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Thoughtful mind A collection of articles by Stefanos Gialamas, Ph.D.                                         ©  ACS  Athens  2013  


Contents  

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Biographical Note  .....................................................................................................................  Page  1   Introduction,  Dedication,  Acknowledgements  .........................................................................  Page  2   EDUCATIONAL  INSTITUTIONS:  PREPARING  YOUNG  PEOPLE  TO  SERVE  HUMANITY  .................  Page  3   CREATING  AN  INSTITUTIONAL  CULTURE    FOSTERING  INNOVATION  IN  EDUCATION  ...............  Page  7   EDUCATIONAL  INSTITUTIONS:  PREPARING  YOUNG  PEOPLE  TO  SERVE  HUMANITY  ...............  Page  15   METAMORPHOSIS:  A  COLLABORATIVE  LEADERSHIP  MODEL  TO  PROMOTE   EDUCATIONAL  CHANGE  ..........................................................................................................  Page  19   ENGAGING  THE  MINDS  OF  OUR  YOUTH:  THE  HIGH  PERFORMING  STUDENT  PROGRAM   AT  ACS  ATHENS  .......................................................................................................................  Page  28   INNOVATION,  COLLABORATION  AND  BRIDGING  THE  HIGH  SCHOOL  –  UNIVERSITY   EXPERIENCE:  ONE  EXAMPLE  OF  EDUCATIONAL  METAMORPHOSIS  IN  PRACTICE  ..................  Page  44   LEADERSHIP  COLLABORATION:    HIGH  SCHOOL  AND  COLLEGE  ENVIRONMENTS  ...................  Page  46   EDUCATIONAL  PHILOSOPHY  &  THE  STRING  THEORY:  AN  ATYPICAL  PARADIGM  ...................  Page  48   A  MARTIAN  INVASION  OF  TEACHABLE  MOMENTS  FOR  ENVIRONMENTAL  SCIENCE   AND  RELATED  ISSUES  .............................................................................................................  Page  50   AN  INTERNATIONAL  PERSPECTIVE  OF  ACADEMIC  LEADERSHIP  .............................................  Page  63   LEADERSHIP  PRAXIS  IN  INTERNATIONAL  EDUCATION  MEANINGFUL  FACULTY   EVALUATION  &  ASSESSMENT:    A  COMPREHENSIVE  APPROACH  FOR  A  YEARLY   FACULTY  PERFORMANCE  EVALUATION  REPORT  ....................................................................  Page  74   STRENGTHENING  THE  ACADEMIC  DEPARTMENT  THROUGH  EMPOWERMENT  OF   FACULTY  AND  STAFF  ...............................................................................................................  Page  77   CONNECTING  WITH  COLLEGE  EDUCATION:  A  HOLISTIC  APPROACH  ......................................  Page  90   LEADERSHIP:  INSPIRED  BY  CIVIC  RESPONSIBILITY  ..................................................................  Page  93   LEARNING  THROUGH  SERVICE  ................................................................................................  Page  98   MORPHOSIS  LEADERSHIP  BEING  VISIONARIES  IN  A  CHANGING  WORLD  .............................  Page  101   PREPARING  HIGH  SCHOOL  STUDENTS  FOR  COLLEGE  LIFE:  AN  EDUCATIONAL  ANALYSIS   OF  A  DIFFERENT  KIND  OF  ‘MORFOSIS’  -­‐  THE  ACS  ATHENS  MODEL  ......................................  Page  107   PREPARING  HIGH  SCHOOL  STUDENTS  FOR  COLLEGE  SUCCESS:  A  COLLEGE  AND  HIGH   SCHOOL  LEADERSHIP  COLLABORATION  ...............................................................................  Page  110   PREPARING  STUDENTS  FOR  THE  COLLEGE  EXPERIENCE  .......................................................  Page  114   ACADEMIC  LEADERSHIP  ON  FACULTY  PERFORMANCE  ........................................................  Page  120   ACADEMIC  LEADERSHIP  A  REFLECTIVE  PRACTIONER’S  APPROACH  .....................................  Page  127   ACADEMIC  LEADERSHIP:  EMBRACING  CIVIC  RESPONSIBILITY  ..............................................  Page  133   BUILDING  BRIDGES  ACROSS  THE  SPECTRUM  K-­‐12  THROUGH  COLLEGE  EDUCATION  A   HOLISTIC,  MEANINGFUL  AND  HARMONIOUS  APPROACH  ....................................................  Page  135   SCIENCE  AND  MATHEMATICS:  INTEGRATING  THE  TEACHING  OF  SCIENCE,  MATH  &   SOCIAL  STUDIES  IN  RELEVANT  CONTEXT  ..............................................................................  Page  137   THE  PROFILE  OF  A  HIGH  SCHOOL  GRADUATE  IN  THE  21ST  CENTURY  ..................................  Page  149   A  LEADERSHIP  APPROACH  FOR  DEPARTMENT  CHAIRS  ........................................................  Page  150   i-­‐OPTIMIZE  INTEGRATED  LEARNING  SYSTEM  (OPTIMIZING  THE  POWER  OF  ONSITE   AND  ONLINE  TEACHING  AND  LEARNING)  .............................................................................  Page  153   FACULTY  PERFORMANCE  APPRAISAL  ...................................................................................  Page  168   CREATING  AN  ENVIRONMENT  FOR  MINIMIZING  CONFLICT  BETWEEN  FACULTY  AND   THE  DEPARTMENT  CHAIRPERSON  ........................................................................................  Page  173   PENNIES  IN  THE  CLASSROOM  GUIDED  INQUIRY  LABORATORIES  .........................................  Page  176   PREPARING  NEW  DEPARTMENT  CHAIRPERSONS  IN  THE  AREA  OF  FACULTY   LEADERSHIP;  A  PRACTITIONER'S  APPROACH  ........................................................................  Page  182   USING  GUIDED  INQUIRY  IN  TEACHING  MATHEMATICAL  CONCEPTS  ...................................  Page  189   NUMERICAL  NOTATION  SYSTEMS  IN  ANCIENT  GREECE  .......................................................  Page  199   KNOTS,LINKS  AND  THE  FIBONACCI  SEQUENCE  ....................................................................  Page  204  


• CAN HUMAN  FACTOR  CONCEPT  BE  TAUGHT?    A  PRELIMINARY  INSTITUTIONAL   SURVEY  AND  REPORT  ...........................................................................................................  Page  212   • INTRODUCING  THE  CONCEPTS  OF  LIGHT  AND  LASER  THROUGH  A  GUIDED  INQUIRY   APPROACH  FOR  CONCEPTUAL  CHANGE  -­‐  PART  III*  BACKGROUND  INFORMATION  ............  Page  232   • INTRODUCING  THE  CONCEPTS  OF  LIGHT  AND  LASER  THROUGH  A  GUIDED  INQUIRY   APPROACH  FOR  CONCEPTUAL  CHANGE  -­‐  PARTS  I  AND  II  **  ................................................  Page  242   • MATHEMATICAL  JOURNEY  THROUGH  THE  HUMAN  BODY:  INTEGRATING  SCIENCE,   MATHEMATICS,  AND  SOCIAL  STUDIES  AT  ELEMENTARY  SCHOOL  LEVELS  ...........................  Page  250   • KNOTS  EVERYWHERE  FROM  ANCIENT  EGYPT  TO  MODERN  PHYSICS  ...................................  Page  269   • ZERO:  THE  EXCEPTIONAL  NUMBER  ......................................................................................  Page  273  

Articles in  Greek   • ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΑ  ΙΔΡΥΜΑΤΑ:  ΠΡΟΕΤΟΙΜΑΖΟΝΤΑΣ  ΝΕΟΥΣ  ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΥΣ  ΣΤΗΝ  ΥΠΗΡΕΣΙΑ   ΤΗΣ  ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΤΗΤΑΣ  ...........................................................................................................  Page  279   • Η  ΑΝAΓΚΗ  ΓΙΑ  ΜΙΑ  ΝEΑ  ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΗ  ΣΤΗΝ  ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΗ  ΗΓΕΣΙΑ  ΕΙΝΑΙ  ΑΠΑΡΑΙΤΗΤΗ  ......  Page  283   • ΟΡΑΜΑ  ΚΑΙ  ΠΡΑΚΤΙΚΗ  ΤΟΥ  ΑΚΑΔΗΜΑΪΚΟΥ  ΗΓΕΤΗ  ΜΕΣΑ  ΑΠΟ  ΤΟ  ΠΡΙΣΜΑ  ΤΗΣ   ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΗΣ  ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΤΗΤΑΣ  ............................................................................................  Page  286   • ΑΚΑΔΗΜΑΪΚΗ  ΗΓΕΣΙΑ  ΚΑΙ  ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΙΚΗ  ΚΑΘΟΔΗΓΗΣΗ  ΤΩΝ  ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΩΝ  ...........  Page  291   • ΜΕ  ΟΡΑΜΑ  ΤΟΝ  ΙΔΑΝΙΚΟ  «ΜΑΘΗΤΗ»  ΧΤΙΖΟΝΤΑΣ  ΤΗΝ  ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗ  ΤΟΥ  21ΟΥ   ΑΙΩΝΑ,    ΕΝΑ  ΣΚΑΛΟΠΑΤΙ  ΤΗ  ΦΟΡΑ  ......................................................................................  Page  294   • ΧΡΗΣΙΜΟΠΟΙΩΝΤΑΣ  ΚΑΘΟΔΗΓΟΥΜΕΝΗ  ΕΡΕΥΝΑ  ΣΤΗ  ΔΙΔΑΣΚΑΛΙΑ  ΤΩΝ   ΜΑΘΗΜΑΤΙΚΩΝ  ...................................................................................................................  Page  298            


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  Biographical  Note:   Dr.   Stefanos   Gialamas   is   the   President   of   the   American   Community   Schools   of   Athens  -­‐  ACS  Athens,  Greece.   He   holds   a   BS   in   Mathematics   /   Physics   from   the   Aristotle   University   of   Thessaloniki,   Greece,   an   MS   in   statistics   from   York   University   of   Toronto,   Canada.   He   also   holds   an   MA   in   Mathematics   from   the  State   University   of   New   York  at  Buffalo  and  a  Ph.D  in  Mathematics  (Knot  Theory)  from  the  University  of   Illinois  at  Chicago,  USA.   Prior  to  his  arrival  at  ACS  he  served  as  the  Provost  of  the  American  College  of   Thessaloniki   (ACT),   Greece.   He   has   also   served   for   several   years   as   the   Dean   and   VP   of   Academic   Leadership   Development,   Faculty,   and   Instruction   at   the   corporate  office  of  DeVry  University,  USA.   He   has   taught   graduate   and   undergraduate   mathematics,   computer,   management   and   leadership   courses   at   universities   in   Kansas,   Wisconsin   and   Illinois.   He   has   been   a   Professor,   Department   Chair,   a   Dean,   a   Provost,   a   President  and  an  education  consultant  since  1990.   Dr.   Gialamas’   professional   work   includes   research   in   Leadership   Development,   Faculty   Development,   Innovative   Approaches   in   Teaching   and   Learning,   Knot   Theory,   Mathematics   and   Arts,   the   History   and   Philosophy   of   Mathematics   and   Mathematics   Education.   He   has   published   numerous   articles   in   both   English   and   Greek   languages,  two  books  and  many  other  manuals.   He   is   a   member   of   the   International   Schools   Accreditation   Committee   (ISAC)   recommending   institutional   accreditation  to  the  Commission  of  the  Middle  States  Association  of  Colleges  and  Schools  (Philadelphia,  PA).  He  was   a   consultant/evaluator   for   the   Higher   Learning   Commission   of   the   North   Central   Association   of   Colleges   and   Schools   (Chicago,   IL).   He   has   also   served   as   the   VP   of   the   Hellenic   Institute   for   the   Greek   Language   and   Culture   (Athens,  Greece).  In  2002,  he  was  elected  Chairman  of  the  Education  Committee  of  the  Board  of  Education  of  the   Illinois  High  School  District  230,  representing  more  than  10,000  students  (Chicago,  IL).     Dr.   Gialamas   is   an   Associate   Editor   of   the   Academic   Leadership   online   Journal.   He   has   also   contributed   to   the   Journal  of  Human  Factor  Studies  as  its  Editor  (1999  –  2003).  He  was  also  member  of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the   State  of  Illinois  Mathematics  and  Science  Advisory  Committee.   He  has  received  Leadership  and  Educational  awards  from  diverse  academic  and  social  institutions  and  organizations   such   as   the   American   Association   of   University   Administrators,   International   Institute   for   Human   Factor   Development,   Hellenic   Council   of   Education,   the   University   of   Wisconsin,   Columbia   College   Chicago,   Illinois   Institute  of  Art,  DeVry  University  and  Pearson  Education.   th

In 2011,  Dr.  Gialamas  was  the  installation  speaker  for  the  9  President  at  the  University  of  Mary  Washington,  Dr.   Richard  Hurley,  with  the  title  “Engaging  Minds,  Serving  the  World.”  In  2010,  Dr.  Gialamas  was  the  commencement   speaker  at  the  Mediterranean  College  with  title  “The  Need  for  Leaders  with  Ethos.”    

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Introduction The  well  being  of  people  around  the  world  is  greatly  impacted  by   the  global  situation.  The  planet  becomes  smaller  and  smaller  and   humanity  needs  to  realize  this.  Local,  national,  and  global  leaders   must  take  into  consideration  this  fact  in  very  decision  they  make.     Education   and   Educational   Institutions   have   an   increased   responsibility  to  prepare  the  students  in  two  dimensions:   • •

Providing necessary  skills  and;   Instilling  universal  principles  and  values.  

This collection   of   articles   reflects   my   beliefs   and   my   commitment   in   educational   leadership   and   innovative   approaches  in  teaching  and  learning.  These  articles  are  the  result  of  many  decades  of  influence  by  students,   colleagues,  co-­‐authors,  and  parents.   In   particular   my   children,   Panayiotis   and   Zacharo-­‐Diamanto,   and   my   wife   Sofia   have   inspired   me   and   supported  me  all  these  years.  Without  their  inspiration  nothing  would  have  been  possible.      

Dedication I  am  dedicating  this  collection  of  articles  to  my  parents,  Diamantoula  and  Panayiotis  Gialamas,  educators  who   more   than   35   years   devoted   their   lives   in   educating   thousands   of   students.   They   have   instilled   essential   principles   and   values   in   me.   My   principle   philosophy   and   its   fundamental   pillars   were   influenced   by   my   father,  a  compassionate,  result  oriented  and  servant  leader.      

Acknowledgements I  would  like  to  express  my  sincere  appreciation  to  Ms.  Anna  Velivasaki  for  an  exceptional  job  she  has  done   with   the   collection.   In   many   articles,   due   to   the   poor   original   printed   quality   of   the   articles,   most   of   the   articles   had   to   be   redesigned,   modified,   or   retyped.   Without   her   creative   approach   and   hard   work,   the   collection  book  would  not  be  in  such  a  high  quality.  Thanks,  also,  to  John  Papadakis,  for  the  final  touches  on   this  publication.      

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E DUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS : PREPARING YOUNG PEOPLE TO

SERVE HUMANITY

BY: DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS

I N T E R N A T I O N A L S C H O O L S J O U R N A L , N O V E M B E R 2 012 Introduction Societal change, due to the complex functioning and globalization in many diverse and multiple dimensions, demands a different type of citizen. People need to live, work, develop and seek happiness locally under a global influence. Many previously well-established principles and values need to be questioned, re-examined and possibly challenged. The development and nurturing of the new local or global individual must acquire different competencies, master new skills, and operate with a more complex set of rules, in order to feel conscientious about protecting the environment and be compassionate about a fellow citizen who might reside on a different continent. How do we prepare young people for such a demanding life? What kind of an educational experience should they receive and what are the appropriate universal principles and values that must guide their actions personally and professionally? From an educational leadership perspective, the questions that accumulate experientially include: what curriculum and learning objectives do we need? Does it require a new way of assessing learning? What personal qualities and characteristics do faculty members need? Who should define these principles and values? What are the desirable qualities of educated people if they are to serve humanity? The author defined educational experience as 'the complete learning experience obtained from students academic, physical, spiritual and civic responsibilities (S. Gialamas and P. Pelonis 2009). Definitely, to answer all or some or many of these questions, we need to engage the minds of students, staff, faculty, administration, parents and friends of an academic institution with the underlying commitment to serve the family, the community, the nation and the world. Innovation and authentic leadership approaches are the enabling objectives to provide students with a unique, meaningful, high quality, holistic educational experience. Students will then use their academic knowledge to exercise wisdom in their decision-making as they become the keepers of the future of the planet. The educational institutions of the future require the following pillars: •

Innovative leadership.

Meaningful curriculum and delivery modalities.

Faculty as leaders.

Ethos.

Innovative leadership Innovative leadership is the continuous act of effectively engaging all members of the institution, as well as utilizing their differences, their authentic energies, creative ideas and diverse qualities primarily for the benefit of the students and also for every other constituency of the institution. (S. Gialamas 2102) This type of leadership has three dimensions:

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1.

Interpersonal: inspiring all members of the institution (constituencies) to strive for excellence to reach their maximum potential, guiding and motivating them towards exceptional performance, while being the example of inspiration and instilling confidence in advance for success.

2.

Setting standards: establishing standards of good conduct; serving as a model for meeting these standards; being laureates for truth and beauty and modeling integrity and ethos (as defined by the ancient Greeks). Ethos in Greek means 'character' - the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community. Ethos is also a disposition that reflects the fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, cultural group, community or movement. According to Aristotle, the chief components of a compelling ethos arc goodwill, practical wisdom and virtue. Virtue is moral excellence, righteousness and goodness.

3.

Serving humanity: education requires an emphasis on the entire civic spectrum, stemming from social awareness and interest, to social engagement and commitment.

The author defines social commitment to a cause as a pledge to benefit the human condition. Striving for the betterment of a situation or enhancing quality of life then becomes a way of life for students, as they also develop a positive mindset toward improving any necessary aspect of society. Innovative leadership implies a willingness to accept and live with a certain amount of risk because it involves taking risks with new ideas that have not been tried and could fail. Similarly, it means a willingness to work with half-developed ideas with the flexibility and resilience to constantly adjust the rules and parameters as these ideas develop. Meaningful curriculum and delivery modalities The curriculum must be directly related to what makes it relevant, exciting, current and congruent with the needs of the local and global community. Such a curriculum is comprised of four inseparable and integrated components (S. Gialamas, A. Cherif, S. Keller, A. Hansen, 2000): •

Skills: acquiring new skills and mastering existing skills.

Critical thinking: developing decision-making competencies for problem solving.

Relevance: relating competencies to the learner's environment.

Inspiration: expressing the understanding of complex concepts in a unique and refreshing way.

In addition, the curriculum must not reflect any local cultural bias and must be reviewed often. Today with all the available teaching and learning tools, delivery options are endless. It is a technological paradise for any faculty member who is really committed to providing the best educational experience to students. Face-to-face teaching and learning now can be enhanced with so many online opportunities (simulations, virtual environments, videos, etc). Moreover, one can teach complex topics without needing a costly environment. For example, one can teach DNA replications, analysis and effects of inserting certain enzymes without being in an expensive laboratory but having access to virtual labs and simulation tools. Student assessment must be congruent with the curriculum and the learning objectives. Faculty as leaders Faculty that promote and foster innovation are those that have a high degree of social interest, are open to new ideas and have the courage to try different teaching methods. They are: •

Inspired to develop new ideas in teaching and learning;

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Committed to explore why and how these ideas will benefit student learning;

Focused to identify needed resources for implementing these ideas;

Determined to establish authentic and diverse tools assessing student learning.

Ethos Ethos is the distinct responsibility of all academic institutions to immerse their students, faculty, staff, and administration into a community of learners that exemplify appropriate behavior within and outside of the institution's facilities. In other words, institutions can aspire to establish, embrace and foster a holistic approach to ethics with clearly defined standards and a mechanism for implementing these standards. In this way, a balance can be established between the right of an individual community member and the right of the community as a whole. As a result, students, in particular, will develop their character and personality in an environment conducive to academic success, personal growth and civic responsibility and accountability. Therefore, establishing a student Honor Code becomes a natural progression, especially when it is created for students by students with the expectation that all school members will respect and abide by it, making it a way of life for all. The Honor Code is based on the simple idea that, when given the chance, people will do the right thing. Traditionally, the Honor Code is implemented in many universities across the US and the author strongly believes that it is time to implement it in every JK-12 environment. At the American Community Schools of Athens (ACS Athens) a student-driven initiative has begun to establish and implement a student Honor Code system of integrity. One might ask why students should spearhead such an initiative. Students must be able to internalize that the educational institution is a microcosmic model of ethical behavior. By understanding that influencing others to do the right thing is beneficial to everyone, they can ultimately influence others in the local community towards the same direction. This implies that each person takes responsibility for their behavior and acts according to an internal value system rather than an external reward/punishment system. In simple terms, the Honor Code is a code of conduct fostering ethics, integrity and maturity in the classroom and on campus. These high standards for classroom and campus conduct can promote and encourage trust, maturity and ethical decision-making, outside and inside classroom. In the classroom, it establishes and maintains clear academic standards for student conduct and etiquette; it models high standards in teaching, learning and interacting between teachers and students. Outside the classroom, it establishes and maintains clear standards for student conduct on campus or school sponsored events outside campus; it also encourages appreciation and respect for fellow students, faculty, staff, school properly and the school environment. The student body that implements and guards the Honor Code is the judicial review board which is entirely comprised of students and faculty advisors. Conclusion Developing a more humanistic world requires that the great educational institutions of the future will not be more of the same as defined today. They will be the ones preparing young people to serve humanity. Effective schools will be those that are proactive instead of reactive to the drastic changes in society. If they can teach and inspire students to develop the wisdom to transform static academic knowledge into social, ethical, economic, environmental intelligence then the sustainability of quality of life can be greatly improved for people across the globe.

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At the end, an educational institution exists for only one purpose: to provide its students with the best educational experience possible. To do that, students must recognize and maintain a healthy boundary and balance between the right of an individual community member and the right of the community as a whole.

References S. Gialamas (2012) Educational Philosophy and the String Theory. International School Magazine. Volume 14. Issue 2, 2012. S. Gialamas and P. Pelonis (2009) Preparing Students for the College Experience. Academic Leadership the on Line Journal, April 2009. S. Gialamas, A. Cherif, S. Keller, A. Hansen (2000): Using Guided Inquiry to Teach Mathematical Concepts, the Illinois Teacher Journal, Vole 51, No. l, Fall 2000

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C REATING AN INSTITUTIONAL CULTURE F OSTERING INNOVATION IN E DUCATION S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H. D., PRESIDENT P E G G Y P E L O N I S , M . S ., M F T DEAN, ACADEMIC AFFAIRS

A M E R I C A N C O M M U N I T Y S C H O O L S O F A T H E N S , 2 01 2 A.

Introduction

The prosperity of Western nations today is greatly impacted by the global economy and hence, there is greater importance attached to human capital and the thought of a high-skilled, high-waged economy. It is thus no longer possible for governments to protect domestic workers from the full force of international competition. The change of industrialised jobs to host economies such as China, Poland and Brazil bears evidence to the realities of the new economy. Furthermore, technology’s rapid and continuous growth leaves little room for pondering and reflection. Today we move quickly, gain optimal knowledge rapidly and understand how to use it fast. “The one with the most knowledge wins”, is often a phrase used in management and leadership books to emphasise the necessity of knowledge for the success of the organisation as a unit, even if it is not necessarily applicable to individual employees (Pearlson & Saunders, 2006). Thus to obtain knowledge and understand its use becomes the responsibility of education toward the members of its society and therefore, “the dynamic of transformation and the need to seize opportunities, to constantly innovate and constantly improve performance are everywhere: Schools at the cutting edge of innovation and collaboration will be selected from amongst the best schools as a lever to transform secondary education” (Ball, 2008, p.17-18). Obtaining knowledge however by constant innovation in order to improve performance may create a competitive edge and may contribute to the global economy but it seems that it is also a path toward further individuation and isolation. As schools are microcosms of the broader community what is necessary for future generations is that schools teach the usage of this knowledge in collaborative ways for contributing toward the betterment of society as a whole. As Daniel Goleman indicates in his book Social Intelligence (2006, p.334) “Schools themselves are very recent artefact of civilization. The more powerful force in the brain’s architecture is arguably the need to navigate the social world, not the need to get A’s”. Students who move into the world with a feeling of belonging and a ‘can do’ attitude are students who are less likely to give up in the face of adversity and who, no matter how difficult circumstances seem around them, find ways to make a difference in at least one segment of their environment. Alfred Adler (in Mosak & Maniacci 1999) referred to this as social interest; a ‘yes, I can…’ attitude. Such people seem to be task oriented and seek solutions, focusing on what needs to be done in cooperative ways and by considering the well being of others. This ‘can do’ attitude according to Adler encompasses feelings of belonging and the ‘empathic stance that people take is not just to one person or group of people. It is a bonding to people as a whole, to the community, not just as it exists now but for an ideal society amongst all. O’Connell (in Mosak & Maniacci, 1999) referred to the process as humanistic identification that is, identification not with a person, but with humanity itself” (p.116). Thus, as society changes and schools must change to meet societal needs, creating a culture of innovation as well as a culture that fosters social awareness, social interest, social engagement and social commitment is not only necessary but vital toward creating societies with members responsible for its harmony and wellbeing. B.

A culture of innovation

“For much of the twentieth century policy social sciences, including the tradition of political arithmetic, were mainly geared to addressing fellow academics, government advisors and policy makers. It was a model of history ‘from above’. These target groups obviously remain important, but history is also made ‘from below’. The concept of self-reflexivity suggests that agents can now be more knowledgeable about themselves and their place in the world and should be included in any debate about policies concerning fundamental social problems and in particular about how their relationship to society may be part of the social problems identified” (Lauder et al., 2004).

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Durkheim (quoted by Lauder et al., 2006) referred to education in relation to its host society in the following way: “each society sets up a certain ideal of man, of what he should be, as much from the intellectual point of view as the physical and moral; that this ideal is, to a degree, the same for all citizens”. Thus, Lauder et al. conclude that, “Education is the influence exercised by adult generations on those that are not yet ready for social life. Its object is to arouse and to develop in the child a certain number of physical, intellectual and moral states which are demanded of him by both the political society as a whole and the special milieu for which he is specifically destined” (2006). But, Durkheim’s contention of community-targeted ‘socialisation’ may be taken a step further if we question whether the acquisition of knowledge is pursued only for the purpose of gaining future employment and maintaining a competitive edge in careers. Taking knowledge and using it for economic gain, rather than driving a future-oriented approach aimed at sustainable development. Therefore, academic institutions, now more than ever, play a leading role in preparing young people to cope with and be productive members of an increasingly global society. The opportunities and learning outcomes, for students attending schools, are directly related to the educational experience and thus the credentials they receive. The institution’s culture is defined by its’ history, policies, management style, and most importantly the thinking and behavior of it’s’ constituents (Pelonis & Gialamas, 2010), in other words, it is the way of doing business within the institution. But as society changes, so culture must change. In changing however, it is important to resist rejecting the old in favor of an all new way of doing things, for there is wisdom and experience embedded in the ‘old ways’ therefore, change means keeping from the existing culture what is meaningful and useful while being open and flexible toward societal changes/needs and adopting innovative practices to meet these needs. Innovation then refers to the inclination to think ‘outside of the box’. It is not enough to have new ideas, it is necessary to develop new ways of doing business, alternate ways of thinking about a condition and multiple problem solving approaches so as to develop the new competencies necessary to meet societal challenges head on. Preparing students to address future challenges through innovation also means preparing students to be flexible and open minded so that when solutions find dead ends or when they seem nonexistent, the hope and desire to continue searching does not diminish. C.

Student Centered innovation

Students are of utmost importance in learning institutions. In fact, if institutions are to be successful in transmitting knowledge in ways where students assimilate it and turn in into tacit knowledge (Pearlson & Saunders, 2006), “learning must be student centered where students engage in critical thinking. This means that students do more than reproduce knowledge; they question and challenge the ideas of others and forward their own opinions and ideas” (UTAS, undated). Furthermore, today’s students attend schools attached to gadgets; iPods, PC’s, MP3’s, flash-drives, and cell phones to name a few of the most recognisable. How sensible is it to expect a student to “Sit in a small space for five hours a day while a teacher talks about the past and present”? (Wiles, 2007) In relation to the state itself, education continues to serve a social function, the state cannot be completely separate from it (Durkheim, 1956, in Lauder, 2006: 83) but while it is the responsibility of the state to provide education that will deem its citizens worthy of competing for the plethora of future job opportunities by placing them at the centre of optimal knowledge acquisition, more importantly, it is the educational composition that will develop well-rounded individuals, cooperative citizens and innovative problem solvers, all of which can only enhance the functioning of society and contribute to a better future. Most educational systems around the world however, promote an individualistic approach to education. Students are encouraged to be competitive, achieve the highest grades, best test scores and in general are taught to think of their own personal performance. On the other hand once they pass the threshold of graduation into the ‘real’ world, they are expected to work in teams, collaborate and become part of a bigger thinking puzzle to create for a common good. We must ask ourselves, why it is that young people today seem to find it difficult to be optimistic about the future, develop symptoms of depression and feelings of helplessness particularly during transitional times i.e. when transitioning from high school to

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college (Counselling Today, beyond academics 2011). In fact, ‘Western research from the 1980s and 1990s indicated that young people felt deepening despair and powerlessness about the future especially regarding the environment, the economy, unemployment and health issues, notably drug abuse and AIDS’. (Gidley, Hampson 2004). Are these symptoms only due to the change and loss associated with adjusting to being a college student and later moving out into the workforce, or could these symptoms also be related to how prepared students are to face the challenges of society? And is being prepared directly related to the type of teaching and learning that takes place in educational institutions today? Gidley & Hampson (2004) contend that negativity regarding the future is closely connected with disempowerment and therefore how prepared students felt to act and solve problems that they envisioned was closely connected to their style of education. An educational setting fostering innovation prepares students to address future challenges through innovation. That is, it is not enough to simply generate new ideas but rather to instil in students the new competencies deemed necessary to face the changes of the world we live in by: • Inspiring faculty to come up with new, creative and applicable ideas •

Confirming student learning with these new ideas

Detecting necessary resources to implement these ideas

Implementing the new ideas

Assessing student learning as a result of these new ideas

Modifying the ideas and their implementation as appropriate

Innovation is a continuous act within the institution and while creativity means giving birth to new ideas, innovation ensures that creativity is not promoted for the sake of creativity but rather has inherent in every idea implemented a learning benefit for the student.

D. Serving Humanity Social awareness, Social interest, Social engagement, Social commitment Knowledge in and of itself may contribute to ones’ individual intellectual bank, may provide the tools toward achieving a competitive edge, may get one into the best of higher educational institutions and ultimately may lead to work with satisfactory compensation. But knowledge void of the awareness and skills toward the betterment of the human condition is incomplete education. Holistic education encourages the student to go beyond the self toward the common good. Social awareness according to Goleman (2006 p. 84) “refers to a spectrum that runs from instantaneously sensing another’s inner state, to understanding her feelings and thoughts, to “getting” complicated social situations”. Further on the hierarchy of knowledge connected to society is the idea of social interest. According to Adler (in Lundin 1989) social interest is innate and is an aptitude which deems one responsive to social situations. However, although inborn, social interest must be developed within a social context. Such a context according to Adler is first and foremost the family and secondly the school setting. Social interest may include interest beyond people, such as, animals, the environment or care for the entire universe. Social interest is an extension of the self into the community; a collective responsibility and striving for the betterment of the community and a condition which Adler strongly believed is a main criterion for positive social adjustment. In addition, Social engagement is the ability to put interest into practice. Becoming aware of a social condition is a first step, developing an interest toward improving the social condition is second and finding ways to engage in bettering the condition is a step further toward taking responsibility for part of the solution. Finally, social commitment to a cause, a human condition, the betterment of a situation or the improvement of a person’s life, becomes a way of life for students as they develop a positive mind set toward improving any aspect of society. At this level individuals consciously are committed to help and inspire anyone around them to become better without the fear that the other might outshine him/her. In this phase students go beyond awareness and interest. They move toward a deep feeling of commitment and responsibility as they see themselves as part of the problem as well as the solution and belonging within their community/society means collaborating toward improving it. In a school culture of fostering social awareness and practicing innovative teaching, the social spectrum defined above becomes part of

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the daily teachings whether within the curriculum, through community projects, role modelling, mentoring or researching. Therefore, it is an ethical obligation for an individual or an organization to act having always in mind the benefit of the society at large and the educational experience must be comprehensive based on their academic, physical, spiritual, ethical and social engagement and development” (Gialamas, The Bullet, The University of Mary Washington Student Newspaper, Oct. 2011). E.

Innovative Academic Leadership

Innovative Academic leadership is the continuous act of effectively engaging members of the academic institution as well as utilizing their differences, authentic energies, creative ideas and diverse qualities for the benefit of the students, faculty, and staff and for every constituency of the institution. (S. Gialamas, International Herald Tribune, Athens Edition, September, 2011). The Innovative Academic Leadership (AIL) is comprised of three dimensions: • Interpersonal: Includes inspiring others to strive for excellence and reaching for their maximum potentials, guiding and motivating exceptional performance, being the example for inspiration and instilling confidence in advance for success. •

Setting standards: includes establishing the standards to good conduct, serving as a model for meeting these standards, being laureates for the truth and the beautiful and modeling integrity and ethos (as defined by the ancient Greeks).

Serving Humanity: Includes the entire spectrum of social awareness, social interest, social engagement and social commitment.

Innovative leadership requires a preparedness to accept and live with a certain amount of risk because it involves taking risk with new ideas that have not been tried and could fail. Similarly, it means a willingness to work with half developed ideas most of the time and a willingness to be flexible and resilient adjusting rules and parameters as ideas develop. Moreover, this type of leadership involves flexible decision making – the ability to make decisions based on adjusted internal (institutional) and external conditions or parameters. Furthermore, a leader’s ability to respond speedily is vital as is his/her personal enthusiasm for every project undertaken and there is a continuous demonstration of enthusiasm for the vision and goals. Innovative leadership also encompasses the ability to create positive tension and finally the innovative leader is well aware that while new ideas stem from each individual or a group of individuals, it takes a team of members to make the ideas a reality thus, promoting team creativity is essential. According to Len Sperry (2002) a leader who is effective works simultaneously on two levels: One level is performance, which ensures productivity. The other is the people level, which considers health. While in the past performance was solely emphasized with little attention being given to people, the result was low commitment and low morale, high rates of burnout and increasing health costs. The innovative leader understands his/her people well and takes care to tap into people’s strengths as well as their diversity as each person thinks differently. Furthermore, the innovative leader exhibits the following: The innovative leader sees a universe of infinite possibilities and is constantly looking to inspire others to experience life creatively. Continuously generating new ideas as well as positive energy, the innovative leader influences congruent decision making practices according to the adopted principles and values. The innovative leader shapes the future of the organization by understanding the organizational identity over a time period. Looking at the past via the present is necessary in order to shape the reality of the future. The leader, by tapping into the collective qualities of his/her people, crystallizes the vision of the organization and thus moves the organization to a different stage with a different reality. In addition the innovative leader is looking continuously to improve the leadership and management structure of an institution for making effective and efficient decisions. The innovative leader is committed to provide clearly and precisely to all constituents the following: 1. The current status and the identity of the organization 2. The organization vision 3. The rationale of the vision 4. A strategic plan of how the vision can be accomplished 5. Strategies to establish a Leadership Team

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6.

Action Plan of implementing the strategic plan

F.

Faculty as catalysts for innovation

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Innovation within an institution is manifested primarily by the faculty. The faculty transmits knowledge, skills and mind sets to students, either explicitly or tacitly. Faculty who promote and foster innovation are not afraid to generate, adopt new ideas and develop different teaching methods. There should be a high degree of autonomy and independent judgment among faculty without the need to have the administration’s approval every step of the way. Such faculty has a high degree of social interest as well as the courage to move forward with half developed ideas. Usually, such faculty has a range of personal and professional interests and is constantly stimulated to professional growth and development. They are self motivated, hard working, dedicated and able to hold and process multiple ideas simultaneously. According to Lightfoot (1983) in her book The Good High School; portraits of character and culture, “one of the most important qualities of a good school is the consistent, unswerving attitudes toward students. The first impression is that teachers are not afraid of their students” (p.342). This fearless regard of adolescents is striking. Thus, the rapport developed between students and teachers and the ease with which teachers move among their students is a good indicator of the courage to live among, educate, mentor and guide students in innovative ways without the regard for possible obstacles on the way. G. Curriculum for Innovation In order to fully prepare students to face the challenges of society, knowledge in and of itself is not enough. A holistic education is important in developing ‘educated’ students without compartmentalizing subjects and simply producing ‘mathematicians” “cyber experts” “political historians” “writers” and so on. A holistic education then can assist students in participating more fully in a life that is multifaceted. This type of knowledge can provide support in appreciating art, enjoying literature, analyzing problems, designing research, pondering existential dilemmas and engaging in relationships through common interests and can be a means of communication and bringing people together. Curriculum then is essential in what and how students are learning. According to Orkwis and McLane (Fall 1998) usually classrooms contain a number of students who do not understand the curriculum. These students, may include those identified with learning disabilities but also include the linguistically and culturally different, those who are considered low achievers and an indistinguishable group of students who understand some of the subject matter but not enough to become competent in it. School curriculum must be directly related to what is relevant to each student’s life. It must be exciting, current and congruent with the needs of the global community and must naturally include aspects from the Arts, Humanities, and Social Studies to Mathematics and Sciences. Innovative curriculum in particular is comprised of four inseparable and integrated components (SCRI): •

Skill competencies: acquiring new skills and mastering existing skills

Critical thinking competencies: developing decision making competencies for problem solving

Relevance applicability: Relating competencies to one’s environment (course of study and real life situations)

Inspirational delivery: refreshing way.

expressing the understanding of complex concepts in a unique and

In particular, the curriculum of an international school must take care not to reflect any local cultural bias (western, eastern, etc) and thus must be reviewed often. The design suggested calls for a vertical approach that recommends beginning at the upper end of studies (senior year) and moving downwards. The desired competencies and learning outcomes once carefully chosen can then allow a vertically downward movement where necessary and sufficient enabling objects can be identified. To illustrate, let us assume that one of the learning objectives to be acquired by senior year is for students to determine whether a collection of data is reliable and valid. Students must have the knowledge to analyze and compare statistical numbers such as the mean, median, mode, standard deviation and correlation coefficient and they must be able to run statistical tests. They must also be able to master available technology tools to simplify the process of calculating such statistical numbers. This presupposes that in order for faculty leaders to continuously develop, filter, and crystallize the curriculum in their areas

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of expertise, they must also always remain learners and seek continuous content knowledge as curriculum needs and demands increase dramatically in certain areas such as science, mathematics, technology, business, economics. “Ideally, a curriculum should be able to be modified or customized to meet the needs of both teacher and student.” (Orkwis, McLane, 1998). The curriculum must also be articulated by considering both ends of the educational spectrum. Thus, curriculum development and revision cannot take place in isolation. For example, changing the Mathematics curriculum at the High school level makes sense only if faculty is well aware of what takes place during the first and second year of college just as much as they are aware of what takes place in the Middle school or Junior High school. I. Curriculum Delivery “Access to the curriculum begins with a student being able to interact with it to learn” (Orkwis, McLane, 1998). These authors further contend that curriculum must be delivered using a variety of methods so that all students have access to the curriculum despite linguistic, cultural, learning differences or other barriers. Most importantly however, the curriculum must be challenging to every student. Today, with all the available teaching and learning tools, delivery options are endless. The opportunities are invigorating for any faculty committed to providing the best educational experience for students. “Face to face” teaching and learning can be enhanced with online opportunities, learning tools (such as videos, simulations, virtual environments etc) eliminating barriers and being inviting to all learning styles. Furthermore, faculty can create many enhancement opportunities for student learning as the faculty is no longer the only source of knowledge and information. In turn, faculty can enrich their role by also becoming coaches, mentors but most importantly examples and inspirers. While curriculum delivery today can be very demanding, usage of the available tools can create fresh, diverse and challenging teaching methods which can prove to be very rewarding. Moreover, one can teach complex topics without being in the most expensive environment. For example, one can teach DNA replication, analysis and its effects by inserting certain enzymes without needing an expensive laboratory, but having instead access to virtual labs and simulation tools. II. Curriculum Support The requirement for having a current, exciting, and relevant curriculum together with adopting creative and innovative strategies and techniques in teaching and learning demands a very strong commitment to faculty development and growth and at least modest infrastructure in technology and facilities. According to Len Sperry (2002), “development prepares individuals for increasingly responsible or complex jobs’ and he asserts that there are four skill requirements necessary for development: a. enhancing skills to improve performance b. supporting ongoing, nonstop learning, c. aligning training with the organizational mission and d. measuring development outcomes. Therefore, the institution’s leadership at all levels must commit to not only providing development support but must also recognize efforts and identify ways to exhibit appreciation. It may take several hours to integrate a technological tool or a new strategy in teaching and learning. The process design, implementation, assessment, and modification can be time consuming and demand a lot of energy. There is also no guarantee of success. Risk taking therefore is an underlying concept on creative teaching. Nothing is automatic and creativity is not sold in bookstores. The leader (s) must be tolerant of risk generated mistakes, must be a cheerleader (s) of new teaching strategies and be the pillar (s) for faculty development. The growth and development of the institution’s faculty is the most important investment the educational institution. It is also expensive and can take much time and energy from faculty and administration. III. Curriculum Assessment Student assessment must be related to the diverse curriculum and the learning objectives. The learning objective must guide the assessment approach and the tools we use. Assessment should not be focused in one type of learning approach or one type of competency. For example if a desired learning outcome is the student’s ability to use mathematical concepts to solve a real life problem then multiple choice questions are not appropriate. If a desired learning outcome for a

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student is to utilize his/her knowledge and skills to produce energy using renewable resources then an exam or a test within a classroom setting is not assessable student learning. In general, assessment of student learning must be congruent with the four components of an innovative curriculum (SCRI). For example a coherent assessment approach to determine if a student has mastered the concept of quadratic equations should include questions and statements like the following: (S) Solve the following quadratic equation, (C) determine if the given quadratic equation has real or imaginary solutions, (R) identify from your everyday life (i.e. newspapers, magazines) how a quadratic equation is used. (I) express your understanding of the concept of a quadratic equation in any way you want (i.e. a poem, a drawing, a painting). Conclusion Our demanding and exponentially changing world demands visionary, innovative and ethically committed leaders. In turn, educational institutions need to provide rich, textured, holistic, meaningful and harmonious educational experiences to students. Students must not only learn new content and obtain new competencies to help them shape their future but they must also develop and adopt a set of universal principles and values. These principles and values in conjunction with ethos will be essential guides in their life journey. The great educational institutions of the future will not be more of the same as defined today. They will be the ones which will be effective in the midst of all drastic changes in society so there is a need for new type of knowledge and most important wisdom, which is the ability to utilize knowledge to construct creative solutions to societal changes. Innovation and an authentic leadership approach are the enabling objectives to provide young people with a unique, meaningful and high quality holistic educational experience. These people will then exercise wisdom in decision making as they become the keepers of the future of this small planet of ours.

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References Ball, Stephen. (2008). The education debate. The Policy Press, University of Bristol. Great Britain. Gidley, Jennifer M. & Hampson, Gary P. 2004. The evolution of futures in school education. Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia Goleman, D. (2006), “Social Intelligence”, Random House inc. New York, New York Gialamas, S. The Bullet, The University of Mary Washington Student Newspaper, Oct. 2011). Gialamas, S. International Herald Tribune, Athens Edition, (September, 2011). Lauder, Hugh, Phillip Brown and A.H. Halsey The British Journal of Sociology 2004 Vol. 55 Issue 1 Sociology and political arithmetic: some principles of a new policy science1 Lauder, H., Brown, P., Dillabough, J. and Halsey, A.H. (Eds.) (2006), “Education, Globalization and Social Change”, Oxford: University Press. Lundin, Robert W. (1989). Alfred Adler’s Basic Concepts and Implications. Accelerated Development. Levittown, PA. Lightfoot, Sara L. (1983) The Good High School; Portraits of Character and Culture. Basic Books inc. Mosak, H. & Maniacci, M. (1999). A Primer of Adlerian Psychology: The Analytic –Behavioral – Cognitive Psychology of Alfred Adler. Routledge Taylor and Francis group. New York. Orkwis, R. and McLane, K. (Fall 1998). A Curriculum Every Student can use: Design Principles for Student Access. ERIC/OSEP Special project. ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education Council for Exceptional Children Pearlson, K.E. and Saunders, C.S. (2006), “Managing & Using Information Systems: a Strategic Approach”, Wiley publications, NJ, Third edition. Pelonis. P, & Gialamas, S. An international Perspective of Academic Leadership. International Schools Journal. Vol. XXX No. 1 November 2010. Sperry, Len. (2002). Effective Leadership. Brunner-Routledge. New York UTAS (undated), “Welcome to the Western Education System”, University of Tasmania (UTAS) student information booklet. Available at: http://www.utas.edu.au/tl/internationalising/docs/students/students_welcome.doc (last accessed April 14,2009). Wiles, J. (2007), “Redesigning Schools - Redefining Education”, DesignShare.com. Available at: http://www.designshare.com/index.php/articles/redefining-education-full (last accessed April 18, 2009).

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E DUCATIONAL I NSTITUTIONS : P REPARING Y OUNG P EOPLE H UMANITY

TO SERVE

B Y S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. P R E S I D E N T , AC S A T H E N S

INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE S U N D A Y , M A R C H 18, 201 2

Introduction: Societal changes, due to the complexity of its functioning and globalization, in many diverse and multiple dimensions demand a different type of citizens. These people need to live, work, develop and seek happiness locally under a global influence. Many of the previously well established principles and values are at least questioned, examined and many times challenged; The development and nurturing of the new local or global individual who must acquire different competences, master new skills, operate with a more complex set of rules, feel the pressure to protect the environment and be compassionate about a fellow citizen who might reside on a different continent. How do we prepare young people for such a demanding life, what kind of an educational experience should they receive and what are the appropriate universal principles and values guiding their actions personally and professionally? The questions are accumulated experientially to include: what curriculum, what learning objectives, what characteristics faculty must have, who defines these principles and values, how we assess learning, what the desirable qualities of educated people are and many others. In 2009, Ms. Pelonis and Dr. Gialamas defined educational experience as “the complete learning experience obtained from students’ academic, physical, spiritual and civic responsibilities.” Definitely, to answer all or some or many of these questions we need to engage the minds of students, staff, faculty, administration, parents and all friends of an academic institution with the underline commitment to serve the family, the community, the nation and the world. Innovation and authentic leadership approach are the enabling objectives to provide students with a unique, meaningful, high quality, holistic education experience. Those students will then exercise wisdom to decision making as they become the keepers of the future of the planet. The educational institutions of the future have the following pillars: A. Innovative Leadership B. Meaningful Curriculum and Delivery Modalities C. Faculty as Leaders D. Ethos

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A. Innovative Leadership is the continuous act of effectively engaging all members of the institution, as well as utilizing their differences, their authentic energies, creative ideas and diverse qualities primary for the benefit of the students and also for every other constituency of the institution. This type of leadership has three dimensions: 1. Interpersonal: Inspiring all members of the institution (constituencies) to strive for excellence and reaching for their maximum potentials, guiding and motivating exceptional performance, being the example of inspiration and instilling confidence in advance for success. 2. Setting Standards: Establishing the standards to good conduct, serving as a model for meeting these standards, being laureates for the truth and the beautiful and modeling integrity and ethos (as defined by the ancient Greeks). Ethos, in Greek, means “character” – the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community. Another definition of ethos is the disposition, the character or the fundamental values peculiar to a specific person, to the people, to a culture or a movement or the character or disposition of a community, a group, a person, etc. According to Aristotle, the chief components of a compelling ethos are: good will, practical wisdom and virtue. Virtue is moral excellence, righteousness and goodness. 3. Serving Humanity: Including the entire spectrum from social awareness, interest, engagement and commitment. The author defines social commitment to a cause, a human condition. The betterment of a situation or the improvement of a person’s life becomes a way of life for students as they develop a positive mind set toward improving any aspect of society. Innovative leadership implies a willingness to accept and live with a certain amount of rise because it involves taking risks with new ideas that have not been tried and could fail. Similarly, it means a willingness to work with half developed ideas most of the time and being flexible and resilient adjusting rules and parameters as ideas develop. B. Meaningful curriculum and delivery modalities: The curriculum must be directly related to what makes it relevant, exciting, current and congruent with the needs of the global community. Such a curriculum is comprised of four inseparable and integrated components: SKILLS: acquiring new skills and mastering existing skills; CRITICAL THINKING: developing decision making competencies for problem solving; RELEVANCE: relating competencies on learner’s environment; INSPIRATION: expressing the understanding of complex concepts in a unique and refreshing way. In addition, the curriculum must not reflect any local cultural bias and must be reviewed often. Today with all available teaching and learning tools, delivery options are endless. It is a heaven for any faculty that is really committed in providing the best educational experience to the students. The “face to face” teaching and learning can be enhanced with online opportunities (simulations, virtual environments, videos, etc).

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Moreover, one can teach complex topics without being in the most expensive environment. For example, one can teach DNA replications, analysis and effects from inserting certain enzymes without being in an expensive laboratory but having access to virtual labs and simulation tools. Student assessment must be congruent with the curriculum and the learning objectives. C. Faculty as Leaders: The type of faculty who promotes and fosters innovation is faculty that is not afraid to think of new ideas and try different teaching methods. There are individuals with a high degree of social interest and the courage to develop new ideas. This faculty is:

I: Inspired to develop new ideas of teaching and learning; C: Committed to determine why and how these ideas will benefit student learning; F: Focused to identify needed it resources for implementing these idea; D: Determined to establish authentic and diverse tools assessing student learning. D. Ethos: it is the distinct responsibility of all academic institutions to immerse their students, faculty, staff, and administration into a community of learners with appropriate behavior within and outside of the institution facilities. In other words, to establish, embrace and foster a holistic approach on ethics with clearly defined standards and a mechanism of implementing these standards. This way, there is a balance between the right of an individual community member and the right of the community as a whole. As a result, students in particular will be developing their personalities in a conducive to academic success, personal growth and developing environment. Therefore, a student “Honor Code” becomes a way of life. It is a creation of students for students, governed by students and is for all students to respect and abide by. The “Honor Code” is based on the simple idea that, when given the chance, people will do the right thing. Traditionally, the “Honor Code” is implemented in many universities across the US and the author strongly believes that it is time to be implemented at a JK-12 environment. For example, the American Community Schools of Athens (ACS Athens) uses this process (a student-driven process) to establish and implement a student “Honor Code”. One might ask why students should spearhead such an initiative. Students must be able to internalize that the educational institution is a microcosmic model of ethical behavior. They should influence each other to do the right thing and ultimately to influence others in the local community towards the same direction. This implies that each person takes responsibility for their behavior and acts according to an internal value system rather than an external reward/punishment system. In simple terms, the “Honor Code” is a code of conduct fostering ethics and maturity in the classroom and on campus including high standards for classroom and campus conduct. In particular, it promotes and ensures maturity outside and inside classroom.

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In classroom, it establishes and maintains clear academic standards for students and for classroom conduct and etiquette; it models high standards in teaching and learning and interaction between teachers and students. Outside classroom, it establishes and maintains clear standards for campus or other official sponsored events outside campus; it conducts and respects fellow students, faculty, staff, the environment and the property. The student body that implements and guards the “Honor Code” is the Judicial Review Board which is entirely comprised of students along with faculty advisors.

Conclusion: The great institutions of the future will not be more of the same as defined today. They will be the ones that will be effective in the mist of all drastic changes in society and the need for new type of knowledge and most important wisdom. At the end, an education institution exists for only one purpose: to provide its students with the best educational experience possible. To do that, it must maintain a balance between the right of an individual community member and the right of the community as a whole.

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M ETAMORPHOSIS : A COLLABORATIVE LEADERSHIP MODEL TO PROMOTE EDUCATIONAL CHANGE

DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS, PRESIDENT, AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS PEGGY PELONIS, DEAN OF STUDENT AFFAIRS, AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS STEVEN MEDEIROS, DEAN, INSTITUTE FOR INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY, AMERICAN C O M M U N I T Y S C H O O L S O F A T H E N S 201 2 Abstract A school that holds as a central belief that knowledge is individually and socially constructed by learners who are active observers of the world, active questioners, agile problem posers and critical and creative problem solvers must evolve leadership models and organizational patterns that mirror this model of genuine and meaningful learning as they promote and enhance it. Institutional change can and must take place at various levels. It can take place at the level of curriculum, adoption of new programs, and implementation of new strategies and methodologies. However, sustainable change must also take place at a deeper level, in which the very core of the institution’s being is affected, and in which members adopt new ways of thinking, behaving, creating knowledge, and interacting with each other, not only as means to an end, but as the best possible ways of achieving the goals and objectives of the institution in harmony with professional goals meaningful to each member. The authors refer to this kind of change as institutional metamorphosis, a radical transformation of an institution’s structure and function, preserving the institution’s DNA of fundamental beliefs, values and principles. They propose that leading this kind of change demands a radically new leadership structure, which embodies (and reflects) the deepest values about the nature of teaching and learning and meaningful relationships that the institution holds. They name this model the Morfosis Paradigm, explain its structure and conclude that when the model works, all levels of the organization reflect the same core principles about what meaningful relationships are that promote real learning and growth KEY WORDS: CHANGE, FRACTAL, LEADERSHIP, META/MORPHOSIS, SCHOOLS

Introduction A fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric space that can be split into parts, -or neighborhoods -- each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced-size copy of the whole. The property is called self-similarity. 1 Visualize the structure of a bunch of broccoli or a head of cauliflower and you’ll get the idea. The image of the fractal provides a helpful metaphor for envisioning the culture of a healthy school, in which each “neighborhood” of the institution (leadership, institutional dynamics, the teaching and learning experience, operational patterns) is “self-similar” and reflective of the other and of the whole, in that they embody and express the fundamental values and beliefs of the learning community. We are proponents of a leadership approach that sees the school as a professional learning community and that models and promotes in every “neighborhood” of the institution a harmonious, meaningful and holistic approach to teaching and learning that puts the student at the center of his/her own learning and at the center of all institutional decision-making. A school that holds as a central belief that knowledge is individually and socially constructed by learners who are active observers of the world, active questioners, agile problem posers and critical and creative problem solvers must evolve leadership models and organizational patterns that mirror this model of genuine and meaningful learning as they promote and enhance it.

1

Mandelbrot, B.B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. W.H. Freeman and Company

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Metamorphosis: The educational experience Every academic leader brings to an institution a philosophy of education, shaped by his/her fundamental principles and values, the foundation upon which he/she imagines, builds, articulates and implements an authentic and galvanizing vision of the future in line with the school’s communally defined mission. Given the complexity and flux of the contemporary world, education is inevitably in a continuous state of change: the only unknown parameters are its pace, magnitude, and depth. As a consequence, as Elmore 2 (p. 6) accurately notes, successful school reform must grow “from the inside out,” and the process of bringing change must be holistic. Institutional change can and must take place at various levels. It can take place at the level of curriculum, adoption of new programs, and implementation of new strategies and methodologies. However, sustainable change must also take place at a deeper level, in which the very core of the institution’s being is affected, and in which members adopt new ways of thinking, behaving, creating knowledge, and interacting with each other, not only as means to an end, but as the best possible ways of achieving the goals and objectives of the institution in harmony with professional goals meaningful to each member Change at this level affects the roots of the organization, its very culture. By culture we refer to the system of adhered-to and shared values, beliefs, practices and traditions within an institution that guide or influence the behavior of its members. Simply put, culture is “the way we do things in the institution and why we do them this way.” A school’s culture informs all aspects of school life, from the execution of strategy, to the way community members accept and implement new practices in making the institutional vision a reality, to the way all individuals within the school speak to and interact with each other. Institutional culture is tacit and experienced in varied ways. Some expressions of the institution’s culture are quite visible; others lie below the surface and are somewhat difficult to unearth. A solid understanding of the culture into which change is to be introduced will provide a sound foundation for planning how to implement change. It is a fundamental first responsibility of a leader to observe and understand his/her school’s culture at this deep level, to identify its weaknesses, but equally important, to understand its strengths and, to use Sara Lawrence Lightfoot’s phrase, “its sources of goodness.” 3 Change that takes place at this level is sustainable across situations and not vulnerable to the passage of time, but paradoxically it embodies the promise and possibility of continuous change within it. Change of this type is diachronic (from the Greek, “transcending time”) and transformative. The authors refer to this kind of change as institutional metamorphosis, a radical transformation of an institution’s structure and function, preserving the institution’s DNA of fundamental beliefs, values and principles. Here the metaphor of the butterfly emerging from its chrysalis may prove a helpful image for understanding the nature of this process. While every leader may expect to encounter resistance to change from the many constituencies of an institution, he/she can anticipate an even stronger resistance during an institutional metamorphosis. As Shulman, et. al. point out, “while there have been changes in the economy, changes in relation to technological advances, and changes in market competition, all of which affect education, what remains the same is the resistance to change often encountered in institutions.” 4 When one moves beyond economic imperatives and defines the role of a school as preparing global citizens who are prepared to serve humanity, the stakes are higher, the implications more profound and the possibilities for encountering resistance are multiplied; even when change is perceived as moving an institution towards growth and improvement. 5 In Embracing Change (2006), Tony Buzan explains this pattern of resistance: “[W]hen our familiar world becomes no longer familiar, as a result of unexpected or enforced change, it is natural to retreat initially into a negative response as a way of attempting to regain control. Sometimes we stay there – for too long. ‘Familiarity and Risk Avoidance’ may appear to 2

Drago-Severson, E. Leading adult learning: Supporting adult development in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin/Sage Press, 2009. 3 Lawrence-Lightfoot, Sara, The Good High School, Basic Books, 1983. 4 Shulman, B.H., & H. Mosak. Manual for Lifestyle Assessment, New York: Brunner-Routledge, 1998, p. 5 Gialamas, S. and Pelonis, P (2009), “Connecting with College Education: A Holistic Approach”, International School Journal, Spring/Autumn, Vol. 11(2), pp. 22-23.

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equal ‘Comfort and Security’ initially, but in time may also come to equal ‘No Growth and Stagnation” 6 (p. 65). For some, change can be a seductive, exhilarating, rewarding process, despite any uncertainty and anxiety it may provoke. In this way, meaningful change mirrors the process of genuine learning, which involves confronting the unknown and creating new knowledge and embracing new paradigms. For others – as it can be for learners on the cusp of a new discovery -- it can be a tremendous source of anxiety, distress and overwhelming fear of the unknown. 7 Metamorphosis is total transformation and a movement toward the unfamiliar and unpredictable. Resulting new ways of being may involve immersion in new rules, new conditions, and unknown territory: a process that requires diachronic and continuous learning. During genuine metamorphosis, it is not unusual for members of an institution to challenge the validity of all previous accomplishments, practices and thinking processes. Departing from the safe and the familiar often occasions feelings of loss, as “all people and all systems seek a balance, a homeostatic pattern of parts of transactions that allow people and systems to function in familiar ways.” 8 It means letting go of notions such as, “I can do it, because I have been doing it for so long and the old way of doing things has always worked well.” It means moving to an unknown and unfamiliar realm and being able to say, “I must now learn anew and begin from the beginning,” in order to become a productive member of the new environment. We are not unmindful that such a shift in perspective can be the source of tremendous stress and are aware that “the process of moving from one model of schooling to another that is as yet unknown is causing chaos and confusion as well as immense opportunity and new possibilities.” 9 So, a primary role of the educational leader (and also of the teacher in the classroom) is to inspire individuals in the learning community to embrace change and to mitigate their fears by creating a professional community in which risk taking is permitted and encouraged, and which allows for failure -which is seen as integral to the learning process -- building an organizational structure and ethos that supports this kind of work at every level of the school organization. We propose that nothing less than creating a model of leadership in a school that truly mirrors the beliefs about the teaching and learning process that we hold can foster the change we seek. Such an endeavor, of course, raises a whole set of questions about new models of accountability, as leadership gives over authority to match the level of responsibility it wants individuals (in the organization and in the classroom) to assume. This model of leadership also acknowledges that there may not be a place in the organization for those unwilling to assume such levels of responsibility and authority. The goal then is to exercise the kind of leadership that helps the members of the school community to experiment with these ideas and to test them in practice, to create a school that is a professional learning laboratory. Morfosis (Μόρφωση) Paradigm Educating the whole person is a central tenet of the American philosophy of education. Teaching and learning take place, not only in the classroom, but during activities, assemblies, community service work, group projects, sports activities, and through the hundreds of formal and informal encounters that take place between members of a learning community each day. The study of literature, mathematics, science, languages, the arts, history, social sciences, technology and physical education is the foundation of a well-rounded education, but a holistic, meaningful and harmonious approach to learning – what the Classical Greeks called morfosis -- takes into account all of the opportunities for learning that present themselves. Such an approach is also student-centered and inquirybased. Teachers take into account the needs, interests, aptitudes, dreams and aspirations of students; and design invitations to learning that promote active learning and independent, critical and creative thinking, so that students will be prepared to apply their knowledge and problem-solving skills across disciplines and 6

Buzan, Tony. Embracing Change, BBC ACTIVE, England Caine, R.N. and Caine, G. (1997), ‘Understanding Why Education Must Change’, New Horizons for Learning. 7 Pelonis, Peggy. Υπάρχω Αλλάζω (Living Changing), Isoropon Publications, Athens, Greece, 2006. 8 Satir, V., & Bitter, J.R. (2000). The Therapist and Family Therapy: Satir’s Human Validation Process Model. In A.M. Horne (Ed), Family Counseling and Therapy (3rd ed.) Itasca, IL:F.E. Peacock, pp. 62-101. 9

Caine, R.N. and Caine, G. (1997), ‘Understanding Why Education Must Change’, New Horizons for Learning. Available at: http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/caine_change.htm (last accessed July 05, 2010).

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in new situations. Learning, viewed in this way, is a life-long process of making sense of one’s experience of the world by making connections to what one already knows and challenging oneself and asking questions to build new knowledge and understanding. This vision of holistic learning builds on the classical definition of liberal education. In a sense what we are proposing is creating a leadership design that embodies classical notions of liberal education: that puts these notions into practice as a way of organizing the leadership strands of a school. Let us suggest yet another useful metaphor: a model of leadership as a parallel series of extended Socratic dialogues among the various layers of the school community. The leader then (of the institution/of the individual school/of the department or division/of the faculty group/of the classroom/of the learning group in the classroom: here again we draw on the notion of self-similarity) takes on the Socratic role of daring inquiry by posing questions that demand reflection and re-evaluation and reconstruction of understandings. In this sense, leaders (like teachers in their classrooms) are truly researchers/learners, probing to understand others’ understandings and creating scaffolds on which others can expand and create new knowledge and understandings. The Morfosis Paradigm: educational processes “The holistic education movement does not have a single source, a predominant proponent, or a definite form of expression. Consequently, it is difficult to define holistic education explicitly. However, there are a number of values and perceptions that most schools claiming to be holistic would embrace.” 10 It has antecedents in the Classical Greek notion of the well-rounded individual, the Renaissance idea of the “universal (wo)man”, Dewey’s theories of experiential learning and the expansive nature of the International Baccalaureate profile of the student learner. The Morfosis Educational paradigm, then, refers to learning that is holistic, meaningful and harmonious. Based on the tenet that the student is the at the center of the institution and aiming to educate future citizens able to cope with the multiple demands of a society in constant flux, the paradigm firstly recognizes that “the development of trusting relationships between school personnel and students will go some way toward ensuring that young people will seek the support and information that is necessary for making decisions about their school and other choices.” 11 The goal of leadership in such a model is to foster agreeable partnerships for decision making, recognizing that the nature of the partnerships will change as the journey of institutional transformation matures. In such a case, organizational flexibility is a necessity, recognizing that both leaders and followers will grow and change as a consequence of the process as the leader moves from being an instigator of change to a facilitator of continuous change. The authors recommend that a similar process of relationship building take place not only within the institution, but that the establishment of working relationships and networks between schools and other agencies within the local community should be a high priority. 12 These institutions may include colleges and universities and local community organizations. Such local partnerships offer the institution the opportunity to model the values of civic responsibility it seeks to embed in its daily operations, by establishing, mentoring or motivating educational and service programs in the local community and by opening its doors to community agencies to expand opportunities for educating its students. A holistic approach to education, then, successfully combines academic, emotional, physical, intellectual and ethical components of learning to provide students with the tools to become healthy and balanced individuals who can successfully cope with the changes that the university experience and life beyond will bring. Furthermore, a meaningful education unfolds within a framework of principles and values, and leads learners to define and achieve their personal, academic and professional goals. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to that which is most important in our lives; when it speaks to our dreams, strengths, desires and talents; when it leads us to fall in love with life and learning; when it helps us to discover the gifts we can offer in service to the communities to which we belong. Finally, a harmonious approach to education ensures that all dimensions of the learning experience cohere. Principles, values and practices 10

From The Third Annual Conference on Education, Spirituality and the Whole Child at the Roehampton Institute, London; exploring the question, “Whose values are shaping education?” http://www.pdfio.com/k-811252.html 11 Australian Centre for Equity through Education Australian Youth Research Centre, A Report on the Perspectives of Young People, 2001, p. 48 http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/schools/publications/2001/ 12 Australian Centre for Equity through Education Australian Youth Research Centre, A Report on the Perspectives of Young People, 2001.

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must be consistent and mutually reinforcing in order for the learning experience to truly promote the classical ideal of living a full life with ethos. The Morfosis Paradigm: beliefs Adherence to a foundation of core beliefs shapes all actions and institutional decision-making. Such fundamental beliefs include: •

Holistic, meaningful and harmonious student learning necessitates a genuine partnership between the student, the school, and the family • Institutional decisions must be made in the best interest of students first and foremost and then in the interest of all stakeholders. • All students can succeed and acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to become life-long learners with ethos. • Achieving excellence must be built upon each student’s unique talents and abilities. (ACS Athens School Plan, adopted 2008) The Morfosis Paradigm: outcomes The Morfosis paradigm shapes young people who will be: •

creative and critical thinkers;

life-long learners;

capable of utilizing sound scientific and mathematical aptitudes;

skilful in expressing selves clearly: orally and in writing in more than one language, and through the arts;

knowledgeable of other cultures;

appreciative of the value of the study of the past;

masters of the tools of technology;

inspired to maintain physical and emotional well being;

responsible and productive citizens;

effective leaders.

(ACS Athens Curriculum Framework Document, developed by ACS Athens faculty, 1994)

The Morfosis Paradigm: leadership The ability to lead a dynamic 21st century institution, in which learning is diachronic, requires a leader well versed in Morfosis. While leadership is traditionally defined as the continuous act of influencing self and others to accomplish personal and professional as well as common goals, Morfosis leadership is a particular type of leadership comprised of two essential components: the establishment of an Authentic Leadership Identity (PLI) and the creation of a Collective Leadership-Partnership Approach (CPA). 1. Authentic Leadership Identity To define the special characteristics of Morphosis Leadership, we turn again to Socrates, by way of Adler, and apply a central tenet of Socratic philosophy – that living a life of meaning begins with the quest to “know oneself.” In our conception, the process of adopting this leadership model can be expressed in the following formula:

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Authentic Leadership Identity = Life Experiences + Individual Characteristics+ Personal Leadership Identity (ALI = LE + IC + PLI) Life Experiences and Individual Characteristics The process of understanding where we come from and how life has affected and shaped our personalities, life choices and approaches to living is important in developing and defining a leadership identity. We are not separate from our experiences and our experiences and perceived view of the world will, to a great degree, define our leadership approach. As Adler has noted (in Mosak and Maniacci, 1999), there is a: “Subjective, unarticulated set of guidelines individuals develop and use to move them through life and toward their goals. They develop through the interactions children have with their significant others, peers, and social world; through their experience of culture and community; through their biological growth and dysfunction; and, perhaps most significantly, through their perceptions and choices. It is both conscious and non-conscious, in that it exists on what current theorists call a tacit-implicit level as well as explicit, verbal level.” 13 (p.47) Adler refers to these developments as one’s style of life, which involves myriad concepts, including: individuality and individual forms of creativity, ways in which we solve life’s problems, our own attitudes towards life, ways in which we compensate for inferiorities, what life means to us, our entire unitary personality, our goals and means of achieving them, opinions we have of ourselves and others, ways in which we fulfill our strivings for superiority and social interest, and expressions of our entire personality. 14 (p.57) We are suggesting then that knowing oneself, at this level, is a necessary first step in creating the vision of the institution and defining its philosophy of education, but it is also the fuel that will guide decision making, establish relationships and ensure that the institution is a healthy, thriving entity within the community, capable of molding healthy individuals who will become tomorrow’s leaders, global citizens with a commitment to serving humanity. Personal Leadership Identity Within this personality framework, we must identify clearly our principles and values, knowing very well which are absolutely non-negotiable. Once defined, these are the fixed guides that point us in the direction of achieving our vision. By principles, we refer to specific ways of behaving; a general way of conducting ourselves. Values are best described by Eyre and Eyre (1993) as “the standards of our actions and the attitudes of our hearts and minds that shape who we are, how we live, and how we treat other people.” 15 (p.15) Next, we must also clearly define our professional goals through a similar process of self-reflection and revision: where do we want life to take us, and how can we participate in this co-creative process? These are the questions a leader must continuously ask in order to revise, fine-tune and refine his/her leadership approach. Finally, as the last step in establishing a leadership identity, the leader must clearly identify his/her personal goals, adopting a holistic approach to life and leadership by ensuring that personal and professional goals align and do not conflict with or undermine one another. Thus, rather than promote the adoption of a particular “leadership style,” we suggest that in order to identify one’s leadership approach the leader delves deeply into uncovering the style that has evolved from his/her personal characteristics and experiences, as well as from the meaning he/she has attributed to them. Only then can he/she understand the personal blueprint he/she has designed for approaching life and become comfortable within a leadership style that has evolved from the sum of who he/she is. In the process of defining his/her authentic leadership identity, the leader models the process of growth and development through which he/she guides the institution he/she leads. The process becomes both and individual and an institutional imperative, and the process of becoming a school leader defined by the Morfosis paradigm gains validity because it is reflective of the process of teaching and learning that we 13

Mozak, H.H., & Maniacci, M.P., A Primer of Adlerian Psychology. New York : Brunner-Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 1999. 14 Lundin, Robert W. Alfred Adler’s. Basic Concepts and Implications, 1989. Accelerated Development inc. Levittown, PA 15 Eyre, Linda and Rich, Teaching your Children Values, 1993. Simon and Shuster, New York, New York, p. 15.

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seek to foster. Once again, the metaphor of the fractal and its central principle of self-similarity, with which this discussion began, provide us with a helpful image for understanding this approach. 2. Creating a Collective Leadership- Partnership Approach Previously, we have discussed the centrality of developing agreeable partnerships across the institution as an important responsibility of the leader. We believe that the leader must begin this process by implementing a leadership - partnership approach with his or her leadership team, whom the leader has identified as belonging to the group of “early adapters,” 16, open to the possibilities of radical change. Establishing such a leadership partnership is itself a journey of self- and group exploration, growth and development that includes the following stages: • • • • • • •

Establishing a partnership based on common principles and values, and complimentary personal and professional goals in life; Distributing authority and decision making; Outlining clearly the type, magnitude and areas of authority; Supporting and encouraging team members in using their decision making authority; Reflecting continuously on the partnership in order to adjust the distribution of ownership of decision making; Motivating members of the leadership team to reproduce this model in their work with members of their own teams; Fostering the same model of collaborative leadership in the classroom to empower students to pursue the kind of learning necessary to develop the intellectual, social and moral autonomy we have defined as essential 21st century human skills.

Partnerships and collaborations ensure that there are checks and balances, that other individuals participate in the decision making process and that there is a comprehensive support system in place to ensure that the institution thrives and functions at the highest possible level of achievement. They also create a greater pool of knowledge, experience, expertise, questions, ways of knowing and approaches to problem solving that make the sum greater than the individual parts. It is crucial that all members of the leadership partnership share a belief in the institutional vision and are committed to striving towards reaching common goals. To assure the most meaningful and far-reaching collaboration, the team members must also share, for the most part, similar principles and values. Each member must also engage in the process of identifying and clarifying his/her own personal and professional goals to ensure that these do not conflict with one another or with the institutional goals. This educational team consists of various leaders within the institution, each with clearly exhibited expertise in his/her area of operations and each with a clearly defined scope of authority, including the school’s principals and directors of special programs (at ACS Athens these include Student Affairs, Learning Enhancement Programs, Athletics, Innovation and Creativity, International Baccalaureate and Advanced Placement, Finance, Human Resources and Admissions, Communications and Technology). Authority and decision-making are distributed among the team members, not necessarily equally or in a fixed way at all times. Authority and decision making, while for the most part well defined, will entail a degree of flexibility according to the changing needs of the institution, current circumstances and to individual capabilities of the team members. The leader provides opportunities for members to exercise their authority and ensures their success by offering support and encouragement at all times. Finally, the leader and team members reflect on the partnership continuously in order to make adjustments as necessary to accommodate the range of institutional needs. As this process evolves, the role of the institutional leader also evolves. The leader who began as the chief director and instigator of change and decision-making becomes instead a mentor to the members of the team (individually and collectively) and a facilitator of their work as they engage in the process of institutional transformation. Conclusion

16 Gialamas, S. and Pelonis, P., “Connecting with College Education: A Holistic Approach”, International School Journal, Spring/Autumn 2009, Vol. 11(2), pp. 22-23.

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Morfosis leadership assumes a holistic, meaningful and harmonious approach to leading (and learning). It places human beings at the core of the institution and takes care to help members identify personal and professional goals in order to align these, where possible, with the institutional vision. Morfosis leadership requires team members to work collaboratively, among themselves, as well as with the institutional leader and with their own working teams in order to ensure that the institution remains on its trajectory as defined by its mission and the leadership vision. The interaction of team members as equals when undertaking projects ensures that there are checks and balances built into the process of achieving goals as well as safeguards against making grave mistakes. Mutual support among team members ensures that energy levels remain high and performance optimal. The replication of this approach in the work of team leaders with the members of their own teams assures that the transformation penetrates all “neighborhoods” in the institution. In the end, when the model works, all levels of the organization reflect the same core principles about what meaningful relationships are those that promote real learning and growth. We can’t educate future leaders if the model of leadership we are promoting is not embedded in every level of institutional practice. Thus, a working meeting of school leaders, or a faculty meeting, or a department meeting shouldn’t look much different from the kind of classroom learning environment that we want to promote. We have come full circle to the metaphor of the fractal with which we began. Thus, Morfosis leadership is a special kind of leadership approach, which transforms institutional thinking and its methods of teaching and learning in dynamic ways. Leading institutions toward this type of transformation goes beyond the changes often required with the implementation of new programs or with the coming of new administrators; it underscores change at the cellular level of the institution, where every cell (individual) adopts and integrates the change, transforming the very core of the institution. Outwardly, the outcome may have little in common with the beginning phase, yet the process is one of continuous development, evolution and modification. Much like a butterfly evolving from its chrysalis -- which shares the DNA of the caterpillar it was -- the institution, grounded in fundamental principles and values, is transformed and ready to fly toward desired directions. In this sense, metamorphosis has been accomplished.

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References Mandelbrot, B.B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. W.H. Freeman and Company. Buzan, Tony. Embracing Change. (2006). BBC ACTIVE, England Caine, R.N. and Caine, G. (1997), ‘Understanding Why Education Must Change’, New Horizons for Learning. Available at: http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/caine_change.htm (last accessed July 05, 2010). Drago-Severson, E. (2009a). Leading adult learning: Supporting adult development in our schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin/Sage Press. Gialamas, S. and Pelonis, P. (2009), “Connecting with College Education: A Holistic Approach”, International School Journal, Spring/Autumn, Vol. 11(2), pp. 22-23. Gialamas, S., Pelonis, P., Overbye, D., Cherif, A. and King, D.L. (2009), ‘Preparing High School Students for College Success: A College and High School Leadership Collaboration’, The Journal of Higher Education Management, Vol. 24(1), pp. 69-74. Lundin, Robert W. Alfred Adler’s. Basic Concepts and Implications, 1989. Accelerated Development inc. Levittown, PA Eyre, Linda and Rich Teaching your children values. (1993). Simon and Shuster, New York, New York. Lawrence-Lightfoot, Sara, The Good High School, Basic Books, 1983. Maniacci, Michael, Bernard Shulman, Jane Griffith, Robert L. Powers, Judy Sutherland, Renee Dushman, and Mary Frances Schneider. (Winter, 1998). Journal of Individual Psychology. 54,4,451-479. Pelonis, P. (2006), “Υπάρχω Αλλάζω (Living Changing)”, Isoropon Publications, Athens, Greece. Satir, V., & Bitter, J.R. (2000). The Therapist and Family Therapy: Satir’s Human Validation Process Model. In A.M. Horne (Ed), Family Counseling and Therapy (3rd ed.) (pp. 62-101). Itasca, IL:F.E. Peacock. Shulman, B.H., & H. Mosak (1998). Manual for Lifestyle Assessment. Bristol, PA. Accelerated Development. The Third Annual Conference on Education, Spirituality and the Whole Child at the Roehampton Institute, London; exploring the question, “Whose values are shaping education?” http://www.pdfio.com/k811252.html

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E NGAGING THE M INDS OF OUR Y OUTH : T HE H IGH P ERFORMING S TUDENT P ROGRAM AT ACS A THENS ELEOUSSA POLYZOI CATHRINE FROESE KLASSEN JEFF BABB STEPHANOS GIALAMAS CHRISTIANA PERAKIS EVLOYIAS

S E L E C T E D P A P E R S F R O M T H E WCG TC W O R L D C O N F E R E N C E , V A N C O U V E R , C A N A D A P U B L I S H E D 2 01 1 B Y T H E W O R L D C O U N C I L F O R G I F T E D A N D T A L E N T E D C H I L D R E N ACS Athens is an accredited Kindergarten to Grade 12 International Baccalaureate school, which offers students enriched programming across all subjects. The newly implemented High Performing Student (HPS) Program, unique in Greece, is part of the school's Optimal Match program in which the curriculum is matched to the students' needs and abilities through differentiation and extended learning. The authors developed a survey (adapted from Williams' Performance Levels of a School Program Survey, 1979) to review the HPS Program initiated at ACS Athens in the fall of 2008. Sixty-two teachers, administrators, and counselors (across all grade levels) completed the survey in May 2009, reflecting a 78% response rate. The survey addressed students' abilities in domains such as intellectual, leadership, creative-thinking, visual and performing arts, and affective abilities, which were assessed with respect to teacher training and professional development, community involvement, student-centered programming, and independent student learning. Results from this initial survey identify the program's multiple strengths and set the foundation for further development and consolidation of the school's HPS Program. The world can be a wondrous playground of energy, curiosity, enthusiasm, like a ball of fire bouncing off of a court, twisting, turning, changing directions, angles, height and depth, seeing, observing, evaluating, contemplating, seeking meaning and understanding. It is through the process of reflecting that a simple isolated idea or concept can be transformed into a realm of infinite possibilities. (Eleni Froustis-Vriniotis, Educator and Counselor, ACS Athens School, 2008). In 2006, the University of Winnipeg (UW) in Canada and the American Community School (ACS) of Athens, an accredited Kindergarten to Grade 12 International Baccalaureate (IB)1 school in Greece, signed a memorandum of understanding inviting UW senior education students in the final year of their degree program to complete their five-week practiceteaching block, as interns, at ACS Athens. In 2008, the first two authors visited ACS Athens as representatives of The World Council for Gifted and Talented Children. Dr. Stefanos Gialamas, President of ACS Athens, expressed an interest in initiating a gifted program at his school and asked us to evaluate the program at the end of its first year of operation. We accepted his invitation and undertook the evaluation in May 2009. The goal of this article is to report on the results of this evaluation, identify the strengths of the gifted program, and recommend areas for further development. A secondary objective of this study is to assess the usefulness of the evaluation instrument, a teacher survey for evaluating gifted programs in schools, adapted from Williams' Performance Levels of a School Program Survey (PLSPS). The Context ACS Athens School ACS Athens is an international school that was founded in 1948 to serve the families of the newly established American military base in Greece. Currently, there are almost 800 students enrolled, representing over 45 countries. Approximately half of the students are American citizens of Greek origin; the remaining students are from the Middle East, Canada, Africa, Europe, and the People's Republic of China. Students are typically children of diplomats, chief

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executive officers, academics, government officials, and businessmen. Accredited by the Middle States Association of Schools and Colleges, as well as by the International Baccalaureate Organization, ACS Athens is located in the Halandri suburb of Athens, Greece. As a state-of-the-art facility, ACS Athens is a full-capacity, wireless campus with interactive boards in most classrooms and laboratories. It has an extensive library containing the largest collection of English language books in Greece, numerous fully equipped science laboratories, a large professional-quality theatre, a fine-arts classroom suite, and a music room. The school also has outdoor basketball, volleyball, and tennis courts, as well as a large gymnasium, a weight-training room, and an Olympic-size swimming pool. Staff includes 96 teachers, 64 of whom have Master's degrees and four of whom have doctorates. Teacher-student classroom ratios range from 1:8 to 1:25. Several teachers are accomplished authors in their own right, having published books in the fields of mathematics, history, poetry, counseling, leadership, and linguistics. The physics teacher is the author of the IB text in Physics used by IB schools throughout the world. ACS Athens has an outstanding record of student placement following graduation, with over 95% of graduates placing in top universities around the world, including Cambridge, Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Duke, UCLA, Cornell, and Tufts. The school is developing a Stavros Niarchos Foundation grant proposal to establish a Research and Development Centre and an In-Service Training Institute for teachers around the world. Enrichment Opportunities ACS Athens, as a premier school in Greece, is known for its numerous program initiatives that promote innovative teaching and learning, including a Summer Leadership Institute, a major Newscoop student journalism project, and its award-winning Institute for Creative and Critical Thinking. Summer Institute on Academic Leadership In 2009, ACS Athens initiated a summer leadership institute, in partnership with the University of Richmond, Virginia (Jepson School of Leadership Studies). ACS Athens students from Grades 11 and 12 first attended a three-day workshop at their home school, designed to challenge their personal concept of leadership as they explored its theoretical links with democracy, ethics, and community service, even as they explored the leadership potential within themselves. This was followed by a week-long series of workshops at the University of Richmond, focusing on the philosophical, historical, ethical, and social science foundations of leadership, the Jeffersonian ideal of democracy, and leadership in the field of science and environmental issues. As a follow-up to their academic studies, students had an opportunity to observe leadership in action in Washington, DC to learn, personally, from leaders in politics, business, law, government service, the military, medicine, journalism, and public-interest lobbying. Steve Medeiros, the school's academic director, reported that "students were engaged in discussion, debate, role-playing, consensus building, negotiating, problem-solving, and project work, supported by a rigorous program of multi-disciplinary reading" (Gialamas, Pelonis, & Medeiros, 2009, p. 21). Newscoop student journalism project Newscoop, an organization founded by Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government, has developed stellar student journalists who write about world issues from a student's perspective. The Newscoop project at ACS Athens offers students the opportunity to write, edit, and produce news documentaries in collaboration with other students throughout the world. The goal is to create a trusted news source, accessible on the web by students around the globe to inform each other. In 2009, ACS Athens students produced their first piece, a 26-minute documentary on the IsraeliPalestinian conflict that was covered nationally by the Greek television media, with rave reviews (Kelly, 2009). The village project Since 2007, when fires ravaged the Greek countryside, ACS Athens has supported the Lepreo Village Elementary School, located in the Zaharo municipality. ACS Athens helped renovate the school, test the local water sources for contaminants, plant 150 trees in the burned forest area, establish a Technology and Education Centre to teach computer skills to students, and raised 5,000 Euros to purchase the school's first computer lab. The world debate tournament In 2009, ACS Athens hosted eight national teams for the first round of the World Schools Debate Championships, under the auspices of the President of the Hellenic Republic. Countries represented included Germany, Mexico, Netherlands, Indonesia, Romania, Scotland, Israel, and the Philippines. ACS Athens students had a unique opportunity to watch worldclass competitors in action.

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Institute for Creative and Critical Thinking (ICCT) Successfully launched in the summer of 2006 by ACS Athens, in conjunction with leading universities, worldwide (Williams College, USA; Tufts University, USA; and York University, Canada), the first Athens Summer Institute marked a milestone in the school's history. The Institute established an innovative school and university partnership to promote critical and creative thinking across the disciplines for students enrolled at ACS Athens. It offered a unique, educational experience for young people from all over the globe who aspire to become world leaders in science, technology, business, government, education and community affairs, and the arts. Its Director, Steve Medeiros (2007), elaborates: ... [In the summer of 2006], over the course of two weeks, our learning community was introduced to an amazing range of artifacts and ideas: the art of Mark Rothko as a meditation on the concept of infinity, a psychological approach to the issue of managing change, the idea of a map as a metaphor for and theory of how we interpret the world, the poetry of Emily Dickinson set to the musical forms of Protestant hymns, knot theory and its relation to the structure of DNA and the science of cloning, a Chandra Sheka meditation on the White Dwarf and the clash of old and new ideas in the field of physics, exploring African changes and rhythms through voice and movements as a means of creating theatre, the elegant and profound simplicity of the movement of a pendulum and what it tells us about the way the universe works, and the paradoxical mathematical concept that there are different sizes of infinity. And, all of this before the students and teachers moved on to the class!...Through collaborative inquiry and problem-solving, presentations, demonstrations, formal debates and discussions, experiments, writing in a range of genres, critical reading, games, improvisations, simulations, performances, field trips to Epidaurus and Delphi, and regular reflections on their learning, Institute participants explored the content of their courses, honing their academic skills, while expanding their understanding of literature, science, mathematics, theatre, and politics. (Medeiros, 2007, pp. 20-21) In 2009, the ICCT was awarded the prestigious Nikolai N. Khaladjan International Award by the American Association of University Administrators, the first time in its 40-year history that it had been offered to a Kindergarten to Grade 12 school, rather than to a university. Virtual science fair In 2009, ACS Athens middle-school students participated in the first ever virtual science fair, which involved hundreds of students, mentors, judges, and teachers from schools from around the globe. NVSF2 Project Director, Stuart Fleischer of Israel, noted that "[w]hat was once considered impossible is now being accomplished with today's e-learning tools and ementoring, i.e., pairing experienced science educators and scientists with middle-school students. In doing so, it helps establish content-related, curriculum-based 'tele-apprenticeships,' or what is referred to as 'e-mentoring'" (Fleischer, 2009, p. 31).

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4

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Figure 1. Number of Students in the Optimal Math (OM) Program by Grade Level

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Articulation with American universities Recently, the school has established an articulation agreement with two American universities in Virginia, namely, the University of Mary Washington and University of Richmond, which allows students to gain credit or course equivalencies for IB and Advanced Placement courses completed at ACS Athens. Discussions are underway with twelve other American universities to develop similar articulation agreements. In addition to the many enrichment opportunities afforded to all students attending ACS Athens, the school, in 2008, introduced a new program for gifted or (what ACS Athens calls) high-performing students. The High Performing Student (HPS) Program Service delivery for the school's high-performing students is provided through its Optimal Match (OM) Program, housed on campus at the Stavros Niarchos Learning Centre. Johns Hopkins University defines optimal match as "the practice that seeks to equate a child's educational experiences to his or her abilities, achievements, interests, and motivations" (Haldiman, 2004). The OM program is innovative in Greece in that it serves students who have various special needs, including learning disabilities, ADHD, Asperger Syndrome, speech and language difficulties, Down Syndrome, vision impairments, oppositional disorders, and dyslexia. In 2008 - 09 academic year, the OM program served a total of 78 students, of whom 11 were gifted or high-performing (see Figure 1). Most OM students were from Grades 5, 6, or 7, and the majority of HP students attended elementary school.

Figure 2. Renzulli's Three-ring Conception of Giftedness

Teachers who serve high-performing students in their classrooms work closely with OM specialists to help differentiate the curriculum, develop more appropriate learner outcomes, and offer a variety of challenging learning experiences. Specific programming strategies used by ACS Athens include curriculum compacting, acceleration, differentiated instruction, and pull-out enrichment. The approach to enrichment delivery through these strategies is reflective of that advocated by Renzulli in his Schoolwide Enrichment Model (Renzulli, 2003), as these programming options are integral to his model. Curriculum compacting, for example, is to be offered to any eligible students, that is, to those who have already mastered the curriculum being taught and can benefit from having content compacted and then use the resulting freed-up instructional time on alternative studies of their particular interest. Such students are not necessarily selected from the talent pool, which Renzulli defines as the "10 - 15 percent of above average ability/high potential students...identified through a variety of measures, including achievement tests, teacher nominations, assessment of potential for creativity and task commitment, as well as alternative pathways of entrance (self-examination, parent nomination, etc.)" (Renzulli, p. 187). The percentage of students participating in the OM Program corresponds favorably with the talent-pool recommendation.

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Renzulli contends that in order for identified students to reach their potential, diverse educational opportunities have to be provided, ones which are not part of the normal delivery of services in schools. His categorization of the types of enrichment required, as presented in his Enrichment Triad Model, has become popular around the world. In brief, they consist of three types of enrichment activities: Type I, which are intended to expose students, generally, to a broad range of topics of interest in various disciplines; Type II, which consist of group training and instruction in specific areas for the purpose of developing particular skills (e.g. in critical thinking, research, or communication); and Type III, which are selfselected by the students, either in small groups or individually, in their own areas of interest and involve acquiring advanced knowledge and undertaking the development of an authentic product (Renzulli, p. 186). At ACS Athens, the HPS Program specialist works with classroom teachers to ensure that the curricula are differentiated and that learning experiences are designed to meet the individual needs of the students in the program. Such program delivery involves mentorships, guidance in small-group activities, individualized projects, ability grouping, individualized learning plans (ILPs), and offering of internationally recognized, specialized programs. The numerous enrichment activities at the school, as outlined earlier, correspond to the Type I, II, and III activities in the Enrichment Triad Model. The High Performing Student Program, as part of the OM Program, was designed to provide appropriate educational opportunities for students with exceptional abilities and thereby challenge them suitably in order for them to reach their potential. In order to be eligible for the HP program, students must have above-average ability (an IQ of 130+), display superior talent or giftedness in a given area, and be highly motivated, which is reflective of Ren-zulli's three-ring conception of giftedness (Renzulli, p. 186) (See Figure 2). The critical aspect of this concept is the interaction among the three qualities. According to Kalyvas, the school's counseling psychologist and OM teacher specialist, students qualify for the program based on criteria such as superior problem-solving skills; a wide range of interests (is well-read); a creative imagination; keen insight (looks for truth and justice); flexible, original thinking ability; abstract and complex thought capability; and a strong intellectual curiosity. Sample student profiles, provided by the OM teacher, showcase the diversity of talents of students attending ACS Athens. The Study The goal of our study is to report on the results of an evaluation of the High Performing Student Program at ACS Athens, to identify its strengths and recommend areas for further program development. A teacher survey, adapted from Williams' PLSPS by the authors, was used to collect the data for the evaluation. A secondary objective of this study is to assess the usefulness of this evaluation instrument. The Method Participants A total of 62 teachers across the three schools participated in the program evaluation, representing a 78% response rate (see Table 2). Evaluation Instrument The authors developed a six-page survey, adapted from Williams' (1979) Performance Level of a School Program Survey (PLSPS). The adaptation involved streamlining the diction and dropping the cognitive domain because of its overlap with the intellectual domain. The instrument was piloted, and thereafter further changes were made, including adding the "have no knowledge" response option and refining the instrument, as a whole. Table 1. Sample Student Profiles Grade: 3 Israeli Male

Age: 9 years IQ: 150

"Sam is curious, polite, and inquisitive about the world around him. Last September, he came to ACS Athens speaking only Hebrew, but, nine months later, he is fully fluent in English. He provides a positive energy to the class with his uncanny ability to learn. He learns math with ease at the middle-school level. Sam is a teacher's dream. He constantly wants to be challenged."

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Grade: 5 Hungarian Male

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Age: 11 years IQ: 140

"Joe is an enthusiastic learner who constantly craves knowledge. This year, he grew out of his shy stage, and his sense of humor really blossomed. Joe gets bored easily if not stimulated in class and is impatient with routine tasks but loves to help his peers understand complex concepts." Grade: 6 Age: 13 years Mexican American Male IQ: 130 "Anthony has made tremendous strides in his studies this year. His effort was lackluster at the beginning of the year until he realized that he can be an "A+" student. He strives to be the best at everything. Anthony is talented in all school

Table 2. Participants in the Evaluation Study

Participant

Teacher Specialist Staff Total

Level Elementary School 13 2 15

Middle School 11 1 12

High School

Total

30 5 35

54 8 62

The staff specialists include the principal, school psychologist, counselor, OM director, and teaching assistant.

subject areas, including music. Last term, he composed and played his own music in front of his classmates. He is a modern-day Renaissance kid. The instrument assessed six program domains by surveying the teachers' perceptions of the school's performance in addressing the following areas: •

intellectual: fostering critical thinking, problem-solving, and informed decision-making;

leadership: enabling the development of leadership qualities to influence, guide, or inspire others;

creative thinking: encouraging the engagement in divergent, fluent, flexible, original, and elaborative thinking, resulting in creative productions;

visual and performing arts: providing opportunities for the showcasing of exceptional talent for developing aesthetic productions in graphic arts, sculpture, music, dance, or drama;

psychomotor abilities and talents: promoting excellence in sports, track and field, gymnastics, and dancing; and

affective abilities: nurturing empathy, compassion, moral sensitivity, and a strong sense of justice.

Across each domain, 10 common questions were asked of teachers: (1) How is this domain measured? (2) Are special enrichment classes available in this area? (3) Are there opportunities, outside of class, to develop this talent further? (4) Are there advanced lessons within the inclusive classroom specifically targeting individual students? (5) Does the school offer any recognition or incentives for those who excel in this area? (6) Are there special opportunities given to students to develop or showcase their talents within the regular curriculum? (7) Are others brought from outside of school to work with students? (8) Is teacher professional development offered in this domain? (9) Do students with this gift or talent work with or serve as mentors for other students in the school? (10) Are students excused from classes to pursue further activities in this domain, in or out of school? The questions were particularized to the demands of the domain; for example, within the intellectual domain the following questions were asked: How are intellectual abilities measured? Do you offer special enrichment classes? Are students accelerated? Do you individualize student goals? Can students pursue advanced work? Do you offer special options like honors classes, advanced placement, special electives, or self-directed research projects? Do you bring outside specialists to work with students? Is professional development available for teachers in this area? Are high-ability students encouraged to work with or help others in their talent area? Do you excuse students from regular class so that they can pursue independent work away from the school building?

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Participants were asked to respond to each question, under each domain, using one of five options: 1 = not being done (this practice is absent at my school); 2 = rare (it hardly ever happens); 3 = usually being done, but we need more of this; and 4 = adequately being done (leave as is). A fifth option was "I have no knowledge of this." Procedure The principals of the three school divisions (elementary, middle, and high-school) distributed the hard-copy surveys to all teachers, specialists, and administrative staff during a general faculty meeting. Surveys were completed during the meeting or taken home and returned to the principal the following day. All surveys were then forwarded to the first author three to five days after the general meeting. Data were recorded on spreadsheets by a senior research assistant and analyzed by a statistician, using SPSS. Results Results are reported for all teachers, for all domains, including the "I have no knowledge" response. Teacher Responses: Program Strengths and Weaknesses The overall composite mean score for all teachers, combining all domains, is 2.80, a score falling between "this practice is rare (it hardly ever happens)" and "it is usually being done, but we need more of this." Such a score is not unexpected since the HPS program has only been in place for one year. Mean overall scores, broken down by domain, in descending order, are as follows: psycho-motor, 3.11: visual and performing arts, 2.91; leadership, 2.84; affective, 2.72; creative 2.63; and intellectual, 2.60. The higher the score, the more adequately ACS Athens is addressing the target domain within its HPS program. These scores reflect the traditionally strong physical education program (highest score) and theatre program (next highest score) that exist at ACS Athens. Leadership, too, is a relatively strong element (third-highest score) that permeates all subject areas at the school. Additionally, there is emerging school support for the intellectual, creative, and affective domains of the school's HPS program. When the mean scores are examined by domain and specific question posed, as shown in Figures 3 to 8, one sees the rich detail that can inform how successful a gifted program is; how it relates to professional development, community involvement, and student-centered programming; how well the program is evolving over time; and what specific areas need greater attention in order to consolidate the program and ensure that it is adequately meeting the needs of its gifted students, as well as of the teachers who deliver the program. In Figures 3 to 8, the horizontal axis represents questions 1 to 10. The vertical axis on the left-hand side represents the teachers' mean response scores, ranging from 1 (not being done) to 4 (adequate, leave as is). The higher the bar, the more adequately the school is addressing that domain in the HPS program; the lower the bar, the less sufficient the school's response. The alternate vertical axis on the right-hand side of each figure represents the percentage of teachers who responded "I have no knowledge" to a given question. This is visually represented by the line graph superimposed upon the histogram. The higher the line is, the greater the proportion of teachers who know very little or nothing of the HPS program. Thus, the line graph visually depicts how well-informed or knowledgeable teachers are about the HPS program. The figures below show mean response scores for all of the teachers in each of the domains of the survey. "No Knowledge" Responses Table 3 shows that a significant number of teachers at ACS Athens have "no knowledge" of selected aspects of the HPS program. For each of the domains—intellectual, leadership, creative thinking, and affective abilities— roughly 30 to 35 % of teachers marked "have no knowledge" on at least 50% of the survey responses. Teachers were considerably less knowledgeable about the domains of visual and performing arts (46.3%) and psychomotor abilities and talents (61.1%). Teacher Responses by School Level Overall mean scores, broken down by school level, reveal that scores for elementary-school teachers and middle-school teachers tend to be higher than those for high-school teachers (2.92, 2.88, and 2.73, respectively, out of 4). This is most likely due to the fact that the majority of HP students are currently in the elementary and middle schools where teachers have more experience with and are more informed about the HP program.

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Table 3. Percentage of Respondents Answering "I have no knowledge" on at least 50% and 75% of Questions by Domain: Teachers vs. Specialist Staff

Domain Intellectual Leadership Creative Thinking Visual & Performing Arts Psychomotor Abilities & Talents Affective Abilities Mean

Have no Knowledge on at least 50% of Responses Teachers Specialist Staff 35.2 0 33.3 0 29.6 0 46.3 0 61.1 0 35.2 0 34.8 0

Have no Knowledge on at least 75% of Responses Teachers Specialist Staff 9.3 0 5.6 0 1.9 0 18.5 0 40.7 0 14.8 0 15.1 0

Figure 3. Mean Response Scores for all Teachers: Intellectual Abilities

Survey Questions Q1: How are intellectual abilities measured? Q2: Are there special classes which enrich academic subject areas? Q3: Are high-ability students accelerated? Q4: Are they provided with individualized goals to meet their academic needs? Q5: Are opportunities given to pursue any advanced work? Q6: Does your school program provide special options (e.g., honors classes, advanced placement, electives, research projects) for those who perform academically above grade level? Q7: Do others from outside the school come to work with high-ability students?

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Q8: Is professional development provided to teachers for planning special academic programs beyond those offered to regular classroom students? Q9: Are students who have outstanding knowledge in an academic subject allowed to work with others less knowledgeable? Q10: Does your school program permit academic achievers to be dismissed from regular classes for independent work away from the building?

Figure 4. Mean Response Scores for all Teachers: Leadership Abilities

Survey Questions Q1: How are leadership abilities measured? Q2: Do you use students' leadership performance to select them for further leadership experiences? Q3: Are potential class leaders—regardless of age, gender, grade, race, or color—given equal opportunities to perform as school leaders? Q4: Do students choose their own leaders in your class or school? How? Q5: Does your school provide recognition for those volunteering in leadership roles? Q6: Are those who are identified as leaders given special opportunities to assume leadership roles in and out of classroom settings? Q7: Do others from outside the school come to work on leadership training with potential student leaders? Q8: Is professional development offered to teachers for observing, diagnosing, and developing leadership abilities in students? Q9: Are school student leaders used to offer leadership training for other students? Q10: Are identified student leaders excused from classes to participate in further leadership activities in or out of school?

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Figure 5. Mean Response Scores for all Teachers: Creative Thinking

Survey Questions Q1: How do you measure creative thinking? Q2: Do you use students' performance in creative thinking to select them for further experiences requiring such skills? Q3: Are students who excel in creative thinking encouraged to work on hobbies, imaginative ideas, inventions, or extracurricular projects in class? Q4: Do you provide lessons or group activities requiring creative thinking in your classroom? Q5: Do you provide recognition or incentives for those who think creatively? Q6: Do you have special activity centers in your class for students to work on their creative ideas? Q7: Do others from outside the school work on creative thinking skills with student groups? Q8: Is professional development provided on how to teach creative thinking within the curriculum? Q9: Are students who think divergently used around the school (as mentors or teacher helpers) to work on creative productions with others? Q10: Does your school allow students to be dismissed from regular classes for independent or group work on creative activities?

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Figure 6. Mean Response Scores for all Teachers: Visual and Performing Arts

Survey Questions Q1: How do you measure students' aesthetic expression in art, sculpture, music, dance, or drama? Q2: Are talented students of the arts selected and actively involved in displaying, beautifying, decorating, or performing artistic activities in your school? Q3: Does your class or school attempt to accelerate talented students through advanced work in the visual and performing arts beyond the regular curriculum? Q4: Are selected students assigned to work with staff music and art teachers on artistic activities beyond those offered all students? Q5: Does your school offer special recognition, awards, or incentives to those students who perform well in the arts? Q6: Are there provisions in your school for special visual and performing arts experiences offered to talented students? Q7: Are others from within or outside your school brought into the building to work with artistically talented students? Q8: Is staff professional development provided to help encourage and develop students' visual and performing arts? Q9: Are those who excel in some artistic endeavor provided opportunities to share their talents as student mentors or teacher helpers with other students? Q10: Are artistically talented students allowed to leave class to work with mentors or advocates in or out of school?

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Figure 7. Mean Response Scores for all Teachers: Psychomotor Abilities

Survey Questions Q1: How do you measure students' psychomotor development in school? Q2: Are students who excel in movement skills, actively involved in physical activities in your school? Q3: Are students who are advanced in movement and motor development selected for class or school activities requiring vigorous fine and gross motor skills? Q4: Are students suspected to be physically or perceptually advanced recommended for observations or tests to further verify physical balance, agility, and endurance? Q5: Do you offer special recognition or incentives to students who perform well on sensory motor tasks? Q6: Does your school program integrate physical endurance, muscle tone, body control, and planned physical production activities into the total curriculum? Q7: Are there provisions for parent and community involvement in physical education and health programs for students? Q8: Is staff professional development provided on how to measure and nurture students' physical or motor development? Q9: Are physically gifted students given opportunities to share their talents as mentors with other students not as physically inclined? Q10: Are physically talented students allowed to work on perfecting their physical expertise during or outside of school time?

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Figure 8. Mean Response Scores for all Teachers: Affective Abilities Survey Questions Q1: How do you measure students' affective areas and emotional development in school? Q2: Are students who indicate strong affective development selected for enriched experiences to nurture their emotional maturity further? Q3: Do you provide time for students who feel good about themselves to continue strengthening their self-concept? Q4: For students observed being emotionally stable, are records kept of critical incidents, anecdotes, or observed behaviors in an attempt to show positive growth? Q5: Do you provide recognition or rewards for students who are self-disciplined, independent, and self-sufficient learners? Q6: Do you provide specific lessons and class activities for students which would purposely integrate their emotional development along with their academic development? Q7: Do other school staff or people from outside the school work on human development, motivation, or self-esteem programs with students? Q8: Is professional development provided to teachers to train them on building positive student self concept, cooperative attitudes, motivating students to want to learn, and getting along with others? Q9: Are students who demonstrate a positive self-concept given opportunities and encouraged to work with disruptive students or those who have behavior or discipline problems? Q10: Are emotionally developed students allowed to leave class to work with a mentor or advocate on individual projects of interest to them?

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Table 4. Means Scores on the Lowest-Scoring Questions 7, 8, and 9 Domain

1. Intellectual 2. Leadership 3. Creative Thinking 4. Visual & Performing Arts 5. Psychomotor Abilities & Talents 6. Affective Abilities Overall Means

Q7 Outside Expert 2.1 2.2 2.8 2.4 3.1 3.3 2.6

Mean Scores (1 to 4)a Q8 Q9 Professional Students as Development Mentors to Peers 1.7 2.8 1.8 2.0 1.6 2.5 1.7 2.7 1.9 3.3 2.2 2.0 1.8 2.5

1 = not being done 2 = rare 3 = usually being done, but needs more

Teachers versus Specialist-Staff Responses Specialist staff (consisting of principal, psychologist, counselor, Optimal Match director, and teaching assistants who work with HP students) score the HP program more highly (with an overall composite mean score of 3.04) compared to regular classroom teachers (who score 2.80). Specialist teachers tend to be more informed about the HPS program and are more directly involved with various aspects of HPS service delivery, including identification, assessment, and programming. Teachers who have HP students in their classroom have higher overall mean scores (2.89) than those teachers who do not have any HP students (2.74), for similar reasons.

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Common Concerns across all Domains The lowest overall mean scores by targeted question across domains was consistently the need for more professional development (1.8), followed by the need to use HP students more often as mentors for other students in the school (2.5), and, finally, the need to bring in more outside experts to work with HP students (2.6). The lower the score, the less fully developed the area at the school (see Table 4). The range of mean scores for these three targeted questions, regardless of domain, fall between 1.7 ("rare") and 3.3 ("usually done, but needs more"). Discussion This paper reports on the evaluation of the first year of the HPS Program at ACS Athens, an International Baccalaureate school in Greece. Assessment data were gathered through a survey, adapted from Williams (1979), which examined the school's performance in meeting students' needs in the areas of intellectual challenge, leadership, creative-thinking, visual and performing arts, psychomotor development, and affective abilities. These were assessed with respect to a number of areas, including teacher training and professional development, community involvement, and studentcentered programming. Despite its nascent stage of development, the HPS Program at ACS Athens clearly has numerous strengths; for example, the school has an outstanding physical education program (having won many international championships in basketball, track and field, and tennis). It has a vibrant visual- and performing-arts program, with annual theatre productions, like Plato's The Apology of Socrates, Moises Kaufman's The Laramie Project, and Thornton Wilder's Our Town. It provides numerous leadership opportunities to both its teaching staff and students, including the in-house publication of a firstrate journal of effective teaching, leadership, and innovation, Ethos, to which both staff and students contribute. It also has a strong history of academic excellence, integrates community service within the curriculum for all students, and aspires to be the centre for in-service teacher training for international school teachers, world-wide. Despite these strengths, however, the survey points to a number of areas that require further development or improvement. These include the need for more frequent professional development for teachers in all areas of gifted education; the need for more outside experts like scientists, artists, engineers, musicians, poets, ecologists, geographers, entrepreneurs, politicians, and medical professionals, to be brought into the school to work with students; and, finally, the need to have HP students serve more frequently as mentors, in their own right, for other students in the school. A closer examination of the survey results also reveals that there is a significant number of teachers at ACS Athens who have "no knowledge" of selected aspects of the HPS program. This underscores the need for better communication or sharing of information about the program among staff at all three school levels. The following are recommendations to help consolidate the strengths of the HPS Program, having concluded its first year of implementation: provide extensive professional development or in-service training that reaches teachers throughout the school; establish a community mentorship program for HP students to enhance HPS Program; incorporate a gifted curricular model, such as the Renzulli Schoolwide Enrichment Model, to guide the program-implementation process; introduce an evaluation plan to assess the success of the program and to guide improvement as it evolves; consider a more comprehensive identification system for gifts and talents that is not limited to IQ scores; more fully develop various HPS curricular strategies, such as curriculum compacting, acceleration, differentiated instruction, pull-out enrichment, contracts, independent projects, and mentorships. The usefulness of the survey, adapted from Williams (1979), also merits some attention. This instrument proved to be effective as an evaluation tool for assessing the HPS Program at ACS Athens. First, it is detailed and allows one to examine a variety of program dimensions simultaneously. Second, as a standard tool, it allows comparability across gifted programs. Third, it identifies specific strengths and gaps in programs under examination. Fourth, it provides direction for program improvement through pre- and post-surveying. Finally, it gauges the extent of change in gifted programs, over time, through annual assessments. School administrators who may be contemplating the initiation of a gifted program at their school may wish to consider the following additional factors that influence successful implementation. Teachers must feel committed to all aspects of service delivery; they must believe in the program; they must be philosophically on board. There must be supportive school-board policies addressing gifted programs that provide educational, professional, and administrative assistance to staff and students. It is desirable to select a model of gifted education, like Renzulli's Schoolwide Enrichment Model, to provide structure and more efficient delivery of a program. A model of gifted education makes implementation easier, alignment of the curriculum more effective, and the articulation with the regular program more seamless. A director is

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needed to oversee and monitor the program and to serve as its leader and champion. Professional development is critical; it is the fuel that drives any program. Community mentors play an important role, an option that should be included in any enrichment program. To have a sustainable program, one must also have the funds, ways to support the program financially. Finally, one must have an evaluation plan to assess and monitor the success of the program over time. Once these are in place, the likelihood of success of any gifted program is greater, and the vital task of engaging the minds of youth becomes more meaningful and effortless. References Fleischer, S. (2009). The NESA Virtual Science Fair. Ethos, 4(1), 31. Froustis-Vriniotis, E. (2008). Reflection: The tool that can transform learning. Ethos, 3(1), 12-13. Gialamas S., Pelonis, P., & Medeiros, S. (2009). The ICCT Summer Institute - A journey of discovery. Ethos (4)1, 21-23. Haldiman M., (2004). Special learning needs in international schools: The optimal match concept. In international education: Principles and practice (Eds. M. Hayden and Thompson, J. pp. 132-45). Kelly, B. M. (2009). Educational enrichment: An extra program or essential method of instruction? Ethos, 3(2). Medeiros, S. (2007). ACS Athens Summer Institute: Promoting critical and creative thinking and creating community. Ethos (1)1. 20-22. Renzulli, J. S., & Reis, S. M. (2003). The Schoolwide Enrichment Model: Developing creative and productive giftedness. Handbook of Gifted Education (184-203). Williams, F. E. (1979). Performance Levels of a School Program Survey (PLSPS). D.O.K. Publishers. Inc., Buffalo, NY.

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I NNOVATION , C OLLABORATION AND B RIDGING THE H IGH S CHOOL – U NIVERSITY E XPERIENCE : ONE EXAMPLE OF

EDUCATIONAL METAMORPHOSIS IN PRACTICE

D R . S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P R E S I D E N T – ACS A T H E N S STEVE MEDEIROS, DIRECTOR INSTITUTE FOR INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY PEGGY PELONIS, DIRECTOR OF STUDENT SERVICES I H T - K A T H I M E R I N I , M A R C H 12 -13, 201 1

In a world defined by rapid transformation, all schools must embrace change and prepare their students to adapt to and thrive in shifting circumstances. Now more than ever, schools must instill a sense of confidence in students that they have the tools and the power to identify, evaluate and choose from among all of the options and opportunities that a constantly changing world presents them. ACS Athens’ approach to innovation and change is anchored in the idea of metamorphosis, a holistic vision of change rooted in solid values, ethics and principles, which calls upon members of the learning community constantly to reexamine and reflect upon all aspects of the school’s operations. This means rethinking and redefining the ways that teaching and learning happen in and out of the classroom; redefining roles and relationships among students, teachers, administrators, staff and parents; and seeing and seizing opportunities that can arise from forging relationships between ACS Athens and the world outside. Leading innovation in education, ACS Athens has actively reached out to establish collaborative relationships with leading colleges and universities in an on-going effort to bridge the gap between the high school and college experiences for its students, to expand post-high school options for its students and to help them choose wisely from among available options. In the past four years ACS Athens – the Office of Student Services and the Institute for Innovation and Creativity -- have worked to establish a variety of partnerships, and university collaborations have taken many forms. The first order of business has been simply to reach out to university admissions officers – to introduce them to the ACS program and the school’s holistic, meaningful and harmonious approach to teaching and learning. To this end, members of the administration, faculty and counseling staff have met personally with over 300 admissions officers from schools in North America, Europe and Asia, establishing positive relationships that help us to promote our students, and which can serve as the foundation for further collaborative endeavors. ACS Athens has brought the university to its campus in three summer learning institutes in 2006-2008. Professors from Tufts University, Williams College and York University, working with members of the ACS faculty led two-week intensive, interdisciplinary and project-based classes (in International Relations, Mathematics and Creativity, and Theater) for talented ACS Athens students. Taking advantage of the historical and cultural sites of Greece, the summer programs were exceptional learning and growth experiences for the student participants, who excelled in university-level courses, as well as for the ACS Athens and university faculty who partnered to teach them. Reflecting on this experience, the school next sought to expand it, by providing students with an opportunity not only to do university level work, but to experience college life and US culture first-hand. Thus, was born the ACS Athens partnership with the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond. Working with Jepson’s chief administrators and a senior professor in the field, the two institutions (a JK-12 school and a university) created the Summer Leadership Institute. Combining one week of study in Athens, one week of university classes (and field study at Monticello, the University of Virginia and around Richmond) -- team taught by ACS Athens and Richmond faculty --, and one week of field study in Washington, DC, the Leadership Institute reversed the process established in the previous Summer Institutes by bringing the students to the university and to the culture in which they planned to

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study. ACS Athens and the University of Richmond have concluded two successful Summer Leadership Institutes and look forward to the third in 2011. ACS Athens is currently in negotiations with the Dodge School of Film Studies at Chapman University in California to establish a second summer program, modeled on the University of Richmond prototype, focused on the theme of mass media, film and TV production. Building on the desire to provide students with as much information about and experience of university life as possible, ACS Athens has also established a successful program of week-long college/university visits in the US (involving 13 Boston-area schools) and in the UK (involving 12 London areas schools). Led by ACS Athens faculty, these visits give student participants the opportunity to know the institutions first hand by meeting with admissions officers, touring campuses, meeting with students (ACS Athens alums whenever possible) and attending classes. As they debrief the visits with the tour leaders, students come to understand the myriad elements that make particular schools a “good fit” for their abilities, talents, interests and personalities. Pushing ahead with its commitment to leading innovation in education, ACS Athens has embarked this year on yet another avenue of collaboration designed to bridge the gap. With firm belief in the quality of its educational program, the school has reached out to selected US colleges and universities by asking them to enter into agreements that specify exactly the university credit that students can earn for work completed at ACS Athens. While US institutions generally award credit for successful completion of AP and IB courses, the school is asking them to take a look at four authentic, interdisciplinary ACS Athens-developed courses (Humanities, Leadership Studies, The Heart of Mathematics and Knot Theory), which are of equal academic caliber, with an eye to awarding our students university credit for work done in these classes. This move is in line with ACS Athens’ firm commitment to providing choices and alternatives for its students, to allow them to build the best program that meets their individual academic and intellectual needs. The ACS Athens proposal is a challenge to the institutions the school approaches to look at its program in a more holistic way and outside of the limits of traditional categories; it also stands a challenge to the ACS Athens community itself to understand that there are many routes to excellence and that the school has the capability and creativity to draw on our its traditions, knowledge and experiences to develop programs that cross disciplinary boundaries and lead students to think in sophisticated, creative and analytical ways. ACS Athens is on its way to establish a portfolio of brochures outlining its agreements with 25-30 US colleges and universities, which will serve as an invaluable source of information for ACS Athens Academy students as they plan for university study and navigate the application process. Negotiations with university officials – admissions officers, members of registrars’ and provosts’ offices, deans and President’s office staff -- provide the opportunity for ACS Athens representatives to describe and explain the school’s program in depth. This provides them with a rich context and deep understanding of ACS Athens’ students’ educational experiences when they are reviewing their applications for admissions. This understanding of what ACS Athens is about is the most important kind of knowledge that admissions officers can have. These agreements also provide ACS Athens students with added confidence in their knowledge and in their school’s programs: an invaluable and empowering attitude that gives them confidence in their choices and their own abilities to succeed in the next phase of their academic careers.

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L EADERSHIP C OLLABORATION : H IGH S CHOOL AND C OLLEGE E NVIRONMENTS B Y S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. P R E S I D E N T , AC S A T H E N S

INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE T H U R S D A Y , O C T O B E R 13, 2 011

Preparing high school students for a successful collegiate educational experience must be the focus of all International schools. Students must be prepared in multiple dimensions, such as academically, emotionally, physically, intellectually and ethically to ensure a healthy and balanced individual; an individual who will need to cope with unpredictable, challenging, and unstable conditions and be collected, connected and composed in order to make the best possible decisions for the first time without the guidance and presence of his/her parents. Secondary education faculty should be aware of college level expectations; what kind of skills their students must acquire during their secondary education studies, and what competencies they must be armed with in order to not only be prepared content wise but also be armed with critical thinking and transferable knowledge in order to provide solutions to specific problems under diverse conditions. On the other hand, college faculty should also be aware of increasingly diverse and complex incoming student population. Students’ learning styles, life experiences, and cultural differences could become obstacles or opportunities for deep learning. Thus, when high school graduates enter college life and become successful students, they can find a bridge between secondary education experience and college expectations/college life in general. Leadership at both ends must be at the far front. Dr. Stefanos Gialamas, ACS Athens President, defines Organizational Leadership as “the continuous act of effectively engaging member of the organization with their diverse qualities, creative ideas and authentic energies for the benefit of all constituencies of the organization.” In the case of an educational institution, the leader must engage all faculty, staff, administration and inspire them to utilize their diverse skills, creative ideas and intellectual and emotional energies for the benefit of all students. The result will be an exceptionally rich, meaningful, and balanced educational experience for every student. College and secondary leadership must distinguish the need of building such a bridge and devote effort, energy and resources to understand each other’s environment and to also develop relationships and collaborations in many levels; at the faculty and administration level and finally at their respective leadership. An example of such a bridge is the collaboration with several USA universities that the American Community Schools of Athens (ACS Athens) have developed; these programs are for high school students who are taking college level courses taught by ACS Athens faculty as well as university faculty. Such a course is the “Leadership

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and Democracy” course, jointly developed and co-taught by faculty at the Jepson Leadership School at the University of Richmond Virginia and ACS Athens faculty. Another example is the collaboration between the University of Mary Washington at Fredericksburg, Virginia and ACS Athens. As a result of such a collaboration and mutual respect at all levels, Dr. Stefanos Gialamas was invited to speak at the installation of the 9th President of the University of Mary Washington, Mr. Richard V. Hurley, on September 30th, 2011 in Fredericksburg, Virginia for an audience of 1,300 faculty, students, and invited guests. Inauguration speakers included Ms. Laura Fornash, State Secretary of Education, Mr. Karl Rove, Senior Adviser and Deputy Chief of staff to former President George W. Bush, and many other distinguished guests and government figures. Dr. Gialamas and President Hurley are both members of the Board of the American Association of University Administrators and have served for many decades in senior academic and administrative positions at several higher education institutions. Dr. Gialamas delivered his speech which was live steamed around the world with title “Engaging Minds, Serving the World.” His speech can be viewed at http://www.acs.gr/daily-blog/2011/9/30/dr-gialamas-speech-at-thepresidential-inauguration-of-unive.html. The University of Mary Washington newspaper, The Bullet, highlighted two statements from Dr. Gialamas’ speech: “the opportunities from students attending higher education institutions are directly related to the educational experience they receive” and that “the educational experience must be comprehensive based on their academic, physical, spiritual, ethical, and social engagement and development.” Later on, Dr. Gialamas also added that “leadership without service is similar to a mother without a child.” Developing such strong understanding and relationships between all members of secondary institutions is strengthening the guidance, motivation, and inspiration to students, faculty, staff and administration so they learn from each other and be able to think creatively always for the benefit of the students. Curricular development, delivery of this curricular, enhancing the learning process of students and inspiring them to reach their maximum abilities are the necessary foundation for student success at college life as well as the way to eventually become tomorrow’s leaders who will make their communities and the world a better place to live in.

*Dr. Stefanos Gialamas holds a Ph.D. in Mathematics and has been a Professor, a Dean and a Provost in higher educational institutions in the USA and in Greece.

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E DUCATIONAL P HILOSOPHY & THE S TRING T HEORY : A N A TYPICAL P ARADIGM BY DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS* ACS ATHENS, PRESIDENT

INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL MAGAZINE, IS S P R I N G 20 12, V O L U M E 1 4, I S S U E 2 I N T E R N A T I O N A L H E R A L D T R I B U N E , S E P T E M B E R 23, 2 011 Introduction Academic Institutions now more than ever must play a leading role in providing the foundation for preparing students to becoming tomorrow’s leaders with ethos. To do that, they need to provide them with a Holistic, Meaningful, and Harmonious educational experience. Therefore, the need for a new approach in educational philosophy is required. The author believes that the most suitable science theory to utilize in defining an educational philosophy is the String Theory, called “String Theory Educational Leadership” (STEL). Though there are various string theories, The Standard Model String Theory holds that our world is made up of twelve basic building blocks that interact with one another through four known forces. The twelve basic blocks consist of six quarks and six leptons. The variations in the theory arise from the relevancy of dimensions. Currently, there are 25 accepted dimensions and the dimension of time; however, many of these dimensions are unobservable and fall into the realm of the unknown. The String Theory posits that the above identified particles do not exist in a three dimensional state, but rather, in one dimensional string that often function in these unobservable realms. The challenges in education arise from particles and elements operating in unobservable realms. Educators receive students who come to them with many unobservable conditions, and who may function in realms that the average person finds hard to fathom. In this theory, the smallest but most important particle of education is the student; among others are faculty, staff, parents, the culture of the institution, the Board of Trustees, the mission of the institution, the local community, the government, the global trends, as well as other universities and businesses. The collective interaction of these particles plays a significant role in shaping the personal and professional future of the students. Like the forces within the string theory, the four fundamental forces to lead are: Understanding Each student is a potential beacon of light and like the smallest particle; they can have a profound impact on anything and everything. Thus, the understanding of each student is essential in the design of her/his educational experience. We (faculty, administration, parents) need to understand them emotionally, intellectually, socially and physically as well as their dynamic interrelation which affects their behavior.

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The design of a Holistic, Meaningful, and Harmonious educational experience also requires faculty and administration to understand and internalize the change in society which means change in the education of students. Holistic refers to the understanding and successful combination of academic, emotional, physical, intellectual and ethical components to ensure a healthy, balanced individual; an individual who can successfully cope with the changes involved when entering higher education as well as the changes that life brings. Meaningful is related to the degree of congruence at educational goals and outcomes with students’ dreams, strengths, talents, and desires. In addition, meaningfulness ensures congruence between one’s principles and values and one’s personal and professional life goals. Harmonious is the designation given to the notion of synchrony and agreement among the various and often competitive dimensions of humanity. In other words, emotions, intelligence and intellect must be harmonically integrated with this integration being a critical characteristic of leadership competencies of listening, thinking, reflections, and decision making. Professional Development We define professional development the continuing process of obtaining new competences required to enhance and enrich the knowledge of education. Professional development for faculty and staff is the cornerstone for providing the best education experience to students. Innovative Leadership The author defines innovative leadership in the educational environment as “the continuous act of effectively utilizing people’s differences, their authentic energies, creative ideas, and diverse qualities for the benefit of the students and every member of the academic institutional community.” The fundamental dimensions of innovative leadership are two: the interpersonal dimension and the setting standards dimension. The interpersonal dimension includes inspiring others to strive for excellence and reaching for their maximum potentials. The setting standards dimension includes establishing the standards to good conduct, serving as models for meeting these standards, and modeling integrity. Principles and Values We define principles and values as the underlying priority that guides the actions of all members of the academic institution. It is much more desirable and necessary the institution to not only clearly define its adopted principles and values but all of its members to adhere them. With the leadership of the institution’s administration, these principles and values are applied and followed in all forms of the institution. Conclusion: An institution should be judged not only with the results in students’ success but also by how they stand up for their adopted principles and values. An academic institution must contribute to the formation of more “worldly” human beings who are able to go beyond the prejudices; instilling in their minds that integrity and continuous learning are essential for becoming tomorrow’s leaders with ethos in order to make the world a better place to live in.

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A M ARTIAN I NVASION OF T EACHABLE M OMENTS FOR E NVIRONMENTAL S CIENCE AND R ELATED I SSUES

ABOUR H. CHERIF1, GERALD E. ADAMS2, DAVID MORABITO3, ROBERT ARON4, JEREMY DUNNING4, AND STEFANOS GIALAMAS5 S C I E N C E E D U C A T I O N R E V I E W , 9(1), 201 0

1D eV ry U n iv ers it y, D o w ne rs G ro ve, I L, US A , a ch er if @ d e vry. e d u, rar o n @ de vr y. e d u 2Co l u mb ia C o ll eg e Ch i c a g o, Ch ic a g o, I L, U SA , g ada ms @ co l u m. e d u 3D eV ry U n iv ers it y, P o m o na , CA, USA , d m ora b it @ d evr y. e d u 4I n d ia na U n i ver s it y, Bl oo m i n gt o n, I N, US A , d u n n i n g @ i n di a na. e d u 5A mer i ca n Co m m u n it y Sch o ols of At he ns , A t he ns , G re ec e , g ia la mas @ a cs . g r Abstract The recent missions to Mars have produced a mass of data and information in all forms and have forced the minds of many people world-wide to rethink their own perspectives on life itself. This drama unfolding about 35 million miles from Earth, and digitally on our TV screens, is offering a growing reservoir for teachable moments. The curiosity and wonder of every image received prompts innumerable opportunities for inquiry. In this paper we share some of our ideas on how to bring into the classroom these exciting resources emanating from the Red Planet. Opportunities to reflect on myth and hypothesize about possibilities are obvious places to start when teaching about the potential of life on Mars. The explosion of resources and information (previously unavailable) from recent explorations of Mars stimulates students to examine further the environment around them. We share some of the activities we have been using in our classrooms to motivate readers to develop their own ideas on how to take advantage of the Mars missions for their classrooms. We offer strategies to create authentic learning experiences to engage students. In addition, we intend the activity to inspire teachers to use other contemporary teachable moments that may capture the imagination of their students as they discover science. Whether you are teaching topics related to desertification or deforestation, design and technology, or space travel or colonization, to name a few, the planet Mars and the recent missions to its environment will become part of your continually expanding resources in teaching science. Helping teachers develop ways to utilize and capitalize on emerging scientific data as it materializes is very useful. The learning activities we describe and discuss in this paper integrate some of the recently available photographs from Mars (including some from the Mars Rover missions) to pose thought-provoking questions that are environmental and geological in nature. It is our particular goal to use this and similar activities to dispel a couple of pervasive misconceptions that we have observed, and that some students (and the general public) might still hold about science and the environment. In one of these misconceptions, science is perceived as static and thus answers can be found in textbooks and memorized in order to learn science. Another misconception is that environmental change happens largely or solely as a result of people doing bad things, and that geological, and in turn environmental, change does not happen without human intervention (Berry, 2009; Cherif, Adams, & Loehr, 2001; Chew & Laubichler, 2003; Miller, 2005; Shuttleworth, 2009). Strategy and Pedagogical Approach The main idea of this learning module is to provide students with a set of unidentified photographs from two different planets, Earth and Mars. To encourage comparative thinking, the photographs are paired; each pair of photographs in the set features one general landscape from planet Mars and one from planet Earth (one of the pairs features Mars and the Moon instead) that share some recognizable landform features. While we tried to select photographs that contain visual features that are familiar to people on planet Earth, there are surely unfamiliar landforms on Mars, and also on the planet Earth (for some students), and that is why it is innovative and exciting to look at these photographs. Because the students are uncertain how any of the landscapes formed and evolved, it is conjecture, deduction, and justified reasoning that we wish the students to apply in their inquiry and exploration of these photographs. The pedagogical approach is for students to study the photographs and then try to answer several open-ended questions about what they observe. Students first describe what the landscape looks like, consider of what it might be made, and

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then speculate about how it came to be formed. Encouraging them to speculate on what processes might have formed particular landform features on the photographs (including craters, relatively smooth surfaces, mountains, valleys, etc.), and to guess the planet represented in each photograph, is essential for promoting the development of scientific inquiry and critical thinking. Then, following a brief introduction to geomorphology and various landscape-forming processes, students are asked to propose multiple, alternative hypotheses about how some of the observed features had formed. Finally, they are asked to propose locations for future planetary lander missions on Mars that might provide data to help decide among their competing hypotheses. This helps students to learn how to focus on decision making by engaging in thinking about evidence and applying ideas for a purpose. Through a combination of pedagogical approaches, the students are likely to learn a range of fundamental concepts and principles about the geology of the planets Earth and Mars and also achieve the scientific process learning objectives of the activity. Intended Learning Outcomes There are two strands of intended student outcomes in the proposed learning module, one set about the process of scientific inquiry itself, and a second set about the nature of change in the environment. In the “science as a process” intended student outcomes, we want students to experience, appreciate, and internalize that: 1) science is an ongoing and active process, not just memorized answers to questions; 2) answers to one question often lead us to ask more and better questions; and 3) science is a collaborative process. In the “earth and environmental science” intended student outcomes, we want students to understand that: 1) processes on many planets’ surfaces produce recognizable landscape features, many of which are similar from planet to planet; 2) differences among landscapes come about as a result of the different conditions that formed each landscape, just as similarities can be related to similar processes; and 3) recognize that the presence of living things, and particularly of humans and human civilization, is not necessary for landscape, climate, and other changes to occur. In general, landscapes (natural, city, urban, rural) form as a result of time and interplay between various physical forces and climatic conditions (that may include human or biological influences, but do not necessary do so). Finally, the proposed learning module is intended to illustrate how teachers can use emerging evidence about new planets to stimulate their own creativity and imagination, rather than to be applied as a static package in its entirety to teachers’ individual situations. As an end result, we hope that the learning module will also model for instructors how to use the observations from ongoing planetary missions (like Cassini), and other sources of publicly accessible research, in order to stimulate students to become active, scientific thinkers. But first, to understand how science works, what distinguishes a scientific inquiry approach from non-science in understanding the world around us; it is essential to begins with a consideration of the nature of science. After all, scientists share certain basic beliefs and attitudes about what they do and how they view their work (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 1999). The Nature of Science Either consciously or unconsciously, all scientists conduct their work based on the underlying assumption that nature can be understood, and more particularly, that natural events are orderly and occur as a result of consistent, knowable causes. This assumption is the familiar principle of cause and effect, and is one of the cornerstone beliefs of Western civilization. Therefore, through science, which means to know through the exercise of reason, scientists aim to find better explanations for the natural phenomena and the world around us based on actual observations, the use of reason, and the discovery of objective knowledge and the elucidation of natural laws of causation (Futuyma, 1983; Moore, 1993; National Academy of Sciences, 1998; Trefil, 2003, 2007). This choice is based on the proposition that the application of reason that we call science can only be effective when directed toward objective observations (that do not change from one observer to another). For a proposal to be called a scientific hypothesis, it must satisfy a few, rather straightforward criteria: 1) the proposal must involve natural occurrences; 2) the proposal must be testable, by agreedupon standards, so that it can be contradicted; 3) the proposal must be subject to revision or rejection based on the outcomes of such tests or the acquisition of new, objective observations (Kieffer, 1985; National Academy of Sciences, 2008; Trefil, 2003). Science, simply, seeks to reveal all of the causes of all the events that have such causes. The practice of this search involves observation of events (or the acquisition of data), followed by inference of the possible causes of the events (forming alternative hypotheses), and finally, testing the inferred causes (to reject insufficient hypotheses, and select the best explanation). As Cherif, Adams, and Loehr (2001) have argued: Acceptance of a proposal (hypothesis or theory) in science involves several steps: 1) recognition of the body of evidence that gave rise to the proposal; 2) understanding the process of inference by which the proposal was

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created from the evidence; 3) ability to reproduce the process by which the proposal was tested; 4) ability to reach the same conclusion about the outcome of the test(s). Furthermore, acceptance of the proposal is still provisional, because the testing process and the acquisition of new information can and do lead to revision of a hypothesis, or its replacement by a more effective alternative. (p.15) One of the critical components of the scientific reasoning process is that in order for a hypothesis to be called scientific, it must be capable of being contradicted. Thus, “the objectivity of science lies in its willingness to subject every aspect of the hypothesis to rigorous testing, [and] if the predictions derived from the hypothesis are not confirmed by observation and experiment, the hypothesis is rejected and a new model sought” (Bowler, 1992, p.17). The ability of an explanation to be contradicted in this way helps scientists distinguish between scientific and nonscientific claims or proposals. Another critical aspect of the scientific process is repeatability; that is, the ability for all other researchers to obtain the same result, using the same scientific procedures in a given experiment. The conclusions drawn by one researcher about a given hypothesis are only accepted if the same results can be achieved by other researchers using the same methods. (While strict repeatability is not always possible in the historical sciences like geology, paleontology, evolutionary biology, and others, other researchers should be able to repeat the observations made by the original researcher.) Repeatability is central to scientific inquiry as well as scientific integrity, accountability, and responsibility (AAAS, 1990; Cherif, 1998). As a result, scientists most often present their discoveries and experimental results by submissions that follow agreed upon formats, and which are subject to critical scrutiny by editors and by other scientists in the field (peer reviewers) to be validated. This approach of presenting scientific studies makes it easy for the researcher and for other scientists to read, critically analyze, and repeat the experiments or observations as necessary to confirm the results. The publication of scientific results also ensures another important characteristic of science; that of transferability. Other scientists can read about and use both the knowledge and the methodology of any published study (with proper citation) in their own work, regardless of what field they pursue. In summary, modern science offers a mechanism to interpret natural events and to see the world in an objective way as it is (not how it ought to be), and to understand and cope with that world. In the activities that follow, we use the preceding description of the processes of scientific inquiry to explore with students the formation and testing of their own hypotheses. Students also examine the steps that scientists take before accepting a given hypothesis or a theory in science. Finally, before we start any activity, we make sure that students understand that scientists generally accept (by common consent, and without it being provable) that nature can be understood, and that all observable events occur as a result of consistent, natural causes (colloquially, the law of cause and effect). Still, as Einstein is often quoted as saying, “no amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong” (Kaplan, 2001, p. 181). A Martian Invasion of Teachable Moments: The Teaching and Learning Module The Teaching and Learning Module is divided into a number of activities, each with specific learning goals and objectives, and each could be targeted to a wide range of different student audience and school levels. The level and the depth of discussion is left to the discretion of the teachers based on their types of students. However, borrowing a phrase from one of the manuscript reviewers, “the differentiation between levels will be in the assessment of, and the sophistication of, responses.” The authors have used several of the activities, in part or in their entirety, in freshman- and sophomorelevel college classes, but each could by readily adapted to middle school and high school levels. Activity I: Tapping Into Students' Curiosity (This activity is suggested for any introductory science course, particularly in the earth and environmental sciences.) In this three-part activity, we capitalize on students’ past experiences to stimulate their thinking and activate their prior knowledge to encourage them to become active learners. The class is divided into groups of 4 students, and each group is given an identical set of photographs. Table 1 contains the suggested photographs for this activity. The photographs are given to students a total of three times during the activity: first without any identification, then with titles, and finally with titles and an attached brief description. Initially, the photographs are given as a set printed on one page, and after that the photographs are given in pairs printed on separate pages.

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Table 1 Suggested Photographs for Tapping Into Students’ Curiosity Through Exploring Landscape

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Part One 1. Using your own experience and background, examine the set of photographs provided to you by your instructor, interpret them, and write a paragraph about each pair. Use a magnifying glass if necessary. In your analysis, consider the following: a. Identify and describe as many kinds of landscape features as possible in these photographs. b. What mechanisms might have formed these features? c. State whether the landscape reveals the existence of living organisms in the present or in the past, and evidence for your reasoning. d. Are there any parts or features of the photographs that seem older or newer? Why do you think so? 2. Classify the photographs into those that were taken on planet Earth and those that were taken on another planet. 3. Using Table 2, justify your selection for each photograph and write it down. 4. Share your interpretations, selections, and justifications with the other members of your group. 5. Engage in a general discussion with your group regarding the similarities and differences in members’ interpretations, selections, and justifications. 6. Save your written interpretations, selections, and justifications, and keep notes on your discussion for further analysis and comparison. Table 2 Student’s Description and Categorization of the Photographs Based on His/Her Own Knowledge and Background

Part Two This stage takes place after the learners examine some basic, but specific, principles of earth science. Specifically, students should be introduced to the concepts and methods of relative dating, and to the landforms associated with impact crater formation, volcanic processes, and processes of running water and wind. Teachers who are unfamiliar with any of these concepts can readily find basic information in any general geology textbook, Wikipedia, or other online reference sources. Students then re-examine the photographs, and respond to the following questions: 1. Using your newly gained understanding, re-examine and re-interpret the photographs using what you have learned about landscape forming processes. 2. Re-evaluate the events that you think took place on the surface of the planet(s) from which those photographs were taken, and record this in Table 3. 3. Re-divide the photographs into two groups, those that you think belong to planet Earth and those that belong to another planet, and record your selection in Table 3. 4. Justify your selection for each photograph and write it in Table 3. 5. What do you conclude from comparing and analyzing your own interpretations in Tables 2 and 3? 6. Share your new interpretation, selection, and justification of the photographs, and your conclusions from comparing Tables 2 and 3, with the members of your group. 7. Engage in a general discussion with your group regarding members’ interpretations and categorization of the photographs, the reasons behind them, and your final conclusions from comparing Tables 2 and 3 with the members of your group.

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Table 3 Student’s Description and Categorization of the Photographs Based on His/Her Newly Gained Knowledge and Information

Part Three In this part of the activity, students are provided with the locations and brief descriptions for each of the pairs of photographs, and then directed to respond to the following: 1. Identify at least two criteria for good landing sites on another planet. 2. Speculate on what processes might have formed particular landform features on the planet Mars (including craters, relatively smooth surfaces, mountains, valleys, dunes, etc.). 3. Propose alternative hypotheses about how those features had formed. 4. Propose landing sites that would provide information to help choose among the competing hypotheses. 5. Compare your selections of landing sites with those chosen by real NASA scientists, as described in the January 2004 issue of National Geographic. Then complete Table 4 to indicate whether or not you agree or disagree with the 6 scientists who explained where they would land a Rover on Mars and why. Table 4 I’d Send It To … Six Scientists Explain Where They Would Land a Rover--and Why (from Morton, 2004, p. 29)

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Activity II: Testing for Evidence of Life on Mars (Suggested for introductory biology, environmental science, and general and integrated science courses. This activity is adapted from Kaskel, Hummer, and Daniel, 1995, pp. 3-4.) Biologists and astrobiologists have been searching for evidence of life in outer space for many years. Biology is the study of life and living things. Biologists use the process of testing hypotheses to study living things and how the natural world of living organisms works. They generate hypotheses and test the hypotheses using the process of deductive reasoning in which they use the hypotheses to make predictions about the outcomes of new actions or observations. We intend for this activity to stimulate student’s thinking about the possibilities of life on other planets. If life were to be found on any other planet it would have profound implications for the presence of life on many other planets throughout the universe. When the Viking Spacecraft landed on Mars, the Viking Lander obtained and tested soil samples from Mars’ surface for evidence of existing, or previously existing, organic molecules. More recent Mars missions also collected and tested soil and rock samples for similar reasons. 1. If you were a biologist working for NASA biological laboratory: a. What types of experiments would you conduct with martian soil to test for evidence of life on Mars? b. Explain the reason for selecting this particular type of experiment to search for evidence of life on Mars using martian soil. 2. NASA biologists added radioactive nutrient to the soil brought from planet Mars. Explain how this simple experiment could prove to scientists whether or not living things were present in the martian soil? 3. The Lander did not find materials that make up living things. a) Do these results support the idea that life doesn’t exist on Mars now? b) Do they support that life never existed on Mars? Explain. 4. Today, Mars is observed to be a desert planet with notable dust storms, freezing temperatures, and a thin carbon dioxide atmosphere. However, on Tuesday March 23, 2004, NASA scientists announced that a salty sea once existed on the surface of Mars. This announcement was greeted with much excitement, because of the possibility that such an environment could have supported life at an earlier stage of martian history (Vergano, 2004). a) From your own perspective, what is the significance of the salty sea environment to the concept of life as we know it? b) Why do you think NASA scientists suspect that a salty sea environment could have supported early life on Mars? 5. What have you learned from being engaged in this activity? Activity III: Landing Safely on Mars in 2012 (Suggested for physics, general science, and integrated science courses.) To allow spacecraft (and astronauts) to travel into outer space and to land safely on the Moon, Mars, or any other planet and return safely to planet Earth, scientists must understand many basic concepts. One idea that they need to understand very well is the changes that will happen in the weight of the spacecraft as it uses fuel and as occupants (if any) use food, water, air, and other resources. This will affect the influence of gravity of a given planet or moon on which the spacecraft has to safely land, and from which it needs to take off. For example, the gravitation of the Earth is the most significant barrier standing in the way of traveling in space, because, as Noordung (1995) explained: A vehicle that is supposed to travel in outer space must be able not only to move; it must primarily and first of all move away from the Earth--i.e., against the force of gravity. It must be able to lift itself and its payload up many thousands, even hundreds of thousands of kilometers! (p. 3) Gravity is not the only fundamental force that exists in nature. There are four fundamental forces in our present Universe with very different characteristics. These forces are electromagnetic force, the strong interaction (strong nuclear) force, the weak interaction (weak nuclear) force, and the gravitational force. The gravitational force is the weakest of the four, but its effect can be felt over greater distances than any other force. Gravity, which works throughout the universe, is defined as a force of attraction that arises between objects by virtue of their masses. It is the force that keeps our feet on the ground, keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth, the planets in orbit around the sun, and even causes whole galaxies to attract each other across billions of light years throughout the cosmos. As Sir Isaac

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Newton first explained, gravitational force between two objects is proportional to the mass of each object divided by the square of the distance separating them. The greater each object’s mass, the stronger the pull of gravity, but the greater the distance between the objects, the weaker the pull. In a recent issue of Popular Mechanics, Lord (2009) wrote that: When the NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover lands on Mars in 2012, it will face a unique obstacle: With an Earth weight of nearly a ton (compared to about 400 pounds for previous Mars rovers) and a Mars weight of about 750 pounds, it is too massive for any existing space parachute. So to cushion its fall through the thin martian atmosphere (which is less than 1 percent as dense as Earth’s), NASA engineers had to come up with something really big. (p.15) To engage students in grappling with these concepts, we suggest the following questions for research and discussion: 1. 2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Compare and contrast Mars and Earth in terms of diameter, atmosphere’s main gases, planetary mass, distance from the sun, density, and surface gravity. Use Table 5 to record your answers. Estimate the maximum speed with which a falling raindrop can hit a person walking in the street. Then conduct an Internet search to find estimations that have been made by other people of the maximum speed with which a falling raindrop can hit a person walking in the street. Compare your estimation with the estimations made by other people, including your own classmates. From your own perspective, describe why it might be that “incoming meteoroids that would burn up as fireballs in Earth’s atmosphere often make it to the ground on Mars and create small craters just a few meters wide” (“Very Fresh Martian," 2009, p. 16). Then conduct an Internet search to find out why scientists think that incoming meteoroids that would burn up as fireballs in Earth’s atmosphere often make it to the ground on Mars. Compare your own answer and the answers of your classmates with what you have found out through literature. Working in small groups, suggest a well-thought-out proposal of how NASA engineers might solve the problem of landing a heavy spacecraft on Mars. Share and discuss each of your individual proposals with your classmates. Try to convince your classmates that your individual proposal is the most promising in solving the problem and thus should be accepted by the whole class. Conduct an Internet search to find out how NASA engineers have proposed to solve the problem. (You could start by looking at the July, 2009 issue of Sky & Telescope.) Does your individual proposal agree or disagree with how NASA engineers have proposed to solve this problem? Does the agreed-upon proposal by the whole class agree or disagree with how NASA engineers proposed to solve this problem? What have you learned from this activity?

Table 5 Comparative Properties of Planet Earth and Planet Mars Activity IV: Traveling in Space

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It is only a matter of time before traveling in space becomes a common occurrence, especially for those who can afford it. With the help of our advances in science and technology, we will be able to solve many problems that might become obstacles to our traveling in space. However, new challenges will also arise. In this activity, you are in charge of identifying and solving the problems of astronauts who will travel and spend more time in space than what is usual today (a few days to a few months). From your perspective, identify some of these problems and propose how you will deal with and (hopefully) solve at least three of them. An example of one possible problem and a proposed solution are given in Table 6, which you can use for your own answers. Note for Teachers Some of the astronaut problems that your students will most likely identify are as follows: a. Providing adequate supplies of energy, air, and nutrition. b. Controlling temperature in both space suits and spacecraft. c. Dealing with gravity and weightlessness in space. d. Providing adequate space in the spacecraft for healthy resting and sleeping. e. Preparing and packaging food in a way that takes less space and weighs less (dehydration and freezedried techniques). f. Dealing with high doses of radiation during the long duration of the space flight. Table 6 Problems and Proposed Solutions for Extended Travel in Space (adapted from Adams, Cherif, & Johnson, 2001)

Student Assessment and Evaluation McCormack and Yager's (1989) taxonomy for science education is very useful and effective in assessing students’ learning in these activities, and Figure 7 contains examples for each domain. Note that many assessment tasks could fall into more than one domain, depending upon how the tasks are formed. These questions will help you, as an educator, to build tasks that you would use within an assessment instrument. Final Remarks Satellite and on-location imagery of landforms on Earth and Mars provide us with a contrast in worlds that make them good teaching and learning objects. We see evidence of change everywhere on Earth, as landscapes are subject to a even plate tectonics (and human activity), all of which erase and rewrite Earth's surface features. Orbiting imagery of landforms on other planets provide a picture of our uniqueness in the Solar System, and of the potential for Mars. Mars does not appear to be subject to plate tectonics (as we perceive that process on earth). Atmosphere is one onehundredth as dense as Earth’s. Mars does not have a magnetic field that can deflect solar charged particles. We see evidence of less change on Mars, as there are heavily cratered areas dating back to the early bombardment of the solar system. There are also instances of change on Mars, albeit over longer time scales, and the evidence includes the volcanic plains and valleys eroded by liquid water in the distant past. There is also evidence for seasonal changing of the martian polar caps, and imaging that suggests liquid water in the more recent past. The recent Phoenix lander mission found evidence of water ice on (Phoenix Mars Mission, n.d.).

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We send space probes to Mars to learn more about outer space and life elsewhere, which in turn might help us learn about ourselves on Earth. Only in the overall scope of exploring several planets do we truly begin to get a true picture of our own planet and of our place in the cosmos. We are also acquiring further data that might inform possible views of our future as we explore other worlds and prepare for extending the human species upon some of these other worlds. Science Education Review, 9(1), 2010 Table 7 McCormack and Yager's (1989) Taxonomy for Science Education

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Throughout recorded human history, there has always been a thirst for knowledge and a spirit of adventure. One of the distinguishing features of our species is the intellect, the reasoning circuitry in our brains that makes observations and attempts to explain phenomena. Throughout the process of science we are continually designing and conducting new experiments, making new observations, and attempting to explain these observations in the form of existing, modified, or new models or theories. In some cases, textbooks become obsolete even before they are published. All of us, teachers and students, continue to learn throughout our lifetimes. As is the case in all fields of science, in the experience of the planetary space program, as soon as some questions are resolved, new surprises with new questions always emerge out of the throngs of data aching for explanation. We see something interesting and try to explain it in the form of a hypothesis. To test the validity of the hypothesis, we devise and conduct new experiments. If a positive result is produced by the experiment, the hypothesis is reinforced, although not proved. If the experiment produces a negative result, the hypothesis may be revised or scrapped, with any new hypothesis being likewise subjected to testing. Why are we exploring space? There are the obvious simple answers to this question such as “to see what is there.” There are also deeper yearnings of curiosity tucked away in the crevices of our psyche. “Are we alone?” “Did life once exist elsewhere sometime in the past?” “Is the human race destined for the stars as it embarks upon a colonization of other worlds that is likely to first include the Moon and Mars?” Should we follow the advice of Dr Carl Sagan, the famous American scientist and champion of space exploration until his death, and aggressively start preparing for colonizing the Moon, Mars, and other planets? Why do we send space probes to Mars? First let us answer “why do we send space probes to Earth in the form of orbiting satellites?” We image storm systems such as hurricanes and weather trends that allow us to predict and alert people to danger. Satellite images of our planet also help us analyze long-term trends such as deforestation, changing shorelines, and effects of erupting volcanoes and monitor levels of gases such as ozone. These capabilities did not exist just decades ago. We are exploring our planet not only to ensure our safety, both short-term and long-term, but also to learn more about our planet. And we, the educators, should take advantage of this and turn those events and images into teachable moments that help our students to better understand the solar system and the universe, and in turn the world in which we and our students live.

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Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the help of the following reviewers for their valuable suggestions and recommendations that have made this paper more effective: Kevin Carlton, Peter Eastwell, David Geelan, Israel Kibirige, Heather Mace, Debra McGregor, Helen Meyer, and Marina Milner-Bolotin. Indeed, we have integrated a few phrases from the reviewers’ comments and feedback into the final version of the paper. We would also like to acknowledge and thank all those colleagues at the high school and college levels who read the paper and/or tried the activity in their classrooms and provided us with very valuable feedback. We are very grateful for this assistance. References Adams, G., Cherif, A., & Johnson, W. (2001). Revisiting the Moon: An interdisciplinary learning activity. The Spectrum Journal, 28(1), 34-43. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (1990). Science for all Americans. Retrieved from http://www.project2061.org/publications/sfaa/online/chap1.htm. Berry, C. R. (2009). Four misconceptions about science. Out of Door, 49(9), 1-3. Bowler, P. J. (1992). The history of the environmental science. New York: W. W. Norton. Cherif, A. (1998). Science, scientists, and society: Ensuring integrality in scientific endeavors through human factor development. Review of Human Factor Studies, 4(2), 1-31. Cherif, A., Adams, G., & Loehr, J. (2001). What on "Earth" is evolution? The geological perspective of teaching evolutionary biology effectively. The American Biology Teacher, 63(8), 569-591. Chew, M. K., & Laubichler, M. D. (2003). Perceptions of science: Natural enemies--Metaphor or misconception? Science, 301(5629), 52-53. doi: 10.1126/science.1085274 Futuyma, D. J. (1983). Science on trial: The case for evolution. New York: Pantheon. Kaplan, R. (2001). Science says: A collection of quotations on the history, meaning, and practice of science. New York: Stonesong Press. Kaskel, A., Hummer, L., & Daniel, P. (1995). Biology: An everyday experience. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Kieffer, G. H. (1985). Towards a biological awareness. Champaign, IL: Stipes. Lord, M. (2009, July). Tech watch: How to land on Mars. Popular Mechanics, p. 15. McCormack, A. J., & Yager, R. E. (1989). Toward a taxonomy for science education. B.C. Catalyst, 33(1), 16-17. Miller, K. B. (2005, September 22). Countering public misconceptions about the nature of evolutionary science. Georgia Journal of Science. Retrieved from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-138728333/counteringpublicmisconceptions-nature.html. Moore, J. A. (1993). Science as a way of knowing: The foundation of modern biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Morton, O. (2004, January). Mars revisited: Planet ice. National Geographic, 2-31. National Academy of Sciences. (1998). Teaching about evolution and the nature of science. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. National Academy of Sciences. (2008). Science, evolution, & creationism. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Noordung, H. (1995). The problem of space travel: The rocket motor [The NASA History Series, NASA SP-4026]. Washington, DC: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Phoenix Mars Mission. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://phoenix-web.jpl.nasa.gov/index.php. Shuttleworth, M. (2009). Science misconceptions. Retrieved from http://www.experiment resources.com/sciencemisconceptions.html. Trefil, J. (2003). The nature of science. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Trefil, J. (2007). Why science. New York: Columbia University, Teachers College Press. Vergano, D. (2004, March 24). Traces of long-lost “salty sea” found on Mars. USA Today, pp. A-1 & D-1. Very fresh martian ice craters [News notes]. (2009, July). Sky & Telescope, p. 16.

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A N INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP

PEGGY PELONIS AND DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS

I N T E R N A T I O N A L S C H O O L S J O U R N A L , V O L X X X, N O . 1, N O V E M B E R 201 0 ( P A G E S : 72 -85 )

Introduction International, academic institutions, now more than ever, play a leading role in preparing young people to cope with and to be productive members of an increasingly global society. The opportunities and the learning outcomes, for students attending international schools, are directly related to the educational experience they receive. Thus, ‘academic leadership is necessary now more than ever’. 1 Furthermore: 'Leadership for today's world requires enlarging one's capacity to see the whole board, as in a chess match - to see the complex, often volatile interdependence among the multiple systems.’ 2 'Global nomads' have been studied since the 1950s 3 and refer to individuals and their families who move irregularly, but constantly, most often in response to required changes in their careers. While global nomads were traditionally military and embassy families: 'Today corporations, particularly in the oil and banking industries, are also repeatedly moving families around the planet. With the promise of a package full of perks, a promotion and more money, they are hard to resist.’4 With such increasing mobility families are, faced with numerous issues related to adjusting to new cultures and homes. Of major importance, among these, is the dilemma of educating their children. The concept of an international school therefore evolved; its history dating back about 50 years.5 While these schools 'generally cater for a multinational group of students, the curriculum, and the individual philosophy, in any one of the schools vary quite considerably from that in any other. Attempts to categorize such schools have so far failed to produce a singular taxonomy which accounts for the range of institutional variations involved'.6 It is thus imperative for anyone studying education at the global level, to realize that ' the body of international schools is a conglomeration of individual institutions which may or may not share an underlying philosophy’.7 Therefore, of vital importance in being the leader of such an institution, is the clarification of a personal leadership philosophy. Furthermore, international education is no longer only available to the global nomads of the world. There are many, local citizens, who seek an international education for their children in order to best prepare them for a rapidly evolving society where change occurs continuously and on multiple levels.8 It is thus wise to consider the global nomad concept when aiming to educate the contemporary student and to consider such a student a 'Citizen of the World'. Understanding aggregate experiences and the needs of such students as well as the needs of the institution and its educators, is essential for international schools. The authors define educational experience as the complete learning experience obtained from a student's academic, physical, spiritual and civic responsibility experience. Furthermore, the ability to cope with change is essential in assimilating the above experiences and using them to make decisions on a personal and professional level. It is this holistic approach to lifelong learning that embraces and supports one's life journey. To accomplish such a goal within an international institution, there must be a harmonious relationship among school members. Thus, faculty, parents, students, administrators as well as the institution's leader, work in harmony and with one central goal in mind: to place the student in the centre of the institution's existence and purpose. Only a student-centered institution can be successful in and of itself as well as in educating and shaping tomorrow's citizens of the world.

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The following article presents a dynamic academic leadership model – The Trefoil - demonstrating the existence of a dynamic three-way correlation between the leader, the external environment and the academic institution being led. Moreover, strategies are introduced for adopting, implementing and internalizing such a model.

Leadership Successful leadership in the international, academic arena calls for leaders to have the following qualities: to be continuous learners, risk takers, visionaries, performing well under stress and able to promote and accommodate change. The ability to cope with and promote change will, in fact, determine to a large degree the effectiveness of the leader during transitional times.9 Furthermore, effectively coping with change must first reflect personal change before expecting others to follow. The tremendous emphasis currently placed on international education, cross-cultural awareness and diversity would lead one to conclude that global nomads, (students, staff or institutional leaders), may have an advantage over those who have never left their homeland. But, those moving in and out of international schools are confronted with changes not only in teaching methods, material and philosophy of the institution, but also in language, cultural practices and course content. Stress levels are high within the student, among the faculty, within the family and within the school system. Therefore, the recognition and addressing of these issues is imperative, both for transients as well as citizens of the homeland who seek international education. Leadership, then, is defined by the authors as the continuous act of influencing other s to accomplish a common objective. Academic leadership is further defined as the continuous act of influencing all constituents of an academic institution to accomplish its mission and to provide the best possible educational experience for students. In addition leadership is promoted as a Partnership with Defined Flexibility (LPDF); a modified version of Leadership as a Partnership with Bounded Flexibility as was defined by Stefanos Gialamas. 10 LPDF is based on the following principles: • Authority and decision-making is distributed amongst the leader and members of the team but not necessarily equally. • The distribution is clearly defined. It includes the type, magnitude and areas of the decision-making authority. • The leader supports, promotes and encourages team members to use their decision-making authority. • Periodically the leader and the team members reflect on the partnership in order to adjust modify and upgrade the rules of the partnership. The leader s' ultimate goal is to prepare team members to make decisions, while he/she guides, supports and mentors them. The Trefoil Model of Leadership (TML) reflects the dynamic interrelationship between the leader, the external environment and the academic institution. It is a dynamic model that requires a harmonious interrelationship and a balance between the three pillars. This congruent relationship between the pillars is essential for successfully accomplishing the mission of the academic institution.

External Environment

External environment

Leader

Academic Institutions

The understanding of local, social, political, economic and demographic trends is essential for developing a comprehensive vision of the academic institution. Furthermore the local technology infrastructure, government rules and regulations, education and cultural constituents play a vital role in shaping

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strategies, policies and outreach efforts for implementing the mission and vision of the institution. A leader can understand the environment at which an academic institution is located, by answering questions such as: What are the constraints, limitations, personalities, strengths and opportunities that arise from the local elements? It is extremely important for the leader to understand, internalize and consider the perception of the host country's leaders and the influence these leaders have in the smooth operation of the institution in conjunction with the local community. Aligning local realities with those of the global environment is a challenge that the leader must undertake. For example, current reality stresses and applauds the individual's ability to be independent and able to fend for oneself. The technological interactive society sees the emergence of young people, who are native in the digital world; who experience the manifestation of their desires at the press of a button. Yet, often the adults who raise them, educate them and hire them to work for them are immigrants in this world. The gap between being an independent young learner and being interdependent, so as to promote healthy relationships between generations and to cultivate harmonious living among society's members, need bridging. As people become more isolated while turning to their 'gadgets' for support, company and satisfaction, leaders capable of building community, creating feelings of belonging , sharing a vision, taking risks and changing are necessary. Thus: 'Leadership is Personal….. unless you know who you are, what you are prepared to do and why, then you can't hope to achieve anything very grand.'11 The leader then must initiate and maintain effective relationships with local schools, community organizations, government, businesses, other educational and civic organizations and convey the message that the institution is a positive element within the community not an institution merely providing educational opportunities to a select group of students. Thus opportunities can be developed that will contribute to the challenges of the local schools, businesses and other organizations. Simply put, it is the responsibility of the leader to understand the complexities of the host community and to communicate to each of its members the attempt to actually participate in resolving issues. Naturally, when communicating, a leader chooses the appropriate time and the place, in order to be optimally effective. 12

The academic institution Every institution is defined either intuitively, or explicitly, primarily by its students, faculty, history, traditions, governing structure and, of course, by its mission. Several other parameters also influence the character of the institution such as support personnel, management, policies, facilities, and finances and certainly its leader. It would be necessary to stress that the institution's culture is defined by its history, policies, management style, and, most importantly, the thinking and behavior of its constituents. It is easy to change policies, structures, curriculum, and management approach, but it is very difficult to change how the members of the institution think and behave. In fact, even when it is widely accepted that the change will be for the better, the members will initially resist and may even oppose the change. 13 Thus, any leader must pay attention to the culture of the institution in order to fully understand its faculty, personnel and students. This is accomplished by listening, discovering and understanding their primary concerns, anxieties, and strengths, what it is that they are proud of as well as their human dimensions. Timing also becomes a vita l component of implementing change, both the time chosen to implement the changes, as well as time given to the members to adjust to the change. The facilitation of functional change often depends on the implementation of three goals. The first goal is to make good contact with the person(s) experiencing the change and co-construct a sense of hope and courage in the individual or group being served, to 'reawaken old dreams or develop new ones'.14 The second goal is to access, strengthen, enhance, or generate coping skills in individuals or group members. The third goal is to facilitate the development of choices and options, to develop health rather than merely eliminate unwanted behavior, to unblock energy that is bottled up by unhealthy behavior, and to reorient that energy toward a positive outcome. 15

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During the institutional face-lift, the leader must understand, internalize and consider the type of students the institution serves. Rarely do children choose the change that enters their lives. No matter how much they are involved in the decision-making process, it is a change that they most likely did not initiate. While they might initially express excitement about their intended future, a delayed reaction of anxiety is often observed. This can manifest itself in a myriad of ways, such as generalized anxiety, depression, and acting-out behavior or academic problems. Personal (home) values and ideals are challenged as students are called upon to 'develop and transform their attitudes and beliefs to those which are in tune with ideals of world citizenship. These would include the breaking down of barrier s and prejudices - whether personal prejudice arises from the internal dynamic s of the individual, or . . . collective prejudice arising between different groups in society - transforming the focus of young people 's thinking from the parochial to the global, and from the narrow-minded to the broad-minded' . 16 A study conducted by Hayden and Wong 17 indicates that students of international schools place much significance on interaction with students from other cultures outside school, as well as learning about countries, viewing issues from various perspectives and being tolerant of other cultural values as equally valid. Faculty, support personnel, parents, alumni and the governing body also shape the character of the institution. Facility, location, financial conditions, policies, history and transition s are also fundamental elements that incorporate the strengths and weaknesses of the institution. Finally the history, tradition s and community practices, provide the vehicle for understanding and conventionalizing the mission of the institution. Indeed the mission of the institution together with all the fundamental ingredients will guide the leader to clearly maintain his/her vision for the institution.

The leader The educational institution leader is first and foremost a teacher. Their primary job is to teach those that they lead and through them the students of the institution. 'What' we teach, however, is intimately linked to who we are as well as to the people we teach. There is one universal concept that can and must be taught in every international school; in every school for that matter. It is the concept of 'equality'. While modem society has become more dangerous, it has also become more just. We are nowadays more accepting of the notion that all men/women are created equal. Having come through such challenges as slavery, the labor movement and women's right to vote, democracy is in the air. No group today is willing to be treated with disrespect, to do what they are told without question, or to speak only when spoken to.18 This certainly includes school personnel and children are no exception. Adler19 emphasized that 'no human being can bear to be dominated by another'. Nonetheless, authorities still exist in a society of equals; a police officer, the Principal of a school, the teacher in a classroom, the parent within a household and of course, the institution's leader. Someone must make the decisions and take the responsibility to enforce them. There is no point in being a leader, however, if no one is willing to follow, and to be effective authority figures we must have the cooperation of those we lead, which undoubtedly also means the children. In the words of Driekurs: 'It is part of our difficulty that we have become equal to each other without the tradition or knowledge of how to live with each other as equals.'20 It is strongly believed by the authors that the educational institution leader must firstly develop a fundamental leadership background by reading, participating in leadership training, workshops, seminars, presentations and other means. In addition a leader must reflect on these theories, examine his/her strengths, weaknesses, personal characteristics, clarify his/her values and principles and must establish his/her personal leadership identity (PLI). Leadership is personal…..unless you know who you are what you are prepared to do and why then you can’t hope to achieve anything very grand.21 The PLI consists of the following fundamental elements: • Adopted leadership philosophy • Accepted principles and values

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• Personal characteristics • Personal and professional life goals

Adopted leadership philosophy The leader's specific leadership philosophy reflects his/her principles and values, personal and professional goals, and talents. Moreover the authors strongly advocate leadership in partnership with flexibility and the integration of civic responsibility as it was defined by Stefanos Gialamas.22 This example also illustrates that the leader should always reflect on the adopted leadership philosophy while modifying and adjusting it when necessary. As an example of the above, the authors have previously promoted the idea of leadership in partnership with bounded flexibility23 but once more, as the need arise, it has been modified to advocate leadership in partnership with flexibility and civic responsibility. Once again, change becomes essential in leading any institution or group of people. In the words of Dr. Spencer Johnson: 'If you do not change, you can become extinct.’24 It is essential to identify strategies and best practices for implementing the adopted philosophy. If one adopts the model of leadership in partnership with flexibility, then a strategy would require the leader and the leadership team to meet and clearly and precisely define the authority and accountability of each team member, while establishing regular meetings to reflect on the partnership and discuss possible modification s that may be necessary. Regular meetings would also ensure direct communication among' its members, while enhancing the team versus the individual approach in order to implement programs. Hence, the equality referred to previously, does not imply equal knowledge, experience or even privilege. It refers to equal respect for all; the opportunity to participate, to contribute, to express one’s own point of view. Working in a spirit of cooperation also means that we do not continuously demonstrate our superiority over others. Genuine superiority does not need expression through prestige and power. 'You may treat (others) as equals, in spite of your advantage in knowledge, experience, and power or judgment; and (others) will be more willing to recognize your superiority the less it is brought to his/her attention and the less you demand such recognition.’25 Additionally, for team members to perform as team members, 'individuals must be able to communicate openly and honestly; to confront differences and resolve conflicts; and to sublimate personal goals for the good of the team.’26 The leader must be prepared to demonstrate such skills and act as a role model to team members.

Principles and values The above authors define principle s and values as the underlying priorities that guide the leader's actions and sometimes are intuitively desirable. It is much more than desirable and necessary for the leader to not only clearly define his/her principle s and values, but to share them with all members of the institution he/she leads. Leaders are constantly observed by all constituents of the institution. Therefore, how the leader brings to life these principles and values in a variety of settings is indeed essential. The settings could include a telephone call, a meeting, personal interaction, decision-making strategies and memos. What is most important, however, is how he/she behaves during difficult and challenging times. The leader’s reaction to critical incident s (positive or negative), the language he/she uses as well as the body language and energy he/she exudes, sets the tone for instilling trust or lack of it among its members. Leaders are judged by how they stand up for their adopted principles and values, but most importantly by how they live a life according to these principles and values. Examples of values could include achievement, caring, creativity, firmness,

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growth, innovation and productivity. Adopted principles could mean integrity, accountability, compassion, generosity, justice, humility, and wisdom.

Personal characteristics Each individual has distinct personal characteristics. Some individuals are reflective, analytical, artistic, atheists, introverts, extroverts. Now more than ever it is important for the leader to develop his/her leadership identity according to his/her personal characteristics. It is unwise to attempt to adopt a leadership philosophy or to implement a leadership style that does not fit with one's personal characteristics. The uniqueness of the individual leader must be considered and one should take care to adopt strategies and behaviors that fit with the core personality. To do the opposite, that is, to fit one's personality to a type of leadership seen as desirable, is a recipe for failure as it suppresses the genuine character of the individual and creates a mechanistic approach to leading. This 'pretend ' approach is 'picked up' by faculty, students and the community and may become the focus of discord, creating feelings of mistrust and suspicion.

Communication approach Every individual has strengths and weaknesses. An adherence to one's strengths and one's communication approach must be established. The person, who has good organizational skill s, for example, could be assigned to organize small group meetings, presentations and/or informal gatherings to convey new goals, strategies and initiation s. Furthermore, the ability to alleviate anxiety and tension within the team is an exceptional skill. The PLI reflects who the leader is as a human being rather than what he/she does professionally. It is indeed clear that honest, we are around people, and with ourselves. The PLI is the barometer for consistent action, behavior and authenticity, which encourages us to be true and real within ourselves, in our relationships, in our professional environment, in our community and within the global society. If the leader is willing to invest in the above mentioned qualities, then the most effective communication with people, as well as, with the institution, is possible.

The vision Having established and having developed his/her life according to his/her PLI, the leader then considers the institution 's culture and external environment in order to create a vision for the institution . In order to effectively lead, the leader must first have a 'dream' and must then proceed to establish a vision that will lead the institution to the 'promised land’. The vision must be exciting, unique, and clear with goals, which are precise, reasonable, organized, measurable and timely (PROMT: Precise, Relevance, Organized, Measurable, and Timed). The leader should exhibit passion and must be completely devoted to his/her vision. The vision must be made a part of everyday life. The following sets and actions are referred to as: The Vision Praxis Exciting-Unique-Clear •

Clearly state the vision

Communicate the vision to all members

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Develop comprehensive plans to materialize the vision

Identify and select the members of the leadership team

Engage the leadership team in defining specific strategies, including a timetable to accomplish the vision

Establish implementation teams and assign members of the leadership team to lead components of the implementation team

Empower all members of the institution at the appropriate level to be active members in the implementation process

The leader must be vigilant and must continuously scan the environment as well as the institution’s members, in order to get a sense of, and decide which strategies are more effective in moving the organization towards the vision. It is indeed important to remember that the leader influences behavior at all times by inspiring others to accept values, the adoption of which may seem impossible in today's materialistic society; goals such as integrity, humility and honesty that could slowly contribute to making the world a better place in which to live. Inclusive in leadership, are the continuous challenges that often seem to bring out negativity in each of the members. For example, it is desirable for leaders to be result-oriented but they must also be thoughtful and reflective. They must be compassionate, sympathetic and kind as well as demanding. The Leadership Praxis summarized •

Understand, study and respect the external environment and the institution.

Develop a vision for the institution in line with its mission.

Establish a leadership team by utilizing existing human resource s and if necessary recruiting new personnel.

Communicate the vision to all constituencies and work with the leadership team to develop a comprehensive implementation plan.

Establish implementation strategies and an implementation team.

Continuously communicate the vision, plan and implementation strategies to all constituencies.

Setup measurable goals and outcomes.

Celebrate accomplishments and give credit generously to members of the institution.

Regularly assess, reflect and modify the implementation plan.

Evaluate the success of accomplishing the vision.

Improve and modify vision.

Leaders must understand and internalize the magnitude of their influence in every situation and in relation to anyone they come in contact with, either within the institution or within the community. Indeed: 'A great leader has the ability to instill within his people confidence in themselves.' 27 Yet, the leader must always be in the front line ready to assume every challenge and take any blow in order to protect the members of the institution. International education in particular is becoming experientially more complicated. Thus the leader must continuously consider the vision of the

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institution but, more importantly, the leader must behave according to the vision. To this end, 2500 years ago Thucydides, the Greek historian wrote: The bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it. Conclusion If international schools are to contribute to the formation of more 'worldly' human beings; who are able to go beyond the prejudices that are intrinsic in many of our cultures, who believe in equality and service as well as education on a global level, they must have leaders who uphold these same values. It is necessary for a leader to define a personal leadership philosophy that is genuine and according to his/her personality and then to live it. It is also necessary to prepare personnel to handle issues that arise from the changes implemented. Achieving the cooperation of team members at all levels is a challenge that must be taken in order to achieve the vision of the institution. The vision and leadership praxis are two strategies that can be effective in communicating to the institution's members the goals of the institution, as well as the process through which these are achieved. The leaders' integrity is an integral part of applying the principles defined and plays the most important role when communicating with members of the institutions at all levels: students, parents, faculty, administrators and the community at large. In the end, perhaps leadership is nothing more than integrity and vision.

References: 1. Gialamas, S., (200S): Leadership, in Academic Leadership; A reflective Practitioner’s Approach. Vol 12, No 2. p26. 2. Parks, S. D., (2005): Leadership can be Taught. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. p3.

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3. Langford, M., (l988): Global Nomads, Third Culture Kids, and International Schools, in M., Hayden and J., Thompson (eds), lnternational Education: Principles and Practice. United Kingdom: Kogan Press, pp28-39. 4. Ennis-Roughton, M., (2001): Is moving around the planet a habit hard to break? in Woman Abroad, 3, pp 10-11. 5. Hayden, M., and Thompson, J., reds) (1988): International Education: Principles and Practice. United Kingdom: Kogan Press. 6. Leggate, P. M. Co, and Thompson, J., (1997): The Management of Development Planning in International Schools, in lnternational Journal of Educational Management. Vol 11, No 6. pp268273. 7. Waterson, M., and Hayden, M., (1999): International Education and its Contributions to the Development of Student Attitudes, in International Schools Journal, Vol XVIII. No 2, pp 17-27. 8. Gialamas, S., and Pelonis, P., (2009): Preparing Students for the College Experience, in Academic Leadership, the online journal. 9. Pelonis-Piniros, P., (2006): Yparho-Allazo (Living-Changing). Athens, Greece. Isorropon publications. 10. Gialamas, S., (200S): Leadership, in Academic Leadership; A Reflective Practitioner’s Approach, Vol 12. No 2, pp26-32, 11. Kouzes, J. M., and Posner, 8. Z., (2002): The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Wiley. 3rd edition. 12. Goffee, R., and Jones, G. , (2006): Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? What it takes to be an authentic leader. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. 13. Pelonis-Piniros, P., (2006). 14. Satir, V., and Baldwin, M., (1983): Satir: Step by Step. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books. 15. Satir, V., and Biller, J. R., (2000): The Therapist and Family Therapy: Satir's Human Validation Process Model. in A. M. Horne (Ed), Family Counseling and Therapy (3rd edition), Itasca. IL: F.E. Peacock. pp62- 101. 16. Waterson, M., and Hayden, M., (l999): pp17-27. 17. Hayden, M. , and Wong, S. C., (I 997): The International Baccalaureate: International Education and Cultural Preservation, in Educational Studies, Vol 23, No 3. pp349-36I. 18. Popkin, M., (19911): Active Parenting of Teens. Georgia: Active Parenting. 19. Terner, J., and Pew, W. L., (1978): The Courage to be Imperfect: the Life and work of Rudolf Driekurs. New York: Hawthorn Books. 20. ibid. 21. Kouzes & Posner (2002): p51 22. Glalamas, S., and Hilentzaris, S., (2006): Area, in Leading by Serving. March 2006. 23. Gialamas, S., (2005): pp26-32. 24. Johnson, S., (1998): Who Moved My Cheese? London. Vermilion. p46. 25. Driekurs, R; (1992): The Challenge of Parenthood. New York: Penguin Books. 26. Robbins, S. Po, (2002): The Truth About Managing People and nothing but the truth. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. p 134

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27. Maxwell, J. Co, (1995): Developing The Leaders Around You: How to Help Others Reach Their Full Potential. Nashville. Tennessee. Thomas Nelson. p55.

Further reading Adair, John (2003): The Inspirational Leader. UK: Cogan Page Ltd. Bick, Julie (1999): The Microsoft Edge: Insider Strategies for Building Success. New York: Pocket Books. Boyer, Ernest L (1990): Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., and Ofari-Omoah, Bo, (2000): Can human factor be taught? In the Journal of Human Factor Studies, Vol 5, Nos 1 and 2, pp89-114. Gialamas, Stefanos (2001): New Academic Leaders Development Program (NALOP). Oakbrook, Illinois: DeVry University Publication. Gialamas, S., Cherif A., and Hilentzaris S., (2003): Creating an environment for minimizing conflict between faculty and the department chairperson , in The Department Chair, Vol 13, No 3, pp21-23. Gialamas, S., Cherif M, D., Demetriades E., and Hilentzaris S., (2003): Preparing new department chairpersons in the area of faculty leadership, in Academic Leadership , Vol 10.3, pp27-31. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., and McKee, A., (2002): Primal Leadership: Realizing the power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. Hayden, M., and Thompson, J., (1995): International Schools and International Education: A Relationship Reviewed, in Oxford Review of Education, Vol 21, No 3, pp327-345. Katzenback, J., and Smith, D.,(1993): The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the Higher-Performance Organization. Boston Harvard Business School Press, 1993. Kouzes, J. M., and Posner, B. Z., (2002): The Leadership Challenge (3rd edition) San Francisco: Wiley. Langford, Mo, (1997): ' Internationally mobile pupils in transition: the role of the international school’, MA dissertation, University of Bath. (As stated in chapter 3 of International Education: Principles and Practice, edited by Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson.) Learning, D. R., (1998): Academic Leadership: A practical guide 10 chairing the department, Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. Lennick, Do, and Kiel F., (2005): Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance & Leadership Success. Pearson Education Publishing. New Jersey. Lucas, A. F., (2000): Leading academic change: Essential roles for department chairs. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers. Moore, R., (1996): Traits of effective administrators, in The American Biology Teacher, Vol57, No 8, p502. Noel, M. T., (1993): The Leadership Engine. Boston: Harper Business Publishing. Pelonis-Piniros, P., (2002): Facing Change ill the Journey of Life. Athens, Greece, Fytraki Publications.

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Pelonis, P., (2002): Global Nomads, Third Culture Kids and International Schools: Assisting Children with Change in a Transitional World. (unpublished research) University of Bath. UK. Salacuse, J. W., (2006): Leading Leaders: How to manage Smart, Talented, Rich and Powerful People. Amacom, NY, Seagren, A. T., Creswell, J. W., and Wheeler, D. W., (1993): The department chair: New role, responsibilities and challenges. Washington D.C. The George Washington University. Senge, P., et al (1999): The dance of change. New York: Doubleday.

Dr. Stefanos Gialamas is the President of the American Community Schools of Athens – ACS Athens. Greece. Prior to his arrival at ACS he served as the provost of the American College of Thessaloniki (ACT). Greece. For several years he has also served as the Dean and VP of Academic Leadership Development, Faculty and Instruction at the corporate office of DeVry University, USA. Dr Gialamas' professional work includes research and teaching in leadership development, faculty development, Innovative approaches in teaching and learning, knot theory, mathematics and arts, the history and philosophy of mathematics., and mathematics education. He has published numerous articles in both English and Greek, two books, and many other manuals. Peggy Pelonis, MS, LMFT, NCP, is the director of student affairs at the American Community Schools of Athens, which includes an umbrella of programs such as counseling psychology, college placement, optimal match, high performance program, school activities and special programs. As founder of the ISOS Counseling & Educational Center in Athens, for the last 14 years, Ms. Pelonis has been a leading trainer in systems psychotherapy , clinical hypnosis and counseling. She has authored numerous journal articles, chapters, magazine and newspaper articles. Her work on ‘coping with change’ has resulted in two books: Change in the Journey of life (2001) and Yparho Allazo (Living Changing) (2007).

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L EADERSHIP P RAXIS IN I NTERNATIONAL E DUCATION M EANINGFUL F ACULTY E VALUATION & A SSESSMENT : A C OMPREHENSIVE A PPROACH FOR A Y EARLY F ACULTY P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION R EPORT S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. P R E S I D E N T , AC S A T H E N S

A T H E N S P L U S , M A R C H 19, 2010 One of the challenges academic leaders encounter is conducting an on time comprehensive faculty performance evaluation. There are two fundamental rudiments for addressing this challenge (1) having a PROMPT (Precise Relevant Organized, Measurable, Pragmatic, and within Time lines) yearly faculty accountability planning and (2) preparing in advance for the impending deadline by having faculty submit end of year performance self evaluations . In this article, we will provide a comprehensive approach for a yearly faculty performance evaluation report which includes the following components: (1) establishing a Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Plan (FPEP); (2) conducting a mid-year faculty self progress report; (3) creating a mid-year faculty progress evaluation report; (4) making a mid-year adjustment of the performance evaluation plan; (5) creating an end of the year faculty self-evaluation report; (6) conducting an end of the year faculty performance evaluation report; (7) conducting and end of the year faculty performance evaluation report; and (8) conducting an end of the year departmental faculty performance evaluation report. In addition, we will share strategies that faculty could adopt in helping them to focus on accomplishing their goals and to prepare an effective performance evaluation report and strategies that department chairs could adopt to guide faculty to more successfully accomplish their goals and in preparing their performance evaluation report. In adopting such approaches, the department chair will benefit by better understanding the strength and limitations of the department resources. Furthermore, he or she will be able to understand faculty needs and strengths and thus better involve faculty in accomplishment of the mission and the goals of the department. Defining the Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report A yearly faculty performance evaluation report focuses on results, achievements and the impact of the faculty member’s work upon their colleagues and the institution, as well as on the profession and the academic discipline of a given faculty. It is this type of report that will provide the opportunities for faculty, the academic leader, and the institution to develop a shared vision and mission. It will also better support excellence in student performance, satisfaction, retention, as well as to maximize the institutional performance and effectiveness. Components of a Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report Establishing a Yearly Faculty Performance: The goal of the yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement (FPEA) is for the faculty and the academic leader to jointly identify all faculty performance accountabilities and targeted goals for a given academic year and design an action plan for accomplishing the yearly faculty performance goals. The conceptual framework for the yearly FPEA consists of: 1. Accountabilities and Tasks, which include, in most institutions, teaching, professional development, and services to the institution and the community; 2. Time for completing the accountabilities and tasks; 3. Weight of each component of the accountabilities and tasks, which depends on the mission and the goals of the institution; and 4. Measurement, which includes the tools needed to measure the performance. In order to develop this plan, the institution must first have instituted a yearly faculty accountability and performance evaluation, including the criteria for measuring success in the areas of teaching, services, professional activities, and personal and professional growth.. With this in mind, we

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propose that prior to the beginning of the academic year, and based on the instituted accountabilities and criteria, the academic leader and each individual faculty must meet and jointly set clear goals based upon the needs of the institution and the role of the faculty within the institution. Mid-Year Faculty Self Progress Report: Rather than to wait for the end of the academic year, academic leaders should ask every faculty member in his or her area to prepare and submit a mid-year self-progress report. This report should reflect the progress of accomplishing the goals stated in the “Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement” (FPEA). The purpose of Mid-year Faculty Progress Report is to identify the progress in accomplishing the goals in timely fashion, to make realistic adjustment of the goals, tasks and or time needed to accomplish them, to identify whether or not additional resources and or skills are needed to accomplish the established goals and tasks, and to offer opportunities to see whether or not additional tasks should be added to a given faculty member. Mid-Year Faculty Progress Evaluation Report: Upon receiving the mid-year faculty self progress report, the academic leader reads, analyzes and internalizes the report. If he/she has questions or concerns, these are addressed with the faculty member before the leader writes his/her reflective report. The academic leader writes his /her report and sends it to the faculty member. If the faculty member has no concern, he/she signs and returns the report. If a given faculty member has a concern, then he/she requests a meeting with the academic leader to discuss the matter. The academic leader and the faculty member meet and discuss the concerns in a climate of trust and good intention from both parties of the meeting. The outcomes of the meeting must be agreed upon by both parties. Mid-Year Adjustment of Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement: Based on the academic leader’s reflection on the mid-year faculty self-progress report, the leader and the faculty member consider whether or not an adjustment should be made in the yearly faculty performance Agreement. Mid-Year Faculty Progress Evaluation Report: In preparing the mid-year faculty progress report, the academic leader collects all the faculty mid-year self progress reports, reads, internalizes and organizes them in one written draft report that could follow the same criteria as the faculty did. At the same time, he/she needs to provide each faculty with written comments and suggestions on his or her mid-year self-progress report. With faculty comments and suggestions in mind, the leader should revisit his or her midyear faculty progress report, make the necessary changes and modifications, and then prepare a summary progress report. End of Academic Year Faculty Self Evaluation Report: In almost all institutions, faculty members are required to write and submit an end of academic year faculty selfevaluation performance report. The goal of this report is to help the academic leader make decisions regarding faculty accountability and to justify faculty performance and promotions. Therefore, faculty is expected to report on what they accomplished, and contributed in the areas specified in the Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement, as well as in the faculty policy handbook of their institutions. They are also expected to report on other activities and experiences that were outside the stated categories, but were important in their performance evaluation and promotion. They should also include in their reports any newly acquired skills and experiences that might be valuable to the institution. The End of Academic Year Performance Evaluation Report: There are certain obstacles and pitfalls to be avoided in performance evaluations; One is to avoid and/or minimize the “central clumping” error that often occurs. Central clumping occurs when managers group their employees into a middle clump of performance, usually because of a lack of confidence in outlying results. A second issue to avoid is the “recency effect”. This is when the evaluator focuses too heavily on recent performance instead of providing a balanced review of the entire performance period. To address the above concerns is to provide mechanisms for appraisal of the faculty member on a continual basis throughout the year. Benefits of Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report: Is divided in three processes: faculty benefits, academic leaders’ benefits and institutional benefits. The following specific action steps are strongly recommended in yearly faculty performance evaluation report: individual faculty writes his/her self-progress report and submits to the corresponding academic leader; the academic leader reads, analyzes and

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internalizes the report. If he/she has questions or concerns, sets with the faculty before writing his/her reflective report; the leader writes his /her report and send to the perspective faculty; If the faculty has no concern, he/she signs and returns the report. If he/she has concern, then the faculty requites a meeting with the leader; the leader and the perspective faculty meet and discuss the concerns in a climate of trust and good intention from both parties of the meeting. In conclusion, transparency, honesty and openness are essential elements in a faculty performance evaluation. Faculty self evaluation and leader’s reports as described in this article provide a way to show consistency in faculty reporting and self-evaluation and help eliminating ambiguity in performance evaluations. This type of strategy will help academic leaders to see the strengths, the potential of their faculty and form a better picture of the future of the academic area they lead. In doing so, it helps them to carefully engineer the future by planning the experiences that will serve as a stepping stone for desirable goals and outcomes. And most importantly, the strategies will enable them to see which rules, policies and procedures are necessary and which are not. It will also enable leaders to provide ongoing feedback, something that is essential for motivating people and for effective performance in the workplace and to discover what motivation works with each faculty and in turn how to help him or her to achieve high quality performance and satisfaction.

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S TRENGTHENING THE A CADEMIC D EPARTMENT T HROUGH E MPOWERMENT OF F ACULTY AND S TAFF

S. G I A L A M A S , A B O U R C H E R I F , B E N J A M I N O F O R I - A M O A H , B A S H A R W. H A N N A , L I N S T E F U R A K ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP, THE ONLINE JOURNAL V O L U M E 8, I S S U E 2, SP RI NG 201 0

Empowerment of employees has been a primary concern of business for many decades, under the premise that involvement of employees in decision making leads to superior performance and results. Acceptance of the practical value of empowerment by colleges and universities is more recent and rarer, despite the centrality of ideas such as faculty governance and recognition of the faculty’s essential role in the academic enterprise. Empowerment in academe is defined as the process whereby stakeholders are encouraged and supported in utilizing their knowledge, skills, and creativity to embrace ownership and accountability for the well being of their department and institution. The process requires stakeholders to collaborate in order to establish clear goals and expectations focused on the institution’s vision and mission but within agreed-upon boundaries. This alignment of departmental and institutional goals is a key ingredient of empowerment; one that Black (1987) calls” enacting the vision” in organizations. Empowerment is central to continuous improvement at the personal, professional, and organizational levels. At its core, strategic empowerment motivates faculty and staff to strive for optimal performance in their individual endeavors to enhance the academic enterprise for all, especially in learning and accomplishment. This naturally leads to higher levels of departmental efficiency and effectiveness. As such, empowerment is a crucial component in faculty leadership development, a process that cannot be left to happen by chance. It may require a change in the department chair’s thinking on how to manage faculty, staff, students, and the business of the department. It may also require a change in how faculty and chairs perceive and practice relationships with each other within their department. After all, building an effective academic department will only happen through building good faculty, staff, and academic programs. The purpose of this paper is to outline a framework for empowering faculty and staff in academic departments. The following section (II) outlines the main types of department chairs and discusses the chair’s two traditional roles— leadership and management. Section III analyzes the main components of the framework for empowering the department and discusses how this framework can be implemented and the empowerment achieved. II. Department Chairs and Their Roles Of the main types of department chair positions in American higher education, the first is that of the full-time administrator who has no teaching duties. The second type of chairperson has a reduced teaching load in addition to administrative duties. A third type may be called the co-chair, because he or she may share the position with someone else. The third may also have a reduced teaching load. A fourth type is the acting chair, one who is brought in for a limited period of time. This paper is oriented to the first type of department chair, the full-time administrator. However, most of the issues addressed here are also relevant to the remaining types of department chairpersons.

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Type of Chairperson

Teaching Duties

Hiring Status

Full-time administrator

No teaching duties

Often elected, appointed

Administrator/

Reduced teaching duties

Co-chair Acting/Interim

————————————— Arrival From rarely

Often from institution

outside

the

Usually elected or appointed

Within or institution

outside

the

Reduced teaching load

Often appointed, elected

Often from same institution

With or without teaching duties.

Always appointed

Instructor rarely

Same institution

In all these roles, the department chair is a manager and a leader who need to influence, direct, positively motivate and respond to the people (faculty, students, and staff) and the work environment” in a responsible, professional, and supportive manner that is guided by the vision and the mission of the department (cf., Allan 1993; Bennis and Nanus 1997; Short and Greer 1997). The Chairperson as Manager Management, in simple words, deals with process and with getting things done. Within educational settings, management is a collective effort aimed at providing an environment in which “teaching and learning can flourish, resulting in student satisfaction, high performance, retention, and a wide range of career opportunities” (Mayers, Ricordati, and Carter, 1995, p. 181). Effective teaching and desirable student performance cannot take place in a poorly managed environment. By definition and by the nature of their profession, department members (faculty and staff) are also managers (of the classroom, curriculum, and instruction) who successfully complete designated tasks. Their collective efforts can lead to an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish and student achievement can be enhanced. However, the department chairperson’s role as a manager is unique in one respect: The chairperson is also the human relations officer of the department. She or he brings management and employees together in a dynamic but harmonious way to achieve assigned objectives. In an educational setting, these objectives provide enhanced performance opportunities for faculty and enhanced learning opportunities for students, as well as departmental and organizational efficiency and effectiveness Based on an understanding such as this, the most important work of the department chair as a manager is to help faculty and staff recognize that their best prospects of realizing their personal goals lie in helping the department, and in turn the organization, achieve its primary goals (McGregor 1960). To this end: a.

b.

c.

The chairperson must have the understanding, belief, and willingness to see the department as expressing a dynamic pattern of communications and other relationships among people who work together for a common goal. The chair must always be concerned about the people, the work, and the achievement of departmental objectives. He or she must operate from a base of “What can I or we do for you” rather than “What can you do for me.” S/he must also be able to effectively harness the collective wisdom and expertise of the department’s personnel.

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The Chairperson as a Leader Unlike management which deals with process, leadership deals with empowering people and releasing the capabilities within them. It is about leading and coaching rather than controlling and protecting. It functions by eliminating the aspect of control over others and giving them the freedom to be creative and effective. Leaders gain power by giving it away to those who work for them; the more power they give away the more power they get back (Welsh, 2001; Maxwell, 2007). From a practitioner approach, department chairs provide leadership by enabling faculty to accomplish the mission of the department and achieve their own professional growth and development (Gialamas, Cherif, and Hilentzaris, 2003). For the department chair, the fundamental elements of this leadership include: a) b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

Practicing the principles of leadership as a partnership. A strong desire to serve and provide faculty with high quality opportunities for professional growth and development and encouraging them to realize their own well considered personal aspirations (Moore, 1996; Blanchard 1999). Working hard to make faculty feel safe in the work environment by adapting systems of performance review and evaluation that first bring confidence, and then bring out the best performance of the faculty (Gialamas and Cherif 2003, 2004a; Blanchard 1999). The ability and willingness to create a climate of trust in the workplace: a structure in which everyone is important and all ideas are considered, and an atmosphere in which hard work, integrity, and generosity are the norms in dealing with people (Casey 1997, Adjbolosoo 1993). Conveying to the faculty the perception that they are “either winners (meaning you already know they are good performers) or potential winners (meaning you strongly think they can become good performers), and you mean them no harm” (Blanchard 1999, p. 69). Believing that “people without information cannot act responsibly; people with information are compelled to act responsibly” (Blanchard et al. 1996, 34). Sharing sensitive and performance information that sends a very strong signal of transparency, respect, and trust to everyone. Understanding that the department chair’s role is to “coordinate efforts, acquire resources, develop strategic plans, and work with customers, coach people, and the like. Everything the department chair does is to help his/her faculty and staff be more effective in what they do” (Short and Greer, 1997).

III. A Framework for Empowering Departments Philosophies of Empowerment According to McGregor (1960), empowerment is a process that encourages faculty and staff to develop skills and personal traits and exercise the type of autonomy that helps an institution achieve its primary goal of improving learning opportunities for its students and providing professional development opportunities for its employees. In this sense, empowerment is a mission-driven, achievement-based, and professional growth-oriented objective that aims to liberate the leadership within the faculty and staff and to release the power they already have to do their best beyond their accepted accountabilities and responsibilities (cf., Bennis & Nanus, 1997; Blanchard, Carlos, Randolph, 1996). This results in: 1.

Increased faculty status, a highly developed knowledge base, and autonomy within boundaries in decision making (cf. Maeroff 1988; Blanchard, Carlos, & Randolph1996; Short and Greer, 1997).

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High quality student performance, satisfaction, retention, and career opportunities (Mayers, Riccordati, and Carter, 1995, p. 181). Organizational efficiency and labor-management cooperation. Faculty growth in professional development, intellectual productivity, and personal satisfaction.

In their book, Empowerment Takes More Than a Minute, Blanchard, Carlos, and Randolph (1996) have brilliantly shown that empowerment is more than an empty promise in liberating the leadership within people. For them: Empowerment is not giving people power…. People already have plenty of power – in the wealth of their knowledge and motivation – to do their jobs magnificently…. [It is] letting this power out…. [In this sense] empowerment has a sense of ownership at its core, and it starts with the belief system of top management. Too many leaders still need to get over the notion that their people head off to work every morning asking themselves how they can get by with doing as little as possible…. It is not that people in organizations are unable to be their best – they’re afraid to be their best. Most organizations are set up to catch people doing things wrong rather than to reward them for doing things right (13-14). It is part of human nature that most adults are interested in deciding questions that affect their work or work environment and the development of their organizations (Short& Greer 1997; Mohn 2000). In order to succeed, the empowerment must be seen and acted upon as a “philosophy of management” and continued “behavioral action” that promotes a policy of inclusion in the participative decision making process by and through harnessing the collective genius of all types of people in the department (McNulty, 2003; McGregor 1960). Embedded in this philosophy is the task of providing the environment and policies that allow autonomy within boundaries for faculty and allow department chairs to learn “a whole new way to manage—managing projects and cross-functional teams rather than work groups” (Blanchard, Carlos, and Randolph 1996, p 19). Such an empowerment philosophy stems from the premise that: Empowered employees benefit the organization and themselves. They have a greater sense of purpose in their jobs and lives, and their involvement translates directly into continuous improvement in the workplace systems and processes. In an empowered organization, employees bring their best ideas and initiatives to the workplace with a sense of excitement, ownership, and pride. In addition, they act with responsibility and put the best interests of the organization first. (Blanchard et al., 1996 2) Creating an Empowered Workplace In an educational setting, the main task in creating an empowered workplace is to create a faculty-driven departmental environment. Secondly, it is to develop faculty who exhibit dimensions of teacher empowerment such as these: decision making, continuous professional growth, higher status, higher self-efficacy, autonomy within boundaries, high positive impact, and excellence and quality as a daily practice rather than a mere act. To this end, one needs to identify the essential elements of empowerment and to develop and implement an effective framework within which to work toward empowerment.

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The Empowerment Agenda Today’s chairs are under pressure to create and maintain a positive departmental culture that meets the needs of faculty, staff, students, and also the goals of the department and the mission of the institution. Learning and student achievement are at the core of the institutional mission and goals. In order to fashion the best ways to effectively achieve the vision and mission, we recommend the following management agenda for creating a culturally empowered department. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.

In-depth analysis of the current department culture and governance. A compelling vision of the empowered organization. Sharing information with department stakeholders through dialogue and feedback. Sharing authority, tasks, and accountabilities. Commitment to ideas, not personalities. Creating autonomy within boundaries. Replacing the old hierarchy with self-directed teams.

These strategies are not intended to be either categorical or comprehensive, but only starting points for developing a productive, empowered department. The goal is to plant the seeds necessary to cultivate a positive, productive department and a culture that is focused on effective classroom learning and raising the achievement of all students at all levels (Allen 2003). It is to create a culture of continuous improvement in student learning through the empowerment of faculty and staff. 1. Deep Analysis of the Current Department Culture and Governance Academic department must have a homogenous culture that is based on agreed-upon values, mission, and purpose. Multi-culture in a given organization is a sign of a failed institution (Welch, 2001). A departmental culture encompasses a department’s core values and practices, and a system of re-enforcing these core values. Department chairs must willingly listen to and learn from all department stakeholders, which include faculty, staff, students, alumni, and family members. Deep analysis of the current department and its governance patterns may be conducted through focus groups, surveys, and open discussions. Such analysis includes identifying individual members’ talents and skills and finding the best ways to capitalize on these. Deep analysis can help the department identify aspects of the department culture that need to be changed, to maintain and reinforce positive traits, and to introduce new traits that have been neglected or never introduced to the system. Such analysis also helps to identify faculty and staff who are collegial and who can work with others in a well defined collaborative fashion. But most of all, deep analysis will help the department and the chairperson identify the core values which form the foundation for creating a shared vision within the department and among the stakeholders. Every successful organization operates from a base of shared core values that govern actions people take and that are the foundation for everything that happens in the organization. Building consensus on the core values is essential to developing a compelling vision for what the organization will work to become. Core values such as accountability, excellence, integrity, professionalism, and individuality help department members establish priorities and guide decisions in the workplace. The consensus of identified core values helps foster decentralized decision making and supports empowerment.

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In short, the first step in refocusing a department or organization is to study its existing culture and find ways to make it more efficient at fulfilling its mission, vision, and values. However, having a set of core values without a system for reenforcing them is just having a blueprint for a house without the land to build it on nor the funding and the means to build it. 2. Developing and Articulating a Compelling Vision of the Empowered Organization Department chairs are also leaders, and leaders are expected to espouse a vision for their departments that can be embraced by most, if not all, stakeholders. In contrast to the mission, an organizational vision is cogent foresight transformed into a mental image produced by a thorough imagination. However, vision without a process for communicating it to the stakeholders and a plan for how to achieve it is merely untenable hope (Maxwell, 2007, 1995; Welch, 2001). In other words, a leader can be “… a genius at synthesizing and articulating visions, but this makes a difference only when the vision has been successfully communicated throughout the organization and effectively institutionalized as a guiding principle” (Bennis and Nanus 1997, p. 99). Furthermore, in order for the vision to be successful and for everyone to buy into it, the chairperson must first consistently act on it and personify it. Second, the vision itself must be more than mere words in the ears of the stakeholders. It must, as Bennis and Nanus (1997) have argued, “feel right,” appeal at the gut level, resonate with the listener’s own emotional needs, and somehow “click” (100). Thus, the leader must influence others by pulling rather than pushing them to make the vision their own. A re-examination of the department’s fundamental purposes should be conducted with input from faculty, students, staff, and alumni. A committee may be charged with drafting a statement that reflects the new vision. An open dialogue should be organized to help finalize the vision statement. The involvement of all department members, as well as external stakeholders, will help elicit their commitment to achieving the re-examined vision, mission, and goals, even if they retain reservations about some of the components. Chances for input from everyone lead to active participation in the crafting of the vision. This in turn leads to more productive collaboration to achieve the vision and its underlying philosophy. This is one of the foundations of a successful department that acts, in key ways, as an ecologically sustainable entity supported by self-renewing resources. The table below shows how a new vision can be developed by a small group of colleagues, as initially proposed by Bennis and Nanus (1997, p 99). We have added the fifth row in the table based on the idea that a vision without a process for communicating it to stakeholders and a method for achieving it is merely untenable hope (Maxwell, 2007, 1995; Welch, 2001). Phase

Process

1

Vision Audit

“... which examines the character of the organization, including its current mission, strategy and values.”

2

Vision Scope

“... in which decisions are made regarding the desired characteristics of the new vision.”

3

Vision Context

“... which explores trends and developments that influence the formation of a new vision.” “... in which alternative visions are identified and evaluated, leading to a final selection of the most desirable option.”

4

Vision Choice

5

Communicating Final Vision

“… a process for communicating it … and a method for achieving it…” must be decided on

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Bennis and Nanus have crystallized the process very well: In the end, the leader may be the one who articulates the vision and gives it legitimacy, who expresses the vision in captivating rhetoric that fires the imagination and emotions of followers, who – through the vision – empowers others to make decisions that get things done. But if the organization is to be successful, the image must grow out of the needs of the entire organization and must be “claimed” or “owned” by all the important actors. In short, it must become part of a new social architecture in the organization (101). It is because of this type of thinking that Bennis and Nanus (1997) have strongly argued that: A vision cannot be established in an organization by edict, or by the exercise of power or coercion. It is more an act of persuasion, of creating an enthusiastic and dedicated commitment to a vision because it is right for the time, right for the organization, and right for the people who are working in it (99-100). 3. Sharing Information with Departmental Stakeholders through Dialogue and Feedback Providing access to data and information needed for making sound decisions is an important element in empowering faculty and staff to perform optimally. (This also holds true for students if we want them to be more active and responsible for their own welfare, education, and professional careers.) The second important element in sharing information and data is trust. A pattern of dialogue and feedback communication, transparency, and other open organizational relationships is a key component of successful organizations. Effective and productive dialogues and feedback communication require two related and mutually dependent elements: (1) sharing information and (2) trust and respect. Open dialogue and sincere feedback lead to true understanding of the goals, mission, and the current status of the department. Furthermore, dialogue leads to a strong sense of “feeling connected” to the goals and the mission of the department and the institution, and to feeling integrated in the decision making process. Most important is that dialogue and feedback help all stakeholders, especially faculty and staff, to “move from mere compliance to commitment” (Allen 2003, p. 1), from passive to active and informed involvement, and from being “borrowers” to being “owners” of curriculum and related issues. This also reduces the need to monitor for compliance among the stakeholders. Good dialogue is essential because it clarifies expectations for all stakeholders, helps to ensure understanding of policies and rules, and makes implementation of rules and policies more effective. Most of all, good dialogue helps shape the departmental culture and empowers faculty and staff to be effective participants in departmental affairs. Blanchard, Carlos, and Randolph (1996) have argued that “People without information cannot act responsibly, those with information are compelled to act responsibly.”This is so because “People without information cannot monitor themselves or make sound decisions, but those with information can” (34). Those leaders who are unwilling to share information with their people will never have their people as partners in running the company successfully and will never have an empowered organization. This act of sharing information is absolutely crucial to empowering an organization. That is why it’s the first key [in the empowerment process] (Blanchard et al. 30). Sharing sensitive and performance information with faculty and staff (if not always with students and external stakeholders) sends a very strong signal of transparency, trust, and respect to department members. Yet, the idea of sharing sensitive data and information could encounter substantial obstacles and resistance.

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Some administrators worry that faculty will use shared information for their own ends. For their part, faculty tends to approach strategic planning from individualistic perspectives, often defining shared governance so that it revolves around vetoes and resistance. These pre-existing fears and interaction patterns can corrupt shared governance into a bargain that supports the status quo rather than energizing the learning community. To achieve shared decision making, Lazerson (1997) recommends the use of small groups of faculty, administrators, and trustees, armed with increased data and communication and given budgetary accountability to resolve difficult, yet historically taboo, issues (Brodersen and Hansen, 14). Our view is that departments are strengthened through liberal sharing of information in an atmosphere of trust, and through the dialogue and feedback such information should elicit. Information that should be shared certainly includes that which relates to faculty goals, to their standing and status, and to their performance. In addition, departments should consider the sharing of strategic information and organizational strategy, which are commonly reserved for those of higher standing in a hierarchy. Sharing strategic information with faculty and staff could also produce benefits in better implementation of plans and projects, more effective performance, stronger departmental morale, and similar benefits deriving from seeing one’s tasks within a bigger picture. In short, the more information members have about the department, its policies, procedures, goals, and vision, the more active participants they become and the less likely they are to be opponents of change. 4. Sharing Authority and Accountability Former Vermont Commissioner of Education Ray McNulty (2003) has argued that: Leadership is not a position, but a way of doing for everyone in a school system. In other words, all members should take on the responsibility for the whole by ensuring that they direct their energies toward organizational priorities. Getting everyone involved in leadership as a way of doing builds an organization’s leadership density, which yields benefits for the whole” (2). Department chairs must understand that sharing leadership doesn’t take away their power, but rather, adds the richness and adaptability of broader experience and expertise that can lead to better decision making and more desirable outcomes. In her book Leadership Capacity for Lasting School Improvement, Linda Lambert argues that while sharing leadership is not easy, the failure to cultivate leadership in others maintains a kind of stunted culture in educational institutions. This will lead to dependency on only one or two within the department for consistently addressing problems, making decisions, and providing vision for continuous improvement. Sharing authority, tasks, and accountabilities leads to mutual expectations and reliance by faculty, staff, and the chair for maintaining continuous improvement of the department. Sharing authority and tasks must be accompanied by accountability—both individual and collective. Faculty members must have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities as individual members of the department, as well as part of a team. There should be a clear sense that individual accountability cannot be devoid of collective accountability for the common good of the department and the institution. 5. Commitment to Ideas, Not Personalities or Positions As John Maxwell (2007) has suggested, ideas are the most important assets of any organization. They can be generated by creative people who often see beyond what others can envision. Idea generators are always needed by an organization and such members must be supported and maintained. Indeed, even leaders “are only as powerful as the ideas they can communicate” (Bennis and Nanus 1997, p. 99). Ideas, however, can only move freely in an environment encumbered with minimal bureaucracy, management layers, departmental silos, and other barriers. Ideas need to be heard, examined, and tested; those that survive must be implemented regardless of who generated them. Success requires an environment for ideas to move freely, both horizontally and vertically (Maxwell 2007; Welch 2001). Ideas need to be everywhere in the organization, and not only in the boss’ mind. It is very important that all the stakeholders commit to continual improvement and pursuit of the goals

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and vision of the department, rather than to one or a few persons or positions in the department. “A… culture based on a particular leader’s personality, ability to excite, or interpersonal skills [while these are important and necessary], can still fall short because this focus may keep others out of leadership” (Allen, 2003, p.8), and in turn keep the department from realizing its collective potential. As T. J. Sergiovanni (1991) has pointed out, when principles and roles are publicly agreed upon, stakeholders are energized “because the ideas or commitments are leading the way—not a charming personality or the local state capital.” Using the organization’s vision and goals to guide and lead individual accountabilities “is a right that has an implicit obligation,” something Sergiovanni calls Leadership by Entitlement (cited in Short & Greer 1997, p. 130). By the nature of their assigned responsibilities, department chairs remain essential in shaping the department’s norms, values, beliefs, and accomplishments. Using Peterson’s observations of school principals, department chairs’ roles include being a ”symbol’’ who reinforces core values through daily work; a ”potter’’ who builds culture through hiring, budget, and supervisory decisions; a ”poet’’ whose written and overall messages can reinforce a healthy culture; an ”actor’’ on all the stages of school events; and a ”healer’’ who can help repair the culture after tragedy, conflict, or loss (Allen 2003, p. 8). In their roles, department chairs are also the “prescription glasses” that enable faculty to clearly see the purpose of the vision, the effective ways to achieve goals, and to implement the roles and the policies in a way that will help maximize student learning and faculty professional development. 6. Creating Autonomy within Boundaries Productive empowerment requires autonomy within boundaries. Unlike policies and procedures that inhibit individual behavior in a hierarchical organization, the boundaries imposed in an empowered organization are reflected in its core values, shared vision, and collaborative decision making. As Blanchard, Carlos, and Randolph have pointed out: Boundaries have the capacity to channel energy in a certain direction. It’s like a river—if you were to take away the banks, the river wouldn’t be a river anymore. Its momentum and direction would be gone (41). Faculty and staff are like the water in a river bed in that their energy must be channeled so they can have direction and a desirable impact. In the empowerment process, Blanchard et al. (1996) have proposed setting boundaries in the following categories to create a desirable kind of autonomy. For each category, the organization through its leadership must ensure that members understand and reflect in their practices a common position that defines the direction and the limits of the category: a. b. c. d. e.

Purpose: What does the organization or department seek to achieve? Teaching excellence, research breakthroughs, service to the community, or a combination of these? Values: How do departmental values shape operational practices? For example, what should be the response to cheating, what is the view of plagiarism (by students, as well as faculty and administrators)? Image: Does the institution or department seek recognition as selective and achievement-oriented, or does it wish to be seen as responsive to the needs of the underserved and underprepared? Roles: What are the functions and positions fulfilled by the department as a whole, and what is each member’s role in the department? Organizational Structure and Systems: What kinds of support are available for what department members want to do? (42)

Department chairs need to understand that the way they design the boundaries can make the empowerment process succeed or fail. Chairs also need to learn how to be objective and neutral in designing the boundaries. The temptation to hold on to power can mislead the chairperson and obscure the importance of sharing sensitive information, tasks, and accountabilities. On the other hand, faculty and staff have to be coached and given the opportunity to consider their own challenges and reorganize and reframe them differently, whenever needed. 7. Replacing the Old Hierarchy with Self-Directed Teams Empowerment has produced lasting beneficial impacts on companies and industries (McGregor 1960; Lesieur and Puckett 1958), and led to educational reform at the school level (Kastle 1990; Callahan 1962; and Taylor 1916). Yet, in spite of empowerment’s capacity to improve the productivity of work and the satisfaction and position of employees and other stakeholders, the top-down hierarchy is still the most common model in academe.

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In an empowered department you have to become “a leader who leads others to lead themselves” (Manz and Sims, 1984, p. 411) by helping faculty and staff learn empowering behaviors. The department chair must “Create and maintain favorable conditions for the group to work and exercise empowering behaviors such as self-reinforcement, selfobservation, self-evaluation and diagnosis” (Blanchard, Carlos, and Randolph 1996; Black 1987). Creating a team approach requires a deliberate effort on the part of the department chair. A team is not just a group of individuals who work together but “a unit of two or more people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose and set of performance goals and to common expectations, for which they hold themselves accountable“(Santora 2007, p. 83-84). “The team concept implies a shared mission and responsibility” (Lussier and Achua 2009, p. 281). Self-directed teams are empowered to operate autonomously and are allowed to make the decisions essential to successfully achieving their goals. Self-directed teams tend to be more flexible and proactive in their behavior as they work toward a common goal. The chair must promote a bottom-up perspective that includes encouraging the faculty and staff to share leadership and accountability for their own activities. This approach will foster the feeling of ownership that characterizes people in an empowered culture. Conclusion While empowerment of departments is achievable, it requires redesigning the roles of department chairs, faculty, and staff. In situations reflective of the old hierarchical, top-down governance models, empowerment requires changing department chairs’ approaches to managing faculty, staff, and the business of the department. Furthermore, it requires a change in how faculty and chairs perceive each other and practice their personal and professional relationships. The empowered department is an organization of colleagues in which everybody’s potential is explored and everyone’s ideas are considered. Members of such a department are much more effective and efficient; they also feel better about themselves, their chairperson, their department, and their institution. They feel a real sense of ownership and the obligations and responsibilities that go with ownership. For professional persons, such as faculty and staff, there can be no other basis for the work they undertake.

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Works Cited Adjibolosoo, (1993). The human factor in development. Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives, XII (4): 139149. Allen, Rick (2003). Building school culture in an age of accountability: principals lead through sharing tasks. ASCD Education Update, 45(7):1-8. Bennis, W. G., and B. Nanus. (1997). Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York: Harper and Row. Black, Peter (1987). The Empowered Manager: Positive Political Skills at Work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Blanchard, Ken, John Carlos, and Alan Randolph (1996). Empowerment Takes More Than A Minute. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Blanchard, Ken (1999). The Heart of a Leader: Insight on the Art of Influence. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Honor Books. Brodersen, Lyn and Daryl Hansen (2004). Educational Services leadership Groups: A Shared Governance Model. Academic Leadership, 10(3):14-19 Callahan, R. (1962). Education and the Cult of Efficiency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Casey, Al. (1997), Casey’s Law: If Something Can Go Right It Should. New York: ARCADE Publishing. Cherif, A., S. Hoel, K. Murkar, and L. Stefuark (2004). Planning for success. The Department Chair, 15(1): 24-26. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., Ofari-Omoah, B. (2000). Can human factor be taught? A Preliminary Institutional Survey. The Journal of Human Factor Studies, 6 (1):110-128. Gialamas, S., A. Cherif, D. Maher, and S. Hilentzaris (2004a). Faculty performance appraisal. The Department Chair, 14(3): 8-10. Gialamas, S., A. Cherif, D. Maher, and S. Hilentzaris (2004). Preparing new department chairpersons in the area of faculty leadership: practitioner’s approach. Academic Leadership, 10(3):27-31. Gialamas, S., A. Cherif, and S. Hilentzaris (2003). Creating an environment for minimizing conflict between faculty and the department chairperson. The Department Chair, 13(3): 21-23. Lesieur, F. G., and E. Puckett (1958). The Scanlon plan: past, present, and future. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the Industrial Relations Research Association, 71-80. Lucas, Ann F. (2000), Leading Academic Change: Essential Roles for Department Chairs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Lussier, Robert N., and Christopher F. Achua (2009). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning. Maeroff, G. I. (1988). A blueprint for empowering teachers. Phi Delta Kappan, 69(7): 472-477. Manz, C. C., and H. P. Sims, Jr. (1984). Searching for the “unleader”: organizational member views on leading selfmanaging groups. Human Relations, 37, 409-424.

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Mayers, P., T. Riccordati, and D. Hohmeier (1995). System-supported teaching and learning to improve student performance, satisfaction, and retention. In Harry V.Roberts (ed.) Academic Initiatives in Total Quality for Higher Education. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: ASQC Quality Press. Maxwell, John C. (2007). The 360 Leader: Developing Your Influence from Anywhere in the Organization. Thomas Nelson Publisher. Maxwell, John C. (1995), Developing the Leaders Around You: How to Help Others Reach Their Full Potential. Nashville: TN: Thomas Nelson. McGregor, D. (1960). The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill. McNulty, Ray (2003). Making leadership everyone’s responsibility. ASCD-Education Update, 45(7):2. Moore, Randy (1996). Traits of effective administrators. The American Biology Teacher, 57 (8): 502. Peterson (2003). Cited in Allen, Rick (2003). Building school culture in an age of accountability: principals lead through sharing tasks. ASCD Education Update, 45(7):1-8. Santora, J. C. (2007). Managing open employees: do resources and leadership style matter? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (3): 83-43. Short, Paula M., and John T. Greer (1997). Leadership in Empowered Schools: Themes from Innovative Efforts. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Taylor, F. W. (1916). The principles of scientific management. Bulletin of the Taylor Society. Tucker, Allan (1993). Chairing the Academic Department. New York: ACO-ORYX Press. Welch, Jack (2001). Jack: Straight from the Gut. New York: Time Warner Audio Books.

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Appendix 1 Healthy Department As Described by Allan Tucker (1993) In his book Chairing the Academic Department that has become a significant reference for department chairs, Allan Tucker has clearly described the healthy department in academic setting as: A healthy department is one whose faculty and staff are motivated, productive, appreciated, secure in their jobs, work well together as a group, and able to reach consensus on issues concerning the governance and welfare of the department. A healthy department has well-defined operational and visionary goals that are attainable and contribute not only to the mission of the department but to that of the university as a whole. They Are understood and accepted by the faculty, and provide direction for both collective and individual decisions. ... In summary, a healthy academic department is a businesslike social enterprise with a strong sense of its place in the large college or university enterprise. Its work is optimized by it clear sense of how to put the right people to work on the most important tasks, how to motivate and reward them in fair and equitable ways, and how to bind people to the organization through shared vision and shared values. Although no department meets all the criteria of health outline, it is important to keep them in focus as targets one might hope to hit in a reasonable amount of time. Healthy departments are most readily recognized as those that achieve results communicate with their role and the resources available to them. But healthy departments also enjoy an internal coherence and a sense of bonding among their members that makes cooperation and coordination of their jobs stimulating and rewarding. (Tucker, 1993, p. 3 &11) ISSN: 1533-7812

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C ONNECTING WITH COLLEGE EDUCATION : A HOLISTIC APPROACH DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS AND PEGGY PELONIS EXPLAIN HOW THE AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS HAVE MADE A BRIDGE BETWEEN SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY

ECI S, Spr i n g – Au t um n 2009

Educating the individual as a whole is a feat for many universities. Similar trends are noted in the K-12 educational environment where students learn in a variety of academic areas as well as in athletics, community service and civic responsibility. We would like to define this inclusive model as the Holistic, Meaningful, and Harmonious (HMH) approach to education as we believe that it may lay the foundation for success in higher education and, more importantly, for life itself. Educators are well aware that teaching and learning does not only take place in the classroom but also in the playground, during activities, in assemblies, during group projects and in both team and individual sports. The seeds planted during the K-12 years eventually blossom and continue to grow in higher education. However, numerous questions arise regarding the sustainability of secondary education and transferring secondary school knowledge to higher education. They include questions such as: how many of the skills learned in primary and secondary education really do transfer to ensure student success? Are students able to apply what they have learned from one situation to another? From one culture to another? How well do we indeed understand learning styles? And how difficult is it for institutions to provide bridging skills for young people during their time of transition? If we are to take education to the next level, to unite the best of secondary and higher education, we must consider the gap in between by building a 'bridge' between the past, the present and the future. The bridging method proposed requires a reciprocal understanding of both worlds by both entities. Our experience in higher education leaves no doubt that the most successful student entering college is the student that is happy with the institution as well as the subject they have chosen. What then ensures a happy student? It is making sure that there is a match made in heaven; a perfect fit. This involves knowing the student and knowing the higher education institution. Knowing the student goes beyond academics. It means collecting information and putting pieces of the puzzle together that will create a picture of who the student really is. We refer to this as the Holistic approach and it considers all aspects of ‘emotional intelligence' (Goleman, 2002). It means understanding and successfully combining academic, emotional, physical, intellectual and ethical components to ensure a healthy, balanced individual, an individual who will successfully cope with the changes involved when entering higher education as well as the changes that life brings (Pelonis, 2001). The educational experience, however, must be meaningful for the learner. Meaningful refers to being in line with one's principles and values, with one’s person al and profession al goals. The learner should see it as part of his/her life and not in isolation of knowledge; it must be meaningful in relation to his/he r dreams, strengths, desires and talents. Discovering the feeling of being 'in love with life and learning' gives life meaning and thus there is a personal interest in making 'living' desirable. Harmonious refers to the idea that all dimensions must be in harmony, much as an orchestra works in harmony with the conductor. Moreover, education must be sustainable, and thus cannot only be based on acquiring skills and learning a trade but must be based on critical thinking, being creative and sharpening decisionmaking skills. Most importantly, all of the above must rely on defined principles and values in order to enhance the concept of living a full life and a sustaining ethos, as defined by the ancient Greeks.

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ACS Athens not only adopts, endorses, embraces and promotes the HMH model of education for its students; it also exemplifies this model through its faculty, administration and staff by their behavior and daily action. Students are invited to participate in adopting this model throughout their school career. As early as freshman year for example, students are taught to begin thinking about putting together what we refer to as the Portfolio: All About Me (PAAM). The portfolio includes a variety of pieces that will eventually come together to form the puzzle of each student. It is the x-ray of the student's personality and a reflection of their achievements. This process inspires the students to understand themselves better by seeing the whole picture of who they are. Thus, learning and the learner become one. Students are both reflectors and creators. The PAAM encourages students to include information about activities, hobbies, community service and also includes a peer recommendation. The process invites students to consider their role (s) in their immediate and broader community, how others view them and whether this is in alignment with how they would like to be viewed or think they are viewed. It encourages students to focus on their assets, strengths and experiences and how these contribute to their academic goals as well as to their personality in terms of what they have to offer in higher education. The PAAM encourages discussions with parents, peers and teachers and thus guides students through a decision-making process prior to their senior year so that, by the final year, they are prepared to make informed decisions about their future. As the PAAM comes together, the college advisor also observes the process with which each student approaches the formation of the portfolio and in guiding the students to put all pieces together, the guidance counselor will get to know the student in all or most aspects of their personality. Furthermore, students are guided to complete a variety of questionnaires used to aid the counselor in writing recommendation letters but in essence continue to encourage self-reflection. The Counselor Information Gathering Form (ClGF) is designed with questions about academic, social and person al experiences that have been pivotal in the student's development. The student is asked about challenges they have overcome, role models they respect and life events that have shaped who they are becoming. The CIGF also includes a section to be completed by parents, as they know their child in ways unknown to the counselor and can provide significant insights. The second prerequisite for ensuring the right fit is knowing the higher educational institutions. This means investing time and energy, not only to research schools, understand programmes and highlight admissions criteria, but to get to know the institution by getting to know its people. Thus, developing a truthful and meaningful relationship with its representatives is a vital step in order to ensure that the information exchanged is accurate. Trust therefore develops between representatives as each begins to speak a common language with a common goal in mind: to accurately match the student with the institution and thus to ensure success in establishing what we call Bilateral Institution al Credibility (BIC). While it is important to collect information via the websites, publications and alumni, nothing can replace the persona l understanding of the environment through a visit to the institution itself. No amount of information received will replace 'the feel' one gets by being on the ground, talking with students and faculty, seeing the facilities and experiencing the approach with which they are received. But many international students do not have the possibility to visit higher institutions and must then rely on their counselor to provide the most accurate picture possible. Thus matching the student with the institution becomes a science as well as an art; it is as much intuitive as it is calculating. Another piece to the bridging process is to ensure that the skills and knowledge obtained in the K- 12 environment are transferred to the higher education institution. At ACS Athens, this process has been achieved with the format ion of an institute within the secondary schools which provides the forum through which the bridging takes place. Whilst establishing relationships with higher educational institutions, the secondary school administrators have the opportunity to identify and select institutions according to size, location and focus. Faculty from these higher education institutions are invited to teach college level courses on the high school campus during a two to three week intensive period. No grades are assigned and thus teaching methods are flexible and an atmosphere of college-level seriousness and rigor is promoted. The institute's goal is to familiarize students with collegelevel teaching and promote a better understanding of the expectations in higher education while the college professors get to know their future students better.

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In conclusion, education is a two-way street between primary, secondary and higher level education, a continuum that requires K12 leaders at all levels to be open-minded, innovative in their teaching, and creative in their approach. Higher education leaders on the other hand need to make it a point to understand K-12 leaders, to exchange ideas, and to inspire them in order to best prepare students not only to succeed in higher education but to become productive and influential members of society. It is a two way commitment with both ends reaping the benefits from the seeds they plant. As travelers between the two worlds, K-12 and university education, we find it refreshing and inspiring to work with colleagues; leading educators on both ends of the spectrum who have the same goals; to teach , inspire and guide students to be the best that they can be. It is only natural then that we would want to see these two worlds unite in an effort to take education to another level. The bridging between the two worlds, we are convinced, will not only produce better learners but also better teachers. Dr. Stefanos Gialamas is the President of the American Community Schools of Athens and Peggy Pelonis is Director of Student Services.

References Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. Pelonis-Piniros, P. (200 1). Facing Change in the Journey of Life. Athens, Greece: Fyraki Publications.

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L EADERSHIP : I NSPIRED BY C IVIC R ESPONSIBILITY BY

D R . S T E FAN O S G I A L A MA S

AN D

E LL E N F RO U ST I S

T H E D E P AR T M E N T C H A IR , W I N TE R 2009

Education, creativity, and entrepreneurship are the necessary ingredients for a productive society by providing all citizens of the world with a better place to live. More than ever, department chairs are challenged to adopt and implement leadership qualities that are enhanced and enriched by a commitment to encourage and foster civic responsibility among students, faculty, and staff. Academic leaders must inspire their team members to adopt leadership as a partnership with bounded flexibility (Gialamas, 2005), in which the leader and leadership team establish a partnership based on accountability, authority, decision making, and civic responsibility. This flexibility allows the leader and team members to occasionally adjust the accountability level and spectrum of authority. The leader must embrace the "human factor" (Cherif, Gialamas, & OforiAmoah, 2000) and adopt it into the educational goals of the academic institution. In particular, chairs can promote social responsibility by modeling constructive social behavior with respect to diverse opinions and styles of life. Depending on the nature of the department, chairs can create a better rapport with the community. Increasing Social and Personal Responsibility Strong academic leadership often requires meeting challenges head on, including inspiring faculty to value the potential for promoting civic responsibility within the department. Educating students and faculty on the merits of integrating civic responsibility into the department culture may be necessary as time, energy, motivation, and cultural values may vary from place to place. There are other important factors to consider that may interfere with a successful program such as a weak infrastructure, financial constraints, local government, laws, and bureaucracy. Although these factors can be intimidating, the benefits far outweigh the obstacles and are well worth the effort to persist and overcome them. An educational philosophy that values civic responsibility can enrich teaching and learning by engaging students in creative projects that utilize their knowledge, skills, and abilities to address complex community issues. Learning through service helps students develop a higher level of self-esteem and efficacy while building integrity and ethos, teaching modesty and humility, nurturing empathy and acceptance for others, and fostering a deep sense of civic responsibility for the well-being of their community. Students, faculty, the academic institution, and the community benefit from the experience of creating valuable bonds with community members. By understanding the needs and resources of their community, active students are more likely to become active citizens. Students can develop socially, emotionally, ethically, and cognitively as a result of wellstructured service-learning programs (Eyler & Giles, 1999) and academic leadership that inspires civic responsibility in the school culture. On an academic level, participating in community service-learning projects can result in a higher level of motivation and collaboration among the department chair, faculty, students, and community members that can foster a more productive, caring, and motivating learning environment. On a community level, by engaging students and faculty as resources we enable them to shape the communities they serve. A well-rounded student with knowledge, skills, values,

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ethics, and an appreciation for civic responsibility is better prepared to adapt and contribute positively to an often erratically changing world. Integrating Civic Responsibility into a Personal Leadership Identity Transforming a department culture to value creativity in learning and problem solving with the ability to profoundly impact the local community begins with a department chair that radiates enthusiasm, ethos, empathy, and a commitment to civic responsibility. Embracing and adopting the following steps can ensure the success of two vital objectives: to establish an action plan that is precise, relevant, organized, measurable, and time limited, and to inspire students and faculty to endorse civic responsibility. 1. Identify the needs and resources of the local community. • • • •

Create lists of organizations that reflect civic responsibility in the community. Discuss with civic leaders the needs of the non-organized sector of the community. Collect information on available resources that may include local programs and businesses. Analyze available local, state, and government funding to determine whether your institution is qualified to receive funds.

2. Understand the needs and resources of the local community. • • • •

Get to know your community through your own perception; walk through the streets and talk to the people. Engage in dialogue with community leaders of civic organizations. Understand needs on an individual and community/societal level. Prepare a list of needs in the community.

3. Assess the significance of community needs. • • • • •

Understand how the community group functions. Assess the goals of the group or institution. Understand the implications if these needs are met on an individual, group, academic, or community level. Understand the implications if these needs are not met on an individual, group, academic, or community level. Prioritize the goals to address community needs.

4. Assess the strengths and limitations of the department. • • • •

Examine the strengths of the academic department and the institution. Identify available resources on human, financial, and technological levels. Examine the availability and feasibility of resources. Optimize the department's strengths and resources for desired outcomes.

5. Engage the department in community service projects. • Identify curriculum concepts or content that can be related to community needs. • Communicate these concepts to faculty and invite them to join the department's Civic Responsibility Think Tank (CRTK). • Develop shared goals with the CRTK. • Communicate these goals and ensure that they are measurable and attainable within a specific time frame. • Solicit input from all department faculty. • Explain the importance and relevance of these goals to the curriculum on an individual and department level. • Identify and establish an efficient, realistic, and effective way for faculty to contribute time and resources to the action plan.

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6. Build a dedicated implementation team. • • • • •

Build a team to focus on the initiative. Give everyone in the department the opportunity to join the team. Identify the values and skills of each team member. Assign specific duties. Provide incentives to every team member (released time, etc.).

7. • • • • • • •

Develop strategies and a plan. Align steps 1-6 with the mission and vision of the institution. Draft an action plan. Share the action plan with team members and consider their input. Readjust the plan to ensure that goals are feasible and attainable. Present the proposed action plan to constituents. Ask for feedback. Modify and refine the final action plan.

8. • • • • • • • •

Implement strategies. Planning is an evolutionary process. The plan must be clear, concise, focused, and attainable. The team must understand and embrace the plan. Provide all necessary resources needed to implement the plan (human, financial, technological, etc.). Begin implementation. Assess progress and adjust where necessary. Evaluate periodically to assess if goals/vision have been met. Evaluate the success of the implementation strategy.

9. Educate the community to establish and meet new goals. • After several goals have been accomplished, engage community leaders to identify new goals to enhance civic responsibility and continue the process. • Share with the community the goals that have been accomplished and point out the natural extension of other goals. • Convey the message that progress is a continual process that either leads to an extension of the previous goal or to entirely new goals. 10. Evaluate the outcome. • The secret of success is to continually assess and evaluate accomplishments. • Frequent assessment allows for reflection on the process and the outcome, helping to determine more efficient ways of accomplishing the desired goals. 11. Improve the outcome. • After the initial evaluation of the outcome, further adjust and/or modify the original goals. • Establish an improved set of goals within a specific time frame. Conclusion The strategies presented here can help chairs integrate civic responsibility into their departmental mission. Leadership that is inspired by civic responsibility can be instrumental in helping students feel connected to their community, care about their environment, and conscientiously strive to improve the quality of life around them. We cannot expect to see positive, long-lasting changes within any community unless we strengthen the leadership quality of our faculty and students so that they reflect values, initiative, and social and personal responsibility. Implementing a leadership philosophy and action plan to educate students, faculty, and staff about the value of civic responsibility does not need to be complex during the initial stages. Once the idea is activated, it has a domino effect:

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More and more people are inspired to collaborate with team members to initiate challenging and rewarding projects that not only benefit students but also create community partnerships as well. Dr. Stefanos Gialamas is the President of the American Community Schools of Athens in Athens, Greece, and Ellen Froustis is a high school counselor also at the American Community Schools of Athens. Email: gialamas@acs.gr, vriniotise@acs.gr.

References Cherif, A. H., Gialamas, S., & Ofori-Amoah, B. (2000). Can human factor concept be taught? A preliminary institutional survey and report. Journal of Human Factor Studies, 5(1 &2), 89-114. Eyler, J., & Giles, D. E., Jr. (1999). Where's the learning in service-learning? San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Gialamas, S. (2005, Summer). Academic leadership: A reflective practitioner's approach. Leadership: Journal for PostSecondary Leaders, 12(2), 26-32.

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L EARNING THROUGH SERVICE

STEFANOS GIALAMAS AND ELLEN FROUSTIS DISCUSS WAYS OF IMPLEMENTING A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMME

ECI S, A u t u m n - S p r i n g 2 009, pp. 3 2- 33.

New challenges have arisen for academic institutions due to demographic, social, economic, and cultural changes and the rapid advancement of technology which creates complex global issues. Academic institutions have the responsibility to engage students in civic service so that they become catalysts to social change when necessary, while preserving their ethics, principles and values as responsible members of society. When integrated across the curriculum, community service can become a tool for developing an appreciation for civic responsibility. In the form of service learning, it can also become a strategy for helping youth develop social and emotional competencies and other valuable life skills. Curriculum learning objectives When implementing a service learning programme, it is important to begin by identifying major academic learning objectives directly related to the institution's curriculum. Learning objectives must be PROMPT (precise, relevant, organized, measurable, and timely). Objectives must be introduced in the classroom, and then reiterated in the process of learning at the service site. For example, one can identify water pollution as a learning objective during a class discussion. While actually testing for water pollutants at the service site, it is import ant to re-examine the precise and relative objectives and make connections to the curriculum. It is important to identify and encourage students to reach the related learning objectives of each project, which can improve intellectual, collaborative, persuasive or research skills. Once the learning objectives are introduced, guiding students to the right questions will lead them to the best solutions. The guided inquiry method (Gialamas, Cherif Keller & Hansen, 2000) enables students to develop refined inquiry skills by encouraging them to integrate critical thinking and decision-making techniques that can lead to questions aimed at effective problem-solving. Addressing real community issues at the student level is at the heart of service learning. Involving students in the problem - solving and decision making process, at every stage of a project, is the key to a successful and meaningful service learning project. Since the model is based on multiple levels of collaborative effort and team accomplishments, learning outcomes must be defined both on an individual and team level. The most challenging part of the process is to establish measurable outcomes at both of these levels. Civic service objectives The civic service objectives of a project must be clearly defined and specific outcomes established. They should include a written guided reflection to help students develop an awareness of their strengths and limitation s and recognize opportunity for person al growth. If, for instance, the objective is to engage the community in recycling, one should see the objective as part of the broader issue of citizen respect and care for the community, in which recycling is one of the challenges. Academic institution ACS Athens has acknowledged service learning as one of the major commitments to their students. As the curriculum is prepared, service learning is included, not as an isolated act of community service, but as par t of the comprehensive approach to teaching and learning.

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Many books and articles have been published addressing the concept of leadership. We embrace, and promote the Morphosis Leadership (Gialamas & Pelonis, 2009), which is defined as the continuous act of influencing yourself and others to accomplish person al and professional goals in life, in line with the adopted principles and values. In addition, the leader develops a partnership with the team based on clearly-defined and distributed authority to every team member. The leader's behavior must be consistent, and focus on motivating all members of the institution to reach their maximum capability and instill in them the desire and determination to accomplish the institutional goals. The leader DREAMS (is Decisive, Resourceful, Energetic, Approachable, Mindful, and Self-Aware), and then ACTS (Assertively, Creatively, Timely, and Stimulating). The leader must unleash the talents of his/her team members by promoting the idea that they should strive for ownership of their actions and dreams that include love and respect for their environment and learning. The greater community Creating community partnerships is the link that makes experiential learning possible outside the classroom. The search for a community partner begins with an in-depth study of the needs and resources of the community and its challenges. Setting the ground-work includes informing the engaged community group about the concept of service learning, their responsibility in the partnership, and the importance of their commitment and readiness to see the project through. Service learning outcomes Service learning enhances content specific and related learning and, at the same time, helps students to develop a higher level of self-worth and confidence while building integrity and ethos. In addition, teaching and learning in the classroom, in connection to the real world, can help students to develop core social and emotional competencies including nurturing, empathy, and acceptance of others, while promoting intercultural sensitivity with a deep sense of civic responsibility for the well being of the community. Addressing complex community issues promotes learning through active participation that requires guided reflection, analysis and integration of the experience to acquire insight and understanding. It benefit s both the provider and the recipient and fosters social and personal responsibility. A project in action: a service learning programme for 9th Grade environmental science ACS Athens, the 3M Company, the municipality of Tyros (a small coastal village in the Peloponnese), and the local schools collaborated on an environmental project that focused on examining water pollutants and the effect on public health. 1: Identify learning objectives within the curriculum which can be accomplished. a) Analyse the effect of water pollutants on surrounding plant, animal life and ecosystems. b) Measure level s of nitrates, chromium, phosphates, turbidity, and ammonia. 2: Identify community needs, location, possible partners and local leaders. In the seaside village of Tyros, potential water pollutants may be affecting surrounding ecosystem s due to nearby fisheries. ACS Athens, the 3M Company, the Municipality of Tyros, and the local schools become partners. 3: Describe clearly the project, its learning objectives and outcomes. Content specific learning: how do pollutants infiltrate the water system and affect the ecosystem? Content related learning: what is the procedure for setting up a science lab, conducting an experiment using the scientific method and carrying out fieldwork? 4: Identify civic objectives and outcomes. Increase environmental awareness. Improve skills in public speaking, analyzing and interpreting data. 5: Create an action plan. Learn science concepts in class. Create objectives. Select required equipment. Visit the location before the event. ACS students teach the village students how to analyze water samples. Present findings to local community.

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End with beach cleanup and celebration. 6: Identify resources needed to implement the service learning project. Allocate funding to cove r cost of transporting students, supplies, equipment, testing kits, and other expenses. 7: Establish implementation teams with clear expectations for collaboration. ACS team: administrators, service learning coordinator, science teachers, students, 3M representatives. Community team: mayor, city council representatives, principal, teachers. 8: Reflection: measuring the academic success of the project. Students and teachers reflect on the academic success of the project. 9: Reflect on organizational success. Was the organization of the project successful? Were expectations from the community team met? 10: All celebrate success! Students from both schools presented their findings in a bilingual, Power Point presentation at a community assembly attended by the mayor and city council. Employees from 3M posted a road sign to remind visitors to keep the area clean. After a joint beach clean up all participants pledged to establish a community partnership to educate the public on preserving a clean environment. Establishing a school culture to value creativity in learning with the ability to impact profoundly on communities begins with a leader who radiates enthusiasm, ethos, empathy, a commitment to civic responsibility and who can motivate others. Schools are responsible for preparing tomorrow's citizens with the necessary knowledge, skills and understanding of the human conditions across communities, countries and continents. Service learning is the most enriching opportunity for students to take an active role, to share their good fortune and resources to improve the human condition for their fellow citizens. Dr. Stefanos Gialamas is the President of the American Community Schools of Athens. Ellen Froustis is a High School Counselor.

References Eyler, J. and Giles, D. Jr. (1999). Where is the Learning in Service Learning? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gialamas, Cherif, Keller & Hansen (2000): Using Guided Inquiry in Teaching Mathematics Concepts, The Illinois Mathematics Teacher Journal, Vol 5 1, No .1 Gialamas & Froustis (2009): Academic Leadership: Inspired by Civic Responsibility in The Department Chair. Vol. 19, No 3. Gialamas & Pelonis (2009): The Morphosis Leadership in The Academic Leadership On-Line Journal Vol. 7.

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M ORPHOSIS L EADERSHIP B EING VISIONARIES IN A CHANGING WORLD BY STEFANOS GIALAMAS, PEGGY PELONIS ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP ONLINE JOURNAL VOLUME 7 - ISSUE 2 M A Y 7, 2 00 9

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1. Introduction Living in a rapidly evolving society where change occurs continuously and on multiple levels, has created a need, more than ever before, for leadership that reflects this new reality. The changes in demographics, the forming of multicultural families, the diversity on an economic, educational, social and ethnic level, as well as the further rise of multinational corporations are all changes that are challenging traditional values and principles. Thus the quest for Authentic Leadership is rising, and it is an idea which implies that leadership is very personal. Why Authentic leadership? One might ask. Because, “there is evidence of the desire for authenticity all around us in popular culture” (Goffee & Jones, 2006, p.3). Current reality stresses and applauds the individual’s ability to be independent and able to fend for one self. The Technological Interactive society sees the emerging of young people who are native in the digital world, who experience the manifestation of their desires at the press of a button. Yet, the adults who raise them, educate them and hire them to work for them are immigrants in this world. Furthermore, this situation where the adults control the assets, opportunities and are the authority may be indeed paradoxical but it is nonetheless a reality. While teamwork and effective communication are vital in a living and working environment, oftentimes communication is void of feeling, facial expressions and body language, as virtual reality creates a behavior that is anything but authentic. The gap between being independent and being interdependent is growing and more people are becoming isolated as they turn to their ‘gadgets’ for support, company and satisfaction. In the midst of darkness, Diogenes, the ancient Greek philosopher, was often seen roaming the streets, holding a small lantern and searching. When passersby asked this seemingly senile old man what he searched for, his response was simply, “I am looking for human beings”. Therefore, leadership is about building community, about creating feelings of belonging, about sharing a vision, about taking risks, about changing. It is about all those things that bring human beings together and break through the barriers of fear and of undermining others to get ahead in the game. “Leadership is Personal…unless you know who you are, what you are prepared to do and why, then you can’t hope to achieve anything very grand’ (Kouzes & Posner, 2006). 2. The Morphosis Leadership It is perhaps an oxymoron to suggest that any authentic leadership can be taught and learned. And while thousands of books and hundreds of thousands of articles have been published analyzing the characteristics and philosophies of leadership and “how to” leaders, there are certainly some innate characteristics that must be examined before the art of leadership can be learned. Among these is the desire to consider the good of the whole as opposed to the narcissistic view of only personal and professional satisfaction. Thus, basic moral and ethical values provide a good foundation on which to build. As academic institutions are building tomorrow’s leaders, “academic leadership is necessary now more than ever before” (Gialamas, 2005, vol. 12.2). It is the authentic leader, the leader who is not afraid to accept the opinions of others, adopt ideas, communicate spontaneously, who does not hesitate to share personal failures as well as triumphs, the leader who dares to change, who leads institutions and its members into a desire to move away from the familiar to the unknown and teaches young people by example, to have a personal as well as a common vision. It is this leader who is “aware of and unfazed by the paradoxes of leadership” (Gialamas, 2005, vol. 12.2) as this leader is well aware that resistance is intrinsic to any kind of change, even change for the better (Pelonis, 2006). The current article purports to share a view of leadership from the practitioner’s point of view. Presented thus, is the concept of Morphosis Leadership, along with the Leadership Praxis. Morfosis was defined by ancient Greeks as the Holistic, Meaningful and Harmonious approach in Learning. 3. Fundamental Pillars of the Morphosis Leadership The Morfosis Leadership is defined by the following three components: a. Leadership

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Leadership is the continuous act of influencing yourself and others to accomplish personal and professional goals in life b. Know Thyself 1. Detect, and clarify your Personal Principles and Values. 2. Define clearly your Professional Goal(s) in life. 3. Recognize and internalize your Individual Goal(s) in life. c. Adhere to a Collective Leadership Partnership Approach 1. Develop a team by establishing a partnership relationship among the leader and the team members based on common Principles and Values, and similar personal and professional goals in life. 2. Establish a partnership relationship that defines well the distribution of authority and decision making among the leader and the members of the team not necessarily equally. 3. Define clearly the distribution including the type, magnitude and the areas of the decision authority that is given to the team members. 4. Support, promote and encourage team members to use their decision making authority. 5. Reflect periodically on the partnership and adjust, modify, upgrade and even remove authority of team members if it is appropriate. It is these components that guide the potential leader in identifying and clarifying his/her leadership philosophy that is personal yet has the innate ability to become interpersonal. The know thyself component of the Morposis leadership is comprised by three fundamental elements: (i). Personal Principles and Values (PPV) Personal Principles and Values must be defined and clarified before one can proceed toward adopting and developing a leadership philosophy. Personal principles and values assist one in looking in the mirror and defining who one is. It is the innate desire to explore ones’ core beliefs about oneself and about ones’ life. It is these beliefs that lead to the clarification of what contribution one is prepared to make in the world and to humanity. The leader must determine, identify, clarify and practice the principles and values adopted. These leadership defining principles and values lead one into a process of exploration, of change and reconstruction that a leader must be prepared to undergo before he/she requires others to do so. Thus, “It is not the position that makes the leader; it is the leader that makes the position” (Stanley Huffty in Maxwell, 1998). Leading with a purpose is essential, but “unless you are clear about your purpose and your values and are doing something you really care about, it is difficult to act as a leader” (Goffe & Jones, 2006). Thus, in the process of defining ones’ principles and values, these should reflect ones’ unique characteristics as well as ones’ strengths and weaknesses. The process of identifying ones’ fundamental principles and values is briefly illustrated in the following way: Potential leaders are asked to identify at least three events in their life that they consider very important. They are then guided to identify and record words describing and reflecting the situation. The goal of the exercise is to identify feelings evoked by the particular events and to align these feelings with the thoughts of becoming a leader in order to more precisely define the role in leadership one is willing and capable of assuming (Gialamas, 2007) - (see Appendix). Clarity therefore is fundamental in effective leadership. “People can only speak the truth when speaking in their own voice…. when (one is) not clear about personal values it’s hard to imagine how to stand up for ones’ beliefs” (Kouzes & Posner, 2006). Once the personal principles and values (PPV) are clearly identified, they must be communicated effectively to all constituencies and it is the PPV that will guide all actions. (ii) Leadership philosophy A thorough search of the literature will assist one in collecting ones’ thoughts about leadership and understanding what leading experts believe about the subject. The research is the culprit to incorporating pieces of popular theory with one’s personal beliefs. Ultimately the goal is to integrate adopted principles and values about leadership while considering personal strengths and weaknesses or preferences. In the process of sorting through what fits and discarding what is not aligned with personal preferences, one is able to arrive at a leadership philosophy that best represents the whole person as a leader. The specific leadership philosophy must reflect one’s principles and values, as well as one’s personal and professional goals. Stefanos Gialamas introduced the idea of leadership as a partnership with bounded flexibility (Gialamas 2003). In this particular approach the leader and the team members establish an authority, accountability and decision making partnership. Both parties agree on the principles and rules of the partnership. The flexibility allows both parties to occasionally adjust the level and depth of the partnership. The partnership must be well defined vertically and horizontally in the institution. To develop such leadership both partners must be open minded and creative. They must understand, accept and embrace the principles and values that the leader brings to the institution along with the leader’s vision for the institution. This partnership has multiple parameters. It requires a lot of energy, time, reflection and analysis by the leader and the team. The parameters also include but are not limited to the culture of the institution, the strengths and weaknesses of the team members, the

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institution’s leadership history as well as the local constraints or opportunities. The leader must remember at all times that every member of the institutional community is unique and has different dreams and aspirations. The leader must encourage and advocate disagreements in terms of differing points of view. More importantly however, a leader must advocate honest and true partnership and must demonstrate this advocacy through action. (iii) Individual Professional and Personal Life goals Oftentimes one is faced with the challenge of having either conflicting professional and personal life goals or these do not harmoniously complement one another. To avoid such conflict a leader must first reflect on his/her adopted leadership philosophy, accepted principles and values and clearly identify his/her professional life goals. This is also a way to clarify what impact the leader would like to make in the institution as well as the community that he/she serves. In addition however, a leader must independently identify his/her life goals. Once these are clearly defined, they must be carefully examined to determine if they are in conflict with one another or rather that they complement one another. If such a conflicting situation exists, one or both must be modified because it is essential that they coexist in order to acquire personal and professional harmony. One way to identify and define both goals is to ask oneself the question of how he/she would like to be remembered by family members, friends, colleagues and the community at large. As such, leadership is a personal Odyssey. It is on the road that lies the adventure, the learning the modifying. It is within the process that lays the ability to grow and accomplish the goals set. There is never really an end result. The journey is the most important ingredient in life rather than the destination. Ithaca is always a step away, as the authentic leader continuously evolves and as a result, influences those around him/her to evolve according to their own professional and personal life goals. In fact, as John Maxwell (2006) puts it, “leadership is about influence- nothing more nothing less” (p.17). Authentic Leadership is interrelated to the leader’s behavior, and actions which reflect of how he/she serves the Institution. A. Behavior and Actions It is human nature from some members of an institution to resist change as the forces of the status quo act like a magnet, pulling one in the direction of the past. The leader must be staying focused on his/her vision and goals by surrounding oneself with those who have adopted the vision of the institution are thus essential. “There is no point in being a leader if no-one is willing to follow” (Terner & Pew, 1978). Practically speaking, the leader must develop consistent behavior in accordance to their principles & values. Furthermore, this behavior must be continuously implemented in accordance to the mission of the institution and hand in hand with the leadership philosophy. It is important that a leader avoid extremes, thus one must balance analytical thinking and logic with feelings and compassion. The leader must lead the institution daily by accomplishing more than expected. A leader’s daily task is to continuously strive to improve every function of the institution by searching for new ways to do things and thus improving the quality. Quality is never obtained by accident and only when the pieces to the puzzle come together is one able to see the full picture in that particular area. Much like an orchestra coming together, at the hand of the conductor, to communicate an inspirational musical number that may otherwise sound like random noise or disconnected music, a leader puts the pieces of the puzzle together because he/she is able to see the full picture long before everyone else can. In fact, “a conductor is as good as his orchestra and the orchestra is as good as the conductor” according to Stefanos Gialamas. The objectives a leader has defined are largely accomplished primarily through others. Therefore a leader must have the ability to inspire, motivate, guide, direct and listen to members of the institution in order for others to truly understand, accept, internalize and implement the mission of the institution. B. Serving the Institution Serving the institution means understanding the existing culture of the institution, including any and all subcultures that may exist. Thus, by understanding the past, one is better prepared to influence or create change. It is however, very important that a leader does not get caught up in the culture of the past, for that has an intrinsic danger of repeating the mistakes of the past, trying to please the members of the institution, and paving the pathway to the future of the institution. Therefore, a leader must create vision for the institution that reflects a future reality. A reality that is in accordance with leading edge approaches to student learning and which is always in alignment with the leader’s principles & values as well as his/her leadership philosophy. There is no doubt that in the midst of such change, the earth shakes from its core and the immediate reaction of the institutions’ members is to resist change in an attempt to bring back a well known familiarity and one that everyone is comfortable with. (Pelonis, 2006) It is obvious then, that perhaps the toughest job a leader must undertake is to influence the members of the institution to come on board the “new ship”, to embrace the mission and vision of the institution in new ways and therefore, to embrace change. During times of change it is important to remember that an institution exists only to provide the best opportunity for student learning. That is, to promote, embrace, focus on, celebrate and maximize student learning. Moreover, professional development, curriculum and instruction, facilities, technology, services and operations have only one purpose, to improve student learning. Change in the institution means change in the external community as well. Students, teachers, administrators and parents who adopt the new philosophy begin to live it. They talk to others, make decisions according to their own

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principles and values that are constantly being modified in accordance with the institution’s philosophy and make choices that reflect what they are learning daily within the institution. There are always those who will continue to resist change and will be unable to stay on board the ship. But, this “natural selection” process will once again determine that institution’s new face. It is a cyclical process that is never ending. (Pelonis, 2002) A Leader DREAMS – ACTS – FINE TUNES Is Is Does Decisive Assertive Follows things closely Resourceful Courageous Inspires feelings of security Energetic Time efficient Neutralizes potential conflicts Approachable Stimulating Encourages initiatives Multitasked Self –aware Turns problems into solutions Utilizes manpower appropriately Negotiates best scenarios Enjoys the process Steps further back Leaders must choose their battles wisely. Equally as important, knows when to go to battle. Thus setting priorities is essential to effective leadership. Leaders push their organizations to move up, to leave the comfort zone, to take risks. While resistance is a normal part of change, too much resistance can hinder the growth of the institution, thus if one cannot facilitate change in all individuals within the organization then one must change the culture of the organization by finding, supporting and promoting people and projects that effectively demonstrate the “New Way” the “new culture”. Leaders are great performers and they effectively model the way to others. They are also great storytellers. A scintillating story makes abstract change real. People get excited about a compelling leadership story. However, it is a fact that leaders are either hated or loved but never ignored because they challenge the very core of the institution and thus they challenge the very core of each individual member. Those who rise to the occasion are inspired by their leader, those who deeply resist the change, are threatened by the new way of being. Nevertheless, leaders enjoy leading and taking the winning shot. They think big in order to stay one step ahead of the game. Leadership is a personal and authentic quality and leaders by no means remind others who is in control they motivate others to become leaders themselves. Finally, leaders take responsibility visibly for the decisions they make as well as for the outcomes of their decisions. This is true at any level, in any position and for every member of a leader’s team. The Institution The making of a great institution starts with an idea and the passion with which a leader approaches it! For, “all living systems begin small…The mighty sequoia tree begins in the humbles seed. It is no different in growing a new organizational culture” (Senge, 2007). If one is not passionate about an idea, he/she might as well abandon it. The idea then becomes the vision for the institution he/she leads. The idea is reinforced by giving it continuous attention; that is, by thinking about it, imagining what its manifestation would feel like and envisioning the final result. Thus, the idea becomes a dominant thought and eventually it crystallizes into a belief. Once, the leader believes within his/her very core in the idea, forces will come together to help it materialize. Doors will open, opportunities will arise and people will cooperate. The leader remains focused on the end result, the goal, and behaves daily in ways that ensure the materialization of the vision. Joy is an intricate part of the process, for the leader enjoys the journey every step of the way to accomplishing the goal. Furthermore, the leader is adept in engaging others to adopt his/her passion. Leaders promote the idea to their people in order to encourage them to “own” their place in relation to the vision. In other words, leaders help members become owners of the dream and of the outcomes. This then becomes a guiding force in helping others unleash their talents. It is thus important for leaders to trust and honor youth. They must also lead people to lead. If fact the best way to develop leaders is to let people lead and while the leader mentors, supports and guides them. Leaders do not tell others what to do. They help them make their own decisions. Consequently, leading is about making decisions and being responsible for ones’ decisions. A leader does not provide a mold of leadership when grooming others to become leaders, he/she inspires diversity in thinking, analyzing and acting. Hence leadership cannot help but be and adventure. The Vision Praxis Exciting-Unique-Clear • Clearly state the vision

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Communicate the vision to all constituencies Develop comprehensive plans to materialize the vision Identify and select the members of the leadership team Engage the leadership team in defining specific strategies including a time table to accomplish the vision Establish implementation teams and assign members of the Leadership team to lead components of the implementation Team Empower all members of the institution at the appropriate level to be active members in the implementation process

The leader must be vigilant and must continuously scan the environment as well as the institution constituents, in order to get a sense of, and decide which strategies are more effective in moving the organization towards the vision. Leadership credibility is earned by three things: making decisions, accomplishing goals based on the decisions made and getting results either small or large in behavior and in the daily relationship with members of the institution and the community. It is indeed important to remember, that the leader influences behavior at all times and by inspiring others to accept values, the adoption of which, many say, is impossible in today’s materialistic society, such as integrity, humility and honesty, could slowly contribute to making the world a better place to live. Inclusive in Leadership, are the continuous challenges that often seem to bring out negativity in each of the members. For example, it is desirable for leaders to be result-oriented but must also be thoughtful and reflective. They must be compassionate, sympathetic and kind but also demanding. “The Leadership Praxis” is summarized below: • Understand, Study and Respect the external environment and the institution • Develop a Vision for the institution in line with its mission • Establish a leadership team by utilizing existing human resources and if necessary recruiting new personnel • Communicate the vision to all constituencies and work with the leadership team to develop a comprehensive implementation plan • Establish implementation strategies and an implementation team • Continuously communicate the vision, plan and implementation strategies to all constituencies • Setup measurable goals and outcomes • Celebrate accomplishments and give credit generously to members of the institution • Regularly assess, reflect and modify the implementation plan • Evaluate the success of accomplishing the vision • Improve and modify vision Leaders must understand and internalize the magnitude of their influence in every situation and in relation to anyone they come in contact with either within the institution or within the community. Indeed, “A great leader has the ability to instill within his people confidence in themselves” (Maxwell, 1995, p.55). Yet, the leader must always be in the front line ready to assume every challenge and take any blow in order to protect the members of the institution. International education in particular is becoming experientially more complicated. Thus the leader must continuously consider the vision of the institution but more importantly the leader must behave according to the vision. To this end, 2, 500 years ago, Thucydides, the Greek Historian wrote: “The bravest are surely those who have the clearest vision of what is before them, glory and danger alike, and yet notwithstanding, go out to meet it.” In the end, perhaps leadership is nothing more than: Vision Integrity Kindness.

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Further Reading • Adair, John (2003), The Inspirational Leader. UK: Cogan Page Ltd. • Adair, John (2005), How to Grow Leaders, UK: Cogan Page Ltd. • Bick, Julie (1999), The Microsoft Edge: Insider Strategies for Building Success. New York: Pocket Books. • Boyer, Ernest L. (1990), Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. • Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., Ofari-Omoah, B. (2000), Can human factor be taught? The Journal of Human Factor Studies, 5 (1&2): 89-114. • Gialamas, Stefanos (2005), Leadership. Academic Leadership; A reflective Practitioner’s Approach. 12(2):26-32. • Gialamas, Stefanos (2001), New Academic Leaders Development Program (NALOP). Oakbrook, Illinois: DeVry University Publication. • Gialamas S., Cherif A., Hilentzaris S., (2003). Creating an environment for minimizing conflict between faculty and the department chairperson. The Department Chair, 13(3): 21-23. • Gialamas S., Cherif M.D. Demetriades E. and Hilentzaris S. (2003): Preparing new department chairpersons in the area of faculty leadership, Academic leadership, Vol 10.3, 27-31. • Goffee, Rob & Gareth Jones, (2006), Why Should Anyone Be Lead by You? What it takes to be an authentic leader. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • Johnson, Spencer (1998), Who Moved My Cheese? London, Vermilion. • Katzenback, John and Smith, Douglas (1993), The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the Higher-Performance Organization. Boston Harvard Business School Press, 1993. • Kouzes J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge (3rd edition) San Francisco: Wiley. • Learning D.R. (1998). Academic Leadership: A practical guide to chairing the department. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. • Lennick D., Kiel F. (2005) Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance & Leadership Success. Pearson Education Publishing, NJ • Lucas A.F. (2000) Leading academic change: Essential roles for department chairs. San Fransisco: Jossey Bass Publishers • Maxwell, John C. (1995), Developing The Leaders Around You: How to Help Others Reach Their Full Potential. Nashville, Tennessee. Thomas Nelson. • Maxwell, John C. (1991), The 21 irrefutable laws of leadership: Follow them and people will follow you. Nashville, Tennessee. Thomas Nelson. • Moore, R (1996). Traits of effective administrators. The American Biology Teacher, 57 (8): 502. • Noel, M.T. (1993), The Leadership Engine. Boston: Harper Business Publishing. • Parks, Sharon Daloz, (2005), Leadership can be Taught. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • Pelonis-Piniros, Peggy, (2006). Yparho-Allazo (Living-Changing). Athens, Greece. Isorropon publications. • Pelonis-Piniros, Peggy (2002). Facing Change in the Journey of Life, Athens, Greece, Fytraki publications. • Pelonis, Peggy (2002). Global Nomads, Third Culture Kids and International Schools: Assisting Children with Change in a Transitional World. Unpublished research, University of Bath, UK. • Robbins, Stephen P. (2002), The Truth About Managing People and nothing but the truth. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. • Salacuse J.W. (2006). Leading Leaders: How to manage Smart, Talented, Rich and Powerful People. Amacom NY. • Seagren, A.T., Creswell, J.W., & Wheeler, D.W. (1993). The department chair: New roles, responsibilities and challenges. Washington D.C, The George Washington University. • Senge, P. et al (1999) The dance of change, New York: Doubleday.

© Copyright 2009 by Academic Leadership

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P REPARING H IGH S CHOOL S TUDENTS FOR C OLLEGE L IFE A N EDUCATIONAL ANALYSIS OF A DIFFERENT KIND OF ‘M ORFOSIS ’ T HE ACS A THENS MODEL BY S TEF A N O S G I AL AM A S P H .D ., P R E S I D E N T , AC S A T H E N S PEGG Y PEL ON I S , D I R E C T O R O F S T U D E N T S E R V I C E S J OHN PA PA DA KI S, D I R E C T O R O F E N R O L L M E N T M A N A G E M E N T & C O M M U N I T Y A F F A I R S A T H E N S P L U S , J U N E 19 T H , 2009

Preparing students for college life and, more generally, for life beyond high school is a key challenge for many educators and secondary educational institutions. Above all, today more than ever, educators must prepare students for the unknown and the unpredictable: careers not yet known to us, opportunities that we cannot imagine, and a world so rapidly changing that we likely won’t be able to recognize it in 30 or 40 years. Some of the questions that then arise are: What and how shall we teach our students? What skills do we expect them to develop? And what type of processes shall we help them cultivate? At ACS Athens we believe that the answers derive from the teachings of the ancient Greeks and are contained in the concept of “Morfosis” – that is, education beyond the classroom that concerns the whole person and cultivates strengths while minimizing weaker areas. The Morfosis educational paradigm is sustainable when education is Holistic, Meaningful and Harmonious (HMH). Holistic, as defined above, suggests an emphasis on the whole person and an appreciation for the differences between individual students, Meaningful refers to the idea that the subject matter being taught must hold meaning for the individual in order for it to make sense and be applicable within their “world.” And Harmonious maintains that academics, athletics, activities and civic responsibility must be harmoniously balanced. Thus, sustainable HMH education must rely on specifically defined principles and values that enhance the concept of living a full life with ethos, as dictated by the ancient Greeks. In this sense, because it is all-encompassing, Morfosis is well-suited to lay the foundation for success in higher education and, more importantly, in life itself. As we are well aware, teaching and learning does not only take place in the classroom, but on the playground, during activities, in assemblies, during group projects and in both team and individual sports. The seeds planted during the early years produce fruits that will eventually blossom and continue to grow in higher education. In order to adopt and implement such an educational paradigm, academic institutions need leaders and faculty who embrace and apply the analogous philosophy. The atmosphere of the school must exude the philosophy itself, and an individual must be able to “pick up” the energy the moment they enter school grounds. Therefore, as we look at primary and secondary education, one of the most fundamental questions being asked is how many of the skills acquired during these years really are necessary and sufficient to ensure student success in college? What knowledge is transferable? Are students able to apply the knowledge in different situations and utilize it in order to make educated decisions or to provide solutions to challenges they face as they move from one culture to another? How well do we indeed understand student learning styles? And how difficult is it for colleges and universities to train their faculty and staff to provide bridging skills for young people during their time of transition? Indeed, for primary educators the challenge is not only to provide an exciting, relevant and meaningful curriculum to their students, but also to understand the secondary curriculum and to align all efforts in an appropriate direction. Likewise, secondary educators must understand primary curriculum and must agree about the type of skills that must be developed in primary school that will eventually translate to middle school and ensure the success of students at all levels.

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To the same end, secondary educators and administrators must not only focus on understanding the strengths and talents of their students so as to provide the best possible curriculum and learning opportunities, but they must also understand the environment of higher education. Their task is also to prepare students to succeed in their transition to College education and to endow them with strong tools which will not only give them a ticket to higher educational institutions, but will secure their success. Similarly, faculty and administrators of higher education institutions focus on analogous goals for their institutions, and rightly so. The bridging method proposed requires a reciprocal understanding of both worlds by both entities. Students are guided, at best, in high school, to do what is necessary to meet the required criteria of the desired higher educational institution. As the students gets closer to the last two years of their high school career, the focus seems to suddenly switch to achieving the necessary grades, test scores, oh and… yes… enough extracurricular activities to provide a great package for college acceptance. But it is clear that the most successful student entering college is the student that is happy with the institution, the location, and the subject they have chosen. What then ensures a happy student? It is making sure that there is a match made in heaven; a perfect fit. To achieve this goal three prerequisites are necessary: 1. To know the student academically, intellectually, emotionally, and ethically to the greatest extent possible. 2. To understand the student’s personal and professional goals in life, and 3. To know the higher educational institution. Knowing the student as a whole means collecting information and putting pieces of the puzzle together that will create a picture of who the student really is, what are the student’s strengths and weaknesses, what life experiences have influenced the student’s thinking, how does the student cope with challenging, unforeseen and even successful circumstances, what interests does the student have outside of academics, what values does the student uphold, what are the student’s limitations. This approach allows the development of a strong academic foundation, emotional stability and strategies to cope with internal and external pressure, together with a physical well being enhanced and enriched with strong principles and values. The educational experience, then, must be meaningful for each learner, according to each one’s strengths, talents and dreams... The learner should internalize that the knowledge, skills, principles and values obtained are the defining ingredients of his/her life trajectory; all integrate and define who the learner is and what signature he/she will leave in his/her life’s journey. While it is important to collect information via the websites, publications and alumni of a school, nothing can replace the personal understanding of the environment within the institution. This can only be achieved with a meaningful visit to the institution itself. No amount of information received will replace “the feel” one gets by being on the grounds of an institution, attending a class or two, talking with students and faculty, seeing the facilities and experiencing the reception that is extended. Education is not only a continuous act of acquiring skills, knowledge and problem solving abilities, but also a way of learning and making educated decisions in academic establishments and, most importantly, in life. In this journey, the transition from one environment to another must be smooth, as painless as possible and meaningful in a holistic way. As travelers between the two worlds, secondary and university education, we find it refreshing and inspiring to work with colleagues--leading educators at both ends of the spectrum that have the same goals-- to teach, inspire and guide students to be the best that they can be. It is only natural, then, that we would want to see these two worlds unite in an effort to take education to another level. The Holistic, Meaningful, and Harmonious connection between the two worlds, we are convinced, will not only produce better learners but better teachers as well. There is no better example of Morfosis in action and no better preparation for a world yet unknown... but just around the corner.

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Highlights Morfosis lays the foundation for success in higher education and, more importantly, for life itself because it is allencompassing.  Secondary educators and administrators must not only focus on understanding the strengths and talents of their students so as to provide the best possible curriculum and learning opportunities, but they must also understand the higher education environment.

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P REPARING H IGH S CHOOL S TUDENTS FOR C OLLEGE S UCCESS : A C OLLEGE AND H IGH S CHOOL L EADERSHIP C OLLABORATION

DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS PEGGY PELONIS AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS DAVID OVERYBE ABOUR CHERIF DEVRY UNIVERSITY

DAN L. KING MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

T he J o ur nal of H i g her E d uc a t io n M a na g e me nt AME RI C AN AS SO CI AT I O N O F UNI VE RSI T Y A D MI N I ST R AT O RS VO L U ME 2 4, N UM B ER 1 (200 9) Preparing high school students for a successful collegiate experience is a major challenge but one that presents opportunity for both sides—colleges and high schools. The leadership at both levels must be aware of and committed to fully addressing the challenges as well as being appreciative of the opportunities and their associated rewards. In order to enhance (if not insure) collegiate success, students must be guided through a long, oft times unpredictable, and individually challenging journey as they must prepare themselves not for one, but for at least four different post educational careers. This emerging awareness of the need to prepare for a multiple-career lifetime poses several fundamental questions that should now inform our educational planning and programming: What multi-career skills must high school and college graduates acquire, and how should high schools and colleges teach students to think critically and make decisions? What academic/intellectual skills are essential for high school and college studies and which processes should schools and colleges develop to help students successfully cope with future challenges? We believe that answers to these questions we can derived from the teaching and learning philosophical approach of the ancient Greeks defined as Morfosis. Gialamas & Pelonis (2009), define Morfosis as the confluence of sustainable, holistic, meaningful and harmonious educational strategies. The concept of holistic refers to the understanding and successful combination of academic, emotional, physical, intellectual and ethical components to ensure a healthy, balanced individual—an individual who can successfully cope with the changes involved when entering higher education as well as the changes that life brings. Meaningfulness is related to the degree of congruence of educational goals and outcomes with students’ dreams, strengths, talents, and desires. In addition, meaningfulness ensures congruence between one’s principles and values and one’s personal and professional life goals. Harmonious is the designation given to the notion of synchronism and agreement among the various and often competing dimensions of humanity. In other words emotions, intelligence and intellect must be harmonically integrated, with this integration being a critical characteristic of the leadership competencies of listening thinking, reflecting, and decision-making. As we look at secondary education, some of the most fundamental questions being asked include, how many and which of the skills acquired during those years really are necessary and sufficient to ensure student success in college pressuring a particular discipline? What content specific and general knowledge is transferable? Are students able to apply this knowledge in different situations, make educated decisions or providing solutions to specific problems? How

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well do we understand individual student learning styles and interest? And, how difficult is it for any college to train their faculty and staff to teach effectively especially during the freshman year in college? Secondary education teachers must not only understand the corresponding freshman collegiate curriculum, but they must thoughtfully and systematically determine what skills students must develop for application in college. Similarly, faculty and administrators of higher education institutions focus on analogous goals for their institutions, and rightly so. In particular, collegiate level leaders who are the content experts and leaders of curriculum and teaching and learning, must exhibit leadership and establish collaboration opportunities between and among college/university faculty, and secondary school teachers and administrators. It is beneficial for colleges and their academic departments in particular to have a holistically clear understanding of the characteristics of students they will be teaching; this facilitates the collegiate personnel’s ability to motivate students toward a quest for achieving maximum potential. This represents one of the most challenging issues in higher education freshman retention. Since it is well known that the freshman year is the most crucial and most important in college life, both secondary school and collegiate personnel must be proactive and not reactive. Thus, if we are committed to addressing the challenges of college success for incoming college freshmen we must build an educational bridge between the secondary school and collegiate experience. There is therefore a need to internalize, and adopt a philosophy which requires higher education faculty and department chairs to assume leadership to educate on one hand the secondary education teachers and administrators but also to do the same to themselves for providing to incoming high school students a meaningful transition to college learning. We cannot assume that students will automatically know how to apply the skills acquired in secondary education. Similarly, we cannot assume that the best of professors and teaching methods will ensure student success, without prior conversations and implementation of such teaching and learning approaches across the environments. Effective bridging method requires a reciprocal understanding of both worlds by both the higher education community and the secondary education community. Students are guided, at best, in high school, to do what is necessary to meet the required criteria of the desired higher educational institution, and—in the best circumstances—they are also provided with academic guidance that is appropriate to a specific discipline or area of studies. Our more than one century collective experience in higher education (undergraduate and graduate) leaves no doubt that the most successful college student is the one who is satisfied with and feels fulfilled by his/her area of studies, the institution, its mission, philosophy, culture as well as the location. Therefore, it is extremely important for students to understand the characteristics, norms, and expectations of the discipline they will study so that they can make an informed college selection by investigating and understanding the mission of the institution (e.g., focus on teaching, research, or both), its faculty strength, interests, size, approaches to teaching and learning, its students if it is the best choice for them. College leaders and faculty in collaboration with high school teachers and administrators are hereby called to develop content based transitional academic programs for 10th and 11th grade students. These programs can be designed to be taught by college professors, or by a team comprised of both collegiate and secondary school faculty. Such deliberately designed programs can lead to meaningful learning outcomes for, students, college professors and leaders, and high school faculty and leadership. This can be done in a variety of ways. In cities where universities are accessible to high schools, agreements and relationships could be established so that high school students could take college courses, or college professors could teach courses at high schools, or both institutions can engage in other joint programs. The goal for such relationships is to ensure continuation in the educational process and also to ensure that the student transfers the skills and knowledge obtained in high school environment to the higher education institution. In 2006, the American Community Schools of Athens (ACS Athens) created the Institute of Creative and Critical Thinking (ICCT); this institute provided students with a for better understanding the collegiate environment. The ICCT offers college level courses with the cooperation of colleges and their faculty, worldwide. In addition, the institute provides programs for students to visit higher education institutions, attend courses, engage in research projects with professors, and thus experience college life, at least one or two years before they graduate from high school. Therefore college it

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will not be a scary, difficult, complicated environment and they will not rely on movies, friends’ stories, or college brochures and advertisements to make their decision which college will prepare them better for a successful life. Colleges leaders are engaged to identify the best professors from their institutions to teach college level courses at the ACS Athens campus during a three week intensive period. Teaching methods are innovative, and an atmosphere of college level seriousness and rigor is promoted. To date, ICCT has offered college courses in mathematics, international relations, business, drama, and leadership for qualified 10th and 11th grade students. In the summer of 2009 the course Foundations of Leadership (a three weeklong course) was offered to 10th and 11th grade students in a unique delivery approach. A team of instructors, from ACS Athens and the University of Richmond taught the course. Students began the course at ACS Athens for one week, then continued at the University of Richmond, and ended in Washington, DC. Collaborations between college faculty and leaders, and high school counterparts resulted in a win-win situation with the students reaping the benefits and reinforcing previous skills and knowledge. This experience is expected to foster collegiate-level success by applying the concept of Morfosis. The successful application of this concept facilitates students’ ability to focus on learning, strengthen already acquired skills, and reflect on and develop/improve study techniques. Furthermore, students also have the opportunity to engage in a learning process with a college professor, and thus develop a positive image of college learning. In conclusion, education is a continuous act of not only acquiring skill, knowledge, and problem solving capability, but also is a way of learning and making educated decisions in academic establishments—a journey to be experienced. In this journey the transition from one environment to another must be smooth, as painless as possible and meaningful in a holistic way. As travelers between the two worlds, secondary and university education, we find it refreshing and inspiring to work with colleagues on both ends of the spectrum that have the same goals; to inspire students to be the best that they can be.

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References Adair, John (2003). The Inspirational Leader. UK: Cogan Page Ltd. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., & Ofari-Omoah, B. (2000). Can human factors be taught? The Journal of Human Factor Studies, 5(1&2): 89-114. Cherif, A., & Wideen, M. (1992). The problem of transition from high school to university science, B.C. Catalyst, 36(1): 1018 Gialamas, S., & Pelonis, P. (2009). Connecting with College Education. iS Journal, 11(2). Gialamas, S., & Pelonis, P. (2009). Morfosis leadership: Being visionaries in a changing world. Academic Leadership Online Journal, 7(2). Gialamas, S. (2005). Academic Leadership; A reflective Practitioner’s Approach. Leadership, 12(2): 26-32. Gialamas, S., & Hilentzaris, S. (2006). Leading by serving. AREA (March). Gialamas, S. (2008). Academic leadership reflecting the needs of 21st century. AREA (May). Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. & McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Learning D. R. (1998). Academic Leadership: A Practical Guide to Chairing the Department. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. Lennick D., Kiel F. (2005). Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance & Leadership Success. New Jersey: Pearson Education Publishing. Lucas A.F. (2000). Leading Academic Change: Essential Roles for Department Chairs. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers

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P REPARING S TUDENTS FOR THE C OLLEGE E XPERIENCE BY DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS, PEGGY PELONIS ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP, THE ONLINE JOURNAL V O L U M E 7 - I S S U E 2, M A Y 7, 200 9

Preparing students for College life and most importantly for life beyond high school is a key challenge for many educators and secondary education institutions. Above all, today more than ever, educators must prepare students for the unknown and the unpredictable; careers not yet known to us, opportunities that we cannot imagine, and for a world so different that we have no idea what it will look like in thirty or forty years. Hence some of the questions that arise are as follows: what shall we teach our students? What skills do we expect them to develop; and which processes shall we help them cultivate? We (Gialamas and Pelonis) believe that the answers deriving from the teachings of the ancient Greeks are encompassed in the concept of “Morfosis”. We purport that the Morfosis educational paradigm as previously defined (Pelonis & Gialamas 2009) is sustainable if it is Holistic, Meaningful and Harmonious (HMH) education. Sustainable HMH education must rely on specifically defined principles and values which enhance the concept of living a full life with ethos, as dictated by the ancient Greeks. In particular, Holistic means understanding and successfully combining academic, emotional, physical, intellectual and ethical components to ensure a healthy, balanced individual; an individual who can successfully cope with the changes involved when entering higher education as well as the changes that life brings. Meaningful is related to being in line with ones principles and values and with one’s personal and professional goals. Thus the educational experience must be meaningful for the learner. The learner should see it as part of his/her life and isolated form academic knowledge. In addition it must be meaningful in relation to his/her dreams, strengths, desires and talents. Discovering the feeling of being “in love with life and learning” gives life meaning and thus there is a personal interest in making “living” desirable. Harmonious is connected to the idea that all human dimensions must be in harmony. In other words emotions, intelligence and intellect must be harmonically integrated. Similar to an orchestra, working in harmony with the conductor is essential. The learner like the conductor helps all parts stay in harmony. He/she, in turn, is the analytical thinker, reflector, mentor, teacher and servant. In other words he/she is the decision maker. Morfosis is likely to lay the foundation for success in higher education and more importantly, for life itself because it is all encompassing. As we are well aware teaching and learning does not only take place in the classroom, but in the playground, during activities, in assemblies, during group projects and in both team and individual sports. The seeds planted during the early years produce fruits that will eventually blossom and continue to grow in higher education. To adopt, and implement such an educational paradigm academic institutions need leaders who embrace and apply the analogous leadership philosophy. The evolution of this philosophy came about from the Leadership as a Partnership with Agreeable Flexibility model, as defined by S. Gialamas and S. Hilentzaris (2006). Furthermore, defined within this model is the Personal Leadership Identity (PLI) (Gialamas, 2008) a factor necessary to accomplish the feat that will lead to future success for students. This model eventually led to the Morfosis Leadership paradigm as defined by S. Gialamas and P. Pelonis (2009). The Morfosis Leadership Paradigm is defined by the following three components: a. Leadership Leadership is the continuous act of influencing oneself and others to accomplish personal and professional goals in life b. Know Thyself 1. Identify, and clarify ones Principles and Values

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Define clearly ones professional goals in life Recognize and internalize ones personal goal in life

. c. Adhere to a Collective Leadership Partnership Approach 1. Develop a team by establishing a partnership relationship among the leader and the team members based on common Principles and Values, and similar personal and professional goals in life. 2. The partnership relationship establishes a well defined distribution of authority and decision making among the leader and the members of the team not necessarily equally. 3. The distribution is clearly defined including the type, magnitude and areas of the decision authority that is given to the team members. 4. The leader supports, promotes and encourages team members to use their decision making authority. 5. Periodically the leader and the team members reflect on the partnership and adjust, modify, upgrade and may even remove some or all of the authority of team members. As we look at primary and secondary education, one of the most fundamental questions being asked is how many of the skills acquired during those years really are necessary and sufficient to ensure student success in college? What knowledge is transferable? Are students able to apply the knowledge in different situations, utilize it in order to make educated decisions or to provide solutions to challenges they face as they move from one culture to another? How well do we indeed understand student learning styles? And how difficult is it for Colleges and Universities to train their faculty and staff to provide bridging skills for young people during their time of transition? Indeed for primary educators the challenge is not only to provide an exciting, relevant and meaningful curriculum to their students but they must also make all efforts to understand the secondary curriculum and to align all efforts. Likewise, secondary education teachers must understand primary curriculum and must agree as to the type of skills necessary to be developed in primary school that will eventually transfer to middle school and will ensure the success of students at all levels. To the same end secondary educators and administrators, must not only focus on understanding the strengths and talents of their students so as to provide the best possible curriculum and learning opportunities but they must also understand the higher education environment. Their task is also to prepare students to succeed in their transition to College education and endow them with strong tools which will not only give them a ticket to higher educational institutions, but will secure their success. Similarly, faculty and administrators of higher education institutions focus on analogous goals for their institutions, and rightly so. Thus, if we are committed to taking education to the next level, to uniting the best of both worlds, we must build a bridge between these worlds. We can only do so by learning from the past, observing the present and using this knowledge to prepare for the future. There is therefore a need to internalize, and adopt a philosophy which requires integrating acquired knowledge by the learner with his /her strengths, talents and a desire to live a meaningful life. We cannot assume that students will automatically know how to apply the skills acquired in elementary and secondary education during their higher education journey. Similarly, we cannot assume that the best of professors and teaching methods will ensure student success. The bridging method proposed requires a reciprocal understanding of both worlds by both entities. Students are guided, at best, in high school, to do what is necessary to meet the required criteria of the desired higher educational institution. As the students gets closer to the last two years of their high school career, the focus switches to achieving the necessary grades, test scores, oh and… yes… enough extracurricular activities to provide a great package for college acceptance. Our more than 50 years collective experience in higher education (undergraduate and graduate) leaves no doubt that the most successful student entering college is the student that is happy with the institution, the location, as well as the subject they have chosen. What then ensures a happy student? It is making sure that there is a match made in heaven; a perfect fit. This involves three prerequisites: 1) to know the student academically, intellectually, emotionally, and ethically, 2) To understand the student’s personal and professional goals in life, and 3) To know the higher education institution. Knowing the student as a whole means collecting information and putting pieces of the puzzle together that will create a picture of who the student really is, what are their strengths and weaknesses, what life experiences have influenced their thinking, how do they cope with challenging, unforeseen and even successful circumstances, what interests do they have outside of academics, what values do they uphold, what are their limitations (S. Gialamas and

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P.Pelonis 2009). This approach is what we have referred to previously as the “Holistic” approach; it secures the integration of developing a strong academic foundation, emotional stability and strategies to cope with internal and external pressure, together with a the physical well being of the individual enhanced and enriched with strong principles and values. An individual who will successfully cope with the changes involved when entering higher education as well as the changes that life brings. (Pelonis, 2002). Indeed the ancient Greek philosophers paved the way by embracing, promoting and studying at length the idea of educating the “whole” person; an idea encompassed in the words of Socrates “Know Thyself”. The current American educational system is based on a multidimensional and flexible, with certain boundaries, educational approach taking in consideration student diversity to ensure and capitalize on every student’s interests and abilities. To achieve the end result of understanding the student holistically, all entities of an academic institution must be active participants It means engaging teachers, receiving frequently feedback regarding academic development of their students, administrators regarding behavior, coaches regarding athletics, advisors regarding extra-curricular activities, counselors regarding coping abilities and possible adverse personal experiences, parents regarding family dynamics and expectations, peers regarding personality and students themselves regarding interests, future goals and life dreams. Meaningful is closely related with the principles and values each student consciously or unconsciously adopts, embraces, and guards. These are influenced by family, friends, culture, community, religious beliefs, and naturally the media and the entertainment industry. In particular, the easy access to technology, the media and the entertainment industries influence is very strong toward the youth as they form their identity and adopt their principles and values in this globalized society. Professional and Personal goals in life are often shaped by the glamorous images with which young people are bombarded constantly by the media and entertainment industry. Therefore it requires more effort and intensity from educators to provide a realistic picture of life and expose students to future opportunities which are in line with universal principles and values. (Saligman, 2007) The educational experience must be meaningful for each learner, according to ones strengths, talents and dreams... The learner should internalize that the knowledge, skills, principles and values obtained are the defining ingredients of his/her life trajectory; all integrate and define who the learner is and what signature he/she will leave in his/her life’s journey. Understanding how to combine the beauty of life, the desire to make a difference in one’s life and the lives of others as well as the love of continuous learning will establish the strong desire to “enjoy life” and will make “living enjoyable”. Harmonious necessitates that all dimensions must be coordinated and synchronized. Similar to a music piece which is the product of sounds from several instruments under the guidance of the composer, such is the leadership of the conductor. The composer is the designer of each student’s curriculum and the conductor is the collective effort of faculty, counselors, staff, and administrators. All members of the team work in harmony with one common goal; helping the student to achieve his/her dream... This also means that in addition to academics various aspects of the HMH become the focus at different times and for a specific purpose. There are times when it is necessary for academics to be the centre of attention while at other times it is athletics or other activities. Finally, education must be sustainable; therefore, it cannot only be based on acquiring skills and learning a trade but must be based on critical thinking, being creative and sharpening decision-making skills. Most importantly, all of the above must rely on ones defined principles and values in order to enhance the concept of living a full life and sustaining ethos, as defined by the ancient Greeks. ACS Athens adopts, endorses, embraces and promotes the Morfosis model of education for its students. It also demands that faculty, administration and staff be the example through their behavior and daily actions Students as early as freshman year are guided to begin thinking about creating an individual and well rounded portfolio which we call: Portfolio: All about Me (PAAM). The portfolio includes multidimensional data of student’s personality, character, and academic actions. The process of acquiring the information inspires the students to understand themselves better by seeing the “whole” picture of who they are. Thus, the learning process and the learner become one. Students are reflectors, creators, and decision makers. (Gialamas, S., Pelonis, P. 2009). During the development of the individual PAAM, the college advisor observes the process with which each student approaches the formation of the portfolio. Counselors continuously guide students to engage in phase of life reflections, that is, reflections of middle and primary school which include highlights of memories students have regarding these time periods and which have greatly contributed to who they are today. As students engage in this process of becoming while completing all components of

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the PAAM, counselors are able to better understand the personality of each student and in particular their strengths and weaker areas. Therefore the PAAM becomes the reflective tool of who the students are regarding academics, behavior, extra-curricular activities, personal interests and future goals. In this sense the process compliments the Morfosis philosophy by allowing the student to engage in a holistic, meaningful and harmonious representation of his/her personality. The second prerequisite in preparing students for college life encompasses an in depth understanding of the higher educational institutions to which the student is planning to apply. This means investing time and energy, not only to research colleges, understand programs and highlight admissions criteria, but it means getting to know the institution by getting to know its people. Thus, developing a truthful and meaningful relationship with its representatives is a vital step. Truthful relationships ensure that the information exchanged between higher education institutions, schools and students is accurate. Both constituents, the representative of the secondary school and the higher education institution, represent their consecutive schools accurately and honestly. While the college advisor, principal, administrator does not overestimate nor underestimate student strengths, abilities and needs, so too the university representative gives an accurate picture of the institution’s requirements, as well as the institutions ability to meet the needs of the particular students. (Gialamas, S. Pelonis, P. 2009). Therefore the focus is to find the best college for the students and for the college to identify a student who will succeed in their environment. We call this approach establishing Bilateral Institutional Credibility (BIC). One type of students in great need of such guidance when called to choose the best fit college is the international student. This student needs to feel comfortable, secure, and confident with the information provided as he/she prepares to immerse him/herself into an unfamiliar system, with unfamiliar faces and customs. Thus, information regarding such activities as orientation, care of students during holidays or even such issues as financial aid, which may seem like common sense to one familiar with such systems ensure the emotional well being of students and makes their life more predictable and manageable. --------------------------------------While it is important to collect information via the websites, publications and alumni, nothing can replace the personal understanding of the environment within the institution. This then, can only be achieved with a meaningful visit to the institution itself. No amount of information received will replace “the feel” one gets by being on the grounds, attending a class or two, talking with students and faculty, seeing the facilities and experiencing the approach with which they are received. But many international students do not have the ability to visit higher institutions and must then rely on their counselor to provide the most accurate picture possible. Then accurately matching the student with the institution becomes a science as well as an art; it is as much intuitive as it is calculating. Counselors or other members of the high school must visit and understand clearly the college they visit including its mission, educational philosophy, services, and environment and most important the human factor that ultimately makes the difference. Upon their return to their institutions they must reflect on the information they have acquired, and most importantly their holistic experience and take time to reflect on the students so as to further revise and improve the process of achieving the right match and ensuring student success. The last piece to the puzzle involves the establishment of a transitional tool between the high school and college experience. There are a variety of ways to do this. In cities at which universities are accessible to high school student’s agreements and relationships could be established so that high school student could take college courses, or college professors could teach courses at high schools, or both institutions can engage in other joint programs. The goal for such relationships is to ensure continuation in the educational process and also ensures that the student transfers the skills and knowledge obtained in the K-12 environment to the higher education institution. One such tool is the Institute of Creative and Critical Thinking (ICCT) which it was formed in 2006 at ACS Athens. The ICCT provides to its students the forum through which a holistic preparation for college life takes place. The Institute not only offers college level courses with the collaboration of colleges and universities worldwide, but also provides programs for students to visit higher education institutions, engage in research projects with college professors, and experience joint teaching between high school faculty and college professors thus students have the opportunity to taste college life. During the process of establishing relationships with higher educational institutions, the secondary school administrators have the opportunity to identify and selectively choose institutions according to size, location and focus (Business, Art, or Liberal Art schools) depending on student interest trends. Faculty from these higher education institutions are invited to teach college level courses on the high school campus during a two-three week intensive period. No grades are assigned

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to students and thus teaching methods are flexible, as long as an atmosphere of college level seriousness and rigor is promoted. The institute’s goal is to familiarize students with college level teaching, while the college professors get to know their potential clients better. The courses taught either by university professors or by qualified high school faculty or jointly, provide students with a better understanding of the expectations in higher education. Students become familiar with the academic rigor, the thinking process, the intellectual level, and the form of communication between professors with students. All of these take place in a non threatening atmosphere, allowing students to make mistakes and learn from the experience. This then minimizes, and often annihilates the fear of failure. Students are free to explore and enhance learning styles while building confidence. International students in particular are able to take initiatives and experience firsthand what they have only seen in the movies. Since grades are not an issue, students have no need to be competitive and to strive to achieve external requirements for success. The professor, on the other hand, has an opportunity to get to know the high school student as a learner. By observing and reflecting on the learning, they are better able to understand how to work with young people. They can see firsthand the youngsters’ reactions, fears, anxieties and goals. As they are not constrained by grades nor bound by exams, the real focus is on understanding the learner. Teaching then is not a generic method mainly derived at by the professor’s style and personality alone, rather it reflects an understanding of the students and of the group dynamics. Teaching from different angles allows room for experimentation which may result in implementing some of the new strategies tried, back to the higher educational institution. Building this institutional connection is a win-win situation for both the secondary school as well as the higher education institution. Most importantly, students reap the benefits and solidify the skills and knowledge obtained thus far, in order to ensure success, by moving into higher level education with more confidence in their abilities, and less fear of the unknown. They are able to focus on their internal, personal process of learning, strengthening the already acquired skills of their secondary education, while reflecting upon and revising their approach to learning. Furthermore, students also bridge the gap between themselves and the professor. They are able to engage in the learning easier, while approaching their instructor without hesitation for clarification and guidance. In conclusion, education is a continuous act of not only acquiring skill, knowledge, solving problems, but also a way of learning and making educated decisions in academic establishments but most important in life. In this journey the transition from one environment to another must be smooth, as painless as possible and meaningful in a holistic way. Therefore for the benefit of both type of institutions, secondary and higher, we must establish, avenues and tools for helping our students to transition. Creating a continuum that will smooth transitions between levels is vitally important if we are to ensure better success and well being of the student. Continuum requires that secondary education leaders at all levels are open-minded, innovative in their teaching, creative in their approach and seek continuous and open communication with colleagues in higher education. Higher education leaders on the other hand, make it a point to understand secondary education leaders. They become available to exchange ideas, and to inspire them in order to best prepare students not only to succeed in higher education but to become productive and influential members of society. It is indeed a two way commitment with both ends reaping the benefits from the seeds they plant. As travelers between the two worlds, secondary and university education, we find it refreshing and inspiring to work with colleagues; leading educators on both ends of the spectrum that have the same goals; to teach, inspire and guide students to be the best that they can be. It is only natural then that we would want to see these two worlds unite in an effort to take education to another level. The Holistic, Meaningful, and Harmonious connection between the two worlds, we are convinced, will not only produce better learners but better teachers as well. There is no better example than of Morfosis in action.

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Further Reading • Adair, John (2003), the Inspirational Leader. UK: Cogan Page Ltd. • Boyer, Ernest L. (1990), Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. • Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., Ofari-Omoah, B. (2000), Can human factor be taught? The Journal of Human Factor Studies, 5 (1&2): 89-114. • Ennis-Roughton, M. (2001). Is moving around the planet a habit hard to break? Woman abroad. 3, 10-11. • Gialamas, Stefanos, Peggy Pelonis (2009) Connecting with College Education, iS Journal, Volume 11 issue 2 • Gialamas, Stefanos (2005), Leadership. Academic Leadership; A reflective Practitioner’s Approach. 12(2):26-32. • Gialamas, Stefanos, Sofia Hilentzaris (2006), Area. Leading by Serving March 2006. • Gialamas, Stefanos (2008), Area. Academic Leadership Reflecting the Needs of 21st century. May 2008 • Gialamas, S., Pelonis, P.(2009), Academic Leadership The Online Journal, Volume 7, Issue 2 . • Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • Hayden, M. & Thompson, J. (1995). International Schools and International Education: A Relationship Reviewed. Oxford Review of Education. 21(3), 327-345. • Johnson, Spencer (1998), Who Moved My Cheese? London, Vermilion. • Katzenback, John and Smith, Douglas (1993), The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the Higher-Performance Organization. Boston Harvard Business School Press, 1993. • Kouzes J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge (3rd edition), San Francisco: Wiley. • Langford, M. (1997). “internationally mobile pupils in transition: the role of the international school’, MA dissertation, University of Bath (As stated in chapter 3 of “international Education: Principles and Practice’, edited by Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson. • Learning D.R. (1998). Academic Leadership: A practical guide to chairing the department. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. • Leggate, P.M.C. & Thompson, J. (1997). The Management of Development Planning in International Schools. International Journal of Educational Management. • Lennick D., Kiel F. (2005) Moral Intelligence: Enhancing Business Performance & Leadership Success. Pearson Education Publishing, NJ • Lucas A.F. (2000) Leading academic change: Essential roles for department chairs. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers • Maxwell, John C. (1995), Developing The Leaders Around You: How to Help Others Reach Their Full Potential. Nashville, Tennessee. Thomas Nelson. • Moore, R (1996). Traits of effective administrators. The American Biology Teacher, 57 (8): 502 • Noel, M.T. (1993), The Leadership Engine. Boston: Harper Business Publishing. • Parks, Sharon Daloz, (2005), Leadership can be Taught. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. • Pelonis-Piniros, P., (2006). Yparho-Allazo (Living-Changing). Athens, Greece. Isorropon publications. • Pelonis-Piniros, P. (2002). Facing Change in the Journey of Life. Athens, Greece, Fytraki publications. • Pelonis, P. (2002). Global Nomads, Third Culture Kids and International Schools: Assisting Children with Change in a Transitional World. (unpublished research) University of Bath, UK. • Popkin, M. (1990). Active Parenting of Teens. Georgia: Active Parenting. • Robbins, Stephen P. (2002), The Truth About Managing People and nothing but the truth. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. • Salacuse J.W. (2006). Leading Leaders: How to manage Smart, Talented, Rich and Powerful People. Amacom NY • Saligman, Martin (2007) Universal Principles and Values. Power Point Presentation. Website © 2007 by Values In Action Institute • Satir, V., & Baldwin, M. (1983). Satir: Step by Step. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books. • Satir, V., & Bitter, J.R. (2000). The Therapist and Family Therapy: Satir’s Human Validation Process Model. In A.M. Horne (Ed), Family Counseling and Therapy (3rd ed.) (pp. 62-101). Itasca, IL:F.E. Peacock. • Seagren, A.T., Creswell, J.W., & Wheeler, D.W. (1993). The department chair: New roles, responsibilities and challenges. Washington D.C, The George Washington University. • Senge, P. et al (1999) The dance of change, New York: Doubleday • Terner, J., & Pew, W.L. (1978). The Courage to be Imperfect: the Life and work of Rudolf Driekurs. New York: Hawthorn Books. • Waterson, M. & Hayden, M. (1999). International Education and its’ Contributions to the Development of Student Attitudes. International School Journal, 8(2), 17-27.

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A CADEMIC L EADERSHIP ON F ACULTY P ERFORMANCE BY DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS

ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP, THE ONLINE JOURNAL AP RI L 22, 200 8 VOLUME 6 ISSUE 1 Introduction: One of the challenges academic leaders encounter is conducting on time a comprehensive faculty performance evaluation. There are two fundamental rudiments for addressing this challenge (1) having a PROMPT (precise relevant organized, measurable, pragmatic, within time lines) yearly faculty accountability planning and (2) preparing in advance for the impending deadline by having faculty submit end of year performance self evaluations . Constraints on time, lack of proper prioritization, and leader’s lack of comfort with confrontation or feedback can also contribute to the end of the year rush to complete the “paperwork” of an appraisal without the proper focus, effort and time needed to complete a true appraisal of a faculty member’s performance. The challenge might also exacerbated for academic leaders who are seeking solid and sound arguments to justify requests for budget increases, especially if the requested increase is for payments to support activities in the areas of personal and professional growth and development of the faculty. After all, educational leaders are expected to and should be judged on their ability to maximize organizational performance, mission effectiveness and most of all student performance, stratification, retention, and career opportunities. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive approach for a yearly faculty performance evaluation report which includes the following components: (1) establishing a Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Plan (FPEP); (2) conducting a mid-year faculty self progress report; (3) creating a mid-year faculty progress evaluation report; (4) making a mid-year adjustment of the performance evaluation plan; (5) creating an end of the year faculty self-evaluation report; (6) conducting an end of the year faculty performance evaluation report. In addition, we will share strategies that faculty could adopt in helping them to focus on accomplishing their goals and to prepare an effective performance evaluation report. Furthermore, we will share strategies that department chairs could adopt to guide faculty to more successfully accomplish their goals and in preparing their performance evaluation report. In adopting such approaches, the department chair will benefit by better understanding the strength and limitations of the department resources. Furthermore, he or she will be able to understand faculty needs and strengths and thus better involve faculty in accomplishment of the mission and the goals of the department. Defining the Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report The yearly faculty performance evaluation report is not an activity report. An activity report is task driven and summarizes work completed. A yearly faculty performance evaluation report focuses upon results, achievements and the impact of the faculty member’s work upon their colleagues, and the institution, as well as on the profession and or the academic discipline of a given faculty. It is this type of report that will provide the opportunities for faculty, the academic leader, and the institution to develop a shared vision and mission. It will also better support excellence in student performance, satisfaction, retention, as well as to maximize the institutional performance and effectiveness. Conceptual Framework for Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation: A comprehensive approach for a yearly faculty performance evaluation includes the following components: 1. A Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement (FPEA): 2. Midyear faculty self progress report.

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3. Midyear faculty progress evaluation report: 4. Midyear adjustment of the performance evaluation agreement. 5. Midyear departmental faculty progress report. 6. End of the year faculty self-evaluation report. 7. End of the year faculty performance evaluation report. 8. End of year departmental faculty performance evaluation report. In order for academic leaders to effectively implement these proposed conceptual frameworks and strategies, they must exhibit faculty leadership. We define faculty leadership defined as “the continuous act of leading faculty in accomplishing the mission of the institution, and in achieving their own professional growth and development” (Gialamas 2001). Fundamental elements required to successfully adopt and implement faculty leadership include having the department chair: A. B. C. D. E.

Believe in and practice the principle of leadership as partnership. Have a strong desire to serve and provide faculty with high quality opportunities for professional growth and development and in having their own very thought out personal dreams (Moore, 1996, Blanchard 1999). Believe in and practice that real communication is a product of trust; thus, he/she works hard to make faculty feel safe in the work environment by adopting performance review and evaluation systems that bring the best performances out of the faculty (Blanchard 1999) and result in high quality of faculty satisfaction. A person who is able and willing to create a climate of trust in the workplace, a structure in which everyone is important and all ideas count, and an atmosphere in which kindness, generosity, hard work, honesty and integrity are the norm in dealing with people. (Casey 1997). Convey to the faculty that he/she sees them as “either winners (meaning you already know are good performers) or potential winners (meaning you strongly think can become good performers), and you mean them no harm.” (Blanchard 1999, p. 69).

I - Establishing a Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement (FPEA) The goal of the yearly faculty performance evaluation Agreement (FPEA) is for the faculty and the academic leader to jointly: (a) Identify all faculty performance accountabilities and targeted goals for a given academic year and (b) Design an action plan for accomplishing the yearly faculty performance goals. The conceptual framework for the yearly faculty performance Evaluation Agreement (FPEA) consists of; 1. 2. 3. 4.

Accountabilities and Tasks, which include in most institutions, teaching, professional development, and services to the institution and the community. Time for completing the accountabilities and tasks. Weight of each component of the accountabilities and tasks, which depends on the mission and the goals of the institution. Measurement, which includes the tools needed to measure the performance.

In order to develop this plan, the institution must first have instituted a yearly faculty accountability and performance evaluation, including the criteria for measuring success in the areas of teaching, services, professional activities, and personal and professional growth.. With this in mind, we propose that prior to the beginning of the academic year, and based on the instituted accountabilities and criteria, the academic leader and each individual faculty must meet and jointly set clear goals based upon the needs of the institution and the role of the faculty within the institution. Next, with the faculty member’s agreement and collaboration, and within the scope of the institution instituted accountabilities and criteria, the academic leader and the faculty member decide on the specific accountabilities and plan for personal and professional growth and development for the following academic year. These accountabilities not only should be clearly stated but also should have identified tools through which they can be measured. The academic leader, however, must make sure that: · The goals are achievable with respect to the available resources provided to the faculty as well as faculty’s academic specialties and abilities.

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· The necessary support to accomplish the faculty performance goals can be provided. · Sufficient and consistent constructive feedback to each faculty member regarding progress in the accomplishment of the stated goals will be provided. · The identified performance goals are flexible for adjustment based on the progress in the accomplishment of the goals. In summary, establishing “A Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement (FPEA)” is one of the cornerstones for a successful outcome of faculty performance evaluation and in turn of achieving a high quality faculty performance, personal satisfaction, and career retention. II - Mid Year Faculty Self Progress Report Rather than to wait for the end of the academic year, academic leaders should ask every faculty member in his or her area to prepare and submit a mid-year self progress report. This report should reflect the progress of accomplishing the goals stated in the “Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement” (FPEA). The purpose of Mid-year Faculty Progress Report is: 1. To identify the progress in accomplishing the goals in timely fashion. 2. Realistic adjustment of the goals, tasks and or time needed to accomplish them. 3. Identifying whether or not additional resources and or skills are needed to accomplish the established goals and tasks. 4. Opportunities to see whether or not additional tasks should be added to a given faculty member. Strategies For Preparing an Effective Mid-year Faculty Progress Report 1. Report the progress on the accountabilities and tasks stated in the Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement (FPEA), including the impact of those accountabilities and tasks on the faculty, and the institution as well as the profession and the areas of academic discipline. 2. Report on any new accountabilities and or tasks that the faculty is assigned to do or not to do after the FPEA has already been established and agreed upon by both the faculty and the academic leader. 3. Reflect on the accountabilities and the tasks that were not accomplished at the mid-point of the year. 4. Propose a justifiable modification, elimination, and or addition to the existing accountabilities and or tasks. Each faculty member should prepare his or her mid-year self-progress report, using the stated criteria and should include all the activities he or she did throughout the academic session. Additional categories can be added to report on activities that might not fit nicely under the stated criteria. When the mid-year self progress report is ready, the faculty submits to the academic leader for evaluation. III – Mid-year Faculty Progress Evaluation Report: Upon receiving the mid-year faculty self progress report, the academic leader reads, analyzes and internalizes the report. If he/she has questions or concerns, these are addressed with the faculty member before the leader writes his/her reflective report. The academic leader writes his /her report and sends it to the faculty member. If the faculty member has no concern, he/she signs and returns the report. If a given faculty member has a concern, then he/she requests a meeting with the academic leader to discuss the matter. The academic leader and the faculty member meet and discuss the concerns in a climate of trust and good intention from both parties of the meeting. The outcomes of the meeting must be agreed upon by both parties. IV - Mid Yearly Adjustment of Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement (FPEA): Based on the academic leader’s reflection on the mid-year faculty self-progress report, the leader and the faculty member consider whether or not an adjustment should be made in the yearly faculty performance Agreement. V – Mid-year Faculty Progress Evaluation Report: The academic leader also needs to prepare a mid-year faculty progress report. However, with the proposed strategy, the leader’s job has been made easier because most of the materials and information that is needed for a report such as this are provided by the faculty members in their mid-year faculty self progress report. In preparing the mid-year faculty progress report, the academic leader collects all the faculty mid-year self progress reports, reads, internalizes and organizes them in one written draft report that could follow the same criteria as the

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faculty did. At the same time, he/she needs to provide each faculty with written comments and suggestions on his or her mid-year self-progress report. With faculty comments and suggestions in mind, the leader should revisit his or her midyear faculty progress report, make the necessary changes and modifications, and then prepare a summary progress report. The academic leader’s report must be: 1. Written in a polite, concise and clear format so it is easy to read and to understand. 2. At the end of each section of the report, the leader must give credit to those who helped, collaborated with, and or made a given accomplishment or impact possible within and outside of the institution. VI - End of Academic Year Faculty Self Evaluation Report: In almost all institutions, faculty members are required to write and submit an end of academic year faculty selfevaluation performance report. The goal of this report is to help the academic leader make decisions regarding faculty accountability and to justify faculty performance and promotions. Therefore, faculty is expected to report on what they accomplished, and contributed in the areas specified in the Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Agreement, as well as in the faculty policy handbook of their institutions. They are also expected to report on other activities and experiences that were outside the stated categories, but were important in their performance evaluation and promotion. They should also include in their reports any newly acquired skills and experiences that might be valuable to the institution. Each faculty member needs to prepare and submit an end of the academic year faculty self evaluation performance report using the same procedures and strategies applied in the mid-year self-progress report. This simple strategy, which helps to save time and energy, is an effective way to organize information, and is also an efficient “memory saving device”; something that many faculty members are in need of toward the end of each academic school year. This strategy also provides the opportunity for each faculty to compare his/her performance and activities on academic semester and/or quarter bases. This kind of comparative analysis allows the faculty to make a conscious decision whether or not to change how he/she has been doing professionally and to re-establish priorities. Part of the mid-year faculty self-progress report can also be used as an; 1. Inventory of activities that faculty performed during the academic session. 2. Avenue for sharing information with department chair and upper administration, as well as colleagues. 3. Method of record keeping for future use. VII - The End of Academic Year Performance Evaluation Report There are certain obstacles and pitfalls to be avoided in performance evaluations. 1. 2.

One is to avoid and/or minimize the “central clumping” error that often occurs. Central clumping occurs when managers group their employees into a middle clump of performance, usually because of a lack of confidence in outlying results. A second issue to avoid is the “recency effect”. This is when the evaluator focuses too heavily on recent performance instead of providing a balanced review of the entire performance period.

To address the above concerns is to provide mechanisms for appraisal of the faculty member on a continual basis throughout the year. If the academic leader uses the tools and strategies set forth above, when he/she prepares the end of the year performance report, the leader will have the following useful reports available for him or her to rely on: 1. Mid-year faculty progress evaluation reports. 2. Mid-year summary of faculty progress report. 3. End of year faculty performance evaluation reports. 4. End of academic year summary of faculty performance report.

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The academic leader needs to combine the reports together to prepare the end of the academic year performance report. This way the leader doesn’t find himself under pressure to prepare the report, chasing the faculty to submit their self evaluation reports, and/ or finding what to include and what not to include in this report. In addition, because of this strategy, time and energy are saved and the chair has enough time to distribute his or her report to the faculty and ask for input and reflection. This process helps produce high quality end of academic year faculty performance reports. IV - Benefits of Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report: A. Faculty Benefits: This process will provide the opportunity for faculty to: 1. Be evaluated based on specific and pre-determine plan which can be modified according to the pre set priorities, resources, and faculty progress. 2. Be able to determine halfway whether or not she/he is accomplishing the stated goals. 3. Provide time to reflect and readjust priorities. 4. Minimize surprises on the final performance evaluation report. 5. Minimize conflicts with the academic leader. 6. Keep the faculty focus on the goals and objectives. 7. Eliminate the problem of the chair assigning more tasks beyond the pre-planned accountabilities. 8. Additional tasks could be assigned more effectively when leaders are aware of the faculty progress, and the impact of this progress on other faculty, and the institution. 9. Help build confidence and self-steam within the faculty, characteristics that are needed when faculty members voluntaries and or asked to work on all college-wide committees. 10. In order for faculty to demonstrate the impact of their accountabilities and task performance upon colleagues, institution, profession, and or the areas of academic disciplines, they need to become better communicators, critical thinkers, become creative and seeking collaboration with others, etc. This strategy provides the opportunities to experience and exercise these characteristics and attributes. 11. Provide the opportunity for the faculty to focus and distinguish in their yearly faculty performance report between content (facts), feelings (emotions), and meaning (significances). 12. Provide opportunity to learn and apply management and leadership principles in the accomplishment of their accountabilities and tasks. 13. Help faculty to and chair to form and have shared vision, mission, and excellence in the workplace. B. Academic Leaders Benefits: This process will provide the opportunity for academic leaders to: 1. Identify the strengths and the limitations of their faculty, 2. Identify disproportional distribution of resources, professional, and personal projects. Thus distribute the resources within the time frame of the year and for appropriate projects. 3. Provide time to react on negative attitudes, unexpected events, and unfinished duties. 4. Adapt a better plan for budget next year. 5. Effectively use human resources. 6. Be able to adjust the instructors’ priorities based on the progress report. 7. Identify which faculty can be relied upon to carry administrative duties when needed. 8. Provide opportunities to reflect on new priorities and initiatives. 9. Prepare more effective departmental one year, five years and ten years goals and action plans. C. Institutional Benefits: The Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report as described in this article has the potential not only to help faculty’s abilities to maximize students performance and satisfaction, but also to maximize organizational performance and mission effectiveness. Striving to achieve quality and excellence education is a characteristic of a successful educational institution. Institutions that fail to demonstrate both high performance and superior achievement in organizational performance and mission will never be able to provide excellence in education. They can never achieve high levels of quality student performance, stratification, retention, and career opportunities. Educational research has shown over and over again that above

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average performance and effectiveness are usually easier to achieve during periods of sustained growth. The real test of leaders and organization typically comes when growth begins to give way to stability or decline. At this point, institutional success will correlate more closely to institutional ability than any other factors. Praxis Matrix for the Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report The following specific action steps are strongly recommended in yearly faculty performance evaluation report: 1. Individual faculty writes his/her self-progress report and submits to the corresponding academic leader. 2. The academic leader reads, analyzes and internalizes the report. If he/she has questions or concerns, sets with the faculty before writing his/her reflective report. 3. The leader writes his /her report and send to the perspective faculty. 4. If the faculty has no concern, he/she signs and returns the report. If he/she has concern, then the faculty requites a meeting with the leader. 5. The leader and the perspective faculty meet and discuss the concerns in a climate of trust and good intention from both parties of the meeting. Conclusion: One of the most frequent sources of conflict between the department chair and a faculty member is the lack of clear communication to the faculty regarding faculty accountability and the criteria for performance evaluation (Gialamas, Cherif, and Hilentzaris 2003). Transparency, honesty and openness are essential elements in a faculty performance evaluation. Faculty self evaluation and leader’s reports as described in this article provide a way to show consistency in faculty reporting and self-evaluation and help eliminating ambiguity in performance evaluations. This type of strategy will help academic leaders to see the strengths, the potential of their faculty and form a better picture of the future of the academic area they lead. In doing so, it helps them to carefully engineer the future by planning the experiences that will serve as a stepping stone for desirable goals and outcomes. And most importantly, the strategies will enable them to see which rules, policies and procedures are necessary and which are not. These strategies will enable leaders to provide ongoing feedback, something that is essential for motivating people and for effective performance in the workplace. Indeed, as Blanchard (1999) has strongly argued, “providing feedback is the most cost effective strategy for improving performance and instilling satisfaction.” (p. 11) These strategies will enable leaders to see who from the faculty is focused and aligned with the mission of the institution and who needs to take time out to reflect, think, strategize and prioritize his or her academic performances and activities. These strategies will better enable leaders to discover what motivation works with each faculty and in turn how to help him or her to achieve high quality performance and satisfaction. These strategies will help the leaders to discover who of the faculty are really interested and committed versus those who talk about trying to do something rather than actually doing it (Blauchard, 1999, p. 51). These strategies can also be used as a tool in stimulating curiosity, experimentation, analysis, discussion, critical debate, and communication skills – key principles in professional development and collegiality.

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References: Blanchard, Ken (1999). The Heart of a Leader: Insight on the Art of Influence. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Honor Books. Casey, Al. (1997), and Casey’s Law: If Something Can Go Right It Should. New York: ARCADE Publishing. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., Ofari-Omoah, B. (2000), Can human factor be taught? The Journal of Human Factor Studies, 5 (1&2):89-114. Gialamas, Stefanos (2001), New Academic leaders Development Program (NALOP). Oakbrook, Illinois: DeVry University Document. Gialamas, S., Cherif, A. and Hilentzaris, S. (2003), Creating an environment for minimizing conflict between faculty and the department chairperson. The Department Chair, 13(3): 21-23. Learning, D.R. (1998), Academic Leadership: A Practical Guide to Chairing the Department. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. Lucas, Ann, F. (2000), Leading Academic Change: Essential Roles for Department Chirs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Maxwell, John C. (1995), Developing the Leaders Around You: How to Help Others Reach Their Full Potential. Nashville: Tennessee. Thomas Nelson. Molitor, Brian D. (1999). The Power of Agreement. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman & Holman Publishers. Moore, Randy (1996), Traits of effective administrators. The American Biology Teacher, 57 (8): 502. Russo, Edward and Schoemaker, Paul (1989). Decision Traps: The Ten Barriers to Brilliant Decision-Making and How to Overcome Them. New York: A Fireside Book – Simon & Schuster Publisher.

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A CADEMIC L EADERSHIP A R EFLECTIVE P RACTIONER ’ S A PPROACH BY DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS

L EAD ER SH I P V O L . 1 2. 2 S U M M E R 20 05 Over the past two decades, academic institutions have changed tremendously. New challenges have arisen demographic changes, social and cultural changes, technological advancement, needs and demands. Academic leadership is necessary now more than ever. Primary ingredients of academic leadership include: • • • • • • • • • • • •

Understanding the Essential Characteristics of Leadership Defining a Personal Approach to Leadership Leading a Team Collaborating with Team Members Leading Change Being an Agent for Change Motivating Team Members to be the Best Assessing Skills and Creating a Plan for Self- Development Developing New Leaders Being a Faculty Leader Being all Advocate and Supporter of Students Communicating Information and Change

Understanding the Essential Characteristics of Leadership Leadership is a partnership with bounded flexibility. In this leadership approach, the leader and the team members establish a partnership which is based on accountability, authority, and decision making. The flexibility component allows the leader and the team members to adjust occasionally the accountabilities, level and spectrum of authority. This partnership is defined vertically and horizontally in the organization. To adopt such a leadership approach, the team leader and the team members together must shape the vision and values of the department, establish the right to disagree, have joint accountabilities and be honest. Kouzes and Posner identify essential characteristics of leadership. From their research including over 1200 interviews and surveys of executives' "personal-best leadership experiences,” Kouzes and Posner formulate five essential aspects of effective leadership:"Challenging the Process, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Enabling Others to Act, Modeling the Way, and Encouraging the Heart" (Kouzes and Pozner, 2002). CHALLENGING THE PROCESS: Leaders search out challenging opportunities to change, grow, innovate and improve. They see their jobs as an adventure and make a habit of questioning the status quo. Leaders also find ways to motivate their followers to look for new ideas, seek out opportunities, and renew themselves individually and in teams. INSPIRING A SHARED VISION: Leaders make the effort to reach consensus on important values for their department. They promote discussions about shared goals. Inviting faculty members to participate in program reviews, advisory boards and other more informal conversations about common purposes can develop a common vision. ENABLING OTHERS TO ACT: Faculty feel empowered when the dean's "power" is distributed and given away to department members. Leaders can ensure self-leadership on the part of faculty members by reminding them that they're the experts. It's the leader's responsibility to give the faculty choices, to develop their competence, to assign

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critical tasks, to offer visible support to faculty work, including release time and to recognize faculty for their contributions. MODELING THE WAY: Leaders set high standards and then set an example by achieving incremental progress toward otherwise daunting goals. Academic leaders can model the way for faculty by maintaining a balance between administration, teaching, and development. By keeping a hand in the classroom, or participating in professional development activities along with or independent of the faculty, leaders can show others how to continually improve and excel. ENCOURAGING THE HEART: Leaders should look for opportunities to remind faculty of the importance of the profession and of the incredibly positive effect faculty can have on the lives of students. Leaders should recognize, reward, and celebrate faculty successes outside of normal channels. Methods include taking individual faculty to lunch, recommending faculty for department, campus, and system-wide awards, thanking faculty publicly for their contributions, advertising the successes of faculty and recommending them for selection as system consultants or subject matter experts. At least once a term, leaders should consider sponsoring a purely social gathering, such as a post graduation mixer or a mid -semester breakfast. The key is to respond with one's heart when the circumstances dictate. Defining a Personal Approach to Leadership Everyone has either witnessed or experienced a memorable leadership experience. Think of a defining experience that you have had involving leadership. Try to recall the unique characteristics of the situation that brought out this "personal-best" example of leadership. Qualities that leaders must have in order to be effective are: • Have principles and values • Stand tip for their principles and values • Live lives according to their principles and values • Be comfortable with themselves • Have the ability to learn and change • Know the correct timeframe for making decisions on Issues • Be team players • Create environments of trust and integrity • Set agendas clear enough to ensure progress • Be aware of workforce diversity • Have interpersonal skills with multiple stakeholders • Have entrepreneurial skills • Have the ability to express complicated ideas in understandable terms • Be resourceful and reflective about how to maximize intellectual capital and capacity • Have the ability to delegate effectively and efficiently • Be kind people Leading a Team Leading an academic department, division or institution means doing something significant, accomplishing something that no one else yet achieved, in other words, having an exciting vision. To do that, you need to envision the future by discovering a theme and making the theme the center of your efforts. For these efforts you must choose words carefully because words evoke images of what we hope to create and how we expect people to behave. Model the way in leading by example and turning critical incidents into teachable moments. Explore your inner territory and be proud of being unique but, at the same time, do not forget it is essential to be a kind person. Collaborating with Team Members Collaboration requires creating an environment of trust, in which leaders earn trust by sharing or releasing control and extending trust to others. The greatest obstacle a leader encounters is relinquishing control. Often individuals, who are in positions of authority, desire the trust of others, but insist on retaining "control." Research has shown that managers with the highest control scores have the lowest personal credibility (Kouzcs and Posner, 2002). Therefore, the first step

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in creating an environment of teamwork and trust is for you to involve as many team members (faculty, and staff) as possible in academic decision making. Whenever possible, migrate from the role of manager to the role of leader by entrusting team members to work collaboratively and to reach the desired outcome. Be cautious of the issues you choose to address and if you are not prepared to accept the answer, do not ask the question. People can accept directives; they do not trust "false solicitations for input." Create an environment of openness and trust by taking positions publicly on values that are central to the unit or the institution. Cliff Baden, Director of Programs in Professional Education at Harvard Graduate School of Education, defines leadership as "the confluence of two vectors: competence and authenticity. Authenticity consists of self-knowledge, of consistency, and of being seen to be standing for something." Establish clear values for the unit in line with the values of the institution. For example, the values of my institution are: C ONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT: we seek to continually improve individual and group performance in all aspects of our work. INDIVIDUAL WORTH: We believe in the dignity and worth of each individual and strive to treat everyone with fairness and respect. SUPERIOR SERVICE: We believe in the importance of each student and seek to satisfy their expectations and to do so in a caring manner. HIGH STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE: we believe that superior performance requires from each member of the institution a commitment to integrity, teamwork, individual responsibility, and striving for excellence. Leading Change Most humans by nature resist change, especially when a prevailing culture or environment exists. That culture communicates a crucial message to all its members and that is that the status quo is accepted and encouraged. Usually those within an organization who adopt a change paradigm make their decision to do so without the benefit of objective evidence, because there isn't any at that time. They take a chance by pushing for a new view. Often the paradigm of change begins while the prevailing view still is successful, which makes it difficult for most employees within an organization to actually sec a shift in the corporate view coming. Some organizations are so entrenched in their ways that the only way they can effect major change is to bring in an outsider who is not party to the prevailing way of doing business. Within organizations there can be two very different responses to change or innovation. Change that enhances the prevailing views is readily accepted and strongly supported. Change that challenges the prevailing views is often resisted with vigor because that change could potentially destroy the old investment. People become invested in the way things are and experience fear, anxiety and insecurity when things change because of uncertainty about how things will be for them. Author Peter Senge, in his new book, The Dance of Change, identifies distinct forces that people working to improve or change organizations must deal with. The early challenges include "not enough time" and "no help." Once some success has been achieved, challenges include "fear and anxiety;' "assessment and measurement," and "believers and nonbelievers." The fin al challenges come into play when people begin to rethink and redesign the organization as a whole: "governance," "diffusion," and "strategies and purpose." Sustainable change amidst these challenges requires partnerships among different types of leaders, and requires what some call continuous "organizational learning." Organizational learning embraces an atmosphere of experimentation and continuous improvement. Being an Agent for Change Leadership is a response to a challenge, sometimes internal and sometimes external. Leaders make a conscious choice to raise the bar on their own activities (to be an effective agent [or change, you have to change first) in order to be an agent for change to better the enterprise. Leaders believe strongly that they can "make a difference." Research indicates that a leader's effectiveness can be correlated to several abilities and beliefs, including

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among others: the ability to imagine a more ideal future; the ability to be both forward-looking and reflective; the level of belief in the mission of the organization, and the ability to focus others on the mission and on a vision of the future. Leaders encourage others to embrace the organization's mission and vision with enthusiasm by reminding them often, orally and in writing, about the importance of the organization's purpose and the excitement of an even better future. Motivating Team Members to be the Best The academic leader seeks opportunities to inspire and motivate team members to improve their professional contributions. In an institution with a focus on teaching and learning, student learning is the core of the mission. How well faculty, administration and staff facilitate this mission is integral to how well the entire institution is doing. At the same time, academic leaders have a responsibility to encourage faculty to pursue scholarship appropriate to the profession and to encourage other staff to engage in related professional activities. Inspiring excellence in faculty presupposes the leader's intellectual curiosity and involvement in the academic disciplines of the faculty. By engaging in periodic dialogue with faculty, by listening to them relate developments in their fields of interest. You may find opportunities to encourage faculty to develop and excel. Basic ways of inspiring faculty include passing along conference announcements and scholarly articles that relate to a particular faculty member's current interests. Acknowledge faculty improvement, contributions and accomplishments when they do occur. Th us, academic leaders should: • Listen to the team members' concerns, recommendations and ideas • Support team members in accomplishing their goals • Celebrate team members' accomplishments. Leaders must communicate frequently with their team using written and oral channels of communication, including email, personal notes, speeches and meetings. Distribute members' accomplishments. Assessing Skills and Creating a Plan for Self-Development Most academic leaders became leaders with little or no development plan in the area of leadership. Traditionally, academic leaders reach this pinnacle because of success in their respective disciplines, most times on an individual basis. They lack a crucial aspect of a leader - leadership. Hence many need to develop their leadership skills so they can develop into a "successful" leader. Through development, one builds the confidence needed to lead by identifying and developing appropriate skills. This development process can take various forms and requires time. The simpler forms of development include modeling leadership skills you observe in others and reading related books and articles. Development sessions focusing on leadership issues are incorporated into many national conferences of professional organizations. Finally, there are several leadership academies in the USA which offer high quality leadership programs. Developing New Leaders Leaders should always give the opportunity to members of the team to develop and become leaders. Initially, this means identifying team members who have the most complete set of leadership skills or potential, and who have the interest and ability to take on a leadership role. Once identified, these team members can gain needed experience and competencies through the assignment of responsibilities in areas of the unit. The leader should support the targeted professional development of these team members and invite them to accompany him/her to professional conferences even before they've imagined themselves as or committed themselves to becoming leaders. Being a Faculty Leader Being a leader means advocating effectively for others. There are a number of issues and concerns which test leadership, but first of all, we define faculty leadership as the continuous act of leading faculty in accomplishing the mission of the unit in line with the mission of the institution, and in achieving their own professional growth and development. Among these issues are teaching scheduling, faculty training and development, faculty performance evaluation, promotion, tenure, responsiveness to issues concerning equipment and software, and the ability to resolve general equity concerns. Faculty members appreciate leaders who are proactive about curriculum development projects, capital expenditure requests, and institution-wide initiatives. Finally, while a "service" attitude - being there, keeping an open door, and responding to c-mails and voice-mails - is appreciated, your genuine concern in their teaching and professional development activities ultimately ensures their respect and minimizes the establishing an "us versus them" attitude.

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A successful leader should never forget that faculty and staff desire respect, appreciation, recognition, and reward. Many faculties will go the "extra mil e" if they feel a sense of worth that is recognized by their leader. Being an Advocate and Supporter of Students With students, you have an opportunity to model effective problem-solving skills, support, and leadership. Students often need guidance about how to approach problems. You should listen to what students say. After researching the situation, you may conclude that you need to advocate for the student to a faculty member or another office, such as student finance. You can help to lead students by solving student problems or, better still, helping students to solve their own problems, rather than allowing them to fester. You can help students by being involved with their attempts to develop leadership skills through clubs or student governance, and by encouraging faculty to become involved with organized student efforts. The following are ways in which you can be an advocate for students: • Ensure that your [acuity is proactively involved in student professional associations • Look for opportunities to support student-generated initiatives • Participate in focus groups • Invite student representatives to serve on standing committees in your area • Invite student participation in major committees as appropriate Communicating Information and Change Faculty and staff who report to academic leaders rely on them to provide important information. You can be sure that people want to know what is going on, especially when there are major changes occurring. By informing employees in advance of change, they are more likely to accept it without as much anxiety or resistance. Generally, research also notes that people will take more responsibility when they have information. Some managers believe whoever controls information has power. Leaders, however, know that sharing information empowers everyone. Methods for sharing include: • Sending frequent written announcements in the form of e-mail, a newsletter, and/or letters to all members of the academic unit •Convening meetings which are a very good forum for communicating change •Holding individual meetings with members of the academic unit to communicate information and the main theme of change People understand better and accept more readily when they have the opportunity to question and paraphrase. Concluding Thoughts: The Paradoxes of Leadership Leadership is full of paradoxes. For example, leaders are often expected to be results-oriented, yet are also expected to be thoughtful and reflective. Leaders are expected to be capable of growth and development, and yet are also expected to possess many of the needed skills already. A leader's constituents want "vision," and yet these same followers often want protection from the change that vision encompasses. A leader is 100% accountable for what happens in his/her area, and yet, paradoxically. The team members are 100% responsible. Academic leaders should be aware of and unfazed by these paradoxes of leadership, which simply highlight the challenges, the excitement, and the strengths of the men and women leaders whom we might call chairs, directors, deans, vice presidents, provosts and presidents. In the end, maybe it is all about integrity and vision!!!!

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REFERENCES Hick, J. (1999). The microsoft edge: Insider strategies for building success. New York: Pocket Books. Boyer, E. L (I990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., Ofari-Omoab, B. (2000). Can human factor be taught? The journal of Human Factor Studies, 5 (1&2): 89-114. Gialamas, S. (2001). New academic leaders development program (NALOP). Oakbrook, Illinois: DeVry University Publication. Gialamas, S., Cherif, A. and Hilentzaris, S. (2O03). Creating an environment for minimizing conflict between faculty and the department chairperson. The Department Chair, 13(3): 2 1 ~ 23. Gialamas, S., Cherif M. D., Demetriades E. and Hilentzaris, S. (2003). Preparing new department chairpersons in the area or faculty leadership. Academic leadership, Vol 10.3, 2743 1. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R. and McKee, A. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press. Kalzenbach, J., and Smith, O. (1993). The wisdom of teams: Creating tile higher performance organization" Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Kouzes, I. M. and Posner, B. Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge (3rd ed). San Francisco: Wiley. Learning, D. R. (1998). Academic Leadership: A practical guide to chairing the department. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. Lucas, A. F. (2000). Leading academic change: Essential roles for Department Chairs. San Francisco: jersey-Bess Publishers. Maxwell, J. C. (1995). Developing the leaders around you: How to help others reach their full potential. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Moore, R. (1996). Traits of effective administrators. The American Biology Teacher, 57 (8): 502. Noel, M. T. (1993). The leadership engine. Boston: Harper Business Publishing. Seagren, A. T., Creswell, J. W., & Wheeler, D. W. (1993). The Department chair: New roles, responsibilities and challenges. Washington, DC: The George Washington University. Senge, P. et. al. (1999). The dance of change. New York: Doubleday.

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A CADEMIC L EADERSHIP : E MBRACING C IVIC R ESPONSIBILITY

STEFANOS GIALAMAS, PHD, PRESIDENT AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS

K A T H I M E R I N I E N G L I S H E D I T I O N , S E P T E M B E R 1 5 T H , 2 007 New challenges have arisen, from globalization to developments in technology and demands for a better life. Education, creativity and entrepreneurship are the necessary ingredients for a productive society by providing all citizens of the world with a better place to live. Educational institutions and, in particular, academic leaders, more than ever are challenged to adopt a leadership enhanced and enriched by a commitment to encourage and foster civic responsibility among students, faculty, staff and administrators. Academic leaders must inspire their team members to adopt leadership in a partnership with flexibility, in which the leader and leadership team establish a partnership that is based on accountability, as authority, decision making and civic responsibility. The flexibility allows the leader and team members to occasionally adjust the accountability level and spectrum of authority. The leader must embrace the "human factor" and adopt it into the educational goals of the academic institution. Today, in order to create a better community, societal leaders must not only have the required skills to lead, but must also have empathy for their fellow man. INSTILLING SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY Strong academic leadership often requires meeting challenges head-on. Inspiring others to accept and value the potential for promoting civic responsibility within an institution can be a challenge in itself. Educating students, parents and faculty on the merits of instilling civic responsibility in the culture of the academic institution is necessary. There are other important factors to consider that may interfere with a successful program, such as a weak infrastructure, financial constraints, local government, laws and bureaucracy. An educational philosophy that values civic responsibility can enrich teaching and learning by engaging students in creative projects that utilize their knowledge, skills and abilities to address complex community issues. Learning through service helps students to develop a higher level of self-esteem and efficacy while building integrity and ethos, teaching modesty and humility, nurturing empathy and acceptance for others, and fostering a deep sense of civic responsibility for the well-being of their community. This type of learning also helps students to develop intercultural sensitivity by exposing them to people of different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. On an academic level, participating in service projects in the community can result in a higher level of motivation and collaboration between administrators, teachers, students and community members that can foster a more productive, caring and motivating learning environment. On a community level, by engaging young people as resources, we enable them to shape the communities they will lead in the future with the understanding, sensitivity and empathy that is needed to make significant changes and improvements in the quality of life. A well-rounded student with knowledge, skills, values, ethics and an appreciation for civic responsibility is better prepared to adapt and contribute positively to an, often, erratically changing world. INTEGRATING CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY IN A PERSONAL LEADERSHIP IDENTITY Transforming a school culture to value creativity in learning and problem solving with the ability to profoundly impact the local community begins with a personal leadership identity that radiates enthusiasm, ethos and empathy and a commitment to civic responsibility. Embracing and adopting the following steps can ensure the success of two vital objectives: to establish an action plan that is precise, relevant, organized, measurable and expeditious and to inspire students, parents and faculty in the institutional environment to endorse civic responsibility.

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Academic leadership embracing civic responsibility can be instrumental in helping youth to feel connected to their community, care about their environment, and conscientiously strive to improve the quality of life around them. We cannot expect to see positive, long-lasting changes within any community unless we strengthen the leadership quality of youth so that they reflect values, initiative, and social and personal responsibility. Implementing a leadership philosophy and action plan to educate students, parents, faculty and staff about the value of civic responsibility does not necessarily need to be complex during the initial stages. Once the idea is activated, it has a domino effect: More and more people are inspired to collaborate with team members to initiate challenging and rewarding projects that not only benefit students but also create community partnerships as well. Doing good deeds and feeling good are contagious!

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B UILDING BRIDGES ACROSS THE SPECTRUM K-12 THROUGH COLLEGE EDUCATION A H OLISTIC ,

MEANINGFUL AND

H ARMONIOUS

APPROACH

B Y : S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. P R E S I D E N T , AC S A T H E N S A N D P E G G Y P E L O N I S , D I R E C T O R O F S T U D E N T S E R V I C E S , AC S A T H E N S K A T H I M E R I N I E N G L I S H E D I T I O N , S E P T E M B E R 1 3 -14, 2008

Educating the individual as a whole is a challenging feat for many universities, but one that the American philosophy of education endorses and has abided by for decades. Recently similar trends have been noted in the K-12 educational environment, where students receive and participate in learning in a variety of academic areas, as well as participating in athletics, community service and civic responsibility. This “Holistic, Meaningful and Harmonious (HMH)" approach to education may lay the foundation for success in higher education and more importantly, for life itself. Questions that arise regarding the continuation of success in a student’s later years concern such issues as: How many of the skills learned in primary and secondary education really do transfer to ensure student success? Are students able to apply what they have learned from one situation to another? From one culture to another? How well do we indeed understand learning styles? And how difficult is it for institutions to provide bridging skills for young people during their time of transition? Indeed for primary and secondary educators and administrators, the focus is an understanding of their school in order to provide the best possible education, which will also be a ticket to higher educational institutions. Similarly, faculty and administrators of higher education institutions focus on analogous goals for their institutions, and rightly so. If we are, however, to take education to the next level, to unite the best of both worlds, it is time to pay attention to the gap in between. It is time to build a bridge between the past, the present and the future. As we cannot separate who we are (the learner) from the knowledge we acquire (the learning), we also cannot assume that students will know how to apply the skills acquired during K-12 in higher education. Similarly, we cannot assume that the best of professors and teaching methods will ensure student success. What makes a student happy? It is making sure that there is a match made in heaven – a perfect fit. This involves two prerequisites: 1). to know the student and 2) to know the higher education institution. Knowing the student goes beyond academics. It means collecting information and putting pieces of the puzzle together that will create a picture of who the student really is, what her personal strengths and weaknesses are, what life experiences have influenced the student’s thinking, how she copes with challenging, unforeseen and even successful circumstances, what interests she has outside of academics, what values she uploads and what her limitations are. This approach is what we refer to as the holistic approach and it considers all aspects of emotional intelligence. It means understanding and successfully cultivating the academic, emotional, physical, intellectual and ethical elements to ensure a healthy, balanced individual – an individual who will successfully cope with the changes involved when entering higher education, as well as the changes that life brings. Indeed, if there is one thing that the American philosophy encourages, it is understanding the “whole” person. Moreover, if there is one thing that the American educational system provides, it is education diverse enough to ensure that all interests and abilities are covered. Meaningful refers to being in line with one’s principles and values, with one’s personal and professional goals, as well with the institution one leads. The educational experience must be meaningful for the learner. The learner should set it as part of his/her life and not in isolation of knowledge. In addition, it must be meaningful in relation to his/her dreams,

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strengths, desires and talents. Discovering the feeling of being “in love with life and learning” gives life meaning and thus there is a personal interest in making “living” desirable. Harmonious refers to the idea that all dimensions must be in harmony. Similar to an orchestra, working in harmony with the conductor is essential. The leader is the conductor, the one who helps all parts stay in harmony. He, in turn, is the decision maker and the decision maker is the analytical thinker, reflector, mentor, teacher and servant. There are times when it is necessary for academics to be the center of attention while at other times it is athletics or student services etc. Finally, education must be sustainable: it cannot only be based on acquiring skills and learning a trade, but must be based on critical thinking, being creative and sharpening decision-making skills. Most importantly, all of the above must rely on one’s defined principles and values in order to enhance the concept of living a full life and sustaining ethos, as defined by the ancient Greeks. Beginning as early as freshmen at premier international schools such as ACS Athens, students are taught to begin thinking about putting together a portfolio: All About Me (PAAM). The portfolio includes a variety of pieces which will eventually come together to form the puzzle of each student. It is the x-ray screen of the student’s personality and character. The process of acquiring the information inspires the students to understand themselves better by seeing the “whole” picture of who they are. Thus, learning and the learner becomes one. The second prerequisite for ensuring the right fit is knowing the higher educational institutions. This means investing time and energy, not only to research schools, to understanding programs and highlighting admissions criteria, but it also means getting to know the institution by getting to know its people. Thus, developing a truthful and meaningful relationship with its representatives is a vital step. While it is important to collect information via websites, publications and alumni, nothing can replace the personal understanding of the environment within the institution. This then can only be achieved through a visit to the institution itself. No amount of information received will replace the feel one gets by being on the grounds, talking with students and faculty, seeing the facilities and experiencing the approach with which they are received. The last piece to the puzzle involves the bridging of all the above. It is the piece that ensures continuation in the educational process and also ensures that the student transfers the skills and knowledge obtained in the K-12 environment to the higher educational institution. The formation of an institute within the secondary institution will provide the forum through which the bridging will take place. During the process of establishing relationships with higher educational institutions, the secondary school administrators have the opportunity to identify and selectively choose institutions according to size, location, focus (Business, Art, or Liberal Arts schools) and depending on student trends. Faculty from these higher education institutions are invited to teach college-level courses on the high school campus during a two or three-week intensive period. No grades are assigned to students and thus teaching methods are flexible, as long as an atmosphere of college-level seriousness and rigor is promoted. In conclusion, education is a two-way street between primary-secondary and higher-level education. Creating a continuum that will smooth transitions between levels is vitally important if we are to ensure better success and well being of the student. Continuum requires that K-12 leaders at all levels are open-minded, innovative in their teaching, creative in their approach and seek continuous and open communication with colleagues in higher education. Higher education leaders on the other hand, make it a point to understand K-12 leaders. They become available to exchange ideas, and to inspire them in order to best prepare students not only to succeed in higher education but to become productive and influential members of society. As travelers between the two worlds, K-12 and university education, we find it refreshing and inspiring to work with colleagues; leading educators on both ends of the spectrum that have the same goals; to teach, inspire and guide students to be the best that they can be. It is only natural then that we would want to see these two worlds unite in an effort to take education to another level. The bridging between the two worlds, we are convinced, will not only produce better learners but better teachers as well.

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SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS: I NTEGRATING THE TEACHING OF S CIENCE , M ATH & S OCIAL S TUDIES IN R ELEVANT C ONTEXT A B O U R H . C H E R I F , P H .D . SCIENCE & MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT COLUMBIA COLLEGE CHICAGO

S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. DIVISION OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF ART, CHICAGO

E L A I N E E. S I M O S , B.A . ARISTOTLE ACADEMY D E S P L A I N E S A N D P A L O S H I L L S , IL

S P E C T R U M , T H E J O U R N A L O F T H E I L L I N O I S S C I E N C E T E A C H E R S A S S O C I A T I O N , F A L L 199 7 How would you like to go into your classroom with only 41 cents (a penny, a nickel, a dime, and a quarter), or multiples of 41 cents, and turn your classroom into an effective learning environment for your students and an enjoyable teaching experience for yourself? In these interdisciplinary activities, we will demonstrate how teachers can use 41 cents as an effective teaching tool to teach various topics and in different disciplines such as science (biology, chemistry, geology, and physics) mathematics, social studies, and language arts. The approach is easy to use, cheap, mobile, and maximizes the students' understanding of the intended learning concepts. The activities are divided into two parts. Part one and two include activities that deal with science and/or math concepts, principles, and ideas. Part three includes activities that deal with topics in social sciences, and language arts. PART I: SCIENCE Volume vs. Mass Many students in grades K-12 have difficulty in distinguishing between mass and volume and their measurement and calculation. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter as determined by either its weight or by Newton's second law of motion. Since the weight is the result of gravitational force, any object would be weightless if gravity did not exist; however, this object would still contain the same amount of matter. Volume, on the other hand, is the amount of space that matter occupies. Anything that has mass and volume is considered matter. Needed Materials For These Activities: 1) Quarters, dimes, and nickels, some minted prior to 1965 and some minted after 1965. This is crucial because in 1965, the content of the coins were changed. Also, pennies some minted prior to 1975 and some minted after 1980. 2) Clear regular drinking glasses. 3) Paper and pencils for writing and measurement. Activity 1 How Many Pennies Can Each Glass Hold? 1) Divide class into groups of two students. 2) Mix pennies with different dates and give a specific number of them to each group of students. 3) Give each group of two students one clean drinking glass filled with water to the brim. 4) Ask the students to predict how many pennies they need to immerse in the glass before the water overflows! 5) Record students' predictions on the blackboard and ask them to record their own data on their data collection sheets.

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Have the students begun the experiment; in each group, one student puts the pennies slowly into the glass and the other student observes and records the observations.

To the surprise of the students, many will have a different result. Record the results on the blackboard and compare them to students' predictions. If there is time, have the students plot a graph using graph paper. Ask the big question: 'Why did we arrive at different results?" This will lead the students to concepts in volume and mass. Activity 2 How Many Different Coins Can Each Glass Hold? 1) Divide the quarters, dimes, nickels and pennies into two sets one minted before 1965 (before 1975 for the pennies) and the other after 1965 (after 1980 for the pennies). 2) Divide the students into two groups: group I and group II. 3) Divide each group into sub-groups of two students. 4) Give each sub-group in group I an equal number of quarters, dimes, nickels and pennies that were minted before 1965 (before 1975 for the pennies). 5) Give each sub-group of students in group II an equal number of quarters, dimes, nickels and pennies that were minted after 1%5 (after 1980 for the pennies). 6) Give each sub-group one clean drinking glass filled to the brim with tap water. 7) Ask the students, if we slowly drop (in order) one penny, then one nickel, then one dime, then one quarter, then one penny, and so on, how many coins do you need to drop in the glass before it overflows? 8) Record students' predictions on the blackboard and ask them to record their own data in their data collection sheet. 9) Have the students begin the experiment; one student slowly and carefully drops the coins vertically (with their edges first) into the glass and the other student observes what happens and records the data. 10) Record the results on the blackboard and compare them to the students' predictions. Then ask the big question: "Why did we arrive at different results?" This will lead the students to concepts of mass and volume. Students should also be asked to infer whether or not there is a relationship between the weight and the size of each coin and its money value. These activities can also be used to introduce students to the concepts of surface tension. Flotation and Mass Needed Materials For This Activity: 1. Quarters, dimes, nickels and pennies, some minted prior to 1965 and some minted after 1965. 2. Four one-gallon plastic containers (one for each four students). 3. Jar caps with different areas (four different caps for each four students) 3. Paper and pencils for writing and measurement. Activity 3 How Many Coins Can You Balance On a Floating Object? 1) Divide the class into groups of four students. 2) Give each group (four students) one plastic container, one set of jar caps (each with a different surface area), and an equal number of quarters, dimes, nickels and pennies. 3) Ask the students to fill the plastic container with water (about half full) , and one at a time, float the four different jar caps on the water . Decide which coins (quarters, dimes, nickels, or pennies) to put in each bottle cap. Use these combinations for all the students (for instance, put the quarters in the largest cap, the nickels in the next largest). 4) Before they begin, have the students record their predictions on their data collection sheet, and put their predictions on the blackboard. 5) Begin the experiment. Each group of four students will fill and record the result for one bottle cap. 6) Record the students' results and compare them to students' predictions. Ask the question: "What is the relationship among surface area, weight and flotation? This question will lead to astonishing discussion s among students.

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Coins and Electricity In this activity, we will help students discover which coins can conduct electricity and why. Materials needed For This Activity: 1) Small light bulbs (one for each group of two students). 2) Wire. 3) "C" batteries (one for each group of two students). 4) Two sets (one set of two for each group).

Activity 4 Which Coin Conducts Electricity Best? 1) Using a small light bulb with wires, attach one wire to the negative end of a "C" battery. 2) Experiment by putting coins on the positive end of the battery and touching a wire to them. (2 sets of coins are needed, one minted before 1965 and another minted after 1965). 3) Using a roll of coins, attach wires to each end of the roll to produce an electric current. 4) Attach a small battery and a light bulb to one wire to create a closed circuit. 5) Discover which coins, quarters, dimes, nickels, or pennies produce the strongest current (brighter light). 6) Hypothesize why different coins produce different strength of current. Coins, Magnetic Field, and Metal Detectors Many students have seen people with metal detectors moving around the sand beaches (to find buried coins and other metal objects) and might have wondered how they work. Coins are good electrical conductors but cannot be picked up by a magnet, (with the exception of the 1943 penny). Coins can easily be detected by metal detectors. It is magnetism that makes a metal detector work. Before explaining to the students how metal detectors work, they have to know the relationship between electricity and magnetism. The relationship between electricity and magnetism was first discovered accidentally almost 200 years ago by a Danish physicist Hans Cluistian Oersted (1777-1851) noticed that moving electric charges or currents through wires produced a magnetic effect that caused a compass needle to move. Since then, it has become known that an electric current can produce a magnetic field, a phenomena that has turn out to be one of the most important practical discoveries ever made. The metal detector is one of those practical implications. It works by generating a magnetic field. In general, a metal detector U is made up of a short pole with two ends. On one end, there is a flat coil (loops) of wire (called electromagnet) and at the other end is a handle and a box containing a battery and electronic circuits. As soon as a person moves the coil of the metal detector above the ground, the battery produces an electric current that sends out a magnetic field from the coil. This magnetic field of the moving coil creates induced electric currents in any buried metal object, such as a coin. The electric current creates a magnetic field around the coin which is then picked up by the metal detector. When the coin's magnetic field is received by the metal detector, the light on the handle of the pole flashes (Young Scientist, 1995). In other words, when the magnetic field from a metal detector reaches buried coins or any other metal object, it causes coins to generate their own magnetic field which in turn is detected by the metal detector. The idea of creating electrical currents in a metal object (such as a coin) by the magnetic field of a moving coil is the same mechanism used to detect whether the coins put in a slot machines are real or counterfeit (Young Scientist, 1995). When current is running through the loop or loops, every loop produces a magnetic field. Therefore if one increases the number of the loops of wire through which electrical current flows, the strength of the magnetic field will increase in time. Ask the students to predict which of the four coins can produce stronger magnetic field and why. Students should know or discover that it is the electric current running through a number of loops of wire rather than the coins which produce the magnetic field.

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Coins and Corrosion Coins can be used to introduce corrosion in the classroom. Most students have seen rust and are familiar with the role water plays in causing rust. Most of us have seen and probably dropped coins into water fountains. Why are these coins not rusted? Rust (Iron Oxide) is the most common form of corrosion that is caused by the reaction of iron and water. Oxygen (O 2 ) , carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) , hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and water vapor (H 2 O), are known to cause gradual wearing away of some metals, and or gradual changing of the original color of some other metals. These gases react chemically with some materials and cause distinct physical changes. These processes of change are called corrosion. For example, nickel is corroded by oxygen, copper is corroded by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and or hydrogen sulfide, and silver is corroded or tarnished by hydrogen sulfide. Ask students to predict what would happened if they expose the four different coins to oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and or hydrogen sulfide. Collect the students' predictions and discuss them with the students. Ask students to design their own experiments that enable them to examine the effects of gases such as Oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and water vapor (H 2 O) on U.S. coins. When copper reacts with carbon dioxide, water, or hydrogen sulfide, for example, its color changes from reddish-orange to green. When silver reacts with hydrogen sulfide, its color changes to black. To examine the effects of sulfur compounds on silver, divide the students into groups of four. Give each group four hardboiled eggs, and four different clean-shiny coins (a quarter, dime, nickel and penny). Ask the students to peel the four eggs, and then to push the first coin halfway into the white of the first egg; push the second coin into the white of the second egg, and so on. Wait about 10-15 minutes before removing the coins, and then ask the students to record their observations and to compare them to the findings of the other students. The egg white contains sulfur, and silver reacts with many sulfur compounds. PART II MATHEMATICS Volume and Area Needed Materials For This Activity: 1) Various sizes of shoe boxes. 2) Various coins (quarters, dimes, nickels and pennies). 3) Graph paper, rulers, pencils, and a variety of coin wrappers that are perform ready to use 4) Micrometers. For students to be able to solve this problem, they must know how to measure the dimensions of both a shoe box and a coin in order to determine their volume. The maximum number of coins that can fit in an average shoe box will be the volume of the shoe box divided by the volume of coins. Since the coins are cylindrical and the shoe box is cubic, students' results will not be exact.

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Activity 1 How many coins can you fit in a shoe box? 1. Divide the students into groups of three. 2. Give each group graph paper, ruler, shoe boxes, a micrometer, and mixed coin wrappers. 3. Give each group an equal number of quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies. 4. Ask each group, using one kind of coin each time, how many coins they wiIl need to fill an average shoe box? 5. Give students enough time to think about this problem and how to solve it before you provide help. 6. When they solve the problem, ask them what kind of shoes they can purchase with this money. Let them solve the problem on their own and devise their own equations. Ask them to design at least two different approaches to solving it. Each group should be prepared to discuss its equations with the class. Some students came up with this equation:

See appendix B for the approximate circular area of four different coins. Activity 2 Minimum Area of Plane Figures 1. Consider the following geometric plane figures: rectangle, square, circle, parallelogram, trapezoid, rhombus, and kite. 2. Provide the students with the formulae for the corresponding figures. 3. Instruct the students to place all 41 pennies inside each geometric figure. 4. Students must measure the necessary dimensions to find the corresponding area. 5. When they realize that the coins do not occupy the figure's available space, ask them to reduce the dimensions until they cannot reduce them further. 6. Students must record the dimensions of their geometric figures and calculate their areas.

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7. Students create a histogram with their observations and decide what is the minimum area among all observations and among all plane figures. See appendix C for area formulas of plane figures. Activity 3 Minimum Volume of Geometric Solid 1) Consider the following solids: cylinder, cone, pyramid, parallelepiped, and cube. 2) Provide the students with all necessary formulae. 3) Instruct the students place all41 pennies inside each solid. 4) Students must measure the necessary dimensions in order to find the corresponding volume. 5) If they realize that the coins did not occupy all available space inside the solid, ask them to reduce the dimensions until they have the smallest possible dimensions (according to them). 6) Students must record the dimensions of their geometric solids and calculate their volume. 7) Students must create a histogram with their observations and decide which solid has the least volume. See appendix D for volume formulas of geometric solid. Combinatorics 1. In how many ways can we arrange 41 coins in groups of 8 coins and 1 coin? Combinatorics is the manipulation of mathematical elements in sets. Probability Given 41 coins distributed as follows: a) 12 coins, year 1964 b) 10 coins, year 1965 c) 8 coins, year 1969 d) 7 coins, year 1975 e) 4 coins, year 1979 Then ask: a) What is the probability to get a coin of year 1975 out of all of the coins? b) What is the probability of choosing a coin produced in an even new year? Learning Graphs 1. Divide the students into groups of two. 2. Give each group lots of mixed coins, a graph paper, a ruler, and a pencil. 3. Ask each group to sort the coins by years. 'Then make a graph based on the mint date of the coins. Part III MAKING THE CONNECTION WITH OTHER DISCIPLINES 41 Cents can also be used by teachers from other disciplines as a learning tool and/or as a starting point in teaching various subjects. The following are only a few examples-be inventive in adapting these activities to fit your instructional demands. SOCIAL STUDIES Activity 1 Making Sense of Change through Time As a class assignment, ask every student to look for three people, one over60 years of age, one over 40 years of age, and one over 20 years of age. Have the students ask each person what could you buy with 41 cents when they were the student's age .Ask each student to go to various stores and ask the managers what they could buy from their stores today with 41 cents, then ask each student to write a report about their findings. This report must include what they think about these changes, and what it means for their own future (when they reach 40 or 60 years of age). Activity 2 Money throughout the Globe Assign each student four countries. Ask the students to locate the countries on a map, and to do some reading to familiarize themselves with these countries. In the course of the assignment, take the students to the learning center at

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your school to conduct research. The students must determine what currency "their" countries use, what are the denominations of that currency, and what is the current U.S. exchange rate for that currency. Continuing the assignment, ask the students to go to a bank near their home/school, and ask the teller how much change they can receive, for various international currencies, for 41 American cents, ranging from the smallest to the largest coins distinguishing the lowest and highest in value among various international currencies. The students can also ask how many coins each international currency has; what is the lowest value of paper currency of each country, etc. Students could also ask the bank manager which is best for American people, the American economy, and America as a super power, a weak dollar or a strong dollar among the international currency, and why. Finally, students might synthesize all their findings into a written report that includes their own concerns regarding "their" countries' role in the international market as evidenced by the exchange rate and their own research. Activity 4 Where Does the Metal Come From? Ask students to find out what kind of metal or metals each coin is made of and list them. Then ask them to locate these and chemical properties. Finally, ask them to find out which of these elements are founding the USA and which (if any), we import from outside. Students' reports should include the current price of these elements on the stock market, and where the imported metals come from. See table one for the U.S.A. coin compositions. Activity 5 Coins throughout History Ask students to answer the following questions: When and where did the United States first mint its coin currency? Which coin was minted first and from what kind of metal? What was printed on the two faces of the first coin made in the USA? Do these prints still exist? List the names of all the people whose likenesses are on today's most common U.S. coins (Susan B. Anthony $1.00, John F. Kennedy $.50. George Washington $.25, Franklin D. Roosevelt $.10, Thomas Jefferson $.05, and Abraham Lincoln $.01). They could then answer the following questions: Were all these people presidents of the United States? If not who were they? Why were these people chosen to be on a coin? Who would you choose and why? LANGUAGE ARTS Activity 1 Art Research 1. Ask students to do research to find out who the artists were who did the art work on various U.S. coins. Activity 2 Writing Prompts Use the idea of "4 1 cents" as a story-starter. You might want to cut out magazine pictures filled with lots of activity and ask the students to write a story about forty-one cents (U.S. or international) based on that picture. The idea of "41 cents" could also correlate to the study of various historical periods and their methods and standards of living. Another interesting activity is that the teacher writes a short story that deals with money, and includes 41 grammatical and spelling mistakes. The teacher gives the story to the students and asks then to discover and correct the mistakes. The teacher lets them know that there are 41 mistakes and they will be given one penny for discovering and correcting each mistake. Activity 3 Art Drawing and/or Painting 1) Ask the students to draw the four coins, one on each corner of an 8" x 11 sheet of paper. Then, have the student draw something that encompasses all four coins. 2) Ask the students to draw the four coins in the center of 8" x 11” sheet of paper (in a square form). Then, have the student draw something that encompasses all four coins. 3) Ask the students to draw the four coins in a vertical line on an 8" x 11” sheet of paper. Then, have the student draw something that encompasses all four coins.

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Ask the students to draw the four coins in a horizontal line on an 8" x 11 sheet of paper. Then, have the student draw something that encompasses all four coins. Ask students to draw the four coins, each on the middle of each side of an 8" x 11 sheet of paper. These four circles will form a rhombus shape. Have the student draw something that encompasses all four coins. Ask students to draw the four coins, one on the middle of the top of the page, and the remaining three in a line on the bottom of the page. These four circles will form a triangle shape covering the whole page. Have the student draw something that encompasses all four coins. Ask students to draw the four coins in a triangular shape in the center of an 8" x 11 sheet of paper. Then, have the student draw something that encompasses all four coins.

Conclusion Ultimately, the various applications of the concepts introduced either directly or indirectly by "41 cents" can be effectively utilized by instructors from a variety of academic disciplines in order to facilitate the students' mastery of these challenging concepts.

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Bibliography Cherif, A. and M. Wideen (1991). The Problems of Transition from High School to University science. B.C. Catalyst. 36(1): 10-18. Cherif, Abour H. (1993). Relevant Inquiry. The Science Teacher, 60(9): 26-28. Dunlop, Michael (1990). Promoting critical thinking in the classroom. E.G. Catalyst. 34(1): 14-17. Freidel, Frank (1994). The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, D.C: White House Historical Association Friedl, Alfred (1991). Teaching Science To Children: An integrated Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Gialamas, Stefanos (1997). Fundamentals of Mathematics. Chicago: Parxis and Education Press. Hughes, Roderick P. (1995). Fell's United States Coin Book. Hollywood. FL: Lifetime Book. Massey, J. Earl (1968). American's Money: The Story of Our Coins and Currency. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. Miller, Charles D., Verm E. Heeren, and E. John Hornsby, Jr. (1990). Mathematical Ideas. New York: Harper Collins publishers. Moore, Randy (1990). What's wrong with science education & how do we fix it? The American Biology Teacher, 52(6), 330-337. Reed, Mort (1972). Encyclopedia of us Coins. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. Smith, Karl J. (1991). The Nature of mathematics. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Staniforth, Sue and Abour Cherif (1986). Science Education and Society: Call for a Holistic Approach. Elementary Science Network: 2-3. Taylor, Beverly, James Poth, and Dwight Portman (1995). Teaching physics With Toys: Activities for Grade K-9. New York: TAB Books. ___ _ (1975). Coins: An Illustrated History 665B.C. to Present Day. New York: Metheun Publisher.

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T HE P ROFILE OF A H IGH SCHOOL G RADUATE I N T HE 21 S T C ENTURY

BY STEFANOS GIALAMAS, PHD, PRESIDENT JOHN PAPADAKIS, DIRECTOR OF COMMUNITY AFFAIRS & ENROLLMENT MANAGEMENT THE AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS KATHIMERINI ENGLISH EDITION Apr il 1, 2 007

The most memorable moment of every student's academic career is the time of graduation, the milestone that will follow the student until the end of his or her life as a moment of accomplishment, and sense of purpose. High school graduation is the first and most powerful such moment, both for the family and the student. "Go confidently in the direction of your dreams! Live the life you've imagined. As you simplify your life, the laws of the universe will be simpler." Just as Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862) instructed, thousands of graduates around the world every year leave their high school sanctuary to experience the world in its fullest, try to make sense of it and embark on an ambitious quest to change it for the better. Every school must be guided by a vision as to what is its graduates' portrait, relating to their impact on the world. The American educational philosophy establishes quality standards, and takes into consideration a variety of characteristics of all cultures, which are shaped by certain political, demographic and technological realities. Our view at the American Community Schools of Athens is solidly established after years of study and active research with in-depth analysis of the foundation of international education, together with the collective effort of our faculty, parents, students and administration. At ACS Athens, we have been providing a K-12 high-quality education in Greece since 1945, and we regard our students as natives in a digital world where most adults, including their parents, even some teachers and administrators, are just immigrants. This acknowledgement guides us as to what type of education we deliver to them and by which means. Every academic institution with high standards and expectations is clearly obliged to have great aspirations for its students. They must be inquirers, who use their school to acquire the necessary skills to conduct inquiry and research while showing independence in learning .They are driven towards knowledge, exploring concepts, ideas and issues of local and global significance. They are expected to be critical and creative thinkers. Being communicators enables them to listen and receive ideas, within and beyond their own culture. Principles like integrity, honesty, humility, fairness and responsibility are the cornerstones of their character. Keeping an open mind toward different perspectives equips them with understanding and personal awareness. They show empathy, compassion and respect toward the needs and feelings of others, protecting their immediate and wider environment. They understand the importance of intellectual, physical and emotional balance for personal and community well-being. Personal reflect ion is a prized trait that enables them to assess and understand their own strengths and limitations. Finally, having attained and mastered all the previous qualities, we are sure that these students may become the ultimate leaders that approach unfamiliar situations and uncertainties with courage and articulate thought, making informed, ethical, moral and aesthetic choices with civic responsibility. The new social realities are rapidly changing the face of high school and college teaching and learning, as are expectations from our graduates. It is clear to us that students with the previously presented characteristics can make the world a better place to live. Because, as Aristotle so poignantly articulated in his "Nicomache an Ethics," "it is not always the same thing to be a good man and a good citizen.”

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A L EADERSHIP A PPROACH FOR DEPARTMENT C HAIRS DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS, DR. SOFIA HILENTZARIS

T H E D E P A R T M E N T C H A I R , W I N T E R 200 6, V O L . 1 6, N O . 3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------There are thousands of books and articles available on leadership and several leadership theories that one might find appropriate to adopt. We define departmental leadership as the ability to motivate faculty members to ACHIEVE the department's mission as well as their own professional goals. This article introduces and outlines the fundamental ingredients of leadership tor academic department chairs: understanding die environment, developing leadership skills, and establishing fundamental strategies fur leading the department. We propose that department chairs adopt leadership as a partnership with bounded flexibility (Gialamas, Cherif, Μaher, Demetriades, & Hilentzaris, 2003). ln this approach, the chair and the faculty establish a partnership that is reflected in accountability, authority, and decision-making. The flexibility component allows for the occasional adjustment of the accountabilities and the areas and level of authority. To adopt such an approach, the chair and faculty together must shape the vision and values of the department, establish the right to disagree, have joint accountabilities, and most important, be honest and open-minded.

Understanding the Environment The culture and history of the Institution Every department chair must understand the culture of the institution. The major components are students, faculty, staff, facilities, the nature of the institution (e.g., teaching or research), the community surrounding the institution, and senior administration’s approaches to decision-making. The culture and history of the department The department chair must: • Understand the strengths and weaknesses of each faculty member • Learn the history of die department and understand the dynamics of its members • Identity the department's challenges • Define or modify the mission and vision of the deportment so that it aligns with the mission of the entire institution • Establish strategies to accomplish the department's mission The Leadership culture of the department The leadership Culture of the department determines, formally and informally, how work is done in the department. The chair earns trust, respect, and loyalty through his or her everyday actions rather than through proclamations, speeches, or announcements. In leadership there are principles, traits, and skills. Principles arc the fundamental doctrines or assumptions sow mi lit: leadership. Traits are the distinguishing qualities of a leader, which form the characteristics that you demonstrate as a leader. Skills are the tools a leader can use.

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Developing Leadership Skills The department chair, as the catalyst for progress and success, must be a model for department members. In particular the department chair must have principles and values, stand up for these principles and values, and live a life according to these principles and values. The department chair should bring his or her shared values to life in a variety of settings, such as meetings, telephone conversations, personal interactions, decision-making, memos, appearance and personal behavior. In addition, department chairs set an example to others by how they spend their lime, how they react to critical incidents, the language they use and how they treat people. Leaders have the opportunity to exhibit appropriate behavior by their actions in every moment of their presence in the department. They are observed constantly by department members and all constituents. Essential Leadership Qualities Vision. A leader must have a strong sense of purpose and inspire others lo accept, endure, and internalize the vision. Having a strong vision often helps a leader lo accept the duties of leadership. Ability. It is essential for a leader either lo know his or her job very well or to learn it quickly. More importantly, a leader should work constantly on upgrading his tir her knowledge of the ioh. Enthusiasm. Centime enthusiasm is essential for a good leader. Enthusiasm is a form of persuasiveness that causes others 10 become interested and willing to accept and embrace their leader. Enthusiasm is contagious, but it cannot be faked. Stability. A leader must understand his or her own world and how it relates to the world of others. Leaders should be empathetic, understanding, and helpful with the personal problems of team members without getting emotionally involved. Self-confidence. Self-confidence gives a leader the inner strength to overtime difficult tasks. It also increases commitment and performance; enabling leaders lo remain calm and confident during intense or difficult situations. Persistence. A leader must have the drive and determination to stick with difficult tasks until they are complete. For a leader it is not enough to just believe in something, you must have the perseverance to meet obstacles and overcome them. Vitality. Strength and stamina are needed to fulfill the tasks of leadership. Effective leaders are electric, vigorous, active, and full of life no matter their age or the environment in which they operate. Integrity. Honesty, strength of character, and trust are necessary leadership ingredients. Leaders must practice what they preach. Charisma. Charisma is a personal quality that generates others' interest and causes them to follow. Empathy. A leader must treat each member of the team with respect and humility. To accomplish this a leader needs to listen and have patience, time, and energy. Credibility. Credibility is the foundation of leadership and results from .1 leader's behavior. There are two integral components in the leadership arena: statements by the leader (words) and behavior (actions). The equation is quite clear: Credibility = words consistent with actions. Skills Development There are several ways to develop leadership skills, such as reading and reflecting on leadership literature and attending leadership programs, workshops, and seminars. Commitment to lifelong learning is the most important component to developing leadership skills. It is the continuous implementation of ideas, strategies, and techniques, together with systematic reflection, that is the praxis of leadership. A department chair should: •

Develop a theoretical knowledge of leadership issues

Develop competencies in areas related to leadership (writing a strategic plan)

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Establish, clarify, and periodically reflect on his or her values Explore his or her inner territory Turn critical incidents into learning moments

Leadership Strategies Department chairs should pursue the following steps: •

Communicate his or her principles and values with clarity.

Work together with faculty to define I he mission and vision of the department.

Communicate the vision to all members of the department.

Influence and motivate department members to embrace the departmental mission.

Work with department members to define strategies for accomplishing the vision.

Engage department members in problem solving.

Focus on accomplishments rather than on strategies alone. A department chair should not only develop an impressive vision and exciting strategies but also follow through with I hem. Leaders should be evaluated by their accomplishments as well as their strategies.

Establish a leadership culture in your department.

Provide department members with the tools to implement strategies for accomplishing the departmental mission.

Empower department members to accomplish the vision.

• • • • •

Encourage creativity, and embrace those who arc creative. Clearly communicate expectations. Clearly communicate performance evaluation standards and processes. Implement all of the above with transparency. Adopt reflective thinking.

A reflective department chair should want to do something significant, to accomplish something that no one else has yet achieved—to have an exciting vision. A department chair should clearly communicate the vision to his or her department members and motivate them to embrace it and to go out of their way to accomplish it. And a department chair should be the first to give credits to the department members when the vision is a success.

Reference Gialamas, S., Cherif, A., Maher, D., Demetriades, E., & Hilentzaris, S. (2003). Preparing New Department Chairpersons in the Area of Faculty Leadership. Academic Leadership, 10(3), 27-31.

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‹ǦO PTIMIZE I NTEGRATED L EARNING S YSTEM (O PTIMIZING THE P OWER OF O NSITE AND O NLINE AND L EARNING )

T EACHING

PATRICK MAYERS, PH.D. PROFESSOR OF STATISTICS AND VICE PRESIDENT OF ACADEMIC AFFAIRS DEVRY UNIVERSITY OAKBROOK TERRACE, ILLINOIS PMAYERS@DEVRY.EDU

STEFANOS GIALAMAS, PH.D. PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS AND DIRECTOR AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS ATHENS, GREECE GIALAMAS@ACS.GR

ABOUR CHERIF, PH.D. PROFESSOR OF BIOLOGY AND SCIENCE EDUCATION AND DIRECTOR OF CURRICULUM FOR MATH AND SCIENCE & DIRECTOR OF ACADEMIC LEADER DEVELOPMENT DEVRY UNIVERSITY ACHERIF@DEVRY.EDU

LIN STEFURAK, PH.D. PROFESSOR OF BUSINESS AND DIRECTOR OF ACADEMIC QUALITY ASSURANCE AND SUPPORT DEVRY UNIVERSITY LSTEFURAK@DEVRY.EDU B O B G R A V E R , M AT DIRECTOR OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY DEVRY UNIVERSITY BGRAVER@DEVRY.EDU

K A R E N M U R K A R , M BA CHAIR OF CENTRE FOR FINANCIAL SERVICES SENECA COLLEGE OF APPLIED ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY TORONTO, ONTARIO KAREN.MURKAR@SENECAC.ON.CA DEVRY UNIVERSITY A C A D E M I C A F F A I R S D E P A R T M E N T O N E T O W E R L A N E , 8 T H F L O O R - O A K B R O O K T E R R A C E , I L, 60 181 J U N E 2 00 6 Abstract This article outlines the experience of designing and implementing DeVry University's iOptimize Integrated Learning System (ILS) delivery model. IOptimize is the blending of onsite and online delivery modes to maximize the teaching and learning opportunities by integrating the best of both forms of delivery. Included are the necessary elements in designing and implementing the University's iOptimize Integrated Learning System. The article chronicles the experience of re-designing 300 plus courses, training and certifying more than 2,000 faculty and academic administrators, preparing more than 22,000 students, and adopting technology that was reliable and powerful enough to implement the iOptimize ILS.

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DeVry University's iOptimize Integrated Learning System was developed based on the following four essential elements: •

Review of related literature

Action research conducted within DeVry University

Continuous assessment of the effectiveness of teaching strategies within DeVry University

Recommendations of outside advisory board members representing those industries DeVry University's graduates service.

These four elements became the essential foundation for the implementation of this teaching/learning paradigm. DeVry University is regionally accredited by the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools (NCA). Through a system of 23 campuses, 61 university centers and online delivery, the University offers career-oriented undergraduate and graduate programs in technology, health care technology, business, and management to approximately 50,000 students. Literature Review Modes of Educational Delivery The related literature indicates many categories of modes of educational delivery such as face-to-face, face-to-face supplemented by Internet access, online, closed circuit system, hybrid, and independent project mode of learning, TV/textbook independent mode of learning, and team or independent projects. Several observations are worth noting. First, some of these modes of delivery overlap with each other. Second, subcategories can be easily found under each mode of delivery. Third, many institutions have experience with many of these modes of delivery of learning materials. Fourth, a small number of institutions have studied and attempted to implement a hybrid mode of delivery of teaching materials -combining two or more delivery modes. Lastly, there have been a number of individual faculty efforts to modify a single course into some form of hybrid course delivery. Brief Historical Perspective of Hybrid Course Development 'Hybrid', 'blended', 'optimized' and 'mixed' are four of the most frequently used terms in literature for teaching using more than one mode of delivery. There is however, no consistency in the literature as to the meaning of and use of each of these terms. The meaning of "hybrid course", for example, has several interpretations to different professionals based on the goals and the objectives in the minds of those who used the term in their research studies and/or educational institutions. Today, DeVry University is counted among the few colleges and universities that have an institutional based policy to develop and implement hybrid, blended, optimized, and/or mixed modes of delivery for all classes. 1. Institutional Initiatives: A research study conducted at the University of Central Florida aimed to solve the problem of insufficient classroom facilities by combining online and offline resources to reduce classroom seat-time. The approach, known as M-courses (Mixed Courses), utilized hybrid course delivery. The study found that using a 75% onsite class time with 25% online class time model provided a higher success rate compared to onsite only course delivery. In addition, this type of hybrid course delivery helped to solve the original problem of insufficient facilities by enabling multiple classes or sections to meet in a facility where previously only one course class/section had been able to meet. (Newman 2001). A similar research study on hybrid course delivery titled the "Hybrid Course Project" was conducted at the University of Wisconsin. In the study, seventeen instructors from five different UW campuses and representing various

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disciplines (such as humanities, social sciences, engineering, and profession) were engaged in the process of transforming their traditional courses into hybrid courses. The study compared the use of a mix of 70% of class time onsite and 30% online to a mix of 60% of class time onsite and 40% online. The study concluded that the mix of 60% onsite class time and 40% online was the optimal blended solution for hybrid course delivery. Franklin University in Columbus Ohio has developed and implemented a type of hybrid course delivery at its campus. The University used a 'Centralized Team-Oriented Development Process' as it related to ensuring a quality academic product. The Instructional Designers, Jeannette Jones and Lou Ann Manning (2003), reported significant success in attaining desirable outcomes and satisfaction with the hybrid model of delivery they developed and implemented at their campus. In another relevant study conducted within the Mathematics Department of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, a mixed mode of delivery combined traditional mathematics instruction with distance learning using the Math Online Classroom Environment. In the onsite classroom "the instructor writes on a graphics tablet that rests on a podium in the front of the classroom. Students then see the images that the teacher creates projected onto a screen. The images from the graphics tablet and the instructor's voice are simultaneously streamed via the Internet to the course's distance students. Both the tablet images and the audio enter an archive for future playback by both onsite and distance learning students" (Abrams & Haefner, 2003, p. 1), anywhere and any time during the semester. Similar in goal but different in nature is Harvard University's Internal Web Site lectures. Since 1999 Harvard has started videotaping a limited number of required courses per semester and makes them accessible to its students over the university's internal Web site within hours of class. The original goal was for the university to offer students a way to make up classes they missed for illness or other reasons, and a way to review lectures to crystallize the material. This delivery system has become popular with many Harvard students. However the model doesn't involve interaction with those students who watch them because they missed the classes for various reasons. According to university estimation, about 2,000 undergraduates accessed lectures on the Internet in the 1999-2000 academic year. However, about 70% watch between five and 30 minutes off a given lecture. This maybe because as one student puts it "I got to fast-forward the not-useful stuff to save time." (Jason, 2001)

2. Individual Faculty Initiatives: Individual faculty efforts have also been reported in the literature and presented at conferences and workshops. While these efforts were not part of institutional initiatives, they were developed to solve specific needs and/or challenges the individual faculty encountered. Most reported individual initiatives met their intended goals and objectives. As an example, Valerie Louisy-Louis, a faculty member in the Department of Management and Marketing at Kean University was trying to find a better way to motivate her students to read the class materials before they came to each class meeting. In doing so, every semester she was able to come out with a number of simple ways of integrating e-communication tools into her traditional course with the hope of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of both her teaching and the students' learning. Throughout two academic years, she tried various ideas, modified some of them, abandoned those that did not work with her students and came up with new ideas. At the end of two years she realized that she could restructure her class to have included both onsite and online components. Louisy-Louis (2003) reported that her new hybrid class structure has worked for her and her students in achieving the intended goals and objectives. Another successful example, similar to the model the Mathematics Department of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, has been implemented at DeVry University in Orlando, Florida. Dr. Dick Clehouse, a formal Dean of Academic Affairs and Dr. Clay Inman, Professor of Mathematics started using the Mimio device as an online math classroom environment to record Inman's math classes and make them available to students online to review at

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anytime. The device, which is connected directly into a laptop computer, is placed on the left side of the white board. The instructor uses colored felt pens with special sensors to write on the whiteboard. The Mimio device transfers the images from the writing, graphics, equations, etc., and the instructor's voice is simultaneously streamed to the computer and in turn via the Internet to students. The writing tablet images and the audio enter an archive for future playback by students on and off campus throughout the semester. Adam Newman (2001), the director of the research group for Adventures, Inc. has made a significant observation related to the development of hybrid courses through both institutional and individual faculty efforts. He has strongly suggested to faculty that redesigning courses for hybrid delivery is a time intensive process. Faculty need both sufficient time and funding to develop their own courses and to enhance their instructional skills. Thus Newman strongly recommended that faculty use the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Learning Technology Center's Model Program as a blueprint for developing their hybrid courses/programs. Furthermore and because of such observations it was recommended that colleges and universities use a central approach to course redesign in developing and implementing courses for the hybrid mode of delivery. Newman (2000) has provided 10 specific "Lessons Learned" about hybrid course design and teaching for "faculty interested in developing their own hybrid courses, faculty developers interested in helping instructors create hybrid courses, and academic administrators interested in supporting hybrid courses" (Appendix 1).

DeVry University Integrated Learning System Rationale Since its creation in 1937, DeVry University has been an institution that is student-centered and career-oriented that offers undergraduate and graduate education in technology, health care technology, business, and management. The University has always strived to identify the best teaching and learning methods as part of its own measure of institutional quality and academic success. The iOptimize Integrated Learning System was developed as part of this continuous improvement effort. The Philosophy For many years DeVry University has delivered high quality onsite instruction at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Over the past six plus years DeVry University has demonstrated the ability to also deliver high quality online courses, again at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. While both onsite and online teaching and learning can clearly accomplish the course and program objectives, these modes of teaching and learning are not identical, but rather complementary. Each mode of teaching and learning addresses the same components of the learning process (e.g., lecture, demonstration, labs, homework, quizzes), but the onsite and online modalities have relative strengths in their contribution to the teaching and learning process. In what follows, we present a model of instruction that integrates instructor guided onsite and online modalities in supporting the various components of teaching and learning DeVry University has started since the late of 2003. We believe this model corresponds to the emerging dominant reality of the workplace, which combines onsite and online modes of interaction directed at the accomplishment of organizational objectives. We believe this model supports students by combining once a week onsite classes with the support of faculty and fellow students through online interaction throughout the week. Student success is measured based on high student performance, student satisfaction, high student retention, persistence to graduation and high career objectives. To effectively implement the iOptimize Integrated Learning System at DeVry University, a user-friendly common course management system for all online and onsite courses was designed, developed and implemented. Key to the effective implementation of the new paradigm was the preparation, training and development of faculty and their academic leaders. In addition, preparing students to understand and accept the DeVry University Integrated Learning

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System was a necessary condition for the success of this University wide initiative. The cornerstone of the course conversions and faculty training and support was the delineation of the relative and complementary strengths of the onsite and online modalities as applied to the components of the teaching and learning process. Conceptual Framework DeVry University's iOptimize ILS model is based on semester credit hours but is delivered using 8-week sessions. The onsite and the online guided instruction is distributed as shown in table 1: Table -1The Distribution of the Onsite and the Online Guided Instruction Level

Course Credit Hours

Weekly Onsite Guided Instruction

One Two Three Four Five

1 credit hours 2 credit hours 3 credit hours 4 credit hours 5 credit hours

1 hrs 2 hrs 3.5 hrs 3.5 hrs 4 hrs

Weekly Instruction 1 hr 1.5 hr 2 hrs 3 hrs 5 hrs

Online

Guided

To optimize the most effective strategies for student learning with this instructional framework we utilize real time learning (synchronous) and 24/7 online learning (asynchronous). Methodology Guidelines There are specific strategies and methodology guidelines that apply to all courses in the iOptimize Integrated Learning System model. These strategies and guidelines govern and facilitate the development, delivery and learning process of the onsite and online components of each graduate and accelerated undergraduate course. As such they were both the cornerstone of the course conversions and faculty training and support. They continue to be key to the effective implementation of the iOptimize Integrated Learning System. The strategies and methodology guidelines address multiple elements of each course such as the course introduction, syllabus, min-lectures, demonstrations, discussions, homework, research papers, quizzes and exams, individual and group projects, case studies, problem types, role-plays, student presentations, debates, lab work, lab mentoring and assessment of student learning. Essential Elements For Adapting the iOptimize Integrated Learning System From our experience in developing and implementing the iOptimize ILS model we have identified the following essential components for successfully adapting this model of delivery: Curriculum Redesign, Technology Tool, Faculty Training and Mentoring, Academic Leader Training, Student Training, and Quality Assurances.

1.

Curriculum Redesign:

Since 1973, Keller Graduate School of Management at DeVry University has used a successful model of centralized curriculum development, evaluation, assessment and implementation. In developing the necessary courses for the new Integrated Learning System, we adopted the same proven successful approach used for curriculum development. For each graduate course the existing curricula for the onsite and online course was examined. The examination was conducted by a specific curriculum development committee that consisted of experts in the content areas, experienced faculty who had taught the same course online, experienced faculty who taught the

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same course onsite, the director of the program in which the given course was housed, and experts in instructional design, pedagogy, assessment and evaluation. In the development of courses for the Integrated Learning System, the members of the committee relied on:

2.

The skills, knowledge, experiences, and attitudes needed in the market place as identified by outside advisory board members from the type of the industries that DeVry University graduates service.

The rigorous examination of the traditional onsite courses and the online courses.

The latest developments in instructional design, learning styles, and instructional theories.

The Terminal Course Objectives (TCOs) which are learning objectives; they specify what task, behavior, or work a student must demonstrate or perform in order for a teacher to ascertain whether learning took place, based on outcomes that are derived from the TCOs The TCOs are derived from programmatic objectives fitted within the time constraints of a session or semester.

Development of Technology Tool

In designing the iOptimize Integrated Learning System at DeVry University we considered online platforms that could provide an efficient and manageable way of interacting with the students as well as the variety and user-friendliness of the platform's course functions. eCollege was chosen as our main online platform provider and the bases for the platform technology training for the iOptimize initiative. It was chosen because of the eCollege's ability to provide all of the hardware, software and support services under one roof which allows eCollge to offer a single-point accountability to assure programs provide a high-quality experience for students. Three primary tools of the iOptimize online platform include course materials, threaded discussion and the grade book. Course materials enable the faculty to position the information so that it makes the most sense for them as users. In addition, the platform allows faculty to place links to files, images or web links in context of the materials. When reviewing the discussion area we found that manageability is the key to successful facilitation of the discussions. Threading capability, highlighting of instructor postings, the ability to sort by date or author and to assess whether a posting has been read prove extremely beneficial to the instructor as he/she guides a discussion. The platform's Gradebook tool allows faculty to pull in and compile any student work that needs to be evaluated including the discussions, quizzes and exams, journals and papers in most common formats. Access to view feedback on the quizzes and exams is easily controlled. Another powerful feature is the capability to provide automated feedback in the case of the quizzes and exams as well as feedback customized per item and for general comments. The ability to provide comments to each student is available for all student work including the discussions and this capability is essential given that students most often want to know why they received the grade they did. 3.

Faculty Training and Mentoring:

A strategic plan was developed and implemented to train graduate and undergraduate faculty to teach courses in the iOptimize model and to provide systematic support and mentoring during both the training process and the initial delivery of iOptimize courses. The process of implementing the plan included four major initiatives: a) Training Facilitators b) Establishing Criteria for Successfully Completing The Faculty Training Program c) Implementing the Faculty Training Program and d) Faculty Mentoring. This meant that in order to successfully implement the plan, initially a large number of professionals had to be recruited and selected for training as facilitators and/or mentors to faculty.

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a. Training Facilitators In this initiative we adopted the 'Train-the-Trainer' model. Several faculty, academic leaders and staff were trained and certified by the designers and developers of the iOptimize ILS to become Master Trainers. The Train-the-Trainer program initially consisted of three main courses: a Platform Technology Course (PT101), an iOptimize Methodology Course (OM101), and a third course, 'How to Train and Mentor Faculty' (HTM101). In turn these Master Trainers trained and certified 35 facilitators (Trainer/Mentors) to deliver PT101 and OM101 to faculty. A similar strategy was adopted to train and certify 7 academic leaders, including Curriculum Managers, Department Chairs, and Deans, to train and mentor additional academic leaders. By the end of the year of 2005, there are 125 master trainers within DeVry university system. b.

Faculty Training Program:

Since April 2003 more than 2500 faculty members were trained and certified to teach graduate and undergraduate iOptimize Integrated Learning System courses. The faculty's training program included these elements: •

Specific electronic course 'shell' for each iOptimize course (Master Course Shell).

Training component focused on both the web based course management tool (eCollege) used in this initiative and on the methodology of iOptimize delivery

Mentoring support for the first eight-hundred faculty training participants to assist in customizing the given master course shell into his/her own personal course shell.

An iOptimize Master course shell is formatted for each of eight weeks and contains items such as lectures and/or presentations based upon terminal course objectives, course syllabus, examples of homework, exams, case studies, web-links, topics for discussion, and three weeks of lesson plans.

c. Criteria for Successfully Completing The Faculty Training Program DeVry University's commitment to the iOptimize ILS delivery model is reflected by the continued position of its leadership to allow only certified faculty to teach iOptimize courses. A faculty is certified if and only if they have successfully completed the iOptimize training and the development of their own customized course shell. The criteria for successfully completing the iOptimize training is the following: •

Completion of all assignments

Completion of all quizzes

Active participation in threaded discussions

d. Faculty Mentoring: Initially, faculty mentoring was a very important component for the success of the iOptimize ILS initiative. It provided individual faculty support given by a certified mentor and content expert for a total of 12 weeks. Each faculty received four weeks of mentoring support prior to his or her first iOptimize course delivery and support for 8 weeks during the first iOptimize delivery session.

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The mentoring processes included: •

Guiding the faculty to identify and adopt the best teaching methodologies that would fit the instructor's style for both the in class and online portions of the course.

Observing the progress faculty made during the customization of their own iOptimize master course shell.

Exchanging teaching and learning ideas that were suitable for the iOptimize learning delivery.

Supporting the faculty to resolve any platform/technology problems.

As the numbers of certified faculty throughout the system increased and exceeded one thousand certified faculty, the formal mentoring program was discontinued. The decision to discontinue formal mentoring was based upon the fact that faculty new to iOptimize ILS could now access one-on-one support and assistance via any number of certified colleagues and academic staff at their own campus or center. 4.

Academic Leader Training:

Academic leaders who are accountable for faculty and delivery of iOptimize courses also completed the iOptimize training and became certified. Certification is necessary for these leaders to understand, embrace, provide support and quality assurance for successfully implementing the iOptimize course delivery model.

5.

Student Training:

In addition to training and supporting faculty, training and preparing students to participate in the iOptimize iLS courses was equally important. A number of strategies were developed and implemented to prepare students. These strategies included:

The development and distribution of a comprehensive training course for students focused on the course management tool (eCollege platform). Open discussion forums with students, faculty and support staff.

The establishment of the 24/7 Help Desk.

Distribution of answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) via CD or Online.

6.

Quality Assurances:

Quality deals with how to deliver the knowledge and know-how that are intended in an educational program (Tribus, 1995) and how the knowledge and the know-how best fit for use to achieve high performance and satisfaction (Juran and Gryna (1980). The literature review indicated that today's colleges and universities are faced with two critical issues that affect how to achieve their goals and missions: quality assurance issues and quality enhancement issues. Quality assurance schemes aim "...to ensure that teaching and learning courses reach some usually undefined minimum level of acceptance." Quality enhancement schemes aim "...for an overall increase in the quality of teaching" (Kember, 2000, pp. 6-7) that result in high quality "student performance and satisfaction." (Mayer, Ricordati & Carter, 1995) DeVry University applies quality assurance (QA) processes in five areas regarding the iOptimize course delivery model: (1) Faculty and academic leaders training (2) Course content (3) Facilitator performances, and (4) Course delivery satisfaction. In addition, in order to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the success of the initiative at the university level, a quality assurance called the Core Team committee was established to be accountable for the overall success of the initiative.

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a. Faculty and Academic Leaders Training: A number of processes and mechanisms were developed and implemented to evaluate the quality of the faculty and academic leaders training as well as to provide continuous feedback of how to modify the training processes to maximize the performance. These processes and mechanisms included faculty evaluations, facilitators weekly report, quality assurance supervisor monitoring the training activities and providing frequent reports as well as a final report, and training course observation done by supervisory team members of the iOptimize Integrated Learning System. b. Training Course Development: Initially, the iOptimize ILS training consisted of two courses, PT101-eCollege platform training and OM101-iOptimize Methodology training. Each of the two courses ran online over twelve consecutive days. The training has since been redeveloped into a single comprehensive course, iOP101 based upon continuous improvement feedback. The content as well as the delivery methodologies of the program were constantly examined and or modified at the end of each training session. The members of the iOptimize initiative team based their modifications on a) faculty evaluations b) recommendations given by the stakeholders and c) concern raised by stakeholders who took active part in the training process. The program has been through five different iterations as a result of this continuous improvement process. Continuous improvement is an imperative aspect of iOptimize initiative and thus all inputs were highly valued and used as a part of the quality assurance process as well as the course development process. Feedback from faculty also led to the development of advanced iOptimize faculty training in the form of eight tutorials. The desire and need for further training beyond the initial iOptimize certification training included both technical and pedagogical training. Following is a list of the tutorials developed thus far, based on feedback from faculty teaching iOptimize courses. 1) Creating Links-In this tutorial faculty review the steps to create a link within their course shell. When a student clicks the link created, they will be taken to the item the faculty specified such as a file, document, or other web site 2) Exam Builder-This tutorial guides faculty step-by-step in using the DEP eCollege Exam Builder. They learn how to:

• •

Create an exam, test or quiz as a content item. Set the exam parameters (access dates, duration etc.).

Add various types of questions to an exam, test or quiz including multiple choice, True/False, multiple answer, matching, short answer and essay questions. Set up and use a Test Bank. Develop and use Question Pools.

• •

3) File Manager-This tutorial helps faculty to begin to use File Manager to manage the various files that are included in a course shell. Topics include up/downloading files, creating folders, deleting files and folders and working with multiple files. 4) Gradebook-This tutorial goes step-by-step through the processes involved in using the DEP eCollege Gradebook. Faculty begins by setting up the gradable items in their course. They review how to enter students' grades, both one student at a time and as a group and learn how to set up the Dropbox and assign grades to Dropbox submissions. 5) Group work for iOptimize- The group work tutorial reviews the research behind group work and offers some strategies for creating successful groups. The final two units provide ideas for in-class and online group activities. An explanation of setting up groups using the DeVry E-Learning Platform is also included.

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6) Offline Exam Building-This tutorial introduces a software tool that will allow faculty to create and edit exams offline (while not connected to the Internet). Exams created using this tool can be uploaded to the DeVry eLearning Platform (DEP), downloaded from DEP, and/or printed for in-class distribution. 7) Threaded Discussions-This tutorial helps faculty to develop online discussion facilitation skills. 8) Web Research-This tutorial explores research using the World Wide Web as well as some suggestions for creating student assignments that make effective use of the Internet in addition to locally available DeVry University Library resources.

c. Facilitator Performance: Each week the facilitators of the faculty training groups were asked to complete a 'one- minute paper' assessment responding to the question-"How confident do you feel that your participants have the basic skills to use the platform and the knowledge to move parts of their lesson delivery online?" (see Appendix 2)

d. Course Delivery Satisfaction:

i. Classroom Observations As a part of our quality assurance process, classroom observations are required both onsite (in the classroom) and in the online component. The rigor is greater for new faculty, requiring two classroom and online visits. For continuing faculty, two observations are recommended while one observation is required. The reviewer uses a check sheet to assure that high quality standards are met. If areas for improvement are identified, a meeting is scheduled with the instructor to review the areas identified and to make recommendations for improvement. The reviews and feedback are conducted in a spirit of helping with the faculty's performance. (See Appendix 3) ii. Student Course Evaluations In addition to classroom observations, DeVry University surveys students to evaluate the performance of the instructor as a part of our quality assurance process. This survey is identical for all iOptimize Integrated Learning System Courses including graduate and undergraduate accelerated courses. Both the instructor's onsite and online performances are evaluated. The survey is administered using a web-based system. The data is compiled and analyzed and made available to academic administrators one week after the survey period is complete. Faculty performance surveys are taken very seriously. If performance issues are identified, once again a meeting will be held in an attempt to improve the faculty's performance.

e. University-wide Initiative: As part of its own measure of institutional quality and success, DeVry University formed a committee consisting of representatives of all areas of the university that are associated directly or indirectly with the implementation of the iOptimize Integrated Learning System project. This committee is called the Core Team Committee and its members come to the meetings prepared with written status progress reports to share with committee members. The regular report contains the following: •

Planned work and current status (prior 2-week period).

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Outlook for upcoming work (next 2-week period).

Concerns, issues, and risks.

Update for those tasks that may be in progress and were scheduled to start and/or finish by a certain date.

In addition to the usual reports from each functional area, special reports may be included to cover related topics. Furthermore, representatives from the Core Team committee report to the DeVry University management team once every two weeks. Questions from the management team are filtered back to the members of the Core Team Committee for review and response.

The Challenges of the iOptimize Initiative Like any new initiative, and in the case of iOptimize ILS, an initiative impacting more than 22.000 course takers, we encountered a number of challenges of various types and at various levels. The experience of implementing the iOptimize initiative as well as the data and information that has been collected have helped us to anticipate the type of challenges that we might face in our continued efforts. The following are a few examples of these challenges. Challenges We Have Faced: There are a number of challenges that we have faced and have had to overcome in order to complete the iOptimize initiative and achieve our main goals and objectives. These challenges include: •

Lack of technology skills on faculty's part and/or fear of learning new instructional tools and technologies.

Geographical challenges-miles and time zones separating the iOptimize team and facilitators, administrators and faculty.

Initial course platform issues-volume of work relative to eCollege server capacity.

Incessant pace for facilitators- timelines necessitated that training of faculty be a continuous process with new sections rolling out just as prior sessions ended. As such the team of facilitators were scheduled continuously.

Time constraints of faculty training participants-faculty were required to participate in the courses at least every other day over 24 consecutive days placing a strain on many faculty participants who also have fulltime careers in industry.

State requirements regarding the actual student class meeting hours. Such requirements differ from state to state.

Challenges We Are Anticipating to Face: •

The timelines under which additional master course shells must be developed are extremely tight. The University continues to implement the iOptimize system of teaching and learning into a variety of academic programs. Without pre-developed master course shells iOptimize training and delivery of such courses is not possible.

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Technology courses require that faculty be trained in the use of virtual labs as well as the initial iOpt101 training. The additional training requires time and budgetary resources.

Platform capacity may become an issue as additional courses are developed and delivered in the iOptimize format. Currently there are over 29,000 eight-week DeVry University faculty iOptimize inventory course shells in place.

Additional helpdesk support both for students and faculty may become necessary as more courses are delivered in the iOptimize format.

Continuous institutional commitment and support for the iOptimize initiative. Based on the two following facts, the institutional commitment and support could be modified or changed: a) every year there are many institutional initiatives that are introduced and compete for the same limited funding and support. b). The current status of the national economy and its impact on student enrollment in higher education.

The differences in structure and the operational processes between the graduate and the undergraduate schools at DeVry University might present logistical problems in the implementation of the iOptimize initiative university wide.

The necessity to keep the course shells current related to text changes and/or new topical content presents a significant challenge. A specific protocol must be followed for updating course shells. Due to the to the large number of inventory shells for each course, it is important that Curriculum Managers work closely with faculty to keep shells contemporary.

Conclusion In summary, this article has provided an overview of DeVry University's institutional initiative began in 2003 to adopt and implement a new paradigm for instructional delivery at the graduate and accelerated undergraduate level. The success of such an undertaking is dependent on the commitment to curriculum re-design and foremost to the training of faculty and academic leaders. The comprehensive iOptimize ILS training originally consisted of two courses, PT101-eCollege platform training and OM101-iOptimize Methodology training. Each course ran online over twelve consecutive days. The training has since been modified and consists of a single online course (iOpt101) that runs over 14 consecutive days. Active participation in each unit of each course including participation in discussions, assignments, quizzes etc. continues to be the requirement for successful completion leading to iOptimize ILS Certification.

In order for a faculty to teach a DeVry University iOptimize course he/she must be certified by

successfully completing the iOptimize faculty training. Facilitators are accountable for ensuring that faculty are completing assignments and participating as is necessary to successfully achieve the outcomes of the training course. After a given faculty has completed the course, s/he is expected to review and modify to his or her teaching style the iOptimize course shell provided for his or her DeVry University course and deliver this course to students in a future session. Through the iOptimize Integrated Learning System, DeVry University provides students with both face-to-face teaching and learning and the alternative method of online, asynchronous teaching and learning. Students are able to access knowledge and they become efficient and effective in processing information. They build trust in themselves to accomplish what is relevant in their lives by efficiently capitalizing on what they know and like. The integrated learning system method allows them to earn a bachelor or master's college degree in two to three years.

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The iOptimize Integrated Learning System also provides opportunities for instructors and staff to develop and grow professionally, intellectually, personally, and financially. Faculty and staff will have the necessary knowledge, skills, and education in order for them to be 'in the driver's seat' into the future in an extraordinarily competitive business environment. It is an exciting time for DeVry University and all faculty and students who are involved in iOptimize ILS course delivery across the graduate and undergraduate course offerings. The recognition of the iOptimize ILS by various professional organizations has validated the importance of the initiative. IOptimize ILS is part of a journey for DeVry University, not a destination. The University is on a journey of continuous improvement to enhance students' performance, increase student satisfaction, improve student retention and persistence to graduation, and continue high quality career objectives, for DeVry University graduates. We are confident that this paradigm has enhanced our ability to achieve the benchmarks of the journey.

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Bibliography

Abrams, Gens and Haefner, Jeremy (2002). Blending Online and Traditional Instruction in the Mathematics Classroom. The Technology Source, September/October 2002. Available online at http://ts.mivu.org/default.asp/show=article&id=970. Cherif, A, Stefuark, L., Mayers, P, and Graver, B. (2004). DeVry University iOptimize Integrated Learning Syestem: The Best of Onsite and Online Learning. Exemplary Model of Administrative Leadership Award Presented at the 2004 AAUA National Assembly in Chicago, June 23-26, 2004. Garnhamm, Carla and Kaleta, Robert (2001). Introduction to Hybrid Courses. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Learning Technology Center University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. (http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/LTC/hybrid.html.) Gialamas, Stefanos and Cherif, Abour (2003). DeVry University Hybrid Courses. Paper presented at the 2003 The Forum For Teaching In Higher Education. Louisiana State University, April 27-29, 2003 Jason, Leila. (2001, August 22). Web lectures make it easier for students to skip classes. The Wall Street Journal. http://interactive.wsj.com/fr/emailthis/ retrieve.cgi?id=SB998428059545963918.djm Jones, Jeannette and Manning, Lou Anne (2003). Improving Curriculum Quality by Design. Paper presented at the 2003 The Forum For Teaching In Higher Education. Louisiana State University, April 27-29, 2003. Juran, J. M. and Gryna, F. M. (1980). Quality Planning and Analysis: From Product Development Through Use. New York: McGraw-Hall Book Company. Karssop, Mark (2003). Ten Ways Online Education Matches, or Surpasses, Face-to-Face Learning. TECHNOLOGY SOURCE: A publication 0F THE MICHIGAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY, May/June 2003. Kember, David (200). Action Learning and Action Research. Kogan Page, London (and Stylus, Stirling, VA) Leonard, Dorothy A. and DeLacey, Brian J. (2002). Designing Hybrid OnLine/In-Class Learning Programs for Adults. Boston: Harvard Business School (Unpublished paper; used by permission from the author). Louisy-Louis, Valerie (2003). Adopting E-Communication to Optimize Teaching and Learning. . Paper presented at the 2003 The Forum For Teaching In Higher Education. Louisiana State University, April 27-29, 2003. Mayers, P., Ricordati, T., and Carter, D. (1995). System-supported teaching and learning to improve student performance, satisfaction, and retention. In Roberts, Harry V. Roberts (Ed). Academic Initiatives In Total Quality For Higher Education. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: ASQC Quality Press. Murkar, K., Stefuark, L.& Cherif, A., (2004). IOptimize of DeVry University - The First Six Months, The Next Six Months: Supporting the Best of Both Worlds. Two papers presented at the 2004 The Forum For Teaching In Higher Education "Keeping the Touch in Technology. Louisiana State University, April 18-20, 2004. Newman, Adams (2001). Case Study of the E-Learning Story at University of Central Florida. Boston, MA: Eduventures, Inc. (Eduventures.com, Inc.) Ravaglia, R. (2001, August/September). The case for blended e-learning. Education West, 12-13. Roberts, Harry V. (Ed) (1995). Academic Initiatives In Total Quality For Higher Education. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: ASQC Quality Press.

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Wicker, Martha (2003). Effective Strategies for Integrating Communication Tools In Instruction. Paper presented at the 2003 The Forum For Teaching In Higher Education. Louisiana State University, April 27-29, 2003. DeLacey, Brian J., and Dorothy A, Leonard. "Case Study on Technology and Distance in Education at the Harvard Business School,'' Harvard Business School Working Paper Series, No. 02-026, 2001.’ Zahara, Shaker A., and Gerard George. 2002). Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualization, and extension. The Academy of Management Review, pp., 27, 2, April 2002.

Appendix -1-Newman's "10 Specific Lessons Learned" About Hybrid Course Design and Teaching Lesson # 1: There is no standard approach to a hybrid course. Lesson # 2: Redesigning a traditional course into a hybrid takes time. Lesson # 3: Start small and keep it simple. Lesson # 4: Redesign is the key to effective hybrid courses to integrate the face-to-face and online learning. Lesson # 5: Hybrid courses facilitate interaction among students, and between students and their instructor. Lesson # 6: Students don't grasp the hybrid concept readily. Lesson # 7: Time flexibility in hybrid courses is universally popular. Lesson # 8: Technology was not a significant obstacle. Lesson # 9: Developing a hybrid course is a collegial process. Lesson # 10: Both the instructors and the students liked the hybrid course model.

Appendix -2-One Minute Paper Assessment Below are excerpts from the weekly 'one minute paper' assessments submitted by facilitators in answer to the question-"How confident do you feel that your participants have the basic skills to use the platform and the knowledge to move parts of their lesson delivery online?" From John: "Participants support the effort which is half the battle. They are comfortable with the new on-line medium and now need some experience in using it. I am confident that the faculty will be capable of making the transition. Each term will bring new learning (as it has for me). I believe the transition will be successful." From Jennifer: "I feel confident that those who have taught before will do very well. I am not as confident (about 85%) about those who are completely new instructors. Their ability to work with this format will depend on their basic computer skills, most of whom I believe are at a good level. However, it will also depend on their ability to integrate the teaching style and knowledge into the whole Keller or DeVry teaching philosophy - this can be supported by the TEC and EIT and/or the Center Director's guidance. I think it will be difficult, however, for them to digest all this quickly and effectively for the July Session. To ensure a successful integration, I would suggest that we pay particular attention when mentoring them and enlist the help of their CDs to make sure there's plenty of follow-up on their progress and to make them feel at home with asking questions."

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F ACULTY P ERFORMANCE A PPRAISAL

DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS DR. ABOUR CHERIF DEBORAH ARNDT MAHER DR. SOPHIA HILENTZARIS

T H E D E P A R T M E N T C H A I R , W I N T E R 200 4 Introduction At the end of each academic year, department chairs are faced with the challenge of conducting fair and complete faculty performance appraisals in a short time interval. Three factors can work against these appraisals: 1) not having a well-defined yearly faculty accountability plan, 2) losing focus on implementing the plan, and 3) not being prepared in

advance for the impending deadline of the appraisal. The problem is even greater when faculty members are seeking tenure, sabbatical, and/or promotion. Clearly, in such instances the level of support and effort needed to compile and synthesize appropriate and relevant information is much greater. The problem is also exacerbated for department chairs who are seeking solid and sound arguments to justify requests for budget increases, especially if the requested increase is to support activities in the areas of personal and professional growth and development of faculty. This article presents a practical approach for establishing a process for faculty performance appraisal. We will share strategies that department chairs can use to guide faculty to successfully accomplish their goals and prepare their performance evaluation report. In adopting such approaches, the department chair will benefit by better understanding the strengths and limitations of department resources. Furthermore, he or she will be able to understand faculty-needs and strengths and thus better involve faculty in accomplishment of the mission and the goals of the department.

The Yearly Faculty Performance Appraisal Process A comprehensive approach for a yearly faculty performance appraisal includes the following components: •

A Yearly Faculty Performance Appraisal Plan (YFPAP)

Midyear faculty self-progress report

Midyear adjustment of the performance appraisal plan

Midyear department faculty progress report

End-of-year faculty self-performance appraisal report

End-of-year department faculty performance appraisal report

End-of-year department performance appraisal report

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A Yearly Faculty Performance Appraisal Plan (YFPAP) The purpose of the YFPAP is for faculty and the department chair to jointly identify all faculty yearly performance accountabilities, establish goals, and adopt an action plan for accomplishing the goals. In general, the YFPAP should include: •

Accountabilities and tasks, such as teaching, professional activities, and services (department/college and community).

The time necessary to complete the accountabilities and tasks.

The weight of each component of the accountabilities and tasks related to the mission of the department and the institution.

The tools needed to measure the quality of the performances.

Midyear faculty self-progress report Department chairs should ask every faculty member to prepare and submit a midyear self-progress report. This report should reflect the progress of accomplishing the goals stated in the YFPAP. The midyear faculty self-progress report serves a variety of purposes: •

To identify the progress in accomplishing the goals in a timely fashion.

To adjust the goals, tasks, and/or time needed to accomplish them.

To identify whether additional resources are needed to accomplish the goals and tasks.

To identify whether additional tasks could be added to the YFPAP.

Strategies for preparing an effective midyear faculty self-progress report include: •

Report the progress on the accountabilities and tasks stated in the YFPAP.

Report on any new accountabilities and/or tasks assigned to faculty.

Reflect on why certain accountabilities and tasks were not accomplished.

Upon receiving the midyear faculty self-progress report, the department chair reads, analyzes, and internalizes the report. If he or she has questions or concerns, these are addressed with the faculty member before the chair writes his or her reflective report. The report is sent to the faculty member to review, sign, and return to the chair. However, if the faculty member has a concern regarding the report, then he or she requests a meeting with the department chair to discuss the matter in a climate of mutual trust and good intention. Both the faculty member and the department chair must agree upon the outcomes of the meeting.

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Midyear adjustment of the performance appraisal plan Based on the department chair's reflection on the midyear faculty self-progress report, the chair and the faculty member consider whether or not an adjustment should be made to the YFPAP. Both the faculty member and the chair must agree upon any adjustment in the original Yearly Faculty Performance Appraisal Plan.

Midyear department faculty progress report The department chair also needs to prepare a midyear faculty progress report. In preparing this report, the department chair collects all the faculty midyear self-progress reports, reads, internalizes, and organizes them into one written draft report.

At the same time, the chair needs to provide each faculty member with written comments and suggestions on his or her midyear self-progress report. With faculty comments and suggestions in mind, the chair should revisit his or her midyear faculty progress report, make the necessary changes and modifications, and then prepare a summary progress report.

End-of-year faculty self-performance appraisal report Most institutions require faculty members to write and submit self-performance appraisal reports at the end of each academic year. Each faculty member needs to prepare and submit an end-of-year self-performance appraisal report using the same procedures and strategies applied in the midyear self-progress report.

End-of-year department faculty performance appraisal report Using the end-of-year faculty self-performance appraisal report and any other predetermined evaluation instruments, such as student evaluation forms and class observations, the department chair prepares his or her end-of-year report. The chair provides each faculty member with the report together with written comments and suggestions for improvement. After the chair discusses the report with faculty, the final end-of-year faculty performance appraisal report is completed.

The end-of-year department performance appraisal report There are certain obstacles and pitfalls to be avoided in performance appraisal reports. One is to avoid and/or minimize the "central clumping" error that often occurs. Central clumping occurs when managers group their employees into a middle clump of performance, usually because of a lack of confidence in outlying results. Another issue to avoid is the "recency effect." This is when the evaluator focuses too heavily on recent performance instead of providing a balanced review of the entire performance period. One way to address these concerns is to provide mechanisms for appraisal of the faculty member on a continual basis throughout the year.

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Benefits of Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report: Faculty This process will provide the opportunity for faculty to: •

Be evaluated based on a specific and predetermined plan that can be modified according to department priorities, resources, and faculty progress.

Be able to determine halfway whether or not she or he is accomplishing the stated goals.

Provide time to reflect and readjust priorities.

Minimize surprises on the final performance evaluation report.

Minimize conflicts with the department chair.

Keep faculty focus on the goals and objectives.

Eliminate the problem of the chair assigning more tasks beyond the preplanned accountabilities.

Additional tasks could be assigned more effectively when chairs are aware of faculty progress and the impact of this progress on other faculty, the department, and the university.

Help build confidence and self-esteem within the faculty, characteristics that are needed when faculty members volunteer and/or are asked to work on college-wide committees.

Help faculty and the chair to form a shared vision, mission, and excellence in the workplace.

Benefits of Yearly Faculty Performance Evaluation Report: Department chair This process will provide the opportunity for department chairs to: •

Identify' the strengths and the limitations of their faculty and the department.

Identify disproportional distribution of resources on department, professional, and personal projects.

Provide time to react to negative attitudes, unexpected events, and unfinished duties.

Effectively use human resources.

Be able to adjust faculty priorities based on the progress report.

Identify which faculty can be relied upon to carry administrative duties when needed.

Provide opportunities to reflect on new priorities and initiatives.

Prepare more effective departmental one-year, five-year, and ten-year goals and action plans.

Conclusion One of the most frequent sources of conflict between the department chair and faculty is the lack of clear communication regarding faculty accountability and the criteria for performance evaluation (Gialamas, Cherif, & Hilentzaris, 2003). Transparency, honesty, and openness are essential elements in a faculty performance appraisal.

This type of strategy will help chairs to see the strengths of their department and the potential of their faculty and to form a better picture of the department’s future. In doing so, it helps chairs to carefully engineer the future by planning

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the experiences that will serve as stepping stones for desirable goals and outcomes. Most importantly, the strategies will enable chairs to see which department rules, policies, and procedures are necessary and which are not. This, in turn, will help them to modify and/or eliminate those that impede performance.

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C REATING AN E NVIRONMENT FOR M INIMIZING C ONFLICT B ETWEEN F ACULTY AND THE D EPARTMENT C HAIRPERSON DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS DR. ABOUR CHERIF DR. SOFIA HILENTZARIS

"C R E A T I N G A N E N V I R O N M E N T F O R M I N I M I Z I N G C O N F L I C T B E T W E E N F A C U L T Y A N D T H E D E P A R T M E N T C H A I R P E R S O N . " T H E D E P A R T M E N T C H A I R 13, N O . 3 ( W I N T E R 200 3) : 2 1– 2 3. R E P R I N T E D W I T H PERMISSION FROM ANKER PUBLISHING, INC. Research has pointed to three main areas as a source of distrust and conflict that may arise between faculty and their chairperson: budget, teaching assignments, and transparencies in faculty performance evaluation. The goal of this article is to discuss the areas of possible conflict, provide strategies for minimizing the conflict, and explore possibilities for developing a positive climate fostering growth, creativity, and fairness. BUDGET In most institutions of higher education, budget development and management are a major component of a department chairperson's responsibilities. However, budget awareness among faculty and staff can contribute to harmony and collegiality. Budget awareness includes understanding the essential concepts: the components of a budget, the principle used to develop the budget, the priorities, the approval process, and the procedures for distributing the funds. In general, there is a perception among administrators that anything related to a department's budget is exclusively a privilege of the chairperson. Some chairpersons believe that faculty budget awareness and involvement implies loss of authority and budget control. When members of a department are ignorant or misinformed about the budget process, spending procedures, and availability of funds and priorities, they cannot correlate the chairperson's decision with their request for funding. They might even develop the perception that the chairperson does not care or that he or she doesn't promote his or her initiative, thus developing negative feelings which promote a negative attitude. Since studies have revealed that a positive attitude is a contributing factor in quality and productivity in the workplace, chairpersons need to pay attention to the attitudes of their department members and the effect that attitude might generate within the work environment (Goleman, 2002). We strongly suggest not only educating faculty on budget principles but also including them in budget discussion, preparation, and spending decisions. They become more thoughtful and responsible in their requests for funding. This approach promotes faculty involvement in budget decisions during its preparation, not only after its approval. With this approach, faculty exercise the principle of Full-Return-of-Investment (FROI) on everything they buy, and they engage in identifying the most effective and efficient avenues to use the department's resources. One of the most significant benefits of this approach is that faculty who contribute to budget decisions become equally responsible for effective utilization of the available funds. Of course, there will always be those who complain, no matter how inclusive and clear the budget processes are made. The following are two approaches that can be used to engage faculty in the budget process: Departmental Budget Committee (DBC) and the Mushroom Budget Approach (MBA). The Departmental Budget Committee (DBC). To maximize the success of the DBC, the following elements must be taken into consideration: •

There should be a clear statement of the committee's function, including its responsibilities and authorities, if any. Therefore, prior to its establishment, it must be clarified whether it is an advisory or decision-making committee.

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Faculty representation at the DBC should reflect the diversity and nature of the department, such as including senior and junior faculty with diverse professional interests that are in alliance with the department's mission. The process for either assigning or electing members for the DBC must be clear and must be followed.

Faculty submit their funding requests for individual professional development needs directly to the DBC as well as other departmental committees (technology, curriculum development, etc.) and faculty who might have additional departmental responsibilities (program coordinators, course sequence leaders, faculty developers, etc.). The members of the DBC meet and prepare a draft of the budget that will be submitted to the chairperson and distributed to the faculty. Depending on the nature of the DBC (advisory or decision making) the submitted budget will represent either a compilation, with possible prioritization, of all submitted requests or the first level of a filtered budget proposal. The chairperson submits the department budget to his or her supervisor and provides a copy to the DBC. A copy of the approved budget is distributed to the DBC and also is available to all faculty. The Mushroom Budget Approach (MBA). In the Mushroom Budget Approach to the department budget process, faculty and all other committees submit their requests either directly to the chair or to their intermediate individual supervisor (program coordinators, course sequence coordinators, etc.). The chairperson then takes under consideration the proposals of all parties and makes his or her decision on the submitted budget. We suggest that the chairperson provide access to the budget to all included parties for a final review and comments before it submitted. Once approved, the chairperson makes the budget available to all department members. TEACHING ASSIGNMENTS Teaching assignments constitute most of the faculty workload in many colleges or universities and can be a source of distrust and conflict between faculty and their chairperson. Therefore, teaching assignments and schedules must become a joint responsibility between faculty and the chairperson and include consideration of several important factors such as students' needs, availability of facilities, and faculty expertise. The chairperson, designated staff members, and/or a department scheduling committee (if such exists) identify the courses and number of sections that the department needs to offer and distribute to faculty a course offering template. With a clear understanding of the needs of the department, faculty submits a request for a preferred teaching assignment with several alternatives and an explanation. The department chair and/or the committee record the faculty requests together with the actual assignment. Any compromise or unfulfilled request by a faculty member will be considered in the future. The chairperson and /or the committee make the final assignment decisions, taking into consideration the following factors: • The nature of each given course (discipline). • The requirement of each course. • The facilities needed for each course. • Students' retention strategies. • The cost of operating each course. • The demand for the course. • The goals of the department. • The mission of the college or university, the policy, and the vision of the chairperson. • The interest of the faculty. The chair provides the goals, the vision, and the policy of the department on which the committee should operate. For example, the chairperson might require that at least one or two senior faculty teach evening or Saturday classes, teach introductory courses, or be the leaders of a sequence of courses. With this process, the chairperson conveys a strong message to all faculty that the development of teaching assignments is an important task based on fairness, thus minimizing faculty perception of favoritism and unfair practices.

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TRANSPARENCIES IN FACULTY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION The criteria for faculty performance evaluation must be clear, concrete, and explained to all, particularly new faculty. At the end of the academic year (or, for new faculty, in the beginning of the academic year), the chair must work with each faculty member to design a yearly accomplishment plan based on the department's performance evaluation criteria. If, for example, the evaluation includes the areas of teaching, service, and professional activities, then the design of the accomplishment plan should outline what the goals will be in each category and how the accomplishment will be measured. Thus, faculty will have a better understanding of the objectives and how he or she will accomplish them. For example, one might clarify professional activities as presenting in a conference, publishing an expository article, or publishing a research article. If, in the evaluation process, a teaching portfolio or a self-evaluation report is required, the chairperson should provide examples and appropriate support. The chairperson and each faculty member should develop a plan for assessing faculty progress in meeting the objectives. The frequency and the length could vary from case to case. If this process is successful the first year, then other related issues will be resolved. In other words, the compilation of each year's faculty performance evaluation will be a strong and sufficient portfolio for tenure and promotion. Faculty will minimize their extra efforts for creating a promotion portfolio during the consideration for yearly promotion. A lack of agreement between a faculty member and his or her chair could evolve during the development of an assessment plan. Because of the high possibility of a condition such as this, it is important that additional avenues be available to both the chairperson and the faculty member. Creation of a Faculty Performance Departmental Committee, consisting of elected senior and junior faculty or tenure and non tenured faculty as well as the department chair, can help minimize conflict and distrust within the department. Indeed, a number of studies have indicated the usefulness of committees such as this in clarifying faculty assessment plans and in helping faculty correlate their plans with the mission and goals of the department. When chairs and members of the Faculty Performance Departmental Committee work together toward a common goal such as making teaching more effective and learning more productive, conflict and distrust begin to vanish. CONCLUSION Each department must accomplish its mission, and in doing so, take into consideration the changes and challenges society faces. It must prepare students to become successful professionals and productive citizens who will be capable of positively contributing to society. A departmental environment that fosters and promotes collegiality, harmony, honesty, collaboration, openness, and respect contributes immeasurably to accomplishing its mission. Dr. Stefanos Gialamas is Dean of Academic Leaders, Faculty, and Instruction at DeVry University. Dr. Abour Cherif is professor of Biology and Science Education at Columbia College Chicago. Dr. Sofia Hilentzaris is with the Keller Graduate School of Management at DeVry University. Email: sgialamas@devry.edu, acherif@popmail.colum.edu, and sofiahilen@aol.com.

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P ENNIES IN THE C LASSROOM G UIDED I NQUIRY L ABORATORIES

A B O U R H . C H E R I F , P H .D . S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. DEVRY UNIVERSITY J E R R Y A D A M S , P H .D . COLUMBIA COLLEGE CHICAGO SCIENCE & MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT S P E C T R U M , T H E I L L I N O I S M A T H E M A T I C S T E A C H E R J O U R N A L , W I N T E R 200 3 Safety Procedures Before working with a flame, boiling solution, and/or any chemicals, especially unknown solutions, there are certain safety procedures that should always be remembered and followed! General Rules: 1. NEVER put your finger inside a test tube, beaker, plastic cup, or on the ends of a glass rod or dropper that has been dipped in an unknown chemical (liquid). 2. NEVER touch or taste any forms of chemicals (solid, liquid, or gas) unless you are instructed to do so by your teacher. 3. TO TEST for temperature changes without a thermometer, hold a test tube upright in your hand. You should be able to feel a change in temperature through the test tube. 4. To test for gas produced, NEVER BRING A TEST TUBE TOYOUR NOSE! For smelling vapors from a test tube, waft the odors toward you with your hands. 5. Wash your hands after conducting each lab experiment or investigation. 6. Handle all glassware, equipment, and reagents (both solid and liquid) carefully. 7. Use laboratory chemicals with special care: they might stain clothing or skin, and cause irritation, etc. 8. If someone spills 3: solution on themselves, inform your teacher and wash it immediately with water. 9. YOU MUST follow directions carefully and use caution with flame and boiling solutions. 10. Do you know where the fire extinguisher and other safety equipment are located in this lab /classroom? Inquiry Lab I: So Many Tarnished Pennies Read all the procedures before you start the lab experiment. Inquiry Question: 1. What do you think would happen if you placed an old tarnished penny in a: A. medicine cup 1/4 full of vinegar and stir for five minutes? B. medicine cup 1/4 full of bleach and stir for five minutes? C. medicine cup 1/4 full of 7-Up and stir for five minutes? D. medicine cup 1/4 full of vitamin C and stir for five minutes? E. medicine cup 1/4 full of hydrogen peroxide'(3%) and stir for five minutes? F. medicine cup 1/4 full of water and stir for five minutes? G. medicine cup 1/4 full of vinegar and a pinch of salt and stir for five minutes?" H. medicine cup 1/4 full of bleach and a pinch of salt and stir for five minutes? I. medicine cup 1/4 full of 7-Up and a pinch of salt and stir for five minutes? J. medicine cup 1/4 full of vitamin C solution and a pinch of salt and stir for five minutes? K. medicine cup 1/4 full of hydrogen peroxide (3%) and a pinch of salt and stir for five minutes? L. medicine cup 1/4 full of water and a pinch of salt and stir for five minutes?

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Write down all your predictions; then discuss them with the members of your group. Keep only those predictions that you couldn't eliminate logically and/ or you couldn't come to an agreement about. Use Table 1 to record your agreed upon predictions. 2. What Actually Happened? Conduct an experiment to find out what actually happens in each case. Use Table 2 to record your observations. To conduct the experiment: a.

b. c. d.

e.

f.

Label 6 cups as: vinegar, bleach 7-Up, vitamin C, hydrogen peroxide, and water and place them on an undisturbed, flat surface. Fill 1/4 of each cup with its corresponding solution. Carefully place in each cup one old tarnished penny and stir. Observe the cups every minute for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, remove the pennies, dry them, and place them on a clean white paper. Record what actually happened in Table 2. Repeat the procedures in 2-1 using new paper cups, a new set of old tarnished pennies, clean plastic medicine cups, and vinegar with salt, bleach with salt, 7-"Up with salt, vitamin C with salt, hydrogen peroxide with salt, and water with salt. Record your observations of what actually happened in Table Record additional observations on the other side of the page.

Answer the Following Questions 1. How do your predictions agree or disagree with what actually happened? 2. What happened to the tarnished pennies when they were left in the solutions? 3. What happened to the pennies when they were left out to dry outside their corresponding solutions? 4. How long did each penny stay shiny and bright after you removed it from its solutions? 5. In which liquid or solution did the tarnished penny change its brightness, the first, the second, the third, and so on? 6. In which liquid or solution did the tarnished penny stay shiny and bright the longest period of time? 7. In which liquid or solution did the tarnished penny stay shiny and bright the shortest period of time?

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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14.

15. 16.

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In which liquid(s) or solution(s) did you see no significant change in the brightness or color of the penny? In which liquid(s) or solution(s) did you see additional characteristics of chemical reactions? Identify these additional characteristics or behaviors. What is the composition of American modern pennies? What is the composition of the tarnish of the pennies that were used in the experiment? What is the nature and the composition of each liquid or solution that was used in the experiment? (In terms of acid, base, neutral, salt, chemical composition). What do you think would happen if you placed those pennies (which developed a darker color) into the solutions in which the pennies lost their tarnish? Write down your predictions and then conduct the experiment to find out what actually happens. What do you think would happen if you were to place those pennies (which lost their tarnish into the solutions in which the pennies developed a darker color? Write down your predictions and then conduct the experiment to find out what actually happens. Why and how did some pennies lose their tarnish when placed in their corresponding solution? Why did some of the tarnished pennies fail to lose their tarnish when placed in their corresponding solutions? Why and how did some of the tarnished pennies developed a darker color when placed in their corresponding solutions? What role did the salt play in how some pennies changed their appearance? Did the salt play the same role in all the liquids that it was added to? What conclusions can you make from your findings?

Inquiry Lab Investigation II: So Many Tarnished Pennies but So Little Time to Clean 1. Identify a maximum of 6 factors that might affect the outcomes of the experiments that you have just successfully completed. Use Table 6 for your answers. 2. Make an investigative question involving each of the 6 identified factors. List your questions in Table 6. 3. Hypothesize how each potential factor could affect the outcomes of the experiments that you have just successfully completed. Use Table 3 for your answers. 4. Design and conduct an experiment to investigate at least 3 hypotheses and to answer each of your corresponding investigative questions. 5. Using graph paper and colored pencils, illustrate you findings on a line graph for each experiment. 6. How does the result from each experiment of investigative questions agree or disagree with your corresponding hypothesis? 7. What scientific term do we use to describe the factors that affect the results of a given experiment? 8. What scientific term do we use to describe the factors that do not affect the results of a given experiment? 9. What conclusions can you make from your findings?

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Coins throughout History Answer the Following Questions: 1. When and where did the United States first mint its coin currency? 2. Which coin was minted first and from what kind of metal? 3. What was printed on the two faces of the first coin made in the USA? 4. Do these prints still exist? 5. List the names of all the people whose likenesses are on today's most common U.S. coins. (Sacajawea $1.00, John F. Kennedy $.50, George Washington $.25, Franklin Roosevelt $.10, Thomas. Jefferson $.05 and Abraham Lincoln $.01). 6. Were all these people presidents of the United States? If not, who were they? 7. Why were these people chosen to be on a coin? Who would you choose and why? Homework Assignment 1. Prepare four hard-boiled eggs and four different clean, shiny coins (a quarter, dime, nickel and penny). 2. Peel the four eggs, and then push the first coin half way into the white of the first egg; push the second coin into the white of the second egg, and so on. 3. Wait about 10-15 minutes before removing each coin. Record your observations. 4. Compare your observations and findings to your predictions. 5. Compare your findings to the findings of the other students in your classroom. 6. What does the white part of an egg contain? 7. What is the chemical makeup (composition) of each coin you have used in the experiment? 8. Why do you think some coins change their color when they are pushed into the white part of an egg? 9. What is the effect of sulfur compounds on silver? 10. What useful application can you draw from your findings? Coins and Corrosion Coins can be used to introduce corrosion in the classroom. Most students have seen rust and ate familiar with the role water plays in causing rust. Most of us have seen and probably dropped coins into water fountains. Why are these coins not rusted? Rust (iron oxide) is the most common form of corrosion that is caused by the reaction of iron and water. Oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and water vapor (H 2 0) are known to cause gradual wearing away of some metals, and/or gradual changing of the original color of some other metals. These gases react chemically with some materials and cause distinct physical changes. These processes of change are called corrosion. For example, nickel is corroded by oxygen, copper is corroded by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and/or hydrogen sulfide, and silver is corroded or tarnished by hydrogen sulfide.

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Ask students to predict what would happened if they exposed the four different coins to oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and/or hydrogen sulfide. Collect the students' predictions and discuss them with the students. Ask students to design their own experiments that enable them to examine the effects of gases such as Oxygen (O 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and water vapor (H 2 0) on U.S. coins. When copper reacts with carbon dioxide, water, or hydrogen sulfide, for example, its color changes from reddish orange to green. When silver reacts with hydrogen sulfide, its color changes to black. Most U.S. coins, both old and new, are not made of single, pure elements; instead, they are mixtures of metals called Alloys. Alloys are often stronger than pure metals, and can also display other desirable characteristics (like the color and ease of polishing of brass, a combination of copper and zinc). Alloys are not compounds, because the proportions of the elements in the mixture can be varied at will, producing an infinite variety of possible mixtures. Alloys used in U.S. coins (like the copper/nickel alloy used in nickels and the outer shells of dimes, quarters and half dollars) are selected for their toughness and resistance to corrosion, increasing the useful life of the coins. U.S. Coin Compositions Pennies 1943 only – steel 1944 and 1945 - copper (shell case)/zinc/tin (bronze). All other dates to 1982- standard copper/zinc/tin (bronze). 1982 and after - pure copper covering pure zinc. Nickels 1942 through 1945 - 30% silver, 60% copper, 10% zinc. All other dates - standard copper/nickel alloy. Dimes Before 1965 - 91 % fine silver. 1965 and after - copper/nickel on copper (sandwich construct). Quarters Before 1965 - 91 % fine silver. 1965 and after - copper/nickel on copper (sandwich construct). Half Dollars Before 1965 - 91% fine silver. 1965 and after - copper/nickel on copper (sandwich construct). Dollars Before 1935 - 91 % fine silver. 1971 to 1999 - copper/nickel on copper (sandwich construct). 2000 and after - copper/zinc (brass).

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Bibliography Cherif, A. and M. Wideen (1992). The Problems of Transition from High School to University Science. B.C. Catalyst. 36(1): 10-18. Cherif, Abour (2001).Are You Attracted to Me: Discovering Magnets and Magnetism Lab Investigation. Spectrum, 27(2):31-35. Cherif, Abour H. (1993). Relevant Inquiry. The Science Teacher, 60(9): 26-28. Cherif, Abour H. (1993). Science Education: What's It All About? Illinois School &search and Development, 29(3): 12-17. Cherif, A. Gialamas, S., and Simos, E. (1997). Science and Mathematics: Integrating the Teaching of Science, Math, and Social Studies in Relevant Context. Spectrum, 23(3); 20-28. Dunlop, Michael (1990). Promoting Critical Thinking in the Classroom. RC. Catalyst. 34(1): 14-17. Freidel, Frank (1994). The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, D.C: White House Historical Association Friedl, Alfred (1991). Teaching Science to Children: An Integrated Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Gialamas, Stefanos (1997). Fundamentals of Mathematics. Chicago: Parxis and Education Press. Hughes, Roderick P. (1995). Fell's United States Coin Book. Hollywood, FL: Lifetime Book. Massey, J. Earl (1968). America’s Money: The Story of Our Coins and Currency. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. McWhorter and Evans, Alvis J. (1994). Basic Electronics. Richardson, Texas: Master Publisher, Inc. Miller, Charles D., Venn E. Heeren, and E. John Hornsby, Jr. (1990). Mathematical Ideas. New York: Harper Collins publishers. Mims, Forrest M. (1993). Getting Started In Electronics. U.S.A.: Forrest M. Mims, III Publisher. Moore, Randy (1990). What's Wrong with Science Education & How Do We Fix It? The American Biology Teacher, 52(6), 330-337. Reed, Mort (1972). Encyclopedia of US Coins. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. Rosenhein, Laurence D. (2001). The Household Chemistry of Cleaning Pennies. Journal of Chemical Education, 78(4): 513-515. Rothenberger, Otis S. and Webb, James W. (2000). Liberal Arts Chemistry Work text. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/ Hunt Publishing Company. Smith, Karl J. (1991). The Nature of Mathematics. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Staniforth, Sue and Abour Cherif (1986). Science Education and Society: Call for a Holistic Approach. Elementary Science Network: 2-3. Taylor, Beverly, James Poth, and Dwight Portman (1995). Teaching Physics with Toys: Activities For Grade K·9. New York: TAB Books. ____ (1975). Coins: An Illustrated History 665B.C. to Present Day. New York: Metheun Publisher.

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P REPARING N EW D EPARTMENT C HAIRPERSONS IN THE A REA OF F ACULTY L EADERSHIP ; A P RACTITIONER ' S A PPROACH A B O U R H . C H E R I F , P H D, E L I A S A. D E M E T R I A D E S . P H D, S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H .D. S O F I A H I L E N R Z A R I S , P H D , D E B O R A H A R N D T M A H E R , J. D. A C A D E M I C L E A D E R S H I P V O L . 10. 3, F A L L 200 3

SOCIAL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND EDUCATIONAL TREN DS ARE RAPIDLY CHANGING THE FACE OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY TEACHING, LEARNING, SCHOLARSHIP AND ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES. FURTHERMORE, AS A RESULT OF THESE TRENDS, HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS HAVE BECOME MORE COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS WITH INCREASINGLY COMPLICATED DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES. Over the years, department chairs have progressively assumed multiple types and levels of responsibilities. Today, in most higher education institutions, deportment chairs must be faculty developers, managers, scholars and academic leaders (Lucas, 2000). Department choirs are leading faculty in professional growth and development, arranging faculty assignments, conducting faculty performance evaluations and making promotional determinations. As academic leaders, department chairs are setting long-term direction and creating the vision of the department by determining how the curriculum should be modified or improved in order to fulfill the needs of students, the workforce, and Society. In addition, they must continue their scholarship as broadly defined by Boyer (1990) and discussed further by Rice (1996) and Glassick, Huber and Maeroff (1997). Simultaneously, they must also effectively represent the faculty of the department internally and externally. The deportment chair position is not uniformly defined even, within the same institution. Normal preparation of individuals for a department chairpersonship can be characterized on a spectrum, from casual to nonexistence. Preparation is oriented toward understanding administrative procedures and is extremely situational, rather than holistic or systematic (Seagren, 1993). It is commonly understood that the faculty of an institution is essential in the institution’s efforts to develop a good reputation for teaching, scientific advantages, services to the community and innovative practices. Faculty is the most valuable and expensive asset of an institution and their commitment to the students and to their colleges or universities must not be weakened (Tierney, 2003). This is because faculty productivity has a major impact on academic and institutional accountability (Middough, 2(00). Consequently, the management and development of faculty into teachers and scholars should be the highe1`st priority of the institution. Yet surprisingly, most department chairs are not well prepared to carry out their role in this regard effectively. Studies indicate that there is an unstated assumption that faculty know how to accomplish what is expected of them (Learning, 1998). [FACULTY LEADERSHIP] Department chairs are expected to exhibit faculty leadership, as defined as the continuous act of leading faculty in accomplishing the mission of the department in line with the mission of the institution, and in achieving their own professional growth and development (Gialamas, 2003). We have identified the following six major components of faculty leadership: • Department Mission, Vision and Strategies • Faculty Recruitment • Faculty Training • Faculty Professional Development • Faculty Professional Growth • Faculty Performance Evaluation There are certain identifiable characteristics that are catalysts for a person to successfully achieve these objectives of faculty leadership. These characteristics include being on open-minded person, a good listener, a lifelong learner, a

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problem solver, accepting of constructive criticism, a person who believes in the power of collective minds, a person willing to take chances with people, a person who believes in total integrity as the basis for dealing with others, and a person who is willing to share power, delegate responsibility as well as authority, and a person who is a kind human being (Casey, 1997; Cherif, Gialamas, and Ofuri-Amoah, 2000). [MISSION, VISION AND STRATEGIES] From a practitioner's point of view, one can better understand the meaning of a department's mission, vision, and strategies by answering the questions respectively "Where," "What," and "How" as follows: Where do we want to take the deportment in the future? What will it take to accomplish this? How are we going to do it successfully? For example, let us assume that the mission of the deportment is to provide the best science education experience to non-science major students. Then the vision would be to determine what curriculum, what teaching methodologies, and what type of faculty are needed to most successfully accomplish the mission. The strategies will include identifying avenues for developing the specific curriculum, designing appropriate delivery methodologies and recruiting, training and developing faculty who could effectively relate science to students' disciplines and to everyday life. Figure I illustrates how the mission, the vision, and the strategies must develop, support and foster success in a departmental setting. The chairperson should partner with the faculty to shape the future of the department by defining the department's mission in line with the institution's mission. The chairperson should identify strategies for carrying out the mission and vision. There are several existing good guides for developing a mission, vision, strategic goals and action steps (Gmelch and Miskin, 1993). Finally, the department chair in collaboration with his/her faculty must establish faculty characteristics needed to achieve the assessment criteria to determine success, as well as incentives for longterm success. [FACULTY RECRUITING] In collaboration with faculty, the department chair must develop a strategy to ensure that the recruited faculty not only have the identified qualifications needed to accomplish the mission, but also are dedicated, enthusiastic and will be able to work effectively as a team (Moore, 1996). A team consists of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance, goals and approach for which they hold themselves naturally accountable (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993). In the continuing process of assembling the faculty team, the chairperson must consider the following: • Mission and vision • Educational deliveries (semester, accelerated, online, hybrid, etc) • The number of existing faculty in different ranks (assistant professor, associate professors, tenured, etc.) • The type of students taught by the department • The future plans for expanding the course and program offering by the department • The plan for faculty sabbaticals and projected vacancies due to retirement • The plan for forecasting student enrollment • The department's strategies to integrate technology in teaching and learning • The department's plan for generating the needed budget and resources to accomplish the mission and vision • Matching faculty interests to the department's needs Lists such as this can be also used beyond recruiting, as discussed By Bick (1999) in different context: "'When a new hire joins the team, sit down together and make a list of the skills you both think are important to the success of his or her job and why. Yes, you already have your list in mind. But talking it over together helps both of you focuses and is a more palatable approach than a direct order. The discussion sets appropriate expectations for the new employee and can serve as a reminder of the qualities needed to succeed in the position." (p. 7)

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[FACULTY TRAINING] A large number of faculty enters the teaching profession without any formal teaching preparation. Certain critical aspects of an institution's environment can also create an enhanced demand for a better-prepared educator, such as a diverse student population and new delivery formats. Content expertise is necessary but not sufficient to provide the best educational experience for students. What we teach is important, but how we teach is even more so for maximizing our students' learning. This is especially true for undergraduate students. To master the art of teaching, faculty need to absorb the three necessary levels of teaching excellence, which are (in ascending order) the following: Teaching Tips, Teaching Techniques, and Teaching Philosophies. A comprehensive faculty-training program must include conveyance of the following items and promote faculty understanding and appreciation for these items: • • • • • •

The institution's teaching and learning philosophy, reflecting the institution's culture Classroom management that provides strategies for dealing with issues pertaining to students (such as tardiness, disruptive behavior, etc.) Administrative accountabilities such as prompt student feedback, submitting grades on time, etc. Course preparation that includes a course syllabus with course objectives, and lesson and teaching plans with reflective activities and consideration of students' diverse learning styles Application of evaluation tools and criteria (for grading) that are reliable and appropriate Assessment of student learning (one minute paper, Socratic dialogue, and weekly creative integrated concepts)

[FACULTY PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT] Chairs must establish strategies for developing faculty in the areas of teaching, services, and scholarship (broadly defined by Boyer (1990) as the scholarship of discovery, integration, applications and scholarship of teaching). Faculty must be encouraged and supported to apply new ideas that are fragile and often die because they are not given a chance to be developed before they are critically examined. The sharing of ideas amongst faculty in a non-threatening environment helps create a vision that is intellectually and emotionally stimulating to faculty. To achieve this, the department chair first needs to resonate energy and enthusiasm and to create an environment where everyone is important and all ideas count (Casey, 1997, Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, 2002). In addition, the department chair should adopt strategies including: • • • • • • • •

Setting clear goals jointly with each faculty member based upon the needs of the department and the role of the faculty within the department Ensuring the goals are achievable with respect to the available resources provided to the faculty and the realities of the stated goals Providing the necessary support to accomplish the faculty professional goals Ensuring commitment to not back down from the stated goal Providing sufficient and consistent constructive feedback to each faculty member regarding progress in the accomplishment of the slated goals Being flexible to adjust a goal. Based on the progress in the accomplishment of the goal Recognizing achievement and accomplishment by the faculty member and by peers

[FACULTY PERSONAL PROFESSIONAL GROWTH] As a part of human nature, we strive for personal growth according to our own individual abilities and desires. A department chair should always be willing to identify potential for Faculty Personal Professional Growth (FPPG) (Gialamas, 2001), and provide motivation, support and guidance to achieve the goal. There are critical factors that each chair must be aware of as well as specific strategies that need to be followed to ensure not only success but also continuity. Critical factors: For a department chair to be successful in promoting and supporting faculty personal professional growth he/she must: • Accept "Faculty Personal Professional Growth" as an important asset to the department and a critical factor for the accomplishment of the goals of the department

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Believe that people can grow, develop, and become more effective if they have a leader who understands their potential value (Maxwell, 1995), be sensitive to their feelings and goals (Casey, 1997), and who always resonates energy and enthusiasm in the workplace (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, 2002) Believe that leadership "resides not solely in the individual at the top, but in every person at every level, who, in one way or another, acts as a leader to a group of followers." (Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee, 2002, p. Xiii) Create and foster an environment that provides them with the opportunities enabling them to achieve their personal professional growth goals Adopt and implement specific strategies to achieve the identified goals

Strategies: To achieve Faculty Personal Professional Growth (FPPG) goals, the deportment chair needs to adopt specific strategies including: • Identifying strengths, weaknesses, and potential of faculty, in combination with the particular aspirations of the faculty member. • Setting a FPPG plan by meeting with each faculty to discuss his or her career goals and interest • Understanding that a FPPG plan is a living document that must adapt to reflect changes in the faculty member or the environment. Growth is not an isolated event; it is a journey • Exploring various opportunities for career paths based on the goals, interests, strengths and the potential of the faculty member • Mentoring faculty, in the event that the faculty is interested in following a specific personal and professional growth path • Providing consistent support and encouragement to acquire necessary skills, knowledge and experience for achieving personal and professional career goals We understand that providing motivation and support for faculty members to pursue their personal professional growth requires a department chair to be competent and to enjoy the confidence and support of his or her faculty. In order for the chair to have this, he or she must have also excelled at the areas the faculty is engaging in as professionals. In addition, the chair should be confident, an independent thinker, honest and open with faculty and staff, willing to accept responsibility for his or her decisions, and most of all, not out of touch with important issues in the department as well as in higher education. Furthermore, the chair must have the desire to serve the faculty and provide them with high quality opportunities for professional growth and development instead of policing and controlling them (Moore, 1996). There is great value to the department in demonstrating such support for faculty, including enhanced morale, lower turnover, and the subsequent inherent benefits to students. [FACULTY PERFORMANCE EVALUATION] One of the most frequent sources of conflict between the department chair and a faculty member is the lack of clear communication to the faculty regarding faculty accountability and the criteria for performance evaluation (Gialamas, Cherif, and Hilentzaris, 2(03), Transparency, honesty and openness are essential elements in faculty performance evaluation. Indeed, "no amount of resources can overcome the damage produced by a dishonest administrator who plays favorites, makes secret deals, or deceives people." (Moore, 1996, p. 502). To achieve productive and effective faculty performance evaluations, we strongly suggest the following strategies: • • • • • •

The department chair must institute a yearly faculty accountability and performance evaluation, including the criteria for measuring success in the areas of teaching, services and professional activities. In the beginning of the academic year, the department chair should meet with each faculty member. With the Faculty member's agreement and collaboration, they should decide on the specific accountabilities for the following academic year. This determination will then become the basis for the yearly faculty performance appraisal and evaluation. Periodically, the department chair meets with the faculty member to assess the progress of accomplishments in the specific areas agreed to. With ample time available prior to the due date of the yearly performance appraisal, the department chair obtains the faculty member's self-evaluation based on achievement of the agreed to items. The department chair then bases the yearly performance appraisal on the following items: the prior year's performance evaluation with agreed to goals and accountabilities for this performance period, the faculty self

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evaluation, student class evaluations, class observations, and other relevant material. The sources are used to develop insights in the progress and proficiency of the faculty member in distinct areas of accountability. The weight of each accountability may vary at different institutions. For instance, DeVry University uses the following weighting of accountabilities: Teaching Effectiveness 65%, Professional Development 15%, Program Involvement 10%, and DeVry University Service 10%. [THE FACULTY LEADERSHIP PRAXIS MATRIX] For a new chairperson, the following specific action steps are strongly recommended: • Make sure that all faculty understand, accept and internalize the mission, vision and strategies for the department. • Identify departmental faculty needs and recruit the appropriate faculty. • Provide comprehensive training to new faculty and a developmental plan for continuing faculty. • Educate and prepare faculty for the department's mission and purposes. • Prepare faculty for their duties in the department. • Identify needs and opportunities for faculty development and growth. • Establish and complete the yearly faculty appraisal form. • Establish strong and consistent feedback to accomplish the goals of the yearly faculty appraisal form. • Remind faculty in advance about the deadlines for submitting their self evaluations forms. • Train personnel to review and analyze all submissions in support of an evaluation. • Before the official final deadline for the evaluation, meet with the faculty member to eliminate any misunderstanding and to provide feedback to the faculty member. • Give the performance appraisal on time and include planning for next year's goals. [CONCLUSION] Strategies such as those presented in this article we believe could help to prepare and develop new department chairs in the area of faculty leadership. New department chairs lead not only to understand, and internalize he magnitude of their influence in the department's faculty development and personal professional growth but also in shaping the mission and the vision of the department and thus the entire institution. However, these strategies are not sufficient for achieving a departmental success without the support of the institution's upper administration. AI Casey (1997) has argued that the following personal characteristics are important for developing effective leadership regardless of the type of the work place. These characteristics are: the person’s ability and willingness to create a climate of trust in the workplace, a structure in which everyone is important and all ideas count, and an atmosphere in which kindness, generosity, hard work, honesty and integrity are the norm.

Acknowledgment: We would like to acknowledge the following colleagues for their invaluable suggestions and commendations in improving this article. •

Dr. Cheryl Johnson-Odim, Dean of School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Columbia College, Chicago

Dr. Randy Moore, Editor, The American Biology Teacher Journal

Dr. Benjamin Ofori-Amoah, Department Chair, Geography/Geology, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point

Dr. Bashar Hanna, Dean of Academic Affairs, DeVry University at Fort Washington, Pennsylvania.

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REFERENCES Bick, J. (1999). The Microsoft edge: Insider strategies for building success. New York: Pocket Books. Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. New York: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Casey. A. (1997). Casey's law: If something can go right it should. New York: ARCADE Publishing. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., Ofari-Omoah. B. (2000). Can human factor be taught? The Journal of Human Factor Studies. 5 (1&2):89-114. Gialamas, S. (2001). New academic leaders development program (NAWP). Oakbrook, Illinois: DeVry University Publication. Gialamas, S., Cherif. A. and Hilentzaris. S. (2003). Creating an environment for minimizing conflict between faculty and the department chairperson. The Department Chair. 13(3): 21-23. Glassick, C. E., Huber. H. T. and Maeroff. G. (1997). Scholarship assessed: Evaluation of the professorate. New York: Jessey-Bass. AWiley Imprint. Gmelch and Mission (1993). See for main roles as critical for department chairs leadership skills for department chairs, Boston. MA:Anker Publishing. Goleman, D.. Boyatris. R. and McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: Realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston. Massachusetts : Harvard Business SchoolPress. Katzenbach, John and Smith. Douglas (1993). The 'wisdom of teams: Creating the higher performance organization. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 1993. Learning. D.R. (1998). Academic leadership: A practical guide to chaining the department. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing. Lucas. Ann, F. (2000). Leading academic change: Essential roles for department chairs. San Francisco: Jessey-Bass Publishers. Maxwell, John C. (1995). Developing the leaders around you: How to help others reach their full potential. Nashville: Tennessee. Thomas Nelson. Middaugh, Michael (2002). Understanding faculty productivity: Standards and bench marks for college and university. New York: Jessey-Bass. A Wiley Imprint. Moore. Randy (1996). Traits of effective administrators. The American Biology Teacher, 57 (8): 502. Rice, Eugene (1996). Making a place for the new American scholar. AAAE New Path Pathways: Faculty Careers and Employment for the 21st century, WDC. 1996. Seagren, A. T.. Creswell, J . W. & Wheeler, D.W. (1993). The department chair: New Roles, Responsibilities and Challenges. Washington. DC: The George Washington University. Tierney, W. G. (2003). The responsive campus: Nine ways to weaken faculty commitment to the university. The Department Chair. 13(3): 7-9.

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AUTHORS Abour H. Cherif, Ph.D. Dr. Abour H. Cherif is the Director of Faculty and Academic leader Development and the Acting Director of Curriculum for Sciences at the DeVry University System. Dr. Cherif has published over 60 articles. Elias A. Demetriades, Ph.D. Dr. Demetriades teaches economics and mathematics at ILIA in Chicago and lectures at the Stuart Graduate School of Business on corporate finance, portfolio management and financial risk. He consults on business strategy and financial modeling and conducts research on business education and on energy derivatives. Stefanos Gialamas, Ph.D. Stefanos Gialamas is the Provost of the American College of Thessaloniki (ACT) Greece. He is the Vice president and president elect of the Association of University Administrators. He is also the Vice President of the International Institute for Human Factor Development, as well as the Editor of the Journal Reviews of Human Factor Studies. He has published more than 80 articles and he is the author of 3 books. Sofia Hilenrzaris, Ph.D. Dr. Sofia Hilentzaris is the Director of Catalyst Development Services of Synthex Group International. Catalyst specializes in: Organizational Development, Performance Improvement, Applying New Technologies and Project Management. She also teaches Leadership and Organizational Development courses at the Graduate School of Business of the American College of Thessaloniki, Greece. E.U. Deborah Arndt Maher, J.D. Professor of Management Keller Graduate School of Management DeVry University and Corporate Director of Human Resources DeVry Inc. (dmaher@devry.com).

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U SING G UIDED I NQUIRY IN T EACHING M ATHEMATICAL C ONCEPTS

S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , D E V R Y I N S T I T U T E S , O A K B R O O K T E R R A C E , IL S A R A H K E L L E R , I L L I N O I S I N S T I T U T E O F A R T , C H I C A G O , IL A B O U R C H E R I F , C O L U M B I A C O L L E G E C H I C A G O , C H I C A G O , IL A N N H A N S E N , C O L U M B I A C O L L E G E C H I C A G O , C H I C A G O , IL I L L I N O I S M A T H E M A T I C S T E A C H E R - F A L L 2 000

The guided inquiry method of teaching promotes students' active participation in the learning process. It increases students' ability to analyze, synthesize, evaluate, and relate the intended learning concepts to multiple disciplines and everyday life, thereby making the material more relevant to students. In this paper, we introduce the guided inquiry method in teaching mathematical concepts. This method is used here to teach the golden ratio and the golden rectangle concepts. Introduction and Rationale In order to capture the students' attention and interest, a teacher must actively engage the students in discovery activities that demonstrate the mathematical concept. After students have had opportunities to explore real life phenomena surrounding the concept and to understand the concept's correlation with other disciplines, the teacher provides students with a formal presentation of the concept. Finally, discussion of its application in multiple environments, including professional and nonprofessional settings, reinforces the understanding of the concept. Although there are many proposed forms of inquiry development (e.g. Dewey, 1910; Schwab, 1962), all contain basic similarities that pertain to teachers and students alike. In Suchman's method (1966), which parallels other proposed methods, the steps in the process of inquiry are to (1) present discrepant events or specific problematic situations, (2) encourage observation for developing a statement of research objectives, (3) ask students for observations and explanations, (4) encourage the testing of those hypotheses, (5) develop tentative conclusions and generalizations, and (6) debrief the process. In order for this process to work, the teacher must create an appropriate classroom climate where asking questions and hypothesizing about the given problem are encouraged. Teachers must also create an environment where the students do not just passively take notes and/or regurgitate factual information, but where they actively participate in the learning process. There are many mathematical concepts that lend themselves to the guided inquiry method. First, we will explain what we mean by "mathematics," then we will introduce the general technique for using the guided Inquiry method in the teaching of mathematics, and finally we will demonstrate the use of this method in teaching one specific mathematics lesson. What is Mathematics? There is a common belief that mathematics is the study of numbers. In this over simplified perspective, mathematics seems straightforward-enough not to need an approach to teaching such as guided inquiry. Sometimes, more comprehensively, it is believed that mathematics is the science of numbers. Still this perspective is not quite accurate: it is both ' simpler and more complicated than that. If we consider mathematics historically, we can trace an evolution of the understanding of this subject, and begin to understand why a more comprehensive approach to the subject is required. Up to 500 BC (Egyptian-Babylonian understanding of mathematics), mathematics was indeed the study of numbers. From 500 BC to 300 AD (in Greece), Geometry became the foundation for mathematics. The study at this time involved forging a relationship between shapes and numbers. Mathematics was now regarded as an intellectual pursuit, having both aesthetic and religious elements. It was at this time that axioms and theorems were born. Because of this development, precisely stated assertions of mathematics could be logically proven by a formal argument.

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There was no major change in this conception of mathematics until the middle of the 17th century, with the advent of calculus. Newton (English) and Leibniz (German) studied numbers as well as shapes, motion, change, and space, having recognized a relationship among these previously disparate elements. At the end of the 19th century, the study of numbers became augmented by its more complex relationship with motion, change, space, and, most importantly to the issues raised in this essay-the utilization of specific mathematical tools that will be used in this study. Today, therefore, mathematics is the science not just of numbers, but of patterns. These patterns can be real or imaginary, visual or mental, static or dynamic, qualitative or quantitative. They can arise from the world around us, from the depths of space and time, or from the inner workings of the human mind. They are, then, both more complicated than the first historical understandings of mathematics, for they involve much more than just numbers, and more simple, for they are the foundations of much of what we already observe in the world and in our own schema of thought and discovery (Gialamas, 1997). To introduce the mathematical concept of concern to this study, then, let us initially consider a more elementary mathematical topic: proportion. A proportion is a relationship between two ratios and is expressed as a : b :: c : d, or as

A ratio, in turn, is a comparison of two different sizes, quantities, qualities, or ideas, and is expressed by the formula a: b or With this in mind, there is one unique geometric proportion of terms that has been called the golden ratio, which is the focus of this mathematical investigation. To make it truly an investigation, students must be able to discover, understand, and relate the learning concept to real-life situations. Using the guided inquiry method with the steps outlined below, they learn to do so. Using the Guided Inquiry Technique to Teach Mathematical Concepts for Conceptual Change The following seven main questions have been modified from Cherif's (1988) proposed guided inquiry method for teaching science, to be used as general guided inquiry questions for the teaching of mathematical concepts (Appendix 1). With these questions, the teacher engages the students in discovery activities that will eventually demonstrate the mathematical concept for the students. Before the activity: (1) What do you think will happen, given an initial set of conditions and a specific set of procedures to follow? (Here, students should make conjectures for what they believe will happen.) (2) Which conjectures seem to be the most mathematically viable? After the activity: (3) What is the result of completing the procedures? (4) Which initial conjectures were most reasonable? (5) To arrive at a conclusion, what steps were needed in order to complete these procedures? (6) Where can you identify correlations between introduced mathematical concepts and activities in daily lives? (7) Can you generalize the results by completing these procedures? Using these steps drawn from the principles of guided inquiry, mathematics may be taught in a manner that engages students' intellectual curiosity. Using Guided Inquiry Questions to Teach the Golden Ratio One might define those two quantities a and b satisfy the golden ratio property if the ratio is approximately 1.618 (Editor's Note: An alternate definition is given in the later section titled The Golden Ratio.) The questions that follow are derived from the general guided inquiry approach and suited for use in a lesson on the golden ratio. These questions were used in a seventh grade classroom, and those students' conjectures and answers are given below.

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Before the activity: 1) What do you think will happen when you compare the length of your hand and the length of your arm? According to Cherif (1988), a question such as this belongs to the Synthesis Level of Bloom's educational objectives. Its aim is to arouse interest, to stimulate thinking, and to produce educated conjectures. It deals with expectations. When we ask, "What will happen if...," we set the stage for the students to recognize that there is a problem, and therefore to capture their immediate interest. Furthermore, this question promotes the ability to use mathematical tools in order to express a hypothesis or possible conclusion clearly. Here are some examples of students' initial hypotheses: a) The ratio of measurements among male students will be twice as great as the ratio of measurement among the female students. b) The ratio of measurements among female students will be 1 and 12 times greater than the male students. c) The ratio of measurements among taller students will be greater than the ratio of measurements among the shorter students. d) The ratio of measurements among taller girls and shorter boys will be almost the same. e) The ratio of measurements among male and female students most of the time will be the same. 2) Which of the above conjectures seems like the best answer? To promote educated conjectures, learners must have enough time to discuss their conjectures amongst themselves. Moreover, they must be able to justify their conjectures and also to change their conjectures in case someone else has a better point of view. In this situation, the student might discuss the idea that two sets of numbers might be different but might have the same ratio (e.g., 8/16 and 4/8). The educated conjectures then go up on the blackboard for further use. After the activity: 3) What is the result of completing the procedures? At this point, students complete the activity and record the results. Students are given the opportunity to test their own conjectures by performing the measurements and calculating the corresponding ratio of the length of arms to hands among male and female students in the classroom. Therefore it promotes the integration of students' understanding and the manifestation of their understanding on the investigated problem. In addition, the students must observe carefully, measure and calculate accurately, and describe their findings in writing (the actual final result) in a concise manner. This question offers students the opportunity to actually plan and carry out experiments on their own to determine whether their conjecture is reasonable. As a result, they will have the opportunity to gain the skills of designing experiments, testing hypotheses, reasoning and debating results, etc. 4) After completing the measurements and finding the ratios, what do you think about your initial conjectures? Which of the initial conjectures were the most reasonable? This is a descriptive-discovery question based on the careful observation that characterizes any scientific process. It is aimed toward building an awareness of what actually happened and encouraging students to willingly change their thinking (conjectures) based on the results of the experiments (Cherif, 1988). In this case, an example of an accepted answer is: "There is no significant difference in the ratio of the length of hands to arms on male and female students." When all the students have agreed about the actual findings and the conclusions pertaining to the compared ratio, they are asked to compare their own initial conjectures with the actual finding. Then, they are asked to come forward and erase from the blackboard any unmatched predictions. This is an exciting, self-correcting stage where the students, while engaged in the whole process independently, are actually learning by thinking and doing. Since students are devoted to conducting experiments to test them, the analysis of experimental results will allow for some hypotheses to be rejected and some to retained (Cherif, 1988).

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At this stage, Cherif has warned teachers from falling into the "right answer syndrome," where many teachers feel they must give the right answers to students' questions. In the spirit of inquiry, the students should be allowed to make discoveries for themselves. To use Popp's words (1981), teachers should help students develop or enhance a frame of mind"...which can allow familiar and perhaps pet beliefs to be released in favor of alternative better supported ones." The following are examples of how seventh grade students tested their hypotheses that were listed in question number two: • • •

They measured the ratios for their sisters and brothers and used those results to justify their conjectures pertaining to hypothesis (c). They measured the ratios for their pets and drew conclusions in terms of their, conjectures in hypothesis (e). One student used charts from his father's medical office in an attempt to determine patterns of growth, as they relate to hypotheses (a) and (b). A student used her footprint from the hospital certificate created on her date of birth to compare with the current ratio of segments of her foot length, to test hypothesis (a).

5) What steps have you taken in order to conclude that there is no significant difference in the ratio of the hands to the arms of different student? Students need to describe precisely and in detail all the previous steps they and/or the teacher have taken before reaching the final conclusion. In other words, with this question, students need to be able to describe the experimental pattern that led to the final results. Cherif (1988, 1993) has stated that the objectives of asking this question are: a) To keep students up-to-date with the inquiry processes. b) To establish in their minds the cause and effect relationship and that the final results could not have been determined without all the previous steps. c) To encourage students to think of everything that took place not as separate or as an isolated event, but as a total and integrated whole. Most teachers go directly to the question «Why?" after they ask the question "What happened?" Teachers should be cautioned not to pass over the process too lightly, simply because the students have gained some skills and information and have developed an awareness of the problem. It is necessary for the students to reflect on the experience of having a discovered the final result, in order to help them deepen their understanding and appreciation of the gained knowledge and processes (Cherif, 1988 and 1998). In answering this question, a seventh grade student wrote: a) We measured the lengths of several parts of our bodies. b) We calculated the ratios of two of the measurements. c) We compared all of the ratios. d) We drew conclusions about the ratios and our conjectures. e) We discovered that not all of our conjectures were wrong. f) After taking all the measurements, we compared our findings with our conjectures. 6) Can you identify a correlation between the demonstrated mathematical concept and real life? Cherif (1988) calls this question an idea application or testing-understanding. He argues that its aim is to help students to, generalize from the ideas at hand and to encourage them to think of the investigated concept as a part of their lives. This question is asked in order to confirm the following: (a) To make sure that students understand the idea or the concept under investigation. (b) To make sure that they master the inquiry processes. (c) To help them develop the ability to apply the reasoning pattern in other situations.

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(d) To see mathematics as a part, not only of society, but also ofthemse1ves. (e) To accept mathematics as a way of knowing, and understanding. Once the students have undergone the process of guided inquiry in order to understand a specific mathematical concept, it is important to reinforce their understanding with applications in other disciplines and in daily life. 7) Can you generalize the results of completing these procedures? How, can you show, mathematically that there is no significant difference in the ratio of the length of hands to arms on a variety of students? Here, students must provide enough evidence in their attempt to prove their conjectures in general. This is the causal question or the reasoning explanation. The point of this question is that students are asked to generate a reasoned and testable hypothesis. At this stage, it is the (generalization of a hypothesis and not the testing of the hypothesis that is of concern. Teachers must remember that it is «the theory and not the experiment [that] opens up the way to new knowledge" (Karl Popper; cited in Hurd, 1969, p. I 7). Furthermore, in this stage of the inquiry, Cherif has argued, the tentative explanations (testable hypotheses) offered by students should reflect their ideas, experiences, and understanding, and thus present teachers with the opportunity to find out how and what their students think about the given instance. Based on such findings, teachers should make the decision to continue the session of inquiry without further assistance, with more guided assistance, or to give the students more time to look for related information needed for generating testable hypotheses related to the investigated problem(s). Teachers should have a set of follow-up questions ready for use to stimulate the students should there still persist many ill-founded and unsettled hypotheses. The following are examples of students' testable hypotheses in seventh grade: a) Humans grow symmetrically. b) Human body parts grow proportionally. c) The growth pattern is the same for the human body in males and females. d) The growth pattern is the same within all living organisms (plants and animals). e) The growth pattern is constant within each species in mammals. As Cherif has argued, only those conjectures that have provided enough evidence of how they might be proven must be considered. The students who generate conjectures, but fail to provide enough evidence of how they can prove them, should have their conjectures rejected by the teacher for consideration. The Formal Introduction of the Mathematical Concept At this stage in the guided inquiry method, the teacher formally introduces the mathematical concept that was previously intuitively presented to the students. The first mathematics concept under investigation is the golden ratio. The Golden Ratio Given a line segment AB and a point C between A and B

the ratio

is denoted by φ and is called the golden ratio. One can compute the value of φ as follows:

Let AB = x and AC =m. Then BC = x - m. The ratio becomes:

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Let us consider x as the variable and m as the constant. Then we may apply the quadratic formula with the solution as follows:

negative number. Therefore, there is only one positive solution, and the ratio that is accepted is:

which is an irrational number. For our computations, we will be using a 3-digit approximation for the value of which φ which will be 1.618. The Golden Rectangle A rectangle with length I and width w is a golden rectangle if the ratio An alternative definition is that a rectangle with length I and width w is a golden rectangle if, when we remove a square with side w, from the original rectangle, the remaining rectangle is similar to the original.

(Original rectangle with sides l and w) (remaining rectangle with sides I-w and w)

The Fibonacci Sequence of Numbers The golden ratio is related to a special sequence of numbers, discovered by Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa, an Italian mathematician in the 11th century. A sequence of numbers a 1 , a 2 , ….., a m-1 , a m, a m+1 , …. , is called a Fibonacci sequence if the following relationship between its terms is satisfied

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By replacing n with 1, 2, 3, ..., 2 1, we obtain the first 21 terms of the sequence. Therefore,

Sequence of "Almost" Golden Rectangles Let us apply the principle of the golden rectangle using certain selected numbers as sides of a rectangle. We create a sequence of "almost" golden rectangles as follows. Choose as the first rectangle the one which has sides a = 10,946 and b = 6,765 (these number are consecutive terms in the Fibonacci sequence). We see that the ratio a/b is approximately 1.618. Removing a square with side b (6,765) from the first rectangle we create the second rectangle. The length and width of the new rectangle are respectively 6,765 and 4,181, and their ratio is approximately 1.618. If we continue this process, we obtain a sequence of rectangles with corresponding lengths and widths as indicated in the following table.

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One realizes that there is a pattern involving the ratios of the dimensions of the rectangle at each stage. In particular, when we compare these ratios with φ at each stage we observe that these ratios alternate from being less than φ to being greater than φ. Finally, it is clear that after stage 12, the differences are increasingly divergent from the golden ratio. One might conclude that the Fibonacci number sequence, which appears in many cases in nature, is closely related to the golden ratio. The visual presentation of first six stages of the table and the Curve associated with the sequence of the rectangles is presented in Figure 1. The Spiral Curve Associated with the Sequence of "Almost" Golden Rectangles To begin, we take the first "removed" square (from the golden rectangle). Using one of the vertices of the square and radius the l of one side, draw an arc from one adjacent vertex to the other. We continue the same process for each removed square at each stage in the sequence of "almost" golden rectangles. The resulting continuous curve is called the equiangular spiral curve. In looking at the chambered nautilus seashell in relation to this curve, one can see that the spiral curve appears on the boundary of the shell. Activities to Reinforce the Mathematical Concept After a student has studied the mathematical concept through the process of guided inquiry, there are several ways in which that concept can be reinforced to ensure a more complete understanding of the mathematics. First, as the guided inquiry approach is meant to be a process-based form of learning, for both the instructor and the student, it would make sense for the instructor to embark on the teaching of related concepts in subsequent lessons, so that the student might build upon the information he or she has recently learned through guided inquiry. Also, in the ending stages of the guided inquiry approach, an instructor might also use other disciplines to reinforce the mathematical concept. The students might draw a representation of the process by which the concept was learned, or the student might write a creative piece demonstrating his/her understanding of the concept in new terms altogether. Both methods would meliorate the students' initial interaction with the mathematical concept. In addition, these forays into other disciplines provide the instructor of the class an opportunity to assess students' understanding of the concept in alternative ways. If a student excels, for example, in the arts and has had a general disdain for mathematics before this lesson, he can demonstrate his understanding of the topic in his own terms, according to his strengths, and his grade would be determined based on a broader range of activities. Any sort of project relating this mathematical concept to other disciplines (science, art, history, etc.) is a fine way to continue the active learning process initiated by the guided inquiry approach.

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Conclusion The guided inquiry approach promotes active learning: not just hands-on learning, but minds-on learning. Activities in any discipline that capitalize on the guided inquiry approach will help students and teachers alike make academic material more meaningful, for guided inquiry inspires intellectual curiosity rather than defensiveness. For students who ask, "Why do I need mathematics, again?" and for insouciant students who'd rather stare out the window than engage in listening to a teacher lecture on fundamental mathematical principles, the guided inquiry approach offers a reason to become participants in the learning process.

References Adler, Irving (1960). Mathematics: Exploring the World of Number and Space. New York: Golden Press. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., and Siuda, J.E. (1998). Introducing the concepts of light and -Iaser through a guided inquiry approach for conceptual change. Spectrum Journal. 24(3): 36·41. Cherif, Abour H. (1988). Inquiry: An Easy Approach in Teaching Science. Simon Fraser University. Cherif, Abour H. (1998). Making Sense of Density around You through Guided Inquiry. Washington Science Teacher's Journal. 38(1): 14-19. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., and Simos, E. (1997). Science and Mathematics: Integrating the Teaching of science, math, and social studies in relevant context. Spectrum Journal. 23(3): 20-28. Cherif, Abour H. (1993b). Science Education: What's It All About? Illinois School Research and Development. 29(3): 12-17. Dewey, John (1910). How We Think. Boston: Heath and Co. Gialamas, Stefanos (1997). Fundamentals of Mathematics. Chicago: Praxis and Education Press. Huntley, H.E. (1970). The Divine Proportion. New York: Dover Publications. Hurd, Paul DeHart (1969).New Directions in Teaching Secondary School Science. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co. McCormack, A.J. and Yager, R.E. (1989). Towards a taxonomy for science education. B.C. Catalyst, 33(1): 16-17. Schwab, J.J. (1962). The Teaching of Science as Inquiry. In J.J. Schwab and P.F. Brandwein (Eds.) The Teaching of Science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Suchman, J.Richard (1966). DevelopingInquiry. Inquiry Development Program. Chicago: Science Research Associates. Yager, Robert E. (1989). Ignorance and Inquiry: The Raw Materials of Science. Science Scope: 32-34.

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N UMERICAL N OTATION S YSTEMS IN A NCIENT G REECE

DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS DEVRY UNIVERSITY O A K B R O O K T E R R A C E , IL 6 018 1

S P E C T R U M , T H E I L L I N O I S M A T H E M A T I C S T E A C H E R J O U R N A L , S U M M E R 2 00 2

Introduction The purpose of this article is to briefly introduce three numerical systems used in ancient Greece and to engage the reader in activities using these systems to solve problems and finally develop his/her own numerical system. Therefore this historical journey with the activities will provide the reader with an appreciation for and an understanding of the arduous path mathematics has traveled during the centuries. The Herodianic System of Numerical Notation The Herodianic system was named for Herodianus, the Byzantine grammarian who introduced the system to his contemporaries in 200 A.D. Variations of this system were used in areas in which the Athenian influence was present. The Herodianic system was used as early as 600 B.C., during the reign of Solon, and continued to be utilized for several centuries. Archaeological evidence suggests that these variations on the Herodianic system of numerical notation were in use as late as 40 B.C., during the time of Cicero. The Herodianic system was largely based on the use of abbreviations [2]. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this system is how it was created. In this system the number 5 and the first five powers of 10 (100 = 1, 101 =10, 102= 100, 10 3 =1000, 104 =10,000) received special symbols; all other numbers were formed by the creation of compound symbols. The following were the 10 essential symbols of the Herodianic system.

The introduction of deductive reasoning to mathematical thinking resulted in the creation of compound symbols. These symbols were created by the concurrent use of fundamental symbols in a combination format, hence

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All other numbers were created by juxtaposing numerals. For instance, the number 55,657 = 50,000+5,000+600+50+7 can be written as In addition there was no need for a symbol for the number zero [1] because the utilization of the principle of juxtaposition did not require its use. Therefore the number 2,035 can be written as In abstract form there were no symbols for fractions and complex operations. The desired operations were described by using the language. As negative numbers were considered "forbidden," there was no need for signed numbers. The Boeotian System of Numerical Notation Outside of Attica, in the part of Greece called Boeotia, a variation of the Herodianic system was in use. This system was developed as a result of the increasingly hostile relations between the various city states of ancient Greece. Essentially, the Herodianic principles were applied to the creation of fundamental symbols; these symbols where then compounded [3]. Those fundamental symbols were: For example, the number 7,895 = 7,000+ 800+ 90 + 5 can be written in the Boeotian system as:

The similarities between the Attic and Boeotian systems unfortunately doomed both systems as the ancient Greek society became increasingly sophisticated. The Alphabetic Numerical System I believe that the Greeks, more than any other people of antiquity, possessed an unbounded love of knowledge for its own sake. Their philosophers traveled throughout the known world in order to gather and benefit from all the wisdom that other nations, with longer histories, had accumulated over the centuries. One culture with which the Greeks were very familiar as the Phoenician. It seemed quite natural that the Greeks should create their own alphabet by borrowing, modifying, improving, and extending the Phoenician alphabet. By 600 B.C., the Greek alphabet had twenty-seven letters (3 of which are now obsolete). This alphabet was quickly transformed into what is known as the Ionic numeration system. The use of letters as numerals was an application unique to the ancient Greeks. The use of the letters of the alphabet as numerals was original with Greeks; they did not derive it from the Phoenicians, who never used their alphabet for numerical purposes but had separate signs for numbers (3). In fact, the earliest archaeological evidence of the use of numerals in conjunction with an alphabet is a Halicarnassion inscription dated at approximately 450 B.C. The alphabetic numerical system was specifically created to fulfill the increasing need for sophisticated mathematical functions. The twenty-seven basic symbols are listed in a table on the following page. To distinguish between numbers and letters, a horizontal line was drawn over the numbers. For instance, the number 3,542 = 3,000 + 500 + 40 + 2 can be written in this system as, γ φ μ β. Despite the sophistication of the alphabetic system, there was no uniform notation of fractions; therefore, most Greek writers expressed fractional values in words. When fractions were expressed in symbols, they were generally denoted by first writing the numerator and marking it with an accent; the denominator was then marked with two accents and

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written twice [3]. For example, the fraction ½ can be written as α’ β’’ β’’. In spite of the seemingly weak alphabetic system, many fundamental elements of modem mathematics were developed within the confines of this seemingly inadequate system. Activity 1: The Farmer You're an ancient Greek fanner who grew a crop of 450 bushels of com this year, which is 40 bushels of com more than you produced last year and twice as many bushels of barley than you produced this year. You hope to increase production of both com and barley next year by 35 bushels each. Problem 1: Using Herodianic symbols, record the number of bushels of barley produced this year and the amount you'd like to produce next year. Problem 2: Using Alphabetic symbols, record this year's crop of both barley and com. Problem 3: If each bushel of barley costs 40 drachmas (Greek currency) and each bushel of corn costs 30 drachmas, find your total crop value for this year in both the Herodianic and Alphabetic systems' notation.

Activity 2: Develop Your Own Numerical System Step 1: Decide which base you'll use for your numerical system. For this example the base is 3. The powers of the base are 30=1, 31=3, 32=9, 33=27, 34=81, ... Step 2: Choose a form of notation to represent these powers. For our example, we chose: Step 3: Determine whether the symbol will follow (or proceed) the numerical value. In this example the symbols precede the numerical value. For instance, 2 • 32 is denoted by X **, and 2 • 34 is denoted Step 4: Define the procedure for addition. We chose juxtaposition for our example. Hence,

is denoted by:

*Students might also want to define procedures for denoting multiplication, fractions, and even a positional numerical system.

Conclusion Sir Thomas Heath in his book, A History of Greek Mathematics Volume I, writes, "Most people, when they think of the Greek genius, naturally call to mind its master pieces in literature and art with their notes of beauty, truth, freedom and humanism. But the Greek, with his insatiable desire to know the true meaning of everything in the universe and to be able to give a rational explanation of it, was just as irresistible driven to natural science, mathematics and exact reasoning in general or logic". The Greeks were able to accomplish all of the above using numerical systems which were not easy to use.

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Nevertheless the limitations of their numerical systems did not prevent them from contributing to the development of mathematical thought. Acknowledgments I would like to express my appreciation to Ms. Susan Busch, Executive Assistant at the Academic Affairs Department of DeVry University, for her assistance in the completion of this article, and to my son Panayiotis Gialamas for his valuable recommendations on improving the quality of this article. References Eves, Howard, An Introduction to the History of Mathematics, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1969. Gialamas, Stefanos, Zero the Exceptional Number, Consortium of Mathematics and its Applications, Spring 1990. Heath, Sir Thomas, A History of Greek Mathematics, Vol. 1, Dover, 1981.

Answers to Activity 1 Problem 1 This year's com crop is 450, which can be written as This year's Barley crop is 225, which can be written as Next year's com crop is 485, which can be written as Next year's barley crop is 260, which can be written as

Problem 2 This year's com crop is 450, which can be written as This year's barley crop is 225, which can be written as Problem 3 The value of the com crop is 450 x 30 =13,500. Using the Herodianic numerical system the value can be written as Using the Alphabetic numerical system the value can be written as The value of the barley crop is 225 x 40 =9,000. Using the Herodianic numerical system the value can be written as Using the Alphabetic numerical system the value can be written as

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If There Were No Rectangles Poem by: David Peabody If we didn't have rectangles, long wide or thin, Take a moment to imagine what a state we'd be in. Rectangles are plentiful. We use them a lot. Two sides are longer, two sides are not. No bricks to make buildings. No tape and no labels. Rugs on floors, dresser drawers, dining room tables. You’d need new ideas for new courts for most games, And new shapes for flags, boxes, mirrors, and frames. Say goodbye to tickets and playing card decks. Credit cards, business cards, personal checks. Without the rectangle, how would we cope? There'd be no stairs to climb, just a slippery slope! No reading or writing in books with no pages. Expressing ourselves would be like the Stone Ages. To send a kind note to make someone feel better, Would take a new envelope, stamp, and a letter. Different windows and doors for all of our houses, And new shapes for the traps for all those smart mice. So let's keep all the rectangles, books, beds, and tape. So our world can avoid being bent out of shape.

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K NOTS , L INKS   A ND   T HE   F IBONACCI   S EQUENCE   B Y :   D R .   S T E F A N O S   G I A L A M A S       5 2 N D   A N N U A L   C O N F E R E N C E :   I L L I N O I S   C O U N C I L   O F   T E A C H E R S   O F   M A T H E M A T I C S     S P R I N G F I E L D   I L L I N O I S     O C T O B E R   1 9 -­‐ 2 1 ,   2 0 0 0     Introduction   Who   could   have   thought   a   couple   of   decades   ago   that   knots   would   stimulate   such   an   interest   among   mathematicians,  scientists  and  artists?  Although  knots  have  been  around  for  thousands  of  years,  they  have  been   a  particular  fascination  for  mathematicians  for  more  than  a  century.  One  of  the  fascinating  aspects  is  that  the   main  object  of  study  is  so  familiar.  Take  a  string  and  join  it  at  both  ends  and  you  have  a  knot,  but  when  one  tries   though  to  distinguish  knots  realizes  that  it  is  not  a  simple  task.     Mathematicians   are   associating   numbers,   polynomials,   functions   and   other   mathematical   objects   to   knots.   By   studying   and   comparing   these   mathematical   entities   they   draw   conclusions   on   the   knots   themselves.   Many   of   these   mathematical   entities   are   defined   using   axioms   and   are   computed   using   a   variety   of   mathematical   techniques.   Some   of   these   entities   associated   to   certain   families   of   knots   are   related   to   several   classical   mathematics  objects.  We  will  see  how  in  particular  one  of  these  mathematical  entities,  the  Conway  polynomial   associated  to  a  sequence  of  knots  and  links  manifests  a  relationship  between  the  Fibonacci  sequence  of  numbers   and  these  polynomials.     On   the   other   hand   molecular   biologists   have   began   to   use   knot   theory   to   understand   the   different   conformations  that  DNA  can  take.  The  advances  in  knot  theory  help  them  to  see  how  DNA  becomes  linked  or   knotted  during  replication  and  recombination  and  how  the  enzymes  that  do  the  cutting  and  gluing  must  perform   their   functions.   Other   scientists   also   have   joined   their   biologists   in   steadying   knot   theory   from   an   applied   mathematics  perspective.     Several  artists  by  being  fascinated  with  the  beautiful  structure  and  the  complexity  of  certain  knots  have  created   artwork   inspired   by   this   knot.   The   author   and   his   students   have   created   the   art   work   titled   "stamp   knots   and   Conway  polynomials".     Λ  brief  history  of  the  theory  of  knots     The  theory  of  knots  has  its  origins  in  the  mathematical  theory  of  electricity  and  in  primitive  atomic  physics.  In  the   late  nineteen  century  the  British  scientist  Lord  Kelvin  (Sir  William  Thomson)  postulated  that  atoms  are  knotted   vortices  in  the  ether,  an  invisible  fluid  that  was  thought  to  fill  the  space.  His  dream  was  to  organize  the  known   chemical  elements  into  periodic  tables  by  classifying  knots.  Kelvin's  effort  was  unsuccessful  but  inspired  P.G.  Tait   to  create  the  first  knot  tables  listing  knots  by  some  order  of  complexity.  In  1877  he  published  the  first  articles   regarding   the   enumeration   of   knots.   Nearly   fifty   years   later,   John   Alexander   designed   a   method   in   which   the  

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arrangement of   crossings   in   a   knot   diagram   produced   an   algebraic   invariant,   the   Alexander   polynomial.   The   first   book  on  knot  theory,  Knotentheorie  by  Kurt  Reidemeister,  was  published  in  1932.  For  forty  years,  many  theorists   extensively   studied   knot   invariance   and   the   properties   of   knots   identified   in   invariant.   In   1970,   mathematician   John  Conway  used  a  new  approach  to  develop  a  method  to  associate  a  polynomial  to  a  given  oriented  knot  or   link  the  so-­‐called  Conway  polynomial.  Fourteen  years  later,  Vaughn  Jones'  discovery  of  a  new  invariant,  the  Jones   polynomial,   prompted   a   great   deal   of   excitement   in   the   mathematical   community'.   In   recognition   of   his   achievement   Jones   was   awarded   the   Fields   Medal   (the   equivalence   in   mathematics   of   the   Nobel   Prize)   at   the   1990  International  Congress  of  Mathematicians.     Within  a  few  years,  J.  Hoste,  A.  Ocneanum,  K.C.  Millet,  P.J.  Freyd,  W.B.R.  Lickorich,  and  D.N.  Yetter  generalized   the   Jones   polynomial.   Other   invariant   soon   followed,   including   the   Generalized   Polynomial,   the   Oriented   Polynomial,   the   Bracket   Polynomial,   and   the   Kauffrnan   Polynomial.   Today   knot   theory   continues   to   develop   at   a   quick  pace.       Knot  and  Links     A  knot  is  a  simple  closed  curve  without  self-­‐intersections  in  space.  A  trivial  knot  is  a  knot  without  any  knotting.  A   link  is  a  collection  of  two  or  more  disjoint  knots  called  the  components  of  the  link.  To  study  knots  and  links  we   use  planar  diagrams,  which  are  two-­‐dimensional  images  on  a  plane  indicating  over  crossings  and  under  crossings.   Therefore  a  knot  or  a  link  has  many  different  diagrams.  

Figure 1.  Three  different  diagrams  of  the  figure  eight  knot.           Two  knots  are  similar  if  one  can  be  obtained  from  the  other  by  twisting,  pulling,  or  pushing,  in  other  words,  if   one  knot  can  be  deformed  into  the  other.     In   1932   the   German   mathematician   Kurt   Reidemeister   defined   three   fundamental   moves   on   every   knot   diagram   called  the  R-­‐moves.  These  moves  are  applied  on  one  crossing  of  the  diagram  at  the  time,  leaving  the  rest  of  the   knot  diagram  unchanged  and  making  the  application  of  R-­‐moves  a  local  phenomenon.       TYPE  I  

 

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TYPE II                   TYPE  III      

 

Two knot  diagrams  Κ  and  Μ  are  called  equivalent  (Κ  ~  M)  if  Κ  is  obtained  from  Μ  by  using  finitely  many  R-­‐moves   of  type  I,  II  and  III.     Kurt  Reidemeister  proved  that  two  knots  or  links  are  equivalent  if  and  only  if  their  diagrams  are  equivalent.   Therefore  from  this  point  on  we  will  be  identifying  knots  and  links  with  their  diagrams.     An  oriented  knot  diagram  is  any  knot  diagram  with  a  direction  assigned  to  it.  An  arrow  indicates  the  assigned   direction.  To  every  knot  diagram  there  are  associated  two-­‐oriented  knot  diagrams;  one  with  clockwise   orientation  and  the  other  with  the  counter  clockwise  orientation.  An  oriented  link  is  any  link  with  oriented   components.  Once  an  orientation  is  chosen  on  a  knot  or  a  link  diagram  various  mathematical  objects  can  be   assigned  to  it.               Figure  2.    

Two oriented  figure  eight  knots  and  two  oriented  Hopf  links.  

A link  splits  if  at  least  one  component  can  be  removed  from  the  rest  of  the  components.  

  Figure  3.    

A link  that  splits                                                                                                                                                                                            

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∇! (x)   

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The  Conway  Polynomial  of  a  Knot  or  a  link  K  

 The  Conway  Polynomial  is  defined  for  every  oriented  knot  or  link  using  three  axioms.     Axiom  1  

To  each   oriented   knot   or   link   Κ   there   is   associated   a   polynomial   ∇! (x)   with   integer   coefficients.  

 Axiom  2    

(I)   

If  Κ  ~  M,  then  ∇! x  =  ∇! x  

(II) Â

 If  K  ~  0  ,  then  ∇! x  =  1  

Â

Axiom  3              If  Κ,  K,  and  K*  are  three  oriented  knots  or  links  that  have  the  same  diagrams  except  at  one  crossing   as  shown  below,  then  the  Conway  polynomials  of  Κ,  K,  and  K*  satisfy  the  following  identity   (we  call  this  the  exchange  identity).  

Â

đ?œ…

đ?œ…

Â

đ?œ…∗

Â

Â

Â

  

∇! đ?‘Ľ − ∇! đ?‘Ľ = đ?‘Ľâˆ‡!∗ đ?‘Ľ

Lemma  1.            If  a  link  splits  then  its  Conway  polynomial  is  equal  to  zero.       REMARKS     1.

All  trivial  links  with  two  or  more  than  two  components  have  Conway  polynomial  equal  to   zero  

2.

The  trivial  knot  has  Conway  polynomial  equal  to  1  

3.

The  Conway  polynomial  of  a  link  Μ  with  two  components  can  be  expressed  as:  

a! x ! + a!!! x !!! +  .    .    . +  a! x! + a!    

The  Conway  polynomial  for  the  sequence  K !  of  the  Torus  knots  and  links     We  denote  by   K !  the  sequence  of  Torus  knots  and  links.  It  is  proven  that  if   Ρ  is  an  even   integer  then  K !  is  a  link  and  if  n  is  an  odd  integer  then  K !  is  a  knot.  

Â

4

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 The  sequence  K !  of  Torus  knots  and  links.  

Figure  3.    

We  will   associate   to   K ! , K ! , K !  and  K !  their   Conway   polynomial   and   then   will   generalize   the   result  to  any  K ! .  For  convenience  the  Conway  polynomial  of  K !  will  be  denoted  by  ∇! (x).       Example  1.  

∇! đ?‘Ľ =  1  

    

Â

    

đ??ž!  ~  O    

Â

Â

Therefore  ∇! đ?‘Ľ = 1  

Â

đ??ž! Â

Â

Â

Â

Â

⇒  ∇!! đ?‘Ľ =  0    

 Example  2.  

∇! đ?‘Ľ =  đ?‘Ľ  

        

Â

Â

Â

Â

đ??ž! Â

Â

Â

Â

đ??ž!∗ Â

Â

đ?›Ť!  ~       đ??ž!∗  ~  

⇒  ∇∗!! đ?‘Ľ =  1

Â

Â

  

Â

From  the  exchange  identity  we  have:  

Â

Â

∇!! đ?‘Ľ − 0 = đ?‘Ľ â&#x;š ∇!! đ?‘Ľ = đ?‘Ľ  Hence  ∇! đ?‘Ľ = đ?‘Ľ  

 Example  3.  

Â

∇! đ?‘Ľ =  1 + đ?‘Ľ !  

Â

đ??ž! Â

  

  

Â

Â

Â

Â

5

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đ??ž! Â

Â

Â

Â

đ??ž!∗ Â


тАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФ

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тАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФтАФ

┬а ┬а ┬а ┬а

!! ┬а~ ЁЭЫл

┬а

тЗТ ┬а тИЗ!! ! (ЁЭСе) = ┬а1

ЁЭР╛!тИЧ ┬а~

┬а ┬а

тЗТ ┬а тИЗтИЧ!! (ЁЭСе) = ┬аЁЭСе

┬а From ┬аthe ┬аexchange ┬аidentity ┬аwe ┬аhave: ┬а

тИЗ!! ЁЭСе тИТ 1 = ЁЭСе тИЩ ЁЭСе тЯ╣ тИЗ!! ЁЭСе = 1 + ЁЭСе ! ┬аHence ┬атИЗ! ЁЭСе = 1 + ЁЭСе ! ┬а

┬а

┬а Example ┬а4. ┬а

┬а

тИЗ! ЁЭСе = ┬а2ЁЭСе + ЁЭСе ! ┬а

┬а ┬а ┬а ┬а

┬а

ЁЭР╛! ┬а

┬а

ЁЭР╛!тИЧ ┬а

ЁЭР╛! ~ЁЭР╛! тЗТ тИЗ!! ЁЭСе = ЁЭСе ┬а

┬а ┬а ┬а ┬а

ЁЭР╛! ┬а

ЁЭР╛!тИЧ ~ЁЭР╛! тЗТ тИЗ!!тИЧ ЁЭСе = 1 + ЁЭСе ! ┬а ┬а

From ┬аthe ┬аexchange ┬аidentity ┬аwe ┬аhave ┬атИЗ!! ЁЭСе = ЁЭСе + ЁЭСе 1 + ЁЭСе ! = ЁЭСе + ЁЭСе + ЁЭСе ! ┬а ┬а Hence ┬атИЗ! ЁЭСе = 2ЁЭСе + ЁЭСе ! ┬а ┬а In ┬аgeneral, ┬аone ┬аcan ┬аprove ┬аthat ┬атИЗ! ЁЭСе тИТ тИЗ!!! ЁЭСе = ЁЭСе тИЩ тИЗ!!! ЁЭСе ┬а ┬а Using ┬аthis ┬аidentity ┬аand ┬аthe ┬аresults ┬аfrom ┬аthe ┬аabove ┬аexamples ┬аwe ┬аarrive ┬аto ┬аthe ┬аfollowing ┬а conclusion: ┬а ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 1 ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 0 + 1ЁЭСе ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 1 + 0ЁЭСе + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 0 + 2ЁЭСе + 0ЁЭСе ! + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 1 + 0ЁЭСе + 3ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 0 + 3ЁЭСе + 0ЁЭСе ! + 4ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 1 + 0ЁЭСе + 6ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 5ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 0 + 4ЁЭСе + 0ЁЭСе ! + 10ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 6ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а тИЗ! ЁЭСе = 1 + 0ЁЭСе + 10ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 15ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 7ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а тИЗ!" ЁЭСе = 0 + 5ЁЭСе + 0ЁЭСе ! + 20ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 21ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 8ЁЭСе ! + 0ЁЭСе ! + 1ЁЭСе ! ┬а ┬а

┬а ┬а ┬а

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Considering  only  the  coefficients  of  the  polynomials  we  obtain  the  following  numerical  triangle.     1  

0

1

1

0

1

0

2

0

1

1

0

3

0

1

0

3

0

4

0

1

1

0

6

0

5

0

1

0

4

0

10

0

6

0

1

1

0

10

0

15

0

7

0

1

0

5

0

20

0

21

0

8

0

1

  The   sum   of   the   elements   on   each   row   produces   the   sequence   of   numbers  1,   2,   3,   5,   8,   13,   21,   34,   55,   ...   which   is   the   Fibonacci   Sequence   of   numbers.   Furthermore   one   can   identify   other   relationships   among   the   elements   of   different   rows   and   relate   the   entire   triangle   with   the   Pascal  Triangle.     The   beauty   and   the   complexity   of   knots   were   always   the   incentives   to   mathematicians   for   studying   knots.   Today   the   applications   of   knot   theory   techniques   in   DNA   research,   chemistry,   and  physics  strengthen  the  desire  for  mathematicians  and  scientists  to  further  studying  knots.                                

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Bibliography  and  Further  Readings  

1. Adams,  Colin.  The  Knot  Book,  W.H.  Freeman  Co.,  1994   Ascher,  M.,  The  Logical-­‐Numerical  Systems  of  Inca  Quipus,  Annals  of  The  History  of  Computing,  Vol.  5.  No.3   268-­‐278   3.  Atiyah,  M.,  The  Geometry  and  Physics  of  Knots,  Cambridge  Univ.  Press,  1998   2.

4. Budworth,  G,  The  Knot  Book,  Sterling  Publishing  Co.   5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 22.

Farmer, D.W.,  Stanford,  T.B.,  Knots  and  Surfaces:  A  Guide  to  Discovering  Mathematics,  Am.  Math.  Soc,   1995.   Gambini,  R.,  Loops,  Knots,  Gauge  Theories  and  Quantum  Gravity,  Cambridge  Univ.  Press,  1996.   Ghrist,  R.W.,  Knots  and  Links  in  Three-­‐Dimensional  Flows,  Springer-­‐Verlag  1997.   Gibson,  W.,  The  Complete  Guide  to  Knots  and  How  to  Tie  Them,  Lifetime  Books,  Inc.   Gilbert,  N.D.,  Porter,  T.,  Knots  and  Surfaces,  Oxford  Univ.  Press,  1994.   Gialamas,  S.,  Knots  Everywhere,  Consortium,  Spring  199#   Gialamas,  S.,  Tour  in  Knot  Theory,  Cosmos  Press,  January  1997.   Graumont,  R,  Handbook  of  Knots,  Kornel  Maritime  Press.   Kauffinan,  L.,  Formal  Knot  Theory,  Princeton  Univ.  Press,  1983   Kauffman,  L.,  On  Knots,  Annals  of  Mathematical  Studies,  No  15,  Princeton  Univ.    Press  1987.   Kauffman,  L.,  State  Models  and  Jones  Polynomial,  Topology,  26  (1987)  395-­‐407   Kauffman,  L.,  The  Interface  of  Knots  and  Physics,  Am.  Math.  Soc.  Short    Course,  Am.  Math.  Soc.  1995.   Kauffman,  L.,  New  Invariants  in  Knot  Theory,  Am.  Math.  Monthly,  95,  1998.   Kauffman,  L.,  Knots  and  Physics,  World  Scientific,  1993.   Kawauchi,  Α.,  A  Survey  on  Knot  Theory,  Birkhauser,  1996.   Kohno,  T.,  (Ed.),  New  Developments  In  the  Theory  of  Knots,  Advanced  Series  in  Mathematical  Physics,  V.l.   World  Scientific,  1983.   Lickorish,  W.B.,  An  Introduction  to  Knot  Theory,  Springer-­‐Verlag,  1997.   Livingston,  L.,  Knot  Theory,  MAA  Monographs,  1993.   Murasugi,  K.,  Knot  Theory  and  Applications,  Birkhauser,  1996.   Peters,  I.,  The  Mathematical  Tourist,  Freeman  and  Co.  1988.  

23. Rolfsen, D.,  Knots  and  Links,  Mathematics  Lecgtures  Series  7,  Perish  Press,  1976.   24. Turner,  J.C.,  History  and  the  Science  of  Knots,  World  Scientific,  1996.   25. Sumners,  D.,  Untangling  DNA,  Math.  Intelligencer  12(3),  71-­‐80,  1990.   28.   Sumners,  D.  The  Role  of  Knot  Theory  in  DNA  Research,  in  McCorory/Sclufrin,  Eds.,Geometry  and  Topology,   Varieties  and  Knots,  Dekker,  1998.   29.   Welsh,  D.,  Complexity.  Knots,  Colourings  and  Counting,  Cambridge  Univ.  Press.  1993.  

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CAN HUMAN FACTOR CONCEPT BE TAUGHT? A PRELIMINARY INSTITUTIONAL SURVEY AND REPORT ABOURLL CHERIF COLUMBIA COLLEGE CHICAGO C H I C A G O , I L L I N O I S , US A STEFANOS GIALAMAS DE VRY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY C H I C A G O , I L L I N O I S , US A B E N J A M I N O F O R I -A M O A H U N I V E R S I T Y O F W I S C O N S I N -S T E V E N S P O I N T S T E V E N S P O I N T , W I S C O N S I N , U SA JOURNAL OF HUMAN FACTORS J U N E /D E C E M B E R 199 9

ABSTRACT: Given the crucial role of education in implementing the human factor idea, the authors of this study empirically examined the question of whether or not the human factor concept as identified by the International Institute For human factor Development (IIHFD) can be taught in the classroom setting. In this paper, the authors define teaching and its relation to education and the development of the appropriate human factor qualities. Then, they describe the research methodology and the results of the study. Finally, they discuss the implications of the results, die conclusion and provide recommendations for policy and implementation. In their study, the authors concluded that human factor concept can be taught in the classroom and in a formal educational setting. Hut because people have been exposed throughout their lives to a wide variety of values, issues, and difficult situations that collectively mold their views and beliefs in and about dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty and integrity both in life and work, education cannot be effective if it is not supported by internal factors, external factors, and personal factors. External factors include the behavior of members of the government, elected officials, community, civic, and spiritual leaders, teachers, and famous and popular sports, movie, and other well known personalities Internal factors include those values practiced by your family members. Personal Factors include awareness of the power and unique capacity within every individual to learn, to understand and to know when and how to act or behave in difficult situations

1. INTRODUCTION Over the past five years, there has-been a growing literature on the role of the human factor in the development of society (Adjibolosoo 1999, 1998a, 1998b, 19%, 1995a, 1995b, 1994, Chivaura and Mararike 1998. Adjibolosoo and Ofori-Amuah, 1998). Specifically, this literature has convincingly argued that the appropriate human factor qualities, such as responsibility, accountability, and dedication, hold the key to all forms of development. Without these, no political, economic, and social programs, policies and plans will work effectively to achieve their desired goals.

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Consequently, this literature has placed a great deal of emphasis on the need to develop appropriate human factor qualities through education as a prerequisite for all effective societal development (Adjibolosoo. 1996). The underlying assumption of this argument, of course, is that these appropriate human factor characteristics are teachable. Thus, the question of whether or not the human factor concept can be taught has not yet been examined. Given the crucial role of education in implementing the human factor idea, we believe that it is of utmost importance to examine this question. In this paper, we will report on the findings of a study we conducted to determine whether or not the human factor concept can be taught in the classroom. We hope that the content of the paper will be helpful to many IIHFD members and others to learn something about what others are doing to help their students learn about the HF concept and its relevance to society. The rest of the paper falls into four sections. In the second section, we define the human factor and summarize its main features and role in development. In section three we define teaching and its relations to education and the development of the appropriate human factor qualities. In section four, we describe the research methodology of the study. In section five we present the results of the study and in section six, we discuss the implications of the results. The conclusion and recommendations for policy are provided in section seven.

2. THE HUMAN FACTOR (HF) DEFINED According to Professor Adjibolosoo, the leading exponent of the human factor research, the human factor refers to "the spectrum of personality characteristics and other dimensions of human performance that enable social, economic and political institutions to function and remain functional over time Such dimensions sustain the workings and application of the rule of law. Political harmony, disciplined labor force, just legal systems, respect for human dignity and the sanctity of life, and social welfare “(Adjibolosoo, 1993, 1994. 1995b). It encompasses human capital, the know-how and acquired skills and the habits, and moral capital, the attitude* of the human heart that are based on universal principles of right or wrong. It also includes human potentials, which are the human talents that may or may not be harnessed and employed for human, as well as human abilities, which is the power or capacity of an individual to competently undertake projects or effectively perform tasks requiring menial and physical effort (Adjibolosoo, 1995b). In effect, no social, economic, political and institutional reform or program can be expected to achieve its objectives without the support of people with the appropriate human factor characteristics. When the appropriate human factor qualities are absent, lawlessness, anarchy, mismanagement, embezzlement, bribery, corruption and misery abound. Institutions become powerless and resources are wasted to satisfy the desires of the few that exercise control over them. It is for these reasons that the human factor research sees the appropriate human factor as the linchpin for any successful social, economic and political effort.

3. EDUCATION Within the great diversity of the human population lies inherent values that arc common to every member of the species, which are reflected in our social and personal "need" for one another, for peace and harmony, and for individual rights and security. When responding to the question "Why are values so important?”, Dr. B. David Brooks, president of the Jefferson Center for Character Education, and who has served on advisory committees to several governors and two U.S. presidents, said: "Kids need to be taught what honest and dishonest behavior are so they can make logical, ethical choices. Kids look to adults for guidance. Kids need rules lo live by. When they don't have rules in place, they go looking for them in gangs or among their peers" (1994 p. 16). Ideally, education is an enterprise aimed at developing the mind so that people are not only capable of grasping and expanding their understanding of life, themselves, society and the natural world, but are also capable of wisely using that knowledge and understanding in the betterment of themselves and the world around them. A positive

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education implies a process directed at producing citizens with a breadth and depth of worthwhile knowledge and understanding who are able to meet the challenges of their environment, and able to contribute positively toward building Β better world. In order for education to do this, developing higher competence for rational thought and responsible action among individuals should be one if not the most important instructional goal for schools at all levels (Cherif, 1992.1993). Egler (1970), Schumacher (1973) and Nozick (1989), have individually argued that education can only be successful if it produces more wisdom. Wisdom is the integration of knowledge, understanding and responsible action. In other words, the unity of accurate, worthwhile knowledge as well as desirable and responsible behavior... helps man (sic) to choose which path to take in life, and not that which is abstract and far removed from vital human needs" (Avicenna, cited in Kirilenko and Korshunova, 1984, p.38). Egler (1970) believes that "knowledge is not wisdom; wisdom is knowledge when it is tempered by judgment |and conscious responsibility]" (p. 1). Students should he provided with the facilities, opportunities, and suitable environments to learn how to pursue the truth, reason why, justify actions, and ultimately develop a broad perspective. Students need to develop a wide range of tolerance, and a deep respect for life-form diversity, and among humans, for cultural and ethnic diversity and gender differences (Cherif. 1996). When characteristics such as these are implanted and nurtured through the teaching of interrelated higher order thinking skills [such as problem solving, decision making, and critical and creative thinking] they will ultimately help liberate students and others from stereotypes, prejudices, false arguments, and narrow perspectives (Cohen, 1971). After all, the purpose of the liberal tradition in education includes giving the opportunity for all students to develop: (1) Critical autonomy; (2) A rigorous intellectual mind, critical creativity and individuality; (3) Civic virtue and a capacity for freedom; and (4) A solid foundation of knowledge (such as in math and science, the arts and humanities, languages, and literature). To truly educate, Zlotnik (1986) has argued, we need to ensure that students come to understand: (I) what the world we live in is like and what we are doing to it (2) what our history is; where we came from and how we got here, (3) who we are as human beings; why we look the way we do; how we can fulfill ourselves in the world, and how we are related to all other creatures, (4) what future options we have on his planet, and how we can influence our own future (See Appendix I). High school graduates, as well as college graduates, will be exposed continuously over their lifetimes to a wide variety of (social and] economic questions. This will occur through their reading of newspapers and newsmagazines, their exposure to radio and television, their involvement in political campaigns and civic issues, and their participation in economic life as employees, employers, consumers, union members, and the like. The conclusion they reach on these issues will be reflected in how they vote; in the actions they take as members of unions, civic organizations and businesses; in their responses to appeals by the President and other public officials; and in economic decisions they make as individual consumers, workers, producers, savers, and investors. This means that the quality of individual decision making is crucial to the effective operation of our social system and to the well-being of the individual (JCER Master Curriculum Guide in Economics for the Nation's Schools. Part I, A foundation for Teaching Economics. Basic Concepts 1977. Cited in Symmes, 1981. p.2). Indeed, we agree with the former president of Costa Rica and the president of the Council of the University for Peace which was charted by the United Nations in 1980, Mr. Rodrigo Carazo. Mr. Carazo (1988 p. 9) who, for years had argued for disarming the minds of violent human beings, stated that it is not a matter of telling people what to do, "but of educating them so that they can make their own decisions in a responsible way." 4. THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Through questionnaires and in focus interviews we solicited responses from members of the International Institute for Human Factor Development (IIHFD), as well as a number of college and university instructors of various academic disciplines. These questionnaires were prepared after broad consultation with the founder of the Human Factor Institute, as well as a behavioral psychologist, and a social anthropologist who specialize in cross culture human

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behavior. The three consultants suggested that the questionnaire must be short, specific, and deal with only one central question "Can the Human Factor be Taught?" The other few questions must be supportive questions, meaning questions that help to clarify the response and the answer to the main question. Originally twenty questions were prepared as a draft for the questionnaire, but by the end of the process, only six questions survived the critical analysis and the usefulness to the purpose of the study. We did not include in the questionnaire sent to the members of the IIHFD the definition of the human factor. We did, however, include the definition of the human factor in the questionnaire that was sent to the non-members of the IIHFD. The six main questions included in the questionnaire were: 1. Name and profession 2. Can the human factor concept be taught in the classroom? 3. Do you include the teaching of the human factor concept in your discipline(s)? If your answer is "Yes" in the above question, at what level(s) do you include the human factor concept in your teaching? 4. Have you ever included the human factor construct/concept in your teaching? 5. If your answer to question (4) is YES, please give a few examples. 6. In what other ways do you think the human factor construct/concept? Could be labeled? That is, have you been using any other terms/labels to imply the human factor construct/concept? What are they? The questionnaires were distributed to the members of the IIHFD through the Internet, accompanied by a short message from the Executive Director of the IIHFD, emphasizing the importance of the questionnaire and urging the members to respond. Those members of the IIHFD who did not have access to the internet or did not respond to the questionnaire through the internet, were mailed a copy of the questionnaire directly, with a short letter explaining the purpose of the study and its importance to the HHPD. In addition, the questionnaire was mailed to 50 non-members who teach at Columbia College Chicago and The Illinois Institute of Art in Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 16 IIHFD members through the internet, 13 IIHFD members through the mail, and 22 non-members of IIHFD through the mail. Thus, a total of 51 completed questionnaires from members and non-members were received. Two members of IIFHD and one non-member were followed-up by means of in-depth interviews using similar questions to those used on the questionnaire. 5. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY In what follows, we present the results of the study: 5.1. The Profession of the Participants in the Study As shown in Table l, the majority (92%) of those who completed the questionnaire from both categories (members and non-members of I1HFD). were involved in the teaching profession. Only four people or 8% of the total participants were not involved in teaching in a formal education setting. Table-1 The profession of the Participant in the Study The profession of the Participant In The Study Participants

Teaching Profession

Non-Teaching Profession

IIHFD Members

26 persons (51%)

3 persons (6%)

Non-IIHFD

21 persons (41%)

1 person (2%)

Members

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As shown in Table 2, 50 out of 51 participants (98%) who completed the questionnaire from both categories (members and non-members of the IIIIFD) believe that the human factor concept can be taught in tlie classroom. Only one person did not answer this question. None of the participants in this study believed that the human factor concept cannot be taught in the classroom.

Table2 Summary of Participants' Views of Whether Human Factor Can be Taught (n=51) Participants

I I HF D

Yes 29 persons (57%)

No 0 person (O%)

No Answer 0 person (O%)

NON-IIHFD

21 persons (41%)

0 person (O%)

1 person (2%)

Members Members

5.3. Do you Teach the Human Factor Construct/Concept in the Classroom? While 98 % of the participants in this study believed that the human factor concept can be taught in the classroom, only 16 persons or 31% of all the participants (n=5l) stated that they directly included the human factor construct/concept in their teaching. However, over half of the participants (30 people or 51%) indicted that they indirectly included human factor construct/concept in their teaching. As shown in Table 3, only five (or 10%) of the participants in this study stated that they did not directly or indirectly include the human factor concept in their teaching. Table 3 Summary of How Many of the Participants Teach Human Factor in the Classroom? (n=51) Participants IIHFD Members Non-IIHFD Members

Yes

Indirectly

No

11 persons (22%)

16 persons (31%)

2 persons (6%)

5 persons (9%)

14persons (27%)

3 person (2%)

5.4. Educational Levels at Which the Participants Teach the Human Factor Concept As shown in Table 4, the majority of the participants in this study who stated they teach the human factor concept in the classroom, are from colleges and universities. Only two teach the concept at the pre-college level, and four participants indicated that they leach the concept in other forms or settings such as conferences, seminars, workshops, and churches. A total of four participants (8%) did not answer this part of the question.

Table 4 Educational Levels at Which the Participants Teach the Human Factor Concept Participants IIHFD Members Non-IIHFD Members

Elementary & College & Secondary University 2 persons (4%) 19 persons (37%)

Conferences & Seminars 2 persons (4%)

No Answer

0 persons (O%) 15 persons (29%)

3 poisons(6%)

1 person (2%)

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5.5. Have You Ever Included the Human Factor Construct/Concept in Your Teaching? As shown in Table 5, 33 persons or 66 % of the participants in this study included the human factor construct/concept in their teaching in the past. Thirteen or 26% additional participants indicated that they "sort of* taught human factor concept in the past. Only 4 people or 8% stated that they have never intentionally included the human factor construct/concept in a formal setting. Table 5 Summary of How Many of the Participants Ever Included the Human Factor Construct/Concept in their Teaching (n=51). Participants

Yes

IIHFD Members

21 persons (41%)

6 persons (12%)

2 persons (4%)

Non-IIHFD Members

13 persons (25%)

7 persons (14%)

2 persons (4%)

Sort of

No

The disciplines or subjects in which the participants included or integrated the teaching of the human factor construct/concept were: Marketing Communication, Business, History of Science, Science, Technology and Society, World History, Psychology, Social Psychology, Social Issues in Marketing, Introduction to Marketing and Communication, Psychology of Personality. Economic Development in Modern African and Latin American Countries, The Role of Elite in African and Latin American Development, Economy of Affection in African and Third World Countries. Legacies of Colonialism in Third World Countries, Philosophy, Social Studies, Environmental Ethics, Human Culture, Human Civilizations, American History, Linguistics, Social Anthropology, Management, Literature, Economic Education, Physical Geography and Development, and Comparative religions. However, only few of those participants who have directly or indirectly taught the human factor construct/concept in the classrooms, did provide some specific example of how they included the human factor concept in their teaching. Those who have not taught human factor construct/concept gave suggestions of how the human factor concept might be integrated in teaching. See appendix 2 for examples that were provided by a number of participants in this study. The following teaching strategies, approaches, and or models were mentioned by a number of participants as being used to foster the development of human factor characteristics among students: group investigation, cooperative learning, role playing, jurisprudential inquiry, social science inquiry, scientific inquiry, nondirective teaching, synectics, increasing awareness, classroom meeting, learning self control approach, and learning from simulations approach. 5.5. In What Other Ways do you Think the Human Factor Construct/Concept could he labeled? That is, have you been Using any Other Terms/labels to Imply the Human Factor Construct/Concept? What are they? A total of 19 participants (n=51)or 37 % thought the term, "human factor," is very appropriate for this question. However, a total of 43 participants (84%) did provide additional terms that could be used to mean, to some extent, the human factor concept. Only eight people (17%) of all the participants (n=51). did not provide suggested terms, and five out of these eight participants did not answer this question.

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Fifteen terms have been mentioned to imply the Human Factor construct/concept by the participants in this study. However, among all the terms mentioned as being used as proxies for the human factor, only six are relevant/useful and acceptable for our purposes at the IIHFD. These include: (1) Human Element; (2) Human Factor Characteristics; (3) Human Personality (4); Personality Characteristics; (5) Personality Traits; and (6) The Human Quality As shown in Table 6, the terms used as proxies the most are Personality Characteristics (12 times), Personality Traits (10 times), Human Element (7 times) and The Human Quality (6 times). As we explain later in this paper, other terms were mentioned but using both the definition and the meaning of the Human Factor as defined by (he IIHFD, they cannot be viewed as proxies for the I1F construct because they do not conform to the definition and the meaning of the Human Factor concept as identified by the IIHFD. Table 6 Terms that Have Been Used to Imply the Human Factor Construct/Concept by Participant in the Study. Term

Number of Times Mentioned

Human Element

7 times

Human Factor Characteristics

5 times

Human Personality

3 times

Personality Characteristics

12 times

Personality Trails

10 times

The Human Quality

6 times

6. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS We now turn our attention to the discussion of the above results. 6.1. Can the human factor construct/concept be taught in the classroom? Almost all the participants (98%) in this study (n=51) stated that the human factor concept can be taught and many of them supported their answer with additional statements or comments. For example, one participant stated that "If it can't be, we're all in trouble!" Another participant believed that "We are not born humans; we have been taught to be humans, and the human factor is one of those elements that we have to learn and practice to become human." A third participant wrote "dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty, and integrity are not intrinsic human characteristics, those who possess them have been taught to do so." A fourth participant strongly stated that "History has shown that a society that enjoys political, economic, and social, stability,

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arc also strong advocates for promoting dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty, and integrity within their citizens." Yet, another participant stated that “I think of myself as honest and responsible person not because I act this way, which I do, but because I was taught and forced to behave that way by my parents, my preachers, and my teachers, and then by the laws of the society and the law enforcement. Thus I learned that, that is what the good people do and then it was my choice to be a good person or bad person in the society where I live. Most of the other statements given by the participants in this category confirm the categories into which these statements fall. However, one participant wrote: "unfortunately in education, there is a race between education and the influence of the materialistic world. Education is a hard and slow process while the development of today's materialistic world is strong and rapid. This has generated temptations for many young people to seek their wants from the materialistic world in an easy way using phrases such as "everybody is doing it." 6.2. Have you ever included the human factor construct/concept in your teaching? The majority of the participants who answered this question by "Yes", also stated for example: "Yes, but not by saying "Now, I'm going to talk about (or "we're going to discuss/explore") the Human Factor" approach, see appendix 2 for examples of how the human factor construct/concept is taught in the classroom. What is most significant here is that not only some participants included the human factor concept in their teaching, but also they are aware of the kind of teaching models, approaches and/ or strategies that might help their students develop the desirable personality traits. The following arc examples of the teaching strategies, approaches, and or models mentioned by the participants: group investigation, cooperative learning, role playing, jurisprudential inquiry, social science inquiry, scientific inquiry, nondirective teaching, synectics, increasing awareness, classroom meeting, learning self control approach, and learning from simulations approach. We have used Joyce and Weil's (1986) Four Families of Teaching Models in analyzing the teaching approaches and techniques, the participants mentioned in this study. Joyce and Weil (1986) identify four categories of teaching models: (1) Information-Processing Models, which teach metacognitive learning (i.e., focusing on acquiring and organizing information and relating bodies of knowledge); (2) Personal Models, which focus on the development of self-worth, self-awareness, personal responsibility, individual creativity and development of interpersonal skills through thought-interaction; (3) Social-Interaction Models, which incorporate the collective energy of the group, emphasizes the worth of cooperative learning, and promotes social skills including self discipline, negotiation, democracy, etc.. and (4) Behavioral Systems Models, which emphasize the idea that in a structured environment, behavior can be learned and modified through reinforcement and constant feedback. Reinforcement and feedback is incorporated in the role-playing teaching method via student interaction. In using Joyce and Weil’s (1986) Four Families of Teaching Models, most of the leaching approaches, techniques, and or strategies the participants mention come under The Personal Family of Teaching Models and The Social Family of Teaching Models. Only two teaching approaches mentioned by the participants come under The Information-Processing Family of Teaching Models: Inquiry training and scientific inquiry. Also, only two teaching approaches mentioned by the participants come under The Behavioral Systems Family of Teaching Models: Learning self-control teaching strategy and learning from simulations teaching approach. Those who would like more information about these Four Families of Teaching Models should read at

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least the first chapter of Joyce and Weil's (1986) book: Models of Teaching, published by Prentice-Hall, Inc. The role-play teaching model has been mentioned the most by the participants in this study. This teaching approach, which has its roots in both the personal and social dimensions of education, is an effective teaching approach to help students realize the importance of the human factor concept in everyday life. It attempts to help individuals find personal meaning within their social world and to resolve personal dilemmas with the assistance of social groups. In social dimensions, it allows individuals to work together in analyzing social situations, especially interpersonal shortcomings, and in developing decent and democratic ways of coping with these situations (Joyce and Weil, 1986). While students play, act and mimic in a learning activity, they learn different aspects related to a given topic about problem-solving, as well as about exploring their own feelings, attitudes, and values (Joyce and Weil, 1986, Cherif and Somerville, 1995). For example, when role-play activity resembles a "real life case study" it has the advantage of realism which makes it an effective teaching approach. Case studies arc commonly used as methods of instruction, for example, in the disciplines of law and business (Cage. 1996) in integrating science with community and global problems (Robinson. 1993), as well as in the integration of science in how we deal with animals in public zoos and parks (Diamond, 1995, Cherif, Verma, and Somervill, 1998). 6.3. In what other ways do you think the human factor construct/ concept could be labeled? That is, have you been using any other terms/labels to imply the human factor construct/concept? What are they? While most of the participants suggested various terms (hat they believed could be used to imply the human factor concept a total of 37% stated that the "Human Factor" can be an adequate term to use in describing dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty , and integrity. Interestingly enough, over half of the participants in this study indicated directly or indirectly that (his is not an easy question or this is unfair question, or this is the hardest one for them to answer. For example, Professor Ann Jeffries from the Department of Linguistics, at University of Zimbabwe wrote "it's the reason I've delayed answering this questionnaire. I'd like to have a "Good Answer" to it but I can't find one" She elaborated on her answer by saying: Part of what's interfering with my quest is remembering my response to the Cristus Foundation's attempt in 1990 to find "a better name" for "(he disabled" in the US. They had a contest — with a S5000US prize. The winner —from across the nation, mind you — came up with "people with differing abilities” ("different", apparently, wasn't euphemistic enough). I remember writing them in protest when the contest was announced (5000USS — surely there are better uses!) and again when the results were announced (this is the best the nation's "concerned" could come up with?). To my knowledge, the term has not caught on. Terms that "catch on", I think, are rarely the ones that are coined by armchair thinkers. They're the ones that are coined (or brought into a language by bi or multilingual users of it) by the ones who are practically immersed in the activity concerned and who actually use it as they conduct the activity, or observe/experience the process or observe/experience the state, idea, quality/attribute or entity. I like to think I'm "doing human factor studies" through teaching and research about language. But naming it? Teaching it directly, using terms that relate to it explicitly? I think I'd have to be teaching philosophy or religion instead. In Linguistics, we do talk about universal linguistic phenomena, as well as language-specific realizations of them: i.e., different

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manifestations of the same thing. We also talk about things that are "underlying" and others that are "surface". We talk, too, about things like "linguistic imperialism" and "language arrogance". Since I am not teaching philosophy or religion, but still have the human factor at the core of what I do teach, the only things I can do is to encourage my students to make observations and to do the kinds of thinking that must be encouraged as they become more aware of the human factor they already have, and to discourage the things that prevent these kinds of observing/ thinking. So I don’t have a direct answer to this question. All I can really offer b what boils down to a cop-out: we recognize the human factor when we encounter it in all of its guises, if we 're lucky, but, at the same time, maybe linguistic terms can't capture it effectively, without caging it in a way that suggests it's something it's not. For example, though I can't think of any single words in English that mean "the human factor", there's the Shona word "unhu" (roughly, 'proper human-beingness'). But, even with unhu, the word encompasses not only the core values that we share, but also the specific traditions which express them formally and which, given our different kinds of social training, we don’t. In the real life of language use, this sometimes excludes those who are seen to be able to "to have" unhu to those who follow Shona traditions. So even unhu means more — as well as less — than what I think of when I think of the core values I associate with the Human Factor.

7. CONCLUSION AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS Yes, the human factor concept can be taught in the classroom and in a formal educational setting. However, we have to know that people are exposed throughout their lives to a wide variety of values, issues, and different and difficult situations that collectively mold their views and beliefs in and about dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty and integrity both in life and work. Therefore, education cannot be effective if it is not supported by internal factors, external factors, and personal factors. Internal factors include those values practiced by your family members. Family members are the first line-of-defense in the degradation of the human factor traits, such as dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty and integrity that humanize both life and work. Family members are also the first role-models to the youngest members of the family. It is the family's upbringing that instills in children certain desirable standards. These standards make children feel that their personal behavior meets the demands of their family and in turn their society. However, the internal factors are not enough by themselves. They need the support of both the external and the personal factors. External factors include the behavior of members of the government, elected officials, community, civic, and spiritual leaders, teachers, and famous and popular sports, movie, and other entertainment stars. The behavior of people in this category is what reinforces the importance of human factor characteristics within society. It is also what helps to bring and maintain social, political, and economic stability in society. It is part of the societal upbringing of its members. Personal Factors include awareness of the power and unique capacity within every individual (1) to learn, change, and interact with the surrounding environment, (2) to understand and distinguish among empirical and moral questions, and (3) to know when and how to act or behave in difficult situations.

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It is the combination of all these factors; the family, the schools, the government, and the culture of the society that determines whether its population becomes responsible citizens. They would therefore be able to make sound judgments about major issues and questions facing their society as well as themselves as members of that society. The participants in this study used a variety of teaching approaches, techniques, and or strategies to plant the seeds and to foster the development of human factor characteristics in their students. They used those teaching approaches and techniques which, using Joyce and Weil's (1986) words, either "focus on the individual and on the shaping of human groups that support one another's struggles to achieve meaning and strength for self-responsible self-determination... [Or) create education by confronting students with problems that they must solve together, by leading students to analyze their values and the public policies that shape justice in our society, and by introducing students to increasing their social skills and understanding" (p. iv-v.). Gleaning from our research results and discussions, we make the following recommendations for public policy, 1. The human factor concept can be taught and developed through formal education, not as a separate course, but as principles and philosophy and attitude embedded in the texture and nature of any given discipline. 2. Every discipline can be used as either a tool or an environment for developing the human factor characteristics. 3. The development of some human factor characteristics has been achieved serendipitously as a byproduct of certain topics such as the scientific method which teaches critical thinking, objectivity, accountability, and integrity. This however, does not mean all human factor characteristics can be planted and fostered in students' minds serendipitously nor each topic has the nature of the scientific method. 4. The development of appropriate human factor characteristics can be fostered through active learning that capitalizes on the learner's prior knowledge and experience. This could be achieved by connecting the new- knowledge and information to learners' existing knowledge and making everything relevant to their daily lives. 5. The development of the human factor characteristics in the classroom requires the use of various integrated leaching methods and approaches. 6. A positive student-faculty interaction can help foster the development of the appropriate human factor characteristics in students, especially when the instructor uses the philosophy of learning-by example. 7. The human factor characteristics cannot and will not be developed utilizing only the left or the e right brain hemisphere. On the left side of the brain, only logic, linear thinking, writing, reading, analyzing time, and masculinity can be developed. On the right side of the brain, we have instinct, holistic thinking, artistic interests such as dancing, music, spatial capabilities and the feminine aspects of humanity. It is the integration of both modes of brain operation that enables us to develop and express our human factor characteristics. 8. A large study needs to be conducted to verify the results of this study in order to arrive at generalizations that can be useful for those who are looking for effective approaches through which to introduce the human factor concept to their students. 9. The IIHFD does not use the term human factors. This term is what people use in ergonomics and we distance our work from theirs. We use instead, human factor. When you wish to use plural, then consider using human factor traits or human factor characteristics or human qualities or human factor qualities, etc.

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REFERENCES Adjibolosoo, S. 1999. Rethinking Development Theory and Policy: A Human Factor Critique. Westport, CT: Praeger. Adjibolosoo, S. 1998a. Global Development the Human Factor Way. Wcstport, CT: Praeger. Adjibolosoo, S. (ed.) 1998b. International Perspectives on the Human Factor in Economic Development. Westport, CT: Praeger. Adjibolosoo, S. (ed.) 1996a. Human Factor Engineering and the Political Economy of African Development. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Adjibolosoo, S 1996b. "A Guide lo Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Human Factor Theory." Review of Human Factor Studies , 2(1): 1-26. Adjibolosoo, S. (ed.) 1995a. The Significance of the Human Factor in African Economic Development. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Adjibolosoo, S. 1995b. The Human Factor in Developing Africa. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Chivaura. V. G.. and Mararike. C- G. (eds.) 1998. The Human Factor Approach to Development in Africa. University of Zimbabwe Publications, Harare. Zimbabwe. Adjibolosoo. S.. and Ofori-Amoah. B. 1998 (eds). Addressing Misconceptions About Africa's Development/The Edwin Mellen Press. Ltd.. Lewiston, New York. Adjibolosoo, S. 1993. "The Human Factor in Development," Scandinavian Journal of Development Alternatives. XII (4): 139-149. Barrow, R 1998. Education and Curriculum Theory. Vancouver B.C.: Center for The Study of Curriculum and Instruction. (The University of British Columbia). Bennett, W. J. 1992. De-Valuing of American: The Fight For Our Culture and Our Children. New York: Summit Books. Brooks, B. D. 1994. "The Cement of Society (An interview with B. D. Brooks)" The Plan Truth, 59(7): 16. Cage M. C. 1996. "Stanford Law School Experiments with a Course that Teaches Students to Think like Lawyers." The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 23, 1996, p. A16. Carazo, R. 1988. "Disarming the Minds: Rodrigo Carazo. An Interview." Calypso Log, 15(3):8-9. Cherif A. and Somerville. C. 1995. "Maximizing Learning: Using Role-Playing in the Classroom." The American Biology Teacher, 75(1): 28-33-Cherif. Α. Verma S. and Somerville. C 1998. "From the Los Angeles Zoo to the Classroom: Transforming Real Cases via Role-play into Productive Learning Activities.” The American Biology Teacher, 60 (8): 613-617. Cherif, A. H. and Adams. G. 1993. "The Essence of Teaching." Forward To Excellence In Teaching and Learning, 1(1): 5-7. Cherif. A. H. 1992. 'Barriers to Ecological Education in North American –Schools Another Alternative Perspective." The Journal of Environmental Education, 23(3):36-46.

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Cherif. AH 1993. "Science Education: What's it all About?" Illinois School Research and Development. 29(3/Spring);12-17. Cherif, A H. 1996. "Ecological Ethics in Academia: A Proposal For Teaching Survival " Review of Human Factor Studies. 2( 1 )49-72. Cohen. J. 1971. Thinking- Chicago: Rand McNally and Company. Cousteau. J. 1989. "Captain Cousteau - Educating the Public (an interview)." Calypso Log, l6(l):4-7. Diamond, J. 1995 "Playing God at the Zoo," Discover Magazine. March: 79-85. Egler, F. 1970. The Way of Science: A Philosophy of Ecology for the Layman. New York; Hafner Publishing Company. Ehrlich, P. 1990. "Changing Our Minds." Earth Ethics, 1(2): 6-7). Gould. S. J. 1981. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Johnson, W. 1985. The Future is Not What it Used To Be: Returning to Traditional Values in an Age of Scarcity. New York: Doddy, Mead & Company. Joyce. B. and Weil. M. 1986. Models of Teaching. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Kazepides, T. 1987. "To train or to Educate?" The B.C. Teacher, March/April, pp. 15-18. Kirilenko, G. and Korshunova, L. 1984. What is Philosophy?

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Lehman, David L. 1970. Role Playing and Teacher Education. A Manual for Developing Innovative Teachers. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, Washington. D.C. Mac Cormack. A. J. and Yager, R. E. 1989 "Toward Taxonomy for Science Education" B.C. Catalyst, 33(1):16-17. Machado, L. A. 1980. The Right to be Intelligent. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Mararike C. G. 1995. "The Role of Information in the Development of Human Factor in Africa.” Review of Human Factor Studies, 1(2); 98-108. Morton, S. G. 1849. "Observation on the size of the brain in various races and families of man. Proceedings of Academy of Natural Science, 4: 221 -224. Naipau. V.S. 1998. "Indonesia: The Man of the Movement." The New York Review, (May 14, 98). Nash R. (1994). The Rights of Nature. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. Νozick, Robert 1989. The Examined Life: Philosophical Meditations. New York: A Touchstone Book Simon & Schuster publisher. Ost, D. H. and Yager, R. E. 1993. "Biology, STS & the Next Steps in Program Design A Curriculum Development." The American biology Teacher, 55(5):282-287. Robinson. M. G. 1993. Teaching integrating Science around Community and Global Problems. The Clearing House, January/February, pp. 171-172. Schumacher, E. F. 1973. Small is Beautiful: A study of Economics as if People Mattered. London: Blond and Briggs. Stevenson, L and Henry, B. 1995.The Many Faces of Science : An Introduction to Scientists. Values, and Society. Boulder: West view Press.

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Symmes, S. S. 1981. Economic Education: Links to The Social Studies. Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies. Zlotnik, M. 1986. 'Teaching for Peace and Person." The B.C. Teacher, 65(2): 33-36.

APPENDIX 1 Essential Conditions for Educated Person It is this kind of education that Τ believe can ensure the four conditions of awareness staled by educational philosopher Robbin Barrow (1981), as necessary for an individual to become a truly educated citizen: (1) Historical awareness, broad awareness of our place and the place of our civilization in the totality; (2) Awareness of individuality, the unique quality and the power of every individual; (3) Awareness of logical distinctions, the ability to understand and to distinguish among empirical, aesthetic and moral questions; and (4) Awareness of one's capacity for discrimination, the great capacity to discriminate precisely and in detail as much as possible (Barrow, 1981). Another condition of awareness set forward by professors Ost and Yager (1993) is (5) self-awareness; awareness that the human being is a biological, social/cultural and technological species with a unique capacity for learning, changing, and interacting with the environment. Yet another condition of awareness set forward by Nash (1984) is (6) awareness that "the individual freedom we prize cannot connote freedom to abuse the earth any more than it does freedom to abuse other people." We ought to add a seventh condition, (7) that being the need to include developing a sense for the responsible use of science and technology, and according to Jacques Cousteau (1989), (8) develop a sense of knowing when and "how to act or behave in difficult situations".

APPENDIX 2 Examples of How Some Participants Included the Human Factor Concept in their Teaching Example # 1 I teach and direct programs that deal with early childhood education and development. Within this realm, 1 have been using the human factor characteristics such as dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty and integrity, by stressing professionalism, as well as in developing sensitivity and personal awareness when working with families & children, especially those from other cultures. Specifically, what I usually do is ask students questions about what they can do to help parents who are not committed or uninterested in school matters. In essence, I utilize a lot of discussions and brainstorming sessions regarding the issues of responsibility, accountability, etc. Also, I utilize debates and students examine different sides of an issue and provide facts about the issue debated. Case studies are also utilized to examine where and what is wrong/right about a particular topic or issue (e.g. child care or welfare issues) and students provide varying insights. I also utilize Role play which involves students assuming the role of different characters that depict irresponsibility, etc. Later, we discuss feelings, thoughts, and come up with solutions, based on the available data, information, and resources.

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Example # 2 In the last fifteen years, a number of Asian countries have experienced and enjoyed social and economic progress and development, as well as, to some degree, political stability. Many of these countries have also joined the "World Economy" or "Global Economy". Yet, the cultural or traditional aspects of their societies are still strong and in some cases, in conflict with the new social and economic development and connection to the world. Thus, in one of my classes, I use real cases from Malaysia and Singapore to show how the human factor affects ethics and relationships in Management In doing so, I also build my discussion around ethics and relationships — often culture and religion become major topics of discussion. But. in Ihese cases, it is not until the students have explored the possibilities of resolving ihe problem that they become aware of the ''real solution of these cases. At this point, students already invested in their particular perspectives will be able to compare their perspectives with the "real-life" one. Example # 3 In some courses, I usually create a social dilemma and let students respond to it. During the process of discussion, the students themselves begin to realize the role of HF Al this point. I introduce the concept directly into my discussions and then ask the students to respond. I also give them the definition for the HF, and then continue with the discussions, marking significant references to the HF concept. In other courses, I usually, go to class and ask a series of questions regarding what the students view as the most important resource we have as a nation. The students provide their own responses. Using these responses, I then introduce the HF construct and then explain its meaning and relevance to social, economic, and political progress in our societies. Finally, I conduct open discussions about the human factor concept and its role in human, social, and economic development. Then, I give open-ended questions as homework assignment. In this assignment, students do collaborative work on the assignment. Example # 4 I introduce the Human Factor construct in the class and talk about its meaning and importance in building and maintaining a healthy business. Then, and for practical purposes. I assign research projects to students to go out and interview business owners regarding their most valuable assets. Then students ask specific questions regarding the types (i.e., quality) of people businesses want to hire. The students also ask the business owners specific questions to find out whether the human factor concept was part of their upbringing, and whether they themselves practiced human factor principles in their interactions with peers in their childhood years. Through their findings, we discuss the HF construct in detail, including its meaning and relevance to social, economic, and political progress in our society. Example # 5 In some of my classes, I usually introduce the HF construct and then explain its meaning and relevance to social, economic, and political progress in our society. Then, I usually present video materials (from the National Film Board of Canada) that cover a number of universal themes, such as the rights of children, nuclear war and lives of the elderly. Students are required to critically analyze and then write responses to these materials using the HF concept as one of the analyzing criteria.

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Example # 6 In my course "Social Issues in Marketing", I cut out articles on HF issues (ethics, environmental problems, human values, corruption, spirituality, etc.,), assign students to read them and write a page or two expressing their opinions on the issues, and indicating how the issue impacts marketing and society as a whole. Similar to the above but more formal and organized strategy, is where 1 organize class debates on certain topics of HF interest. The class has been divided into six groups giving me three sets of "debating societies". One group finds reasons why, for example, compromising ethics for personal financial gain and social status is good. The other side has to find reasons why such action is bad. At the end of each group's presentation, I allow rebuttals and then invite the rest of the class to get involved with questions, comments, etc. Before we end the session, I tell the class what my position is on the issue and make it very- clear that it is my opinion; but that other people also found honesty, ethical behavior, sacrifice for societal well-being, etc. to be beneficial for all of us, in the long term. I also give students bonus credit if they bring to class articles, new items, etc that are related to the societal development and personal sources of influence on this process. This has encouraged them to read on the HF issue and to ask relevant questions. Example # 7 Whenever possible, I include scientific materials in reading discussion exercises. With higher level classes this can lead to important examinations of process. If there are, in fact, universal principles that govern successful social behavior, a healthy respect for empirical studies is needed at the foundation level to provide an openness to well-researched positions that challenge traditions students may otherwise tenaciously adhere to and to be aware of this fact. I also use open ended discussions about social and health issues such as the place of homosexuals, or why people smoke when they know the risks. I try not to take the moral ground, but allow the students to express freely whatever their positions might be as long as they are able to logically support or defend their opinions. I think this leads lo objectivity better than when the teacher imposes himself or herself as the moral authority. In courses and programs that deal with environmental issues, I try to develop environmental awareness and custodianship which I consider human factor issues, but a heavy handed indoctrinating approach seems not to yield results. Finally, and as much as resources permit, I try to include well-balanced materials about other parts of the world, not favoring any region or showing it to unfair disadvantage. In doing so, I especially try to promote understanding of other cultures or different points of view by having outside guest speakers and choose video materials that focus on positive cultural/social aspects and achievements. Example # 8 In my Science Technology and Society Class, I give students a weekly assignment that must be written in not less than two pages and not more than three typed pages and must be submitted the following class. These weekly assignments relate to each other, meaning that the students need the understanding of the pervious assignment to do well in today's assignment. HF is the third weekly

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assignment. Prior to the HF assignment, students complete two weekly assignments: In the first weekly assignment "Being a Scientist", in winch the students are asked to answer two questions: (1). What kind of scientist would you be like to be and what sort of barriers besides education must you cross to do so? (2). Out of all the scientists you learned about from the book "The Many Faces of Science" by L. Stevenson and H. Byerly, which of them can you identify with the most? why? In the second weekly assignment, students are asked to answer two questions: (1). Distinguish between the following terms: pure science, applied science, theoretical science, and experimental science. 2). Explain the relationship between all of these terms and how they affect the growth of each other and the growth and development of science and technology. Now, my students are ready for the HF assignment which 1 give them in the third week. In the third weekly assignment: "The Role of Human Factor in Sustainable Development:, students are given the definition of the Human Factor in one written paragraph, and then asked to answer the two following questions: (1). What role do human factor characteristics such as accountability, responsibility, commitment, integrity, and compassion, play in the development of your professional career? and why? (2). Why do you think that the human factor characteristics are so important in the development of successful scientists in our society? Please provide examples to support your viewpoint(s). Example # 9 In my class, I have designed activities through which students can: (a) assess the human impact on the African environment and land use; (b) examine the effect of unstable political systems and poor leadership on poverty, hunger, and famine in Africa, and (c) look at the relationships between the human factor and land degradation and population growth. Students write analysis about each of the three points using critical thinking and cause and effect relationships. Example # 10 I see the Human Factor as a set of core values that my students already have, know something about and share with me, and that they include such things as respect for self (i.e., dignity) and respect for others; humility (in the sense of lack of arrogance, self-centeredness, overweening selfishness) and its correlate, concern for others; integrity (in both senses of wholeness and honesty [i.e. the latter, absence of denial and romanticism]); hard work, self-discipline, commitment/dedication, reliability/ dependability/ trustworthiness, assumption of responsibility for one's actions/words; good humor, grace under pressure, mercy, justice; optimism/hope. I teach about scientific approaches to studying language, language structures, and language use. My motivation for teaching arises out of wanting to help students become aware of things they already know, but might not know they know. What we could call the Human Factor resides at the center. A lot of what I try to do boils down to "myth-busting" in matters having to do with language, as well as demonstrating the value of systematic analysis towards doing this. Included among the myths I try to get my students to bust are that: 1) 2) 3) 4)

Scientists are special people with special kinds of brains; Some languages are "more primitive", "less intricate/sophisticated" than others; Sign language is the visual equivalent of a series of grunts; and The language(s) you have determine(s) the kinds of thinking you can do.

I also try to show that any research that has been, or could be, done in one language can be done in any other language. 1 try to develop exercises and research tasks that help students arrive at these conclusions themselves through discovery, and try to avoid preaching at them about them .... not

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always as successfully as sometimes. (I can hear myself in one recent tutorial, "But how can you actually believe...?!") Example #11 In my Science History class, we study human factor characteristics and their role in the development of science and technology. We use real cases from the history of science to show how a few scientists through- out history were dishonest in doing science, by fabricating data, making unsupported claims, etc. but that the majority of scientists are responsible and honest people with high integrity in doing science. We discuss how the nature of science helps the scientific community to discover these phony scientists and forces the scientific community to govern itself from misconduct that fuels misjudgment, misinformation, etc. Here we emphasize the need for having and the ability to willingly apply desirable human characteristics such as dedication, responsibility, accountability, honesty, and integrity in life and work. We also study the external and the internal factors that put temptation on people within the scientific community to get results and publish papers that are needed to receive or renew grants and financial support, fortunately, unacceptable scientific conduct within the scientific community is rare. Example # 12 In my Introduction to the Western Philosophy Class, I usually give my students a list of words and phrases and ask them to write down what they think about each word or phrase and about what it means from their own perspective (both educational and cultural background). I collect the students' answers. Then, as homework, I ask them to use the dictionary, and rewrite what they think each word or phrase means using this time an extended explanation. The following class meeting, I give the students their review work and ask them to compare their answers. Then, I start open discussions about the meaning of the words and phrases, explain the meaning using examples from the real life that are relevant to students. Through this discussion, I introduce the Human Factor concept. Finally, I ask the students as a homework assignment, to write how the Human Factor concept is important in their future success in life. Some of the words and phrases I use in this educational exercise are: Humanism, Human Beings, Human Dimensions, Human Factor, Human Factors, Human Characteristics, Human Ethics, Human Quality, Human Personality, Human Resources, Human traits, Human Values, Culture, Cultural Dynamic, custom, Ethics, language, quality, Morality, Personality. Personality Traits, philosophy, Religion, Society, Country, Values, and Self Awareness. Example # 13 In my mathematics course (Quantitative Literacy), part of the course includes the submission of 3 papers, through which students also encounter the concept of human factor such as, responsibility, accountability, honesty and integrity. The topics of the three papers are based on a mathematician's biography (life, mathematical discoveries and applications in everyday life) or a mathematical topic (fractals, logic, knot theory, etc), or an application of mathematical concepts in society (knot theory and DNA research, mathematics and art. mathematics and the development of science & technology, etc). Some of the most challenging topics that students presented in the courses were the following: 1.

With the creation and establishment of non-Euclidean Geometry (projective, Differential, Factual, etc.) the issue of one absolute truth versus multiple truths surfaced. This issue gives birth to multiple issues such as one accepted behavior versus multiple accepted behaviors or one assessment of accountability versus multiple ways, etc.

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2.

With more and more applications of mathematics in sciences and other areas, the issue of whether Mathematicians should be responsible and accountable for their discoveries and the applications of their discoveries and to what degree becomes pertinent?

3.

To what degree were mathematicians in the past or present able to influence society in economic, political, and social development. For the future, what is the desired behavior toward ethical and other societal issues from mathematicians or the mathematical community in general.

Examples from the Literature The Indonesian industrial engineer, spiritual scholar, and the founder and president of the Indonesian Foundation For The Development and Management of Human Resources (IDNHR), Imaduddin, discovered over twenty years ago that Indonesia "could develop only if its human resources were developed: if the people, that is, became devout and good." (Naipau, 1998, p.) For Indonesia to develop technologically and scientifically, he argued, Indonesian people must become spiritually devout people who are able to view religion, science, and technology as one integrated component in the economic and technological development and stability of Indonesian society. In his views, the management of devout people was to wean them away from old loyalties, whatever these were, and get them to follow the technological political line that was engineered to transfer the country into a developed country. But to achieve this, he strongly felt that spiritual loyalties to both their faith and to their Indonesian society were essential (Naipau, 1998). After many years of distrust and harassment from the government, and then self-exile, the current President of Indonesia, B.J. Habibie, gave him the chance to test his idea of the development of human resources. The government trusted him to help its adolescents and overseas students become devoted Indonesians who were willing to come back to the country and help transform it into the 21st Century. One of the many educational strategies that he used in his early years of working with students included modern games designed for mental training among middle-class adolescents: One of the modern games he made them [adolescents] play was to sit in groups of five and make squares out of variously shaped pieces of paper that had been handed out in separate envelopes. The thing could be done only if the groups came together and exchanged pieces of paper. In this very attractive way they learned about the need for cooperation, perseverance, knowing one another, and the sense of belonging (Cited in Naipaul, 1998, p.). Today, Β J. Habibie has been credited for the technological development of Indonesia as "the man of the movement" of Indonesian development, and Imaduddin, who worked with Habibie behind the scenes, has been called the "man behind the success of the movement".

APPENDIX 3 Example of Class Assignment Course: Science, Technology, and Society Topic: The Role of the Human Factor in Sustainable Development

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In his theory of the role of the human factor characteristics in economic, and social development. Professor Adjibolosoo (1993, 1995) has argued that in the course of social and economic development in many countries, we have neglected to develop among people the desirable human factor characteristics such as accountability, responsibility, commitment, and integrity that "allow political, social, and economic institutions to function and to remain functional over time." According to Adjibolosoo, successful economic growth, social development, gender balance, sustainable environment, and effective leadership, do not depend only on the availability of economic resources, but also on a well-prepared people who have acquired the human factor (such as accountability, responsibility, commitment, and integrity), which is capable of organizing and managing resources and relevant institutions effectively and efficiently. For example, by integrating eco-ethics into the science education curriculum, we may be able to develop desirable human factor characteristics (such as ecological accountability, and integrity) that allow political, social, and economic institutions to function ecologically and to remain functional over lime. In doing so, we may be able to cultivate long-term survival interests in upcoming generations. In two written pages, please answer the following two questions from your own perspective: • What roles do human factor characteristics such as accountability, responsibility, commitment, integrity, and compassionate, etc. play in the development of your professional career? And why? •

Why do you think that human factor characteristics are so important in the development of successful scientists in our society?

Remember: Read the reading materials that have been distributed today in your class before you answer the two questions. You may use some examples from the scientists you have read about in your reading books. This assignment must be submitted next week in writing. It must be not less than two page and not more than two typed pages.

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INTRODUCING THE CONCEPTS OF LIGHT AND LASER THROUGH A GUIDED INQUIRY APPROACH FOR CONCEPTUAL CHANGE P A R T III* B A CK G R OU N D I N F OR M A TI ON A B O U R H . C H E R I F , P H .D . SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS DEPT. COLUMBIA COLLEGE CHICAGO

S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. A S S O C I A T E D E A N A N D D I R E C T O R O F GS. THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF ART

J O E L L A E A G L I N S I U D A , M . S. GENERAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF ART

SHARON CIESLAK THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF ART-SCHAUMBURG

S P E C T R U M , T H E J O U R N A L O F T H E I L L I N O I S S C I E N C E T E A C H E R S A S S O C I A T I O N , S P R I N G – S U M M E R 19 99

Visible Light: Light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. It comes from tiny particles of matter called atoms- specifically, from tiny subatomic particles of the atom called electrons. Thus, basic understanding of the atom's structure and behavior is essential for understanding light and how it is made, and in turn for understanding the concept of laser light beams. Most of the world around us is made up of matter, a substance that has mass and occupies space. In its common form (solid, liquid, or gas), matter is made of atoms. An atom is made of a central part called the nucleus, and tiny particles called electrons. The nucleus is made up of two subatomic particles, positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, both of which always stay in the center of the atom, and make up by far most of the mass of an atom. Orbiting in three dimensions around the outside of the nucleus are the electrons, in orbits called "shells" or energy levels. These electrons are negatively charged and many times smaller in mass than either the proton or neutron. Furthermore, the negatively charged electrons which constantly spin around the nucleus are held in space by an electrical attraction to the positively charged protons. In a given atom however, the number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons is the same, and therefore, the overall charge of any single atom is zero or neutral. Different atoms have different numbers of orbits or shells of energy (energy levels) around the nucleus. Each shell of energy can only hold up to a specific number of electrons. For example, using the formula 2(n)2, the first shell of energy (n=1) can hold up to two electrons, the second (n=2) up to eight electrons, the third (n=3) up to eighteen electrons, the fourth (n=4) up to thirty two electrons, and so on. The closest energy level to the atom's nucleus which contains the lowest number of electrons (up to two electrons), is the lowest energy level. Electrons that orbit the nucleus in the same energy levels contain the same amounts of energy, and the farther a shell of energy is from the nucleus, the more energy it contains, and marc energy its electrons contain. When electrons that are orbiting the nucleus of an atom are exposed to a form of radiation (heat or light), they absorb energy and become excited by this gained energy. These excited electrons can use the energy to jump from lower to higher shells of energy which are farther from the nucleus. For example, an excited electron may jump from the second to the fifth shell. When it uses up most of its extra energy in the jump, then it falls back to its original lower shell (the second energy level) , It is important to know here that this atom is considered unstable when its electrons have been boosted from lower to higher energy shells. So, eventually, boosted electrons return to their low energy shells releasing the stored energy (energy they have absorbed), in a form of photons (packets of light energy). Light is made up of streams of photons. In other words, light is created from the jump, and subsequent fall, of electrons upon excitation and

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the concomitant energy release that coincides. This energy they release assumes the form of photons, which combine into beams of light electromagnetic radiation or waves (often visible light). Since the atoms of different elements contain different amounts of energy, each kind of atom releases energy at a characteristic wave length. Thus, when atoms of different elements are exposed to a form of radiation (heat or light) they emit different colors or wave lengths of light. This is simply because "each element is as individualistic as a fingerprint; it burns with a distinctive spectrum - lines of bright bands superimposed by dark lines, rather like a colorful barcode." (Shroyer, 1993, p.13). White light is made up of various colors of light, each with a specific wavelength and frequency, but all the electromagnetic waves travel from the sources of the light in straight lines and in all directions. In a vacuum, the speed of all electromagnetic waves is the same and is about 300 million meters per second, or what we call the speed of light However, different electromagnetic waves of light travel at different speeds in different mediums, such as glass, water and air. For example, the white light beams which are made up of different wavelengths, travel through a prism of glass at different speeds, and emerge from the prism at different angles, thereby causing the white light beams to separate into various rainbow colors, each with a specific wavelength, frequency, and range of amplitude (intensity). Specifically, when a beam of light enters a glass prism, it is dispersed into a spectrum of colors (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet). The component colors of the white light corresponding to different wave length are refracted at slightly different angles, and thus they spread out iota a spectrum of colors. Red light has the largest wavelength and the smallest index of refraction, and thus bends the least. Violet light, with the shortest wavelength, has the largest index of refraction and is bent the most. These wavelengths are expressed in units of nanometers. In summary, ordinary white light consists of many different colors (each with a specific wavelength and frequency) mixed together, each going in various directions and interfering randomly with each other. Because light varies in wavelength, it appears as different colors to the human eye, from the larger wavelengths of red (at 0.7 microns that is 0.7 millionth of a meter) to the shorter wavelengths of violet (at 0.4 microns). Red light's larger wavelength is met with a low frequency, whereas violet light, with its short wavelength, is known to have a high frequency. As a final note, ultra violet energy is just outside the range of visibility, and has an even higher frequency (See Fig. 2). Facing The Challenge: Now, think of this scenario: What do you think will happen if an excited electron of a given atom is exposed to, or hit by, additional energy (heat or light) before the –electron completely falls bad down to its original orbit? So far, we know that when an electron of a normal atom is exposed to a form of radiation (i.e., heat or light), this electron absorbs the energy and becomes excited. If this excited electron is not exposed to additional radiation (heat or light) then it falls back down to its original shell and emits the excess energy it has left as a photon of visible light. However, as Einstein proposed in 1919, if this excited electron is exposed to additional identical radiation (heat or light), then the excited electron will not gain additional energy. Instead, this electron may make a transition to a lower energy level and emit its extra energy as another photon. Thus two identical photons with the same frequency leave the atom in the same direction traveling in step with each other (in phase). If these two identical photons hit two more excited

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atoms, the process will be repeated, ending with four identical photons with the same frequency and phase that go off the atom in the same direction. The four identical photons will hit four more excited atoms, and eight identical photons (or packets of light energy) with the same frequency and phase will leave the atom in the same direction, traveling in step with each other. Then, the eight identical photons will hit eight more excited atoms and sixteen photons will be produced, and so on. This process of accumulating the Dumber of produced identical photons is called amplification by stimulated emission and is defined below: Notice that stimulated emission is an amplification process -one photon in, two out. Of course, this is not a case of getting something for nothing, since the atom must be initially excited, and energy is needed to boost an electron to a higher state. This excitation process is somewhat analogous to pumping water to a roof-top reservoir for later use. However, stimulated emission does provide a way to amplify light. (Wilson, 1994, p. 817).

Here Comes The Laser Beam: If, in a given element, there are more atoms in the excited state than in the ground state, then what occurs is a stimulated emission of photons rather than absorption of photons; with this we have amplification. A laser uses this process to produce a huge number of identical photons. A laser is a device that uses a standard light source to excite electrons of the atoms of a given element to produce intense, narrow, monochromatic, and coherent beams of light by the process of stimulated emission. This means that laser beams are light waves that have identical wavelengths, frequency, amplitude (brightness or intensity), and a very small angle of divergence in comparison with the beam of ordinarily white light. See figure 3. The term "laser," stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation- and much of what comprises a laser is suggested in the acronym itself. In fact, what can be said here is that laser action depends on emission by a stimulated process. To produce laser beams, we need a device that has a source of light and enables us to generate a condition in which we can have more atoms in the excited state than in the ground state, and more stimulated emission than

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absorption of photons. One kind of laser device consists of a tube containing gases, liquids or solids, and two mirrors, each placed at an end of the tube. One of these mirrors however, is only half-reflective of radiation. The element used in the tube "is chosen by the properties of laser light it produces. Different elements produce different wavelengths of light, [and different maximum powers or brightness.]" (Maton, 1993, p. 117). The light source within the device produces energy that excites a great amount of electrons into an upper state. The photons that are released as the electrons fall to a lower state are reflected backwards and forwards with the two mirrors. As they move back and forth between the two mirrors, some photons will strike more and more atoms and keep producing million s of identical photons. Since one of these two mirrors is half-reflective (a partial mirror) not all the photons being emitted will be reflected and thus some win be trapped and a tiny bit of them wiII go through. As the beam becomes strong enough, a small percentage of the coherent light escapes in step with each other (phase) through this mirror, producing a laser beam of one kind of light (or monochromatic light). It is coherent because all of its light waves have the same wavelength and phase. It is monochromatic because it is one kind of colored light. It has the same frequency because the number of the waves passing a given point (say the partial mirror) per unit time is the same. The representation below shows how a laser beam is generated.

Where lasers differ from other light however, is in their ability to generate all that energy into a dense concentration of monochromatic and coherent light within one space (see figure -3- ). When all electromagnetic waves of the same wavelength travel in the same direction and meet in one point of space, there lies the rationale for a beam of light- the laser beam. However, like any light, the laser beam follows the rules of non coherent light - that being its angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection and that it can refract and diffract - but in a more exact manner. This is the where the greatest difference lies. A laser beam is exact and is less subject to dispersion of its energy to the outward world than the non coherent light beams. This is the beauty of lasers, and why they have been mastered as much as the technology of this day win allow. Types of Laser: Laser beams differ from each other in the state of matter that comprise them and the mechanism through which the beams are generated. See table -2- for the structure and the nature of various types of lasers.

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Some kinds of laser beams are very intense and much brighter than even the light given off by the sun. This is simply because a laser puts out more energy per square centimeter than the sun does. According to Bova (1975), ''the sun emits about 7 Kilowatts of light energy from each square centimeter of its surface. A laser, on the other hand, can produce more than a billion watts of energy in a beam about one square centimeter in cross section" (p. 18). Laser beams can be focused down to tiny spots without spreading out widely, and thus can emit very narrow, thin beams of light. Furthermore, while laser beams can be produced in any of the seven colors of the rainbow, only one color is present in a given laser beam. All laser beams are pure because only photons of the same wave, length can be emitted. Lasers can also "produce forms of light that the human eye can't see - infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation" (Bova, 1975, p.19). In addition, lasers emit wavelengths that are all lined up together precisely to match peaks and troughs in one coherent beam, concentrating and optimizing their energy (Maure 1992, Laurence 1986, Kallard 1977). Sense of History: It is interesting to note that the birthplace of lasers can be found with the advent' of the "maser." Charles H. Townes and his colleagues were the first to discover microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (i.e. "maser"). In 1954, Townes's team was able to excite ammonia molecules that emitted microwaves at a specific, identical frequency upon relaxation. Later, Townes and his brother-in law, Arthur L. Schawlow collaborated to generate an "optical maser;" a device that would amplify light, not microwaves, thereby producing a very narrow beam of light at a single frequency. In 1958, they published a scientific paper explaining their ideas and what was needed to make an optical maser. Built upon these great discoveries, two years later, in 1960, Theodore Maiman built the first successful laser and the dawn of the "laser" had arrived (Bova 1975, Kallard 1977, Laurence 1986). The Application of Laser Beams: At this time in our history, lasers are being utilized in the medical arena as an exacting force. In times of surgery, lasers can offer the benefits of the ultimate, perfect scalpel- able to cut and cauterize as it moves through any type of biological medium. And with the advent of high-tech mirrors and significant increases in the power of computers, we are now able to go places with a laser even without the benefit of the naked eye. All that is necessary to turn the laser is a skilled user, the right equipment, and a high memory-based computer. In addition to the medical field, one finds lasers in all aspects of life. Industry utilizes the great technology of lasers in all its assembly line productions. From the manufacturing of cars to beverage containers, lasers have etched, molded, formed and dyed various starting materials into their finished forms. There is no limit to the bounds of the laser- and it is certain that as our understanding of this powerful tool increases so will its many applications. What is more, is the new use of lasers to produce holograms. Hologram means "complete picture"- a picture that appears to have Volume. This is because of the three dimensional quality given to the representation. The picture/representation is given the aura of having depth, length, and width. To do a hologram, the idea of laser theory comes into play. In fact, all a hologram requires is two laser beams. One of the laser beams shines onto the object and then onto a special photographic film, therefore, an image of the object has been recorded onto the special film. The other laser beam is directed to a mirror, and then is reflected off the mirror onto the film. This film records the data as well, and thereby gives a three dimensional facet to the original object's picture - i.e. a hologram has been made from the combination of one film and two laser beams. Below is a pictorial representation of how this wondrous situation occurs: Finally, it is interesting to see that as our advancements in technology take us from the standard light bulb to the complexity of the hologram, also too will our new-found uses for this technology. As they say, technology leads the way. Finally, it is interesting to see that as our advancements in technology take us from the standard light bulb to the complexity of the hologram, also too will our new-found uses for this technology. As they say, technology leads the way.

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Part IV: Relevant Laboratory Situations The following are a few suggestive activities to reinforce the students ' understandings of the concepts of light and laser. In no way does this suggest that these are the only laboratory situations that can be utilized to introduce and/or foster these concepts. Activity # 1: Breaking Down the White Light: The needed equipment for this lab activity is a prism and a piece of cardboard with a one inch horizontal or vertical slit in the middle. The aim of the activity is to reduce white light into its corresponding rainbow colors using a prism. White light is composed of different wavelengths of light that travel through glass at different speeds and emerge from a prism at different angles, thereby causing light to separate into various rainbow colors. As a variation, one can use the "slitted" cardboard juxtaposed with the prism to pull out just one particular color of the rainbow. See below for expected results and a pictorial representation of the breakdown of light into its comprised colors. For students who need further challenge teachers could ask the following question: What do you think will happen if we put another prism between the beam with a particular color (e.g. green) and the cardboard?

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Activity # 2: Directional Change of Light Beams: A fluorescent light bulb apparatus, an incandescent light bulb apparatus, a laser, two or more mirrors, and a piece of cardboard with a 1/4 hole in the middle are needed for this lab activity. The purpose of this laboratory situation is to show just how mirrors can change the direction of light in either a focused manner or in a diffused manner. Below are expected results with the use of one mirror. For sake of understanding and excitement for the students), it is suggested to use multiple mirrors to change the path of the light many times once the basic concepts of dispersion forces and angles of incidence and reflection are understood. In this laboratory activity students will discover how exact a laser beam can be routed to a new location with the use of one or more mirrors. This laboratory can also be used as an introduction to laser holography, and the production of three-dimensional pictures (i.e. holograms), as explained in Part # 3 ''Background Information."

Activity # 3: The Inherited Nature and Characteristics of Various Types of Light (Intensity, Directionality, Monochromaticity, and Coherence): In this activity, students will compare the intensity, directionality, monochromaticity, and coherence of laser beams to other light sources. Usually, we give each student a copy of Table 5 and we discuss together in class the intensity, directionality, monochromaticity, and coherence of laser beams. Then, each student does library research and fills in the rest of the table on his or her own. The class is divided into groups of two students, and each group is asked to write three pages explaining the inherited nature and characteristics of various types of light (Table 5).

Activity # 4: The Application of Lasers in Modem Society: This activity can be used as an internet homework assignment. Each student is given a copy of Table 6 and is asked to use the internet to find examples of the use of lasers in the ten listed categories in Table 5. The students are also asked to define all the words listed in the ten categories in Table 6. Then, each student is asked to prepare two-to-three written pages about the application of lasers in modem society based on Table 6. These written pages must accompany Table 6. Students can find the needed information in. for example, any new college physics textbook, any multimedia Encyclopedia (such as the 1995-1998 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia published by Grotier Incorporated, Grolier

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Electronic Publishing, Inc .), or in various books such as those written by Bova (1975), Mauler (1982). Laurence (1986) or Eslow (1988). Also, The Handy Science Answer Book (1994, 1998) is a good choice for information, as to is the Internet.

Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Dr. Pan Papacosta, Mr. Peter Insley, Dr. Vladimir Lepetic, and Ms. Zachia Middlechild for their suggestions and thought-provoking comments that led to significant improvement of the original manuscript Dr. Papacosta is a professor of physics in the Department of Science & Mathematics, Columbia College Chicago. Mr. Insley is a professor of physics and mathematics here at Columbia College. Dr. Lepetic is a professor of physics and mathematics in the Department of General Education at The Illinois Institute of Art. Ms. Zachia Middlechild is an environmentalist and artist in 140 Florence Ave, Evanston, IL 60202.

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Bibliography Bova, Ben (1975). The Amazing Laser. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., and Simos, E. (1997). Science and Mathematics; Integrating the teaching of science, math, and social studies in relevant context. Spectrum Journal, 23(3); 20-28. Cherif, Abour H. (1988). Inquiry: An Easy Approach in Teaching Science. Lectures and workshops the author has been giving for the last few years to a number of teachers and students - taught under various titles including Inquiry : A Rewarding Approach in Teaching Science, Inquiry : A Rewarding Approach for Conceptual Change, and Giving Science Back to Children. Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University. Cherif, Abour H. (1993a). Relevant Inquiry. The Science Teacher, 60(9): 26-28. Cherif, Abour H. (1993b). Science Education: What's It All About? Illinois School Research and Development. 29(3): 12-17. Cherif, Abour H. (1998). Making Sense of Density around You through Guided Inquiry. Washington Science Teacher's Journal, 38(1): 14-19. Dewey, John (1910). How We Think. Boston: Heath and Co. Eskow, Dennis (1988). Laser Careers. New York: High -Tech Careers Books. Gialamas, Stefanos (1991). Mathematics for Artists. Proceeding National Conference on the Education of Artists. New York School of Visual Arts. October 1991. Gialamas, Stefanos (1993 Spring). Knots everywhere. Consortium of Mathematics and Application. No. 45, pp. Harper A. E. (1990). Critical evaluation the only reliable road to knowledge. Bioscience, 40(1):46-47. Hurd, Paul DeHart (1969). New Directions in Teaching Secondary School Science. Chicago. Rand McNally & Company. Jacobson, W. J. and Bergman, A.B. (1987). Science For Children: A book for teachers. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Kallard, T. (1977). Exploring Laser Light: Laboratory Exercises and Lecture Demonstrations Performed With Low-Power Helium-Neon Gas Laser. Stony Brook, New York: American Association of Physics Teachers. Laurence, Clifford L (1986). The Laser Book: A New Technology of Light, New York: Prentice Hall Press. Maron, Anthea, et al. (1993). Prentice Hall Science: Sound and Light. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey; Prentice Hall. Maurer, Allan (1982). Laser: Light Wave of The Future .New York: ARCO Publishing Inc. Moore, Randy (I989). What vs. how we teach (Editorial). The American Biology Teacher, 51(2):68. Murphy, James T., J.M. Hollon, and P. W. Zitzewitz (1986). Physics: Principles & Problems. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company. Popp, Jerome A. (981). Teaching science scientifically. Journal of Education, 7 (2):12-15. Schwab, J. J. (1962). The Teaching of Science as Enquiry. In J.J. Schwab and P.F.Brandwein (Eds). The Teaching of Science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Shroyer, Ja Ann (1993). Quarks, Critter and Chaos. New York: Prentice Hall.

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Suchrnan, J. Richard (1966). Developing Inquiry. Inquiry Development Program. Chicago. Illinois: Science Research Associates. Wilson, Jerry D. (1994). College Physics. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Yager, Robert E. (1988). Differences between most and least effective science teachers," School Science and Mathematics, 88 (4): 301-307. The 1995-1998 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Published by Grolier Incorporated, Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.

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INTRODUCING THE CONCEPTS OF LIGHT AND LASER THROUGH A GUIDED INQUIRY APPROACH FOR CONCEPTUAL CHANGE PARTS I AND II ** A B O U R H . C H E R I F , P H .D . SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS DEPT. COLUMBIA COLLEGE CHICAGO J O E L L A E A G L I N S I U D A , M . S. GENERAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF ART

S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D. A S S O C I A T E D E A N A N D D I R E C T O R O F G S. THE ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF ART S P E C T R U M , T H E J O U R N A L O F T H E I L L I N O I S S C I E N C E T E A C H E R S A S S O C I A T I O N , W I N T E R 19 98 Part I - Introduction and Rationale Inquiry is a system of questioning and knowledge seeking through systematic observation, measurement, and experimentation that aims to develop scientific knowledge and understanding (Cherif, 1988, 1998; Hurd, 1969; Schwab, 1962; Suchuan, 1966). What we teach in science classes is clearly important, but how we teach it is even more so if we are to foster the students' appreciation and understanding of scientific knowledge and development. In working with science teachers and student-science teachers at both elementary and secondary school levels, many science educators have come to realize that a larger number of teachers feel uncomfortable using an inquiry approach and, what is more, most have difficulties asking relevant questions (Yager 1988, Cherif 1988, Moore 1989, Harper 1990). In helping to remedy this situation, in 1988, Cherif developed a guided inquiry approach consisting of six main questions that can be used to promote conceptual change by increasing a student's ability to analyze, synthesize, evaluate and relate scientific ideas to everyday life. In this paper, we state these questions, explain them, and show how they might be implemented as an inquiry approach to teaching light and laser concepts in the classroom. The six main proposed questions to teach science for conceptual change through a guided inquiry method are: 1. What do you think will happen given this set of conditions? (If, for example, X is added to Y?) 2. What actually happened? 3. How did it happen? 4. Why did this happen? 5. How can we find out which of these hypotheses is the most reasonable? 6. How can you relate the investigated idea, concept or principle to your daily lives? These questions are needed "to draw out the information that will match the intended learning outcomes which enable teachers to monitor the pupils' progress in learning through inquiry processes, and to derive meaning from scientific generalization" (e.g., Jacobson and Bergman, 1987 ; Cherif, 1988, 1993a). Furthermore, Cherif has argued that, "these questions help clarify both the purpose and identify the problem, by developing the statement of objectives. They also aid in the collection and interpretation of data, and the development of tentative conclusions and generalizations." An important goal is the establishment of a simple, common sense relationship between investigated problems, tentative conclusions, and the students' daily lives, See Table -1- for the nature and aim of each of these six guided inquiry questions.

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Part II - Using the Guided Inquiry Approach to Teach About Light and Laser Needed materials: Give each group of three students a laser pen, a flashlight, a white sheet of paper (e.g., 17" x 14"), a piece of thick black paper, a pin, an adhesive tape, and two small mirrors. Procedures: Holding the laser pen in one hand and the flashlight in the other hand, ask all the groups the following predictive question: 1. What do you think will happen to the beam of light from the laser pen and flashlight when you switch them on? When we ask "What will happen if..." we set the stage for the students to recognize the problem, and in turn capture their immediate interest. Furthermore, this question promotes the ability to think about and express a thought clearly (Cherif 1988, 1993a, 1998). The followings are examples of student’s predictions at the seventh grade level. 1) Both the beam of light from the laser pen and the beam of light from the flashlight will appear as a single spot of light on the paper. 2) Both the beam of light from the laser pen and the beam of light from the flashlight will appear as a single bright spot of light in the center, but the light will fade as it moves away from the center. 3) The beam of light from the laser pen will appear as a single spot of light on the paper while the beam of light from the flashlight will appear as a dispersed hollow light. 4) The beam of light from the laser pen will appear as a dispersed hollow light on the paper while the beam of light from the flashlight will appear as a single spot of light. All given predictions should be listed on the blackboard or overhead projector, and discussed by the class. To avoid too many ill-founded answers to this predictive question, Cherif has suggested (1988, 1998) that, "we should allow enough time for the students to discuss the problem with each other in order to sharpen or challenge their predictions, After there is no more discussion or concern about the given prediction, students are given the opportunity to test their own predictions by performing the experiment in the classroom." In this case, students will be allowed to switch on both the laser pen and the flashlight and observe the beam of light from both objects. 2.

What actually happened to the beam of laser light and the beam of light from the flashlight when you switched them on? This is a descriptive-discovery question that is based on the careful observation(s) that characterizes any scientific process. To answer this question, students get the opportunity to test their own predictions by actually turning on both the flashlight and the laser pen and observing what actually happens. Students here need only write down or answer orally the actual final result. For example: The beam of the flashlight is scattered and bouncing all over the white paper. While the beam of laser light is a thin bright and concentrated single spot on the white paper. When all the students become aware and agree about "what actually happened," they are asked to compare their predictions with "what actually happened."

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3. How did it happen? Or what are the steps that led to what actually happened? This is a holistic and descriptive question, and is aimed at a general understanding of the processes taking place (Cherif, 1988, 1993). Once again, observation and descriptive skills are developed and used. Here, students need to describe in detail all the previous steps they and/or the teacher have taken before reaching the final result with this question they need to describe the empirical pattern that led to the final results. Cherif (1988, 1998) has stated that the objectives of asking this question are; a) To keep students up-to -date with the inquiry processes. b) To establish in their minds the cause and effect relationship and that the final results could not have happened without all the previous steps. c) To encourage students to think of everything that took place not as separate or isolated events, but as a total integrated whole. Teachers should be cautioned not to pass over the question of "How did it happen?" too lightly: The holistic-description is important because it allows the student to demonstrate an understanding of what has taken place. Most of all, a holistic description shows that students can properly understand that the processes of science need not be broken down into separate activities which bear little resemblance to the true nature of the scientific activity. Furthermore, by giving students opportunities to engage in- and reflect upon- what they do, they gain some skills and information and develop an awareness of the problem. All these are necessary to help them deepen their understanding and appreciation of scientific knowledge and processes (Cherif, 1988, 1998). As an example of how a student may answer this question, here is a seventh grade student's response: First, the teacher entered the classroom with some objects in her hands which she identified as flashlights and laser pens. Next, she gave each four students one flashlight, one laser pen, and one sheet of white paper. Third, she asked us to predict what would happened if we switch both the laser pen and the flashlight on. Some of us gave predictions which were written on the blackboard, and challenged by the rest of the students. Some of the predictions were erased from the blackboard and only a few were kept. Finally, the teacher let us turn on both the laser pen and the flashlight. The beam of the flashlight was scattered and bouncing all over the white paper while the beam of laser light was a thin, concentrated, single spot on the white paper. Many of us asked why, but the teacher ignored us and continued by asking us how it happened. 4. Why did this happen? This is the causal question or the reasoning explanation. The point of this question is that students are asked to generate a reasoned and testable hypothesis. To explain means to connect logically a cause to an effect, to provide the closest or most satisfying logical connection between the cause and the effect. Somewhere during this stage of the inquiry process, students start to develop and apply some kind of mental analysis, then test and modify their own hypotheses (individually and/or with their classmates) before they report them to the teacher. However, the aim of this question is to generate, not to test hypotheses. The latter is the function of the hypothetical deductive question. Thus, to answer this question, the teacher must help students formulate their own answers from the obtained data, laws and theories at hand (Cherif, 1988, 1998, p. 15). Teachers must remember that it is "the theory and not the experiment [that] opens up the way to new knowledge" (Karl Popper; cited in Hurd, 1969, p. 17). Therefore, the tentative explanations (testable hypotheses) offered by students should reflect their ideas, experiences and understanding, and thus present teachers with the opportunity to find out how and what their students think about the given instance. The following are examples of students' testable hypotheses in seventh grade: (a) The opening, or lens, of the laser pen is much smaller than the opening of the flashlight, and therefore, the beam of light which comes out of the laser pen is smaller and more concentrated. (b) Since the laser light is red, and the flashlight light is white, the rays of the red laser light is thin and more crowded to each other than the bigger, more scattered white flashlight beam. (c) The opening, or lens of the laser pen, can combine all the beams of light in one spot in the same way as placing a magnifying glass in the path of the rays from the sunlight and moving it until the sunlight appears as a bright spot of light on a paper.

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(d) The mechanisms that produce the two beams of light are different. Here, Cherif (1988, 1993a) has argued that "only those hypotheses that have proposed testable mechanisms must be considered. The students who generate hypotheses, but fail to propose a testable mechanism to test them should have their hypotheses rejected by the teacher." 5. How can we find out which of these proposed hypotheses is the most reasonable or satisfactory? This question offers students the opportunity to actually plan and carry out experiments of their own. As a result, they will have the opportunity to gain the skills of designing experiments, testing hypotheses. Reasoning and debating results, etc. Cherif (1988, 1998) has stated: This is an exciting, self-correcting stage where the students, while engaged in the whole process independently, are actually learning how scientists think and work. Since here, students are devoted to deducing the logical consequences of these hypotheses and explicitly designing and conducting experiments to test them; the analysis of experimental results will allow for some hypotheses to be rejected and some to be retained. To use Popp's (1981) words, teachers should help students develop or enhance a frame of mind "which can allow familiar and perhaps 'pet' beliefs to be released in favor of alternative, better supported ones" (p, 14). The following are examples of how seventh grade students test their hypotheses that were listed in question number four. a) The opening, or lens, of the laser open is much smaller than the opening of the flashlight and therefore, the beam of light which comes out of the laser pen is smaller and more concentrated. The students reconstructed the experiment by using a laser pen and a flashlight pen as the source of the light beam. To the surprise of the students, the same result was observed by all of them: The beam of the flashlight is scattered and bouncing all over the white paper. While the beam of the laser light is a thin, coherent and concentrated single spot on the white paper. The same student later proposed to test his hypothesis by shining the laser and the flashlight through a 2mm diameter hole. b) Since the laser light is red and the flashlight beam is white, the wave length of the red laser light is more concentrated than the bigger, more scattered white flashlight beam. In this experiment, students first separated the white light into its rainbow of colors (red, orange yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet) using a prism. Then, they placed a cardboard with a slit in the path of the rainbow colored light. The cardboard prevented all the colors from coming through except red, which went through the slit in the cardboard. Yet, they failed to get a thin, bright and concentrated single spot of red light from the flashlight similar to the one they got from the beam of laser light Later, a few students suggested that they should place a magnifying glass on the other side of the slit of the cardboard so that the rays of the red light would be brought to a single bright spot. Again, they failed to get a thin, bright and concentrated spot of light. Again, the beam of the flashlight was scattered and bouncing all over the paper, while the beam on laser light was a thin, bright, concentrated spot c) The opening, or lens of the laser pen can combine all the beams of light in one spot in the same way as placing a magnifying glass in the path of the rays from the sunlight and moving it until the sunlight appears as a bright spot of light on a paper. The students placed a magnifying glass on the opening of the flashlight; even by doing this, they failed to get the beam of the flashlight to take on the form of a thin, bright and concentrated spot. d) The mechanisms that produce the two beams of lights are different. To test this hypothesis, students did a library research and found out how both a laser pen and flashlight work, without the help of their teacher. They discovered that white light consists of a combination of wavelengths of the visible spectrum all traveling randomly, while laser light consists of light of only one wavelength. In this wavelength, all the crests and troughs travel together to produce an intense coherent beam of light of one color. In the light given off by the flashlight, there is a mix of, crests and troughs. The waves interfere, are sometimes added together and sometimes canceled out. Eventually the light spreads out, decreasing its power. AI a good distance from the flashlight, no light will be seen by an observer. In the laser, however all the waves travel in step. The crests all travel next to one another. Light of the same wavelength that travels in step is said to be coherent light (Malon, et al, 1993, p. 117).

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6. Can you think of something we use in our daily lives that is designed and/or built on the same idea, concept, or principle we are investigating? For example: How many things can you think of that use laser and/or light in your classroom, in your home, and in your city? Cherif (1988, 1993a) calls this question an "idea-application" or a "testing-understanding" type of question. He argues that its aim is to help students generalize from the ideas at hand and to encourage them to think of science as a part of their lives .They can affect, and be affected by, science and its application. After students have named some objects that they think were designed on the same idea, they will be asked how their named objects work in the context of the relevant hypothesis (reasoning explanation). He states five objectives for this question: (a) to make sure that students understand the idea or the concept under investigation, (b) to make sure that they master the inquiry processes, (c) to help them develop the ability of applying the reasoning pattern in other situations, (d) to see science as a part, not only of society, but also of themselves, and (e) to accept science as a way of knowing and understanding. Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Dr. Pan Papacosta, Mr. Peter Insley, Dr. Vladimir Lepetic, and Ms. Zachia Middlechild for their suggestions and thought-provoking comments that led 1O significant improvement of the original manuscript. Dr. Papacosta is a professor of physics in the Department of Science & Mathematics, Columbia College Chicago, 600 S. Michigan Ave., Chicago IL 60605, whereas Mr. Insley is a professor of physics and mathematics here at Columbia College. Dr. Lepetic is a professor of physics and mathematics in the Department of General Education at The Illinois Institute of Art, 350, N. Orleans Ave., Chicago, IL 60605.Ms. Zachia Middlechild is an environmentalist and artist in 140 Florence Ave, Evanston, IL 60202.

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Bibliography Bova, Ben (1975). The Amazing Laser. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press. Cherif, A., Gialamas, S., and Simos, E. (1997). Science and Mathematics; Integrating the teaching of science, math, and social studies in relevant context. Spectrum Journal, 23(3); 20-28. Cherif, Abour H. (1988). Inquiry: An Easy Approach in Teaching Science. Lectures and workshops the author has been giving for the last few years to a number of teachers and students - taught under various titles including Inquiry : A Rewarding Approach in Teaching Science, Inquiry : A Rewarding Approach for Conceptual Change, and Giving Science Back to Children. Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University. Cherif, Abour H. (1993a). Relevant Inquiry. The Science Teacher, 60(9): 26-28. Cherif, Abour H. (1993b). Science Education: What's It All About? Illinois School Research and Development. 29(3): 12-17. Cherif, Abour H. (1998). Making Sense of Density around You through Guided Inquiry. Washington Science Teacher's Journal, 38(1): 14-19. Dewey, John (1910). How We Think. Boston: Heath and Co. Eskow, Dennis (1988). Laser Careers. New York: High -Tech Careers Books. Gialamas, Stefanos (1991). Mathematics for Artists. Proceeding National Conference on the Education of Artists. New York School of Visual Arts. October 1991. Gialamas, Stefanos (1993 Spring). Knots everywhere. Consortium of Mathematics and Application. No. 45, pp. Harper A. E. (1990). Critical evaluation the only reliable road to knowledge. Bioscience, 40(1):46-47. Hurd, Paul DeHart (1969). New Directions in Teaching Secondary School Science. Chicago. Rand McNally & Company. Jacobson, W. J. and Bergman, A.B. (1987). Science For Children: A book for teachers. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Kallard, T. (1977). Exploring Laser Light: Laboratory Exercises and Lecture Demonstrations Performed With Low-Power Helium-Neon Gas Laser. Stony Brook, New York: American Association of Physics Teachers. Laurence, Clifford L (1986). The Laser Book: A New Technology of Light, New York: Prentice Hall Press. Maron, Anthea, et al. (1993). Prentice Hall Science: Sound and Light. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey; Prentice Hall. Maurer, Allan (1982). Laser: Light Wave of The Future .New York: ARCO Publishing Inc. Moore, Randy (I989). What vs. how we teach (Editorial). The American Biology Teacher, 51(2):68. Murphy, James T., J.M. Hollon, and P. W. Zitzewitz (1986). Physics: Principles & Problems. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company. Popp, Jerome A. (981). Teaching science scientifically. Journal of Education, 7 (2):12-15.

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Schwab, J. J. (1962). The Teaching of Science as Enquiry. In J.J. Schwab and P.F.Brandwein (Eds). The Teaching of Science. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Shroyer, Ja Ann (1993). Quarks, Critter and Chaos. New York: Prentice Hall. Suchrnan, J. Richard (1966). Developing Inquiry. Inquiry Development Program. Chicago. Illinois: Science Research Associates. Wilson, Jerry D. (1994). College Physics. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Yager, Robert E. (1988). Differences between most and least effective science teachers," School Science and Mathematics, 88 (4): 301-307. The 1995-1998 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Published by Grolier Incorporated, Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc.

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M ATHEMATICAL J OURNEY T HROUGH THE H UMAN B ODY : I NTEGRATING S CIENCE , M ATHEMATICS , AND S OCIAL S TUDIES AT E LEMENTARY S CHOOL L EVELS A B O U R H . C H E R I F , P H .D ., S T E F A N O S G I A L A M A S , P H . D., S U J A T A V E R M A , P H . D.

I ST A/ SI UC S C I E N C E I N T H E S O U T H C O N F E R E N C E S O U T H E R N I L L I N O I S U N I V E R S I T Y A T C A R B O N D A L E F R I D A Y , J A N U A R Y 2 4, 19 9 7

Among the problems which elementary students encounter is the development of mathematical skills. Skills such as measuring, converting numbers, producing ratios, interpreting numbers, and generating conclusions from data are sadly lacking in elementary school students. One reason that students lack these skills is that math and science have no significance to them. To make students respond positively to math and science, teachers must give these subjects full social significance by relating theoretical processes to realistic situations. When interesting and lifelike examples are used to teach mathematical and scientific concepts, students become involved in the learning experience and better understand the concepts. Activities using the human body as a teaching tool can be extended to science, math, and language arts classes. In science classes, students can learn about the morphological and anatomical structure of the human body, as well as the functions of its organs and organ systems. The facts, data and information learned in science class can then be used to illustrate mathematical concepts. The students can also write stories and short essays about the human body, thereby utilizing the information that was taught in science class to learn language arts.

Introducing the Human Body To introduce students to the human body, teachers should begin with the morphological organization and structure of the body. Students should learn the common terms used to describe the location of external body parts. It should be pointed out to students that the human body is made up of a number of organ systems that work together to maintain the body's equilibrium and homeostasis. When students become familiar with the external functions of the human body, teachers can have the students measure their external body parts. Part One Measurement of the Human Body In the following activities, each student uses his or her body as the investigated object. Activity # 1: 1. Each student is asked to do the following:

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a). Measure the distance between your right elbow and right wrist and compare it to distance between your right wrist and right shoulder. Repeat the same on the left side, b). Measure distance between your right ankle and right knee, and compare it to distance between your right knee and right hip bone. Repeat the same on the left side c). On your right hand, measure from the top of your middle finger to its base (where it connects to the palm). Compare this distance to the width of the palm of your right hand. Repeat the same on the left side, d). On your right hand, measure from the top of your middle finger to the knuckle. Compare this distance to the length of the palm of your right hand. Repeat the same on the left side. e). Select the skinniest finger of your right hand (usually the smallest/shortest). Use the amount of string needed to wrap around your wrist once, and record how many times it wraps around your skinny finger. 2. Select four people of the same gender as you to repeat the above measurements (from a-to-e). The age difference between the four people should be ten years (i.e. one person would be under eight, one would be under sixteen, one would be around twenty, and one would be around thirty. This can be an assignment to be done at home. 3. Compare the data of each of the five subjects (including yourself) and develop a general ratio for the distance between: a). Elbow to wrist with wrist to shoulder. b). Ankle to knee with knee to hip bone. c). Top to the base of the middle finger with the width of the palm. d). Top to the knuckle of middle finger with the length of the palm. 3. Fill all your gathered data in table 1 and then convert all your data to the scientific system of measurement (the metric system). See appendix 1.

Activity # 2: 1. Think of other distances and lengths along your body, and list them down. 2. Choose three of these additional lengths and compare them to lengths of four other students in the same gender as you, but who are different ages. 3. Convert your measurement into the scientific system of measurement, interpret the data, and come up with a conclusion.

Activity # 3: Making Inferences and Generalizations: 1. Write the word "Inferences" on the blackboard, and then ask each students to write down the meaning the word. Then ask a number of the students to read their definitions and discuss them in the class. Make sure that each student understanding the meaning of the word. In simple words, "inferences" are best guesses that connect an

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observation with an established fact or association. In other words, inferring is the use of what you observe to explain what has happened. 2. Ask each student to do the following: I.

Look around your class and find a classmate of a different gender and very close in age to the people you've selected in activity # 1.

II.

Compare your data to his or her data.

III.

Interpret your findings, and come up with a generalization.

Activity # 4: The Golden Ratio In The Human Body: Martha Bole and Rochelle Newman wrote in their book Universal Patterns: The Golden Relationship: Art, Math & Nature" that One mean proportion which appears with amazing frequency in nature and mathematics, and has been used throughout the centuries by artists, is called the Divine Proportion. This proportion is derived from dividing a line segment into two segments with the special property that the ratio of the whole segment to the longer part is the same as the ratio of the longer part to the shorter part.

A ______________________________________________________ Q ____________________ Β AB/AC = AC/CB The ratio expressed by either side of the equation is called Golden Ratio or the Golden Mean (p. 26). American researcher, Jay Hambridge, established that indeed the Golden Ration can be found not only in Greek temples and sculpture, but also in the proportions of the human skeleton. The ratio of the total height to the height of the navel is a close approximation to the Golden Ratio (which is 1.618). Other writers and researchers have claimed that ratios of many other parts of the human body are also in the Golden Ratio. In other words, we probably all have the same proportions close to the Greek ideal somewhere in our bodies. (Serra, 1993, 478)

Part Two More Activities about the Human Body How Much Blood Is There In Our Classroom? While teaching the circulatory system, teachers can, for example, incorporate the concept of Scientific Notation (the order of magnitude) that is the expression of the larger number in the power of ten. The students also can learn how to find percentage, multiples, rate and ratio. Also the conversion of English system of measurement to metric system (the scientific system). Blood is vital to the life of human beings and other living organisms. It is the tissue of transport that carries needed materials to living cells and waste materials away from the living cells. In humans, blood makes up approximately 9% of a given person's body weight; this equals six liters of blood in an adult human.

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Blood is made up of two materials-plasma and blood cells. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. Because plasma is made up of about 90% water, it functions perfectly as the transport system of the blood. It carries digested food and dissolved chemical substances to the living cells, as well as carrying waste materials away from the living cells. There are three kinds of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. In general, blood in humans is made up of about 55% plasma, 43% red blood cells, and 2% of white blood cells. In an adult human, there are about 25 trillion (25.000.000.000.000) red blood cells continuously flowing throughout the human body. Each red blood cell (erythrocyte) contains approximately 300 million molecules of hemoglobin pigment. This enables the cell to carry oxygen from lungs to tissues. Red blood cell also carries carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs. The white blood cells are the primary defense mechanism against invading organisms and other foreign materials. There is one white blood cell (leukocyte) for every 600-700 red blood cells in human body. Activity #1: Too Much Blood In This Classroom: Provide the students with the above data and information to use in the following activity. Then ask each student to: 1.

weigh him or herself.

2.

find out how many pounds of blood his or her body has. (Blood makes up approximately 9% of a given person's body weight).

3.

convert their results from pounds to liters.

4.

find out how much of his or her weight is plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cell

5.

find out how many liters of blood the entire class has.

6.

find out how much plasma, red blood cells, and while blood cells are there in the entire class.

Activity #2: Heart Beat and Heart Pump: The human heart starts to beat about 8 months before a baby is born. Human hearts are made up of muscle tissue that enables the heart to pump blood. The muscle tissue of the heart constricts and relaxes repeatedly. As a result, the heart beats and pumps blood to every part of the body through the body's blood vessels. One contraction and one relaxation together make up a single heart beat (pulse). The heart of a resting adult human beats about 70 times a minute while the heart of a resting adolescent beats slightly faster at 70-80 times a minute. In the average adult, the heart beats about 100,000 times every 24 hours and pumps about 3,600 gallons of blood throughout the body's blood vessels. During a person's lifetime, the human heart will have beaten, on the average, about 2.5 billion (2.5 χ 10 9) times and pumped some 80 million (8 χ 107) gallons of blood. •

Think of a way to measure the heart beats and then find out how many times your heart beats in

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One minute, in one hour, and in 24 hours.

If in 24 hours your heart pumps about 3,600 gallons of blood throughout the body's blood

Vessels, how many gallons of blood does your heart pump in one hour, in one minute, and in one second?

If, for example, an oil drum holds 80 gallons of liquid, how many oil drums could be filled by the amount of blood that passes through a person's heart in a single day (24 hours)?

How many times has your heart beaten from birth to your last birthday?

How many times has all the hearts in your family beat from their births to each of their last birthdays?

How many gallons of blood has your heart pumped from birth to your last birthday?

How many gallons of blood have all the hearts in your family pumped from their births up to each of their last birthdays?

Decide how many years you would like to live and then find out how many times your heart will have beaten during your lifetime. How many gallons of blood will your heart have pumped during your lifetime?

ABO Blood Type System Every student in your class could be one day a donor and or recipient in a blood transfusion. Blood transfusion is needed when a given person is severely injured and lost much of his or her blood. But blood transfusion can only be successful if both the donor and the recipient have the same blood type. Transfusing unmatching or incorrect blood type will have such a dire effect on the recipient. Therefore every human being should know his or her blood type. Furthermore, it is important to properly identify the various blood types before a blood transfusion takes place. Blood type is determined by the presence of specific carbohydrates (sugars) that are bound to fatty acid (lipid) molecules at the surface of the red blood cell membrane. These carbohydrates are called antigens. Blood group antibodies are proteins, produced in conjunction with blood group antigens, with the ability to bind to specific foreign antigens. Unlike antigens which are attached to the surface of the red blood cell (RBQ, antibodies are found in plasma. Most transfusions include only the donor's blood cells and not the plasma. Therefore, two important considerations in a transfusion are the antigens present on the donor's blood cells and antibodies present in the recipient's plasma, (p. S1). ABO Blood Type System is one example of the antigen/antibody blood typing system. In this system, there are four blood types: Α, Β, AB, and O. As you can see in table 1, many people (about 42 % in population) have antigen A on their red blood cells and antibody Β in their plasma, and so are called Type A. Some people (about 10 % in population) have antigen Β on their red blood cells and antibody A in their plasma, and so are called Type B. A few people (about 4 % in population) have antigen A and Β on their red blood cells and no antibody in their plasma, and so are called Type AB. Many people (about 45 % in population) have no antigen on their red blood cells and antibody A and Β in their plasma, and so are called Type O. Table 1- ABO Blood Type Blood Type A Β AB 0

Antigens On Cells A Β A, Β None

Antibodies In Plasma Anti-B Anti-A None Anti-A, Anti-B

Can accept Blood From Type A or Β BorO All Types Only 0

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Activity #3: Determine Individual Student Blood Type in the Classroom 1. Ask the students to raise their hand if they know their blood type. Record the name of the students and their blood type in the black bored. Then, ask each student of those who don't know their blood type to ask their parents and to bring this information into the class. Allow students a few days to do so. You may want to write a note to all the parents regarding this. 2. In the following class, collect all the data, and write them on the blackboard. 3. Ask each student to act once as a donor and once as recipient, and to write the names of all the students in the class who can accept blood from him or her and the names of all the students who can donate blood to him or her in the class. 4. Ask each student if he or she can come up with general statement regarding person with blood type Ο and person with blood type AB. Activity #4: Determining Whether the Class Blood type Data Represents a cross Section of The Human Population. 1. Using the data they already collected, ask each student to fill out table 2. 2. Ask each student to compare the percentage of blood type with human population and the percentage of blood type with the class. 3. Ask each student to make generalization from the gathered data and information. Students must know how to get the percentage. Table 2- Number of students With Various Blood type I The Class Blood Type Number of Students In Class With Blood Type A Β AB 0

% In Student Population

% In Human Population With Blood Type

Discovering the Length of Your Small Intestine Every living thing needs energy to live and survive. This energy comes from the nutrients found in food. Before the food can be used for its nutrient by the human being, it must first be changed physically and chemically in a process called digestion. Digestion takes place in a long curved tube called the digestive tract which extends along nearly the entire upper half of the body. This digestive track is about 30 feet (9 meters) long and is made up of the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, and the large intestine. Food takes about one-to-two days to pass through the entire digestive track. The mouth begins the digestive process by breaking the food into smaller pieces with the

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help of teeth and saliva. The food is then passed into the stomach through the esophagus where food is further broken down into even smaller pieces. The chemical digestion of protein starts in the stomach. After the stomach, all of the partially digested food moves to the small intestine where most of the digestion takes place and where it is completed. Undigested food is passed into the large intestine to be stored as a solid waste, which later will be passed out of the body. The small intestine is the chief organ of digestion system. It is the place where most of the digestion in the body takes place with the help of two large digestive glands — the liver and pancreas. In an adult person, the small intestine is about 22 feet long and 2.5 inch wide or about 4 times as long as the height of an average adult.

Table 3- Human Body Systems and Their Functions System Circulatory

Skeletal Muscular digestive

Excretory Integumentary

Job and Function

Organs |

Moves materials

Heart, Arteries, veins &

throughout the body. Supports & protects the body. Allows movement.

capillaries Bones & cartilage. Muscles

Breaks down and

Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines,

absorbs food. Removes waste.

liver, & pancreas. Kidneys & bladder. Skin, hair and Nails.

Gives the body a waterproof protective covering.

Respiratory

Nervous

Endocrine

Reproductive

Takes in oxygen & gets rid of carbon

Nasal passages,

dioxide.

trachea & lungs.

Gives control and sensation

Brains, nerves, eyes

to the body.

and ears.

Provides internal

Hormone producing glands: pituitary,

chemical control.

thyroid, adrenal.

Allows humans to

Testes, penis, ovaries uterus & vagina.

produce children. Activity #5: Identify the Parts of and Construct a Digestive System: Provide the students with the above information, and then ask each student to: 1. Determine how many parts his or her digestive system has. 2. Write down the parts of the digestive system in an alphabetical order. 3. Write down the parts of the digestive system in order. 3. Identify the part in where the food remains longest, and the part in which the food doesn't stay long. Activity #6:

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Who Is Taller, You or Your Small Intestine? Since, the small intestine is about 22 feet long and 2.5 inch wide or about 4 times as long as the height of an average adult, ask each student to: 1. Measure his or her height. 2. Calculate approximately how long his or her small intestine is. 2. Draw himself or herself side by side with his or her small intestine. Working Together The fundamental structural and functional unit in all living things is the cell. All living things are made of cells. Each cell is the smallest complete unit of living matter. It is bounded by a cell membrane, has cytoplasm, and contains genetic material in the form of DNA. All living cells are three-dimensional structures and occur in a variety of shapes and sizes, and internal complexity. Simple living organisms are made of one cell that must take on all the life activities needed for the organism to survive and reproduce. Complex living organisms are made of many cells. Each group of cells are specialized to do specific jobs within the body and contribute to the maintenance and survival of that organism.

In complex organisms, similar cells are arranged in groups called tissues. Tissue consists of a group of similar cells that work together as a team to perform a special job. When different tissues work together to do a special job, they are called organs; such as the heart, lungs, eyes, and stomach. When certain organs team together to do a certain job, they are called an organ system or body system. See table 3.

Activity #7: How Is The Body Like a Nation? 1.

Write the following words on the blackboard and ask all the students to write them in their notebooks: Body systems (organ system), cells, citizens, factories, industries, living organism, nation, production departments, organs, tissues.

2.

Pair the students and ask each pair to classify these words in two columns, based on the meaning of the words, letting them reason out what should belong in each column

3.

Ask each pair of students to match the words in the first column to the words on the second column based on their comparative function.

4.

Finally ask each student to write one meaningful paragraph using all these words.

The following is an example of what your student could do: A complex living thing, or organism, is something like a large nation. The body systems are like major industries, each one dependent on the others. The organs are like factories, with tissues being like the different production departments. Each cell, like each citizen of a well-ordered nation, does a tiny but necessary part of the work of

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the whole. And each in turn depends upon all the actions of the whole to provide what it needs to live. (Building Basic Skills in Science, 1988, p. 22)

Discovering the Human Tongue The tongue in the human body is sensitive to certain chemicals that enable us to taste sweet, salty, sour and bitter. Every tongue is covered with little bumps which have tiny openings that lead to about 3000 taste buds on the surface of the tongue. The taste buds lie in little projections on the surface of the tongue called papillae. There are three kinds of papillae. Some are shaped like tiny mushrooms, others look like miniature hills with moats around them, and finally there are tiny threadlike or conical ones. In general, only the first two kinds of papillae contain taste buds. (Wilson, 1959, p. 60). The taste buds are specialized receptors which are sensitive to one kind of the four primary taste — sweet, sour, bitter, and salt. Inside each taste bud there are many nerves that send messages to the brain. The brain in turn tells the person what he or she is tasting, whether sweet, sour, salty or bitter.

The taste buds are located along the rim and cross the back of the tongue. In the middle is a large area where nothing is tasted (Wilson, 1959). Taste buds sensitive to bitterness are found in the rear of the tongue, sour on the side, salty in the front, and sweet at the tip. (The taste map for the human tongue can be found in any book of human biology.) The tongue has many uses such as chewing and moving food, tasting food, and enabling a person to speak and make sounds. Activity #8: Discovering the 3.000 Taste Buds on the Surface of Your Tongue: 1.

Give each pair of students a magnifying glass, a rule, and a paper.

2.

Have one student in each pair open his/her mouth, and have the other student measure the width and more than half the length of the tongue. Then have the other student measure the first student's tongue.

3.

Have each student draw a diagram of the other person's tongue.

4.

Using a magnifying glass, have each student examine the little projections, which are called papillae, on the surface of the tongue. There are three kinds of papillae; one kind looks like tiny mushrooms; one like tiny hills with moats around each one; and one like tiny thread or conical. Ask the students to identify in which area each kind of the papillae is located on the surface of the tongue.

5.

Discuss the finding with your students and explain that, only the first two kinds of papillae contain taste buds.

Activity #9: Mapping the Human Tongue: 1. Divide the students into groups of four. 2. Give each group of four students five beakers, four droppers, five 8.5 χ 11" sheets of paper,

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five pencils, and paper tissue, and one diagram of a human tongue (as shown in the figure 1). Each beaker is filled with only one of the following: water, sugar solution, salt solution, lemon juice solution, and black coffee solution. Use one tablespoon of sugar in 100 ml of water, and the same for the salt and lemon juice. For coffee just use a plain brewed coffee. 3. Ask each group to: a). to come up with three essential functions of the tongue. b). to draw or copy the diagram of the tongue on each of the five sheets of paper. c). to find the location of various taste buds on their own tongues. Every group now has a piece of paper with a diagram for each student plus one extra blank sheet of paper to use in the following experiment: i. Find the areas which are sensitive to bitter taste and mark them on the diagram of the tongue. ii. Find the areas which are sensitive to sour taste and mark them on the diagram of the tongue. iii. Find the areas which are sensitive to sweet taste and mark them on the diagram of the tongue. iv. Find the areas which are sensitive to salty taste and mark them on the diagram of the tongue. 4. Ask all the students of each group to compare their findings to each other and to use the fifth sheet to map the human tongue and its various taste areas. 5. At the end, collect all the results, compare the maps to each other, and discuss the results with the students. Constructing the Human Body with Common Shapes and Objects There are approximately 206 bones in the growing body that work together in groups to protect the inner organs (such as the brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs), to maintain body shape, and to enable a person to move around. Bones come in many varied sizes and shapes, such as long, short, round, flat, etc. Activity #10: 1. Divide the class into groups of five students. 2. Ask each group of students to collect objects with the following shapes over the weekend: cylinder, cube, sphere, cone, and sheet. Or ask each group of students to make these shapes in the class from clay. 3. Ask each group of students to measure the surface area of each object they have. If they don't know how, this is a good time to teach them how. 4.

Ask each group of students to construct the human body using only the objects they collected or made from clay.

Activity #11: 1. Give each student two 8.5 χ 11 inch sheet of papers, ruler, and pencil. 2. Ask each student to divide one of the two 8.5 χ 11 inch sheet of papers using horizontal and vertical lines of one inch each. 3. Ask each student to measure and record his or her height.

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4. Ask each student to draw him or herself standing on the 8.5 χ 11 inch sheet of paper using a one inch square for each foot of his or her length. 5. Ask each student to divide the other 8.5 χ 11 inch sheet of paper into horizontal and vertical lines of one centimeter each. 6. Working in groups of two students, ask each student to draw him or herself again on the other 8.5x 11 inch sheet of paper. The figure must be in the same size and length as the one on the first page. Every two students working to gather must first to discuss and figure out how they will draw the same figure in length and size using different measurement systems. How Do Boys and Girls Grow? Activity #12: In this activity students will find out the growing rate of their legs throughout the years, as well as how girls and boys grow in height. 1. Ask those students who have their baby pictures at birth, including their weight and their length to bring them to the class the following week. Make sure that you have at least five students who bring their baby pictures at birth to the class. 2. Ask all the students to measure the length of their arms, legs, and to measure their height. 3. Ask each student to find out the ratio of the length of their arm to the height of their body and the ratio of the length of their leg to the height of their body. 4. Using the ratio they generated from question # 3, and their length at birth, ask each student to find out: a. How many times longer is his or her leg compared to when he or she was born? b. How many times longer is his or her arm compared to when he or she was born? c. How many times longer will his or her leg be at the age of 20? d. How many times longer will his or her arm be at the age of 20? Notice that in order for the students to do this exercise; they need to know how to do a number of mathematical concepts such as. When they finish this exercise, engage the students with the following activity. Activity # 13: 1. Divide the class into groups of five. Then ask the members of each group to divide the following task among them equally. 2. Ask the students to look for a one year old boy and girl and measure their height. 3. Ask the students to look for a three year old boy and girl and measure their height. 4. Ask the students to look for a six year old boy and girl and measure their height. 5. Ask the students to look for a nine year old boy and girl and measure their height. 6. Ask the students to look for an eleven year old boy and girl and measure their height. 7. Ask the students to look for a thirteen year old boy and girl and measure their height. 8. Ask the students to look for a sixteen year old boy and girl and measure their height. 9. Collect all the gathered data, make them available to all the students. Then ask each group to find out on the average how boys and girls grow. Your students will discover that on the average, boys and girls grow at the same speed up to age

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11 or 12. Then the girls grow faster for 3 -to- 4 more years. Later, the boys catch up and grow even faster up to the age of 20 where both boys’ and girls' bodies stop growing in height. Clues from The Bones How do scientists obtain clues from bones? In November of 1974, Donald Johansson, a young unknown American paleoanthropologist, found a partial skeleton approximately 3.5 million years old, in a remote region of Ethiopia called Afra. Johansson named his new discovery of the partial skeleton, Lucy {Australopithecus afarensis). Lucy was the oldest, most complete, best-preserved skeleton of any erect-walking human ancestor ever found, and the first new species to be named in more than 15 years before Johansson’s discovery in 1974. Paleontologists, in their search for fossils, rarely find more than a few scattered bone fragments. However, Quincy, for example, solved a murder mystery by the discovery of a single bone, the radius. So how do paleontologists, or criminologists determine the height of individual, just from a few remaining bones? According to Scientific American Frontiers (show # 702) hosted by Alan Alda (aired on November 20, 1996), scientists usually use the following two mathematical formulas that illustrate the relationships between bone lengths and a person's height. Males (Height in Inches): Height = (length of radius χ 3.3) + 34 Height = (length of humerus χ 2.9) + 27.8 Females (Height in Inches): Height = (length of radius χ 3.3) + 32 Height = (length of humerus χ 2.8) + 28.1

Activity #14: Inferring A person's Height From The Length of One Bone: The following activity from the Scientific American Frontiers has been adapted to fit the needs of the integration of math, science, and social studies in elementary school level. 1.

Give a pair of students a meter stick, a copy of table 5, a diagram of the human skeleton, and the two mathematical formulae for calculating the height of males and females from one bone.

2.

Place a skeleton in front of the class, then ask students to come forward and identify the different major bones in the human skeleton in front of the class. Teachers should make sure that the humerus and radius are mentioned, either by the students or themselves. This is important because every student must be able to identify these two bones. The

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radius "is one of the two bones found in the forearm and extends from the base of the wrist to just beneath the elbow hinge. The humerus is the bone that extends from the shoulder socket to just above the elbow hinge. 3.

Ask each pair to label on the diagram of the human skeleton as many bones as they can remember and underline the radius and the humerus after they finish, collect all the papers.

4.

Ask one student in each group to measure the length of his or her partner's radius, and to record this length on table # 5.

5.

Then ask the same student to measure his or her partner's actual height and to record it in the table.

6.

Ask the other student in each group to measure the length of his or her partner's humerus, and to record this length in the table. Then ask the same student to measure his or her partner's actual height and to record it in the table.

7.

Ask each group to use the mathematical formulae for calculating the height based on the length of humerus and radius and to record the calculated heights on the table. Then ask them to compare the measured height with the calculated height, and to make inference and conclusion.

8.

Ask each student to measure the sole of his/her foot and compare it to the length of the radius and the humerus.

9.

Ask the students to gather around the skeleton and figure out if any other bone could be used to find out the height of the individual. This part is important because this helps the students to realize that all the bones are proportionate to the height and therefore to one another.

Table # 5 Bone Length

Calculated Length

Measured Length

Measured Foot

Radius Humerus

For more advanced students, this activity could be modified by not giving them the conversion factor, letting the students do the measurement of selected bones (humerus, radius or femur). They could develop a chart and find out if there is a correlation factor between the lengths of the bone and the height of the individual.

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Bibliography Barr, George (1989). Science Research Experiments For Young People. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. Boles, Martha and Newman, Rochelle (1990). Universal Patterns: The Golden Relationship: Art, Math & Nature. Bradford Massachusetts: Pythagorean. Btackwelder, Sheila K. (1980). Science For All Seasons. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey : Prentic - Hall, Inc. Cherif, A. H. and Stanlforth, S. (1986). Science Education and Society: Call for holistic approach. Elementary Science Network, 1(4): 2-3. Cherif, Abour H. (1994). Instructional strategies that never fail us. Journal of College Science Teaching, xxiv(l): 55-58. Cherif, Abour H. (1995). Knowing Your Students. Forward To Excellence In Teaching and Learning, 2(2&3): 7. Gialamas, Stefanos (1991). Mathematics for Artists. Proceeding National Conference on the Education of Artists. New York School of Visual Arts. October 1991. Hale, W. G. and Marghan, J. P. (1991). Biology: The HarberColins Dictionary. New York: Harperperennial Publishers. Lesser, Milton S. (ed.) (1975). Life Science Book 2: The Support of Life. New York: AMSCO School Publictions, Inc. Mader, Sylvia (1991). Understanding Human Anatomy & Physiology. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm C. Brown Publishers. Runion, Garth E. (1990). The Golden Section. New York: Dale Seymour Publications. Serra, Michael (1993). Discovering geometry: An Inductive Approach. Berkeley, California: Key Curriculum Press. Wilson, Michell (19959). The Human Body: What It Is and How It Works. New York: Golden Press. __________ (1988). Building Basic Skills In Science. Chicago: Contemporary Books, Inc.

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Appendix 1 The Scientific System of Measurement The metric system of measurement is used by scientists throughout the world. It is based on units of ten. Each unit is ten times larger or ten times smaller than the next unit. Length The Distance From One Point to Another The basic unit: a "meter" (m) is slightly longer than a yard. 1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters 1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters 1 centimeter (cm) = 10 millimeters (mm) Volume The Amount of Space An Object Takes Up A liter (L) is slightly more than a quart. 1 liter = 1000 milliliters (mL) Mass The Amount of Matter in an Object. A gram (g) has a mass equal to about one paper clip 1000 grams = 1 kilogram (kg). 500 grams = 1/2 kilogram (kg)

Temperature The Measure of Hotness or Coldness degrees Ο C Celsius ( C) 100 C

= freezing point of water = boiling point of water

Metric-English Equivalents: 2.54 centimeters (cm) = i inch (in.) 1 kilometer

1 meter (m) = 39.37 inches (in.) 1 liter (L) =

(km) = 0.62 miles (mi) 250 milliliters (mL) = 1

1.06 quarts (qt) 1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds

cup (c) 28.3 gram (g) = ounce (oz)

(lb) C = 5/9 χ (F -32).

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How well do you know your body? 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Every day, blinking causes the eye to close for a)

45 seconds

b)

12 minutes

c)

30 minutes

The iris of the eye can adjust to light intensities up to a)

500 times

b)

1000 times

c)

2000 times

The average human circulatory system is a)

50 to 60 miles long

b)

5,000 to 10,000 miles long

c)

60,000 to 100,000 miles long

The body's largest organ is a)

the heart

b)

the liver

c)

the skin

What percentage of your body weight is represented by muscle? a)

50% in both men and women

b)

20% in men, 10% in women

c)

40% in men, 30% in women

Blood serum is almost identical in chemical content to a)

sea water

b)

maple syrup

c)

pure glucose

Every day, bone manufactures how many red blood cells? a)

500

b)

10,000

c)

1,000,000,000

The largest blood vessels in your body are a)

1/2 inch wide

b)

1 inch wide

c)

2 inches wide

In an average lifetime, the hair on the head grows about a)

5 feet

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10.

b)

25 feet

c)

150 feet

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Without the pituitary gland at the base of your brain, you wouldn't a) walk b) talk c) grow

11.

Every night, the average person has three to four dreams, each lasting

12.

a)

2 minutes

b)

5 minutes

c)

10 minutes or more

When we touch something, the impulse travels along our nerve network to the brain at the rate of

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

a)

10 feet per second

b)

100 feet per second

c)

350 feet per second

The human skull is a)

one solid bone

b)

two bones joined together at the center

c)

made up of 29 different bones

The main mineral in bone is a)

calcium

b)

potassium

c)

magnesium

For reasons unknown to science, color blindness a)

affects more women than men

b)

affects more men than women

c)

affects only men

Human eye can distinguish a)

nearly 8 hundreds differences in colors.

b)

nearly 8 thousands differences in colors.

c)

nearly 8 million differences in colors.

Human eye and brain "Build" color a) b) c)

18.

from waves of energy. from waves of matter. from waves of anti-matter.

If all 600 muscles in your body pulled in one direction, a) you could lift: 15 tons.

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you could lift 25 tons. you could lift 35 tons.

18.

Human ears can cUscriminate among a) more than 10,000 tones. b) more than 100,000 tones. c) more than 300,000 tones.

19.

The surface area of your lungs is 1,000 square feet or a) 10 times greater than the surface area of your skin. b) 20 times greater than the surface area of your skin. c) 30 times greater than the surface area of your skin.

20.

Your a) a) a)

heart pumps more than 5 quarts of blood every minute, 2,00 gallons a day. 2,000 gallons a day. 20,000 gallons a day.

21.

Your a) b) c)

body produces one billion red blood cells every day. one million red blood cells every day. one thousand red blood cells every day.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

Every pound of excess fat you carry requires a)

an extra 2 miles of capillaries.

b)

an extra 20 miles of capillaries.

c)

an extra 200 miles of capillaries.

Your digestive tract is a)

10 feet long.

b)

20 feet long.

c)

30 feet long.

More than half of your body's 208 bones are a)

in your hands and your feet.

b)

in your skull and your backbone,

c)

in your ribs and your neck.

The human adult backbone contains a total of about a)

19 vertebrae.

b)

29 vertebrae.

c)

39 vertebrae.

The human skull is made up of a)

about 14 smooth bones.

b)

about 24 smooth bones.

c)

about 44 smooth bones

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27.

28.

29.

30.

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In relation to all the bones in the entire body, the hands a)

contain more than 100 bones (about 1/4 of all the bones).

b)

contain more than 50 bones (about 1/4 of all the bones).

c)

contain more than 25 bones (about 1/4 of all the bones).

In relation to all the bones in the entire body, the feet a)

contain more than 100 bones (about 1/4 of all the bones).

b)

contain more than 50 bones (about 1/4 of all the bones).

c)

contain more than 25 bones (about 1/4 of all the bones).

The total number of bones in adult human body a)

is about 106 bones.

b)

is about 206 bones

c)

is about 406 bones.

One cubic inch of bone can withstand a)

a two-ton force.

b)

a four-ton force.

c)

an eight-ton force.

Did you know... Your eye can distinguish nearly 8 million differences in colors. Your eye and brain "Build" color from waves of energy. If all 600 muscles in your body pulled in one direction, you could lift 25 tons. Your ears can discriminate among more than 300,000 tones. The surface area of your lungs is 1,000 square feet- 20 times greater than the surface area of your skin. Your heart pumps more than 5 quarts of blood every minute, 2,000 gallons a day. You have skin cells in your stomach, eyes and lungs. Your body produces one billion red blood cells every day. Every pound of excess fat you carry requires an extra 200 miles of capillaries. Your digestive tract is 30 feet long. More than half of your body's 208 bones are in your hands and your feet. One cubic inch of bone can withstand two-ton force.

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K NOTS EVERYWHERE F ROM A NCIENT E GYPT TO M ODERN P HYSICS DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS P A N A G I O T I S S. G I A L A M A S

C O N S O R T I U M , S P R I N G 19 9 3 Since the beginning of history, the tying of knots and the making of rope have played highly important roles. History tells us that the first cords were made from the tendrils of vines, from the cord-like fibers of plants, and from strips cut from the skin of animals When these failed to serve their needs, the f primitive people of the world began to weave, twist, or braid these strands of fibers to make ropes of greater strength and length. Specimens of rope made by the early Egyptians of flax, papyrus, and rawhide have been found in tombs estimated to be not less than 3500 years old. Archaeological records and the remains of artwork show that Greeks in the Classical period (450 b.c.) used knots extensively. The most popular knot was the "reef" knot, which was known as the "Knot of Hercules" (Figure 1). In legendary history, the rope knot sometimes dictated the course of kingdoms. Consider, for example, one of the legends told about the Greek king Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), who ruled Asia because he fulfilled a prophecy involving the "Gordian Knot." According to the legend, the Persian king Gordius, dedicated a wagon to Zeus and tied the pole of the wagon to its yoke. The knot was so complicated that no one could untie it. The oracle of Zeus proclaimed that the person to untie the knot would rule Asia. Alexander the Great attempted to untie the knot but could not succeed. He finally cut the knot with his sword and proclaimed that with his sword he would rule Asia. Later, in South America, the Incas of Peru used blotted strings, called quipu, to portray a base-ten counting system (Figure 2). The quipu was an accounting apparatus consisting of a long rope from which hung 48 secondary cords. Knots were made in the cordage to represent units, tens, and hundreds. When the quipu was used for accounting purposes, the cords were color coded. In North America, Native Americans used different types of knots in their daily lives in hunting, fishing, clothing, etc. (Figure 3).

FIGURE 3. KNOTS IN NETS OF THE , NATIVE AMERICANS.

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Knot theory has become a fruitful branch of mathematics. One of the beauties of the discipline is that the main object of study is so familiar; just take some string and join it at both ends and you have a knot. Knots appear in everyday life; they are used by children when tying their shoes, by firemen, surgeons, sailors, bakers, fishermen, chemists, biologists, and many others. Knots are basically used either out of necessity or for creativity purposes. In academia, knots have captured the interest of many mathematicians who have become fascinated with their complexity and beauty. They have been studying knots for various objectives, one of which is to establish categories of knots by grouping them based on certain characteristic properties. Mathematically speaking, knot theory is a type of geometry, one whose appeal is very direct because the objects studies are perceivable and tangible in the physical world. It has its origins in the mathematical theory of electricity and in primitive atomic physics. The simplest way of introducing a knot is using the rope demonstration. A knot is obtained by splicing the end of the rope together without introducing new tangling (Figure 4). Once the ends are spliced together, it is possible to define knottedness. The simplest knot is the one without any twist or crossings; this knot is called the trivial knot (Figure 5). A general version of a knot is called a link. A link is a collection of two or more disjoint knots called the components of the link. The components may consist of the same type of knots or different type of knots (Figure 6). The fundamental question in the study of knots is whether two seemingly different knots are the same under pulling, pushing, and twisting; in other words, whether one can be deformed into the other. If one knot can be deformed into another, then the two knots are called equivalent (Figure 7). To help them in their endeavor, knot theorists use two-dimensional shadows and have adopted a set of rules that make the study of these shadows more convenient. These shadows are called knot diagrams and contain all the necessary information for constructing a knot out of a rope (Figure 8). What knot theorists want to do is to associate to every knot properties that remain unchanged under deformation. Such unchanged properties are called invariants. These invariants could be numbers, polynomials, groups, etc. The idea to use the arrangement of crossings in a knot diagram to produce an algebraic invariant drove John Alexander (in 1928) to create the Alexander polynomial. He concluded that if two knots do not have the same Alexander polynomial, then they are not equivalent. The weakness of the Alexander polynomial is that two knots with the same polynomial might not be equivalent. In particular, the Alexander polynomial cannot distinguish any knot Τ from its mirror image T., which comes from 7" reversing ail its crossings (Figure 9). In 1970, Professor John Conway, exploiting new understanding, developed a method to associate a polynomial to a given knot, called the Conway polynomial. His method concluded that we can distinguish the link Τ from its mirror image ΪΪ. However, the trefoil knot and its mirror image have the same Conway polynomial. Therefore, in general, the Conway polynomial cannot distinguish all the different types of knots from their mirror images, and the original problem remained unsolved. For almost twelve years, knot theory had a relatively-quiet existence. However, the discovery of a new invariant by Vaughan Jones (in 1984), a professor of mathematics at the University of California at Berkeley, heightened interest in knot theory in the mathematical world. His new invariant, called the Jones polynomial, prompted a great deal of excitement in the mathematical community because the polynomial detects the difference between a knot and its mirror image, although the general equivalence problem remains open. One of the applications of knot theory can be found in DNA research. DNA molecules are long and stringlike, and often naturally occur in closed circular form. There is enough DNA in a human body to stretch from the earth to the sun and back, fifty times. These large amounts of DNA are wound up and packed into the nucleus of human cells in a very complicated form. Molecular biologists have started to use knot theory to understand the different conformations that DNA can take. The advances in knot theory help

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them to see how DNA becomes linked or knotted during replication and recombination and how the enzymes thai do the cutting and gluing must perform their functions. Understanding the mechanism of super coiling and the consequences of the different structures for DNA presents the problems of mathematical complexity. Biologists first describe a mathematical model of closed circular DNA and then discuss the implication of the real DNA.

FIGURE 4. A KNOT ON A ROPE.

FIGURE 5. THE TRIVIAL KNOT

FlCURE 6.

Two LINKS WITH TWO COMPONENTS EACH.

FIGURE 7. THREE EQUIVALENT

FIGURE 8. THE TREFOIL KNOT AND ITS SHADOW OR KNOT

A closed circular DNA is modeled by a twisted ribbon whose ends have been joined. For any ribbon knot, one could define the total twist of the ribbon in a natural way. Furthermore, for any ribbon knot, if we consider the link, which is produced by the boundary curves of the ribbon, the difference between the total twist of the ribbon and the linking number of the boundary link is an invariant. This invariant is called the writhing number of the ribbon knot. One of the goals of biologists is to create DNA molecules with different degrees of writhing. The vision of creating molecules shaped like knots fascinates chemists. It also challenges their ingenuity with respect to molecule-building. Chemists are interested in synthesizing new compounds and creating new unusual molecules by changing the way atoms are connected. This type of research is useful in designing new drugs. After four years of laboratory efforts, chemist Qun Yi Zheng of the University of Colorado at Boulder has discovered an approach for making knotted compounds. The production of molecular knots involves sequences of reactions in wluch molecular laces thread through molecular loops and then tie together to form finished knots. Using his unique approach, he was able to create a trefoil knot and a figure- eight knot.

FIGURE 9. THE TREFOIL KNOT Τ AND ITS MIRROR IMAGE T!

FIGURE 10. A BRAID WITH THE CORRESniNDINC CLOSED BRAID

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The connection between the physical sciences and knot theory started in the late nineteenth century. The British scientist Lord Kelvin postulated that atoms were knotted vortices in the ether, an invisible fluid that was thought to fill all space. His dream was to organize the known chemical elements into a periodic table by classifying knots. Kelvin's work was unsuccessful but inspired Peter Tate to create the first knot tables, listing knots by some order of complexity. The discovery of the connection between Von Neumann algebras, which are mathematical structures in quantum mechanics, and braid theory by Vaughan Jones, gave new emphasis to knot theory. A braid b can be thought of as a collection of strings twisted together in some pattern. If we tie the ends of the braid b, we obtain the closed braid b, which is a knot or a link (Figure 10). Jones, with his polynomial, initiated the effort to connect physics, braids, and knots. In England, Professor Michael Atiyah noticed a strong resemblance between Jones polynomials and some aspects of quantum field theory. Atiyah's suggestion was used by Edward Witten. a theoretical physicist and one of the primary advocates of string theory. Professor Witten developed a theory in which he related many mathematical ideas, including knots, with string theory. According to string theory, the world is not made up of elementary particles but is made up of tiny strings that wriggle about. Different particles correspond to strings vibrating in particular ways. The idea of a vibrating loop string in space resembles the mathematical notion of a knot. The connection, which was discovered recently, between statistical mechanical models, quantum field theory, and the theory of knots make knot theory once again a popular subject among scientists, an increasing number of persons who today do extensive research in the subject.

References Bauer W., F. Crick, and J. White. 1980. Supercoiled. Scientific American 243. Gialamas S. 1993. Knots Everywhere. Chicago: Aristotle Press. Graumont, R. and E. Wenstrom. 1988. Fisherman's Knots and Knets. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. Jones, V. 1990. Knot Theory and Statistical Mechanics. Scientific American (Nov.). Kauffman L. 1987. On Knots. Annals of Mathematical Studies 115. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Kauffman L. 1988. New invariants in the Theory of Knots. American Mathematical Monthly 61 (1). Lickorich W. and K. Millet. 1988. The New Invariants of Knots and Links. Mathematical Magazine 61 (1). Peterson, I. 1988. The Mathematical Tourist. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

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Z ERO : T HE E XCEPTIONAL N UMBER

DR. STEPHANOS GIALAMAS MIRIAM MCCANN

Co ns ort i u m o f M a t h e ma t ic s a n d it s A ppl i cat io n s N U M B E R 3 6, W I N T E R 1 99 0

The history of zero has two basic branches: that meaning “empty space," and that which represents a number and is used for computation. Today, the same symbol and the same words are used for both situations (in the United States, at least). The use of one symbol for both is tied to the adoption of our modem number system. In spoken and written language, the use of a zero is virtually unnecessary. For instance, the number 3052 is "three thousand fifty-two." The words indicate the value. It becomes necessary to use a zero when we wish to write symbols for the numbers and indicate value using a positional number system or when the number is zero. How did this come about? The Babylonians provided us with some of the first recorded uses of symbols for numbers. Wedge shaped symbols produced by a stylus pressed into clay tablets indicated a sexagesimal (base 60), positional system. That is, the position of the symbol within the number indicated its value. No symbol for indicating an empty position in a number was found on these tablets, which date back to over 4000 years ago (2300-1600 B.C.). In the sexagesimal system, there are few occasions when the use of a symbol to indicate an empty position is needed, and the early Babylonians relied on the context to make dear the value of the number system as written. About the sixth century B.C., a specific symbol that indicated the absence of a symbol began appearing within numerals. This new addition to the symbolic notation did not appear at the end of a numeral, so some confusion about the value could still occur. Astronomical tables in later years began to show the "missing" symbol at the end of numerals [Menninger1969]. The Babylonians were not the only civilization to leave behind evidence of a positional system and some way to indicate a missing numeral. The Egyptians also used a symbolic system to indicate numerical values, but their system was not positional. It did not use or require the use of a zero to prevent misinterpreting the value. The Mayans of Central America and southern Mexico used a vigesimal (base20) system, which was also positional. They employed symbol for zero that looked roughly like a half-closed eye [Cajori, 1926]. This number system was being used during the first century A.D. and was found on early calendars [Kline 1953]. The Incas of Peru kept records of transactions by knots on cords, called quipu. This decimal (base 10) system used different types of knots as well as position of the knots to indicate value. A gap between sets of knots showed the absence of a value (position). The absence of a knot showed that the last (units) position was empty. Cords could be combined, and an additional cord was attached to indicate the sum. It was probably easy for the "reader" to tell when a missing number was indicated. Cords with no knots could also indicate zero [Ascher & Ascher 1981]. Native North American people used numeration systems of various bases (3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 20), but there is no indication of place values or the use of a zero [Boyer 1944]. Ptolemy (A.D. 130) was using a missing numeral symbol in tables of cords [Boyer 1968] which resembled the Greek letter omicron. Ptolemy apparently used the °0° symbol only with the sexagesimal fraction notation and not as part of the alphabetic numeral system of the Greeks [Heath 1981]. °0° was an abbreviation of the Greek word ouden or outhen meaning "nothing" [Menninger 1969].

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The zero that represents a number and is used as such first appeared with the Hindu civilization in India. The earliest recorded evidence found so far is on the Gvalior inscription, found on the wall of a temple near Lashkar in Central India. The inscription gives the date 933(our A.D.870) and lists gifts to a temple. The numbers "270" and "50" appear, using a small circle for zero [Menninger1969]. This zero was probably in use long before recorded evidence shows. The mathematicians of the civilizations mentioned so far were aware of the concept of zero and references were made in their writings, but they did not have an established symbol representing the concept. Since today in mathematics we use a large number of symbols, it is hard to comprehend that the early mathematicians (actually until the Dark Ages) were limited in expressing their concepts in literature. Sunya, in Sanscrit (sixth to eighth centuries A.D.) meant "empty" and became the Arabic as-sifr ("the empty") as the Hindu digits began expanded Hindu numerals spreading westward in the ninth century. During the thirteenth century A.D., two Latin words, eifra and zefirum (or eephirum) were used to mean zero. They were adapted into Latin from Arabic as the numbers became known kept written material from the lower in Europe [Menninger 1969]. These Latin words later became cipher and zero. The confusion created by a single word (cipher) meaning a number and also a digit which had numerical value, or of two words (cipher and zero), which each meant the same thing, helps to explain why it seemed to take so long for the new number system to become adopted. Zero was also still used as a placeholder (the ancient notion of "empty" position) as well as a number in calculations. The dual role of zero, however, was not an easy concept to accept. Early computations were done on various forms of counting boards, which existed in many civilizations. Some counting devices, such as the various forms of the abacus, are still being used today, while others are only known to us because they were illustrated on such items as vases, tombstones, or other artifacts [Menninger 1969J. Sand tables were used prior to the ninth century for computations on a flat surface covered with a light coating of sand. Marks in the sand indicated number values; computations were completed and the sand smoothed to begin again. Other computational devices included counting boards divided into columns or rows for place value, with various types of markers used to indicate value. The markers were moved on the board as the computations were made [Dantzig 1959] and the results of the computations were recorded on something more permanent. A form of zero was used on these devices to indicate an empty cell, column, or row. From India, the concept of zero spread to China and was incorporated into an existing rod system of numbers [Boyer 1968]. The rod numbers were positional and decimal, but there is no indication that they were used in computation. The Chinese also used a named place-value system using Chinese characters for written numbers, which did not require the use of a zero. Hindu numerals spread to Europe as early as A.D. 1000 when Gerbert (who became Pope Sylvester II) used the digits learned from the Arabs on counters of a counting board. The digits were not accepted then because it was not understood that they could be used for computations without a counting board. Hence, their usefulness was not appreciated. The Hindu numbers, including zero, gradually gained acceptance in Europe through their use by merchants and tradesmen. Texts written by arithmeticians and calculators also contributed to the spread of the new system [Menninger 1969]. The invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century expanded Hindu numerals to more of the population as printed matter became more accessible and available. Some forces, however, helped to slow the spread, including the social structure, which kept written material from the lower classes. Counting devices, when used by those who were adept, were speedy and accurate, and therefore, made a written numeral system somewhat obsolete.

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What one can recognize as a zero today did not come into common use until much later in history. Besides the Babylonian, Mayan, and Greek symbols, a few other symbols were used prior to the "0" of modern times. The Hindu symbol was first a dot and later a "0" crossed by a horizontal or slanting line. In the translations of Al Khowarizmi's astronomical tables, three signs for zero appear (j, O, and t-an abbreviation of teca or theca). These symbols were used periodically by various writers over the years [Cajori 1928]. Even today, zero is occasionally written with the slash through it to distinguish it from the letter 0 (particularly in computer applications). The fact that computations with zero seemed to have some strange results did not help people to understand the number. The difficulties with understanding the results of some calculations with zero were more evident as the new numbers were being assimilated into Western Europe. In the ninth century, Mahavira wrote that a number divided by zero remains unchanged [Kline 1972]. Ehaskara (A.D. 1114) felt that a fraction with a denominator of zero remained the same even when anything was added to or subtracted from it. He also stated that a number divided by zero is an infinite quantity [Kline 1972). These ideas were undoubtedly difficult to comprehend for those who were unfamiliar with computations using the 10 digits. If computational results could not be explained in physical terms, the results did not have meaning.

Subtraction of a number from zero was a particularly difficult concept to grasp. The resulting negative number was incomprehensible to some. Pascal (sixteenth century A.D.) regarded the subtraction of four from zero as "utter nonsense" [Kline 1972]. As late as the nineteenth century, Augustus DeMorgan felt that a negative number as a solution to an equation was “inconsistent, absurd" and had no "real meaning" [Kline 1972]. One fifteenth century French writer felt that zero was the creator of confusion and difficulties [Menninger 1969]. He noted that zero in front of a number (e.g., 03) did not affect the value of the number but zero behind the number multiplies it by 10 (e.g., 30).

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It is the number zero and its unique computational "rules" that seem to cause the most problems. In order for students to use the number properly, they must have some understanding of more advanced mathematical concepts. The first exposure is at the elementary level with zero as "nothing," which seems adequate for the young child, but which does not aid understanding when division using zero is encountered. In this case, it is important to understand the idea of inverse relationships in mathematics (specifically, that multiplication is the inverse operation for division). Without this understanding of mathematical structure, students will continue to have difficulty understanding division by zero. Is the learning of both numbers and the concept of zero by children parallel to the development of the number system? Some aspects of the process seem so. Young children learn to count verbally starting with the number “one" just as our ancient ancestors did. Their early experiences with numbers are associated with the number of items in a set of objects, called numerosity. This first exposure does not include zero; however, the concept of an empty set is not a difficult idea and young children are quite aware when all of the items in question are gone. Pre-schoolers are also able to add and subtract, as long as the operations are performed on sets of objects. They are even able to do this in a verbally presented hypothetical situation, as long as the numbers are small (1,2, 3) and the numbers being used are associated with items [Hughes 1986]. For instance, if a child is asked, "What does 1 and 2 make?" he does not usually know. However, "What does 1 block and 2 blocks make?" elicits the correct answer. The pre-school child even accepts the removal (subtraction) of all of the items in the set resulting in a cardinality of zero. These early childhood experiences remind us of the early civilizations who were counting and calculating using objects. What is surprising to many is that it took many centuries for people to adopt the ten-digit numerical system for computational purposes. A series of studies reported by Martin Hughes [1986] with pre-school-and early primary-aged children in England sheds some light on this difficulty. The children in Hughes' study were presented with 4 "tins" containing "bricks." Each tin contained 0, 1, 2, or 3 bricks. After the child saw and counted the number in each, the tins were covered and moved and the child was asked to tell how many were in each tin. Since the tins were identical, correct answers were purely chance. Then, the children were told they could give themselves hints about the numerosity of the contents by marking the paper attached to the top of each tin. The type of mark was entirely up to the child [Hughes 1986]. Successful students, those whose marks allowed them to identify the contents of the tin immediately after making the marks as well as at a later time, used either the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, or tally marks, or the same number of some created symbol or picture. In a similar study, the students were given magnetic numbers to use on the tins. Some students responded by placing the appropriate number of pieces on the tin rather than the appropriate number symbol [Hughes 1986]. When the tester showed the students how they could indicate the number in each tin, they caught on quickly and were successful in marking the tins and identifying the contents from their indications. The same type of game was played where the number of bricks was increased or decreased, and the children were to indicate what had happened. Only the students with the greater mathematical ability used formal symbols to indicate the operation when initially introduced to the game [Hughes 1986]. Children in both studies indicated that the empty tin had nothing in it either by placing nothing on the tin or using the symbol 0. The students who used the number of pieces or tally to indicate the numerosity left the top of the tin blank, while those who used the number symbols to indicate the count used the zero to indicate the empty tin [Hughes 1986]. These studies with children indicated that they did not pick up the ideas that the counting, adding, and subtracting they were doing on paper in their math classes had any connection to the counting, adding, and subtracting that they could do with objects. With instruction, however, the students did see the connection and were successful in future games.

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The same lack of understanding seemed to be part of the reason the Hindu system of numbers and calculations was so long in being accepted. The use of calculating devices was widespread, and the objects on the boards represented sets of things; the abstract computations required a whole new way of dealing with numbers. Just as children need to be taught how to relate counting and the concept of zero as a number, so did the people in our history. Until printing enabled the skill of computation to spread quickly and people opened their minds to something new, the spread of the Hindu numbers and zero was bound to be slow.

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References Ascher, Marcia and Ascher, Robert. 1981. Code of the Quipu. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Boyer, Carl B. 1944. Zero: the Symbol, the Concept, the Number. National Mathematics Magazine. 18:323-330. Boyer, Carl B. 1968. A History of Mathematics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cajori, Florian. 1926. A History of Mathematics. New York: The Macmillan Co. Cajori, Florian. 1928. A History of Mathematical Notations, Vol. I. LaSalle, IL: The Open Court Publishing Company. Dantzig, Tobias. 1959. NUMBER: The Language of Science. 4th ed. New York: The Macmillan Co. Hughes, Martin. 1986. Children and Numbers. New York: Basil Blackwell Inc. Kline, Morris. 1953. Mathematics in Western Culture, New York: Oxford University Press. Kline, Morris. 1972. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times. New York: Oxford University Press. Menninger, Karl. 1969. Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.

THE FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE ARE FROM KARL MENNINGER’S NUMBER WORDS AND NUMBER SYMBOLS: A CULTURAL HISTORY OF NUMBERS. CAMBRIDGE, MA: THE M.LT. PRESS, 1969.

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Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα: Προετοιμάζοντας Νέους Ανθρώπους στην Υπηρεσία της Ανθρωπότητας Του Δρ. Στέφανου Γιαλαμά, Προέδρου ACS Athens ΕΠΙΣΤΗΜΟΝΙΚΟ MARKETING MANAGEMENT Μάρτιος 2012

Οι κοινωνικές αλλαγές, λόγω της πολυπλοκότητας τους, της παγκοσμιοποίησης και των πολλαπλών και διαφορετικών διαστάσεων στις οποίες συντελούνται, απαιτούν ένα διαφορετικό είδος πολιτών ως καταλύτη. Οι πολίτες αυτοί πρέπει να ζουν, να εργάζονται, να προοδεύουν και να αναζητούν την ευτυχία σε τοπικό επίπεδο, υπό την επιρροή όμως ενός παγκοσμιοποιημένου πλαισίου.. Πολλές από τις ήδη παγιωμένες αρχές και αξίες αναθεωρούνται και πολλές φορές αμφισβητούνται. Η ανάπτυξη και η γαλούχηση ενός νέου ανθρώπου πρέπει να συντελείται σε τοπικό επίπεδο υπό το διεθνές πρίσμα, να αποκτά διαφορετικές ικανότητες, νέες δεξιότητες, και να λειτουργεί κάτω από ένα πιο σύνθετο σύνολο κανόνων, να αισθάνεται την ευθύνη για την προστασία του περιβάλλοντος και να είναι ευαίσθητος στις ανάγκες ενός συνανθρώπου του που μπορεί να κατοικεί σε άλλη ήπειρο. Πώς μπορούμε να προετοιμάσουμε τους νέους για μια τόσο απαιτητική διαβίωση, τι είδους εκπαιδευτική εμπειρία θα πρέπει να λαμβάνουν και ποιες είναι οι κατάλληλες οικουμενικές αρχές και αξίες που θα κατευθύνουν τις δράσεις τους προσωπικά και επαγγελματικά;

Μερικές από τις ερωτήσεις που τίθενται είναι: - ποιο είναι το κατάλληλο πρόγραμμα σπουδών; με ποιους στόχους μάθησης; - με τι χαρακτηριστικά και κανόνες πρέπει να λειτουργεί το εκπαιδευτικό προσωπικό; ποιος καθορίζει τις εκπαιδευτικές αρχές και παιδαγωγικές αξίες; - πώς πρέπει να αξιολογείται η μάθηση; ποιες είναι οι επιθυμητές ιδιότητες των μορφωμένων ανθρώπων στον 21ο αιώνα;

Το 2009, η κα. Πέγκυ Πελώνη και ο Δρ. Στέφανος Γιαλαμάς έδωσαν τον ορισμό της εκπαιδευτικής εμπειρίας ως «η ολοκληρωμένη μάθηση που προέρχεται από την ακαδημαϊκή, πνευματική και σωματική ανάπτυξη του μαθητή, πάντα όμως σε συνδυασμό με την κοινωνική υπευθυνότητα». Σίγουρα, για να απαντηθούν όλα ή μερικά από τα παραπανω ερωτήματα, θα πρέπει να υπάρξει παράλληλες δράσεις και άμεσος συσχετισμός μεταξύ των μαθητών, του εκπαιδευτικού προσωπικού, της διοίκησης, των γονέων και της ευρύτερης κοινότητας του ακαδημαϊκού ιδρύματος μέσα από τη δέσμευσή τους να υπηρετούν τα ομόκεντρα σύνολα της οικογένειας, της τοπικής κοινωνίας, του έθνους και του κόσμου. Η καινοτομία και η αυθεντική προσέγγιση της ακαδημαϊκής ηγεσίας στις προκλήσεις είναι τα μέσα που μπορούν να προσφέρουν στη μαθητική κοινότητα μια μοναδική, ουσιαστική, υψηλής ποιότητας και ολιστική εκπαιδευτική εμπειρία. Οι μαθητές, στη συνέχεια, μπορούν να προβαίνουν στη σοφή λήψη αποφάσεων ως οι κληρονόμοι του μέλλοντος . Τα εκπαιδευτικά ιδρύματα του μέλλοντος θα πρέπει να έχουν τους εξής πυλώνες:

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Α. Καινοτόμος Ηγεσία Β. Ουσιαστικά Προγράμματα Σπουδών και Αποτελεσματικές Διδακτικές Μεθόδους Γ. Αυθεντικά Καταρτισμένο Εκπαιδευτικό Προσωπικό Δ. Ήθος

Α. Καινοτόμος Ηγεσία:

Αυτή ορίζεται ως η συνεχής πρακτική που προ(σ)καλεί την αποτελεσματική συμμετοχή όλων των μελών του εκπαιδευτικού ιδρύματος για την μέγιστη αξιοποίηση των δυνατοτήτων τους, της δραστηριοποίησής τους και των δημιουργικών ιδεών τους προς όφελος των μαθητών, αλλά και προς την αποτελεσματικότητα κάθε δράσης του εκπαιδευτικού ιδρύματος. Αυτό το είδος της ηγεσίας έχει τρεις διαστάσεις:

1. Διαπροσωπική: Η ηγεσία εμπνέει όλα τα μέλη του εκπαιδευτικού ιδρύματος στον αγώνα για την αριστεία και την επίτευξη των στόχων τους, καθοδηγεί και παρέχει κίνητρα για εξαιρετικές επιδόσεις και εμπιστοσύνη προς όλους για την επίτευξη επιτυχίας.

2. Θέσπιση Προτύπων: Δημιουργούνται και θεσπίζονται πρότυπα καλής συμπεριφοράς, που χρησιμεύει και ως βάση για την επίτευξη στόχων όπως η αλήθεια, η ακεραιότητα και το ήθος (όπως ορίζεται από τους αρχαίους Έλληνες) και η επικοινωνία αυτών των στόχων. ‘Ηθος, στα Ελληνικά, σημαίνει "χαρακτήρας" - οι κατευθυντήριες πεποιθήσεις ή τα ιδανικά που χαρακτηρίζουν μια κοινότητα. Ένας άλλος ορισμός του ήθους είναι η διάθεση, ο χαρακτήρας ή οι θεμελιώδεις αξίες που είναι κοινές μεταξύ ενός συγκεκριμένου προσώπου, ενός λαού, ή ενός πολιτισμού, όπως επίσης τα κοινά σημεία του χαρακτήρα ή της διάθεσης μιας κοινότητας, μιας ομάδας, κλπ. Σύμφωνα με τον Αριστοτέλη, τα κύρια συστατικά του ήθους είναι: η καλή θέληση, η πρακτική σοφία και η αρετή. Η αρετή ορίζεται ως ηθική τελειότητα, δικαιοσύνη και καλοσύνη. 3. Υπηρετώντας την Ανθρωπότητα: Θεσπίζονται ενέργειες που αναπτύσσουν την κοινωνική ευαισθησία και ευθύνη, το ενδιαφέρον για το συνάνθρωπο και το περιβάλλον, η θέληση και η αποφασιστικότητα για κοινωφελή δράση.

Η δέσμευση σε ένα κοινωνικό στόχο ή σκοπό είναι ανθρώπινο χαρακτηριστικό αλλά και προϋπόθεση ουμανισμού. Η παρέμβαση για τη βελτίωση μιας κοινωνικής κατάστασης ή τη βελτίωση των συνθηκών ζωής ενός ατόμου γίνεται τρόπος ζωής για τους μαθητές, καθώς αναπτύσσουν θετικό πνεύμα για τη βελτίωση κάθε πτυχής της κοινωνίας. Η ύπαρξη καινοτόμου ηγεσίας συνεπάγεται την αποδοχή ρίσκου, την ανάληψη νέων κινδύνων με την υιοθέτηση και υλοποίηση νέων ιδεών που δεν έχουν δοκιμαστεί και μπορούν να αποτύχουν. Ομοίως, σημαίνει μια προθυμία υιοθέτησης μη ολοκληρωμένων ιδεών, που προϋποθέτει ευελιξία στους κανόνες ανάπτυξης και υλοποίησης τους. Β. Ουσιαστικό Πρόγραμμα Σπουδών και Αποτελεσματική Διδακτική Μέθοδος:

Το πρόγραμμα σπουδών πρέπει να είναι ουσιαστικό, αποτελεσματικό, και έγκυρο σύμφωνα με τις ανάγκες της παγκόσμιας κοινότητας. Ένα τέτοιο πρόγραμμα σπουδών αποτελείται από τέσσερα αδιαχώριστα και ολοκληρωμένα στοιχεία: ΔΕΞΙΟΤΗΤΕΣ: Απόκτηση νέων δεξιοτήτων και μέγιστη αξιοποίηση των ήδη υπαρχόντων

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ΚΡΙΤΙΚΗ ΣΚΕΨΗ: Ανάπτυξη δεξιοτήτων λήψης αποφάσεων για την επίλυση προβλημάτων ΣΧΕΤΙΚΟΤΗΤΑ: Οι δεξιότητες να συνδέονται με το περιβάλλον που δραστηριοποιείται ο μαθητής ΕΜΠΝΕΥΣΗ: Εκφράζοντας την κατανόηση σύνθετων εννοιών με ένα πρωτότυπα μοναδικό και διαδραστικό τρόπο.

Επιπλέον, το πρόγραμμα σπουδών δεν πρέπει να επηρεάζεται από κοινωνικές προκαταλήψεις και πρέπει να αξιολογείται συνεχώς.

Σήμερα, με όλα τα διαθέσιμα μέσα διδασκαλίας και εκπαιδευτικά εργαλεία, οι επιλογές είναι απεριόριστες. Η εποχή είναι ιδανική για κάθε εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα που έχει πραγματικά δεσμευτεί στην παροχή της καλύτερης εκπαιδευτικής εμπειρίας στους μαθητές του. Η διδασκαλία σε πρώτο πρόσωπο μπορεί να ενισχυθεί με διαδικτυακά προγράμματα διδασκαλίας (προσομοιώσεις διδασκαλίας, εικονικά περιβάλλοντα, βίντεο, κλπ). Επιπλέον, σήμερα μπορεί κάποιος να διδάξει σύνθετα θέματα χωρίς να βρίσκεται σε ένα ακριβό περιβάλλον. Για παράδειγμα, μπορεί γίνει μάθημα για την αναπαραγωγή του DNA, την ανάλυση και τις επιπτώσεις από την εισαγωγή ορισμένων ενζύμων, χωρίς να βρίσκεται σε ένα ακριβό εργαστήριο, αλλά μέσω πρόσβασης σε εικονικά εργαστήρια και εργαλεία προσομοίωσης. Η αξιολόγηση των μαθητών ούτως ή άλλως θα πρέπει να συμβαδίζει με το πρόγραμμα σπουδών και τους μαθησιακούς στόχους του προγράμματος.. Γ. Εκπαιδευτικό Προσωπικό:

Το εκπαιδευτικό προσωπικό που προωθεί και ενισχύει την καινοτομία δεν φοβάται να αναζητήσει νέες ιδέες και να δοκιμάσει διαφορετικές μεθόδους διδασκαλίας. Στην εκπαίδευση, υπάρχουν πράγματι εκείνοι που έχουν έντονο ενδιαφέρον για κοινωνική συνεισφορά και θέληση για ανάπτυξη νέων ιδεών. Τα χαρακτηριστικά τους είναι ότι: • • • •

Εμπνέονται από την ανάπτυξη νέων ιδεών διδασκαλίας και μάθησης Αφοσιώνονται στο πώς και γιατί αυτές οι ιδέες είναι προς όφελος των μαθητών Εστιάζονται στους πόρους για την υλοποίηση αυτών των ιδεών Είναι αποφασισμένοι στη δημιουργία αυθεντικών και ποικίλων εργαλείων αξιολόγησης της μαθησιακής διαδικασίας.

Δ. Ήθος: Αποτελεί στόχο όλων των εκπαιδευτικών ιδρυμάτων η μύηση των μαθητών, των διδασκόντων του προσωπικού και της διοίκησης σε μια κοινότητα μάθησης που διακρίνεται για την πρέπουσα συμπεριφορά εντός και εκτός του ιδρύματος. Με άλλα λόγια σκοπός των ιδρυμάτων πρέπει να είναι να θεσπίσουν, να αγκαλιάσουν και να προωθήσουν μια ολιστική προσέγγιση σε μια δεοντολογία με καθορισμένα πρότυπα και η σε ένα αποτελεσματικό μηχανισμό για την εφαρμογή αυτών των προτύπων. Με αυτό τον τρόπο, υπάρχει μια ισορροπία μεταξύ του δικαιώματος του κάθε μέλους της κοινότητας και του δικαιώματος της κοινότητας στο σύνολό της. Ως αποτέλεσμα, οι μαθητές αναπτύσσουν την προσωπικότητά τους ταυτόχρονα με την ακαδημαϊκή τους πορεία , σε ένα δεκτικό και ιδανικό περιβάλλον.

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Ως εκ τούτου, ένας "Κώδικας Τιμής" γίνεται τρόπος ζωής. Είναι μια δημιουργία των μαθητών για τους μαθητές, που διαχειρίζεται από τους μαθητές που καλλιεργούν το σεβασμό στην τήρηση του.

Ο "Κώδικας Τιμής" βασίζεται στην απλή ιδέα ότι, όταν του δοθεί η ευκαιρία, ο άνθρωπος πράττει το σωστό. Παραδοσιακά, ο «κώδικας τιμής» υλοποιείται σε πολλά πανεπιστήμια στις ΗΠΑ και ο συγγραφέας πιστεύει ακράδαντα ότι ήρθε η ώρα να εφαρμοστεί και σε ένα περιβάλλον πρωτοβάθμιας και δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης. Για παράδειγμα, το ACS Athens έχει αρχίσει αυτή τη διαδικασία που καθορίζεται αποκλειστικά από μαθητές, ώστε να θεσπίσει και να εφαρμόσει ένα "Κώδικα Τιμής".

Θα μπορούσε κανείς να ρωτήσει: γιατί οι μαθητές πρέπει να ηγηθούν μιας τέτοιας πρωτοβουλίας; Διότι οι ίδιοι οι μαθητές πρέπει να είναι σε θέση να κατανοήσουν ότι το εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα αποτελεί ένα μοντέλο για την ηθική συμπεριφορά. Οι μαθητές πρέπει να επηρεάζουν ο ένας τον άλλο για να κάνουν το σωστό και, τελικά, να επηρεάζουν τους άλλους στην τοπική κοινωνία προς την ίδια κατεύθυνση. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι κάθε μαθητής αναλαμβάνει την ευθύνη για τη συμπεριφορά του και ενεργεί σύμφωνα με ένα εσωτερικό, προσωπικό σύστημα αξιών και όχι με ένα εξωτερικό, απρόσωπο σύστημα ανταμοιβής/τιμωρίας. Με απλά λόγια, ο «Κώδικας Τιμής» είναι ένας κώδικας συμπεριφοράς που προωθεί την ηθική και την ωριμότητα στην τάξη βάση υψηλών προτύπων που πρέπει να εφαρμόζονται μέσα και έξω από αυτή.

Ειδικότερα, μέσα στην τάξη, εφαρμόζει σαφή ακαδημαϊκά πρότυπα για τους μαθητές και τη συμπεριφορά τους, παρέχοντας μοντέλα υψηλών προδιαγραφών στη διδασκαλία και τη μάθηση, και προωθεί την διαδραστική αλληλεπίδραση μεταξύ διδασκόντων και μαθητών. Έξω από την τάξη, ο “Κώδικας Τιμής” θεσμοθετεί σαφή πρότυπα , προωθεί το σεβασμό μεταξύ των μαθητών, των διδασκόντων, του προσωπικού και το ευρύτερου κοινωνικού περιβάλλοντος. Η ομάδα που δρα ως θεματοφύλακας του Κώδικα αποτελείται από μαθητές και μαθητικούς συμβούλους.

Συμπέρασμα: Τα εκπαιδευτικά ιδρύματα του μέλλοντος δεν θα είναι ανάλογα των σημερινών. Θα έχουν ενεργή συμμετοχή στις δραστικές αλλαγές που συντελούνται στην κοινωνία και θα συνεισφέρουν στην ανάγκη για μία νέα μορφή γνώσης με οδηγό το ήθος και τη σοφία. Συμπερασματικά, ένα εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα πρέπει να υφίσταται μόνο για ένα σκοπό: να παρέχει στους μαθητές του την καλύτερη δυνατή εκπαιδευτική εμπειρία. Για να γίνει αυτό, θα πρέπει να διατηρήσει μια ισορροπία μεταξύ των δικαιωμάτων δράσης του κάθε μέλους της κοινότητας και της κοινωνίας στο σύνολό της.

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Η ΑΝAΓΚΗ ΓΙΑ ΜΙΑ ΝEΑ ΠΡΟΣΕΓΓΙΣΗ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΗ ΗΓΕΣΙΑ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΑΠΑΡΑΙΤΗΤΗ BY DR. STEFANOS GIALAMAS ACS ATHENS, PRESIDENT

ΕΠΙ ΣΤ Η ΜΟ Ν Ι ΚΟ M AR KE T I NG M AN AG EM ENT , ΕΙ ΔΙ ΚΗ Ε Κ ΔΟ ΣΗ – ΣΕ ΠΤ Ε ΜΒ ΡΙ Ο Σ 201 1 Τα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα σήμερα, περισσότερο από ποτέ, πρέπει να κατέχουν ηγετικό ρόλο στην προετοιμασία των νέων ώστε να γίνουν οι ηγέτες του αύριο με ήθος. Για να γίνει αυτό, θα πρέπει να προσφέρουν μια Ολιστική, Ουσιαστική, και Αρμονική εκπαιδευτική εμπειρία. Ως εκ τούτου, η ανάγκη για μια νέα προσέγγιση στην εκπαιδευτική ηγεσία είναι απαραίτητη. Είμαι πεπεισμένος ότι η καταλληλότερη θεωρία της επιστήμης, η οποία μπορεί να χρησιμοποιήθει προκειμένου να βασιστεί η εκπαιδευτική φιλοσοφία στην ηγεσία, είναι η «Θεωρία των Χορδών». Επιπλέον, συγκρίνοντας τις ανθρώπινες αλληλεπιδράσεις με τις μικρότερες πρακτικές που συντελούν στην δημιουργία του κόσμο μας, φαίνεται να σχετίζεται αρμονικά με τα θέματα των παγκόσμιων πολιτών και της ηγεσίας. Αν και υπάρχουν διάφορες θεωρίες χορδών, η Θεωρία Χορδών που χρησιμοποιούμε στην Εκπαιδευτική Ηγεσία υποστηρίζει ότι ο κόσμος μας αποτελείται από δώδεκα βασικά δομικά στοιχεία που αλληλεπιδρούν μεταξύ τους μέσω τεσσάρων δυνάμεων (βαρύτητα, ηλεκτρομαγνητισμό, ασθενής και ισχυρή πυρηνική δύναμη). Αυτά τα δώδεκα βασικά δομικά στοιχεία αποτελούνται από έξι κουάρκ- τα μικρότερα σωματίδια γνωστά στην επιστήμη-και έξι λεπτόνια. Οι διακυμάνσεις της θεωρίας προκύπτουν από την σχετικότητα των διαστάσεων. Επί του παρόντος, υπάρχουν 25 αποδεκτές διαστάσεις και η διάσταση του χρόνου. Ωστόσο, πολλές από αυτές τις διαστάσεις είναι μη παρατηρήσιμες και εμπίπτουν στη σφαίρα του άγνωστου. Η «Θεωρία Χορδών στην Εκπαιδευτική Ηγεσία» βασίζεται στην θεωρία ότι ότι οι προαναφερώμενες διαστάσεις δεν υπάρχουν σε μια τρισδιάστατη κατάσταση, αλλά μάλλον, σε μία τρισδιάστατη χορδή που συχνά λειτουργεί στην σφαίρα του αγνώστου. Το πρόβλημα στην εκπαίδευση προκύπτει από καταστάσεις και στοιχεία που λειτουργούν σε μη παρατηρήσιμες μορφές όπως και στην Φυσική. Εκπαιδευτικοί δουλεύουν με μαθητές οι οποίοι έρχονται αντιμέτωποι με τέτοιες καταστάσεις και οι οποίοι μπορεί να λειτουργήσουν σε μορφές που ο μέσος άνθρωπος βρίσκει δύσκολο να κατανοήσει. Και όμως, οι ηγέτες στην εκπαίδευση πρέπει να κατέχουν τον τρόπο ανάδειξης των δυνατοτήτων των παιδιών αυτών ώστε να δημιουργούν θεμέλια για το μέλλον. Σε αυτή τη θεωρία, το μικρότερο αλλά πιο σημαντικό σωματίδιο της εκπαίδευσης είναι ο μαθητής. Μεταξύ άλλων είναι η αποστολή και το όραμα του εκπαιδευτικού ιδρύματος, το Διοικητικό Συμβούλιο, το διδακτικό και διοικητικό προσωπικό, οι γονείς, η παράδοση του ιδρύματος, η τοπική κοινωνία, η κυβέρνηση, τα κολλέγια και τα πανεπιστήμια, και οι παγκόσμιες τάσεις. Η συλλογική αλληλεπίδραση των σωματιδίων αυτών διαδραματίζει σημαντικό ρόλο στη διαμόρφωση της προσωπικής και επαγγελματικής πορείας των μαθητών. Μαθητές Διδακτικό και Διοικητικό Προσωπικό Γονείς Ηγεσία Διοικητικό Συμβούλιο ‘Οραμα & Αποστολή του Ιδρύματος

συλλογική αλληλεπίδραση σωματιδίων

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Τοπική Κοινότητα Κολέγια / Πανεπιστήμια Κυβέρνηση Οικονομία Τεχνολογία Παγκόσμιες Τάσεις


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Όπως και οι δυνάμεις στο εσωτερικό της θεωρίας των χορδών, οι τέσσερις θεμελιώδεις δυνάμεις για ηγεσία είναι: Ι. Κατανόηση II. Επαγγελματική Ανάπτυξη (ή Επιμόρφωση) III. Καινοτόμος Ηγεσία IV. Αρχές και Αξίες Ι. Κατανόηση Κάθε μαθητής είναι ένας φάρος φωτός όπως το μικρότερο σωματίδιο; μπορούν να έχουν σημαντικό αντίκτυπο σε όλα και στα πάντα. Έτσι, η κατανόηση ως προς κάθε μαθητή είναι απαραίτητα για το σχεδιασμό της εκπαιδευτική του εμπειρίας. Εμείς (ΔΕΠ, διοίκηση, γονείς) πρέπει να κατανοήσουμε τον συναισθηματικό, πνευματικό, κοινωνικό και σωματικό τους κόσμο, καθώς και την δυναμική αλληλεπίδραση μεταξύ τους, η οποία επηρεάζει τη συμπεριφορά τους. Ο σχεδιασμός μιας Ολιστικής, Ουσιαστικής, και Αρμονικής εκπαιδευτικής εμπειρίας απαιτεί επίσης καθηγητές και διοίκηση να κατανοήσουν και να εσωτερικεύουν την αλλαγή στην κοινωνία, πράγμα που σημαίνει αλλαγή στην εκπαίδευση των μαθητών. Ολιστική αναφέρεται στην κατανόηση και τον επιτυχή συνδυασμό της ακαδημαϊκής, συναισθηματικής, σωματικής, πνευματικής και ηθικής ανάπτυξης για να εξασφαλίσει μια υγιεινή και ισορροπημένη οντότητα; ένα άτομο που μπορεί με επιτυχία να αντιμετωπίσει τις αλλαγές που εμπλέκονται κατά την είσοδό του στην τριτοβάθμια εκπαίδευση καθώς και τις αλλαγές που φέρνει η ζωή. Ουσιαστική αναφέρεται στο βαθμό συμβατότητας εκπαιδευτικών στόχων και αποτελεσμάτων με τα όνειρα, τις δυνάμεις, το ταλέντα, και τις επιθυμίες του μαθητή. Επιπλέον, εξασφαλίζει την ισορροπία και την αρμονική συνύπαρξη μεταξύ των αρχών και αξιών του ατόμου και τους προσωπικούς και επαγγελματικούς του στόχους. Αρμονική είναι η ονομασία που δόθηκε στην έννοια του συγχρονισμού και τη συμφωνία μεταξύ των διαφόρων και συχνά ανταγωνιστικών διαστάσεων της ανθρωπότητας. Με άλλα λόγια συναισθήματα, ιδιοφυία και πνεύμα πρέπει να ενσωματώνονται αρμονικά με την ενσωμάτωση αυτή να αποτελεί κρίσιμο χαρακτηριστικό στις ηγετικές ικανότητες της ακρόασης, σκέψης, αντανακλάσης, και λήψης αποφάσεων. II. Επαγγελματική Ανάπτυξη (ή Επιμόρφωση) Το εκπαιδευτικό και διοικητικό προσωπικό πρέπει να είναι δια βίου μαθητές, προκειμένου να ενδυναμώνουν τις γνώσεις τους για το συνεχώς βελτιωμένο εκπαιδευτικό περιεχόμενο καθώς και να υιοθετήσουν τις κατάλληλες τεχνικές διδασκαλίας, μάθησης, στρατηγικής, και φιλοσοφίας. Ορίζουμε την επαγγελματική ανάπτυξη ή επιμόρφωση ως την συνεχιζόμενη διαδικασία της απόκτησης νέων δεξιοτήτων που απαιτούνται για την ενίσχυση και τον εμπλουτισμό της γνώσης της εκπαίδευσης. Επαγγελματική ανάπτυξη είναι ο ακρογωνιαίος λίθος για την παροχή της καλύτερης δυνατής εμπειρίας στην εκπαίδευση για τους μαθητές. III. Καινοτόμος Ηγεσία Ο συγγραφέας ορίζει την καινοτόμο ηγεσία στο εκπαιδευτικό περιβάλλον ως «τη συνεχή πράξη της αποτελεσματικής αξιοποίησης των διαφορών μεταξύ των ανθρώπων, της ενέργειάς τους, τις δημιουργικές ιδέες τους, και τις ποικίλες ιδιότητες προς όφελος των φοιτητών, καθηγητών, προσωπικού και κάθε μέλους της ακαδημαϊκής κοινότητας.» Οι καινοτόμοι ηγέτες καθοδηγούνται σύμφωνα με τις πρωτοποριακές τους ιδέες και όχι με τις προσδοκίες των άλλων και γίνονται επιτυχείς γύρω από το μετασχηματισμό ενός ήδη θεσμιμένου συστήματος και όχι υιοθετώντας αυτό δίχως

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επανεξέταση, και διαθέτουν υψηλό επίπεδο ενέργειας και νέες ιδέες. Οι θεμελιώδεις διαστάσεις της καινοτόμου ηγεσίας είναι δύο: η «διαπροσωπική διάσταση» και η «διάσταση της θέσπισης προτύπων» Η «διαπροσωπική διάσταση» περιλαμβάνει την έμπνευση και παρακίνηση για την αριστεία και την επίτευξη κατ 'ανώτατο όριο των δυνατοτήτων, την καθοδήγηση και την παροχή κινήτρων εξαιρετικών επιδόσεων, το παράδειγμα για έμπνευση και η εμπιστοσύνη εκ των προτέρων για μια επιτυχημένη εκπαιδευτική πορεία. Η «διάσταση της θέσπισης προτύπων» περιλαμβάνει τον καθορισμό των προτύπων αυτών για την υιοθέτηση μίας υγιούς συμπεριφοράς η οποία συμβάλει στην θεμελίωση σωστών και ουσιαστικών αρχών. IV. Αρχές και Αξίες Ορίζουμε τις αρχές και αξίες ως την υποκείμενη προτεραιότητα που καθοδηγεί τις ενέργειες όλων των μελών του εκπαιδευτικού ιδρύματος μαθητές, διδάσκοντες, διοίκηση, και γονείς. Είναι πολύ πιο επιθυμητό και απαραίτητο το ίδρυμα όχι μόνο να καθορίζει τις αρχές και τις αξίες του (με τον ηγέτη της να είναι το παράδειγμα), αλλά και όλα τα μέλη της να τηρούν και να στηρίζουν αυτές τις αρχές. Με την καθοδήγηση της διοίκησης του ιδρύματος αυτές οι αρχές και αξίες πρέπει να εφαρμόζονται και να ακολουθούνται σε όλες τις μορφές του θεσμού του ιδρύματος. Το σημαντικότερο, ωστόσο, είναι πως κατά τη διάρκεια μίας δύσκολης και αρκετά προκλητικής κατάστασης τα μέλη του ιδρύματος υιοθετούν την εφαρμογή αυτών των αξιών για την επίλυσή της. Συμπέρασμα: Ένα εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα πρέπει να κρίνεται όχι μόνο σύμφωνα με την ακαδημαΐκή επιτυχία των μαθητών του αλλά και από το πώς αυτοί αγωνίζονται για να υιοθετήσουν τις αρχές και τις αξίες του. Είναι εξίσου σημαντικό για τους μαθητές να αποκτήσουν τις γνώσεις και τις δεξιότητες που απαιτούνται για να μπορέσουν να διατηρήσουν αυτές τις αρχές στο μέλλον. Ένα εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα πρέπει να συμβάλλει στη διαμόρφωση ανθρώπων που είναι σε θέση να προχωρήσουν πέρα από τις προκαταλήψεις, που είναι δυστυχώς εγγενείς σε πολλούς πολιτισμούς σήμερα, και να πιστεύουν στην ισότητα και στην εκπαίδευση σε παγκόσμιο επίπεδο. Τέλος, πρέπει να γνωρίζουν ότι η ακεραιότητα και η συνεχής μάθηση είναι ουσιαστικής σημασίας για να γίνουν οι ηγέτες του αύριο με ήθος, προκειμένου να κάνουν τον κόσμο καλύτερο για όλους τους ανθρώπους.

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Ο ΡΑΜΑ ΚΑΙ Π ΡΑΚΤΙΚΗ ΤΟΥ Α ΚΑΔΗΜΑΪΚΟΥ Η ΓΕΤΗ

Μ ΕΣΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΟ ΠΡΙΣΜΑ ΤΗΣ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΗΣ ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΤΗΤΑΣ

ΤΟΥ ΔΡ. ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΥ ΓΙΑΛΑΜΑ, ΓΕΝΙΚΟΥ ΔΙΕΥΘΥΝΤΗ ΣΕ ΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΜΕ ΤΟΝ Κ. ΓΙΑΝΝΗ ΠΑΠΑΔΑΚΗ, ΔΙΕΥΘΥΝΤΗ ΕΓΓΡΑΦΩΝ & ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ AMERICAN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF ATHENS A R E A M A G A Z I N E , J A N U A R Y 2008

Είναι γενικά αποδεκτό ότι η σημερινή κοινωνία αντιμετωπίζει νέες προκλήσεις που δοκιμάζουν τη συνοχή και την πρόοδό της. Οι προκλήσεις αυτές δημιουργούνται από διαφορετικούς παράγοντες, όπως οι συνεχείς δημογραφικές αλλαγές και η παγκοσμιοποίηση, οι νέες τεχνολογικές υποδομές και οι προσδοκίες μια καλύτερης ζωής. Η εκπαίδευση, η δημιουργικότητα και η επιχειρηματικότητα είναι αναγκαία συστατικά μιας παραγωγικής κοινωνίας καθώς χαρίζουν στους πολίτες καλύτερες συνθήκες ζωής. Τα εκπαιδευτικά ιδρύματα, και ειδικότερα οι ηγέτες στην εκπαίδευση, περισσότερο από ποτέ, καλούνται να υιοθετήσουν και να υλοποιήσουν τις ηγετικές τους ιδιότητες, μέσα από την ενθάρρυνση και προβολή της κοινωνικής δραστηριοποίησης των μαθητών, του εκπαιδευτικού προσωπικού, της διοίκησης και των μελών του διοικητικού συμβουλίου του ιδρύματος στο οποίο ηγούνται. Σήμερα, είναι επιτακτική ανάγκη για τους ακαδημαϊκούς ηγέτες να υιοθετούν μοντέλα ηγεσίας ως συνεργασία με ελεγχόμενη ευελιξία (Gialamas, 2005), όπου ο ηγέτης και η ομάδα του δημιουργούν μια συνεργία που βασίζεται στην ανάληψη ευθύνης των πρωτοβουλιών και των πράξεων, των αποφάσεων και της κοινωνικής υπευθυνότητας. Η ευελιξία επιτρέπει στον ηγέτη και στην ομάδα του να προσαρμόζει το επίπεδο και το εύρος της ευθύνης. Ο ηγέτης οφείλει να παίρνει υπόψη των Ανθρώπινο Παράγοντα (Cherif, Gialamas & Ofari-Omoah, 2000) και να τον αξιοποιεί στον σχεδιασμό του ακαδημαϊκού στόχου του εκπαιδευτικού οργανισμού. Με άλλα λόγια, οι ηγέτες πρέπει να προωθούν κοινωνική υπευθυνότητα διαμορφώνοντας εποικοδομητική κοινωνική δραστηριότητα με σεβασμό στον άνθρωπο, προς προνομιούχους και μη, μορφωμένους και αγράμματους, τους διαφορετικούς πολιτισμούς, προς τη διαφορετικότητα στην άποψη και τον τρόπο ζωής. Με στόχο τη δημιουργία μια καλύτερης κοινωνίας, οι κοινωνικοί ηγέτες δεν θα πρέπει να κατέχουν μόνο τα απαραίτητα προσόντα για να ηγούνται αλλά και για να ηγηθούν από τον συνάνθρωπό τους. Η καλλιέργεια της κοινωνικής και προσωπικής ευθύνης Μια ισχυρή ακαδημαϊκή ηγεσία συχνά αντιμετωπίζει ισχυρές προκλήσεις. Μία από αυτές είναι και το να πείσεις άλλους να αποδεχθούν και να εκτιμήσουν τις δυνατότητές τους για κοινωνική ευαισθησία μέσα σε ένα ίδρυμα. Τελικά όμως, είναι όντως απαραίτητη η επιμόρφωση των μαθητών, των γονέων, του προσωπικού και της ηγετικής ομάδας ως προς τα οφέλη μιας μεγαλύτερης κοινωνικής ευαισθητοποίησης μέσα στην ιδιόμορφη κοινωνία ενός σχολείου, ιδιαίτερα καθώς μια τέτοια κοινωνία διαφέρει από μέρος σε μέρος. Υπάρχουν πολλοί παράγοντες που μπορεί να επηρεάσουν αρνητικά ένα τέτοιο πρόγραμμα, όπως ανεπαρκείς υποδομές, οικονομικοί περιορισμοί, διαφορετικές κυβερνητικές πολιτικές, νομικές και γραφειοκρατικές αγκυλώσεις. Παρόλο που τέτοιοι παράγοντες μπορεί να δράσουν αρνητικά προς την υλοποίηση προγραμμάτων κοινωνικής ευαισθητοποίησης, τα τελικά οφέλη σίγουρα θα υπερκεράσουν αυτά τα εμπόδια και το αποτέλεσμα θα αξίζει τις όποιες θυσίες. Μια εκπαιδευτική φιλοσοφία που προσδίδει αξία στην κοινωνική υπευθυνότητα, εμπλουτίζει τις εκπαιδευτικές της διαδικασίες ενθαρρύνοντας τους μαθητές να συμμετάσχουν σε δραστηριότητες που απαιτούν την χρησιμοποίηση των γνώσεων και των δεξιοτήτων τους προς όφελος πολυδιάστατων κοινωνικών θεμάτων. Η μάθηση μέσω της κοινωνικής δράσης βοηθά τους μαθητές να αναπτύξουν μεγαλύτερη αυτογνωσία και αυτο-εκτίμηση, χτίζουν ακέραια προσωπικότητα με ήθος, ενώ διδάσκονται

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μετριοπάθεια και μετριοφροσύνη, εμπάθεια και ανοχή στους συνανθρώπους τους, καλλιεργώντας μια βαθιά συναίσθηση κοινωνικής ευθύνης προς όφελος του ευρύτερου κοινωνικού συνόλου. Αυτού του τύπου η εμπειρική γνώση βοηθά τους μαθητές να αναπτύσσουν διαπολιτισμικές ευαισθησίες ενώ έρχονται σε επαφή με ανθρώπους από διαφορετικά κοινωνικά, οικονομικά και πολιτιστικά στρώματα. Καθώς αναλογίζονται και εκτιμούν τη σημασία της εμπειρίας τους, οι μαθητές είναι πολύ πιο πιθανό να κάνουν ηθικές επιλογές καθώς έχουν ευαισθητοποιηθεί σε θέματα κοινωνικής αδικίας, μειώνοντας έτσι τις δικές τους εθνο-κεντρικές προδιαθέσεις που συχνά οδηγούν στην προκατάληψη και τον ρατσισμό (Westrick, 2004, Bennett, 1993). Οι μαθητές, το ακαδημαϊκό ίδρυμα και η ευρύτερη κοινωνία επωφελούνται από την εμπειρία αυτή, η οποία δημιουργεί πολύτιμους δεσμούς μεταξύ των μελών της κοινωνίας. Κατανοώντας τις ανάγκες και τις πλουτοπαραγωγικές πηγές της κοινωνίας, οι κοινωνικά ενεργοί μαθητές γίνονται πιο ευαισθητοποιημένοι κι ενεργοί πολίτες. Οι μαθητές αναπτύσσονται κοινωνικά, συναισθηματικά, ηθικά και νοητικά σαν αποτέλεσμα ενός σωστά διαμορφωμένου προγράμματος μάθησης μέσω της κοινωνικής προσφοράς (Eyler & Giles, 1999) και με την καθοδήγηση της ακαδημαϊκής ηγεσίας που προωθεί την κοινωνική δραστηριοποίησης μέσα στην σχολική νοοτροπία. Σε ακαδημαϊκό επίπεδο, η συμμετοχή σε προγράμματα κοινωνικής προσφοράς μπορεί να αποφέρει ισχυρότερα κίνητρα συνεργασίας μεταξύ της διοίκησης, του διδακτικού προσωπικού, των μαθητών και των μελών της ευρύτερης σχολικής κοινότητας, δημιουργώντας κατ’επέκταση μια παραγωγική και εκπαιδευτική σχέση προσωπικού ενδιαφέροντος και συνεργασίας. Σε κοινωνικό επίπεδο, καθιστώντας τους νέους παράγοντες ανάπτυξης και ανανέωσης, τους βοηθούμε να αναπτύξουν τα ηγετικά προσόντα, την κοινωνική ευαισθησία, την εμπάθεια και την κατανόηση που χρειάζονται για την βελτίωση της ποιότητας ζωής στην κοινωνία. Ενας σφαιρικά μορφωμένος νέος με γνώσεις, αρχές, δεξιότητες, ηθική και κοινωνική υπευθυνότητα είναι πολύ πιθανότερο να έχει θετική επίδραση σε έναν απρόβλεπτα μεταβλητό κόσμο. Η ενσωμάτωση της κοινωνικής υπευθυνότητας στην ατομική ηγετική φιλοσοφία Για να μετατραπεί μια σχολική κοινότητα σε κέντρο κοινωνικής δραστηριότητας και ευαισθητοποίησης με θετική επίδραση στην ευρύτερη κοινωνία, απαιτείται ηγέτης με ιδιαίτερη προσωπική φιλοσοφία που εκπέμπει ενθουσιασμό, ήθος και εμπάθεια με έντονο το στοιχείο της κοινωνικής ευθύνης. Χρειάζεται να υιοθετηθούν συγκεκριμένες τακτικές που θα εξασφαλίσουν την επιτυχία δύο κυρίων στόχων: α) την υλοποίηση ενός προγράμματος με ακρίβεια, ουσία, οργάνωση και μετρήσιμη αποτελεσματικότητα και β) την ικανότητα να εμπνέει τους μαθητές, τους γονείς, το διδακτικό προσωπικό και τα μέλη της Διοίκησης στο εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα ώστε να υιοθετήσουν ολοκληρωτικά το πρόγραμμα κοινωνικής ευθύνης. Υλοποίηση προγράμματος κοινωνικής δραστηριοποίησης Τα βήματα υλοποίησης ενός τέτοιου προγράμματος πρέπει να συμπεριλαμβάνουν τις παρακάτω ενότητες: 1.

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Αναγνώριση των αναγκών και των πόρων της τοπικής κοινωνίας. • Δημιουργία καταλόγου με τοπικούς οργανισμούς που προωθούν την κοινωνική ευθύνη και δραστηριοποίηση • Συζήτηση με τοπικούς και δημοτικές αρχές σχετικά με τις ανάγκες πληθυσμού που δεν ανήκουν σε οργανωμένους φορείς ή σωματεία. • Συλλογή πληροφοριών για τους διαθέσιμους πόρους όπως τοπικά κοινωνικά προγράμματα και επιχειρήσεις με κοινωνική δραστηριοποίηση • Καταγραφή και ανάλυση τοπικών, δημοτικών, περιφερειακών και κρατικών πηγών χρηματοδότησης ώστε να κριθεί αν το εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα μπορεί να λάβει σχετική χρηματοδότηση. Κατανόηση και ανάλυση των αναγκών και των πόρων της τοπικής κοινωνίας. • Εμπειρική αναγνώριση του περιβάλλοντος περπατώντας και μιλώντας με τον τοπικό πληθυσμό • Ανάπτυξη διαύλων διαλόγου με τους τοπικούς ηγέτες και αστικούς οργανισμούς • Κατανόηση των αναγκών σε προσωπικό και κοινωνικό/κοινοτικό επίπεδο • Καταγραφή των αναγκών αυτών

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Αξιολόγηση των κοινωνικών αναγκών • Κατανόηση της λειτουργίας των τοπικών κοινωνικών ομάδων • Αξιολόγηση των στόχων των ομάδων ή οργανισμών που δρουν στην τοπική κοινωνία • Κατανόηση των επιπτώσεων της επίλυσης των αναγκών σε ατομικό, ακαδημαϊκό ή ευρύτερο κοινωνικό επίπεδο • Κατανόηση των επιπτώσεων της μη-επίλυσης των αναγκών σε ατομικό, ακαδημαϊκό ή ευρύτερο κοινωνικό επίπεδο • Καθορισμός προτεραιοτήτων στόχων Εκτίμηση των δυνατοτήτων και των περιορισμών του εκπαιδευτικού ιδρύματος • Εξέταση της δομής του ακαδημαϊκού ιδρύματος και καθορισμός των υπευθυνοτήτων κάθε λειτουργικού του τμήματος • Καθορισμός πόρων σε ανθρώπινο δυναμικό, οικονομικό επίπεδο και τεχνολογική υποδομή • Εξέταση διαθεσιμότητας και σκοπιμότητα χρησιμοποίησης των πόρων αυτών • Βελτιστοποίηση των όρων χρησιμοποίησης των δυνατοτήτων και των πόρων του ιδρύματος για μέγιστη αποτελεσματικότητα Απασχόληση της σχολικής κοινότητας σε δραστηριότητες κοινωνικής προσφοράς • Ξεκάθαρος και κατανοητός ορισμός στόχων με συγκεκριμένα και μετρήσιμα στάδια υλοποίησης μέσα σε συγκεκριμένο χρονοδιάγραμμα • Επικοινωνία των στόχων του προγράμματος με τα μέλη του διδακτικού προσωπικού του σχολικού οργανισμού • Επεξήγηση της σημασίας και του αντίκτυπου του προγράμματος σε προσωπικό, ακαδημαϊκό και κοινωνικό επίπεδο • Περιγραφή των πλεονεκτημάτων σε όλα τα επίπεδα • Προσδιορισμός αποδοτικής και ρεαλιστικής μεθόδου συμμετοχής της ηγετικής ομάδας στην υλοποίηση του προγράμματος Δημιουργία αφοσιωμένης ομάδας • Δημιουργία ομάδας με κριτήριο το όραμα του ηγέτη • Προσδιορισμός των αξιών και των ικανοτήτων ατόμων που συμπίπτουν με το όραμα του ηγέτη σχετικά με την κοινωνική ευθύνη • Πρόσκληση μελών του ιδρύματος να μπουν στην ηγετική ομάδα υλοποίησης του προγράμματος κοινωνικής ευθύνης • Διεύρυνση και ολοκλήρωση της δημιουργίας της ομάδας με νέα άτομα Κινητοποίηση της σχολικής κοινότητας για συμμετοχή στο πρόγραμμα • Ορισμός υψηλών και ξεκάθαρων προτύπων • Ο ηγέτης πρέπει να αποτελεί παράδειγμα συμπεριφοράς • Συσχέτιση ατόμων με κριτήριο ειδικότητας και προσωπικών ενδιαφερόντων • Αξιοποίηση και προσδιορισμός αποτελεσματικού χρονοδιαγράμματος • Προβολή των αμοιβαίων ωφελειών του προγράμματος προς τα μέλη της ομάδας και τον κοινωνικό σκοπό Ανάπτυξη Στρατηγικής και Σχεδίου • Συσχέτιση των βημάτων 1-6 με την αποστολή και το όραμα του ιδρύματος • Ανάπτυξη προσχέδιου δράσης • Συγκέντρωση και καταγραφή των αντι-προτάσεων των μελών της ομάδας • Επανατοποθέτηση του σχεδίου ώστε να είναι υλοποιήσιμο • Παρουσίαση του προτεινόμενου σχεδίου στους ενδιαφερόμενους • Συγκέντρωση και καταγραφή τελευταίων αντι-προτάσεων • Τελειοποίηση του σχεδίου δράσης Υλοποίηση στρατηγικής: σχέδιο αντιμετώπισης των κοινωνικών αναγκών • Ο σχεδιασμός είναι μια συνεχής διαδικασία • Το σχέδιο πρέπει να είναι ξεκάθαρο, συνοπτικό, επικεντρωμένο και υλοποιήσιμο • Η ομάδα θα πρέπει να το έχει κατανοήσει και να πιστεύει στην ανάγκη υλοποίησης του • Παροχή όλων των αναγκαίων πόρων για την υλοποίηση του σχεδίου (ανθρώπινο δυναμικό, οικονομικές και τεχνολογικές υποδομές κλπ.) • Έναρξη υλοποίησης • Αξιολόγηση της πορείας του προγράμματος και συνεχής προσαρμογή στα νέα δεδομένα • Περιοδική αξιολόγηση του προγράμματος σε σχέση με τους αρχικούς στόχους

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Αξιολόγηση της επιτυχίας της στρατηγικής υλοποίησης

10. Επιμόρφωση και ενημέρωση της ευρύτερης κοινωνίας για νέους στόχους • Μετά την υλοποίηση διαφόρων στόχων, η τοπική κοινωνία πρέπει να ενημερωθεί και να κατευθυνθεί στο σχεδιασμό νέων στόχων ώστε να συνεχιστεί το κοινωνικό έργο που έχει ήδη αρχίσει • Ενημέρωση της κοινωνίας για τα έργα που έχουν επιτελεστεί και την ανάγκη για τη συνέχιση τους, είτε με προέκταση των ήδη ολοκληρωμένων στόχων ή με τον ορισμό καινούριων 11. Αξιολόγηση του αποτελέσματος • Το μυστικό της επιτυχίας είναι στη συνεχή αξιολόγηση των αποτελεσμάτων • Συχνή αξιολόγηση επιτρέπει την τελειοποίηση των διαδικασιών που θα επιφέρουν ακόμα πιο επιτυχή αποτελέσματα 12. Βελτίωση αποτελεσμάτων • Μετά την αρχική αξιολόγηση του αποτελέσματος, πρέπει να επανεξεταστούν οι αρχικοί στόχοι • Ολοκλήρωση του συνόλου των στόχων μέσα σε συγκεκριμένο χρονικό διάστημα. Οι στρατηγικές που παρουσιάστηκαν πιο πάνω, μπορούν να είναι επωφελείς σε ακαδημαϊκούς ηγέτες που επιθυμούν να ενσωματώσουν την κοινωνική δραστηριοποίηση στην προσωπική τους ηγετική φυσιογνωμία. 0 ακαδημαϊκός ηγέτης που εμπνέεται από την κοινωνική ευθύνη μπορεί να βοηθήσει τους νέους να αισθάνονται πιο δεμένοι με το κοινωνικό τους περιβάλλον, να είναι πιο υπεύθυνοι απέναντι στο περιβάλλον και να προσπαθούν ενσυνείδητα να βελτιώσουν τις συνθήκες διαβίωσης στο χώρο που ζουν. Δεν μπορούμε να περιμένουμε θετικές μακροχρόνιες αλλαγές σε μια κοινωνία αν δεν ενισχύσουμε την ηγετική φυσιογνωμία της νεολαίας ώστε να αντικατοπτρίζει κοινωνικές αξίες, πρωτοβουλία, κοινωνική και προσωπική υπευθυνότητα. Δεν είναι απαραίτητο μια τέτοια προσπάθεια επιμόρφωσης και ενεργοποίησης των μελών ενός εκπαιδευτικού ιδρύματος (μαθητές, γονείς, διδασκαλικού προσωπικού και διοίκησης) να είναι περίπλοκη διαδικασία, ειδικά στα πρώτα στάδια υλοποίησής της. Όταν μια ιδέα ενεργοποιηθεί, αρχίζει μια αλυσιδωτή αντίδραση. Όλο και περισσότερος κόσμος είναι διατεθειμένος να αφιερώσει το χρόνο και την ενεργητικότητά του σε κοινωνικά προγράμματα που είναι επωφελή και αυταπόδεικτης αξίας σε προσωπικό, εκπαιδευτικό και κοινωνικό επίπεδο. Γιατί τελικά, η καλή πράξη και η μοναδική αίσθηση ικανοποίησης που αφήνει είναι μεταδοτική. Βιβλιογραφία:          

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Α ΚΑΔΗΜΑΪΚΗ ΗΓΕΣΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΚΑΘΟΔΗΓΗΣΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΤΙΚΩΝ

Τ Ο Υ Σ Τ Ε Φ Α Ν Ο Υ Γ Ι Α Λ Α Μ Α P H . D. , Γ Ε Ν Ι Κ Ο Υ Δ Ι Ε Υ Θ Υ Ν Τ Η ACS A T H E N S ΣΕ ΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΜΕ ΤΟN

ΓΙΑΝΝΗ ΠΑΠΑΔΑΚΗ, ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟ ΓΡΑΦΕΙΟΥ ΝΕΩΝ ΕΓΓΡΑΦΩΝ, ΕΠΙΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ & ΔΗΜΟΣΙΩΝ ΣΧΕΣΕΩΝ A R E A M A G A Z I N E , 2 00 7 Καθώς οι κοινωνικές, πολιτικές, οικονομικές και εκπαιδευτικές συνθήκες αλλάζουν την φυσιογνωμία της εκπαίδευσης, , τα ακαδημαϊκά ιδρύματα απαιτούν πολυδιάστατες διαδικασίας λήψης στρατηγικών και λειτουργικών αποφάσεων. Ειδικότερα, καθώς όλο και περισσότερα στελέχη ακαδημαϊκών ιδρυμάτων κατέχουν πολλαπλές αρμοδιότητες και υπευθυνότητες, βρίσκονται συχνά στη θέση να ηγούνται του διδακτικού προσωπικού, προτρέποντας τους διδάσκοντες να ασχοληθούν και με προσωπική επιμόρφωση, καθορίζοντας το διδακτικό πρόγραμμα και πραγματοποιώντας αρμόδιες αξιολογήσεις. Τα στελέχη αυτά συχνά ορίζουν το μακροπρόθεσμο όραμα και κατεύθυνση του ιδρύματος διαμορφώνοντας ή βελτιώνοντας το εκπαιδευτικό πρόγραμμα με σκοπό την ικανοποίηση των αναγκών των μαθητών, της αγοράς εργασίας και της κοινωνίας. Ταυτόχρονα όμως είναι υποχρεωμένοι να αντιπροσωπεύουν και να εκφράζουν το διδακτικό προσωπικό εσωτερικά και προς τα έξω. Καθοδηγώντας τους διδάσκοντες Τα ακαδημαϊκά στελέχη πρέπει να διακρίνονται από ηγετικά χαρακτηριστικά που τους επιτρέπουν να πετυχαίνουν τους στόχους και τους σκοπούς του τμήματός τους, του ιδρύματος γενικότερα αλλά και την προσωπική και επαγγελματική τους καταξίωση και ολοκλήρωση. Οι κύριες ηγετικές ιδιότητες ενός ακαδημαϊκού στελέχους μπορούν να συνοψιστούν στους παρακάτω τομείς: • • • • • •

Αποστολή, Όραμα και Στρατηγική Πρόσληψη Διδακτικού Προσωπικού Εκπαίδευση Διδακτικού Προσωπικού Επαγγελματική Κατάρτιση Διδακτικού Προσωπικού Προσωπικής Επιμόρφωσης Διδακτικού Προσωπικού Αξιολόγηση Απόδοσης Διδακτικού Προσωπικού

Τα χαρακτηριστικά που προσδιορίζουν ένα επιτυχημένο ηγετικό στέλεχος είναι συγκεκριμένα και αναγνωρίσιμα. Θα πρέπει να έχει ανοιχτό μυαλό, να είναι καλός ακροατής, φιλομαθής και να αποδέχεται την εποικοδομητική κριτική, λάτρης της συνεχούς μάθησης και της δημιουργικής επίλυσης προβλημάτων, πιστεύει στην δύναμη του συλλογικού νου, δίνει πρόθυμα ευκαιρίες, πιστεύει στην ακεραιότητα του χαρακτήρα ως βάση διαπραγμάτευσης, ενώ είναι πρόθυμος να μοιραστεί τις υπευθυνότητες και την ηγεσία, πάντα χαρακτηριζόμενος από ευγένεια χαρακτήρα. 1.

Αποστολή, Όραμα και Στρατηγική

Η αποστολή, το όραμα και η τελική στρατηγική ενός ακαδημαϊκού τμήματος μπορούν εύκολα να παγιωθούν απαντώντας ερωτήσεις όπως «Πού» «Τι» και «Πώς»: Πού θέλουμε να βρίσκεται το τμήμα στο μέλλον; Τι θα χρειαστεί να κάνουμε; Πώς θα γίνουν με επιτυχία αυτά που χρειάζονται να γίνουν; Μόνο μέσα από τη συνεργασία του ηγετικού στελέχους με το διδακτικό προσωπικό μπορεί ένα τμήμα ή ολόκληρο το ίδρυμα να καθορίσει ξεκάθαρα την αποστολή του. Τελικά, ο ηγέτης, σε συνεργασία με τα μέλη του προσωπικού πρέπει να καθορίσει τα διακριτικά χαρακτηριστικά του προσωπικού που θα

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εγγυηθούν την λειτουργική επιτυχία βραχυπρόθεσμα, αλλά και τα ανταποδοτικά οφέλη που θα επιφέρουν την μακροπρόθεσμη επιτυχία. 2.

Πρόσληψη Διδακτικού Προσωπικού

Το νεοπροσλαμβανόμενο διδακτικό προσωπικό θα πρέπει όχι μόνο να έχει τις κατάλληλες ιδιότητες για την πραγματοποίηση της αποστολής του τμήματος, αλλά να έχει ενθουσιασμό και προθυμία να εργαστεί ως μέλος μιας ομάδας. Στην διαδικασία πρόσληψης, το ηγετικό στέλεχος του τμήματος, θα πρέπει να παίρνει υπόψη τα ακόλουθα: • • • • • • • • • • 3.

Την αποστολή και το όραμα του τμήματος Τις εκπαιδευτικές μεθόδους (διδασκαλία ομαδική, διαδικτυακή, υβριδική, προωθημένη κ.λ.π.) Τον αριθμό των υπαρχόντων διδασκόντων και τις διαφορετικές τους ιδιότητες Τη μορφολογία των μαθητών ανά ακαδημαϊκό τμήμα Τα μελλοντικά σχέδια επέκτασης τμημάτων και προγραμμάτων Τις κατατεθειμένες ακαδημαϊκές άδειες απουσίας και αιτήσεις συνταξιοδότησης Τις προβλέψεις εγγραφών νέων μαθητών Τις στρατηγικές ενσωμάτωσης εφαρμογών τεχνολογίας στο μάθημα Τα σχέδια συγκέντρωσης οικονομικών πόρων για την στήριξη και υλοποίηση της αποστολής και του οράματος Την προσαρμογή των αναγκών του προσωπικού με τις ανάγκες του ιδρύματος

Εκπαίδευση Διδακτικού Προσωπικού

Υπάρχει μεγάλος αριθμός ατόμων που εισέρχονται στο διδακτικό λειτούργημα με ελάχιστη κατάρτιση σχετικά με τις σύγχρονες ανάγκες της παγκοσμιοποιημένης εκπαίδευσης. Οι απαιτήσεις των ακαδημαϊκών ιδρυμάτων έχουν ανάγκη από κατάλληλα προετοιμασμένους και εκπαιδευμένους εκπαιδευτικούς. Η εξειδίκευση στην διδακτέα ύλη, δεν είναι αρκετή να προσφέρει την καλύτερη διδακτική εμπειρία στους μαθητές. Το τι διδάσκεται είναι σημαντικό, όμως πιο σημαντικό είναι το πώς διδάσκεται, ώστε να μεγιστοποιείται η μάθηση. Αυτό ιδιαίτερα σημαντικό στα διεθνή σχολεία. Για να κατακτήσει την τέχνη της διδαχής, το προσωπικό θα πρέπει να αφομοιώσει μέσα από επικεντρωμένη εκπαίδευση τα εξής σημεία: • • • • • • 4.

Τη διδακτική φιλοσοφία του ιδρύματος, που αντικατοπτρίζει και την εκπαιδευτική κουλτούρα του Τη διαχείριση του περιβάλλοντος της τάξης, όσον αφορά την πειθαρχία, τη συμπεριφορά κ.λ.π. εκ μέρους των μαθητών Διαδικασίες όπως άμεση ανταπόκριση σε ερωτήματα μαθητών, έγκαιρη κατάθεση βαθμολογίας κ.λ.π. Προετοιμασία διδακτικού υλικού που συμπεριλαμβάνει περιγραφή του αντικειμένου και του σκοπού της τάξης καθώς και δραστηριοτήτων που παίρνουν υπόψη τις διαφορετικές μαθησιακές ανάγκες και προτεραιότητες των μαθητών. Εφαρμογή αξιόπιστων και κατάλληλων εργαλείων και κριτηρίων αξιολόγησης Αποτίμηση της μάθησης (τεστ λεπτού, Σωκρατική διαλεκτική και εβδομαδιαία δημιουργικά θέματα) Επαγγελματική Κατάρτιση Διδακτικού Προσωπικού

Οι διευθυντές τμημάτων πρέπει να διαμορφώνουν διαδικασίες κατάρτισης του διδακτικού προσωπικού στους τομείς της διδασκαλίας, των υπηρεσιών και της αριστείας. Το προσωπικό θα πρέπει να ενθαρρύνονται να υλοποιούν νέες ιδέες που αν δεν εξεταστούν σε βάθος χρόνου και βάση αντικειμενικών κριτηρίων, πιθανά να αποτύχουν και να εξαλειφθούν από το πρόγραμμα πριν καλά καλά αποδείξουν την αξία τους. Είναι λοιπόν απαραίτητο όχι μόνο να λειτουργούν χωρίς εξαναγκασμούς αλλά και να μοιράζονται ανεμπόδιστα τις ιδέες αυτές με τους υπόλοιπους διδάσκοντες. Γι’ αυτό είναι μεγάλης σημασίας ο ενθουσιασμός και η ενέργεια του ηγετικού στελέχους στη δημιουργία ενός περιβάλλοντος όπου όλοι είναι σημαντικοί και η παραμικρή ιδέα μετράει.

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Προσωπική Επιμόρφωση Διδακτικού Προσωπικού

Η ανθρώπινη φύση μας οδηγεί σε περαιτέρω προσωπική ανάπτυξη και βαθύτερη επιμόρφωση βασισμένη στις προσωπικές μας ανάγκες, δυνατότητες και επιδιώξεις. Το ηγετικό στέλεχος θα πρέπει να είναι πάντα διατεθειμένο να αναγνωρίσει την προοπτική προσωπικής επιμόρφωσης προς όφελος της επαγγελματικής προόδου και να προσφέρει υποστήριξη και καθοδήγηση προς αυτή την κατεύθυνση. Για να το επιτύχει αυτό, το ηγετικό στέλεχος θα πρέπει: • • • • • 6.

Να αποδεχθεί προοπτική προσωπικής επιμόρφωσης ως αναπόσπαστο εργαλείο για την επιτυχία του τμήματος Να πιστεύει ότι ο άνθρωπος δεν σταματά ποτέ να εξελίσσεται, να αναπτύσσεται και να γίνεται πιο αποτελεσματικός, όταν έχει την απαραίτητη καθοδήγηση και υποστήριξη Να πιστεύει ότι οι ηγετικές ιδιότητες δεν είναι χαρακτηριστικό μόνο του επικεφαλής αλλά όλων των ατόμων σε όλες τις βαθμίδες, που δρουν κατά κάποιο τρόπο ως ηγέτες μιας μικρότερης ομάδας. Να δημιουργεί και να νουθετεί ένα περιβάλλον που επιτρέπει την προσωπική και επαγγελματική ανάπτυξη Να υιοθετεί και να υλοποιεί συγκεκριμένες στρατηγικές για την επίτευξη των κοινά αποδεκτών στόχων Αξιολόγηση Απόδοσης Διδακτικού Προσωπικού

Η κυριότερη πηγή τριβής μεταξύ της διοίκησης και του διδακτικού προσωπικού είναι η έλλειψη ξεκάθαρης επικοινωνίας όσον αφορά τις υπευθυνότητες του προσωπικού και τα κριτήρια αξιολόγησης. Η διαφάνεια, η ειλικρίνεια και η ευθύτητα είναι απολύτως απαραίτητα στοιχεία σε αυτή τη διαδικασία. Για πιο παραγωγική και εποικοδομητική αξιολόγηση των διδασκόντων, προτείνονται οι παρακάτω τακτικές. • •

Η διοίκηση θα πρέπει να εφαρμόσει μια ετήσια αξιολόγηση ευθυνών και απόδοσης, συμπεριλαμβάνοντας τα κριτήρια εκτίμησης της επιτυχίας σε θέματα διδασκαλίας, παρεχόμενων υπηρεσιών και επαγγελματικών δραστηριοτήτων. Ο ηγέτης βασίζει την ετήσια αξιολόγησης απόδοσης στα παρακάτω: o Την αξιολόγηση της απόδοσης της περασμένης χρονιάς με βάση κοινών αποδεκτών κριτηρίων και υπευθυνοτήτων o Την αυτοαξιολόγηση του προσωπικού o Την αξιολόγηση των μαθητών της τάξης o Τις παρατηρήσεις της τάξης και άλλων πηγών

Συμπερασματικά Οι παραπάνω στρατηγικές μπορούν να λειτουργήσουν επιβοηθητικά σε νέους ακαδημαϊκούς ηγέτες διδακτικού προσωπικού. Με την κατανόηση και εφαρμογή τους, δεν επηρεάζεται μόνο η απόδοση και λειτουργία του συγκεκριμένου τομέα αλλά και ολόκληρου του ακαδημαϊκού ιδρύματος. Τα προσωπικά χαρακτηριστικά του ηγέτη αντανακλώνται αναπόφευκτα και στο χώρο στον οποίο δραστηριοποιείται ενώ το διδασκαλικό προσωπικό του ιδρύματος επηρεάζεται καταλυτικά από ιδιότητες που θα πρέπει να διέπουν τον ηγέτη, όπως εμπιστοσύνη, ευγένεια, ήθος, ειλικρίνεια, γενναιοδωρία και πάθος για δουλειά. Είναι σημαντικό να θυμόμαστε ότι οι υλικοί πόροι χρειάζονται διαχειριστές, οι ανθρώπινοι πόροι χρειάζονται ηγέτες.

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Μ Ε ΟΡΑΜΑ ΤΟΝ ΙΔΑΝΙΚΟ «Μ ΑΘΗΤΗ » Χ ΤΙΖΟΝΤΑΣ ΤΗΝ Ε ΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗ ΤΟΥ 21 Ο Υ Α ΙΩΝΑ , ΕΝΑ ΣΚΑΛΟΠΑΤΙ ΤΗ ΦΟΡΑ

Σ Τ Ε Φ Α Ν Ο Σ Π. Γ Ι Α Λ Α Μ Α Σ , P H . D. , Π Ρ Ο Ε Δ Ρ Ο Σ , A CS A T H E N S Γ Ι Α Ν Ν Η Σ Γ . Π Α Π Α Δ Α Κ Η Σ , Δ Ι Ε Υ Θ Υ Ν Τ Η Σ Ε Π Ι Κ Ο Ι Ν Ω Ν Ι Α Σ & Ν Ε Ω Ν Ε Γ Γ Ρ Α Φ Ω Ν , ACS A T H E N S A R E A M A G A Z I N E , M A Y 2 00 7

Η ακαδημαϊκή ζωή είναι λιγότερο πολύπλοκη και ατίθαση σε σχέση με την ζωή μετά το σχολείο. Οι λύσεις που ψάχνουμε για τις καθημερινές καταστάσεις απαιτούν σύμπραξη, συνεργασία, φαντασία, πρωτοτυπία, ρίσκα, αναζήτηση σε άγνωστα μονοπάτια, αποδοχή των αποτυχιών αλλά και αξιοκρατική αναγνώριση της επιτυχίας, με χαρά, ευγένεια και ειλικρίνεια. Ο Αϊνστάϊν είχε πει «Η φαντασία είναι πιο σημαντική από την γνώση». Γιατί λοιπόν προσπαθούμε να παρουσιάσουμε στους μαθητές μας έναν άλλο, πιο ψυχρό κόσμο; Γιατί διακατεχόμαστε από τον φόβο της επικίνδυνης δημιουργικότητας; Γιατί τρέμουμε στην ιδέα ότι μπορεί να μας περάσουν για έντιμους, ειλικρινείς, ευγενικούς, προπάντων αληθινούς ανθρώπους; Γιατί η μάθηση πρέπει να είναι επώδυνη, στεγνή επικοινωνία μεταξύ των κατέχοντων τη γνώση και των μαθητών, γιατί πρέπει η επικοινωνία μεταξύ της ακαδημαϊκής διοίκησης και των διδασκόντων, των διδασκόντων και των μαθητών, του σχολείου και του έξω κόσμου να είναι τόσο δύσκολη και απρόσωπη, πολλές φορές ακόμα και αιτία σύγκρουσης; Στο άρθρο που ακολουθεί θα επιχειρήσουμε να παρουσιάσουμε τις βάσεις ενός εκπαιδευτικού οργανισμού του 21ου αιώνα, που δεν είναι αποκομμένος από το περιβάλλον του, που δεν πάσχει από ηθελημένη μυωπία και που έχει πετάξει τις παρωπίδες του παρελθόντος για χάρη του μαθητή, του οποίου η ιδανικότητα δεν είναι οπτασία – είναι μια πραγματικότητα προσιτή, αρκεί να μπορούμε να ορίσουμε, να προσδιορίσουμε και να τη χτίσουμε, ένα σκαλοπάτι τη φορά. Η παιδεία του 21ου αιώνα σε διεθνές επίπεδο, δεν είναι μια νέα έννοια που θα πρέπει να διαμορφώσουμε εξαρχής, ούτε κάτι αποκομμένο από το παρελθόν. Θα πρέπει να είναι η συνέχεια ενός δοκιμασμένου συστήματος εκπαιδευτικών αξιών, προσαρμοσμένου στις απαιτήσεις των εθνικών αναγκών της κάθε χώρας, ενταγμένου όμως στο ευρύτερο πλαίσιο της παγκόσμιας αγοράς, με την οποία θα πρέπει να έχει στενή επαφή για την περαιτέρω βελτίωση του σύμφωνα με τις συνεχώς διαμορφούμενες συνθήκες. Δυναμικό Μοντέλο Εκπαιδευτικών Ιδρυμάτων 3Di Το σύγχρονο σχολικό ίδρυμα για να φτάσει τους στόχους του, θα πρέπει να έχει πρότυπο συγκεκριμένα και επιτυχημένα μοντέλα διοίκησης και λειτουργίας που δεν αποτελούν γραφειοκρατική ή άλλη τροχοπέδη στην ανάπτυξη και επέκτασης των δραστηριοτήτων του. Ενα τέτοιο μοντέλο είναι το Δυναμικό Μοντέλο Εκπαιδευτικών Ιδρυμάτων 3Di, όπως εκφράζεται από το παρακάτω γράφημα: Ηγεσία (Όραμα)

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Εξωτερικοί Παράγοντες

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Thoughtful Mind: A collection of articles

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Το συγκεκριμένο μοντέλο είναι πράγματι δυναμικό γιατί εξαρτάται από παράγοντες που είναι δυναμικοί, μεταβλητοί και σχετικοί μεταξύ τους. Το μοντέλο αυτό αναπτύχθηκε ύστερα από μελέτες των συστημάτων διαχείρισης εκπαιδευτικών οργανισμών σε διάφορες περιοχές του πλανήτη, όπως τεκμηριώνεται και στην μελέτη “Academic Leadership: A reflective practitioner’s approach” βλ. βιβλιογραφία Οι εξωτερικοί παράγοντες Οι βασικοί παράγοντες από το εξωτερικό περιβάλλον που επιδρούν στην λειτουργία του εκπαιδευτικού οργανισμού είναι: • Δημογραφικές Αλλαγές: Οι μεταβολές της ποιοτικής και ποσοτικής ισορροπίας των διαφορετικών μαθητικών πληθυσμών σε μια περιοχή αποτελεί ένα σοβαρό παράγοντα που επιδρά στη λειτουργία του σχολικού ιδρύματος. Διαφορετικές απαιτήσεις και ανάγκες είναι απαραίτητο να αντιμετωπιστούν αποτελεσματικά. • Κοινωνικές & Πολιτιστικές αλλαγές: Η σύγχρονη εκπαιδευτική αγορά και οι κοινωνικές συνθήκες υπαγορεύουν και υποδεικνύουν την ανάγκη προσαρμογής του σχολείου του 21ου αιώνα σε ένα ευμετάβλητο κοινωνικό και πολιτιστικό πλαίσιο, όπου το σχολείο παίζει το ρόλο του οδηγού αλλά και του αποδέκτη των διάφορων επιταγών της τοπικής και διεθνούς κοινότητας. • Πολιτικές και οικονομικές αλλαγές: Το πολιτικό υπόβαθρο της εκπαίδευσης εξαρτάται αναπόφευκτα από τις εκάστοτε κυβερνητικές επιλογές που καλύπτουν νομοθετικά την λειτουργία του σχολικού συστήματος σε κάθε χώρα. Στη σύχρονη εκπαίδευση, οι πολιτικές πρωτοβουλίες και ρυθμίσεις υπαγορεύονται συχνότατα από την ευρύτερη οικονομική πολιτική που ακολουθείται και που καλείται το σχολείο να εξυπηρετήσει για υποκειμενικούς και συχνά μικροπολιτικούς ή πελατειακούς λόγους. • Τεχνολογική πρόοδος: Το σύγχρονο εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα τείνει να σταματήσει να είναι απλά πεδίο εφαρμογής των τεχνολογικών υποδομών που προσφέρει η αγορά και εξελίσσεται γρήγορα σε χώρο που θα υπαγορεύει ουσιαστικά τις νέες τάσεις, ιδιαίτερα στην τεχνολογία της εκπαίδευσης, μάθησης, πληροφορικής και παιδαγωγικής επιστήμης. Αυτό δεν μπορεί να συμβεί όμως μέσα από μια στατική θεώρηση της λειτουργίας του σχολείου, αλλά μέσα από μια συνεχούς και δυναμικής θεώρησής και αναθεώρησής της. • Διεθνισμός: Στη σημερινή διεθνή πραγματικότητα, όπου κάθε χώρα αποτελεί ένα ολοένα και πιο διευρούμενο κράμα κοινωνικών και φυλετικών ομάδων, το εκπαιδευτικό ίδρυμα παίζει το ρόλο του καταλύτη όπου η κοινωνική πρόσμιξη και αλληλεπίδραση συντελείται συνεχώς στο επίπεδο της μόρφωσης και διαμόρφωσης συνειδήσεων, παρά τις τοπικιστικές και εθνικές αντιδράσεις. • Κανονισμοί και Πολιτεία: Λειτουργώντας μέσα σε ένα σύστημα που κυβερνάται από κρατικές επιταγές και πολιτικές επιλογές, το σχολείοείναι αναπόφευκτο να αποτελεί αποδέκτη και υπόχρεο συμμόρφωσης προς αυτές τις εξωτερικές παρεμβάσεις, που πολλές φορές ούτε που το αφορούν. Κουλτούρα του Οργανισμού Ο μοναδικός τρόπος για έναν οργανισμό να επιβιώσει, να αναπτυχθεί και να επιτύχει σε ένα περιβάλλον όπου τόσοι εξωτερικοί παράγοντες επιδρούν στη λειτουργία του, είναι να διαμορφώσει ένα ιδιόμορφο σύστημα «αυτοπροσδιορισμού», με το οποίο θα εξασφαλίζει την πρόοδό του, την ανάπτυξή του, την ίδια του την επιβίωση. Αυτό το σύστημα αποτελείται και διαμορφώνεται από μια σειρά παράγοντες που στην ουσία αποτελούν την ίδια του την ύπαρξη. • Μαθητές: Το κύριο συστατικό ενός εκπαιδευτικού οργανισμού, ο σκοπός της ύπαρξής του και ο απώτερος στόχος του είναι οι μαθητές του. Η φιλοσοφία του σχολείου δεν μπορεί να αναπτυχθεί, να εδραιωθεί ούτε να εκφραστεί αν δεν έχει ως πρωταρχικό στόχο και όραμα το μέλλον των μαθητών του • Δάσκαλοι και καθηγητές: Η διορατική φιλοσοφία πίσω από την πρόσληψη, ενσωμάτωση και συνεχή επιμόρφωση, ανεξάρτητα από τις ακαδημαϊκές περγαμηνές και προσωπικά προσόντα του διδακτικού προσωπικού αποτελούν τον ακρογωνιαίο λίθο της υποδομής ενός επιτυχημένου εκπαιδευτικού οργανισμού. • Γονείς: Ο γονικός παράγοντας αποτελεί ένα σημαντικό κομμάτι του πάζλ της εκπαίδευσης, εφόσον πάνω του στηρίζεται το προσωπικό προφίλ του μαθητή, από το οποίο εξαρτάται και το ακαδ