ARC Newsletter December 2013

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Issue 20

December 2013

Cypress Essential Oil andYour New “Little Friend” by Robert Turchyn In my previous professional life, most eight-hour days were spent sitting in a chair, phone to my ear, staring at a computer screen. Add to the mix a high stress level, a motion-deprived environment (notwithstanding some arm flailing and jaw movement), throw in a diet high in refined carbohydrates and excessive amounts of caffeine, and the table was set for the arrival of my new “little friend.” The term “little friend” (I stole this from a customer who experienced similar visitations over the years) is ironic. In the same fashion that only a good friend can tell us things about ourselves we may not want to hear, a hemorrhoid is a call to revisit lifestyle and diet choices…and this is a “little friend” with a loud voice. So why the unwelcome visit? Sometimes referred to as “varicose veins of the anus and rectum,” hemorrhoids are enlarged, bulging blood vessels that come in two endearing iterations, internal and external. It doesn’t take much to imagine the distinction between the two, but it is important to know that these blood vessels lack tone, can be attached to compromised connective tissue, and can clot (blood becomes superviscous and is poorly circulated). More than half of the population develops hemorrhoids, usually after 30 years of age. Despite the prevalence of these “friendly visits,” conventional medicine talks about conditions associated with hemorrhoids rather than what actually causes them. Chronic constipation, overly “toned” musculature, and pregnancy are just a few. Accidents of evolution (being a bi-ped) and poor toilet habits (sitting on the toilet too long) are others. In addition, most major medical center websites (Mayo Clinic, Harvard Health, MedlinePlus) only discuss diet as a tool to lessen discomfort and irritation, i.e. lots of water and fiber-rich foods. Less discussed, as either a cause or a means to prevention, are considerations of diet and exercise. Chronically elevated blood sugar levels, often associated with diets high in refined carbohydrates and sugars, can erode the linings of blood vessels, a condition akin to “making-up the guest room” in preparation for our little friend’s arrival. Alcohol consumption in excess raises triglyceride levels, hardens and thickens veins and arteries,

and impairs circulation. Conversely, exercise improves muscle tone (even in areas most people don’t flex in front of mirrors) and increases metabolism and blood circulation. Bottom line: if the object is to change this relationship status from little friend to rarely seen acquaintance, changes in diet and lifestyle need to be adopted. Treatment Protocols Conventional medical treatments for hemorrhoids can range anywhere from steroidal topicals and suppositories, ligation (cutting off the blood supply by wrapping a rubber band around the protruding hemorrhoid) to, in severe cases, surgery. While it is estimated that two million Americans seek treatment for hemorrhoids each year, many sufferers opt for over-thecounter, non-prescription medications. These include zinc oxide and mineral oils (protectorants), vasoconstrictors such as phenylephrine (Preparation H), treatments for itching (hydrocortisone) and pain (pramoxine), as well as fiber supplements like Metamucil. Many of the same healthcare/pharmacy-type retailers that sell these remedies also feature essential oils by Aura Cacia, Nature’s Bounty and others. Cypress sempervirens (Cypress oil) in particular, as part of an essential oil blend that is easy to make, can be a very effective natural alternative for treatment of hemorrhoids. The use of cypress for hemorrhoids dates back thousands of years: the “shavings” of the plant were part of a “cataplasm” prescribed by Hippocrates for bleeding hemorrhoids back in the year 400 BCE. Interestingly, Hippocrates suggests using turpentine as a substitute in the poultice if cypress is unavailable. Turpentine, the resinous extract from conifer trees, is a mixture of monoterpene hydrocarbons. Monoterpenes, known for their astringent and vasoconstrictive qualities, represent up to 50% (in the form of alpha-pinene) of the chemical constituents in the essential oil (EO) of cypress. The tightening or “tonic” quality of monoterpene-rich cypress, along with the oil’s reputation as a “venous decongestant,” makes cypress a particularly good choice for hemorrhoids. (Continued on page 2)

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Giving Your Friend “The Treatment” A “neat” application of cypress EO is the equivalent of saying “get out” to your friend and, as in choosing bluntness over diplomacy, this route can be painful. Cypress EO undiluted and applied directly on or near the hemorrhoid a few times a day will get the job done but may be too irritating for most people. A “kinder and gentler” approach is to combine different EOs and mix in a carrier oil, cream, or ointment. A blend that I have found very effective in sending my little friend packing over the years is made of the EOs of cypress, Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) and Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile). Geranium -- rich in the monoterpenol linalool, citroneliol and geraniol -- is analgesic and astringent, and the Roman chamomile is anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and helpful with the itching of hemorrhoids. The carrier I use is “Cuts and Scrapes” cream by Nelsons that contains hypericum and calendula extracts in an alcohol and glycerin base. For every two drops of cypress, use one drop each of geranium and Roman chamomile. To one teaspoon of the Nelsons cream add three to four drops of the EO blend; apply two to three times per day. Make a larger batch in the same proportion of blend-to-cream and store in a small jar in the refrigerator. The coolness makes the blend more soothing. Other ointments and creams will work and, if need be, K-Y jelly also can be used.

Newsletter About the Author—Robert Turchyn

Owner of "Kauai Island Health, Pain Free North Shore, in Princeville Kauai, HI. Holistic health practitioner focusing on herbs, essential oils and postural therapy. Certifications: Herbal Clinician (David Winston's Center fro Herbal Studies, Five Elements School of Chinese Medicine), Aromatherapy (ARC, ACHS) Postural Therapy (The Egoscue Method®)

References 1. "Hemorrhoids and What to Do about Them." Health Information and Medical Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 July 2013. <>. 2. "Hemorrhoids." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 03 July 2013. <>. 3. "American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons ASCRS." American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons ASCRS. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 July 2013. <http://>. 4. "Hemorrhoids: Symptoms, Causes and Treatments." N.p., 27 May 2013. Web. 04 July 2013. <>. 5. "Over the Counter Treatment for Hemorrhoids." - Health and Medical Information You Can Trust. - Better Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 July 2013. <>. 6. Hippocrates. "On Fistulae." The Internet Classics Archive: 441 Searchable Works of Classical Literature. Trans. Francis Adams. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 July 2013. <http://>. 7. Bowles, E. Joy. The Chemistry of Aromatherapeutic A word of caution: like nieces and nephews you don’t see Oils. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, 2003. Print. all the time, little friends have a tendency to grow up fast. 8. "Turpentine." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Worse still, unless the rules are laid out up front, they like Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 04 July 2013. <http:// to have parties and invite friends. Prevention through diet,>. lifestyle, and exercise no doubt is the best method to avoid 9. Battaglia, Salvatore. The Complete Guide to these periodic visitations; however, if your little friend does Aromatherapy. Brisbane: International Centre of Holistic show, here is a way to show him the exit. Aromatherapy, 2003. Print.

UPCOMING EXAMINATION DATES April 5-19, 2014 Application Deadline: 3/1/2014 October 4—18, 2014 Application Deadline: 9/1/2014 Download a Handbook and Application at clients/ARC

RA EXAM AVAILABLE IN JAPANESE The Aromatherapy Registration Council was established in 1999 as a resource for a growing community of aromatherapists. Since that time, we are pleased to say that hundreds of aromatherapists have elected to take and have passed the Registered Aromatherapist Exam, which continues to strengthen our aromatherapy community by affirming our shared commitment to a core body of aromatherapy knowledge and public safety. Our community continues to grow! In fact, we’re going global! ARC now offers the Registered Aromatherapist Exam in Japanese and candidates can sit the exam in Japan! Soon the Exam will be available for candidates to take in Korean and Chinese, too! If you or an aromatherapist you know would like more information on the Japanese Registered Aromatherapist Exam—or forthcoming Exams in Korean or Chinese— you can find more information on the ARC website.

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Comprehending Chemotypes: crucial data for the Registered Aromatherapist Dorene Petersen If you administer or use essential oils, it is important to understand the term chemotype. But, what exactly is a chemotype, and why is this term important? There are numerous misconceptions surrounding the word. It is not uncommon to hear aromatherapists explain a chemotype as something that results from cultivation rather than a plant’s genetic predisposition, or that a chemotype results from choosing the right time to harvest—but both of those answers are just that: misconceptions! As a Registered Aromatherapist (RA), it is very important to understand what a chemotype is and why specific chemotypes are preferred for clinical aromatherapy. First, it is important to understand that taxonomy is largely based on the observable physical or biochemical (1) form and structure (2) of plants, rather than their chemical constituents. Thus, taxonomists group plants together into species based on their physical appearance, but they may have significantly different chemical characteristics. A chemotype is based on the chemical composition of a plant, rather than its physical appearance. A particular chemotype will produce an essential oil with a very specific chemical composition that clearly distinguishes it from other plants within the same species. The basis of chemotypes is the variation in chemical composition that occurs within a genus. As we know, the chemical composition of an essential oil is key to understanding the physiological and psychological actions of the essential oil. Chemotypes are thought to be genetic adaptations, so the chemical composition remains largely consistent for that particular plant, regardless of environmental factors such as its growing conditions or locale. Figure 1: Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis has confirmed and well-defined chemotypes. Image by Dorene Petersen. © 2007 In order to explore how chemotypes “work,” we’ll examine five different plants with wellestablished chemotypes: rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis (L.), thyme Thymus vulgaris (L.), basil Ocimum basilicum (L.), niaouli Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.), and manuka Leptospermum scoparium (Forst.). Let’s start by taking a close look at rosemary… Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) You are most likely familiar with the predominant chemical components of R. officinalis, which are: 1,8 cineole (also found in eucalyptus) A ketone called camphor or borneol An ester called bornyl acetate (borneol acetate) But did you know that there are four main chemotypes of rosemary? They include: The cineole type, which you will see listed as R. officinalis ct. cineol. The cineole type has an affinity for the respiratory system and is an effective bactericidal. The camphor type, which you will see listed as R. officinalis ct. camphor. Be aware that camphor in excessive doses may be hazardous to the liver and can cause convulsions if a dose about the Recommended Daily Dose (RDD) is administered. This chemotype is best avoided by anyone with liver issues. (1) Also referred to as phenotypical (2) Generally referred to as morphology

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The verbenone type, which you will see listed as R. officinalis ct. verbenone. Note that verbenone is a ketone, so it may be hazardous as ketones can be abortifacient when used excessively. Franchome and Penoel both list it as contraindicated during pregnancy, but they do not mention the camphor and cineole types. (3) The myrcene type, which you will see listed as R. officinalis ct. myrcene. Myrcene is a monoterpene and a powerful analgesic. From these example, you see why chemotypes—and labeling them clearly—is so important. What if these four very different rosemary oils were bottled and labeled as just “Rosemary Essential Oil”? To emphasize the importance of correct identification and labeling even more, let’s take a closer look at each of the four rosemary chemotypes: R. officinalis ct. cineole The R. officinalis ct. cineole is one of the most common. The oil primarily comes from Morocco, Tunisia, and Italy. It is characterized by around 50% 1,8 cineole with varying amounts of alpha-pinene, camphor, and borneol. The higher 1,8 cineol may make it a more effective expectorant. The hydrolat (waters from the distillation) may be a useful anti-inflammatory due to its content of rosmarinic acid. R. officinalis ct. camphor The R. officinalis ct. camphor is usually from Spain and southeastern France. The camphor can be as high as 20% and the 1,8 cineole less than 30% with varying amounts of alpha-pinene and borneol. You should consider the camphor borneol type where analgesic pain relief is required. But a word of caution: it may be less desirable if a client is predisposed towards epilepsy or over activity as camphor is stimulating. The monoterpenols, such as borneol, are said to be anti-infectious and a general system tonic. R. officinalis ct. verbenone The R. officinalis ct. verbenone is a rare chemotype found on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. The chemical profile is characterized by very low camphor, less than 8%, low or absent 1,8 cineole, and higher amounts of alpha-pinene, verbenone, and bornyl acetate. The verbenone is a ketone. There is conflicting information about the toxic effects of this ketone, but it is generally considered a safer chemotype for children than the camphor type. Any situation that requires a decongestant in children would benefit from this chemotype. R. officinalis ct. myrcene The R. officinalis ct. myrcene is also an uncommon chemotype found mainly in southwestern Spain and Portugal. The essential oil is not usually produced in high amounts. The myrcene content can be as high as 25% and camphor is also a major component. The 1,8 cineole is usually low. The myrcene is a monoterpene, so it would provide support with muscular pain relief, act as a decongestant, and provide a general tonic and stimulant. But the camphor content can provide excess stimulation, so pay extra attention to the dilution ration, dose, and duration.

ARC is pleased to announce that the Registration Examination in Aromatherapy now is availUPCOMING EXAMINATION able in Japanese as a paper-and-pencil exam. DATES Thyme also offers an instructive example of the importance of chemotypes. Common examples ofplease thyme chemotypes For more information, contact ARCinclude: at T. vulgaris ct. thymol April 5-19, 2014 T. vulgaris ct. geraniolDeadline: 3/1/2014 Application Thyme Thymus vulgaris (L.)

T. vulgaris ct. linalool

October 2014 T. vulgaris4—18, ct. carvacrol Application Deadline: 9/1/2014 Again, different chemotypes will produce very different essential oils with different actions from plants of the same species. For example, Download two out of three chemotypes T. vulgaris showed strong antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococa Handbook andofApplication at cus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (4) (3) Price, S. & Price, L. (1999). Aromatherapy for Health Professionals. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone: 342. (4) Lens-Lisbonne C., Cremiux A., Maillard C., & Balansard G. (1987). Methods of evaluating the antibacterial properties of essential oils: applied to thyme and cinnamon. J Pharm Belg., 42(5):297-302.

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The following vapor balm formula provides a useful example of why Registered Aromatherapists must pay careful attention to chemotypes. A different thyme chemotype may not be as effective or will produce different effects from T. vulgaris ct. linalool. You will also notice that while T. vulgaris ct. linalool is the preferred chemotype when using the balm on children 2-10 years old, T. vulgaris ct. thymol can be substituted to make the balm more potent for older children and adults. Deborah Halvorson’s Vapor Balm One of’s former instructors, Deborah Halvorson’s, favorite cough support is a vapor balm, a natural alternative to Vaporub (adapted from a recipe in Kathy Keville and Mindy Green’s Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art): Olive oil: 1 cup Beeswax: ¾ oz Eucalyptus Eucalyptus smithii essential oil: 1½ t Peppermint Mentha x piperita essential oil: 1 t Thyme Thymus vulgaris ct. linalool essential oil: ¼ t Melt beeswax and olive oil in the top of a double boiler. Allow to cool but not harden, and then add essential oils. Pour into clean containers, label, and date. To use, rub a small amount on the child’s chest. Note: For children 2-10 years old, use eucalyptus Eucalyptus smithii (R.T.Baker) and thyme T. vulgaris ct. linalool; for older children and adults, Eucaluptus globulus (Labill.) or Eucalyptus radiata (Sieber ex DC.). and T. vulgaris ct. thymol can be used. For children ages 12 months to two years, the above recipe can be adapted using only the E. smithii and leaving out the peppermint and thyme oils. Basil Ocimum basilicum (L.) Basil is another useful plant to analyze when studying chemotypes. The European sweet basil oil, generally considered to be of superior quality, contains the phenol methyl chavicol (estragole), linalool, linelol, limonene, citronellol, methyl cinnamate, eugenol, ocimene, and camphor.

Figure 2: Basil essential oil should be used with care. Image by Dorene Petersen. © 2009 There are several chemotypes of basil available, including: Ocimum basilicum ct. methyl chavicol Ocimum basilicum ct. linalool

Basil essential oil is very potent, and it’s important to be able to know the two primary chemotypes. Ocimum basilicum ct. methyl chavicol essential oil contains the phenol methyl chavicol. You may also see methyl chavicol referred to as etragole. This chemotype should be used with care because methyl chavicol uses up glutathione in the liver. It can potentially lead to liver damage if used excessively or by someone with a compromised liver. It should also never be used or recommended if there is any estrogen-dependent cancer. The linalool chemotype contains a small amount of methyl chavicol and is much safer in these situations. While environmental factors do not affect the constituent profile of chemotypes, they do affect the overall quantity of the constituent profile. All medicinal plants must be harvested at just the right time in their growth cycle and handled and processed correctly to have the optimal constituent profile and therapeutic action for medicinal herb or essential oil therapy. A 2011 study performed in Oman looked at the essential oil yield and composition of basil O. basilicum in winter, spring, and summer. Researchers discov-

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ered that the composition varied considerably from season to season. It was determined that the basil harvested was of the linalool chemotype. The essential from the winter and spring seasons contained in the2013: sesquiterpene beta-farnesene, while the summer essenCongratulations to oil the aromatherapists who registered tial oil contained none. The essential oil extracted in spring had the highest antioxidant levels. (5)

In April: Niaouli Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Niaouli has Casper been used by theAmanda aboriginalLattin people of Australia for centuries to treat colds, and congestion, including vapor baths Lynette Charity Marquis Wonfevers, Young Shin and sipping the tea. It is another important plant that requires careful attention to its chemical characteristics. GC/MS (Gas chromatogJennifer Durante Ah Lee Reiko Osada Marcia Walden raphy—mass spectrometry) Jianalysis of the chemical composition of Madagascan M. quinquenervia essential oil revealed the presence ofGinny four chemotypes: France Jin Ah Lee Ji Suk Park chemotype high content 1,8 cineoleMiki (37%) Su aKyung Hanhaving a Jung Hyun of Lee Sanagawa a chemotype relatively rich in 1,8 cineole (23%), viridiflorol (20%), and terpinolene (5%) Euna viridiflorol Hye Kim (48%) chemotype Seon Kyung Lee Kaori Sasaki an (E)-nerolidol (87%) chemotype

In October:

A study in 2000 showed that, while niaouli oil is not as effective an antibacterial as Melaleuca alternifolia (Cheel) and L. scoparium, it still remains a useful addition to an antibacterial blend, especially if the 1,8 cineole chemotype is used. It’s also important to note that Laura Allan may occurSung-Hae Jung Kim Shinhee drug interactions with niaouli,Hong and in fact with anyEun 1,8 cineole-containing oil, so itPark is especially important to identify the correct chemotype when working with niaouli in aromatherapy. Theresa Cangialosi Da Yeon Jeong Min Ju Kim Aeja Pyo

Hyun Mi Choi Ga Ya Jeong Minkyun Kim Kumhee Yang Jung Sook Choi Minsik Jeong Katherine King Mi Young Yoon Michelle Cohen Insung Joof the most widespread Aeran New Lee Zealand native Miplants. HeeThere Yu are nine different chemotypes within Manuka or tea tree L. scoparium is one the species of manuka. (6) New Zealand tea tree oil has been on the market since 1993. Most of the essential oil in commerce is from Mika Hanai Yu Sun Jung Stacy Moranville the East Cape region of the North Island of New Zealand, although various chemotypes are found in other locations. The East Cape oil GutheHong Kangaction. Hyung Lyul Park isHyoung said to have strongest Minju antibacterial Tea Tree (New Zealand)/Manuka Leptospermum scoparium (Forst.)

A gas chromatographic analysis of New Zealand tea tree oil at the University of Waikato’s chemistry department showed it contains:
 monoterpenes alpha-cubebene, beta-pinene, cymene, terpinene, alpha-copaene, beta-caryophyllene, aromadendrene, calamanene, limonene, and myrcene; the oxide 1,8 cineole; a terpene alcohol, linalool, and esters.

How you can get involved

There have been studies showing thatcan manuka oil involved has different physiological dependingOne on the of chemotype. Researchers There aremany many ways you get with ARCactions activities. the easiat the ethnopharmacology laboratory at the University in Porto Alegre, Brazil, have shown that the linalool chemotype of manuka is est ways is by writing test questions for an upcoming ARC examination. an effective sedative and is rapidly absorbed through the skin and nasal mucosa. When taken orally, the 1,8 cineole is a stimulating expectorant, and when applied topically it is a mild anesthetic and antiseptic. LimoYou may also participate in an ARC item review session to review potential test nene also has an expectorant and antiviral action. Pinene, also found in cypress and pine oils, and cymene, found in thyme oil, have a questions. powerful antiseptic action. Manuka also offers a good example to illustrate that every botanical has different constituents that require varying degrees of both In addition, mayStudies write articles forBritain the and ARC temperature and timeyou to extract. conducted in both NewNewsletter. Zealand have shown manuka to have a broad-spectrum antibiotic action. Tri-ketones, triterpenoids, and flavonoids have also been isolated. The tri-ketones, leptospermone, flavesone and isoleptospermone, which are present in the specific East Cape chemotype, should be present at a minimum of 7% and require at least Allhours of these activities alsooverqualify for Acontact hours forhas reregistration. the which eight of distillation time to come in the steam. South Island chemotype a higher geraniol andCheck linalol content, makes it the preferred manuka chemotype perfumery. reregistration guidelines Know Your Chemotypes

If you would like to help in any of these capacities, contact ARC for further in-

By closely examining these five plants, it’s easy to see how important it is to know your chemotypes and the different effects they formation at call (503) 244-0726. email produce when practicing essential oil therapy. For moreor detailed information on chemotypes, you can consult with a Registered Aromatherapist (RA). You can find an RA in your area on the Aromatherapy Registration Council’s website: http:// Please be sure to also explore the American College of Healthcare Sciences’ accredited programs in aromatherapy: (5) Al-Maskri, A.Y., Hanif, M.A., Al-Maskari, M.Y., Abraham, A.S., Al-sabahi, J.N., & Al-Mantheri, O. (2011). Essential oil from Ocimum

basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop. Nat Prod Commun., 6(10). (6) All the research referenced here relates to a specific chemotype from the East Cape of New Zealand.

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About Dorene Petersen: Dorene Petersen is President and Founder of the American College of Healthcare Sciences (ACHS). In addition to teaching courses for ACHS, researching and writing, Dorene leads the annual ACHS Summer School study-abroad programs to the Mediterranean and Indonesia, which explore traditional holistic health, holistic nutrition, therapeutic clinical aromatherapy, and aromatherapy distillation, among other topics. She has presented papers at the International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades Annual Conference in California, USA; the Aroma Environment Association of Japan in Tokyo, Japan; the Asian Aroma Ingredients Congress and Expo in Bali, Indonesia; the World Perfumery Congress in Cannes, France; The Herb Growers and Marketers Conference in Hyannis, Massachusetts; the International Scientific Aromatherapy Symposium in Grasse, France; and at the International Herb Association Conference in Portland, Oregon. Her articles about aromatherapy have appeared in publications worldwide, including: Perfumer & Flavorist, Alternative Therapies in Clinical Practice, The News Quarterly, Making Scents, The Herbarist, the NAHA Aromatherapy Journal, Massage Magazine, the International Herb Association Herb of the Year books, me (a Massage Envy health and wellness publication), and the Aromatherapy Registration Council newsletter. Dorene currently s erves as Chair of the Aromatherapy Registration Council (ARC).

Congratulations to the aromatherapists who registered in 2013: In April: Lynette Casper Jennifer Durante Ginny France Su Kyung Han Eun Hye Kim

Amanda Lattin Ji Ah Lee Jin Ah Lee Jung Hyun Lee Seon Kyung Lee

Charity Marquis Reiko Osada Ji Suk Park Miki Sanagawa Kaori Sasaki

Won Young Shin Marcia Walden

In October: Laura Allan Theresa Cangialosi Hyun Mi Choi Jung Sook Choi Michelle Cohen Mika Hanai Hyoung Gu Hong

Sung-Hae Hong Da Yeon Jeong Ga Ya Jeong Minsik Jeong Insung Jo Yu Sun Jung Minju Kang

Jung Eun Kim Min Ju Kim Minkyun Kim Katherine King Aeran Lee Stacy Moranville Hyung Lyul Park

Shinhee Park Aeja Pyo Kumhee Yang Mi Young Yoon Mi Hee Yu

American College of Healthcare Sciences is seeking contract adjunct faculty for online clinical aromatherapy teaching positions. ACHS offers accredited, online graduate and undergraduate programs in clinical aromatherapy. U.S. Department of Education approved accredited PhD or professional terminal degree required; RA credential preferred.

ACHS seeks faculty who are caring and attentive to students and provide a collaborative and engaging online learning experience for students. At least two years teaching experience and subject knowledge required. Experience with an online learning platform such as eCollege is essential (Angel, Moodle, and Blackboard considered). Instructors should be available to log in to class six days per week and respond to student inquiries within 24 hours. Please register to apply online at