Room context as well as with other in-room devices. Whether in the traditional Messenger network using the SAFLOK ZigBee-enabled hubs or in a Messenger Smart Room scenario using third-party coordinators, the Messenger system provides several

solutions for customers to integrate all systems in their Hotels. With the advent of the ZigBee Prostack platform, entering a guestroom becomes a customised experience, tailored to the unique preferences of each guest. When a guest presents a keycard or other credential to a lock, devices on the ZigBee network begin activation. For example, the lights adjust to the appropriate level, the television turns on, the powered blinds open or close and the temperature adjusts - all according to the guest's preferred settings. As usual, the system has the support of Vintech's 24/7/365 technical expertise where Reliability is the Key. For Sales Enquiries or a discussion of the supporting technology please call Gidon Sattinger on (02) 9472 2000. n


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commercial carpets


Vote 1 - AH Beard lot of excitement was emanating from our Nation's capital in August, and we don't mean the federal election. The third successful Canberra hotel project for the KAPPELLE GROUP and Canberra's latest luxury hotel, The Aria Hotel Apartments opened its doors and whilst our politicians were losing sleep over the election results, the guests at The Aria Hotel had no such problem sleeping soundly on the custom made AH Beard signature beds. Centrally located to Canberra's tourist attractions and the Capitals' business district, The Aria Hotel is positioned perfectly for the leisure and business travelers alike. Designed for flexibility and functionality, the Aria offers independent hotel accommodation through to one and two bedroom apartment style accommodation. Under the watchful eye of Robert Batkovic the luxurious and stylish layout incorporating custom made contemporary furniture, luxurious fabrics and unique accessories was no more evident than in the personal attention that was provided, working closely with the AH Beard bedding team. Through Robert's extensive travels he has slept on enough beds to know "Good beds are good for business" and it was this mantra that led Robert to AH Beard for his bedding requirements. With over one hundred years experience as Australia's leading bedding supplier and manufacturer of worldwide brand King Koil, AH Beard's understanding of the commercial market was the perfect choice for The Aria Hotel. With guest satisfaction the ultimate aim, Robert clearly set AH Beard the task of providing a bed that met the minimum requirements of: � � � � Support with luxurious comfort Durability with the flexibility to meet diverse room requirements Great value for money Plush with clean modern lines


Q Commercial Carpets has established a high performance team of flooring specialists who pride themselves on creating floor covering finishes that adds to Hotel guest satisfaction. Evidence of Q Commercial quality flooring outcomes can be found not only at the Aria Hotel Canberra but also at other first class Hotels such as the Realm Barton Hyatt Hotel Yarralumla and the Quality Hotel Dickson.

3 Bass Street Queanbeyan PO Box 815 Fyshwick ACT 2609 Phone: 02 6298 1640 Fax: 02 6298 1648

Considering Aria's positioning in the market, customer base and location, AH Beard developed a bespoke bed utilizing their Conforma Coil pocket type spring for superior body support, with premium layers of pressure relieving comfort and bases upholstered in Arias own fabrics to compliment the d�cor including recessed fittings to match the contemporary style. Did the The Aria Hotel signature product by AH Beard live up to Roberts' mantra that "Good beds are good for business"?, well it's only a month since opening, but the early polls show guest satisfaction is way out in front with requests from guests who want to own an Aria Hotel bed of their own. About AH Beard -AH Beard has been supplying superior sleep to Australians for over one hundred years. A leading supplier to the hospitality industry, AH Beard utilizes superior production methods and materials to produce a broad range of products under brands such as King Koil, amongst others, with manufacturing facilities in all states of Australia and New Zealand. For more information please contact Jenny Clifton, Group Commercial Mngr Ph 0412209472 or Email

Testimonial � "I could not be happier with my experience in dealing with AH Beard, from the planning to the delivery. The beds are awesome and have such a WOW factor. Just what I was looking for because "Good beds are good for business". I never knew how easy it was to organise a custom made bed until I did it with AH Beard. Jenny was fantastic from the planning to the delivery, and I would highly recommend AHBeard to anyone. The staff were also awesome in organising all the logistics from sourcing the specialised fabric for the bases to the delivery of all the beds on time, I could not have asked for any more. When I need more beds, I know where to go straight away!! AH Beard � the best service I have had in ages. Thanks so much!" Regards, Rob.

Digital TV Reception get ready for digital TV The Analogue "Switch-Off" and how it will affect you! By MELBOURNE SATELLITES PTY LTD

There is a fair amount of confusion in relation to the impending Analogue TV switch-off. s scheduled, the Mildura Sunraysia region had all their traditional analogue transmission services successfully "switched off" on June 30th 2010. All television services in this region are now solely delivered in a digital format via a terrestrial (land based) transmission tower/s or where these are not available via a satellite downlink. The Government Digital Task Force has the remainder of regional Victoria scheduled for analogue transmission "switch off" before June 30th 2011. This means, if you have not taken action to "get ready for digital TV" reception in these areas there will be nothing to view on your analogue television screen. Viewers in the Melbourne metropolitan areas, receiving transmissions from the primary transmitter on Mt Dandenong and a handful of surrounding retransmission sites including the remaining balance of rural Victoria are scheduled for "switch off" between July 1st and December 31st 2013.


antenna may be required for fringe and problem reception areas. For viewers in areas that cannot receive digital TV using a traditional TV antenna there is a new satellite transmitted platform due to be officially launched in December 2010 and is called V.A.S.T (Viewer Access Satellite Television). This will deliver digital TV in Standard and High Definition and is quoted as "delivering equal channels and services to viewers in rural areas as received in the metropolitan areas". To view this service domestically, each property will require a small diameter satellite dish and each TV a satellite receiver/decoder. Commercially this will allow hotels and motels etc to receive TV via a satellite signal and distribute throughout the venue in either a digital or converted analogue format.

distributing Digital Signals only, throughout a good quality coaxial shielded distribution system for viewing with Digital Ready Screens or traditional analogue TV's using separate Digital Set Top Boxes. 2. Digital to Analogue Conversions A Digital Reception Headend that isolates an individual digital channel in a digital stream and converts it to a traditional analogue signal as per this example, "a receiving module tuned to Digital ABC and only outputs ABC-2 on a determined analogue frequency" is known as Digital to Analogue Trans-Modulation. Signal trans-modulation is generally used in sites and venues with a large number of analogue TV screens. Each digital channel within the digital stream requires it's own trans-modulator. For example Digital ABC has multiple TV channels and radio services, these are ABC-1(21), ABC-2(22), ABC-3(23), ABC-News(24) and 2 radio. To receive all 4 TV channels in a trans-modulated format four trans-modulators are required outputting four single analogue

System Distribution Options: The age of an existing distribution system including cable and component types is one of the main issues when distributing Digital TV signals. High quality coaxial cable, the latest compression type connectors and RF shielded splitters and couplers are required to deliver reliable digital TV services in any distribution system. The following points outline the most common formats to receive Digital TV (at a Headend) and then Distribute it throughout venues for viewing on either analogue or digital capable screens. 1. Digital to Digital A Digital Reception Headend,

Digital TV Reception Options: Most likely your existing TV antenna will suffice, however a new digital ready

Hotel Engineer | Vol 15 No. 3 | 31

Digital TV Reception (cont'd) channels. This allows a site or venue to be considered as "Digital Ready" by receiving digital TV signals which are converted to analogue and distributed to existing analogue TV Screens. Most importantly the venue will continue to operate without interruption after the pending "switch off" date without using Ste Top Boxes at each analogue TV. 3. Digital to Digital + Digital to Analogue Trans-modulation This is a popular method and is a combination of the systems described in points 1 and 2 above. This will allow both the digital and digital converted to analogue TV signals to be combined and distributed through a TV system. The result is that any TV, being a full HDTV panel or an older style analogue only TV can view TV reception at any viewing location throughout the TV system that originates from a digital source. TV Systems with integrated modulated services Some TV distribution systems generally in Hotels, Motels and accommodation venues might also include analogue modulated services like a selection of PAY-TV Channels, Information Channels, Door and Security cameras, Radio Channels etc and as we progress with digital television, these integrated services will also need upgrading. Upgrading and converting analogue modulated services to digital will provide better picture quality and will be easier for patrons to view through a digital TV. Advantages with digital modulation include customised channel identification naming and grouping of multiple services.

A summary of your options: Firstly you can ensure your TV distribution system is capable of carrying all the Digital channels and upgrade all the viewing screens to Digital Ready panels. Subject to the quantity of traditional analogue TV's on your system this could run into many thousands of dollars. If the existing system contains modulated analogue channels, for example PAY-TV channels, guest information, radio stations, security cameras etc then the panels would need to be switched between the Digital and Analogue inputs unless these services were also upgraded using Digital Modulator technology. Depending on the type of television sets used, where there is a mixture of Analogue and Digital signals, this can be a problem in itself for guests, especially if they have to switch via a menu. At all times possible guest "confusion" must be considered as it can lead to reception staff time being used to explain or even demonstrate the "how to" of TV equipment. Secondly, and this is the most common option adopted by many establishments to date, is to use either point 2 or 3 as detailed above. Point 2 ensures that TV reception is from a digital source and converted to allow all existing TV sets to view programming. Over time as the analogue televisions fail and are replaced with digital panels the concept of Point 1 will need to be implemented. Breaking the upgrade into stages also eases the costs associated with getting ready for digital TV. Its not all doom and gloom and there are bonuses for getting ready for digital TV. In an analogue reception format viewing is restricted to a maximum of 6 channels being ABC, 7, 9, 10, SBS and possibly a local community TV channel. Since the introduction of Digital Television in Australia, Free to Air viewing options have certainly increased. HSV-7 7 Melb. 7TWO 7mate (73) GTV-9 9 Melb. GO-99 GEM-90

The 5 major networks now broadcast multiple channels increasing viewing in Melbourne today to a total of 15 channels and with more scheduled; will soon be 16. Detailed in the table below are the digital channels available for reception in Melbourne. Digital TV reception is Digital quality and it does not suffer the same reception problems as analogue TV. Issues like GHOSTY imaging, drifting and snowy pictures which some have put up with for many years and accepted as the best it can be, can expect much improved picture with digital TV reception. As there is an increase in the number of TV channels received (analogue and digital) there is an additional load placed on distribution and repeater amplifiers in any TV distribution system. These additional channels de-rate the amplification ability and quality of amplifiers and with the lower quality amplifiers can start introducing other problems. It is very important to use high quality products and components when upgrading and preparing for Digital TV reception. For premium TV upgrades, integration and distribution of digital signals we use and recommend only IKUSI brand RF products. IKUSI is a world renowned manufacturing Company supplying a wide variety of products for Satellite and Terrestrial reception, integration and distribution in both analogue and digital formats. Don't fight the inevitable! We recommended that Analogue reception problems should not be repaired � Digital TV reception should be implemented as it is far superior. For further information call 1300 302 038. n


ABC ABC-1 ABC-2 ABC-3 ABC-News 24


ATV-10 10 Melb. ONE HD 11* *expected start early 2011

C-31 Community Ch-31

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Digital TV Timetable by Region Type VIC SA SA SA SA VIC VIC VIC VIC QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD QLD NSW NSW NSW NSW NSW NSW NSW NSW NSW Metro Metro Metro Metro Metro Metro Remote Remote

Switchover Area Mildura/Sunraysia Broken Hill Riverland Mt Gambier/South East South Australia Spencer Gulf Gippsland North Central Victoria South West Victoria Goulburn Valley /Upper Murray Wide Bay Capricornia QLD Central Coast and Whitsundays Darling Downs North Queensland Far North Queensland Griffith/Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area South West Slopes and Eastern Riverina Illawarra and the South Coast Central Tablelands and Central Western Slopes ACT and Southern Tablelands North West Slopes and Plains Richmond/Tweed Northern Rivers Hunter Tasmania Perth Brisbane Melbourne Adelaide Sydney Regional and Remote Western Australia Remote Central & Eastern Australia

Major centres Mildura Broken Hill Renmark and Loxton Mt Gambier, Naracoorte and Bordertown Port Lincoln, Whyalla, Port Augusta Traralgon, Bairnsdale and Malacoota Bendigo and Swan Hill Ballarat, Warrnambool and Horsham Albury/Wodonga, Wangaratta and Shepparton Hervey Bay, Bundaberg and Maryborough Rockhampton, Emerald and Yeppoon Mackay, Proserpine and Bowen Toowoomba, Warwick and Dalby Townsville, Ayr and Charters Towers Cairns, Port Douglas and Innisfail Griffith and Hay Wagga Wagga and Gundagai Wollongong, Ulladulla and Eden Dubbo, Orange and Mudgee Canberra, Thredbo and Cooma Tamworth, Armidale and Inverell Byron Bay, Tenterfield and Lismore Coffs Harbour, Forster and Grafton Newcastle, Port Stephens Hobart, Launceston and King Island Perth Brisbane, Gold Coast and Noosa Melbourne Adelaide Sydney and Gosford Kalgoorlie, Broome and Bunbury Darwin, Alice Springs and Mt Isa

Window 30 June 2010 15 December 2010 15 December 2010 15 December 2010 15 December 2010 1st Half 2011 1st Half 2011 1st Half 2011 1st Half 2011 2nd Half 2011 2nd Half 2011 2nd Half 2011 2nd Half 2011 2nd Half 2011 2nd Half 2011 1st Half 2012 1st Half 2012 1st Half 2012 1st Half 2012 1st Half 2012 2nd Half 2012 2nd Half 2012 2nd Half 2012 2nd Half 2012 1st Half 2013 30 June 2013 30 June 2013 31 December 2013 31 December 2013 31 December 2013 2nd Half 2013 2nd Half 2013

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Who to Choose to Look After your Lifts, Escalators & Moving Walks Vertical transport is often referred to as the "heart" of your building. This metaphor is often met with raised eyebrows and a smirk, but it's not a far stretch when you consider what your lift does. Just as your heart pumps blood through your veins your lift pumps people throughout your building, when it stops so does the access to your building. ust like your heart requires a healthy eating plan and exercise to keep it working properly, your lift requires proper maintenance to keep pulsing people though your building. This being said, many Building Managers are given the often difficult task of choosing a lift maintenance provider (Heart Specialist) with potentially limited knowledge to assist with decision making. Should price be the only factor? Would you choose your Heart Specialist based on the cheapest price?


Apples for Apples or Will You get a Lemon? Service Agreements can be complicated documents to comprehend. You should ensure that you are comparing like for like terms and conditions. Among the many things to consider are: Guaranteed numbers of service visits, Are after hours calls included? Are all replacement parts included? Look closely at the exclusion clauses, having "access" to a service doesn't necessarily mean it's free of charge.

True Value for Money: Don't just look at the dollar figure on the offer. Remember that lifts and escalators are an expensive and technologically advanced item of plant, to ensure that your lifts/escalators safely reach their full life expectancy they need to be service correctly by trained and qualified technicians. Needless to say that lifts and escalators move precious cargo, mums, dads, children, you and me, and need to be serviced correctly for SAFETY. n Joanne Fell SERVICE CONTRACTS MANAGER LIFTRONIC PTY LIMITED

Lifts are not all created equal: Vertical Transport continues to see increasing technological advances, software and programming. Does the company you have asked to tender have trained technicians in the software make and model of your lift equipment? Each make and model of Lift, Escalator and Moving Walk have spare parts that are specific. Does the company you have asked to tender have a stock of spare parts readily available, which are suitable for the lift / escalator installed at your premises?

Ask for Assistance: If you are unsure of anything in relation to offers provided, seek clarification from tendering companies, ask questions, do your research.

Independent Advice: If you are still not sure, you may like to seek some independent expert advice so, use the services of a Lift Consultant.

For more information on Liftronic products and services contact the Liftronic offices on 1800 663 922 "Elevate your expectations for reliable lift service"

Hotel Engineer | Vol 15 No. 3 | 37

Case Study

Burj Khalifa: Living the high life The world's tallest building and man-made structure promises the ultimate in intelligent living. With over 160 floors containing integrated lighting control solutions from Philips Dynalite, residents, guests and visitors alike will indeed be living on top of the world.


or residents and guests of the United Arab Emirates' latest star attraction, Burj Khalifa by Dubai-based Emaar Properties, `living the high life' will take on both figurative and literal meaning. Officially opened on 4 January 2010, the mixed-use tower--featuring bespoke residences, corporate suites, and the world's first Armani Hotel and Armani Residences--is not only the world's tallest building and man-made structure at over 800 metres, it sets new world standards for premiumquality and luxury living. The emphasis on restrained elegance and sophistication in Burj Khalifa is uncompromising, with the use of light in all its forms playing a key role. The architecture of the building itself makes the most of the unique desert radiance from the surrounding plain. To complement this use of natural light, the interior features a lighting scheme by New York-based Fisher Marantz Stone, carefully crafted to reflect a specific design philosophy. "It's not meant to be a showy display of interior lighting, but a careful exposition of restrained and minimalist design," says Paul Marantz, co-founder and design principal at Fisher Marantz Stone. "We've had to be very careful to conceal all the luminaires and associated hardware. This is to create an ambience that is both modern and traditional at the same time." Fisher Marantz Stone's brief was to design a lighting scheme for the entire tower, top to bottom, including all

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interior and exterior elements. While illumination of the exterior was essential for the building's public and global image, it was the interior lighting that comprised around 80 per cent of the lighting project. Several floors of the Armani Hotel's hospitality and reception areas, guestrooms and residences give way to multiple floors of serviced and private condominium apartments, and several floors of offices right at the top of the building. Underpinning the understated elegance and ambience created by Fisher Marantz Stone's lighting design, and simultaneously providing the ultimate in sophisticated home automation, is a stateof-the-art system from lighting control and automation leader, Philips Dynalite.

Dynalite was one of the few lighting control solutions groups who could meet these requirements practically and economically." Once it became clear that the Philips Dynalite solution met all the advanced functional specifications from the lighting designer, as well as the more practical and logistical demands of the electromechanical and audiovisual contractors, the way forward was determined. Tectronics came onboard to provide system engineering and design, supply, testing, programming and commissioning of the highly modular and distributed Philips Dynalite lighting control system for all 160-plus floors of the monumental building.

accommodated as plans were finalised. "This is a great advantage in a project of this scale, where, inevitably, there were late design changes. Designers can leave decisions about luminaires and termination types to the last minute and maintain their flexibility," he says. "This was a real selling point of the Dynalite solution." Each suite also contains up to ten Philips Dynalite slim-line Revolution Series 2 operator interface panels, with more than 14,000 installed throughout the tower. These have been carefully crafted to present exactly the right facia finish to blend-in with the interior design--no mean feat, according to Coote. Moreover, behind the fascia beats an in-built intelligence to ensure the panels retain their programming when disconnected from the network. This communications network is founded on Philips Dynalite's sophisticated peer-topeer communications serial bus network, DyNet, which links each panel with the multipurpose controllers for that suite. In addition, DyNet is used as the primary interface to the home automation system designed by the Burj Khalifa's IT/AV consultant, Pelton Marsh Kinsella (PMK) International. PMK's design, founded on the AMX system, integrates with DyNet to provide sophisticated control capabilities within guestrooms, suites, meeting rooms, the ballroom F&B outlets and public areas. "Dynalite and AMX have been supporting each other for years," says Coote. "The AMX system incorporates built-in native drivers to support the DyNet network protocol, which facilitates integration of the two systems. This allows the end-user to control the lighting using the AMX wired and wireless colour touchscreens." Electrical isolation between the two systems is achieved using a network bridge integrated into the Philips Dynalite rack.

Intelligent and invisible According to Marantz, three key attributes were required of the lighting control system selected for this massive project: it had to be distributed and modular to accommodate the numerous individual suites and floors; it had to be supremely intelligent to support sophisticated programming requirements; and it had to be virtually invisible and easy for the enduser to use. "We knew Dynalite had the hardware and intelligence to meet these demands, and were happy to have them aboard," he says. The primary electromechanical contractor on Burj Khalifa, and the party responsible for the implementation of the lighting control system, was a joint venture between ETA, Voltas and Hitachi, known as EVH JV. It was EVH JV who had a good working relationship with local system integrator and engineering firm, Tectronics, which has also been a key distributor of Philips Dynalite systems in the UAE for 16 years. "A strong local presence with technical support was mandatory for companies bidding for this project," says Sleiman Bakouny, manager of the audio visual division of Tectronics. "We have a strong track-record with both EVH and Dynalite, which was a good starting point. However, there were also some highly specific system design criteria that needed to be met, both from a space and installation methodology perspective.

Control in a cupboard The hundreds of guestrooms, residences and offices housed within Burj Khalifa each contain a lighting control and automation system founded on the same basic architecture. Depending on the size, up to seven Philips Dynalite modular multipurpose controllers are fitted within a rack enclosure that has been specially modified to fit the limited space available within a utilities cupboard. According to Laurence Coote, Philips Dynalite sales director, the small available space for the electrical controls provided one of the most significant challenges of the project. "It was a big one!" he says. "We were told that every other vendor had a monster rack that wouldn't fit in the space, so they asked if we could develop something that would. In the end, we adapted an existing DIN-rail rack that fits within the tiny envelope provided." Over 7000 Philips Dynalite multipurpose controllers have been installed within the building, each one configured to a specific load schedule, thanks to the uniquely modular controller design that allows different output modules to be `plugged' into the motherboard. This facilitates the use of mixed loads in the one controller-- mainly leading and trailing edge dimming, ballast control, and relay control. According to Bakouny, having the controller configurable down to the load-level meant that minor changes in the system design could be easily

Living DLight Every suite on every floor of the building is linked to a central control room via 13 separate DyNet riser trunks--each of these communications conduits services a group of typically around 16 floors. In the control room, the Philips Dynalite DLight III Server running MapView software

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< acts as the system head-end, which provides control, status and scheduling information. However, Coote points out that connectivity to the control room is not mandatory for system operation. "The system is a completely distributed architecture," Coote says. "If the headend goes down it doesn't affect the operation of the local room networks; they work as per normal. It's just that in such a scenario the head-end will not have access for visualisation or control purposes." For example, it would impact the ability of tenants to access their room networks remotely via a Microsoft Internet Information Services (MS IIS), which is a web portal integrated into the DLight III Server. Moreover, to meet Fisher Marantz Stone's specifications, the entire network has been designed with appropriate levels of isolation right down to a room or suite level. Such network design strategies ensure maximum network availability, and are facilitated by the intrinsic modularity and distributed intelligence of the Philips Dynalite system. This also ties in with the lighting designer's other `smart' criteria. "The aim was to provide an intelligent system that users wouldn't find confusing to use," Marantz says. "We wanted to leapfrog over the menu of difficult decisions, but give them the ability to take control if they want to." The result is a system that presents the appropriate lighting scheme according to the time of day and the user's location within the apartment when they press a button on the interface panel. Every single user panel is configured and engraved according to precise keypad schedules; but they are all organised in the same way, with the `on' and `off' (and `raise' and `lower') buttons on the left, and all the `discretionary' buttons (used to control specific circuits) on the right. This allows users to either trust the system to know what they want, or get involved and ring the changes. "It's supposed to be smart enough to understand what you want to do, whenever you want to do it," says Marantz. "There are all kinds of intelligences built-in, simply because of

how people typically use a hotel room, apartment or office."

Installation innovations The challenge of actually programming the system to achieve this advanced functionality was handled by Tectronics, which worked closely with Philips Dynalite to ensure the initial coding catered for all the variations in area and channel numbering. Once the programs were finalised for the 50 or so different suite configurations, it was simply a matter of connecting a notebook computer and downloading the code into each room control system. "The installation methodology used on the project was also rather revolutionary and one that Dynalite could cater to," says Bakouny. "There were two main issues. The first was to ensure that all the main wiring could be completed without any of the electronic circuitry in place; the second pertained to the use of unskilled labour on the project." To meet the first challenge, a two-stage installation scheme was envisaged, whereby the rack assemblies were installed while the environment was still dusty, and the circuit loads checked using a dummy bypass unit to pick up any shorts or overloads. Once the room was clean again, the electronics were installed into the racks with minimal risk of dust contamination and damage to the circuitry. Here, a specially designed interface connector on the back of the controller connected to a baseboard assembly in the rack with the terminals already fitted. The second Philips Dynalite innovation was to introduce structured wiring for the Cat5 data cables connecting the 14,000-plus Revolution Series 2 panels into the control system. "The aim here was to avoid stripping wires on site," says Bakouny. "So the customary screw terminals were replaced with preterminated RJ12 connectors which simply click into place. Both these innovations sped up installation--a significant benefit when you're dealing with 160-plus floors!" Upon the completion of installation, Philips Dynalite supervised final

commissioning of the entire control system. "We wrote some software tools specifically to commission this job because of its scale," Coote says. "The software includes several templates for the different units; once it's connected to the rack, it automatically signs on the different devices to identify the network address for each of the individual controllers."

Massive mission "This has certainly been a massive mission for us," says Coote. "To have such a high level of integrated systems included in a project this size is very significant." He adds that Philips Dynalite also supplied more than 800 relay controllers for switching of the external and common access lighting in the building, plus all the lighting control systems for the hotel public areas--including ballrooms, function rooms, meeting rooms, lobbies and restaurant areas. The infrastructure is also in place via the AMX system, for integration with the hotel's property management system (PMS), which would allow reception staff to initiate `greet mode' in a room upon check-in. "Selected hotel staff would have the power to initiate a particular scene, or switch off lights on check-out," Marantz says. "This is the type of intelligence the system is designed to provide." Marantz emphasises that the key contribution of Philips Dynalite to this project was indeed the intrinsic distributed intelligence of the system, which allowed it to be programmed to achieve the advanced functionality his company envisaged, while remaining essentially invisible to the end-user. "We're really happy with what happened on site. Thanks and congratulations to Dynalite," he says. Given the emphasis on elegance and sophistication, it is perhaps not surprising that so much effort went into ensuring that the very latest in home automation technologies were deployed as subtly as possible. It's just what might be expected of a building that has much of its high-rise real-estate devoted to residential spaces, where occupants will live--literally--at the top of the world. n

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Leading-edge Display, Entertainment and Information Technologies A dynamic way of bringing all the key elements of your Guest's expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment, converged into a single easy-to-use interface via a customised High Definition LCD panel. With a touch of a button your guests can connect to the world and stay in touch with their business, family and friends. LifestylePanel offers your hotel guests access to the Internet, television, movies on demand, voice-over the internet and more - all with a click of a button!

Key Benefits for your Guest � � � � � � a simple easy-to-use interface a full, fast and secure internet browsing experience access to their social web site, such as Facebook, Twitter and Bebo access to WebMail services and inbuilt VOIP Skype service privacy - all Internet history removed at the close of each session convenience � immediately watch movies at any time with full trick-play and bookmarking for later continued viewing � relax and enjoy digital quality High Definition content when available

Key Benefits for your Hotel � � � � � � � � � � little or no capital outlay using your current infrastructure* improved revenue streams from movies, Internet and advertising simulcast movies to any number of rooms clean in-room installation � no set top box and messy cabling electronic compendium contented guests full 24/7 support for your staff and guests integration with your PMS on-demand live and downloadable management reports single supplier simplicity * subject to acceptable site survey

� lower management costs

If you are planning to update your in-room entertainment systems call Ross Coldwell on +61 404 961 045 today or email to find out how Lifestylepanel can benefit your hotel business.

Lifestylepanel Pty Limited

Address: 112 Crescent Avenue Hope Island QLD 4212 AUSTRALIA

ABN 129 699 262 Mobile: +61 404 961 045


An Integrated Approach to Guest Room Entertainment & Internet By ROSS COLDWELL

Converging all the key elements of a guest's expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment into a single easy-to-use interface.


ifestylepanel Pty Ltd develops leading-edge in-room display and information technologies for use in the international hotel market.

We deal to the all too common difficulties and frustration guests have trying to work or being informed or entertained in their hotel room. The simple things, like access to the internet, movies, television and other hotel services, and being able to easily communicate with their business, family and friends while away from home. The LSP System meets those needs neatly and simply by integrating the range of guest services a hotel has to offer, such as movies, television, the Internet, Skype communications, hotel information, advertising and online shopping, all into a proprietary system driving a High Definition LCD display panel with easy-to-use remote control and wireless keyboard. Many international hotels are now facing high cost capital outlays to upgrade their outdated, typically analogue in-room entertainment systems, often having to deal with multiple vendors. The LSP System and business model allows the hotel to undertake such an upgrade with little or no capital outlay, and with little or no disruption to existing guest services. Subject to a site survey a hotel's current coax infrastructure may be used. Installation is quick, efficient and leaves a tidy room setup. No set top box is required, no tacked-on hardware � the panel is cabled discreetly directly into the wall, and it can quickly start generating revenue for the hotel. Importantly, the hotel has only the one vendor to deal with. LSP controls and manages the entire process, from installation through ongoing provision and management of the system including movies and other entertainment content. The LSP system has real time online reporting with simplified billing. It can be integrated with all leading PMS systems, and the interface customised for the Hotel's branding. Access to web-based online compendiums and information pages is available. The LSP System allows for tuning to all panels in the hotel via remote access bringing a significant benefit as there is no requirement to visit individual rooms to manually adjust the TV. Laptop Internet access will work regardless of the Guest's computer setup, be it DCHP or Static IP. Guest email does not require changes to POP or SMTP settings.

All the key elements of the Guest's expectations of quality information, communication and entertainment converge into a single easy-to-use interface

A Guest VPN is supported by the LSP system and Port forwarding requirements can be configured remotely by LSP support staff as and when required. The LSP System delivers: � � � � � fast and secure internet browsing access to WebMail services and inbuilt VOIP Skype service discretion - all Internet history is removed from the system at the close of each internet session simulcast movies viewable immediately or bookmark to view any time later � all with full trick-play functions discrete movie billing with non-disclosure of titles

The LSP System is an easy to manage service utilising dependable industry class hardware and software platforms, with full 24/7 support for Hotel staff and guests. LSP manages it all and offers the Hotel a real point of difference. n

Ross Coldwell is the Managing Director of Lifestylepanel Pty Limited and can be contacted at

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Optimum chiller design for low lift conditions

Located outside the refrigerant circuit, an open-drive motor does not depend on refrigerant flow for cooling; therefore, it is not affected by changes in refrigerant flow during low lift conditions.

Designers familiar with AHRI's standards for comfort cooling may not understand the thermodynamics of lift and how it affects chiller selection and performance for process cooling applications, JOHNSON CONTROLS explains.

But in a process cooling application, AHRI standard conditions usually do not apply. While the condenser water EWT may remain at 29�C, the chilled water LWT may be 18�C or higher. For a centrifugal chiller to operate efficiently with higher chilled water LWT, certain features are required that may not be standard on many chillers unless specified. To understand the importance of these features, it is necessary to understand the thermodynamics of `lift' and its relationship to chiller performance. This knowledge will facilitate proper chiller selection for process cooling applications with low-lift conditions.

and the leaving condenser water temperature. Further, when the chilled water LWT and condenser water flow are constant, the condenser entering water temperature can be used as a metric for lift. Because most condenser water systems are designed for constant flow, the condenser EWT is the most common metric for lift. In comfort cooling applications, lower condenser EWT indicates lower lift, which lowers the compressor work (figure 1). In comfort cooling applications, ambient weather conditions often allow facility owners to take advantage of condenser EWTs as low as 10�C, at AHRI conditions. The ability to use lower condenser EWTs significantly improves chiller efficiency. In fact, greater chiller efficiency can be achieved by lowering lift than by lowering load. The efficiency improvements due to lower lift can be realised in both singlechiller and multiple-chiller installations.


or comfort cooling applications, water-cooled centrifugal chillers generally are designed for a set of standard conditions specified by the US Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI). Typically, these include a leaving chilled water temperature (LWT) of 6�C and an entering condenser water temperature (EWT) of 29�C.

Understanding lift Lift (or head pressure) is the difference between condenser refrigerant pressure and evaporator refrigerant pressure. Using defined pressure/temperature relationships, lift can also be measured with the leaving chilled water temperature

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In process cooling applications, chilled water LWT is the metric associated with lift: higher chilled water LWT means lower lift. So for process cooling applications with low lift conditions, the formula changes slightly, as shown in figure 2. However, the chiller must be designed to take advantage of the higher chilled water LWT to see an effective reduction of compressor work. If it is, then process facilities also will see significant energy savings because efficiency is mostly impacted by lift and only slightly impacted by load. These efficiency improvements will be seen in both single-chiller and multiple-chiller installations.

must be high enough to ensure that refrigerant flows adequately through the motor cavity. Without sufficient flow, current draw can overheat the motor windings and the chiller will shut down due to high motor temperature. For that reason, chillers with a hermeticdrive motor must maintain a greater pressure differential between the evaporator and the condenser to ensure adequate motor cooling. A common method for ensuring sufficient pressure differential for hermeticdrive chillers is to artificially limit the lift reduction. Limiting lift reduction will increase the compressor's energy consumption. By contrast, an open-drive motor is located outside the refrigerant circuit. Therefore, it can be air cooled or, optionally, water cooled. It does not depend on refrigerant flow for cooling and is, therefore, unaffected by changes in refrigerant flow during low lift conditions. The orifice is the chiller component that creates a refrigerant pressure drop between the condenser and the evaporator. There are two orifice design options: fixed or variable. With a fixed orifice, it is difficult for a chiller to perform efficiently under low lift conditions at full loads. That is because fixed orifices are sized for the high head pressure that exists at design-lift conditions. As a result, fixed orifices simply are not large enough to allow the required refrigerant flow at low-pressure conditions. The variable orifice design, however, is more accommodating. A variable

orifice valve automatically modulates to maintain proper refrigerant flow, taking into account the head pressure across the valve. At design lift conditions, the variable orifice is partially closed and, at low lift conditions, it opens to allow the proper refrigerant flow. This feature is especially important for multiple chiller plants where additional chillers and associated auxiliaries (pumps, towers) have to operate to meet process/facility demand. Without a variable orifice, the operator may resort to running more chillers and more associated auxiliaries than needed because the chillers are unable to load up. This is an extremely inefficient way to operate a chiller plant. To avoid the full-load problem of fixed orifice chillers under low lift conditions, some chiller manufacturers maintain a high minimum ECWT, up to 24�C. But the strategy to increase lift (head pressure) to maintain chiller stability sacrifices chiller efficiency in situations where low lift conditions would be available to slash operating costs. In terms of chiller design, the only way to achieve both full-load cooling capacity under low lift conditions and off-design energy performance is to use a variable orifice as a refrigerant metering device.

Chiller designed for low lift Not every chiller is designed to take advantage of conditions when high chilled water LWT is specified. In fact, four design variables affect a centrifugal chiller's ability to handle low-lift conditions encountered in process-cooling applications: � drive design � orifice design � oil management system � compressor aerodynamics. It is not immediately obvious that the design of the electric motor drive should have anything to do with a chiller's ability to handle low-lift conditions, but it does. There are two basic motor choices for centrifugal chillers: refrigerant cooled (hermetic-drive) or air cooled (open-drive). A hermetic-drive motor is located inside a refrigerant-filled motor cavity. Unfortunately, this is a bad place to be under low lift conditions. At all conditions, head pressure on a hermetic-drive motor

Oil management system Low-lift conditions also impact a chiller's oil management system. Hermetic drive chillers rely on oil seals to separate the oil circuit from the refrigerant circuit. These seals are not 100 per cent effective, and some quantity of oil is always escaping into the refrigerant.

Figure 1. Lower condenser entering water temperature indicates lower lift in comfort cooling applications, which lowers the compressor work. The relationship can be summarised by the equation shown.

Figure 2. In process cooling applications, chilled water leaving water temperature (LWT) is the metric associated with lift: higher chilled water LWT means lower lift. The relationship can be summarised by the equation shown.

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These seals are even less efficient at lower differential pressures (low-lift conditions), which allows oil to escape at a faster rate. When this happens, large amounts of oil will enter the refrigerant circuit and migrate to the evaporator. Normally, excess oil should reside in the oil sump of the compressor. But if oil is in the evaporator instead, the chiller may shut down on a low oil pressure safety. In addition, the excess oil in a flooded evaporator migrates to the top layer of tubes. But this is where the best heat transfer (refrigerant boiling) occurs. Therefore, when refrigerant in this area is displaced by oil, heat transfer and chiller efficiency suffer significantly. Open drive centrifugal chillers are able to use an oil management system that can make oil loss a relatively minor issue at low lift conditions. For example, an oil eduction system can be employed to separate oil from the refrigerant in the evaporator and return it to the oil sump. With this type of system, more oil stays in the sump, permitting the chiller to operate effectively at low-lift conditions.

Compressor aerodynamics The design of a centrifugal chiller's compressor is also critical to low lift performance. That's because a centrifugal compressor operates most efficiently when the tip speed of its impeller is optimised for the application. In a direct-drive compressor, where the impeller is directly connected to the motor, the only way to adjust tip speed is by changing the size of the impeller. Because there are relatively few impeller sizes to choose from, compressor tuning is limited and performance suffers accordingly. On the other hand, in a gear-drive compressor, tip speed is a combined function of impeller size and gear ratio. With multiple impeller sizes per compressor size, and multiple gear combinations per impeller size, it is easier to select a gear-drive compressor that will match the low-lift application's requirements most efficiently.

Summary Centrifugal chillers that can adapt to low-lift conditions, where head pressure is reduced because of high LCHWT, are able to save energy in many process cooling applications. To take advantage of low-lift conditions, the chiller should incorporate an open-drive design to ensure proper motor cooling, a variable orifice to ensure proper refrigerant flow, an oil eduction system to maintain oil in the sump, and a geardrive compressor to optimise impeller tip speed. In terms of chiller design, the only way to achieve both fullload cooling capacity under low-lift conditions and off-design energy performance is to use a variable orifice as a refrigerant metering device. A chiller equipped with these design features can deliver good performance in low-lift conditions and provide energy savings in a range of process cooling applications. n This article was first published in CCN, Climate Control News.

Neil Weenink's

Back of House garment folder put it. Of course I, as representing The Owner was bound to assess otherwise, and declared the noise to be from the AC plant next door, cycling on and off as it does. To which the lesser-garment folder challenged: if this is what you think then get into the machine's drum and listen! Well I mean to say to be faced with this lesser-garment folder in front of all the Big Wigs not to mention the hotel hierarchy inc engineering young, old and so forth. Heck of a thing. So I did. I climbed into the huge drum and prayed for early release. Some idiot pushed the button and the drum began to oscillate. With this came the cold water � thank the dear Lord for only cold water. Then the soap, then all the other stuff. At which point I was fast getting beyond the pall. But, because we were yet only on oscillation, I was able to kick the drum and make indecent gestures, thankfully seen through the glass panel on the door. The big machines really are huge. From memory the main shaft on the one above was some 150mm and the roller bearing which we replaced cost over US$3K. A neat task too it became in removing the old bearing � we lit a fire in the back of the machine [now less drum] and cooked the casting face until we could jack out the cause of the Housekeeper's angst. A couple of 8x2 planks served as a slipway to jemmy the darned thing out of the machine: it was just too heavy to manhandle. Fortunately I had some very talented Philipino mechanics on the payroll so we decided, given this opportunity, to turn up a new shaft. We did, and the whole caboodle was replaced and running within 20 hours. Then there is the `cooling tank' set at floor level behind the big washer. There being the obvious reasons why Authority frowns on hot water discharged into their drains, and/or Head Office sends out yet another thesis on Water & Energy Conservation, these tanks began to appear in the 1970's. Like everything else, the end result from this system is in direct proportion to R&D and cost as viewed by The Owner. And it was here that the project nearly came unstuck. It seems The Owner was staying in You Be My Guest Please? for a couple of days, and as usual brought his wretched cat along for company. On the second evening all hell broke loose. Blared the speakers: "The Owner is making an inspection tour. Stand By all Department Heads. You will be called" Suddenly the lesser-garment folder who always knew what was happening, squealed out `His darned cat's gone missing and he's on the warpath!' Now all you avid readers of this page think you know what happened to the wretched cat, don't you? You all think the poor wee beastie went swimming in the cooling tank behind Nbr 3 washing machine don't you? You all think how sad it is if the wretched quadruped canna swim, dontcha? And of course I was thinking much the same and how would I enjoy working in Inner Mongolia as a change of scenery? Well folks I must tell you that The Owner's cat was duely located warm and snug under the steam-ironing machine. We were all forgiven, [for exactly what has never been revealed] and later that evening joined with The Owner in telling stories; some of which I confess, are somewhat hard to believe! Have a good one,

The Bucyrus digger was awesome to one so small, all of 5 that is. The man said hey Neil come for a spin! And I nervously clambered into the huge bucket at the front of the thing which lifted off the ground and began to swivel around, slowly at first and then faster and faster. You bet I was horrified and sicker than I would be until years later in Chinese typhoons. When the digger driver eventually let me down, there was his daughter all of 6 years, and she said `Pooh ye canna take it can ye?' And this I have never forgotten. o when I faced the laundry machinery years later, in the past used-by date hotel with the incongruous name of You Be My Guest Please? It was with some courage that I enquired from the Housekeeper [these persons [M&F both] at that time in charge of the Laundry facility] what was the problem here? It seemed the large washer/spinner bearings were making an almighty racket. Like an approaching typhoon as one lesser-



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ouchCheck is a premium integrated self service check-in and check-out solution developed for the hotel industry.

Touchcheck was developed in 2004 for be integrated into the Accor, Formule 1 hotel chain across Australia. This became the first fully stand alone card issuing self service kiosk in the market. The TouchCheck Hotel Check-in and Check-out solution allows for both external and internal kiosk solutions via TCP/IP connectivity from the kiosk hardware across the hotel LAN to the Micros Fidelio/Opera server in a secure area in the hotel. TouchCheck also offer full compatibility with the MICROS Credit Card payment gateway or Verisign/Paypal Credit Card payment gateway for 100% payment upfront only � no pre-authorisation, and compatibility with VingCard (VC3), Onity (HT24 / HT28) and Saflok (6000) Electronic Room Key systems for guest security. TouchCheck offers an inexpensive self service Checkin, Check-out solution to enhance your guests experience. Freeing up time for staff to undertake other activities. The return on investment for TouchCheck is 12-18 months depending on the throughput. TouchCheck allows guests to Checkin remotely offsite. Allowing multi-channel marketing for the hotel. By decentralising the installation of a hotel branded TouchCheck kiosk, the hotel can capture spontaneous traffic at the airport or other public venues to secure additional business.

TouchCheck� Testimonials TouchCheck's consultation and installation process was smooth and trouble free. Our staff embraced the introduction of touch screen check-in and out kiosks as they view the technology as a means of assisting and support them with their workloads and relieving the burden of late night shifts which are so often a safety concern for hospitality staff. For Formule 1 installing TouchCheck touch screen kiosks is a win win solution: our customers feel highly valued and now have an additional means of checking-in and out conveniently and effectively, our staff are provided with additional assistance and our human and technology resources are fully utilised. Larry Raffel, General Manager Formule 1 Hotels As Marketing Manager of Ibis Hotels I saw TouchCheck's hotel express check in and out solution as a way of introducing a new service within the hotel market. This technology provides a competitive advantage to our hotels and assists in selling the ethos of convenience and high customer service at all our Ibis Hotels. By offering a tailored solution for the hotel industry TouchCheck's product places us in the position of providing additional benefits to our customer base from real time payment transactions through to increased recognition of our brand through our customised kiosks. We are also exploring TouchCheck's additional benefits of directional technologies to assist customers locate hotel amenities, local sites and attractions and even in the future advertising which will provide us with an added return on investment. For hotels seeking a competitive edge as well as increased levels of customer service I recommend TouchCheck's hotel express check in and out solutions. Michael Parsons Marketing Manager Ibis Hotels "... self check in via kiosk is excellent due to achieved efficiency in operational costs through less staffing". Eoin Loftus, General Manager & Development Manager Majestic Hotels


Professional, Profound & Productive

Anura Yapa By MAX AGNEW hen one checks out the dictionary for the word `professional', you may well find next to it the pen picture of Anura Yapa JP, these days Chief Engineer with the Menzies Hotel Sydney. Professional, profound and productive � that sums up much of the qualities of this much travelled gentleman who helped establish the first Victorian Chapter of the AIHE and is today the President of the New South Wales Chapter of AIHE. Anura was born in Sri Lanka, the former Ceylon that was ceded to the British Empire in 1815, then gaining its political independence in 1948. It is best known for the export of tea, coffee, coconut, rubber and cinnamon, and this Hotel Chief Engineer if you listen to his staff. When choosing engineering to be his first choice for a career, much of his early learning was out of books before then being able to successfully study in Mechanical Engineering category, then securing work within the private sector in Refrigeration and AirConditioning where he was specialised in. It was exciting for him when successful with his application to work for the Hilton International in Dubai, a remarkable complex of 39 storeys Office Tower and 403 excellent hotel rooms, 3 large Exhibition Centres and 3 Apartment blocks. This was his first taste of being involved in hotel engineering, until love beckoned. He returned to Sri Lanka to marry his sweetheart Dayani, going back to work again with Ref & Air; now as the Design and Installation Engineer and having the opportunity of being involved with sales from time to time. Then as the Senior Engineer and Department Head of Ref & Air-Con., and Low temperature Biomedical equipment division with Sanyo agents where he had extensive training sessions in Japan, Singapore and in Malaysia.


An old colleague and a good friend from his days in Dubai, Kingsley Lawton, offered to put him in touch with the right people in Melbourne for he and his family to be sponsored if they were still keen moving to Australia. The job he obtained was in his specialised area of Air-conditioning and the person who brought him here is Bill UHE. Back in the hotel business, impressing Hilton on the Park to the point he was given an opportunity to prove himself where was in the role of Plant Operations Engineer. The family lived in the suburb of Keysborough to the south-east, commuting to work in the city for the following seven years. His next move was to accept the position of Chief Engineer across the continent at Perth's Novotel Langley. Among those he came to know well while there was Doug Stemp, the ex-president of AIHE - WA chapter, who remembers Anura as a respected, an honest and reliable colleague to be involved with. Anura was the treasurer of AIHE - WA Chapter. After two years in Perth, he was invited to transfer to Sydney with in the same group of hotels Accor. Anura says it is comfortable to work with known people where Accor is the same managing company of Novotel Perth and the Menzies Sydney. Further there is link between Hilton on the Park Melbourne and The Menzies Sydney are own by the same owners, Thakral Holdings one of Australia's largest long term hotel owners. Anura again as the Chief Engineer at the Menzies, operating with a staff of 12 others. It is not unusual when called out by other hotels from the group if some special assistance is required, such is the respect colleagues have for his knowledge. Today Dayani and Anura have a daughter Yushani at University of Western Sydney, and a son Lahiru in his final year at secondary school. The latter is not certain at this stage what to specialise in when leaving school, but his father says it will be certainly something that is technical, as he seems very keen on this area.

Anura Yapa likes to help teach some of his staff when possible, though most of his staff are qualified technical personal and usually are quite good operating without too much assistance. Colleagues are likely to be quick to describe him as a workaholic, which he is not likely to argue about. This is why it has been years since he played sport, though he does enjoy following cricket and soccer. Anura is kept busy these days, not backward in remaining on the job for long hours, as sometimes he knows that one can catch up on paper work staying on into the evenings. Whilst one of his staffers, says Anura's sincere concern for the wellbeing of those around him and his open-door policy make him both extremely approachable and well respected, one of his former bosses Alan Burrows, describes Anura is a capable, knowladgeble and dedicated Engineer. Michael Smith the General Manager of the Menzies appreciates the experience and the talent Anura brings to the position of Chief Engineer is just what is needed at the Menzies, which is in its fifth decade. He remains constantly interested in The Menzies having a key role including Risk Management and OH&S. Anura as an accredited Assessor of NABERS program of the Department of Environment Climate Change and Water, assessing other properties to help global sustainability. "He's not loud or demanding, yet he always seems to get the job done, with everyone who comes in contact with him being quick to see Anura an inspiration for all." n

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How safe is your building? By HAYSAM EL HASSAM | Environmental Scientist, Independent Monitoring Consultants

The importance of a safe indoor environment is crucial to the health of staff, guests, contractors and the general public. In many instances, the quality of the air is overlooked for more visible problems such as broken windows, slip hazards, overhangs etc. In actual fact, the air quality is the single most significant aspect of an indoor environment. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than 30 percent of all commercial buildings have significant Indoor Air Quality problems, a figure that most people are oblivious to.

The following four elements are involved in the development of indoor air quality problems: � Sources: there is a source of contamination or discomfort indoors, outdoors, or within the mechanical systems of the building, HVAC: the HVAC system is not able to control existing air contaminants and ensure thermal comfort (temperature and humidity conditions that are comfortable for most occupants), Pathways: one or more pollutant pathways connect the pollutant source to the occupants and a driving force exists to move pollutants along the pathway(s), Occupants: building occupants are present.

of air samples often fail to detect high concentrations of specific contaminants. The problem may be caused by: � The combined effects of multiple pollutants at low concentrations (e.g. VOCs, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde) Other environmental stressors (e.g., overheating, poor lighting, noise) Ergonomic stressors Job-related psychosocial stressors (e.g., overcrowding, labour management problems) Unknown factors

� � �

Building Related Illness (BRI) Building-related symptoms are common and are generally nonspecific discomfort problems affecting the eyes, nose and throat. There are no definitive clinical tests available to establish the diagnosis of sick building syndrome rather, building associated symptoms are recognized by identification of indoor air quality (IAQ) environmental problems or higher combined symptom rates among a group of building occupants. In contrast, building-related illnesses are uncommon and by definition, are more serious in prognosis than mere discomfort. Physician diagnosis by clinical investigation of symptoms is the usual means of recognizing building-related illnesses. Buildingrelated illnesses can have a long latent (or asymptomatic) period after exposure begins before symptoms are

It is important to understand the role that each of these factors may play in order to prevent, investigate, and resolve indoor air quality problems.


he indoor environment in any building is a result of interaction between the site, climate, building system, (original design and later modification in the structure, and mechanical systems), construction techniques, contaminant sources (building materials and furnishings, moisture, processes, and activities within the building, and outdoor sources), and building occupants. Indoor air should be without harmful atmospheric pollutants such as gases, fumes, dust or vapours. Vol 15 No. 3 |

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) The term sick building syndrome (SBS) is sometimes used to describe cases in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that are apparently linked to the time that they spend in the building, but in which no specific illness or cause can be identified. The complaints may be localized in a particular room or zone or may be widespread throughout the building. Many different symptoms have been associated with SBS, including respiratory complaints, irritation, and fatigue. Analysis

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experienced, such as occurs with lung cancer after indoor radon exposure. Other categories of building-related illnesses, however, are associated with an immediate appearance of symptoms after exposure.

Recognizing Building-Related Illnesses � � � Toxic illness; for example: carbon monoxide poisoning Infectious disease; for example: Legionnaires' disease Allergic disease; for example: asthma, hay fever, or hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Building-related illnesses generally require a prolonged recovery time or may become a chronic problem for the patient, even after removal or remediation of the building exposure that caused the illness in the beginning.

Assessment Objective The objective of an IAQ assessment and monitoring is to evaluate and assess the condition of indoor air quality of a building/office premises in compliance with acceptable limits. Independent Monitoring Consultants typical Indoor Air Quality Assessment objective is to perform an analysis of the Indoor Air Quality as it is at the time of the assessment and identify any areas where concentration of levels is high and may cause concern to the occupants. � Measurement of thermal comfort, which incorporates air temperature and relative humidity within the occupied areas. These are compared with established acceptable levels. Carbon dioxide levels within the working environment which would give an indication as to whether the fresh air rate supplied is in sufficient quantity to remove unpleasant odours and other internally generated pollutants. Noxious gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and formaldehyde and (where required) ozone. Measurement of airborne particulate levels within the workplace. Comparison with acceptable levels and between various locations within the same building. � Airborne bacteria and fungal contamination levels within the office areas. These are compared to various guidelines or best knowledge of our microbiologists. The data also helps to locate the source of the problem.

Pollutant Sources There are many sources of indoor air pollution. These include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, and tobacco products; building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood products; products for cleaning and maintenance, or personal care, central heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution. The relative importance of any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits and how hazardous those emissions are. In some cases, factors such as how old the source is and whether it is properly maintained are significant. Some sources, such as building materials, furnishings, and cleaning products like air fresheners, release pollutants more or less continuously. Other sources, related to activities carried out in a building, release pollutants intermittently. These include smoking, the use of solvents in cleaning, the use of paint strippers in redecorating activities, and the use of cleaning products

Independent Monitoring Consultants 'spot check' assessment, longer term or indoor air quality monitoring programmes can be used to confirm that the ventilation plant is being maintained at an acceptable hygienic and mechanical standard as well as ensuring that the building complies with current acceptable limits.

What Causes Indoor Air Problems? Indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems. Inadequate ventilation can increase indoor pollutant levels by not bringing in enough outdoor air to dilute emissions from indoor sources and by not carrying indoor air pollutants out of the building. High temperature and humidity levels can also increase concentrations of some pollutants.

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How safe is your building? (cont'd)

factors. Age and pre-existing medical conditions are two important influences. In other cases, whether a person reacts to a pollutant depends on individual sensitivity, which varies tremendously from person to person. Some people can become sensitized to biological pollutants after repeated exposures, and it appears that some people can become sensitized to chemical pollutants as well. Certain immediate effects are similar to those from colds or other viral diseases, so it is often difficult to determine if the symptoms are a result of exposure to indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place symptoms occur. If the symptoms fade or go away when a person is away from work, for example, an effort should be made to identify indoor air sources that may be possible causes. Some effects may be made worse by an inadequate supply of outdoor air or from the heating, cooling, or humidity conditions prevalent in the building.

situations where the system has faulted or some known occurrence has impacted on the quality of the air.

Improving Indoor Air Quality There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: Source Control Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed; others, like gas stoves, can be adjusted to decrease the amount of emissions. In many cases, source control is also a more cost-efficient approach to protecting indoor air quality than increasing ventilation because increasing ventilation can increase energy costs. For most indoor air quality problems in a building, source control is the most effective solution. Ventilation Improvements Another approach to lowering the concentrations of indoor air pollutants in a building is to increase the amount of outdoor air coming indoors. Most building heating and cooling systems mechanically bring fresh air into the building at a controlled rate depending on the percentage and exchange rate of air can dramatically affect the pollutant levels. The minimum recommended fresh air rate is 10 Litres per second (L/s) per person or 10 L/s per 10 m2 for mechanical ventilation systems with optimum air movement of 0.1-0.5 m/s (naturally ventilated), 0.1-0.2 m/s (air-conditioned). Air Cleaners There are many types and sizes of air cleaners on the market some air cleaners are highly effective at particle removal, while others are much less so. Air cleaners are generally not designed to remove gaseous pollutants. The effectiveness of an air cleaner depends on how well it collects pollutants from indoor air (expressed as a percentage efficiency rate) and how much air it draws through the cleaning or filtering element (expressed in cubic feet

< and pesticides in house-keeping. High pollutant concentrations can remain in the air for long periods after some of these activities.

Amount of Ventilation If too little outdoor air enters a building, pollutants can accumulate to levels that can pose health and comfort problems. Unless they are built with special mechanical means of ventilation, buildings that are designed and constructed to minimize the amount of outdoor air that can "leak" into and out of the building may have higher pollutant levels than other buildings.

Long-term effects Other health effects may show up either years after exposure has occurred or only after long or repeated periods of exposure. These effects, which include some respiratory diseases, heart disease, and cancer, can be severely debilitating or fatal. It is prudent to try to improve the indoor air quality in a building even if symptoms are not noticeable. While pollutants commonly found in indoor air are responsible for many harmful effects, there is considerable uncertainty about what concentrations or periods of exposure are necessary to produce specific health problems. People also react very differently to exposure to indoor air pollutants. Further research is needed to better understand which health effects occur after exposure to the average pollutant concentrations found in buildings and which occurs from the higher concentrations that occur for short periods of time. Documentation of all complaints concerning the quality perceived or other of the Indoor Air Quality inside your building or property should be well documented and recorded including

Indoor Air Pollution and Health Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later.

Immediate effects Immediate effects may show up after a single exposure or repeated exposures. These include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Such immediate effects are usually short-term and treatable. Sometimes the treatment is simply eliminating the person's exposure to the source of the pollution, if it can be identified. Symptoms of some diseases, including asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and humidifier fever, may also show up soon after exposure to some indoor air pollutants. The likelihood of immediate reactions to indoor air pollutants depends on several

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How safe is your building? (cont'd) per minute). A very efficient collector with a low air-circulation rate will not be effective, nor will a cleaner with a high aircirculation rate but with a less efficient collector. The long-term performance of any air cleaner depends on maintaining it according to the manufacturer's directions. Another important factor in determining the effectiveness of an air cleaner is the strength of the pollutant source. People with sensitivity to particular sources may find that air cleaners are helpful only in conjunction with concerted efforts to remove the source. Over the past few years, there has been some publicity around indoor houseplants and these should not be overwatered because overly damp soil may promote the growth of microorganisms which can affect allergic individuals and in the case of some plants spores can be collected and distributed through the air system to contribute significant allergy and contamination problems. Consultants in indoor air quality would state, "Dilution is the solution to indoor air pollution!" Today although we focus on controlling the source of contaminant, dilution makes a terrific second line of defence and can reduce or eliminate many IAQ concerns in commercial buildings. n

For almost twenty years, Independent Monitoring Consultants (IMC) has serviced the hospitality, healthcare and commercial industries for water systems, corrosion monitoring and indoor air quality (IAQ) both nationally and internationally. Our clients include airports, hotels, resorts, hospitals, shopping centres, office buildings, theme parks and a variety of businesses in manufacturing, production and general services. With over 100 years of combined experience amongst our personnel and our NATA accredited laboratory, it is no wonder that IMC is Australia's largest independent sampling, consulting and testing service for water systems for the abovementioned industries. Our vision has been "to be recognized as one of the world's best testing, consulting and training services in the fields of water, indoor air quality and food". To ensure that IMC remains an industry leader, IMC has recently established a new and exciting division within the company. IMC Environs was created to meet the continued demands of our clients, to not only improve the working conditions when non conformances exist but also to recommend systems/ areas of continual improvement, thus ensuring a safe working environment for all parties involved. IMC Environs is a new and innovative service offered by Independent Monitoring Consultants (IMC). IMC Environs was established to address the concerns that employers, employees and the general public have with regards to air quality, noise and compliance issues. Typical services include but are not limited to: � � � � � � � � � Indoor Air Quality Assessments Indoor Mould and Bacteria Assessments General Air Quality Monitoring Occupational Hygiene Assessments (including dust, chemicals, fumes etc) Occupational Noise Assessments (including exposure criteria, relevant standards and regulations) Occupational Noise Insurance Claims Noise Contour Mapping Lighting Assessments Occupational and Environmental Regulatory Audits

More-accessible hotels from 2011 By ROD HUNTER t the start of May next year, the Building Code of Australia (BCA) will incorporate the provisions of the new Disability Standards on Access to Premises - Buildings (DSAPB) that will be simultaneously brought into effect. The new provisions are intended to enhance amenity and safety for building users with disabilities but the beneficiaries will be potentially all building users regardless of ability. The new provisions will apply to buildings and parts of them for which an application for a building permit is made. This includes: � � � � new buildings; new parts of existing buildings (additions and alterations); the whole of existing buildings if proposed new parts of them are substantial; in some circumstances for new parts of buildings, parts outside the scope of works such as accessways and sanitary accommodation (denoted as `affected parts'); and changes of building use under State or Territory building Acts which require a building permit, even if no additions or modifications are proposed.


Figure 1 From next year, this doorway will not comply because the warning marking on the glass does not extend for the full width of the glass (it also does not comply with current requirements because there is negligible luminance contrast with the background).

Figure 2 From next year, long passages wil need to have passing or turning spaces for wheelchair users; doorway recesses such as these can be used for this purpose.

The BCA already has requirements for accessibility for people with disabilities, but the revised BCA will go further. However, what is special about next year is that for the first time, compliance with the BCA will, because of the DSAPB, formally constitute compliance with the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA). Presently, it is possible for a building to be compliant will the BCA but for formal action to be taken under the DDA that imposes additional or the modification of building features. Next year's event is part of a process attributable to the civil and disability rights movements of the 1960s and 1970s and brought into focus by the International Year of the Disabled in 1981. A major milestone was the publication of the DDA in 1992 and, in 2000, the opportunity for formulating standards under it (different to the standards of Standards Australia). Other milestones have been the publication of Regulation Document RD97/01 in 1997, an early venture in harmonising the BCA with the DDA, and the initial draft in 2004 of the DSAPB. The standards of Standards Australia have been a vital part of the regulatory changes, with publication in 1997 of AS1428--

1977: `Code of practice for design for access for the disabled' and a major review of it, commencing in 1981 under the auspices of the precursor to the current Australian Building Codes Board. Since then, the standard has been slightly but importantly renamed, augmented by additional parts, and several times revised. Six statutory and regulatory entities underlie next year's changes: the building Acts of the States and Territories; the BCA that is authorised and relied-upon by them; the DDA; the DSAPB under it; the Access Code for Buildings (ACB) that will be incorporated

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More-accessible hotels from 2011 (cont'd) < in the DSAPB and duplicated in the BCA; and standards of Standards Australia (SA) upon which the ACB and the BCA rely for technical detail. The relevant SA standards are AS 1428 Part 1 (the principal "accessibility" standard); AS 1428 Part 2 (the supplementary accessibility standard used with Part 1 for public transport buildings under the BCA); AS/NZS 1428 Part 4 (for tactile ground surface indicators- `TGSls'); AS1735 (for lifts) and AS/NZS 2890 (for car parking). The changes for next year are numerous, although not as much and nor as adequate, as argued by proponents, as they should have been. On the other hand, proponents of more affordable building argued that the provisions, though laudable, have gone too far. It was to balance these competing views that extensive industry and community consultation occurred and for which a Regulatory Impact Assessment was prepared. Whether too for or not for enough will be reconsidered in approximately four years' time for the five-yearly review of the DSAPB. The provisions next year will include requirements for: � more space in lifts and unisex (wheelchair accessible) toilets, provision for passing and turning spaces for wheelchairs in long or terminated corridors, and increased doorway widths; and more space for "accessible" car parking spaces � a greater proportion of entrances to be wheelchair accessible; � sanitary facilities, including a proportion of non-wheelchairaccessible toilet compartments to be suitable for use by ambulant people with a disability, and more-distributed unisex toilets; � in theatre and auditoria and the like, greater provision for wheelchair spaces and more extensive provision of hearing augmentation facilities; � for vertical access, provision of luminance contrasting strips at nosings of steps in fire escape stairways, a greater range of options for handrail ends at stairs and ramps, and changes to the allowable designs for ramps, and allowance of a greater range of lift types; � additional requirements for signs; � greater provision for access to swimming pools; � more conspicuous marking of glass in doorways and the like. Concessions apply for small buildings, mezzanines, lifts, existing sanitary facilities, and multi-tenanted buildings. Importantly, it is not just building designers, certifiers, developers, builders and owners who have obligations under the new provisions; it will also be managers and operators of hotels who will be required under the new provisions for the continued useability of accessways, sanitary facilities and other features required by the new provisions. More information can be obtained from the Australian Human Rights Commission, the Australian Building Codes Board and the Australian Government Attorney General's Department ( n Rod Hunter is an experienced architect, ACAA accredited access consultant, and a pedestrian access and safety researcher based in Melbourne.

Case Study:

Shangri-La Hotel Sydney Building Management System By JIM HENRY | Managing Director, Logical Group

The phased installation of a native BACnet webenabled WebCTRL Building Management System (BMS) was completed in July, finishing a six year program to completely replace the original BMS that was installed when the hotel was built in the 1980s.

full-featured web interface, capable of providing verifiable energy savings. The project was a great success due to all the hotel maintenance staff. Russell Allom, with his extensive knowledge of the complete building operation and experience in the hotel engineering helped this project run both efficiently and smoothly. Russell decided to allow the site to be one of the world's first BETA installations of WebCTRL 4 (current version) which lead to the early release of the software ahead of schedule. The WebCTRL installation is comprehensive. It controls the entire HVAC system. Air Handling Systems � AHU's, VAV's and FCU's acting as the primary air conditioning to the Altitude Restaurant, Horizons Bar, Caf�, Foyers, Lobbies, Lounge area, Kitchen, Function Centre ,Gym, Laundry, Dry Cleaning area, Pool area, Offices, Bakery and Harts pub on Gloucester St The air conditioning systems operate with their own time schedule as established with the client, and to suit ABGR rating. Schedules are resident in each controller The BMCS system monitors the operation of the unit, reports faults, allows remote setpoint adjustments, allows remote start stop signals, monitors filter condition, establishes time schedules and controls the system to maintain temperature.

The BCMS also Utilising energy strategies in economy cycle

Chiller Management System � 3 Chillers, associated pumps and heat exchangers.- The BMS rotates and stages the chillers Secondary chilled water pumps with heat exhangers.- The BMS controls valve actuators which modulate the amount of primary chilled water allowed to pass through the heat exchanger which regulates the temperature of the secondary chilled water supply temperature.

he Shangri-la Hotel is located in the historic rocks district between the Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge. The hotel offers 563 spacious and inspired luxury guest rooms and suites with unimpeded views of the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Opera house, and Darling Harbour, and the hotel's meeting and business facilities are second to none. The Logical Group first received a contract to retrofit the hotel BMS in 2004. Six years later the Logical Group completed the retrofit of the complete site with the fifth stage of the works. The project was complicated by the requirement to maintain conditions 24/7 and the fact the project was broken into five major stages. The hotel engineer, Russell Allom, determined that the Shangri-La would be best served by a scalable system, with native BACnet communications and


Boilers � � 2 Boilers and associated pumps The BMS has a modbus485 interface to the hot water pump which gives information such as the KW's, AMPS and Hz displayed on the web interface.

Steam generators � � 2 Steam Generators and associated pumps The BMS controls valve actuators which regulate the temperature of the domestic hot water supply temperature.

Interface to the building paging system � Currently the BMS initiates calls to the paging system for CHW System, HW System, FIRE, & Controller Alarms. If the new wireless phone system is installed the BMS will also interface to this system so hotel engineers >

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< can receive alarms on their hotel wireless phones Curtain and shades control � The curtains in the three lounges are controlled by WebCRTL using sun location software to determine the optimum position of the shades (see graphic at left). The shades are partially-to-fully closed when the sun would be in the patrons eyes

Spa and Pool Interface � Due to the implementation of new regulations on Pool PH level monitoring the BMS is connected to the chemical dosing system to record the PH levels at the required times of the day. This data can easily be read from the trends on the BMS or be transferred to applications such as Word or Excel.

Lighting � The BMS monitors LUX levels and controls a variety of lighting circuits such as office lighting, pond lighting, garden lighting, foyer lighting and the main sign on top of the Building.

Metering � All hot and cold water usage around the hotel is monitored by pulse meter monitoring and All electrical usage signal meters monitoring the electrical switchboards. These are all being looked at to upgrade to meters with HLI cards to get more information out of them.

Industry-leading technologies employed The Shangri-La BMS features many of the world best standard and leading edge features available in BMS systems: � � � � Native BACnet Thin Client Web Enabled Energy Reporting Environmental Index

Native BACnet BACnet has been the industry standard for ten years, and the world standard for five years. The WebCTRL system is native BACnet, which means that it employs

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BACnet objects of information throughout and that all communications are handled by BACnet networks. This means that the WebCTRL system can be interoperated with other BACnet systems. Web Based BMS Almost every BMS now has an option to operate via the Internet. WebCTRL, as the name implies has been based around a web interface for over ten years. A web based BMS provides many advantages to a traditional BMS. Multiple operators can view the BMS simultaneously from any computer on the Internet. This allows different stakeholders to discuss system operation over the telephone without having to leave their office. This has been a major change in the usability of BMS systems. Energy Reporting Energy Reports leverages WebCTRL's extensive trending capabilities to generate operating data, in graphic or spreadsheet format, for tracking

and analysing building performance. Reports include Occupied/Unoccupied Usage, Cooling Degree Days/Heating Degree Days, low-median-high data and benchmark comparison data. EnergyReports can simultaneously display the Environmental Index for direct, sideby-side comparison and assessment of energy use and comfort. Environmental Index WebCTRL's Environmental Index (EI) offers a real-time measure of hotel comfort by reporting the comfort quality as a single number, either for the building, each floor, or any zone and aggregating this information. EI records how accurately a zone temperature maintains its heating and cooling setpoints. The EI registers poor to optimal conditions on an analog gauge and can incorporate relative humidity, CO2 levels and other environmental factors into its readings. Every occupied zone, area, floor building can be calculated, weighted for priority, trended and reported.

Shangri-La Hotel BMS Case Study Summary As hotel managers know, with tighter operating budgets, energy savings and resource conservation have become top priorities. And with those priorities, sustainable hotel operations have become a real balancing act between energy use and occupant comfort. One of the key ingredients to this balancing act is having a powerful, yet simple, BMS that the hotel engineer can use to both monitor ongoing operation and easily modify control loops. n

Maximising By MAX AGNEW

your room profit designed to precise specifications by most reputable companies in this business. They can most certainly blend in well coming in a choice of vinyl, fabric or veneer, and are usually available in folding or individual configurations. Operable walls are not usually cheap, but when considering how they might help maximise a hotel's profit-making potential, for many they will prove to be well worthwhile having. When selecting the type of operational wall you need, it is important to analyse how the area to be divided will be used. From that, the configuration and the amount of control required can be determined. Daryl Fisher, Managing Director of Hufcor Pty Ltd, explains how their operable walls are made to client specifications. "Materials, colours and finishes can be specified from the standard ranges of decorative surfaces from the leading suppliers of laminates, panels, veneer, textiles and coatings. "Aluminium hardware is available in anodised or power-coated finishes," he added. This company offers a five-year warranty, with replacement parts available to extend the life of their product, with operable wall systems designed for easy disassembly and separability for recycling at the end of life. Mr Fisher pointed out how its Series 5000 Operable Walls provided the versatility needed at an affordable price, with the 75mm thick panels giving space saving advantages when not in position, along with a sound reduction rating (RW) of between 36 and 49. "Series 8000 is this company's highest acoustically rated system, with 100mm thickness providing the maximum sound rating reduction (RW) of between 45 and 53." Because of the number of moving parts and technical nature requiring service to reduce the occurrence of moving parts becoming difficult to operate, Hufcor provides a service and maintenance by qualified staff for easier operation and manoeuvrability. "Our preventative maintenance routines are designed to reduce the requirement for defect rectification work, due to the lack of free running and easily operated panels," he said. Operable walls that are acoustic systems designed and installed to act as a sound barrier while performing to be a function room divider, are proving popular with many hotels, enabling them to help maximise the potential of their larger rooms. n

Operable walls are ideal for allowing hotels to create extra rooms with sound rated panels proving most effective for noise control.


ou will also see operable walls/ glass walls used effectively for restaurants, schools, offices, and numerous other areas requiring a sound barrier preventing noise escaping that would have been a distraction to other nearby room dividers. A fine example of an operable wall functioning successfully is the Melbourne Convention Centre. When completed in 2008, its 16.5 metre high wall was the second highest in the world, and installed in one of our finest green buildings. The world's highest wall of 17 metres is at the South Korea World Trade Centre. It was installed by Hufcor, the same firm that did the operable wall at the Melbourne Convention Centre, Australia's first Six-Star Green-Star certified convention centre. Hufcor has branches around Australia and New Zealand with its head office in Melbourne. Hufcor has been in the forefront of operational partitions for more than 100 years. The beauty of hotels having immediate access to using operable walls is when providing a high level of privacy; they can be of a colour that complements the hotel's existing colour scheme and its style. This is because they are custom

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Case Study:

Chiller Performance Test Rig By JOHN WISDOM

PowerPax, an oil-free chiller manufacturer located in Melbourne, has added added a new chiller performance test rig to its manufacturing facility. The company had previously been required to ship its chillers overseas for engineering and certification tests. Now that it has constructed its own local facility, engineering and certification processes are no longer hindered by the tyranny of shipping time and overseas testing costs. The PowerPax service department also uses the test facility to perform service testing and reliability studies. As Australia has implemented a Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS) for chiller products, the likelihood of having to witness test water chillers has increased, as has the demand for the use of an AHRI certified test facility in Australia. This new test facility is up and running and is able to test Water Cooled Chillers ranging from 200KW to 3500KW. AHRI is certifying the facility shortly, and it also complies with Eurovent requirements. It is also capable of performing operational tests on Air Cooled Chiller products ranging from 200KW to 850KW within the trimmed limits of ambient temperature fluctuations. The facility can accurately display, using NATA certified instruments, not only the performance on the chiller being tested but also the compressor performance and the operating conditions on the test facility itself. It has two chilled water pumps to cover the complete range of chilled water flow required. The combination of running

he test facility in Melbourne provides PowerPax with the tool to verify performance of any chiller, and assist in the development of future products. The facility is also used to batch test manufactured chillers to ensure that all of the build and test procedures applied by PowerPax are sufficient in delivering a quality product satisfying the stringent customer requirements.


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The facility can accurately display not only the performance on the chiller being tested but also the compressor performance and the operating conditions on the test facility itself.

either a single pump or both pumps can deliver flows up to as high as 180l/s. The intent is to vary the chilled water flow across the required range using a combination of pumps and pump speed to reflect specific operational requirements. There are also two condenser water pumps to cover the complete range of condenser water flow required. The combination of running either a single pump or both pumps delivers flows up to as high as 190l/s.The intent is to vary the condenser water flow across the required range using a combination of pumps and pump speed to reflect specific operational requirements. A mixing pump injects condenser water into the chilled water circuit. This pump is able to deliver sufficient water from the condenser to the evaporator circuit to simulate up to 3800KW of load, and it assists in controlling cooler water temperatures. It creates a false load on the chilled water circuit by injecting condenser water into the chilled water. The mixing tank pump assists in maintaining condenser water temperatures; it is sized so as to be able to deliver water into the condenser water circuit therefore reducing condenser water temperatures. As an example, the pump can assist in the rejection of up to 630KW if conducting a test on a 3500KW chiller. The function

of this pump is to remove the excess condenser KW's that are not being injected into the chilled water circuit by the condenser water to chilled water mix pump. This pump maintains condenser water temperatures. The cooling tower water pump circulates cooling tower and mix tank water to assist in maintaining the temperature of the water at a predetermined set point. This pump should be sized for a cooling tower heat rejection of at least 1000KW. The facility has a cooling tower that can reject 1000KW at Melbourne design conditions. The tower has a VFD that can be controlled by an external signal to assist in maintaining cooling tower and mix tank water temperatures. There are two NATA certified flow meters that are able to measure water flows from 10l/s to 200l/s and they provide a signal to a controller that will maintain a programmed flow. The meters are used to measure cooler and condenser water flow. Two NATA certified differential pressure transmitters measure the water pressure drop in KPA directly across the cooler and condenser vessels. The facility has eight temperature sensors measuring the the range of chilled and condenser water temperatures. The temperature sensors are NATA certified and are permanently fitted into the cooler and condenser pipe work.

All of the temperature sensors required are of the 4 wire RTD type at 1000ohms. The mix tank holds a volume of water to enable the cooling tower water to mix with the condenser water. An 1100 KW boiler is included to provide a heat load for the operational testing of air cooled chillers up to 1100KW. The Boiler is piped into the rig and provides enough water volume to provide stable operation of the air cooled chillers. The entire Testing Facility will be ARI Certified to test Water Cooled Chillers at 50HZ. Certification is expected to be finalized towards the end of 2010. The test rig is the new jewel at the PowerPax facility and is attracting enormous attention and demand, even before the paint has dried on it ! It adds weight to PowerPax status as Australia's leading chiller supplier and is a positive step to the company's future aspirations. n

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he Hotel and Tourism industries continue to grow at an impressive rate, generating an increased turnover for those placed to provide quality service to cater for the needs of the expanding hospitality areas. New technology has become an ongoing process in the engineering field, and to meet these challenges, engineers must avail themselves of every opportunity to increase their knowledge base. With up-to-date knowledge, Hotel Engineers are better equipped to communicate with staff and management, and to work within a budget. It was down this pathway that the need for a technical publication such as The Hotel Engineer was born. That it has developed so significantly since provides this area with a forum for ideas and discussion. This innovative magazine specifically targets the needs of engineers and maintenance people in hotels, providing them with informative features on the latest ideas, developments and technology that is taking place around the globe in their specific world.

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Living and Working in Clean Air as nature intended Nature has its own method of cleaning air of odours, bacteria and virus besides simple dispersion. Waste and decomposition gases can also be reduced by the presence of hydroxyls, and testing is currently underway for controlling obnoxious odours for Veterinarians and Pet accommodations � particularly Catteries. Hydroxyls have proven results in deodorising smoking smells. Hydroxyls have been known about and researched for some 100 years since Louis Pasteur first discovered them whilst researching why people living at high altitudes in sunny conditions were generally healthier than people living at sea level. Since then such organisations as the British Army have researched Hydroxyls as a method of combating germ warfare in the late 60's and all papers and studies have confirmed the benefits of using Hydroxyls, but not been able to reproduce them by compact means. It's only in the last decade that technology has caught up with science and it's been made possible to produce hydroxyls from a compact generator. What is a hydroxyl? It's a water molecule (H�O) missing one of its Hydrogen atoms and because it's in an unbalanced state, it seeks to replace its missing Hydrogen atom. These hydroxyl (OH-) molecules are attracted to single celled organisms in the air and on surfaces, attach to them and forcibly rip a Hydrogen atom from the cell wall. They are now H�O again � harmless water molecules. In the meantime, the cell wall of the organism has been ruptured and like a popped balloon, it dies. This is a very simple mechanical action. Bacteria & virus cannot become immune to it. Further, the Hydroxyl is indiscriminate on what Bacteria & Virus it chooses and thus they work on every and all strains. Several companies have hydroxyl generators on the market using different methods � all but one requiring consumables or servicing or both. By far the most successful method passes air through a small cold plasma field to produce hydroxyls which then are distributed throughout the space by a strong fan. They do not require any maintenance or consumables other than electricity, and so they can be mounted high on a wall or from a ceiling to get maximum coverage across the space concerned. They use the natural water molecules in the air all around us and do not require topping up or chemicals or any other medium to perform their function in generating Hydroxyls. n

hey are known as Hydroxyls or Hydroxyl Clusters and are found mostly at average mountain top heights especially on sunny days. Ozone is also nature's odour and pathogen killer, but is also poisonous to all forms of life at the concentrations required to be effective, whilst Hydroxyls are not. Nature has seen it fit to make our bodies immune to hydroxyls whilst leaving them extremely effective in killing single celled organisms such as bacteria, virus, mould and fungus spores. Hydroxyls can be easily reproduced by today's technology from compact devices and is employed already in Hospitals, Food Manufacturing, Nursing Homes, Office blocks and a wide range of other applications to improve air quality and rid the air of airborne pathogens such as respiratory diseases and other bacteria that may contaminate and spread in food products or by surface contact with humans etc. Hydroxyls are also effective against a range of odours. They will eliminate ammonia based odours in roughly half the time it takes by natural dispersion. Hydroxyls are effective against Ethylene gas as well which is the gas given off by fruit and vegetables to promote ripening � bananas can be retarded from browning up to an extra four days by being stored in an area being controlled by a hydroxyl generator.


References: "Science Summit. Ozone Olefins and environmental contamination" by Prof DC Ellwood B.Sc., Ph.D "The impact of air quality on productivity and health in the workplace" by Jukes Jenkins and Laws (workplace environmental science and research association 1998) "Air Ions and Human Performance" LH Hawkins and T Barker (Ergonomics 1978 Vol 21 Xo 273-278) Hydroxyl and Air Purification, by Howard D. Lash The Journal of Microbiology, June 2006

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Mitigating disaster with accurate data By KRIS GREENWOOD

Facility Management without data is like taking a trip on the Titanic in 1912 - full of risk without an adequate understanding of what that risk might be or the consequences that may occur. An error prone management approach (through lack of accurate data) leads to poor decision making, which in turn inevitably results in disaster. Think back to the events on the Western Front in France during World War 1, where arrogant management and poor decision making went hand in hand to deliver disastrous consequences for most involved in the events of that time.


n both these situations the forces of change outside the knowledge base of the managing participants produced results that were not thought possible before the events occurred. The unfolding circumstances changed the operational situation beyond the control of the managers in both cases and meant the management team was beyond its capability and left with little chance to change the eventual outcome. In some ways, particularly with the Generals in the field in France, they didn't have the data, or the understanding that they were lacking the data, to make smart decisions. As in the words of Donald Rumsfeld in 2002: "There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we now know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. These are things we do not know we don't know". These leaders thought they knew all the things they needed to know, but did not acknowledge that there are unknowns that need to be prepared for and managed. With a little risk assessment and control they could have been prepared for the unknowns and at the very least, lessened the extent of the disaster. A 21st century Facility Manager has few excuses he can justifiably use in a disaster that may embroil his facility portfolio -

unlike the captain of the Titanic and the generals in the war. They at least could argue that; had they had the right data at the time they would have made better decisions. This may in fact not be true but the fact is communications were primitive and less reliable than today, and their access to relevant and important data about their situation was not immediately available. This is not the case for the Facility Manager today. In almost every situation they have access to a vast amount of data but probably lack: � � � � � the time to properly review it the knowledge to correctly interpret it the context to understand it the resources to address it the skills to manage it.

Data and its timely availability has the power to change these situations immediately and irrevocably.

They may indeed have some of the above, but rarely all of them at the right time. Data and its timely availability has the power to change these situations immediately and irrevocably. Its accuracy and precision is an absolute necessity in today's world of litigation, terrorism, climate change, new technology and the many and varied social impacts our building infrastructure has on the people and their lives. In order to make sense of this data, systems and protocols are used to ensure that it can be presented in the format that meets the decision makers need. Facility Managers need to have the right information in order to the make the right decision at the right time. The right time, what is the right time? >

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Mitigating disaster with accurate data (cont'd) < For a Facility Manager it is often before an adverse event occurs, or after an event in order to make remedial repairs and actions. The right time will depend on the event, the resources available, and the criticality of the impact. So in fact, the right time is each minute of the day. Thus high availability of data at all times is critical for effective and better decision making. The right decision, what is the right decision? This always is impacted and driven by what information the Facility Manager has available to them in order to address the issue or task. Poor or inaccurate data will probably affect the decision quality (and correctness) but the lack of data due to a lack of process to collect it, amounts to negligence. A decision in this instance may not be made because the event is not foreseen until it is too late. The right information, what is the right information? In the case of the Facility manager the right information is that which will help him make the decisions at the time he needs to assess it. This means that the data collected needs to be presented to the decision maker in the form they need it. The prevailing contextual data and constraints are needed to paint an accurate information source upon which precise decisions can be made. In this case even if all the data wasn't always available in a timely fashion, if enough supporting data from other sources were accumulated then the likelihood of better perception and asking the right questions would be much higher. The end result will be better decision making.

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The effects of data and its use could be seen in action when the Australian General Monash brought to bear all the data he had on the enemy. This insight enabled him to understand the battlefield and the weather conditions, and allowed him to make meticulous battle plans in order to win. In every case he won decisive victories where for many years others had failed to make any significant advance. If the captain of the Titanic had had radar or modern satellite data the accident may never had occurred, the assumption being though that he (or his crew) would have used and acted upon this data in a timely fashion. Those who do not learn the lessons of the past are destined to repeat the failures in the future. So we at FMI advocate the effective use of data to provide effective information to the decision makers at all levels from the facility management team and beyond. As well as the use of data as decision making information, it also has to be maintained to be valuable and credible, so the FM processes must also interact with the data in such away as to add value to the operational information. The facility management system that is employed must allow simple FM process integration and external system integration in order to deliver its main function - that of providing an effective business management tool to deliver information in the right way, at the right time, to the right people. n

For more information on FMI and our FM suite of software, please contact: or call 03 9600 1646.

In a `No Frills' World, Self Service Works By GRAHAM ORFORD | bcds Technologies

Time is the one commodity we can never replace. In today's world busy people will put aside the niceties if they can cut through and simply get on with things. For busy travelers this means they will welcome anything that streamlines the processes they have to go through to get to where they are going and stay where they are staying.

Hotel lobbies throughout Australia and New Zealand, allowing them to Check themselves in and Check themselves out and, in doing so, dramatically reduce the time and effort involved. People are now so accustomed to Self Service these sleek new devices will not be seen as a threat � they will be seen as an improvement. But wait, there's more! As well as bringing enhanced guest convenience, Self Service Kiosks also tick another big box. Today it is an accepted fact with Hotel Owners and Managers that the two top cost items in their P & L budgets are Labour and Power. Both are already high cost items and they are only getting higher, forcing Hotel Operators to take action to reduce their impact on their business. Kiosks certainly do that with labour costs in a direct and immediate way. By reducing the load on the Reception desks of large, busy Hotels, the flow of guests through this `choke point' can be fast tracked with improved service and reduced Front Office staff numbers. Customers love it and it increase the productivity of the existing Front Office team. Kiosks will also allow Managers to multi-skill their staff and rotate them into other areas of the Hotel at slack times, effectively reducing the attributable cost of their Front Office staff. By mounting Kiosks on wheels, Hotels can also roll them into rooms well away from the Lobby area to handle the arrival of large guest numbers for Conferences, Conventions and other events. Through the use of wireless networking, this `Reception Desk on Wheels' can maintain its connection to the Hotel computer


hat is why there is now a universal acceptance of Technology and the Self Service opportunity it brings. These days people who travel are comfortable with technology, they don't mind doing their own Flight bookings on line, they expect to use the kiosk at the airport to check themselves into their flights and get their own seat allocations.....and from next year they will even be checking in their own baggage. Slowly but surely, technology is streamlining those tedious manual processes we all have to go through, mainly by enabling the deployment of Self Service systems. And now this Technology wave is about to wash over the Hotel industry. In 2011 travelers will increasingly see the introduction of sleek, hi-tech Kiosks in

and the PMS without dragging around a mess of trailing cables. They can also be located in a private corner of a large lobby area to handle the arrival of Air Crews � no trivial matter when A380 crews these days number around 35 or more. The biggest impact of Kiosks in many Hotels will be on the morning `Checkout Traffic Jam'. On the last morning of their stay, travelers are already focused on their day ahead and it is infuriating when they finish packing and come down to the Lobby to check out - only to find a long queue of people waiting to do the same. How much easier would it be to go to one of a row of Self Service Kiosks and Check themselves out, by-passing the queue completely. >

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<In Country and in Regional Hotels, the problems are the same, the pressures perhaps even stronger but the technology still shines through. With reduced Tourism numbers, these Hotels simply cannot ignore these major cost areas and Self Service Kiosks once more shine. With the ability to take care of the last stragglers arriving during the evening, Kiosks can totally eliminate the need to roster evening shifts or Night staff. For owneroperated properties, switching over to a Kiosk at 7.30pm can reduce, perhaps even eliminate the need for after-hours and weekend staffing and release the family for some well deserved down time in the evening. The Self Service Kiosk could have been tailor-made for Serviced Apartment complexes. By their very nature, these properties are designed for minimal staffing compared to Hotels and the introduction of Self Service Kiosks will reduce that even further.

And finally, Electricity. After years of much promise but precious little payback benefits, the days of Power Management have finally arrived and Hotels are taking to it like ducks to water. Driven by the privatisation of Energy Utilities and the growing certainty that Governments will set a Carbon Trading Price sooner rather than later, the cost of Electric Power is rising quickly and relentlessly - and it won't stop any time soon. The only answer for Hotels is not to waste electricity and only use what they have to. To do this effectively it will be necessary to strictly monitor and manage consumption, room by room. The good news is that with today's Technology this is neither difficult nor costly. With a low cost, automatic device controlling every room, power wastage can be heavily reduced and the payback arithmetic changes dramatically. So the only question left is � where do we get all this `Gee Whiz' technology? If further evidence was needed that these new technologies have finally entered the

`Main Stream', the fact that the `Grand Dame' of respectability and stability, VingCard Elsafe, has now entered the market with defining offerings in both market segments should do it. With its `Samurai' sales force swinging into action, VingCard is bringing compelling new numbers to the table, with the average payback period for both Energy Management systems and Checkin/ Checkout kiosks dropping to around eighteen (18) months, depending on individual circumstances........and that is just on today's figures - in a year's time they will look even better (or worse, depending on your point of view). In the never-ending battle for a dollar, the war goes on, with costs racing ahead one day and technology bouncing back the next. There is no doubt that in these two key areas costs are racing ahead today, but with their new Technology releases, VingCard are hoping to show that the `bounce back' is also well and truly under way! n

Hotel lock supplier comes out swinging over allegations By MAX AGNEW

Gidon Sattinger, one of Australia's specialists in hotel locking systems, is highly critical of a report aired on Channel 7 recently, allegedly opening an electric lock by hacking into it with a mobile telephone combined with a magstripe keycard from another room.

� On the Ilco 700 lock, the magnetic stripe on the card has to face inwards (i.e. towards the door) so that the encrypted information can be read and assessed by the PCB to "wakeup" the lock. In the segment the card was inserted back to front � the magnetic stripe on the card faced the user, meaning that the inserted card had no bearing on the alleged mobile transmission of electromagnetism, making it impossible for the lock to "wakeup" and receive a signal or information. In our opinion, the opening of the lock under these circumstances was a hoax as they do not demonstrate the process of the sequence of events required for the opening of the door. � Both the magnetic stripe and the plastic card are made from non-conductive materials, thus making the scenario that "The Gadget Guy" explains as "transmitting a current" to the lock scientifically impossible. � "The Gadget Guy" also maintains that the electro-magnetic field of the phone is what activates the lock when the card is in the reader. According to the Kaba Lodging Systems' Product Manager & Engineering in Montreal, this is also not possible because the electromagnetic field would be blocked by the zinc lock housing. The System 700 lock is designed to withstand electromagnetic attacks of any nature and testing is ongoing and extensive as per the UL & BHMA certification these locks hold. � We attempted to duplicate the scenario with the exact lock and exact mobile in our Workshop throughout the day. We did it with the card the right way around and the wrong way around as per the segment. We even called the mobile to "boost" the signal. None of our many attempts successfully hacked into the lock. Our principal in Montreal also tried the experiment, as did several customers who called us throughout the day � also to no avail and most certainly quashing the claim that this is "one of the best kept secrets of all time!" In keeping with sensationalist television and the hyperbole associated with this kind of nonsense tabloid TV words such as "shock waves"

through the industry and "security threat" can safely be ignored. Some of the claims from those interviewed have possibly been taken out of context, as clearly, there is NO need for an "immediate and thorough review of the locking systems". In the Hospitality industry, although many hotels are budgeting for and installing new technology locks such as RFID and the Messenger System by Saflok, currently about 90% of our industry throughout the world still have Mag-stripe locks. The Ilco 700 lock shown in the segment is 15 years old and has withstood the test of time, and no doubt many failed attempts worldwide to breach their security. So, regarding the comment that "thousands of Hotel rooms ...could be affected" the reasons cited above show that this will not be necessary. Hoteliers can have complete confidence in their magnetic swipe electronic locks and do nothing! Regarding the memorandum distributed by AHA prior to this segment, there was mention made of the introduction of "legitimate" mobile phone access at the Holiday Inn Chain in the USA. This technology has been developed and currently tested by Saflok / Kaba USA and will shortly be available in Australia from Vintech system. The aim of this technology known as "Open Ways" is to speed up the processing of remote checking while maintaining High security and saving costs on lost cards by the hotels. This industry solution is introduced to close the gap while NFC (Near Field Communication) technology with the new RFID locks becomes widely available in Australia. n


idon points out how Channel 7 used a System 700 Ilco by Kaba magnetic swipe lock and a lock from another brand. "As all main hotel operators will know, it is most unusual for a hotel to have different locks in one entity, so this was enough to have those who understand locks start questioning the authenticity and neutrality of this report. Among the other reasons why Sattinger claims are impossible for it to have happened are: � A Mag-stripe lock will open only when it receives encoded information which is delivered via the reader to the PCB by encrypted information on the black stripe on the magnetic card. A solenoid or a motor inside the lock responds only after the intelligent processing of this encrypted information. No other means will open Mag-stripe locks electronically. � Before the lock can open, it writes the card information into its memory. If this information is anything but correct, the lock will deny access and will not open the door. The Ilco lock reflects this intelligent processing with indicator lights. No such lights were displayed on the Ilco lock in the segment when the mobile phone was in touch with the lock, showing that there was no activation of the lock in any way.

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The Secret Code of Pest Management By TED SNYDER

One day not long from now, you may find yourself face to face with a roach. Disgusted, adrenaline will start pumping through your system; you will reach out to swat it, but its reflexes, finely tuned to avoid hungry predators, will allow it to escape to a nearby crevice, unharmed. Stepping back, you will take a deep breath, and go look for your exterminator's number.


ow, it's my turn to come in. Normally, I'd show up in person, but this is a magazine, so we'll have to do this a little differently. I'm a scientist who studies pests and their control, and I'm here to tell you about a "Secret Code" in pest management--a different way of looking at pests. Through understanding the the four tenets of the Secret Code, you will be able to control pests more effectively, whether on your own or in cooperation with an exterminator. You can also evaluate prospective exterminators to see if they follow some version of the Secret Code. If they don't--be cautious--your money could be better spent elsewhere. The First Tenet: Know Your Enemy and His Habits Had you actually crushed that roach, or if you had reached for a can of bug spray, you would have violated the First Tenet of the Secret Code. This is where so many people go astray. A roach is just a roach, right? No. German roaches may be living in your facility, but if it is actually a Surinam roach, it was probably brought in on some plants and is living in the interiorscape. If you spray your facility for German roaches when you have a Surinam roach problem, you won't get control. The First Tenet requires us to answer six questions: What is it? (We'll say a Surinam roach). Where does it come from? (The interiorscape). What damage does it do? (Primarily a nuisance). Where are Looks like we found a cockroach infestation! Pictured above is an adult and an egg case that just hatched. Without inspection, this infestation would have been overlooked until it was out of control. Now, due to the glue board that captured these insects, they can be stopped early on.

they? (This will take an inspection of the interiorscape--you want to know how extensive the problem is). How many? (Similar to the last question, only now you want to see how bad it really is). Why is it here? (Well, our Surinam roach was most likely brought in by the people who supply the plants). The Second Tenet: Plan Control Measures Now that you know your enemy and his habits, you're ready to spray and kill him and all his unpleasant companions, right? No, that would violate the Second Tenet of the Secret Code. This Secret Code doesn't only work for roaches, so let's move to another pest: odorous house ants. You may know them as small, black ants that invade your facility. When the odorous house ant

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invades in large numbers, many pesticides can only reduce the number of ants, not fully get rid of them. The best way to control them is to go outside, find out how they are getting in--often a crack or structural joint--and seal it off. This is called mechanical control, a physical act that controls the pest. And yes, a fly swatter is mechanical control. If you find that they are going after a spilled food product--perhaps crumbs in the carpeting of a hotel room--it's also helpful to clean those areas in order to reduce your building's attraction for the ants. This is another form of control, called sanitation. While planning your control measures, you may look a little further and find that the landscaping is a little out of control--weeds are growing, shrubs haven't been kept well, etc. These types of landscaping pitfalls can attract ants to the outside of the building, making them more likely to enter. In order to eliminate these problems, you should ask your groundskeeping department to take care of these pitfalls--called physical control--and then ask them to keep a better eye on it--called cultural control; you're trying to instill a common practice--a culture--that controls the pest. When your exterminator comes to your facility, he or she is going to point some of these same problems out to you, if they follow the Secret Code, and then they are going to spray or put out a bait--called chemical control. The Second Tenet calls for you to determine which out of the four control measures--mechanical, sanitation, cultural, and chemical--would be appropriate and to plan out how to get rid of the pests in your facility. I know it can be difficult to resist the adrenaline rush of pulling out the can of spray. I've been there many times. And, I've learned the to follow the Second Tenet the hard way. The Third Tenet: Initiate Control Measures This Third Tenet is what all of us want to do when we first see the pest--to control it.

The mistake most people make is to get started here. In the case of the Surinam roach, however, the control measure would have failed, and in the case of the odorous house ants, it would have only provided marginal and short term control. The Fourth Tenet: Evaluate the Results We're done after the Third Tenet, aren't we? The Surinam roaches are dead and the people who supplied the plants are embarrassed that they infested your facility. The odorous house ants don't see any reason to return to your building, and if they did, they couldn't find a way in. But, if we left it like this, we'd be violating the Fourth Tenet of the Secret Code. You can't be certain that everything worked unless you go re-examine the area. Your physician wouldn't just give you a cancer treatment and never see you, right? This should be no different. Make sure the pest is completely gone and see what else needs to be done to control them if they are not. Pests are persistent. One thing is certain: they'll be back. Either the same one, finding another way in, or another pest altogether. The Secret Code: Now and the Future The Secret Code of Pest Management is something called Integrated Pest Management, or IPM. This four-step process--the Four Tenets--ensures the best control of pests. This is nothing new. Scientists, like myself, who study pests have been developing the process since the 1950s. It's just that our human nature is to kill pests as soon as we see them, and we need to practice pausing and going through the process of the Four Tenets. There's nothing stopping you from applying the Secret Code yourself. To be truly effective, it does take knowledge of pests and their habits--the First Tenet. For that, there's plenty of good Web sites and books on the topic. If you are looking to outsource your pest management, use the Secret Code as a minimum requirement. Ask how they would approach a pest problem and see if they follow the Secret Code, or if they just jump to the Third Tenet.

Looks can be deceiving--this beetle infestation isn't the real problem. They are larder beetles, and they indicate that a carcass is nearby. In this case, there was a hidden rodent infestation.

And, as with any great Secret (I hope you'll agree that this is one of the greatest Secrets ever), there's a temptation to avoid it. If those roaches had been just German roaches, you might have been able to get control with a few shots of spray. Or if the odorous house ants hadn't been too persistent, a couple of bait stations would have rid you of them, and then you'd potentially think, "What's with this mad insect scientist and his Secret Code? It's just bunk!" This, my friend, is the great temptation, because you can violate the Secret Code and get results. But not always, and the results will not be as long-term. Avoid those kinds of thoughts! You will pay the price of having pests longer than you should and be plagued by reinfestations. Now that you are an initiate to the ways of the Secret Code, go out and control pests using the Four Tenets. And unlike other secrets, this secret is meant to be revealed. Share the knowledge and we will make the world a better place! n

Ted Snyder, entomologist and Training and Technical Services Manager at Batzner Pest Management, Inc., may be reached at

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Another Look at Hydroxyl Radicals (OH�) The significance of HYDRODYNAMIC CAVITATION (HC) in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) and its bearing on the control of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in hotel swimming pools and spas By ALAN LEWIS

There is little or no evidence that hotel engineers are trying to keep pace with, employ, or take interest in, the very significant paradigm shift across the world, in the way that disinfectants are being applied in hotels. he principal, most cost effective, and by far the outstanding ubiquitous form of disinfection, is still chlorination. Numerous and ever increasing attempts have been made at trying to apply otherwise non - compliant alternatives. A lot of hesitancy exists in trying out AOPs. This might be excused for lack of understanding of the chemistry involved. It is more likely to be from the fear of being found non-compliant and/or the liabilities that might flow from such audacity? My suspicion is that for the most part these restraints spring mainly from budgetary shackles. If a brave engineer is ready to venture out into to the unknown � then it will soon become evident that AOPs offer new and exciting opportunities to save money and actually do more with less chemical than ever before. This is in fact the paradigm shift that is happening in front of our (cyberspace) eyes � but in other parts of the world. While most of the health regulations for swimming pools place the greatest emphasis on

the art of killing bugs without killing the bathers � very few regulators are seriously concerned with the control of potentially toxic DBPs. In Australia we are only required to test for total combined chlorine (chloramines) and even then the constraints are minimal compared with the parallel requirements in many European countries today. Neither are we expected to test for known carcinogens such as Trihalomethanes, let alone Nitrosamines, which of late have also become a real concern world wide. If this is the case, why not exploit the fact that discovery of the real nasties among the DBPs can only be achieved by employing expensive laboratory tests � well beyond the reach of the Council Environmental Health Officers who are the front line of defence in field checks meant to expose non-compliance with the Health regulations. Even more challenging is the idea of measuring the existence of the elusive Hydroxyl Radicals (OH�) which demand a high level of technical skill and very expensive laboratory equipment. Hydroxyl radicals are important in disinfection because essentially (as described in a previous article) they are the most powerful available disinfectant we are aware of. They can be created by "splitting the water molecule" H2O => H + OH� Their action in oxidising or inactivating bugs is exceedingly rapid. Even more enticing they mitigate the need for the omnipresent chlorine residuals in the pool.


Their power in breaking down DBPs is considerable. They leave no significant residuals because they revert back to water eventually. Their action in reducing the DBPs - particularly the organic DBPs - usually results in separating complex molecules back to their components rather than joining them with other chemical elements found in the pool (such as happens in some applications of UV photolysis). They displace the need for chemicals replacing them with higher energy needs in many cases, but leave the water pristine, clear and pleasant to bathe in. HYDRODYNAMIC CAVITATION Most pool operators are familiar with the phenomenon of air bubbles appearing in the lint pot lid of a pool pump. In many cases this may not necessarily be "cavitation" in the strict sense of the word. However, if there are no leaks in seals; glued joints, or other fittings in the circulation system such as at a barrel unions or the like, there maybe true cavitation as it is technically defined (in Wikipedia) below: The concept of Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) describes the process of vaporization, bubble generation, and bubble implosion, which occurs in a flowing liquid as a result of a decrease followed by a subsequent increase in pressure. Cavitation will only occur if the pressure declines to some point below the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid. In pipe systems, cavitation

Hotel Engineer | Vol 15 No. 3 | 79

< typically occurs either as the result of an increase in the kinetic energy (through an area constriction) or an increase in the pipe elevation. NOTE: IN TRUE CAVITATION THERE ARE NO AIR BUBBLES � ONLY WATER VAPOUR BUBBLES SUCH AS ONE COMMONLY SEES WHEN WATER IS BOILING IN A COOKING POT. It is well known that it is essential to design impellers and their housing with care and attention to reduce to a minimum the creation of the cavitation effect, because the implosion of the small vaporised bubbles is so powerful it destroys the housing and/or the impeller, by erosion caused by the friction and the heat generated by those implosions. In cases where the metal alloys used to cast the impeller housing are soft (such as brass) � cavitation can quickly damage the housing and the impeller and render the pump useless. Even if the materials used are resistant to heat and chemical (chlorine) corrosion, cavitation can destroy a badly designed pump within weeks or months of its commissioning. Hence the Hydrodynamic design of the housing and impeller itself should avoid or minimise friction with the aim of reducing energy losses and avoiding cavitation to retain the integrity of the pump's efficiency. If the reader wishes to see a good example of the creation of HC with a propeller on "You Tube" I recommend you visit: http:// The force of the miniscule implosions resulting from HC � and the speed with which they happen actually create very short lived Hydroxyl Radicals (OH). In the case of the propeller example, so long as the propeller is spinning it is continuously creating Hydroxyl Radicals from the water itself by "splitting the water molecule" with the force of the implosion of the vapour bubble. In the last decade, much research has gone into the harnessing of HC for the purpose of water disinfection or breaking down unwanted organic compounds (in our case chloramines and THMs or Nitrosamines). Combined with Ozone; UV; and/or chlorine; Hydroxyl Radicals disinfect water more effectively than most know methods in existence today. Clearly the application of radicals outclass all other methods and guarantee both a rapid kill of bacteria and destruction of unwanted organic compounds in recreational and drinking water. In public (hotel) swimming pools we cannot escape the need to prevent cross contamination between swimmers. That is why regulators commonly require a minimal residual of chlorine present in a pool at all times. As we have seen already, it is now viable to reduce the minimal residual of chlorine to well below the common regulatory requirements � so long as the ORP (the kill power of the water) is at a level of 740mV or more. The assistance given by Hydroxyl Radicals to the ORP is difficult to define because it is so difficult to actually measure them. This technology does allow a continual feed of the short lived radicals to the point where the water is in such good condition, and the pH is appropriate, that there is only need for a supplementary free chlorine residual of 0.3 � 08 mg/l. This level of chlorine in the water is almost unnoticeable and would certainly pave the way towards "chemical free" pools in the not too distant future. n Alan Lewis | Pool Consultant |

Australia's toughest pool safety laws (Queensland)


n 15 September 2010, the final elements of stage two of the swimming pool safety improvement strategy were implemented.

Background Previous legislative amendments On 5 July 2010 the majority of the Building and Other Legislation Amendment Act 2010 (BOLA 1) provisions commenced. BOLA 1 established the pool safety inspector licensing system and a state-based pool register. The licensing system is administered by an independent body, the Pool Safety Council (PSC), also established under BOLA 1.

Issues Building and Other Legislation Amendment Bill (No. 2) 2010 (BOLA 2) BOLA 2 was introduced into the Queensland Parliament on 18 August 2010 and passed by Parliament on 15 September 2010. The new provisions are expected to commence this summer. BOLA 2 and the explanatory notes are available on the Queensland Government's legislation website The new provisions will: � implement a sale and lease compliance system requiring pool safety certificates to be obtained from licensed pool safety inspectors. Pool safety certificates will be valid for one year for a shared pool or two years for a non-shared pool. � require all existing and new pools to comply with a single pool safety standard (replacing 11 existing standards) within five years unless sold or leased first � phase out the use of child-resistant doors as pool barriers for existing pools (self-closing and selflatching doors) over five years unless sold or leased first � widen application of pool safety laws to include indoor pools and pools associated with hotels, motels, caretaker residences, caravan parks, backpackers, hostels, mobile home parks and homestays � require all swimming pools to be registered within six months � require all portable pools and spas 300 mm or more in depth to be fenced � require local government inspections of pools following immersion incidents in swimming pools involving children under five. These incidents will be reported by hospitals and the Queensland Ambulance Service.



Product News EXCELLENCEINMO T IO N Numerous innovations make the RXV a "Game Changer" for course operators and golfers AC DRIVE MOTOR (ELECTRIC): Unprecedented for an electric golf car, the RXV's drive train uses an alternating current motor, not the traditional direct current motor, generating more power and longer operating times between battery charges. Incredibly the RXV is up to 30-percent more efficient than direct-current golf cars, boasting a 48-volt motor enabling a 10-percent improvement in daily range. DUAL-BRAKING SYSTEM (ELECTRIC): A fail safe park brake automatically engages when the RXV stops, requiring now foot pedal engagement. The industry first auto braking system brakes automatically on steep slopes when needed and can easily hold a 40-percent grade. This "drive by wire" system maintains constant speeds safely and easily. THE RXV WARRANTY � AN INDUSTRY FIRST The reliability of the new RXV is backed by the most comprehensive warranty in the golf car industry � a limited four year, bumper to bumper coverage on most items, with three years on the primary running gear. E-Z-GO's batteries are guaranteed to last for four years, 1,200 rounds, or 23,000 amp hours � whichever comes first � for 36 holes of golf a day every day. OPERATIONAL SAVINGS: � NO brake cables, drums, or pads NO lubrication required � � ALL bearings are sealed Low front end maintenance � � NO brake pedal adjustments � NO accelerator cable adjustments NUMEROUS OTHER BENEFITS OF THE RXV: � 360 degrees Energy transfer bumpers � Kawasaki high-performance 6.7Kw engines (Petrol) Improved golfer experience � Fresh exterior styling � � Environmentally friendly operation � Enhanced safety design features

INTRODUCING The E-Z-GO� RXVTM Experience "Game Changing" technology today... A revolution in Golf Car Design and technology... As the world's leading manufacturer of golf cars and utility vehicles, E Z GO now unveils its new, much anticipated fleet golf car. E-Z-GO has raised the bar with the new RXV, which sets a new standard for the golf car industry. Engineered to deliver reliability, superior performance operating efficiency, and safety, achieved through an array of enhanced features and innovations. The E-Z-GO RXV represents a major step forward in golf car technology. The new vehicle delivers exceptional value through reduced energy and maintenance costs, and an unsurpassed experience for golfers through best-in-class power, control, comfort and safety. The RXV's classic yet contemporary lines make it a smart addition to the E-Z-GO family.

"Our passionate and talented E-Z-GO team considered every safety, mechanical and ergonomic element of the golf car, producing a vehicle of exceptional quality," says John Garrison, President of E-Z-GO. "In designing the RXV, we listened to our customers and incorporated the feedback into the vehicle. Our goal was to completely re-imagine the golf car in a way that produced measurable results for course owners, along with performance that truly enhanced the golf experience. I'm proud to say our team has delivered on all counts." "E-Z-GO has raised the bar with the RXV, which sets a new standard for the golf car industry," says Jack Nicklaus, owner of a record 18 professional major championships and the designer of more than 260 golf courses internationally. "In my mind, E-Z-GO is without question the premier golf car and utility vehicle provider."

Our Passion is Customer Satisfaction and Quality

The RXV and all E-Z-GO products are available from the Exclusive Australian Master Distributor

AUGUSTA GOLF CARS PTY LTD Unit 8 / 2 Link Drive, Yatala, QLD, 4207

Phone: (07) 3807-8895 Fax: (07) 3807-3899 E-Mail: Website:

82 | Vol 15 No. 3 | Hotel Engineer

HOTEL ENGINEER The Safety Cooling Tower


Product News the tower basin and helps prevent algae and bacteria growth. It also reduces water splashing outside the tower and reduces noise level. The best fill for this tower is the high quality 2H plastics cooling tower fill called Sanipacking. (see for more information) This fill is arguably the safest cooling tower fill available. It is made from moulded polypropylene (PP) and treated to prevent bacteria growing on it's surface. To distinguish this high quality fill from normal fill the colour of the fill is blue. The polypropylene fill is also extremely long lasting and can withstand temperatures up to 80 degrees. Superchill is working closely together with 2H plastics and we are the local distributor and manufacturer for the number one European fill producer GEA 2H Water Technologies (former 2H Kunststoff). For further information please contact Superchill Australia or 2H plastics Australia or or 1300667 018 and 03 9793 6166

Superchill cooling tower range, which includes the German designed Modupol range and the low noise and super low noise fibreglass forced draft towers. The MPCT tower is a modular tower, with an extremely strong and durable pulltruded fibreglass frame. The basin and fan cowling are made in traditional high quality marine grade fibreglass. The full size removable side panels are made from preformed plastic and are designed for easy removal and handling to allow entire access for cleaning and maintenance. The panels are very light and small enough for one person to handle without the risk of any injury. The tower is designed to fully comply with the Australian standards and has the best and most efficient drift eliminators and air intake louvers available on the market. The air intake lovers are double the thickness compared with most currently offered local cooling towers. This reduces light ingress into

The locally designed and locally manufactured new Superchill cooling tower type MPCT (Modular pulltruded cooling tower) is the latest and safest addition to the high quality

Facilities Management Training Program Maintain and improve hotel operations rganisations, regardless of industry sector, appreciate the rising costs of occupying buildings and providing support services to maintain and improve the business operations. Facility Managers/Supervisors, Work and Asset Managers are all key contributors in the improvement of quality, reduction of risks, and overall profitability of an organisation. This program provides an opportunity for those already involved in a facilities management role to gain formal recognition and practical expertise. Learn while on the job and begin immediately to apply your skills to meet organisational demands. There are no academic prerequisites and you are able to enrol at any time. UNE Partnerships offers two competency based courses that take you through the Facilities Management Unit (FMU) Management Cycle, developing and enhancing skills, knowledge and attitudes in the FMU -- leading to effective and efficient operation of built assets and the organisational activities that function within them. � Facilities Management Certificate for Supervisors � Facilities Management Diploma for Managers The Facilities Management training program is designed to assist participants to improve their skills in: � managing people � maintenance of corporate assets � minimising risk exposure in the workplace. Skills Outcome � Plan operations of work areas within a facility � Manage the operations of the facility under your responsibility � Contribute to the risk management process within your FMU � Be able to procure good & services � Assist in the administration & finalisation of contracts � Maintain sections of a facility under your responsibility according to operational requirements � Contribute to budget � Monitor & maintain costs and records � Contribute to the selection, training, supervision & motivation of staff For more information please visit or call 1800 818 458


A revolution in corridor lighting ith the new Modul L63 by Nimbus, KODA Lighting brings a totally new development to corridor lighting. Modul L63 is the latest in LED luminaries from Nimbus. At only 10mm thin, this light mounts directly to the ceiling with ease. The shape and surface diffuses the light producing 95% downlighting with a wide beam and glare reduction. This results in a very even, almost ceiling height illumination of walls, and represents a totally new development in solutions for corridor lights. As with all Nimbus lights the Modul L63 emits a warm glow comparable to the traditional incandescent bulb. It uses up to 70% less energy, is twice as efficient as low voltage halogen and is maintenance free lasting up to 50,000 hours. Modul L63 is 100% recyclable, contains no mercury and produces a high light output while running at safe-to-touch low temperatures. Nimbus from KODA Lighting: Lights of the future. The Nimbus Modul L63 is available exclusively from KODA lighting. Visit or call (02) 9699 6007 for more information.


Hotel Engineer | Vol 15 No. 3 | 83

HOTEL ENGINEER AXX is an advanced development discovered out of investigating methods of combating germ warfare by the British Ministry of Defence who had a remit to assess the risk of bacterial attack on the British Isles in the 60/70's. This in turn had been initiated by observations over a hundred years prior by Louis Pasteur who had documented that the atmosphere in high altitudes and sunny days reduced the incidence of infection and effectively killed bacteria and viruses.


Product News Hydroxyl clusters will also land on surfaces and kill surface contamination by the same method. These same Hydroxyl Clusters can reduce and eliminate odours as well � particularly so on odours based on ammonia compounds or ethylene or waste decomposition. The use of stripping away hydrogen atoms from airborne water molecules to form hydroxyl clusters is unique to the BAXX cold plasma technology which naturally kills all airborne pathogens including MRSA, C.Diff(Spore Form), Norovirus and Bacteria. BAXX introduces technological breakthroughs and advantages such as� � It doesn't require any consumables other than electricity. No filters to clean, no chemicals or liquids to replenish, no service required. Install it and leave it to do its work. Electrical consumption is a mere 120watts � the equivalent of two 60watt light-globes. The case of the Baxx is in 316 stainless steel which makes it ideal for health care facilities, hospitals and any other moist environments where a germ free environment is paramount.


The answer lay in the natural occurrence of airborne Hydroxyl Clusters. Modern technology and electronics allows the BAXX to achieve the aim of eliminating airborne pathogens by using cold plasma to strip a hydrogen atom from some of the natural water molecules (H20) contained in the air around us, leaving them as unbalanced hydroxyl clusters (-OH). These clusters seek and attach to airborne bacteria and virus cells and recover their missing hydrogen atom from the cells wall to return to a natural water molecule again (H2O). In that instant, the bacteria/virus metabolism and cell wall is disrupted and the cell dies. Thus nature's way of eliminating airborne pathogens has been reproduced.

Baxx Australia Ph: (02) 9939-4900 Fx: (02) 9939-4911 See ad on page 68 of this issue.

Fast, Hygienic and Saves You Money... It's a Hand Dryer The Ultra High Speed Hand Dryer, JET DRYER is now available in Australia. Currently sold all over Korea, UK, France, Vietnam, Russia and Israel, the JET DRYER is the latest hand dryer to upgrade to in your bathroom. "Paper towels have become an expensive and environmentally unfriendly option for drying hands," said Jeremy Kronk, Managing Director of JET DRYER. "Alternatively the older hand dryers are noisy and unhygienic i.e. they don't filter the air they blow onto your hands, basically adding bacteria back onto your hands during the drying process". "There's no better time for businesses to consider these issues and find a better solution, like JET DRYER." The JET DRYER dries the hands fast, hygienically and saves money and the environment. Fast � Because it dries your hands in less than 10 Seconds Hygienic � The Jet Dryer uses antibacterial filters to clean the air for a healthier drying experience, plus the surfaces of the units are specially coated to eliminate bacteria build up. Savings � Both the environment and costs savings of up to 90% compared to Paper Towels, or lower power usage than most of all the other hand dryers... For the price of 1 paper towel, the JET DRYER can dry 10 pairs of hands. Added Bonus Features � Noise Absorption Module keeps noise down to 65dba considerably less than other hand dryers, plus the unit can have an aromatic fragrance added to enhance the whole experience. Call 1 300 071 041 or visit or email:

84 | Vol 15 No. 3 | Hotel Engineer

The Hotel Engineer 15_3  

This innovative magazine specifically targets the needs of engineers and maintenance people in hotels, providing them with informative featu...

The Hotel Engineer 15_3  

This innovative magazine specifically targets the needs of engineers and maintenance people in hotels, providing them with informative featu...