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DANIEL IBAÑEZ, CLARE LYSTER, CHARLES WALDHEIM, MASON WHITE

THIRD COAST ATLAS PRELUDE TO A PLAN

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CONTENTS

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4

Preface

6

Acknowledgments

8

Foreword Keller Easterling

12

Introduction: Fluid Ecologies, Fluid Economies

22

Portfolio NASA

28

PROJECTIONS

56

Portfolio Robert Burley

62

POTENTIALS

63

Regionalization Pierre Bélanger

74

Living in the Glacial Afterlife Anya Domlesky and Geoff Manaugh

84

Shed Cartographies Kathy Velikov and Geoffrey Thün

96

Coastal Portage Michael Ezban and Jana VanderGoot

106

Reclaiming the Littoral Sean Burkholder and Karen Lutsky

114

Cutting the Corporate Lawn Alissa North

126

The Longest Undefended Border Mark Hogan and Tim Maly

136

Inhabiting the Water Cycle María Arquero de Alarcón and Jen Maigret

142

The Great Salt Deposit Rosetta S. Elkin

150

The Great Waste State Rania Ghosn and El Hadi Jazairy

158

Fresh Water Planning Martin Felsen

166

A 100-Year Vision Phil Enquist

176

Portfolio Edward Burtynsky

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182

PROFILES

214

Portfolio Alex MacLean

220

PROSPECTS

222

CHICAGO First City of the Third Coast Robert Bruegmann

226

MILWAUKEE Repositioning the Inner Harbor James Wasley

231

GRAND RAPIDS Made Richard James Broene

236

DETROIT Locating the Un-city Jerry Herron

240

TOLEDO Bubbling up from the Great Black Swamp Katerina Rüedi Ray

245

CLEVELAND Vacancy, Hydrology, Redevelopment Terry Schwarz

249

BUFFALO The Imagination of Water Lynda H. Schneekloth

254

TORONTO Good’s Gone, Fine’s Just Perfect Richard Sommer

261

ROCHESTER Smugtown Sprawls A. Joan Saab

266

SYRACUSE As Built Julia Czerniak

271

OTTAWA Power on the Third Coast Shelagh McCartney

276

MONTREAL Blue Collars, Green Corridors, Post-industrial Waterways

Nik Luka and Heather Braiden

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282

Portfolio Mapping the Third Coast, 1643-1837

292

PLANS

320

Portfolio U.S. Lake Survey, 1849-1879

331

Credits

333

Contributors

344

Index

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4 __ PREFACE

PREFACE

Third Coast Atlas: Prelude to a Plan describes the conditions for urbanization across the Great Lakes region. It assembles a multi-layered, empirical description of urbanization processes within the drainage basins of the five Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. This thick description encompasses a range of representational forms including maps, plans, diagrams, timelines, and photographs, as well as speculative design research projects and critical texts. Postponing diagnosis, let alone treatment of these conditions, this atlas aspires to simply describe. It proposes a new geographic gestalt for urban analysis. Superimposed upon the North American continent, and with easily recognizable yet divergent political and geological borders, this megaregion traverses portions of eight U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, as well as the world’s largest collection of fresh water. This specific geography, derived from the geomorphological residue of deep history, is taken as an emergent territorial claim, enabling a form of urban inquiry that extends beyond the scale and scope of any individual urban figure. It favors a more synthetic, complex, and potentially productive, if not problematic, whole. As such, this resource book offers an alternative to the dominant modes of urban description. It uses its pages to focus on the individual urban center or project while postponing broad assertions to the global or planetary conditions of urbanization. While avoiding a return to a simple or naive regionalism, Third Coast Atlas is motivated by the desire for specifically grounded cases of urban description, with sites and subjects specific to the ecologies and economies they contain. In the wake of the failures of regional ecological planning on the one hand, and regional governance models on the other, the Atlas proposes a detailing of ecological and economic contexts for urbanization with the

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intent to provide the preparatory ideation for future urban work—a prelude to a plan. Third Coast Atlas: Prelude to a Plan culminates and consolidates a multi-year research project, pursued by the editors in collaboration with a range of individual and institutional partners. The project has been conceived by an eclectic collective of architects and urbanists, half-European, half-North American, educated in very different contexts and at different times on both sides of the Atlantic. Collectively, the editors share a commitment to the urban project. They have each been radicalized around the potential to problematize contemporary urbanism through readings of landscape and infrastructure, ecology and economy. The project has been informed and inspired by a range of precedents for the description of urban conditions. Third Coast Atlas also sits within a longer genealogy of mapmaking and cartographic traditions. As such, it grounds the urban project with empirical conditions and limits, proposing a productive tension between the ecological, infrastructural, and economic orders of the region. The Atlas appropriates the colloquial American formulation “Third Coast” as a suitably enigmatic, yet substantially specific, appellation for this new territorial claim. The precise etymology of the Third Coast remains obscure, and other regions have made their own claims upon the term, yet for the better part of the past half-century it has served as an organic, autochthonous toponym for the urbanized rim of the Great Lakes Basin. By characterizing the liminal edge between land and not-land as a field of urbanization, Third Coast Atlas productively complicates the urban portrait of this part of the world, in relation to others, while offering a reading that is at once specific, yet speculative.

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8 __ FOREWORD

FOREWORD Third Coast Atlas Keller Easterling

Those who make decisions about global urban development speak in several different technical languages that often foreground econometrics. The publications of government agencies or “Washington Consensus” consultancies offer bullet points in “bankspeak” and executive summaries in “managementese.” Despite the historically consistent failures of these sorts of bureaucratic recommendations, they continue to be given great authority. Architects and urbanists are typically advised to shed their naiveté and conform to the “superior intelligence” of bond instruments, mortgages, or tax-free foreign investment. Third Coast Atlas allows us to imagine a time when serious politicians, planners, and developers would never dream of advocating for urban or regional enterprises without first considering the profound correlative intelligence of territorial design. Rather than just a “study,” characterized as an inconvenient hurdle on the way to some bottom line, the ideas presented here aspire to be the theoretical foundation for a new era of municipal and regional endeavors. Historical precedents for this type of transformative collaboration include promotional documents like Wacker’s Manual of the Plan of Chicago (1911) and the Regional Plan Association’s 1929 plan for New York. Films like The City, shown at the 1939 World’s Fair, dramatized the regional vision of the Regional Planning Association of America (the group that included advocates like Lewis Mumford, Benton MacKaye, Henry Wright, and Stuart Chase). Even many government documents from the New Deal period provided literate, nuanced research methodologies and vivid info-graphics (in the style of Otto Neurath) that instantly communicated complex ideas. One of the most remarkable of these government studies, Regional Factors in National Planning and Development, by the National Resources Committee in 1935, actually proposed to subdivide the country into regions, based on a collective series of factors, including groups of states, areas of metropolitan influence, and watersheds. With the Tennessee Valley Authority in full swing, perhaps it was easier to imagine regional administrations making political decisions based on the physical features of the landscape and the flow of water. Economic values were not tied to abstract financial speculations but rather to the heavy, volumetric productivity of agriculture and hydroelectricity. Hoping to capture the imagination of a broad audience, Third Coast Atlas is an extension of these influential documents, updated for a globalizing world. In a continent that often looks to the powers on its east and west coasts, this book envisions a new international, mid-continent epicenter. The Great Lakes region offers the most abundant freshwater resource on the planet as well as an industrial and agricultural network tied to the Atlantic Ocean, the St. Lawrence Seaway, and

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Gulf of Mexico. Given political deadlocks as well as the collapse of the financial and manufacturing industries in the region, the ideas in this book are perfectly timed to demonstrate alternative perspectives and new opportunities for retooled engagement and development.

J. H. Colton, Comparative Size of Lakes and Islands, 1855.

Third Coast Atlas assembles an impressive network of thinkers and practitioners whose interdisciplinary research efforts exceed the limitations of planning bureaucracies. Their art of territorial design envisions a new form of regional sovereignty and productivity, as well as a new marketplace of values that revitalizes commercial and civic endeavors. With aesthetics different from those of fixed master plans, their texts and rich accessible graphics appraise the performance of the landscape and the practices of urbanity. No longer vaguely calling this region “midwest” while looking to the left or right, and no longer patiently deferring to failed economic theory, Third Coast Atlas offers a fresh medium for ideas about the future of a planetary resource.

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NASA Visible Earth, Freezing Great Lakes Region, 2005.

26 __ FLUID ECONOMIES, FLUID ECOLOGIES

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NASA Visible Earth, Ice Covers the Great Lakes, 2003.


36 __ PROJECTIONS PACIFIC

ATLANTIC

GREAT LAKES

HALIFAX

QUEBEC CITY MONTREAL BOSTON

ROCHESTER BUFFALO

CLEVELAND

NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA BALTIMORE WASHINGTON D.C. RICHMOND

TOLEDO DETROIT

CHARLESTON SAVANNAH ANCHORAGE

GRAND RAPIDS CHICAGO MILWAUKEE MIAMI

SAULT STE. MARIE

DULUTH

TAMPA

MOBILE NEW ORLEANS

SAULT STE. MARIE HOUSTON BROWNSVILLE THUNDER BAY VANCOUVER SEATTLE

SARNIA DETROIT

HAMILTON TORONTO SAN FRANCISCO

MONTREAL LOS ANGELES SAN DIEGO

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QUEBEC CITY

NORTHERN AMERICAN COASTLINES A comparison of North America’s predominate coasts reveals the Great Lakes coastline to be longer than that of the Atlantic and of the Pacific. As opposed to these better-known saline competitors, the Third Coast possesses a near continuous urbanity. The Third Coast measures approximately 10,900 miles (17,550 kilometers), including connecting channels, mainland and islands. The shoreline is about 42 percent of the circumference of the Earth, with Michigan’s coastline alone totaling 3,288 miles (5,294 kilometers) more than any state except for Alaska.

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+

THUNDER BAY

+

DULUTH

++

SAULT STE. MARIE (CA) SAULT STE. MARIE (US)

SAULT STE. MARIE (US)

THUNDER BAY

DULUTH

SAULT STE. MARIE (CA)

LAKE SUPERIOR 12,232 km3 water volume 4393 km coastline

KM3

LAKE SUPERIOR Lake Superior is one of the least urbanized of the lakes with only Thunder Bay (population: 121,596), Duluth (population: 279,887), and Sault Ste. Marie (population: 79,800) as coastal cities. Rather than urbanized or farmed, most of the watershed is forested. These edge conditions for land use produce relatively few pollutants entering the lake, while the lake’s depth and relatively low year-round temperature maintain Superior’s status as the cleanest and healthiest of the lakes. Length: 350 mi / 563 km Breadth: 160 mi / 257 km Depth: 489 ft average, 1,333 maximum / 149 m average / 406 m maximum Volume: 2,935 mi3 / 12,232 km3 Surface Area: 31,700 mi2 / 82,097 km2 Retention: 173 years Population: 444,000 U.S.; 229,000 Canada

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YOW BUF

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Figure 2. CommuterShed. Map Sources: U.S. Department of Transportation (2009). Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA). Air Carriers: T-100 Domestic Market, 2009. http://www.transtats.bts. gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=310 (accessed July 2010). U.S. Department of Transportation (2009). Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA). Air Carriers: T-100 International Market, 2009. http://www. transtats.bts.gov/Fields.asp?Table_ID=260 (accessed July 2010). Transport Canada (2010). Transportation in Canada Addendum. http://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/policy/ addendum2010.pdf (accessed July 2011).

ANJ

YQT

88 __ SHED CARTOGRAPHIES

While both the United States and Canada project population growth concentrated adjacent to major highway arteries, it is not the increased commuter traffic alone that will further stress congestion, as truck-born freight is projected to double by 2035.25

25. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), “Truck volumes are expected to double by 2035, and rail freight to increase by over 60 percent,” A New Vision for the 21st Century (2007): 57, accessed March 17, 2008, www.transportation.org. 26. World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), Mobility 2030: Meeting the Challenges to Sustainability (2004), accessed April 8, 2009, http://www. wbcsd.org/pages/edocument/edocumentdetails.aspx?id=69. 27. Regional Plan Association, High Speed Rail in America, America 2050 (2011): 22, accessed August 14, 2012, http://www. america2050.org/2011/01/high-speed-railin-america.html.

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The dispersed, low-density urbanism that defines the Great Lakes megaregion, and the intensity of human movement between its urban locations, is revealed in the CommuterShed (fig. 2). Road-based movements are described through annual traffic volume along infrastructural conduits, and intraregional movements between hubs are represented as an annual number of commuters. While new communications technologies promise to reduce a demand for physical mobility, actual data reveals an immense and increasing global demand for the infrastructural systems that support the movement of people, be it due to lifestyle choices, contemporary models of employment commitment, or the transient nature of corporate assets.26 The increasing numbers of regional commuter aircraft trips are of particular concern, exacerbating conditions at already congested airports. According to FAA statistics, the Chicago-Minneapolis, Chicago-Detroit, and Chicago-St. Louis corridors are among the top air markets of less than 600 miles.27 Regional aircraft are also notoriously poor energy performers, consuming more fuel (and consequently causing greater environmental impact) per unit of passenger travel than larger long-distance aircraft. The AgriShed (fig. 3) spatializes the agro-industrial economy of the region, historically developed through the symbiosis between agricultural production, processing, and manufacturing capacity, as well as expansive distribution networks. The contemporary legacy of these systems remains today. The AgriShed depicts primary agricultural land cover by crop and specific geographic sites of secondary processing centers. Overlaid on crop-based food production are hardiness zones and the spatial distribution of government-agricultural subsidies. Also included are major distribution centers for processed food and critical transportation networks between related locations

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LARGEST GRAPE PROCESSING FACILITY WELCH’S COMPANY NORTH EAST, PA

CARGILL PORK PROCESSING 430,000 SQUARE FEET 2.8 MILLION POUNDS /DAY BEARDSTOWN, ILLINOIS

LARGEST BAKERY IN THE WORLD NABISCO PLANT 1,800,000 SQUARE FEET CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

MIDWEST SALT TERMINAL MORTON SALT CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

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LARGEST DAIRY FARM IN WISCONSIN " " ROSENDALE DAIRY FARM " " 8300 HEADS OF CATTLE ROSENDALE, WISCONSIN

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LARGEST NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL " GREENHOUSES " " 137,788,835 SQUARE FEET " " 220,114 TONNES OF TOMATOES ANNUALLY " " LEAMINGTON, ONTARIO

THUNDER BAY GRAIN ELEVATORS 1.4 MILLION TONNE CAPACITY THUNDER BAY, ONTARIO

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PURDUE UNIVERSITY _ENDOWMENT _RESEARCH FUNDING

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" "

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY _ENDOWMENT $1887.6 MIL _RESEARCH FUNDING $720.21 MIL "

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"

EASTERN CEREAL AND OILSEED RESEARCH CENTRE

$189.30 MIL $4400.0 MIL

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CORNELL UNIVERSITY _ENDOWMENT _RESEARCH FUNDING " "

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GUELPH FOOD RESEARCH CENTRE

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SOUTHERN CROP PROTECTION & FOOD RESEARCH

"

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NESTLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

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GREENHOUSE AND PROCESSING CROPS RESEARCH CENTRE

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FOOD MARKETS $3.43BIL 1279

FOOD MARKETS $4.21BIL 1158

GEORGE WESTON INC." "" "" """" " " "" "" " " " "" " " """""" " " " " " " " " "FOOD _INDUSTRY "" " " "" MARKETS " " " "" " "" " " "" " " " "" " """ "" " " "" " " " " _MARKET VALUE " " " " " " "$8.52BIL " " """ " " "" "" " " " _RANK 412 " " "" " "

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HORTICULTURE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

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Figure 3. AgriShed. Map Sources: U.S. Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zone Map (2006). Wine: Appellation America, accessed March (2012). Forbes Global 2000 Corporation Statistics (accessed March 2012). Environmental Working Group Farm Subsidy Database (2011). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Census of Agriculture (2007). Statistics Canada 2011 Census of Agriculture. GeoBase Initiative (2011). MWPVL Grocery Distribution Center Network in North America (2010). Economic Research Service Food Access Research Atlas, U.S. Department of Agriculture (2012). American Research University Data, The Center for Measuring University Performance (2011).

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138 __ INHABITING THE WATER CYCLE

urban 0-1 outfalls 2-5 outfalls

urban

0-1 outfalls 6-10

outfalls

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11-20>outfalls 20 outfalls > 20 outfalls

0

Figure 2. Contested Boundaries. Mapping overlaying county lines and watershed boundaries, highlighting in grey hatch the areas where watersheds fall within multiple administrative jurisdictions. Figure 3. Urban areas layered with locations and intensities of outfalls. Mapping three years of documented outfall occurrences overlaid on top of urban land cover patterns. Outfall occurrences acquired through the United States Environmental Protection Agency ECHO program, accessed August 9, 2010, http://echo.epa.gov/; or the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, accessed August 16, 2010, http://www.ene. gov.on.ca/en/water/cleanwater/index.php. Land cover patterns acquired from the 2005 North American Land Cover at 250m spatial resolution. Produced by Natural Resources Canada / Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing (NRCan/CCRS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS). 8. Karen Hobbs and Josh Mogerman, “Testing the Waters,” (Natural resources Defense Council, June 2014), accessed August 2015, http://www.nrdc.org/water/ oceans/ttw/great-lakes.asp. 9. Olga Lyandres and Lyman C. Welch, “Reducing Combined Sewer Overflows in the Great Lakes: Why Investing in Infrastructure is Critical to Improving Water Quality” (Alliance for the Great Lakes, June 19, 2012), accessed April 2015, www. greatlakes.org/document.doc?id=1178. 10. Tom Schueler, Impacts of Impervious Cover on Aquatic Systems (Ellicott City, MD: Center for Watershed Protection, 2003).

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the Great Lakes Basin, water governance encompasses two countries, eight states, one province, dozens of counties, and thousands of municipalities, none of which align with any, single, watershed. In this way, visualizing the mismatch between the watershed boundaries and the administrative jurisdictions is a powerful indicator of the nested conflicts inherited in the region (fig. 2). A second, ongoing challenge is related to the legacy of the construction of wastewater infrastructure throughout the region. This immense and complex system is an outcome of hundreds of millions of dollars in investments and holds the largest number (70 percent overall) of combined sewer systems (CSOs) in the United States.8 The physical infrastructure of CSOs ties together the collection of sanitary wastewater (domestic sewage as well as industrial and commercial wastewater) and stormwater through a system of pipes to a wastewater treatment plant. While faster and cheaper to construct initially, CSO systems now pose a serious technical and conceptual challenge. Technically, the massive volume of wastewater these systems are equipped to handle, particularly after a rainstorm, is confounding. In 2010 alone, the outfalls in the eight Great Lakes states released 18.7 billion gallons of untreated wastewater and stormwater.9 Cumulatively, the millions of gallons of untreated sewage that flows from failing infrastructure every time it rains is the single most important predictor of the negative impacts of urban development on water resources.10 To compound matters, CSOs suffer from a categorical error of classification. This means that wastewater treatment plants connected to CSO systems are regulated as point source polluters and hold EPA discharge permits. We only need look “upstream,” however, to see why this classification should be called into question. The pipes and outfalls that shape our perception of the system as a point source are not actually tied to a single “source,” as is the case with most factories. Instead, these pipes are literally the combined outcome of millions of point sources (homes, businesses, etc.) and the runoff from the constructed surfaces of many independent municipalities (fig. 3). Conceptually, we would be better served to reclassify CSO systems as non-point polluters and prioritize innovative approaches to holistic, upstream design. Presently, municipal and regional sewerage departments are burdened with litigation and should not be expected to address such a nested, complex problem in isolation.

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ST. LA WR ENC E RI VER

212 __ PROFILES

Sainte-Hélène Island Notre-Dame Island

Victoria Bridge Old Port Old Montreal Lachine Canal

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266 __ SYRACUSE

SYRACUSE As Built Julia Czerniak

1. For more on Chancellor Cantor’s vision of Scholarship in Action, see Carol L. Boll, “The Cantor Years,” Syracuse University Magazine 32, no. 1 (Spring 2015). 2. Ibid.

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One of the most powerful drivers of innovative and catalytic urban work in the City of Syracuse since 2004 has been “Scholarship in Action,” an almost decadelong initiative at Syracuse University led by former Chancellor, Nancy Cantor. The initiative expanded opportunities to forge “bold, imaginative, reciprocal, and sustained engagement” between the university and the city, the development community, and not-for-profits. Cantor invokes what sociologist Saskia Sassen calls “cityness” or the “intersection of differences” as the very foundation of urbanity.1 This intersection of traditionally separate entities is founded on Cantor’s view that “the work of the campus is the work of the world,” emphasizing the role of the university as a public good. By valuing engaged scholarship, Cantor elevated the work being done in the arts and humanities to the same level of importance as that being done in the sciences, thus enabling significant research that spans across a range of disciplines. This support for interdisciplinary research has attracted strong faculty to the university. Cantor also revised the assessment criteria for tenure to include engagement work, rewarding and validating those who engaged in this type of research.2 Tangible results of Syracuse University’s commitment to the city come in the form of numerous programs and projects that have changed the landscape of both “town” and “gown,” including built projects both large and small. Projects incorporated multiple approaches to commissioning public and private work that involved nationally recognized design firms working with the participation of students and faculty. Community engagement, as well as the political and financial support of local, regional, and federal governments were all critical to the process. This work has catalyzed the regeneration of Syracuse, New York—a 26-square-mile city, located near the southern shore of Lake Ontario and along the route of the old Erie Canal. Like many Rust Belt cities, Syracuse has been shrinking in population for decades—as evidenced by the loss of city fabric, the diminishment of social welfare networks, the erosion of public schools, the loss of industry, increasing amounts of tax-delinquent and vacant land, and crumbling infrastructure. The resulting environment is characterized by partially occupied remnant fabric and parking surfaces adjacent to a still-active downtown and an emerging visual and performing arts infrastructure in a mixture that is not all that promising for vibrant urban life. And although the city has lost much of its manufacturing and commercial base—it was once a regional center for salt production and its proximity to the lake and canal made it a crossroads of industry—it enjoys a healthy service sector and the benefits of significant healthcare and higher education institutions. In this context, two of the largest public initiatives were spearheaded by Cantor: the Syracuse Connective Corridor, a two mile multi-model urban landscape, linking the university with the downtown and the Near West Side Initiative (NWSI), a nonprofit-led effort to revitalize a long neglected inner-city neighborhood.

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1950

*

METRO POP. (2010) 662,577 MUNICIPAL POP. (2010) 145,170

URBAN RENEWAL HIGH RISE HOUSING DOMED BOTANICAL GARDENS

O’CONNOR PLAN NEW CITY CENTER 1930

250,000

200,000

ELEVATED HIGHWAYS 1960s RUDOLPH PROPOSAL FOR CITY HALL 1964

POOR NEIGHBORHOODS NEAR CITY CENTER 1910 GROWTH COMMERCIAL CENTER 1900s

CONNECTIVE CORRIDOR 2005-2011

URBAN RENEWAL SCHEME FOR CLINTON SQUARE 1965

BUSTLING CENTER OF SYRACUSE 1920

150,000

1937

ONONDAGA CREEK PUMPING STATION 1880s

100,000

50,000

EARLY POSTWAR HOUSING 1952

ERIE CANAL OPENS 1825

CITY EXPANDS 1834

MILITARY TRACTS SETTLED 1795

* 1800 CITY FOUNDING

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1850

1900 EARLY INDUSTRY, ECONOMIC GROWTH, POPULATION GROWTH

1950 ECONOMIC DECLINE, SUBURBANIZATION & URBAN RENEWAL

METRO AREA HISTORIC EVENT URBAN TRANSFORMATION 2000

ECONOMIC & POPULATION DECLINE

URBAN REVITALIZATION

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292 __ PLANS

PLANS

Plans describes the conditions for urbanization across the region through the most significant urban projects and plans produced since the turn of the twenty-first century. This indexical survey comprises over 100 projects concerned with urbanization found in the boundaries of the basin. These projects, proposals, and plans stand as a unique body of work revealing the status of the urban project across the region. The survey is complemented with a map illustrating the geographical distribution and correlation of these proposals across the region. This overview of design and planning activities over the recent past reveals several conditions shaping processes of urbanization across the region, as well as the aspirations of designers and planners working there.

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LAKE MICHIGAN

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O O O O O O O O O O O H O O O O O

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O O O O O O O O O LAKE HURON O O O O O O O O O O O O O O LAKE HURON O O O O O O O O OLAKE ONTARIO O O H O O O H O O O O O OO O O O O O O O M H E E H LAKE ONTARIO O O O E E E E E O O O E E E E O O O O E HE LAKE ERIE E E E E E EE EE E E E E E E E E E E LAKE ERIE E E E E E E E

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Great Lakes, Plan Index

HURONONTARIO ERIE

ST. LAWRENCE RIVER

ONTARIO ST. LAWRENCE RIVER

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GL1. RVTR, Conduit Urbanism, 2009-2012. GL2. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Great Lakes Century Vision Plan, 2009-2013. GL1

GL2

GREAT LAKES

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THIRD COAST ATLAS: PRELUDE TO A PLAN Editors Daniel Ibañez, Clare Lyster, Charles Waldheim, Mason White Published by Actar Publishers New York, Barcelona Design Concept Siena Scarff Design Graphic Design Ramon Prat Homs Copy Editor Jake Starmer Indexing Lane Rubin Distributed by Actar Distribution Inc. 440 Park Avenue South, 17th Floor New York, NY 10016 T +1 212 966 2207 F +1 212 966 2214 salesnewyork@actar-d.com Barcelona Roca i Batlle 2-4 08023 Barcelona T +34 933 282 183 salesbarcelona@actar-d.com eurosales@actar-d.com Copyright © 2017 Actar Publishers © Text and images by the authors All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopyng, recording, or otherwise, without prior written consent of the publishers, except in the context of reviews. The editors have made every effort to contact and acknowledge copyright owners. If there are instances where proper credit is not given, the publisher will make necessary changes in subsequent editions. ISBN 978-1-940291-91-8 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016960057 A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA. This publication was supported by grants from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts and the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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ATR036_Hardcover PANTONE 8183C

PACIFIC

ATLANTIC

GREAT LAKES

HALIFAX

DANIEL IBAÑEZ CLARE LYSTER CHARLES WALDHEIM MASON WHITE

DANIEL IBAÑEZ, CLARE LYSTER, CHARLES WALDHEIM, MASON WHITE

QUEBEC CITY MONTREAL BOSTON

ROCHESTER BUFFALO

CLEVELAND

NEW YORK PHILADELPHIA BALTIMORE WASHINGTON D.C. RICHMOND

TOLEDO DETROIT

CHARLESTON SAVANNAH ANCHORAGE

GRAND RAPIDS CHICAGO MILWAUKEE MIAMI

SAULT STE. MARIE

DULUTH

TAMPA

MOBILE NEW ORLEANS

SAULT STE. MARIE HOUSTON BROWNSVILLE THUNDER BAY VANCOUVER SEATTLE

SARNIA DETROIT

HAMILTON TORONTO SAN FRANCISCO

MONTREAL LOS ANGELES SAN DIEGO

ATR036_Hardcover.indd 1

QUEBEC CITY

Third Coast Atlas: Prelude to a Plan describes the conditions for urbanization across the Great Lakes region. It assembles a multi-layered, empirical description of urbanization processes within the drainage basins of the five Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. This thick description encompasses a range of representational forms including maps, plans, diagrams, timelines, and photographs, as well as speculative design research projects and critical texts. Postponing diagnosis, let alone treatment of these conditions, this atlas aspires to simply describe. It proposes a new geographic gestalt for urban analysis. Superimposed upon the North American continent, and with easily recognizable yet divergent political and geological borders, this megaregion traverses portions of eight US states and two Canadian provinces, as well as the world’s largest collection of fresh water. Third Coast Atlas characterizes the littoral edge as a distinct field of urbanization, and constructs a reading of the region both specific and speculative.

PRELUDE TO A PLAN

17-6-5 下午3:01

Third Coast Atlas  
Third Coast Atlas  

Third Coast Atlas: Prelude to a Plan describes the conditions for urbanization across the Great Lakes region. It assembles a multi-layered,...

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