We Welcome You “ Forward, upward onward together”.
CONTENTS Table of Contents
Welcome Table of Contents Remarks by British High Commissioner President’s Message ACCP Mission and Objectives ACCP Membership Profiles Farewell Paying Tribute Death Announcement ACCP/Motorola Scholarship Winners
Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 6 Pages 7-8 Page 9 Page 9 Page 10 Page 12
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing
Association of Caribbean Commissioner of Police
27th Annual General Meeting & Conference Nassau, Bahamas
Investigating Gun Crimes in the Caribbean… “Closing the Gap
Is there a duty to obey the law?
Community-Based Policing, the Jamaican Experience
Technology Cayman Islands Government Partners Experience with Technology, Increases Community Safety
A framework for regional Training
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships Integrated Planning and Performance Management Approach Pages 37-39
The Atlantis Resort
The Role of Data Collection and Analysis of Crime in the Caribbean
Overview of the ICRC How can deeper CARICOM integration help with security
Pages 45-46 Pages 48-49
Caribbean Police Cricket Festival The Ardastra Zoo, Nassau
Downtown Nassau in the Bahamas
Sandy beaches on Nassau
Have a productive and successful Meeting!
ACCP Notices Be on the look out for
Remarks by British High Commissioner It’s an honour to be asked to provide a foreword for the 2012 ACCP Magazine. The UK is rightly proud of its role in the establishment of the permanent secretariat of the ACCP in 1999. The UK’s Department for International Development (DfID) provided two-year start-up funding, and the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO) helped with running costs during subsequent years. The sharing of strategies, systems, research, training and procedures at the regional level is increasingly important, and the ACCP’s role in this crucial. The UK-Caribbean Forum which took place in Grenada in January 2012 saw the highest level UK delegation to the Caribbean for some considerable time, including the Foreign Secretary; Minister of State for International Development; Home Office Minister for Crime and Security; and the Foreign & Commonwealth Office Minister with responsibility, inter alia, for the UK’s relations with the Caribbean region. In addition, the Chairman of the UK’s Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA); the CEO of UK Trade & Investment; and the Head of the Crown Prosecution Service’s International Division joined a number of other senior UK officials for the Forum, which ranged across such crucial issues as climate change, economic development, trade and investment, and of course crime and security. The Forum’s sessions on crime and security served to highlight the strength and breadth of UK-Caribbean collaboration. The UK’s security cooperation in this region is long standing and continues to be a high priority for the UK. SOCA officials work alongside law enforcement agencies throughout the Caribbean; the Crown Prosecution Service has a growing network of
Criminal Justice Advisers helping governments with criminal justice sector reform; and our Department for International Development has security programmes in Jamaica and in the Eastern Caribbean as part of a Caribbean-wide programme involving some £75m of expenditure over a four-year time-frame. For example, a team of proceeds of crime and money laundering experts is working closely with Eastern Caribbean governments to take the profits out of organised crime through the seizure of assets. The ACCP and Police Forces across the Caribbean are faced with unenviable challenges. The region is the victim of its geographical location, on the transhipment routes of cocaine passing from Latin America to North America and Europe. The trafficking of drugs through any jurisdiction brings with it, amongst other things, associated violent crime, an increase in the availability and use of firearms, soaring murder rates, and a growth in domestic drug consumption, all of which not only cause widespread misery but also impact on social and economic development, particularly in small countries with a reliance on tourism, as is the case in much of the Caribbean. I would like to assure you that the UK stands willing to help as much as it can, within the constraints of our own funding and in collaboration with our international partners such as the US, Canada and European Union. In these difficult economic times the importance of a regional and fully integrated approach cannot be overstated. I would like to congratulate the ACCP on its work, and to wish you the very best in your efforts to keep the Caribbean region safe for all.
President’s Message Ellison Greenslade QPM, MBA President
- in the Caribbean • Examine the causes of crime in the region • Evaluate existing strategies and make recommendations Over a decade later the region has been hard hit with increased incidences of crime and violence that have had a crippling affect on our societies. This problem is compounded by an active illicit drug trade as well as easy access to illegal firearms and ammunitions. We recognize that these problems are not isolated but affect the entire region; hence the theme for this year’s ACCP meeting is indeed timely as it is relevant. Our theme ‘Transforming National Success into Regional Action: Successful Partnership for Effective Policing’ indicate the willingness and support of member countries to join forces to combat and arrest this vexing problem. Consistent collaboration as well as information sharing on best practices will prove to be an effective tool in helping to restore peace, safety and security to the region. During this year’s Annual meeting to be held in Nassau, Bahamas, Commissioners will hear from experts on subject matters such as ‘Emerging Drugs Trafficking Trend and implications for the Region’, ‘Trafficking in Persons’, Cybercrime and Hi-Tech Threats and Challenges from a Global and Regional Perspective’, ‘Firearms Marking Machine and its Implementation in the Region’ and the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative Successes’ among many others. At the conclusion of this year’s meeting it is anticipated that the networking capacity of individual member countries will be enhanced through new, improved, and existing partnerships. The ACCP will continue to embrace new strategies along with technological advances for its members. Additionally, member countries are encouraged to take advantage of International and Regional training afforded them. I, therefore, implore Commissioners to keep the lines of communication open and continue to dialogue so that the opportunities for transnational crimes can be minimized. I firmly believe that by working together we can effect positive changes in the region while making it a safer place to live, work, visit and play.
I am extremely pleased tto congratulate the Executive aand members of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners o of Police (ACCP) on the publio ccation of this 9th edition of the ACCP’s Magazine and to adA dress readers on this occasion. d The Caribbean Region which we call home with its w crystal clear blue waters, beautiful sandy beaches, luscious vegetation, and inviting weather coupled with a rich history and warm and friendly people stands on the verge of criminal and moral decay as criminal elements threaten our tranquil way of life. During the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), at its Twenty-Second Meeting held in Nassau, The Bahamas in July 2001, Heads expressed concern over new forms of crime and violence that continue to pose threats to public safety as well as the social and economic well-being and security of the people of our the region. Former Prime Minister of Belize, Hon. Said Musa, summarized the concern of Heads as follows: “We must bring our attention to bear on two of the most urgent issues that are wreaking havoc on our populations: the HIV/AIDS pandemic and the intolerable increase in the incidence of crime that has made personal security the overriding concern of all our peoples”. Hence, the Conference agreed to establish a Task Force, comprising representatives from each of the Member States, the Regional Security System (RSS), the Association of Commissioners of Police (ACCP), and the Regional Secretariats, to study the issues and develop recommendations for the consideration of the Heads. The Regional Task Force was charged with the responsibility to isolate the fundamental “causes” of the worrying levels of crime and the security threats in the Region and to develop recommendations for a coordinated response at the sub-regional and/or regional levels which would enable CARICOM Member States to provide the requisite Ellison E. Greenslade, QPM, MBA Commissioner of Police, level of security for their populations and visitors. President of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police and; International Association of Chiefs of Police The objectives of this project were to: (IACP) World Regional Office Chair for Central America • Provide an analytic description of the trends in crime & Caribbean
ACCP Mission and Objectives The Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) was formally established in 1987 in Castries, St Lucia by a resolution passed by 13 members on 20th August. The stated objectives of the association then were:
negotiate and secure funding from individuals and organizations supportive of the goals of the Association.
Engage in formal relations with any organization, institution or state agency for the welfare and benefit of the Association and/or its members; Take an active interest in the promotion of the development of young people regionally and internationally;
Regional cooperation in the suppression of criminal activities in such areas as narcotics, terrorism and organized crime;
The exchange of information in criminal inves -tigations;
h) Arrange conferences, workshops and seminars for the purpose of sharing information and ex periences of benefit to law enforcement; and
iii. The sharing of common services which may in clude training, forensic analysis and research and
iv. The effective management of law enforcement agencies.
The ACCP has also adopted the under-mentioned core In the year 2000 the organization re-defined its mis- values which embodies its ideals and philosophy: sion and objectives in order to be relevant to its current aspirations. These are identified in its Constitution • Commitment to Quality Service – creating an and Bye-Laws as stated hereunder: The Mission of the ethos of quality service delivery to all clients. ACCP is “to be the principal organization for promoting and facilitating: • Collaboration and Co-operation – acknowledg ing the benefits of utilizing greater team-work • Collaboration and co-operation in the develop and co-operation for more efficient and ment and implementation of policing strategies, effective law enforcement. systems and procedures; • Professional and Ethical Standards – striving • The professional and technical skills develop for efficiency and effectiveness while maintain ment of police officers; and ing a keen sense of fairness and integrity •
Proactive measures to prevent crime and im prove police community relations”.
Community Partnership – continually seeking the support and consent of the community for policing activities.
Respect for Human Rights – engendering protection for the fundamental rights of every individual regardless of age, sex ethnicity, religious belief or social status.
Gender and Cultural Sensitivity – recognizing and respecting gender and cultural differences and the sensibilities associated with such differences.
The objectives of the organization are to: a)
develop and maintain a professional organization committed to the improvement of policing in the region;
promote, foster and encourage high professional and ethical standards in pursuit of policing objectives;
support and advance the just and reasonable in terests and aspirations of its members;
influence the development of laws, procedures and practices that will advance the effectiveness of policing in the Region;
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During the relatively short period of its existence the ACCP has made significant strides in its development and has been able to establish itself as a focal point for developing and co-ordinating regional law enforcement and related activities in civil society.
ACCP Membership Profiles Enlisted in the Bermuda Police Service in 1985. He served in various departments including marine unit, training, narcotics, combined force, interdiction, community safety where he developed the community beat unit and the schools resource unit. He was elevated to Commissioner of Police on December 16th 2009. He was awarded the Commissioner’s Merit Award (2003) and the Commissioner’s Commendation (2004).
Jamaica - Owen Ellington - 1st Vice President Enlisted in the Jamaica Constabulary Force on July 27th 1980. Served in various capacities most notable Chairman of Local (Jamaica) Security for Cricket World Cup 2007 and also its representative of the Caribbean Operational Planning and Coordinating staff for regional operations for the event. He was named acting commissioner in November, 2009 and appointed Commissioner in April 2010.
Trinidad & Tobago - Dwayne Gibbs, PhD. Enlisted in the Edmonton Police Service in 1978. After working in various department in the Service he was elevated to the post of Superintendent and was appointed the first Director of Criminal Intelligence Service Alberta (CISA). He was appointed Commissioner of Police of the Trinidad Police Service on 20th September 2010.
Antigua & Barbuda - Vere Browne
British Virgin Islands - Reynell Frazer
Montserrat - Steve Glenroy Foster BSc, CPA, JP
Turks & Caicos Island - Colin Farquhar
Enlisted in the Royal Police of Antigua and Barbuda on the 17th of July, 1975, resigned in February 1980. Enlisted into the Royal Virgin Island Police Force on 5th March, 1980. Served in the Criminal Investigations and the Prosecution Departments for several years, his tenure ended in April 2010 and was appointed as Commissioner of Police on 1st September, 2010.
Enlisted in the Royal Virgin Islands Police Force on 11th November, 1973. Served in several departments including Criminal Investigations, Forensics and Prosecutions. Appointed Commissioner of Police in October 2005. Graduate of the Police Staff College , Bramshill England and the FBI National Academy, Quantico, Virginia. He is currently pursuing a Bachelors’ Degree (BSc) in Criminal Justice.
Secretary/Treasurer Enlisted in the Royal Montserrat Police Force in September 1984. Served as Deputy Commissioner of Police from 2006 -July 2007 and appointed Commissioner of Police the same year. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Management Studies and a Certificate in Public Administration. Professional training includes International Command Program, Strategic Management and Planning, Strategic Human Resource Management & Planning.
Aruba - Adolfo E. Richardson
Cayman Islands - David Baines - 2nd Vice President
St Kitts & Nevis - Celvin G. Walwyn
Enlisted in the Aruba Police Force in 1989. Previous responsibilities include legal advisor to the Commissioner chief of staff and head of the Criminal Investigation Department. In 2008 he was promoted to the post of Deputy Commissioner and appointed Commissioner of Police in 2010. He holds of a degree in law, Higher Police Management and Criminology. He also received training in political science.
Joined Lancashire Constabulary in 1976, rising to the rank of Chief Inspector and was promoted to Greater Manchester Police in England. During his tenure with GMP, Commissioner Baines served as the Head of Corporate Performance; Divisional Commander for Oldham and Divisional Commander for Salford. He was appointed Assistant Chief Constable in the Cheshire Constabulary, where he held control of Operations Support. He was appointed Commissioner on June 1, 2009.
Enlisted in the La Porte, Texas Police Department in 1985 until 2003 when he joined the Orange County Sheriff’s Department. He was appointed Commissioner of Police for St Kitts/Nevis in 2011. Commissioner Walwyn served in various capacities working as an under-cover and anti-narcotics agent, sexual offender surveillance agent in Texas and Florida. He is a licensed Police training instructor.
Bahamas - Ellison Greenslade QPM, MBA -President
Commonwealth of Dominica - Cyril Carrette
St Lucia - Vernon Francois
Enlisted in the Royal Bahamas Police Force in 1979 and was appointed Commissioner of Police on the 4th January 2010. He holds a Masters Degree in Business Administration, and a post graduate certificate in Criminal Justice. He has attended numerous professional training courses and conferences in Canada, the UK, and the US. He is also a recipient of the Queen’s Police Medal (QPM).
Enlisted in the Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force on 16 September 1972 and was appointed Commissioner of Police on 20 September 2010. Commissioner Carrette worked in various department including Criminal investigations, Special Service unit, Drug Unit and also headed the operations unit. He was seconded to the Regional Security System (RSS), where he had responsibility for training and disaster preparedness. Professional Training: He has attended numerous training programmes regionally and internationally and holds certificates and diplomas in various Law Enforcement disciplines.
Experience: Enlisted in the Royal St Lucia Force on January 4, 1983. He served in various departments which included Criminal Investigation, Complaints Unit, Police Prosecutions Unit and was the coordinator of the Police Reform Programme. He was appointed Commissioner (Ag) on 10th May 2010.
Barbados - Darwin Dottin - Immediate
Grenada - Willan A. T. Thompson
St. Maarten - Peter de Witte
Enlisted in the Royal Grenada Police Force in September 1985. He served in various capacities such before being appointed acting Commissioner on 1st September 2011. He holds a Bachelors of Law (Honours) Degree from Wolverhamton University, a Bachelor of Science Degree in Management Studies from UWI and a certificate in Public Administration, he attended numerous professional training courses regionally and internationally.
Enlisted in the Netherlands Police Force in 1978. Served as Head of the Traffic Department for the Rotterdam region, Commander of Netherlands Antillies and Aruba in 2001, appointed Deputy Director of Coast Guard in 2004 and appointed Commissioner of Police of Aruba on December 1st, 2006. He was appointed as Commissioner of Police for St Maarten on 1st June 2010. Commissioner is a graduate of the Netherlands Police Academy.
Belize - David Henderson Sr.
Guyana - Henry Greene
St. Vincent & Grenadines - Keith G. Miller
Enlisted in the Belize Police Department on June 4th 1976. He served in various departments which include paramilitary and Special Forces, Tactical Service, criminal investigation, immigration, serious crimes, drug unit and the patrol section. He was appointed to the posts of acting Deputy Commissioner of Police in 2011 and acting Commissioner of Police in 2012. He has attended numerous training courses in narcotics, investigation and management.
Enlisted in the Guyana Police Force in February, 1972. Served as Deputy Chief Immigration Officer and Deputy Commissioner in charge of Law Enforcement. Appointed to act as Commissioner of Police in July, 2006. He was confirmed as Commissioner December 31 2008. He holds a Law Degree, a Degree in Public Administration and a Post Graduate Diploma in International Studies from the University of Guyana.
Enlisted in Royal St. Vincent and Grenadines Police Force in 1975. Appointed Commissioner of Police on October 1st, 2005. He has a Bachelors of Law Degree (Hons) from the University of Wolverhampton, England. Attended numerous professional training courses in the United Kingdom, USA and the Caribbean.
Anguilla - Rudolph Proctor
Bermuda - Michael A. DeSilva FCMI
Enlisted in the Royal Anguilla Police Force in June 1983. He was appointed to the post of Commissioner of Police on 10th May 2010. Experience: The holder of a diploma in Strategic Management, he has attended numerous training courses in the Caribbean, Canada, United Kingdom and the United States.
Past President Enlisted in the Royal Barbados Police Force in October 1971. Previous responsibilities include Head of Bridgetown Division, Assistant Commissioner with responsibility for Crime and Commandant of the Regional Police Training Centre. He was appointed Commissioner of Police in September 2003. He holds a Law Degree, a Diploma in applied Criminology and Police Studies.
ACCP Membership Profiles
Enlisted in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on 13th June, 1980. He was appointed Commissioner of Police for the Turks and Caicos Islands on March 11th 2011. Commissioner Farquar served in various provinces in his native Canada and was assigned in numerous areas including Major crime, Special Emergency Response, Immigration and Air Marshall team. Before being appointed to the Turks and Caicos, he served (2006 -2008) in the United Nations Stabilization Mission (MINUTSTAH) in Haiti as Deputy Commissioner for Operations and Monitoring. Most recently (2008 -2011) he served as the Police Advisor of Canada to the United Nations (UN) in New York.
US. Virgin Islands - Henry W. White
After serving in the United States Navy for six years, he enlisted in the East Orange Police Department on 8th September 1968. A veteran of the Federal Bureau of Investigation where he worked as a Supervisory Special Agent (New York), Coordinating Special Agent, Assistant Inspector in- Place, Violent Crimes Coordinator (New York). He was appointed acting Commissioner of Police of the Virgin Islands Police Department on 5th November, 2011 and elevated to the post of Commissioner of Police in March 2012. Missing profiles are:
Curacao - Commissioner Marlon Wernet French Antilles - Commissioner Philippe Touyet Suriname - Commissioner Humphrey Tjin Liep Shie
Rest In Peace
Colonel Trevor MacMillan, C
The ACCP acknowledges the retirement of the following members who demitted office since our last publication (2008). We wish them continued good health and prosperity in their retirement: Anguilla Antigua & Barbuda
Commissioner Keithly Benjamin Commissioner Thomas Bennett
French Antilles Grenada
Commissioner Reginald Ferguson Commissioner Gerald Westby Commissioner Crispin Jefferies Commissioner George Jackson Commissioner Stuart Kernohan Commissioner Carlos Casseres Commissioner Matthias Lestrade
Jamaica St Kitts/Nevis St Lucia Suriname Trinidad & Tobago
Bermuda Cayman Curacao Dominica
Turks & Caicos Islands U.S. Virgin Islands
Commissioner Christophe Allain Commissioner Winston James Commissioner James Clarkson Commissioner Hardley Lewin Commissioner Austin Williams Commissioner Ausbert Regis Commissioner Delano Braam Commissioner Trevor Paul Commissioner James Philbert Commissioner Edward Hall Commissioner James H. McCall Commissioner Novelle E. Francis Jr.
Paying Tribute Sergeant Julian Michael Wade LLB (Hons) S Sergeant Julian Michael Wade joined the Royal Montserrat Police Force on 26th April 1990. A ggraduate of the University of Wolverhampton, England, he was the recipient of a Bachelors of Law Degree (Honours). He currently heads the Criminal Investigation Department (where he L has been attached for the last seventeen years) and Criminal Records office and is a senior prosh eecutor at the magistrate Court. The author of a book entitled “How to prove a criminal offence” scheduled to be published in July J 2012, Sgt Wade has had intensive training in crime scenes investigation and participated in training t at the National Training Centre for Scientific Support to Crime Investigation in Durham England.
Detective Sergeant Jessica Sweeney D E Enlisted in the Royal Montserrat Police Force on 3rd July1996. She has worked in various departm ments including Beat and Patrol, Immigration, Criminal Investigation, Marine unit, Court and P Process unit (as police prosecutor) and the Financial Crime and Analysis unit where she now sserves. She is the holder of a Bachelor of Science Degree in Management from the University o of the West Indies and has participated in Court and Processing, Sexual Offences and Financial IInvestigation Training.
Inspector Derona Semple Enlisted in the Royal Montserrat Police force on 29th June 1992. She served in various departments including Criminal Investigation, Community Policing (her team were the successful recipient of the first place for small Forces in 2005 ACCP/Motorola Community Policing Competition), beat Patrol and human resource. She was promoted to Inspector in September 2011. The holder of an Associate Degree in Human resources management, she is pursuing a Bachelors degree in the same area from the University of the West Indies. Insp. Semper has participated in numerous law enforcement training courses including junior command, intelligence gathering, computer investigations, police management studies, and financial investigation assessor.
bbecame the first Jamaican from the ranks of the Jamaica Defence Force to become Commissioner of Police and Minister of National Security died on May 30, 2010. He was appointed Police Commissioner in September M 11993 and served with distinction for three years. He gave unselfish and outstanding service to Jamaica duriing in n his over forty years of involvement with the Security Forces serving in the Jamaica Defence Force (195911986), as Commissioner of Police and as Minister of National Security. He worked at Peat Marwick and Company; an auditing firm, then as head of the Revenue Protection Division H (RPD) in the Ministry of Finance. He was Executive Chairman of Security and Management Services of which he was a founding member. He was also a founding member of the human-rights group, Jamaicans for Justice (JFJ) in 1999. The passing of Colonel Trevor MacMillian represents a tremendous loss to Jamaica and in particular, the Public Security Sector. He is missed by all but his tremendous contribution to nation building will have long lasting impact.
Mr. Hilton Ethelbert Guy: Former Commissioner of Police of Trinidad & Tobago - Former President ACCP (2001 -2003) Hilton Ethelbert Guy was born on September 21, 1943, at Bon Accord, Tobago. He enlisted in the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service on July 1, 1963, from where he retired on September 21, 2003. Hilton distinguished himself during his career as a police officer, as a very firm, astute, articulate and compassionate leader. It has been frequently said that if you are looking for someone to defend you in a time of crisis, then Hilton is the man for you. He displayed a keen sense of loyalty to the Police Service which he served faithfully for forty years, and it was not surprising that he rose very rapidly through the ranks to arrive at the pinnacle of the Service as the Commissioner of Police in 1997. Hilton’s meteoric rise to the top was no doubt attributable to the outstanding qualities he displayed as a leader at every juncture of his distinguished career. His strong personality and influence was also brought to bear on the relationship which he shared with his colleagues across the region. He served as the President and Vice President of the Association of the Caribbean Commissioners of Police with distinction during his tenure as Commissioner of Police. Hilton was the beneficiary of a number of high level leadership training courses abroad which adequately prepared him for police leadership. These included: • 64th General Assembly of Interpol, Beijing, China (1995) • Overseas Command Course at the Police Staff College, United Kingdom (1993) • Six (6) Months Attachment to the Northamshire Police Force, United Kingdom (1992) • Senior Police Administrative Course in Management Studies, Ottawa, Canada (1990) • Diploma in Public Administration, University of Connecticut, USA (1981-1982) Hilton sadly passed away in 2011 following a long illness and has left to mourn his wife and four sons.
ACCP/Motorola Scholarship Winners In 2007 Motorola in conjunction with the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) established a scholarship for the children of police officer and police support staff. The Programme provides funding for students who are interested in pursuing or who are pursuing a university/college education. The scholarships are tenable through enrolment or attendance at certified colleges or universities within the Caribbean or institutions associated with ACCP members countries i.e. United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.
Kerry-Ann Kerr rryy-An Annn Ja Jaco Jacobs cobs bs Antigua
Hermon Harewood Barbados
Jason Wilkinson Barbados
Lybron Sobers Barbados
Jamika Yearwood Barbados
Ranaldo Sealey Barbados
Michelle â€“Ann Segura Belize
Calbert Francis Jr. Jamaica
Chamion Golding Jamaica
Kerlyn Williams St. Kitts
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing IInvestigating i i Gun G Crimes C i in i the h C Caribbean… ibbb “Cl “Closing l i the h G Gap”” A common theme for all countries within the Caribbean and a priority issue for all policing in the region is the availability of and use of firearms. Regrettably, the Caribbean is often cited as a dangerous place where guns, gangs, drugs and murder are commonplace. This prism of world opinion citing homicide rates in Jamaica and Trinidad as some of the highest in the world and reflective of regional wide violence.
Police Sales Page 12
Beyond the headlines, there are many factors that influence this situation; primarily the region sits at the hub of transport networks which link the drug production countries of Central and South America with the primary drug markets of Western Europe and North America. Accordingly it is a frequent battleground for organized criminals seeking to establish primacy in controlling key transport networks in this lucrative trade. Entrepreneurial criminals quickly exploit any opportunity to secure the smuggling of illegal contraband, be it drugs, guns or people via established networks quickly identifying national security failings or border security weaknesses to enable their illicit trade. The very number of countries and the disparate capabilities of security agencies within them prevents a consistent response to the threat faced in the region by organized crime. Certain factors are clear when examining gun crime in the region -- the majority of the firearms
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing are seeking to build on that foundation of legitimately
originate from the US, often smuggled in legitimate
linked. In September 2011, a firearm was recovered
are sponsors for this enhancement to crime investiga-
cargo to various countries, for use by criminals in that
which was evidenced as the firearm responsible for all
tion in the region. The funds provided being used to held licensed firearms by securing in addition to exist-
country, or onward transportation to other Islands us- of the earlier incidents. This evidential connectivity only being possible because of forensic examination of ing illicit means.
furnish the relevant technical equipment and infra-
ing make, model and serial number data, the ballistic
structure to the designated countries.
profile of all legally held weapons to be retained on elec-
That factor can be exploited for good by law en- casings, bullets and, latterly, the gun itself which were forcement agencies and permits a single source of help all entered into a comparison database.
The overall ambition is to link all existing fire-
tronic record and thereby enable crime scene cartridges
arms ballistic national databases, in the region, so that
and warheads to be linked to a firearm already known
in the US to be used. The Department of Alcohol, To-
The development of ballistic forensic evidence
bacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is a US Federal
capabilities coupled with the networking of that evi-
Agency able to quickly identify the source of a weap-
dential data in various locations across continents and
on originating from the US. This data will include the countries is permitting the early identification of linked offences by law enforcement agencies locally, nationally original purchaser’s identity and date of acquisition. The ATF have provided most countries within
and increasing internationally.
evidence can be compared on a truly international and to us; thereby closing the gap in linking crime scene worldwide basis.
bullets and cartridges to weapons and those who pos-
Interpol is the intended organization that will sess those weapons. act as the interface between the various national or re-
How are we doing this? In conjunction with a
gional ballistics databases and will permit linkage of
leading ballistics forensic company, Forensic Technol-
exhibits or firearms in one jurisdiction to crime scenes
ogy Inc. of Canada. The Royal Cayman Islands Police
the Caribbean with “E-Trace” an electronic search da-
The most obvious example of this capability is
across the globe. All of the capabilities are intended to
Service has been moving its paper and existing firearms
tabase for recovered weapons, where make, model and
the US National Integrated Ballistics Information Net-
support law enforcement agencies and narrow down
records onto a new database custom produced by ‘Fo-
serial number of recovered firearms are recorded and
work (NIBIN); able to link evidential scenes across all
the proverbial evidential needle in the haystack.
rensic Technology’ and operated under the brand name
What else can we do? In the perfect world, all of IBIS “Firecycle”.
forwarded to ATF to initiate investigation with the US. states and law enforcement agencies in the US. In the Caribbean, an intention exists to create This capability is a key part of any investigation con-
firearms would be registered on a database, a ballistic
Forensic Technology is the creator of the Inte-
our own ballistics network entitled “RIBIN” - Regional
profile of every firearm would be digitally recorded and
grated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) which is
Integrated Ballistics Information Networks. For this
merely await the submission of a fired cartridge or war-
operation in 60 countries and territories and has over
by police and law enforcement agencies in the region ambition to be realized the planned provision of balis recovered in the form of shell casings and warheads listic data capture equipment for law enforcement agen-
head to enable the gun which fired it to be identified
508 systems populating the network on a truly global
and the owner of that gun to be the start point of any
cerning the criminal use of a recovered firearm. In volume terms, most ballistic evidence secured
once a firearm has been discharged at a crime scene.
cies and linkage of those data sets between nations is
The challenge is then to link the casings or warhead to
the gun and the gun to the perpetrator.
CARICOM IMPACS has been charged with
The volume of such exhibits, often recovered progressing such a capability with evidence collection without a firearm frequently enables separate and dis- hubs being positioned in Barbados, Jamaica and Trini-
Key components of the IBIS system are IBIS –
That may be wishful thinking and certainly not Bullettrax and IBIS Brasstrax which capture a 3-D digia viable option in the US where the suggested privately tal image of a bullet or cartridge respectively. That data owned 280 million firearms are possessed without li-
is then stored for comparison with other crime scene or
censing arrangements in the majority of states, and no test fired exhibits to secure evidential connectivity to a formal licensing database.
tinct criminal incidents to be linked, but can only be
dad and Tobago. Other Caribbean nations will utilize
attributed to a specific firearm once that firearm is re-
those three centers to have ballistic evidence entered
Let us think of what is possible in our region,
IBIS Firecycle is a web based firearm data man-
within the database and therefore permit comparison
the Caribbean, which has a very different history of li-
agement system that allows the lifetime of a weapon to
on a regional basis, enabling criminal use of firearms
censed firearms holding with central registers and gov-
be tracked. In the Cayman Islands, we are registering
ample of this revealed four separate shooting incidents to be traded between jurisdictions in the Caribbean or involving one murder, four attempted murders and an wider afield. Barbados has gone live as one of the hubs
ernment oversight of who may possess a private fire-
all licensed firearms and government held weapons
onto the database. The firearms data is then examined
armed robbery between April 2009 and July 11 to be with effect from January 27, 2012. Canada and the US
In the Royal Cayman Islands Police Service, we
In my own country, the Cayman Islands, an ex-
and compared against the IBIS data and any linkage be-
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing tween a bullet cartridge or crime scene can be identified
and children in the Caribbean. I am not native enough that we can stem the gun
to firearms registered within the system. Firecycle has three distinct usages:1.
Tracing of stolen, lost or inactive firearms;
violence overnight, but rather to be begin the challenge or removing guns and those who use them from our community one at a time. Doing nothing is not an op-
Registration of civilian firearms and licensing,
tion, if we truly are going to protect and guard those we
relicensing management issues;
The life cycle management of an active profes sional firearm inventories (police, armed forces and security agencies). The Cayman Islands have over 1740 privately
held firearms and over 200 police held firearms. All are being entered onto the â€œFirecycleâ€? gun database. Test fired bullets and cartridges are being retained for inclusion when the IBIS Bullettrax equipment is received for use within the next month or so. We are a small jurisdiction and compared with other countries have a very limited firearms crime issue. That said, this product has the potential to demonstrate how regionally we can close the evidence gaps in crime scene to gun to offender currently experienced. This will be one solution to the many challenges we face across the region in the investigation of growing gun crime and escalating violence. Expediting criminal investigations and removing the dangerous and violent from our communities. This might just be the first step in turning the tide and removing the Caribbean from the top tier of murder locations in the world. Most importantly, we stem the hurt, grief and loss of murdered loved ones in what has become almost routine to many of our communities and often results in retaliation and yet more loss of young men, women
David Baines Commissioner of Police Royal Cayman Islands Police Service ACCP & UKOTs Lead Responsibility For Firearm Issues in the Region
Guardsman Group AD Page 15
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing Is There A Duty To Obey The Law? by: Sgt Julian Wade Royal Montserrat Police Force The most famous summary of the classical natural law doctrine was made in a statement of the stoic position given by Cicero in the first century BC:
‘True law is right reason in agreement with Nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting; it summons to duty by its commands, and averts from wrong-doing by its prohibitions. And it does not lay its commands or prohibitions upon good men in vain, though neither have any effect on the wicked. It is a sin to try to alter this law, nor is it allowable to attempt to repeal any part of it, and it is impossible to abolish it entirely. We cannot be freed from its obligations by Senate or People, and we need not look outside ourselves for an expounder or interpreter of it. And there will not be different laws at Rome and at Athens, or different laws now and in the future, but one eternal and unchangeable law will be valid for all nations and for all times, and there will be one master and one ruler, that is God, over us all, for he is the author of this law, its promulgator, and its enforcing judge’ St. Paul, writing to the Christians at Rome, affirmed a religious obligation to obey the secular law. St. Thomas Aquinas states that human law ought to be obeyed unless it contravened natural law, and even then it was generally right to obey ‘to avoid scandal’. If a person swears or affirms that there is a moral duty to obey the law, or implies that there is by nature of the criticisms he makes of others, but at the same time breaks the law and sees nothing wrong with it, is he a hypocrite? If he dwells on the advantages which we all derive from legal institutions, he will come to
understand the importance of co-operation and setting a good example. In this way moral obligation will at least lead him to realise that it is wrong and not just illegal to break the laws of the land. Of course, there are good moral reasons against many acts which also happen to be illegal like rape, possession of firearms, drugs, indecent and abusive language or assault but it is not because they are illegal that we are morally obliged to abstain from them. To assert that there is a moral duty to obey the law means affirming that there are moral grounds why one ought to perform any act which the law prescribes or abstain from any act which the law prohibits. The question is whether the duty is absolute or qualified in some way. I personally believe that the moral reasons for obeying the law could and will never be outweighed by moral reasons pointing towards disobedience. However, democratic politicians would allow that it might be right to disobey the laws of undemocratic regimes like Gaddafi, Castro and Saddam regimes, and probably also that protest against unjust laws of democratic regimes can sometime legitimately include some kinds of law breaking. So the real issue is whether there is or is not a prima facie duty to obey. The appeal for gratitude is conservative. Our country and its law have conferred great benefits on us. The least we can do is to obey all its laws, unless some good ground for not doing so can be shown. Figuratively, anyone receiving the benefits, commits himself to this social contract, and so implies the promise of obedience. Therefore, when we take part in democratic processes, for instance by voting and receiving protection from our Constitution, we imply a promise to obey the law. Granted that promise-keeping, in the absence of good reason to the contrary, is morally required, it follows that obedience to the law is morally required. Rawls argues that society is just if it is governed by principles which people would have agreed to in a state of
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing ignorance about their particular position in society. Where a society is just or nearly just by this test there is, ‘natural duty’ of all citizens to support and further just institutions. This natural duty includes doing what is required of one by society’s institutions, including the law. So long as the basic law of society is reasonably just, the duty extends to obeying unjust particular laws provide they do not exceed certain limits of injustice, such as by making unjust demands only of a particular group or by denying basic liberties. When these limits are exceeded, conscientious refusal to obey the particular law is justified; and in the case of blatant injustice, ‘Civil disobedience’ of it or other laws may be warranted. Civil disobedience is a public, non-violent act aimed at bringing about a change in the law or other policies of the government. Unlike ‘conscientious refusal’, civil disobedience may warrant breaking laws which are not themselves unjust in order to draw attention to those which are. Rawls argues that, quite apart from the natural duty of citizens to obey the laws of a reasonably just society, officials have a special ‘obligation’ to do so. All obligations arise from the ‘principle of fairness’, which is a distinct principle to which people would have agreed from behind the veil of ignorance. “This principle holds that a person is under an obligation to do his part as specified by the rules of an institution whenever he has voluntarily accepted the benefits of the scheme or has taken advantage of the opportunities it offers to advance his interests, provided that this institution is just or fair”. Therefore, the next time you think of breaking the laws of your country and the laws of another man’s country, remember that you have a duty to obey the law. Not because of anything you owe the government or the police, but because of something you owe your fellow citizens. If they all comply and you benefit, it is unfair if you benefit without complying. Furthermore, even if an enactment is contrary to natural law and so ‘unjust’, obedience may still be proper to avoid bad example of civil disturbance. St Augustine (354-430) asked rhetorically:
‘Set justice aside, then, what are kingdoms but fair thievish purchases?’ If you are in doubt as to whether the laws of your country is unjust, you must remember that an unjust law is not a ‘nullity’, in the sense of being something one can totally disregard. It merely lacks, prima facie, the power to bind in conscience which laws usually possess; and there can be a moral duty to obey even unjust laws if not doing so might lead to the weakening of a legal system which is on the whole just. Perhaps the most common justification for the duty to obey the law is appeal to public good. If people break the law, the collective welfare of society is diminished. Therefore, we are morally obliged to obey. The duty to obey the law is known as ‘act-utilitarianism’. An act is morally wrong if it will have worse consequences than some other act open to the actor on the occasion. The consequences of disobedience are usually worse than the consequences of obedience, and that therefore one ought to obey the law (whatever it says) unless the consequences of doing so can be proved to be harmful. Clearly, a rule that one should always obey will have better consequences than a rule that one should always disobey- the latter rule would be too onerous even for the most dedicated ruthless rebel, for one could not move about without being morally obliged constantly causing criminal damage, commit burglaries, acts of indecency and assaulting people. Therefore my brothers and sisters from another country, regardless of your country of origin or whatever the circumstances might be, please remember that ‘every man, woman and child, old or young’ is bound to obey secular rulers to the extent that the order of justice requires and remember “NO ONE IS ABOVE THE LAW”.
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing Community Based Policing: The Jamaican Experience History tells us that Community Policing has been conceptualized within the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF) for around 20 years. Successive Commissioners have supported Community Based Police (CBP) ideals and concepts and a range of activities have been carried out with a view to its introduction. However, within the concept of a holistic and contemporary CBP model, these activities were more aligned to crime prevention programs. The formation of Neighbourhood Watch Committee’s, Police Youth clubs and the like in the absence of a structured approach are simply crime prevention strategies. Approximately six years ago Jamaica was fortunate in attracting the attention of international donors resulting in the USAID funded program, CIV-JAM, which was aimed at bringing the communities together, developing the appropriate concepts and engaging the police with community groups. After approximately 2 years, the Community Empowerment and Transformation (COMET) evolving from CIV-JAM, was born. The COMET Program was aimed at the next steps in the development of a contemporary Community Based Policing (CBP) model. In the formative days of COMET further inroads to community engagement with the JCF were made. To list the number of communities that became engaged, and indeed, committed to CBP with the JCF would take up most of the allowed space for this article. Suffice to say, just about every sector of civil society wanted to become involved. Non-government organisations (NGO’s) across Jamaica, with a strong community safety and security focus were identified, engaged, introduced to CBP concepts and the ideals strengthened, creating the foundation to build more resilient community/police relationships. My brief history tells the story of a senior police officer who had a role in the introduction of CBP in an Australian jurisdiction. This was in the mid 1990’s. Upon my retirement in 2001, I worked in a capacity
building role in police forces in Asia and the Pacific. CBP was a focus for each of the countries I worked in. I share that story to outline that I have had experience in introducing CBP in a well-developed and resourced environment as well as a number of developing and under resourced environments. When I was asked to join the COMET team late 2010 as a Police Adviser, I immediately accepted and arrived in Jamaica December 2010. At this time I can do little but pay high compliment to the CIV-JAM and COMET teams in the formative years. The inroads and progress made towards establishing a platform for a full CBP model for Jamaica had been done. Collaborative engagement with the JCF and a wide range of community involvement had already been established and the JCF were moving forward at a rapid rate to validate and inculcate CBP right across Jamaica. I can say without reservation that after 5 years, Jamaica was advanced in the introduction of formal CBP modeling as we were in Australia. Remember, a well-resourced and very stable environment. Jamaica was going through turmoil, a high level of gang activity that was doing all it could to break down any community engagement as they wanted to continue control over communities. Corruption was rife at all levels and a good CBP model certainly interfered with corrupt activities – hence COMET’s later focus on CBP modeling and Anti-Corruption. Despite the operating environment challenges in all of this, the JCF were highly committed to the introduction of CBP. While there was commitment from previous Commissioners, Commissioner Ellington was in the seat when I started, and has continued that commitment. My very first meetings demonstrated a person with a passion for change, the recognition that CBP and Anti-Corruption modeling went hand in hand and since that time his leadership on progression CBP and reform initiatives has been unwavering. Commitment at the Commissioner-executive level is essential for the introduction of proper CBP modeling. Commissioner Ellington has demonstrated that amid the turmoil of high murder rates and government and community scrutiny has remained committed to change and modernization within the JCF.
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing higher level of confidence by the Jamaican community that the police are now more inclined to listen, underThe JCF have been very fortunate to have had stand and act. While all of this positive outcome canthe assistance of International Police Officers (IPO’s) not be attributed directly to community policing activwho adopted leadership positions within the JCF and ity as the JCF at the same time embarked on some very assisted change. ACP John McLean took the leadership strong anti-gang activities which saw for a period, the on CBP, ACP Les Greene on Major Investigations and murder rate drop quite dramatically, it can be assumed ACP Justin Felice on Anti-Corruption. The IPOs have that when people continuously talk about ‘positive rebrought contemporary police practices to the JCF. In lationships with the police’, much of that can only be the last 2 years, SSP James Forbes has led the JCF Com- attributed to good community policing strategies that munity Safety and Security Branch (CSSB) and a more see the community having a strong ‘say’ in securing the passionate person for community policing you will not safety of their communities. find. Strong leadership, combined with a very committed team has seen the JCF/community relationships What’s Next? strengthened immensely in the past 2 years. The Jamaican government has released a NaThese relationships have been supported with a tional Crime Prevention and Community Safety Stratfull CBP model. Neighbourhood Watch groups - now egy (NCPCSS) which is aimed at the whole of governnumbering around 800 across Jamaica, Police Youth ment taking responsibility for community safety. CBP Clubs – a similar number, engagement at Parish level is only one strategy for community safety. This can with councils and churches. All of these are supported be no better demonstrated than in the JCF/Education by Community Safety Plans and are backed up with Department School Resource Officer (SRO) program. Memorandums of Understanding which clearly point At the time of writing this 145 schools have access to a out the expectations from the community and the role trained SRO. Each of those schools have a safety plan of the JCF in the partnerships. which is managed by a safety committee. Like all the Is it working? Recent survey data is starting to other programs these relationships are in writing. The indicate greater levels of confidence in the police. Peo- NCPCSS has a focus on bringing all government Minple are saying that they are more likely to report matters istries together to formulate an Action Plan that will see to the police now than they were 2 years ago. People are each agency taking responsibility for community safety speaking publicly about maintaining a good relation- and security matters that may fall under their bailiwick. ship with the police when high profile armed activity Health taking more responsibility for people with menis required by the JCF in major incidents within com- tal illness, taking more responsibility for the general munities—clearly demonstrated in recent times with health of youth in particular – a healthy person is more the beheading of a gang member and the community likely to achieve at school and other activities which in indicating they hoped it didn’t interfere with the very turn lead them to be more productive in general society good relationship with the police that had been built up as they grow up. in recent times. The Youth Ministry, while doing a very good job The local Commander assured the community under difficult circumstances, work more collaboratively that the good relationship would continue but they (the with other agencies to ensure youth have access to all community) needed to play their role and give the per- levels of support that will assist them in their formative petrators up. Persons were charged a short time later. years. The Anti-Corruption Branch in their monthly report- As we know, these models and relationships take time to ing demonstrate a growing number of people using the develop. In the meantime Commissioner Ellington con1800 CORRUPT line and other dedicated lines to re- tinues to move forward. He returned from the CBP port matters to the police. This tends to demonstrate a Conference held in the Bahamas late 2011 inspired to
The JCF Model
Crime and Security/Community- Based Policing form relationships across Jamaica in general. From that he formulated a Partnership Strategy to help assist developing better relationships within and outside government. Some of the relationships include: 1) The Health sector—more police officers at hospitals with a communication strategy that will ensure better communications between police and health management at these locations, 2) Transport—the introduction of transit police to travel regularly on public transport ensuring safer passage for commuters, and 3) The Tourism industry—the introduction of strategies to ensure a safer environment for visitors. In all he identified 12 sectors that he wants the JCF to partner with to ensure all levels of society are safer and secure. And, in true form, these are not just words, the strategy is supported with policy and an action plan to ensure it is introduced into the JCF Strategic Priorities and service delivery programs. Jamaica is now well placed to move forward and adopt a true model of safety and security that will involve the whole of Jamaican society. Written by Doug. McCaffery. Doug is the Chief of Party for the USAID COMET project. He is a retired senior police officer from Australia and for the past 10 years has worked across the world with police forces in a capacity building mode. That story to outline that I have had experience in introducing CBP in a well-developed and resourced environment as well as a number of developing and under resourced environments. When I was asked to join the COMET team late 2010 as a Police Adviser, I immediately accepted and arrived in Jamaica December 2010. At this time I can do little but pay high compliment to the CIV-JAM and
COMET teams in the formative years. The inroads and progress made towards establishing a platform for a full CBP model for Jamaica had been done. Collaborative engagement with the JCF and a wide range of community involvement had already been established and the JCF were moving forward at a rapid rate to validate and inculcate CBP right across Jamaica. I can say without reservation that after 5 years, Jamaica was advanced in the introduction of formal CBP modeling as we were in Australia. Remember, a well-re sourced and very stable environment. Jamaica was going through turmoil, a high level of gang activity that was doing all it could to break down any community engagement as they wanted to continue control over communities. Corruption was rife at all levels and a good CBP model certainly interfered with corrupt activities – hence COMET’s later focus on CBP modeling and Anti-Corruption. Despite the operating environment challenges in all of this, the JCF were highly committed to the introduction of CBP. While there was commitment from previous Commissioners, Commissioner Ellington was in the seat when I started, and has continued that commitment. My very first meetings demonstrated a person with a passion for change, the recognition that CBP and Anti-Corruption modeling went hand in hand and since that time his leadership on progression CBP and reform initiatives has been unwavering. Commitment at the Commissioner-executive level is essential for the introduction of proper CBP modeling. Commissioner Ellington has demonstrated that amid the turmoil of high murder rates and government and community scrutiny has remained committed to change and modernization within the JCF.
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Technology Cayman Islands Government (CIG) Partners Experience with Technology, Increases Community Safety In response to a spike in violent crimes, the Cayman Islands Government instituted a National CCTV Programme. The Portfolio of Internal and External Affairs has spearheaded this project with the assistance of a National CCTV Committee, with the intensions of improving national security, community safety and promoting economic development. The stakes were high for the Cayman Islands Government; their goals were ambitious and their challenges were real. They were not, however, alone. Many cities and nations around the world have been addressing similar challenges with similar efforts, and like most successful governments before them, they partnered with the right team. The tender was awarded to a team made up by the most trusted, full-service security and life-safety company in the Cayman Islands, The Security Centre [a division of Security Centres International] and Avrio RMS Group, the industry’s leading integrator for IPsurveillance solutions for the public safety market. The technology that powers the National CCTV Program is quite sophisticated, yet the system itself is very user friendly. A hybrid fiber/wireless network connecting well over a hundred cameras spreads strategically throughout districts like Georgetown, West Bay, Bodden Town and others. By using a combination of wired and wireless technologies, the system was able offer the greatest flexibility of coverage, speed of deployment and network speed and security. The system’s wireless connectivity also gives the CIG the flexibility of rapidly deploying mobile cameras for temporary events or additional eyes at the scene of an emergency. Most cameras are located in strategic public areas to provide situational awareness, which protects property, assists in the reduction, prevention and detection of crime and in turn reduces the overall fear of crime. Other cameras are located along the roadways to monitor traffic circulation and improve road safety. The typical PTZ (pan / tilt / zoom) camera can be remotely controlled at headquarters and is able to capture the
details of a suspect from several hundred meters away. Some specialty cameras are deployed to capture license plates and automatically check them against databases of wanted criminals. For example, if a vehicle that has been reported stolen drives along a road monitored by the license plate recognition cameras, an alert will automatically be generated at headquarters and police will be dispatched. The video from all cameras is monitored at the 911 Emergency Communications Centre and provides high quality evidence to be used by the various Law Enforcement Agencies. Satellite viewing stations have also been installed in each of the district police stations for quick access by police to critical incidents, disturbances or to be manned during special events and district celebrations. The CIG knew that the ability to view hundreds of cameras could be a fantastic resource, but if improperly designed it would create more confusion than clarity. The integration team’s experience managing tens of thousands of video streams was incredibly valuable in designing a Video Management System that was best suited for the CIG. The first characteristic of a good video management system is scalability. In addition to being able to support hundreds or thousands of video streams, a good system must also be intuitive. As any large video system grows it becomes increasingly important for operators to be able to find and view the right cameras quickly. Software solutions like Pantascene (www.pantascene.com) allow for automatic camera selection in addition to offering a whole host of other functionality. Sensors and other critical systems that can alert Police of critical incidents can also trigger nearby cameras to turn to the scene of the incident. This type of management by exception has proven to be an important strategy used by government agencies around the world. Viewing all the live video however, is not even half the battle. Each camera feed is recorded 24 hours a day and stored for weeks. With hundreds of high-res-
Technology olution cameras constantly recording, storing all this video becomes a significant challenge of its own. The CIG’s Integration partners designed a sophisticated SAN (Storage Area Network) built on virtual servers and advanced RAID techniques. The result is that the CIG can easily retrieve high quality video evidence for investigation and prosecution purposes. Long-term studies on similar systems have shown a huge time and cost savings in the investigation and prosecution of crimes for which there is video evidence. Specifically in one city, over 350 cases were looked at where video or partial video was available for any criminal event or serious bodily injury accident. On average the amount of time spent investigating these crimes was 49% less than cases where no video evidence was available. There was also a 51% decrease in the amount of time spent prosecuting these crimes. When the salaries of a detective and prosecutor are considered, these time savings mean a significant return on investment for the governments instituting these systems. Measured in a number of different ways the results from these types of systems are striking. One study done by the Urban Institute, a US based nonpartisan research organization, showed that for every $1.00 invested on these types of systems $4.31 was saved. These types of results have governments like the Cayman Islands examining how they can do more with technology to help improve Community Safety. The CIG and their integration partners were able to tap the experience of several US based Police Departments to better understand how they have used video. This and other advice proved very valuable to the CIG when planning and deploying their own system. For examples of this type of advice go to http://www.public-safety-tech-academy.com/CCCA for video interviews with technology leaders in Public Safety. The National Public Safety Foundation is a sponsor of the Public Safety Tech Academy and fully supports the efforts the Academy is making to help
other government agencies plan all aspects of a National CCTV Programme like the one in the Cayman Islands. If you are considering a similar system for your Nation, a clear key to your success will be leveraging the lessons learned from the Cayman Islands or any other government agency that has successfully instituted similar systems. If you are interested in deploying a CCTV system for your cities or nation, please feel free to contact us at the National Public Safety Foundation.
Mark Jules National Public Safety Foundation Executive Director
ANTI G UA & BAR B U DA
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MAKING THE WORLD A SAFER PLACE... B Y A S S I S T I N G I N S O LV I N G A C R I M E , E V E R Y 1 4 M I N U T E S O F E V E R Y D AY,
CYBER SECURITY Beyond Firewalls and Anti-virus!
By Samuel Ebbesen and Ian Tomlinson
S O M E W H E R E I N T H E W O R L D . W H AT A B O U T I N YO U R W O R L D ? US CERT/CC estimates that as much as 80% of all actual computer security incidents still remain unreported.
SINCE THE PROGRAMMES STARTED, CRIME STOPPERS’ SUCCESS THROUGHOUT THE CARIBBEAN, BERMUDA & LATIN AMERICA HAS RESULTED IN:
Widen the net with Crime Stoppers
ACTIONABLE TIPS/CALLS: 46,108
Crime Stoppers collects tips from the
ARRESTS MADE: 4,167 PROPERTY SEIZED: (US$) 8,436,981 NARCOTICS SEIZED: (US$) 72,670,051
The most expensive natural disaster in U.S. history, Hurricane Andrew, is reported to have caused $25 billion dollars in damage. The Love bug virus, created by a single university student in the Philippines, caused computer users worldwide between $3 and $15 billion dollars. The SQL Slammer worm infected more than 90 percent of vulnerable computers worldwide within 10 minutes of its release on the Internet.
public on community safety issues and passes them on to police for appropriate action. In doing so, Crime Stoppers and its national and international associations offer signiﬁcant help to police in 28 countries worldwide.
CASES CLEARED: 22,300
J O I N U S I N H E L P I N G TO S TO P, S O LV E A N D P R E V E N T C R I M E – TO G E T H E R . S E E O U R C O R P O R AT E V I D E O O N Y O U T U B E .
Most organizations believe the installation of a firewall and anti-virus software is all the protection needed against cyber attacks. Law enforcement organizations with limited funds and technical personnel are especially prone to choose this route. Unfortunately, that approach leaves them
vulnerable to being the weak link in the law enforcement changing highly technological environment demands that law enforcement organizations learn from the past and proactively address cyber security needs within their organizations.
Anti-virus software cannot defend your computers against zero-day attacks.
$388 billion lost to cyber crime annually reports Symantec, the company behind Norton Anti-Virus.
Is your organization properly protected from eminent cyber attack?
Firewalls and anti-virus are not enough “Tackling crime effectively cannot be done by law enforcement alone; the support of the public is important and this is where the bridging role of Crime Stoppers International between the two can be so effective. Working closely with agencies such as Crime Stoppers International means that police can be provided with information and tips that they may not otherwise receive, and which could be vital in bringing criminals to justice, no matter where they attempt to hide.” Ronald K. Noble – INTERPOL Secretary General
Contact: Alex MacDonald Email: email@example.com www.csiworld.org Youtube: csiworld.org
Firewalls and anti-virus software are indeed an integral part of any cyber security solution; however, they are not a complete solution and provide a false sense of security. The prime reason that a firewall and anti-virus solution is not sufficient today is because cyber crime
Internet is constantly under basic scan attack, and yes, firewalls do a good job defending against such threats; however, they are just a start for the org security defense needs much more today to handle the ever-increasing threat landscape.
Technology Some items that a modern cyber security defense must address beyond firewalls and anti-virus are: Threats o Zero day attacks o Insider threats o Social Engineering Cyber Incident Management Financial + Productivity loss Zero day attacks These are new Malware not yet known to anti-virus systems or security holes not yet known by the public. They occur during the vulnerability window that exists in the time between when the vulnerability is first exploited and when software developers start to create a counter to that threat. Insider threats An Insider is a trusted member of an organization such as an employee, officer, consultant, or temp. The Insider threat is a complex problem that ranges from intentional malicious activity by an employee, such as espionage, to the innocent act of clicking on a phishing link. Social Engineering The art of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information via computer by trickery or deception for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or computer system access. Cyber Incident Management involves the full gamut of actions from monitoring to occurrence of an incident, identification, elimination procedures, restoration of normal operation and lessons learned implemented in a formal and consistent manner. Financial + productivity loss Symantec reports nearly $388 billion is lost each year to cyber crime $274 billion in loss productivity and $114 billion in financial loss. Law enforcement organizations need effective cyber security defense to protect the ever-increasing digital assets such as crime scene photos, lab reports, investigation documents, etc. being stored on computers and networks. System administrators, law enforcement officers, or computer security experts, if not well trained in the
procedures, can destroy valuable evidence or fail to discover critical unlawful or unauthorized activities. An organization with an established Cyber Incident Management plan will have a consistent method of addressing cyber security incidents when they occur. Moreover, such an organization is likely to be better protected against cyber attacks. Best practice advocates a cyber defense strategy that is based on multiple layers. Firewalls do a good job of defending the perimeter; however, if the perimeter is penetrated, anti-virus software will defend against the known attacks. Adding a whitelisting layer, a defense mechanism that only allows a preapproved list of software to run, to stop zero day attacks and insider threats, strengthens your defense. All of the countermeasures that you deploy will not guarantee 100% defense against a cyber attack. Therefore, it is prudent to plan for returning to productivity in the shortest amount of time if any part of your organization is compromised by a cyber incident. Wrap the above defenses in a formal set of policies and procedures that are exercised on a regular basis and your increased while the amount of productivity and financial loss is minimized. About the Authors Samuel Ebbesen Samuel Ebbesen is the CEO of OmniSystems, Inc., an Information Technology solutions company. Prior to that, Mr. Ebbesen served the US Army retiring as a Lieutenant General and was President and CEO of a number of communications companies. He has served on numerous boards including Adecco, Inc., one of the largest global human resources providers. Mr. Ebbesen was nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate to serve on the board of directors of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the U.S. government agency that provides loans, political risk insurance, and Investment Fund to help U.S. business invest and compete in more than 140 countries.
Ian Tomlinson Ian Tomlinson is a co-founder of OmniSystems, Inc., an Information Technology solutions company serving federal and local organizations. Mr. Tomlinson supports law enforcement organizations with infrastructure modernization, which includes cyber security defense and monitoring. Mr. Tomlinson currently heads a team creating cyber security tools for public and private organizations.
Technology Electronic Monitoring
Officials Look for Reliability and Expertise in Bringing Offender Monitoring Systems to the Caribbean
By Stuart Bostock, Security Centres International, Director of Business Development. Increasingly, law enforcement agencies throughout the Caribbean are exploring the use of and subsequently deploying GPS supervision technology to monitor offenders on home curfew and mandatory treatment programs, and making sure they are staying clear of restricted zones. There are numerous benefits and considerations taken into account when in the deployment stages of Offender Monitoring Services (OMS) which use cellular and GPS technology to determine individuals’ locations and to review their movements. Several jurisdictions have already gone through or started to explore this process. With wide-scale use in the US and Europe for well over a decade now, electronic offender tagging is not new. In recent years the technology has become more reliable and proactive in its delivery of services and less prone to tampering. With most countries facing the same issues of prison overcrowding, budget issues and high recidivism rates, alternative to incarceration and OMS solutions help cut costs, free up jail space and create operational efficiencies. The international movement towards a more common use of electronic monitoring services has seen steady growth, and includes the recent introduction to many Caribbean nations. Mr. Stuart Bostock, Director of Business Development for Security Centres International Ltd., has observed system deployments and pilot programs implemented using various system manufacturers and noted the recent entry into offender monitoring by 3M under the Track and Trace Division. “It is important to identify vendors who have the flexibility to customize their platforms for the Caribbean market” explains Mr. Bostock. “Pro Tech Monitoring, Inc. (PTM) in Florida displayed proven technology and responsive customer service. In 2010, PTM was acquired by 3M and renamed
3M Electronic Monitoring, Inc. An Acquisition by a company such as 3M clearly indicates a strong future in location based systems ((LBS) for national security agencies and law enforcement”. As was seen in the recent deployment of Offender Monitoring platforms in the Cayman Islands and Bermuda, critical to the success of those monitoring platforms was the legislation, and the adoption of an Alternative Sentencing Law, which paves the way for alternatives to punishment through suspended sentence supervision, curfew orders, probation, community service and electronic monitoring, all of which are strongly supported by the electronic monitoring community. In the Cayman, the monitoring system is run jointly by the Public Safety’s Communications Department and The Security Centre Ltd, and has, since its inception, seen some 100 offenders assigned through the program. A very different approach was taken in Bermuda, where the entire process was completely outsourced to a private company. The Government of Bermuda passed the Electronic Monitoring Act in 2011 when politicians and judiciary officials alike agreed to look for alternative ways to monitor offenders and supported the introduction of electronic tagging as a cost-effective way of protecting the public while transitioning offenders back into society. Bermuda Security Group (BSG), SCI’s in-country support partner, is contracted to not only deploy and support the program but also to take on the task of tagging offenders, monitoring their violations and responding as required. Working closely with local officials to launch the new program, seen by many as a long-overdue measure, the SCI/BSG formula significantly reduced the capital expenditure of initiating a monitoring platform and allowed for ‘go-live’ deploy-
Technology ment in just three weeks. First in the program were at risk youths with known gang affiliations, with expectations that the ankle tags, first piloted in 2010, would have a dramatic impact on Bermuda’s gang activity – a matter of growing concern in recent years. “This is a perfect example of the strategic partnership between SCI, 3M Electronic Monitoring and the local, in-country support partner Bermuda Security Group” said Ms. Alejandra Lang, President - 3M Electronic Monitoring. “Following a successful in-country pilot program and open tendering process, our strategic partnership delivered a monitoring platform capable of offender- specific programming for Bermuda and we deployed it within a very short period of time. The ongoing support to the Bermuda Government by all three organizations will help provide a reliable and effective alternative to incarceration” she added. On average, OMS as well as domestic violence deterrence systems help to mitigate the rising costs of incarceration and allow the community and offenders the opportunity of controlled re-introduction to society. On average, OMS annual costs are some 75% - 80% less than incarceration in the prison system.
Pilot Programs Beyond the successful launch of OMS in Bermuda and the Cayman Islands, a number of Caribbean nations are already considering similar rollouts and working to pilot elements of the platform, which can be programmed to suit specific offender tracking needs and challenges. Through the United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), representatives from various criminal justice agencies in Anguilla, Turks and Caicos and the British Virgin Islands are among those looking into the systematic use of electronic monitoring devices to increase supervision of criminal offenders who meet established criteria. Following a successful pilot program in these jurisdictions, the final program design and integration processes are expected to get underway shortly. With assistance from 3M Electronic Monitoring and Digicel Caribbean, SCI has trialed and passed reliability and accuracy tests for the electronic monitoring system in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, the US Virgin Islands, and Guyana.
The Technology 3M Electronic Monitoring works with government contracted security partners to bring innovative development and manufacturing of presence and location verification technologies to the region whilst identifying in-country customer support. This partnership of expertise, equipment and support presents flexible, offender-specific programming options and offers the
following community based supervision platforms:
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GPS Offender Tracking Systems. GPS Offender Tracking Systems integrate tracking, communication and mapping technologies in one easy to operate, FUSION SEALED waterproof device. Operators can efficiently track offenders in multiple environments where GPRS services are available and at varying levels of intensity through a single, compact body-worn unit. With established geo-fences, the operators can be alerted to violations of exclusion zones such as the offender’s proximity to airports, known drug/gang areas or any other offender-specific exclusion zone.
Curfew Monitoring System. 3M Electronic Monitoring technology-based products and services can be programmed to create customized curfew monitoring, tracking and alert systems for police bail, court sentencing and prison release. The systems consist of software and hardware components and report technical events and violations. These systems are used under home curfew type supervision requirements or where an offender is required to be at a place of employment during specified times of the day.
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Domestic Violence Proximity Notification Systems. Designed to alert specifically identified potential victims when an offender is within a certain distance, this system utilizes GPS Tracking, RF and cellular communication technologies to create a geographic warning zone around the victim and supports the enforcement of restraining orders issued by the courts.
Alcohol Monitoring Devices. The SCRAMx® device provides dual platform monitoring of continuous 24/7 alcohol detection plus home curfew. Creating greater accountability and a cost effective jail alternative, SCRAMx® will sample the perspiration on the offender’s skin to measure for alcohol consumption and allows for supervision of offenders charged in alcohol related offences such as DUI or spousal abuse. SCRAMx® is a registered trademark of Alcohol Monitoring Systems, Inc. For more detailed information on 3M Electronic Monitoring solutions visit http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en_US/ElectronicMonitoring/ or contact Security Centres International for consultation on regional OMS deployment programmes. Stuart T. Bostock Business Development Director, Security Centres International
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Regional Training Towards a Framework for Regional Training and Development for the Caribbean Region Security Sector Agencies The need for regional co-creation of professional knowledge through training partnerships Dormah B. Harrison Assistant Commissioner of Police Jamaica Constabulary Force Arguable, one of the more immediate challenge facing Security and Law Enforcement Sector Organisations’ managers and executives is to develop organisations and institutions whose members, at all levels, can effectively recognise, relate to and assimilate the global shifts in culture, technology and information and to appreciate their implication for the security and law enforcement environment. Changing communities and publics expectations, workforce values, technological innovations, governmental and inter-governmental arrangements, shifts in law enforcement doctrines, philosophies and practices, and a renewed emphasis on ethical standards of behaviour, are but examples of the contemporary factors that must be understood and constructively managed by the current and incoming generation of security and law enforcement sector agency managers and executives. In this context, there is a critical need for security and law enforcement sector agency managers and executives to re-examine the role and functions of contemporary security and law enforcement organisation and institutions, how those role and functions are changing, and how to effectively manage the current and changing public’s and organisational environments to satisfy the objectives of the many and complex constituencies that must be served. As national, regional, and international organised crime and disorder threats areas increases, so also, must the role and functions of security and law enforcement sector agencies changed, in recognition of their importance to the respective populations’ security and safety, and consequently to economic and development and good governance. It is recognised and agreed that these challenges, and the dynamics and complexity of the environment in which they are framed, demand a new set of profes-
sional knowledge competence, and a more integrated regional (professional & academia) approach to training and development programme design, delivery and supporting research capability. Raising the standard of performance of the security and law enforcement sector agencies at the regional and national levels, to drive forward the delivery of the regions security programme agenda, must remain a central tenant of national and regional governments. And again it is evident (to varying degrees) that there is emerging a performance management culture taking hold within and across regional forces/service. The requirements for continuing to improve the overall performance standards of the security law enforcement sector organisations, calls for structures and systems designed and fashioned to close the gap between the best performing organisations and others. This is required to ensure the envisioned desired standard of security delivery and maintenance capability, and to sustain levels of professionalism across the region. Law enforcement and the provision of national and regional security and community safety is becoming increasingly more complicated and complex, and consequently effective management and leadership within, and of the environment have become increasingly challenging. The sign, trend, and projection, is that these challenges will become even more complicated, complex and difficult in the future. Today, security and law enforcement organisations face major challenges, including combating terrorism and organised crime, working in partnership, winning public trust, anti-corruption, effective management and leadership, and the building and enhancing of organisations’ capability Competent and effective leadership, a key element for success in any organisation, is especially critical to modern security and law enforcement organizations. Within the contemporary security and law enforcement environment, organisations’ leaders are scrambling to digest the tremendous changes that have, and are continuing to take place. These changes are not limited to just transnational organised crime and technology, for example, but rather involve critical aspects of national security and community safety within the
Regional Training wider regional and global security sector environment. Perhaps the key element in organisational success is effective leadership. Effective leadership, or the lack of it, can impact dramatically on organisations. However, leadership effectiveness does not just happen - it must be developed by management and supervisory personnel (Vaughn & Nordeman, 1983). The success of the security and law enforcement mission will greatly depend on the ability to effectively develop leaders who will have the capability to chart a path to change. The term “Leadership Development” is one used commonly in the private sector as well as the business community. Employees are elevated to the management level and are usually placed in long term development programmes. These programmes are designed to help prepare managers for the difficult task of leading people; which ultimately means leading companies and/or corporations. Such needed change requires a new generation of police leaders, capable of driving major transformation agendas of their organisations. They must be “thinking” leaders, with broad strategic awareness and highly developed planning and influencing skills, committed to rebuilding their police services as “learning organisations”, open to fresh ideas and not afraid to challenge old ways. At the same time, they must be highly effective operational leaders, capable of coordinating the specialist expertise of others and fostering that expertise within their police service, and ever alert for the “quick wins” that policy elites and the public demand. It follows that the stated aims and objectives of any higher security sector training and development programme must directly reflect respective and collective Organisation’s Strategic Priorities; priorities that are framed not just in the national interest, but embrace partnership and support within the regional and wider global security imperatives . That is, how (in its Strategic Plan) the organisation has said that it intends to change to meet the challenges it has identified.
nership. One of the aims of higher police training programmes should be to develop productive relationships and strategic alliances with security and law enforcement partners, and particularly among the police training institutions and academic communities in the region. Within this context, it follows that it is critically important to develop joint training programmes involving officers from different agencies and different countries. Regional partnerships should involve national police forces/services, and also their criminal justice and other security sector organisations, including the military, customs and excise, and immigration. The aim for regional training therefore should be: • •
Regional partnerships require sophisticated, sensitive management and careful development. They can only be sustained if all managers and executives managers of police and security sector organisations understand the values, priorities and capabilities of their partners, and are constantly on the look-out for new partnership opportunities. Regional higher police training, particularly at the command levels, should therefore require course members from different organisations to pool their expertise in tackling crime and public safety issues. They will have to identify and agree common values, and benchmark their systems against each other. They will also have to think strategically about partnership work, and in relation to regional police cooperation, they will ask, for instance: •
Therefore, before designing a higher training programme in any police service, it is essential: • To specify the Service’s strategic priorities, and • To identify the understanding, skills and competencies which senior officers need to deliver these priorities. Contemporary national and regional policing challenges can only be met effectively by working in part-
To foster understanding, respect and collaboration between the police forces/services of the region, and Senior managers in the police and other law enforcement services
How can we measure the effectiveness of intelligence collection plans and joint operations against crossborder crime? How can we develop common professional standards and ethics? How can we help each other to develop best practice crime management and victim care systems? And, just as national higher police training must
Regional Training address national strategic priorities, so regional training must address regional strategic priorities. It is the job of regional police association (s), principally the ACCP, to agree on strategic priorities for policing in the region. They should also assume responsibility to fashion, for example, a “Training and Development Board” to develop and coordinate training programmes to address these priorities Training & Development Boards would be key strategic bodies with responsibility to bring about improvements in police training & development. The “Police Training & Advisory Boards” would be a key strategic body with responsibility to bring about improvements in police training & development, and at the regional level: • Agree on regional strategy for police training, including milestones and measures of effectiveness against which progress can be monitored •
In today’s changing world, police organizations must constantly adapt the training and education officers receive to address new demands and expectations from their government and the citizens of their countries. In addition to preparing officers to protect citizens from problems that originate within their own countries, the police must plan for action to counteract and respond to threats from outside their borders posed by terrorism and organized crime. To do this, the police must be trained in the highly sophisticated investigation, intelligence, crisis management, and communication techniques. Regional cooperative education ventures are crucial to address these needs. Police education and training must make students aware of the “global environment of the information world without borders.” (Hall, 2002b:35) We can expect that there will be ever-continuing changes in the Agree on the training requirements and regional pro- way society reacts to and is shaped by new information grammes and technology. Police officers must be able to adapt to these changes. Agree on key priorities in police training It is apparent that training alone will not prepare officers for the critical thinking and decision making of Evaluate the effectiveness of the strategy in deliver- the future. Higher education appears to be the key to ing improvements in training effective policing in the 21st century. The police office of the future must have the initiative, knowledge and vision to deal with and solve problems by creative thinking, have the ability to network with available specialists and resources on a world-wide scale when the situation requires this, and have a career-long commitment to enhancement of his/ her policing skills through training and education. The region must develop a vision for how police training and development will be fashioned and be appropriately directed to meet contemporary policing challenges. Police education and training must be seen by the as a career-long process, either formally required and conProvide advice on issues as core curriculum and ducted or undertaken by the force/service themselves to qualification framework increase their professionalism and effectiveness.
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Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships
Integrated Planning and Performance Management Approach. (Part One) DSP Oral Pascoe Jamaica Constabulary Force(JCF) As law enforcement leaders, we are all aware of the fact that our success in fighting crime can be traced back to the good management of limited resources, in an environment of competing governmental priorities. In order to maintain our relevance in today’s society, modern policing organisations onment by by improving must adapt to a changing environment our internal management structures of effectiveness and efficiency in order to streamline enhanced service delivery to our publics. Integrated Planning and Performance Management System is one such way to improve internal management efficiency, accountability and effectiveness. It is logical to assume that all policing departments across the Caribbean and beyond currently develop strategic plans, divisional policing work plans, station work plans and annual performance appraisal of personnel etc. However, these systems must work in unison in order to achieve the organisation’s strategic priorities and to ensure that all levels of the organisation are advancing in the same direction. What is the purpose and elements of an effective Planning and Performance Management Programme? Planning and Performance Management is important in every organization, especially in a dynamic and focused policing department, as it ensures that productivity is maximized and production standards are adhered to. The key to managing performance lies in ensuring that activities are executed according to a plan at all levels. Plans and work programmes should therefore be created for all formations in the policing department. They should formulate work plans that document and specify the measurements for performance and the procedures for monitoring and taking corrective actions to attain desired performance levels. In this regard planning is therefore an essential element
in an effective performance management framework. The purpose of the process is to provide a consistent frame of reference during on-going feedback about performance, whether the organization is entirely stable or in the midst of a rapidly changing environment. Measurements ensure that everyone involved is working and talking from the same script. The measurements themselves may change, however, organizations members should be able to recognize and explain the change. This assertion is true whether one is addressing the performance of an organization, process, subsystem or the employee.
2.1 Main components of the Integrated Planning and Performance Management Programme (Employee level) 1) 2) 3) 4)
Planning Monitoring and evaluation (PMAS) Developing and coaching Rating and review
2.1.1 Planning In every effective organization, work is planned far in advance. Planning means the setting of performance expectations and goals for groups and individuals to channel their efforts toward achieving organizational objectives. Getting employees involved in the planning process will help them to understand the goals of the organization, what needs to be done, why it needs to be done, and how well it should be done. The development of Section/Unit, Station, Divisional and Area/ Branch policing operational plans is a major component of the integrated approach, because it establishes the foundation for managers and supervisors to design work programmes for subordinates. The establishing of targets and performance indicators is a sound and effective methodology in setting performance standards. The regulatory requirements for planning and monitoring employees’ performances, include establishing the elements and standards of their performance
appraisal plans. Performance elements and standards should be measurable, understandable, verifiable, equitable, and achievable. Through critical elements, employees are held accountable as individuals for work assignments or responsibilities. Employee performance plans should be flexible so that they may be adjusted for changing programme objectives and work requirements. When used effectively, these plans may be beneficial working documents that are often discussed and are not merely paperwork that is filed away in a drawer and seen only when ratings of annual appraisals are required. The following steps should be observed during the implementation: a) Explain to the employees how their con tribution to the objectives of the police department through their respective Area/ Branch, Division and Section/ Unit provides services to the public and other agencies.
on-going feedback to employees and work groups on their progress toward reaching their objectives and targets. The organisational Performance Management and Appraisal System (PMAS) is of utmost importance in any effective Integrated Planning and Performance Management Programme. The requirements for monitoring performance include the conducting of progress reviews with employees, where their performance is compared against their agreed targets, performance indicators and standards. On-going monitoring provides the opportunity to check how well employees are meeting predetermined standards and to make changes to unrealistic or problematic standards. With continuous monitoring, unacceptable performance can be identified at any time during the appraisal period and assistance provided to address such performance rather than wait until the end of the period when summary rating levels are assigned.
2.1.3 Developing and Coaching
Developing in this instance means increasing the capacity to perform through training, giving assignments that introduce new skills or higher levels of responsibility, improving work processes, or other methc) Make sure employees understand the ods. Due to the nature of and circumstances of services accountabilities and expectations with regards to their work. provided to the public by police department’s employees, continuous development is a critical success factor d) Explain the appropriate behaviours that and therefore is essential for the successful implemenare expected from employees and why. tation of the integrated approach. Providing employees e) Let employees know they are responsible for with training and developmental opportunities encourtaking an active role in managing and assess ages good performance, strengthens job-related skills and competencies, and helps employees keep up with ing their performance throughout the year. changes in the workplace, such as the introduction of f) Always involve employees in the develop new technology. ment of work plans and subsequent individual The act of carrying out the processes of perforwork programme. mance management provides an excellent opportunity to identify developmental needs. During the planning 2.1.2 Monitoring, appraisal and evaluation Task, assignments and projects are to be moni- and monitoring of work, deficiencies in performance tored continually. Monitoring and evaluating mean become evident and can be addressed expeditiously. continuously measuring performance and providing Areas for improving good performance may also stand b)
Work with the employees to define accountabilities and performance standards.
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships out, and action may be taken to help successful employees improve even further.
From time to time, organizations find it useful to summarize employees’ performances. This can be helpful in looking at and comparing performance over time or among various employees. Within the context of formal performance appraisal requirements, rating means evaluating an employee’s or group’s performance against the elements and standards in an employee’s or group’s performance plan and assigning a summary rating of record. The rating of record is assigned according to procedures included in the organization’s appraisal programme. It is based on work performed during an entire appraisal period. The rating of record has a bearing on other personnel actions, such as granting within-grade pay increases. Although group performance may have an impact on an employee’s summary rating, a rating of record is assigned only to an individual, but not to a group.
Guidelines that should be observed during the rating of employees: a) Put together all saved notes or documents about the employees’ performance and assess their performance on accountabilities and behaviours. b) Ask employees for a feedback in regards to their performance during the year. c) Employees may remind the supervisor of particular instances of good performance or problems outside their control that hurt their ability to do their job well. d) Complete Appraisal Form, and then discuss ratings and comments with employees.
3.0 Key benefits of Performance Management. 3.1 Focuses on results, rather than behaviours and activities A common misconception among supervisors is that behaviours and activities are the same as results. Thus, an employee may appear extremely busy, but is not contributing at all toward the goals of the organi-
zation. An example is the employee who manually reviews completion of every form and procedure, rather than supporting automation of the review. The supervisor may conclude the employee is very committed to the organization and works very hard, thus, deserving a very high performance rating.
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships New Crime Stoppers Regional Body Launched
3.2 Aligns organizational activities and processes to the goals of the organization Performance Management identifies organizational goals, results needed to achieve those goals, measures of effectiveness or efficiency (outcomes) toward these goals, and means (drivers) to achieve the goals. This chain of measurements is examined to ensure alignment with overall results of the organization.
3.3 Cultivates a system-wide, long-term view of the organization Richard A. Swanson, in Performance Improvement Theory and Practice (Advances in Developing Human Resources, 1, 1999), explains that an effective performance improvement process must follow a systems-based approach while looking at outcomes and drivers; otherwise, the effort produces a flawed picture. For example, the laying off of staff members will likely produce short-term profits. However, the organization may eventually experience a reduction in productivity, resulting in long-term profit loss.
4.0 Concerns about Performance Management A typical concern expressed about performance management, is that it seems extraordinarily difficult and often unreliable to measure a phenomenon as complex as performance. Today’s organizations are rapidly changing, thus results and measures quickly become obsolete. It is speculated that translating human desires and interactions to measurements is impersonal and even heavy handed.
Contributing Author: Oral A Pascoe, Deputy Superintendent of Police Jamaica Constabulary Force
Executive Committee of the newly formed Caribbean, Bermuda and Latin America Crime Stoppers Inc. From left to right : Alex MacDonald (Bermuda), Chairman; Prudence Gentles (Jamaica), Secretary; John Aboud (Trinidad & Tobago), Vice Chairman; Chris Garcia (Belize), Director at Large; Devrol Dupigney (Barbados), Treasurer. On Monday 12th March 2012, the inaugural meeting of the Caribbean, Bermuda and Latin America Crime Stoppers Incorporated commenced at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Port of Spain, Trinidad. The feature address was delivered by the Minister of National Security of Trinidad and Tobago, Brigadier John Sandy, who congratulated the delegates on their efforts to assist in the control of crime in the various island states of the Caribbean. He further observed that the formation of the new Regional entity should be seen as “a vehicle for Crime Stoppers to gather information through anonymous reporting”. He stated that “since the establishment of Crime Stoppers Trinidad and Tobago in 1999, more than 16,000 tips were received and 7,000 cases of crime were solved”. He advised that issues of crime, safety and security were all topics that engaged the attention of political leaders, at the local and regional level, particularly where these issues had the potential to negatively impact the realization of the economic survival as a people and challenge our ability to earn foreign exchange through our tourism products and services. He exhorted those gathered to continue to provide support to the respective law enforcement agencies and explained their role as invaluable to National and Regional safety and security.
Mr. Alexander MacDonald, Chairman of the n Regional entity, explained that Crime Stoppers has new a pivotal role to play in the maintenance of law and order, civil existence and good governance in the region. This he said could be done by assisting police organizations h iin solving crimes through the collation of information and the effective utilization of online and confidential ttelephone and electronic tips. He emphasized confidenttiality and anonymity as critical to the effectiveness of tthe Crime Stoppers programme and identified it as a vviable option for persons with information on crime. He further observed that not long ago the regional proggrammes of Crime Stoppers International consisted of only five islands Nations, but now the Region boasts a membership of twelve National Programmes. m He explained that in its current state, the Reggional body was the largest gathering of National Proggrammes in Crime Stoppers International, and reported that St. Lucia and St. Kitts and Nevis were well on the way to become members. He urged delegates not to be complacent but to forge forward in their efforts to provide a meaningful service to police organizations, while contributing to a safer environment for the people of the region to live, work and engage in business. Mr. John Aboud, Chairman of Crime Stoppers Trinidad and Tobago and the Vice Chairman of the Regional body, expressed optimism about the future of Crime Stoppers and challenged delegates to consider programmes that are realistic, achievable and that reflect relevance to each territory. This he observed as being critical since crime and criminal activity have no boundaries, hence the formation of the new Regional body which he stated, “provides greater scope for improved collaboration between Crime Stoppers and police agencies, as they work in unison, to assist with the management of crime at both the national and regional levels, through engaging public support and anonymous tips”, As the inaugural meeting of this new Crime Stoppers entity that represents civilian and law enforcement agencies came to a close, the new Directors from the various Caribbean and Latin American communities departed from Trinidad with renewed enthusiasm to pursue their ‘common goal’ of ensuring that citizens in each of their countries have the ability to ‘report crime’ anonymously. All were convinced of the benefits of anonymous tips received via Crime Stoppers and passed on to the police in contributing to the safety of residents, tourists and the business communities of the region.
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships Bridging the Gap in Data Collection, Research and Analysis in Crime Control in the Caribbean: The Role of the ACCP to some of the leaders on various categories of violent crime. It also found the illegal drug trade to be the main cause of crime. The second found an alarming rate of Background Within recent times there were four major stud- young males involved in crime and violence (including gangs) in the urban and peri-urban areas of Belize. The ies on crime and violence third study found the Caribbean had the 4th highest in the Caribbean (UNOrate of homicide in world behind South Africa, South DC/WB 2007, Gayle et al, America and Central America and gang violence was a 2010, UNODC 2011 and significant factor. The final report found rising levels of UNDP 2012). While the violent crime including murder, citizens’ feelings of infocus of each study varied security was generally low and the high levels of violent to some degree on the iscrime had a negative impact on development. sues of focus and the geoIt also noted that crime in the Caribbean is not graphical location, there high; however specific types of violent crime like murwas consensus on the high der were high. A few observations about these studies levels of violent crime esare important to mention here. First, many of these pecially murder. The first study focused on crime and violence in studies are externally funded. Second, they are usually the Caribbean, the second study highlighted male in- done by people from outside the region (sometimes volvement in violence in the urban areas of Belize, the with limited local academic and stakeholder involvethird study analyzed the global homicide problem and ment). Third, they reveal countries are either approachhighlighted some factors in the high levels of homicide ing or have arrived at epidemic levels of violence. And in the Caribbean, and the fourth looked at the relation- fourth, there is no current mechanism for the findings ship between citizen security, development and crime to drive policy. and violence. One of the poignant issues for Caribbean countries resulting from these studies is the need to im- Data Collection Systems across the region prove the levels (police, national and regional) and sysThe current scenario sees a myriad of crime tems (the interactions between police forces, research- definitions crime, data collection methodologies and ers and policy-makers) of data collection, research and institutions responsible for data collection and analyanalysis and their use in shaping policy in response to sis among and within countries in the region. To begin crime and violence in the region. This article makes a with, there are myriad definitions of the crime such as few observations about the role of data collection, re- murder (widely regarded as the most accurate statistic search and analysis in crime control in the region and and indicator) and the recent gang violence phenomrecommends how the ACCP can contribute to bridging enon present a range of new challenges. For example, the gap between the police and other stakeholders. some countries record homicides, others record murders and the classification of these murders vary from Preliminary findings and observations country to country. Additionally, the methodology for Among the major findings of these studies, collecting, recording and analyzing murder statistics the first found the region to be the most crime-prone vary from the inclusion of suicides and manslaughters and violent in the world based on the highest murder to lawful and unlawful police killings. Another good rate (30 per 100,000 people) and the region was home example of the current dilemma is the recent crimiBy: Sheridon M. Hill
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships nal gang phenomenon and the analysis of the current situation. One study (Hill, 2012) showed that gang violence is the number one murder classification among countries with the highest murder rates over the period 2000-2009. However, the study also found that definitions of both gangs and gang-related murders varied in Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, Belize and Trinidad and Tobago. While legislation in Trinidad and Tobago and St. Kitts and Nevis closed the definition gap in those countries, and brought them closer to the Jamaican Constabulary Force’s definition, the problem still exists in the wider Caribbean. What are the implications of these issues for the region? Simple, how we define these issues determines the magnitude of the problem, which ultimately, determines the nature of our responses and the resources we channel in these areas. Data collection and analysis capacity is improving in the region’s police forces with the strengthening of the statistics department in the Jamaican Constabulary Force (JCF), establishment of the Crime and Problem Analysis Unit(CAPA) in Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) and similar units in St. Lucia, Barbados, Antigua and Barbuda and other countries. However, previous research indicates that challenges still exist and capacities vary across the region (Deosaran, 2004). Additionally, various sectors of data collection exist in many, if not all, countries across the region. Therefore, there is need to synchronize the various statistical units in the police forces, national statistical offices and related units within the ministries of national security(where such units have been established) within countries and across the region. Two recommendations are suggested. The ACCP can begin the process of standardizing crime definitions and methodologies for data collection, and each police force should establish a research unit. Data collection is one thing; the use of these statistics to inform short, medium and long term poli-
cies is another!
Bringing Researchers and Policymakers together We need to establish a culture where policy is driven by research. This requires a system based on strong interactions between researchers, policy makers and law enforcement. The ACCP can act as driver of change in this initiative. Recent studies (cited above) have diagnosed the broad problems in countries across the region and this provides a starting point to bring the various stakeholders together. Additionally, the inclusion of prior research on crime and related issues should inform initiatives by law enforcement and policymakers. Work by Professors Harriott, Chavannes, Deosaran and relevant theses and dissertations should not be reserved to University of the West Indies’s (UWI) archives and library, but contribute to solutions of the region’s crime problem. In this regard, the unpublished Doctoral Dissertation by Wendell Wallace will be helpful to the TTPS community (involvement) policing initiatives (2011). More importantly, the ACCP membership should play a critical role in driving research at UWI and other regional academic institutions. It would be unfortunate if researchers are unaware of current trends and challenges faced by the law enforcement community, the law enforcement community are unaware of existing research on crime, crime prevention strategies and related issues, and the decisions of policymakers are not informed by collaboration with the other two stakeholders. One preliminary suggestion is for academic representation at annual meetings of the ACCP. This forum provides a good opportunity for vibrant exchanges on current trends, challenges, and potential areas for research and academics can share information on past, current and contemplated areas of research. While this is a starting point; there should be a forum for bringing together researchers, law enforcement stakeholders and policy makers annually or biannually. The ACCP should be the focal point of this
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships initiative and is well-positioned to contribute academic electronic media. In this regard, the findings by papers and studies to the literature on crime and pre- Dr. Herbert Gayle in his Cobb Lecture (2010) and the vention issues to CARICOM, regional governments as UNDP Report on Citizen Security (2012) are relevant well as UWI and the academic community here, “the Caribbean does not have high levels of crime, however, there high levels of certain types of violent Harnessing a Culture of Evidenced-based Solutions crimes such as murder”. We need to underscore the disThat data collection and analysis is important to tinction between crime in general and specific types of the business of crime response in the Caribbean is a co- crime; and lossal understatement. In fact, no contemporary police • Assist in the identification of alternative strategies organization in the region can efficiently respond to the for intervention/responses. scourge of crime without effectively collecting, collating and analyzing available data. Indeed, global best practices are indicative enough to conclude that data collectiction and analysis is crucial to the formulation of intervention strategies for crime and crime prevention. There are many benefits to data collection as a tool in crime response at the various sectors of the region’s law enforcement landscape. While the list is not exhaustive, it includes the following: •
It provides the organization with a method to examine its objectives;
Assist in identifying and understanding trends and peculiar characteristics in crime and violence issues across the Caribbean;
Lessons learned in one country may assist other countries. Indeed, the phenomenal reductions in murders in Suriname from 84(2000) to 28(2009) should be studied as a best practice in the region;
Accurate data is the best weapon to refute negative reports in the print and electronic media-particularly inconclusive studies purporting to represent the entire region in a negative manner;
One of the most critical areas where empirical data from analysis is invaluable to the Caribbean region is in response to negative travel advisories, publications in local, regional and international print and
A New Paradigm A new approach to research and analysis on crime is urgently needed in the Caribbean. Parochial insecurities and potential impact of exposing crime statistics should-and must-yield to the need for an evidenced-based culture. It is not about country A having the highest and country B having the lowest murder rates in the region-but how can the lessons learned in country B can help country A.. Enhanced research can act as a catalyst for new intervention strategies and debunk myths about prevailing levels of crime. While institutions such as the UWI can play a vital role and the current OAS National Public Security Observatory project will contribute to improved capacity, political will is needed for a drastic change in the current status quo. Based on my observations above, we need to be proactive, take ownership of the issues and be active participants in charting the way forward. Local funding for research and stakeholder involvement (academic, law enforcement and policymakers) are critical factors in solving the crime and security issues in the Caribbean. Until we have the resources to conduct research and analysis and provide solutions to our problems, the nature, magnitude and solutions to these challenges will continue to be defined externally. In the interim, the ACCP can begin the synergy in bridging the gap between the relevant stakeholders.
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships Overview of the ICRC The International Committee of the Red Cross Very often, the levels of polarization and (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral and independent organ- violence are such that the usual social ization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to mechanisms are unable to respond to the pressing protect the lives and dignity of victims of armed conflict needs of those who and other situations of violence and to provide them are affected. In these with assistance. The mandate of the ICRC is granted by situations, the ICRC the Geneva Conventions of 1949, its Additional Prointervenes with a view tocols, the Statutes of the International Red Cross and to alleviating human Red Crescent Movement and the Resolutions of the Insuffering in accordternational Conference of the Red Cross and Red Cresance with its Fundacent. With its Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the mental Principles, ICRC is based in approximately 80 countries, with an some of which include: average of 12,700 staff members. Impartiality, Independence, Neutrality and Humanity. The ICRC Regional Delegation in Caracas Law enforcement officials have an important maintains responsibility for the implementation of its mandate in Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barba- role in such situations of violence because of their redos, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. sponsibilities: maintenance of public order and security, Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Gren- prevention and detection of crime and provision of help adines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela. and assistance. They can significantly influence the fate An ICRC Regional Delegation is also based in Port au of those affected. How they do so will depend, to a great degree, on the way they exercise the powers they have Prince, Haiti. been granted. In its dialogue with Police Forces, the The ICRC continues to enjoy positive working ICRC discusses their responsibilities and the exercise of relationships with all Police Forces throughout the Car- policing powers. ibbean Community (CARICOM) region, in conjuncThe Police Forces are often the first point of contion with its continued cooperative relationship with the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police tact for victims of violence and crime. They too can become victims themselves – as the most visible part of the (ACCP) Secretariat. State, they may become the focus of public anger during The relationship between the ICRC and Police Forces unrest. As representatives of the State, the Police may be attacked by gangs or The ICRC shares dialogue with Police Forces armed groups. in many countries affected by situations of violence. Also, the work of the Increasingly, this dialogue takes place in situations of Police Forces may afviolence which do not reach the level of armed conflict. fect that of the ICRC. They can facilitate or Today, these situations are often more injurious to huimpede the ICRC’s acman beings than are armed conflicts. While death, injucess to victims and can ry, displacement, people disappearing or going missing, therefore have a posilack of access to basic conditions for survival, violations tive or negative impact of fundamental rights, and deprivation of personal lib- on the security of the ICRC in situations such as checkerty are issues traditionally associated with armed con- points, places of detention and violent public disorder. The ICRC engages in dialogue with the Police flicts, so too are they effects of situations of violence. Law enforcement officials in a number of coun- at checkpoints, undertakes dissemination exercises in tries constantly grapple with unprecedented levels of Police Stations and barracks and speaks directly to ofcriminality, which cause widespread suffering among ficials further up the chain of command. These are all the population and pose a serious threat to public secu- opportunities to remind the Police of their responsirity and, inevitably, to the law enforcement officials in bilities towards people affected by the situation. The ICRC also promotes understanding of its neutral and charge of maintaining or restoring that security.
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships impartial work, to ensure safe access to the people it is trying to help. The ICRC also supports authorities in incorporating international human rights or humanitarian law into their operational doctrine and training. The ultimate aim is to create an environment conducive to compliance with the basic rules of human rights law, as they apply to law enforcement activities.
The Legal Framework and Activities which guide the ICRC in its relations with Police Forces The ICRC refers to the legal framework internationally applicable to law enforcement operations. As such, it refers to a set of fundamental rules that protect human beings in situations of violence. In its dialogue with Police Forces, the ICRC seeks, above all, to enhance knowledge, understanding and acceptance, both, of its mandate and work, and of the human rights law applicable to law enforcement. As such, the ICRC explains to Police Forces, and/or reminds them of the rules governing force, firearms, arrest, detention, search and seizure. The ICRC also stresses that Police Forces should have a system for punishing violations of these rules. To this end, the ICRC may engage the Police Forces by:
will engage in discussions as to how they exercise their powers and discharge their responsibilities towards the population. The ICRC recognises that the work of a Police Officer is very different from that of a soldier. His or her mission is to maintain public order and security and to serve and protect the population, rather than to neutralize an enemy. Police Officers work alone, or in pairs, and have to decide how to react to an incident. For instance, certain weapons used by the armed forces are inappropriate for use by law enforcement officials (and vice versa). In its confidential bilateral dialogue, the ICRC addresses the specific issues and situations of concern in that context. During such dialogue, the ICRC may recommend to law enforcement authorities that they take concrete measures to improve the lives of those affected by situations of violence, to enhance respect for their rights and to prevent the recurrence of violations of rights. Mindful of its strong collaborative links with the ACCP Secretariat and cooperative bilateral relations with Police Forces throughout the CARICOM region, the ICRC looks forward to a heightened spirit of dialogue and perspective-sharing with all entities involved in law enforcement activities within the region.
Coordinating seminars, courses or workshops to enhance knowledge and understanding of the inter- Contact Information for the ICRC Regional Delegation national rules and standards governing law enforce- for Venezuela, the English-speaking Caribbean ment; Community region and Suriname • Arranging meetings or events at which the ICRC explains its role, activities and working procedures in Postal Address: that context; and/or ICRC Regional Delegation, Caracas • Participating in or organizing regional/ internationEdificio Bancaracas, Piso 9, Oficina 9-05 al conferences or other events where law enforceAvenida San Felipe con 2da. Transversal ment issues are addressed. La Castellana, Caracas : Telephone: + 58 212 265 7740/ 267 9001 In general, it is International Human Rights Law Fax: +58 212 267 5150 (IHRL) which applies to policing operations. However, E-Mail Address : email@example.com International Humanitarian Law (IHL), also known as Law of Armed Conflicts (LoAC), may also apply to Police Forces during an armed conflict, if they are formally incorporated into the Armed Forces or otherwise participate in hostilities. Even then, their work may still consist of law enforcement, in which case the ICRC
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships How can deeper CARICOM integration ... assist with security issues in the region?
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For the purpose of this article, the term security is defined as the protection and preservation of the state’s core values and people’s freedom from external military attack and coercion, from internal subversion and from the destruction of secured political, economical, environmental, health and social issues. This paper support the notion that deeper CARICOM integration will help security in the region, notwithstanding, there will be some challenges. In 1990, the then Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, ANR Robinson, stated that, “It is becoming increasingly apparent that no single state, large or small can in isolation ensure its own security from subversion or external threat. In this era of interdependence of states and the globalization of activities relating to almost every sphere of life – economic, politic, cultural and criminal to name a few- the preservation of national security can no longer be seen purely in national terms”. Another Caribbean statesman, Erskine Sandiford, then Prime Minister of Barbados, echoed similar sentiments by saying; “The preservation of law and order and national security contribute uniquely to growth and development through the promotion of stability. We must therefore expand our integration effort to include the area of regional security and we must seek further cooperation with friendly governments in our region and beyond. One thing is certain; no single territory can do it alone. We have to work together if we are to ensure that the Caribbean remains a zone of peace, prosperity and democracy”. In support of deeper CARICOM integration to strengthen security among member States, in February of 2006, the Hon. Patrick Manning, the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago and past chairman of CARICOM, at the opening session of the 17th
I Inter-session Meeting of CARICOM Heads of Government stated that, “Deeper integration of CARICOM m will improve collective security and stability in the rew ggion.” He also pointed out that deeper integration will place an even stronger obligation on all member States p tto strengthen the solidarity and security of the entire iintegration movement. The global change in the security environment ccontinues to evoke different reactions from various reggions of the world in order to survive. In the case of tthe Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the goal of aadvancing the regional security integration is continually facing a myriad of challenges, including the threats of international terrorism, transnational crime, HIV/ AIDS, natural disasters and the trafficking of illegal drugs, arms and humans. The individual CARICOM State does not possess the resources or have the capability to combat or minimize these threats on their own and as such, deeper integration will allow the pooling of regional resources to collectively combat these threats as a unified body. In terms of security, CARICOM has assisted member states such as Montserrat and Haiti in many ways. For example, after the devastation of hurricane Hugo in Montserrat in1989 and the aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, CARICOM member States provided security in the form of military support, health care, food, labour and other social workers to maintain security in these countries. Due to the vast destruction, these countries on their own would not have been able to maintain effective security systems after the aftermath of the two disasters mentioned. In 1989, at Grand Anse, Grenada, CARICOM outlined the basic tenets of its current global strategy that is to link the region economy into the global economy and its trading system. The strategy has three components which include deepening regional integration by advancing beyond a common market towards a West Indian Economy that is more modern, cohesive and designed to function effectively in the prevailing global economy and liberalized conditions. The choice of mechanism is through the creation of a Caribbean
Law Enforcement Management/Partnerships Community including the single market and economy (CSME). The widening and deepening of the integration movement in the Caribbean continues to develop as the situation presents itself and as the security environment changes. In this regard we have witnessed the formation of the Association of Caribbean States, (ACS). This Association emphasized regional trade and negotiation mechanisms; it instilled greater cooperation toward the establishment of regional identity that could perhaps pave the way for an expansion in areas such as regional security. At the level of CARICOM, several institutions were created to broaden the scope of partnership in the region. For instance the CARICOM Regional Coordinating Mechanism for Drug Control was established to coordinate Caribbean drug policy efforts. Institutions such as the Caribbean Financial Actions Task Force (CFATF) was established to develop a common anti-money laundering policy within the Caribbean, and the Caribbean Task Force on Crime and Security was established by the Heads of Government of CARICOM in July 2001 in response to the increased crime in the region. At the meeting of Heads of Government in Trinidad and Tobago in February 2003, CARICOM agreed to recognize and institutionalize the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) as an agency of the Community. The Caribbean Customs Law Enforcement Council (CCLEC) is another association that is presently spearheading the thrust towards the improvement of border security in the Caribbean in this age of terror. Within contemporary times the nature of the Caribbean security landscape could be seen as including both traditional and non-traditional concerns occurring side by side. Territorial disputes and hemispheric geopolitics are the core traditional concerns while drugs, political instability, HIV/AIDS, migration, illegal arms trafficking and environmental degradation are the chief non-traditional security concerns. Given the present international security environment and perhaps the Caribbean geopolitical concerns, terrorism must be included on the list of nontraditional threats. Additionally, with the advent of
the United States led war with Iraq in March 2003, oil and petroleum producing Caribbean countries such as Trinidad and Tobago were faced with a new threat to these resources described as energy security. The complexities of the non-traditional security issues suggest that they are best handled from a collaborative and cooperative effort. The world has become globalized, therefore regional security cooperation to treat with traditional and non -traditional threats must consider the influence of the actors in the environment in which it has to exist and function. Regional security cooperation must not be left to chance but must be as a result of a systemic process that seeks to identify commonalities of interests and threats in a building block approach to treat with the issues. Due to the size and geographical location, CARICOM States have become increasingly vulnerable to the activities of transnational crime in drug trafficking, trade in illegal arms, money laundering and illegal migration. By deepening CARICOM integration, existing elements as mentioned earlier can be consolidated into a full- fledged Caribbean Security Cooperation System (CSCS) where shared intelligence and border control can be shared among member States. The CSCS will be responsible to combat regional security threats arising out of transnational crime, terrorism, insurrection or invasion. In terms of natural disasters, the Caribbean region is vulnerable. Each year we are being in impacted by several hurricanes. We have volcanic eruption in Montserrat and most recently, the earthquake that devastated Haiti. These are all security issues, and by pooling resources, CARICOM member States will be able to operate as a single unit to provide security in all aspects to its member State(s) who are in desperate need of help.
Contributing Author: Albert C. Williams Inspector of Police R.M.P.S
closer relationships with their counterparts, creating an environment to: • Develop closer camaraderie that can benefit the Police Service and their communities assisting to foster a greater cooperation and collaboration especially in terms of sharing information in a timely manner. Thus aiding in identifying and arresting criminals who have crossed borders
The Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force and the Royal Grenada Police Force in an effort to create greater cooperation and working relationship have initiated a Cricket Tournament. This tournament, the Clarkson/Miller Cricket Championship Trophy” was conceptualized in August of 2009 by former Commissioner James Clarkson of Grenada and Commissioner Keith Miller of St Vincent and the Grenadines. This competition commenced in 2010, (during the Easter weekend) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. During the Tournament, four games were played at various cricket venues throughout St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The Royal Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force Cricket Team won three of the four games; as a result and took home the coveted trophy. Commissioner Miller and his team journeyed to Grenada on April 21, 2011 (the Easter weekend) to play the return matches to vie for the Clarkson/Miler Trophy. Again, four (4) matches were played. Grenada won one game and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines won three games, retaining the Clarkson/Miller Championship Trophy. This Cricket Tournament has afforded the Officers from both islands, the opportunity to foster a greater and cordial working relationship and has engendered a spirit of cooperation and collaboration between the two Forces. This has created more opportunity for greater information to be shared in a timely manner, which has lead to greater success in crime fighting. In observing the potential the results (i.e. interpersonal relationship and its possibilities) of the Clarkson/Miller Cricket Competition, Commissioner Miller is of the view that enormous benefits can be derived from the staging of a Caribbean Cricket Competition. He is resolute with regards to this and is desirous of leading the way forward to ensure that Police personnel within the membership of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) this given an opportunity to meet in another forum. This he envisages can be instrumental to further their development and forge
bling them to be more proactive in their approach with regards to crime fighting and ensuring our citizens and visitors enjoy our beautiful Caribbean. As the Caribbean Community braces itself for the full implementation of the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME), CARICOM Heads of Government and Law Enforcement Officers are set to take a hard look at the upsurge in criminal activity across the region and look for solutions to deal with this menace, Police Officers playing and enjoying cricket in the countryside of SVG and Commissioner Miller and his Deputy meets his vicsince the inability to control the scourge of crime would torious Police Cricket team after winning the Saint Vincent hamper the development of these countries, as well as and the Grenadines national cricket competition the effective implementation of the CSME. From our investigation, Police Forces around Region are blessed with a number of talentthe Reg So, with an effort, the Caribbean ed cricketers. crick Police Po olice Cricket Festival can materialize easily. and the Grenadines, as around In n St. Vincent V the region, Police Cricket Teams compete in th he re Community Competitions, including the Comm C Masters Cricket Tournament, of which the Mast M Royal St. Vincent and the Grenadines Police Roya Force Masters Cricket Team is the champiForc t n e c n i V t n i on. Further, members of the Royal Saint Victorious SaGrenadines Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force Vin and the m a e are involved in Cricket at all levels in Saint tT Police Crickerenada Vincent and the Grenadines as players, adVin in G ministrators, managers and selectors. m Commissioner Miller’s enthusiaasm in this competition stemmed from his interest and involvement in the game h of cricket. He was an ardent cricketer, o cricket at the highest level in Saint Vincent who played crick Grenadines, but unfortunately, he was not able and the Grenadi to play l at the h Regional Level. His illustrious cricket career was cut short as a result of an unfortunate motor vehicle collision as a young Police Officer. Commissioner Miller, however, still represents Commissioners’Miller and Clarkson Meeting Teams at the Police Force in the Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Progress Park in Grenada. in the Masters Cricket Competition. He believes that
Enhance and improving networking among the various Police Forces
Re-energize Police efforts on the job
Give Police Officers the opportunity to operate under conditions other than actual work which in turn can enhance collaboration
Contribute towards the fitness and wellness of members of the various Police Forces
Cricket is a team sport, and team building and working together are necessary in order to better police our region. The Caribbean is now plagued with acts of criminality which transcends national borders; therefore no one country can cripple criminal activities on its own, regardless of its resources, a unified approach is necessary.
Bearing this in mind, Commissioner Miller is of the belief that activity like the cricket competition can play an important role in advancing more effective and efficient Policing in the Caribbean. He thus proposes that the competition be played in a 20/20 format among the member Forces/Services of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) referred to as the Caribbean Police Cricket Festival and held annually. Although recreational, the Cricket Tournament can also be used as a means by which officers can be educated on important issues such as historical law enforcement facts about each territory and hopefully ena-
Caribbean Police Cricket Tournament C
cricket can be used as a pilot for other sporting disciplines. It is critical that this Caribbean Police Cricket Tournament materializes due to the perceived that eivved bbenefi enefits th hatt ccan an be derived, such as Sports Tourism, Networking and exchange of best practices, strengthening unity uni nity ty amongst amo mong ngst st police d by indiv in vid idual te eam amss, officers and developing the Sport of Cricket. Funds to meet the cost of these games can be raised individual teams, sponsorship and where possible, budgeted through Central Government.
Contributing Author: DSP. Eric Brown Co-ordinator of the Clarkson Miller Championship Trophy
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Acknowledgements The Executive, members and staff of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police would like to use this opportunity to express gratitude to Senator Jonathan Smith of Bermuda, Mr. Paul Brummell (British High Commissioner of Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean), advertisers and all contributors who assisted in various capacities in the publication of this edition of
“United Against Crime”. ASSOCIATION OF CARIBBEAN COMMISSIONERS OF POLICE 1st Floor BAOBAB Tower, Warrens, St Michael , Barbados Email: email@example.com Skype: accpolice1