Page 1

BML111: Tourism, Events & Destinations: Impacts & Sustainability

Frameworks for Measuring & Assessing the Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism

Aims § To identify the key considerations when attempting to

measure and assess the socio-cultural impacts of tourism

§ To highlight and assess a range of conceptual frameworks

that have been developed to assess the socio-cultural impacts of tourism

§ To consider the ‘Extrinsic’ and ‘Intrinsic’ dimensions

relating to socio-cultural impacts

§ To identify the research tools and methodologies that can

be employed to examine the socio-cultural impacts of tourism

Socio-Cultural Impacts Activity 1: • De-brief – Bognor Regis community videos

Socio-Cultural Impacts Activity 2: • Watch the video ‘Beyond the Brochure’ – what are the key themes identified in this case study of Gambia

Socio-Cultural Impacts Activity 3: • From your background reading, what are the key considerations when attempting to measure and assess the socio-cultural impacts of tourism?

Socio-Cultural Impacts Key variables found in social impacts of tourism research

[Deery et al 2012]

Socio-Cultural Impacts Layer of Perceptions of Social Impacts of Tourism on Communities

[Deery et al, 2012 - adapted from Rousseau (1990: p. 158)

Conceptual Frameworks: Irridex Doxey’s Irridex





(Source: Williams, 1998, p. 158)

Initial phase of development: visitors and investors welcome, little planning or control mechanism Visitors taken for granted, contracts between residents and outsiders more formal, planning concerned with marketing Saturation point approached, residents have misgivings about the tourist industry, policy-makers attempt solutions via increasing infrastructure rather than controlling growth Irritations openly expressed, visitors seen as the cause of all problems, planning remedial but marketing increased to offset deteriorating image

Application of Irridex Model Case Study: Teo, P. (1994) Assessing socio-cultural impacts: the case of Singapore, Tourism Management, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 126-36. Context: — Illustration of the negative effects of the lack of contact

between the tourist and host community

— Average length of stay is 3 days - implying minimal contact — Tourists tend to remain in ‘enclaves’ or ‘ghettos’

Application of Irridex Model Results: — 75% welcomed tourists for economic purposes — 75% thought that locals received poorer levels of service

than tourists

— 99% thought that tourists were overcharged — 78% rarely communicated with tourists - often only to give


— Appropriate measure on Irridex - Apathy

Limitations Key Considerations: — Model assumes a degree of homogeneity and uni-

directionality in community reactions to tourism

— Communities are heterogeneous and there will be a variety

of responses to tourism

Heterogenous Host Communities Krippendorf (1987): Four categories of local person — Those who are in continuous and direct contact with the


— Those who own tourism businesses but have little contact

with tourists

— Those who are in direct and frequent contact with tourists

but only gain part of their income from tourism

— Those who have little or no contact with tourists — Each group will have their own perception of tourism, and

attitudes to tourism impacts

Alternative Approaches #1 Butler (1975): Host Attitudinal and Behavioural Responses to Tourist Activity

[Source: Mathieson and Wall, 1982, pp. 139-140]

Butler (1975)

Key areas of consideration: — All four forms of reaction may exist at one time, but the

number of people in any one category need not remain constant

— The framework includes a dynamic element, assuming that

social impacts will change over time

— Compared to Doxey’s framework Butler’s framework allows

attitudes and behaviour to change in different directions

— Doxey’s framework is based around the entirety of the

destination environment, whereas Butler’s framework places greater emphasis on different groups and individuals and the resultant tensions that may emerge

Alternative Approaches #2 Dogan (1989): The socio-cultural impact of international tourism, and the coping strategies developed by the host community RESISTANCE



Community displays feeling of resentment and aggression against tourists and tourist facilities The host community retreats into local cultures and traditions, as a buffer against the foreign intrusion of tourism Establishing a well defined boundary between foreign and local cultures to ensure impacts are minimised Tourism provides a catalyst for the preservation and revival of traditional customs, thereby helping to protect the identify and integrity of the host community The host community displays an active effort for the demolishment of the traditional social structure, in favour of the adoption of Western culture symbolised by tourism

Dogan (1989)

Key areas of consideration: — The variable homogeneity of the host population implies that

various combinations of strategies may exist simultaneously within the region

— Key variables: heterogeneity of the local population, local

power structures, the role of the government

— Revitalisation may not exist as a distinct strategy by itself, and

could co-exist with either boundary maintenance or adoption

Dogan (1989)

Key areas of consideration: — Boundary maintenance: revitalisation may involve the

restoration of traditional customs/materials for touristic purposes - emphasis on the authenticity of local traditions

— Adoption: revitalisation refers to the commodification of local

customs/traditions for mass tourism

Alternative Approaches #3 Ap and Crompton (1993): Development Stages EMBRACEMENT

Residents openly accept tourists into their community


Collective indecisiveness towards tourists and tourist development


The resident stays in the community but deliberately avoids the destinations frequented by tourists


Local residents engage in a flight versus fight reaction; tourists leave the community during times of massive tourism influx

[Faulkner, B. and Tideswell, C. 1997]

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Dimensions

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Dimensions

Extrinsic Dimension: — Definition: the characteristics of the location with respect to its

role as a tourist destination

— Key variables: the nature and stage of tourism development,

the level of tourist activity and the type of tourists

— Related frameworks/approaches: — Butler’s tourist area life cycle — Doxey’s (1975) Irridex — Tourist ratio - number of tourists to the number of

residents, providing an indication as to the intensity of the tourist influx

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Dimensions

Intrinsic Dimension: — Definition: the characteristics of the members of the host

community that affect variations in the impacts of tourism in the community

— Key variables: involvement, socio-economic characteristics,

residential proximity, length of residence

— Related frameworks/approaches: — Butler (1975) — Dogan (1989) — Ap and Crompton (1993)

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Dimensions

[Faulkner, B. and Tideswell, C. 1997]

Establishing Research Methodologies Activity 3: • The frameworks outlined in this session are theoretical/hypothetical. What methodologies could you use to measure the socio-cultural impact of tourism, and host attitudes to tourism?

Establishing Research Methodologies

Questionnaires: — Gaining a representative sample — Distribution mechanisms — Quantitative v qualitative perspectives — Structure and nature of the questions - pre- determining


— Variables: length of residence, place of residence, — occupation, socio-economic group — Cost and timings

Establishing Research Methodologies

Focus Groups: — Focus group discussions with representatives of each group can

be more cost-effective than an extensive interview survey

Interviews: — Nature of the interview process [simple & unstructured to


Establishing Research Methodologies

Stakeholder Analysis: — Ascertaining views of the key stakeholders in the host

community (through questionnaires/interviews etc), and the assessment of significant impacts upon them

Participant / Non-Participant Observation: — Form of research in which the researchers take part in the

experience being studied, as if they were partially (nonparticipant) or completely involved

— Useful for recording reactions to a particular experience/event

Establishing Research Methodologies

Attending Public Meetings: — Representation/ under representation of key stakeholders

SWOT Analysis: — Identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in

relation to tourism development and its impact on the host community

Establishing Research Methodologies

Observational Fieldwork/Secondary Data: — Observations (primary and secondary) within the destination

environment, can highlight key areas of impact, particularly in relation to visual or aesthetic changes, property prices, congestion etc

Establishing Research Methodologies Areas for Social Impact Research

[Deery et al, 2012]

Summary By the end of this session you should be able to: § Identify the key considerations when attempting to

measure and assess the socio-cultural impacts of tourism

§ Highlight and assess a range of conceptual frameworks

that have been developed to assess the socio-cultural impacts of tourism

§ Consider the ‘Extrinsic’ and ‘Intrinsic’ dimensions relating

to socio-cultural impacts

§ Identify the research tools and methodologies that can be

employed to examine the socio-cultural impacts of tourism

BML111 Frameworks for Examining Socio-Cultural Impacts 2018  
BML111 Frameworks for Examining Socio-Cultural Impacts 2018