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BML313:  Rural  Tourism   Dr  Andy  Clegg  

Module  Learning  Outcomes   Aims     To  iden(fy  and  define  the  rural  tourism  product/experience     To  highlight  the  value  of  rural  tourism     To  cri(cally  examine  the  defini(ons  and  representa(ons  of  the  

‘rural’  and  ‘rurality’  

  To  cri(cally  examine  the  wider  rural  social  and  economic  

context  within  which  increasing  demands  for  recrea(on  and   tourism  are  taking  place  

Module  Content     8/9/11:  

Week  1:  

Rural  Tourism:  Defini(ons  and  Constructs  

  15/9/11:   Week  2:  

The  Resource  Base  and  Demand  for  Rural  Tourism  

  22/9/11:   Week  3:  

Induc(on  Week:  Self-­‐directed  ac(vity  

  29/9/11:   Week  4:  

The  Strategy  Framework  for  Rural  Tourism  

  6/10/11:   Week  5:       Farming  and  Tourism  [1]  –  Diversifica(on  



          Guest  speaker/fieldtrip  TBC  

  13/10/11:   Week  6:  

Farming  and  Tourism  [2]  -­‐  Gastronomic  Tourism  

  20/10/11:     Week  7:  

Woodlands  and  Forests  as  Tourism  Resources  

  27/10/11:     Week  8:    


Module  Content    

3/11/11:   Week  9:     Tourism,  Na(onal  Parks  and  Protected  Areas             Guest  Speaker:  Katherine  Hale,  South  Downs  Na(onal  Park  

  10/11/11:   Week  10:  

Rural  Case  Studies  1:  Tourism  and  Market  Towns   Fieldtrip:  Midhurst  (TBC)  

  17/11/11:   Week  11:  

Managing  Access   Guest  Speaker:  Andy  Ga_ker,  South  Downs  Way  Officer  

  24/11/11:   Week  12:  

Rural  Case  Studies  2:  Managing  the  Visitor  Experience  -­‐   Queen  Elizabeth  Country  Park  



Module  Assessment   Aims     The  assessment  for  this  module  will  consist  of:     A  group  consultancy  report  (50%,  1,750  words  per  student)     A  group  presenta(on  of  an  execu(ve  summary  (30%)     An  individual  interview/viva  (20%)  

Rural  Tourism:   Defini=ons  and  Constructs   BAM313:  Rural  Tourism  

Learning  Outcomes   Aims     To  iden(fy  and  define  the  rural  tourism  product/experience     To  highlight  the  value  of  rural  tourism     To  cri(cally  examine  the  defini(ons  and  representa(ons  of  the  

‘rural’  and  ‘rurality’  

  To  cri(cally  examine  the  wider  rural  social  and  economic  

context  within  which  increasing  demands  for  recrea(on  and   tourism  are  taking  place  

Understanding  Rural  Tourism   Key  Ques=ons?     What  are  the  key  experien(al  elements  of  rural  tourism?     How  do  we  define  rural  tourism/countryside?     Is  rural  tourism  a  dis(nc(ve  form  of  tourism  produc(on  and  

consump(on?     To  what  extent  does  the  countryside  possess  social  and  

cultural  significance?  

  Is  rural  tourism  simply  one  sector  of  the  tourism  market  or  

does  it  represent    a  different  set  of  principles  for  the  planning   and  development  of  tourism?  

Rural  Tourism   Ac:vity  1:   a) What  is  the  rural  tourism  experience?  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   The  Rural  Tourism  Experience  

Rural  Tourism   Ac:vity  2:   a) How  do  you  define  rural  tourism?  

Rural  Tourism   What  is  rural  tourism?     A  highly  diverse  product:  

Farm  tourism  which  is  deeply   embedded  in  the  ‘tradi(onal   countryside’  to    

Hotels/ajrac(ons  which  are   located  in  rural  areas  because   of  the  advantages  of  loca(on   rather  than  inherent   characteris(cs  of  the  rural   area  itself  

Rural  Tourism   What  is  rural  tourism?     What  is  the  meaning  of  ‘the  rural’  to  

par:cipants  in  rural  tourism?     A  permissive  space  for  space-­‐

extensive  ac(vi(es  

  The  site  of  par(cular  non-­‐

embedded  ac(vi(es     A  series  of  places  with  deeply  

ajached  socially-­‐constructed   values  

Rural  Tourism   What  is  rural  tourism?     What  is  the  meaning  of  ‘the  rural’  to  

par:cipants  in  rural  tourism?     A  permissive  space  for  space-­‐

extensive  ac(vi(es  

  The  site  of  par(cular  non-­‐

embedded  ac(vi(es     A  series  of  places  with  deeply  

ajached  socially-­‐constructed   values  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   Terms  Describing  Forms  of  Rural   Tourism     Agri/agrotourism     Farm  Tourism     Wilderness  and  Forest  Tourism     Green  /  Sustainable  Tourism     Ecotourism/Nature-­‐Based  Tourism     Geotourism  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   Characteris=cs  of  Rural  Tourism       Lane  (1994)     Located  in  rural  areas     Func(onally  rural  built  on  aspects  of  small-­‐scale  enterprise,  

open  space,  heritage,  ‘tradi(onal’  socie(es  and  ‘tradi(onal’   prac(ces     Rural  in  scale     Tradi(onal  in  character     Represents  the  complex  pajerns  of  rural  environments  

therefore  no  uniform  type  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   Key  Considera=ons  in  Defining  Rural  Tourism     Holiday  type     Intensity  of  use     Loca(on     Style  of  management     Integra(on  with  the  local  community  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   Lane  (1994):  Key  Considera=ons     Urban  or  resort  based  tourism  is  not  confined  to  urban  

areas  but  spills  out  into  rural  areas     Rural  areas  themselves  are  difficult  to  define     Not  all  tourism  taking  place  in  rural  areas  is  strictly  

‘rural’:  they  can  be  urban  in  form  located  in  a  rural  area     Tourism  has  an  urbanising  influence  on  the  countryside  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   Lane  (1994):  Key  Considera=ons     Different  forms  of  tourism  have  developed  in  different  

regions     There  is  no  longer  a  clear  division  between  urban  and  


  Rural  tourism  is  a  complex  mul(-­‐faceted  ac(vity  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   The  Urban-­‐Rural  Con=nuum     There  may  be  ‘no  sharp  discon(nuity  between  urban  and  rural  

resources  for  recrea(on,  but  rather  a  complete  con(nuum   from  local  park  to  remote  mountain  peak’       [Patmore,  1983,  p.  122]  

  ‘there  is  nothing  inherent  in  any  part  of  the  countryside  that  

makes  it  a  recrea(onal  resource     [Shaw  and  Williams,  1994,  p.  223]  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   The  Urban-­‐Rural  Con=nuum     The  con:nuum  may  also  reflect  tourism  demand:     Strong  day  visitor  trade  in  the  accessible  urban  fringe,  

whereas  more  peripheral  areas  may  ajract  lower  levels  of   visita(on,  but  offer  more  opportuni(es  for  more  tradi(onal   rural  tourism  ac(vi(es  

  The  con:nuum  also  reflects  that  there  is  no  one  single  

‘countryside’  or  ‘rural  space’  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   The  Urban-­‐Rural  Con=nuum     ‘classifying  tourism  and  recrea(onal  environments  for  their  

uses  and  for  specific  reasons  and  purposes  [is]  meaningless  if   they  are  part  of  no  more  than  a  simple  con(nuum  of   recrea(onal  and  tourism  resources’   [Hall  and  Page,  1999,  p.  182]  

  ‘therefore  rural  tourism  as  a  dis(nc(ve,  iden(fiable  form  of  

tourism  is  also  a  rela(vely  meaningless  term’     [Sharpley,  2004,  p.  377]  

Defining  Rural  Tourism   Rural  Tourism  Spectrum  

The  Value  of  Rural  Tourism   Key  sta=s=cs:     19.3m  (19%)  overnight  domes(c  trips  were  made  to  the  

countryside  in  England  in  2009     The  value  of  countryside  trips  in  England  in  2009  was  £3.2  

billion,  18%  of  total  domes(c  spend  

  Visitor  spending  in  the  countryside  supports  in  excess  of  

380,000  jobs     25,000  establishments  in  the  countryside;  39%  of  total  

accommoda(on  capacity  recorded  for  England   [Source:  UKTS]  

Defining  the  Rural   No  simple  defini=on  of  rurality  exists  !!     Clout  (1972,  p.  1)     ‘The  study  of  recent  social,  economic,  land-­‐use,  and  spa(al  

changes  that  have  taken  place  in  less-­‐densely  populated   areas  which  are  commonly  recognised  by  the  virtue  of  their   visual  components  as  countryside’  

  Newby  (1986,  p.  209)     ‘There  is  now...a  general  awareness  that  what  cons(tutes  

‘rural’  is  wholly  a  majer  of  convenience’  

Defining  the  Rural   No  simple  defini=on  of  rurality  exists  !!     Cloke  and  Milbourne  (1992,  p.  360):     ‘there  is  no  longer  one  single  rural  space,  but  rather  a  

mul(plicity  of  social  spaces  that  overlap  the  same   geographical  area’  

  Pra\  (1996,  p.  71)     ‘there  are  many  rurals...a  mul(plicity  of  means  to  the  term  


Defining  the  Rural   No  simple  defini=on  of  rurality  exists  !!     Hoggart  (1990)     ‘a  chao/c  concept  which  is  contested  in  terms  of  iden(fying  

the  defining  parameters  of  rural  space’  

Defining  the  Rural   OECD  (1993),  What  Future  for  Our  Countryside     ‘Rural  areas  comprise  the  people,  land  and  other  resources,  in  

the  open  country  and  small  sejlements  outside  the   immediate  economic  influence  of  major  urban  centres.    Rural   is  a  territorial  or  spa(al  concept.    It  is  not  restricted  to  any   par(cular  use  of  land,  degree  of  economic  health  or  economic   sector’  

Defining  the  Rural  -­‐  Approaches   Criteria  based  on  %  employment  in  agriculture  and  forestry     Limita:ons:     Restructuring  of  rural  economies,  the  %  employed  in  

primary  industries  has  fallen  (against  a  rise  in  the  service   sector)  

  In  rela(on  to  tourism,  it  not  the  figures  that  are  important  

but  the  comparison  between  the  tourist’s  home  (and   usually  urban  environment)  and  the  characteris(cs  of  the   des(na(on  that  mark  it  as  rural     A  major  ajrac(on  of  rural  areas  is  the  sense  of  space  and  

lack  of  urban  development  

Defining  the  Rural  -­‐  Approaches   Descrip/ve  Defini/ons     Defini(ons  relate  to  a  specialist  use  and  not  a  general  

measure  of  rurality  -­‐  geared  to  academic  and  planning   purposes:     Sta(s(cal  defini(ons  -­‐  socio-­‐economic  studies     Administra(ve  defini(ons  -­‐  poli/cal  studies     Agricultural  defini(ons  -­‐  landuse  and  social  rela/on  


  Popula(on  density  defini(ons  -­‐  service  provision  studies  

Defining  the  Rural   Descrip/ve  Defini/ons     Fi_ng  a  defini(on  to  what  we  intui(vely  believe  to  be  rural     Research  tools  for  ar(cula(ng  aspects  of  the  rural  rather  than  

the  means  of  defining  the  rural  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Locality     Rural  areas  must  be  defined  according  to  those  characteris(cs  

which  make  them  rural     Hoggart  (1990):  the  term  ‘rural’  lacks  explanatory  power:     the  ruralisa(on  of  industry  refers  to  the  movement  to  low  

wages  areas  (urban  or  rural)  rather  than  a  movement  to   rural  areas  per  se     ‘do  away  with  the  rural’  and  avoid  generalisa(ons  between  

urban  and  rural’  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Locality     Give  greater  considera(on  to  the  characteris(cs  of  the  locality  

and  the  processes  crea(ng  evident  structures  and   rela(onships     A  sa(sfactory  defini(on  will  depend  on:     The  presence  of  significant  societal  structures  opera(ng  

unambiguously  at  the  local  level     That  these  local  level  structures  enable  us  to  make  a  clear  

dis(nc(on  between  what  can  be  termed  ‘rural  and  ‘urban   environment’  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Social  Representa/on     The  expression  and  percep(on  of  the  rural:     Halfacree  (1993):  ‘words  and  concepts  understood  

and  used  by  people  in  everyday  talk’  

  The  ajrac(on  of  the  countryside  goes  beyond  the  tangible  

and  relates  to  a  more  abstract  concept  and  socially   constructed  images  (cogni(ve  structures)  molded  by   contemporary  media/society     ‘Material  space’  divorced  from  rural  locality  through  rural  

social  representa(on  -­‐  ‘chocolate  box  countryside’  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Social  Representa/on     Scale:     Na/onally:  rural  areas  are  seen  

as  tranquil  havens  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Social  Representa/on     Scale:     Regionally:  increasing  

commodifica(on  by  television   and  tourism  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Social  Representa/on     Scale:     Locally:  conflict  between  

different  groups  and  where  the   dominant  meanings  of  rural  are   nego(ated  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Social  Representa/on     Scale:     Locally:  conflict  between  

different  groups  and  where  the   dominant  meanings  of  rural  are   nego(ated  

Defining  the  Rural   The  Rural  as  Social   Representa/on     The  ‘quintessen(al’  view  of  

the  Bri(sh  countryside  is   fundamental  to  peoples’   percep(ons  of  rural  areas  

Defining  the  Rural   Rurality  and  Post-­‐Produc/vism     Transi(on  to  a  Post-­‐Produc/vist  Countryside  

Defining  the  Rural   Rurality  and  Post-­‐Produc/vism     Transi(on  to  a  Post-­‐Produc/vist  Countryside  

What  does  post-­‐produc:vist  mean?  

Defining  the  Rural   Rurality  and  Post-­‐Produc/vism     Transi(on  to  a  Post-­‐Produc/vist  Countryside     Agriculture  remains  the  principal  land  use  in  rural  areas,  but  

loses  its  dominant  posi(on  in  rela(on  to:     The  rural  economy     Local  society  and  poli(cs  

Defining  the  Rural   Rurality  and  Post-­‐Produc/vism     Post-­‐Produc(vism  is  characterised  by:     Diversifica(on,  pluriac(vity     Environmental  sensi(vity     Divergence  within  farming  

Defining  the  Rural   Rurality  and  Post-­‐Produc/vism     The  crea(on  of  a  more  heterogeneous  countryside,  in  terms  

of:     Land  use     Social  composi(on     Economic  ac(vity     Modes  of  regula(on;  and     Place  representa(on  (marke(ng/branding)  

The  Restructuring  of  Rural  Communi=es     The  Restructuring  of  Tradi/onal  Rural  Communi/es     ‘social  structures  in  the  countryside  may  be  typified  by  a  

variety  of  characteris(cs  including  a  sense  of  community,   simple  economies,  local  rather  than  cosmopolitan  cultures   and  a  way  of  life  that  is  somehow  slower,  less  materialis(c   and  more  complete  than  in  urban  socie(es’   [Sharpley  and  Sharpley,  1997,  p.  15]  

Counterurbanisa=on     Robinson  (1990):     ‘Growth  in  remoter  rural  areas’  

Counterurbanisa=on     Robinson  (1990):     ‘Growth  in  remoter  rural  areas’  

What  has  caused  this  growth?  

Counterurbanisa=on     Robinson  (1990):     ‘Growth  in  remoter  rural  areas’  

  Lewis  (1998):  Four  Common  Factors:     Growth  was  occurring  at  progressively  lower  levels  of  the  

urban  hierarchy     Popula(on  increase  was  spreading  through  extended   suburbanisa(on     Buoyant  rates  of  growth  were  being  recorded  outside   metropolitan  areas,  especially  in  remoter  rural  areas     Popula(on  was  shising  from  tradi(onal  urban  industrial   areas  towards  loca(ons  more  favoured  in  environmental   terms  

Counterurbanisa=on     Expansion  of  commu(ng  fields     The  emergence  of  scale  diseconomies  and  

social  problems  in  large  ci(es  

  Deconcentra(on  theory     The  concentra(on  of  rural  popula(on  into  

local  urban  centres  

  The  availability  of  government  subsidies  

for  rural  ac(vi(es/success  of  spa(al   policies  

  The  growth  of  employment  in  par(cular  

localised  industries  

  Restructuring  of  industry  and  associated  

branch  plants  

  Improvements  in  transport  and  

communica(ons  technology     The  improvement  of  educa(on,  health  

and  infrastructure  in  rural  areas  

  The  accelera(on  of  re(rement  migra(on     The  change  in  residen(al  preferences  of  

working-­‐age  people  and  entrepreneurs  

  Changes  in  age  structure,  household  size  

and  composi(on  

  Housing  availability  and  choice     Behavioural  perspec(ves    -­‐  ‘to  get  out  of  

the  rat-­‐race’  

  Environmental  considera(ons  

Counterurbanisa=on     Robinson  (1990):     ‘The  reasons  for  this  reversal  are  so  mul(faceted  that  any  

ajempt  to  apply  a  single  explana(on  to  the  widely  diverse   changes  in  different  regions  would  be  unduly  simplis(c’  

Impacts  of  Counterurbanisa=on     Gentrifica=on  and  Polarisa=on     Newby  (1979):    

‘A  village  within  a  village,  suspicious  of  and  resistant  to   social  contact  with  the  commuters  and  second  home   owners,  who  now  contribute  a  high  propor(on  of  the   popula(on’  

  Lijle  (1987):    

‘processes  have  led  in  extreme  cases  to  the  gentrifica(on   of  villages  and  the  almost  wholesale  replacement  of  one   popula(on  by  another’  

Impacts  of  Counterurbanisa=on     Re=rement  Migra=on  or  Geriafic=on     Champion  (1990):    

‘Never  before  has  there  been  such  a  large  and  healthy   popula(on  of  older  people,  who  are  free  to  sell  their   houses  in  metropolitan  suburbs  and  choose  where  to   purchase  a  new  home’  

  Such  changes  stand  in  contrast  to  the  osen  idealised  and  

stereotypical  percep(on  of  social  structures  in  rural  areas  

  Impacts  of  rural  communi(es  (e.g.  second  home  

ownership/impacts  on  rural  service  provision)  

Restructuring  of  Rural  Economies     Restructuring  of  Agriculture     The  restructuring  of  rural  capital/farm  diversifica(on     Con(nuing  debate  and  Reform  of  the  Common  Agricultural  

Policy  (CAP)  

  Foot  and  Mouth  

   The  Restructuring  of  the  Rural  Economy/Rural  Regenera/on     Growth  in  manufacturing  and  service  sector  employment  

Defining  Rural  Tourism     Summary     Rural  tourism  can  be  defined  both  conceptually,  as  a  state  of  

mind,  and  technically,  according  to  ac(vi(es,  des(na(ons,   and  other  measureable,  tangible  characteris(cs  

  Rurality  refers  both  to  the  iden(fiable  characteris(cs  of  rural  

areas  and  the  cultural  meaning  ajached  to  rural  areas  and  is   of  fundamental  importance  to  the  demand  for,  and  supply  of,   rural  tourism  

  A  special  feature  of  the  countryside  is  rurality  and  ‘if  rurality  

in  its  many  manifesta(ons  is  a  unique  selling  point,  then  great   care  must  be  taken  to  maintain  rurality’  [Lane,  1994]  

Defining  Rural  Tourism     Summary     The  poli(cal,  economic  and  social  structures  of  rural  areas  are  

becoming  increasingly  urban  in  nature  

  The  countryside  is  becoming  less  of  a  place  of  produc(on  and  

more  the  object  of  consump(on  therefore  crea(ng  new   tensions  (e.g.  agriculture  and  consump(on/  development  and   landscapes)  

  ‘The  countryside  that  tourists  which  to  consume  is  a...socially  

constructed  concept...a  rural  utopia  where  visitors  may   escape  from  the  present  into  an  ‘authen(c,  nostalgic  past’  -­‐   which  bears  lijle  resemblance  to  the  reality  of  a  dynamic   countryside’  [Sharpley,  2004,  p.  377]  

Learning  Outcomes   By  the  end  of  this  session,  you  should  be  able  to:     Iden(fy  and  define  the  rural  tourism  product/experience     Highlight  the  value  of  rural  tourism     Cri(cally  discuss  defini(ons  and  representa(ons  of  the  ‘rural’  

and  ‘rurality’     Cri(cally  evaluate  the  development  of  rural  tourism  in  the  

context  of  wider    social  and  economic  changes  occurring  in  the   countryside  

Rural tourism definitions