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French

Art Nouveau Ceramics An illustrated Dictionary

Paul Arthur

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TITRE COURANT

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The art of the West succumbs to the Orient   on this plate, perhaps made at Limoges. Diam. 23.2cm. Private coll. Opposite: Guimard, “Vase des Binelles”   designed and produced at the Manufacture Nationale   de Sèvres, 1903. H. 129.5cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, 2011 Benefit Fund, 2013 (2013.502). © 2013 Robert A. Ellison Jr. Previous: Bracquemond, xxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxx,   xxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx x xx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxx xxx   x xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx, xxxxxxx, xxxxxx.

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art nouveau, while recognised as a style in its own right, is also an eclectic synthesis and interpretation of a great number of other art styles. Largely through British arts and crafts, and the work of artists like the Manxman Archibald Knox, it reaches far back to Celtic art, and particularly the La Tène style, made famous through discoveries such as the Battersea shield or the Desborough mirror. To this were added later medieval elements via the gothic revival championed by William Morris. The need for renewal, breaking away from the neo-Classical and academia, which was the realm of upper-class culture, was largely theorised by John Ruskin, who searched elsewhere for inspiration.Thus British art nouveau also came to partake of Chinese and Japanese styles, though never in so forceful a manner as did the French aesthetic. France, on the one hand, looked back to the swirling and frivolous eighteenth-century Rococo, primarily through the influence of the Goncourt brothers, Edmond and Jules, influential aesthetes of the mid-nineteenth century. On the other hand, however, the Goncourts were also instrumental in the collection of oriental objects, and the diffusion of Chinese and Japanese styles—particularly the latter, and often styles which reached back several centuries—were to act as catalysts for the movement (for Japanese ceramics in French collections, see Yuko 2004). Though traditional Chinoiserie had long been established in Europe, the imperial and commercial expansion of Western countries in the Far East led to considerable imports of Chinese, Japanese and Korean art objects, as well as intimate contact between cultures and artists. As early as 1853, the Oriental tea shop La Porte Chinoise had opened in Paris at 36 rue Vivienne, not far from Opéra. In 1856, the year in which Bracquemond acquired his copy of Hokusai’s Manga, Stanislas Julien translated Histoire et fabrication de la porcelaine chinoise from Chinese with annotations by Alphonse Salvetat, while Johann Joseph Hoffman translated Mémoire sur la porcelaine du Japon from Japanese. Only ten years later, in 1866, Félix Bracquemond introduced Japonisme into ceramic decoration, creating the service Rousseau, a fine faience dinner service. He was soon followed by other ceramic artists, such as Laurent Bouvier from 1872, Camille Moreau, and the painters of the atelier d’Auteuil, which Bracquemond himself directed from 1874. In 1879 Bracquemond designed the famous fleurs et rubans dishes, which heralded the whiplash design, a classic motif of art nouveau. Of course, the trade agreements that France, Holland, Great Britain and Russia had signed with Japan in 1858 had resulted in larger and more diversified exports of Japanese products to Europe. Collectors and museums throughout Britain and the Continent began to acquire oriental works in significant quantities—one need only look at the splendid objects in the Musée Guimet in Paris, founded in 1889, itself based on a private collection exhibited in Lyons ten years earlier.

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TITRE COURANT

L’

The art of the West succumbs to the Orient   on this plate, perhaps made at Limoges. Diam. 23.2cm. Private coll. Opposite: Guimard, “Vase des Binelles”   designed and produced at the Manufacture Nationale   de Sèvres, 1903. H. 129.5cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, 2011 Benefit Fund, 2013 (2013.502). © 2013 Robert A. Ellison Jr. Previous: Bracquemond, xxxxx xxxxxxxx xx xxxx,   xxxx xxxxxxx xx xxxxx x xx xxxxxxxx, xxxxxxxx xxx   x xx xxxxxx xxxxxx xxxx xxxxxx xxx, xxxxxxx, xxxxxx.

012_029_AN_and_Cermics.indd 14-15

art nouveau, while recognised as a style in its own right, is also an eclectic synthesis and interpretation of a great number of other art styles. Largely through British arts and crafts, and the work of artists like the Manxman Archibald Knox, it reaches far back to Celtic art, and particularly the La Tène style, made famous through discoveries such as the Battersea shield or the Desborough mirror. To this were added later medieval elements via the gothic revival championed by William Morris. The need for renewal, breaking away from the neo-Classical and academia, which was the realm of upper-class culture, was largely theorised by John Ruskin, who searched elsewhere for inspiration.Thus British art nouveau also came to partake of Chinese and Japanese styles, though never in so forceful a manner as did the French aesthetic. France, on the one hand, looked back to the swirling and frivolous eighteenth-century Rococo, primarily through the influence of the Goncourt brothers, Edmond and Jules, influential aesthetes of the mid-nineteenth century. On the other hand, however, the Goncourts were also instrumental in the collection of oriental objects, and the diffusion of Chinese and Japanese styles—particularly the latter, and often styles which reached back several centuries—were to act as catalysts for the movement (for Japanese ceramics in French collections, see Yuko 2004). Though traditional Chinoiserie had long been established in Europe, the imperial and commercial expansion of Western countries in the Far East led to considerable imports of Chinese, Japanese and Korean art objects, as well as intimate contact between cultures and artists. As early as 1853, the Oriental tea shop La Porte Chinoise had opened in Paris at 36 rue Vivienne, not far from Opéra. In 1856, the year in which Bracquemond acquired his copy of Hokusai’s Manga, Stanislas Julien translated Histoire et fabrication de la porcelaine chinoise from Chinese with annotations by Alphonse Salvetat, while Johann Joseph Hoffman translated Mémoire sur la porcelaine du Japon from Japanese. Only ten years later, in 1866, Félix Bracquemond introduced Japonisme into ceramic decoration, creating the service Rousseau, a fine faience dinner service. He was soon followed by other ceramic artists, such as Laurent Bouvier from 1872, Camille Moreau, and the painters of the atelier d’Auteuil, which Bracquemond himself directed from 1874. In 1879 Bracquemond designed the famous fleurs et rubans dishes, which heralded the whiplash design, a classic motif of art nouveau. Of course, the trade agreements that France, Holland, Great Britain and Russia had signed with Japan in 1858 had resulted in larger and more diversified exports of Japanese products to Europe. Collectors and museums throughout Britain and the Continent began to acquire oriental works in significant quantities—one need only look at the splendid objects in the Musée Guimet in Paris, founded in 1889, itself based on a private collection exhibited in Lyons ten years earlier.

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ART NOUVEAU AND CERAMICS

ART NOUVEAU AND CERAMICS

to the south of Auteuil, also in the 16th arrondissement. Eugène Collinot had worked there since 1863, and Raoul Lachenal was to establish his atelier there after leaving his father (for a map of the principal ateliers in Paris, see Plinval de Guillebon 1995, 216–17).

Sèvres and the Manufacture nationale de porcelaine

Sèvres in an old postcard.   The Manufacture Nationale de Céramique   lies to the immediate west (left) of the bridge.   Boulogne-Billancourt is on the eastern bank.

The celebrated porcelain firm at Sèvres was established in 1756, overlooking the river Seine to the immediate west of Paris, but by the late nineteenth century had fallen into some economic difficulty. Sèvres had been highly criticised in the years leading up to the directorship of Alexandre Sandier, particularly following the eighth exhibition at the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs of 1884, which viewed the manufacture as impersonal, lacking in imagination and creativity. However, in 1866–67 a covert Japanese society named the Jing-lar had been formed at Sèvres, which included among its members artists employed by the firm such as Marc-Louis-Emmanuel Solon and Félix Bracquemond. Dressed in Japanese fashion, the members of the club met for Japanese-style dinners once a month. Such artists, along with Henri Lambert, were among those to initiate Japoniste decoration at the manufactory. The most profound changes, however, were to take place following the presidential decree of 15 December 1891, which stipulated that Sèvres search for new forms and decorations and develop ceramics that included not only porcelain, but also stoneware or grès. Furthermore, in 1893 the manufactory established the École de Céramique, from which many leading ceramists graduated. (In 1979, the school was transferred to Limoges where it is now the École Nationale Supérieure de Céramique Industrielle (ENSCI) de Limoges.) Towards the end of the nineteenth century Sèvres also embarked upon a programme of experimentation in clay and glaze, and was responsible for the creation of a number of formulas, particularly by the chemists Charles Lauth and Georges Vogt in the 1880s and 1890s. These include glaze crystallisation, and pâte nouvelle, a porcelain that could be fired at lower temperatures than previous products, permitting greater versatility. Along with these innovations, Alexandre Sandier, the energetic and imaginative artistic director from 1897, fully introduced the art nouveau style and was largely responsible for Sèvres’s success at the 1900 World Exhibition, thus re-launching the firm. The administrators and art directors of the company who led up to and covered the art nouveau movement, fully realised under Sandier and Baumgart, were as follows:

Joseph Théodore Deck, administrateur, 1887–91 Émile Baumgart, administrateur, 1891–1908 Émile Bourgeois, administrateur, 1909–20 Albert Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, directeur des travaux d’art, 1875–87 Gustave Joseph Chéret, directeur suppléant des travaux d’art, 1878–97 Auguste- Jules Coutan, directeur des travaux d’art, 1891–95 Jules-Clément Chaplain, directeur des travaux d’art, 1895–97 Claude Nicolas Alexandre Sandier, directeur des travaux d’art, 1897–1916 Independently of the Manufacture nationale, there were also a number of ceramic artists and firms who worked in and around the township of Sèvres. Many were located along the rue Troyon, while others were situated across the river at Boulogne-sur-Seine and Billancourt. The former included the Milets, Almaric Walter and the Saglier frères, and possibly James Malfray, while the latter included establishments such as Collinot, and Gentil and Bourdet (on the independents, see Bréon & Slitine 2007; Slitine 2003, 2005, 2006).

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Students at the École de Céramique de Sèvres   around 1900. The bearded Julien Dupagny is middle right, with his hand on the arm of Léopold Rémion. Courtesy Françoise Huchon.

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ART NOUVEAU AND CERAMICS

ART NOUVEAU AND CERAMICS

to the south of Auteuil, also in the 16th arrondissement. Eugène Collinot had worked there since 1863, and Raoul Lachenal was to establish his atelier there after leaving his father (for a map of the principal ateliers in Paris, see Plinval de Guillebon 1995, 216–17).

Sèvres and the Manufacture nationale de porcelaine

Sèvres in an old postcard.   The Manufacture Nationale de Céramique   lies to the immediate west (left) of the bridge.   Boulogne-Billancourt is on the eastern bank.

The celebrated porcelain firm at Sèvres was established in 1756, overlooking the river Seine to the immediate west of Paris, but by the late nineteenth century had fallen into some economic difficulty. Sèvres had been highly criticised in the years leading up to the directorship of Alexandre Sandier, particularly following the eighth exhibition at the Union Centrale des Arts Décoratifs of 1884, which viewed the manufacture as impersonal, lacking in imagination and creativity. However, in 1866–67 a covert Japanese society named the Jing-lar had been formed at Sèvres, which included among its members artists employed by the firm such as Marc-Louis-Emmanuel Solon and Félix Bracquemond. Dressed in Japanese fashion, the members of the club met for Japanese-style dinners once a month. Such artists, along with Henri Lambert, were among those to initiate Japoniste decoration at the manufactory. The most profound changes, however, were to take place following the presidential decree of 15 December 1891, which stipulated that Sèvres search for new forms and decorations and develop ceramics that included not only porcelain, but also stoneware or grès. Furthermore, in 1893 the manufactory established the École de Céramique, from which many leading ceramists graduated. (In 1979, the school was transferred to Limoges where it is now the École Nationale Supérieure de Céramique Industrielle (ENSCI) de Limoges.) Towards the end of the nineteenth century Sèvres also embarked upon a programme of experimentation in clay and glaze, and was responsible for the creation of a number of formulas, particularly by the chemists Charles Lauth and Georges Vogt in the 1880s and 1890s. These include glaze crystallisation, and pâte nouvelle, a porcelain that could be fired at lower temperatures than previous products, permitting greater versatility. Along with these innovations, Alexandre Sandier, the energetic and imaginative artistic director from 1897, fully introduced the art nouveau style and was largely responsible for Sèvres’s success at the 1900 World Exhibition, thus re-launching the firm. The administrators and art directors of the company who led up to and covered the art nouveau movement, fully realised under Sandier and Baumgart, were as follows:

Joseph Théodore Deck, administrateur, 1887–91 Émile Baumgart, administrateur, 1891–1908 Émile Bourgeois, administrateur, 1909–20 Albert Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, directeur des travaux d’art, 1875–87 Gustave Joseph Chéret, directeur suppléant des travaux d’art, 1878–97 Auguste- Jules Coutan, directeur des travaux d’art, 1891–95 Jules-Clément Chaplain, directeur des travaux d’art, 1895–97 Claude Nicolas Alexandre Sandier, directeur des travaux d’art, 1897–1916 Independently of the Manufacture nationale, there were also a number of ceramic artists and firms who worked in and around the township of Sèvres. Many were located along the rue Troyon, while others were situated across the river at Boulogne-sur-Seine and Billancourt. The former included the Milets, Almaric Walter and the Saglier frères, and possibly James Malfray, while the latter included establishments such as Collinot, and Gentil and Bourdet (on the independents, see Bréon & Slitine 2007; Slitine 2003, 2005, 2006).

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Students at the École de Céramique de Sèvres   around 1900. The bearded Julien Dupagny is middle right, with his hand on the arm of Léopold Rémion. Courtesy Françoise Huchon.

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DE BARCK

BAUDIN

Jules Lefèbvre at the Académie Julian. He began exhibiting painting at the SAF, but took up the production of grès at Saint-Amand-en-Puisaye after being struck by the beauty of Japoniste ceramics, and by the work of Carriès which he saw at the Champ-de-Mars in Paris in 1892. At Saint-Amand-en-Puisaye he drew on the experience of local potters, both at the Lion and Normand ateliers, as well as availing himself of the assistance of Louis Émile Pichard. He occasionally produced pieces designed by other artists, including a vase signed by Yvan Piemans, possibly a Dutchman. De Barck’s relatively rare ceramics are either in typical Japoniste style or with applied floral art nouveau decoration, often drip-glazed.These were regularly exhibited at the SAF from 1901, and he was eventually given the title of chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur for his art. In 1926 he acquired the château de SaintAmand, where he died. Signature “NdeBarck”, “N de B” or “NB” à la pointe. (Pelichet 1976, 180; Makus 1981, 37; Heller 1986, 64–65; Haslam 1995; Ducret & Monjaret 1997; Montjaret & Ducret 2001; Sanchez 2005, 91–92)

Barin, J. An artist who worked on porcelain at Limoges around 1900.

Barluet, Henri Félix Anatole (Laigle, Oise 1820 – Creil 1884)

Nils de Barck, lidded bowl in the form of a pumpkin. ... Photo Åsa Lundén, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.

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Barluet began working on ceramics as an employee first at Montereau in 1838, and then at Creil in 1844. In 1867 he promoted the construction of a workers’ town at Creil. Already awarded the croix of the Légion d’Honneur in 1869, in 1870 he was elected mayor of Creil, guiding the town through the period of German occupation during the Franco–Prussian War. After the war, he became director of the Société des Faïenceries de Creil et de Montereau, Société Lebeuf et Cie, originally Lebeuf, Milliet et Cie. Upon the death of Lebeuf in 1876, Barluet took over the firm, which became Barluet et Cie. Its offices were at 61 Rue du Faubourg Poissonnière, Paris. Barluet was a member of the jury for the Exposition Universelle in 1878, when he decorated a pavilion with a faience mosaic. The firm continued to produce Bracquemond’s service Rousseau, originally produced under Lebeuf. Henri Lambert also painted blanks produced by the firm. Richard

Froment worked with the faiencerie after 1880. When Barluet died in 1884, the firm was taken over by Frontier. It eventually closed in 1920. Ceramics were signed with the printed mark “CREIL / B. & Cie / MONTEREAU” or simply “B. & Cie / FRANCE”. (La Céramique 41, 1884, 1–2; Bontillot 1998; Sanchez 2005, 93)

Barol, Jean-Baptiste (Vallauris 1873 – Cannes 1966) Barol originally worked with Clément Massier. In 1912, with his partners Alexandre, Carle and Sicard, he helped create the BACS workshop at Cap d’Antibes, near Cannes, sponsored by the architect Georges Massa. After breaking his contract with Massa, he went to work for the Faïencerie Picard at Amiens and later, in 1916, returned to BACS. In 1917, together with François Sicard, he left to become the first artistic director at Montières, run by Désiré Borck.There he taught ceramic techniques to pupils of the École des Beaux-Arts at Amiens. He returned to Cap d’Antibes in 1920 to rejoin BACS, where he remained until 1927. He continued to produce ceramics at Vallauris, as well as at Cannes–La Bocca, until after the Second World War. The latter site, strategically located near the railway in the south of Cannes, is named on various pieces with lustre glaze or art deco decoration, as well as a series of splendid plates with fish, crabs, seaweed and the like, in an art nouveau revival style. Though his earlier pieces are usually in lustreware and occasionally carry painted landscapes, his work at Montières and on his return to the south of France sometimes exhibit painted barbotine decoration, highlighted with sgraffito, in the émaux cloisonnés technique, against an iridescent Massier-like glazed background. His products are often signed “JBarol”, with a ligatured JB. (Makus 1981, 36; Declein 1995, 14–15; Forest & Lacquemant 2000, 22–24)

Barrias, Charles Louis Ernest (Paris 1841–1905) The famous and influential academic sculptor Barrias studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jouffroy from 1858 to 1861, when he won the Prix de Rome, and taught at the École from 1884. He designed some pieces for Sèvres in 1892, and later some of his designs were reproduced by the Mougin frères, a firm with which various of

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his students collaborated. In 1898 he modelled a plaque with a portrait of the architect Julien Guadet, which was produced by the ceramists Gentil et Bourdet. His work was frequently exhibited at the SAF. (Peiffer 2001, 144; Arwas 2002, 536; Sanchez 2005, 97–98)

Bastard, Georges (Andeville, Oise 1881 – Paris 1939) Bastard was a designer of objects (fans, boxes, etc.) in various materials, highly influenced by Japanese art. He also provided some decorations and designs for the Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres, as well as producing some pottery of his own, apparently from the 1920s. (Haslam 1995, 123)

Bastet, Victorien Antoine (Bollène 1852 – Paris 1905) Bastet began his studies at the École de dessin d’Avignon, followed by the École des Beaux-Arts de Paris, which he entered in 1874. His early years in Paris were aided by the philanthropist Monsieur Vallarino. He excelled in both portrait sculpture and the sculpture of mythological and biblical subjects, and his output was to include works in various metals, marble and terracotta. The first mention of him at the Paris Salons was in 1879, and he continued to exhibit up to his death, becoming one of the foremost sculptors of the time.

Baubeau, Alice Baubeau is known to have painted porcelain vases, for which she exhibited a project at the SAF in 1911. (Duncan 1998, 50; Sanchez 2005, 101)

Bauby, Eugène (c. 1860–?) A potter who worked as a turner of grès for both Charles Gréber, from 1906, and later for Auguste Delaherche. (Cartier & Frichet-Colzy 1993, 141)

Baudin s.v. Badonviller

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DE BARCK

BAUDIN

Jules Lefèbvre at the Académie Julian. He began exhibiting painting at the SAF, but took up the production of grès at Saint-Amand-en-Puisaye after being struck by the beauty of Japoniste ceramics, and by the work of Carriès which he saw at the Champ-de-Mars in Paris in 1892. At Saint-Amand-en-Puisaye he drew on the experience of local potters, both at the Lion and Normand ateliers, as well as availing himself of the assistance of Louis Émile Pichard. He occasionally produced pieces designed by other artists, including a vase signed by Yvan Piemans, possibly a Dutchman. De Barck’s relatively rare ceramics are either in typical Japoniste style or with applied floral art nouveau decoration, often drip-glazed.These were regularly exhibited at the SAF from 1901, and he was eventually given the title of chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur for his art. In 1926 he acquired the château de SaintAmand, where he died. Signature “NdeBarck”, “N de B” or “NB” à la pointe. (Pelichet 1976, 180; Makus 1981, 37; Heller 1986, 64–65; Haslam 1995; Ducret & Monjaret 1997; Montjaret & Ducret 2001; Sanchez 2005, 91–92)

Barin, J. An artist who worked on porcelain at Limoges around 1900.

Barluet, Henri Félix Anatole (Laigle, Oise 1820 – Creil 1884)

Nils de Barck, lidded bowl in the form of a pumpkin. ... Photo Åsa Lundén, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.

030_116_Ceramics_A-C_new.indd 48-49

Barluet began working on ceramics as an employee first at Montereau in 1838, and then at Creil in 1844. In 1867 he promoted the construction of a workers’ town at Creil. Already awarded the croix of the Légion d’Honneur in 1869, in 1870 he was elected mayor of Creil, guiding the town through the period of German occupation during the Franco–Prussian War. After the war, he became director of the Société des Faïenceries de Creil et de Montereau, Société Lebeuf et Cie, originally Lebeuf, Milliet et Cie. Upon the death of Lebeuf in 1876, Barluet took over the firm, which became Barluet et Cie. Its offices were at 61 Rue du Faubourg Poissonnière, Paris. Barluet was a member of the jury for the Exposition Universelle in 1878, when he decorated a pavilion with a faience mosaic. The firm continued to produce Bracquemond’s service Rousseau, originally produced under Lebeuf. Henri Lambert also painted blanks produced by the firm. Richard

Froment worked with the faiencerie after 1880. When Barluet died in 1884, the firm was taken over by Frontier. It eventually closed in 1920. Ceramics were signed with the printed mark “CREIL / B. & Cie / MONTEREAU” or simply “B. & Cie / FRANCE”. (La Céramique 41, 1884, 1–2; Bontillot 1998; Sanchez 2005, 93)

Barol, Jean-Baptiste (Vallauris 1873 – Cannes 1966) Barol originally worked with Clément Massier. In 1912, with his partners Alexandre, Carle and Sicard, he helped create the BACS workshop at Cap d’Antibes, near Cannes, sponsored by the architect Georges Massa. After breaking his contract with Massa, he went to work for the Faïencerie Picard at Amiens and later, in 1916, returned to BACS. In 1917, together with François Sicard, he left to become the first artistic director at Montières, run by Désiré Borck.There he taught ceramic techniques to pupils of the École des Beaux-Arts at Amiens. He returned to Cap d’Antibes in 1920 to rejoin BACS, where he remained until 1927. He continued to produce ceramics at Vallauris, as well as at Cannes–La Bocca, until after the Second World War. The latter site, strategically located near the railway in the south of Cannes, is named on various pieces with lustre glaze or art deco decoration, as well as a series of splendid plates with fish, crabs, seaweed and the like, in an art nouveau revival style. Though his earlier pieces are usually in lustreware and occasionally carry painted landscapes, his work at Montières and on his return to the south of France sometimes exhibit painted barbotine decoration, highlighted with sgraffito, in the émaux cloisonnés technique, against an iridescent Massier-like glazed background. His products are often signed “JBarol”, with a ligatured JB. (Makus 1981, 36; Declein 1995, 14–15; Forest & Lacquemant 2000, 22–24)

Barrias, Charles Louis Ernest (Paris 1841–1905) The famous and influential academic sculptor Barrias studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under Jouffroy from 1858 to 1861, when he won the Prix de Rome, and taught at the École from 1884. He designed some pieces for Sèvres in 1892, and later some of his designs were reproduced by the Mougin frères, a firm with which various of

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his students collaborated. In 1898 he modelled a plaque with a portrait of the architect Julien Guadet, which was produced by the ceramists Gentil et Bourdet. His work was frequently exhibited at the SAF. (Peiffer 2001, 144; Arwas 2002, 536; Sanchez 2005, 97–98)

Bastard, Georges (Andeville, Oise 1881 – Paris 1939) Bastard was a designer of objects (fans, boxes, etc.) in various materials, highly influenced by Japanese art. He also provided some decorations and designs for the Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres, as well as producing some pottery of his own, apparently from the 1920s. (Haslam 1995, 123)

Bastet, Victorien Antoine (Bollène 1852 – Paris 1905) Bastet began his studies at the École de dessin d’Avignon, followed by the École des Beaux-Arts de Paris, which he entered in 1874. His early years in Paris were aided by the philanthropist Monsieur Vallarino. He excelled in both portrait sculpture and the sculpture of mythological and biblical subjects, and his output was to include works in various metals, marble and terracotta. The first mention of him at the Paris Salons was in 1879, and he continued to exhibit up to his death, becoming one of the foremost sculptors of the time.

Baubeau, Alice Baubeau is known to have painted porcelain vases, for which she exhibited a project at the SAF in 1911. (Duncan 1998, 50; Sanchez 2005, 101)

Bauby, Eugène (c. 1860–?) A potter who worked as a turner of grès for both Charles Gréber, from 1906, and later for Auguste Delaherche. (Cartier & Frichet-Colzy 1993, 141)

Baudin s.v. Badonviller

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BUSETTO

Busetto, Nino (Genova, Italy 1877 – Vicenza, Italy 1940) An Italian portrait and landscape painter and sculptor who lived at Marlotte and designed some ceramics for Bézard et Mousseaux after 1916. Unfortunately, very few of his pieces are known. (Fanica & Boué 1988, 57; Fanica & Boué 2005, 118)

Bussière, Ernest (Ars-sur-Moselle 1863 – Nancy 1913) A pupil of Pètre at the École des Beaux-Arts, and from a modest family, Bussière was principally a sculptor, exhibiting at the Paris Salons as early as 1883. A painting by Émile Friant dating to 1884 depicts him in his studio, and he is represented as a scholar at the École Forestière de Nancy in a 1887 plaster bust by the Japanese painter and botanist Tokuzo Takashima (1850–1931). By 1895 Bussière was producing ceramics, perhaps having been engaged by Keller et Guérin under

the impetus of Maurice de Ravinel. In that year he produced an organic jug designed by Louis Majorelle signed “K.G. Lunéville / Majorelle”. The following year he exhibited some faïence à reflets métalliques at the SAF. Bussière’s ceramic output is known best through his work at Keller et Guérin, perhaps largely commissioned by Majorelle, including highly imaginative vegetal ceramic forms.Very occasionally his works were embellished with female nudes, or were freestanding figures or busts, such as his splendid Le Sommeil. His vessels were formed principally in a white pipe-clay, which allowed for more precise moulding and modelling, before being realised in grès. He seems to have abandoned most of his ceramic production to return to sculpting not long after the death of Émile Gallé in 1904, and the decline of the School of Nancy. Nonetheless, he appears to have decorated occasional vases for Sèvres, marked “B”, until at least 1911 (Pelichet 1976, 93–94). However, Bussière’s vegetal models as produced by Keller et Guérin were so successful that they were also edited in glass by Daum and continued to be produced

long after his death. Indeed, from 1923, when Keller et Guérin was taken over by Édouard Fenal, some of the originals were reproduced on commission by the Mougin frères, often in collaboration with Majorelle’s atelier. This also explains why some of Bussière’s forms appeared alongside art déco ceramics in the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1925. Though most of Bussière’s original models bear the painted signature “Bussière” together with the “KG” mark, not all pieces were signed, while those signed solely by Majorelle or by the Mougin frères presumably date to after his death. A bowl with vine-leaf handles for Keller et Guérin also bears the additional painted signature of a certain “Martin”. (Haslam 1995, 94; Bertrand 1997, 110–11;Thomas et al. 2000; Peiffer 2001, 150–51; Sanchez 2005, 239; Lunéville 2011)

C

Buteaux This artist’s signature appears on grès from l’Isle Adam, dated 1903.

Bussière, “Périanthe”, manufactured by Keller et Guérin. H. 13cm. Courtesy Robert Zehil. Ernest Chaplet’s typical sang-de-boeuf glaze on a naturalistic pear. H. 19cm. © 2013 Robert A. Ellison Jr.

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BUSETTO

Busetto, Nino (Genova, Italy 1877 – Vicenza, Italy 1940) An Italian portrait and landscape painter and sculptor who lived at Marlotte and designed some ceramics for Bézard et Mousseaux after 1916. Unfortunately, very few of his pieces are known. (Fanica & Boué 1988, 57; Fanica & Boué 2005, 118)

Bussière, Ernest (Ars-sur-Moselle 1863 – Nancy 1913) A pupil of Pètre at the École des Beaux-Arts, and from a modest family, Bussière was principally a sculptor, exhibiting at the Paris Salons as early as 1883. A painting by Émile Friant dating to 1884 depicts him in his studio, and he is represented as a scholar at the École Forestière de Nancy in a 1887 plaster bust by the Japanese painter and botanist Tokuzo Takashima (1850–1931). By 1895 Bussière was producing ceramics, perhaps having been engaged by Keller et Guérin under

the impetus of Maurice de Ravinel. In that year he produced an organic jug designed by Louis Majorelle signed “K.G. Lunéville / Majorelle”. The following year he exhibited some faïence à reflets métalliques at the SAF. Bussière’s ceramic output is known best through his work at Keller et Guérin, perhaps largely commissioned by Majorelle, including highly imaginative vegetal ceramic forms.Very occasionally his works were embellished with female nudes, or were freestanding figures or busts, such as his splendid Le Sommeil. His vessels were formed principally in a white pipe-clay, which allowed for more precise moulding and modelling, before being realised in grès. He seems to have abandoned most of his ceramic production to return to sculpting not long after the death of Émile Gallé in 1904, and the decline of the School of Nancy. Nonetheless, he appears to have decorated occasional vases for Sèvres, marked “B”, until at least 1911 (Pelichet 1976, 93–94). However, Bussière’s vegetal models as produced by Keller et Guérin were so successful that they were also edited in glass by Daum and continued to be produced

long after his death. Indeed, from 1923, when Keller et Guérin was taken over by Édouard Fenal, some of the originals were reproduced on commission by the Mougin frères, often in collaboration with Majorelle’s atelier. This also explains why some of Bussière’s forms appeared alongside art déco ceramics in the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1925. Though most of Bussière’s original models bear the painted signature “Bussière” together with the “KG” mark, not all pieces were signed, while those signed solely by Majorelle or by the Mougin frères presumably date to after his death. A bowl with vine-leaf handles for Keller et Guérin also bears the additional painted signature of a certain “Martin”. (Haslam 1995, 94; Bertrand 1997, 110–11;Thomas et al. 2000; Peiffer 2001, 150–51; Sanchez 2005, 239; Lunéville 2011)

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Buteaux This artist’s signature appears on grès from l’Isle Adam, dated 1903.

Bussière, “Périanthe”, manufactured by Keller et Guérin. H. 13cm. Courtesy Robert Zehil. Ernest Chaplet’s typical sang-de-boeuf glaze on a naturalistic pear. H. 19cm. © 2013 Robert A. Ellison Jr.

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French Art Nouveau Ceramics  

French Art Nouveau Ceramics