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ASSOCIATION of CARIBBEAN COMMISSIONERS of POLICE 28th Annual General Meeting & Conference 29th April - 02 May 2013, Bermuda

“Police and Public Partnerships: Joining up prevention, intervention and enforcement strategies to tackle Gangs and Youth Violence”

It gives me great pleasure to host the 28th Annual Conference for the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police and to extend a very warm welcome to Bermuda. It is indeed an honour and a privilege to host this importCommissioner ant regional event, parMichael DeSilva ticularly as we are one of the smallest jurisdictions involved in the Association. The theme of the conference this year is ‘Police and Public Partnerships: Joining up prevention, intervention and enforcement strategies to tackle gangs and youth violence’. It is clear that there are many commonalities between the challenges faced by our respective countries: increased gang activity and the associated use of firearms to commit violent crimes is shaking community confidence and threatening international reputations. And for countries that rely on tourism and international investments, social stability is the lifeblood of a stable economy and an enjoyable quality of life. Whilst enforcement has been seen as a highly effective tool against violent crimes, we acknowledge that gang and youth violence

is not something that any one agency can solve alone. To get ‘up stream’ of the issues and tackle the complex underlying causes and drivers to this type of criminality requires a sustainable long term partnership addressing cycles of social exclusion, education, employment, diversion and early exposure to violence. It is said that “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” And it is my hope that by the end of this conference our members can take back strategies, operations, programmes and examples of how police and public partnerships are being effectively used to tackle gangs. Our collective learning and experiences will help to build a new platform to roll back the allure of gang lifestyles on our youth, rescue those who have already been captured, and convict those that refuse to leave. In addition to the agenda and business central to the conference, I also hope to be able to provide you with a rich and memorable experience of our people, our hospitality, our culture and our beautiful island. Welcome to Bermuda: we truly are “Another World!”


Remarks by US Ambassador The Association of Caribbean Chiefs of Police is a critically important organization for the United States in our partnership with the people and governments of the Caribbean as we promote citizen security and fight transnational crime. Your role here in this forum is an important means for the Caribbean to offer a unified regional response to combat the powerful and relentless crime syndicates that threaten our shared Caribbean home. Since 2009, when President Obama and the leaders of the Caribbean joined together under the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative – or “CBSI”—the United States has pledged over US$200 million for training of law enforcement and defense personnel, patrol boats and basic equipment. Last year at the ACCP, we announced over US$10 million in new CBSI funding for the Regional Security System Air Wing and the RSS’s broader training mission. Presently, we are in the midst of implementing an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) for the Eastern Caribbean that allows digital fingerprint information to be used in domestic investigations and prosecutions, and shared among other Caribbean countries to combat transnational crime. Several of you are already benefiting from this new capability. The U.S. Department of Justice is working to bring a regional civilian police advisor to Bridgetown who will serve as a training resource for the region, hopefully as early as the first half of 2013. We will also soon announce the placement of two regional firearms advisors from the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. They will be a regional resource to help combat the scourge of gun violence. CBSI has a central goal to promote sustainable citizen security. To achieve sustainability, we strongly believe that all of our Caribbean partners should take a closer look at civil asset forfeiture against drug kingpins to turn illicit profits into additional resources for police, prosecutors, and drug treatment. Civil asset forfeiture is also an important way to show your citizens that drug thugs do not enjoy impunity in your communities. Dominica has played a leadership role in this area, and is on track to have the first comprehensive, modern civil asset forfeiture program in the

Caribbean by the end of this month! Please remember, that our new Embassy financial crimes advisor stands ready to assist with all complex financial crime investigations in the Eastern Caribbean – I urge you to take advantage of this. Through the CBSI partnership, we have agreed to share the responsibility for ensuring the common security of our shared Caribbean home. I’ve mentioned some aspects of the U.S. role in this partnership, and I want you as commissioners to know that in the short span of six months that I’ve been on the ground, I’ve spoken with many of your Prime Ministers about ensuring sufficient resources, passing the necessary legislation, and supporting law enforcement officials in your daily work of locking up criminals and keeping all of us safe. You, as the chief law enforcement officials, play a very important role in this partnership. You can demonstrate your commitment by introducing and strengthening police integrity and accountability systems. Corruption and the public perception of corruption are big issues throughout the Caribbean. Several Commonwealth countries, including Jamaica, have innovative programs for building integrity and accountability in their police forces. I would like to especially encourage all of the Eastern Caribbean chiefs to consider creating comprehensive accountability systems in your forces. The U.S. Embassy stands ready to help implement these programs and to strengthen programs that already exist. We stand ready to assist you to implement sustainable, durable programs that you – our partners – will make your own. I ask all of you to redouble your efforts as advocates within your own governments for this approach to public security. (Presented at the ACCP Intersessional Meeting 2012, Bridgetown Barbados) by Dr. Larry L. Palmer U.S. Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean Region

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President’s Message It is with great pleasure and pride that I address the readers on the 10th publication of the Annual Magazine of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP), “United Against Crime”. I would first like to congratulate the executive and members of the Association for their diligence and perseverance on this publication bearing in mind the uncertain economic climate which exists. I would also like to express profound gratitude to partners who have contributed in various ways to make this publication a reality. The theme of our Annual General Meeting and Conference this year will be “Police and Public Partnerships: Joining up prevention, intervention and enforcement strategies to tackle gangs and youth violence”. For some years gang and youth violence have been of major concern for policy makers as well as law enforcement practitioners in the Caribbean, as youth comprises 64% of CARICOM Community population. In 2011 after consultation CARICOM as a direct response to the problem established the project “CARICOM Youth Gangs and Violence: Partnering for Prevention and Social Development”. Since its inception and with collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), CARICOM have stage workshops and other platforms to sensitize and build capacity amongst major stakeholders. The seriousness of the youth and gang crime was also highlighted in the UNDP 2012 Caribbean Human Development Report under the heading : Human

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Development and the Shift to Better Citizen Security where it stated “…………..Youth violence is an important challenge, particularly in the form of street gangs, contributing to the popular perceptions of increasing insecurity.” The ACCP has recognized the seriousness of the problem in the Caribbean and will continue to work with its partners in the community, the region and internationally to get to the root cause and with constant dialogue and collaboration, work for the containment of this scrooge on our societies, resulting in the region being a more secure place to work, play and live! bled it to make a type specimen book. It has survived not only five centuries, but also the leap into electronic typesetting, remaining essentially unchanged. It was popularised in the 1960s with the release of Letraset sheets containing Lorem Ipsum passages, apublishing software like Aldus. Lorem Ipsum is simply dummy text of the printing and typesetting industry. Commissioner Ellison E. Greenslade Commissioner of Police President Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (IACP) World Regional Office – Chair for Central America and the Caribbean


ACCP Mission & Objectives & Values The Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) was formally established in 1987 in Castries, St Lucia by a resolution passed by 13 members on 20th August. The stated objectives of the association then were: i. Regional cooperation in the suppression of criminal activities in such areas as narcotics, terrorism and organized crime; ii. The exchange of information in criminal investigations; iii. The sharing of common services which may include training, forensic analysis and research and iv. The effective management of law enforcement agencies. In the year 2000 the organization re-defined its mission and objectives in order to be relevant to its current aspirations. These are identified in its Constitution and Bye-Laws as stated hereunder: The Mission of the ACCP is “to be the principal organization for promoting and facilitating: • Collaboration and co-operation in the development and implementation of policing strategies, systems and procedures; • The professional and technical skills development of police officers; and • Proactive measures to prevent crime and improve police community relations”. The objectives of the organization are to: a) develop and maintain a professional organization committed to the improvement of policing in the region; b) promote, foster and encourage high professional and ethical standards in pursuit of policing objectives; c) support and advance the just and reasonable interests and aspirations of its members; d) influence the development of laws, procedures and practices that will advance the effectiveness of policing in the Region; e) negotiate and secure funding from individuals and organizations supportive of the goals of the Association.

f) Engage in formal relations with any organization, institution or state agency for the welfare and benefit of the Association and/or its members; g) Take an active interest in the promotion of the development of young people regionally and internationally; h) Arrange conferences, workshops and seminars for the purpose of sharing information and experiences of benefit to law enforcement; and i) Pursue all necessary steps to ensure that the Association is adequately funded in order to discharge its obligation and to ensure that the funds are effectively managed and properly accounted for. The ACCP has also adopted the under-mentioned core values which embodies its ideals and philosophy: • Commitment to Quality Service – creating an ethos of quality service delivery to all clients. • Collaboration and Co-operation – acknowledging the benefits of utilizing greater team-work and co-operation for more efficient and effective law enforcement. • Professional and Ethical Standards – striving for efficiency and effectiveness while maintaining a keen sense of fairness and integrity • Community Partnership – continually seeking the support and consent of the community for policing activities. • Respect for Human Rights – engendering protection for the fundamental rights of every individual regardless of age, sex ethnicity, religious belief or social status. • Gender and Cultural Sensitivity – recognizing and respecting gender and cultural differences and the sensibilities associated with such differences. During the relatively short period of its existence the ACCP has made significant strides in its development and has been able to establish itself as a focal point for developing and co-ordinating regional law enforcement and related activities in civil society.

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ACCP Membership Profiles ANGUILLA - RUDOLPH PROCTOR Enlisted in the Royal Anguilla Police Force in June 1983. He was appointed to the post of Commissioner of Police on 10th May 2010. The holder of a diploma in Strategic Management, he has attended numerous training courses in the Caribbean, Canada, United Kingdom and the United States.

BELIZE - ALLEN WHYLIE Enlisted in The Belize Police Force on 16th November 1986. Serving in numerous districts and the Police headquarters, he was later seconded to the Ministry of National Security and the Ministry of Defence. On 9th January 2013 he was promoted to acting Commissioner of Police.

ANTIGUA & BARBUDA - VERE BROWNE Enlisted in the Royal Police of Antigua and Barbuda on the 17th of July, 1975, resigned 5 years later. He enlisted into the Royal Virgin Island Police Force on 5th March, 1980. Served in the Criminal Investigations and the Prosecution Departments for several years, tenure ended in April 2010. He was Re-enlisted and appointed as Commissioner of Police on 1st September, 2010.

BERMUDA - MICHAEL A. DESILVA Enlisted in the Bermuda Police Service in 1985. He served in various departments including marine unit, training, narcotics, combined force, interdiction, community safety where he developed the community beat unit and the schools resource unit. He was elevated to Commissioner of Police on December 16th 2009.

ARUBA - ADOLFO E. RICHARDSON Enlisted in the Aruba Police Force in 1989. Previous responsibilities include legal advisor to the Commissioner and also chief of staff. He also served as head of the Criminal Investigation Department. In 2008 he was promoted to the post of Deputy Commissioner and appointed Commissioner of Police in 2010. He is the holder of a degree in law.

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLAND - DAVID MORRIS Enlisted in the Metropolitan Police in 1976 where he remained until 1984. He was transferred to the South Wales Police and worked as a constable and sergeant and later promoted to chief Inspector. He served in various capacities, such as Divisional Commander, Head of Corporate Development, crime and operations. He was elevated to Commissioner (Ag) in April 2012.

BAHAMAS - ELLISON GREENSLADE Experience: Enlisted in the Royal Bahamas Police Force in 1979 and was appointed Commissioner of Police on the 4th January 2010. He is the Holder of a Masters Degree in Business Administration from the University of Miami, and a post graduate certificate in Criminal Justice from the University of Leicester. He is also a recipient of the Queen’s Police Medal (QPM).

CAYMAN ISLANDS - DAVID BAINES Joined Lancashire Constabulary in 1976, rising to the rank of Chief Inspector before moving through promotion to Greater Manchester Police. During his tenure with GMP, he served in various post including; Head of Corporate Performance; Divisional Commander for Oldham, Divisional Commander for Salford. On June 1, 2009 he appointed to the post of Commissioner of Police.

BARBADOS - DARWIN DOTTIN Enlisted in the Royal Barbados Police Force in October 1971. Previous responsibilities include Head of Bridgetown Division, Assistant Commissioner with responsibility for Crime and Commandant of the Regional Police Training Centre. He was appointed Commissioner of Police September 2003. An Attorney-at-Law having graduated from the U.W.I. in 1990; holder of a Diploma in Applied Criminology and Police Studies from the University of Cambridge.

COMMONWEALTHOFDOMINICA-DANIELCARBON Enlisted in the Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force on 16 January 1985 and was appointed Commissioner of Police on 1st January 2013. Commissioner Carbon worked in various department including Traffic, Special Branch, Southern Division and the Criminal Investigation (CID).

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ACCP Membership Profiles contd GRENADA - WILLAN THOMPSON Enlisted in the Royal Grenada Police Force in September 1985. He served in various capacities before being appointed acting Commissioner on 1st September 2011. The holder of a Bachelors of Law (Honours) Degree from Wolverhamton University, a Bachelor of Science Degree in Management Studies.

ST LUCIA - VERNON FRANCOIS Enlisted in the Royal St Lucia Force on January 4, 1983. He served in various departments which included Criminal Investigation, Complaints Unit, Police Prosecutions Unit and was the coordinator of the Police Reform Programme. He was appointed Commissioner (Ag) on 10th May 2010. He holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Management Studies.

GUYANA - LEROY BRUMELL Enlisted in the Guyana Police Force in November 1977. He served in various departments including finance, narcotics, administration/ operations and commanded numerous divisions. He was appointed acting Commissioner in April 2012. He has attended training courses regionally and internationally.

ST MAARTEN - PETER DE WITTE Enlisted in the Netherlands Police Force in 1978. Served as Head of the Traffic Department for the Rotterdam region, Commander of Netherlands Antillies and Aruba in 2001, appointed Deputy Director of Coast Guard in 2004 and appointed Commissioner of Police of Aruba on December 1st, 2006. He was appointed as Commissioner of Police for St Maarten on 1st June 2010.

JAMAICA - OWEN ELLINGTON Enlisted in the Jamaica Constabulary Force on July 27th 1980. Served in various capacities most notable Chairman of Local (Jamaica) Security for Cricket World Cup 2007 and also its representative o the Caribbean Operational Planning and Coordinating staff for regional operations for the event. He was named acting commissioner in November, 2009 and appointed Commissioner in April 2010.

ST VINCENT & GRENADINES - KEITH MILLER Enlisted in Royal St. Vincent and Grenadines Police Force in 1975. Appointed Commissioner of Police on October 1st, 2005. He holds a Bachelors of Law Degree (Hons) from the University of Wolverhampton, England. Attended numerous professional training courses in the United Kingdom, USA and the Caribbean.

MONTERRAT - STEVE FOSTER Enlisted in the Royal Montserrat Police Force in September 1984. Served as Deputy Commissioner of Police from 2006 until July 2007 when he was appointed Commissioner of Police. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Management Studies and a Certificate in Public Administration. Professional training includes International Command Program, Strategic Management and Planning, Strategic Human Resource Management & Planning.

SURINAME - HUMPHREY TJIN LIEP SHIE Enlisted in the Suriname Police Force in 1981. He acted as Commissioner of Police from July 2011 until November 2012 when he was appointed Commissioner of Police. He worked in various departments including Narcotics Unit, Judicial Department, and Surveillance unit. He was also director of the Programme Implementation Unit of the Ministry of Justice.

ST. KITTS & NEVIS - CELVIN G.WALWYN Enlisted in the La Porte, Texas Police Department in 1985 until 2003 when he joined the Orange County Sheriff’s Department. In 2011 he was appointed Commissioner of Police for St Kitts/Nevis. During his tenure in Texas and Florida, he served in various capacities working as an under-cover and anti-narcotics agent, sexual offender surveillance agent. He is a licensed Police training instructor and he served in Walt Disney World Tourism Police Unit.

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO - STEPHEN WILLIAMS Enlisted in the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service on 17th April 1979. He worked in the departments of Guard and Emergency Branch, Court and Process Branch, Eastern Division and the Executive Secretariat. He also served on several Cabinet appointed committees including multinational security task force for the Commonwealth Heads of Government Conference in 2009. He was appointed acting Commissioner of Police on August 7th 2012.

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F

ACCP Membership Profiles contd

TURKS & CAICOS ISLAND - COLIN FARQUHAR Enlisted in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on 13th June, 1980. He was appointed Commissioner of Police for the Turks and Caicos Islands on March 11th 2011. Commissioner Farquar served in various provinces in his native Canada and was assigned in numerous areas including Major crime, Special Emergency Response, Immigration and Air Marshall team.

US VIRGIN ISLAND - RODNEY F. QUERRARD Sr. Enlisted in the United States Virgin Islands Police Department in 1987. He worked in a number of areas including patrol, “plain clothes assignment” and was seconded to the DEA/HIDTA as a task force officer. In 2007, he was promoted to chief of Police for St Thomas and St John and was elevated to the post of Acting Commissioner of Police for the Virgin Islands on January 22, 2013.

CURACAO - Commissioner Marlon Wernet / FRENCH ANTILLES - Commissioner Philippe Touyet

Rest in Peace

Former Commissioner Bernard K. Bonamy BAHAMAS

Former Commissioner Henry Greene GUYANA

Former Commissioner Laurie Lewis GUYANA

The President, executive, members and staff of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) would like to express sincere condolences to the families, friends and Forces of our former colleagues: The late former Commissioner Mr. Bernard K. Bonamy – Bahamas The late former Commissioner Mr. Laurie Lewis - Guyana The Late former Commissioner Mr. Henry Greene - Guyana

May their souls rest in Peace 9


Achievements Officer’s Achievement Dr. Chaswell A. Hanna is a Police Inspector in the Royal Bahamas Police Force having enlisted in August of 2002. After his initial police training, he won the coveted Baton of Honor for the best overall recruit. Prior to enlisting in the Force, he received an Associate of Arts Degree in Law & Criminal Justice from the College of The Bahamas in 1997, a Bachelor of Science Degree in Criminal Justice & Military Science from Northern Michigan University in 1999, and a Master’s Degree in Criminal Justice & Law Enforcement from the University of South Carolina in 2002. Inspector Hanna’s police attachments include the

Commercial Crime Squad; Armed Robbery Squad; Homicide Squad; Officer-in-Charge of Research & Planning, the Strategic Policy & Planning Branch; and the Northeastern Division. Inspector Hanna also serves as an Adjunct Lecturer at the College of The Bahamas, lecturing in Criminal Justice, Criminology, and Sociology. He has authored several books including “Homicide in The Bahamas, 1991-2003: A Descriptive Research Study”; “The Story of the Royal Bahamas Police Force”; and “Reducing Murders in The Bahamas”. In August of 2011, Inspector Hanna earned a Doctor of Education degree at Nova Southeastern University. Majoring in Organizational Leadership with a minor in Conflict Resolution, he completed the program with a 4.0 GPA. The ACCP congratulates Dr. Hanna!

ACCP/Motorola Scholarship Winners In 2007 Motorola in conjunction with the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police ( ACCP) established a scholarship for children of police officers and police support staff. The programme provides funding for students who are interested in pursuing or who are pursuing a university/college education. The scholar-

Renaldo Sealey

Jameka Yearwood

BARBADOS

BARBADOS

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ships are tenable through enrolment or attendance at certified colleges or university within the Caribbean or institutions associated with ACCP member countries i.e. United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.

The ACCP and Motorola salute the scholarship winners for 2012!

Sabrina Holder

BARBADOS

Michelle Ann Segura

BELIZE


Achievements ACCP/Motorola Scholarship Winners

Calbert Francis Jr

JAMAICA

Caprisha Richards

US VIRGIN ISLAND

Chadrick Desir

ST. LUCIA

Khadijah Heyliger

US VIRGIN ISLAND

Kalifa Damani

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

Rahkeem George

US VIRGIN ISLAND

Congratulations 11


Understanding and Responding to the

Caribbean’s Gang Violence Background

The recent surge in crime and violence in the Caribbean has impacted countries in various ways. According to a 2007 study by the World Bank and United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNDOC), some countries have seen an increase in various categories of violent crimes especially murders, kidnappings, sex crimes, assaults, robberies and various types of theft/ larceny. The rise in murders in many countries has engaged in the attention of all law enforcement stakeholders in the region and the wider international community. Studies across the region have shown gang violence accounts for more than 50% of the annual number of reported murders in some countries-especially those with the highest murder rates. This article seeks to answer some relevant questions and assist in understanding the nature and scope of the problem across the region as well as provide suggestions for response.

Defining the Gang Problem

There is no internationally accepted definition of a criminal gang. However one of the most cited definitions comes from Malcolm Klein. According to Klein (1971) a gang is “any identifiable group of youngsters who are generally perceived as a distinct aggregation by others in their neighbourhood; recognize themselves

as a denotable group (almost invariably with a group name); and have been involved in a sufficient number of delinquent incidents to call forth a consistent negative response from neighbourhood residents and/or law enforcement agencies”. Most Caribbean countries have no legal definition of gangs. Trinidad and Tobago and St Kitts and Nevis are the only countries with Anti-Gang Legislation both passed in 2011. According to Section 5 (1) (b) of the Anti-Gang Act No 10 of 2011 and

Section 3 (2) (b) of the Gang (Prohibition and Prevention of Crimes) Act 2011 “Gang” means a

combination of two or more persons, whether formally or informally organized which, through its membership or through an agent, engages in a gang-related activity. Additionally, Sections 5 (1) (b) and Section 3 (2) (c) of the said laws define “gang-related activity” is defined as “any criminal activity, enterprise, pursuit or undertaking in relation to any of the offences listed in the Schedule (First Schedule T&T) to this Act acquiesced in, or consented or agreed to, or directed, ordered, authorized, or requested or ratified by any gang member, including a gang leader”. The new legislation also provides harsh penalties

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for offences such “preventing someone from leaving a gang”, “gang leadership”, “recruiting”, “harboring” and “impersonating a gang member”. Despite the lack of a legal definition of the gangs, most countries have a working definition which is used to ascribe the gang label to various types of criminal activities. Some definitions are broad encompassing a range of characteristics e.g. the one used by the Jamaica Constabulary Force, while others narrow as exists in the Belize Police Department.

Nature and Scope of the Gang Problem

Recent studies by UNDOC, World Bank and UNDP show there is a strong nexus between gang activities and the recent increases in violent crime in the Caribbean-especially murders. Studies by Katz in Trinidad and Tobago, Leslie in Jamaica and Hill across the region show that gang violence in the number one cause of murder in the countries with the highest murder rate. There is very little rigorous data on number of gangs and gang members. Police statistics estimate as little as 10 gangs in some countries and as many as 260 gangs with gang membership ranging from 450 to 10,000 members, while studies by Katz et al cites 95 gangs with 1269 members in one country. In light of the various definitions of gang and gang membership and the lack of rigorous research on the subject, there is great uncertainty as to the magnitude of the problem in regard. Moreover,a study by Maguire, King, Johnson and Katz (2008) found inconsistent methodology for classifying gang-related murders

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in one country which resulted in a lower number of murders attributed to gang activity. This underscores the need for harmonization, not only across the region, but also within countries.

Understanding the Problem

Apart from the number of murders that have been classified as gang-related and its estimated impact on crime in Jamaica, what do we know and understand about criminal gang activity in the region?

What is the profile of gang member across the region? Gang members across the region are generally male. However, studies have shown that 40% of youth gang members in one country are female and some female gang members have held leadership positions and displayed similar violent tendencies as their male counterparts.

factors for joining gangs?

What are the risk

While there is no definitive research which identifies the risk factors for joining gangs across the region, Katz and Choate (2010) identify 4 in Trinidad and Tobago. These include: community mobility, the presence of guns in the community, exposure to antisocial behavior and intention to drug use.

What is the extent of the gang problem?

Research has shown that gang violence in a significant factor in murders in some countries and a growing phenomenon in other countries. However, there is no definitive data on the specific extent of the impact on crime in general across the region-though some estimates are as high as 50% and 80% in one country.

Does the problem require a social response or


law enforcement/suppressive response?

Response to gang violence varies across the region. For example, one study found that while gang violence is an emerging trend in some countries and requires a soft social response whereas in other countries the response may be limited to law enforcement suppressive type and in some cases it may require a combination of both approaches. In sum, the type of response depends on that nature and magnitude of the gang problem.

Is criminal gang activity and organized crime the same?

While some writers confuse the two, they are not the same. Gangs usually are durable, confined to a space (mall, parks etc). Organized crime involves an enterprise activity, violence (actual or threatened) and corruption as typical means and exploitable relationships with the upper-world.

Are there similarities between gangs in the Caribbean and North and South American gangs?

Some gangs have similar names as other North and South American gangs. For example there are Crips, Bloods, Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and 18th Street gangs in some Caribbean countries. However, apart from their propensity to commit murder; very little comparative date is available. Two (2) cross national studies by Katz et al (2010, 2011) between Caribbean and US gangs found gangs in one Caribbean country to be less organized with a lower number of meetings and less use of signs, symbols and colors, but more violent than US gangs. The paucity of the research on gangs in the Caribbean and-developing world in general- precludes detailed responses to many of these questions across the region. However, a growing body of gang research in the Caribbean provides some insight into the phenomenon in a few countries and underscores the need for further research on the subject.

How has the Caribbean Responded?

Caribbean countries have been grappling with the recent phenomenon and responses have been varied. Two countries have passed anti-gang legislation, some have treated the surge in gang violence as just

another increase in violent crime whereas others have formed specialized anti-gang units and hired gang experts, while regional and multilateral institutions have facilitated gang projects. a) Anti-Gang Legislation: T& T and St Kitts and Nevis: To date only Trinidad and Tobago and St. Kitts and Nevis have passed Anti-Gang Legislation which provides a new definition of gang and criminalizes all forms of gang activity including gang membership. This creates a dichotomy between these two jurisdictions and their Caribbean neighbors as membership per se in criminal gangs is a crime only in St. Kitts and Nevis and Trinidad and Tobago. However, stakeholders in the justice system in Trinidad and Tobago and St. Kitts and Nevis are yet to secure a conviction under the legislation despite arrests in both jurisdictions; b) Gang Units: Anti-Gang units have been created in the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service, Jamaica Constabulary Force and Belize Police Departments. However, throughout the Caribbean there are officers responsible for monitoring investigating and prosecuting gang who require basic training and knowledge of criminal gang activities such as Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT). c) Gang Experts and Technical Assistance: Gang experts have been contracted in some countries and the Regional Security Services (RSS), CARICOM Secretariat, European Union (EU) and the Organization of American States (OAS) have also facilitated gang projects in the region.

Challenges to Effective Response a) Denial: Some countries deny the presence of criminal gang activity and others are unwilling to share data with CARICOM; b) Definitional and data collection methods: The various definitions of gangs and methodologies

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for classifying gang-related murders distort the data and give a false representation of the situation; c) Lack of Training: Some police officers lack basic training on criminal gang activity, prevention and reduction strategies; and d) Lack of research on the subject: Not much is documented about criminal gangs in the Caribbean and there is little research on the subject.

Suggestions for Response As the frontline in the fight against gang activities, it is imperative that Caribbean police forces understand the nature of the problem. A murder investigation is different from a rape, robbery or an assault and battery investigation. Put another way, a doctor does not diagnose a cold in the same fashion as cancer or a heart problem. Against that background, the ACCP can consider the following: a) Gang Education: Education of law enforcement stakeholders and members of the public which can assist in preventing gang membership and in generating response strategies. b) Training: Professional training would assist police officers in understanding the nature of criminal gang activity and providing effective response techniques thereby resulting in more effective responses. c) Collaboration with Academia: Interaction between the ACCP and the academic community is a win-win situation as the ACCP can assist in driving research as well as learn new developments in cutting edge responses for more effective

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solutions. Moreover, as the St Augustine campus of UWI moves to establish a Bachelor’s Degree in Criminology, the ACCP’s input and support in these initiatives would be invaluable. d) Seek Government Intervention: Government intervention for much needed resources in responding to the new phenomenon. e) Collaboration with Regional and International institutions: Regional and international organizations offer training courses and technical assistance on gang issues which Caribbean police forces might not be aware of. Partnering with these organizations can increase participation in and contribution to these initiatives. f) Contribution to Gang Research: The ACCP can contribute to research in 2 ways. First, it can assist in driving research on gang violence through its collaboration with the academic community in the region and further afield. And second, by contributing papers and presentations at it their annual meetings and at academic conferences in the region such as recent Caribbean gang conferences that were held in Trinidad and Washington D.C.

Conclusion Gang violence presents a relatively new challenge to Caribbean countries. For the ACCP, responding to this phenomenon is not an option. However, the wrong response can further exacerbate the situation. It is imperative, therefore, that Caribbean police officers are trained in basic G.R.E.A.T. techniques, collaborate with various stakeholders and adopt a holistic approach in their response to ensure positive results.


References Hill, Sheridon (forthcoming) The Rise of Gang Violence in the Caribbean. In Gangs in the Caribbean. Seepersad, Randy and Bissessar, Ann Marie (Eds.). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the Latin American and Caribbean Section of the World Bank Report 38720. Crime Violence and Development: Trends Costs and Policy Option in the Caribbean. Washington D.C.

Katz, Charles M, and Fox David (2010) Risk and Protective Factors in Gang Involved Youth in Trinidad and Tobago. Rev Panam Salud Publica27(3) :187-202 Katz , Charles M, Maguire, Edward and Choate (2011) A Cross National comparison of Gangs in the United States and Trinidad and Tobago. International Criminal Justice Review.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2011 Global Homicide Report Wallace, Wendell. (In Press) Girls and Gangs In Gangs in the Caribbean Seepersad, Randy. and Bissessar Ann Marie (Eds.) Cambridge Scholars Publishing. by Sheridon Hill

Katz, Charles M. Andrew Fox (Forthcoming) “A cross-national comparison of differences in gang membership, delinquency, and victimization among school youth from Trinidad and Tobago and the United States.” In Gangs in the Caribbean: Their rise and impact on the patterns of crime, state and politics, edited by Anthony Harriott and Charles M. Katz. University of the West Indies Press: Kingston. Klein, Malcolm (1971) Street Gangs and Street Workers. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Leslie, Glaister (2010) Confronting the Don: The Political Economy of Gang Violence in Jamaica. An Occasional Paper on Small Arms Survey Maguire, Edward R., William R. King, Devon Johnson, Charles M. Katz. (2010) “Why homicide clearance rates decrease: Evidence from the Caribbean. Policing & Society, 20, 4: 373-400. United Nations Development Program. Caribbean Human Development Report 2012. Human Development and the Shift to Better Citizen Security

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A LOOK AT COMMUNITY

SOCIAL CAPITAL

& ITS IMPLICATION FOR EFFECTIVE POLICING IN THE CONTEXT OF COMMUNITY ORIENTATED POLICING.

The accomplishments of effective policing, in terms of the successful implementation of related policing strategies and tactics aimed at the reduction of crime and the fear of crime, depends largely on the active participation of local community members with the police. In this context, effective community orientated policing requires the police and members of community to come together to take collective decisions that are directed at solving identified local problems of crime and to reduce the fear of crime and disorder through collective actions It is a partnership that requires the existence of shared norms, mutual trust and active participation. Community orientated policing is therefore not just about the police implementing new programmes or getting out of their cars to walk the beats, but, and perhaps more importantly, it involves local community members taking the initiative to come forward to work with the police. Community oriented policing, as an institutional mechanism, can facilitate the development of shared norms of safety and security, and of trust and participation in communities. The evidence suggest that the accomplishment of the intent of the practice of community orientated policing in terms of its successful implementation, and consequently the controlling of crime, and the fear of crime and disorder, is determined largely by the local community level of social capital . In the practice of community orientated policing, and as advanced by researchers such as Kelling and Coles, 1996; and Goldstein, 1993, the police proactively act beyond crime fighting and law enforcement to rely on the citizenry, engage in tactics to target specific problems identified by the community, decentralise service delivery to the local community level in order to be more accessible, maintain constant contact

and cooperation with the citizenry, work with other public and private sector organisations, and continually evaluate strategies and community relations. None of these can work effectively without social capital existing within and among the citizenry, the police, and other public and private sector organisations. The Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) in 1993 adopted community policing as a “policy” for Caribbean countries. This policy as noted by Deosaram (2002), rested not only on its intrinsic merits, but also on two other related factors which he posited to be: 1. An admission that the traditional law enforcement approaches were not working well, and that, 2. Because of its widely expressed civic purpose and required community partnership, community policing carries great popular and political appeal For the ACCP in 1993, community policing was in essence the collaboration between the police and the community that seeks to identify and solve community problems. In this way the Association determined 1

In the sociology literature, social capital refers to relationships among individuals, networks of relationships, and people’s ability to mobilise a wide range of personal social contacts (Newton, 1997) to accomplish a particular objective.

that the police were no longer the sole guardians of law and order; in that, all members of the community have to become active in the efforts to improve safety and the quality of life in their respective communities. Within the context of an ACCP’s agreed definition, community policing represents a systematic approach to policing with the paradigm of instilling

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and fostering a sense of community within a geographical neighbourhood to improve the quality of life of its members. As indicated by Jones and Newburn (2002), it is understood that the achieving of community policing is enabled through the decentralisation of its service delivery, and the implementation of a synthesis of three key components given as:

of community safety and security raises questions, about the nature of such arenas or forums, i.e., how they should best be set up, how the different parties are represented in them, what authority the participants have to ensure that forum decisions are implemented as agreed, how the decision-makers are held to account

(1) The redistribution of traditional police resources; (2) The interaction of police and community members to reduce crime and the fear of crime through indigenous proactive programs; and (3) A concerted effort to tackle the causes of crime problems rather than to put band-aids on the symptoms. From the above stated definitions, it would seem clear that the key feature of community orientated policing is “effective interaction between the police and local communities”. As indicated earlier, the other two features are secondary, in that the purpose of the decentralisation is to achieve more effective interaction, and the interaction itself includes forms of joint problem solving. What is less clear however is the nature of the interaction that is envisaged, and how the police organisation is supposed to instil and foster this sense of community? An examination of what the concept of co-production of community safety and security (a critical pillow pillar of effective community orientated policing) means, suggests it is something more than simply consultations, where the police canvass the views and opinions of local communities’ members, but then decide for itself the best course of action to take. Rather, it implies that policing decisions should be taken jointly, in an arena or forum of mutual trust where the police and local communities’ members are represented. Within many local communities in Caribbean countries however, the concept of co-production

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for their decisions, and what happens in the event of a failure to reach agreement on policing priorities, strategy or tactics. Many of the communities that the police must encounter are lacking in social capital; as for varying reasons, many of these local communities and/ or urban neighbourhoods have become socially disorganised, resulting in their inability to generate valuable social and human capital and to contribute, or indeed wanting to contribute meaningfully to their community’s safety and security activities and discussions. If as Lappe and Dubois (1997) point out, social capital is the ability to invent solutions through networks for problems that are typically out of reach to the individual, it is expected that if a community possesses a high-level of social capital, citizens within such communities are more likely to form cooperative relations with the police (Correia, 2000; Jackson, 2001; Pino, 2001. However, as Berry et al. (1991) and Portney and Berry (1997) point out, many minority communities and inner cities are both very active in 2

Social capital connects the face-to-face relationships and common


experiences of people with structural social processes involving class, power, and domination (Schulman and Anderson, 1999).

civic engagement and are concerned about their communities’ safety and security issue. Nonetheless, as Skogan (1990) indicates, the communities the police are more likely to form alliances with, will often share the same “outlook” as the police and can assist the police in community problem solving. Like employees in other work organisations, police employees rely on work relationships for information, access to opportunities, and support to increase the likelihood of productivity. Aspects of relationships believed to contribute to social capital include the level of trust, the frequency of cooperative exchanges, the level of group cohesion, and the amount of social support. Police officers’ work relationships are considered to be a resource (if social capital is high) or a barrier (if social capital is low or not present) affecting the likelihood that officers will perform community policing. It is therefore reasonable to assert that the police perceptions of community social capital will likely influence its members’ sense of responsibility towards the community. Consequently, it could be argued that the lower the police perception of community social capital, the more likely an officer will be to indicate a higher sense of responsibility; and in turn, the higher the police sense of responsibility, the more likely the police will rely on proactive policing tactics in order to maintain control over and within such communities’ area. The literature tells us that an officer’s sense of responsibility is a reflection of his or her attempt to maintain the moral code of policing and develop a respectable reputation among fellow colleagues. Crank

(1998) defines this as “dominion”, which suggests that the officer not only has a professional obligation to uphold the law, but as a professional the officer feels a professional obligation to prevent crime (especially serious crime) from occurring on his or her watch. This implies that officers “don’t simply patrol areas, they seek also to control them, and further, that they invest their energies and reputations in them” making them professionally responsible for the welfare, morale, and future of such geographical area. According to Crank (1998), if police perceive the community as less manageable due to the social structural environment, they feel it is their duty to become the moral agent of the community and assume dominion over such a geographical territory. Taken in context, this would suggest that the police feel it is not only their professional responsibility, but also that it is a moral obligation to ensure that crime does not happen on their watch (Crank, 1998; Herbert, 1998; Hickman et al., 2001). By examining police perceptions of social capital and their sense of responsibility, it may be possible to not only understand why aspects of community orientated policing are, or are not successful, but more importantly it may be possible to understand police behaviour in environments that by their structural and demographic make-up, complicate the task of effective policing. Crank (1998), in his examination of police culture, concurs with this line of reasoning and has suggested that the examination of police sense of responsibility towards the community may be important

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in understanding police behaviour. This assertion suggests that police sense of responsibility may serve as an influential variable in explaining why police may demonstrate higher levels of proactive policing in communities with low social capital in comparison to those with high social capital. Walker (1998) also suggested that police sense of responsibility toward the community is important for understanding how police function in areas under their command. He suggest that in communities where crime is commonplace, police can become overwhelmed and may therefore focus on more serious crimes that pose a greater threat to police and citizen safety and ignore the lower level crimes that do not. Given 3

The term dominion captures the divine responsibility over secular human activity that characterizes the special relationship cops have with a piece of earthly terrain (Crank 1998)

these arguments, there is good reason to examine the relationship between police perception of their community’s social capital and their sense of responsibility toward the provision of community safety and security in order to assess the impact of the police sense of responsibility, and their propensity to engage in proactive policing. In our attempt to better understand the nature of community and policing and their interrelatedness, including social capital and its implications for the co-production of community safety and security as a feature of community policing, the following hypotheses are worthy of further exploration and analysis. 1. Police who indicate a more negative perception of social capital are more likely to indicate a higher sense of responsibility towards the community. 2. Police who express a more negative perception of community social capital are more likely to

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indicate higher levels of proactive behaviour. 3. Social capital will be indirectly related to proactive policing through police sense of responsibility. Moreover, the association between social capital and proactive policing will be accounted for, or mediated by, the individual officer’s sense of responsibility. Although various efforts made by police and or citizens to enhance social control in the community are dependent in part on their levels of social capital, it is also that there is the need to examine and to make sense of the levels of social capital among police officers. If we do not know the distribution of social capital among police officers, and the barriers preventing and resources promoting its utilisation, then our methods of encouraging strong police-community partnerships will remain limited. Additionally, as argued by Miller, 1998; Pate and Shtull, 1994; Sparrow et al., 1990, community policing activities may be especially dependent on police social capital, as there is evidence to suggest that this type of policing is substantially marginalised within the traditional police subculture. Investigating the relationship between social capital and the likelihood that officers will engage in community policing oriented activities can provide us with both a broader and deeper understanding of police behaviour during the current community orientated policing era. by Dormah B. Harrison Assistant Commissioner of Police Jamaica Constabulary Force dormah.harrison@jcf.gov.jm Note: For list of reference please contact dormah.harrison@jcf.gov.jm


HUMAN TRAFFICKING ONLINE COURSE NOW AVAILABLE A new online training course, believed to be the first of its kind has been launched in the UK to raise awareness of human trafficking and equip professionals and the public with the skills to identify and report it. Human Trafficking Uncovered is aimed at professionals in the public, private and voluntary sectors, who come into contact with perpetrators and victims. It is also available to members of the public. The course, Human Trafficking Uncovered has been launched ahead of a new European Union Directive that the UK has signed up to which comes into effect in April 2013. The Directive states that officials likely to come into contact with victims or potential victims of trafficking in human beings should be adequately trained to identify and deal with such victims. Human Trafficking Uncovered has been created by The Sheffield College in South Yorkshire, England, which has an award-winning reputation for delivering online courses nationally and internationally, with Nick Kinsella, a former senior police officer and

anti-trafficking expert. Human Trafficking Uncovered is believed to be the first course of its kind. Charities supporting the project include Crimestoppers and Love 146. Nick Kinsella founded and led the UK Human Trafficking entre from 2006 to 2010 when it was based in Sheffield, and is currently on the board of the United Nations Global Trust Fund for Victims of Human Trafficking. He has also been involved in international prevention campaigns and training, and helped bring the UK’s first ever successful conviction on human trafficking at Sheffield Crown Court in 2005. Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings, and a modern day form of slavery. It includes forced labour, domestic slavery and coercion into the sex industry. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall into the hands of traffickers through abduction, coercion or force, fraud, deception or abuse of power. The online awareness course takes between three to ten hours to complete and costs GBP 52 per

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individual user. The course defines what human trafficking is and the various forms it takes, the extent of the crime and the methods used by criminals to control their victims, how to respond to it, and how European and UK authorities are dealing with it. It also links to a comprehensive range of web resources for further study. A certificate is issued on completion of the course.

The Caribbean Region

Governments have been urged by the United Nations and other bodies to take effective action to prevent and counter human trafficking and support victims. But many countries require assistance to introduce the necessary measures to effectively tackle this pernicious form of criminality. The Caribbean Member States are all affected by trafficking. The US Department of State Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report published in June 2012 indicates that the problem of human trafficking in the region requires serious attention. The TIP Report grades countries in accordance with their compliance with the US Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s (TVPA) minimum standards. Tier 1 - Countries whose governments fully comply with the TVPA minimum standards. Tier 2 - Countries which do not fully comply with the TVPA minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. Tier 2 Watch List – Countries which do not fully comply with the TVPA minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards AND a) The absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or significantly increasing; b) There is failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year; or c) The determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional steps over the next year. Tier 3 – Countries whose governments do not fully com-

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ply with minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so. All the countries in the Caribbean region are categorized in either Tier 2 or Tier 2 Watch List and are in need of support to increase capacity to effectively address human trafficking. The Crime Stoppers Response in the Caribbean Region With its partners, and once funding is obtained, Crime Stoppers International is proposing to implement a regional strategy for the Caribbean to deliver a range of measures which will not only assist the Caribbean/Latin America National Programmes (Antigua, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, El Salvador, Jamaica, St. Kitts & Nevis, Trinidad & Tobago, and Turks and Caicos) in the prevention and countering of human trafficking, but will also contribute to raising overall standards which should lead to improvements in tier ratings of future annual US TIP Reports. The focus will be on activities based on international best practice embracing the 4 ‘P’ approach of prevention, protection, prosecution and partnership. Due to the number of countries involved a phased approach will be taken. An evaluation element will be built into the project to ensure relevance, impact, cost-effectiveness, lessons learned, identification of best practice and sustainability. Main activities of the Regional intervention will include: • Assisting in the development of preventative measures including public awareness campaigns, particularly to vulnerable communities: to include activities designed to meet specific local needs;

• Assessing training needs; • Organization, development and delivery of training seminars for public sector officials including the judiciary, law enforcement Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, Youth and Culture and Ministry of Agriculture and other front line professionals. • Delivering specialized training to law enforcement officers to enhance their capacities to col-


lect information and gather intelligence; judiciary, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, public health officers, education officers and teachers and other government officials and front line professionals.

Providing advice for specific action and the development of achievable, realistic plans and assisting in their implementation towards long term, sustainable, capacity building.

Training of trainers – Organization and delivery of training to develop a cadre of professional trainers so that they can effectively deliver training within each country and through the region. This has the benefits of building training capacity, developing self-reliance and ensuring sustainability. It also offers the potential for these ‘in-house’ trainers to deliver professional training to far more individuals than could be achieved by ‘one-off ’ courses by international trainers;

For further information, please contact the Crime Stoppers Secretariat at 246-435-5917.

A SPIRIT OF COOPERATION With miles of beautiful beaches, interesting historical landmarks, and picture-perfect weather all year round, the Caribbean is the world’s number one cruise destination, attracting millions of satisfied vacationers each year. For more than 25 years the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police has played a critical role in providing a safe and secure environment for both vacationers and residents alike, while fostering a spirit of cooperation between law enforcement and the local community.

Strengthening existing anti-trafficking Units and assisting in the establishment of specialist Units;

Measures to protect and witnesses;

Building Partnerships - Networking of national and local government with law enforcement and civil society within the nations and Caribbean region to support the fight against human trafficking;

Carnival Cruise Lines is a proud member and supporter of the ACCP and we applaud the organization’s efforts in creating a welcoming atmosphere for our valued guests.

assist victims /

© 2012 Carnival Cruise Lines

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St. Vincent and the Grenadines Police Anti-Trafficking of Persons Unit Making Great Strides Three years after the United States State Department’s naming of St.Vincent and the Grenadines on the Tier 2 watch list for human trafficking, the Eastern Caribbean country, mainly through the Royal St.Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force is making great strides to be placed on the Tier 1list of countries whose governments fully comply with the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 minimum standards. The Government of St.Vincent and the Grenadines in fulfillment of recommendations made by the United States and in an effort to improve the state’s position on the tier placements of the Trafficking in Persons Report, enacted the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act. This act was passed on September 29, 2011, in the House of Assembly. It also established the Anti-Human Trafficking of Persons Unit (ATIPU) on March 07, 2012; created a crisis centre for battered women; and have collaborated with the Organization of American States (OAS) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in conducting training workshops on Trafficking in Persons with governmental and non-governmental organizations. These efforts resulted in St.Vincent and the Grenadines being removed from the United States Tier 2 Watch List of the Trafficking in Persons June 2012 Report, and was placed on the Tier 2 country list, where countries are making significant efforts to address the problem of human trafficking. Since coming on stream, the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit of the Royal St.Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force, the primary body charged with the responsibility, among other things, to enforce the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act, has been leading the drive to sensitize Vincentians about human trafficking and issues related to domestic violence. The Unit is mandated to (a) investigate possible cases of trafficking in persons (b) prosecute

suspected traffickers (c) train law enforcement agents in Trafficking in Persons (d) inform the general public, through awareness campaigns, about trafficking in Persons and (e) submit quarterly reports to the Minister of National Security on all pertinent matters concerning trafficking in Persons. Head of the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit, Assistant Superintendent of Police, Ruth Jacobs and her assistant, Sergeant Junior Simmons, have been visiting schools, health centres, churches, governmental and

non-governmental organizations throughout St.Vincent and the Grenadines, where they made presentations on human trafficking as well as child trafficking and child labour. At a session held with members of the Red Cross, the members were informed about the causes of human trafficking such as the demand for inexpensive labour, services and products, and inequalities such as lack of employment opportunities, lack of educational opportunities, social and political conflict, intolerance and discrimination, and the desire for “love”.

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The Anti-Human Trafficking of Persons Unit also conducted awareness programmes at the Grace Community Baptist Church, Chateaubelair Hospital, Rose Hall Health Centre, Troumaca Health centre, Spring Village Health Centre, Barrouallie Health Centre with members of the Police Force. “Our goal in St.Vincent and the Grenadines is to be placed on the Tier 1 list. We are hoping next year June, God’s willing, we will be placed on Tier 1,” said Simmons at one of the awareness sessions. On Tuesday, November 20, 2012, and Wednes-

day, November 21, 2012, a two-day stakeholders meeting was held with law enforcement agencies in St.Vincent and the Grenadines to formulate a national plan of action to combat human trafficking. Members of the hierarchy of the Royal St.Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force. “Our goal in St.Vincent and the Grenadines is to be placed on the Tier 1 list. We are hoping next year June, God’s willing, we will be placed on Tier 1,” said Simmons at one of the awareness sessions. On Tuesday, November 20, 2012, and Wednesday, November 21, 2012, a two-day stakeholders meeting was held with law enforcement agencies in St.Vincent and the Grenadines to formulate a national plan of action to combat human trafficking. Members of the hierarchy of the Royal St.Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force (RSVGPF),

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namely, Commissioner of Police Keith Miller, Deputy Commissioner of Police (Ag) Michael Charles, Assistant Commissioner of Police (Ag) Frankie Joseph, and representatives of the organization’s Anti-Human Trafficking Unit and Public Relations & Complaints Department, along with personnel of Gender Affairs, the Labour Department and the Ministry of Health, convened at the Central Police Station Conference Room, Kingstown, for this meeting. The meeting, facilitated by Chissey Mueller, Project Manager of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) Port of Spain, was also held to formulate a plan of action for 2013 and to establish a national working group on human trafficking to work in conjunction with the national task force on human trafficking. At the meeting, the decision was taken to incorporate human trafficking in the RSVGPF Police Training Manual. Speaking of the achievements made in sensitizing Vincentians about human trafficking, head of the Anti-Human Trafficking Unit, Assistant Superintendent of Police Ruth Jacobs, said her Unit had taken the message of human trafficking to 4, 129 students and 270 teachers on the Leeward section of the country as well as health centres. She stated that plans were already in place to also conduct an awareness programme at schools and health centres on the Windward side of St.Vincent as well as the Grenadines. Every country with the exemption of Haiti and Somalia, which have received special exemptions because of the major national disaster in Haiti and the ongoing conflict in Somalia, respectively, are on the human trafficking tier lists.


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How DNA Labs International’s Combined

International DNA Database (CIDD) works for Law Enforcement Agencies

Since DNA evidence was first utilized for forensic casework in the late 1980s, it has proven to be an invaluable investigative tool, providing a link between crime scenes, victims, and perpetrators. The United States recognized the importance of developing a system in which DNA profiles from crime labs all over the country could be compared; and created the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) in 1998. A DNA profile consists of a series of numbers which makes it an ideal tool for upload into a searchable database. Millions of profiles can be searched and compared by a computer in a short amount of time. Like CODIS, DNA Labs International (DLI), a private forensic DNA testing lab in Florida, maintains a large searchable database of DNA profiles. DLI’s Combined International DNA Database (CIDD) contains DNA profiles obtained from known individuals and items of evidence submitted for analysis. It is also the largest database in the Caribbean. DNA profiles from suspects, victims, arrestees, missing persons, lab personnel, and crime scene evidence samples are just some of the types of profiles making up the thousands of entries in CIDD from the United States and seven Caribbean nations. One of DNA Labs International’s Caribbean clients a major contributor of profiles from known individuals and profiles from forensic evidence – has entered profiles that have led to approximately 69 hits within the database over the last 6 years. A hit refers to anytime a profile is searched in the database and that profile matches or is similar to a profile previously entered

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into CIDD. There are three basic types of hits which can occur and assist in criminal investigations.

Unknown to Standard The first kind of CIDD hit that may be encountered is when a DNA profile obtained from a crime scene sample hits to a known standard in the database. The standard may have been collected from an arrestee, suspect in a previous case, or someone who voluntarily submitted a DNA sample during a previous investigation. This type of hit serves to produce a lead that the investigator can look into and if deemed significant, the investigator can submit a confirmation standard of the known individual to the laboratory for a formal comparison. This type of hit has the obvious benefit of potentially generating a suspect who may not have been considered previously.

Standard to Unknown The second kind of CIDD hit occurs when a DNA profile from a known individual is entered into the database and hits to an unknown profile from an evidentiary item in a previously submitted case. This illustrates the benefit of maintaining all DNA profiles of unknown origin in a single database indefinitely. A profile obtained from an item of evidence may not hit to anything when it is first entered into the database, but it will remain there and be automatically compared daily to every profile subsequently entered into the database for years to come.

Unknown to Unknown The third kind of hit commonly encountered in CIDD is one in which a DNA profile from an item of


evidence hits to another item of evidence from a different case. This alerts the investigator that two cases (sometimes more, when serial offenders are involved) may share a common perpetrator. If through subsequent investigations, a suspect develops in one of the cases, it could be used to develop a suspect in the other case connected by DNA evidence. There lies the potential to solve two or more crimes with one lead. The CIDD database also provides added benefits aside from investigative leads. Since all profiles of sufficient quality are automatically searched and entered into the database, it serves as a quality control tool for the lab. It ensures that there is no cross contamination between samples in different cases or from lab personnel. Another benefit of CIDD is that an investigator may request evidence for the case being submitted to be compared to an individual they already know to be in the database. If an individual in CIDD is deemed a suspect and a comparison is requested before the case is worked, a confirmation standard from the suspect is not required by DNA Labs International for comparison. CIDD also has the potential to help in missing persons investigations. For example, if an individual goes missing, a DNA profile may be obtained from a personal item of theirs, such as a toothbrush, which would be entered into the database. These are known as secondary standards. That profile would then remain in the database where it is always available for comparison to unidentified remains or crime scene evidence discovered later on - or to tie a person of interest to a case without that person being alerted to the agency suspicions too early in the case. With all the advantages that arise from having a searchable DNA database, the most appealing aspect for law enforcement is the opportunity to produce in-

vestigative leads and potential suspects. Throughout the last six years, over 12% of the previously mentioned agency’s cases worked at DNA Labs International contained profiles that produced hits in the database. The best way to improve the odds that an unknown profile will hit in CIDD is to provide as many known standards as possible for addition to the database. Bureau of Justice Statistics of prisoner recidivism rates in the United States reported that an estimated 67.5% of prisoners were arrested for a new crime within three years of being released. If recidivism rates in the Caribbean regions are comparable to those in the US; then the best way to catch repeat offenders is to build your agency’s DNA Database within CIDD. We created CIDD with the help of our clients because we knew that it would prove to be an invaluable tool in the fight against crime – and with the thousands of entries and number of hits to date – we are proud to say that it works. More recently, DLI introduced a secure, internet-based portal for our clients to access important information. This innovative portal will give our clients the capability to access their agency DNA database, case specific information, reports, invoices, status of a submitted case, and much more - all from their very own DLI portal. We will also be able to grant permissions for participating agencies to share information and link their individual DNA databases so they can gain expanded information from DNA Labs International’s CIDD. Clients will be able to authorize which agencies they would like to share information with and to what extent. This network will grant Caribbean law enforcement access to an established database that currently holds thousands of profiles from seven participating Caribbean island countries.

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In order to create a useful tool for our clients, we are consolidating client and case specific information into a secure, user-friendly website so that our clients have the ability to quickly access necessary information 24 hours a day. For example, our clients will be able to search a name to determine if an individual’s reference standard has been previously submitted and under which case number for easy reference. This will benefit any agency looking for methods to improve their efficiency. Utilizing their customizable portal, our clients will be able to receive and access reports. The user will have the ability to sort, filter, and search their reports in ways that will make their inquiries far less time consuming. One feature that is foreseeably one of the most

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popular will be the ability to check on the status of a particular case from the website without having to pick up the phone. Our clients will be able to see the progression of their case from the time we receive it to the time the report is issued, typically within 4 weeks. DNA Labs International is extremely excited about the technological advances that we are making and the new tools we will be able to provide for our clients. As a committed long-term partner of the ACCP and Caribbean, we continually improve our lab as newer and more advanced technologies are developed. by Mary L. Baltos, Forensic DNA Analyst – DNA Labs International Michelle F. Boyer, Technical Leader –DNA Labs International


Prime Minister Douglas commends the Coalition

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Security Centres International Ltd The power of License Plate Recognition Technology License plate recognition technology smoulders with potential as a viable crime fighting tool for Caribbean law enforcement agencies. License Plate Recognition, also referred to as LPR or NPR (Number Plate Recognition), has increasingly become a key tool of law enforcement agencies around the world as many agencies leverage the technology as a highly effective “police force multiplier” for tracking and/or catching wanted felons, stolen vehicles, or citizens with permit infractions. Today, tens of thousands of LPR systems are being used and this poses a great opportunity for law enforcement agencies in the Caribbean with several agencies already adopting this technology.

What is LPR?

LPR systems essentially combine a specialized plate reading camera with highly-advanced software to automatically identify vehicle license plates in a variety of mobile and fixed installations. The LPR camera is one of the most important components of the solution, responsible for recognizing license plates in its fieldof-view, capturing context images of the vehicle and its license plate, and processing the image to extract accurate license plate characters using a form of analytics called optical character recognition (OCR). Immediately following this process, the software compares incoming plate reads against a list of vehicles of interest, also known as a hotlist. A hotlist can range from a list of license plates of permitted vehicles to wanted or stolen vehicles. If there is a match in the database, the LPR software instantly alerts the operator so that the office can take action. LPR can be implemented in either a Mobile or Fixed environments: 1. Mobile LPR applications are common in law enforcement and refer to when cameras are affixed to the police vehicle. There are actually two components to the software in a mobile solution: There is an in-vehicle software component which allows operators to review plate reads or acknowledge hits to the database and a trunk unit that is a back-office system which allows for further investigation and

administrative tasks. 2. Fixed LPR applications are also a value to law enforcement as they are a natural add-on to existing video systems that may be in place as part of a citywide surveillance implementation. Other traditional fixed applications include installing LPR cameras as part of surveillance systems to provide general security monitoring of vehicles on or near a particular buildings, locations or neighborhoods.

LPR Applications for Law Enforcement

As previously mentioned there are a number of applications for LPR for law enforcement to consider:

Passive surveillance for wanted vehicle or felon identification:

With fixed LPR in place at strategic traffic junctions and intersections, one or multiple hotlists of wanted vehicles or vehicles known or suspected to be involved in criminal activity can be used as a passive form of surveillance to catch or monitor the flow vehicles. These “reads” can then be used to immediately alert the operator to the presence of a suspect vehicle or data can mined to determine previous whereabouts and activity.

Enhanced patrolling for wanted vehicle or felon identification: With LPR in place, one or multiple hotlists of wanted vehicles can be added to the in-vehicle, mobile system. These lists can be uploaded at the beginning of the shift, or, if wireless connectivity is set up, the lists can be automatically downloaded throughout the shift to vehicles. As officers patrol, LPR systems, such as Genetec AutoVu™, can automatically read license plates of passing cars up to differential speeds over 200 MPH (320 km/h). Vehicle plates can also be read spanning up to three lanes of traffic on either side, or vehicles parked in parallel or at 45 and 90 degree angles. If a plate read matches a wanted vehicle record,

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the officer is immediately alerted with an audible alarm and the system displays a color image of the identified vehicle, its license plate, and the categories of interest to ensure the patroller has the information required to decide on an appropriate course of action.

In-vehicle data-mining:

As officers patrol the LPR system is gathering and archiving license plate reads. Collected reads can be reviewed as needed by the officer as new calls from dispatch for wanted vehicles arise. By simply searching the

license plate reads and determining the date, time and location of the sighting it is possible to quickly locate suspects from a complete plate number or even from the search of partial license plate numbers.

Back-office monitoring, reporting & data-mining:

With a full featured LPR system, it is also possible to monitor license plate reads and hits from fixed or patrolling units from a central location or control center. Administrators of the system can generate performance reports for each unit or across all units giving the agency the ability to view all license plate reads across the system. A properly design and strategically deployed LPR system with enhanced search functionality is becoming a critical tool for law enforcement and has been deployed in several Caribbean countries or is under consideration. The ability to pull up vehicles based on factors such as date and time, complete or partial license plate numbers, one or more specific geographic areas, or type of hit means law enforcement can retrieve data such as registered owner, owner’s address, VIN, make, model and year of the vehicle of interest. This empowers investigators to track vehicles in areas at certain times of the day or potentially during criminal activity. All LPR data can be exported from the system so that it can be used as evidence in on-going investigations. To learn more about LPR, contact Stuart Bostock, Director of Business Development for Security Centres International or visit www.securitycentresintl. com or www.genetec.com By: Stuart Bostock, Security Centres International and Abelardo Tous-Mulkay, Genetec.

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Partnerships for Safer Societies Police and Academics Second, to flag some of the opportunities and issues that, as partners, ICJS and ACCP may pursue.

BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION

In many countries, partnerships between the police and academics are fairly common place. These partnerships, which take different forms, have been for the most part fruitful and mutually beneficial. They have contributed to the development of new methods of investigation (such as in the forensic sciences), new methods of management, new ways of thinking about policing and new ways of problem-solving. In the Caribbean, such partnerships have been gradually developing – more however as individual efforts rather than on an institution-to-institution basis. The challenge is to move this process forward methodically and on an institution to institution basis. Given the limited human resources and capabilities of each institution, and indeed each country of the region, a partnership between the ACCP and ICJS/ UWI has a powerful basis as a potential multiplier of these limited resources. Both the Institute of Criminal Justice and Security (ICJS) and the police/ACCP have a shared interest in improving public safety and justice. By partnering, the professional interests and the prospects for problem-solving in both the academic and policing domains may be advanced and improved as professional and experientially acquired knowledge is joined with knowledge that is generated by research. Moreover, the ACCP and the UWI are both regional organisations that operate in every English-Speaking territory. This should facilitate common understandings and shared research and programme priorities. In this article, I wish to do two things: First, to introduce the ICJS at The UWI as a potential partner.

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The ICJS and its work may be best understood if a bit of background information is given. When he took office as the Vice Chancellor of The UWI, Professor E. Nigel Harris proposed that the University become more focused on scientific work that would advance (1) wealth creation and (2) reduce the vulnerabilities of the region. Toward these ends, four University-wide (that is, non-campus-based) institutes were formed. The ICJS is dedicated to achieving the second objective. It is tasked with work in support of reducing the vulnerability of the region to crime and the effects of insecurity. Its work is thus closely tied to the development imperatives of the region.

MISSON OF THE ICJS

At the time of its creation, there were dramatic changes in the security situation in the region and include significant and persistent increases in the rates of violent crimes, particularly murder, increased gang prevalence and the crime productivity of these gangs and organized crime networks, and elevated feelings of insecurity and its resulting negative economic and quality of life impacts. There were also intensified population demand for solutions and greater law enforcement and government accountability as well as the resulting demand for more comprehensive responses that are not limited to Law Enforcement. The purposes of the ICJS are therefore:

1. To be the centre of research on crime and security-related issues in the Caribbean. 2. To find solutions which are empirically based (that is, evidentially grounded in work on the region), conceptually sound (that is, having a clear


logic and description of the processes by which the proposed treatments or solutions are expected to yield the expected outcomes), and viable (that is, the ability of the state to sustainably fund proposed solutions). 3. To provide leadership and management education that are relevant to the development needs of law enforcement agencies. Towards these objectives, the ICJS has situated itself regionally. It is located in the Regional Headquarters of The UWI and works with its four campuses to coordinate the efforts in the fields of criminology, criminal justice, and security. It also involves researchers from other regional universities in its work as well as researchers from universities in the USA and UK whose work is on the Caribbean. The ICJS is multidisciplinary, pooling the intellectual capacities of The UWI faculty which span law, the social and medical sciences, science and technology, and humanities and education. Lastly, the ICJS is independent and free of undue influences which may compromise the integrity of its work.

ACTIVITIES OF THE ICJS

To achieve the continued development of a body of knowledge on crime and crime prevention and reduction, and to promote activities that make this knowledge available to various actors who are best able to ensure its practical impact, the ICJS’s activities and developing programmes of work include, but limited to: • The design, implementation and analysis of crime victimization surveys. These have been done in different countries of the region. They have contributed largely to our understanding of crime patterns and have been useful for tracking the impact of crime prevention and control policies and programmes. They also have brought to light largely invisible crimes, such as the different forms of gender-based violence, and how to better calibrate the responses to these crimes. • On-going research on gangs and organized crime which has already generated a considerable body

of knowledge on how to reduce gang violence. In 2010, the UWI/ICJS, Sam Houston State University (SHSU), American University (AU) and Arizona State University (ASU) formed a research gang consortium. • The publication of the Caribbean Journal of Criminology (CJC). This Journal, published annually, serves to promote critical examination of the difficult, complex and persistent crime problems in the Caribbean.

ICJS-ACCP COLLABORATION

Partnership may begin with concrete projects. Below are some of the ideas which I believe may be worthwhile exploring together. 1. The provision of training modules and programmes for mid-career officers. The ICJS is highly interested in education and such modules and programmes are best designed in consultation with the ACCP and its member services. 2. The provision of research support. Police services have to make their case to governments for the resources that they need in order to be responsive to public demands for service and to be effective. Governments, on the other hand, wish to be assured that they are not being asked to spend scarce resources in items which are unnecessary. 3. The development of a regional gang surveillance system. This system would add considerable value to gang reduction efforts as the multiple of sources of information on gang activities would be centralised. This information would assist with programme design for gang prevention and with the evaluations of existing programmes. This list is short and is only meant to be illustrative as it is always better to work with the felt needs of the direct actors (i.e., the ACCP) than the perceived needs as viewed from the outside (i.e., the ICJS).

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CONCLUSION

The UWI, independently of as well as via the ICJS, has tried to be responsive to the challenges and needs of the region – including its police services. Much more however needs to be done. The relationships will serve the region better if they are better structured. As a region we are faced with several imperatives. These include:

such that there is greater and more systematic movement toward a consensus model of policing. 4. Any such movement toward a consensus model of policing means that greater attention and effort has to be paid to matters of justice.

1. The reproduction of quality law enforcement leadership and an ability to do this in more reliable ways.

If these imperatives (not desiderata) are to be realised, then the right partnerships may help to bring them about. The ICJS is quite willing to make its contribution to their realisation as a capable and reliable partner.

2. Reduction in the levels of violence and improved security and the conversion of any such positive outcomes to greater confidence in the future of the countries of the region and the enhancement of the development prospects of the region.

by Anthony Harriott Director, Institute of Criminal Justice and Security (ICJS) The University of the West Indies (UWI) Regional Headquarters

3.

Transformation of police-citizen relationship

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City & Guilds’

Supports Police Training in the Caribbean Training for Twenty-first century policing in the Caribbean has been offered a major support to its skill-set thanks to several training and developmental programmes offered by the internationally-recognised institution, City & Guilds. City & Guilds, which boasts a 125-year history of providing global technical and vocational education and training services, is seeking to further develop qualifications, solutions, services and resources that are cutting-edge and relevant to the ever-changing workplace, with a special interest in policing in the Caribbean region. Following an assessment between City & Guilds and several agencies, it was found that capacity building differs in both nature and intensity, and as such, it was determined that collaboration on the competencies, skills, and certification required in the 21st century for growth and development of the police forces would be mutually beneficial. Several needs were identified, including: higher levels of certification especially for senior officers; an ability to employ technology as an essential skill to achieve organisational goals; and the broadened knowledge-base required by officers to interact more effectively with the community on economic matters and social problem solving. With a proven-track record in this area, City & Guilds embarked on collaboration with the UK National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA). The UK programme resulted in a national qualification specifically developed by City and Guilds and linked to the Police Training Roles Learning and Development Programme (PTRLDP). The NPIA saw the new qualifications as representing a bench mark of excellence within

46

the learning and skills sector. The institution, recognised by governments, educational institutions, professional bodies and employers alike, is a world leader developing technical and vocational education and training solutions. The NPIA’s confidence in the City & Guilds is as a result of five key areas of strength of the institutions qualifications: progression, aspiration, portability, employability, and recognition, all of which offers solutions and opportunities to career enhancement, industry recognition and employment sustainability. An example of leadership in training and certification is seen in the partnership arrangements between the City & Guilds and the Dubai Police Academy to offer complete training and educational opportunities to security learners across the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The landmark agreement, signed at the Dubai Police Academy by General Dhahi Khalfan Tamim, Commander of the Dubai Police and Mr. Chris Jones, Director General of City & Guilds, initiated a unique partnership in the Arab world which facilitated the development of a total of 25 training programmes, courses and workshops for the local and regional police forces. With a record of successfully supporting capacity building in policing and while commending the quality of existing training available in the region, City & Guilds is keen to work with Caribbean Commissioners of Police and police training institutions in the region to ensure the availability of training and certification required for a modern police force. City & Guilds qualifications in policing are offered


through several streams. The first a Certificate in Policing targets special constables or support and clerical officers and provides training to allow persons to work with minimum supervision. It aims to maintain a good record of safety, streamline fault correction and ensure that work meets required standards. The qualification comprises six mandatory units. Another qualification, the Certificate in Knowledge of Policing is a new professional entry qualification that has the flexibility to accommodate a wide variety of candidates. It caters to police staff including those working in the service but who wish to move into other policing roles. An example of such would be a Special Constable who is presently volunteering but who wishes to become a Police Constable. The Level 4 Certificate in Police First Line Management is suitable for an experienced Police Constable seeking promotion to Sergeant. The Level 5 Certificate in Police Management is suitable for an experienced Police Sergeant seeking promotion to Inspector. Level 4 Certificate in Police First Line Management The Level 4 qualification is suitable for an experienced police constable seeking promotion to sergeant. The Certificate is made up of six mandatory units: • Manage personal development • Set objectives and provide support for team members • Conduct intelligence-driven briefing, tasking and debriefing • Prepare for, monitor and maintain law enforcement operations

• Supervise the response to critical incidents • Supervise investigations and investigators. • Level 5 Certificate in Police Management The Level 5 qualification is suitable for an experienced police sergeant seeking promotion to inspector. The Certificate is made up of five mandatory units: • Manage own professional development within an organisation • Develop and evaluate operational plans for own area of responsibility • Provide leadership and direction for own area of responsibility • Identify and manage operational threats and risks • Plan, allocate and monitor work in own area of responsibility. For those offering existing, high-quality, inhouse training, City & Guilds also offers an Accreditation programme that provides an international benchmark. City & Guilds recognition affirms the standard of quality of bespoke training and covers programme delivery, resourcing and assessment. For any officers with supervisory responsibilities who need to assess the competence in the workplace, we offer an Award in Assessing Competence in the Work Environment. By learning how to use different assessment methods including observation, discussions and the use of learner statements, supervisors can skilfully assess and determine the knowledge and/ or skills of those under their management. Beyond the field of policing, City & Guilds recognises that there may be a need to provide certification in essential skills. City & Guilds regularly certifies key skills including: business administration, conflict management, customer service, data processing, proficiency with the English language, employability and personal development, numeracy, office procedures, and word

47


processing. Today’s police executives are expected to demonstrate proficiency in a wide array of leadership positions. They are called upon to be decision makers; politicians; disciplinarians; therapists; mentors; administrators; taskmasters; spokespersons; community leaders; educators; change agents; facilitators; partners; negotiators; role models; students; parent figures; visionaries; and, managers, among others. To serve all middle and high-ranking professionals, City and Guilds has rebranded its Senior Awards which raises the profile and qualification levels of candidates. Now called the Professional Recognition Awards (PRA), they offer associate, bachelor and master degree equivalency and can be completed on a flexible-learning basis. The Professional Recognition Awards in Leadership & Management are used at top military institutions such as the Royal Military College of Science and the Royal Military College Sandhurst. Designed to complement continuous professional development, PRAs offer flexible and pragmatic assessments in a range of methodologies: workbased assignments, oral presentations, reflective reviews, and longer, project-type reports. These practical assessments not only accurately measure the learning and development of the individual but offer tangible benefits to the workplace. With a clear line of progression through Licentiateship (LCGI), Affiliateship (AfCGI), Graduateship (GCGI), and Membership (MCGI) to the highest level of professional competence - Fellowship (FCGI), those achieving these awards will be conferred an appropriate, internationally recognised post-nominal. To be successful, candidates must provide evidence that they have met the six standards based ranging from commitment to professional standards. They include communication and information management, leadership; professional development; working with

48

others and managing customer relationships. Initially the PRAs will be accessible through a number of routes which include Learning and Development, Leadership and Management, and Counter Terrorism and Information Technology. Currently, the institution boasts two million learners in over 80 countries across more than 10,000 training and learning centres completing more than 500 qualifications every year. Through its enhanced presence in the region which includes a Barbados-based Caribbean office and country offices in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago, the institution seeks to support the expansion of vocational and technical training to facilitate skills and career development, increase competiveness and support economic growth in the region. Looking to the future, City & Guilds sees the Caribbean giving priority to technical and vocational education and training in a manner similar to many leading economies. Having successfully laid down

some of the foundations of the modern vocational education system in the UK and elsewhere and having provided internationally-recognised qualifications in the Caribbean for over the past 50 years, City & Guilds reconsiders itself to be a strategic partner in human re source and skills development in the region.


St. Kitts & Nevis Coalition

St. Kitts and Nevis Prime Minister and Minister

employees, customers

of Finance, the Right Honourable Dr. Denzil L. Doug-

and all other constituencies live without fear of crime.

las, along with Permanent Secretary for the Anti-Crime

The CSSKNSI includes Christophe Harbour, Cockle-

Unit in the Office of the Prime Minister, Her Excellen-

shell Bay Development, Four Seasons Nevis, Ross Uni-

cy Mrs. Astona Browne, St. Kitts and Nevis Minister

versity School of Veterinary Medicine, St. Kitts Marri-

of Tourism and International Transport, Senator the

ott Resort/Royal Beach Casino, Royal St. Kitts Hotel &

Honourable Mr. Richard “Ricky” Skerritt, and Head

Casino, and Windsor University.

of the Royal Saint Christopher and Nevis Police Force, Commissioner of Police, Mr. Celvin G. Walwyn, congratulated the Coalition of Support for St.

The leadership met on Monday, Oct. 15 and Tuesday, Oct. 16 to assess its own performance in assisting the Federation in its efforts to reduce crime

Se-

and to create a

curity Initiatives

strategic plan for

(CSSKNSI)

on

its second year.

its commitment

At the meeting,

to fighting crime

the

as the group cel-

a ck now l e d ge d

ebrated the first

their continued

year anniversary

concern

of its creation.

crime, but recog-

Kitts-Nevis

strides

lition of Support (CSSKNSI)was formed to establish

about

nized the great

The Coafor St. Kitts-Nevis Security Initiatives

CSSKNSI

made

this year in its reduction, commending Commissioner Walwyn for the outstanding leadership he provided.

a platform that advocates positive development and

On the first day of the meeting the focus was on

progress in the critical areas of safety and security in St.

reviewing results of CSSKNSI efforts and how this im-

Kitts-Nevis, one voice representing several organiza-

pact made a difference, along with the vision of Com-

tions on the island. The CSSKNSI’s goal is to assist with

missioner Walwyn. In his keynote address, Prime Min-

the establishment and maintenance of an acceptable

ister Denzil Douglas stated “I would like to thank each

level of safety and security throughout the Federation,

member of the Coalition for this journey that began

by working in partnership with the government to sup-

just over one year ago,” said Prime Minister Douglas.

port and expand the capacity of local law enforcement

“Your tangible support of contributions has not only

in decreasing crime, and contribute to an environment

benefited the Royal St. Christopher and Nevis Police

conducive to successful, sustainable economic activity and growth in which citizens, students, tourists, guests,

49


Force but also the citizens of St. Kitts and Nevis and

Day Two of the CSSKNSI meeting was dedicated to re-

this is noted in the reduction of our crime statistics.”

viewing its

Chairman of the coalition and chief executive

objectives for year two and finalizing strategies for

officer of Kiawah partners in his address stated that,

implementation. The organization has committed to

“We have all seen the statistics, overall crime is down

supporting additional initiatives in the coming year,

in the Federation; our hope is that the contributions of

including the implementation of the Federation’s

the Coalition have assisted the members of the police

new Crime Stoppers program. Crime Stoppers is a

force in making that reduction happen,” and chief the

non-profit, tri-partied partnership program among the

he further opined, “like Commissioner Walwyn and

community, media and law enforcement whose goal is

his strong belief in teamwork, we feel the Coalition will

to provide a mechanism for the public to confidential-

continue to be successful in making positive change

ly and anonymously give information on criminal ac-

through the partnership of all members working to-

tivity, and assist with the recovery of guns, drugs and

gether.”

stolen property. Crime Stoppers has been successful In his contribution to the meeting, Commis-

sioner Walwyn stated that he I believed in holding his

around the globe and is scheduled to launch in St. Kitts later this year.

team accountable and the men and women of the Royal

The CSSKNSI’s contributions to the Federation

St. Christopher and Nevis Police Force had stepped up

total more than US $150,000 since its first donation

to that level of accountability which made the Federa-

of a police patrol vehicle in October 2011. Since that

tion a safer place. He further stated that while he ap-

original donation, the coalition has gifted a forensics

preciated the attribution of this reduction of crime to

vehicle, 50 bulletproof vests, six laptop computers with

his leadership, he emphasized that it was the men and

cases, 50 rechargeable flashlights, and eight police bi-

women of this police force who are responsible for this

cycles to the police force. In addition, they have pro-

byfor carrying out their duty to our country

vided funding for police training, airfare and accom-

In addition to the keynote address from the Prime Minister and Commissioner Walwyn, Mrs. Astona Browne, Permanent Secretary in the Anti-Crime Unit in the Prime Minister’s off and Minister of Tourism and International Transport Senator Hon. Richard Skerritt provided words of support for the initiatives of

modations for instructors. Most recently, the CSSKNSI strengthened the K-9 unit of the police force with the donation of Prego, a new canine member of the police. Overall crime in the Federation has declined by 61 percent according to information provided by the

the CSSKNSI. The leadership also noted that many oth-

Royal St. Christopher and Nevis Police Force Statistics

er entities are committed to reducing crime and that

Department.

is what is truly making the difference in St. Kitts and Nevis.

50


Be on the look out for: ACCP 28th Annual General Meeting and Conference 29 April – 2 May 2013 Bermuda NOBLE 37th Annual Conference and Exhibition 3 - 7 August 2013 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA IAWP 51st Annual Conference 21 – 26 September 2013 Durban, South Africa IACP 120th Annual Conference 19 – 23 October 2013 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA ACCP Intersessional Meeting Dates to be advised Barbados

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Executive, members and staff of the Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police would like to use this opportunity to express gratitude to Dr. Larry Palmer (American Ambassador to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean), advertisers and all contributors who assisted in various capacities in the publication of this 10th edition of “ UNITED AGAINST CRIMES ”. ASSOCIATION OF CARIBBEAN COMMISSIONERS OF POLICE 1st Floor BAOBAB Tower, Warrens, St. Michael, Barbados, W.I. Tel: 246-271-8684 / Fax: 246-271-8694 Email: admin@accpolice.org skype: accpolice1

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NOTES

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United Against Crime  

Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) - 10th Edition - April 2013

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