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VOLUME 2 – 2012


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Adbourne

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PUBLISHING

www.adbourne.com 18/69 Acacia Road Ferntree Gully, VIC 3156 PO Box 735, Belgrave, VIC 3160

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Melbourne Office Neil Muir Ph: (03) 9758 1433 Fax: (03) 9758 1432 Email: neil@adbourne.com Adelaide Office Robert Spowart Ph: 0488 390 039 Email: robert@adbourne.com Production Sonya Murphy Tel: (03) 9758 1436 Email: production@adbourne.com Administration Robyn Fantin Tel: (03) 9758 1431 Email: admin@adbourne.com Marketing Tania Lamanna Tel: (03) 9500 0285 Email: tlamanna@bigpond.net.au

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Carbon Management And AIRAH Melbourne’s first premium grade office building in 20 years A Rebate for Replacing Your Old Downlights? Thermographic (Infrared Imaging ) Electrical and Mechanical Surveys Boiler Condensate System Treatment, Troubleshooting & Optimisation Legionella in our Society New OH&S Laws: What it Means for Safety New Work Health and Safety Laws (WHS) Environmentally Responsible Design (ERD) Product News

 www.ipea.org.au DISCLAIMER Adbourne Publishing cannot ensure that the advertisements appearing in The Building Services Journal comply absolutely with the Trade Practices Act and other consumer legislation. The responsibility is therefore on the person, company or advertising agency submitting the advertisement(s) for publication. Adbourne Publishing and The Institute of Plant Engineers of Australasia reserves the right to refuse any advertisement without stating the reason. No responsibility is accepted for incorrect information contained in advertisements or editorial. The editor reserves the right to edit, abridge or otherwise alter articles for publication. All original material produced in this magazine remains the property of the publisher and cannot be reproduced without authority. The views of the contributors are not necessarily those of The Institute of Plant Engineers of Australasia or the publisher. Adbourne Publishing seeks to provide a forum for expression of ideas and opinions from companies and individuals. By presenting these articles the publisher in no way endorses any particular ideology but gives the reader the opportunity to access a variety of different views.


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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal


IPEA Reports IPEA National President’s Report

With the following appointments

Out Going National Presidents I would like to say thankyou to last years committee.

• Journal Editor - Trevor Measday

IPEA reinvigoration over the last twelve months has been due to a lot of hard work by a few, and it is up to the new committee to carry the work forward, and share the load.

This year will again provide some unique challenges,

Welcome to the incoming committee Incoming National Presidents report Welcome to the new committee Lynn Callcott - WA - Vice President Barry Wilding - Vic - Secretary Roz White - SA - Treasurer

Victorian Report The 2012 IPEA National Annual General Meeting held in South Australia, August 30, was very positive. One of the main points of discussion was the continued growth of IPEA and also supporting the growth of all states nationally. In Victoria we can certainly use extra support with our growth program. Please view the IPEA Web Site and also our journal for details of the 2012/2013 national committee and state information. Victoria will be the host for the 2013 National AGM, so the committee has some work ahead to ensure it is a good meeting

• Web Master - Peter Freckelton

“Providing Support, Fellowship & Recognition”

• Public Officer - Barry Wilding

The National executive meeting in Adelaide, I believe is something that could be pursued every few years and rotate the venue, instead of the normal phone link, The resurgence in WA is great and moving forward thanks to Lynn and the team we need to keep up the enthusiasm.

need to keep it up, the reintroduction of IPEA badges to individual members is a step forward, well done Roz I look forward to the year ahead, working with the States to make IPEA even bigger and better, I am sure we will have a great year. Thank you

Compared to other organisations IPEA are working well with membership but we

Ian Paterson National President

and also that our interstate delegates have an enjoyable visit during their stay.

technical information the recipient may pass on is correct. IPEA assists and supports with promoting training programs and seminars that will benefit our members and readers.

We thank our members and corporate members for renewing their subscription and for their continued support. To all, please let me know if you have not received your membership certificate.

Please view our web site www.ipea.org.au for IPEA national and state information.

As this will also be posted to some, please advise if you are not on the email listing and do wish to receive by email.

If you require any state information, please do not hesitate to contact me on my mobile 0419 306 963.

All building, mechanical and plant engineering institutions ensure that the information provided is available and up to date for those interested and that the

Best regards, Barry Wilding Secretary – IPEA Victorian Division

The Australian Building Services Journal | Volume 2 – 2012 |

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IPEA Office Bearers

Application for Membership You are cordially invited to become a member of the Institute by completing the details below.

NATIONAL EXECUTIVE C/- 16 Saratoga Drive Novar Gardens SA 5040 TITLE

NAME

President

Ian Paterson (08) 8422 4301 ian.paterson@ugllimited.com

0439 030 140

Vice President

Lynn Callcott (08) 9214 3500 lcallcott@iprimus.com.au

0409 335 408

This form will be passed to the respective division and following acceptance the Secretary will contact you. Current Membership fee is $75 and includes certificate, and 4 copies of the Institute Journal. I agree to abide by the current rules of the Institute.

Secretary

Barry Wilding (03) 9553 1011 barry.wilding@hydrochem.com.au

0419 306 963

Please provide the following contact information:

Treasurer

Roz White (08) 8297 4099 roz.white@iinet.net.au

PHONE

MOBILE

VICTORIAN EXECUTIVE PO Box 4182 Knox City Centre VIC 3152 TITLE

NAME

President

Position vacant

PHONE

MOBILE

Vice President

Miron Krzywinski

Secretary

Barry Wilding (03) 9553 1011 barrywilding@bigpond.com

0419 306 963

Treasurer

(interim) Barry Wilding (03) 9553 1011 barrywilding@bigpond.com

0419 306 963

First Name

.............................................................................................................................................

Last Name

............................................................................................................................................

0407 558 499

Title

........................................................................................................................................................................

Occupation

.........................................................................................................................................

Street Address

SOUTH AUSTRALIAN EXECUTIVE

.............................................................................................................................

C/- 16 Saratoga Drive Novar Gardens SA 5040 President

David Brown 0438 848 559 david@globalintertrade.com.au

Vice President

Ian Paterson 0439 030 140 ian.paterson@ugllimited.com

Secretary

Peter Freckelton 0400 179 031 freckeltonp@banksa.com.au

Treasurer

Roz White 0428 830 436 roz.white@iinet.net.au

(08) 8297 4709

Membership Officer

Craig White 0422 150 090 wateraustralia@iinet.net.au

(08) 8376 7336

Meetings Coordinator

Peter Otten 0413 027 675 peter.otten@ap.jll.com

............................................................................................................................................................................................

(08) 8305 8828

City

.........................................................................................................................................................................

State

...................................................................................................................................................................

Postcode Country

...................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................

WESTERN AUSTRALIA EXECUTIVE President

Lyn Callcott

Work Phone

...................................................................................................................................

Home Phone

...................................................................................................................................

lcallcott@iprimus.com.au

NEW SOUTH WALES EXECUTIVE Paul Black

0412 116 114

02 9630 1256

paul@i-m-c.com.au

Fax

......................................................................................................................................................................

E-mail

................................................................................................................................................................

Journal Editor for IPEA Inc Trevor Measday – 0419 618 400 barry.wilding@hydrochem.com.au

Web Master Peter Freckelton 04400 179 031 freckeltonp@banksa.com.au

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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal

Forward form to: The National Secretary IPEA C/- PO Box 81 Dry Creek SA 5094


AIMS

CORPORATE MEMBERS of IPEA Chillmech Services Pty Ltd

a

To promote the science and practice of building services engineering in all their branches and the usefulness and efficiency of persons engaged in therein.

b

To raise the character and status and advance the interests of plant and building services engineers and to recognise the competency of those engaged therein.

c

To encourage unified organisation on local, divisional and national basis by establishing a certain point of reference for its members.

d

To preserve and maintain the integrity of members by imposing strict rules of conduct as a condition of membership and by other means of promoting just and honorable practice in such industries.

e

To foster the development of this specific branch of engineering in Australasia.

f

To cooperate throughout the world with compatible organisations having similar objectives.

g

To represent plant and building services engineers upon engineering and administration matters which concern them with relation to discussions and negotiations with property owners, management, statuary authorities, professional consultants, manufacturers, contractors and others.

h

To encourage the study of plant and building services engineering and to improve and elevate the general and technical knowledge of persons engaged in or intending to engage in the industry.

i

To advise members on various aspects of engineering maintenance services and machinery insurance contracts and their importance.

j

To keep members aware of current items of development and interest and concern by arranging and holding lectures, exhibitions, public meetings, classes and conferences calculated to advance the cause of education in industry.

k

To initiate research and publish reports into areas of mutual interest, such as:

Factory 50, Industrial Park Drive, Lilydale VIC 3140

HydroChem Pty Ltd 27 Viking Court, Cheltenham VIC 3192

Butterfields Services (SA) Pty Ltd 44-48 Sherriff Street, Underdale SA 5032

JMG Air Conditioning & Electrical Service Pty Ltd Unit 54, 159 Arthur Street, Homebush West NSW 2140

Independent Monitoring Consultants (IMC) 23-25 Daking Street, North Parramatta NSW 2151

AGL Boilerland http://www.agl.com.au/business/large-business/ agl-boilerland

i ii iii iv v

APM Property Maintenance 47 Devitt Avenue, Payneham South SA 5070

Fitch Real Estate Pty Ltd

vi l

To communicate to members information on all matters effecting the plant and engineering industries and to print, publish, issue and circulate such periodicals, books, leaflets and any other literary undertakings as may seem to be conductive to any other objects of the Institute.

m

To admit and recognise as members of the Institute of such persons as shall conform to its rules and regulations which amongst other things shall provide that to entitle a person to membership he/she shall possess the qualifications in the Rules.

n

To assist members in the pursuit of their profession and all factors related thereto.

Golden Grove Shopping Village SA 5125

Dalkia Technical Services Level 4, 67 Epping Road, North Ryde NSW 2113

Hastie Services 1F Oldsmobile Terrace, Dudley Park SA 5008

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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal

Engineering and equipment standards. Standardisation of operational reporting. Standardisation of maintenance contracts. Promotion of planned maintenance programs. Maintenance service rates and costs of various services, and any other matters.


CARBON MANAGEMENT AND AIRAH

WENDY HIRD I GREENBRIAR CONSULTING

AIRAH – Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air-conditioning and Heating – have approved a new best practice guide to allow designers of new HAVC and refrigeration systems to specify carbon emissions. (www.airah.org.au)

L

ife cycle analysis has been standard engineering practice for years. Assessing the operational and maintenance costs of various project options shows whether it might be better to pay more up-front for reduced overall costs. By the same logic, if you are looking at carbon management, you should look at the lifetime carbon emissions of a product, so that you don’t buy cheaply and find you have unknowingly increased your carbon emissions. In a lot of cases this data can be hard to find, and direct comparison can be problematical if suppliers vary between how in-depth they do their carbon footprint. Green washing – falsely making claims about the environmental credentials of a product – can also be a problem.

AIRAH have solved this issue for new, stationary refrigeration and air conditioning systems by setting a best practice guide so there is no confusion when comparing products. The TEWI – Total Equivalent Warming Impact – is not for comparison across all products, like the electrical efficiency labels you see on TV’s and fridges, but to be provided for a specific project at the design stage.

scopes for the carbon assessment in accordance with GHG protocols.

What impacts on a TEWI? 1)

The type of refrigerant gas. Typical refrigerant gases are (mainly) a mix of hydroflourocarbons with a broad range of Global Warming Potential. See table 1.

2)

State based emission per kWh. In most projects the majority of the emission will be due to electricity used. The emissions per kWh are set on a state by state basis and vary based on how the state’s electricity is produced. Tasmania has a high proportion of hydroelectricity so has an emissions rate of 0.3TCO2-/kWh, Melbourne uses a higher proportion of brown l coal so used 1.3T CO2-e /kWh.

The TEWI provides a simplified life-time carbon emissions for a product by looking at the refrigerant leakage during the project lifetime, the destruction of the refrigerant at the decommissioning stage of the product, and the life-time electrical cost. In HVAC terms these are direct emissions, related to the refrigerant, and indirect, due to electrical consumption. As such it covers all 3

Scope 1

Emissions on your site

Refrigerant leakage for the life of the project, based on standardised leakage tables and using Global Warming Potential for the specific refrigerant recommended.

Scope 2

Purchased electricity

The sum of the energy consumption of the: 1. Refrigeration compressor(s), and 2. Ancillary components essential to correct operation of the system as specified (i.e. condenser fans, evaporator fans, defrost heaters, fluid circulation pumps, etc).

Scope 3

Emissions on your behalf by others

End of life emission from capture and destruction of refrigerant emissions at end of life. The guideline recommends a refrigerant recovery rate of 70% of the original charge for systems with a refrigerant charge less than 100 kg and 95% for systems with larger charges.

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Can I just use this TEWI data in my end of year carbon emissions report? No. TEWI is a theoretical number. Your actual carbon emissions from your HVAC or refrigerant system will be based on how you operate your equipment and its actual load. Once operating, the comparison between the theoretical TEWI and the actual carbon emissions from your plant will vary depending on: • higher (or lower) occupancy rates affecting HVAC heat load • maintenance of equipment like condition of fridge seals and cleaning of condenser tubes

• weird weather leading to unexpected HVAC loads • not operating your plant efficiently: i.e. air conditioning empty conference rooms • where you actually get your electricity from. TEWI is based on purchased electricity with state based emissions, so if you produce your own electricity, or buy green energy with zero carbon emissions, your actual carbon emissions will be much different What would be of interest in an end-of-year carbon report will be the analysis of what has varied from projected annual emissions, particularly if they are radically different to anticipated.

The AIRAH Guide The AIRAH guide lays out all the rules and has comprehensive tables for working out TEWI for project designers. It also gives worked examples. Consider the 4 options for a refrigerant system and related TEWI (table 2 and chart 1). While the indirect emissions vary by 30% with the electrical consumption, the direct emissions vary up to 800% because of the type of refrigerant used. • the first option is in the middle for energy efficiency but has the highest carbon emissions

Chart 1 AIRAH TEWI guide example iii

• the second option is the most energy efficient and has the least total emissions • the last option has the lowest direct emissions

So what does it mean to you?

Table 1 GWP of typical HFC Hydroflourocarbons used in typical refrigerant blends

GWP

HFC125

2800

HFC134a

1300

HFC143a

3800

HFC32

650

It means you have the correct data to put into your business case, long with operating cost, purchase price, reliability, maintainability and all the other factors you use to consider purchasing equipment. Whether the TEWI influences your decisions is up to you and whether you are managing your carbon emissions, but at least you have reliable and standardised data. Author Wendy Hird, Manager Greenbriar Consulting, has a background working with hotels in water efficiency and running water management education programs. Wendy Hird is available to undertake a carbon footprint, carbon management reduction plan, or run a workshop or awareness campaign with your staff about carbon management.

Table 2 AIRAH TEWI guide example iii TEWI Emissions (t CO2-e) Description

8

Direct

Indirect

Total

Conventional DX systems with R404a on LT, MT and HT

4,238

10,845

15,082

Conventional DX systems except R134a on MT and HT

2,335

9,590

11,925

Hybrid refrigerant system (CO2 LT DX with MT and HT R134a DX)

1,651

10,883

12,534

Hybrid refrigerant system (CO2 DX and volatile secondary)

515

12,367

12,881

| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal


Achieving a 6 star rating has elevated 171 Collins Street into a league of its own – Melbourne’s first premium grade office building in 20 years Melbourne’s commercial sector is celebrating a new accolade: a ‘World leadership’ in environmentally sustainable design for the building at 171 Collins Street. It promotes energy efficiency and has achieved the highest quality design and amenity for its future occupants.

171 Collins Street has achieved a 6 Star Green Star – Office Design (v2) Certified Rating from the Green Building Council of Australia. The award makes it Victoria’s first premium–grade commercial 6 stars building in Melbourne for 20 years, having achieved a perfect score for energy, water and management. It is currently targeting a future ‘As Built’ rating of 6 stars. The building achieves the acclaimed rating through the seamless integration of quality architecture and best practice engineering: quality and ility that it proves they do go hand in hand. According to Eben Simmons, Sustainability expert and an Associate Director of Umow Lai, a member of the 171 Collins Street project team, it represents an excellent example of a refined design for a well-engineered building where all the major project team members were involved from the outset.

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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal


Undoubtedly the standout design feature is the beautifully sculptured façade: a delicate weave that includes 1.5 degrees over each five floors results in a crystalline appearance that captures and reflects natural light. Reflective and refractive panes fold the light from the sky and the full height glazing with fritted glass helps maximize the reflection of light As well as enhancing the external appearance of the building, the double glazed thermally broken facade has a high solar insulation value that reduces solar radiation inside the building, making it considerably more comfortable for occupants located along the inside of the façade. This was particularly important at 171 Collins Street as the dominant façade was west-facing towards the Yarra River and Southbank in order to maximise on the stunning views. A nine-storey glass atrium provides natural light to both the new office tower and adjoining (heritage) Mayfair building, which in turn, reduced the need for Artificial Lighting to this space during the day time environment. As well as promoting energy efficiency, it also makes an impressive entry statement benefiting a Premium Grade building. Enhancing natural daylight penetration into a building is an important factor for improving occupant health and wellbeing. Staff costs are frequently the most expensive asset for many companies, therefore looking after your workforce in a well-designed building is an important component for maintaining productivity. The atrium itself is radiantly heated and cooled, enhanced by displacement ventilation. This considerably improves the operational efficiency and reduces the energy required to maintain satisfactory conditions for people within the atrium space.

Design features: Significant design features of 171 Collins Street that contributed to the Green Star design rating: • Double glazed façade with thermal insulation from the building structure, providing stunning external views for building occupants whilst maintaining occupant comfort. • High performance fitted, high performance insulating glass to maximize solar insulation • The creation of a healthy and productive work environment through an under floor air distribution system providing large volumes of fresh air into the building and allowing greater occupant control while also improving flexibility for future churn; • The reduction of water use through grey and rainwater systems which recycles water from the

bicycle store and building’s shower facility for WC flushing and cooling system; • The promotion of active life styles by providing premium end of trip facilities with over 280 bicycle spaces, lockers, showers for all building occupants; • The maximum use of natural light with: – Façade with a delicate weave that inclines 1.5 degrees over each five floors that results in a crystalline appearance that captures and reflects natural light – A nine-storey glass atrium that creates a kaleidoscopic lighting effect and provides natural light to both the tower and the adjoining Mayfair building • Extensive simulation and modelling of the mechanical and electrical services has refined the building design to a level not commonly applied to commercial buildings up to now. Most notably: – Highly optimized lighting design with extensive controls for occupancy and daylight harvesting – High quality glazed interconnecting stair to encourage interconnecting stair use and reduce artificial lighting. – PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) comfort analysis – Air Change Effectiveness analysis – Displacement ventilation stratification analysis – CFD analysis of perimeter office spaces – Annual electrical load profiling simulations for peak energy demand reduction and cogeneration sizing – Façade energy performance simulations – HVAC plant sizing optimisation over annual energy cycle to ensure optimum efficiency at full and part load. – Intersystem load diversity optimisation

UFAD: Eben Simmons says that the under floor air distribution (UFAD) system is an example of a sustainable element that is hidden from view - yet has a huge impact on the indoor environment and improved building churn flexibility. “It introduces large quantities of fresh air to provide a healthier and more environmentally comfortable workplace for increased productivity and energy efficiency compared to conventional HVAC design approach.” In order for the design of a UFAD system to be successful, all aspects of the design and procurement must be carefully considered and tailored to the facade thermal performance expected thermal use diversities in each internal space. These factors were all subject to detailed dynamic computer simulation to address all

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aspects of the operation of the system at full and part load. This approach builds on expertise gained from a number of highly successful UFAD buildings engineered by Umow Lai and already successfully operating Australia. In a premium grade building, occupant comfort is paramount, so careful consideration of Predicted Mean Vote calculations and occupant manipulation of the internal environment was an integral part of the system design approach. Any mechanical system has in-built limitations. It is therefore commercially important to determine the capacity of the proposed design to efficiently operate in a comfortable way across all expected thermal load variations and identify the design limits particularly at low loads, for analysis. The secret in reaching the highest performance efficiencies is in the full understanding of all the engineering system components and control parameters involved, which is why Umow Lai’s 171 Collins Street mechanical system design will represent an exemplar in best practice engineering.

Hidden features: Other ‘hidden’ features include the installation of a system for grey and rainwater harvesting that will collect filter and re-use grey water from the bicycle and communal showers, primarily for WC flushing but also in the air conditioning system. The manner that grey water has been used to supplement HVAC system water consumption and offset municipal water consumption is innovative for Australia as water treatment energy consumption using our methodology is extremely low. All storm water leaving the building will be treated before entering the municipal system. High efficiency chillers, fans and pumps are designed to operate with reticulation systems that have been very efficiently sized to match expected operational diversities and will result in very low carbon emissions impact. Although Cogeneration will be installed, its primary use is to buffer the base building operational carbon emission targets to cope with tenancy use variations. The core engineering systems are designed to facilitate a better than 5 Star NABERS Energy carbon intensity performance without the Cogeneration Engine needing to be switched on. Specific attention was given to the controls operation methodology of energy reticulation plant, to ensure all aspects of fan and pumping power is optimised to be as low as possible throughout every building operating mode. Achieving optimal energy efficiency in the thermal reticulation systems is key to achieving a low carbon intensity base building.

Lighting: Artificial Lighting has been designed to meet the most stringent Greenstar & NABER’s energy rating targets while maintaining the recommended illumination levels required under Australian Standards. The lighting design is further enhanced with the adoption of a sophisticated lighting control system which ensures both the lighting meets the requirements of occupants of the space and maintains the minimal consumption of energy that other common lighting systems consume. Lighting consists of the use of both high energy performing LED and T5 fluorescent Luminaires, as appropriate. Umow Lai recognises the importance of a high level of consultancy with building owners, something

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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal

that’s particularly significant when setting the design parameters for lighting. An important addition to this building is the side core and the provision of high quality glazed inter-floor access stairs that double as emergency egress paths. Providing natural light to this space resolves a normally complex problem facing the lighting of high rise access stairs.

Electrics: From an electrical services design perspective, 171 Collins Street optimizes “best practice” engineering and systems installation across the 19 story commercial high rise building. The building’s electrical services distribution system is further enhanced with the adoption of a reciprocating gas generator (Co-Generation System) that assists the electricity utility network to provide electricity to the building during business hours operation. The gas generator reduces the stress on the electrical infrastructure by peak load lopping via paralleling the Gas Generator with the Utility system and reduces electrical operating costs for the base building landlord. This method of design reduces maximum demand charges to the building owner and enhances financial return in the long run. The system also greatly assists in the reduction of CO2 emissions created by traditional power plants across Australia. The added benefits of a Co-Generation System is the extraction of generated heat from the sets operation being utilised within the building heating hot water system for HVAC purposes and/or implemented within the Domestic Hot Water System. Also worth noting is that low VOC material selection enhances the indoor air quality for occupants.

NABERS: 171 Collins Street is targeting a 5 star NABERS energy rating. NABERS energy provides a real performance indicator of the carbon emissions per sqm that are actually being released by the building on an annual basis. Performance is measured through metering and represents one of the most robust ways of demonstrating a buildings’ carbon footprint in Australia. It is also a highly useful tool designed to allow comparison, of similar building types in each state, through a simple star system. There is nowhere to hide with NABERS as it is an actual performance rating, providing a warts and all assessment of the design, management and operational quality of the building annually over the life of the building.

Site: Located on Collins Street near the corner of Russell Street at the ‘Paris end’ of Collins Street, the new tower rises behind the elegant, heritagelisted Mayfair Building. It will include 33,500 sqm of net letable area, including 17 floors of


premium, high-end commercial space and a ground floor lobby that runs from Collins Street through to Flinders Lane as well as 1,687 sqm of letable boutique office suites in the adjoining Mayfair Building.

Developers: 171 Collins Street is being developed by joint venture partners Charter Hall Office Trust (Charter Hall) and Cbus Property with construction due for completion in mid 2013. Confirmed tenants include BHP Billiton, Evans & Partners and Egon Zehnder International.

Project team: The team for 171 Collins Street includes developers and joint venture partners Charter Hall Office Trust (Charter Hall) and Cbus Property, Umow Lai engineers and sustainable design

consultants, Bates Smart architects and Brookfield Multiplex, contractor. Umow Lai is an Australian-owned building services and sustainability consultancy with offices in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane and associate offices in Hobart, Adelaide, Perth, Hong Kong and Vietnam Eben Simmons is an Associate Director of Umow Lai and a Senior Sustainability Consultant with more than 15 experience working in Australia and the UK. He has a Bachelor of Building Services and Environmental Engineering degree, University of Bath (UK), is an Australian Building Greenhouse Rating Certified Assessor and a Green Star Accredited Professional and often invited to speak at sustainability conferences and seminars. Contact: Eben Simmons, Umow Lai, 03 9249 0288, 0418 675 734, or eben.simmons@umoiwlai.com.au

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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal


A Rebate for Replacing Your Old Downlights? In Victoria the Government rebate scheme for replacing halogens with LED is called VEET (Victorian Energy Efficiency Target) and its benefits extend beyond a rebate.

S

ince the MEPS program was initiated for the quality control of fluorescent lamps, a similar program has been needed to police the import of LED lamps into the Australian market. Whilst programs such as VEET were not solely implemented for such a purpose, one side effect of the program is ensuring we are not ‘led’ astray by overzealous sales people and their creative packaging and marketing and is a good way to separate the ‘home show’ award winners from the internationally tried and tested commercial quality product.

Most LED lamps appear to perform miracles at first glance and is something we have all come to expect because of the amount of research, development and resources being used to produce the highest output at the lowest wattage. Shortly after journeying down the LED path, often confusion follows, leading to the result of most people leaving it to see what someone else will do, but using the VEET scheme under Schedule 21 for good quality product, eliminates the nasty imports. The VEET program can be shaped to suit your individual project, meaning you can use your own maintenance team if the appropriate measures have been taken or you can be given a turnkey solution as was recently carried out on the David Jones project nationally. This involved a team changing the lamps at night; store by store. Certain companies are even offering free installation and covering their costs by taking part of the rebate. This flexibility within the program ensures the smoothest possible transition to LED for the best possible peace of mind that you are installing a good product.

VEET Schedule 21 & 34 – So what are they & how do I get the rebate? Schedule 21 – offers the best quality LED lamps for retail, hotel, project based and residential applications (check with

your LED manufacturer for approved applications). Under this schedule the LED lamps are going into Melbourne homes and Hotels thus the product needs to adhere to very strict guidelines including verified lab testing and lifetime reports. It also has to meet all safety and electrical regulations for the Australian market. When it comes time for the rebate, however, schedule 21 offers the easiest solution of only having to sign a form. The halogen lamps are then picked up for the required recycling once the LED lamps have been installed. Schedule 34 – provides the retail and project based applications (not residential or living areas) with a suitable LED but may not be of the same quality as those approved under schedule 21 as the requirements for product approval are only based on product safety and EMC, nothing else. Due to the ease in which an LED can be approved under schedule 34, getting your rebate involves a great deal more work and is more costly. For both schedules, there are certain LED lamps and projects that you can and can’t use; you will need to consult with your approved lamp manufacturer. The following describes in detail the requirements of LED approval for schedule 21 & 34 proving that a good LED is more than just how bright it is or the name on the packaging. In the end it’s up to the

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end user to choose what type of product, price, and quality suits the project. Remember, the end user does not need to get any product approved; this is already done for you.

Compatibility information (The transformers and dimmers with which the lamps have been tested).

Schedule 21

Used for: Commercial applications and projects.

Used for: Retail shops, hotels/motels, residential homes. Rebate creation process: Fill in and sign the form provided. Lamps picked up for required recycling.

Rebate creation process: Lighting consultant required, ceiling plan, measurements and photographs taken before and after the project is completed.

Testing & reports required: Detailed lab reports required (a report just from the chip manufacturer is not sufficient).

LED lamps in this category have not had to undergo the stringent approval process as in schedule 21.

Lifetime report (approved lifetime testing method reports only).

As long as you have safety and EMC approvals for Australia, then the product will most likely be approved but the process to create a rebate is much different.

Efficacy (how many lumens the lamp produces divided by wattage).

Schedule 34

Lumen output (raw output of the LED lamp).

Testing & reports required:

Power factor (used if the lamp is 240v such as with a GU10 base or if there is a driver/transformer).

Electrical safety approvals for 240v lamps, drivers or transformers (such as SAA).

Power consumption (How many watts the lamp is using including the driver/transformer if used).

EMC compatibility approvals for 240v lamps, drivers or transformers (such as ACMA).

Lamp life (There must be a minimum of units tested, not just one on a test bench).

The facts and fallacy about LED lamps and why lamp approval for Schedule 21 is strict.

Colour temperature (Colour range of the whiteness of the LED chip being used).

Wattage is the biggest cause of confusion when it comes to LED lamps as it is not only to do with the output of the lamp or how bright it is, wattage is how much power/electricity the lamp is using. Do not compare LED lamps by wattage alone as it doesn’t make sense, it is an unrealistic measurement.

Electrical safety approvals for 240v lamps (Such as SAA). EMC compatibility approvals for 240v lamps (such as ACMA).

LED lamp specifications are often taken only from the LED chip manufacturer and not measured with the chip in its housing as a complete lamp. Measuring performance this way makes it look as though the lamp as a whole is performing much better than it really is. Lumens or Candela? A GLS style lamp where the light comes out from all around the lamp is measured in lumens. Reflector lamps where all the lumens have been taken and shaped into a beam is measured in candela. Measuring directional lamps in lumens is like measuring how fast a car is going by how much it weighs and is inaccurate. If your LED downlight supplier has lumen (lm) measurements alone for their reflector lamps, it generally means the proper lab testing has not been performed and their stated values are incorrect or falsely advertised. There is no precise mathematical conversion formula between lumens and candela. Generally transformers and drivers lifetime does not last as long as the LED lamp. Make sure warranties also cover drivers or transformers being used. Next time you are told that “these are the best and brightest LED lamps” ask if they are approved under Schedule 21 of the VEET Scheme, and if they are a Lighting Council member, and if not, be wary. LED products under the VEET scheme have been approved since December 2011, so get started now, it’s not as complicated as you might be lead to believe. Contact Scott Gracie at Megaman Lighting on 0412 626 596. Email: scott@megamanlighting.com.au Web: www.megamanlighting.com.au

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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal


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THERMOGRAPHIC (Infrared Imaging ) Electrical and Mechanical Surveys Thermal Imaging is a service that has been around for many years but the enhancement and development of applications has not evolved with the potential that it holds, particularly in the building management environment. experience and have no knowledge of how issues such as heat transfer, emissivity, thermal physics, humidity and reflection can effect camera readings.

Thermographic images graphically capture the temperature differential when looking at assets allowing a diagnosis to be made to assist with maintenance and life cycle decisions. This diagnosis requires an in depth understanding of the asset, the industry (electrical and mechanical) issues of reflection, emissivity of materials and ambient temperature as well as weather condition (Wind, rain and sun).

Specialist Thermographers who are behind the lens of a camera 8 hours per day, every day, keep their skill set tuned and are adding significantly to their knowledge base each day. Likewise, the intuition that comes from greater experience leads to a Thermographer digging deeper to find hidden anomalies that may present only the slightest hint of such at a first look through the lens. Many electrical contractors “can do thermography surveys” but it is not the main part of their work, and so they don’t possess the same concentrated intuitive experience that an Specialist Thermographer has.

Thermal imaging has applications to review building performance, plumbing issues, electrical assets, mechanical areas like lifts, and HVAC assets. What is important that certain factors are taken into account when thermographic services are undertaken in house or through an outside contractor?

Emerging Issues in electrical thermal imaging of switchboards and electrical equipment.

The following is a series of questions that can be used to review the parameters under which a thermographic survey is ordered.

Is your Thermographer Qualified to Level 1 or Level 2 Certification? Many people conducting thermographic surveys have simply purchased an infra-red camera and may have read the instruction book. They may have very little training or

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How capable is your Thermographer in analysing and interpreting thermograms? People with some knowledge may be able to take an infrared image, but only someone with qualified training and a detailed understanding of thermal anomalies is able to accurately analyse and interpret thermograms and provide clients with detailed and comprehensive Reports and fault definitions.

The Most Important Factors to look for when choosing your Thermographer; Asset Management is vital to all organisations to ensure that there is continuity of business and that the asset life cycle is managed in the most cost effective way. Thermography is an established non destructive testing technique which plays a major part in asset management, protection and safety. To ensure that you receive the most accurate, reliable and effective results from your thermography services, there are crucial factors to review in selecting your thermography service provider;

Is the Infra-red camera right for the job? Cameras range from low level, relatively cheap models up to sophisticated top range models. The low level cameras may not provide the right features for your job in relation to field of view, temperature range, resolution accuracy(range of pixels). Infrared cameras require regular calibration. If your thermographer does not have a current calibration certificate then can your rely on the accuracy of the readings?

There appears to be an anomaly that small items like drills and kettles have to be serviced through “test and tag” but there is not an equivalent expectation for switchboards, which would appear to have a greater risk factor in safety and company operations. In the USA there is a standard which is enforced called NFPA70 and has set guidelines for the survey review of electrical infrastructure.

What Experience does your Thermographer have?

Does your Thermographer follow Australian and International Standards and Protocols? There are International Standards for Thermography Surveys •

(ASTM ES1934-99a),

Thermography Condition Monitoring (ISO18436)

Monitoring Asset Management Optimisation (PAS55).

There are many applications that will assist in building asset management through the innovative application of thermography. Information provided by 22 The Parade West Kent Town SA 5067 Phone 1300 300 159 kburt@thermoview.com.au


WMA TECHNICAL BULLETIN: TB 100802

Boiler Condensate System Treatment, Troubleshooting & Optimisation BY MR ROBERT COLLINS | STEAM SPECIALIST WATER MANAGEMENT AUSTRALIA PTY LTD

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orrosion of steam and condensate return lines is a major concern, and one of the most troublesome problems confronting industry today. Industry is continually faced with the dilemma of employing expensive materials and costly labour to accomplish repairs of corroded systems. The leaking of steam vented through corrosion induced holes in piping is a costly problem. Corrosion within the steam and condensate portion of a boiler system results from two primary causes. The corrosion may be due exclusively to either one or a combination of both conditions. •

Attack by dissolved oxygen

Attack by carbonic acid

Leaking heat exchangers

Intermittent operation will draw oxygen through small leaks when vacuums are developed

Dissolved oxygen attack typically appears as irregular pitting and often is accompanied by oxide deposits or tubercles near the pitted area. Pitting is a form of localised corrosion, and like other forms of localised corrosion (e.g.: under deposit, crevice and

Each of these corrosion mechanisms have specific causes and manifest themselves in unique and different ways. However, both types of corrosion cause damage to piping and equipment, and losses of steam and condensate can be expensive. A less apparent, but perhaps the most significant result of steam and condensate line corrosion is the production of corrosion products which can form insulating deposits on heat transfer surfaces when returned to the boiler.

Attack by Dissolved Oxygen Theoretically, dissolved oxygen should not be present in steam and condensate lines of a boiler system utilising a deaerating heater and a fast acting catalysed sulphite oxygen scavenger, such as WMA 3100, in the pre-boiler portion of the system. However, experience indicates that oxygen intrusion inevitably occurs within virtually all systems. Oxygen may be introduced in various ways, such as: •

Disruption of the deaerator

Disruption in the feed of a chemical oxygen scavenger

In-leakage of oxygen laden water

Process contamination of oxygen bearing contaminants

Vented condensate receivers

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galvanic) pitting is considered far more treacherous, and is much more intense than uniform attack over the entire surface. Pitting attack usually begins when there are pores or crevices in the metal which are less accessible to oxygen. When any portion of the metal becomes wholly or even partially inaccessible to oxygen, then that part may become the anode, or attackable pole of a corrosion cell, while the aerated portion of the metal serves as the cathode. The obvious paradox here is that oxygen causes corrosion by not reaching parts of the metal. This is explained by the fact that with perfect distribution of oxygen a completely uniform protective oxide film is formed which prevents the attack. Pitting which occurs is due to the lack of this film and the subsequent establishment of small corrosion cells. Pitting corrosion, like all corrosion, is basically an electrochemical mechanism involving the flow of electrons. The deterioration pit of the metal always takes place at the anode, the place where the electrical current leaves the metal. The cathode is the place where the electrical current returns to the metal. The electrical current (electron flow) is the result of a difference in potential between the anode and cathode. During the corrosion process electrons are released by metal atoms at the anode and flow along a path to the cathode. The metal atoms left at the anode become positively charged ions due to their deficiency of negatively charged electrons. During the corrosion of iron in water, for example, the actual pit develops when the positively charged ions formed at the anode are attracted by negatively charged hydroxyl ions of water and pass into solution. This process forms the unstable compound ferrous hydroxide. The final step in this corrosion mechanism occurs when the ferrous hydroxide combines with dissolved oxygen in the water to form the insoluble ferric hydroxide or common rust. In addition to pitting attack, dissolved oxygen is also a necessary component of other less prevalent corrosion mechanisms. Oxygen is essential to ammonia corrosion of copper alloy metals, and contributes to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel. Dissolved oxygen also increases the reaction rate between carbonic acid and iron.

Attack by Carbonic Acid The principal sources of carbonic acid in condensate are alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates contained in the boiler feedwater. Thermal decomposition of these alkaline salts yields carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide produced when dissolved in condensate produces carbonic acid which lowers the pH and increases corrosion. Carbonic acid attack manifests itself as a general thinning or grooving of the metal along the bottom of the return line. Initial failures often occur in places where the metal is already thin or stressed such as threaded areas.

Effects of Carryover on Steam and Condensate Systems The following problems may result from carryover. 1. Production of “wet steam” which is much less effective in transmitting heat energy than is dry steam.

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2. High solids in boiler water may cause erosion in areas of the condensate. These erosion sites are prime targets for accelerated corrosion to occur. 3. Boiler water in the condensate system will destroy the protective film which is formed when a filming amine, such as WMA 5300, is used. This is a possible problem area A common multi-range which must not be over looked when conductivity meter. monitoring a condensate treatment program. To give a complete picture of what is happening it would be advisable to test the Total Dissolved Solids or conductivity, as well as, the pH of the condensate. Steam purity tests are another useful tool in many cases.

Chemical Treatment to Control Steam and Condensate Line Corrosion There are various chemical treatment programs available to control corrosion in steam and condensate systems. There are also external treatment methods which mechanically remove dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, such as: • Deaerating heaters • Demineralisation • Dealkalisation – Chloride cycle and Hydroxide cycle • Split stream sodium – Hydrogen cycle softening with degasification • Hydrogen cycle softening with degasification and caustic neutralisation The principle chemicals used for corrosion control of steam and condensate systems fall into a class of organic compounds known as amines. Two types of amine compounds are utilised: • Filming Amines, such as WMA 5300, which form a protective film on the metal surfaces to prevent contact with corrosive condensate, and


• Neutralising Amines, such as WMA 5200, which have the necessary basicity to neutralise carbonic acid and increase the condensate pH.

Neutralising Amines Corrosion inhibitors, known as neutralising amines or volatile amines, are generally considered the products of choice for the control of corrosion, caused by low pH, in condensate systems. These amines are volatile and will disperse in gaseous form throughout the steam condensate system. These amines flash off with the steam when fed to the boiler or steam header and react with carbonic acid at condensation points to neutralise the acidity and raise the condensate pH. The most commonly used neutralising amines are morpholine, cyclohexylamine and diethylaminoethanol. These products all neutralise carbonic acid but have little effect against oxygen pitting corrosion. Typically when these amines are applied correctly the condensate pH is maintained from 7.5 to 8.5. One must be careful however in relying solely on analysis of condensate pH as an indication of adequate corrosion control. pH analysis alone does not always give complete proof that condensate corrosion is controlled. The ferrous bicarbonate produced during the corrosion mechanism will cause an increase in condensate pH and may falsely indicate that corrosion is under control. There have been several documented cases where severe condensate system corrosion has occurred, but the condensate pH was maintained at 8.3 to 8.5. In addition to pH monitoring, we recommend corrosion coupon testing and condensate filter studies to verify desirable corrosion rates are being maintained. An important factor in the selection of a neutralising amine is its distribution ratio. The distribution ratio compares the concentration of amine in the vapour phase (steam) to the concentration of amine in the liquid phase (condensate). Amines with a distribution ratio greater than 1.0 have more amine in the vapour phase than in the liquid phase. It is important to keep in mind that the purpose of a neutralising amine is to become dissolved in the condensate in order to neutralise the carbonic acid present. Any amine which remains in the steam phase does not assist in this function. The following table shows the distribution ratios of some products.

Distribution Ratios: ppm Steam to Condensate Ammonia Benzyl amine Diethylaminoethanol Cyclohexylamine

10:1 4:1 1.7:1 4:1

Morpholine

0.4:1

Dimethylisopropanolamine

1.7:1

From the table above we can see that the distribution ratios of morpholine and cyclohexylamine are 0.4 and 4.0 respectively. Therefore, morpholine is 10 times more soluble in the liquid phase than is cyclohexylamine. Because of its low distribution ratio morpholine has a greater tendency to dissolve in the first

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condensate formed. For this reason, morpholine offers better protection in relatively small systems or in the first portion of larger systems where condensate first forms. Unfortunately this would leave the back portion of the condensate system unprotected. Cyclohexylamine on the other hand tends to remain in the vapour phase and is preferable for larger more extensive systems, or where pressure reducing stations are frequently encountered and condensate is frequently trapped off. With cyclohexylamine the protection is more prevalent in the latter half of the condensate system. For optimum protection throughout a condensate system, products containing blends of two or more neutralising amines

with varying distribution ratios are preferable. In larger more extensive systems, condensate samples should be taken from several locations at various distances from the boiler to assure proper distribution. Neutralising amines function by reacting with carbonic acid to form an amine-carbonate complex. Since the neutralising amines are returned to the boiler with the condensate they can be recycled. In a deaerating heater the amine-carbonate complex decomposes releasing free carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide given off during this reaction is released to atmosphere through the deaerating vent. Usually only a small amount of amine is lost through the vent of the deaerating heater. The amount of amine lost varies according to its distribution ratio. The amines with the highest distribution ratios suffer the greatest loss from the deaerating heater. It is because some neutralising amine is lost from the deaerator, that these products are usually recommended to be fed directly to the boiler or steam header for more efficient application. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations prohibit the use of more than 10 ppm of morpholine or cyclohexylamine when steam treated with these products contacts food or food related products. When a blended amine product, such as WMA 5200 which contains morpholine and cyclohexylamine, is used the amine level in the condensate should not exceed the sum of each amine’s concentration limitation. For example, the total amine concentration of WMA 5200 should not exceed 20 ppm.

Filming Amines

A condensate recovery vessel

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Filming amines represent highly effective treatment programs for condensate system corrosion control. Filming amines perform by creating an adherent nonwettable barrier on metal surfaces which prevents contact with the corrosive condensate containing oxygen and/or carbonic acid. Because of this mechanism the


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treatment level of filming amines is not dependent upon the carbon dioxide concentration as is the treatment of neutralising amines. For this reason, filming amines can offer definite economic advantages over neutralising amines since they are required in comparatively low dosages of 1.0 to 3.0 ppm. In addition, filming amines offer effective protection against oxygen pitting attack. The filming amines which have proven to be most effective are primary aliphatic amines. The amines which have been historically used as filming amines are: • Octadecylamine • Hexadecylamine • Dioctadecylamine When a filming amine program is initiated on a previously untreated system, the film formation begins and the surfactant quality of the amine may cause existing corrosion products to be cleaned off metal surfaces.

Advantages of Neutralising Amines & Filming Amines Some of the advantages of neutralising amines are: • Neutralising amines are compatible with other boiler water treatment products • There is normally no additional dosing equipment required • The control tests are simple & inexpensive

• Neutralising amines do not rapidly remove existing corrosion products The main advantages of filming amines are: • Filming amines protect against both oxygen and carbon dioxide attack • The dosage rate is not dependent on the carbon dioxide content • Filming amines tend to be less toxic than neutralising amines

Summary The rewards for increased good quality condensate return are many. Energy savings and improved steam quality production, reliability and a safer work environment are potential benefits. Benefits may include: • Reduced equipment replacement costs • Reduced operating costs • Reduced cleaning costs • Elimination of costly unscheduled shutdowns & downtime • Increased productivity • Increased efficiency • Reduced maintenance costs • Reduced energy bills • Reduced water consumption • Reduced waste water discharge and associated costs • Increased competitiveness

Contact us at save@soapaid.com or call 1 800 810 476 to find out more on how to get involved.


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Legionella in our Society BY ROZ WHITE

As the leading independent High Risk Manufactured Water System Auditor in South Australia and due to multiple recent fatalities in South Australia, I have been asked to explain in laymen’s terms a little about Legionella and Legionnaires Disease.

What is Legionella? Legionella is a severe form of pneumonia — lung inflammation usually caused by infection.

What is Legionnaires’ disease? Legionnaires’ disease (LEE-juh-nares) is caused by a type of bacteria called Legionella. You CAN NOT catch Legionnaires’ disease from person-toperson contact. People get Legionnaires’ disease (Legionellosis) when they breathe in a mist or vapour (small droplets of water in the air) that has been contaminated with the bacteria. People most at risk of getting sick from the bacteria are older people (usually 50 years of age or older), as well as people who are current or former smokers, or those who have a chronic lung disease (like emphysema, Cystic Fibrosis). People who have weak immune systems from diseases like cancer, diabetes, or kidney failure are also more likely to get sick from Legionella bacteria. People who take drugs to suppress (weaken) the immune system (like after a transplant operation or chemotherapy) are also at higher risk.

How did it get its name? Legionnaire’s disease got its name after an outbreak of pneumonia took place among people attending a convention at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel of the American Legion in Philadelphia in July 1976. The disease is not contracted from person to person, but by inhaling aerosolized Legionella bacteria.

Where do Legionella bacteria come from? The Legionella bacteria are found naturally in the environment, usually in water. The bacteria grow best in warm water, like the kind found in hot tubs/spa pools, cooling towers, hot water tanks, large plumbing systems, Warm water car washes, Domestic hot & warm water systems or parts of the air-conditioning systems of large buildings.

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How do people get Legionnaires› disease? People get Legionnaires’ disease when they breathe in a mist or vapour (small droplets of water in the air) that has been contaminated with the bacteria. Some examples might be from breathing in the mist from a whirlpool spa that has not been properly cleaned and disinfected; Showers or basin outlets that are not circulated on a regular basis. The bacteria are NOT spread from one person to another person. Outbreaks are when two or more people become ill in the same place at about the same time, such as patients in hospitals. Hospital buildings have complex water systems, and many people in hospitals already have illnesses that increase their risk for Legionella infection. Other outbreaks have been linked to aerosol


sources in the community, or with cruise ships and hotels, with the most likely sources being whirlpool spas, cooling towers (air-conditioning units from large buildings), and water used showering and bathing. What are the symptoms of Legionnaires› disease? Legionnaires’ disease can have symptoms like many other forms of pneumonia, so it can be hard to diagnose at first. Signs of the disease can include: a high fever, chills, and a cough. Some people may also suffer from muscle aches and headaches. Untreated Legionnaires’ disease can be fatal. Although prompt treatment with antibiotics usually cures Legionnaires’ disease, some people continue to experience problems after treatment. There is growing evidence from around the world that post recovery from Legionnaires disease has been labelled as the catalyst for ongoing health problems for up to several years after the initial infection from Legionella Bacterium. In the USA any patient diagnosed with any form of pneumonia is now tested for Legionnaires disease as standard practice. These symptoms usually begin 2 to 14 days after being exposed to the bacteria. A milder infection caused by the same type of Legionella bacteria is called Pontiac Fever. The symptoms of Pontiac Fever usually last for 2 to 5 days and may also include fever, headaches, and muscle aches; however, there is no pneumonia. Symptoms go away on their own without treatment and without causing further problems. Pontiac Fever and Legionnaires’ disease may also be called “Legionellosis” (LEE-juh-nuh-low-sis) separately or together. “If people are displaying symptoms of Legionnaires’ disease, such as: aching muscles, fever, tiredness, headaches and a dry cough, they should see their doctor.

How is Legionnaires’ disease diagnosed? Most people with Legionnaires’ disease will have pneumonia (lung infection) since the Legionella bacteria grow and thrive in the lungs. Pneumonia is confirmed either by chest x-ray or clinical diagnosis. Several laboratory tests can be used to detect the Legionella bacteria within the body. The most commonly used laboratory test for diagnosis is the urinary antigen test, which detects Legionella bacteria from a urine specimen, or sample. If the patient has pneumonia and the test is positive, then the patient is considered to have Legionnaires’ disease. Additionally, if the Legionella bacteria are cultured (isolated and grown on a special media) from a lung biopsy specimen, respiratory secretions, or various other sites, the diagnosis of Legionnaires’ disease is also considered confirmed. Finally, paired sera (blood specimens) that show a specific increase in antibody levels when drawn shortly after illness and several weeks following recovery, can also be used to confirm the diagnosis.

What should I do if I think I was exposed to Legionella bacteria? Most people exposed to the bacteria do not become ill. If you have reason to believe you were exposed to the bacteria, talk to

your doctor or local health department. Be sure to mention if you have travelled in the last two weeks. A person diagnosed with Legionnaires’ disease in the workplace is not a threat to others who share office space or other areas with him or her. However, if you believe that your workplace was the source of the person’s illness, contact your local health department.

Legislation and Codes of Practice do they affect me? Although Legislation and codes of practice from state to state Australia wide, are not applicable or enforceable in domestic home situations, the reality is that Legionella is prevalent and responsible for several deaths across this country.

How can I minimize the likelihood of Legionella in my own home? There are some simple inexpensive ways to minimize your risks. Firstly, if you have a storage vessel hot water service, make sure that the temperature setting is at 60°C or above at all times. Secondly, if you have taps or water outlets in your home that are no longer used on a regular basis for example a second bathroom, Laundry outlets, a bath that is no longer used, simply flush the warm water taps at full output, for a couple of minutes each week. The reason being, if you no longer use that tap or outlet, you are creating a dead leg (pipework where the water does not circulate) this can create a trap for biofilm and or sludge build up. Your safest and easiest way to minimise your exposure is to make sure that the water flows throughout your entire domestic water pipes at least weekly. Thirdly as part of your domestic cleaning duties every couple of months take the water supply hardware ( shower heads in particular) off the wall and soak them in household bleach for up to 10 minutes. Make sure that your tap ware can be exposed to this sort of treatment without damaging the aesthetics of your taps/shower heads. Then rinse them off with fresh water and replace.

We provide: Water sampling and testing of commercial and domestic systems. (For Legionella and other Bacteria) State Regulation Compliance Auditing State Code of Practice Compliance Auditing Cooling Tower Auditing Potable Warm Water System Auditing Risk Management Plans Water Safety Plans Corrosion Monitoring Water Consumption Studies Air Quality Monitoring Training and Educational Seminars Roz White – DHS Acc.Auditor, M IPEA. M FMA | Auditing Australia – Consulting for IMC | Competent Independent Inspector. Phone 08 8376 7336, email: roz.white@iinet.net.au

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NEW OH&S LAWS What it means for height safety New regulations and a new Code of Practice for How to Prevent Falls at Workplaces became law earlier this year. Fall Prevention specialist Carl Sachs of Workplace Access & Safety outlines what you can expect to change, the implications for workplaces and how to prepare for a new era in safe work at heights.

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particularly problematic in tenant/landlord and contractor relationships when it comes to deciding who should pay for safe access equipment for working at heights.

Specialist OH&S lawyer Michael Tooma of Norton Rose says ” if you look at the fatalities that have happened between July of last year and March of this year 12% of them have been related to fall prevention. 33 fatalities have occurred because of our failure to manage fall prevention properly. That makes it an important issue for the health and safety of people out there in the workplace and it makes it a big issue for all businesses out there in terms of their compliance”.

Instead, the new Work Health and Safety Act introduces the concept of the Person Conducting a Business Undertaking (PCBU). The PCBU may be the landlord, tenant, director, hospital engineer, facility manager or manager of an enterprise or site. Rather than pinpoint a particular individual, the WHS Act emphasises people taking steps that are within their control to reduce risks in the workplace. This may be as a simple as telling contractors not to access an area altogether until safe access has been put in place and ensuring the task can be done safely. There will be an expectation that all people behave in a reasonable manner rather than trying to apportion responsibility.

verybody wants to prevent fatal falls but getting height safety right is anything but straightforward. Until now, each state has had its own set of legislation for height safety. This has made working at heights difficult to manage, particularly for organizations and companies who need a consistent height safety solution for sites across Australia.

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? Until recently, the law deemed the “controller of the workplace” responsible for ensuring a workplace is safe. But debate has always raged about exactly who that person is. Defining the controller has been

YOU DON’T HAVE TO BE 2 METRES HIGH ANYMORE State-based legislation and the national code of practice for fall prevention applied once a person was working at a height of 2

metres or more. This limit is replaced with an obligation to minimise the likelihood of a fall from any height. In real terms, the law will encompass falls from low level platforms and ladders, bringing the courts’ attention to activities that the existing legislation might have excluded. Exactly how far you can be from an unprotected edge before you have to control it, remains determined by a risk assessment, rather than simply using a measurement like 2 metres or less.

THE HIERARCHY OF CONTROL FOR WORKING AT HEIGHTS The five-level hierarchy of control will be the major change for PCBUs in NSW, Queensland and South Australia. For many years, those states either used a threelevel hierarchy, or simply tried to apply the classical hierarchy for other risks to height safety (elimination, substitution, engineering, administrative controls, PPE). The five-level hierarchy of controls has now been brought into line with that of the national code of practice and Victoria’s fall prevention regulations.

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The five-level system is good news for PCBUs because it takes human behaviour into account and cost-effectively deals with risk reduction. When correctly applied, it reduces the risk of falls and lowers the cost of control measures by calling for higher order controls like walkways and guard rails. The more commonly used lower order controls such as administrative controls or procedures demand much more documentation and maintenance.

PREVENTING SUSPENSION TRAUMA THROUGH RESCUE The draft code doesn’t pull any punches when it comes to suspension trauma and toxic shock. It explains in detail the consequences of being suspended in a harness for period of time and alerts the reader to the likelihood of death by suspension. The requirements for rescue training, supervision, training and practising rescues is spelled out clearly. Self rescue is no longer an option and nobody should use a fall arrest system unless there is at least one other person on site to rescue them if they fall. The second trained person must be on standby to execute the rescue without relying on any assistance from the suspended person. Apart from the costs of training, supervision and rescue equipment, this significantly increases the labour cost of working in a harness.

Regular inspections for ladders The code details ladder use, acknowledging that this may be an option when all other options have been exhausted. A new requirement is that of regular inspection of ladders and maintenance. This may increase the cost of ladder use and is likely to steer users towards higher order controls like scaffold and elevated working platforms. Australian standards as a legal requirement. AS/NZS1657, the Australian standard for Ladders, guardrail, platform and walkways has been referenced in the new Code of Practise. Apart from being the collective knowledge of industry experts, referenced standards are admissable in a court of law as evidence of what’s required. AS/ NZS1891 covering industrial fall arrest

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systems and devices has also been widely referenced. These standard have been around for many years. AS/NZS1657 since 1992, and AS/ NZS1891, since 2001 in various forms. AS/ NZS1657 is also referenced in the National Construction code (formerly the BCA), making it essential to meet both, if you’re going to comply with this legislation. Draft AS/NZS1657 has seen the document increase from 30 pages to 70. It is currently being re-written, and is open for public comment. The 1992 standard had an emphasis on how to build equipment, rather than selection and considering the competency of the person using the equipment. The draft edition considers peoples behaviour and provides essential information for users and designers in the selection of the means of access, and what needs to be considered. This has been written as an hierarchical approach to access selection, to maintain a consistency with the hierarchy of controls in other legislation.

WHAT IF SOMEONE FALLS FROM HEIGHT? Fall from a rooftop and only a miracle will save you. The penalties for those held responsible for tragic falls are much steeper. The harmonized regulations prescribe far more onerous penalties on organizations and duty holders. Categories have now been created which are based on the degree of culpability and degree of harm. Michael Tooma of Norton Rose regularly appears in courts defending employers. This is what he has to say about what you can expect in the event of an incident : “If there is a serious injury or fatality usually that will result in quite an extensive investigation. That investigation will often lead to, if it is a fatality, a coronial inquest, a lot of scrutiny on their organization involved and all the individuals and organizations involved. There will be a lot of media attention, there will be a lot of attention by unions, and there will be a lot of attention by members of the public. It is a long drawn out process that often culminates in a prosecution. And it might be a prosecution of the company or it might be the prosecution of individuals like officers of

| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal

the company and the right personal liability provisions, personal duties under this legislation in relation to failure to exercise due diligence to ensure compliance by the company. In addition to the penalties that can be dished out here which are up to $3,000,000 and five years imprisonment for individuals, the loss of reputation will be significant”.

HOW TO TRANSITION TO THE NEW REGULATIONS Whilst transitioning to the new regulations, ensure that height safety at your workplace complies with existing height safety laws. In practical terms, 90% of the laws haven’t changed materially, however directors, CFO’s and duty holders are now expected to take a very active role in meeting their organizations obligations through the due diligence provisions. Methodically identify all fall hazards in the business or undertaking. Reconsider future controls in light of the draft hierarchy of controls for working at heights, particularly if you’re based in NSW, Queensland or South Australia and include all risks irrespective of height. Allocate a risk rating, so that rectification work can be prioritized and dealt with systematically, and control activities rated high-risk immediately. We’re in a period of transition. Your site will need to be fully compliant by the time these model regulations become law, so it’s best to get on with it now.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Carl Sachs’s is the managing director of national falls prevention specialists Workplace Access & Safety. He represents the Master Builders Association on Australian standards committee AS/ NZS1657, and the FMA on committee AS1891. He works closely with the major corporations and government to increase the awareness of falls issues, to achieve compliance throughout Australia.


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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal


Table 1 Some of the WHS Approved Codes of Practice Some of the WHS Approved Codes of Practice Managing the Work Environment and Facilities5,6

How to Manage and Control Asbestos in the Workplace

Work Health and Safety Consultation, Cooperation and Coordination

Managing Noise and Preventing Hearing Loss at Work

Managing the Risk of Falls at Workplaces

How to Manage Work Health & Safety Risks

Construction Work

Hazardous Manual Tasks

How to Safely Remove Asbestos

Labelling of Workplace Hazardous Chemicals

Confined Spaces

Demolition

First Aid in the Workplace

Managing Electrical Risks at the Workplace

Preparation of Safety Data Sheets (SDS)for Hazardous Chemicals

Managing Risks of Hazardous Chemicals in the Workplace

Managing Risks of Plant in the Workplace

Preventing Falls in Housing Construction

common general duties such as a safe work environment, safe plant, adequate facilities, information, instruction and training and more specific responsibilities such as:

Figure 3 What is Due diligence?

• Consultation with workers and other PCBUs – You have to consult when identifying hazards, assessing risks and making decisions about how to eliminate or minimise risks, making decisions about facilities for welfare of workers, proposing changes that affect WHS of workers, making decisions about the procedures for resolving WHS and other issues and monitoring of the work environment. • Resolving WHS issues-If you have made reasonable efforts to resolve an WHS issue but there is still no agreement, you must follow an agreed procedure (if there is one in place) or the process set out in regulations, set out the agreed procedure in writing and communicate it to all workers and may call in an inspector to assist if issue cannot be resolved. • Ensuring the health and safety of others – You must also take into account the safety of others who may be affected by your business operations such as visitors, customers and members of the public. More specific public safety responsibilities apply if you use or store dangerous goods or use high risk plant regardless of whether this takes place at your place of work. • Complying with specific regulations that apply to the business (e.g. manual handling, noise, chemicals) and administrative aspects of licenses and permits. • Notifying incidents – you must notify WorkCover immediately after becoming aware of it (by phone or in writing – quickest means possible), take reasonable steps to ensure that the incident site is preserved until an inspector arrives or until such earlier

time as directed by an inspector and keep a record of notifiable incidents for 5 years DUTIES OF OFFICER The WHS Act uses the definition of “Officer” found in the Corporations Act, with modification. WHS legislation includes officer of corporation as per s9 of Corporations Act, which says: “officer” of a corporation means: (a) a director or secretary of the corporation; or (b) a person: (i) who makes, or participates in making, decisions that affect the whole, or a substantial part, of the business of the corporation; or (ii) who has the capacity to affect significantly the corporation’s financial standing; or The definition does include: (a) an officer of the Crown within the meaning of section 247 of the Corporations Act; or (b) an officer of a public authority within the meaning of section 252 of the Corporations Act, other than an elected member of a local authority acting in that capacity

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Permanent Pothole Solutions is happy to announce that they have appointed LR Technologies as the NSW distributor and applicator of their Polymer modified dense grade permanent cold patch – “Asphalt in a Bag”. LR Technologies has completed a wide variety of work for private industries and for many NSW government departments. The LR Technologies package encompasses consultancy services, sales and application advice. Phone the office on 02 9674 6741 or Steve Bain on his mobile 0447 477 023 www.lrtechnologies.com.au LR Technologies has experience in road maintenance and project management, making it a perfect fit to provide sales, installation and consulting services on our entire product range. We now have a solution for big or small jobs. Permanent Pothole Solutions has been the Australian distributor of “Asphalt in a bag” for over 3 years in Australia. The last couple of years we have enjoyed increased market share due to our flexibility and customer service focus.

Asphalt in a bag is the only Dense grade product on the market which means you use less. Take a look at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XJcFhSo23w& feature=em-share_video_user to see just how easy it is to use. Our product is a Polymer modified dense grade permanent cold patch. The Polymer helps it bind to itself as well as the surrounding area whether it be asphalt, concrete, wood or even steel. The polymer also aids in the curing process which is on compaction. Therefore in its packaged form it will not go off, so if you have a metre square space you can hold a pallet load which is the most economical way to purchase Asphalt in a bag. See a pothole and fill it immediately. No special tools required. Come visit us at stand #35 on the 10th and 11th of October at the LOGOV Expo 2012 being held QLD, visit www.logov.net to get your free ticket. With a lifetime performance guarantee why wouldn’t you FILL THAT HOLE!

Visit www.permanentpotholesolutions.com.au to find your nearest stockist or give Jackie a call on 1300789 967 for price and availability

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| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal


Officer does not include: A partner in a partnership The WHS Act states that if a PCBU has a duty or obligation under the Act, an officer of the PCBU must exercise due diligence to ensure that the PCBU complies with the duty or obligation. To exercise due diligence (See Figure 3) an officer must take reasonable steps to obtain health and safety knowledge relevant to the business and keep up to date, understand the health and safety risks in the business, Provide resources to identify and control risks, receive and consider information about hazards, risks and incidents to ensure the PCBU has process to comply with the WHS Act and finally verify the provision and use of the above resources and processes. To achieve this officers are required to ensure that the following is done and reported on back to the officer: 1. All policies and process reviewed to ensure that they are compliant with the relevant legal standard – the Act, the Regulation, COPs. 2. Compliance with minimum standards verified 3. OHS system compliant The key decision makers such as CEOs and Directors will need to demonstrate due diligence by practices such as:

have any questions about managing your WHS obligations please feel free to contact us on soudi.noori@sres-australia.com.au References 1 www.sres-australia.com.au 2 http://www.deir.qld.gov.au/workplace/publications/multimedia/ changingfocus/index.htm 3 Guide to the Work Health and Safety Act 2011, Queensland, www.worksafe.qld.gov.au 4 Reasonably practicable represents what can reasonably be done in the circumstances. It takes into account: • The likelihood of the hazard or risk occurring • The degree of harm or possible consequences The state of knowledge about the risk and the availability and suitability of ways of eliminating or minimising it 5 http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/ AboutSafeWorkAustralia/WhatWeDo/Publications/Pages/ Environment-Facilities-COP.aspx 6 This Code covers, the physical work environment, such as workspace, lighting and ventilation, facilities for workers, including toilets, drinking water, washing and dining areas, change rooms, personal storage and shelter, remote and isolated work and emergency plans. 4 http://www.comcare.gov.au/WHS/whs_laws

• Ensuring WHS practices and systems are effective • Acting on unsafe practices/ workplaces/incidents • Regular reporting on safety performance • Ensuring suitable WHS expertise is retained PREPARATION FOR CHANGES • Think about the WHS issues you will need to coordinate with other PCBUs such as contractors and how to manage them. If you don’t have existing arrangements for managing contractors and visitors - you need to identify: • what workers you have duties to • what others you may owe the duty to • what you need to do to extend a duty of care to them • Ensure you have arrangements to enable you to consult with workers and other PCBUs • If you have no existing way of resolving issues establish a simple process • Make sure you take into account the public safety aspect of others who might be put at risk by your operations • Make sure you are able to able to show due diligence for WHS in your organisation • Check your current incident reporting system to make sure it will apply to the new Act • Check any specific compliance requirements in the new regulations Since 2004, Safety and Risk Engineering Solutions (SRES) has been providing consultancy services to building owners, managers and hotel engineers throughout Australia with assistant on OHS compliance, due diligence audit, risk assessment, engineering documentation audit, contractor management and…etc. If you The Th Th he eA Au Australian u ustr sstr ttrra all an ali an Bui Bu B Building uiildi u illdi ld ding ng Se Ser S Services e vi er vvic iices es Jou J Jo Journal ourna na al | Vol Volume Vo ume u me me 2 – 2 20 2012 012 1 |

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Environmentally responsible design (ERD)

BY GREG BLAIN

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Introduction In the building Industry, the pursuit of environmentally sustainable design (or ecologically sustainable development – ESD) is now commonplace. I prefer environmentally responsible design (ERD) due to debate about sustainability assessment, and also not to be bound by ultra-complex ESD rules. This article will focus on ERD in building design.

Building Design and ERD General

and re-use, reduced construction times, and minimizing and recycling construction waste. Low flow water supply includes low flow taps and shower roses, and dual flush WC cisterns. Furthermore, taps and shower roses can still be effective at even lower rates than what is standard ‘low flow’. Also, rainwater tank stored water (for gardening, washing and WC flushing) and use of grey water (waste from basins and sinks) for gardening purposes are water conservation methods (to Local Authority advice). Emission Minimization

ERD affects building design through:

Emission minimization is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, use of alternative energy sources, reduced construction times, and minimizing and recycling construction waste.

1. Energy minimization. 2. Material minimization. 3. Water minimization.

All manufacture, transport, and construction creates emissions.

4. Emission minimization. 5. Embodied energy. 7. Sustainable development.

Intelligently designed generous landscaping helps improve air quality, counters emissions and provides amenity.

8. Recycling.

Embodied Energy

9. Passive energy use.

Embodied energy is the measure of the energy used in the extraction, manufacture and installation of a building material. It is the start of life cycle assessment and needs to be considered against total life cycle. The science is not exact as many variables exist.

6. Life cycle assessment.

Energy Minimization Energy minimization is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, use of alternative energy sources, reduced construction times, minimal construction waste, and construction waste recycling.

2. Passive energy principles.

Assessment of embodied energy needs balanced consideration. For example, some high embodied energy materials (including concrete and aluminium) have very high strength, corrosion resistance, and life expectancy compared to other low embodied energy materials.

3. Daylight inside to reduce daytime electrical lighting.

Life Cycle Assessment

Design for energy minimization also includes using: 1. Off-peak electrical supply.

4. Light internal colours to reduce electrical lighting. 5. Non-dark external colours to minimize solar heat absorption. 6. Low energy lighting and appliances. 7. Alternative energy source products (solar and wind).

A buildings life cycle relates to assessment of building life including manufacture, construction, operation, maintenance and durability, refurbishment, demolition and recycling. This assessment can be broken down further for specific materials within the building. The science is not exact as many variables exist. Some materials have lower embodied energy, but may have short life expectancy and/or require more maintenance. Examples include timber versus aluminium, and timber framing versus concrete block construction.

8. Insulation. Material Minimization Material minimization is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, and minimizing and recycling construction waste.

Timber is claimed to be sustainable, however timber needs cleared land, to be farmed (planted, fertilized, harvested), transported, milled, transported again, chemically treated, stored, delivered and erected.

Design can also incorporate materials with recycled content, and using materials with future recycling potential. Water Minimization Water minimization is effected by; design focusing on creative resourceful simplicity, use of alternative energy sources, use of low flow fixtures, rainwater collection

Timber also can be attacked by insects and termites, suffer from moisture/humidity, and can burn. Timber framed construction needs to have bracing/ strapping/linings/insulation/claddings fixed, termite

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barriers installed, continuous checking for termites, can harbour vermin, and has low resistance to wind-blown/blast debris. Concrete blocks are made from mined earthen materials and includes high embodied energy cement. Blocks also need to be transported, stored, delivered, erected, and construction involves the use of reinforcing steel and concrete filled cores. However no linings or claddings are fundamentally essential, no termite protection/chemicals/maintenance inspections are required, it will not harbour vermin, suffers little humidity and moisture movement, it doesn’t burn, is resistant to wind-blown/blast debris, is hugely superior in strength to timber, and will last decades without maintenance. Sustainable Development Sustainable development is the theoretical effective balance between economic progress and environmental conservation, including inter-generational goals of maximizing wealth and utility, and minimizing resources and impact over the life of the development. But what is sustainablity really? Timber is claimed to be sustainable but this is debatable, and it is renewable but at significant cost. Concrete is claimed to be un-sustainable however concrete can be re-cycled, can contain recycled content, and concrete structures have superior strength and last decades without maintenance. Also, sustainability assessment does not analyse material performance during crisis. Crisis can include flood, cyclone, bushfire, or man-made crisis (eg civil unrest, terrorism). Assessment should not only include crisis performance but also the aftermath resource expenditure including emergency services work, rebuilding, and personal and community loss. In crisis, high sustainability materials (timber) rate low, while low sustainability materials (steel, concrete) rate high. Recycling Recycling sounds sensible, but it depends on the material and it’s recycling cost. Different materials have different recycling capabilities. How easy it is to first re-claim the recycled material? How much energy is required to complete the recycling process which could mean building new recycling factories and industries? Also, some materials may require more energy to recycle than to produce new. Use of second hand materials for new construction also sounds sensible. Unfortunately it is often not commercially viable due to the costs of increased time to source and prepare materials, unknown quality, and no Manufacturer support or warranty. The most economical way to incorporate second hand materials is Owner sourcing, supply, and preparation. Contractors then need to inspect the materials, however with the still unknown qualities and the possibility of damage occurring between Contractor inspection and Site fixing, Contractors still need add contingencies.

Environmental Rating systems There exist various environmental rating systems for buildings. Their purpose is to assess environmental credentials of a design.

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Participation in the rating system is largely voluntary. Many Owners seek environmental rating for promotion for marketing or for higher rent or sale. The rating systems assess applicable aspects of a building including energy, water and emission minimization. However as the sciences are not exact, there is debate about environmental rating system effectiveness. There are other significant aspects not assessed including negative impacts of: 1. Complex aesthetics (or folly) creates high materials and energy wastage, which can nullify a positive rating. 2. Bad design, which means materials wastage and Occupant loss of wellbeing and efficiency. 3. Natural or man-made crisis repair. 4. High material and energy consumption in construction, operation and maintenance of excessively large buildings. 5. High and raked ceilings (making internal spaces difficult to heat).

Passive Energy Use General Passive energy use is the harnessing natural energy sources (mainly sun and wind) for heating and cooling. Also thermal mass is used to control temperature and insulation is used to regulate temperature transfer. Use of passive heating and cooling principles reduces a buildings need for powered heating and cooling. The first thing I consider with a new design, is north orientation for sun control. North winter sun should be let into a building. Australian winter sun generally rises and sets slightly north of east and west, and has a much lower northern noon elevation. Summer sun should be kept out of a building. Australian summer sun generally rises and sets slightly south of east and west, and is almost directly overhead at noon. Heating Passive heating of a building can be done by excluding external cold, and allowing direct sunlight in, to heat materials of thermal mass. In winter, northern glazed openings allow sunlight in. Ideally, all rooms should have northern exposure, but this may be impractical. Habitable rooms used during the day should have exposure. Winter sunlight entry is facilitated by northern glazed openings, suitable roof overhang, and adjustable external window sun shading (to stop sunlight entry when inter-season temperatures are sometimes too hot). Optimum glass area is vital, as glass is a poor insulator allowing heat transfer out during winter. Building arrangements to facilitate heating include lower flat insulated ceilings (to contain rising heat), and facility to compartmentize the building interior to retain heat. Adjustable


compartmentalization can be done by use of operable walls (opened during warm seasons for air flow and cross ventilation), but these walls are expensive. Large, high double doors in permanent walls are an alternative. Open Stair Wells allow rising heat to escape from lower to upper floors, hampering lower floor heating. Cooling Passive cooling of a building in summer can be done by excluding external heat, preventing direct summer sunlight entry, by cool (not hot) breeze capture and cross ventilation, by hot air extraction, and by use of thermal mass. Summer sunlight will likely enter a building in the early morning and late afternoon. Morning summer sunlight inside will cause the building to be heated all day. Non-habitable Rooms may be located east or west to bar sunlight from habitable areas. Summer sunlight exclusion can be also be done by appropriate window placement, external window sun shading, and suitable roof overhangs. Window curtains do not work as the heat is then already inside. Optimum glass area is vital, as glass is a poor insulator allowing heat transfer in during summer. Ventilation removes internal vapour, heat, stale air and odour, and helps prevent mould growth and condensation forming. It also creates air movement which often has a cooling effect in tropical and temperate climates. In tropical and temperate climates, buildings should allow entry of cool (not hot) breezes, which usually come from known directions. Cross ventilation helps air movement and replacement. Hot air needs to escape the building, by use of cross ventilation, and higher vents and higher ceilings (hot air rises). High ceilings however create problems including difficult light and smoke detector access and ceiling fan cleaning, and warm air is lost upwards in winter.

Designs which rely solely on natural air movement for cooling, fail when there is no breeze or where breezes are hot. Induced ventilation may be an option. Induced ventilation uses the creation and release of high level hot air to induce low level cool air into the building, through cool shaded or moist areas (moist areas however may be susceptible to bacterial contamination). Use of thermal mass is an extremely viable means of passive temperature control. Thermal Mass Thermal mass is the amount of potential temperature storage capacity of a material. Concrete and masonry are excellent thermal mass materials. Thermal mass heating and cooling works on a daily cycle. Heating is achieved by exposing thermal mass materials to direct sunlight, while excluding cold outside air. The materials absorb the heat which is then released during the cooler night into the building interior. Cooling is achieved by allowing cooled thermal mass materials to release coolness into the building interior during a hot day, while excluding hot outside air. An example is a cool internal concrete floor on a hot day.

Conclusion Environmentally responsible design (ERD) of buildings can significantly affect the future health of the planet. The basic principles are sound and correct. There is however a lot of misconception surrounding ERD and ESD, caused to a degree by Authorities and Academia saturating issues in ultra-technical data that only Scientists understand. This complication can be avoided somewhat by Designers and Owners concentrating on basic principles. The reasoning behind ERD after all is more moral than technical. The Australian Building Services Journal | Volume 2 – 2012 |

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Water Chiller Cost Considerations

W

ater chillers today are very sophisticated, generally very efficient and certainly are a major capital cost to any project.

The 2 major cost considerations are: 1) Capital cost – easy to see and quantify as a fixed and immediate cost. 2) Running cost – these are more difficult to quantify. The key elements of running costs are: (a)

Power required to produce the required cooling effect at full load C.O.P. and at Part Load IPLV & NPLV. Since to introduction of the federal government Minimum energy Performance Standards in July 2009, all water chillers, air and water cooled, over 350 kW cooling capacity must meet stringent full and part load performance guidelines as new machines. Often Building owners pay more money for machines with a higher performance (ie: less input for more output). The extra money paid up front is often justified by reduced electricity costs providing payback

IT’S IN THE BAG “It’s in a bag , permanent and not afraid of water!” That’s the message from Jackie Thew, owner of Sales Agency Australia and distributor of Asphalt in a Bag. Ready to use in all conditions, Asphalt in a Bag provides a pre-mixed product that offers a permanent repair solution for potholes, cracks, utility cuts, driveways, cycle ways, and car parks. We have been supplying many local Queensland Councils and Roadtek depots for a couple of years now. Due to recent changes to our internal structure and the addition of a 10 gauge and a 14 gauge mix on top of the already successful 7 gauge mix we are now in a position to expand our supply across Queensland and the rest of Australia. We currently supply three different grades of mix. Mix 7 – 7 gauge stone – residential roads, car parks – cracks and small potholes Mix 10 – 10 gauge stone – rural roads, highways – larger potholes Mix 14 – 14 gauge stone – specialised use – extra large potholes. “Asphalt in a bag is not designed to replace traditional hot mix for road building purposes, but to provide a quick and reliable means of effecting

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periods of 1-2 or more years. This performance is all verifiable at the time the chiller is purchased. (b) Maintenance and Breakdown. These costs are often not treated with the same priority as the cost of the power to run the chiller. Maintenance is however paramount to ensuring that costly breakdowns are avoided but more importantly that the performance you paid for is achieved over the life of the chiller. Once the chiller is operating in the real world heat exchanger surfaces on both air and water cooled machines become fouled with the dirt and grit of our busy cities. Corrosion on temperature sensors can give inaccurate feedback to chiller controllers causing erratic or inappropriate response to the real system requirements, resulting in poor chilled water temperature control and poor comfort control of the building. Simple preventative maintenance visits, logging chiller heat exchanger performances, sensor and transducer performances as well as refrigerant charges and water flows will ensure that your chiller continues to perform as it did on the test rig for the majority of its lifespan as well as ensuring that the performance costs savings that were expected continues to be realised. ■ MTA Australasia Pty Ltd Ph: 1300 304 177 Email: sales@mta-au.com

permanent repairs,” says Jackie based in South East Queensland. “The mixture works so well that many of the Asphalt contractors and local councils now use it for repairs and maintenance all around the country.” Manufactured from selective aggregates, bitumen and polymers, the bagged mixture is designed to suit the harshest of weather conditions. With an indefinite shelf life, the ready-mix is ideal for maintaining paths, driveways and roads and can be safely stockpiled awaiting future use. “Asphalt in a Bag expands and contracts with the surface and will bond to concrete, steel, asphalt and even wood,” explains Jackie. “The application of the product is five times faster than the average solution and can be exposed to traffic immediately.” Providing minimal disruption to traffic. With a lifetime performance guarantee, when applied according to the manufacturer’s specifications, Asphalt in a Bag

| Volume 2 – 2012 | The Australian Building Services Journal

will permanently adhere to the area which is being repaired. With the kind of wet weather we have been enduring this past few months, demand for our product has increased, we have a number of stockist’s throughout the country who can supply 1 or more bags, for quantities by the pallet load (50 bags) either contact one of our stockist’s/ resellers or Jackie directly. Asphalt in a bag is a perfect and quick solution in the wet or dry for repair of those dangerous potholes. For more information, consult the website at www.asphaltinabag.com.au or give Jackie a call on 1300 789 967 for price and availability. Fill that hole!


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