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Chapter 3 Principles of Physical Fitness Development


Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans “Adults need at least 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate-intensity aerobic intensity or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity every week or an equivalent mix of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity and musclestrengthening activities on 2 or more days a week that work all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms).�


For Even Greater Health Benefits “Adults should increase their activity to 300 minutes (5 hours) of moderate-intensity aerobic intensity or 150 minutes (2 hours and 30 minutes) of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity every week or an equivalent mix of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity and muscle-strengthening activities on 2 or more days a week that work all major muscle groups (legs, hips, back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms).�


Exercise Guidelines for Obtaining Optimal Health and Fitness Cardiorespiratory Exercise: Moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory training for 30 minutes or more on at least 5 days a week for a total of 150 minutes a week, or vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise for 20 minutes or more on at least 3 days a week for a total of 75 minutes a week, or a combination of moderate-and vigorousintensity exercise to achieve cardiorespiratory benefits.


Exercise Guidelines for Obtaining Optimal Health and Fitness Resistance Exercise: Strength training or weight lifting should be performed on 2–3 days a week for each of the major muscle groups using a variety of exercises and equipment.


Exercise Guidelines for Obtaining Optimal Health and Fitness Flexibility Exercise: Stretching exercises for each of the major muscle-tendon groups on at least 2–3 days is recommended to improve and maintain joint range of motion. Neuromotor Exercise: Sometimes called “functional fitness training,” this is recommended 2 to 3 days a week. Exercises should include activities that improve balance, stability, agility, and coordination.


My Physical Activity and Exercise Pyramid

Dr. Jerome E. Kotecki, Ball State University. Reprinted with permission of Ball State University Š 2012.


Definitions Physical Fitness •

A set of attributes a person has or achieves and relates to a person’s ability or capacity to perform specific types of physical activity efficiently and effectively.

Two Types •

Health-related components

Skill-related components


Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness Cardiorespiratory endurance •

Refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen and fuel to the body during sustained physical activity.

Aerobic physical activity •

Body’s larger muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time and increase the body’s need for oxygen.


Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness Muscular strength •

Is the amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert with a single maximum effort.

Muscular endurance •

Is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert repeated force against a resistance or sustain muscular contraction for a given period of time.


Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness Flexibility •

Is the ability to move a joint or a group of joints through their complete range of motion.

Body composition •

Refers to the ratio of fat to fat-free mass (muscle, bone, organs, water) in the body.


Components of Skill-Related Physical Fitness Agility •

The ability to quickly and accurately change the direction of the movement of the entire body in space.

Balance •

The ability to maintain equilibrium while moving or stationary.


Components of Skill-Related Physical Fitness Coordination •

The ability to combine the senses with different body parts to perform activities smoothly and accurately.

Power •

The ability to transfer energy into force at a fast rate or apply speed and strength to produce a muscular movement.


Components of Skill-Related Physical Fitness Reaction time •

The amount of time it takes to respond and react to a stimulus.

Speed •

The ability to move quickly from one point to another.


Principles of Training Principle of overload •

A greater than normal load or intensity on the body system is required for training adaption or improved function to take place.

Principle of progression •

To ensure safety and effectiveness, the overload must be applied in a systematic and logical fashion over an extended period of time.


FITT Formula Frequency •

How often you exercise.

Intensity •

How hard you exercise.

Time •

How long you exercise.

Type •

What kind of exercise you choose.


Principles of Training Principle of specificity •

To develop a particular fitness component, activities must be performed to develop the various body part or body systems for that fitness component.

Principle of reversibility •

If you stop being active for an extended period of time, your body deconditions and reverts back to its pre-training condition.


Principles of Training Principle of recovery •

Physical activity requires a period of rest to permit the body to be restored to a state in which it can exercise once more.

Principle of individual differences •

We all vary in our ability to develop fitness components.

Differences have to do with genetics, age, body size and shape, chronic conditions, injuries, and gender.


Designing Your Exercise Program Prescreening •

PAR-Q

Self-assessment •

Consider your current level of fitness.

Goal setting •

Need specific goals.

Build slowly •

Start gradually and maintain consistency.


Cross Training Combinations

© LiquidLibrary

© Andres Rodriguez/Dreamstime.com

© Andres Rodriguez/Dreamstime.com

© Jakub Pavlinec/ShutterStock, Inc.


Components of an Activity Session Preparation •

Prepare your body to shift gradually from an inactive state to an active state.

Transition •

Move gradually into the specific activity you will perform.

Activity •

Focusing on specific activity.

Cooldown •

Bringing intensity down to resting values.


Safety and Effectiveness Overuse syndrome •

Condition in which too much exercise or physical activity causes the body to start to breakdown.

Avoiding injuries •

It is better to progress slowly than it is to rush into activities for which your body is not prepared and risk injury.


Overuse Snydrome

Š Photos.com


Physical Activity & Health e4 Chapter 03