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Chapter I

Introduction 1.1.

Background

Since November 2007 to April 2011, Operation Wallacea Trust (OWT) has been supporting the implementation of the environmental pilot-project – commonly known as ‘Green PNPM’ – of the Government of Indonesia’s (GOI) National Program for Community Empowerment in Rural Areas (Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat–PNPM-Rural). The Green-PNPM is a pilot program within PNPM - Rural aimed to develop and integrate sustainable natural resources management (NRM) strategy into the PNPM-Rural. The development objective of Green PNPM is that rural communities in target locations benefit from improved NRM and use of renewable energy (RE) technology. Operationally, Green PNPM follows the same community-driven development (CDD) approach as PNPM-Rural - block grants are disbursed from the national budget at the sub-district level to finance local development activities that have been selected by communities through a gender-inclusive, competitive, participatory process. Green PNPM differs from PNPM-Rural in that it is currently only active in selected locations within 10 target provinces, and the block grants disbursed are specifically earmarked to support community investments in ‘green sub-projects’– environmentally supportive activities focused on NRM, conservation, and RE. Additionally, Green PNPM finances supplemental technical assistance for its beneficiaries, delivered through GOI-contracted consultants/facilitators and through Civil Society Organization (CSO). The pilot has initially been developed in Sulawesi (2008) and supported by Canada, and since 2009, the pilots are expanded to Sumatera, supported by an additional three donors, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Australia. In Sulawesi, the pilots have been operated in four provinces, i.e. North, South, South East and West, while in Sumatera the pilots are being developed in Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, and Bengkulu Provinces. Within the initial eight provinces, a total of 26 kabupaten (districts) and 78 kecamatan (sub-districts) receive block grants and technical assistance to implement ‘green’ projects. OWT is a Civil Society Organization (CSO) appointed by the World-Bank to support the implementation of the Green-PNPM project in SE-Sulawesi Province (2007- to date). Since March 2010, OWT has been contracted by the Danish Embassy to support catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the upper catchments of Micro-hydro power (MHP) contruction sites funded by Green-PNPM in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts; ‘Capacity Building on Catchment Areas Management and Conservation to Sustain MHP schemes’ (1.MRD.16-3). Measures such as community-enforced catchment area management and protection are essential for the sustained water flow to ensure the operation of MHP schemes. Improved natural resources management (NRM) practices will also provide other benefits and services to the participating communities including reduced soil erosion and increased rainfall retention.

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In reality, catchment management and protection have not yet been implemented on the ground, for the following reasons: (a) Communities are not aware of the importance of proper catchment management and they are therefore reluctant to invest their limited time and resources in soil and water conservation; (b) Laws/regulations are in place but the government lacks the capacity and resources to socialize and enforce these on the ground; and (c) the absence of collaborative NRM management between upstream and downstream communities. The implications of this are: (i) soil and water conservation only rely on upstream community efforts; (ii) lack of rewards and economic incentives from government, private sector and downstream community (water user groups) to upstream community to conduct proper soil and water conservation measures; (iii) the long absence of incentives and technical support have made upstream communities living in poverty, unable to practice proper soil and water conservation measures and the catchment areas are in many cases suffering from open access management regimes. The above problems have been identified by the PNPM support Facility (PSF1). There is, however, still a lack of technical assistance and resources to tackle the problems. The underlined reasons are: (a) The existing (Green) PNPM facilitators have insufficient experience and lack the capacity to deal specifically with catchment management issues, since most of their time and resources are dedicated to facilitate the PNPM cycle and assist block-grant disbursement administration; (b) Catchment management falls outside the tasks of GTZ Technical Support Unit (TSU2) for MHP, since their job focuses on technical aspects of MHP project preparation and implementation, including site assessment, construction, plant commissioning and training of operator teams. Since April 2010, with fund support of the Danish Embassy (Danida), OWT has delivered trainings, awareness and technical assistance and facilitated the development of village nursery and catchment areas planting campaigns. Project duration in Sulawesi was one year (March 2010 – February 2011). Full intervention (training, awareness, technical assistance and facilitation) were provided on 6 village models, 5 villages in Mamasa (Tawalian Timur, Orobua Selatan, Mambuliling, Salomo Kanan and Salutambun Barat) and 1 village in Luwu Utara (Tulak Talu). Training on catchment area management was delivered to all Green-PNPM facilitators in Sulawesi and (Green) PNPM actors at (sub) district and village level in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts. The project has received great responses and enthusiasm from local government in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts and enhanced a green spirit to the MHP program in Sulawesi. The project also successfully made vegetative cachment rehabilitation meaningful to the local community. 1

The PSF is administered by the World Bank under the guidance of the PNPM Joint Management Committee, the role is to liaise with donors and GOI executing agency (PMD), provide guidance to the monitoring and evaluation of program activities. 2

The objective of Micro-Hydro Power (MHP) Technical Support Unit (TSU) is to ensure MHP schemes financed with Green PNPM block grants fulfil a number of minimum requirements crucial for their sustainable preparation, implementation and subsequent operation & management. The TSU provides capacity building and on the job training on province, district, sub-district and village level to secure that PNPM staff together with local officers of PMD and where appropriate government agencies can independently facilitate MHP schemes by supervising the implementation and supporting the set-up of MHP-related village management and operation systems.

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This was done by nurturing the spirit of biodiversity conservation through the selection and protection of Village Mother Trees of indigenous tree species, the development of Village Tree Nurseries and Village Seed Sources. The intensive campaigns in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts during 2010/2011 have awakened the spirit of government and local community to restore their degraded areas. The support by OWT and the donor has made local community motivated to rehabilitate their resources, ‘why do we not care about our own resources when outsiders care so much about them’, a common statement by local communities in response to project facilitation. As a matter of fact, the project, apart from introducing new activities (tree seedling propagations, catchment areas planting etc.), is also the first technical assistance provided by an NGO funded by a foreign donor in this area. No wonder that the project receives enthusiastic participation. The report outlines the first year project implementation in Sulawesi (Mamasa District, West Sulawesi and Luwu Utara District, South Sulawesi) from March 2010 to March 2011 and proposed activities during the first semester in Sumatra (Agam District, West Sumatra) from April-September 2011.

1.2.

Organization of the report

The report is composed of two parts, main report and annexes. The main report is composed of 10 chapters. General Conditions of the Project Areas (Chapter II); Project Coordination and Socialization (Chapter III), Training Design and Delivery (Chapter IV), Facilitation and Technical Assistance (Chapter V), Awareness Rising (Chapter VI), Outputs and Impacts (Chapter VII), Challenges Faced, Mitigation and Lessons Learned (Chapter VIII), Achievement of the Proposed Activities (Chapter IX), Conclusions and Recommendation (Chapter X). The report is completed with Executive Summary and Annexes.

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Chapter I

General Conditions of the Project Areas Catchment area rehabilitation facilitation and technical assistance to sustain MHP scheme were focused in 6 villages, 5 villages (Tawalian Timur, Mambuliling, Orobua Selatan, Salomo Kanan and Salutambun Barat in Mamasa District), and 1 village (Tulak Talu) in Luwu Utara District. The project also provided training and awareness rising on catchment areas management and conservation at (sub) district level. The chapter is written to provide the readers on the social and economic background on the project sites.

2.1. Mamasa District, West Sulawesi Mamasa District was established in 2002. Previously, it was part of Polewali-Mamasa (Polmas) District. The district shares boundary with Mamuju District in the northern part, Polewali Mandar in the southern part, Tana Toraja District in the eastern part and Pinrang District in the western part. The area of the district is 3,006 km, total population, based on 2009 census is 178.025 persons. The population density is 59 persons per km. The establishment of a new district and the appointment of Mamasa ‘town’ (14.607 inhabitants) located at the uppermost of the West-Sulawesi upland as the capital of the newly established District have gradually opened up this isolated area, which only about two decades ago was only accessible on horseback. The distance to the province capital of West Sulawesi Province (Mamuju) is 286 km, while the distance with the capital of South Sulawesi Province is 340 km. Until 2005, Mamasa District is composed of 10 sub-districts, after partition, since 2006, consist of 15 sub-districts3.

Figure 2.1. Location of main Project site, Mamasa and Luwu Utara District.

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Name of sub-districts in Mamasa: (1). Mamasa, (2) Tabang, (3) Aralle, (4) Mambi, (5) Tabulahan, (6) Pana, (7) Nosu, (8) Sesena Padang, (9) Messawa, (10) Sumarorong, (11) Tanduk Kalua, (12) Tawalian, (13) Rantebulahan Timur, (14) Bambang, (15) Balla.

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Regent Office

Phone Cellular Tower

Electricity State Owned Enterprise (PLN)

Market

Figure 2.2. The situation of Mamasa Town

2.1.1. Environment and Livelihoods Biophysically, the district is located at the upstream areas (mountains ecosystem), mostly having altitudes above 800 m with hilly and mountainous terrain. The soil is dominated by Inceptisol and Ultisol. Annual rainfall ranges from 2,500 – 3,000 mm. Temperature is cool (10 – 15 C), especially during the evening and early morning. Water resources are abundant but with brown color, high suspended load, due to unstable substrate (bedrock). The natural vegetation is dominated by lower montane forest, Uru (Elmerrillia sp) is one of the indigenous species, but most of these have been logged and now the terrain is mostly covered with Sumatran native Pine trees (Pinus merkusii), see Box 2.1. The major staple food4 of Mamasa community is rice. The main livelihoods of the local community are agriculture, irrigated rice, rainfed farming (coffee) and raise cattle (water buffalo). As a consequence of the high population pressure upon limited land resources, most farmers have occupational multiplicity or have several different occupations at the same time. They may also alter their main sources of income from season to season, as opportunities arise. Box 2.1: Pinus merkusii a Sumatran native species which dominates the survey area Most of the hilly and mountainous terrains in the project areas are covered with Pine trees. The question arise ‘Is it naturally grown or manmade?’ ‘It is indigenous or exotic/introduced species? Pines trees in the project areas were planted during the ‘Regreening Program’. As such, the Pine trees in Sulawesi are introduced, but due to the nature of the species, Pine trees become ‘invasive’ and as we can see now, the tree has dramatically changed the landscape of the Sulawesi upland over the last four decades. Pinus merkusii (Pinaceae) is of Aceh, Kerinci and Tapanuli origin (Sumatera). This is the only species of Pine trees which is of Indonesian origin. There are at least three reasons why Pine trees invade and grow well on logged over forest in this area: (a) The seeds are easily dispersed by wind; the seed is small, light and have wings. The dispersal of seeds of Pine trees are not done by birds, but by wind. Pine trees are hardly visited by birds.

4

It is a food hat is eaten regularly and in such quantities as to constitute the dominant part of the diet and supply a major proportion of energy and nutrient needs. Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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(b) The roots of pine trees have an intimate association with mycorrhizae (such as Scleroderma dictyosporum and Rhizpogon sp), fungal hyphae at the pine roots which transfer nutrients from fallen leaves and other organic material in the soil into the plant. Mycorrhizae also make nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) become available to pine as dissolved in water. (c) The pine tree produces allelopathy, a chemical suppression which prevents the growth of other species under its canopy to avoid nutrient and light competition. As we can see the diversity of undergrowth species beneath Pines stands is poor compared to stands of indigenous trees. Pine forests are generally found above 200 m altitude, and trees grow best between 800 – 1,500m. Final felling occurs at the age of 30-40 years with a timber production of up to 250 m3/ha. With the lack of high quality timber supply, local people have used pine wood for in-door construction. Due to the high density and total surface areas of the Pine’s needle leaves, the trees are known to have high evapotranspiration rates (water consumption). In areas having low rainfall depth, the trees often cause water yield reduction. Pine trees produce resin, which is being tapped and gathered in a similar way to rubber latex. Its distillation produces rosin and turpentine. Rosin is used in vanish, paint, ink and paper industries, while turpentine is used in various pharmaceutical and perfumery industries. Pine trees from Aceh are known to have the highest resin production compared to Pine trees of Kerinci and Tapanuli origins, however the latter has straighter stems compared to Aceh native Pine.

During the last five years, Mamasa ‘town’ has rapidly developed into a real town. However, such development as has occurred has already been excessively paid for by its natural resources degradation. The natural resources in the area are very fragile. Apart from its hilly terrain, its substrate is dominated by unconsolidated sandy rocks which are easily eroded by landscape disturbance and torrential water flows. The rapid and un-environmentally friendly road and house construction has caused severe degradation. Landslides in the newly opened areas are widespread and indeed even impact the accessibility of Mamasa Town during the rainy season. Since the 1950s, the natural forest in the region has been degraded, especially when the local community started converting natural forest into grazing ground and shifting cultivation (coffee). Up till now, such practices are still widespread. During the 1970s, a government regreening program rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees (Pinus merkusii). The Pine trees thrive well in the area, but the wooded areas are now also in a degraded state, due to overexploitation. The blanket rehabilitation with Pines has led to dramatic ecosystem degradation. The Pine plantations offer poor ecological protection compared to the original indigenous trees or to broadleaved tree species in general. The Pine forests provide poor erosion control as the Pine tree roots are superficial, while the thick and slowly decomposing litter layer has reduced the soil pH leading to rapid nutrient leaching. The invasive nature of Pines has made the Mamasa landscape inhospitable for the growth of all other vegetation systems and species except Pine. Given that most of the gentler sloping areas have already been occupied with irrigated agriculture (rice field), as a consequence of the high population pressure and in search of additional income sources, many farmers have begun cultivating the steeper slopes, clearing the natural vegetation in the process. Steep slope agricultural practices require high investments, Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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especially for terrace building and maintenance, while the soil productivity is quickly reduced, due to high erosion rates. Table 2.1. Land-cover and livelihoods changes in Mamasa District Time

Land cover

Livelihoods

Until 1940s

Rice field cultivation  Intact tropical rain forest  Small-scale shifting cultivation for coffee Coffee plantation plantation Rainfed agriculture Small-scale timber collection Small-scale livestock Small-scale rattan collection

1950-1970

 Conversion of natural forest into grazing Rice field cultivation ground.  Larger scale shifting cultivation for Coffee plantation (bigger number) coffee plantation Rainfed agriculture  Enlargement of critical land Small-scale timber collection Small scale number)

livestock

(bigger

Small-scale rattan collection 1975 - 1980

Government regreening program Idem rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees.

1980 - 1990

The Pine trees thrived well in the area

1990 – 2002

 Pine forests construction.  Conversion of plantation

2002– to date

logged

for

Idem house Idem

Pine forest into coffee

Rice field cultivation  Mamasa separated from Polmas District  Rapid development of Mamasa Town  Destruction of Mamasa terrain, land Rainfed agriculture cover and riparian areas Coffee plantation Small-scale timber collection Medium-scale livestock

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2005 –to date

Establishment of micro-hydro power

Idem

2005 – to date

Environmental destruction (land slide as Idem results of improper and unplanned infrastructure development)

The ecosystem degradation described above has created a vicious cycle of land degradation and the associated downstream impacts. The high sediment loads of the rivers resulting from land degradation in Mamasa is threatening the economic life of downstream investment such as the Bakaru Hydro-Power Reservoir in Pinrang, the biggest hydro-power scheme and the main source of electricity to West and South Sulawesi Provinces. 2.1.2. Local Government Capacity Until 2002, Mamasa was a sub-district under Polmas District. After becoming a district, the total development budget and block grants from centre government increased about 200 times compared to when Mamasa was a sub-district. The District authorities are ‘unprepared’ to manage such big funding, and have instead become victims of development. It is apparent that the current development takes place in a hurried, haphazard, and random manner, without obvious spatial planning, without sufficient coordination between different authorities and the local people, and without consideration for the land use capacity of the region. Also, it appears that major infrastructure projects, including the opening of access roads, feeder roads and bridges, and the opening up of new agricultural lands, are being implemented without the necessary environmental safeguards. The success of decentralization depends upon the availability of proper institutions and qualified human resources in implementing all aspects of decentralization, as well as other supporting factors, such as infrastructure, technology, information access, personnel, and institutional capacity. 2.1.3. Socio-economic Condition 2.1.3.1. Accessibility The distance from Makassar to Mamasa Town is 340 km; this can be reached by public transportation (minibus, station wagon) about 10 hours. The road from Makassar to Polewali has been established since colonial time; the trace follows the flat terrain along the coast-line of South and West Sulawesi Provinces. Since 2007, the road from Makassar to Pare-Pare Town has been improved, concreted and widened, allowing separated two ways traffic. In fact, the construction takes long time. Terrestrial transportation from Makassar to Polewali is quite smooth and normally takes about Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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five hours. The ‘adventure’ is started from Polewali to Mamasa. The narrow size road is continuously climbing upslope with many sharp curves along the mountainous terrain. The road condition is fragile and highly susceptible to landslide and rock-fall. The quality of the asphalt road is terrible from Sumarorong to Mamasa Town. The Mamasa District has still uncomfortable to reach from Makassar and even from the Mamuju (the capital city of West Sulawesi Province). The Airport is planned to build in Sumarorong5 and will serve Makassar-Mamasa and Mamasa-Mamuju. Sumarorong is about 40 km from Mamasa Town. Now there has been Lion flight from Makassar to Mamuju, however, terrestrial transportation from Mamuju to Mamasa is harder than from Makassar. 2.1.3.2. Flow of goods Most of goods, from basic to secondary needs are served from surrounding towns such as Polewali, Enrekang, Pare-Pare and Makassar. During market days, two days a week, the road transportation are dominated by trucks which bring goods from outside to Mamasa. It is remarkable that flow of goods come from outside to Mamasa rather than vice-versa. 2.1.3.3. Economic empowerment development The original district revenue (PAD) of Mamasa District is about 14 billion rupiah a year; this has been completely spent for local government wages (including district parliament), while development funding is originated from the centre government and heavily spend for infrastructure development (building roads and buildings). This left a little portion for economic empowerment of local community. So far, the only community development program at grassroot level is the Rural PNPM program. 2.1.3.4. Social capital The community is dominated by the Toraja ethnic group, it is mostly Christian and has strong social capital. This is reflected from the following phenomena: (a) High spirits on voluntary works: every village defines one day a week to conduct voluntary work for their village (such as improving road, reinforce the fragile slope, develop tree nursery etc.); (b) Tallualisan (three pillars): The strong cooperative works among the Priest, Village Head and Elders to build the village, solve social problems and safeguard environmental degradation); (c) Strong social intact: high obedience to their culture and religion.

2.2. Luwu Utara District, South Sulawesi Luwu Utara District was established in 1999, as result of partition of the Luwu District. The District shares boundary with Centre Sulawesi Province on the north, Luwu Timur District on the east, Luwu District on the south and Mamuju District on the west. The area of the district is 7.502,58 km, total population, based on 2003 census is 250.111 persons (50,022 households). The population density is 42 persons per km. The district is located on the northern most of 5

The fund source is from Centre government (APBN), it is about 104 billion rupiah Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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South Sulawesi Province. The capital of the district is Masamba (32,286 inhabitants), 136 km from Makassar. The district is composed of 11 sub-districts6. Luwu District is easily access from Makassar and other surrounding district, however, there are three sub-districts which are located far away from Masamba, i.e. Seiko, Rampi and Limbong. The most remote sub-districts areas are Seiko and Rampi (200 km) which are used to be reached by airplane from Masamba (20 minutes). Due to the road conditions (muddy and fragile), both sub-districts can only be accessed by Ojek (motor-bike taxi), which normally takes 2 days. 2.2.1. Environment and Livelihoods Biophysically, the district is located in the downstream areas, mostly having altitudes above 200 meter. The soil is dominated by Andosol. Annual rainfall ranges from 2,500 – 3,000 mm. Average temperature is 28 C. Although, the area is located in the downstream areas (with large river channel and the distance to the sea on average are about 20 km), the terrain surrounding river is not flat, but hilly to mountainous. Water resources are abundance; there are many spring waters and small streams (creek) originated from the areas and become a good source for micro-hydro power. It is different with Mamasa District; the substrate (bedrock) of the area is stable, the soil is compacted, landslide is minor, the stream water looks fresh and not in brown color as in Mamasa. Natural vegetation is dominated by secondary forest. Massive deforestation has been occurred since 1970s, most of the natural forest has been logged by forest concession. It is different with Mamasa District, Pine species was not introduced in the areas which makes the natural environment is better. The fertile soil and the high rainfall are so favorable for natural regeneration of secondary forest. The major staple food of Luwu Utara community is Sago. Apart from Sago, they also eat rice. The main livelihoods are cocoa plantation, fruit trees (durian) and rice cultivation. In 1990s, community enjoyed the windfall profits from cacao. The favorable environmental condition (fertile soil7) and good sanitation led the cacao plantation develop very well. On average 200 of dry cocoa beans transported to Makassar, this raised until 600 tons during great harvesting season. Farmers were able to build good houses and had cars. The cocoa reach its maximum price during economic crisis of 1999 and 2000, which contributed to the district revenue until 4 billion rupiah a year. In 2002, the golden period of cocoa plantation had passed, after the outbreak of cacao pod borer.

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Name of sub-districts in Luwu Utara District: (1) Masamba; (2) Baebunta, (3) Sabbang, (4) Bone-Bone, (5) Malangke, (6) Malangke Barat, (7) Suka Maju, (8) Mappedeceng, (9) Limbong, (10) Rampi, (11) Seko. 7

Most of the cacao developed from the forest land which have high organic material content Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Table 2.2. The land-cover and livelihoods changes in Luwu Utara District Time Land cover Livelihoods Until 1970s

Intact tropical rain forest

Small-scale timber collection Collection of tree fruits Small-scale rattan collection Making palm-sugar Sago extraction

1970-1985

Several timber forest concession companies Small-scale timber collection conducted selective logging of the forest. Workers in timber concession Collection of tree fruits Small-scale rattan collection Making palm-sugar Sago extraction

1985 -1990

 Local community clear secondary forest Cacao plantation for cacao plantation  New settlers from Sengkang, Pangkep, Small-scale timber collection Bone-Bone opened secondary forest for Collection of tree fruits cacao plantation Making palm sugar Sago extraction

1985 - 1995

 Expansion of cocoa plantation by local Cacao plantation and new settlers  Reduction of Palm sugar tree and sago Small-scale timber collection trees Collection of tree fruits Making palm sugar (minor) Sago extraction (minor)

1990 - 2002

The golden decade of cacao production

Idem

2002 – to date

The outbreak of cacao pod borer (PBK)

Idem

2005 – to date

 Many settlers left their cocoa plantation idem and return to the original area  Local community returned to its original livelihoods (making palm sugar and sago extraction), see Box 2.5. Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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ANNUAL REPORT YEAR I (2010-2011)  Local community conduct circular migration to find jobs in Makassar

2004– 2007

Nationwide program to eradicate the PBK Idem disease through Farmers Field School. The program fail to eradicate the PBK disease

2008 - 2011

Nationwide program to eradicate the PBK Idem disease through Gernas, Gerakan Sambung Samping Nasional, National Campaign to eradicate the PBK disease through side shoot grafting.

2011

As results of Gernas, the cacao production Idem has started to improved.

2.2.2 Local government capacity The government district has strong governance capacity. This is strongly indicated from the following indicators: (a) the recent regent succession went smoothly. The district successfully conducted 2010 election in democratic manner with minimum excess; (b) the establishment of one stop government service: all district agencies office are centered at one area; (c) The district officials are highly responsive on community development initiatives; (d) The Masamba is a clean and tidy town, all public services (public phone, transportation etc.) work well, indicate that the government is functioning well. The good governance may be caused by the following reasons: (a) The district is surrounded and highly accessible from the growth center area of South Sulawesi, i.e. Palopo, Pare-Pare and Pinrang; (b) It is located across road to Centre and Southeast Sulawesi; (c) The district is blessed with good natural resources, a terms of water, soil and stable substrate; (d) The district has been developing since colonial time; (e) The economic development in the rural area was wellestablished due to the strong contribution of cacao. The Luwu Utara District put big concern on economic empowerment for local community. The Regent issued Decree No. 153/2010 on the Synergetic Team. The Team is led by the Head of Rural Community Empowerment Agency (PMD), while the members are: (a) Head of Health Agency; (b) Head of Agriculture Agency; (c) Head of Cooperative and Trade Agency; (d) Head of Workers and Transmigration; (e) Head of Family Planning and Women Empowerment; (f) Head of Workers Training. The tasks of the team are: (a) Inventory community based smallscale industries; (b) Provide technical assistance; (c) Provide tools, equipment and grant; (d) Facilitate marketing, packaging and certification; (e) Evaluate the development of community based business; (f) Facilitate the potential development of natural resource management.

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2.2.3. Socio-economic Condition 2.2.3.1. Accessibility The capital of Luwu Utara District (Masamba) can be accessed through air and terrestrial modes. Air transportation: Masamba has airport, names ‘Andi Jema’ which has been established since colonial time. The Airport has runway of 900 meters. Cassa 212 (PT. Sabang Merauke Air Carter/SMAC) was used to flight twice a week (Wednesday and Friday) to Masamba and then from Masamba to Seko and return to Masamba. The capacity is 20 seats and flight hour from Makassar to Masamba is 1.5 hours. Since early 2011, there has been no flight to Masamba, due to the airplane, which used to serve, had accident in Sumatra. Bus transportation: There are three luxury buses serving for Makassar-Masamba routes, Alam Indah, Bintang Prima and Gunung Rejeki. The bus has 35 seats, reclining seat, air-condition and toilet. All the luxury buses operate in the evening and takes 9 hours. Masamba is also possible to reach by boat from Kolaka (SE Sulawesi Province), it takes about 10 hours (Kolaka-Palopo). Palopo is the capital of Luwu District; it is about 30 km from Masamba.

Evening Bus (MakassarMasamba)

Goods transport

Airport

Local public trasportation (Angkot)

Figure2.3. Transportation modes in Luwu Utara District 2.2.3.2. Flow of Goods: Inter-district goods transportation from and to Masamba is easily found. Local public transportation use Angkot and Ojek8. The district has various goods transportation (1-20 tons), such as: pick up, truck with four, six and 10 wheels which can support the fluent flow of goods from and into the district. 2.2.3.3. Social capital: The community is dominated by Bugis Luwu ethnic group and is mostly Moslem. Luwu Utara District has a good social capital, although it is not as strong as Mamasa District. This is reflected from the following phenomena: (a) spirits on collaborative work still exist: Many activities at village level are conducted through voluntary work, such as: improving access road, improve mosque, school etc.); working together to erect the wooden house; (b) Strong social intact: high obedience to their culture and religion. The profile of selected village models: i.e. Tawalian Timur, Orobua Selatan, Mambuliling, Salumokanan and Salutambun Barat (Mamasa) and Tulak Talu (Luwu Utara) can be inspected in Annex. 8

Motor-bike taxi Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Table 2.3. The different conditions between Luwu Utara and Mamasa Districts No

Main characteristics

Luwu Utara

A.

Accessibility A.1. Transportation from Makassar to District Capital

Very good

Poor

A.2. Mode of transportation from Makassar to District Capital

Air Plane

Mini-bus

A.3. Transportation from District Capital to potential village models

Paved roads

Poor roads

A.4. Internet access at District Capital

Good

Fair

A.4. Telecommunication (phone cell) at District Capital

Good (Telkomsel & Indosat)

Good (Telkomsel & Indosat)

B.

C.

Mamasa

Luxury Bus

Bio-physical conditions B.1.Terrain condition (topography)

Flat to undulating

Hilly and Mountainous

B.2. Geology

Mid Tertiary Volcanic

Tertiary acid Intrusive

B.3. Soil Type and Properties

Ultisol and Alluvial soil

Unconsolidated sandy rock

Fertile and low erodibility

Fertile, high erodibility

B.4.Land-slide

Rare

Frequent

B.5. Forest condition

Secondary forest with indigenous species

Degraded Pines forest (nonindigenous species)

B.6. Level of natural degradation

Low

High

B.7. Flood frequency

Low

High

B.8. Natural hazard

Low

High

Economic infrastructure C.1. Access to district level market access

Good

Good

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C.2. Access to inter-district level market

Good

Poor

C.3. Access to province market

Good

Poor

C.2. Bank Service

Good

Fair (only BRI)

C.3. Inter-villages roads and transportation

Good

Poor

D.

Public services D.1. Roads and transportation to potential village models

Good

Poor

D.2. Education

Good

Fair

D.3. Government administration

Good

Fair

D.4. Energy (electricity)

Poor

Poor

E.

Government Supports to the proposed project D.1. Support from the Regent

Very Good

Very good

D.2. Support from Community Empowerment Agency9

Good

Good

D.4. Support from relevant agencies

Good

Good

F.

9

Micro-Hydro Power (MHP) F.1. Number of MHP

ca. 40

ca. 130

F.2. Agencies to facilitate the MHP construction

District agency

District agency

PNPM-Rural

PNPM-Rural

MHPP/PNPMRural

MHPP/PNPMRural

PNPM-Green

PNPM-Green

Badan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Desa (BPMD), community empowerment agency Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Table 2.4. General characteristics of the beneficiary villages in Luwu Utara and Mamasa Districts General Characteristics

Luwu Utara

A.

Mamasa

Social Capital A.1. Historical Conflict

None

None

A.2. Mutual Help

High

Very high

A.3.Social integrity

Fair

Very high

A.4. Roles of faith on social integrity

Fair

Very high

A.5.Homogenity

Heterogenic

Homogeny

A.6. Cultural Identity

Fair

Strong

B.

Religion and Tribes B.1. Religion

Moslem

Christian

B.2. Main Tribes

Bugis10

Toraja

Toraja C.

Village Governance C.1. Capacity of key village government

Good

Fair

C.2. Village administration

Fair

Fair

C.3. Existence of Village regulation

None

None

C.4. Performance of PNPM program

Good

Good

C.5. Roles of community Organization

High

High

- Cacao plantation

-Rice farming12

-Rice farming11

- Coffee farming 13

-Animal husbandry (chicken)

-Animal husbandry (pig, buffalo, chicken)

D.

Livelihoods D.1. Main livelihoods

10

Bugis Luwu, Bugis Sengkang, Bugis Bone High yielding variety, three times harvest a year 12 Old rice species, two times harvest a year 13 Toraja Coffee 11

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D.2. Staple food

Sago, Rice

Rice

D.3. Circular migration

High

Fair

E.

Capacity of local community E.1. Education of KVC

Secondary school

Secondary school

E.2. Access to information

Fair

Poor

E.3. Entrepreneurship/innovation

Fair

Poor

F.

Economic infrastructure at village level F.1. Local market access

Good

Good

F.2. Inter-villages roads and transportation

Good

Poor

F.3. Access to district capital for potential village models

Good

Good

G.

Micro-hydro Power (MHP) G.1. Average capacity

10 – 15 kg watt

10 – 15 kg watt

G.2. Numbers of MHP on each village

1–3

1-3

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Chapter III

Project Socialization and Coordination 3.1 Selection of district and village models Selection of district and village models consists of the following activities: (a) Village survey was conducted during March 2010 in three Districts (Luwu Utara, Toraja Utara and Mamasa). We selected 6 village models, 5 in Mamasa (Tawalian Timur, Salotambun Barat, Salumokanan, Orobua Selatan and Mambuliling Villages) and 1 in Luwu Utara (Tulak Talu Village). See Page 4 of the Inception report. (b) Selection of the most comfortable and suitable areas to show quick-win for catchment rehabilitation campaign. We selected Mamasa and Luwu Utara District; see Page 4 and 5 of the Inception Report. (c) Formulated Catchment Rehabilitation Approaches: We defined 11 steps for catchment rehabilitation actions; see Page 13 – 20 of the Inception Report. (d) Since April 2010, we set-up field office and mini-training center in Mamasa Town.

3.2 Initial Socialization and Coordination Facilitations is composed of serial socialization and coordination meetings from national, province, district and village level and facilitation efforts to break-down the predetermined catchment rehabilitation cost (taken from the MHP Block-grant/BLM) to develop nursery development, tree planting campaign and maintenance. This will be discussed in this Chapter. 3.2.1. Initial Socialization and Coordination 3.2.1.1 Socialization at National and Province Level Socialization and coordination at national and province level is conducted during Green-PNPM Coordination meeting. First Program socialization was conducted during Green-PNPM Coordination Meeting held on 28 February 2010 at PSF Office. It was the first occasion when we introduced the concept of the program, as by the time, we have not yet started implementing the program at field level. Second introduction was held at Mercure Hotel-Makassar, on 12 March 2010 during the Green-PNPM Coordination meeting, when we are about to conduct catchment selection process, which was conducted during the third and forth week of March 2010. The process was continued by socialization and coordination meetings at district level, and then directly followed by serial trainings at sub-district and villages level in Mamasa District. On 27 May 2010, we presented initial project implementation progress during GreenPNPM coordination meeting held at PMD-Office/Jakarta. Second presentation of project Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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progress report occurred at the same office attended by Green-PNPM project actors of Sumatera and Sulawesi at 25 August 2010. List of Key Project Personal at province level is presented in Annex. 3.2.1.2 Socialization and Coordination at District Level In-formal socialization and coordination meetings were conducted with Key District government officials and Green-PNPM actors during catchment selection in Luwu Utara, Toraja Utara and Mamasa; however the first formal coordination meeting was conducted in Rante Pao, Toraja Utara District (21 April 2010), followed with Mamasa (26 April 2010), and Masamba, Luwu Utara (27 May 2010). Coordination meetings in Rante Pao and Masamba were conducted during District Green-PNPM socialization meeting for 2010, while for the Coordination meeting in Mamasa was organized by OWT and PMD. List of Key Project Personal is presented in Annex. a. Socialization and Coordination Meeting in Toraja Utara (21 April 2010): We made use the 2010’s Green-PNPM Socialization meeting at district level, as a medium to socialize the program to key stakeholders at district level. The meeting held at Hiltra Hotel, it was fully organized and funded by Green-PNPM. The meeting was officially opened by the Head of PMD and facilitated by Province Environmental Specialist ((Jazman Naharuddin). It was attended by 45 participants, i.e. OWT (Edi Purwanto), Faskab, Head of Forestry District, Head of Environmental District, Sub-districts Heads (Camat) and village (Lembang) Heads. In this meeting, OWT presented the concept of Catchment Management and planned of training and facilitations which will be implemented in catchment model village. Focus would be given to facilitate project beneficiary on the development of Tree Nursery (Kebun Bibit) and Seed Orchards (Kebun Benih). The expected benefits would be: (a) Local community would have skills to develop a qualified tree nursery as a source of planting materials; (b) Local community would be able to select mother trees as high quality seed sources; (c) Local community would be familiar with the characters and treatments of various tree seedlings (orthodox or recalcitrant); (d) Local community could use the developed tree nursery and seed orchards as a new source of income and as away to conserve the genetic source of indigenous tree species. b. Socialization and Coordination Meeting in Mamasa (26 April 2010): It is held at the Pola Room, Regent Office of Mamasa District, West Sulawesi Province. The meeting was fully organized and funded by OWT and directly led by the Regent (Drs. Obednego Depparinding), attended by 31 participants, i.e. Head of District Parliament, Secretary District, Head of PMD and relevant agencies, such as Forestry, Agriculture, Plantation, Extension, 6 Sub-District Heads (Camat), PNPM (L) MP facilitators at province level (Jazman Naharuddin), MHP facilitator (Early Yuniarti), PNPM facilitator at (sub) district and Technical Support Unit (TSU) representative. The Regent has provided great supports to our proposal entitled ‘Mamasa Menanam’ (Mamasa Plants, see Attachment). The Regent had a strong NGO (LSM) background; he was the head of ‘LSM Pelayanan Masyarakat’ and very knowledgeable on planting campaign strategies. We received strong and warm supports from Mamasa community, from the Top Manager down to the Village Head and villagers. We emphasized to government and local community that we come not to bring money but technical assistances to support ‘Mamasa Menanam’, such as (a) Protection of rare Mother Trees of potential local trees species such as ‘Uru’ (Elmerrillia sp); (b) Facilitate the development of Village Seed Sources (Kebun Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Benih Desa) and Village Nursery (Persemaian Desa); (c) Facilitate collaborative planting involving all relevant stakeholders in the MHP’s catchment areas models. The wrap-up session conducted at the end of the meeting concluded 12 commitments and actions plan, one of them was to have a follow-up coordination meeting involving key Green-PNPM actors. c. Socialization and Coordination Meeting in Luwu Utara (27 May 2010): Similar with the socialization in Toraja Utara, we made use the District Socialization meeting, as a way to socialize the program to key stakeholders at district level. The meeting held at Meli Hotel, it was fully organized and funded by Green-PNPM. The meeting was officially opened by the Head of PMD and facilitated by Province Environmental Specialist (Jazman Naharuddin). It was attended by 53 participants, i.e. Regent Assistant of Governance Affair, Province Environmental Specialist, OWT (Ali Widodo), Faskab, head of Sub-districts and village Heads. The material presented during this meeting is similar with materials presented on Toraja Utara meeting (B.3). In this meeting, we received great supports from the Head of Forestry Agency who presented the importance of land rehabilitation through vegetative approaches, such as planting tree at catchment areas. He asked to key stakeholders to provide mutual supports on the implementation of Catchment Management Program. d. Green-PNPM Coordination Meeting in Mamasa (31 May 2010): The main objective of the meeting is to identify problems and possible solutions of MHP’s 2009 implementation and develop strategy to start implementing catchment rehabilitation. The meeting was organized by OWT and involved all Green-PNPM actors at district level. It was held at OWT office in Mamasa and attended by all UPK and TPK (23 participants, 21 male, 2 female). The meeting was facilitated by MHP facilitator (Early Yuniarti) and OWT facilitator (Ali Widodo). The meeting was among other concluded the following commitments: (a) Monthly coordination meeting would be regularly conducted every the end of the month at OWT office; (b) TPK and UPK would present the status of project implementation, problems/constraints encountered and possible solutions; (c) Every TPK committed to allocate at least 5% of MHP funding for catchment rehabilitation; (d) OWT would provide training and technical assistances, especially provide 2,000 poly-bags, and high quality seeds of non-indigenous tree species; (e) OWT will facilitate the formulation of budget allocation taken out of the MHP block-grant, to support all activities from tree nursery development, nursery maintenance, tree planting and maintenances of the planted trees. Box 2.1: Tree Planting Campaigns in Mamasa District On 26 April 2010, during socialization and coordination meeting held in the Regent Office of Mamasa District, Director OWT (Dr. Edi Purwanto) presented a paper entitles ’Mamasa Menanam’ (Mamasa’s planting campaign). The paper underlined reasons why Mamasa District needs to launch trees planting campaign program. The summary of the paper is as follows: First: Mamasa District is an ’ecological buffer’ to surrounding districts Mamasa District is located in the upper catchment of several rivers basin (Asupa, Mamasa, Mabili, Kampisan) flowing to South Sulawesi Province, such as Enrekang, Pinrang, Polewali Districts and surrounding areas. For catchment management point of views, Mamasa District has great influencing roles to control sustainable water supply and flood hazards. As such, Mamasa District has a strategic Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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eco-hydrological functions as ’ecological buffer’ to surrounding districts in the downstream areas. Second: Mamasa District is a ’great water tower’ to surrounding districts The altitude of Mamasa District ranges from 600 – 1,500 meter, the areas is home of ’Tropical Mountain Cloud Forest’ (TMCF). In contrast with lowland forest having high rate of evapotranspiration (1,400 mm/year) due to the high interception and evaporation of wet forest canopies, TMCF has low evapotranspiration rate (300-400 mm/year). Apart from that, TMCF, due to the exposure position, they can function as ’cloud-stripping14’ and ’condensation nucleus’, resulted from ’horsontal interception’ which enable to transfer cloud (moisture) into water drip, providing continuous recharge to ground water storage during wet and dry seasons. From various research, it is known that the ’net precipitation’, falling water reaching forest floor in the TMCF is 20% higher than rainfall (outside TMCF) during wet season, and even more than 100% bigger during dry season (Bruijnzeel, 199015). It is different with Non-Cloud forest with mostly function to regulate water (sponge effects), while TMCF has double functions, to regulate and enhance catchment water yield. As such, Mamasa District has strategic eco-hydrological functions as ’ecological buffer’ and also ’great water tower’ of surrounding districts in the downstream areas. Third: Mamasa landscape is dominated by hilly terrain Mamasa landscape has high potential of erosion hazard, either surface (sheet and rill erosion) and morpho-erosion (gully erosion and mass-wasting/land-slide etc.), since the landscape is dominated by steep to very steep slopes. In this conditions, the present of forest and to a certain extent tree crops (in the agro-forestry form) play important roles to control soil loss, by reducing soil erodibility and the impact of high rain erosivity. Forest improve hydro-physical properties of soil, it provides the best possible of soil and water retention for almost any types of soil, it also able to control shallow landslide (less than 3 m depth). Forest produces litters which raise organic matter content and thereby enhance soil infiltration rate. The litters and undergrowth, apart from reducing overland-flow, they raise biological flora and founal activitivities in the soil, while the high dynamic tree root turnover during long period improves the hydrological characteristics of forest soil, creation of macro-porosity (Van Noorwijk, 200016) which enhances soil infiltration, percolation and water holding capacity. Forest ecollogically provides the best possible land use option for catchment management. In the wellestablsihed forest, there is no intensive soil tillage which can raise soil erodibility. There is no irrigation channels, limitted foot tracks or roads which can function as drainage channels during heavy rain. The irregular biomas can function as filters (naural barriers) for water and sediment flow which control the development of surface and morpho-erosion. Undisturbed forest also has high resistent to forest fire. Forth: Mamasa’s forest has been highly degraded The natural forest has been mostly degraded; the degradation stared during 1960s when villagers converted natural forest to grazing ground for livestock (carabao, water buffalo). During 1970s, a regreening program rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees (Pinus merkusii junghuniana). The Pine tree thrives well in the area, but it is now also in the degraded state, due to over exploitation for house construction. Mamasan people has realized this, but many of 14

Clouds originate where ascending air reaches its dew point and where there are the necessary dusts or other particles, including forest (trees) biomass, for water vapor to condense upon. Forest biomass because of its very high surface area can act as a condensation nucleus which stimulates the development of clouds and water replenishment in the recharge areas. 15 Hydrology of Moist Tropical Forest and Effects of Conversion; a State of Knowledge Reviews UNESCO, Paris. 16 Forest Watershed Functions, Lecture Note, World Agroforestry Center/ICRAF, Bogor Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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them has lack of spirits to turn the situation. It is the time for Mamasan people to revitalize the spirits of tree planting to recover its green natural beauty. Fifth: High dependency of Mamasan Culture to timbers Mamasa people is dominated by Toraja tribe who has high timber demand for their life, either to build traditional houses (Tongkonan) and other ceremonial costumary needs. Main contruction of Mamasa house is made from Uru (Elmerella sp.), as local mainstay trees species which has been getting rare. Other timbers construction species which starts to be rare in the area are Buangin (Cassuarina junghuniana), Damar (Agathis damara) and Mekadamia (Macadamia integrifolia). Tree planting campaign is urgent to secure long terms timber demand to sustain the value of Toraja culture. Micro-hydro power (MHP) is the most ideal entry points for Mamasa Planting Campaign MHP program, especially in poor electrificacy areas such as Mamasa District, has demonstrated a holistic and comprehensive community development model. The power generated through MHP reduces the use of fossil fuel (kerosene) and pressure to forest as the source of fuel-wood energy. Improving better access to information and opportunity to engage higher education level etc. Providing electricity to productive end-uses such as micro-and small-enterprises in agri-business, as well as to social service institutions such as schools and health clinics. Enhance local capacity to uphold sustainable MHP operation and maintenance. Last but not least, MHP program is the most ideal entry point to stimulate the awareness and spirits on catchment management through tree planting campaigns. Mamasa should be able to turn golden opportunity as an ideal entry points for catchment management and natural environmental restoration program. The alternatives are now open the choices are ours.

3.2.1.3 Socialization and Coordination at Village Level The first socialization and coordination at village level are conducted before training and nursery development facilitations; starting with Mamasa District (5 villages; Orsel, Bumal, Salumokanan, Salutambun Barat and Mambuliling), after one cycle of socialization, training and nursery facilitations were completed then moved to Luwu Utara (1 village: Tulak Tallu) and Toraja Utara (1 village: Rindingalo), followed with training and village nursery facilitation in Tulak Talu Village, Luwu Utara. List of Key Project Personal is presented in Appendix B. a. Socialization and Coordination in Buntu Malangka (Bumal) Village (19April 2010): It is located at the house of Bumal Village Head. The village is not selected as CM model or CTM, but the KVCs were keen to meet OWT facilitators to discuss the development of tree nursery. The meeting was attended by 24 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary and KVCs). In this meeting, OWT explained step-by-step of nursery development and maintenance, discuss the OWT training and facilitations schedule and visiting some proposed sites for nursery development. b. Socialization and Coordination in Salumokanan Village (21April 2010): It is located at Salumokanan Village Hall; the time was associated with the bidding announcement of the MHP construction. The meeting was attended by 22 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary, KPMD, TSU, UPK Rantebulahan Timur Sub-District and KVCs). Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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In this meeting, OWT discussed schedule of training for nursery development and together with KPMD evaluated the suitability of several proposed sites for nursery development. c. Socialization and Coordination in Salutambun Barat (20 April and 5 June 2010): The socialization was conducted in two times. The first socialization held on TPK Secretariat. The meeting was attended by 14 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary, KPMD, TSU, UPK Aralle Sub-District, agriculture extension workers/PPL and KVCs). In this meeting, OWT facilitated the formulation of RAB for catchment rehabilitation actions, discuss schedule of training for nursery development and together with Village Head evaluated the suitability of several proposed sites for nursery development. The second socialization (5 June 2010) held at Pak Malkias House (BPD), it was attended by 16 persons (Village Head, Sub-Village Head, BPD, PPL, TPK and KVCs). The purpose of the meeting is to define lists of tree species suitable to grow in this area. We explored KVCs experience in planting trees, what species and in what situations are successful or failure. By learning from KVCs experience, we can explain the underlined reasons related to success and failures. d. Socialization and Coordination in Tawalian Timur (23 April and 23 June 2010) Tawalian Timur Village is one of limited number of villages in Mamasa District which still have lot of Uru (Elmerella sp.), most of them are resulted from human planting and not merely natural growing. At the beginning, our visit to Tawalian Timur (16 April 2010) was to search over the mother trees as seeds sources for nursery developed in the MHP targeted areas, as we heard that the village is home of Uru trees. After we found the strong social capital in the village, while many KVCs, including the Village Head, were keen to have our facilitations for catchment rehabilitation, then we decided to select the village as a village under technical assistances (CTA). As stated in the Inception Report Page 6, the village did not receive 2009 BLM funding, but it received MHP Grant from regular PNPM on 2006 (15 kW), MHP Grant from District Government Budget on 2007 (20 kW), and receive BLM Green PNPM on 2010 (30 kW). On 23 April 2010, we conducted in-formal coordination and socialization meetings with 20 KVCs and continued with site visits of several outstanding Uru trees potentially selected as mother tress. On 23 June 2010, we organized formal socialization; this was attended by 55 KVCs, whom mostly composed of Gapoktan (Farmers Groups) members and attended by Sub-District Head and agriculture extension workers. We discussed the technical detail of OWT technical assistances, contribution of local community in the process of establishment of village nursery and planning to protect at least 20 Uru trees as mother trees and the decision should be formalized through Perdes. e. Socialization and Coordination in Orobua Selatan (12 May 2010): It is located at Village Hall of Orobua Selatan Village. The meeting was attended by 18 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary and KVCs). The meeting formulated the fixed RAB for catchment rehabilitation actions and schedule of training for nursery development and facilitations. f. Socialization and Coordination in Mambuliling Village (20 June 2010): The socialization held on Mambuliling Church. The meeting was attended by 18 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, Village Head, BPD, TPK, Village Secretary and KVCs). The meeting formulated the fixed RAB Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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for catchment rehabilitation actions and schedule of training for nursery development and facilitations. g. Socialization and Coordination in Tulak Talu Village (20 July 2010): The socialization held on Tumandi Hamlet, located near the MHP site. The meeting was attended by 26 persons (OWT, MHP facilitator, TSU, TPK, and KVCs). We discussed serial technical assistances and facilitations conducted by OWT in the village. In this meeting, KVCs expressed their high enthusiasm to our proposed facilitation; however, they also expected us to provide training on Honey Bee Culture and Processing of Arenga Pinata (Aren). h. Socialization and Coordination in Rindingallo Village (31 July 2010): The socialization was conducted during training on Catchment Rehabilitation held in Hiltra Hotel, Rante Pao, Toraja Utara. We discussed with UPK, TPK, MHP facilitator and TSU on serial facilitations we will conducted in Rindingallo Village. We all were in agreement that the training will be conducted on August 4, 2010 at Rindingalo Village Hall.

3.3. Budget Development (RAB) for Catchment Rehabilitation According to the Green-PNPM operational manuals (PTO), all MHP schemes must include catchment management and conservation measures. However, the funds set aside for the measures are limited (5-10 % of MHP block grant), while most of (Green) PNPM actors and facilitators have a lack of skills, knowledge and experience on appropriate catchment management and conservation practices. Well-established community based institutions and synergized efforts among government and local community institutions are absent and land cover degradation in the upper catchment areas remains unchecked. If the situation continues, the economic, social and ecological benefits of an MHP scheme within Green-PNPM will be shortlived and the scheme will fail to meet its development objectives. To remedy this, intensive and well planned facilitation activities are proposed aiming at developing cohesive and comprehensive multi-stakeholder water catchment area management and conservation programs, which will aim to maximize protection and increase ecological benefits to the local community. To this effect, environmental awareness and training will be provided as an integral part of the facilitation process to establish collaborative NRM actions to manage and conserve catchment areas. Since April 2010, we have delivered 4 main types of supports for the MHP catchment areas rehabilitation; those are training, facilitation, technical assistance and awareness campaign. Training is a formal and organized event where invited participants are gathered in a certain place. Facilitation (pendampingan) is an activity to assist, support and supervise the implementation of demonstration plots (demplots) and catchment rehabilitation implementation. Technical assistance is in-formal training which can be given any time, either during formal training or during facilitations and either in the field or in the OWT office. MHP facilitators at District level had facilitated fund allocation set aside for catchment rehabilitation prior our arrival in April 2010. We surprised that the committed fund set aside for catchment rehabilitation, in many sites, are far less than 5%. The amount of budget varies from site to site, from Rp 6.500.000 (Orobua Selatan/Mamasa, Tulak Talu/Luwu Utara) to Rp Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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41.000.000 (Sasa, Luwu Utara). In Mamasa District; it ranges from 1-3% of the total BLM, while in Luwu Utara ranges from 1.5 – 6.5%. The highest portion of fund allocation is in Sasa Village (Luwu Utara), while the lowest portion is in Bumal Village (Mamasa). For Toraja Utara District, all fund allocation was not allocated for catchment rehabilitation actions, but for training (Table 3.1 and Table 3.2). The principle of fund allocation should be: (a) Transparency; (b) addressed and accommodated the needs of large beneficiary targets; (c) the targeted activities and achievements are in-line with the available resource; (d) Emphasis is given to the quality and not quantity, while the rehabilitation areas is not large, but providing an best practices and areas to learns; (e) The available resources (budget) would be spent in efficient, effective, productive and sustainable. The most ideal situation, OWT should have an access to control the proportion of budget (out of the BLM) set aside for catchment rehabilitation. Given it was beyond our domain or the budget allocation for catchment rehabilitation had been defined before our effective involvement in the project, then efforts were taken to facilitate the efficient use of the available resources. Understanding that the proper allocation of funding resources would highly determined the quality of the catchment rehabilitation implementation. The facilitation was conducted during TPK and UPK training at district level. The facilitation was started with discussing 11 step-by-step activities, and then followed with collecting ideas on the readily available local resource which can be easily supported by local community. The budget allocation should consider as much as possible to contribution of local resources and enable to cover 11 steps of catchment rehabilitation actions, from collection of high quality tree species planting materials to the maintenance of the planted trees of the current year (2011). The breakdown budget was defined on the basis on price standard used by Gerhan (Gerakan National Rahabilitasi Hutan dan Lahan/National Campaign for forest and land rehabilitation, a national wide catchment rehabilitation campaign run by national government from 2004-2008. Using the Gerhan price standard, the catchment rehabilitation areas in Mamasa will ranges from 3 ha (in Orobua Selatan Village) to 9 ha (Masoso Village), while in Luwu Utara range from 2 ha (in Tulak Tallu Village) to 15 ha (Sasa Village). The intended rehabilitation areas are in fact too little to give the expected improvements of the physical improvement of MHP catchment since the little budget allocation for this activity. Most of the areas allocated less than 5%, while for Toraja Utara; the entire budget (except for Rindingallo Village, IDR 7.570.000, number of seedlings are 5.000, proposed planting areas is 2 ha) was allocated for training purposes and not for catchment rehabilitation actions. Again this decision was beyond our control. While catchment rehabilitation activity in Tawalian Timur Village, since the area was not the target of MHP project during 2009, all the cost for catchment rehabilitation is bared by the Catchment Management Project. We selected Tawalian Timur Village due to the high interest of the villagers to conserve Uru Trees and conduct catchment management actions.

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Table3.1. Budget Plan (RAB) of Land Rehabilitation in Mamasa No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Village Orubua Selatan Mambuliling Tawalian Timur*) Salumokanan Salutambun Barat Buntumalangka Masoso Tabang Total

BLM (IDR) 348,188,000 370,831,000 432,959,000 532,686,000 765,218,000 424,672,000 777,937,000 3,652,491,000

Allocation for CM (IDR) 6,190,000 14,959,500 6,320,000 14,812,000 15,916,200 7,167,000 18,280,000 11,126,000 94,770,700

% 1.8 4.0 3.4 3.0 0.9 4.3 1.4 3,0

Number of seedlings 5.000 11.000 5.000 11.000 12.000 5.000 13.000 8.000 66,000

Plantation Target(ha) 3 7,5 2 7,5 8 3,5 9 5,5 43

Remarks: It is fully funded by Catchment Management Project

Table 3.2. Budget Plan (RAB) of Land Rehabilitation in Luwu Utara No 1 2 3 4 5 6

Village

BLM (IDR)

Tulak Talu Seko Komba Rampi Sasa Bantimurung Total

399,362,000 950,083,000 873,198,000 629,921,000 615,496,000 531,940,000 4,000,000.000

Allocation for % CM (IDR) 6,326,000 1.6 14,630,000 1.5 22,530,000 2.6 30,925,000 4.9 41,013,000 6.7 28,811,000 5.4 44,235,000 3,6

Number of seedlings 5.000 10.000 12.000 15.000 20.000 12.000 74,000

Plantation Target (ha) 2 4 5 10 15 9 45

The developed tree seedlings in every nursery are set at 100% above the planting materials needs of the planting area target. The remaining seedlings will partly be used for replanting during the maintenance period and will partly be distributed to local communities who have interests to plant in their own garden without planting and maintenance cost assistances. The planting areas, dependent on the existing land cover, will have different planting spaces, The needs of seedlings per ha, including for replanting (20%), are the following: (a) Full rehabilitation (clear land): planting space is 3x3 m2, 1,100 seedlings per ha; (b) Agroforestry/multiple-cropping system: planting space is 4x4 m2, 625 seedlings per ha; (c) Enrichment planting: planting space is 5x5 m2, 400 seedlings per ha. Understanding the existing land cover, the planting area target will be mostly conducted on clear land or full rehabilitation. This is the most proper rehabilitation method for Green-PNPM, as this will make easy to evaluate the truth success and failure of the planting campaign. The species we have been developed for full rehabilitation are: Mahoni, Sengon, Nangka, Suren, Uru, Kayu Afrika, and Gmelina. Understanding the limited resource, the activity should not be considered as catchment rehabilitation in the real sense, but rather efforts to build behavior changes and capacity building to project beneficiary. The achievements, however, will only be reached if the 4 interventions approaches, i.e. training, facilitation, technical assistance and awareness campaign are conducted in proper manner. When those 4 interventions successfully conducted, the project will provide Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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strong precondition to local community: (a) to conduct tree planting campaign using their own resources; (b) they can use their improved skills and capacity to develop tree planting materials as source of income; (c) this efforts would function as an excellent demonstration plots or pioneer initiatives, which can be later enriched by other relevant projects such as KBR (Kebun Bibit Rakyat, community based nursery, funded by the Ministry of Forestry). Table 3.3. Example of budget development for nursery, planting and maintenance for 12,000 seedlings (8 ha) at Salutambun Barat, Bumal, Mamasa (all in IDR) No

Budget Component

Amount

Unit

Cost per unit

Total Cost Fund Sources

A. Nursery Development 1

Bamboo

SS

2

Seedlings growing bed (bedeng sapih) 1x 5 m2

3

Roofs of germination bed

SS

4

Seed beds (bedeng tabur)

SS

5

Potting media (soil, compost)

SS

6

Nursery equipment

SS

7

Polybag and non-indigenous seeds

10,000

polybag

20

200,000

CMP

8

Filling soil to polybags

12,000

polybag

50

600,000

BG

9

Transplanting seedlings

12,000

seedling

25

300,000

BG

100,000

600,000

BG

10

Nursery maintenance Pesticides (fungicide, insecticide, herbicide) and root growth hormone and other nursery 11 materials Sub-total

24

bed

6

month

1

Package

20,000

480,000

536,200 2,716,200

BG

BG 17 %

B. Planting 1

Bamboo stakes (ajir)

2

Compost Land clearing and planting strips (6 mds/ha x 35,000 = 210,000) Planting strip and space (3 mds/ha x 35,000= 105,000)

3 4

12,000

5

Installing stakes (2 mds/ha x 35.000= 70,000) Planting holes and weeding surrounding the 6 hole (11 mds/ha x 35,000 =385,000) Transport seedlings to planting holes (2 mds/ha 7 x 35,000=70,000) Transporting compost to planting holes (3 8 mds/ha x 35,000=105,000) Planting of seedlings (6 mds/ha x 35.000 = 9 210,000) Sub-total

stake

50

600,000

BG SS

8

ha

8

ha

8

ha

8

210,000

1,680,000

BG

840,000

BG

70,000

560,000

BG

ha

385,000

3,080,000

BG

8

ha

70,000

560,000

BG

8

ha

105,000

840,000

BG

8

ha

210,000

1,680,000 9,840,000

70,000

560,000

105,000

BG 62%

C. Maintenance of the current year 1

Fertilizing (2 mds/ha x 35.000=70,000)

8

ha

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Replanting (2 mds/ha x 35.000=70,000)

8

ha

70,000

560,000

BG

8

ha

280,000

2,240,000

BG

Weeding/tillage (8 mds/ha x35.000= 280,000) 3,360,000 Sub-total Gramd total (A+B+C)

21% 15,916,200

100%

Remarks: mds = man-days, CMP = Catchment Management Program, BG=Block-grant, SS = Self-Supporting

3.4. Coordination for Catchment Rehabilitation Measures at Village Models We facilitated coordination meeting in every village models to discuss the implementation of community based catchment areas rehabilitation measures. a. Socialization and Coordination in Orobua Selatan Village (October 10, 2010): The meeting concluded: (a) Village voluntary work done every Tuesday; (b) Gapoktan (Farmer Group Association) coordinated the implementation of catchment rehabilitation measures. b. Socialization and Coordination in Tawalian Timur Village (October 13, 2010): The meeting concluded: (a) Village voluntary work done every Thursday; (b) Gapoktan Saraputallang coordinated the implementation of catchment rehabilitation measures; (c) During fruiting season, each household had to collect Uru seeds. c. Socialization and Coordination in Salutambun Barat Village (October 16, 2010): The meeting concluded: (a) Village voluntary work done every Saturday; (b) Gapoktan coordinated the implementation of catchment rehabilitation measures. d. Socialization and Coordination in Salumokanan Village (October 17, 2010): The meeting concluded: (a) Village voluntary work done every Wednesday; (b) Gapoktan ‘Sakura Lestari’ and ‘Saka Wana Bhakti’ (Forestry) boy scout coordinated the implementation of catchment rehabilitation measures; (c) During fruiting season, each household had to collect Uru seeds. e. Socialization and Coordination in Tulak Tallu Village, Sabbang, and Luwu Utara District (November 5, 2010): This is the only village outside Mamasa District which received our facilitation. Coordination meeting was organized to follow up training and facilitation of nursery development in the village. The meeting concluded: (a) Planting areas is located at critical land in Tumandi Hamlet; (b) villagers agreed to conduct voluntary work to build Bokhasi House.

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Chapter IV

Training Design and Delivery This chapter discusses training design and delivery of the main and supplemental trainings in Sulawesi.

4.1 Training Design 4.1.1. Emphasis on Vegetative Catchment Rehabilitation Among 6 village models, only Tulak Talu and Mambuliling villages which have good vegetation cover. The landscape is still dominated by disturbed natural forest and traditional agroforestry (mixed-garden). The natural forest of the remaining catchments has long been converted into coffee and cocoa farming while agroforestry as a traditional land-use system and local wisdom to optimize land utilization, landscape (soil and water) and genetic conservation have mostly been neglected. Understanding the situation, vegetative catchment rehabilitation measures is urgently required to sustain the MHP scheme. There are two main approaches to catchment rehabilitation, vegetative and civil technique approaches. Emphasis should be given on vegetative approach through planting campaigns rather than civil technique. The reasons for this is that civil technique approaches, such as land terracing, gully plug, gully control, slope establishment etc. require big investment, and high construction and maintenance costs. Such efforts are technically feasible to abrupt surface and morpho-erosion (gully erosion, mass wasting etc.), however the high construction and maintenance cost are unaffordable for the local community. Those measures are suitable for big watershed management project with millions dollars of investment. In fact, there is much criticisms of the efficiency and effectiveness of such measures and investments. There are many findings that civil technique approaches, such as land terracing on rainfed agriculture, if not properly done will lead to increasing rather than reducing soil loss. As stated in Box 3.1, there are at least five reasons for vegetative rehabilitation: (a) Project areas located at the upper catchment areas having strategic roles to downstream protection; (b) The roles of forest in water recharge is critical as most forests in the areas functions as cloud stripping; (c) The landscape is dominated by hilly and mountainous terrain which needs maximum protection of forest cover; (d) Most of the forests have been degraded; (e) Local communities have a high dependency on timber. 4.1.2. Training Design Based on the above consideration, our major training intervention is related to vegetative catchment rehabilitation. Title: Catchment Rehabilitation with special emphasis on generative propagation. Objective: After attending the training, trainees would: (a) be aware on the urgency of catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the area; (b) be aware of the urgency of mother trees selection and protection; (c) have a clear idea on the step-by-step phase required to develop a tree nursery; (d) have a clear idea about tree planting design and techniques; (e) have skills on generative and vegetative propagation. Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Participants: TPK, KVG17, KVC, extension workers, farmer groups, Green-PNPM facilitators. Number of participants: 30-40 persons. Duration: one day (8-10 hours), 80 % practical exercises, 20% theory. See Table 4.1. The training will be followed by intensive facilitation. Training Aids: To make training delivery effective, a set of training aids should be available at the training site. To this effect, about one week before training implementation, we asked trainees (TPK) to prepare training aids dealing with the subjects: (a) sand; (b) topsoil; (c) rice husk; (d) animal dung/manure (cows, buffalo); (e) bran flour; (f) hot water; (g) wildling /natural seedlings; (h) farm utensil (hoe, bucket etc.). We provided: (a) Seeds; (b) EM-4; (c) Poly-bags; (d) knife cutter; (e) root growth hormone and LCD projector. Theory (2 hours): See Table 4.2 Practical Exercise (6 hours): See Table 4.3 Table 4.1 The agenda of training on rehabilitation of water catchment are Time 08.00 – 08.15 08.15 – 08.45 08.45 – 09.00 09.00 – 11.00 11.00 – 12.15

Agenda

15.40 – 16.00

Trainees registration Opening Session: Training Objectives and Agenda Tea break Theory: Presentation and Discussion Practical Exercise I: Seeds extraction, dormancy scarification, germination media Lunch Break Practical Exercise II: Seed germination, making Bokhasi and rice husk charcoal, making growth media, wilding collection. Coffee Break

16.00 – 17.00 17.00 – 17.30

Practical Exercise III: Develop cuttings, grafting and planting Discussion and closing session

12.15 – 13.00 13.00 – 15.40

Table 4.2 Detail topic and sub-topics of the presentation and discussion during theory session No

Topics

Sub-topics

1.

Catchment management

Objective: Trainees aware the urgent needs for catchment rehabilitation campaigns

17

1.1

Definition of catchment areas

1.2

Method to delineate catchment boundary

1.3

The roles of catchment boundary on NRM

1.4

The difference between catchment and administrative boundary

KVG: Key village governments, KVC: Key village champions Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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ANNUAL REPORT YEAR I (2010-2011)

Mother trees

1.5

Land cover changes in the MHP catchment

1.6

Roles of Forest to regulate and produce water

1.7

The need of vegetative rehabilitation campaign

1.8

Roles of seedling propagation to support rehabilitation campaign

Objective: Trainees understand the need to select high quality seeds 2.1

Mother trees as seeds sources

2.2

Basic concept to select mother trees

2.3

Group of tree species: Fast Growing Species, High Quality Timber Species and Multi Purpose Tree Species

Seeds Characteristics Objective: Trainees understand the different treatments between and treatments recalcitrant and orthodox seeds

Generative propagation

Vegetative propagation

Species Selection

3.1

Recalcitrant, example (Nangka, Gaharu, Kayu Afrika etc.)

3.2

Orthodox, example (Sengon, Trembesi etc.)

Objective: Trainees understand step-by-step of generative propagation 4.1

Seeds collection, extraction and selection

4.2

Dormancy scarification

4.3

Germination and growth media

4.4

Nursery establishment and maintenance

4.5

Slide presentation on Good and Bad18

Objective: Trainees understand example of vegetative propagation 5.1

Cutting system/stek-pucuk

5.2

Grafting

Objective: Trainee understand basic principles to select species 6.1

Criteria for species selection

6.2

Group of species: High Quality Timber Species, Fast Growing Species, and Multi-purpose Tree Species

Planting techniques and Objective: Trainees understand planting procedure and maintenances of the newly planted trees maintenances

Agroforestry

7.1

Making planting strip, space, pattern

7.2

Maintenance of the planted trees

Objective: Trainees have ideas on the economic and ecological benefits of agroforestry system

Good and bad is effective to inspire training participants Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Slide presentation of best practices agroforestry in Indonesia

Table 4.3 Detail topic and sub-topics of practical exercise No. Topics 1. Seed extraction

Sub-topics Objective: Trainees are able to separate seeds out of the fruit 1.1 Dry-extraction: Sengon, Suren, Eucalyptus, Gaharu etc. 1.2 Wet-extraction: Jati Putih, Kayu Afrika, Uru etc.

2.

Objective: Trainees are able to speed-up seeds germination process for orthodox seeds. 2.1 Soaking in hot and cold water: Sengon, Trembesi, Sengon Buto 2.2 Opening with pincers: Sirsak

Dormancy scarification

2.3 2.4 3.

Germination Media

Sangrai (heating in earthen pot without oil and water): Jati Kikir (filing): Merbau

Objective: Trainees are able to prepare germination media on the plastic tray and wood tray. 3.1 Mixing sand and rice husk (ratio; 1:1) 3.2 Mixing sand and compost of rice husk (ratio; 1:1) 3.3 Mixing sand and rice husk charcoal (ratio; 1:1) Objective: Trainees are able to germinate seeds of various species (Mahoni, Sengon, Trembesi, Suren, Sengon Buto, Merbau, Jati etc.) and aware the need to maintain/keep moisture content of germination media Objective: Trainees are able to make rice husk compost as growth media. See Box 3.1 and 3.2. Objective: Trainees are able to prepare growth media using topsoil, rice husk charcoal; manure (ratio; 3:1:1) Objective: Trainees are able to collect natural seedlings and transfer them into polybag. Objective: Trainees have an idea on how to develop cuttings

4.

Seed germination

5.

Bokhasi

6.

Growth media

7.

Wilding Collection

8.

Cutting system/stekpucuk

9.

Grafting

Objective: Trainees have an idea on how to make grafting.

10.

Planting

Objective: Trainees are able to plant tree seedlings properly, starting with making planting holes, hold seedlings, release polybag and put them at the planting holes.

4.3. Training Delivery During the first year working in Sulawesi, OWT has completed training in all targeted sites which covers three different regions, i.e. Sulawesi level, district level (Mamasa, Luwu Utara and Toraja Utara) and village model (6 villages), training was also conducted in Maros District, the total training beneficiaries were 393 men and 54 women.

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Tabel 4.4 Training Delivery in Sulawesi (4 April 2010 – 28 February 2011) No

Location

Date

Venue

1 1.1 a. Mamasa Town

1 June 2010

b. Orobua Selatan Village

21 -22 February 2011 23 February 2011

Mamasa District District Level OWT office, Astal, TPK and Mamasa UPK in Mamasa District Village secretary house yard Meeting hall

KVG, KVC, extension workers and farmer groups representatives 19

OWT office

Boy-scout

c. Mamasa Town

27 – 28 February

a. Orobua Selatan Village

27 May 2010

b. Tawalian Timur Village

2 July 2010

Village head’s house

c.Salumokanan Village

3 July 2010

Meeting hall

d.Salutambun Barat Village

5 July 2010

KVC house

Masamba Town

9 August 2010

Luwu Utara District Sub-district level BPMD office Astal, TPK, meeting hall, UPK, KPMD, Luwu Utara local NGO

a. Tulak Village

Talu

24 July 2010

c. Tulak

Talu

15

1.2

2. 2.1.

2.2.

19

Participants

January

Village Level Meeting hall PJOK, TPK, KVG, KVC

PJOK, TPK, KVG and KVC of Tawalian and Mambuliling Villages PJOK, UPK, TPK, KVG, KVC, FT, farmer group, boyscout, NGO UPK, TPK, KVG, KVC, FT, farmer group

Village Level Meeting hall TPK, UPK, KVG,KVC farmer groups, Village representatives from Sasa and Malinbu Village Bokashi house TPK, KVG,

Title

No of part. Men Wom en

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation Construction of Biogas

20

2

32

1

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation Environmental conservation

32

1

22

-

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

30

3

14

-

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

30

-

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

29

4

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

16

4

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

35

5

Making bokashi

38

6

Famer Group representatives from Tawalian, Salbar, Salumokanan, Bumal, Orobua, Satanetean villages Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Village 3 3.1

2011

District Level

31 July 2010

Rindingallo Village

4 August 2010

3.2

4 Malawa district

Sub-

5 October 2010

5 Makale, Toraja

28 July 2010

KVC, farmer groups Toraja Utara District Hotel Hiltra, Astal, TPK and Toraja Utara UPK of all Green-PNPM villages Village Level Meeting hall Astal, PJO, KVG, KVC, farmer groups Maros District Meeting hall KVG, KVC, farmer groups Sulawesi Heritage hotel, Sulawesi Green facilitators (Environmental specialist, Astal, FKL)

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

20

4

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation

19

12

Nursery development, making bokashi

19

2

Nursery development and Catchment Rehabilitation”

37

10

TOTAL GRAND TOTAL

393

54 457

4.2.1 Sulawesi Level Background: Since the end of 2008, starting with the pre-service training for Green Facilitators (GFs), OWT has been continuously involved on the regular refresher courses of GFs in GreenPNPM Sulawesi. The course is organized by PMD in collaboration with the National Management Consultant (NMC). The last refresher course was held at ‘Toraja Heritage Hotel’, Rantepao (28 August 2010), Toraja Utara District. At this occasion, we presented a lecture on ‘Catchment Rehabilitation with special emphasis on generative propagation’. The underlined reasons why we presented this topic are: (a) GFs have various educational backgrounds, but mostly are non-forester, while 60% of the Green-PNPM block-grant (2008-2010) in Sulawesi was used for tree planting; (b) We witnessed that the quality of tree planting on the ground level are not promising, mostly due to project oriented culture of project implementers; (c) So far, GFs have never received training on tree seedlings propagation. Generally speaking, GF trainings are mostly designed to give heavy emphasis on Green-PNPM regulations/policy socialization and facilitation techniques, rather than technical aspects. This may be one of the underlined reasons why most GFs are only effectively functioned as project administrator (for Green Block-Grant disbursement) rather than doing the job as a community facilitator. Trainees: FKL, Astal and Environmental specialist Method: Given that the time for our lecture is only two hours, then we only delivered theory by showing lot of photos resulted from our vast experience on land rehabilitation campaigns in Indonesia, including agroforestry and soil-water conservation. Follow-up: Upon request, we will be able to: (a) assist seeds procurement for catchment rehabilitation in Sulawesi; (b) provide nursery development technical assistances to GFs outside Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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OWT working areas (South and North Sulawesi); (c) provide training on nursery development to areas outside OWT working areas. Table 4.5 Training participants of GFs refresher course

1. 2. 3. 4.

Province

Astal

South Sulawesi South-east Sulawesi North Sulawesi West Sulawesi

3 3 5 11

Total

MHP Facilitator 2 1 3

FKL

Total

9 9 15 33

14 12 20 1 47

4.2.2 District Level Objectives: (a) to deliver technical knowledge and skills on catchment rehabilitation to key green PNPM actors at sub-district and at village level. By doing this, all key Green-PNPM actors, especially those receiving block-grant 2009 have access and opportunities to our training program; (b) to provide facilitation and technical assistances to TPK on RAB development. Trainees: UPK (sub-district), TPK, KPMD, KVG, KVC, local NGOs. See Table 4.4. Method: Theory: 60%, Practical exercise; 40% which includes: (a) Seeds morphology; (b) Dormancy scarification; (c) Making germination and growth media and (d) Seed germination. Using LCD projectors, we presented lot of photo documentation of nursery development, best practices on agroforestry, good and bad practices on catchment area management. Distribution of poly-bags and seeds: Understanding that the main constrains to establish nursery is the absence of seeds and poly-bags. During district training, we distributed poly-bags and seeds (Mahoni, Sengon, Sengon Buto, Suren, Nangka, Sirsak, Kayu Afrika, Merbau, and Gmelina) to all village representatives. We provided 2,000 poly-bags and 2 kg seeds for nonvillage models, while we support the overall need of poly-bags and seeds for village models. In response to request, we assisted seeds procurement for catchment rehabilitation in all villages receiving MHP block-grant 2009 in Mamasa, Luwu Utara and Toraja Utara Districts. a. Mamasa District The training held at OWT field office in Mamasa (1 June 2010). It was attended by 22 participants, i.e. MHP facilitator, UPK and all TPK receiving MHP Block Grant 2009 plus Village Head and KVCs of Tawalian Timur. The training was officially opened by the Head of PMD (Petrus Ratulangi). In his opening remarks, Pak Petrus expected that OWT technical assistances should not stop for one year. It is indeed too short for catchment rehabilitation campaign; it is just to start then stop. He expected that the facilitation process should continue at least until one year after the first planting campaign. b. Luwu Utara District The training held at BPMD office in Masamba (9 August 2010) and attended by 20 participants, i.e. Astal (MHP facilitator), UPK, KPMD and TPK receiving MHP Block-Grant 2009, including Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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local NGOs. The training was officially opened by the Head of PMD. The training was attended by the UPK, TPK and KPMD of the most isolated areas in Luwu Utara, i.e. Seko and Rampi20 Sub-districts. Given that we are based in Mamasa, then we suggested all participants (including Seko and Rampi participants) to socialize knowledge and skills gained during the training with KVC and KVG. c. Toraja Utara District The training held at Hiltra Hotel (31 July 2010) and attended by 24 participants, i.e. MHP facilitator, UPK, KPMD and TPK receiving MHP Block-Grant 2009, Fastekab and Faskeu. The training was officially opened by the Head of PMD. In his opening remarks, he expected that rehabilitation campaigns should select high quality timber species, in such away that local community will have new source of timbers without disturbing the existing natural forest. The participants gave great attentions to the training, the underlined reasons were: (a) This was considered as a valuable occasions, as OWT does not provide technical assistances and facilitation at village level, except Rindingallo; (b) Knowing that OWT comes from ‘Bogor’ has given special enthusiasm to them, either in attending the training and receiving the seeds; (c) To many, the training topic is new; (d) Trainees got familiar with some news species. 4.2.3 Village Level The main target of our training and facilitation are community at field level, as they are the spear-head of catchment rehabilitation campaigns. Refer to Section 4.1; the proportion of practical exercise is 80%. The underlined reasons, apart from they need to master the skills, the materials for practical exercise (topsoil, rice husk, animal dungs) are readily available. Feedback from local farmers was the most exciting part of the training session; we experienced lot of funny and interesting moments during practical exercises. a. Orubua Selatan, Sesenapadang Sub-District, Mamasa District The training held at the Village office (27 May 2010), attended by 33 participants, i.e. TPK members, village officials, head of sub-village and KVCs representatives of each subvillage/dusun (Uekata, Kalakian, Pebatuan, So’bok and Rante-rante), religionist, youth, village elders and member of Saraputalang Farmer Group. The training was officially opened by PJO Sesenapadang Sub-District (Pak Markus). Trainees were grateful to the training, since: (a) The delivered skills and information is highly relevant with the community needs; (b) This was a new training topic for local community. b. Salutambun Barat, Buntu Malangka (Bumal) Sub-District, Mamasa District The training held at Pak Melkias House, a key farmer champion (26 June 2010), attended by 33 participants, i.e. KVC (24 persons), KVG, TPK, Bumal’s Agriculture extension worker, KVC of Bumal Village (3 persons). The training was officially opened by the Sub-District Head. In his opening remarks, he expected that the initiative should be followed by surrounding villages. To stimulate catchment rehabilitation campaigns, villagers will organize regreening competition among sub-villages within Salutambun Barat Village. The training participants were enthusiastic to follow step-by-step of the training. We introduced some non-indigenous tree species which are 20

It took three days to go by motor-bike from Seko and Rampi to Masamba. They were so enthusiastic to follow the training. Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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potentially useful for local people. This is a new training topic, while the use of rice husk for compost and rice husk charcoal for growth media were new for them. c. Salumokanan, Rantebulahan Timur Sub-District, Mamasa District The training held at the Village Hall (3 July 2010), attended by 30 persons, i.e. KVC of Salumokanan Village (18 persons), KVC of Salumokanan Barat (3 persons), PJOK, FT, TPK, Village Head, BPD, Village Secretary, NGO Mitra Lingkungan Hidup (partner of life environment) and UPK of Rantim Sub-District. Community were grateful to this training: (a) The spirits of the training is in line with Tallulalisan (Box 4.1); (b) Villagers are grateful to welcome outsiders bringing the spirits of environmental conservation; (c) This is a new training topic for them; (d)The introduced non-indigenous tree species are potentially useful for economy and ecology. The training was also attended Boy-scouts members who concern on environmental conservation. Box 4.1. Tallulalisan It is the spirits of environmental conservation involving the roles and leadership of Priest (Church), Village Government and Village Elders (Tallulalisan/three pillars). The spirits of conserving nature has emerged since 1950s; however, degradation occurred during 1960s when many people converted natural forest to grazing ground for livestock (carabao, water buffalo). During 1970s, a regreening program rehabilitated the degraded natural forest land with Sumatran native Pine trees, but the village has lost of its natural forest. Since 2005, the spirits of environmental conservation has been reappeared and headed up by the Priest. Commitment to protect forest has been implemented consistently: each cutting of one tree has to replace with planting of 25 tree seedlings. A natural resource rehabilitation campaigns is led by the Priest which involves children and youth. In 2007, they organized the first youth camping ground, in which one of the main activity was to conduct tree planting campaigns in the upper catchment areas.

d. Tawalian Timur, Tawalian Sub-District, Mamasa Sub-District One of the important steps on land rehabilitation campaign is mother trees selection and seeds collection from mother trees. Identification of mother trees are conducted by observing the phenotype (physical performance) of the trees such as height of branch free bole, shape of tree bole etc., and also the distance among mother trees (at least 100 m apart) to avoid collecting seeds from inbred individuals. Trees that are standing close together may often be related and depending on the reproduction system, the seeds may result in inbreeding depression. Training in the village was put special emphasis on mother trees selection and seed collection. The distribution of the Uru trees in this village is fabulous. The objective of the training: (a) to give awareness on the strategic protection of mother trees as seed sources and campaign to plant indigenous tree species; (b) to deliver knowledge and skills on criteria and indicators of mother tree selection; (c) as first step to develop Village seeds source, especially for Uru. The training held at the Village Head House (2 July 2010), attended by 14 persons, i.e. extension worker, subvillage Heads, farmer group members and KVC of Mambuliling Village. In this training, we delivered the same training as other villages, except that we do not introduce compost making Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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and rice husk charcoal. In return, we introduced the selection procedure of Uru as mother trees. In this training, we also introduced the use of simple tool to measure tree heights, as one of important parameters to evaluate phenotype performances of the Uru tree. e. Tulak Talu, Sabbang Sub-District, Luwu Utara District The village landscape is dominated by mixed garden, with Durian, Aren, Kopi and Cacao as dominant cash crops, while Uru is still a lot. The training was addressed the need of space optimizing under canopy. The training held at Village Hall (24 July 2010), attended by 40 persons, i.e. Village Head, TPK, UPK, KPMD, BPD, members of farmer groups, TPK of Sasa Village, TPK of Malinbu Village and MHP facilitator. Participants were benefited to the training: (a) They became familiar with several non-indigenous tree species; (b) The spirits of training was in line with their planting culture; (c) They are interested on composting method using EM-4. f. Rindingallo, Rindingallo Sub-District, Toraja Utara District There are plenty of degraded lands in this village, mostly originated from Pine forest. The training held at Village Hall (4 August 2010), attended by 31 participants, i.e. TPK, UPK, Village Head, and KVC representatives of all sub-village. The training was attended by PJO District and MHP facilitator. Local community was very enthusiastic to attend the training, as: (a) This was a new topic for them; (b) Villagers have been aware on the diminishing water resource in their area; (c) They became familiar with several new species; (d) They are interested on composting method using EM-4 and the potential use of rice husk.

4.3. Supplemental Trainings Apart from catchment rehabilitation, we also provided supplemental trainings which aimed to support catchment rehabilitation implementation. Table 4.6. Supplemental trainings No 1.

Title Biogas Installation

Items Objectives: After attending the training, trainees would: (a) be aware on the urgency of catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the area; (b) be aware on potential use of animal dung as households energy; (c) have skill on designing, construction and maintenance of biogas installation. Participants: TPK, agriculture extension workers, KVG, KVC, Green facilitators. Duration: Three days (30 hours), 80 % practical exercises, 20% theory. The training was followed with intensive facilitations.

2.

Bokashi Making

Objectives: After attending the training, trainees would: Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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(a) be aware on the urgency of catchment rehabilitation campaigns in the area; (b) be aware the urgency use of manure and husk rice as plant growth media; (c) have skill on compost and rice husk charcoal making for growth media and maintaining soil fertility. Participants: TPK, KVG, KVC, extension workers, farmer groups, Green-PNPM facilitators. Duration: one day (10 hours), 80 % practical exercises, 20% theory. The training was followed with intensive facilitations. 3.

Mapping with GPS

Objectives: After attending the training, trainees would: (a) be skillful to operate GPS for mapping; (b) be able to map the planting site on the catchment areas. Participants: TPK, KVG, KVC, extension workers, farmer groups, Green-PNPM facilitators. Duration: Two days (20 hours), 70 % practical exercises, 30% theory. The training was followed with intensive facilitations.

4.3.1. Biogas Installation This training was only delivered on one village model (Orobua Selatan) in Mamasa District; it was supported with direct construction of permanent biogas, in which all the training participant involved on the construction process. The training took for two days (February 21-22, 2011). It was attended by 33 participants (32 male and 1 female), KVG and KVC of Orobua Selatan, farmer groups of Satanetean, Tawalian Timur, Buntu Malangka, Salutambun Barat, Salumokanan Villages and agriculture extension of Tawalian Sub-district. We also made use the training to refresh participants with nursery development and catchment rehabilitation materials. See Table 4.4. The relevant of biogas installation: (a) the pressing need of renewable energy, considering the high dependence on fuel wood and kerosene; (b) the abundance of livestock dung, especially pig. The training has brought positive impact to villagers; they have started developing biogas by their own resources. We expect that the biogas installation in Orobua Selatan Village will inspire the neighboring areas.

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Box 4.2: Home biogas: Green-PNPM SMART-PRACTICE Cheap home biogas Installation: Biogas is the flammable gas produced from fermented organic materials by anaerobic bacteria. The gas can be used as the source of home energy for cooking and fuel source of generator. The main requirement for home biogas installation is the cattle have already been caged for efficient collection of fresh dung. Home biogas installation (using plastic Poly-ethyl Propylene digester) with the dung source of two cows, this equal to 6 pigs or 500 chickens and can produce 2 m3 gases. 1 m3 of biogas is equal to 0.46 kg LPG or 0.6 liter kerosene or 3.5 kg fuel-wood. The amount of gas is sufficient to supply the biogas demand of one household. To start-up the production of biogas, about 5,000 liter of cattle dung solution (cattle dung mixed with water with ratio of 1 to 2) is stored in the digester. It takes about 8-15 days to produce biogas after the first input; the daily input is about 50 liter solution of cattle dung or 1 % of the digester volume. The waste of the fermented organic materials can be used as organic fertilizer. The average installation cost is Rp. 1,750,000; this will last about 7 years, so the daily installation cost is Rp. 650. Suppose the labor cost for fresh dung collection is Rp. 1,000/day, this brings the total cost of Rp. 1,650/day. The produced gas is able to cook for at least two hours per day; this is equal with the use of kerosene of 1.2 liter or equal to Rp. 8,000. In comparison to kerosene, the use of biogas gives benefit of Rp. 6,350. No transport required to bring kerosene home and free of scarce resources. In addition, the waste of biogas can be used as organic fertilizer. The use of biogas will stop trees cutting and forest for fuel-woods source. Biogas installation is considered as SMART-PRACTICE, apart from providing ecological benefits, improve clean environment (using organic waste); the biogas installation is also accessible (no transport cost) and gives significant economic benefit compared to kerosene, fuel wood and LPG. OWT Efforts to make the technology suitable for Green-PNPM: The application of Biogas as GreenPNPM smart practices have so far experienced several major problems: (a) The vulnerability of plastic (Poly-ethyl Propylene) digester to leakage; (b) The biogas technology was only suitable to be used for one household. This is unmatched with the communal principle of the Green-PNPM program; (c) The biogas is only suitable for those who raise cattle, while most of poor villagers in rural areas have no cattle. Efforts have been made to tackle the problems: (a) Instead of using plastic digester, we use fiber water tank which can last (endure) for 20 years; (b) By using fiber water tank with capacity of 200 litters, the produced biogas can supply the domestic fuel demand of at least three households; (c) As a substitute of animal dung, we use the waste of tempe and tofu processing waste. Such improvements have made biogas technology well-matched with Green-PNPM sub-projects. This is again a smart practice we have initiated in this program. Level Household

Benefit     

Community

 

clean and convenient cooking fuel time and labor saving in cooking and fuel collection reduction in pollution levels in kitchen, affecting family health and that of women in particular monetary saving in case of purchased fuels cost-free organic fertilizer reduces pressure on already scarce sources of biomass fuels like wood and crop residue better health and sanitation through removal of cattle dung from open space

4.3.2. Bokashi Making

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Trainings on the making of Bokashi were delivered to all village models; it was a supplemental topic on Catchment Rehabilitation Training. We stimulated farmers to use their abundance rice husk as source of bokashi and rice husk charcoal as growth media (see Box 4.4.). We facilitated the establishment of ‘Bokashi’ house, located in the nursery village, as a place to make bokashi and introduced the use of simple equipment to make rice husk charcoal. The rationale of the training: (a) little farmers apply organic fertilizer; (b) abundance source of dung and rice husk; (c) low productivity of rainfed and irrigated agriculture; (d) effective way to increase production using available resource. To make local community aware on bokashi, we facilitated them to grow tomato and egg-plant on big poly-bag in two different conditions, with and without bokashi application. After two months, they can see the difference growth; With Bokashi application, the growth of egg-plant and tomato are two times faster than without Bokashi. These facts have driven communities’ spirits to develop and apply bokashi in their daily farming. Box 4.4. Bokashi and Rice Husk Relying on natural decomposition, it takes two months to compost rice husk. Using EM-4/ Effective Microorganism-4, it is a decomposition starter, which is composed of phosphate solvent bacteria, fermented bacteria of Lactobacillus and fermented fungi of Actinomycetes, the decomposition process can be shorten into a week. The resulted compost is known as Bokhasi (Bahan Organik Kaya Akan Sumber Hayati, Organic matter rich of bio-resources). Any organic materials can be processed into Bokashi (rice straw, organic waste, animal dungs) fermented with EM-4. Bokhasi is useful to improve soil fertility, to prevent the growth of pathogen microbes and improve the crop on the efficient use of organic matter. Bokhasi can be prepared between 4 to 7 days, the production cost is very cheap, the price 1 bottle EM-4 is Rp. 18,000 and this can produce 1 ton Bokhasi. We practiced the making Bokhasi using animal dungs, rice husks and bran flour. The suggested proportion: (a) Animal dungs (15 kg); (b) rice husk (30 kg); (c) bran flour (0.5 kg); (d) sugar solution (10 ml); (e) EM-4 (10 ml); (f) water 10 liter. All materials are mixed up, then covered and resting for 1 week. The landuse in the project areas is dominated by semi-irrigated rice fields (sawah). Villagers of 3 out of 6 village models still grow indigenous rice species with 6 months duration in each planting season (Mambuliling, Orobua Selatan and Tawalian Timur), while the remaining villages grow high yielding varieties with 3-4 months harvest. Because of rice being the main agricultural crop, especially in the flat to gentle sloped terrain, the area has an abundance of paddy (unhusked rice) waste, such as rice husk/bran (sekam padi) and bran flour (dedak). Milling paddy produces 50-64% rice, rice husk (2030%), and bran flour (8-12%). If 1 ha sawah produces 4 tons, the rice husk production is 800-1,200 kg. From this figures, one can imagine the annual rice husk production in this areas. Unfortunately, so far the local community has not made use of the abundant rice husks as a new source of income generation. Javanese farmers process rice husk for charcoal and use it for manure. Rice husk is good for compost making and for rice-husk charcoal; all of which can be used as materials to develop growth medium seedlings. The benefits of using rice husk compost (Bokashi) as growth medium are: (a) Improve soil structure; (b) Enhance soil water holding capacity; (c) Enhance soil microorganism activity; (d) Enrich soil organic matter. The suggested mix in the growth medium materials: (a) top-soil (75%); (b) Bokhasi (25%) and (c) Rice husk charcoal (25%). The benefits of using rice husk charcoal in a growth medium are: (a) Increase pH; (b) Improve porosity (soil growth media texture and structure); (c) Seedlings are easily taken out of the poly-bag (avoid root disturbances/damages). The rice husks charcoal is also good for alternative energy, by making the rice husk charcoal briquette. Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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4.3.3. Mapping with Geo Positioning System (GPS) Training on GPS mapping delivered to all village models; it was a supplemental topic provided during the facilitation process on defining and mapping of planting (rehabilitation) areas. The training was normally followed by 15 KVC (mostly youth) and took for two days. The training consisted of several steps: (a) Introduction: Mapping, GPS principle, how to operate GPS for mapping; (b) Mapping exercise using GPS; (c) Mapping catchment and planting (rehabilitation) areas using GPS; (d) transfer the GPS marking in the computer using Map Source program. The outputs of the training: (a) KVC are able to use GPS; (b) KVC enabled to map catchment area and the position of planting site in the catchment areas; (c) KVC gained insight on mapping activities, and its important roles on participatory catchment rehabilitation plans.

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Chapter V

Facilitation and Technical Assistance During the implementation of the project, we provided intensive facilitation and technical assistance to village models. Those were conducted by working together and live-in on the village models: Most villages in Mamasa culturally define a special day during the week for voluntary/unpaid work (kerja bakti) dedicated to for their village, fellow villagers and church. We made use the village ‘kerja bakti’ day‘ as entry point to provide intensive facilitation, technical assistance and awareness rising. Thanks to village models which define the village ‘kerja bakti’ day differently, this enable us to arrange facilitation schedule from one to another village model during the week, i.e. Tuesday in Orobua Selatan, Wednesday in Salomo Kanan, Thursday in Tawalian Timur and Saturday in Salutambun Barat, while Sunday and Monday in Mamasa Town.

5.1 Facilitation on Species Selection Criteria for species selection on catchment management are: (a) Hidrologically suitable: The species function as soil and water protection. The evapotranspiration rate should be modest, while the roots system can enhance infiltration and prevent shallow land-slide; (b) economically valuable: local community has spirits to plant the trees for short and long term economic benefits; (c) Biophysically suitable: It is highly matched with the ecological (land-quality) requirement of the tree, in terms of climatic (altitude) and edaphology. Domesticated tree species can be grouped into three categories, i.e. high quality timber species (HQTS), fast growing species (FGS), and multipurpose tree species (MPTS). High quality timber species: This category includes group of species produce timbers with economic value. These species have moderate to long life period and its timbers can be used for furniture, construction and veneer. Examples of this group includes: Mahoni, Jati, Merbau, Kayu Afrika, Uru and Suren. Fast growing species: Fast growing species is a group of woody species with less economic value. These species usually have short life period and are mostly developed as raw materials for pulp, paper industries and indoor-construction. Examples of this group includes: Sengon, Jati Putih, and Sengon Buto (Red Sengon). Multipurpose tree species: Multipurpose tree species is a group of woody species which have many functions such as for hydrologic purposes, gardening, fire wood, fodders, fruits, honey, and oils. Example of this group include: Pulai, Nangka, and Gaharu. During the training session we facilitated the selection process of tree species. The facilitation process for tree species selection: (a) We asked trainees to list tree species they have already familiar either indigenous or non-indigenous species; (b) Level of preference of the listed tree species expressing in descending order; (c) We facilitated the selection of tree species on the basis on availability of the seeds (wilding) and community preference; (d) Apart from local species, we also introduced non-indigenous tree species, in which ecologically suitable to grow in the areas, while we have sufficient seeds stock; (e) We explain the origin and the use of Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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the trees (see Table 5.3); (f) Level of preference of new species expressing in descending order; (g) Final list of tree species committed to be developed.

Figure 5.1. Diagram of trees species target which will be developed in project areas Table 5.1 List of tree species developed in the village nursery Growing Group Fast Growing

Vernacular Name Sengon Sengon Buto Jati Putih Sirsak Uru

Species Paraserianthes falcataria Enterolobium cyclocarpum Gmelina arborea Anona muricata Elmerrillia sp

Family Leguminosae Fabaceae Verbenaceae Annonaceae Magnoliaceae

Middle Growing

Suren Kayu Afrika Nangka Gaharu Cemara Gunung (Buangin) Mahoni Merbau/Kayu Besi Trembesi

Toona sureni Maesopsis eminii Pterocarpus heterophyllus Aquilaria crassna Casuarina junghuniana

Meliaceae Meliaceae Fabaceae Thymelaeaceae Casuarinaceae

Swietenia macrophylla Intsia bijuga Samanea saman

Meliaceae Fabaceae Mimosoideae

Tumaku

Macadamia sp

Proteaceae

Slow Growing

Very Slow Growing

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5.2 Facilitation on Seeds Collection We facilitated the seeds procurement of non-indigenous species originated from well-selected mother trees21 as defined by the Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agriculture University (IPB). The seed sources are spread over several areas in West Java, such as Carita (Banten), Cianjur, Dramaga (Bogor) and Cisarua (Bogor). We also collected seeds from KPH (Forest Management Unit of Perhutani22) Kediri (East Java), BIOTROP, Rumpin Seed Source and Nursery Center/MoF-Koica and collecting non-selected fruit seeds from Bogor market, See Table 5.2. Some of the seeds were collected by climbing, such as Mahoni (winged seeds), Uru (to compete with fruit eating birds). Seeds of indigenous species (Uru/Cempaka) were collected from Tawalian Timur Village, all of the selected mother trees (five trees) were fruiting. The planting materials of some indigenous species such as Buangin and Tumaku were collected from its natural seedlings/wilding. Table 5.2 List of Forest Tree Seeds Sources using for Seed Collection No

Species

1

Swietenia macrophylla

2 3 4

Intsia bijuga Gmelina arborea Paraserianthes falcataria

5 6 7 8 9 10

Entrolobium cyclocarpum Maesopsis eminii Aquilaria crassna * Arthocarpus heterophyllus* Toona sureni Anona muricata*

Source

Institution

Carita (Banten) and Cianjur FORDA23 (West Java) Perhutani/KPH Cianjur Carita (Banten) FORDA Dramaga-Bogor FORDA Dramaga-Bogor FORDA Kediri (East Java) KPH Kediri Dramaga-Bogor FORDA Cisarua-Bogor PTPN24 VIII Tajur-Bogor BIOTROP Bogor Bogor market Cisarua-Bogor PTPN VIII Bogor Bogor market

Remarks: * seeds were not collected from non-selected trees

5.3 Facilitation on Nurseries Establishment The establishment of village nursery is the most important step for catchment rehabilitation. Its establishment is useful to: (a) minimize seedlings damage and stress due to transportation; (b) shorten the distance between the sources of planting materials and proposed planting areas; (c) demonstrate good nursery example for future development; (d) nurture the spirits of independence (mandiri) of local community. This chapter discusses the facilitation on village nursery establishment.

21

Mother tree (pohon induk) is selected as genetic material sources for generative or vegetative propagation. The tree has good performance (phenotype), healthy and already fruiting. 22

Perhutani: state owned forest enterprise managing forest resource in Java FORDA: Forest Research Development Agency-Ministry of Forestry 24 PTPN: state owned plantation enterprise 23

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The cost for nursery establishment was derived from: (a) Block-grant, i.e. germination bed, seedlings bed, filling growth media to poly-bag, nursery maintenance etc.); (b) Catchment management, such as procurement of non-indigenous seeds. Poly-bags, shading net, announcement boards, EM-4, and (c) Self-Supporting (swadaya), this consists of local resources, such as bamboo, top-soil, compost, manure, rice husk etc. The spirits of activity is well-reflected in the RAB (budget breakdown), in which the seedlings are developed by local community and not allowed to be purchased from outside. Catchment rehabilitation which is conducted by purchasing seedlings is not in line with the spirits of green empowerment. There have been many bad practices for such arrangement (moral hazards) in the Green-PNPM. a. Orubua Selatan, Sesenapadang Sub-District, Mamasa The nursery establishment held on 2 June 2010 and involved the participation of TPK members, BPD, Village Secretary, and KVCs of five sub-villages. They developed 5,000 seedlings. Species: Sengon, Sengon Buto, Jati Putih, Suren, Kayu Afrika, Mahoni and Nangka. b. Salumokanan, Rantebulahan Timur Sub-District, Mamasa The nursery establishment was involved all community element. The target is 11.000 seedlings. Species: Sengon, Mahoni, Kayu Afrika and Nangka. c. Salutambun Barat, Buntu Malangka (Bumal) Sub-District, Mamasa The target is 12,000 seedlings. Species: Mahoni, Nangka, Kayu Afrika, Sengon, Sengon Buto, Jati Putih, Cemara Gunung, Tumaku, Uru, and Suren. d. Tawalian Timur, Tawalian Sub-District, Mamasa The target is 5,000 seedlings. Species: Uru, Mahoni, Sengon, Suren, Nangka, Kayu Afrika, kayu manis, and Jati Putih e. Mambuliling, Mamasa Sub-District, Mamasa The target is 11.000 seedlings. Species: Sengon, Suren and Mahoni. f. Tulak Talu, Sabbang Sub-District, Luwu Utara The target is 5,000 seedlings. Species: Uru, Nangka, Kayu Afrika, Jati, Sirsak, Mahoni, Sengon and Lengkeng. Table 5.3 Description of tree species developed in the village nursery No Species Origin Ecology 1

Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielson Sengon

It is native to Sumatra, Java, Bali and Flores, the Moluccas, New Guinea, the Solomon Island, and Australia. Its origin probably is from the eastern Malaysian area as the largest diversity of the species is found here.

Found in a wide variety of habitats generally ranging from sea-level to 1,600 m altitude but sometimes up to 3,300 m altitude.

Uses It is suitable for general utility purposes such as light construction, especially rafters, paneling, interior trim, furniture, and cabinet work.

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Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze Merbau

3

Swietenia macrophylla King Mahoni

4

Gmelina arborea Roxb Jati Putih

5

Tectona grandis Linn.

Jati

6

Maesopsis eminii Engler Kayu Afrika

It is found from Tanzania and Madagascar through southern India and Burma, towards Malesia (include Indonesia), northern Australia and Polynesia.

Prefer annual rainfall of more than 2,000 mm and found up to 1,000 m altitude

The area of distribution extends from central Mexico through Central America and the West Indies, including southern Florida, toward Bolivia, Peru and Brazil. At present, mahogany is widely cultivated throughout the tropics including Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.

The optimum annual rainfall is 1,400-2,500(3,500) mm with a dry period of 0-4 months. Mahogany grows from sea-level to 1,500 m altitude, in areas with a mean annual temperature of 20-28ยบC

It is distributed from Pakistan and India, Srilanka and southern China through the Malesian Archipelago towards northern and western Australia, Fiji, New Zealand and New Caledonia. Tectona grandis occupies two areas of native range: the western portion includes most of peninsular India and the eastern portion includes parts of Burma, Laos, and Thailand. It has naturalized in at least the Philippines, Java and Puerto Rico.

It can grow up to 1,300 m altitude but is then usually stunted

The wood is used mainly for light construction and for pulping. Several parts of the plant are used medicinally. Leaves are good for cattle fodder

Tectona grandis tolerates a wide range of climate, but grows best in a warm, moist, tropical climate (1,250 to 3,000 mm rainfall) with a marked dry season of 3 to 6 months.

Wood is used for ship building, railways, piles in harbour, bridge-building, construction work, furniture and cabinet work.

M. eminii are found naturally between 6oS and 8oN in tropical Africa along the Gulf of Guinea from Liberia to Angola and through Zaire, southern Sudan and Uganda to Kenya and Tanzania.

Merbau is a very good general-purpose timber. It is suitable for a wide range of purposes because of its favourable physical and mechanical properties; combined with a high natural durability and an attractive appearance The uses of this species include furniture making, paneling, stairs, handrails, musical instrument, and water-work construction such as bridges, wharves, sluices, and sheet piles. Mahoni is one of the most valuable furniture timbers in the world due to the decorative and attractive timber with good technical characteristics.

Bolster, furniture, pillar, log, house building, bridge, roof frame, door cushion, window and tool wood. In Africa M. eminii is commonly retained in home gardens for shade, fuel and timber, while the leaves are used as fodder. In Africa and India it is often planted as a shade tree in coffee, tea and

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Durio zibethinus Murr

The durian is native to Malaysia and Indonesia

Durian

8

Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb.

Natural distributed in America tropic, especially in North, Middle and south Mexico.

Sengon Buto

9

Anona muricata Linn. Sirsak

10

Pterocarpus heterophyllus Nangka

11

Toona sureni Suren

12

13

14

Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy Uru Persea americana P. Mill Alpokat Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill Trembesi

The durian thrives well in humid climate where temperatures range from 25°C - 30°C. However, durian is not tolerant for prolonged dry-spell and grow best with an evenly distributed rainfall of between 150 and 200 cm per year Growing well in 0 – 1,000 m altitude with an evenly distributed rainfall of between 600 – 4800 mm/year.

It was introduced by the Spaniards from tropical America and is now pan tropic in distribution.

Growing well in 1,000 m altitude.

Common in southeast Asia and found occasionally in Pacific island Home gardens.

The tree grows well in equatorial to subtropical maritime climates at elevations of 1–1600 m (3.3–5250 ft) and average rainfall of 1000–2400 mm (40–95 in) Altitude: 1 200-2 700 m, Mean annual temperature: 20-30ºC, Mean annual rainfall: 1120-4 000 mm

Bhutan, China, Native: India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Thailand

Spread in Sulawesi dan Moluccas (Morotai, Ambon)

Naturally growth in Mexico, Central America, and Guam. Planting in South and Central America Native of northern tropical South America.

Growing well in Tropical rain forest in lowland area until mountain range at 1000 m asl Avocado trees do best in full sun, but can be grown in shade--just do not expect ideal fruit production. Grow best in the lowland from the sea level to 300 m, with the

cardamom plantations, in Zaire also to shade cocoa trees. Initial yield may be 10 40 fruits for the first year of fruiting to about 100 fruits for the sixth year. Yield of up to 200 fruits is common after the 10th year of fruiting

It is suitable for general utility purposes such as light construction, especially rafters, paneling, interior trim, furniture, and cabinet work. It is an excellent source of vitamins B and C. PrinsanGeerlings reports that the flesh of the fruit contains saccharose 2.53%, dextrose 5.05% and laevulose 0.04 %. Fruit, timber, fodder, latex. 70–100 kg/tree/yr (150–220 lb/tree/yr) is typical, although much larger yields have been reported

It is used for high-class cabinet wood, furniture, interior finishing, decorative paneling, crafts, musical instruments, cigar boxes and veneers In Toraja it used for furniture, decorative paneling and rice barn.

It can be eaten fresh, out of hand, but the avocado is usually used in conjunction with other foods Green leaves of S. saman are a high quality feed for sheep, goats and cattle and

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are used as a supplement during the dry season. Because of its prolific flowering, S. saman is also profitable for honey production. The wood, which is not durable, produces a high quality timber for carving, furniture and paneling.

5.4. Technical Assistances on Mother Trees Selection One of the important activities on forest and land rehabilitation is preparing seedlings that propagated from selected mother trees. Mother trees is a tree with good performance that showing on the high of branch-free stem, stem straightness, high to permanent branch, bark surface, stem cylindrically, and no defect. The purpose of mother trees selection and protection are: (a) to define the selected and protected trees as seeds sources for seedlings propagation, (b) awareness rising on the protected trees as seed sources. Uru trees still exist in several villages in Mamasa, such as Tawalian Timur and Salutambun Barat Villages. The selection of Uru mother tress was conducted on July 12, 2010 at Tawalian Timur and on October 16, 2010 in Salutambun Barat, while selection of Kapun (Dryobalanops sp) mother tress at Orobua Selatan Village was done on October 12, 2010. For conservation measures, we socialized information about the nature of the protected mother trees to local community, such as: (a) local and scientific names,; (b) seeds morphology; (c) seed characteristics (recalcitrant or orthodox); (d) color of mature fruit and mature seed; (e) planting and maintenance of the trees (silviculture techniques). We also documented the morphology of the trees such as standing tree, stem bark, root type, fruit, leaves and seeds. To sustain activities which have been initiated and conserve protected mother trees against illegal logging, we facilitated Tawalian Timur to establish Village Regulation (Peraturan Desa), the Perdes has been successfully legalized by the District Government on March 17, 2011. This is in fact the first dealing on natural resource management in Mamasa District. The Perdes contains principle rule and punishment for the violator. See Box 5.1.

Box 5.1. Rule and Sanction: Example of NRM Village Regulation from Tawalian Timur Village Rule 1: Every family is compulsory to develop vegetable and pharmacies herbal surrounding house. Sanction 1: Those who do not apply this will not receive Village Women Group assistance. Rule 2: Prohibition of cutting tress and encroach state forest land. Sanction 2: Violator responsible of rice-field damage due to flooding and land-slide Rule 3: Prohibition to cut protected mother trees Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Sanction 3: Violator will receive customary law punishment Rule 4: Prohibition to herd cattle on the tree planting/catchment rehabilitation areas. Sanction 4: Violator will receive customary law punishment

5.5. Facilitation on Catchment Rehabilitation Lack of community participation and project oriented culture have recognized as the main constraints of many regreening program. Understanding this, the current facilitation program put emphasis on community empowerment while eliminating the money issues which often deteriorate the spirits of mutual work and togetherness. We started with training which then directly followed with working together (nursery establishment) and supported with intensive technical assistances. Training without direct actions is just knowledge alleviation, while actions without technical assistances are often misleading. We developed intimate relationships with local community to build a sense of responsibility and ownership. Strengthen local institution for catchment management: Green-PNPM uses TPK (project implementing unit) to organize and administer project implementation (MHP construction) at village level. The problem, TPK is an ad-hoc (project) organization. Based on discussion with KVG and KVC, we came to a conclusion that catchment management is best to be attached on Gapoktan (Union of Farmer Groups). A village Gapoktan is composed of several sub-village farmer groups. The organization is active and being a community based development agent, especially to facilitate agriculture development. We facilitated Gapoktan to: (a) formulate roles and responsibilities on catchment management activities; (b) improve agriculture practices as key to conserve catchment areas; (c) apply simple and cheap soil and water conservation, especially on sloping land; (d) make tree nursery, vegetative and generative propagation as potential future income generation. Gapoktan took the lead on nursery maintenance and catchment rehabilitation in all village models,

5.6. Catchment rehabilitation Implementation 5.6.1. Village Planting Campaigns 5.6.1.1. Participatory catchment and targeted rehabilitation area mapping This facilitation is started with GPS training for KCV (see Chapter 4), then followed with village meeting to define the rehabilitation sites, after the sites had been committed and agreed then we facilitated participatory mapping (involving KVG and KVC) to map both catchment and targeted rehabilitation areas at village level. 5.6.1.2. Planting campaigns implementation The facilitation of planting campaigns consisted of: (a) made planting stakes (ajir); (b) conducted land clearing; (c) defined planting direction and space; (d) installed planting stakes on planting area; (e) made planting holes. Those activities were led by Gapoktan and involved local community through voluntary works. Planting areas is bare land (critical land), owned by local Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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community, whom they agreed to be planted. About 20% of planting material was distributed to local community and planted in their garden. See Table 5.4. We introduced and facilitated smart practices tree planting campaigns to local community: (a) Uniform planting space: to maintain uniform environmental factors (light, humidity, nutrient adsorption etc.), thereby uniform growth and multiple cropping opportunities; (b) Follow contour line: Land clearing and planting in sloping areas should follow contour lines to prevent surface and morpho-erosion; (c) Multiple cropping: Planting space is defined 5x5 m2, to enable use space below tree canopies for less light demanding crops (i.e. coffee and cacao); (d) Avoid monoculture planting, each contour line is planted with specific tree species or planted tree species in alternating manner; (e) Village seeds source: Planting areas designated as village seed sources. The implementation of catchment area rehabilitation can be inspected on Table 5.4. 5.6.2. District Planting Campaigns 5.6.2.1. Workshop on Catchment Management Rehabilitation The workshop was organized during the visit of Danida Advisor (Mr. Per Rasmussen). During his three days visit in Mamasa, he visited the village nurseries and Bokashi houses of Orobua Selatan Village, Tawalian Timur Village (30 November 2010), Salomo Kanan Village (1 December 2010). Due to weather and road problem (high rain intensity and poor road), he could not visit Salutambun Barat Village. Local community was very enthusiastic and impressed with his visits. The objectives of the workshop were to socialize the progress of the project and call for government and local NGOs supports on catchment rehabilitation campaigns in Mamasa. Table 5.4. Implementation of planting campaigns on village models Species

Date

Budget (Rp)

Planting area (ha)

a. Orobua Selatan

Mahoni, suren, sengon, sengon buto, kayu afrika

17 February 2011

6.190.000,-

3

b. Tawalian Timur

Mahoni, jati putih, sengon, uru, kayu manis

24 February 2011

6.320.000,-

2

c.

Mahoni, sengon

15 February 2011

14.812.000,-

7,5

Mahoni, sengon, tumaku, uru, buangin

19 February 2011

15.916.200,-

8

Mahoni, sengon, kayu afrika, sirsak

13 January 2011

6.326.000,-

3

49.564.200,-

16

No

Site

Mamasa District

Salumokanan

d. Salutambun Barat Luwu Utara District: a.

Tulak Tallu

Total

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The workshop held on 2 December 2010 at the Regent Office Auditorium and attended by 36 participants, among other Danida Advisor, Regent Secretary, Parliament members, PMD, PNPM facilitators, Technical Support Unit, Heads of several NRM district agencies, sub-district and village heads and local NGOs. The workshop raised the following issues: (a) Ecosystem degradation and Urgency of catchment area rehabilitation in Mamasa, presented by OWT Director and Danida Advisor; (b) Progress on catchment rehabilitation measures in Mamasa, presented by Catchment Management Coordinator (Ujang Susep Irawan); (c) Promoted several products initiated by OWT which have been widely practiced by local community, such as rice husk compost, bokashi and simple equipment to make rice husk charcoal. The workshop received lot of appreciation from participants. The main workshop conclusions and follow-up: (a) Catchment area management should become a basis for NRM decision making process in Mamasa; (b) Conservation of indigenous species is important issue for catchment area rehabilitation; (c) Government and local NGOs will maintain and replicate the works which have already been initiated by the project (d) Government expected Danida funding for another year. 5.6.2.2. District Planting Campaign at Tulak Talu Village, Luwu Utara District planting campaign occurred at Tumandi Hamlet, Tulak Talu Village, Sabang District, Luwu Utara, the rehabilitation site is 2 ha; slope steepness ranges from 10 – 20 degree, located near the nursery areas and MHP. The facilitation of planting campaigns consisted of: (a) land clearing; (b) defined planting direction and space; (c) developed ditch terrace; (d) made planting stakes (ajir); (e) installed planting stakes on planting area; (e) made planting holes; (f) distributed planting materials on planting holes. The land clearing and terracing were conducted through voluntary work involving local community, agricultural extension workers and farmer group of Tulak Talu Village. The ceremony of planting campaigns held on February 26, 2011 and participated not less than 250 people, consisted of: (a) the Regent and all key officials of Luwu Utara District (50 persons); (b) sub-districts heads and village heads in Mamasa District (15 persons); (d) PNPM facilitators (12 persons); (e) Farmer groups representatives (20 persons); (g) NGO representatives (2 persons); (h) Parliament members; (i) Tulak Talu villagers (about 150 persons). The ceremony was opened with the speech of the Head of PMD explained about Green-PNPM and, followed by OWT Director who explained the background, objectives of the project, role of Danish Embassy and all facilitation activities conducted by OWT during several months. The Regent expressed his appreciation on OWT work and expected OWT and Danida will provide further facilitation and technical assistance to Luwu Utara. The planted trees species were Sengon, Uru, Mahoni. All planting materials developed by trees nursery of Tulak Talu Village. 5.6.2.3. District Planting Campaign in Tawalian Timur, Mamasa District planting campaign occurred at Tawalian Timur Village, the land size is 4 ha, slope steepness ranges from 25 – 30 degree, located near the village road and owned by the village. The facilitation of planting campaigns consisted of: (a) land clearing; (b) defined planting Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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direction and space; (c) developed bench terrace; (d) made planting stakes (ajir); (e) installed planting stakes on planting area; (e) made planting holes; (f) distributed planting materials on planting holes. The land clearing and bench-terracing were conducted through voluntary work involving local community, agricultural extension workers and farmer group representatives, while the preparation of planting holes were conducted by Boy-Scout ‘Saka Wana-Bakti’ from Salomo Kanan Village. The ceremony of planting campaigns held on March 2, 2011 and participated not less than 300 people, consisted of: (a) the Regent and all key officials of Mamasa District (30 persons); (b) Boy-scout “Saka Wana Bhakti’ (35 persons); (c) sub-districts heads and village heads in Mamasa District (42 persons); (d) PNPM facilitators from SE Sulawesi Province, Mamasa District and Tawalian Sub-district (8 persons); (e) Parliament members; (f) Representatives of Secondary school students (55 persons); (g) Farmer groups representatives (25 persons); (h) NGO representatives (10 persons); (i) Mamasa TV and Journalists (2 persons); (j) Tawalian Timur villagers (about 100 persons). The ceremony was opened with the speech of OWT Director. He explained the background, objectives of the project, role of Danish Embassy and all facilitation activities conducted by OWT from April 2010 to February 2011. He impressed on the distinct community participation and enthusiasm to the project. The Regent expressed his great supports and gratitude to the project, and expected OWT and Danida will provide more facilitation and technical assistance to Mamasa. The opening ceremony was entertained with the bamboo music of Tawalian Timur Secondary School, traditional dance of Tawalian Timur Village and vocal group of Boy-scout. The planted trees species were Sengon, Duren, Uru, Mahoni, and Nangka (jackfruit). All planting materials developed by trees nursery of Tawalian Timur Village. The event was well organized and very impressive and inspiring.

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Chapter VI

Awareness Rising We conducted awareness rising through three main approaches; (a) publishing and presenting films followed with discussion; (b) Distributing awareness materials, such as leaflet, banner, stickers and T-shirts; (c) organizing activities, such as Uru seed hunting and youth camping. This chapter discusses activities related to awareness rising on catchment area management and conservation.

6.1. Awareness Materials 6.1.1. Awareness Film 6.1.1.1. Giant Sponge of Indonesia The film is targeted for general public at national level. The film presents: (a) catchment areas; (b) roles of tropical forest as giant sponge to absorb water during rainy season and to release it during dry season; (c) smart practices on community based catchment areas management activities; (d) upstream-downstream relationships and (e) watershed management spatial planning. The resource person is Dr. Edi Purwanto, while the presenter is Nugie (musician, national celebrity). The film has been published in Metro TV for several times. We presented the film during workshop, coordination meeting, training and awareness activities. 6.1.1.2. Ecological degradation in Mamasa The film was developed during the visit of Danida Advisor to this project. The film is targeted for Mamasa community and decision makers. The film presents: (a) ecological degradation in Mamasa; (b) underlined causes of resource degradation; (c) actions required to restore the present situation. The resource persons are Mr. Per Rasmussen and Dr. Edi Purwanto. The film has been published in Mamasa TV for several times. We presented the film during several awareness campaigns at village models. The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa during Mamasa Planting campaign. 6.1.1.3. Mamasa planting campaigns It is mixed of awareness and documentary film. The film is targeted for Mamasa community and decision makers. The film presents: (a) five reasons why Mamasa need to conduct planting campaigns; (b) documentation of planting campaign at district level. The film has been published in Mamasa TV. The final version of the film is still in preparation. 6.1.1.4. Micro-hydro power for people The film was developed during productive use survey25. The film is targeted for general public at national level. The film presents: (a) general condition of MHP in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts; (b) roles of MHP to provide electrical energy for productive use; (c) Potential 25

Productive use is taken to mean application of power from an MHP that adds value to an existing economic process or allows new processes to materialize such as micro and small-enterprises in agribusiness, as well as to social service institutions such as schools and health clinics.

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productive uses; (d) People expectations on MHP based productive use. The film is developed in cooperation with GTZ MHP Project. The film has been completed but not yet been distributed. 6.1.2. Tutorial films 6.1.2.1. Seedlings propagation The tutorial film is targeted for community in Mamasa and Luwu Utara, but it is also relevant for seedling propagation training beyond the areas. The film presents: (a) selection of mother tree; (b) introduction of forest tree seeds; (c) seed treatment; (d) seeds sowing; (e) seedlings transplanting; (f) preparation of media for seedlings growth; (g) nursery maintenance; (h) seedlings propagation by grafting and shoot cutting technique. The resource person is Ujang Susep Irawan, S.Hut, MSi. The film has been published in Mamasa TV for several times. We presented the film during awareness and training, The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa during Mamasa Planting campaign. 6.1,2.2. Biogas installation The tutorial film is targeted for local community. The film presents: (a) principal of biogas; (b) required materials and equipment for biogas installation; (c) install biogas with plastic digester; (d) install biogas with fiber-glass digester. The resource person is Drs. Winardi (OWT). The film has been published in Mamasa TV for several times. We presented the film during biogas training. The film’s DVDs were distributed to key decision makers in Mamasa during Mamasa Planting campaign. 6.1.3. Leaflet/brochure We develop 8 leaflets/brochures: (a) generative propagation; (b) Shoot Cuttings; (c) Planting Technique; (d) Agarwood propagation and inoculation techniques; (e) The making of charcoal briquettes; (f) Bokashi Production; (g) Biogas Installation. Each title was printed for 2,000 copies. Each village model received 300 copies, i.e. Salumokanan, Salutambun Barat, Tawalian Timur, Orobua Selatan, Tulak Tallu, Buntu Malangka, Satanetean, and Orobua. The leaflets were distributed to Green-PNPM facilitators and project stakeholders during Mamasa Planting campaign. 6.1.4. Standing Banner We made 8 standing banners and installed in OWT office and village models’ office: (a) Training on catchment area rehabilitation; (b) flow chart of community based catchment area rehabilitation; (c) flow chart of generative propagation; (d) Flow Chart of tree planting campaigns; (e) Save forest to avoid drought; (f) Save forests to conserve water resource; (g) small seedlings, big benefits; (h) Save the future of children by planting trees. 6.1.5. Stickers We made stickers with various sizes and shapes to introduce OWT mission to local community. OWT: Bersama Masyarakat Melestarikan Alam (Empowering Community for Conservation).

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6.1.6. T-Shirt T-shirt has proven as an effective incentive to generate voluntary work’s spirits of local community for catchment area rehabilitation campaign. We made 500 T-shirt and distributed to local community and project stakeholders.

6.2. Activity based Awareness 6.2.1. Planting indigenous species Uru (Elmerella sp.) is the most important indigenous species in Mamasa and badly need to conserve. Local community normally plant Uru by moving the wildling to planting areas. Seed sowing is rarely practiced since the mature fruits are normally eaten by birds. This is the reason why Uru seedlings rarely grow below the tress. To compete with fruit eating birds ones have to collect mature seeds from the tree by climbing. We inspired boy-scout ‘Saka Wana Bhakti’ (Forestry boy-scout of Salomo Kanan Village) to collect mature seeds out of Uru tree (Berburu Benih Uru/Uru seeds hunting) in Salomo Kanan Village. This ideas was followed up by the scout, in January 2011, they voluntary collected mature seeds and planted in the village nursery. We proposed ‘Uru seeds hunting’ as routine agenda of Boy-scout, combine with marking mother tree and awareness rising of Uru conservation to local community. 6.2.2. Youth camping Every year, ‘Saka Wana Bhakti’ boy-scout combine annual trees planting (business) with youth camping (pleasure). We enriched the activity with GPS training and environmental awareness. The camping held for two days (15-16 February 2011) and involved 72 youth. We trained GPS during the first day, delivered environmental awareness during reflection night and facilitate planting campaign on the second day. This activity had inspired other villages, such as Tawalian Timur and Orobua Selatan, to organize planting with youth campaign. Youth campaign is considered as the most effective approach to involve youth (teenager) on natural recourse management.

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Chapter VII

Outputs and Impacts Table 7.1 List of outputs and impacts during the first year project implementation in Sulawesi No

Outputs

Observed impacts

1.

All Green Facilitators in Sulawesi (47 persons) trained on catchment area management 360 KVC trained on catchment area management, tree seedlings propagation and bokashi. 50 KVG trained on catchment area management, tree seedlings propagation and bokashi.

Better facilitation of catchment rehabilitation subprojects

2.

3.

Improved awareness and skill of community on tree seedlings propagation, Bokashi making and catchment area rehabilitation. Improved awareness of government officials on tree seedlings propagation, Bokashi making and catchment area rehabilitation

4.

Village Mother Trees in Tawalian Timur Enhanced community awareness on indigenous tree and Salumokanan established species conservation.

5.

NRM Village regulation Tawalian Timur established

6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

(Perdes)

in Several villages, such as Orobua Selatan and Salomo Kanan Villages have already started to formulate NRM Perdes. Farmer groups institution strengthened Increased farmer awareness on soil and water conservation practices; Farmers groups take a lead on catchment area rehabilitation. Establishment of OWT office in Mamasa The office has become NRM information, training Town and awareness centre for Mamasa community Village nursery and village seed sources Enhanced community self confidence to develop established on 6 villages high quality planting materials which potentially becomes alternative income generating activities. Bokashi houses established on 6 village Community use Bokashi on daily farming models practices. Permanent biogas model in Orobua Selatan Community aware on better way to use animal Village established dung, gain skill to install permanent biogas. Two households at Orobua Selatan have replicated the model. 4 awareness films have been developed and Inspired policy makers and local community on published. smart NRM practices. 2 tutorial films have been developed and Community uses the films as guidance on seedling published propagation and biogas installation. 8 leaflets and standing banners have been Inspired local community and policy makers on developed and published smart NRM practices. Stickers and T-shirt have been developed The project is being widely recognized at village and distributed and district level Catchment rehabilitation campaigns at Inspired local community and policy makers on village and district level in Mamasa and smart practices catchment rehabilitation measures Luwu Utara Districts successfully conducted Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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16

Youth camping at Salumokanan Village Increased local community and youth awareness on was successfully conducted conservation and rehabilitation of degraded land and forest

17

Workshop on socialization and Progress of Project stakeholders (especially government Implementation of Catchment Management officials) aware on project approaches and Program was successfully conducted implementation.

18

Field visit of Danida successfully organized.

19

Intensive facilitation and technical Enhanced skill and motivation of local community assistances have been conducted at villages to conduct catchment area rehabilitation. model

20.

The followed-up project proposal, builds -

advisor

was Increased spirit and motivation of local community on catchment area rehabilitation.

on the achievements and results of ongoing project (1.MRD.16-3) have been developed and submited to the Danida Advisor on February 2011.

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Chapter VIII

Challenges Faced, Mitigations and Lessons Learned 8.1.

The high demand of timbers and high rate of deforestation (Lesson Learned No 1/2010) Challenge faced: The needs of local community on timbers are very high either for house construction and fuel woods, while the only sources of timbers now are from state forest land (mostly Pine forest), this led to the high rate of deforestation. We have no ideas how much the rate of deforestation, but all the forest (as we can see by eyes) have been degraded. Mitigations: Understanding the high demand of either fuel-wood or construction timbers, we introduced fast growing species, such as Sengon, Jati Putih, and Sengon Buto, while also developing local species for traditional house construction (Uru). Understanding the abundance of fresh animals dungs (cows, buffalo and pig), we delivered training and demonstration pilot on biogas in February 2011.

8.2.

The absence of seeds of endemic trees (Lesson Learned No 2/2010) Challenge faced: The fruiting seasons, and level of maturity of several indigenous trees (Uru, Buangin and Tumaku) were unknown and did not match with the time when we facilitated nursery establishment. Mitigations: We facilitated the collection of natural seedlings over the forest floor (wilding), treat the wildings carefully and then transplanted into the poly-bags. For Uru, the fruit maturity can be detected from the activity of fruit eating birds surrounding the trees, when the birds starts approaching the fruits, this means the fruits have been mature and ready to harvest. We often compete with birds and that is why we need to climb the trees to harvest the fruits.

8.3.

Lack of knowledge and skills on generative propagation (Lesson Learned No 3/2010) Challenge faced: Local community is used to plant trees from natural seedlings, but have limited skills and experience on mass generative propagation in the form of village nursery. Some of them, especially for Orobua Selatan Villagers, were afraid to make a mistake, and tend to wait our technical assistances. Mitigations: We make regular visits, at least once a week, to understand the progress and provide quick technical solutions.

8.4.

Risk for animal disturbances (Lesson Learned No 4/2010) Challenge faced: The high animal population in the area has made the established nursery are susceptible to animal raids. Mitigations: We have already asked local community to fence the nursery.

8.5.

Community forget to fog germination tray (Lesson Learned No 5/2010) Challenge faced: In several villages, people often forget to fog germination tray, thereby seeds failed to germinate due to lack of moisture content. Mitigations: To minimize evapotranspiration, we suggested covering the tray with transparent plastic. Once the seeds have been germinating then the cover are opened to Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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make the germinated seeds freely grow and enable to access solar radiation. 8.6.

Low temperature and slow seed germination (Lesson Learned No. 6/2011) Challenge faced: Seed germination in upland cold regions (in Mamasa) take longer than it used to be in lowland, although break dormancy or other scarification techniques have been applied. Mitigations: The air temperature of germination media can be increased by putting fresh rice husks at the bottom layer of germination media, overlay with rice husk compost and covered the media with transparent plastic.

8.7.

Conducted facilitation during village voluntary working day (Lesson Learned No. 7/2011). Challenge faced: At the beginning, we had problems to facilitate voluntary work to establish nursery and other catchment rehabilitation activities. Mitigations: The problem solved after we made use the village voluntary (‘kerja bakti’) working day to facilitate nursery establishment, maintenance and catchment rehabilitation campaigns.

8.8.

The absence of village nursery for practical exercise during training session (Lesson Learned No. 8/2011) Challenge faced: Seed propagation training is ideally conducted on established nursery site, so all the theory can be directly practiced in the real life. Mitigations: On the absence of established nursery, we facilitated local community to develop simple nursery before training implementation. The simple nursery became embryo of the village nursery.

8.9.

Construction of Bokashi house (Lesson Learned No. 9/2011) Challenge faced: Bokashi making should be conducted in water tight areas, i.e. under the roof and no water pounding. Mitigations: We facilitated the establishment of Bokashi house prior training implementation.

8.10. Strategy to improve communication gab with local community (Lesson Learned No. 10/2011) Challenge faced: Big communication gab between facilitator and local community. Mitigations: Live-in in the village, apart from saving energy, also improve communication gab and improve understandings on local capacity and problems. 8.11

Community based Uru (Elmerella sp.) seeds collection (Lesson Learned No. 11/2011) Challenge faced: Uru seeds are not available, since the mature fruits are eaten by birds. Mitigation: We trained the indicators of mature fruits so local community can collect mature fruits out of the tree before the fruits eaten up by birds.

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8.12

Gapoktan (Farmer Groups Union) as catchment rehabilitation agent at village level (Lesson Learned No. 12/2011) Challenge faced: Rather than ‘reinventing the wheels’, the existing village organization should be able to facilitate catchment rehabilitation campaigns. Mitigation: Farmer Groups Union was selected by local community to facilitate catchment rehabilitation campaigns.

8.13

The great roles of tutorial films to ease training delivery (Lesson Learned No. 13/2011) Challenge faced: Lack of farmers experience and poor training aids have made training delivery ineffective. Mitigation: We developed several films to support training delivery.

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Chapter IX

Achievement of the Proposed Activities This chapter discusses the level of achievement of the proposed activities as outlined in the Project Proposal and Inception Report. Table 8.1 Summary of Project Achievements No

Activities

Level of Remarks Achievement (%) A. Participatory Mapping of Catchment Area

A.1. Collection of Secondary data

100%

A.2. Catchment Model Selection

100%

A.3. Exploration of Mother Trees and Seeds Collection

100%

A.4. Develop the maps of Catchment Models

30 %

A.5. Participatory Mapping of Catchment Models

100%

Data collection includes of geographic positions (GPS records) of villages and nursery sites, Socio-economic and biophysical aspects (topographic, geological and soil map of 1: 50,000) It has been selected and agreed by the Danish Embassy in March 2010 Seeds collection of non-indigenous species have been collected from various seeds sources in Java, while participatory selection and protection of mother trees of Uru was conducted at Tawalian Timur and Salutambun Barat. While, Kapun tree (Dryobalanops sp) was selected as mother tree at Orobua Selatan village. Only in Orobua Selatan Village

We facilitated participatory mapping of micro-catchment area at Orobua Selatan, while at the others villages (Salumokanan, Salutambun Barat, and Tulak Tallu) we facilitated participatory mapping of plantation area plan.

B. Awareness B.1. Coordination and Socialization

100%

See Chapter 3

B.2. Development of Awareness Materials

100%

See Chapter 6

B.3. Distribution, Installation and Extension

100%

See Chapter 6

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B.4. Facilitation of Demplots Development at Catchment Models B.4.1. Exploration of Mother Trees and Seeds Collection a. Exploration of mother trees b. Seeds collection

100%

See Chapter 5

B.4.2. Establishment of Village Nursery

100%

Facilitation on Village Nursery Establishment have been conducted in Mamasa (5 villages) and Luwu Utara Districts (1 village).

B.4.3 Facilitation on nursery maintenance

100%

Intensive facilitations and technical assistances have been conducted to all established village nurseries.

B.4.4. Establishment of Village Seed sources

100 %

Village seed source have been established on 6 village models

B.4.5. Establishment of Village Arboretum

-

Not feasible due to the limited species which can grow well in this area.

B.5. Facilitation on Catchment Rehabilitation Actions

100 %

See Chapter 5

B.5.1. Facilitation of Trees Planting Campaign on Teenagers Camping

100%

See Chapter 6

B.5.2. Facilitation of Catchment Areas Planting Campaign

100%

See Chapter 5

B.5.3. Facilitation of Planting Campaign in Mamasa Town

200%

Not only Mamasa but also in Luwu Utara

C. Training C.1 Development of training materials

100%

C.2 Training for Key Village Champions

100%

The developed and distributed Training modules were: (a) Catchment Management; (b) Seedlings Propagation and Planting Techniques, (c) Bokashi Production, (d) Biogas installation, (e) Selection of mother trees Trainings have been conducted to all village models. There was no formal training in Mambuliling Village, but KCV of the village have intensively received our technical assistance (due to its proximity of the Village with our field office in Mamasa Town), while KVCs of the village were also involved in training in Tawalian Timur Village.

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C.3 Training for Green PNPM actors/facilitators at Sub-District Level (times) in Mamasa and Luwu Utara

100%

We conducted training at district level rather than sub-district, as only limited villages within sub-district had received MHP program 2009.

C.4 Technical Assistances to non village models

120%

The technical assistance to non village models are given; (a) Consultation on budget development; (b) Consultation of nursery development; such as Sasa, Seko and Rampi Villages/Luwu Utara District; Masoso, Bumal and Tabang Villages/Mamasa District; (c) Seeds procurements, such as Sasa-Village/ Luwu Utara District; Training was also conducted at Maros District (5 October 2010) and Baubau, Buton District (10 November 2010)

C5. Training for (Green) PNPM facilitators of Sulawesi Region

100%

This was unplanned activity, but it was very useful to provide visions and knowledge on Catchment Management, Seedlings Propagation and Planting Techniques. They were very impressed with this training, and many of them have contacted us for further consultation.

D. Collaborative NRM D.1. Facilitation the establishment of Village Conservation Groups

100%

We strengthened the existing farmers Groups by enhancing visions on nature conservation and catchment rehabilitation campaigns.

D.2. Facilitation the establishment of NRM Perdes

40%

Only in Tawalian Timur, other villages such as Orobua Selatan and Salomo Kanan are still in progress.

D.3. Facilitate meetings to synergize CA management actions

100%

Facilitation meeting by OWT to synergize CA management actions was already conducted for all of village level and district level

E. Promotion E.1. Develop website and update the content

100%

We already develop the website of : http://www.owt.or.id. The website is have being processed to input some new informations of CM program

E.1. Promote the project in media

100%

We already promoted the project activities such as workshop and Plantation Campaign of “Mamasa Menanam� in TV Mamasa and local newspaper

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Chapter X

Conclusions and Recommendations 10.1. Conclusion During the last one year, the project has run very well and successfully implemented in Mamasa and Luwu Utara Districts. As outlined in Chapter 9, all activities have been successfully completed, except participatory catchment area mapping (only completed in Orobua Selatan) and NRM Village Regulation development (only completed in Tawalian Timur Village), while training and technical assistance were successfully delivered within and beyond the original project areas. The project has received great responses and enthusiasm from local government in both districts and enhanced a green spirit to the MHP program in Sulawesi. The project also successfully made vegetative cachment rehabilitation meaningful to the local community. This was done by nurturing the spirit of biodiversity conservation through the selection and protection of Village Mother Trees of indigenous tree species, the development of Village Tree Nurseries and Village Seed Sources. The intensive campaigns in Mamasa during 2010/2011 have awakened the spirit of government and local community to restore their degraded areas. The support by OWT and the donor has made local community motivated to rehabilitate their resources, ‘why do we not care about our own resources when outsiders care so much about them’, a common statement by local communities in response to project facilitation. As a matter of fact, the project, apart from introducing new activities (tree seedling propagations, catchment areas planting etc.), is also the first technical assistance provided by an NGO funded by a foreign donor in this area. No wonder that the project receives enthusiastic participation. Until February 2011, the major achievements of the project are: (a) Increasing awareness and enhanced capacity building of local community and local government on catchment areas management; (b) The development of model on Village Mother Trees, Village Tree Nurseries and Village Seed Sources; (c) The establishment of pilot areas for catchment rehabilitation; (d) The strong spirit of local community and local government to rehabilitate catchment areas and to develop inter-village catchment management;

10.2. Recommendation In response to the great supports of government and enthusiasm of local community on catchment rehabilitation campaigns, and to make remarkable project achievements, especially to build Green-PNPM’s best practices models, the project should not abruptly close after one year implementation of the program in Sulawesi. Intensive facilitations and technical assistances should be maintained at least until the end of 2012.

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References Alrasjid, Harun, Dkk. 1992. Teknik Penanaman dan Pemungutan Hasil Gmelina arborea. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan. Bogor. Bruijnzeel, L.A., 1990. Hydrology of Moist Tropical Forest and Effects of Conversion; a State of Knowledge Reviews UNESCO, Paris. Heyne 1987. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia: Jilid II. Badan Litbang Kehutanan Jakarta. Kijkar, Somyos and B. Boontawee. 1995. Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs: a lesser known species. Reviev Paper No. 3. ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre Project. Purwanto, E. and Ruijter, J., 2004. Basic Relationships between Forests and Watershed Functions. In the: Hydrological Impacts of Forest, Agroforestry and Upland Cropping as a Basis for Rewarding Environmental Service Providers in Indonesia. World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF). Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Sosialisasi dan Koordinasi PNPM-LMP Kab. Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Tingkat UPK dan TPK Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Tingkat UPK dan TPK Kabupaten Luwu Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Tingkat UPK dan TPK Kabupaten Toraja Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Orubua Selatan, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Tawalian Timur, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Salutambun Barat, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Salumokanan, Kabupaten Mamasa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Tulak Talu, Kabupaten Luwu Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pelatihan Teknik Rehabilitasi Daerah Tangkapan Air Desa Rindingallo, Kabupaten Toraja Utara. Operation Walacea Trust. Edi Purwanto & Ujang S.Irawan

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Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Laporan Pembangunan Persemaian Desa. Operation Walacea Trust. Purwanto, E. and Ujang S.I. 2010. Semi-Annual Report (March-Augus 2010). Capacity Building on Catchment Areas Management and Conservation to Sustain Micro-Hydro Power Schemes : Activities in Sulawesi. Operation Wallacea Trust. Prosea. 1994. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (1). Timber Trees: Major Commercial Timbers. Bogor, Indonesia. Prosea. 1994. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber Trees: Minor Commercial Timbers. Bogor, Indonesia. Van Noorwijk, M., 2001. Forest Watershed Functions, Lecture Note, World Agroforestry Center/ICRAF, Bogor Zobel, Bruce and John T. Talbert. 1984. Applied Tree Improvement. New York: Wiley Press, 1

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OWT_Annual_CM_Main_Report_27-04-2011  

Since November 2007 to April 2011, Operation Wallacea Trust (OWT) has been supporting the implementation of the environmental pilot-project...

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