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THE ART OF THE JEWELER

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eautifully illustrated with photographs from leading jewelry houses, this book offers a glimpse inside the various workshops, where excellence and expertise are transmitted from generation to generation. It follows the creation of a piece of jewelry, from the first sketch to the final polishing stage, in a tribute to the diversity, high standards and technical skills that contribute to the creation of the most remarkable and audacious pieces. The designer, mock-up maker, gemologist, metal-caster, jeweler, polisher, stone-setter, lapidary, diamond-cutter, engraver and sculptor all work toward a sole objective: beauty. With illustrations that showcase the work of artisans and the virtuosity of the jeweler’s art, this book presents an inside look at little-known métiers, along with a touch of magic.

Guillaume Glorieux

The Art of the Jeweler Excellence and Craftsmanship

OCTAVIUS, registered patent, design and brand © Gallimard-Zanardi

www.decouvertes-gallimard.fr ISBN 978-2-07-282260-5 £ 12.95 - US $ 17.50

Gallimard / L’ École, School of Jewelry Arts


Guillaume Glorieux

THE ART OF THE JEWELER Excellence and Craftsmanship


Guillaume Glorieux

THE ART OF THE JEWELER Excellence and Craftsmanship


Historical Professions No less than ten professions are involved in the creation of a piece of jewelry. The object, a collective work, goes from hand to hand, drawing on a wide range of know-how that belongs to the age-old traditions of these trades. For many years, the jewelry professions overlapped with those of goldsmiths. Until the 17th century there was no distinction in France between the people who fashioned precious metals, primarily gold, but also silver: they were called goldsmiths, metalsmiths and jewelers. All these artisans fell under the same label, orfèvre, from the Latin aurum faber: “an artisan of gold.”

Louis and Raphaël Mellerio, at the door of their shop on rue de la Paix, ca 1900.

Goldsmiths and Jewelers Goldsmiths have been working for millennia, but the first steps toward organizing the trade appeared in the Middles Ages. In 768, at the end of the reign of Pepin the Short (also known as Pepin the Younger and Pepin III), Parisian goldsmiths were granted a status that guaranteed them certain privileges. Five centuries later, the Paris goldsmith guild was formed on the initiative of Paris provost Étienne Boileau. The regulations for this guild were set forth in his Livre des métiers, written in 1268. As with all guilds, the goldsmith organization had strict rules and an unbending hierarchy, which reflected increasing levels of

experience: apprentice, journeyman, and once accepted into the trade, a master. To become a master, after many years of training, a journeyman had to produce a masterpiece for evaluation and pay dues. The guild therefore ensured the transmission of skills and know-how, and guaranteed the technical proficiency and quality control of the production process. Like the other guilds, it was a monopoly, in terms of both the production and selling of the works created. Placed under the patronage of Saint Eligius, who is represented on the seal, the guild of Parisian goldsmiths was one of six corps de marchands (merchant classes) in the city of Paris, along with the drapers, grocers, mercers, furriers and hatters/hosiers. Its prestige continued to grow and, in 1330, Philip VI of Valois granted this guild a coat of arms, featuring two gold crowns and two cups, fleurs de lys en chef, and the device In sacra inque coronas (“In the crowned and sacred vases”). This trade was particularly prosperous in Paris, where orders flowed in, not only from the Court and the Church, 4


Historical Professions No less than ten professions are involved in the creation of a piece of jewelry. The object, a collective work, goes from hand to hand, drawing on a wide range of know-how that belongs to the age-old traditions of these trades. For many years, the jewelry professions overlapped with those of goldsmiths. Until the 17th century there was no distinction in France between the people who fashioned precious metals, primarily gold, but also silver: they were called goldsmiths, metalsmiths and jewelers. All these artisans fell under the same label, orfèvre, from the Latin aurum faber: “an artisan of gold.”

Louis and Raphaël Mellerio, at the door of their shop on rue de la Paix, ca 1900.

Goldsmiths and Jewelers Goldsmiths have been working for millennia, but the first steps toward organizing the trade appeared in the Middles Ages. In 768, at the end of the reign of Pepin the Short (also known as Pepin the Younger and Pepin III), Parisian goldsmiths were granted a status that guaranteed them certain privileges. Five centuries later, the Paris goldsmith guild was formed on the initiative of Paris provost Étienne Boileau. The regulations for this guild were set forth in his Livre des métiers, written in 1268. As with all guilds, the goldsmith organization had strict rules and an unbending hierarchy, which reflected increasing levels of

experience: apprentice, journeyman, and once accepted into the trade, a master. To become a master, after many years of training, a journeyman had to produce a masterpiece for evaluation and pay dues. The guild therefore ensured the transmission of skills and know-how, and guaranteed the technical proficiency and quality control of the production process. Like the other guilds, it was a monopoly, in terms of both the production and selling of the works created. Placed under the patronage of Saint Eligius, who is represented on the seal, the guild of Parisian goldsmiths was one of six corps de marchands (merchant classes) in the city of Paris, along with the drapers, grocers, mercers, furriers and hatters/hosiers. Its prestige continued to grow and, in 1330, Philip VI of Valois granted this guild a coat of arms, featuring two gold crowns and two cups, fleurs de lys en chef, and the device In sacra inque coronas (“In the crowned and sacred vases”). This trade was particularly prosperous in Paris, where orders flowed in, not only from the Court and the Church, 4


Etienne Delaune, Atelier d’orfèvres, 16th century, etching. Paris, Musée du Louvre.

From the Renaissance to the 19th century, the workshop was linked directly to the shop, and may even have occupied the same space. A painting by Flemish artist Petrus Christus depicts a mid-15th-century goldsmith’s shop. The craftsman is weighing a ruby ring toward which a customer is pointing, surrounded by a number of diverse objects: rings displayed in a box, ewers, a chalice, a belt buckle, a coral branch, uncarved crystals and two pouches, one filled with pearls, the other with gemstones. A convex mirror, which links the inside and outside of the shop, has captured the reflection of two people peering in from the street. Mistakenly identified as Saint Eligius, the patron saint of goldsmiths, the figure seated behind the counter could be a portrait of Willem van Vleuten, a goldsmith7

metalsmith from Bruges in the service of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Starting in the 19th century, the point of sale was separated from the production site. The shop was then designed as a display and sales space, while the workshop was relegated to the upper floors. Jewelry was showcased in decors that were often sumptuous. Around 1900, for example, the jeweler Georges Fouquet hired Alphonse Mucha to decorate his new store at 6, rue Royale, in Paris. Woodwork, furniture and stained-glass windows all expressed the era’s fashionable Art Nouveau style, which also appeared in Fouquet’s jewelry designs. In Paris, the most famous jewelers moved to locations on or around Place Vendôme, constructed by Louis XIV. François-Regnault Nitot was first, moving to no. 15 in 1812.

Interior of the Georges Fouquet jewelry shop, 6, rue Royale, decorated by Alphonse Mucha in 1901 in the Art Nouveau style. Dismantled in 1923, the shop was reassembled in a room at the Musée Carnavalet, in Paris, where visitors can see it today.

A goldsmith for Emperor Napoleon I, he created the Maison Chaumet. In 1893, Frédéric Boucheron set up shop at no. 26. Created after the marriage of Alfred Van Cleef and Estelle Arpels (in 1895), the Maison Van Cleef & Arpels, founded in 1906, opened its first shop that same year, at no. 22. One year later, Chaumet moved to no. 12. Several other jewelers moved to rue de la Paix: Mellerio in 1815 (no. 22, then no. 5, currently no. 9) and Cartier in 1899 (no. 13). In just a few decades, the Place Vendôme and its neighborhood became a symbol for the French jewelry industry. Hallmarks and Stamps The goldsmith trade requires more than just extremely qualified professionals. Given the

value of the metals used, gold and silver, they are also tightly controlled. Over the centuries, the control criteria and methods have changed, but they have always involved the use of hallmarks. Stamped on jewelry and metalwork, hallmarks certify the fineness, or the content of the pure metal in proportion to the alloys used. The first marks appeared in the Middles Ages, when the profession created a guild structure. Two royal decrees, enacted in 1275 (by Philip III the Bold) and in 1313 (by Philip IV the Fair), required objects made of silver and gold, respectively, to have stamps. These were marks indicating a community (also known as a poinçon de jurande), stamped under the responsibility of wardens, elected from members of the 8


Etienne Delaune, Atelier d’orfèvres, 16th century, etching. Paris, Musée du Louvre.

From the Renaissance to the 19th century, the workshop was linked directly to the shop, and may even have occupied the same space. A painting by Flemish artist Petrus Christus depicts a mid-15th-century goldsmith’s shop. The craftsman is weighing a ruby ring toward which a customer is pointing, surrounded by a number of diverse objects: rings displayed in a box, ewers, a chalice, a belt buckle, a coral branch, uncarved crystals and two pouches, one filled with pearls, the other with gemstones. A convex mirror, which links the inside and outside of the shop, has captured the reflection of two people peering in from the street. Mistakenly identified as Saint Eligius, the patron saint of goldsmiths, the figure seated behind the counter could be a portrait of Willem van Vleuten, a goldsmith7

metalsmith from Bruges in the service of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Starting in the 19th century, the point of sale was separated from the production site. The shop was then designed as a display and sales space, while the workshop was relegated to the upper floors. Jewelry was showcased in decors that were often sumptuous. Around 1900, for example, the jeweler Georges Fouquet hired Alphonse Mucha to decorate his new store at 6, rue Royale, in Paris. Woodwork, furniture and stained-glass windows all expressed the era’s fashionable Art Nouveau style, which also appeared in Fouquet’s jewelry designs. In Paris, the most famous jewelers moved to locations on or around Place Vendôme, constructed by Louis XIV. François-Regnault Nitot was first, moving to no. 15 in 1812.

Interior of the Georges Fouquet jewelry shop, 6, rue Royale, decorated by Alphonse Mucha in 1901 in the Art Nouveau style. Dismantled in 1923, the shop was reassembled in a room at the Musée Carnavalet, in Paris, where visitors can see it today.

A goldsmith for Emperor Napoleon I, he created the Maison Chaumet. In 1893, Frédéric Boucheron set up shop at no. 26. Created after the marriage of Alfred Van Cleef and Estelle Arpels (in 1895), the Maison Van Cleef & Arpels, founded in 1906, opened its first shop that same year, at no. 22. One year later, Chaumet moved to no. 12. Several other jewelers moved to rue de la Paix: Mellerio in 1815 (no. 22, then no. 5, currently no. 9) and Cartier in 1899 (no. 13). In just a few decades, the Place Vendôme and its neighborhood became a symbol for the French jewelry industry. Hallmarks and Stamps The goldsmith trade requires more than just extremely qualified professionals. Given the

value of the metals used, gold and silver, they are also tightly controlled. Over the centuries, the control criteria and methods have changed, but they have always involved the use of hallmarks. Stamped on jewelry and metalwork, hallmarks certify the fineness, or the content of the pure metal in proportion to the alloys used. The first marks appeared in the Middles Ages, when the profession created a guild structure. Two royal decrees, enacted in 1275 (by Philip III the Bold) and in 1313 (by Philip IV the Fair), required objects made of silver and gold, respectively, to have stamps. These were marks indicating a community (also known as a poinçon de jurande), stamped under the responsibility of wardens, elected from members of the 8


Germany). Fortunately, new expertise developed as tastes changed, encouraging the rediscovery of ancient techniques. Glyptics—an ancient art of engraving gemstones—returned to fashion during the Renaissance, when ancient history became highly prized. Similarly, 19th-century eclecticism encouraged the revival of enamel (popular in the Middle Ages) and improvements in filigree and granulation, processes by which metal surfaces are decorated with wires and gold beads of considerable finesse. These processes date to the third millennium BCE. Technical progress then influenced the practices and scope of the jewelry professions. Stone sizes also changed significantly starting in the 15th century, particularly in terms of diamonds. The development of the faceted cut, which is attributed to Louis de Berquem in Bruges sometime around 1470, was a turning point in the history of stone-cutting know-how. It creates the largest possible number of facets, thereby reflecting and refracting more light. All subsequent developments pursued this goal of creating ever more facets to heighten luminance. Showcasing a stone’s brilliance became more important than maintaining its weight, as up to 60 percent of a stone is lost due to cutting and polishing, in a modern-day brilliant cut. Changes in stone-cutting, as ancestral techniques were combined with technical progress, had two major consequences. They led to a split in the goldsmith and jeweler professions in the 17th century. At the same time, they altered the way gems were attached, as stones were placed in an open design (in a setting open on two sides) and settings became more discreet, for maximum luminosity. The invention of the printing press also had an indirect impact on jewelry design. With the publication of design books and engravings, models were more available and were quickly 11

adopted by jewelers. One of the first books published on the subject, Livre des ouvrages d’orfèvrerie by Gilles Légaré (1663), followed by his Nouveau livre des ornements (1692), promoted the bow motif, called “à l’égaré,” which was wildly popular in the 17th century. Finally, the ongoing quest for innovation has changed the practices of the jewelry professions. The universal exhibitions held in Paris between 1855 and 1937 promoted new skills, introducing them to a wider public. Other innovations followed. In 1854, Mellerio patented an invention for a flexible shank setting, with which branches of fruit and flowers could swing naturally. Thirty years later, René Lalique filed a patent for a “type of metal chenille used to make necklaces and bracelets.” At the turn of the 20th century, platinum started to be used in jewelry, alongside gold and silver, further expanding the metal-casters’ expertise. More ductile and stronger than gold, platinum requires less metal to form lighter, mise à jour, or openwork, settings. Cartier was one of the first to use it, while Chaumet created magnificent tiaras from this metal. Other materials were soon added, with the development of synthetic and plastic materials, notably bakelite, developed in 1907. In the period between the two world wars, Van Cleef & Arpels invented the Mystery Set™, an original technique patented in 1933; with it, the metal becomes invisible, making the jeweled surface even more dazzling; these pieces could not be made without the extreme skill of lapidaries. The artistic professions are therefore reinventing their practices, while remaining true to a tradition of excellence, and the status of jewelers is evolving, from artisans to full-fledged artists. Right: View of the Place and Colonne Vendôme, Paris.

12


Germany). Fortunately, new expertise developed as tastes changed, encouraging the rediscovery of ancient techniques. Glyptics—an ancient art of engraving gemstones—returned to fashion during the Renaissance, when ancient history became highly prized. Similarly, 19th-century eclecticism encouraged the revival of enamel (popular in the Middle Ages) and improvements in filigree and granulation, processes by which metal surfaces are decorated with wires and gold beads of considerable finesse. These processes date to the third millennium BCE. Technical progress then influenced the practices and scope of the jewelry professions. Stone sizes also changed significantly starting in the 15th century, particularly in terms of diamonds. The development of the faceted cut, which is attributed to Louis de Berquem in Bruges sometime around 1470, was a turning point in the history of stone-cutting know-how. It creates the largest possible number of facets, thereby reflecting and refracting more light. All subsequent developments pursued this goal of creating ever more facets to heighten luminance. Showcasing a stone’s brilliance became more important than maintaining its weight, as up to 60 percent of a stone is lost due to cutting and polishing, in a modern-day brilliant cut. Changes in stone-cutting, as ancestral techniques were combined with technical progress, had two major consequences. They led to a split in the goldsmith and jeweler professions in the 17th century. At the same time, they altered the way gems were attached, as stones were placed in an open design (in a setting open on two sides) and settings became more discreet, for maximum luminosity. The invention of the printing press also had an indirect impact on jewelry design. With the publication of design books and engravings, models were more available and were quickly 11

adopted by jewelers. One of the first books published on the subject, Livre des ouvrages d’orfèvrerie by Gilles Légaré (1663), followed by his Nouveau livre des ornements (1692), promoted the bow motif, called “à l’égaré,” which was wildly popular in the 17th century. Finally, the ongoing quest for innovation has changed the practices of the jewelry professions. The universal exhibitions held in Paris between 1855 and 1937 promoted new skills, introducing them to a wider public. Other innovations followed. In 1854, Mellerio patented an invention for a flexible shank setting, with which branches of fruit and flowers could swing naturally. Thirty years later, René Lalique filed a patent for a “type of metal chenille used to make necklaces and bracelets.” At the turn of the 20th century, platinum started to be used in jewelry, alongside gold and silver, further expanding the metal-casters’ expertise. More ductile and stronger than gold, platinum requires less metal to form lighter, mise à jour, or openwork, settings. Cartier was one of the first to use it, while Chaumet created magnificent tiaras from this metal. Other materials were soon added, with the development of synthetic and plastic materials, notably bakelite, developed in 1907. In the period between the two world wars, Van Cleef & Arpels invented the Mystery Set™, an original technique patented in 1933; with it, the metal becomes invisible, making the jeweled surface even more dazzling; these pieces could not be made without the extreme skill of lapidaries. The artistic professions are therefore reinventing their practices, while remaining true to a tradition of excellence, and the status of jewelers is evolving, from artisans to full-fledged artists. Right: View of the Place and Colonne Vendôme, Paris.

12


Opposite page: Anonymous, jewelry design, corsage ornament, second half of the 17th century, pen and brown ink on lead pencil sketch. Paris, Musée des Arts Décoratifs.

In this 17th-century drawing, made with pen and ink over a lead pencil sketch that is still visible in places, the artist meticulously illustrated the metal setting, the placement of the stones and their sizes (probably rose cut diamonds; in other words, a faceted dome). At the time, jewelry was symmetrical, and the different elements were placed on either side of a vertical axis. The design therefore only represents half of the corsage ornament, yet it still shows a great deal of detail, essential to the creation of the piece.

Designer: Creating a Piece of Jewelry in Two Dimensions Like any creation, a piece of jewelry starts with an intuition, an inspiration or an idea. Then comes the line, a pencil on paper, to give it form, the first step in a long process. The designer is therefore the person who first brings jewelry to life. To do so, he follows the recommendations of the art director. His hand is guided by experience and creative freedom, but also knowledge of the specific aspect of a piece of jewelry and the technical constraints involved in its production. The drawing expresses a personal vision, while reflecting the identity of the jewelry house, its sources of inspiration and its creative world. Once approved, the designer adds color, with gouache, to another sheet of paper. Reproduced full-scale, the gouache design gives a precise idea of the future piece. It includes materials and gives the illusion of relief, through the subtle use of shading. Used as a model for everyone working on the piece, the gouache design is also a work of art in and of itself.

The jeweler’s drawing is a long-standing practice, dating to the Renaissance. Alessandro Fei’s painting is part of a cycle decorating the studiolo of Francesco I de’ Médici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in his Florentine palace. An allegorical rendering of one of the four elements, fire, it depicts a goldsmith’s workshop. Several drawings, used as models by the craftsmen, are shown hanging on the wall to the right or placed on the table. To this day, the drawing is given to the jeweler, who must be able to create the piece simply by looking at it. It is therefore as detailed as possible, and is the reference document for every stage of production.

Alessandro Fei, La Boutique de l’orfèvre, ca 1570-1575, paint on wood. Florence, Palazzo Vecchio.

Drawing increases the value of raw material one hundredfold: the activities of all the related métiers are based on its principles. Jean-Jacques Bachelier, Discours sur l’utilité des écoles élémentaires en faveur des arts mécaniques, speech delivered during the opening of the École Royale Gratuite de Dessin, 1766


Opposite page: Anonymous, jewelry design, corsage ornament, second half of the 17th century, pen and brown ink on lead pencil sketch. Paris, Musée des Arts Décoratifs.

In this 17th-century drawing, made with pen and ink over a lead pencil sketch that is still visible in places, the artist meticulously illustrated the metal setting, the placement of the stones and their sizes (probably rose cut diamonds; in other words, a faceted dome). At the time, jewelry was symmetrical, and the different elements were placed on either side of a vertical axis. The design therefore only represents half of the corsage ornament, yet it still shows a great deal of detail, essential to the creation of the piece.

Designer: Creating a Piece of Jewelry in Two Dimensions Like any creation, a piece of jewelry starts with an intuition, an inspiration or an idea. Then comes the line, a pencil on paper, to give it form, the first step in a long process. The designer is therefore the person who first brings jewelry to life. To do so, he follows the recommendations of the art director. His hand is guided by experience and creative freedom, but also knowledge of the specific aspect of a piece of jewelry and the technical constraints involved in its production. The drawing expresses a personal vision, while reflecting the identity of the jewelry house, its sources of inspiration and its creative world. Once approved, the designer adds color, with gouache, to another sheet of paper. Reproduced full-scale, the gouache design gives a precise idea of the future piece. It includes materials and gives the illusion of relief, through the subtle use of shading. Used as a model for everyone working on the piece, the gouache design is also a work of art in and of itself.

The jeweler’s drawing is a long-standing practice, dating to the Renaissance. Alessandro Fei’s painting is part of a cycle decorating the studiolo of Francesco I de’ Médici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in his Florentine palace. An allegorical rendering of one of the four elements, fire, it depicts a goldsmith’s workshop. Several drawings, used as models by the craftsmen, are shown hanging on the wall to the right or placed on the table. To this day, the drawing is given to the jeweler, who must be able to create the piece simply by looking at it. It is therefore as detailed as possible, and is the reference document for every stage of production.

Alessandro Fei, La Boutique de l’orfèvre, ca 1570-1575, paint on wood. Florence, Palazzo Vecchio.

Drawing increases the value of raw material one hundredfold: the activities of all the related métiers are based on its principles. Jean-Jacques Bachelier, Discours sur l’utilité des écoles élémentaires en faveur des arts mécaniques, speech delivered during the opening of the École Royale Gratuite de Dessin, 1766


Transferring the design of a wolf clip to a block of wax (left), and sculpting a bird in wax (right). Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels. Gold leaf workshop in the 18th century, engraving published in the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, Diderot and d’Alembert, 1751-1772.

To create the metal structure of a piece, the jeweler can choose one of two techniques: he either works directly with the metal or carves the shape into a block of wax, which is then given to the metal-caster. The engraving above illustrates several metal-working techniques, including casting (left). Even today, a kiln may be located in the workshop, facilitating communications between the various artisans.

Metal-Caster: Working with Precious Metals Metal-casters step in once the setting becomes too complex in terms of its volume and cannot be created directly from metal wire and plates. They draw on an ancestral technique, known since ancient Egypt: lost-wax casting. The jeweler creates a detailed carving of the piece in a block of wax, which is then given to the metal-caster. He then encases it in a plaster mold. Placed in a kiln, the wax melts and is replaced by molten metal. The metal-caster then breaks the mold and removes all the metal elements that are not part of the design, and finally, returns the piece to the jeweler. This technique requires extreme precision in terms of pressure and temperature. Each mold is unique. Yet it is possible to make a rubber mold to keep a record of the piece of jewelry that can be used as a reference if it ever needs repairs.

I will start by recommending not giving these pieces to ordnance founders. Benvenuto Cellini, Treatise on goldsmithing and sculpture, 1568

Lost-wax casting, a millennia-old technique, was perfected by Renaissance artists, notably Benvenuto Cellini. This technique was not taught in books: the metal-casters who use it draw on age-old experience, transmitted by their elders. The first step consists in making a plaster mold of the wax object, including two vents, one on the bottom, the other on the top. The molten wax flows out the former, while molten metal is poured in via the latter. This metal

then replicates the shape of the “lost” wax. Wax is ideal for creating complex shapes; it is possible to obtain more detail in wax than with a metal sheet. The wax carving may represent the entire object, or just a few of its components.

Resin mock-up for a Dragon bracelet to assess its volume. Ateliers Cartier.


Transferring the design of a wolf clip to a block of wax (left), and sculpting a bird in wax (right). Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels. Gold leaf workshop in the 18th century, engraving published in the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, Diderot and d’Alembert, 1751-1772.

To create the metal structure of a piece, the jeweler can choose one of two techniques: he either works directly with the metal or carves the shape into a block of wax, which is then given to the metal-caster. The engraving above illustrates several metal-working techniques, including casting (left). Even today, a kiln may be located in the workshop, facilitating communications between the various artisans.

Metal-Caster: Working with Precious Metals Metal-casters step in once the setting becomes too complex in terms of its volume and cannot be created directly from metal wire and plates. They draw on an ancestral technique, known since ancient Egypt: lost-wax casting. The jeweler creates a detailed carving of the piece in a block of wax, which is then given to the metal-caster. He then encases it in a plaster mold. Placed in a kiln, the wax melts and is replaced by molten metal. The metal-caster then breaks the mold and removes all the metal elements that are not part of the design, and finally, returns the piece to the jeweler. This technique requires extreme precision in terms of pressure and temperature. Each mold is unique. Yet it is possible to make a rubber mold to keep a record of the piece of jewelry that can be used as a reference if it ever needs repairs.

I will start by recommending not giving these pieces to ordnance founders. Benvenuto Cellini, Treatise on goldsmithing and sculpture, 1568

Lost-wax casting, a millennia-old technique, was perfected by Renaissance artists, notably Benvenuto Cellini. This technique was not taught in books: the metal-casters who use it draw on age-old experience, transmitted by their elders. The first step consists in making a plaster mold of the wax object, including two vents, one on the bottom, the other on the top. The molten wax flows out the former, while molten metal is poured in via the latter. This metal

then replicates the shape of the “lost” wax. Wax is ideal for creating complex shapes; it is possible to obtain more detail in wax than with a metal sheet. The wax carving may represent the entire object, or just a few of its components.

Resin mock-up for a Dragon bracelet to assess its volume. Ateliers Cartier.


Jeweler: Creating the Setting Jewelers carve and shape the settings that will hold the stones. They work with noble, prestigious metals: gold, silver and platinum. While referring to the gouache design and the mock-up, they bring their own vision to the piece in progress, including the volume and proportions. A jeweler’s talent essentially lies in reconciling opposing demands: the setting must be light and solid, strong and flexible. To maximize the amount of light and better showcase the brilliance of the stones, jewelers leave the back of the piece open; this is called an openwork structure, or “mise à jour,” in French. Rendered as discreet as possible, the setting is a marvel of finesse and grace, and a work of intense patience that may require more than 2,000 hours for the most complex pieces. Jewelers use many ancient and modern instruments, both manual and electric, purchased or made by the jeweler himself. For complicated pieces of jewelry, several structural elements may be assembled. Throughout the entire process, the jeweler remains in contact with the other professions: the stone-setter, polisher, lapidary and metal-caster.

Welding a link for the Olympia necklace. Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels.

Jewelers primarily work with gold and platinum, as silver is generally reserved for mass-produced pieces. They must be able to visualize a project from a 2D drawing to reproduce it in 3D. They are both engineers and architects, juggling with the physical constraints of the different metals (expansion, deformation) while maintaining an overall view of the project. Opposite page: Hubert and Jan van Eyck, the Virgin Mary, detail of the Ghent Alterpiece, Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, completed in 1432 (inside, central panel). Ghent, St. Bavo’s Cathedral.


Jeweler: Creating the Setting Jewelers carve and shape the settings that will hold the stones. They work with noble, prestigious metals: gold, silver and platinum. While referring to the gouache design and the mock-up, they bring their own vision to the piece in progress, including the volume and proportions. A jeweler’s talent essentially lies in reconciling opposing demands: the setting must be light and solid, strong and flexible. To maximize the amount of light and better showcase the brilliance of the stones, jewelers leave the back of the piece open; this is called an openwork structure, or “mise à jour,” in French. Rendered as discreet as possible, the setting is a marvel of finesse and grace, and a work of intense patience that may require more than 2,000 hours for the most complex pieces. Jewelers use many ancient and modern instruments, both manual and electric, purchased or made by the jeweler himself. For complicated pieces of jewelry, several structural elements may be assembled. Throughout the entire process, the jeweler remains in contact with the other professions: the stone-setter, polisher, lapidary and metal-caster.

Welding a link for the Olympia necklace. Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels.

Jewelers primarily work with gold and platinum, as silver is generally reserved for mass-produced pieces. They must be able to visualize a project from a 2D drawing to reproduce it in 3D. They are both engineers and architects, juggling with the physical constraints of the different metals (expansion, deformation) while maintaining an overall view of the project. Opposite page: Hubert and Jan van Eyck, the Virgin Mary, detail of the Ghent Alterpiece, Adoration of the Mystic Lamb, completed in 1432 (inside, central panel). Ghent, St. Bavo’s Cathedral.


Stone-setter: Attaching Stones to the Metal One the setting is complete, the stones have been selected and a first polish done, the stone-setter’s job begins. This consists of placing the precious stones in a metal structure. Inserting the stones in metal requires both solidity and discretion. The art of stone-setting resides in achieving a balance: solidly attaching the gems, while making the metal holding them as invisible as possible—ultimately creating the illusion of stones sitting atop a setting as if by magic. This is not just about showcasing the stones, but also rendering them as brilliant as possible. Stone-setters have several techniques at their disposal (bezel setting, bead setting, prong setting), but the general principle involves pushing metal over the stones. To do so, they attach the setting (or a part of the setting) to the end of a wooden handle, using a special wax, which protects the piece while they work the metal, without deforming it. As a virtual extension of the hand, the burin helps to rub the metal over the stone. This deceptively simple gesture requires meticulous attention to detail and superb technical expertise.

Jewelers hand over the settings to the stone-setters, and gemologists give them the stones to be set. Stone-setters ensure that each stone is perfectly suited to its intended placement, by referring to the jeweler’s gouache design—which not only indicates the position of each gem, but also the type of setting. Stone-setting is a complex technique, because the stones must be perfectly aligned and also placed at the correct height. Once the stones have been attached, the stone-setter then makes the prongs as discreet as possible. Light sparkles through the mise à jour (openwork) areas created by the jeweler in the setting, enhancing the stones.

Workshop of Frans II Francken, Ulysses Recognizing Achilles (dressed as a woman) among the Daughters of Lycomedes (detail), late 1620s, oil on wood. Paris, Musée du Louvre. Placing an emerald between the prongs of a setting, using wax, on a piece from the Nature triomphanate collection. Ateliers Boucheron.

Opposite page: Setting an emerald in prongs, on the central element of the Le Nôtre necklace. Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels.

Stone-setting has evolved considerably from the time of Francken’s painting, which displays sumptuous jewels set with precious stones, to the techniques used today. For practical reasons, the stone-setter does not work on the entire piece, but on separate elements. He first “anchors” the setting, by securing it in warm wax, to protect it and make it easier to handle. He then places the stone on the setting using a pear-shaped piece of wax and begins to work. The stone-setter’s task is to rub the metal over the gem, securing the stone to the metal setting.


Stone-setter: Attaching Stones to the Metal One the setting is complete, the stones have been selected and a first polish done, the stone-setter’s job begins. This consists of placing the precious stones in a metal structure. Inserting the stones in metal requires both solidity and discretion. The art of stone-setting resides in achieving a balance: solidly attaching the gems, while making the metal holding them as invisible as possible—ultimately creating the illusion of stones sitting atop a setting as if by magic. This is not just about showcasing the stones, but also rendering them as brilliant as possible. Stone-setters have several techniques at their disposal (bezel setting, bead setting, prong setting), but the general principle involves pushing metal over the stones. To do so, they attach the setting (or a part of the setting) to the end of a wooden handle, using a special wax, which protects the piece while they work the metal, without deforming it. As a virtual extension of the hand, the burin helps to rub the metal over the stone. This deceptively simple gesture requires meticulous attention to detail and superb technical expertise.

Jewelers hand over the settings to the stone-setters, and gemologists give them the stones to be set. Stone-setters ensure that each stone is perfectly suited to its intended placement, by referring to the jeweler’s gouache design—which not only indicates the position of each gem, but also the type of setting. Stone-setting is a complex technique, because the stones must be perfectly aligned and also placed at the correct height. Once the stones have been attached, the stone-setter then makes the prongs as discreet as possible. Light sparkles through the mise à jour (openwork) areas created by the jeweler in the setting, enhancing the stones.

Workshop of Frans II Francken, Ulysses Recognizing Achilles (dressed as a woman) among the Daughters of Lycomedes (detail), late 1620s, oil on wood. Paris, Musée du Louvre. Placing an emerald between the prongs of a setting, using wax, on a piece from the Nature triomphanate collection. Ateliers Boucheron.

Opposite page: Setting an emerald in prongs, on the central element of the Le Nôtre necklace. Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels.

Stone-setting has evolved considerably from the time of Francken’s painting, which displays sumptuous jewels set with precious stones, to the techniques used today. For practical reasons, the stone-setter does not work on the entire piece, but on separate elements. He first “anchors” the setting, by securing it in warm wax, to protect it and make it easier to handle. He then places the stone on the setting using a pear-shaped piece of wax and begins to work. The stone-setter’s task is to rub the metal over the gem, securing the stone to the metal setting.


The attempt was made using hammer blows on an anvil, because it [the diamond] repels the iron so completely that it bounces off. Pliny the Elder, Natural History, book XXXVII, ca. AD 77

The Cullinan, the largest rough diamond ever found, is unsurpassed: it is the biggest, the most imposing and the most prestigious of all diamonds. Discovered in South Africa on January 26, 1905, it weighed 3,106 carats, or 621.20 grams. It was named, not for the person who found it, but for the mine owner, Thomas Cullinan. One of the former Boer republics purchased the Cullinan and presented it to King Edward VII of England, who then sent it to Joseph Asscher, a diamond-cutter in Amsterdam, in 1908. After carefully studying the diamond and making several trial runs on replicas, Asscher began cutting the Cullinan, working from February 10 to October 13, 1908. He cleaved it into nine major stones, named Cullinan I to IX, and hundreds of smaller stones. After they were cleaved, each stone was set to different lapidaries, who faceted and polished them. A book published by Louis Cartier recounts this exceptional story.

Opposite page: Photos from The Cullinan Diamond, illustrating the various steps in the cutting process of the famous diamond. This work is part of the so-called “designers’ library”: a collection of art history reference books amassed by Louis Cartier himself. This library served as inspiration and was a working tool for the designers at the Maison Cartier.

Juste un Clou bracelet, 18-carat white gold, 1, 752 brilliant diamonds, for a total of 27.60 carats. Maison Cartier, 2013.

The Diamantaire: The Quest for Brillance In French, the word diamantaire designates both the diamond trader and the diamond-cutter. Through an array of operations, the diamond-cutter showcases the brilliance of the stone, by increasing its brilliance (its power to reflect light) and its fire (dispersion of light or sparkle). The goal of the diamond-cutter is the same as that of the stone-cutter: to maintain the largest possible size, while keeping the loss of weight due to cutting to a minimum. While the stone-cutter aims to give a gem the best possible color, the diamond-cutter works to give the stone maximum brilliance. The diamond, the hardest natural gemstone in existence (hence its etymology, from the Greek word adamas, meaning invincible), can only be cut by another diamond. After examining the stone meticulously, a diamond-cutter’s first step consists in cleaving the rough stone, which involves separating it according to a diamond’s natural weak planes. Several equally delicate steps follow: sawing, using a phosphor-bronze blade or a laser, followed by faceting and polishing. The round brilliant cut, which has 57 facets, is the most popular, but there are many more.


The attempt was made using hammer blows on an anvil, because it [the diamond] repels the iron so completely that it bounces off. Pliny the Elder, Natural History, book XXXVII, ca. AD 77

The Cullinan, the largest rough diamond ever found, is unsurpassed: it is the biggest, the most imposing and the most prestigious of all diamonds. Discovered in South Africa on January 26, 1905, it weighed 3,106 carats, or 621.20 grams. It was named, not for the person who found it, but for the mine owner, Thomas Cullinan. One of the former Boer republics purchased the Cullinan and presented it to King Edward VII of England, who then sent it to Joseph Asscher, a diamond-cutter in Amsterdam, in 1908. After carefully studying the diamond and making several trial runs on replicas, Asscher began cutting the Cullinan, working from February 10 to October 13, 1908. He cleaved it into nine major stones, named Cullinan I to IX, and hundreds of smaller stones. After they were cleaved, each stone was set to different lapidaries, who faceted and polished them. A book published by Louis Cartier recounts this exceptional story.

Opposite page: Photos from The Cullinan Diamond, illustrating the various steps in the cutting process of the famous diamond. This work is part of the so-called “designers’ library”: a collection of art history reference books amassed by Louis Cartier himself. This library served as inspiration and was a working tool for the designers at the Maison Cartier.

Juste un Clou bracelet, 18-carat white gold, 1, 752 brilliant diamonds, for a total of 27.60 carats. Maison Cartier, 2013.

The Diamantaire: The Quest for Brillance In French, the word diamantaire designates both the diamond trader and the diamond-cutter. Through an array of operations, the diamond-cutter showcases the brilliance of the stone, by increasing its brilliance (its power to reflect light) and its fire (dispersion of light or sparkle). The goal of the diamond-cutter is the same as that of the stone-cutter: to maintain the largest possible size, while keeping the loss of weight due to cutting to a minimum. While the stone-cutter aims to give a gem the best possible color, the diamond-cutter works to give the stone maximum brilliance. The diamond, the hardest natural gemstone in existence (hence its etymology, from the Greek word adamas, meaning invincible), can only be cut by another diamond. After examining the stone meticulously, a diamond-cutter’s first step consists in cleaving the rough stone, which involves separating it according to a diamond’s natural weak planes. Several equally delicate steps follow: sawing, using a phosphor-bronze blade or a laser, followed by faceting and polishing. The round brilliant cut, which has 57 facets, is the most popular, but there are many more.


Lorenzo Lotto, Le Seigneur Marsilio Cassoti et sa femme Faustina, 1523, oil on canvas. Madrid, Prado Museum.

The Renaissance fascination with the ancient world was reflected in the revival of cameo art in the 16th century, as illustrated by the double portrait painted by Lorenzo Lotto. The couple, linked together by Cupid, poses formally in rich attire, in keeping with the formality of the occasion. The fiancÊe, who is about to receive her wedding ring, is wearing an antique-style cameo pendant.

Engraver and Carver: Spanning Art and Technique Glyptics, the oldest known decorative technique for precious stones, is the art of engraving gemstones. It includes both intaglio (with the design cut into the stone) and cameo carving (the design is in relief ). For the former, the engraver creates the motif by cutting directly into the stone; in the latter, the motif stands out from the background. Intaglio carving can be used to create seals and stamps, either freestanding or set in a ring. Cameo is an ornamental technique that showcases stratified stones (onyx, cornelian, agate, chalcedony) and their various planes of colors. These pieces most often depict the bust of a figure or a mythological scene. Engravers may also incise metal, to sign or personalize a work. They use a sharp instrument called a burin. Stone-carvers work in three dimensions, transforming a gemstone into a miniature sculpture, a fascinating piece of movement, lightness and refinement. Engravers and carvers both have extensive artistic and technical training, which they use to best showcase a stone.

Perfume bottle pendant, white gold, carved amethyst, rubellite, engraved rubellite, blue tourmalines, onyx, pear shape diamond, brilliant diamond. Maison Cartier, 2017.

Carved stones are used widely in contemporary jewelry. Each gem is different and requires a specific approach. After observing and preparing the stone, a carver will take approximately two months to perfectly sculpt the pieces required for a complicated project.

Laterna necklace, yellow gold, rubellites, chalcedonies, chrysoprases and morganites, onyx, mandarin garnets, a pearshape diamond, a brilliant diamond. Maison Cartier, 2017.


Lorenzo Lotto, Le Seigneur Marsilio Cassoti et sa femme Faustina, 1523, oil on canvas. Madrid, Prado Museum.

The Renaissance fascination with the ancient world was reflected in the revival of cameo art in the 16th century, as illustrated by the double portrait painted by Lorenzo Lotto. The couple, linked together by Cupid, poses formally in rich attire, in keeping with the formality of the occasion. The fiancÊe, who is about to receive her wedding ring, is wearing an antique-style cameo pendant.

Engraver and Carver: Spanning Art and Technique Glyptics, the oldest known decorative technique for precious stones, is the art of engraving gemstones. It includes both intaglio (with the design cut into the stone) and cameo carving (the design is in relief ). For the former, the engraver creates the motif by cutting directly into the stone; in the latter, the motif stands out from the background. Intaglio carving can be used to create seals and stamps, either freestanding or set in a ring. Cameo is an ornamental technique that showcases stratified stones (onyx, cornelian, agate, chalcedony) and their various planes of colors. These pieces most often depict the bust of a figure or a mythological scene. Engravers may also incise metal, to sign or personalize a work. They use a sharp instrument called a burin. Stone-carvers work in three dimensions, transforming a gemstone into a miniature sculpture, a fascinating piece of movement, lightness and refinement. Engravers and carvers both have extensive artistic and technical training, which they use to best showcase a stone.

Perfume bottle pendant, white gold, carved amethyst, rubellite, engraved rubellite, blue tourmalines, onyx, pear shape diamond, brilliant diamond. Maison Cartier, 2017.

Carved stones are used widely in contemporary jewelry. Each gem is different and requires a specific approach. After observing and preparing the stone, a carver will take approximately two months to perfectly sculpt the pieces required for a complicated project.

Laterna necklace, yellow gold, rubellites, chalcedonies, chrysoprases and morganites, onyx, mandarin garnets, a pearshape diamond, a brilliant diamond. Maison Cartier, 2017.


Digital stonecutting can solve technical issues when they arise. The contribution of new technologies is assessed in light of the only criteria that matters in the creation of jewelry: excellence. Adopting technology for the creative process does not threaten know-how that has been used successfully for centuries. Quite the contrary, it offers the art professions new opportunities as they move forward. Yet the advent of these new technologies must be monitored and evaluated to ensure the preservation and continuation of traditional know-how; this requires balance and vigilance. A computer-designed project has neither the sensitivity nor the soul of a handdrawn design. But refusing the use of CAD, notably to solve certain problems, no longer

Using CAD/CAM software to create a 3D model of a customized ring that can be easily shown to the customer.

18

makes sense today, especially in the competitive environment in which it is widely used. A piece entirely designed by computer cannot truly be high jewelry, but refusing to use CAD entirely is not a solution for the future. History has taught us that technology, provided it is integrated intelligently, is a positive force for the art professions and their skills. Innovation is not limited to technological progress. It also involves the jeweler’s skills. Although less visible, this is nevertheless decisive as design and production methods evolve. Artisans cannot rest on their laurels and remain satisfied with past achievements: they have to continue to develop more precision and greater technical skills over time. Each piece is a new challenge, which means that a particular skill must be reassessed and sometimes even reinvented. An aesthetic innovation—like the effect of totally transparent gems—can lead to a technical innovation like the Vitrail Mystery Set™ developed by Van Cleef & Arpels in the early 21st century. Jewelers create this effect by eliminating from sight any part of the metal structure of the piece, viewed from any angle. As custodians of a prestigious, age-old history, the jewelry professions are not set in their ways. Creation and innovation, which are priorities for major jewelry houses, require a combination of research into new lines and an exploration of innovative techniques. They pool their knowledge and bring together generations. Ultimately, the challenges of perpetuating ancestral knowledge and the goal of incorporating cutting-edge technology have become inseparable. Excellence at Work The quest for perfection, which shows in even the smallest details and at every stage of

The Vitrail Mystery Set tm technique, used for the Panache Mystérieux clip. Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels.

creation, is the hallmark of the jewelry professions, all of which are demanding trades due to the extreme finesse of the skills required, the value of the materials used and the technical and aesthetic goal to be achieved in any given piece. The criterion of excellence applies just as much to costume jewelry as to high-jewelry. The former includes mass-produced pieces; the latter, unique creations incorporating exceptional gems, showcased by the work of jewelry craftsmen. But in both cases, the same goal of perfection governs the production, and they share a single ambition: to push technical limits, in search of perfection. This requires everyone to contribute their skills and talents. A piece of jewelry is, by its very nature, a collective work, the result of a team effort in which each expert contributes to its execution. A recent court decision

sustained this, by confirming a piece of jewelry as a collective, non-individual creation. A ruling by the French Cour de Cassation (January 31, 2018) stipulates that a designer employed by a company cannot claim any rights over the drawings he or she made as part of his job, as he or she was participating in a collective work, created through the initiative and under the direction of their employer. The designer, like the jeweler, metal-caster, lapidary, stone-setter and polisher, all participate in the creation of a work that involves a string of professions. His or her participation can only be understood in relation to other artisans, through a close and well-coordinated cooperation. While not the only country with this claim, France has an internationally recognized, unparalleled expertise in this field. It is based on a long historic tradition, which began 19


Digital stonecutting can solve technical issues when they arise. The contribution of new technologies is assessed in light of the only criteria that matters in the creation of jewelry: excellence. Adopting technology for the creative process does not threaten know-how that has been used successfully for centuries. Quite the contrary, it offers the art professions new opportunities as they move forward. Yet the advent of these new technologies must be monitored and evaluated to ensure the preservation and continuation of traditional know-how; this requires balance and vigilance. A computer-designed project has neither the sensitivity nor the soul of a handdrawn design. But refusing the use of CAD, notably to solve certain problems, no longer

Using CAD/CAM software to create a 3D model of a customized ring that can be easily shown to the customer.

18

makes sense today, especially in the competitive environment in which it is widely used. A piece entirely designed by computer cannot truly be high jewelry, but refusing to use CAD entirely is not a solution for the future. History has taught us that technology, provided it is integrated intelligently, is a positive force for the art professions and their skills. Innovation is not limited to technological progress. It also involves the jeweler’s skills. Although less visible, this is nevertheless decisive as design and production methods evolve. Artisans cannot rest on their laurels and remain satisfied with past achievements: they have to continue to develop more precision and greater technical skills over time. Each piece is a new challenge, which means that a particular skill must be reassessed and sometimes even reinvented. An aesthetic innovation—like the effect of totally transparent gems—can lead to a technical innovation like the Vitrail Mystery Set™ developed by Van Cleef & Arpels in the early 21st century. Jewelers create this effect by eliminating from sight any part of the metal structure of the piece, viewed from any angle. As custodians of a prestigious, age-old history, the jewelry professions are not set in their ways. Creation and innovation, which are priorities for major jewelry houses, require a combination of research into new lines and an exploration of innovative techniques. They pool their knowledge and bring together generations. Ultimately, the challenges of perpetuating ancestral knowledge and the goal of incorporating cutting-edge technology have become inseparable. Excellence at Work The quest for perfection, which shows in even the smallest details and at every stage of

The Vitrail Mystery Set tm technique, used for the Panache Mystérieux clip. Ateliers Van Cleef & Arpels.

creation, is the hallmark of the jewelry professions, all of which are demanding trades due to the extreme finesse of the skills required, the value of the materials used and the technical and aesthetic goal to be achieved in any given piece. The criterion of excellence applies just as much to costume jewelry as to high-jewelry. The former includes mass-produced pieces; the latter, unique creations incorporating exceptional gems, showcased by the work of jewelry craftsmen. But in both cases, the same goal of perfection governs the production, and they share a single ambition: to push technical limits, in search of perfection. This requires everyone to contribute their skills and talents. A piece of jewelry is, by its very nature, a collective work, the result of a team effort in which each expert contributes to its execution. A recent court decision

sustained this, by confirming a piece of jewelry as a collective, non-individual creation. A ruling by the French Cour de Cassation (January 31, 2018) stipulates that a designer employed by a company cannot claim any rights over the drawings he or she made as part of his job, as he or she was participating in a collective work, created through the initiative and under the direction of their employer. The designer, like the jeweler, metal-caster, lapidary, stone-setter and polisher, all participate in the creation of a work that involves a string of professions. His or her participation can only be understood in relation to other artisans, through a close and well-coordinated cooperation. While not the only country with this claim, France has an internationally recognized, unparalleled expertise in this field. It is based on a long historic tradition, which began 19


The School of Jewelry Arts, founded in 2012 with support from Van Cleef & Arpels, introduces the public to the culture of jewelry in Paris and throughout the world, through classes, videos, lectures, exhibitions and publications. These initiatives cover three themes: the history of jewelry, gemology and know-how. The publication of this book reflects the school’s ambition to showcase the little-known métiers of the jewelry profession. Guillaume Glorieux is Director of Teaching and Research at the School of Jewelry Arts. A university professor and art historian, he has written several books on painting, the luxury goods industry and the decorative arts. Acknowledgments This book would not have been possible without the backing of Marie Vallanet, President of the School of Jewelry Arts, supported by Van Cleef & Arpels, and of Nicolas Bos, CEO of Van Cleef & Arpels, and I extend my deepest gratitude to them. I was also fortunate to have in-depth exchanges with representatives from each of the jewelry professions, who pursue their art with dedication in the workshops of the jewelry house. I would like to offer them my heartfelt thanks, as well as to the heads of the archive and documentation departments at Boucheron, Cartier, Chaumet, Mellerio and Van Cleef & Arpels, who generously contributed to the wealth of illustrations. Finally, I would like to thank the staff at Éditions Gallimard, particularly Franck Fertille, Caroline Levesque and Geneviève de la Bretesche. Photo credits Cover: Cybèle butterfly clip, Papillons collection, 2018 © Van Cleef & Arpels. Inside front cover: drawing of a diamond necklace for a special order, 1949. Archives Van Cleef & Arpels. Historical Professions: p. 2 © Mellerio archives; p. 4 © BNF; p. 5 © Musée Carnavalet/ Roger-Viollet; p. 6 © RMNGrand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/ Martine Beck-Coppola; p. 7 © akg-images/viennaslide/ Harald A. Jahn; p. 8 © RMNGrand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/ Jean-Gilles Berizi; p. 9 © Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/akg-images. ADAGP; p. 11 © akg-images/ Album/Raga/Prisma. Designer: intro left © Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/Jean Tholance/ akg-images; intro right © akg-images/Nimatallah; foldout, page 1 © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/Thierry Le Mage; page 2 t G. Nencioli © Cartier; pages 2 b, 3 t © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 3 b © Boucheron; page 4 © Archives Van Cleef & Arpels.

Mock-up maker: intro left © Chaumet; intro right t, b © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 t © Mellerio; pages 2 t, b, 3 © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 1 b ©  Photo12/Alamy; page 4 t, b Vincent De La Faille © Cartier. Gemologist: intro left and right Nils Herrmann © Cartier; foldout, page 1 t © Van Cleef & Arpels; b © ÖNB/INTERFOTO; page 2 © Granger/Bridgeman Images; page 3 © Bridgeman Images; page 4 t © Boucheron; b © LFG Paris. Metal-caster: intro left © Getty Images; intro right tl, tr © Van Cleef & Arpels; b © Cartier; foldout, page 1 tl, tr © Van Cleef & Arpels; b and page 2 © Chaumet/Bruno Ehrs; pages 3 t and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 3 b Ph. Gontier © Cartier. Jeweler: intro left © Lukas-Art in Flanders VZW/Bridgeman Images; intro right. © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 © Chaumet/Bruno Ehrs; page 2 © BNF; pages 3 and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels.

Découvertes Gallimard Series created by Pierre Marchand and Élisabeth de Farcy Department of illustrated books: Nathalie Bailleux Head of partnerships: Franck Fertille Design: Hélène Arnaud Press: Béatrice Foti, with Françoise Issaurat

Polisher: intro left G. Uféras © Cartier; intro right © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 © Boucheron; pages 2, 3 and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels. Stone-setter: intro left © Van Cleef & Arpels; intro right t © Collection Dagli Orti/Aurimages; b © Boucheron; foldout, page 1 © akg-images; page 2 t and page 3 tr, b © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 2 b © École des Arts Joailliers © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 3 tl © Boucheron; page 4 Harald Gottschalk © Cartier. Lapidary: intro left © Bridgeman Images; intro right t © Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/Jean Tholance; b © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 t © Cartier; b, page 2 b, pages 3 t and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels. Diamantaire: intro left Archives Cartier © Cartier; intro right V. Wulveryck © Cartier; foldout, page 1 © Bridgeman Images; page 2 t © Chaumet/Nils Herrmann; b © Art/Media/ Getty Images; page 3 t © Van Cleef & Arpels b © École des arts joailliers; br © Cartier; page 4 t © GraphicaArtis/Bridgeman

Images; b © Private collection, courtesy of Albion Art Jewellery Institute. Engraver and sculptor: intro left © Bridgeman Images; intro right tl © Cartier; r Vincent Wulveryck © Cartier; foldout, page 1 Bruno Ehrs © Cartier; page 2 t © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/Hervé Lewandowski; 2 bl, br © Bridgeman Images; page 3 © akg-images/ De Agostini Picture Library/G. Cigolini; page 4 t © Van Cleef & Arpels; bl ©  Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/Jean Tholance/akg-images; br © Mellerio. The Challenge of Transmitting Know-How: p. 2 © Chaumet; p. 5 © Van Cleef & Arpels; p. 6 © Mellerio; p. 7 © Lucas Giraud; p. 8 © Tim Rue/ Bloomberg/Getty Images; p. 9, 10 © Van Cleef & Arpels; p. 11 © Boucheron. Inside back cover (opposite): Rostov medallion, from the Hiver impérial High Jewerly collection, set with a 4.14-carat round diamond and aspen wood, paved with diamonds on white gold © Boucheron.

The art of the jeweler Partnerships: Caroline Levesque Editor: Geneviève de la Bretesche Copyeditor: Capucine Jahan Picture research: Maryvonne Bouraoui Layout: Valentina Léporé Illustrations: Laure Massin English translation and adaptation: Lisa Davidson Production: Marie-Agnès Naturel Photoengraving: Arciel graphic

All rights reserved © Éditions Gallimard - L’École des Arts Joailliers, 2019 Legal deposit: April 2019 - Edition number: 342355 - ISBN: 978-2-07-282260-5 Printed in Italy by Cooperativa Lavoratori Zanardi


The School of Jewelry Arts, founded in 2012 with support from Van Cleef & Arpels, introduces the public to the culture of jewelry in Paris and throughout the world, through classes, videos, lectures, exhibitions and publications. These initiatives cover three themes: the history of jewelry, gemology and know-how. The publication of this book reflects the school’s ambition to showcase the little-known métiers of the jewelry profession. Guillaume Glorieux is Director of Teaching and Research at the School of Jewelry Arts. A university professor and art historian, he has written several books on painting, the luxury goods industry and the decorative arts. Acknowledgments This book would not have been possible without the backing of Marie Vallanet, President of the School of Jewelry Arts, supported by Van Cleef & Arpels, and of Nicolas Bos, CEO of Van Cleef & Arpels, and I extend my deepest gratitude to them. I was also fortunate to have in-depth exchanges with representatives from each of the jewelry professions, who pursue their art with dedication in the workshops of the jewelry house. I would like to offer them my heartfelt thanks, as well as to the heads of the archive and documentation departments at Boucheron, Cartier, Chaumet, Mellerio and Van Cleef & Arpels, who generously contributed to the wealth of illustrations. Finally, I would like to thank the staff at Éditions Gallimard, particularly Franck Fertille, Caroline Levesque and Geneviève de la Bretesche. Photo credits Cover: Cybèle butterfly clip, Papillons collection, 2018 © Van Cleef & Arpels. Inside front cover: drawing of a diamond necklace for a special order, 1949. Archives Van Cleef & Arpels. Historical Professions: p. 2 © Mellerio archives; p. 4 © BNF; p. 5 © Musée Carnavalet/ Roger-Viollet; p. 6 © RMNGrand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/ Martine Beck-Coppola; p. 7 © akg-images/viennaslide/ Harald A. Jahn; p. 8 © RMNGrand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/ Jean-Gilles Berizi; p. 9 © Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/akg-images. ADAGP; p. 11 © akg-images/ Album/Raga/Prisma. Designer: intro left © Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/Jean Tholance/ akg-images; intro right © akg-images/Nimatallah; foldout, page 1 © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/Thierry Le Mage; page 2 t G. Nencioli © Cartier; pages 2 b, 3 t © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 3 b © Boucheron; page 4 © Archives Van Cleef & Arpels.

Mock-up maker: intro left © Chaumet; intro right t, b © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 t © Mellerio; pages 2 t, b, 3 © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 1 b ©  Photo12/Alamy; page 4 t, b Vincent De La Faille © Cartier. Gemologist: intro left and right Nils Herrmann © Cartier; foldout, page 1 t © Van Cleef & Arpels; b © ÖNB/INTERFOTO; page 2 © Granger/Bridgeman Images; page 3 © Bridgeman Images; page 4 t © Boucheron; b © LFG Paris. Metal-caster: intro left © Getty Images; intro right tl, tr © Van Cleef & Arpels; b © Cartier; foldout, page 1 tl, tr © Van Cleef & Arpels; b and page 2 © Chaumet/Bruno Ehrs; pages 3 t and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 3 b Ph. Gontier © Cartier. Jeweler: intro left © Lukas-Art in Flanders VZW/Bridgeman Images; intro right. © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 © Chaumet/Bruno Ehrs; page 2 © BNF; pages 3 and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels.

Découvertes Gallimard Series created by Pierre Marchand and Élisabeth de Farcy Department of illustrated books: Nathalie Bailleux Head of partnerships: Franck Fertille Design: Hélène Arnaud Press: Béatrice Foti, with Françoise Issaurat

Polisher: intro left G. Uféras © Cartier; intro right © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 © Boucheron; pages 2, 3 and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels. Stone-setter: intro left © Van Cleef & Arpels; intro right t © Collection Dagli Orti/Aurimages; b © Boucheron; foldout, page 1 © akg-images; page 2 t and page 3 tr, b © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 2 b © École des Arts Joailliers © Van Cleef & Arpels; page 3 tl © Boucheron; page 4 Harald Gottschalk © Cartier. Lapidary: intro left © Bridgeman Images; intro right t © Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/Jean Tholance; b © Van Cleef & Arpels; foldout, page 1 t © Cartier; b, page 2 b, pages 3 t and 4 © Van Cleef & Arpels. Diamantaire: intro left Archives Cartier © Cartier; intro right V. Wulveryck © Cartier; foldout, page 1 © Bridgeman Images; page 2 t © Chaumet/Nils Herrmann; b © Art/Media/ Getty Images; page 3 t © Van Cleef & Arpels b © École des arts joailliers; br © Cartier; page 4 t © GraphicaArtis/Bridgeman

Images; b © Private collection, courtesy of Albion Art Jewellery Institute. Engraver and sculptor: intro left © Bridgeman Images; intro right tl © Cartier; r Vincent Wulveryck © Cartier; foldout, page 1 Bruno Ehrs © Cartier; page 2 t © RMN-Grand Palais (Musée du Louvre)/Hervé Lewandowski; 2 bl, br © Bridgeman Images; page 3 © akg-images/ De Agostini Picture Library/G. Cigolini; page 4 t © Van Cleef & Arpels; bl ©  Les Arts Décoratifs, Paris/Jean Tholance/akg-images; br © Mellerio. The Challenge of Transmitting Know-How: p. 2 © Chaumet; p. 5 © Van Cleef & Arpels; p. 6 © Mellerio; p. 7 © Lucas Giraud; p. 8 © Tim Rue/ Bloomberg/Getty Images; p. 9, 10 © Van Cleef & Arpels; p. 11 © Boucheron. Inside back cover (opposite): Rostov medallion, from the Hiver impérial High Jewerly collection, set with a 4.14-carat round diamond and aspen wood, paved with diamonds on white gold © Boucheron.

The art of the jeweler Partnerships: Caroline Levesque Editor: Geneviève de la Bretesche Copyeditor: Capucine Jahan Picture research: Maryvonne Bouraoui Layout: Valentina Léporé Illustrations: Laure Massin English translation and adaptation: Lisa Davidson Production: Marie-Agnès Naturel Photoengraving: Arciel graphic

All rights reserved © Éditions Gallimard - L’École des Arts Joailliers, 2019 Legal deposit: April 2019 - Edition number: 342355 - ISBN: 978-2-07-282260-5 Printed in Italy by Cooperativa Lavoratori Zanardi


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THE ART OF THE JEWELER

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eautifully illustrated with photographs from leading jewelry houses, this book offers a glimpse inside the various workshops, where excellence and expertise are transmitted from generation to generation. It follows the creation of a piece of jewelry, from the first sketch to the final polishing stage, in a tribute to the diversity, high standards and technical skills that contribute to the creation of the most remarkable and audacious pieces. The designer, mock-up maker, gemologist, metal-caster, jeweler, polisher, stone-setter, lapidary, diamond-cutter, engraver and sculptor all work toward a sole objective: beauty. With illustrations that showcase the work of artisans and the virtuosity of the jeweler’s art, this book presents an inside look at little-known métiers, along with a touch of magic.

Guillaume Glorieux

The Art of the Jeweler Excellence and Craftsmanship

OCTAVIUS, registered patent, design and brand © Gallimard-Zanardi

www.decouvertes-gallimard.fr ISBN 978-2-07-282260-5 £ 12.95 - US $ 17.50

Gallimard / L’ École, School of Jewelry Arts

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The Art of the Jeweller  

The Art of the Jeweller