Page 1

AM MA (HONS) ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

YEAR / 2015 NAME / ADAM MCFALL

STUDENT NO. / 1107013

ACA DE M IC P ORTFOLIO (PART 1 )


R R E FL ECTIV E STATEMENT

As my time as an undergraduate architecture student comes to a close, I consider what I have learned over the past four years. It is a difficult task, as the body of work completed over the course of my studies is so extensive and diverse however, the completion of this document has afforded me a unique view of my architectural education to date.

fundamental about the way in which we approach architectural design. One of my case studies, the Torre David in Caracas, amazed me as the slum dwellers were able to appropriate a half-finished office building and augment it using rudimentary methods. It made me realise architecture is more than simply a profession it’s about real people and real needs.

One of the main contrasts I noted was my ability to present work appropriately in architectural design. I noticed that the quality of my ideas was not necessarily ‘poor’ in my early studies, however I often chose representative methods that were safe. As I began to experiment with digital media and watercolour, particularly in Any-Place, I felt more confident to try new means of representation. The ‘Drawing with Satellites’ project was a turning point as I understood that modes of representation extend beyond traditional methods.

Adam McFall May 2015

I have been contemplating one question in particular since the beginning of my study, ‘How do we design?’. The course has gone some way to answer this question. Design addresses the question directly, whereas history and theory provide a richer context for the question, however the opportunity to write a carefully considered, curated response to the question was extremely valuable within the dissertation module. By investigating the designs of those without a design background, I sought to uncover something

02 /


03 /

Y1 07 14 18

Y2 36 42

Y3 70 80

Y4 94

SEMESTER 1

TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

AT

TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

A

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

ART AND DESIGN

AH

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

AD

ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMENT

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

AP AD AH TE TE

21 28 31

45 56

97

SEMESTER 2

82

99

FULL YEAR

ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO PART 1

85

ARCHITECTURAL DISSERTATION

59

ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMENT

C

CONT ENTS

AP D P

110 113


CM CRIT ERI A M A P P IN G

RIBA/ARB GENERAL CRITERIA (GC)

GC8

RIBA/ARB GENERAL ATTRIBUTES

GC1

Understanding of the structural design, constructional and engineering problems associated with building design.

01

Ability to create architectural designs that satisfy both aesthetic and technical requirements. / The work in this document will be mapped against the General Criteria set out by the ARB/RIBA. The reflective statement at the beginning of this document refers expressly to the General Attributes set out by the ARB/RIBA.

GC2 Adequate knowledge of the histories and theories of architecture and the related arts, technologies and human sciences.

GC3

Adequate knowledge of physical problems and technologies and the function of buildings so as to provide them with internal conditions of comfort and protection against the climate.

GC10

Knowledge of the fine arts as an influence on the quality of architectural design.

The necessary design skills to meet building users’ requirements within the constraints imposed by cost factors and building regulations.

GC4

GC11

Adequate knowledge of urban design, planning and the skills involved in the planning process.

GC5 Understanding of the relationship between people and buildings, and between buildings and their environment, and the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale.

GC6 Understanding of the profession of architecture and the role of the architect in society, in particular in preparing briefs that take account of social factors.

GC7 Understanding of the methods of investigation and preparation of the brief for a design project.

04 /

GC9

Adequate knowledge of the industries, organisations, regulations and procedures involved in translating design concepts into buildings and integrating plans into overall planning.

Ability to generate design proposals using understanding of a body of knowledge, some at the current boundaries of professional practice and the academic discipline of architecture.

02 Ability to apply a range of communication methods and media to present design proposals clearly and effectively.

03 Understanding of the alternative materials, processes and techniques that apply to architectural design and building construction.

04 Ability to evaluate evidence, arguments and assumptions in order to make and present sound judgments within a structured discourse relating to architectural culture, theory and design.

05 Knowledge of the context of the architect and the construction industry, and the professional qualities needed for decision making in complex and unpredictable circumstances.

06 Ability to identify individual learning needs and understand the personal responsibility required for further professional education.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

EG

COURSE TYPE WITH UNIQUE IDENTIFYING COLOUR AND CRYSTAL PATTERN FONT: QUICKSAND [REGULAR], 42pt

FULFILLED GENERAL CRITERIA FONT: ROBOTO [MEDIUM], 10pt COURSE INFORMATION FONT: ROBOTO [MEDIUM+LIGHT], 10pt

EXAMPLE COURSE TYPE

UNFULFILLED GENERAL CRITERIA FONT: ROBOTO [MEDIUM], 10pt

YEAR / # SEMESTER / #

COURSE CODE / ARCH####

E X A M P LE COURSE N A M E

PROJECT SPACE

COURSE NAME FONT: ROBOTO [LIGHT], 18pt

DESCRIPTION Aximolum es? Ihili, octem, qui firiptis ad potia clem temqui convendiena in viverunum praecere aperesse, queridet ad cae reo vivissime tabuspi orbeste rdientem terum ta vilinum inatiu qua L. Nostam et pecultustrum lium num ina, nicepsedet esimmo hos, o C. Serobse rfecerim nemus atis, siliciontem puli prit, nius ficaelicto eti, dum tuus, se ocricaelici pulostra? Go nem dium obus cullescris, C. Bulego esterum mere essiciam. Ovid cortium nonsulicibus poterfir

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Nostam et pecultustrum lium num ina, nicepsedet esimmo hos, o C. Serobse rfecerim nemus atis, siliciontem puli prit. L02 / Nostam et pecultustrum lium num ina, nicepsedet esimmo hos, o C. Serobse rfecerim nemus atis, siliciontem puli prit. L03 / Nostam et pecultustrum lium num ina, nicepsedet esimmo hos, o C. Serobse rfecerim nemus atis, siliciontem puli prit.

## /

CURRENT PAGE FONT: ROBOTO [MEDIUM], 9pt

PROJECT SPACE

SPACE FOR LEARNING OUTCOMES, DESCRIPTIONS AND CAPTIONS FONT: ROBOTO [MEDIUM+LIGHT], 10pt/9pt

PROJECT SPACE

CURRENT COURSE IN THE YEAR

OTHER COURSES IN THE YEAR


Y1 M A (HONS) A R CH ITECT U R E YEAR 1

AD

AH

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ELEMENTS

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY INTRODUCTION TO WORLD ARCHITECTURE

SEMESTER

A

AD

AH

SEMESTER

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ASSEMBLY

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY REVIVALISM TO MODERNISM

/1

SEMESTER

ART AND DESIGN

/1

SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

/2

COURSE CODE

/1

/ ARCH07001

COURSE CODE

/ ARCH08001

COURSE CODE

CONTENT

/ ARCH08004

CONTENT

/ ARCH08003

CONTENT

/ GROUND, WALL, FRAME, CANOPY AND SPACE

CONTENT

/ AROUND, THROUGH AND BEYOND THE FRAME

/ RENGA PLATFORM

06 /

/ DRAWING ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

/ PERSONAL EXPLORATION

/ MATERIAL WORLD

SEMESTER /2 COURSE CODE / ARCH08005 CONTENT

/ ISOMETRIC DRAWING EXERCISE

/ PRESENTATION: GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM

/ STRANGELY FAMILIAR

/ ESSAY: BEAUX-ARTS

TE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT PRINCIPLES SEMESTER /2 COURSE CODE / ARCH08002 CONTENT / BUILDING HIERARCHIES / BUILDING ENVIRONMENTS


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

COURSE CODE / ARCH08001

E LE M ENTS

/1

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT This course was the first point of interaction with architectural design, and acted as a solid primer for thinking about design problems. The course was well paced and made a clear distinction between various key design elements, forming a body of information I refer to frequently. The culmination of Elements, the Renga platform, was an excellent opportunity to assemble the architectural elements we explored into the context of the natural environment.

1/ DESCRIPTION The first design course introduces students to the foundational knowledge and skills appropriate to the practice of architectural design. Design is seen as a process involving imagination, representation and communication, analysis and research, iteration and reflection. Throughout the semester, students work on a series of design projects, which require individual and group submission of models and drawings. Working in a studio environment, students undertake a number of studies that introduce some of the essential elements of architecture, such as path, threshold, opening, membrane and enclosure. These studies are underpinned by a concern for the role of place and embodiment in the experience of architecture and the built environment. Studio exercises are supplemented by a series of lectures on practical and theoretical issues associated with the design process.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Awareness of basic architectural elements and issues that inform their disposition in architectural designs. L02 / Awareness of different dimensions of the design process, from analysis and research individually and in teams to iteration and reflection in the formation of architectural designs. L03 / Awareness of appropriate representational and communication methods to prepare and present design proposals.

07 /

Illustrating one of the most important moments on the course, this model from the ‘Frame’ exercise was an exploration of frames which break from traditional orthogonal and triangular forms.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ELEMENTS

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

/4

GROUND, WALL, FRAME, CANOPY AND SPACE / With Lovisa Lidström and Rachel Milne / The exercise set for weeks 1-6 was to explore the basic architectural elements of the ground, wall, frame, canopy and space. In the 6th week, one of the elements explored was developed further. I felt my most poignant element was frame: leading on from my model, I experimented with different means of graphical representation. / GROUND / Our group looked at the theme of ground as a collection of layers. / WALL / After establishing a theme in the first week, the group decided to continue with the theme of ‘senses’.

/2

1 / GROUND

/5

Topological model exploring the form of a cave.

2 / GROUND Cave model from an alternative angle, showing the entrance to the caves.

3 / GROUND Contour drawing exploring the graphical representation of varied topology. Drawn independent of scale

4 / WALL Drawings of the wall model

5 / WALL Wall model

08 /

/1

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ELEMENTS

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

/4

/ FRAME / Our group looked at the theme of ground as a collection of layers. / CANOPY / After establishing a theme in the first week, the group decided to develop a theme for each set of models. In canopy we chose ‘senses’. / SPACE / The theme for space was ‘experiences’. I explored the idea of user-controllable space through a model which could take a number of forms.

/2

1-3 / FRAME / Development of the frame project, exploring means of representation.

2 / SPACE Space model.

09 /

/1

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ELEMENTS

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

/1

RENGA PLATFORM / The Renga platform was to be a simple enclosure for poets to use to write Japanese ‘Renga’ poems. The project was a means of framing the architectural elements covered in the previous weeks. The site for this was the Hermitage of Braid park in Edinburgh. / Using my space model as a primer, I became interested in compartmentalisation and creating a structure comprised of separate, independent spaces.

1 / RENGA SITE / Site plan showing the Renga platform within the context of the Hermitage of Braid.

2-4 / RENGA SITE Photographs of the site.

010 /

/2

/3

/4


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ELEMENTS

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

1 / DEVELOPMENT Initial sketch exploring the possibility of a hexagonal structure with 12 writing spaces.

2 / DEVELOPMENT Section exploring a square plan with four writing spaces.

3 / DEVELOPMENT Sketch exploring alternative uses for the tree stump found on the site.

011 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ELEMENTS

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

A /3

1 / PLAN Floor plan on site. Drawn at 1:50/A3

2 / ELEVATION Front elevation, as seen from the public footpath. Drawn at 1:50/A3

3 / ELEVATION Side elevation showing the slope of the site. Drawn at 1:50/ A3

4 / SECTION A Section through the central communal space. Drawn at 1:50/A3

012 /

/4


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ELEMENTS

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

1+3 / SKETCH MODEL Sketch model on site, testing the form of the platform on the slope of the site. Card and balsa. Modeled at 1:100

2+4 / FINAL MODEL Final model as presented at the review. Figure 4 shows the cladding strategy. Paper, card and balsa. Modeled at 1:100

013 /

/1

/2

/3

/4


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

/1

COURSE CODE / ARCH08003

INT RODU CTION TO W ORL D A R CH ITECTU R E

I attribute my experiences in AH1 to my proficiency in technical drawing in the first year design units. The course was a fine mix of intellectual study and practical drawing reminiscent of a much more traditional style of teaching. The history drawing element was one of the most enriching learning experiences in the entire degree.

1/ The apprentice pillar in Roslyn Chapel, near Edinburgh. It was mentioned during the lecture series as there is an interesting story behind it.

DESCRIPTION This course comprises thirty 50-minute plenary lectures, and two or three site visits, on the history of world architecture up to around 1800, on which students will be examined. In addition there will be six 30-minute lectures specifically on the conventions of architectural drawing, combined with six two-hour tutorials to enable students to reproduce architectural drawing techniques that convey relevant historical information. They will be accompanied by context sheets answering related questions.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Knowledge of the history and theories of architecture and the related arts before c.1800. L02 / Appreciation of the significance of a critical approach to architectural precedent in the context of design. L03 / Development of verbal and visual communication skills in key themes of the module demonstrating a critical and reflective approach.

014 /

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH INTRODUCTION TO WORLD ARCHITECTURE

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

DRAWING ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY / With Rachel Milne / To compliment the lecture series, a number of drawing assignments were to be completed alongside a ‘context sheet’, consisting of an illustrated response to a short essay question related to the drawing. / The drawing assignments were split into three eras, each calling for a different type of drawing. These were Egyptian, Gothic and Elizabethan. The focus of the Egyptian era was the Great Pyramid of Khufu, to be drawn in plan and section. The focus of the Gothic era was Chartres Cathedral, to be drawn in elevation with a 1:10 or 1:20 exploded axonometric drawing of a column. The Elizabethan era differed as we were to design our own ‘prodigy house’, taking influence from historical precedents.

GOTHIC CONTEXT SHEET What was the role, if any, of formal drawing and architectural sketches in such processes? / Master masons have been depicted in art holding the tools of their trade - namely the masons square and often a straightedge or compass. The very architecture of a masonic lodge includes a ‘tracing house’ for drawings to be stored and completed. It would seem ostensible that drawing was an important part of being a mason, but is this an accurate assumption? It would seem that masonic lodges were the equivalent of an early academy, each passing knowledge onto students. The practice of drawing was revered, and good technique was what separated a master mason from a journeyman. However, masons made their mark through making rather than planning, and drawings resulted in being a tool to describe the building to clients. From this we can gather that drawing, for masons at this time, was more of a status symbol than a useful transmission technique. Take a moment to asses what we use modern architectural drawings for. The modern architect would design the building, using technical drawings to illustrate how the building will come together. However, masons did not solely ‘design’ the building, but rather also supervised its construction and lead an active role in its assembly. This meant, although it may have been cumbersome, the master mason could hold the plans in his head, and describe the building on site to the other masons. In this fashion, carvings have been found in cathedrals which resemble working drawings. This would suggest a very ‘on-site’ approach to the final building composition.

1-3 / EXPLODED COLUMN Exploded axonometric drawing of a column. Drawn at 1:10/ A2

015 /

To conclude, drawings kept clients pleased as it does today, but the technical side of architectural drafting was not developed until much later. /1

/1

/2

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH INTRODUCTION TO WORLD ARCHITECTURE

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

EGYPTIAN CONTEXT SHEET What representational techniques did the Egyptian craftsmen use to build the Great Pyramid? Can these be described as early modes of drawing? / I believe the Egyptians had two representational systems for depicting structures. The first, more informal style shows structures in multiple perspectives with details regarding the use of the space. This system is used mainly for showing the general layout and what the space is for, but is relatively ineffective in an engineering situation because the drawings are often confused with artistic details. The other system is an in-situ model, in which a life size maquette is constructed to demonstrate the internal workings of a structure. There were no pieces of specialised drawing equipment recovered from excavation; which leads me to believe that drawings accurate enough to mirror the accuracy of the pyramid would have been near impossible to produce. There is strong evidence to suggest that on the ground to the east of the pyramid was used as a trial area to create a version of what would eventually be the voids inside the pyramid. These trenches could be described as an early section, as the carvings in the ground could be rotated 90 degrees anti-clockwise to be in position, inside the pyramid. Measurements taken from these trenches closely match those of the spaces inside the pyramid. Simple tools such as plumblines were thought to be very important, which suggests that many measurements were checked as the pyramid was being constructed. This, paired with the careful organisation of the workforce meant that directions could be gestured without the need for paper based plans.

1 / GREAT PYRAMID OF KHUFU

These processes were what made the pyramid as accurate

Commonly known as the Great Pyramid of Giza. Section showing the ‘great step’ and the burial chambers. Drawn at 1:1000/A2

For the very nature that the trial tunnels were 3D, the label

016 /

as it is, but it is difficult to categorize them as ‘drawings’. ‘drawing’ would be inaccurate.

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH INTRODUCTION TO WORLD ARCHITECTURE

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

ELIZABETHAN CONTEXT SHEET

/1

/2

In which ways was the Elizabethan architectural sensibility influenced by continental examples contained in pattern-books and architectural treatises? / External influences of pattern books and existing architectural examples were one of a few devices Elizabethans used to compose buildings. Antwerp in particular had an esteemed reputation for being a centre for art and design, and as such had exported art in many forms to northern Europe for many years before the Elizabethan period. However, it was difficult for one singular influence to penetrate the mindset of the Elizabethans, as they expected many things from their buildings. Throughout the architectural period, Elizabethans wanted had fascinations with so many things: linearity, lighting, scale, quaintness and the implementation of ‘devices’ and other seemingly random ideas such as shaping a house from the initials of the designer, such as in John Thorpe’s case. Ahead of all these sub-themes was what Elizabethans strived for more than anything: Impressiveness, and it would seem they will try to achieve this by any means possible. It makes sense then for Elizabethan designers to dislike taking influence from existing structures too much, as elements would begin to reappear in many buildings. This is largely why they do not take much from the classical

1 / ELIZABETHAN PRODIGY HOUSE Plan based on the letter ‘F’. Plan drawn at 1:200/A2

2-3 / PRECEDENT I drew some inspiration from Wollaton House (1) and Hardwick Hall (2).

017 /

style. In the case of pattern books though there were many produced, and it would have been perfectly acceptable to have buildings with the same decorations and strapwork. Craftsmen often veered from the patterns shown, so there would have always been idiosyncratic discrepancies.

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

A ART AND DESIGN

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

Art and Design allowed me the freedom to explore different representational means without the strictures of a program or a rigidly pre-defined end product. I gained valuable experience in producing models and manipulating images digitally - skills I was able to transfer to design.

COURSE CODE / ARCH07001

1/

A RT A ND D ESIGN

Drawing which emerged as part of my personal exploration: as part of a study on connections, I constructed a marble with inked marbles and allowed them to roll across a piece of paper at the bottom. This was repeated several times to show the subtle changes which occur when a process is repeated.

DESCRIPTION Some of the critical skills to be harnessed during the process of becoming an architect/landscape architect revolve around designing and communicating your design to others, your peers, your tutors, eventually clients, builders, building users, landscape users. This course therefore aims to provide links both direct and tangential to the core architecture/landscape architecture curriculum, giving access to skills, techniques, ways of thinking that will set you apart from those studying elsewhere.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Awareness of a range of representational techniques and how these may be activated within art and design practice and support the wider communication of ideas. L02 / Awareness of a variety of media and methods of production in contemporary art and design practice, and a capacity to appropriately evaluate them with a reflective, critical and integrated approach. L03 / Ability to work to deadlines and explicitly convey ideas and resolved solutions in a well structured and coherent way.

018 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

A ART AND DESIGN

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

/1

AROUND, THROUGH AND BEYOND THE FRAME / With Rachel Milne, Max Milton and Marjaana Melentjeff / The course was structured around an initial interpretation of a pre-defined painting, in our case this was ‘On the Patio - 1’ by Georgia O’Keeffe. The challenge was to represent the essence of the painting through alternative means (model, collage etc.) / We were interested in the idea of visible and non-visible layers within the frame, exploring the painting as a series of filters which distort or amplify the view of the succeeding layer. This prompted a study into shadow and a number of models with removable ‘filters’. Our final model was a projection box which cast a shadow onto a textured ‘screen’.

1 / STUDY PAINTING / ‘On the Patio - 1’ by Georgia O’Keeffe (1946)

2 / EXPLORATION / Explorative model studying relationship between figure and shadow. (Model by Rachel Milne)

3 / EXPLORATIVE DRAWING / A dissemination of the original painting into shapes, then overlayed to expose layers of difference and movement.

4 / GROUP MODEL / Group model produced in response to the analysis of the painting. We focussed on the distortion of shadow and the unseen layers in the frame which act as screens, with images of the layers in front cast onto them.

019 /

/4

/2

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

A ART AND DESIGN

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 1

PERSONAL EXPLORATION / Following the group exploration of the painting, a period of self directed work comprised the remainder of the semester.

1 / PERSONAL EXPLORATION / Succeeding the group-work element of the course, a personal exploration allowed me to focus on an aspect of representation which I found particularly intriguing. I separated the painting into a number of flat pieces and imagined its assembly in a contrasting way to the groupwork model of ‘stacked layers’.

020 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

COURSE CODE / ARCH08004

A SSE M B LY

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT Assembly was an important personal turning point as I felt my design from the previous semester’s architectural design unit was not satisfactory. The short design exercises at the beginning of Assembly helped me reach a design much quicker than before, therefore when I began to develop my scheme for Strangely Familiar, I felt I had a better grasp on the pace of the program than before. Assembly was also the first opportunity I had to work in an urban setting, which was in stark contrast to the previous semester.

1/ Isometric drawing of the final scheme. Assembly included an isometric drawing exercise which was extremely valuable both within the confines of the unit and beyond. To this day I use isometric drawings as diagrams to explain layout and circulation.

DESCRIPTION This course introduces the theme of assembly in architectural design. It is focused on the capacity of structure, construction, and materials to create architecture. These physical factors as are considered alongside more ephemeral conditions such as light and sound. The way architecture establishes variable distinctions between exterior and interior spaces is also examined. The course asks students to develop these themes through consideration of a relatively simple programme such as a dwelling. To this end, students work on an integrated series of design exercises and projects. Students produce design proposals that are represented by a range of techniques ranging from expressive to scale drawings and models.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Awareness of basic architectural elements and issues that inform their disposition in architectural designs. L02 / Awareness of different dimensions of the design process, from analysis and research individually and in teams to iteration and reflection in the formation of architectural designs. L03 / Awareness of appropriate representational and communication methods to prepare and present design proposals.

021 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ASSEMBLY

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

MATERIAL WORLD / The first five weeks of this design were structured as a number of short design exercises. Each week would be centred around a different material, each with a distinct program. Stone was to be used as a spa, brick as a changing room, timber as a teahouse and concrete as a boathouse. / The focus of these week long design exercises was to resolve a design to a basic level with a clear material intent. It was a valuable experience in exploring the appropriateness of a material for a certain program and site.

1 / BRICK / Section through my brick project. Drawn at 1:100.

2-3 / TIMBER

/5

/ Model photographs exploring the timber structure. Modeled at 1:100.

4 / BRICK / Brick wall mounted model. Modeled at 1:100.

5 / BRICK / Initial sketch for the brick project.

6 / TIMBER

/6

/ Initial sketch for the timber project.

7 / CONCRETE / Model for the concrete project. Wax on Dutch greyboard. Modeled at 1:100.

022 /

/4

/7

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ASSEMBLY

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

MATERIAL WORLD / STONE / In the fifth week we were to develop the most promising project from the previous weeks. I chose my stone spa as I felt the hierarchical, linear plan was the most resolved. The plan is arranged in stages of conditioning, with the large entrance hall as the least conditioned space, with each succeeding space more private than the last, culminating in the steam-room.

/1

/2

1 / DRAWINGS / Plan and elevation of the stone spa project. Drawn at 1:100/A3

2-3 / MODEL / Model photographs. I chose a stacked card construction to emulate the appearance of rough stone. Modeled at 1:100

4 / DEVELOPMENT MODEL / Balsa development model to test the form and spatial arrangement. Modeled at 1:100.

5-6 / DEVELOPMENT SKETCHES

023 /

/3

/4

/5

/6


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ASSEMBLY

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

ISOMETRIC DRAWING EXERCISE / With Rachel Milne (Only personal drawings have been included in the figures) / The assignment was to draw a notable piece of domestic architecture as a means of practicing the isometric drawing style. We were issued Esherick House by Louis Kahn. Constructed in 1961, it was commissioned by Margaret Esherick as her personal residence. I wished to emphasise the modular, compartmental design in my drawings and therefore opted to draw certain elements of the construction as exploded.

/2

1 / ESHERICK HOUSE / Photograph of Esherick House, Philadelphia, USA

2 / EXPLODED LIVING SPACE / Exploded isometric of the living space. Drawn at 1:100/A2

3 / EXPLODED CORES / Exploded isometric highlighting the service cores. Drawn at 1:100/A2

024 /

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ASSEMBLY

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

/4

/5

/7

/8

STRANGELY FAMILIAR / The second half of the Assembly unit was centred around the design of a house and workplace for a specific trade, in my case it was bicycle repair. The intent was for us to transfer our experience in designing with specific materials to the design of a residence, a program which we were all familiar. / The site for this was Upper Grey Street, located in the Edinburgh suburb of Newington. It was a large, thin site with an existing disused structure. The site was surrounded by well-maintained period terraced houses. / Drawing influence from the architectural context, I developed a design language which borrowed elements from the classical buildings flanking the site, creating a rhythm which was suited to the area, while being a clearly modern interpretation.

/6

1 / SKETCH MODEL / Sketch model exploring the idea of stacked levels and protecting screens.

2-5 / MATERIAL PALETTE / Photographs of materials present near the site.

6 / SKETCHBOOK / Sketchbook extracts. Testing design ideas on a number of scales.

7-8 / CONTEXT Buildings near the site.

025 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ASSEMBLY

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

1 / DRAWING / Précis of the main living module. Drawn at 1:20/A2

2 / SECTIONS / Trio of short sections. Drawn at 1:100/A2

026 /

/1

/2


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ASSEMBLY

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

1 / PORTFOLIO / Cover of the final portfolio. An abstracted form of the section was cut into the cover and acted as a symbol for the project.

2-4 / MODEL / Model photographs. I chose a flat card construction to mirror the concrete material choice. Modeled at 1:100

5 / MODEL / Looking into the main living space.

027 /

/4

/5


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

Architectural History 1B was quite a departure from the preceding history module in terms of structure. Moving away from a practical drawing and tutorial based system, this was the first purely academic module I had experienced. It was also my first exposure to the teachings of the Ecole des Beaux-arts, the focus of my essay for the unit. I found the teaching method of the Ecole fascinating the fusion of art, history and science, I could see some similarities between the Paris school and the program taught at ECA.

COURSE CODE / ARCH08005

R E V IVA LISM TO MODE RN ISM

1/ Drawing produced by a student of the Ecole des Beaux-arts. There was an emphasis on graphic communication, with many projects consisting of only a few drawings, however the quality and scale were incredible. This drawing caught my attention due to the unusual use of colour to denote what is solid in plan. Many plans did not employ such bold colour choices, however I think it is very successful.

DESCRIPTION The course begins with a survey of the stylistic revivals that dominated architecture in the early nineteenth century. It also introduces the apparently contradictory theme of modernity in architecture and discusses the nineteenth century development of new and more sophisticated typologies along with the new materials and technologies that made this possible. The revivalist and the modern are also discussed in terms of the conflict between industrial and anti- industrial that saw the architectural technology of the Crystal Palace juxtaposed with the emergence of the Arts and Crafts Movement. The course traces the complex ideas that lie behind the emergence of Modernism in the early decades of the 20th century. It concludes with lectures on the revision of Modernism in the 1950’s and 60’s and the recent emergence of a Post-modern consciousness.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Knowledge of the history of European and aspects of non-European architecture from c.1800 to the present day. L02 / An awareness of the wider social, political, and economic context in which architecture is created. L03 / A knowledge and understanding of the built environment of the present day and how it developed in order that intelligent and informed contributions can be made to the current debates on architecture.

028 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH REVIVALISM TO MODERNISM

To conclude, the beaux-arts method is a powerful and

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

adaptable process. Throughout this essay I have explained the method in which it is taught to students, and the

ESSAY

principles which it revolves around. The final culmination of this rigorous and varied education are grand schemes

What are the characteristic design principles of the École des Beaux-Art. Asses their general impact on architecture of the late 19th and early 20th century?

thoughtfully planned out. However it is the legacy of the beaux-art program which lives on in many architectural schools all over the world.

/ INTRODUCTION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The study of the Ecole des Beaux-art and the work it has

Drexler, A., The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux-arts MIT Press, 1977

produced is as much about rich history, nationalistic patrons and methodical design as much as it is about my personal

Curl, J. S., Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Oxford, 2006

intrigue. Essentially this is an essay of two parts: the first will discuss the program of study in the Ecole des Beaux-arts

Harbeson, J. F., The Study of Architectural Design New York, 1926

and the principles which were endowed to its students. The second will take a more practical look at buildings designed using the Beaux-arts method both in France, and as an

Jacques, A., Les dessins d’architecture de l’Ecole des beauxarts, Paris, 1987

export to young America. /1

Moffett, M. (et al), A World History of Architecture London, 2008

A firm grounding in the history of the Ecole is essential when explaining the principles it is based around. Although originally formed as the Académie Royale d’Architecture (Royal Academy of Architecture) in 1671 by a minister of King Louis XVI1 to show reverence to the King, it was not an architectural school as we would understand it today. It offered students design exercises, the primary method in which academy style architectural teaching was delivered. The academy was composed of practicing architects who would discuss architectural theory of the time, and its problems. It was somewhat an authoritative body or society if you will, rather than an educational institution. A fitting precursor then to the theoretical and methodical style taught at the Ecole from 1819 when the Ecole opened its doors to students as a centre for architectural education.

029 /

/ CONCLUSION

Beaux-arts method can be applied anywhere if executed

designed to be used continually, so to showcase these

correctly.

buildings as being fine examples of architecture is a fallacy, if

This drive to take the grandeur of the Beaux-arts and translate

they are never used for a purpose. I feel it necessary then to

it into the new America is where I would like to focus the

It was an interesting scheme due to the fact it was temporary:

talk about a building which was built to handle a huge volume

final part of my essay; and the perfect case study to observe

Structural frames clad in a strong plaster were used instead

of people - a building used to this day: The Grand Central

American architects showcasing their national identities

of a brick or stone. However, this change in materiality would

Terminal. Completed in 1913 by Warren and Wetmore,

through the Beaux-arts is the World’s Columbian Exposition.

not have detracted from the spaces formed by the plans

Reed and Stem, the building is a good example of spacial

Completed in 1893, this large complex was designed to show

of these structures, or the feelings evoked by their strong

planning: a grand hall in which the public can congregate

the rest of the world what American architects could produce.

facades. Scale plays an important role here, as ‘the buildings

could be accessed by three sides, which although isn’t

The key architects of the exposition; Hunt and McKim had

themselves were awesome in size: the uniform line of their

traditionally Beaux-arts, it does show how regional variation

both studied at the Ecole, and so had first hand experience of

main cornices were sixty feet high.’ This theme of uniformity

and practicality can take precedence. A more private space

the dynamics of the Beaux-arts method. The site was located

ties in with the use of symmetry and repeated elements in the

which can only be accessed by travelers is located beyond

on the shores of Lake Michigan, with a strong central axis

plan from figure 1, as discussed earlier. These buildings were

the hall. Also noteworthy is the purpose of the building: as

in which large open circulation spaces were flanked by tall

typically classical and very French in design, and were clad

a train station. Such a building types did not exist during the

white palatial structures. It was the very essence of Beaux-

monochromatically, leading to its nickname; ‘the white city’.

early days of the Ecole, but because of the generality of the

arts: the themes of axial planning, public and private spaces

There is something about the World’s Columbian Exposition

Beaux-arts method, it can be adapted to fit new challenges.

were strong, and the success of the scheme shows that the

though which feels too ‘put on’. The buildings were not

Van Zanten D., Félix Duban and the Buildings of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 1832-1840 Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Oct 1978)

1 / 1893 COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION / Photograph taken at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago, USA.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH REVIVALISM TO MODERNISM

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

BIBLIOGRAPHY R. H. Bletter, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Volume 40, No. 1, March 1981. The Interpretation of the Glass Dream-Expressionist Architecture and the History of the Crystal Metaphor

PRESENTATION German Expressionism

J. S. Curl, Oxford Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, 2006, Oxford, p. 271

/ NOTES

K. James, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Volume 53, No. 4, December 1994. Expressionism, Relativity and the Einstein Tower

German Expressionism encompassed more than just architecture; it was a movement which spanned all art forms: ejecting what had been and celebrating what was to come.

J. Posener, Hans Poelzig: Reflections on his life and work, 1992, London

Expressionist architecture was conducted in Germany after the First World War. It was for a while, an awkward time for architecture as the economy in the new Weimar Republic

B. Zevi, Erich Mendelsohn, 1985, London

did not allow for many large schemes to be commissioned,

B. Zevi, Erich Mendelsohn: The Complete Works, 1997, Turin

therefore there was a friction between the eager architects fervency and a feeling of ‘impotence’.

1 / GROSSES SCHAUSPIELHAUS / HANS POELZIG

German Expressionist architecture is said to be a style of

/ Theatre built in Berlin (1919)

extreme self expression. It is a movement characterized by a

2 / EINSTEIN TOWER / ERICH MENDELSOHN

number of attributes including free form shapes taken from the organic, a staunch rejection of orthogonality and most revolutionary, an uninhibited aesthetic unbound by rules or orders. This may have been a reaction to harsh postwar treatment: If Germany couldn’t control its own political situation, it could still shape its own architecture. The first building is the Grosses Schauspielhaus by Hans Poelzig. Completed in 1919 it seems a surprisingly large project for the ailing economy, however it was only a conversion. The preexisting structure, located in Berlin, had undergone changes throughout its life: it was originally a market hall, then a circus.The facade is quite austere due to the preexisting structure. Ideally expressionist buildings would be created from scratch, however this building was converted just after the war and to convert a building from a previous style into this new language could be an act of revolution; to capture.

030 /

/ Observatory built in Potsdam (1924)

The building is a rich burgundy red, which shows it isn’t just

the forms they wished to use. Einstein himself expressed the

The Schauspielhaus though does not prepare you for what

the structural form which can be an outlet for expression;

building using only one word: Organic. It is very calculated;

is inside.

dimensions such as colour can have just as profound

the shaft is 20 m high for increased air quality.

3 / DRAWING / ERNST HAECKEL

The ornament in the Schauspielhaus is more obviously based

/ Looking into the main living space.

an impact. The stalactitic form is prevalent in the main performance area and seating hall, contrasting the exterior.

These buildings can be compared in many ways, however I

on natural forms, whereas the tower is more subtle. The

One reason for this is because of the dome, as it had to be

have chosen three discrete categories to discuss.

plainer decoration on the tower is due to its use as a research

roughened to improve acoustic quality.

institution; it does not need to be outwardly decorated. As They are two very different exterior forms. One is very

a theatre, the Schauspielhaus had to be dramatic and

The second building is the Einstein Tower by Erich

sculptural whereas the other is more orthogonal. However

elaborate.

Mendelsohn. It was built in Potsdam from 1920 to 1924 to

they are trying to say the same thing, via different means.

aid research into relativity.

The Schauspielhaus expresses through scale and colour, whereas the more uninhibited circumstances surrounding

It is more of a machine than a building: it is entirely devoted

Einstein tower meant Mendelsohn was free to design as he

to readings from the telescope, contained in the main

wished.

tower. A brick substructure on the outer body is reinforced with concrete, an important material for the expressionist

A difference here is that the interior of the tower reflects the

movement as it was the only material which would afford

exterior. Similar curvilinear spaces make up the laboratory.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

Technology and Environment 1 was my first exposure to the technical assembly of a structure. It served as an important primer for my understanding of structures and construction, and continues to influence how I approach design. The most valuable part of this course was the lectures centred around junction details: at first I did not understand the drawings - they seemed very complicated and at first I struggled to visualise them spatially. At the end, however, I felt I was far more prepared to disseminate a technical than before, and I felt I had a better overall grasp of the structure of buildings and the construction methods employed.

COURSE CODE / ARCH08002

P RINCIPLES

1/ This was the wall detail I used in the design of a small summer dwelling. On reflection it does not seem very complicated now, however at the time I was amazed a roof build-up had so many separate pieces.

DESCRIPTION This course introduces you to critical structural, technological and environmental principles that underpin architectural design. It seeks to help you understand not only how buildings need to work functionally to keep their occupants safe and secure, but also how such considerations can produce deeper, more meaningful architecture. You will learn how buildings can be seen as interacting systems and that structural, material and environmental strategies are interlinked.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Understanding of the key concepts in the physical behaviour of structural systems and their application in architecture. L02 / Appreciation of the integral nature of material assembly and environmental systems to the development of architectural designs. L03 / Breadth of knowledge and understanding of the principles of architectural structures, material assembly, environmental systems and sustainability in the built environment. 031 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE PRINCIPLES

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/4

/5

BUILDING HIERARCHIES / With Jack Moulson / This written report was the first opportunity I had to analyse a building technically - picking apart the structure and materiality in order to identify the function of each part, and how the various elements worked together. Jack and I chose the Glass House by Philip Johnson as, although it is a very minimal building, it is often the simplest forms which employ the highest level of technical detail.

1 / GLASS HOUSE / Photograph of the case study building: the Glass House by Philip Johnson, constructed in 1949 and located in New Canaan, Connecticut.

2 / PRIMARY STRUCTURE Photograph of the steel I-beams meeting the brick plinth.

3 / INITIAL SKETCHES Initial sketches of the scheme by Philip Johnson.

4 / GLASS HOUSE STRUCTURE / Breakdown of the structure used in the Glass House. Blue arrows denote the source of the primary load, the steel roof structure. Red lines denote the direction of the force on the primary structure. Green lines show the transfer of the load to the brick plinth foundation and into the ground.

5 / PLAN Floor plan of the Glass House.

032 /

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE PRINCIPLES

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

/1

BUILDING ENVIRONMENTS / This assignment, in which we were to design a simple summer dwelling near a suburb in south Edinburgh, was designed to test our understanding of wall and roof structures, and how different materials can be employed to achieve a certain effect in terms of ventilation and thermal efficiency. / I chose to use sandstone as it would provide valuable thermal mass, and is visually sympathetic to the area as many of Edinburgh’s suburbs are populated by traditional stone houses. A glass sun-room was implemented on the south facing elevation with vents allowing warm air to flow into other rooms. It could be sealed at night to trap the warm air in the central living spaces.

1 / VISUALISATION / Perspective visual of the dwelling, looking north.

2 / PLAN / Plan of the dwelling showing the general layout. There was to be one bedroom and en-suite to the left, a central living space with a rooflight in the centre and an open plan kitchen and dining space to the right. The sandstone wall projects out to the rear of the property, creating a protected area for parking.

3 / GLASS HOUSE STRUCTURE / Location plan and position of the dwelling (marked in white). It was positioned between the trees to protect the property from the wind, but centralised between the two clusters to avoid overshadowing. .

033 /

/3 1

/2


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE PRINCIPLES

YEAR / 1 SEMESTER / 2

A: key data

C: heat loss - ventilation

B: heat loss - fabric

Section B deals with heat loss through the building fabric such as walls floors and roofing Section C deals with heat loss through ventilation, infiltration and exfiltration.

The first section of this worksheet asks you for some key data about your project. Information that requires input from yourself is shaded in green whilst values calculated by the spreadsheet are shaded in yellow. Make sure you have key dimensions, areas of different building elements and the thermal properties

student name

Adam McFall

building name

Braid House

building location

Edinburgh

You should input values in the table below based on the design of your building.

but has been simplified fo use in an educational context. student name building name

Braid House

building location

Edinburgh

You should know all the relevant element areas - remember to subtract doors & windows from wall and roof areas. You should have U values for all the main building elements of your design.

Adam McFall

area/m U value/W/m KA x U/ W/K

doors

enter number of storeys enter number of sides protected

windows (type 1) optional rooflights

ground floor walls (type 1) excluding doors & windows walls (type 2) excluding optional doors & windows enter the number of sides of the building that are protected roof (type 1) excluding overall dwelling dimensions rooflight you should enter the internal floor areas of your building and average storey heights roof (type 2) excluding area/m storey height/m volume/m optional rooflight

0

if your building is protected by an adjacent tree shelter belt or other buildings

ground floor

1.60

1.80

2.88

33.28

1.80

59.90

optional windows (type 2)

1

49.84

2.74

136.56

optional first floor

0.00

optional second floor

0.00

optional third & others

0.00

student name

Adam McFall

building name

Braid House

student name

Adam McFall

building location

Edinburgh

building name

Braid House

building location

Edinburgh

building services infiltration

1.80

0.00

9.84

1.80

17.71

49.84

0.22

10.96

83.65

0.15

12.55

0.00 40.00

chimneys, flues and extract fans.

1.65 lights, appliances, cooking & metabolic

m per hour

number of chimneys

0

0.00 m /hr

number of open flues

0

0.00 m /hr

number of fans or vents

20.00 m /hr

2

20.00 m /hr

infiltration due to chimneys flues and fans

0.10

expressed in air changes per hour

0.15 A.C.H

air loss in buildings is normally expressed in terms of air changes per hour

0.00

218.21 m 108.01 W/K

external air temperature

-1.00 C

from section A

internal air temperature

20.00 C

from section A

steady state design temperatures

total fabric heat loss/W

2268.17 W

these are set design temperature reflecting common internal and external conditions in winter

enter internal temperature

total internal gains/w

395.21 W

Adam McFall

student name

Adam McFall

student name

Adam McFall

building name

Braid House

building name

Braid House

building name

Braid House

building location

Edinburgh

Edinburgh building location table 'A' heating systems

building location

Edinburgh

For overshadowing, enter 'A' for heavy (>80%), Enter 'B' for moderate (60-80%) Enter 'C' for average or unknowng (20%-60%), Enter 'D'for minimal (20%)

overshadowingglazing area/m heat gains 0

0.00

external doors and compensates for whether the building is sheltered.

north east

D

1

19.13

east

D

0

0.00

number of storeys in building

south east

D

16.44

591.84

1

south

D

0

0.00

south west

D

14.44

519.84

this takes into accoun the height of the building through the number of storeys

west

D

0

0.00

structural infiltration

north west

C

1.4

20.62

rooflights

D

9.84

415.13

0.00 A.C.H 0.35 A.C.H

you should enter either 0.25 for steel or timber frame: 0.35 for masonry construction

draught lobby?

0.05 A.C.H

if there is no draught lobby to the building enter the value 0.05 here

window infiltration

total solar gains/W

108.01 W/K

ventilation heat loss

29.26 W/K

total heat loss

137.27 W/K 2.75 m

heat loss parameter

This is the total heat lost per square metre are of the building

heat gains

1566.55 W

0.00 A.C.H 0.55 A.C.H

efficiency: %

emissions: fuel price:p/kWhkgCO /kWh

0 no system

0.01

0

0.00

1 electric storage heaters

100

7.12

0.42

2 gas fire [open]

63

1.63

0.19

3 gas fire [closed]

72

1.63

0.19

4 open coal fire

37

1.91

0.29

5 woodburning stove

65

2.20

0.03

6 gas boiler

75

1.63

0.19

7 condensing gas boilers

94

1.63

0.19

SAP Rating SAP is short for 'standard assessment procedure' that rates new housing in the UK.

The energy cost factor for this building is:0.86504606 The 'energy cost factor' calculates your SAP score as a combination of energy efficiency & fuel cost based on the data amassed from your building. It is expressed as afractional number.

The SAP rating for your building is:

93

does your building have an open fire or stove?

interal gains

395.21 W

solar gains

1566.55 W

total useful gains internal temperature

fair

7

pass

94 %

fail poor

enter code from table 'A' - heating systems

against the design comfort temperature when calculating the amount of heat required in the building

0.01 %

space heating requirement - main system

1086 kWh/year 0 kW/h/year

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

CO Use The total amount of CO your building emits in a year through energy use

water heating energy required for water heating

310

for heating and lighting. It does not account for energy used in the construction of the

1795 kW/h/year

This is calculated for you based on the size of your building.

This is a conversion factor taking account of UK climate characteristics allowing calculation of

very poor

0

efficiency of main system

space heating requirement - secondary fire

5.71 C

base temperature' is the range needing heat to bring the building up to the design comfort temperature

an annual space heating requirement.

building - this is known as embodied energy .

Your building CO consumption is: Your DER is:

1021 KWhr/year

654 KgCO /year 13

DER stands for 'dwellings emissions rate' that calculates CO use per square metre of your building.

heating demand breakdown

to proceed, click on the tab below marked 'E' heating demand

excellent

if you have a secondary fire, then

These are the heat gains of the building expressed as a temperature value to be 'set off'

space heating requirement

my building

1

efficiency of main system

14.29 C

degree days

0

good

From section A: this is the design comfort temperature for your building

base temperature

2

fraction of total heating from secondary fire

enter code from table 'A' - heating systems

20.00 C

intenal temperature rise from heat gains

Enter 1 for yes, 2 for no.

select your main heating system

1961.75 W

this assumes 100% draught stripping

total infiltration rate

code type

1.65 fabric heat loss

From section B, this is the heat lost through walls, floors, roofs, windows etc.

20.00

space heating - main system

internal gains

-1.00

CO2 emissions by use

fuel running costs

CO2 emissions by use

fuel running costs

CO emissions - from your building over the year

solar gains

enter external temperature

Section H summarises your building performance

student name

From section D

passive solar gains

D

additional infiltration

49.84 136.56

64.06 W

north

this section examines air loss though gaps in construction joints, windows

total fabric heat loss W/K

from water heating/W

this is heat from the buildings hot water system calculated on building size

glazing orientation

building fabric infiltration

0.00

difference between inside and outside.

dwelling volume/m

fuel cost & emissions

From section C, this is the heat lost through gaps in construction, windows, chimneys & flues

You should enter the glazed areas of your building according to orientation.

4.00

0.00

331.15 W

this sum is worked out for you based on the size of your building

It does not however take into account unheated conservatories that should be ignored.

this indicates the rate of heat loss for every degree temperature

total floor area/m

H: ratings and summary

Section G deals with heating system characteristics in terms of efficiency,

and also heat gain

This section calculates energy gains from passive solar radiation based on window size & orientation.

0.00

optional other

total area of elements/m

G: heating systems

Section E summarises the heating demand for your building through a calculation of heat loss

heat loss

internal gains

this section examines air loss through the building due to open

number

Fabric Heat Loss element

E: heating demand

Section D deals with heat gains to the building from people, machines, lighting in addition to passive solar gain.

of your building materials to hand before embarking on this. This package is based on the UK government SAP 2005 calculation method

D: heat gains

211 kgCO /year

ventilation heat loss fabric heat loss heating demand

space heating - secondary fire hot water heating

1

lighting -3000.00

-2000.00

-1000.00

0.00

1000.00

2000.00

3000.00

4000.00

to proceed, click on the tab below marked 'F' heating systems

/ A suite of calculations which indicate the environmental performance of the dwelling.

/1

KEY METRICS

space heating - main system

/ Calculations indicating the thermal performance of the roof and wall construction. The wall performed very well due to the thick thermal mass, and the roof equally well due to the choice of high performance polyurethane board insulation.

3 / WALL AND ROOF CONSTRUCTION / Original hand-drawings missing. / I chose a standard masonry wall, similar to the junction on the right, however I used the flat timber frame roof to the left.

034 /

SAP RATING 93 CO2 EMISSIONS 654kg/year DER (DWELLING EMISSIONS RATE) 13

£0.00 per year

hot water heating

£29.26 per year £16.50 per year £123.12 per year

to proceed, click on the tab below marked 'H' ratings and summary

U Value Calculator

U Value Calculator

Use this calculator to work out the U value for your roof and wall construction. Enter the following constant values for surface resistances: internal resistance= 0.12 m2/KW [wall], 0.10 m2/KW [roof] external resistance= 0.04 m2/KW, If the construction has an unvented cavity: surface resistance = 0.18 m2/KW

Use this calculator to work out the U value for your roof and wall construction.

Instructions for Use: Only provide information for those cells coloured green. You only need to enter the actual number of building materials in your chosen construction.

Your Name Building Element Name Timber frame flat roof (section through insulation) CONDUCTI RESISTIVIT RESISTANCE VITYK Y R value thickness R value of name of building value of of material of material element/m2K /W INSIDE material material mK/W /m surface resistance on internal face 0.10 0.06 building material Plasterboard 0.210 4.762 0.013 building material Polyurethane 12.00 2 insulation board 0.025 40.000 0.300 0.15 building material Plywood 0.130 7.692 0.020 building material Bitumen 0.02 4 waterproof layer 0.230 4.348 0.005 0.00 building material 0.00 building material 0.00 building material 0.00 building material 0.00 building material building material 0.00 10 surface resistance on external face 0.04

Common K values for building materials can be found as an attachment in the workshop folder on the WebCT site Common domestic construction details can be found at: http://www.sbsa.gov .uk/tech_handbooks/ accred_detail.htm

Enter the following constant values for surface resistances: internal resistance= 0.12 m2/KW [wall], 0.10 m2/KW [roof] external resistance= 0.04 m2/KW, If the construction has an unvented cavity: surface resistance = 0.18 m2/KW

in W/m2K

2 0.08 W/m K

Instructions for Use: Only provide information for those cells coloured green. You only need to enter the actual number of building materials in your chosen construction.

Your Name Building Element Name Sandstone masonry cavity wall CONDUCTI RESISTIVIT RESISTANCE VITYK Y R value thickness R value of name of building value of of material of material element/m2K /W INSIDE material material mK/W /m surface resistance on internal face 0.12 Sandstone building material masonry wall 0.11 1 (outer) 2.300 0.435 0.250 building material Polyurethane 6.00 2 Board Insulation 0.025 40.000 0.150 Sandstone building material masonry wall 0.11 3 (inner) 2.300 0.435 0.250 0.00 building material 0.00 building material 0.00 building material 0.00 building material 0.00 building material 0.00 building material

building material 10 surface resistance on external face OUTSIDE

OUTSIDE

if internal cavity enter surface resistance here U value through building element

This is a simplified U value calculator. It is less complex than those used in industry but gives accurate predications of a building element's thermal resistance.

if internal cavity enter surface resistance here U value through building element

Common K values for building materials can be found as an attachment in the workshop folder on the WebCT site Common domestic construction details can be found at: http://www.sbsa.gov .uk/tech_handbooks/ accred_detail.htm

0.00

0.04

0.18 in W/m2K

2 0.15 W/m K

U-VALUE (WALL) 0.15 U-VALUE (ROOF) 0.08

£77.36 per year

lighting total energy cost

This is a simplified U value calculator. It is less complex than those used in industry but gives accurate predications of a building element's thermal resistance.

2 / U-VALUES

95 kgCO /year

Fuel costs for your building for the year space heating - secondary fire

1 / ENVIRONMENTAL METRICS

0 kgCO /year 348 kgCO /year

/2

/3

space heating main system

space heating main system

space heating secondary fire

space heating secondary fire

hot water heating

hot water heating

lighting

lighting

Fue


Y2 M A (HONS) A R CH ITECT U R E YEAR 2

AD

AH

AD

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IN-PLACE

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY ORDER AND THE CITY

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ANY-PLACE SEMESTER

SEMESTER /1

SEMESTER

/2 COURSE CODE

/ ARCH08007

COURSE CODE

/ ARCH08006 CONTENT

/SITE SURVEY

CONTENT

SEMESTER

COURSE CODE / ARHI08007

/ ARHI08006 CONTENT

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY CULTURE AND THE CITY

/2

/ 1 ELECTIVE COURSE CODE

AH

/PECHA KUTCHA

/EXPOSING THE HIDDEN CITY

/PRESENTATION: CELEBRATION, FLORIDA

/DRAWING WITH SATELLITES

/NEIGHBOURHOOD PLATFORM

/ESSAY: LOUIS XIV ERA PARIS

/MUNICIPAL LIBRARY OF TRASTEVERE

CONTENT /PRESENTATION: MILLENNIUM DOME /ESSAY: BRASILIA + NEW CAPITALS

TE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT APPLICATIONS SEMESTER / FULL YEAR COURSE CODE / ARCH08008 CONTENT /ENVIRONMENTAL SECTION /MICROCLIMATE PAVILION /DUDDINGSTON PIER /MATERIAL SYSTEMS

035 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

COURSE CODE / ARCH08007

IN-P L AC E

/1

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT In-Place was a turning point in my design education as it bridged the gap between physical and digital representation. I began to learn software suites such as InDesign and AutoCAD, however I still felt an affinity to hand drafting. The nature of the unit, addressing an urban scale, was also a shift from the previous semester’s narrow focus on one small neighbourhood.

1/ View of Calton Hill from my proposal, which was centred around the window condition.

DESCRIPTION In Place will develop students’ skills in design inquiry, introducing students to design investigation by research. The studio project will be structured through an empirical design methodology; the design exercise will begin with a measured survey of an urban area, followed by the development of an interpretation of the area which exposes the veiled urban processes and elements that typically go unnoticed. The findings of the assignment – whether in the form of a methodology, a formal language or other – will form the basis for the design of a neighbourhood platform in the area in question.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to a specified site and that contain an explicit investigation through research. L02 / Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies, and contextual themes of modest complexity within an architectural design. L03 / Ability to effectively explore and communicate design ideas and propositions, individually and in teams, in a range of digital and analogue formats.

036 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD IN-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

/4

/5

/6

SITE SURVEY / With Catherine Boag and Siddhartha Thomas / The initial assignment was to survey a particular area of interest in the confines of a designated transect through the city. Our ‘line’ had a nexus in Broughton, New Town and Cowgate, Old town. / For the first two weeks we collected experiential data through the media of sketching and material ‘impressions’. This culminated in a measured survey section through a prominent part of the ‘line’.

1-2 / SKETCHES / Two sketches capturing the essence of the Old Town part of the line. By Siddhartha Thomas.

3-5 / MATERIAL IMPRESSIONS / Casts of materials captured at different points on the line. (3) A tree in Old Town, (4) A statue on the Royal Mile, (5) Seats at Waverley Station.

6 / SURVEY SECTION / Section through Coinye House Close, Old Town. Drawn at 1:100/A2

037 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD IN-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

EXPOSING THE HIDDEN CITY / With Catherine Boag and Siddhartha Thomas / After site and survey information had been compiled, a number of key themes had began to emerge. It was suggested that the line could be observed entirely from within: could we document the entire line from inside the buildings which line it? / Stemming from this, I began to study the form and use of the window - noticing patterns from the initial survey, I catalogued the different functions and elements which comprise the window condition. This took the form of 20 models, each with a different viewing condition. I then drew these models in order to document their spatial qualities.

/4

/5

/6

/7

/8

1-2 / WATCHING / Illustration of the concept of ‘watching’.

3 / WINDOW CONDITION ISOMETRICS / A series of isometric drawings depicting the 20 study models.

4-8 / WINDOW CONDITION MODELS / The 20 models, as presented during the review. Each sat on a white plinth with an identification number.

038 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD IN-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/4

/3

/5

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLATFORM / The core assignment of In-Place was to design a Neighbourhood Platform - a piece of public architecture with a specific program intended to benefit the community and to be used by anyone. Following my research on watching, I chose to design an artist/writers hub in which creatives could rent studio space, and present work in the gallery spaces.

1-2 / SITE / JEFFREY STREET / Photographs of the Jeffrey Street site. The site was chosen for the view to Calton Hill, which I wished to frame using a series of spaces with different window conditions. It was also an empty space in within the confines of my line, and sat in a strategic location for access.

3 / LOCATION PLAN / The site within the ‘line’.

4 / FORMAL STUDY / Exploring the concept of a defined grid, disrupted by a subtracted element.

5 / FACADE STUDY / Early sketches of a facade informed by my earlier window study. The facade would be a series of small spaces, each with its own distinct condition, uniquely filtering the view of Calton Hill.

039 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD IN-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

1 / ROOF PLAN / Roof plan of the final proposal. The form in plan is a long, thin bar to maximise the facade facing Calton Hill. The building was to be accessible from Jeffrey Street. Drawn at 1:100/A3

2 / GROUND FLOOR PLAN / The floor plan accessible from Jeffrey Street. Plan comprises a number of small studio spaces, each with a varying window condition. There is also a central hall which is accessed by traversing through the building. Drawn at 1:100/A3

3 / SECTION / Section through the main hall, showing the different spaces spread across each level. The top floor shows a studio space, with the bottom floor showing an exhibition hall. Drawn at 1:100/A3

040 /

/1

/2

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD IN-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

1 / SECTIONAL AXONOMETRIC / This drawing illustrates the relationship between the main hall space and the gallery which wraps around it. The four diagrams show various types of studio space. Drawn at 1:50/A3

2-3 / MODEL / Model of the final proposal, showing the various window conditions. Modeled at 1:100

041 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 ELECTIVE

AH ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

COURSE CODE / ARHI08006 ELECTIVE

O RDE R A ND TH E CIT Y

I elected to take the optional architectural history module over a different area of study as, from my experience in the first year of the discipline, I felt a firm grounding in the history of architecture and understanding the intentions and design methodology of those who have shaped the world we see today would provide a richer design perspective.

1/ Celebration, Florida - the subject of my presentation for the semester. I chose Celebration as I was interested in the idea of a town developed outside of the state: owned and designed by the Walt Disney Corporation, the whole settlement was planned and constructed by a private entity. The ensuing cult following the town received is an interesting sociological effect - the architecture was elevated to a certain status not because of its quality or appearance, but because of the institution it was constructed by.

DESCRIPTION Our question is whether the city is a place of security or peril. Architecture pronounces on both sides of it. In classical terms, architecture is a legislative mode of building. It contains formal principles which intend to be resistant to change. At the same time, its social principle assures its flexibility. The nature of its rules and their adaptation and modification in light of different circumstances and changing political and economic forces are considered by way of preface to selective study of the architecture of legislation and government.The second half of the lecture programme continues the typological approach, viewing in turn those various buildings by which the ills of nature and society are prevented or kept at bay, and security and order are maintained within the city.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Knowledge and understanding of connections between architecture and the social, economic and political circumstances within which it is located. L02 / The ability to evaluate urban phenomena in social contexts. L03 / Research, analyse and present in written and report form themes appropriate to the model content.

042 /

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 ELECTIVE

AH ORDER AND THE CITY

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

BIBLIOGRAPHY /1

/2 Ayers, A., The Architecture of Paris (London, 2004)

ESSAY Ballon, H., The Paris of Henri IV, Architecture and Urbanism

Why was it considered important for the French monarchy to have a visible architectural presence in Paris? Give examples of how this worked in practice?

(Cambridge, 1991) p. 96. Berger, R. W., A Royal Passion, Louis XIV as Patron of Architecture (Cambridge, 1994)

/ INTRODUCTION

Berger, R. W., The Palace of the Sun, The Louvre of Louis XIV The first impressions of a visitor offer an interesting viewport

(Pennsylvania, 1993)

in which to examine a city. In 1762, the painter Johann Christian de Mannlich visited Paris for the first time, and had

Chastel, A., Paris, (London, 1971)

this to say: Cleary, R. L., The Place Royale and Urban Design in the ‘...we were foundering up to our ankles in a black, sticky mud

Ancien Regime (Cambridge, 1999)

in the midst of an indescribable confusion of carriages… The street was poorly lighted, the houses were tall like towers,

Couperrie P., Paris Throughout the Ages, (Cuenot, 1968)

black and poorly maintained. Coachmen of all sorts swore, hurled insults at each other, and yelled themselves hoarse… It was an appalling racket. No, I certainly hadn’t debarked in the new Jerusalem, I had tumbled into hell.’ This picture of disorder and squalor is not explicit to this era however as two hundred years earlier the situation was similar. If Henri IV had penned his thoughts on his arrival to Paris in 1594 it would have been of a similar sentiment: Indeed his arrival was not a welcome one. As a former Protestant, it had taken Henri five years from his accession to the throne to gain access to Paris. The city was in ruins: The Parisians were trapped in their own city, as there was stubbornness between the old medieval plan and the aspirations of architects for change. All of this, coupled with the displeasure of the people towards their new monarch who had only a weak connection to the royal bloodline caused deep unrest.

043 /

Rykwert, J., The First Moderns (Cambridge, 1980) / CONCLUSION

around the site was the beating heart of a growing nation.

about ingratiating the people. His projects had substance

Something people could stop and be fascinated with. The

and presence within every stratum of the cities mechanics:

Therefore the project was opened up to other architects,

final design was composed of three pavilions with a double-

trade, pleasure, nationalism, and sanitation. His untimely end

most notably Bernini. After the Italian virtuoso had submitted

story paired column colonnade. Some speculate the double

meant we could never see what he was truly capable of, but

a proposal he was invited to Paris to discuss it further. The

columns were a representation of a united France, as they

what he achieved in his short reign was more prominent than

scheme, which was uncompromisingly Italian in aesthetic,

certainly weren’t structural. Blondel, director of the Academy

any King before or since.

was an insult to the King and indeed a nation searching for

of Architecture rebuked the facade primarily due to its

its identity. By 1667 Louis XIV lost interest in the scheme

structure.

claiming he didn’t want to ‘tear down the old Louvre to make way for Bernini’s vast rectangle.’39. The Petit Council

In reality Louis XIV didn’t care about Paris. His abandonment

was organised that year for the speedy completion of the

of the Louvre and displacement to Versailles marked his

project. The ‘design by committee’ method was not common

indifference towards the capital: his public squares were no

practice, however the use of three architects meant the

more than urban statue niches commissioned by his fervent

design couldn’t be attributed one person but rather the

supporters. It was Colbert who held the reins on art and

nation as a whole. The building of the facade was in its self a

architecture during Louis’s early rule. In sharp contrast Henri

spectacle, and indeed an architectural presence of sorts. The

IV’s plans for Paris were forward looking and were as much

vast number of labourers, machines, and material moving

about creating a practical and simple aesthetic as they were

Sutcliffe, A., Paris: An Architectural History, (London, 1993) Van Zanten, D., Building Paris: Architectural Institutions and the Transformation of the French Capital, 1830-1870 (Cambridge, 1994) Ward, W. H., The Architecture of the Renaissance in France, (Batsford, 1926)

1 / PLACE DES VICTOIRES / A semi-circular place built in Paris with a statue of Louis XIV in the centre.

2 / PLACE ROYALE / The up-market residential square of Place Royale, now known as Place des Vosges.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 ELECTIVE

AH ORDER AND THE CITY

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

Celebration. And a community it would be. The four cornerstones of

PRESENTATION

Celebration were Place, Community, Health and Education. As illustrated by this table, residents were attracted by the

Was the urban design of Celebration, Florida ‘revolutionary’ or ‘reactionary’?

community which would be strong in Celebration. The table is quite telling: the power the Disney company had over the

/ PRESENTATION NOTES

towns development is of interest.

The origins of Celebration, Florida are as serendipitous as

1 / CELEBRATION

the town which was eventually realized. It’s creation, from

/ Plan of Celebration, Florida.

the sequestration of land to the program devised for its

2 / PREVIEW CENTRE

school was an effort attributed to the Disney corporation. In this presentation I will talk loosely about the various

/ Celebration Preview Centre designed by Charles Moore. Now the Bank of America building.

concepts and ideals which formed Celebration as well as addressing the question: ‘Was the urban design of Celebration revolutionary or reactionary? The picture above shows the first thing you see when you drive into Celebration: the water tower. It actually has no function except to brandish the word ‘Celebration’. The history of Celebration goes back to the opening of the first Disney theme park in California. The park, which became massively successful had a corrosive impact on the surrounding area: cheap motels and soulless strip developments clogged the interstate leading into Anaheim, something the Disney corporation did not want to repeat. The only way to control what is built is to be the only authority to have a decision: therefore in 1985 the Disney company would covertly acquire pieces of land totalling 45 square miles on which to build four parks. After Disney had decided where to place its two main parks, on the best land they had acquired, there was a spot near Interstate 4, around 10,000 acres of swampy, mosquito infested, alligator breeding ground. Disney didn’t quite know what to do with the land: it would be expensive to drain and reclaim, but if Osceola County, the authority the land was within, knew it wasn’t being used it would be taken off them.

044 /

Therefore it was a use it or loose It situation. Disney executive Pete Rummell decided it should be a

skyscraper to another, however when he died in 1966 the

The plan of Celebration can be described as a slice of pie.

dream of a modern utopia died with him, and the idea was

The town radiates from the man made lake, with the town

used as a theme park which opened in 1982.

center and shopping promenades wrapping around the

town; not just any town but something special. It would

waterfront. The three main arteries for the city are (from the

be a move away from the problemed American suburb a

The new town of Celebration would turn its back on Walt

left) Celebration Avenue, Water Street and Campus Street.

startling proportion of the population had migrated to after

Disney’s plan for Epcot in many respects, and follow after

The plan is typical of the New Urbanist movement, that

the second world war. Towns such as Levittown, New York

another of Disney’s creations: Main Street USA, based off

being the move away from the modern American suburb

(pictured) comprised identical house types surrounded by

Disney’s home town in Missouri, the concept of Celebration

as it is built on a modified grid pattern (like Savannah), with

generous amounts of land, with the only community centers

was a city which looked back to the small towns of America,

many different types of house. The organization of houses

being strip developments and malls. Pre-war developments

such as Savannah, Georgia or Charleston, South Carolina.

was designed intelligently to induce activity between the

like Levittown were prominent across the US as they were quick and easy to plan and build.

different income levels. Large single family houses would The small American town of around a century ago was the

be placed next to apartments and estate homes; a stark

precedent for the urban fabric of Celebration. The small,

contrast to Levittown where only one type of house was

Walt Disney had always had a vision for a modern town.

high density plots which had houses pushed up to the

reproduced hundreds of times. Their high density and

His Epcot project, (Experimental prototype community of

sidewalk were one of the features Disney found attractive,

reduced front garden space meant more attention could be

tomorrow) would see 20,000 people live under a dome,

and they implemented this in their design.

paid to public green spaces and plazas; signaling the shift

using a monorail system to transport people from one

from the cellular life of suburbia to the true community of


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

Any-Place was an appropriate unit to follow In-Place as it addresses many of the same issues such as urban fabric and a sense of place, but with a fixed program and a global location. The program of a library in Rome opened many rich historic and cultural possibilities. It was a valuable experience to visit Rome as I feel it has broadened my architectural perspective.

COURSE CODE / ARCH08006

A NY-P L ACE

1/ Sectional model of my library proposal, looking into the heart of the building.

DESCRIPTION Any-Place will ask students to consider a broader sense of context, considering urban and cultural conditions that extend beyond the local. It will ask students to take a measure of, and make designs that respond to, the human condition and urbanity.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Ability to develop architectural designs that appropriately respond to specified non-local conditions and that integrate an explicit investigation through research. L02 / Capacity to synthesize a range of programmatic components, formal and spatial strategies of modest complexity within an architectural design that responds to specified urban conditions. L03 / Ability to critically explore and effectively communicate design ideas and propositions individually and as part of a team, in a range of digital and analogue formats, including portfolio.

045 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

/4

/5

/6

PECHA KUCHA / As a primer to the design project, a pecha kucha was organised in which we were to present two libraries - one from a predefined list, and one of our own choosing. I presented information on the Utrecht University Library in the Netherlands, and a small municipal library in Nembro, Italy. The two libraries are of contrasting scale, however both put a strong emphasis on the facade condition.

1-2 / UTRECHT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY / Facade of the library at two scales. (2) shows the detail of the cladding panels.

3 / Plan / Floor plan of the library.

4-5 / NEMBRO MUNICIPAL LIBRARY / Facade of the library at two scales. (2) shows the detail terracotta ‘book’ screen.

6 / Plan / Floor plan of the library.

046 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

DRAWING WITH SATELLITES / PERFECT CITY, IMPERFECT GEOMETRY / With Leigh Clark, Bojana Papic and Adam Ramsay / This assignment was centred around the idea of alternative drawing instruments and interesting means of graphic representation. The task was to create a drawing using GPS satellites and our own movement. / Our group chose to test the sensitivity of the GPS signal by tracking our movement around a perfect circle. We traced Moray Place in Stockbridge, Edinburgh once, five times, then finally ten times to map the variation in the GPS data.

1 / SATELLITE DRAWING Final satellite drawing.

047 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

/4

MUNICIPAL LIBRARY OF TRASTEVERE / Following the Pecha Kucha, we were tasked with creating a series of models in response to the idea of the written word. My models explore the role of the written word as a codified language, and attempt to illustrate the abstract relationship between the reader and the writer. These initial models are partly conceptual and partly spatial, as I took some influence from the carved spaces in Scottish castle architecture in the section of many of the models.

1-2 / AUTHORSHIP / Presented as a solid box, I posited that only an author understands the true intricacies of a written piece, and any interpretation of the work is only an approximation and can never be an absolute truth.

3 / CODED LANGUAGE / This model was presented as a challenge: a series of spaces were presented next to a tile with markings on. By observing the family of spaces and tiles, I asked the tutor to crack the code by logical deduction.

6 / ARCHITECTURAL TRANSLATION / Translating some formal cues from the initial models into an architectural language.

048 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

/4

/5

1-5 / ROME IN TEXTURES / The site for the library was to be in Rome, Italy. As part of the site analysis stage, we travelled to Rome and took a photo survey. These are some of the textures from around the site.

6 / PIAZZA / The site, set in the Rome district of Trastevere, was a piazza called the Piazza di San Cosimato. It was the host of a regular, bustling market. Drawn at 1:2500/A3

049 /

1:2500 . 50M

/6


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

1 / SKETCH PROPOSAL / Sketch proposal for the site, creating an arrival square to the south of the site. 1:500/A4

2 / BOOK STACKS / Plan of the book stack area. The main collections space would be flanked by double height light wells.

3 / SKETCH PLAN / Sketch plan showing the possible layout of the book stacks as a three pronged, interconnected series of spaces. 1:500/A4

050 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

8

7 6

/3

1 / SITE PLAN / Visualisation of the building set into the surrounding urban context.

2 / EXPLODED ISOMETRIC DIAGRAM / Diagram showing the sequence of spaces. (1) Public exhibition space, (2) Main atrium, (3) Magazines and periodicals, (4) Private study area, (5) General collection, (6) Rare books quadra, (7) General reading space, (8) Roof terrace.

5

4

3

3 / EXTERNAL VISUALISATION

2

/ View of the walkway, looking north.

1

051 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/3

1-2 / VIGNETTES / Internal views of the main circulation spaces.

3-6 / SEATING ‘MOMENTS’ / There were many seat ‘conditions’ throughout the library. I illustrated a small sample here. Each seat would have a different quality based on its position.

052 /

/2

/4

/5

/6


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

1 / GROUND FLOOR PLAN / The entrance square bleeds into an extended entrance hall with stairs to the main collection space on the first floor and to the public spaces on the ground level. Two voids flank the central axis to allow light into the upper levels. Drawn at 1:200/A3

2 / ROOF PLAN / Roof terrace to take advantage of the Mediterranean climate. Drawn at 1:200/A3

053 /

/1

/2


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

1 / EXPLORATIVE SECTION / Watercolour painting exploring the spaces within the section of the building, illustrating the rich spaces which lie beyond the somewhat stoic outer shell.

054 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ANY-PLACE

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

11 7

4 9 6

1

10

2 1

100mm thermal insulation

2

200mm Cast in-situ, self compacting pigmented waterproof concrete outer leaf

3

250mm Cast in-situ concrete pad foundation

4

3mm Zinc flashing

5

75mm Subteranian thermal insulation

1 / CONSTRUCTION SECTION

6

12mm Plasterboard

/ Section illustrating the structure of the building. It was to be a primarily concrete construction, similar to that of the Hepworth Wakefield. Drawn at 1:50/A3

7

Breather membrane

8

Glazing

9

Weep hole

10

Cast-in steel wall pins

11

Rooflight support bracket

8

5

055 /

3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

After taking AH2A, I felt prepared to approach this unit as it addresses a different set of themes in the same rhythm as the first semester. I thoroughly enjoyed the research phase of my essay on new capitals: as I am interested in the nature and source of architectural design, it is intriguing to study an entire city which was designed and built as one complete whole rather than growing organically.

COURSE CODE / ARHI08007

CULTURE A ND TH E CIT Y

1/ The National Congress building in Brasilia, Brazil. Designed by Oscar Niemeyer, the form of the two bowls is of note as they are the debating chambers for the two houses within the Brazilian government.

DESCRIPTION The course looks at the notion of City as the exemplary setting of our social condition. Whilst the city is understood to embody organising principles and to be constituted according to the commands of political thought, the course concentrates upon the city conceived also otherwise. It is the scene of self-conscious community and is our monument to shared memory. If the essential act of the city, politically conceived, is one of walling or penning, the city conceived socially is a scene of processing and gathering together. The architecture and city planning of accord is the subject of the course. The lecture programme falls into two parts, the first dealing with our acts of pilgrimage and congregation –for the purposes of religion, entertainment and improvement. The second part deals with our celebration in architecture of what we share metaphysically – social memory and the memorial.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Knowledge and understanding of connections between architecture and the social, economic and political circumstances within which it is located. L02 / The ability to evaluate urban phenomena in social contexts. L03 / Research, analyse and present in written and report form themes appropriate to the model content.

056 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH CULTURE AND THE CITY

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

ESSAY

Holston, J., An Anthropological Critique of Brasilia, (London, 1989) Prado, C., The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil, (Berkeley, 1967) Stabuli, W., Brasilia, (London, 1966) Vale, L. J., Architecture, Power and National Identity, (London, 1992) Woudstra, J., 2000, The Corbusian Landscape: Arcadia or No Man’s Land?, Garden History, (Vol. 28, No. 1)

1 / SUPERQUADRA / Sketch of the ‘superquadra’ a perfect square for living which was to include houses, shops and social clubs.

/ INTRODUCTION

pattern in which events repeat themselves due to the unwavering mentality of the Brazilian. Colonial attitudes, instilled since the country’s inception, run deep in the mind of the citizen meaning certain events are almost predetermined. From Brazil being a distant colony of Portugal, the general consensus of the populous was that there was always a better place to live: this caused violent population shifts, where hoards of people would move blindly from one place to another seeking a better life. Decisions would be made hastily, even recklessly to seek a possible momentary advantage; it is a history punctuated with gestures of change.

2 / PLAN OF BRASILIA when its potential location was outlined in a newspaper

from all over the world in infamous quantities to satiate the

to violent clashes between the authorities and the workers

editorial. Since then, there had been a number of vapid

hunger for labourers. Although it would be unfair to call the

who had united to form autonomous collectives with the

publicity events and acts of parliament set up to re-ignite

construction workers ‘slaves’, the pattern is undeniable and

intent to stay where they were. This shocking divide between

interest in the program, however no substantial progress

the repetition of this practice arguably caused Brasilia’s

the privileged rich and the exploited poor was exactly the

was made. In 1922 the foundation stone was laid on the

greatest crisis.

condition the new capital was designed to escape. It is ironic

site to celebrate the centennial of Brazil’s independence,

to think that Brasilia, Brazil’s grandest gesture of change had

but the projects impetus faded. However in 1955, Brazilian

Much like the closure of a mine, after Brasilia had been

presidential candidate Juscelino Kubitschek pegged his

completed there were thousands of workers displaced with

entire administration on constructing the capital; a campaign

no home for them in the capital. Small ribbons of houses

In a sense nothing was done to remedy the troubled capital

which won him his seat in office, albeit with only one-third of

had been added to the edges of later superblocks, and

due to the inherent static quality of the plan: for something

the popular vote.

commercial buildings had been increased in height to include

commonly said to represent a bird in flight, the plan was

accommodation above shop level, but these were merely

stymying. Demographics show that there are the same

gestures and would never have been sufficient to house the

number of people living in the Plano Piloto as there were in

workers. This, and the 14 kilometer green belt which wrapped

1970. As a city, its core will remain static but as a gesture for

around the city resulted in slums or favelas growing far from

change, a gesture for architectural and social integration, it

the city centre. From the outset the government had denied

proves a great precedent.

Brasilia was one of these gestures.

/ CONCLUSION

Brasilia marked the culmination of a series of actions and

There was however one old Brazilian tradition upheld in

desires of the Brazilian people which go back before Brazil

the construction of Brasilia, and this was the drafting in of

was even a country. The notion of a built capital has been in

slave labour. When settlements were first being established

the minds of the colonial Brazilian since as early as 18132

in Brazils distant history, slave workers were transported

057 /

Baan, I., Brasilia-Chandigarh, Living with Modernity, (Baden, 2010) Frampton, K., Building Brasilia, (London, 2010)

Many cities throughout history were deliberately and conscientiously planned, whether for practical purposes or merely as utopic visions. This applies especially to capital cities, and in particular those cities designed from scratch to accommodate the political and administrative ambitions of individual rulers, imperial regimes, or newly-constituted postcolonial nation states. Focusing on a single example of a ‘planned’ capital city from either the nineteenth or twentieth century, discuss the overarching principles involved (political, ideological, spatial) and how these were developed in practice. What problems were encountered and how were these resolved? In providing your answer, also consider historical precedent and influence.

Brazil is a country of rhythm. It’s history follows a cyclical

BIBLIOGRAPHY

the workers any rights to abode in the new capital, which lead

no prescribed path of expansion past the Plano Piloto.

/ The urban plan of Brasilia, as imagined by Lucio Costa.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AH CULTURE AND THE CITY

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

BIBLIOGRAPHY E., Wilhide, ‘The Millennium Dome’, (London, 1999)

PRESENTATION G., Kent, ‘Dome Sweet Dome’, Fortnight, (No. 383, 2000)

To what extent was the Millennium Dome a ‘stunning symbol with a hole where its heart should be’?

Articles from ‘The Times’ archives (2000-2):

/ NOTES M., Hume, January 2000 Today I will be discussing the Millennium dome project, with

L., Purves, September 2000

special reference to the following question: ‘To what extent was the Millennium Dome a ‘stunning symbol with a hole

S., Bird, September 2000

where it’s heart should be’. This question was inspired by a newspaper article ran by The Times on 1 January, 2000 - a

W., Rees-mogg, October 2000

largely negative piece critiquing the arbitrary nature of the domes exhibition. To answer this question we must take a

R., Morrison, October 2002

journey through the history of the domes conceptualisation and construction, which truly began at the Festival of Britain in 1951.

Articles from the BBC digital archives, www.bbc.co.uk

It could actually be argued that the festival culture of Britain

Richard Rogers and Partners practice website, http://

began a century earlier in 1851, but with specific reference to the Millennium Dome, the elusive nature of the structure of the Skylon is certainly a fine precedent for captivating engineering and is inarguably linked with the delicate cable structure of the Dome. It is also important to note that events such as the festival of Britain and previous celebrations of national identity meant that as the Millennium approached, Britain was practically obligated to celebrate the major calendrical event in a meaningful way. It was this deep rooted obligation which provided the only impetus for the project at the beginning, which had no form, brief, site or budget, but was simply an intention: to do something truly special. Although a wonderful sentiment, the government hadn’t considered the project seriously until 1992 in which the National Lottery was handed funding responsibilities. A year later in 1993 the Millennium committee was set up to dispense the aforementioned lottery funds to various

058 /

projects which would celebrate the Millennium around the

The site was not without its obstacles, however. The

for Birmingham were circular in plan, with twelve exhibition

UK, but, still nothing was formally arranged and nobody knew

peninsula, which had been the site of heavy industry for many

buildings centred around a large piazza. Given the conditions

how the Millennium should be celebrated. The committee

years was scarred and toxic. The ground conditions were

of the Greenwich site though, the complex would need to be

was silent for some time, as the first real proposals for the

poor in terms of both pollution and soil quality; and many

covered to protect it from the cold winds, therefore the basic

project were being submitted during the beginning of -

initial surveys told of a harsh wind reminiscent of a wintery

form of a circular planned covered space was built upon.

Russia. It was also lacking a high quality road connection and (1996) when design proposals were being accepted by the

was not, at the time, linked with the London Underground.

Millennium Company. For a while Birmingham appeared

Regardless, the project was gaining parameters: now with a

to be the ideal candidate for the exhibition as it was ideally

site the designers could begin to formalise their ideas.

situated to handle a large number of visitors and had excellent infrastructure. However, precedents had shown

As a site, the Greenwich Peninsula was greatly symbolic of the

that areas where great works were being completed were

Millennium. As the ‘home of world time’, the beginning of the

likely to benefit from the investment, so the derelict patch

third Millennium would be officially observed at the Meridian

of the Greenwich Peninsula appealed, as it was the largest

line at midnight, on 1 January 2000. The opportunity to have

undeveloped area of London. Therefore after a period of

the site at the exact location civilisation is launched into the

intense lobbying, Greenwich was named as the site for the

new millennium was too great to miss, and so the project was

Millennium Project.

designed to reflect this temporal relationship. Early schemes

www.richardrogers.co.uk/work/all_projects/millennium_ experience Images courtesy of ARTstor

1 / ROOF INSTALATION / Photograph of the fabric roof being installed.

2 / BAD PRESS / The Millennium Dome was panned by the press, as illustrated by this satatical cartoon.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1+2

/1

COURSE CODE / ARCH08008

A PP LICATION S

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT Technology and Environment: Applications was a valuable experience due to its delivery through design-based assignments. The theoretical nature of the lecture series sat well with the applied, design-based coursework as it provided a test bed for the structural and environmental principles being covered in the lectures. This unit felt more like an architectural design unit; I feel that if the design units had a more pronounced emphasis on structural realism, they would have provided a richer learning experience.

1/ The design for the pier was a good experience as it made us balance concept-driven design with structural stability. (Render by Bojana Papic)

DESCRIPTION Technology and Environment: Applications is a whole year course intended to develop the skills taught in Technology and Environment: Principles through the medium of design based assignments and building analysis. The first semester comprises the design of a ‘Microclimate Pavilion’ in George Square, Edinburgh, and the analysis of an existing building through an ‘Environmental Section’. The second semester comprises the design of a pier on Duddingston Loch, Edinburgh and an in-depth analysis of the structure and construction of an existing building of a specific material.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Capacity to recognise key material, structural and/or environmental principles in architectural design. L02 / Ability to apply these principles to architectural designs that address human comfort, sustainable concerns, material assembly, and/or structural systems. L03 / Ability to communicate the relationship between material, structural and/or environmental performance in architectural design.

059 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

ENVIRONMENTAL SECTION / The Environmental Section assignment was an exercise in building analysis and research centred around environmental performance afforded by technology and sustainable design. I chose to analyse the Rosslyn Chapel visitors centre in Roslin, Midlothian as I was interested in how the architect had struck a balance between environmental design and protecting the heritage of the area. / The building performed very well thermally - it was oriented in such a way as to take advantage of the winter sun, while maximising overshadowing in the summer. A woodchip boiler just off site was the source of the heating, which made a substantial impact on the carbon footprint. / Original section drawn at 1:100/A3

1 / CLIMATE ANALYSIS / Climate analysis for the site in Edinburgh, Scotland. Wind flow was particularly important as we wished to cool our building passively during the summer.

060 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

/4

MICROCLIMATE PAVILION / With Rachel Milne / This assignment was based around the concept of sitespecific design and a reactive architecture - one which employs technology to work with the environmental context. The program chosen was a museum. The layout was an alternating pattern of service and gallery spaces, with two main halls flanked by entrance/circulation spaces. The construction was mainly sandstone with a timber frame roof. We sought to collect rainwater for the toilet through a collector positioned on the roof.

1-2 / CLIMATE ANALYSIS / Climate analysis for the site in Edinburgh, Scotland. Wind flow was particularly important as we wished to cool our building passively during the summer. (Credit: Rachel Milne)

3 / LOCATION PLAN / Location within George Square Gardens. Drawn at 1:1250/ A3

4-5 / PHOTOGRAPHS OF SITE / Photographs of the surrounding context. We chose sandstone as the principal material as it is sympathetic to the surrounding buildings.

061 /

/5


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

/4

1 / ROOF PLAN / Roof plan showing the rainwater collector. Drawn at 1:100/ A3

2 / FLOOR PLAN / Floor plan showing the internal layout. Drawn at 1:100/A3

3 / CONSTRUCTION DETAILS / Wall and Roof/Wall junction details. Wall detail by Rachel Milne. Drawn at 1:20/A3

4 / ENVIRONMENTAL SECTION / Section showing thermal/material strategy. Drawn at 1:50/ A3

062 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

1 / EXTERNAL VISUALISATION / View of the gallery at night.

2 / SECTIONAL PERSPECTIVE / View of the main gallery space during the day, highlighting the lighting strategy.

3-5 / DAYLIGHT CALCULATIONS / Suite of daylight calculations for the various spaces throughout the year.

4 / U-VALUE CALCULATIONS / Thermal performance of the wall and roof elements.

063 /

/3

/4

/5

/6


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

BUILDING FABRIC / BOARDWALK IN DUDDINGSTON LOCH / With Adam Kelly, Lovisa Lidström and Bojana Papic. / We chose to locate our pier on the North-West side of Duddingston Loch; this allows the pier to stretch far into the loch and have a range of views on all directions. Located on a gentle slope our pier descends towards the end for a closer interaction with the water and its wildlife. Along the pier, small protrusions on each side form platforms where people can stand and gather and observe the surroundings. They are placed/directed toward relevant sites of interest such as Arthurs Seat, the Bird Sanctuary, the village and Thompsons Tower. The pier is easily accessed, and has a straightforward route creating a simple flow out to and in from the loch. A simple balustrade of wires allows the pier to retain an ‘open’ feeling.

1 / LOCATION PLAN / Plan showing the location of the pier within the Duddingston Loch Nature Reserve. Drawn at 1:2500/A3 (Credit: Adam Kelly)

2 / VISUALISATION / Visualisation of the final design. (Credit: Bojana Papic) /6

3-6 / PLAN BUILD-UP

064 /

A

/ Plans showing the various structural elements, from the posts (3) to the secondary beams (6). Drawn at 1:200/A3

/3

/4

/5

/6


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

1 / SECTION A / Short section through ramp and main deck. Drawn at 1:100/A3

2 / ISOMETRIC / Exploded isometric diagram of the structure. (1) Balustrade, (2) Deck, (3) Secondary Beams, (4) Primary Beams, (5) Posts. (Credit: Bojana Papic)

3 / CONSTRUCTION DETAILS / Beam junction details. Hidden steel plate connection for the primary beams to the post (left), and a joist hanger with adjustable height strap for the primary to secondary beams (right). Drawn at 1:10/A3 (Credit: Lovisa Lidstrรถm)

065 /

1

2

3

4

5


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

Post Calculations

Primary Beam Calculations

fm,d

kmod

0.5

Column Dimensions

75mm x 170mm

kc,90

1.0

Imposed load

5 kNm-2

Chosen Timber

Scottish Oak, C30

kis

1.1

Dead load

0.5 kNm-2

Longest Span

3000mm

fc,0,k

23

Point load

5.5 kNm-2

Largest Carried Area

3m2

�m

1.3

P = w â‹…A

The actual compression stress, Ďƒc =

P = 6â‹…3

=

For strength class C30 the permissable strength parallel to the grain fc,0,k is listed as 23 Nmm-2

= 1.41 Nmm-2 Check for buckling strength, therefore yield fc,0,d kc,y = 9.23 â‹… 0.6714 = 6.53 Nmm-2

13 kNm2

ff,0,k

23 Nmm-2

Column Length

3000mm

The dimensions and choice of hardwood are satisfactory for the stability of the pier.

E0.05 = 8.0 kNmm-2 ∴ = = 347.83 The radius of gyration about the axis of the section xx rxx = 49.1 The slenderness ratio

=

There is full torsional constraint of the beam, therefore kcrit is 1.0 The load sharing factor, kis is assumed to be 1.1 as the beam span is less than 6m The material is solid timber, therefore the partial factor material properties, �m is 1.3

So, Ď&#x192;c < 6.53 Ppost

Strength modification factor, kmod is 0.5 as the timber is fully exposed (Service class 3) and the load duration is permanent. Depth of timber is greater than 150mm, therefore kh is 1.0

P = 13 kNm2

Consider the actual construction in determining the effective length, Le

1) Calculate the design bending stress

= 61.1

The constant fm,k is given as 30 kmod

0.5

kh

1.0

kis

1.1

kcrit

1.0

đ?&#x203A;žm

1.3

fm,k

30

As

Slenderness modification factor kc,y = 0.6714

12.7 kNmm-2

2) Calculating the load on the beam Load (q)

5.5 kNm-2

Structural spacing (s)

2m

w=qâ&#x2039;&#x2026;s w = 5.5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 w = 11 kNm-1 w

11 kNm-1

3) Calculate the maximum bending moment of the beam Maximum bending moment = Mmax : UDL

â&#x2C6;´ Mmax = 12.375 kNm Mmax

12.375 kNm

Point Load Point load (P)

5.5 kN

Beam length (L)

3m

â&#x2C6;´ =

â&#x2C6;´ fm,d = 12.7 kNmm-2

= 4.125 kNm

UDL + Point load = 12.375 + 4.125 = 16.5 kNm

UDL:

6) Check deflection of the beam

Wmax = 20mm

4) Calculating the section modulus Zxx

w=qâ&#x2039;&#x2026;s

The instantaneous deflection of the simply supported joist, Wins can be expressed as:

The deflection is within the allowed parameters.

Zxx for a primary timber section of dimensions 100mm x 295 mm is 1450400

w = 5.5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2

Secondary Beam Calculations

w = 11

Timber type

Scottish Hardwood, C30

Imposed load

5 kNm-2

vUDL = 16.5 kN

Wins = 4.52mm

Dead load

0.5 kNm-2

Point Load:

where the E and Ixx are given constants

Point load

5.5 kNm-2

as

where Ď&#x192; â&#x2030;Ś fm,d

â&#x2C6;´ â&#x2C6;´ Ď&#x192; = 11.38

,

,

fm,d = 12.7 â&#x2C6;´ Ď&#x192; â&#x2030;Ś fm,d

For a given point load, Wins can be expressed as:

vpl = 2.75 kN

Therefore the section will perform satisfactorily in bending. 5) Check section size in shear

vUDL + vpl = 2.75 + 16.5 = 19.25 kN

Depth of timber is greater than 150mm, therefore kh is 1.0 There is full torsional constraint of the beam, therefore kcrit is 1.0 Wins = 0.0121 đ?&#x203A;´Wins = 4.52 + 0.0121 = 4.52mm This results in the final deflection, Wfin as:

/ Full suite of structural calculations. In conjunction with Adam Kelly

đ?&#x153;?d = 0.98 Nmm-2

fv,d Maximum shear force UDL + Point load = v

066 /

Check against permissible shear stress:

â&#x2C6;´ fv,d = 1.27 Nmm2 1.27 Nmm2

Strength modification factor, kmod is 0.5 as the timber is fully exposed (Service class 3) and the load duration is permanent.

The maximum sheer stress in a rectangular section is expressed as

The design permissible shear strength fv,d is expressed as:

1 / CALCULATIONS

1) Calculate the design bending stress

đ?&#x153;?d < fv,d 0.98 < 1.27 Therefore the section is suitable.

The load sharing factor, kis is assumed to be 1.1 as the beam span is less than 6m The material is solid timber, therefore the partial factor material properties, đ?&#x203A;žm is 1.3 The constant fm,k is given as 30

Wfin = đ?&#x203A;´Wins â&#x2039;&#x2026; (1 + kdef )

kmod

0.5

Wfin = 4.53 â&#x2039;&#x2026; (1 + 2 )

kh

1.0

kis

1.1

kcrit

1.0

đ?&#x203A;žm

1.3

fm,k

30

Wfin = 13.59mm The maximum allowable deflection for a beam of length l is expressed as:


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2 3

MATERIAL SYSTEMS

1

4

5

2

6 7

/ With Adam Kelly and Anthony To

11

/ A seamless form set in a gritty northern backdrop, The Hepworth Wakefield gallery is a seminal example of how pure architectural concrete can be. The intention was to create a cumulative project; one which would reference the rich industrial past of North Yorkshire, while simultaneously embodying a forward-looking attitude. Wakefield has suffered the same decline as many other industrially orientated towns have within the last few decades, with the riverside area â&#x20AC;&#x201C; once the heart of manufacturing, laying baron and scarred. It was this site in which the Wakefield was to be built.

8

/ We chose to analyse the Hepworth Wakefield gallery as we were interested in the detail which allowed the form to have such a crisp, simple finish - specifically with regards to the concrete external envelope.

9

/3

1 / GALLERY / Photograph of the Hepworth Wakefield Gallery in Wakefield, Yorkshire by David Chipperfield (2011).

2 / EXPLODED ELEMENT

1/

Fixed glasing

2/

50mm x 250mm transom

3/

Cast in-situ self compacting pigmented concrete

4/

Insulation

5/

Vapour control layer

6/

Steel bracket

7/

Blackout curtain roller and mechanism

8/

Polished screed

9/

Cast in-situ self compacting pigmented concrete

/ Exploded window frame detail.

10 /

Removable support bracket

3 / CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

11 /

Pressed aluminium cover plate

12 /

25mm ply soffit board fixed to underside by brackets

13 /

Lightweight metal frame

14 /

Plasterboard

15 /

Fermacell wall lining

/ Opening in the concrete external wall, showing the glasing and concealed blackout curtain detail.

067 /

12

10

13

14

15


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

TE APPLICATIONS

YEAR / 2 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

1

2

3

primary/secondary structure

vapour barrier: wet/dry

hot/cold

4

5

7

8

6 9 external envelope

1 / DIAGRAMS / Diagrams exploring the build-up of the wall, highlighting structure, services and thermal impact.

2 / EXPLODED ELEMENT / Exploded wall to roof junction. The wall is cast in-situ concrete whereas the roof is pre-cast hollow-core concrete slabs supported by a steel truss, with a thin layer of in-situ concrete cast over the top to maintain visual continuity with the walls.

068 /

services

Double glased safety glass

1/

Window frame: powder coated aluminium

2/

Concrete false roof: self compacting, waterproof in-situ concrete/ Insulation

3/

Damp proof membrane on top of concrete roof

4/

180mm EPS thermal insulation inside cavity

5/

Cast in-situ self compacting pigmented concrete

6/

Lightweight metal frame, insulated

7/

Timber battens supporting insulation and plasterboard

8/

150mm hollow core slab

9/

Load bearing exterior wall: 300mm cast in-situ self compacting pigmented concrete

10 /

Steel truss (200 x 200mm upper chord / 200 x 150mm lower chord)

11 /

75mm thermal insulation

12 /

75mm insulation in area surrounding roof lights to negate cold-bridging

13 /

Damp proof membrane

14 /

10

12 13

14


Y3 M A (HONS) A R CH ITECT U R E Y E A R 3 / JUN IOR H ON O U R S

AD

AH

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN EXPLORATIONS

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY TEXTS AND THEORIES IN WESTERN ARCHITECTURE

SEMESTER /1 COURSE CODE / ARCH10001 CONTENT /FILL, FLOW, TRACK ON THE ISLE OF RUM

SEMESTER / 1 ELECTIVE COURSE CODE / ARHI10026 CONTENT /ESSAY: LANGUAGE IN ARCHITECTURE

AT ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

AP ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMENT WORKING LEARNING

SEMESTER /1

SEMESTER / FULL YEAR

COURSE CODE / ARCH10002

COURSE CODE / ARCH10004

CONTENT /THEORY DIARY /ESSAY: SYNCING CITIES

CONTENT / SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS / DESIGN REPORT /ESSAY: ARCHITECTURE AS A PROFESSION POLARISED

069 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

/1

Explorations was an enriching experience as it was my first opportunity to work in a group throughout the entire design process. I learned a number of valuable lessons regarding group work, but mainly that, if the working atmosphere is right, the work produced can be worth more than two people working separately. Explorations was also particularly interesting as there was an emphasis on design methodology and cultivating a means of approaching a design problem, something which had not been expressly addressed in previous design units.

COURSE CODE / ARCH10001

E X P LORATION S

1/ The instrument housing in the final proposal. This drawing was particularly difficult as it had a temporal aspect each instrument had to fit in a particular order without obstructing another.

DESCRIPTION Fill, Flow, Track challenges and complements conventions of sustainable architectural design. Focusing less on sustainable metrics and more on the qualitative and experiential dimension of environmental conditions, this unit uses the Isle of Rum as a site of speculation. Rum is a site of conflicting environmental and social dynamics: it is proximate yet isolated; it is low in population yet rich in natural resource. Designated a national nature reserve by Scottish Natural Heritage, Rum is heavily ecologically managed, controlled, and regulated. This in turn limits broader economic opportunity for the local inhabitants.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Ability to adhere to a design methodology that builds on the conceptual framework and key theoretical, cultural, and representational concerns outlined in the project brief. L02 / Knowledge of the ways in which research and analysis of context, program and construction inform architectural design and the ability to synthesize these concerns to develop a coherent architectural proposal. L03 / Ability to communicate research findings and design proposals using appropriate and varied modes of visual, verbal and written production.

070 /

ACOUSTIC VIDEO DOPPLER SEDIMENT PLANKTON CTD ROSETTE CURRENT TRAP RECORDER PROFILER


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

/4

FILL, FLOW, TRACK ON THE ISLE OF RUM / With Adam Kelly / UNIT DESCRIPTOR / Fill, Flow, Track challenges and complements conventions of sustainable architectural design. Focusing less on sustainable metrics and more on the qualitative and experiential dimension of environmental conditions, this unit uses the Isle of Rum as a site of speculation. Rum is a site of conflicting environmental and social dynamics: it is proximate yet isolated; it is low in population yet rich in natural resource. Designated a national nature reserve by Scottish Natural Heritage, Rum is heavily ecologically managed, controlled, and regulated. This in turn limits broader economic opportunity for the local inhabitants. / In advance of our visit to the island of Rum in the inner Hebrides, we were tasked with the design on an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ontological modelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; a device which would not just simulate physical conditions, but would actually reproduce, accurately, physical processes which happen on a larger scale. We chose to the movement of particulate in water by simulating tidal and wind forces.

1-3 / ONTOLOGICAL MODEL / Photographs of the model, showing the motor used to produce a wind force (1), details of the tank insert which used accurate, scaled bathymetrical data (2) and a plan view of the model showing the markers which would be used to track the movement of the water (3).

4 / DRAWING ENERGY / Drawing tracking the movement of the markers as the tank was rocked.

071 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD DISPLACEMENT STUDY

EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

Topological variety

Steady slope

Total duration

20s

Waves incited

2

Max water depth

79mm

/2

/3

TOTAL ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT

1 688°

2 309°

3 128°

4 101°

5 74°

6 30°

1-2 / ONTOLOGICAL MODEL II

/4

/5

50mm

/ Following the first model, we began to explore the movement of objects in the tidal zone. We tested the relationship between the distance from the surface an object is, and the force exerted on it. More advanced tank model with standardised inserts and markers (1). Drawing illustrating the results. In general, objects which were closer to the surface had a wider range of motion (2).

3-6 / INSTRUMENT ON RUM

072 /

1400mm

/ After discovering this relationship, we built an instrument which was equipped to measure the relationship on site, in the tidal zone on Rum. Instrument on the beach at Rum (3), set of schematics showing the tower and plunger system, as well as the set of pegs which would measure a short section of the intertidal topography (4). Photograph of the instrument as it was completed, showing various extra data collection devices (5). Instrument capturing data on Rum (6).

/6


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/4

1 / DATA COLLECTION / The data we collected from Rum was collated and presented in a number of forms. The first was this collage, illustrating each transect of land we covered in the intertidal zone, as well as the measured section.

2-3 / DATA PRESENTATION / The data was distilled down to a small book which contained, for each transect, a plan photograph alongside a number of key metrics including the conditions during the data collection and a number of qualitative remarks.

073 /

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

1 / MAPPING ENERGY / The transects were mapped within the context of the bay on Rum. From the data we collected, a number of zones were formed in terms of the energy exerted on the landscape by the water. / It was also thought that the exchange of energy between the sea and the coastline was part of a wider ‘landscape of dissipation’, in which energy is transferred from one medium to another. Our research had been recording the tendency for the land to yield under the pressure of the energetic exchange, therefore these defined zones were put into an order from ‘most resistant’ to ‘most absorbent’.

074 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

INSTRUMENT HOUSING

STUDY BEDROOM VIDEO PLANKTON RECORDER

SEDIMENT TRAP

1-2 / PROGRAM / The program was an oceanographic research station, to be manned by four scientists. Its purpose was to measure the type of effect we measured on Rum. During our research we found that the inter-tidal zone is one of the least understood landscapes on the planet. This is one of the areas the station would focus on. (1) and (2) show the types of instruments the scientists would be deploying.

SHAFT

/4

LIVING

3 / SCALE / The scale from resistant to absorbent, defined by the conditions of the measured transects. Each programmatic element was mapped onto the scale to create a stratified program.

-

4 / STRATIFIED ARCHITECTURE / There was an emphasis on spatial efficiency, as the building was to be a light tough on the landscape. We chose to appropriate an existing pier, thus the width of the building was a fixed dimension. The form and enclosure of each space was representative of its position on the scale (3).

WORKSHOP VESSEL DOCK

075 /

LIVING


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

1-3 / GESTURES / In this exercise we transformed each level of the energetic scale into a hand gesture, then cast this gesture as an abstraction of the energy level it was meant to represent. These casted models became the starting point for a series of diagrams which began to reveal architectural details about the various programmatic spaces. / The gesture was always a simple, one handed representation of the word. (1)

/4

/5

/ Each cast model was photographed and traced, with the traced drawings focussing on one particular element of the model. (2) / These traced drawings were used to extract architectural details. (3)

4-5 / INSTRUMENT HOUSING / The instrument housing was the most controlled space in the program. Providing an enclosure which was exactly suited to the requirements of the instrument meant that the form was intrinsically linked to a temporal process. Each instrument had to be loaded in-turn. (4) / The lab area was flexible, with ceiling mounted tracks to allow the scientists to complete different tasks. Machinery and tools folded into the walls. (5)

INSTRUMENT HOUSING

076 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

1 / SECTION / Section showing various processes. The section of the building had a number of vertical circulation points, which important to move equipment, such as the recording instruments and battery banks, from the boat to the locations they needed to be.

077 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

OPPOSE LAB BOULDER STUDY VALVE SHAFT CHASM BATHROOM ‘ ’ BEDROOM

INTEMPERATE WORKSHOP VALVE SHAFT FILTER KITCHEN ‘ ’ DINING ‘ ’ LIVING

RELENT VESSEL DOCK

1 / ISOMETRIC / Isometric drawing showing the stacked layers and location of each programmatic element. In general the most conditioned spaces were located at the top of the building, and the least conditioned spaces (such as the dock and the instrument repair room) at the bottom.

078 /

EXISTING PIER


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD EXPLORATIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

1-2 / ATMOSPHERES / Sections of the study (1) and bedroom (2) showing the light and textural condition. The building was to be made from marine-grade concrete throughout.

3-4 / VIGNETTES / Vignettes of the instrument housing (3) and study (4). The study had large windows with a diaphanous outer layer.

079 /

/1

/2

/3

/4


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 ELECTIVE

AH ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

COURSE CODE / ARHI10026 ELECTIVE

T EX TS A ND TH EOR IES IN WE ST ER N A RCHITECTUR E

LEARNING OUTCOMES

/1

Texts and Theories was structured differently to the preceding architectural history courses: it focussed on people and concepts rather than buildings. Furthermore the lecture series was sequenced non-chronologically, following a thread of themes rather than a linear journey through time. I completed my most substantial piece of written work at that point: a 4,000 word essay on the design methodology of two French architects and theorists. To write at that length requires an entirely different written structure to that of a 2,000 word essay - it is a valuable skill to be able to thread ideas and maintain themes over a longer piece of writing, something which Texts and Theories helped me to develop.

01 / Students will understand that, as well as the collecting of historical data about architecture, history is the sifting of it. As a discipline, history is a matter of selecting and shaping. The bases upon which these interventions are to be understood are matters of evolution and of philosophy. The appreciation that history, as a study, has itself a history is one aim of the course. The other is that it be recognised as having a philosophy. 02 / Students, conscious of the philosophical nature of architectural history, will understand the need to reflect upon their own activity.

1-2 /

03 / Students will acquire a notion of the changeable character of history and will consider some of the promptings to that change: social, economic or ideal.

The Royal Saltworks at Chaux, near Paris. This was the principle architectural example I analysed in my essay.

04 / They will understand the status to historical periods as instruments of the historian. 05 / They will become familiar with the principal theorists and historiographers of architecture. 06 / They will be introduced to the work of modern architectural-theoretical and historiographical thinkers. 07 / They will read history critically.

DESCRIPTION As a discipline, history is a matter of selecting and shaping historical data. Theory is a meditation upon the discipline and its data. The course is a study of historians, theorists and their texts. After an introduction considering the Period as the object of historical definition and as the tool of the historian, the course introduces theorists and theories of architecture from Vitruvius to Deconstruction. They are arranged chronologically so that the force of historical determinism and purposiveness of historical reflection may be gauged. The course concludes with a discussion of the proposition that cultural time moves in cycles.

080 /

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

/2


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11 ELECTIVE

AH TEXTS AND THEORIES IN WESTERN ARCHITECTURE

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

BIBLIOGRAPHY Brower, R. A., The Fields of Light: An Experiment in Critical

ESSAY

Reading, (New York, 1951)

Compare and contrast the thinking of Claude Nicholas Ledoux and Antoine Chrysostôme Quatremère de Quincy about the relationship of architecture and language.

Eagleton, T., Literary Theory: An Introduction, (Oxford, 1983)

/ INTRODUCTION

Century France, Journal of the Society of Architectural

Lavin, S., 1994, Re Reading the Encyclopedia: Architectural Theory and the Formation of the Public in Late-EighteenthHistorians, (Vol. 53, No. 2)

If we are to discuss the theme of architecture and language with any merit, we must be clear on these two terms. It would

Lavin, S., 1991, In the Names of History: Quatremere de

be naive to think one could outline even one of these weighty

Quincy and the Literature of Egyptian Architecture, Journal

terms within the confines of an introductory paragraph; but

of Architectural Education, (Vol. 44, No. 3)

to understand that these words have a richness and context beyond a linear definition is sufficient to begin analysing them

Lavin, S., Quatremere de Quincy and the Invention of a

and the dialogue they have with each other. In essence, this

Modern Language of Architecture, (Massachusetts, 1992)

essay will explore the framework set out by Quatremère de Quincy and we, by having learned the criteria and processes,

Vidler, A., Claude-Nicholas Ledoux: architecture and social

will attempt to critique a built project by C. N. Ledoux using

reform at the end of the Ancien Regime, (Massachusetts,

these very frameworks in order to observe the dynamic between the two thinkers, and illuminate the intellectual

theory. His opening statement sets in place an idea still in

connections between them. To begin outlining Quatremère’s

its infancy; that which would mature into the theory of a

framework for observing architecture it would be appropriate

universal grammar. It reads:

/ CONCLUSION

about reading a something without external forces, but using the ‘deep structure of the mind’ to map recurring themes and

When architecture ‘speaks’ it requires a fluent listener, but

patterns of imagery.

as we saw in our critique of the Saltworks, a lot of what

to mention his stance on the extent to which he believes the term ‘language’ can by synonymous to ‘architecture’. His

‘...it would not be inappropriate to fix with a few simple

architecture expresses is open to interpretation. This is true

The intention was to draw some meaningful connection

view is absolute, and in dispensing with simile he states that

principles the basic idea one ought to have of the art [of

also in literature, in which the theory of phenomenology is

between the thinking of Quatremère and Ledoux using the

‘Architecture is a language.’ Using this we can interpret his

architecture] in general and of its origins in particular…

quite closely linked to Quatremère’s definition of the ‘type’

medium of architectural critique - one providing the theory,

theories truthfully, and with a heightened clarity.

These principles will make our perception of the relationship

and ‘essential character’. Phenomenology, coined by Edmund

the other a building in order to observe the exchange between

between Egyptian and Greek architecture more certain

Husserl, discusses ‘pure phenomena’ and their absolute

them. To close I would remark that although the critique was

Quatremère was a prolific writer on the subject of architectural

because without them, we risk being unable to distinguish

appearance in our mind. Like ‘type’, the phenomena of literary

merely a skim of the rich scheme that is the Saltworks, a

theory, debuting with an entry to the French Academie des

that which nature teaches men in all times and in all places..

language is that which is ‘essential and unchanging’ about

level of compatibility between the two emerged through this

Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres essay competition in 1785,

from points of resemblance which only direct communication

it. When one observes a building, phenomenology would

model, despite their differing ideologies.

of which he was the winner. The question, ‘Of Egyptian

between men can explain’

not be interested in that particular action, but discusses the

Architecture and what seems to have been borrowed from

general essence of observing a building i.e any building. We

it by the Greeks.’ offered Quatremère an opportunity to voice

could say we critiqued the Saltworks in a phenomenological

his position on the matter of the ‘origin story’ of architecture,

fashion as it disregards ‘actual’ conditions such as context,

which would later become an important element of his wider

historical tags, the ‘author’ or ‘architect’ in this instance. It is

081 /

1990) Younes, S. The True, The Fictive, And The Real: The Historical Dictionary of Architecture of Quatremere de Quincy, (London, 1999)

1 / SALTWORKS ENTRANCE / The entrance pavilion to the Royal Saltworks at Chaux, C. N. Ledoux

2 / DIRECTOR’S HOUSE / SALTWORKS / Section of the Director’s House


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AT ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

COURSE CODE / ARCH10002

A RCHITECTUR A L T HE ORY

Architectural theory was an excellent opportunity to reflect on some of the more abstract and intangible aspects of the discipline of architecture. Juxtaposed with Explorations, it was an appropriate primer to architectural thinking in general, and addressed some themes which had not been covered in design or history. My essay on augmented cities due to personal soundscapes was an interesting topic to research.

1/ A Muir Web, a network of connections between different species. Of particular note in terms of Interpretation as, although it would be impossible to know the exact meaning of the image without a level of explanation, one can understand a meaning at a basic level, that it suggests a network of some type.

DESCRIPTION This is an exciting course taught by a group of lecturers who have each published and contributed to the development of architectural theory. They will be assisted by four experienced tutors with backgrounds in architecture and design who are active in research, either having just completed a PhD, or in the process of doing so. The course will enable you to participate in the discussions about architectural theory that have informed the practice of architecture over the past few decades. From a critical perspective the course examines the place of architectural design theory within this age of rapid social and technological change.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Knowledge of contemporary design theories and the ways in which they can inform specific approaches to, and practices of architectural design. L02 / Ability to demonstrate and analyse through careful argument how architectural production fits within wider philosophical, historical, social, political and economic discourses. L03 / Ability to research issues in architectural theory, to critically reflect upon them, and to organise and present those reflections in the format of scholarly writing.

082 /

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AT ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

/4

THEORY DIARY / The theory diary was assigned to reflect on the material presented through the lecture series. From the ten lectures, eight personal responses were to be written and compiled in a document with illustrations. I chose to focus on Origins, Language and Metaphor, Interpretation, Critique, Body, Object, Time and Biopolitics. ORIGINS

CRITIQUE

TIME

BIOPOLITICS

The study of the absolute origins of architecture is a difficult

Critique is nothing without its two fundamental components:

To measure time is to divide it in every sense of the word - to

Foucault was one of the first to use the term ‘biopolitics’

task as there is no precise moment recorded in history to

the critic, and an ‘institution’ to criticize. If we were to look

split ‘time’ into a series of understandable parts, but also to

in his lecture series between 1978-9, in which he drew

mark the transition between relying on the natural landscape

closely at what these elements consist of in isolation, we’d

abstract time into something it is not: a series or system, a

a connection between the liberalist political agenda and

for shelter, and humans taking action to create defensive

see that they are inextricably linked by people and, more

sequence of lines rather than a solid fill. In measuring time

this idea of biopolitics. The nature of the lectures was to

structures against the elements. We can only speculate using

relevantly, ‘culture’. If we are to examine the critic as an

we lose the essence of what it is; an interface - a unifying

analyse and study ‘liberalism as the general framework for

the earliest known structures still evident today. It was this

individual disassociated from the larger collective, how can

commonality between all existent entities, both matter and

biopolitics’ He frames liberalism as the interface between a

extrapolative speculation which lead French architectural

we define the latter? Leo Löwenthal of the Frankfurt School

energy. Time does not exist outwith our material world,

population and the government with the rule of ‘maximum

2 / CRITIQUE

theorist Antoine Chrysostôme Quatremère de Quincy to

coined the term ‘culture industry’ as response to an earlier

rather it is fundamentally linked, the most basal condition

economy’, to govern in a state of equilibrium, only what is

define a number of ‘types’ - basic structures specific to a

expression ‘mass culture’. Although both allude to a set of

for existence. It acts as a mediator between humans and the

necessary and never any more or less. This ties liberalism

/ Cover of the August 2013 edition of ‘Private Eye’, a political satire magazine. Making a statement against the projected importance of the royal baby.

particular nomadic lifestyle and implicitly bound to a certain

traditions and ideals valued by a large group, the problem

world around us; an enabler which affords us the opportunity

to a natural mechanism, one which is self correcting and

region. These types are embedded into the later, more refined,

of ‘mass culture’ was that it had the connotation of an open

to observe the physical systems of life - however this

optimising - it is Foucault’s ambition that the appropriation of

architecture of a particular civilization as the essence; the

forum generated by the public themselves, which was not the

viewport of observation has a distinct and finite frame; that

state administration could follow a similar natural algorithm.

3 / TIME

single link which generated the initial architectural idea.

desired intellectual output of the school. Instead the outlook

being our personal ability to perceive time.

/ A screen capture taken from a video of paint vibrating on a speaker in super-slow motion by the popular YouTube chanel ‘The Slow Mo Guys’. Captured at 2500 frames per second, the camera they used records more detail than the human eye could ever imagine. It shows there is a very active reality elapsing before our eyes which we are unable to experience.

This intellectual leap was of interest to Quatremere, among

oppressive system of devices which lock us into psychic

Human beings have an impoverished ability to accurately

at all: for it to be feasible it must have a distinct purpose. An

other theorists. There is a consensus that architecture was

submission, manufacturing a dependency on a ‘leader’.

4 / BIOPOLITICS

1 / ORIGINS / This drawing is one of a series of ‘choreographed’ exercises in which the optimal space required for researchers to work with oceanographic instruments was calculated and detailed. It was this exercise in spatial economy which drove this years design studio.

A photograph of Trellick Tower, designed by brutalist architect Ernö Goldfinger in 1972. It quickly developed infamy as a den of social deprivation: violence, drug use and general antisocial behavior was the way of life on this council estate.

083 /

was that, as expressed by ‘culture industry’, culture is an

A further point he argues is that of governments existence capture time. Our senses go only so far in understanding

interesting link between ‘government’ and ‘society’ is drawn,

born out of necessity; a reaction to the environment and a

duration, which is why we have relied on external mechanisms

in which Foucault states that government does not start with

means of survival; but to bring attention to the specific details

for lineating time since the dawn of civilization. These objects

the state, but rather with society. Therefore a government

of architecture aesthetic and ‘style’, what is the propellant for

for capturing time broaden our scope of human experience:

should be a means to an end; the betterment of the society it

architectural thinking - how much is innate and how much

they are an extension of our senses, seeking to ‘expand’ time,

was cultivated from.

comes from the natural environment?

in essence


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AT ARCHITECTURAL THEORY

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

/3

BIBLIOGRAPHY Baudrillard, J., The System of Objects, in Poster. M. ed., Jean

ESSAY

Baudrillard, Selected Writings, (Cambridge, 2001)

Syncing Cities: The iPod and new Urban Culture

Bull, M., Sound Moves: iPod Culture and Urban Experience, (Abingdon, 2007)

/ INTRODUCTION This essay outlines the cultural impact of the iPod and how the device has changed our perspective on a number of social matters. Firstly I will discuss the iPod with regards to the individual: how the device has changed the way we behave and act, particularly in a social setting. I will then

Garnar, A. W., Don’t Delete these Memories: iPod and

syncing cities

Materiality, in Wittkower, D. E. ed., iPod and Philosophy: iCon of an ePoch, (Peru, 2008)

The iPod and new Urban Culture

Jones, D., iPod Therefore I Am, (New York, 2005)

place the individual and their iPod in the wider setting of the

Kahney, L., The Cult of iPod, (San Francisco, 2005)

city and discuss how our perception and experience of the urban environment has changed.

Linzmayer, O. W., Apple Confidential 2.0: The Definitive History of the World’s Most Colourful Company, (San Francisco,

The release of the iPod was a commercial success for many

2004)

reasons: the timing, its simple design and the dawn of digital media distribution defined the eye of the perfect marketing storm. It would be trivial to parse the many factors which

Pitt, J. C., Don’t Talk to Me, in Wittkower, D. E. ed., iPod and Adam McFall

lead to the success of the iPod, so it should be made clear

CD into a massless series of digits which they could take

off is the iPod and other modern technologies from this? The

their waning influence on the landscape of the city and to

that within the confines of this discussion the most important

anywhere was extremely attractive.

Oculus Rift headset, a device currently under development,

understand these filtering technologies as a possibility for a

is a head-mounted display capable of tracking real world

new interface between the city dweller and their surroundings.

overarching feature of the iPod is that it is a sensory device: one programmed to manipulate our sense of hearing.

/ CONCLUSION

movements and mapping them onto a (for now) video game world[17]. It represents a curious shift from the third to first

The iPod was built for one purpose: music. Every aspect of

The iPod poses many questions for the future of architecture

person: in previous video game technologies actions were

the design - its software, earbuds and scale were fine-tuned

in the urban sphere. As the pressures of life in the modern

inputted representationally. A sequence of button-presses

for an optimal and portable listening experience. Although

industrialised city mount, to what extent will its inhabitants

would represent an in-game action in a signified-signifier

marketed as a device for anyone with a love of music the

filter out what they perceive to be unpleasant? With

relationship. Oculus rift is a departure from this, as the

price point and storage capacity (up to 2,000 songs in the

reference to music as mediator between the individual

physical action of looking around connects directly to looking

first edition, with figures growing exponentially in further

and the city, Adorno states ‘The greater the drabness

around in-game.

releases[1]) meant it was tacitly aimed at the serious collector;

of existence, the sweeter the melody’.[16] In this modern

those who had amassed thousands of CDs and wanted a

culture of unhappiness, what other modes of escape will

Is it the role of the architect to track these new cultural

way of freeing their music from the restrictive disk format,

become available through the advancement of technology?

phenomena and design with them in mind? Perhaps the

those who were used to taking a couple of CDs with them to

The artificial, digitalised reality depicted in ‘The Matrix’ is

architect of the future will have the task of detailing these

play in their cars or on their Walkmans - to them the prospect

arguably the absolute manifestation of a system generating

virtual worlds which are currently in their infancy. For now

of releasing their music from the clunky material body of the

an entirely false world for those ‘plugged in’ to it - but how far

though, it is important for the modern architect to evaluate

084 /

Philosophy: iCon of an ePoch, (Peru, 2008) Pye, G. ed., Trash Culture: Objects and Obsolescence in Cultural Perspective, (Bern, 2010)

1 / ESSAY COVER / Cover of the essay ‘Syncing Cities’

2 / ALBUM ART / Example of the sleeve art used on vinyl records.

3 / AUGMENTED REALITY / Virtual reality afforded by emerging technology such as the Oculus Rift headset.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMENT

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

COURSE CODE / ARCH10004

W ORK IN G L EARNIN G

/1

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT The most valuable aspect of Working: Learning, aside from the opportunity to experience work in a practice, was the short essay question assignment. Although they were only around 500 words, reading the material in order to answer the question prepared me for the terminology used on placement. If these questions were not assigned, I would not have been aware of the concept of ‘procurement’ etc. It was an excellent primer for life in practice - I would advocate for more of this style of assignment.

1/ My first project on placement - a 1:20 detail model of a feature staircase for an office interior fit-out.

DESCRIPTION The MA (Hons) Architecture Placement: Working Learning is an honours level course that introduces students to a concern for architecture as a professional practice. The course addresses a range of topics the architect/client relationship, the role of professional bodies, legislative framework and modes of procurement – in order offer students a framework of professional knowledge, preparing them for future employment.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / An understanding of business management and knowledge of the legal and statutory frameworks within which Architectural Design is practiced and delivered. L02 / An understanding of the role of the client, Architect and related professions in the costing, procurement and realisation of architectural design projects. L03 / An understanding of the role of the Architect in society, including knowledge of professionalism and emerging trends in the construction industry.

085 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP WORKING LEARNING

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS / This assignment is intended to test students understanding of issues of professional practice introduced in the lecture series. Through four short essay questions, it asks students to investigate a selection of those issues in greater detail.

REGULATION

a single storey Class 2 factory may be up to 93,000 square

Architectural design in the UK is subject to a wide range of regulatory requirements. Describe the governmental purpose and architectural implications of a selected article of UK building regulation. Regulations surrounding the issue of fire are unlike many others in place: the dangers of fire are immediate, tangible, and deadly and adherence to fire standards could be the difference between life and death in the event of an emergency. The Scottish technical handbook for non-domestic buildings details Standard 2.1 as such: ‘Every building must be designed and constructed in such a way that in the event of an outbreak of fire within the building, fire and smoke are inhibited from spreading beyond the compartment of origin until any occupants have had the time to leave that compartment and any fire containment measures have been initiated.’

[1]

Inclusive of this standard, the overarching aim of all fire regulations are to mitigate the effects of the outbreak of fire. The Scottish technical handbook for non-domestic buildings

comments

that

although

the

number

of

deaths in non-domestic buildings is less than domestic buildings, there is a greater potential for loss of life due to factors such as high occupancy and the complex and unpredictable nature of activities taking place.[2] Nondomestic fire standards are backed by the HSE (Health and Safety Executive) under the Work Process Fire Safety regulation and the HSW (Health and Safety at Work) act as

It is clear these figures have been calculated as a compromise between building use and optimal safety: if a factory had similar limits to an office it would cease to be practical. The edge condition of the container is described through the metric ‘fire resistance duration’ - the amount of time after the outbreak of fire until the effects of the fire breach the container.[5] For building types where the minimum fire resistance duration is ‘Long’, openings in fire container walls must have the same fire resistance duration as the wall it is a part of. This is an issue in many open plan public buildings such as museums and galleries where there is an architectural intent to have sweeping vistas and extended open floor space.[6] Due to the restrictions on container size, volumes and their composition must be considered early in the design process. New technologies, such as horizontal sliding fire doors are embrace the standards in an elegant and practical way. Concealed within walls, these doors deploy via roof mounted tracks automatically in the event of a fire, providing the same resistance as the surrounding wall, while being virtually invisible during the normal building use.[7]

PROCUREMENT How does the architects design responsibility differ in ‘Traditional’ and ‘Design and Build’ contracting? Formulate an argument in support of one of these modes of building procurement. To approach the design implications of the Traditional and Design and Build routes of procurement, it would be wise to frame them with reference to how the architect and client are related. Traditional procurement is client-centric with a contract directly between the client and the architect[1], whereas Design and Build is contractor-centric[2], with the contract existing only between the client and the contractor, and the contractor and the architect, not including initial consultancy work. The resultant effect of this dichotomy between the two routes is apparent in the design phase for architects. In Traditional procurement the design can be lead principally by the client, with their wishes and ideas forming a large part of the final design - with the architect acting as an enabler[3]. The rhythm and pace of the design is also distinct as each stage within the plan of work is approached sequentially, with all details and related drawings completed before the initial construction phase[4]. This route lends its self to a richer and more refined final design as the client retains control over each area of design throughout the process.[5] With Design and Build procurement the client has little say in the design of the building after the specifications are sent to the main contractor.[6] From the perspective of the architect, the pacing of the design is quite different with many stages from the plan of work occurring simultaneously: the design phase continues

non-domestic buildings are most often places of work.[3]

well after construction begins, with changes being made on

With specific reference to Standard 2.1 there is a tacit reference

interests to keep costs down, therefore the design is often

to the two components of the fire compartment: the boundary of the compartment and the area enclosed by it. For the former, the handbook details the maximum (fire compartment enclosed) story area by building type which differs under stated conditions. For example the maximum story area for

086 /

metres, whereas an office may be only 4,000 square meters.[4]

site. As the main contractor bears all the risk it is in their best compromised and, as the client only has limited interaction, the architect is under pressure to perform efficiently.[7] As a point of detail the main contractor is liable for the information received by the architect: it is their responsibility to ensure they have the appropriate details on time, not the architect.[8]

In a pre-BIM world I would have argued for Traditional procurement as the preferred route. Although it tends to take longer and cost-analysis is difficult from the outset, there is a slimmer margin for error on site and the design is often resolved to greater detail, to the clients satisfaction. I have an issue with the absolute nature of the faceless contractor controlling all aspects of the design in Design and Build - however I believe the adoption of BIM in the construction industry, which promotes a tighter working relationship between the various sectors can help improve the quality of design while keeping costs down[9]: the main issue the Design and Build route faces.[10] The ability to change BIM models in realtime also means that specification changes by the client need not result in large penalty costs as well as the streamlining of multiple sections of the plan of work, leading to greater client satisfaction.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP WORKING LEARNING SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

PROTECTION OF TITLE

The resultant effect is that there are whole groups of unaccredited professionals assuming the role of ‘architect’

How is the title ‘Architect’ protected in the UK? Formulate an argument for or against the protection of the title Architect.

who may have no relevant training or professional work experience. Although it is unlikely that someone would establish a practice offering architectural services with

The professional title of ‘Architect’ is currently protected in the

little to no training, but the current system allows this

UK under the 1997 Architects Act which states that in order

possibility. To a public ignorant to the details of titles, there

to assume the title one must be registered with a statutory

is no safeguard against potentially negligent professionals.

regulation body - in this case the Architects Registration

It appears to me that the ARB is protecting the term

Board of the UK.[1] Entry conditions are set by the ARB which

‘architect’ as an ancient and well established title with

dictate accepted qualifications and minimum term of work

positive moral and ethical connotations at the expense

experience for prospective applicants. The principal conditions

of public safety and wellbeing.

for acceptance onto the register are to have obtained all

by choosing an architect and only an architect, you are to

three ‘parts’ of architectural education and a minimum of

expect a certain standard. It will, however, remain a flawed

24 months professional experience.[2] If you are found to be

system if by chance or lack of education a client is open

practicing under the title ‘architect’ (which extends to using

to abuse by these unaccredited professionals, and the

‘architect’ as a term on headed notepaper etc.) this is a breach

only remedy is the protection of profession by legislation.[7]

of the act which is punishable by a fine of up to £2500.

[3]

Protection of the title ‘architect’, which is indissociable from its regulation and review by the ARB should be viewed positively: it is the case that architects in the UK are subject to certain competency regulations which are manifested as CPD

[6]

There is a message that

REFERENCES

REGULATION

PROTECTION OF TITLE

[1]

[1]

ARB, Student Handbook, [http://www.arb.org.uk/files/files/ ARB%20Student%20Handbook.pdf] Accessed Feb. 2014

a year based on a curriculum monitored by the RIBA. As a [4]

safeguard to the public, if a registered architect is found to be in breach of the ARB code of conduct there is a mechanism in place for inquiry, potentially leading to permanent erasure from the register.[5] These imposed regulations, although to some seem restrictive and stifling, allow for a secure system

[3]

ARB, The Architect’s Code, 2010

[4]

RIBA, Protection of Title, (London, 2007) p.3

[5]

The Architects Act 1997, Part III - Section 18

F. Duffy, L. Hutton, Architectural Knowledge: The Idea of a Profession (London, 1998) p.146 [7] M. Lazell, Architects: Give us Protection of Function [http://www.bdonline.co.uk/architects-give-us-protectionof-function/3138575.article] Apr. 2009, Accessed Feb. 2014

S. Cox, H. Clamp, Which Contract? : Choosing the Appropriate Building Contract (London, 2003) p.27

[1]

[2]

ibid p.28

[3]

D. Chappell, The Architect in Practice (Oxford, 2010) p.169

[5] M. C. Latham, Constructing the Team: Final Report (London, 1994) p.13 [6]

ibid

[8]

in the same professional activities as a registered architect, but is not obliged to practice under the same strictures.

087 /

[4] S. Cox, H. Clamp, Which Contract? : Choosing the Appropriate Building Contract (London, 2003) p.28

However these regulations, and indeed all law surrounding

designer’ or ‘building planner’ one is able to legally partake

[3] Health and Safety Executive, Work Process Fire Safety [http://www.hse.gov.uk/fireandexplosion/workplace. htm#process] Accessed Feb. 2014 [4] Scottish Government, Technical Handbook: NonDomestic, (Edinburgh, 2013) p.74 [5]

ibid

K. Tetlow, Horizontal Sliding Fire Doors: Catalyst for Architectural Versatility [http://continuingeducation. construction.com/article_print.php?L=25&C=470] Dec. 2008, Accessed Feb. 2014 [6]

[7]

PROCUREMENT

S. Cox, H. Clamp, Which Contract? : Choosing the Appropriate Building Contract (London, 2003) p.28

title is avoided. By simply calling yourself an ‘architectural

ibid

[6]

which favours the competent and eliminates the negligent. the profession of the architect have no jurisdiction if the

[2]

[2]

(Continuing Professional Development) in which registered architects are to complete a minimum of 35 hours of training

The Architects Act 1997, Part II - Section 4.1(a)

Scottish Government, Technical Handbook: NonDomestic, (Edinburgh, 2013) p.73

[7]

ibid

[9] G. Elvin, Integrated Practice in Architecture: BIM (Hoboken, 2007) p.137 [10] M. C. Latham, Constructing the Team: Final Report (London, 1994) p.13

ibid


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP WORKING LEARNING

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

/4

/5

DESIGN REPORT / This is a work-based learning assignment, that asks students to consider the implications of issues raised in the lecture series on a design project they have experience of. It familiarises students with conventional professional media, in this case, the ‘Design Report’. Students whose Placement does not offer them experience of a relevant design project should use this exercise as a means of gaining further understanding of professional practices, through research into a specific project, or interviews with practitioners. / The Hepworth Wakefield, David Chipperfield (2011)

CONTEXT

1 / SITE PLAN

purpose built gallery would stand on a headland currently

cultural significance. Project Title

populated by decaying outbuildings and unkempt foliage. The northern industrial city of Wakefield, West Yorkshire has

The gallery, which will house a number of items from the

Two structures are being proposed: the main gallery building

been in a state of decline since the closure of the textile and

national collection, serves to replace the old gallery (01) in

and a pedestrian bridge connecting to the north-west bank

coal industry several decades ago. Today the waterfront area

the north of the city. Named the Hepworth Wakefield, the

of the river Calder, allowing access from the city centre. The

is a ghost of its former self: empty factories and warehouses,

principal exhibitions will be the work of locally born Barbara

main building will contain a cafe, shop, auditorium, offices,

through their dilapidated exteriors, suggest a majesty

Hepworth, donated by her family. The site at the north point

and education space/seminar rooms as well as the main

which once was. There is, however, a citywide intention to

of an island on a bend in the river Calder, separated from

gallery.

regenerate. Many schemes have been suggested for the city

the mainland by the Calder and Hebble navigation, a canal

centre (01) but the Waterfront Wakefield conservation zone

used when the site was industrially active. It is positioned

Due to its siting and surrounding structures, the proposed

3-4 / WATERFRONT

(02) has seen little development activity.

close to the chantry chapel of St. Mary the Virgin, restored

site has the following material planning considerations:

/ Pinhole camera photographs by local artist Faye Chamberlain.

As of 2003 there has been a masterplan developed for the

chantry chapels in the country. To the south of the site is the

- Effect on listed buildings and conservation area.

waterfront conservation area as part of the Yorkshire Forward

Grade II listed Rutland Mills Industrial estate - a fine example

- Layout and density of building design, visual appearance

5 / RUTLAND MILLS

Renaissance Towns Program. A project with emphasis on

of northern industrial architecture. The site holds a central

and finishing material.

restoration and addition, the area would host a mixed use

position in a conservation protected area, but the current

- Loss of trees.

urban quarter. As the centerpiece of this development, a

structures within the proposed site are of no historical or

- Landscaping and means of enclosure.

/ Highlighted in red: Proposed intervention comprising building and pedestrian bridge. Conservation area as defined by the Wakefield MDC

2 / OLD GALLERY / The old Wakefield Art Gallery, the building the Hepworth Wakefield will be replacing.

/ Mixed-use development near the site of the Hepworth Wakefield.

088 /

in the 19th century by G. G. Scott and one of four remaining

Client

The Hepworth Wakefield Wakefield Metropolitan District Council

Architect

David Chipperfield Architects

Location

Wakefield, Yorkshire, UK

Date Client Brief

Budget

November 2004 Purpose built gallery space to house a collection of sculptures donated by the family of local artist Barbara Hepworth. £35m


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP WORKING LEARNING

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

/4

/5

DESIGN REPORT

MATERIALITY /6

1 / FRAMING VIEWS

Each gallery space is unique. This will be achieved principally in section: the galleries will each have a different ceiling

/ Diagram of views from gallery windows

gradient and slot window set into the roof. The resultant

2-4 / CONSTRUCTION TIMELINE

create a specific atmosphere without directly affecting any

/ Series of aerial photographs showing the development of the project. (2) Project complete, 2011, (3) Project under construction, (4) Project before planning, 2003.

5 / FINAL SCHEME

effect will be a wash of light against a wall - one which will exhibition on display. These â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;atmospheresâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; will be very subtle, with the maximum room height differential of around 1.5m. The sectional arrangement is split into three layers (04). On the ground floor users will access the building via a

/ Photograph of the final scheme in 2011.

footbridge. This level will contain the shop and cafe, various

6 / SECTION

The first floor will be entirely gallery space - elevated from

/ Section through the main gallery space, illustrating the spatial arrangement and use.

offices and exhibition storage areas as well as an auditorium. any ancillary activities which could detract from the artistic experience. The basement level is devoted to services, including a river water cooling mechanism which uses an existing mill race to direct water to the heat exchange unit.

089 /

Gallery Space Public areas / Offices Services


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP WORKING LEARNING

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

a sustainable and lucrative niche.

/1

BIBLIOGRAPHY

REFLECTIVE ESSAY

Brindley, R,. Is architecture a tale of two professions?,

/ The final assignment is an essay offering personal reflection on a topic relevant to contemporary professional practice. The choice of topic is open. Students might choose to focus on and extend their understanding of a topic raised in the lecture series. Students who secure placements in an architects practice might select a topic that affords reflection on their own work-experience. Students conducting self-directed practice or research might select a topic that draws upon, supports and extends that activity.

Building Design, 19 April 2013 Hopkirk, E., Architects Divided, Building Design, 19 April 2013 Frederick, M., 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School, (London, 2007) M. Nogueira, L. Tozer, Is the RIBA doing enough for small

Architecture: A Polarised Profession

practices?, Building Design, 26 April 2013

/ INTRODUCTION

Plus Three Architecture Ltd., Business Plan 2013-15, 2013

The 2012/13 RIBA Business Benchmarking report marked

RIBA, The Future for Architects, 2009

the first year the survey was made mandatory for all registered practices, giving an accurate and up-to-date

RIBA, RIBA Business Benchmarking 2012/13 report, 2013

snapshot of all aspects of the profession. Though a lot can be taken from the findings, there is one pattern which stands out: architecture is now a polarised profession - two clearly defined business structures operating concurrently but with entirely different clients, working practices and philosophies. To outline them briefly they are the small practices, those with fewer than 10 employees working locally, and the very large practices, those with more than 50 people often serving global clients. This essay will offer comment on this unusual and intriguing phenomenon, citing causes and speculating on the trajectory of the profession for the foreseeable future. To do this it is important to consider the various parties the divergence affects. First we will define the two extremes of the professional spectrum and consider their position in the architectural ecosystem as a whole. Starting with the smaller, ‘micro’ and ‘small’ practices are those with less than 5 and between 5-10 employees respectively. Together, they account for 76% of all practices registered

090 /

Singh, K., Should architecture schools produce ‘oven-ready’ with the RIBA and contribute 17% of the total fees earned by architects in 2012. To assign a general profile, small practices often work almost exclusively in the domestic and residential markets, taking on small projects within their local area. Few small practices take on international or public sector work, but can offer local clients a personalised and more traditional client-architect working relationship. Entirely the opposite, ‘large’ practices, which account for only 3% of all practices employ 40% of the workforce and earn almost half of the entire profession’s turnover. These practices have a global reach, working on large projects in many sectors of which a large proportion is based internationally Due to their larger scale and more advanced business infrastructure, large practices frequently win substantial public sector contracts.

/ CONCLUSION Although is difficult to determine exactly what ‘shape’ the profession will take in the future, but from the current trends it seems the gap will continue to grow between the micro and the macro, inevitably diminishing all medium enterprises save those which have cornered a niche of the market. There is one theory which suggests that the large practice will dissociate into a concentrated core of management, with all work outsourced to subcontractors. Firms of this structure afford a greater level of agility and shift the risk to the firms they contract. This theory is based on the current theme of architects as businessmen - those who are financially savvy will have a far greater chance of success in the marketplace: a highly connected business hub will be far more stable than a huge conglomerate. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the macro end of the

spectrum, however the future of the small practice is also

architects?, The Architects’ Journal, (Vol. 238, No. 4)

bright. There have always been sole practitioners and there always will be: working on domestic projects they corner a

Unknown, RIBA figures tell the truth of a divided profession,

market based on a traditional working relationship which no

Building Design, 19 April 2013

large practice could (or would wish to) simulate. Many of these practices do not wish to grow larger and are content with working alone or in a small group. It is comforting to see that in a future filled with global interdisciplinary consultants and highly concentrated business hubs, there will always be a place for the stalwart sole practitioner. To close, it is especially difficult to forecast the future of a profession in a time of such financial instability, however it is clear that now more than ever it is vital to stake your place in the market and take advantage of your position. Architects are trained to be creative thinkers - it is time to put that training to use in the world of business to cultivate

1 / LARGE PRACTICES / Foster+Partners is the largest practice in the UK and the 10th largest practice in the world, employing over 600 architects.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP WORKING LEARNING

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

/1

PLACEMENT WORK Plus Three Architecture

01 /MONUMENT

STREET 02 /GREY GARDENS

03 /BIGG MARKET POCKET PARK 04 /CATHEDRAL

05 /BLACK GATE 06 /CASTLE KEEP

091 /

BUILDING RENEWAL

HERITAGE INTEREST

/ Plans included in a feasibility study for a landscape design scheme in Newcastle Upon Tyne.

LANDSCAPE RENEWAL

1 / MASTERPLAN

PUBLIC ATTRACTOR

07 /CENTRAL STATION


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP WORKING LEARNING

YEAR / 3 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

/3

/4

PLACEMENT WORK Plus Three Architecture

1-3 / MASTERPLAN / Plans and diagram included in a feasibility study for a landscape design scheme in Newcastle Upon Tyne.

4-5 / MODEL PHOTOGRAPHS / Photographs of a 1:20 model of a feature staircase in an office development.

092 /

/5


Y4 M A (HONS) A R CH ITECT U R E Y E A R 4 / SENIOR H ON O U R S

AD

AP

AD

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TECHNICAL REVIEW

ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMENT REFLECTION

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TECTONICS

SEMESTER

SEMESTER

SEMESTER

/1

/1

/2

COURSE CODE

COURSE CODE

COURSE CODE

/ ARJA10003

/ ARJA10001

/ ARCH10003

CONTENT

CONTENT

CONTENT

/TECHNICAL REVIEW: GREEN INCUBATOR

/PLACEMENT REPORT: PERFORMANCE CONSULTANCY

/OBSERVATIONS

093 /

/MUNICIPAL DEPARTMENT FOR BIOLUMINESCENCE

D

P

ARCHITECTURAL DISSERTATION

ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO

SEMESTER

SEMESTER

/ FULL YEAR

/ FULL YEAR

COURSE CODE

COURSE CODE

/ ARJA10002

/ ARCH10005

CONTENT

CONTENT

/DISSERTATION: EXPOSING THE MODERN VERNACULAR

/ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO REVIEW: 4 YEARS IN THE MAKING


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 1

COURSE CODE / ARJA10003

T ECH NIC A L R E V IE W

DESCRIPTION The dialogue between structure, construction, environment, context, space, assembly and external form generates relationships which are singular to any building project. Our appreciation and understanding of how these relationships are integrated with each other allows for the successful resolution of architecture. This course offers you the opportunity to communicate your appreciation and understanding of how these relationships are integrated through your appraisal and description of a building with which you have become familiar during the placement period.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Critically appraise and demonstrate understanding of the integration of Structure, Construction, Services, Lighting, and Acoustics, Building Regulations, Health and Safety, Budget, and Inclusive Design within a realised work of contemporary architecture. L02 / Demonstrate research skills in the context of architectural practice. L03 / The ability to use visual and written communication methods and appropriate media to clearly and effectively communicate a critical review of precedent design ideas and proposals.

094 /

/1

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT Although I had some experience with technical details on placement and within the T&E courses, I had not been given an opportunity to pick apart the elements of a building in the level of detail required for the technical review. It was a positive experience reviewing a building from my placement practice as I had the chance to work with the project architect.

1/ Photograph of the facade of the Green Incubator, the building I reviewed.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECHNICAL REVIEW

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 1

GREEN INCUBATOR / I chose to study a building my practice had completed. The Green Incubator was a particularly interesting project as it was the highest BREEAM rated office building in the UK, 2012. The fine balance between environmental design and spatial quality is of particular note in this scheme for a small business incubator in South Shields, England.

/1

/1 Primary steel frame erected and pre-cast lift shaft installed. July 2011

Cladding carrier system installation begins November 2011

1 2

/ BUILDING INFORMATION CLIENT South Tyneside Council CONTRACTOR Robertson North East Ltd

Pre-cast stairs and floor slabs installed. August 2011

In-situ concrete support structure for PV cells cast on roof. November 2011

3

4 5

ARCHITECT Plus Three Architecture BUILDING SERVICES RPS STRUCTURAL ENGINEER Capita Symonds

11

6 7 In-situ concrete floor cast over under-floor heating. September 2011

Rainscreen cladding and mineral wool insulation installation begins. November 2011

Blockwork laid on ground floor. October 2011

Doors and windows installed January 2012

12

8 9 10

BREEAM ASSESSOR RPS

An in-situ cast floor for the ground level was chosen so that underfloor heating could be easily cast over.

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT OOBE ECOLOGIST E3 Ecology

1 / CONSTRUCTION TIMELINE / Phases of construction illustrated from groundwork, structure, cladding and finally the interior fit-out.

2 / GROUND/WALL JUNCTION / Ground/Wall build-up. The floor is primarily concrete with a blockwork exterior wall and steel SFS interior wall.

095 /

SFS installation begins on facades October 2011

Internal wall and floor finishes installed March 2012

1

Polyester powder coated aluminium flashings to window reveals

7

500 gauge damp-proof membrane over rigid insulation over 1200 gauge damp-proof membrane

2

Polyester powder coated aluminium double glazing window units

8

140mm concrete blockwork bearing on concrete In accordance to structural engineers design

3

Polyester powder coated aluminium flashing

9

Concrete haunching

4

Paving slab / Pin kerb upstand to base perimeter

10

5

Damp-proof membrane lapped up slab edge and sealed with window unit

Outline of foundations In accordance to structural engineers design

11

Polyester powder coated flashing

6

Perimeter insulation to face slab edge/blockwork

12

150mm concrete in-situ floor slab


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECHNICAL REVIEW

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2

+

RENEWABLE TECHNOLOGY

Bat ter yR oom

Ar PV

HIGH PERFORMANCE EXTERNAL OPENINGS

ra y

CONTEMPORARY ‘VICTORIAN’ WAREHOUSES

/ INTEGRATION STATEMENT

UNIFYING RIBBON FACADE

From design development to completion, the project never lost its way conceptually. The core components of the three contemporary ‘Victorian’ warehouse units, a ‘beacon’ vertical element and a single ribbon elevation were present in the earliest sketches of this scheme, and are clearly defined in the completed building.

1 / INTEGRATION DIAGRAM / Exploded diagram illustrating the various elements of the building, and how they come together to create a cohesive, environmentally responsible design. The concept was to draw from the ‘Victorian warehouse’ architecture typical to the area. This, paired with new renewable technologies creates a new industrial building typology.

‘BEACON’ STAIR CORE

2 / RENEWABLE ROOFSCAPE / Diagram of the roof level showing the rooflights, battery room and PV array.

096 /

The Green Incubator is a building suited to its place and time - a synergy of new ideas and industrial heritage, it provides a fresh interpretation of the business incubator typology.

STRUCTURAL STEEL CORE

The level of conceptual clarity from the outset meant that there was time to polish some of the finer details, such as the colour coded way-finding - each block had its own chromatic identity. Sustainable technology, such as the PV cells and winter garden, were not rushed ‘add-ons’, but rather indissociable from the fabric of the building. The Green Incubator was the first phase in a wider development program, which has since seen the recent completion of the second phase. This building was not designed to stand alone, but rather to act as a catalyst: both for the burgeoning businesses it would contain, and for the community it is set in.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMENT

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 1

COURSE CODE / ARJA10001

R E FL ECTIONS

/1

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT Plus Three Architecture, my placement practice, had one unique niche that set it apart from other practices both locally and nationwide - an emerging product known as ‘performance consultancy’. Working closely with staff associated with performance consultancy projects and also having worked on a number myself, I experienced first-hand the nature of the work, and how it was distinctly different from traditional architectural services, however used a lot of the same processes and ways of thinking.

1/ The ‘Performance Plus’ brand. Having a sharp brand image is important in the corporate sector in particular.

DESCRIPTION This course focuses on the writing of a reflective report exploring an aspect of architectural practice. It should try to engage, provoke and/or ruminate on specific issues or related activities carried out during your Placement period. This course is seen as complimentary to Architectural Placement: Working Learning from last year.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

L01 / The ability to propose a subject of study with clear objectives demonstrated through the submission of a summary. L02 / The ability to thoroughly analyse, reflect and demonstrate familiarity with the chosen topic ensuring references to key texts in the field. L03 / The ability to present written work (including drawings and illustrations) that is objective, lucid, clearly expressed and shows a coherent structure and style.

097 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AP REFLECTIONS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 1

/1

/2 BRIEFING

STAGE 1

STAGE 2

STAGE 3

OUTPUTS

LISTEN

Q1

Q2

DEPARTMENT DASHBOARD

Q3

TEAM DASHBOARD

People

CONSULTATION WITH FM

CONSULTATION WITH IT

STORAGE AUDIT

FURNITURE AUDIT

CONSULTATION WITH COMMS

CONSULTATION WITH HR

OPERATIONAL BRIEFS

SPACE UTILISATION STUDY

DOCUMENT REVIEW

Process

ORGANISATIONAL FIT

Plus brand launched by my placement practice and analysing scale of the profession as a whole - exploring the type of

DEPARTMENT FIT

BUILDING VISITS

Property

PRECEDENTS

360 Magazine, ‘The Privacy Crisis: Taking a Toll on Employee Engagement’, Issue 68, 2014 CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Claremont Group, Get Stretching: An Introduction to Agile Working, 2014

BUILDING DESIGN

PORTFOLIO APPRAISAL

BENCHMARK

360 Magazine, ‘The Next Office’, Issue 63, 2012

Q4

CORPORATE BRIEF

based practices on two scales: looking at the Performance the ideas and ambitions behind its creation, but also at the

possibilities.

CORPORATE STANDARD

BIBLIOGRAPHY

This essay will consider the rise of performance consultancy

work Performance Plus does as a function of a cultural shift

merits of community and client engagement is an essay in

POST PROJECT

itself, however my experience has opened my eyes to the VISION DOCUMENT

/ SYNOPSIS

as a product offered within traditional architectural design

Flexible Working Employment Act, [www.gov.uk/flexibleworking/overview] [Accessed October 2014]

TEAM FIT SPACE PLANS

BUILDING APPRAISAL

Gallup, State of the Global Workplace, (Washington, 2013)

in many organisations, but also considering the emerging trends in how architects work.

Hardy, B, et al., Working Beyond Walls: The Government Workplace as an Agent of Change (London, 2008)

Here at Plus Three Architecture we have been in the process of refining the practices workplace consultancy brand. Initially it was something I knew little about - there was a brief mention of the service on the practice website. I initially believed it was an ‘add-on’ to traditional architectural projects, but this was not the case. It wasn’t until I spoke to one of the Part 2 Architectural Assistants who played an important role in Performance Plus that I understood what it was and how it worked, but it was the way she described it that piqued my interest. She called it ‘People Architecture’, and described it being similar in mechanism to a strategy game - working with resources and properties within confined parameters to achieve an optimal solution. The ‘People Architecture’ phrase resonated with me as I began to understand that the service Performance Plus offers is, indeed, architecture - but packaged in a different way. Performance consultancy projects for large corporate clients are as detailed and require the same thought processes as traditional architectural services, but with a different output. These processes, and

098 /

methodology hinges on the inclusion of people at every level, with their comments informing the design richly. The

PLACEMENT REPORT Empowering ‘People Architecture’: The Emergence of Performance Consultancy as a Product in Design Practice

input into the design process. The Performance Plus

how they are manifest will make up the first part of this essay.

explored in detail in the second part of this essay. Finally I

How Performance Plus uses simple vector graphics to

What Performance Plus does specifically hinges around a

will explore in finer detail the graphical language behind

illustrate complex relationships was something which

shift in culture in organisations known as ‘Agile Working’. It

Performance Plus and how the consultancy brand identity

resonated with me particularly. One of the problems I have

is more than a flexible work style, but rather an organisation-

and business work, with reference to possible future trends

faced in the design studio was being unable to suitably

wide policy which stretches from real-estate management to

and what other opportunities exist for architects outside of

illustrate a concept or organise research clearly. Working

the types of chairs workers sit on. To fully understand the

traditional ‘architecture’, as the third and final part.

with Performance Plus graphics however has trained me to

value Performance Plus can add to an organisation, I had to appreciate the wider shift in work-style and the research

translate ideas into a codified graphical language. Although / PERSONAL REFLECTION

being done in the field of office organisation. Journals in

Performance Plus, Performance Plus Introductory Presentation, 2014 The Senator Group, Case Study of Westgate House, Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council, (Spring 2014) Conversations with Cara Lund, Performance Plus Analyst

the Performance Plus style guide determines some of the symbols and colours used, I believe that the experience I

this area, including 360 Magazine, showcase scientific

My experience at Plus Three has provided a frame of

have gained in distilling ideas into coherent diagrams will be

studies on workplace conditions and were particularly

reference for my education so far: I was able to apply the

invaluable both in the coming semester and further on in my

useful in understanding the current status of offices and

skills developed at architecture school in unconventional

architectural education.

how organisations are reacting and adapting. Although it

ways. As such, it was not so much what I learned during

was not long ago Agile Working was seen as avantgarde,

my time on placement which will put me in good stead for

Looking forward, one of the most prominent thinking points

organisations do have an increasing appetite for its adoption.

the coming semester, but rather a heightened awareness of

to emerge from working on Performance Plus projects

The transition can be difficult and clarity is imperative - the

how adaptable my skills are.

was the importance of people-centric design, where non-

reasons underpinning the shift towards agile working will be

HOK, Workplace Strategies That Enhance Human Performance, Health and Wellness, 2013

1 / PERFORMANCE PLUS GRAPHICS / Diagram used to explain the Performance Plus process and how the client will be engaged.

2 / MAILER

architects and those not trained to design have a significant

/ Mailer sent to businesses advertising the Performance Plus brand and product.


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

COURSE CODE / ARCH10003

T ECTONICS

/1

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT Tectonics was a positive experience as it engendered a studio-wide collaborative effort. A studio model was constructed as a purely group effort, and the site we were to inhabit would feature every proposal simultaneously, meaning borders between sites were negotiated and protected. This was a very different unit in terms of structure from the previous design units, as the focus was on two scales: the urban context and the technical detail. Conflating these scales was a challenge, however it was very rewarding.

1/ Render of the public space from my final proposal for a municipal centre for bioluminescence.

DESCRIPTION The question of defining ‘tectonics or a tectonic’ will be answered in different ways by different people and will be predicated for the most part on their opinions on architecture and more acutely on their opinions of the role of the three staples of construction, structures and environment in architecture. Contrasting architectural cultures view these staples in a range of significance from their presence as merely pragmatic concerns of the necessary function of enclosure, atmospheric control and holding buildings up with no pretentions other than ‘building’, through to an intrinsic inclusion of the three from the inception of an architectural idea where all design decisions have been informed by one or a combination of all three.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Understanding of tectonic, structural, constructional, environmental and contextual matters. L02 / Ability to research, analyse, synthesize and integrate with design an appropriate technological approach. L03 / Skills in deploying specified two- and threedimensional representational techniques correspondent with accepted architectural conventions. 099 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

APPEARANCES AND ESSENCES / U N IT B R IEF Dra wing f ur t her o n t h e at r i c al d i s c o u r s e , i t is G ot t f ried Sem p e r ’s 1 9 t h C e n t u r y w r i t i n g s on t hea t rica lit y w h i c h s p e c i fi c al l y i n fo r m o u r tect onic invest ig at i o n , al l o w i n g u s t o fo c u s on t he t ect onic p re s e n c e o f arc h i t e c t u re as a dia logue bet wee n A p p e ar an c e s an d E s s e n ce s. Se mper ’s t ect on i c q u e s t i o n i s e s s e n t i al l y concerned wit h w h at t o c o n c e al an d w h at to revea l. When is s t r u c t u re o r s ke l e t o n c o n c ea le d by ‘dressing’, by A p p e ar an c e , an d w h e n i s i t revea led in a n ex p re s s i o n o f m o re e l e m e n t a l, o r Es sent ia l, ‘ hones t y ’ ? T h e q u e s t i o n ap p e ar s to brid ge t wo oppo s i n g p o l e s o f t e c t o n i c t h o u g h t sp a ced a hundre d ye ar s ap ar t : m o d e r n i s m , w ith its will t o ex pres s p ar t - t o - w h o l e c o m p o s i t i on think s of A ppea r an c e an d E s s e n c e as t h e s a m e thing (revea ling eve r yt h i n g ) w h i l e t h e d i g i t al a g e , with it s preoccup at i o n w i t h s u r fac e , d i s c o nn e c ts forma l composit i o n fro m s t r u c t u re an d considers t hem as s e p ar at e e n t i t i e s (c o n c e a lin g ever y t hing) . H ow t h e s e o p p o s i t e s h ave p l aye d out in t he cit y can b e u n d e r s t o o d vi a t h e i r effect on t he pub l i c re al m . Mo d e r n i s m o ffe r s us a homology o f p u b l i c an d p r i vat e s p ac e s in wh ich a rchit ect u re i s fu l l y e m b e d d e d , w h i l e th e digit a l a ge, in t h e w o rd s o f t h e t h e o r i s t G evo rk H ar t oonia n, give s u s an u r b an l an d s c ap e o f “tru nca t ed persp e c t i ve s c o m p ar ab l e t o t h o se o f v ideo ga mes” - e s s e n t i al l y a l an d s c ap e i n wh ic h archit ect ure is o b j e c t i fi e d .

OBSERVATION I The old ticket hall was quiet, save the muffled noise of the concourse and the low drone of the intermittent announcements, but it was abuzz with connections, ‘invisible tethers’ between certain people in the room, a complex network of relationships which cannot be tapped into without surveying everyone in the room. As the day progresses and people churn through the space,

1 / OBSERVATION I

the shape of the network changes.

/ Diagram illustrating the first observation in Waverley station of the invisible connections between people inhabiting a public place.

OBSERVATION II

2 / OBSERVATION II

the sight of a destitute soul: the unfortunate and without

/ Diagram of second observation of our natural reaction to homeless people.

If you stop a while and focus on how they are looked upon,

Curious, the dance we participate in when we are faced with fixed domain, they inhabit the fissures of our urban fabric. it is clear that we often seek comfort in performance to escape our feelings of discomfort.

0100 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD 10.01.15 / YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

EDI N

TECTONICS

TLAND / SCO H G R BU

/2 /

program /

MENTIONED IN TWEET 100115/130411

/

/

/

/

BIRTH

/ /

/

/

IMPRESSION NO. 100 100115/121037

LIFETIME / 876,581 X LONGER 100y

INTERVAL DETAILS

24 HOUR PERIOD / 100115 - 110115

195 KM

/

198.4kb

/

DATA GENERATED AVE / 43.72KB

1371

/

IMPRESSIONS

/

INTERVAL BEGINS / DAY A - 00:00

/

/

N

/ An initial assignment which expanded on our initial ‘observations’ by giving them a scope in terms of time and place. I chose to develop my observation on the nature of connections and networks which exist between people by mapping a journey through entirely digital means. These digital ‘impressions’ would create a staggered view of the journey.

ORIGIN

/ /

CARD DECLINED 100115/093456

/

LE / ENGLAND

1 / PLAYBILL

T CAS EW

/

STANDARD INTERVAL / 8.64x107 X LONGER 24h

/

2 / PROGRAM / In terms of a temporal scope, I considered tracking the number of ‘impressions’ made over the course of a lifetime. The program is a conflation of temporal scales from the longest period (a lifetime) to the shortest (a single packet of data sent and received).

0101 /

/ TICKET GATE ACTIVATED 100115/093456

/

NEWCASTLE CENTRAL

100115-24H

IMPRESSION 20ms

PACKET SENT

/

PACKET RECEIVED

INTERVAL BEGINS / DAY B - 00:00

DEATH


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD urban scale analysis scale 1:3000 TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

ROSE STREET EXCHANGE / EXHANGE ID: ESROS

DOMESTIC PROPERTIES SERVED: 5,709

COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES SERVED: 1,869

2

2

3

2

3

1 / MAPPING IMPRESSIONS / Following from the program and playbill, I mapped the points in the city in which impressions could be made. I focused on locations such as transport interchanges, ticketed areas and places of business, as well as pieces of physical and digital infrastructure. I was interested in the locations in which digital and physical infrastructure met, if anywhere at all. Drawn at 1:3000/A1

0102 /

2 FOUNTAINBRIDGE EXCHANGE / EXHANGE ID: ESFOU

DOMESTIC PROPERTIES SERVED: 12,447

COMMERCIAL PROPERTIES SERVED: 1,010

2


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

d

e ifi

ge

ua

ng

la

od /c

/ physical object

/ tag interpreter / could this be the position of an architectural design methodology?

/ physical tag

g

tin

at

m

/ could this be a formal architectural intervention?

p

m

ta

es

im /t

or /f

n

tio

ca

lo

eo /g

/ metadata

1 / TAG ARCHITECTURE / Inspired by Richard Coyne’s The Tuning of Place, I began to synthesise the idea of ‘tags’ in architecture and their relation to the digital and physical realms. Could an architecture be imagined via the use of tags?

/3

2 / MAPPING INFRASTRUCTURES / Expanding on the mapping I was intrigued by the ‘Map of the Internet’ project. It illustrated the internet as a complex, yet amorphous network of orbs which were attracted to each other based on shared connections and similar attributes.

3 / BIOLOGICAL AUGMENTATION / DNA HACKING / After identifying the lack of crossover between digital and physical infrastructure, I began to think about the possible role digital technology could have in physical processes. This brought me to the idea of DNA hacking, as this is an emergent technology. By hacking DNA, digital processes are having a physical impact on the physical world by directly augmenting its content. One such way this is being done currently is by creating glowing plants by splicing together the DNA from fireflies and common plants.

0103 /

PRINTING

SPLICING

CULTIVATION

DISTRIBUTION

UNITED KINGDOM


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD /1

/2

NUCLEOBASE CANISTER DNA SEQUENCE PLATES

HEIGHT-ADJUSTABLE PILLAR

HEIGHT-ADJUSTABLE PIPETTE HEAD ARMATURE

PIPETTE HEAD

/3

1-2 / INSTRUMENTS

/4

SAMPLE TRAY

/ Diagrams of the instruments used in the DNA splicing process. This instrument (1) is responsible for producing particular, programmable DNA sequences by combining the four nucleobases. This instrument (2) amplifies the correct DNA strands and mounts them to a silicon wafer. Drawn at 1:20/A3

3 / DNA LASER PRINTING / Lasers are used to extract the correct DNA sequences from the silicon wafer and deposit them into a collection tray.

4 / OPTICAL QUALITY CONTROL / This instrument checks each of the sequences in order to establish which are correct by using a four-filter camera.

0104 /

FRONT


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

01

03 04 02 04

1 / ACTIVE FLOOR PLATE / This is the floor plan for the first floor, showing the furniture and instruments present, and how they will be used. This level contains the laser printing hall (01), workstations (02), storage and support (03), and cultivation space (04). Drawn at 1:100/A3

2 / USAGE SNAPSHOTS / Vignettes showing how spaces will be appropriated. Drawn at 1:50.

0105 /

/2

/3


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

MARKET AREA

ROOF PLANTER FOR MATURE SPECIES

1 / ROOF TERRACE / Atop the lab space is a roof garden where mature species are grown and distributed around the city. It also acts as a market for plants and flowers during the weekend, as this activity currently happens in this location. The roof terrace has a number of rooflights which let light into the lab space, as well as providing a view for the public.

0106 /

CA

04

PRODUCT PREPARATION AREA

ST

LE

TE

/ Garden

ROOFLIGHT

RR

AC

E


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

1 / SECTION / This principle section through the centre of the building, cutting through the DNA printing hall and the sunken market on the first floor shows the stratification of spaces, with the lower spaces more conditioned, and the upper spaces intended to be used by the public. The program reconciles two levels, the upper (Castle Terrace) and the lower (Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Stables Road) Drawn at 1:200/A2

0107 /

/1


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

/2

04 / GARDEN

1 / ROOFLIGHT SECTION / This section illustrates the relationship between the roof garden and the ceiling of the floor below. The roof is constructed mainly from concrete, supported by three steel trusses. The rooflight chambers have a lighting system embedded to create a wash of light during the night, which illuminates both the roof garden and the space below. In order to drain the planters, there is a 1% slope, leading to a drainage zone. Originally drawn at 1:50/A3

/3

03 / DISPENSE

2 / EXPLODED ISOMETRIC DIAGRAM / This diagram illustrates the spaces in each floor plate, and which of these spaces are dedicated to the public (green). The eye symbols represent the points at which the public are allowed a view into the private lab space.

02 / PRINT

3 / EARTH WALL / Internal â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;earth wallâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; construction. This wall has a 150mm earth facing which tricks those on the earth side into believing that the area on the other side is carved into the earth. Only those on the non-earth side are able to see the build-up, which reveals that the earth is merely a facade.

0108 /

01 / MODIFY


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

AD TECTONICS

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

/1

PUBLIC ROUTE 2

1

3

4

5

7

6 1 / TECHNICAL SECTION / The section through the earth wall (previous page) revealing the build-up. Drawn at 1:10/A3

0109 /

P R I VAT E C O N D I T I O N E D SPACE

1

20mm Laminated Glass Panes

2

Wooden Fixing

3

6mm, 75mm Thick Pressed Aluminium Plate

4

100mm Cavity with Lose Earth

5

300mm In-situ cast Concrete

6

20mm UV Bonded Laminated Safety Glass

7

30mm Masonry fixing

8

Silicone Gasket


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

D ARCHITECTURAL DISSERTATION

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

COURSE CODE / ARJA10002

D ISSERTATION

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT The dissertation gave me the opportunity to explore a question within architecture that I had been contemplating since the beginning of my time on the course: how do we design? By framing the question in terms of analysing the designs of those with no specialised training, I thought it possible to gain a more fundamental understanding of the processes involved in design.

1/ Atrium and appropriated communal space of the Torre David in Caracas, Venezuela. This office tower was abandoned after the 1994 banking crisis, but was then inhabited by displaced residents from the slums.

DESCRIPTION This course provides you with an opportunity to investigate an architectural topic negotiated with a member of academic staff. You will undertake sustained and in- depth research and present a coherently argued, fully referenced and appropriately illustrated piece of academic writing. Preparation and research for the course is undertaken in the first Semester; this provides you with an opportunity to plan and organise the study materials and research methods required in the writing of the Architecture Dissertation. This process culminates in the submission of a synopsis and bibliography. In the second Semester, the dissertation is developed and written.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Detailed knowledge of the chosen subject demonstrating sufficient understanding of relevant cultural, historical and philosophical themes. L02 / Ability to construct and synthesise an intellectual argument expressed against stated objectives and presenting original conclusions. L03 / Ability to produce a substantial piece of academic writing, coherent, attractive, illustrated, well-written, using correct referencing conventions and the acknowledgement of sources.

0110 /


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

D ARCHITECTURAL DISSERTATION

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

Exposing the Modern Vernacular

/ ABSTRACT

Brillembourg in 1993 and the 1994 Venezuelan banking crisis halted the construction of the tower. Today, the tower stands

Exposing the Modern Vernacular explores the current state

in the same state as it was twenty years ago – lacking lifts,

of a building approach practiced by regular people – those

plumbing and electricity. In 2007, a group of squatters led by

who have not been expressly trained to design or engage

preacher Alexander Daza began occupying the unfinished

in architectural thinking. By analysing the building designs

structure, forming a self-policing society based on making

of the non-specialist population it may be possible to gain

the tower their home. The final site, Carbeth, Scotland is a

a more fundamental understanding of architectural design,

‘hutting’ camp north of Glasgow. Occupied by ‘hutters’, those

and what factors affect how design is approached. First, an

who own and build small huts as a means of escape from the

examination of how vernacular architecture is defined by the

city, the site was heavily contested with a history punctuated

key writers on the subject provides a platform for comparison

with disputes between the settlers and the Laird, Allan Barns-

to other similar terms such as bricolage, adhoc, and informal

Graham. Hutting in Carbeth started in the just after the first

architecture. By highlighting the nuances of these terms, the

World War as a retreat for ex-servicemen and their families,

core elements of what comprises vernacular architecture

with the site currently containing around 140 huts.

/1

EXPOSING THE MODERN VERNACULAR

can be extracted. It is through these sites that the investigation will be The second chapter categorises these core elements under

framed: by analysing their history, context and the

the labels; Of the Land, Affordances, and Appropriations. Each

architecture conceived by the occupiers, the dissertation

of these categories is a distillation of the various definitions.

aims to attentively observe patterns that emerge in how the

They are the scope for analysing the case study sites and act

circumstances of the occupiers have influenced how they

as a common base for comparison.

have appropriated the space and acted as unconventional and untrained designers.

Three diverse case study sites have been identified. Spanning three continents and bridging differing scales of density and proximity to the urban, the sites share a network of similarities and differences which provide a rich platform for analysis. The first site, Slab City, is located in Southern California near the Mexican border. Formerly a World War II military installation, the land was reinstated as property of the state in 1961 and stood empty, save an array of concrete foundation slabs for many years. The desert climate and infrastructure of

1 / PERFORMANCE PLUS GRAPHICS

flat, concrete platforms made the area particularly attractive

/ Diagram used to explain the Performance Plus process and how the client will be engaged.

The area currently comprises a largely migratory population

to owners of mobile homes seeking a stable place to park. with a small group of permanent settlers. The second site,

2 / MAILER

Torre David in Caracas, Venezuela is an incomplete office

/ Mailer sent to businesses advertising the Performance Plus brand and product.

district. Construction began in 1990, however, a chain of

0111 /

tower intended as the centrepiece of the city’s financial events including the death of the eponymous investor David

Adam McFall / 2015 Architecture Dissertation MA (Hons) Architecture Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

D ARCHITECTURAL DISSERTATION

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY /1

/2

/3 Cross, Nigel., Design Thinking (London, 2011) Dovey, Kim., ‘Informalising Architecture: The Challenge of Informal Settlements’, Architectural Design 83 (2013) Hailey, Charlie, Campsite: Architecture of Duration and Place (Louisiana, 2008)

CASE STUDY 1

a parking structure, a grand atrium and a 45-story tower

between a Laird and the common people. This theme is less

SLAB CITY: THE LAST FRONTIER

housing a luxury hotel and the main offices of the Grupo

evident in Torre David, however, those families leaving the

Confinanzas, a major banking group in Venezuela. It is this

barrios that night in 2007 left their homes behind in search of

In 1862 the US Homestead Act was created as an incentive

last block, labeled ‘Edificio A’ in the planning drawings which

a better life - looking to the Torre as a symbol of hope. If this

for those venturing into the western frontier lands to settle

is more commonly known as ‘Torre David’.

investigation has revealed anything, it is that regular people,

and create towns. Today the border between the US and

when given the opportunity, will come together to achieve a

Mexico has been formally reconciled, voiding the concept

CASE STUDY 3

collective goal even if it means potentially putting themselves

of the American frontier land. To some, however, a frontier

CARBETH: HUTTING

in danger. A study of historical vernacular architecture

is not limited to the pursuit of an expanded national border:

1 / SLAB CITY

will show settlements which have cleverly appropriated

those looking to escape the strictures of modern life occupy

In 1920 Allan Barnes-Graham, Laird of a 1,000 acre estate

technology to mediate the environment in intelligent and

a social frontier. On a parcel of desert land in Imperial County,

north of Glasgow, set aside a part of his estate for ex-

forward-thinking ways, using what was locally available and

California, flanked by the Coachella Canal and the Salton

servicemen to camp as a means of escaping the city. Three

methods perfected over the course of hundreds of years.

Trough, one such frontier exists. Straddling the historic

huts were erected on the land that year, rising to five in 1927.

A study of the contemporary vernacular shows something

frontier line and occupying a former military installation, Slab

The outbreak of the Second World War propagated hut

quite different: communities based on conviction - on

City is a community based on an alternative way of living.

construction, with 106 huts having been built by 1940. At

creating a space which uniquely defines their culture.

this time the site was occupied by evacuees of the nearby CASE STUDY 2

industrial town of Clydebank. Today, the site is populated by a

/ Aerial view of Slab City with the main residential area in the background and Salvation Mountain, a large art installation, in the foreground.

TORRE DAVID: URBAN NEST

community of hutters, maintaining and inhabiting their part-

2 / TORRE DAVID

to Venezuela of today. As an oil rich nation the country was

/ Facade of the Torre David, showing the extent of the alterations by the residents.

affluence lead to profligacy: a physical symbol of this was

time dwellings with the motive of escape - to temporarily live Venezuela in the 1990s had a very different economic climate one of the most affluent in the continent, however, this

a calmer pace of life. FINAL THOUGHTS

the proposed Centro Financiero Confinanzas, a complex of

In each of the case studies the ‘needs’ which underpinned

3 / CARBETH

towers in the burgeoning financial district located in west

the drive for settlement were not purely based on finding

/ Typical hut in the Carbeth hutting ground near Glasgow, Scotland. The community is centred around simple, off-grid living as a means of escaping the fast paced city lifestyle.

Caracas. The Centro was envisioned as the centrepiece in

adequate shelter. In Slab City the wish to live a life without

the city’s new financial infrastructure. It would comprise

restriction drove people into the desert, where in Carbeth

five blocks: an apartment building, a dedicated stair core,

the desire to live a basic, quiet life ignited a bitter legal battle

0112 /

Jencks, Charles and Silver, Nathan, Adhocism: The Case for Improvisation, (Massachusetts, 2013) Jenkins, Alan, The Social Theory of Claude Levi-Strauss (London, 1979) Kallipoliti, Lydia, 2012, ‘Torre David / Gran Horizonte’, Journal of Architectural Education, 67 (2012) Martynoga, Fi, ‘Hut Life: The Stories of Three Communities’, Reporting Scotland, 43 (2011) May, James and Reid, Anthony, Buildings Without Architects (New York, 2010) Oliver, Paul, Dwellings (New York, 2003) Rudofsky, Bernard, Architecture Without Architects (London, 1964) Scalbert, Irénée, ‘The Architect as Bricoleur’, Candide 04 (2011) Shepherd, Paul, What is Architecture? An Essay on Landscapes, Buildings and Machines (London, 1999) Urban-Think Tank, Torre David: Informal Vertical Communities (Zurich, 2013)


GC1 GC2 GC3 GC4 GC5 GC6 GC7 GC8 GC9 GC10 GC11

P ACADEMIC PORTFOLIO

YEAR / 4 SEMESTER / 2

COURSE CODE / ARCH10005

ACA DE M IC P ORTFOLIO PART 1 DESCRIPTION An Academic Portfolio is a comprehensive chronological record of all the assessable work a student produces during a specified phase of their undergraduate architectural education. This work will include design project work (presentation material and sketch books), essays, reports, and dissertations, along with the project briefs, essay questions, and course outlines. The Academic Portfolio 1 course in this course is focussed on work produced in the BA and the MA(Hons) Architecture degree.

LEARNING OUTCOMES L01 / Compose a coherent, well designed and integrated architectural design portfolio that documents and communicates architectural knowledge, skills and abilities, and that synthesizes and presents work produced using diverse media (sketch books, written work, computer work, drawings and models, etc). L02 / Integrate knowledge in architectural design, technology and environment, histories and theories of architecture and the related arts, professionalism and regulatory frameworks as evidenced through the content of the portfolio. L03 / Reflect on personal development with reference to the attainment of the ARB/RIBA Part 1 Graduate Attributes through an introductory summative statement, and understand the relationship of the General Criteria to the studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work, as demonstrated through a referencing system in the portfolio.

0113 /

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT As my time as an undergraduate architecture student comes to a close, I consider what I have learned over the past four years. It is a difficult task, as the body of work completed over the course of my studies is so extensive and diverse however, the completion of this document has afforded me a unique view of my architectural education to date.

FIGURE 1 / Graphic representation of the whole degree, which each colour representing a different type of course - with the darker courses representing a higher year.


[EN D OF PART 1 ]

Academic Portfolio / University of Edinburgh School of Architecture 2011-2015  
Academic Portfolio / University of Edinburgh School of Architecture 2011-2015  
Advertisement