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L’Accademia del Fitness Wellness & Anti-aging Magazine

n.06


La dieta COM (acronimo di CronOrMorfo dieta) è un approccio integrato che tiene conto della Cronobiologia degli Ormoni e della Morfologia dell’essere umano. Non siamo tutti uguali e trovare la giusta alimentazione e tipologia di esercizio fisico per ognuno di noi è la strada per raggiungere la salute. Determinate morfologie, ovvero determinate forme del corpo, sono legate a specifiche espressioni caratteriali. Tutto questo, si sa, è legato alla genetica che indirizza il nostro sviluppo secondo le nostre predisposizioni. Oggi, tuttavia, si ha la certezza c he anche l’epigenetica (cioè l’influenza dell’ambiente esterno) gioca un ruolo fondamentale nel permettere o impedire il manifestarsi di determinate predisposizioni: “Nasciamo come siamo, diventiamo come mangiamo, come ci muoviamo, come pensiamo!”. La dieta COM tiene conto della Morfologia dell’individuo (a mela, a pera o a peperone) che corrisponde a specifiche prevalenze Ormonali, la cui influenza sulla distribuzione del grasso può essere controllata e modificata, in parte, dalla scelta qualitativa, quantitativa e Cronologica degli alimenti, favorendo, di conseguenza un dimagrimento localizzato.

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number 06 / 2012

Editorial ACCADEMIA DEL FITNESS Galleria Crocetta 10/A 43126 PARMA Tel. 0521.941319 Fax 0521.294971 www.accademiadelfitness.com magazine@accademiadelfitness.com Editor in Chief: Massimo Spattini Editorial staff: Claudia Bonini Cristiana Pedrazzini Cinzia Ruggeri Scientific committee: Prof. Marianno Franzini Prof. Fulvio Marzatico Dott. Filippo Ongaro Prof. Adolfo Panfili Prof. Mario Passeri Writers: Leone Arsenio Giuseppe Castaldo Daniele Cozzini Alessandro Gelli Claudio Lombardo Raffaello Michelotti Giovanni Montagna Marcello Montomoli Giuseppe Notarnicola Adolfo Panfili Massimo Spattini Photographers: Nicola De Luigi Publisher: Profitness S.a.s. Galleria Crocetta 10/A 43126 Parma Tel. 0521.941319

It is with great pleasure that I can now announce the Convention of Accademia del Fitness “AntiAging Diet and Integration” held in Parma last 10th May on the occasion of Cibus Fair was the most successful in terms of the number of participants in all the history of Pianeta Nutrizione (>400 subscribed). The success of this convention is the consequence of the intellectual honesty of a journey which started back in 2005 with the convention “Anti-Aging Fitness” held in Rimini on the occasion of the Fitness Festival on 4th June 2005. It then developed with the triad “Anti-Aging Diet” Parma 4th June 2011, “Wellbeing and Life-styles” Rome 3rd December 2011 and “Anti-Aging Diet and Integration” Parma 10th May 2012. The reasons behind this success are certainly due to the collaboration with a serious and efficient organizing company, the Akesios Group, as well as to the constant presence of high-level and experienced speakers at all the events. In particular, the constant presence in the last three events of speakers of the level of Filippo Ongaro and Adolfo Panfili, famous for their great rhetorical skills and significant personal experience. The first is by now a public figure thanks to his frequent apparitions on television and on the radio, and is also a best-seller writer who has sold tens of thousands copies. The second one, who can also be seen on TV, is the author of15 books and is involved in social policies. These opinion leaders do not follow the trend, they set

it. As Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche would say: “ Weather Prophets. Just as the clouds tell us the direction of the wind high above our heads, so the lightest and freest spirits are in their tendencies foretellers of the weather that is coming”. It is time man dedicated more time to his most noble aim: “The pursuit of health”. Real information and its related knowledge – unconditioned by economic, political interests which have so far manipulated us – must be the instrument to carry out with awareness practices of life-styles aiming at the pursuit of wellbeing and beauty. The mass-media want to inculcate in us too many “certainties” (“milk is good for the bones”. Yet why is it that osteoporosis is not present in the countries where dairy products are not consumed, while it proportionally increases in the countries where dairy products are most consumed?). Then, quoting Francis Bacon, “If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; but if he will be content to begin with doubts, he shall end in certainties”: The Accademia del Fitness, Wellness & Antiaging, will pursue this aim. Let us recall our saying: “Theory working for practice”. If you are looking for a hand you will find it at the end of your arm, roll up your sleeves and start doing something! Massimo Spattini Accademia del Fitness President

Printed and delivered by: Mattioli 1885 S.r.l. Str. della Lodesana, 649 sx Loc. Vaio 43036 Fidenza (PR) Tel. 0524.530383 www.mattioli1885.com Registration n. 12/2004 Court of Parma

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L’Accademia del Fitness

index Editorial 3 di Massimo Spattini

DHEA: the mother of all hormones

3

di Massimo Spattini

training and the elderly: the fight against osteoporosis

8

di Giuseppe Notarnicola

techniques to treat backache

12

di Adolfo Panfili

The logical levels of nlp applied to anti-ageing

18

di Claudio Lombardo

Integrated Dietotherapeutic Management of Dyslipidemias 24 di Marcello Montomoli

ANTI-AGEING AND PHYTO-EXTRACTS: more testosterone, more hair, fewer prostatic problems

26

di Alessandro Gelli

Genetics: weight loss and fitness

30

di Raffaello Michelotti

sexuality food and brain

32

di Leone Arsenio

the formula for a long life DIETETICS ACCORDING TO TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE 36 di Daniele Cozzini

Is the HoloproteinÂŽ diet anti-ageing?

40

di Giuseppe Castaldo

NUTRITION AND ANTI-AGEING INTEGRATION: the importance of PH di Giovanni Montagna 4

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L’Accademia del Fitness

DHEA :

the mother of all hormones Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the steroid contained in the highest percentage in the human body. It is involved in the production of testosterone, estrogens, progesterone and corticosterone. The levels of DHEA increase until the age of 25, when its production starts decreasing. The decrease in DHEA is parallel to the one of GH, so that at the age of 65 the body produces about 10-20% of what it used to produce at 25. In the same way as melatonin and GH, the decline of DHEA is associated to a series of degenerative pathologies connected to ageing. According to doctor Samuel Yen, endocrinologist and head of an important study on DHEA at the University of California in San Diego: “DHEA may help the people age more gently”. The benefits of DHEA, on the basis of recent scientific studies and theoretical speculations, may be summarized as follows: - it stimulates the immune system against infections - it reduces the risk of tumors, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and diabetes -it favours fat loss and the increase in the lean mass - it is useful in treating Alzheimer’s, Lupus, HIV infection, EPSTEIN-BARR and CFS (chronic fatigue syndrome)

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number 06 / 2012

- it improves the symptoms of menopause, depression, memory, learning deficit disorder - it increases life expectancy. Personally, I had already been interested in DHEA back at University, that is, over 20 years ago, when I found a 1988 study reporting surprising results on obese people. In this study a high dosage of DHEA (1,600 mg per day) was given for four weeks to obese people, causing a 31% reduction of the body fat in four out of five subjects without changes in the body weight. This means that the muscle mass had significantly increased. That is, the body weight lost in fat had been replaced by lean mass. Unbelievable! At that time on the market there was a product based on DHEA whose name was Astenile. It was made of 10 mg DHEA ampoules for intramuscular use and it was advised as an antidepressant. Then Astenile was withdrawn from the market and it was replaced by more specific and expensive antidepressant medicines. DHEA reappeared in 1995 when the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) authorised DHEA as a prohormone, liberalising its sale as an integrator. Since then, DHEA – above all in the USA – has been widely used and the majority of studies and anecdotal evidence have demonstrated its capacity in improving the patients’ psychological wellness as well as their sleep. Moreover, it also helped fighting stress. Some studies have demonstrated the possible benefits of DHEA on patients suffering from many diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, obesity, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson. Since then, the media have widely talked of DHEA as the “hormone of youth”. Sometimes it is said that DHEA – as an androgenic steroid hormone – can be dangerous for the risk of prostate cancer. On the contrary, there are many respectable studies which suggest, instead, that DHEA has anti-tumour properties. Some studies demonstrate that supplementation with DHEA (Ciolino H. Dheydroepiandrosterone inhibits the expression of carcinogen activating enzymes in vivo – Int. J. Cancer 2003) can actually help prevent prostate carcinoma and prostatic hypertrophy, while separate studies carried out at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore and at the Humboldt University Medical School in Berlin have found significantly lower levels of DHEA in patients suffering from prostate carcinoma. Going back to the effects of DHEA on body fat and muscle mass, it is well known

that with ageing fat tends to increase and muscle mass tends to decrease. Many hormones have the effect of reducing fat and improving the lean mass. DHEA does it, too. Several studies have found low levels of DHEA associated to obesity. Some researchers believe the anti-obesity effect of DHEA is caused by its ability to stop a specific enzyme called glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PD). The inhibition of this enzyme stops the capacity of the body to deposit and form fat. Moreover, DHEA acts on mitochondrial respiration increasing the thyroid functionality and favouring energy waste rather than accumulation. Another way in which DHEA can act against fat accumulation is its anti-glucorticoid effect (Wright 1992), that is, by contrasting cortisol (this is why DHEA also has a high anti-stress effect) it stops the activity of the enzymes tirosin-aminotransferase and ornithine decarboxylase , favouring the loss of fat. A recent study indicates that one of the mechanisms through which DHEA favours the loss of fat may be the increase of serotonin in the region of the hypothalamus, which increases the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), the hormone of satiety. As a consequence, lower food intake favours the loss of body fat. At present in Italy DHEA can be only taken upon medical prescription of galenic type and it is mainly used in anti-ageing medicine in case of evident deficit or deficit associated to therapies with corticosteroids to contrast their catabolic effect.

DHEA may help the

people age more gently. The majority of studies

and anecdotal evidence have demonstrated its

capacity in improving the patients’ psychological

wellness as well as their sleep. Moreover, it also helped fighting stress.

Dr. Ph. Massimo Spattini Specialist in Sports Medicine Specialist in Food Science Board Certificate in Anti-Aging & Regenerative Medicine (ABAARM-USA)

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L’Accademia del Fitness photo Nicola De Luigi

training and the elderly:

the fight against osteoporosis Due to the ageing of the population on a world scale, above all in the most developed countries, it is necessary to do something to help the elderly keep their physical and psychic efficiency as long as possible, so that they can be self-sufficient and enjoy an active life. It is therefore fundamental to promote the possibility of exercising, as well as to draw attention to a proper diet and to a life-style deprived of bad habits like smoke, alcohol and stress. It is then fundamental for the elderly to have their skeletal system in good condition, so that they can move and perform exercises properly. The most frequently asked questions are how the human skeleton can keep its efficiency and how to prevent osteoporosis – that is, the disease which slowly weakens bones. First of all, it is important to follow a diet duly rich in calcium and to take vitamin D constantly since it basically protects the individual from any diseases: it prevents from rickets in children and from osteomalacia in adults; it also helps preventing cardiovascular diseases, self-immune diseases, Alzheimer’s,

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dementia and diabetes, which – as recent studies have pointed out – strike more the population living in the northern latitudes of the planet, where there is less exposition to the sun. Actually, vitamin D is synthesised by the body when the skin is exposed to sun light. Since the majority of human beings spends little time in the sun, many of us lack vitamin D. The intake of vitamin D through food is ridiculously low (compared to the amount produced by the exposition to sun light): fifteen minutes in the sun produce about 10,000 international units, against 100 units of a glass of milk. Fish is richer than milk and its by-products, above all anchovies, sardines and mackerel. However, it would be enough to lie in the sun for at least 15/20 minutes a day (with no sun cream) to meet the minimum requirements. Other food particularly rich in vitamin D is egg-yolk, liver and cod-liver oil. Generally, it becomes fundamental for the elderly to make use of an integrator of vitamin D, since they are hardly ever exposed


number 06 / 2012

SEDE: PARMA DURATA: 6 giornate + esame finale DATE 2012: 29-30 settembre / 13-14 ottobre / 20-21 ottobre

SEDE: PARMA DURATA: 6 giornate + esame finale DATE 2012: 10-11 novembre / 24-25 novembre / 8-9 dicembre

QUOTA: € 890,00 PAGAMENTO: entro il 31-08-2012 L'importo può essere pagato, con una maggiorazione, in due rate: 1a rata entro il 31-08-2012 : € 480,00 2a rata entro il 10-10-2012. : € 480,00 Alle quote va aggiunta la quota di affiliazione all’Accademia del Fitness di € 40,00 QUOTA (per ogni singolo corso) : € 560,00 PAGAMENTI: - Corso ISTRUTTORE :: entro il 31-08-2012 - Corso PERSONAL TRAINER : entro il 10-10-2012 L'importo può essere pagato, con una maggiorazione, in due rate: - Corso ISTRUTTORE : 1a rata entro il 31-08-2012 : € 295,00 2a rata entro il 10-10-2012. : € 295,00 Corso PERSONAL TRAINER : 1a rata entro il 10-10-2012 : € 295,00 2a rata entro il 30-11-2012. : € 295,00

Alle quote va aggiunta la quota di affiliazione all’Accademia del Fitness di € 40,00 ACCADEMIA DEL FITNESS Galleria Crocetta 10/A - 43126 PARMA Tel. 0521.1682083 - Fax 0521.294971 info@accademiadelfitness.com

www.accademiadelfitness.com

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L’Accademia del Fitness to sun light for the advised time. Going back to the importance of exercise in the life of the elderly, all the most recent studies have pointed out that exercise with weights, above all training aiming at developing strength, is by far the most suitable for the reinforcement of the skeletal system and for the prevention of fractures due to fall, which are so common and dangerous among the elderly. This type of training, especially in women, has proved to be fundamental in stopping the process of bone demineralization, the main sign of osteoporosis, since it increases strength in the quadriceps, corrects postural instability and consolidates bone density. So, what is the best training programme for the elderly, both in order to prevent and to stop osteoporosis? Personally, I believe it can be schematised as follows:

Due to the ageing of the population, it is necessary to do something to help the elderly keep their physical and psychic efficiency as long as possible, so that they can be self-sufficient and enjoy an active life.

• A phase of warming up with exercises of articular and aerobic mobility • Progressive training with heavy loads and simple movements • Increase in the intensity of the effort • Planning a mesocycle programme based on strength and its expressions (frequency of at least 3 times a week) Training strength in the elderly is a good method to increase their tone and elasticity, thus slowing down the ageing of the muscular mass. However, it is important to pay attention to the effort made by the upper limbs, since their muscular mass is smaller and weaker than the one of the lower limbs, and some muscles may limit the expansion of lungs in the respiratory phase. Apparatus to use: dumbbell, elastic band, barbell, power machines. Giuseppe Notarnicola Fitness Consultant, Personal Trainer, Nutrition Educator

photo Nicola De Luigi

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number 06 / 2012

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L’Accademia del Fitness

O2-O3 Discolysis (Oxygen-Ozone) It consists in injecting Oxygen and Ozone into the disc by means of a very thin indolor needle under radio-controlled monitoring. The Ozone-Oxygen mixture has an analgesic and miniflogistic effect which reduces the pain and the volume of the hernia and reinforces the structures of the disc. It is applicable in case of moderate herniated disc. -It requires local anaesthesia enhanced by flash-sedation so that the patient does not feel any pain - It lasts few minutes (on average 20-30 minutes for each level) - It allows prompt ambulation and can often be performed in outpatient surgery and it implies wearing – for about a month – a very light lumbar corset Dekompressor The Dekompressor is a very thin disposable probe (diameter 0.3mm) containing a double helix screw. The probe is introduced into the disc percutaneously, like a common injection, and the drill – turned by a microengine connected to it – extracts part of the disc nucleus, reducing the pressure of the hernia. The main features of the Dekompressor are as follows: - It is suitable for moderate cervical, dorsal and lumbar hernia. - High effectiveness: 90% of favourable outcomes in well selected cases. - No effective risk. It avoids the risks of Laser and Discolysis. - It does not require surgery. - It does not require stitches. - It avoids post-surgical scars. - It can be repeated. - It requires local anaesthesia enhanced by flash-sedation so that the patient does not feel any pain. - It lasts few minutes (20’ on average) - It allows prompt ambulation and can be performed in outpatient surgery - It shortens convalescence time. Ozone-therapy or discolysis The therapy is normally performed in two steps: first, the ozone is injected into the paravertebral muscles. Then, after some days, the ozone is injected into the disc, under radiocontrolled monitoring. The supporters of ozone therapy make a distinction between a short-term biochemical effect –anti-inflammatory, analgesic,

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techniques

to treat backache


La Chiropratica Può Aiutarvi! La  chiropratica  si   focalizza  sui   disturbi  del  sistema   nervoso,  e  sugli   effetti  di  questi   disturbi  per  la   salute  in  generale.     Le  interferenze  del   sistema  nervoso   indeboliscono  le   normali  funzioni   del  corpo  e  abbassa   la  sua  resistenza   alle  malattie.  I   disallineamenti   vertebrali  della   colonna  alterano   molte  importanti   funzioni  del  corpo.

Bella La Vita Chiropratica S.R.L. Via Mazzini, 1 43100, Parma, PR Tel. 0521 180 1234 BLVChiropratica.it BLV@BLVChiropratica.it


myorelaxing and hyper-oxygenating – and a long-term effect for the de-hydration of the intervertebral disc, therefore for the absorption of possible hernial protuberance. The effect of the therapy appears in a period between 4-10 weeks. It is based on the fact that various humoral effects contribute to the production of pain. By acting as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant, ozone is said to contribute to the restoration of the biochemical balance. Many systemic drugs act in the same way. The opinion given by the Health Council, dating back to 19.11.2003, must be underlined: The OOT procedure (Oxygen-ozone therapy) is associated to a significant risk of complication, even lethal. The OOT procedure lacks proper scientific validation as far as its effectiveness is concerned. IT NORMALLY INVOLVES NO PAIN OR SLIGHT PAIN, unlike other techniques which use heat (coblation, nucleoplasty, radiofrequency) since laser allows to concentrate very high power with no heat dissipation. The physical features of the optical fibres used (purest silicon) and their type of emission allows to concentrate power in few mm2 in the intervertebral disc, reaching over 90% of power absorption. This explains why the performance of such procedure has reached the current safety level, since there is no power dissipation in the surrounding tissues (unlike in the past). In presence of moderate herniated disc it is possible to perform the technique under fluoroscopic control, releasing laser power both in the middle of the intervertebral disc and in its back portion. In presence of non-moderate herniated disc, that is, larger herniated disc still connected to the intervertebral disc, satisfactory outcomes have been achieved by performing the procedure under CAT monitoring (Pic. 3). This allows to release laser power in many points in the herniated intervertebral disc, achieving higher vaporization and shrinkage of the hernia with decompression of the nervous root and resolution of the symptoms (pain radiated down the limb, tingling sensation, sensitivity alteration). Patients can be discharged on the same day (outpatient surgery) or AFTER ONE DAY OF STAY. There is no surgical wound nor are there stitches to be removed. An antibiotic prophylaxis must be carried out for three days with painkillers if needed. It is advised to take one day off for complete rest. Return to normal working life is possible within one week. THE OUTCOMES ARE SATISFACTORY IN AROUND 80% OF CASES. IN CASE OF FAILURE IT IS HOWEVER POSSIBLE TO TURN TO TRADITIONAL SURGERY.

post-surgical scars (due to repeated operations with persistence of lumbar pain) or post-traumatic scars. It is based on the possibility of liberating (“lyse”) the adhesions in order to reduce the nerve narrowing. It is often advised in case of “failed-backsyndrome”, that is, persistent lumbar pain due to ineffective surgical treatments. Outcomes are inconstant, but it is non-invasive since it is performed percutaneously. Denervation of Articular Facets It is indicated in case of the typical backache caused by stress posture. Basically, it reduces sensitivity in the painful susceptible structures placed around the spine. It is performed by means of a needle heated with radiofrequency. It is characterised by excellent tolerability and good outcomes, provided indication is appropriate. More appropriately, this syndrome is today treated with interspinous spacers which lighten the functional overload of the articular facets and solve the related mechanical problem. What can be done in case of expelled cervical or lumbar herniated disc compressing the spinal marrow? As a premise, it is important to point out that disc herniation only occurs when the disc is degenerate and worn. This condition justifies the spontaneous onset of the problem not related to intense effort but even suddenly, with no premonition. Disc herniation is a disease of the spine consisting in the bulging of the intervertebral disc, which may invade the vertebral canal, dangerously compressing the adjoining nervous structures such as the nervous roots, the spinal marrow, the sheath covering it (called dura mater), with related damage – sometimes irreversible – and neurological symptoms. Warnings in case of herniated disc are often represented by local discogenic pain (cervical, dorsal or lumbar, according to the type of herniated disc) caused by the degenerate disc, together with neurological symptoms (such as sciatica in the lower lumbar hernias compressing a root of the sciatic nerve). The effects of a hernia can be also enhanced by other factors, first of all by the dimensions of the vertebral canal. Voluminous hernias manifested into a narrow canal may as well be asymptomatic while sometimes, on the contrary, very small hernias in a narrow canal may cause such acute painful symptoms that the patient’s mobility is severely limited. Therefore, treatment for herniated disc must not be only inspired by its dimension. Bear in mind that some hernias may improve spontaneously or through common conservative treatments. However, disc degeneration and wear persist, and recur-

Warnings in case

of herniated disc are

often represented by

local discogenic pain (cervical, dorsal or

lumbar, according to the type of herniated disc)

caused by the degenerate disc, together with

neurological symptoms.

Endoscopic Neurolysis or Epidurolysis It is indicated in case of pain connected to the formation of


number 06 / 2012

L’INVECCHIAMENTO NON PUO’ ESSERE BLOCCATO, MA SI PUO’ FARE MOLTO PER RALLENTARLO! Il test CELLULAR AGING FACTORS (C.A.F.) di NatrixLab nasce con l’obiettivo di rispondere ad alcune preoccupazioni sentite dalla popolazione riguardo all’aspettativa di invecchiare al meglio e rimanere più giovani, più belli e più sani più a lungo. Il C.A.F. è un test innovativo, il più completo e unico nella categoria dei profili AntiAging, poiché riunisce in un'unica analisi la valutazione dei principali processi che portano all’invecchiamento: l’ossidazione, l’infiammazione, la glicazione e la metilazione. Questo test può essere utilizzato come valutazione complessiva dello stato di benessere dell’individuo: l’alterazione di un parametro può rappresentare un importante fattore di rischio di invecchiamento cutaneo e tissutale. Ma quali sono le condizioni da modificare nello stile di vita per prevenire questo temuto invecchiamento precoce? Il sovrappeso e l’obesità, per tutte le complicazioni che ne derivano; lo stress psico-fisico, una vita sregolata, frenetica oppure troppo sedentaria e non da ultimo, un eccessivo consumo di alcol, droghe e fumo. Anche i fattori ambientali esterni sono purtroppo protagonisti dell’invecchiamento, non dimentichiamo lo smog e i raggi UV. Quindi attenzione, da questa descrizione si evince che siamo tutti a rischio invecchiamento precoce! Oggi lo specialista può disporre di uno strumento di facile comprensione, affidabile e certificato, comodamente nel suo studio. E’ sufficiente un rapido prelievo di sangue capillare da polpastrello per eseguire l’analisi C.A.F. e ricevere un referto di facile interpretazione. Grazie a questo importante passo avanti nella biologia dell’invecchiamento, lo specialista sarà in grado di personalizzare al massimo l’alimentazione, i trattamenti e l’attività fisica del paziente, a seconda delle necessità e dei bisogni individuali.

Altri test diagnostici effettuati da NatrixLab FOOD INTOLERANCE TEST (F.I.T.): analisi quantitativa delle intolleranze alimentari in E.L.I.S.A. ANTIAGING PROFILE (A.A.P.): valutazione dello stress ossidativo: marker di ossidazione LIPIDOMIC PROFILE (L.P.): profilo lipidomico e di membrana eritrocitaria ZONA TEST (AA/EPA): rapporto acido arachidonico/acido eicosapentaenoico, indicazione dell’equilibrio tra acidi grassi Omega 6 e Omega 3 CARDIO WELLNESS TEST (C.W.T.): valutazione del rischio di incorrere in patologie cardiovascolari. PER ULTERIORI INFORMAZIONI:

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L’Accademia del Fitness rence may occur: this is the most frequent problem in treating both cervical and lumbar herniated disc. It is far more complex to deal with some hernias which persist despite the treatments and/or augment and/or reappear, making life quality awful and unbearable. In these cases discectomy by means of mini-invasive surgery is not only advisable but necessary. What can be done in these cases? 1. Do not trust unpractised doctors and avoid vertebral manipulations which may worsen disc compression and make the hernia inoperable through mini-invasive surgery. Only consult real experts (orthopaedic specialists specialised in vertebral surgery). Do not trust improvised doctors who lack professional necessary requirements. Remember that herniated disc is never a banal pathology and if it is treated inappropriately it may even get worse! 2. Start with symptomatic and conservative treatments for 7-10 days, even in presence of strong pain, unless specific symptoms appear (for example worsening paresis – which can be detected through Electromyography and a correct clinical neurological exam). 3. Remember that symptomatic treatment does not remove the cause: it is like switching off the warning light in the dashboard signalling lack of oil in the engine without adding the oil and pretending the problem does not exist. Cortisone, which has been so berated, may help managing the very first days of

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inflammatory symptomatology by reducing the swelling of the compressed and oedematous root and reducing damage. Yet, it is not possible to follow a cortisone therapy hoping that the hernia does not recur again! 4. After 7-10 days, mini-invasive percutaneous treatment can be planned - provided the conditions make it possible – as a form of treatment or to prevent from recurrence. 5. Mini-invasive percutaneous treatments have a high percentage of success if performed by experts (90%), but sometimes they may lead to recurrence, especially if used without proper indication or without removing the primary cause of the disorder (occlusion disorders, disorders of plantar support, sight accommodation disorders, etc.). 6. Do not trust those who offer the same technique to any patient. Among the instruments used Dekompressor allows excellent mini-invasive percutaneous treatment in case of moderate herniated disc. 7. If the hernia is disabling and resistant to (or not indicated for) one of the aforementioned treatments, micro-surgical treatment can be performed, possibly completed by a disc prosthesis implant. Professor Doctor Adolfo Panfili Specialised in Orthopaedia and Traumatology of the Locomor Apparatus Centre for Mini-invasive surgery, Spine, Shoulder, Knee, Hand and Foot Member of the EFSA (European Food Safety Authority)


number 06 / 2012

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The logical levels of nlp applied to anti-ageing The logical levels applied to anti-ageing are used to acquire more awareness about the areas where it is possible to intervene and slow down the ageing process. This is carried out through an in-depth and wide analysis aiming at detecting the points of strength or weakness. The factors which determine a good application of the principles on which anti-ageing is based are mostly ascribable to the following levels: Environment, behaviour, abilities, beliefs/convictions/ values, identity, spirituality/mission. Environment: It is by now a fact that ageing is the expression of an interaction between an individual and his/her environment (epigenetics), also under a mere psychological profile of personality traits. John B. Watson - one of the most influential psychologists in the last century – believed, in contrast with classical behaviourism, that diversity in environmental factors influences what we learn and who we become in our life. As Watson writes: “Give me a dozen healthy infants, wellformed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless

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of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors”. According to the anti-ageing point of view, the “field” is one of the most important aspects to influence the environment. Electrochemistry teaches us that every cell in our body has a negative voltage on the inside and a positive one on the outside. Cells emanate a vibration or a wave and all the waves put together give life to a “field”. As for quantum physics, it states that our physical existence is controlled by the field. The waves of each cell are strongly influenced by the “central voice” coming from the mind and the field created by the cellular vibrations is emanated all around us. What is the point? The waves of an atom, integrating with the waves of another atom, create an interference which may be constructive when the beliefs and convictions coming from the environment are strengthening (What does ageing mean? Using acquired experience for useful sharing. This generates a strengthening state of mind, which influences cellular vibrations) or destructive when these very beliefs are weakening (for example, the word ageing connected to decay). All of this plays a fundamental role on the impact factor which some convictions have on our life duration. Researchers have lately carried out a really interesting experi-


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L’Accademia del Fitness ment. They put some cells in a culture set, dividing the group into two different dishes. Then, they put nutritional substances in the first set and toxins in the other, placing the cells back in the incubator. Thus, they noticed that the cells in the first set were going towards the nutritional substances, while the cells in the second set were moving back from the negative signals representing a menace, going in the opposite direction. All of this took place even if the cells did not touch the substances. In other words, the cells perceived the “signals” emanated by such substances. Quantum electrodynamics (quantization of the electromagnetic field) considers the quantization of energy related to the energy levels of the electrons, and it states that every atom produces a vibration which influences the atoms adjacent to it. In other words, the field (constructive or destructive) possessed by the people surrounding us influences our field, altering positively or negatively our body biology in time. Therefore, if our field of non-local information is devoted to longevity (constructive), the presence around us of people who do not share our opinion or do not have the same beliefs (destructive) may be highly harmful. A person suffering from weakening mental conditions sends a message of unease, thus sending the “germs” of this state of mind, which are transmitted to the people around. For example, it was found out that loneliness is contagious, just like the diseases caused by viruses (studies carried out by professor John Cacioppo, professor of Neuropsychology and head of the Center for Cognitive and Social Neuroscience at the University of Chicago, USA). The same applies to other weakening states of mind, too (depression, anxiety, lack of self-esteem, etc.). Establishing this allows to elaborate strategies which interrupt the chain of emotive “contagion”, thus giving back to a person the possibility to increase his/her life quality. Unintentionally, the people around us are co-responsible for generating a weakening situation. Basically, each one of us is strongly influenced by the people surrounding us, by the environment where we live.

work on the next level. So, if in the environment where you are you find it difficult to control and carry out a specific behaviour due to the people who do not adhere to a healthy lifestyle, you can choose an environment where your good intentions can be carried out. Abilities The constant use of such behaviour will then allow you to develop some abilities. Some individuals follow a healthy lifestyle only for a short period in their life, and suddenly interrupt doing so. In this case, these people have not developed the necessary abilities to obtain results in time, but they provisionally modified some behaviour. Since they could not achieve success in the long period, they decided not to follow that path anymore. So, once we identify the food we can consume, we will have to be actively part of the system to manage in the best way possible unexpected events or lack of time, carrying out specific behaviour or respecting specific dietary rules. The food to be consumed will have to be healthy, but we have to choose personally which food to eat and above all understand when to apply a variation. The abilities develop with training and must be connected to the principle of flexibility.

The question is: which behaviour do I have to improve in order to slow down the degenerative processes connected to ageing, both physiologically and pathologically?

Behaviour The behaviour is the series of specific actions carried out by individuals. Precisely, they are the concrete steps to perform in order to carry out the principles on which anti-ageing is based. At this level, the question is: which behaviour do I have to improve in order to slow down the degenerative processes connected to ageing, both physiologically and pathologically (healthy dietary habits and lifestyle, integration, physical activity, stress management and so on)? If, for some reason, you cannot control a level, it is advisable to

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Beliefs and convictions A belief is nothing but what we really believe in, and what we believe about ageing or about ourselves (self image) is strongly influenced by what we have believed since our young age. Beliefs represent strong convictions on how we perceive reality, strongly influencing our thoughts as well as our choices. Reality is built above all according to the information each one of us has acquired throughout life. Beliefs are strongly connected to the environment where we live. So, if I imagine to acquire great competences and awareness in my life and I believe and imagine myself at the age of ninety still full of energy and able to use whatever I have learnt to my advantage, such representation is often not all right (ironically speaking) because it is not very close to reality and it is out of common sense. Going back to the model of the environment, the people who are around us may influence our beliefs, even by generating them. These may consist in believing that old age is connected to decay and disease, or in believing not to be a “strong” person (both as for one’s self-image and for one’s immune efficiency in fighting the various pathologies which may come up in life) because someone or something convinced us. Yet, unlike what the ancient Romans used to say (“Senectus ipsa morbus” – Terence) and many people still believe today, old


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age is not a disease itself. However, the ways of ageing do depend on personality and acquired experience. We may give old age a positive meaning by living it in the right way as moment of wisdom or of our highest creative expression, as well as the synthesis of the meaning of existence and use of the experiences which we have learnt throughout our life for useful sharing with other individuals. On the contrary, problems arise when a person starts looking back to his/her past with more and more nostalgia, and looking to the future with anxiety and insecurity, or when the past globally appears under a positive light while the present and, even more, the future are charged with disturbing shadows. Anti-ageing medicine is focused on the awareness that every kind of insult (may they be mechanical, metabolic, radioactive, electromagnetic, psychological, toxicological and so on) causes cumulative damage. The same principle can be applied to the beliefs developed throughout our life. Yet, how important can beliefs be? They acquire a prominent role: just think of the many studies carried out by PNIE (psycho-neuro-immune-endocronology) where considerable importance is given to convictions to stimulate the process of self-recovery. Identity Identity concerns more an aspect connected to the third age, the so-called pre-built castle, unlike behaviour, abilities and beliefs which are instead applied and generated during one’s life to create the identity of an efficient person in his/her third age. The more identity is strengthening, the more we will take advantage from it.

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Identity in Neuro-Linguistic Programming shows the most complete aspect of ourselves. It incorporates the meaning of who we are, our self-image, and it is built on the lower levels (environment, behaviour, abilities, beliefs and convictions) throughout our existence. It determines our convictions, values, behaviour, attitudes and habits, developing our sense of “mission”. This level answers the question: Who am I? There are people in their third age who, even if aesthetically old, do believe to be young because their self-image makes them feel so. On the contrary, other people – even if younger than these ones – are convinced of being much older than they really are. This different type of identity generates more or less strengthening behaviours which influence our life expectancy as well as determining its quality. Spirituality/Mission Spirituality must not be meant in a merely religious way. It is related to everything that is connected to ideals, principles and sense of mission. Throughout our life, above all at a young age, we must decide what to live and how to live our existence, avoiding a lifestyle which in time generates damage inside the cells. In this perspective, if I lead a life full of excess I cannot expect to live my third age in the best way possible. Dr. Claudio Lombardo www.claudiolombardo-pnlsport.com Sport Coach – Diet Coach Science Degree in Organizational Management


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Integrated Dietotherapeutic Management of Dyslipidemias Atherosclerosis and its complications represent one of the main causes of death and morbidity all over the world. The systemic process of atherosclerosis has as its targeted organs all the “noble” structures (heart, brain, kidney, eye, etc.) with severe clinical consequences such as coronary syndromes, cerebrovasculopaties, nephropathies and others more. This explains the significant emphasis placed by Preventive Medicine on the prevention of atherosclerosis. From a physiopathological point of view it is a multifactorial process characterised by non-changeable risk factors (age, sex, familiarity, ethnic group) and changeable risk factors (dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity, sedentariness, diet, smoke). In clinical medicine great practical relevance is given to the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, that is, the definition of the possibility for a patient to face cardio-cerebrovascular major occurrence, assessed according to the coexistence and entity of risk factors. Risk assessment is an important guide to define and adjust preventive intervention: which factors must be dealt with first and the kind of therapeutic instruments to use. The active involvement of the patient is essential in the scope of a vision of clinical relationship where empowerment has an important value in the therapeutic relationship. Dyslipidemias are a wide group of alterations of the lipidic structure deriving from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. They are one of the major causes of atherosclerosis. In some cases genetic mark and metabolic derangement are so relevant that high values of lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) can only be treated with powerful and well studied liporegulatory drugs, like statins. In these forms the role of the other interventions on life style is important yet ancillary to pharmacological therapy in reducing cardiovascular risk. In some cases not even pharmacological treatment is effective in controlling dyslipidemia, so invasive treatment is necessary, for example LDL- apheresis. However, the patient must be well aware that specific attention towards a healthy diet, physical activity and cutting out smoke represent the pillars of preventive strategy also in case of pharmacological treatment.

In many forms of dyslipidemias environmental and behavioural factors connected to choices and life style have a higher impact in the determination of the lipidic outline and global cardiovascular risk. Therefore, pharmacological treatment may be inappropriate or at least insufficient to achieve quantifiable benefits. Anyway, it is very important for clinical management to provide many interventions: nutritional strategies possibly integrated by nutraceutics and functional food, physical exercise, pharmacological choices, cutting out of smoke. Since the interventions must be longlasting, the operative paradigm is that of Lifestyle Medicine, that is, the discipline between Medicine and Psychology which studies the modalities to obtain and support healthy changes in one’s life style. Actually, a healthy life style, unlike drugs, cannot be easily “prescribed” without real cognitive and behavioural involvement on part of the patient. The nutritional guide lines for the treatment of dyslipidemias have been published by the main Scientific Companies and Health Institutions interested in the issue. According to them the Mediterranean Diet can be certainly considered one of the main models. In the last few years there has been growing interest for the positive role carried out by some food integrators (nutraceutics) and by food enriched with protective substances (functional foods) on the lipidic structure. Phytosterols, viscous fibres, hydrosoluble fibres, soy proteins, oil seeds, fermented red rice, policosanols, mycoproteins, garlic by-products, conjugated linoleic acid are some of the elements on which scientific studies have demonstrated potential benefit. An integrated management of dyslipidemias which combines all these interventions properly has the potential to contribute to the reduction of morbidity associated to dyslipidemias with a proper use of resources.

In these forms the role of the other interventions on life style is important yet ancillary to pharmacological therapy in reducing cardiovascular risk.

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Marcello Montomoli Degree in Medicine and Surgery Specialised in Food Science and Nutrition ANSISA Regional Representative for Tuscany


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PROGRAMMA: ANTROPOMETRIA: misurazioni- plicometria ed impedenziometria BIOCHIMICA ED ENDOCRINOLOGIA DELL’ALIMENTAZIONE ALIMENTAZIONE NELL’ATTIVITA’ FISICA DIETE DEL FITNESS: Cronormorfodieta - Gruppi sanguigni - Mediterranea - Metabolica Paleodieta - Warrior Diet - Zona INTEGRAZIONE ALIMENTARE INTOLLERANZE ED ALLERGIE ALIMENTARI - I PREBIOTICI ALIMENTAZIONE ANTI-AGING PROGRAMMAZIONE NEUROLINGUISTICA: l’aspetto motivazionale Il corso di Educatore Alimentare serve a dare una credibilità ed una competenza maggiore all’operatore di fitness che si trova a relazionare nell’ambito del suo lavoro con persone che cercano di migliorare il loro stato fisico come estetica, benessere, salute, tramite un percorso che prevede un adeguamento dello stile di vita. Se la pratica dell’esercizio fisico corretta è fondamentale in questo percorso altrettanto lo è un corretto approccio alimentare. Questo traguardo è raggiungibile tramite un’adeguata educazione alimentare che può essere impostata appunto da una figura come l’“Educatore Alimentare”, che non deve essere confuso con il “dietista” o il medico specialista in Scienza dell’Alimentazione, il primo preposto alla costruzione di una dieta calcolata e impostata per specifici obiettivi, il secondo unica autorità preposta a prescrivere diete finalizzate alla cura di patologie. Il compito dell’Educatore Alimentare sarà appunto quello di insegnare a scegliere i cibi più indicati nelle corrette proporzioni e modalità di assunzione senza impostare diete specifiche con grammature e percentuali.

Il corso è senza frequenza. Verrà fornito il materiale didattico e tutoraggio telefonico o via e-mail. E’ previsto un esame finale scritto (test a risposte multiple) e orale.

SEDE / DATA ESAME : PARMA - 20 ottobre 2012

QUOTA: € 500,00 (comprensiva della quota associativa) Il pagamento deve pervenire entro il 05-08-2012 L'importo può essere pagato, con una maggiorazione in due rate : - 1a rata entro il 05-08-2012 : € 270,00 - 2a rata entro il 20-09-2012 : € 270,00

ACCADEMIA DEL FITNESS Galleria Crocetta 10/A 43126 PARMA Tel. 0521.1682083 Tel. 0521.941319 Fax 0521.294971

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ANTI-AGEING AND PHYTO-EXTRACTS:

MORE TESTOSTERONE, MORE HAIR, FEWER PROSTATIC PROBLEMS (part two) Increase TESTOSTERONE with natural methods and at the same time protect the health of your prostate, limiting hair loss In order to obtain benefits on muscular anabolism, libido and performances in general it is possible to combine one’s diet with substances which can increase the natural levels of testosterone. Yet, an increase in testosterone may cause or worsen prostate and hair problems. Therefore, it is necessary to use integrators aiming at preventing the onset of prostate and scalp disorders. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS (titrated with a very high percentage of active saponins) is a plant mainly growing in India. It contains chemical substances called saponins which can stimulate the hypophysial hormone LH which in turn stimulates the synthesis of TESTOSTERONE, thus increasing the metabolic signs depending on TESTOSTERONE itself (increase of muscular mass, increase of athletic performances, increase of libido and production of sperm, etc…).

The effects of T.T. are caused by the presence of active saponins among which protodioscin, which seems to be responsible for the effect on LH. Therefore, it is fundamental for the food integrator based on T.T. to be titrated with active saponins, in order to increase TESTOSTERONE. Many studies have showed that T.T. induces an increase in TESTOSTERONE in individuals suffering from over-training stress and with low levels of TESTOSTERONE, while in fit individuals with normal levels of TESTOSTERONE there are no significant changes even if using the most active T.T. extract. This demonstrates that T.T. can optimise as adaptogen the hormonal order in stressed individuals. So, this plant does not push the hormonal balance as an anabolic steroid would, but helps the individual to find his hormonal balance. If properly used and prescribed by an expert doctor, T.T can be

The characteristics of a totally healthy man, that is, good muscular mass, strength, resistance, psychophysical efficiency, libido, satisfying sexual performance, make him more performing and satisfied.

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L’Accademia del Fitness rightly considered a “hormonal optimizer”. Even when taking an overdose of this plant, the values of TESTOSTERONE will however remain within normal limits: TESTOSTERONE will not - at least in the cases which have been already studied - go beyond DOPING levels and all its consequent health problems the author has already mentioned in several articles in years of activity. The healthy dosage advised is of 750-1250 mg divided in more than one daily intake (dosage can be customised according to one’s GP). Another active principle able to increase the levels of TESTOSTERONE is FENUSIDE, contained in GREEK HAY (dry testofenextract 50% titrated in fenuside). Fenuside can increase the levels of TESTOSTERONE and has a TESTOSTERONE-like action, tying with the binding sites (receptors) of TESTOSTERONE and miming its effects. In this way it causes an increase in the muscular mass and in libido. The advised dosage is of 300 mg, but it may change according to GP’s judgement. In order to fight the indirect effects that the increase in TESTOSTERONE, turned into DHT, have on the prostate and hair, there are two plants offered by nature: SERENOA REPENS (serrate dracaena) and STINGING NETTLE (urtica dioica). SERENOA REPENS can inhibit the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DHT and it reduces the activity and transport of DHT. Therefore, by reducing the conversion into DHT, this plant may increase the availability of the levels of free TESTOSTERONE, thus increasing its anabolic functions, which would lead to a high improvement in athletic and sexual performances. Moreover, reducing DHT also means bringing a beneficial effect on people suffering from prostatic hypertrophy as well as preventing androgenetic baldness. The STINGING NETTLE (urtica dioica) is characterised by components which can tie to SHBG (globulin binding the sexual hormones) taking the place of TESTOSTERONE and saturating the binding sites which are not available for TESTOSTERONE anymore. In this way there is a higher amount of free TESTOSTERONE which can carry out its functions. Moreover, nettles also inhibit the DHT bond to DHT binding sites on the prostate and reduce the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, which is responsible for the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DHT. Nettles are therefore useful to increase the levels of TESTOSTERONE naturally and to prevent benign prostatic hypertrophy and hair loss. The Serenoa repens dry extract supercritical fruit in CO2 titrated by 45% in fatty acids (320 mg) and the nettle root dry extract titrated by 0.8% in total sterols calculated as beta sistosterol (120 mg) are therefore suitable for men around the age of 40 who want to improve their physical, sexual, behavioural performances by naturally increasing the levels of circulating TESTOSTERONE – without forcing its synthesis – through the

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synergic association of plants such as Tribulus terrestris and the Greek-TESTOFEN Hay (special patented extract titrated in fenuside, while the normal Greek hay contains very little fenuside). In short, the use of such titrated extracts allows the achievement of the highest relation between enhancement-optimization of TESTOSTERONE and at the same time the protection of the prostate’s health and the slowdown-prevention of hair loss. Tribulus terrestris, testofen, serenoa repens and nettles all belong to that category of food integrators formulated to favour men’s performance under every aspect. They have a concrete ANTI-AGEING action and give the user and the doctor suitable instruments to improve psycho-physical wellness, increasing the strength representing the characteristics of a totally healthy man: good muscular mass, strength, resistance, psycho-physical efficiency, libido, satisfying sexual performance. They do so by reducing as much as possible the limits and physiological changes which take place in man around and over the age of 40, thus making him more performing and satisfied. In short: a real effective ANTI-AGEING solution with only natural instruments. These vegetable extracts can be taken, upon medical advice, with wide safety margin since they do not modify - unlike anabolic steroids, etc. - the hormonal mechanisms which nature has given man. On the contrary, they favour the optimization of the functions created by nature itself. With bio-typed training and a personalised diet, the association of these extracts can cause an improvement both in the overall psycho-physical performance and in the muscular tone. With heavy-weight training, suitable for the micro-laceration of muscular fibre, it is MOREOVER possible to favour a significant increase in the muscular mass even in people over 40. For professional advice, athletic preparation, professional training courses, contact Doctor A. Gelli: e-mail dottalessandrogelli@virgilio.it, Dott. Alessandro Gelli European Health Managers Forum (EHMF) Vitaminologist – Int. Centre


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Genetics:

weight loss and fitness Nutrigenetics has incredibly developed since 2007, with broad practical repercussions on our life. This science aims at understanding how to modify one’s diet in order to guarantee the highest degree of health. These studies led to the introduction of genetic tests which can carry out a screening of many factors that can influence the health of an individual. For example, sensitivity to nickel, predisposition to coeliac disease or lactose intolerance, etc. However, in the last few years the real challenge has been to be able to customise a diet in order to fight overweight and obesity. Even if this aspects falls within the general scope of the pursuit of health, the WHO recognises it as a pathology which is spreading all over the world like a real epidemic. Therefore, overweight is not merely an aesthetic problem, but it influences the quality of life of an individual. In Italy it affects 35% of the population and about 24% of children attending the third grade of primary school. So how is it possible to fight overweight? Genetics can help but it is necessary to proceed with caution. According to the most recent bibliography, today there are about 1400 genes which, with various functions, are associated to obesity and overweight. Unfortunately, this makes it impossible to even think of analysing them all. Yet, not all these genes have the same importance.

Patients and specialists are often misled by proposals of various kinds, among which the screening for sensitivity to gluten, nickel, lactose. Yet, they are ineffective for those who need to lose weight. The turning point came up in March 2010 when, on the occasion of the international conference of cardiovascular medicine in San Francisco, the team led by Prof. Gardner of Stanford University presented a revolutionary study. He showed that the analysis of a selected pool of genes makes it possible to draw up a diet able to reduce weight considerably, even for those people who could not achieve results in the past, despite their many efforts. Moreover, Gardner demonstrated not only that a diet based on genotype is more effective than a “non-customised” one, but also that it is able to reduce the risk of regaining weight in the future. Inspired by this study, the specialists of the Research & Innovation laboratory of molecular genetics in Padua integrated this kind of analysis in order to know not only the most suitable diet scheme to lose weight, but also the body response to physical activity and, even more importantly as far as prevention is concerned, the degree of predisposition for each one of us to the risk represented by overweight and obesity. The result of this study shows that through the combined and targeted analysis of well-documented genes and their mutual effects, it was possible to understand how to translate the genetic profile of an individual into the ideal diet scheme and into the “dose” of physical exercise necessary to allow loss of weight and/or to increase one’s physical performances. This information was given through reports which were easy to understand, so that a complex science such as genetics could be easily understood by everybody. Therefore, thanks to genetics we can really know ourselves and live at our best. Dott. Raffaello Michelotti Biologist

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Sexuality

food and brain In the development of human evolution sexuality has assumed a huge role, not only for reproductive aims but also to keep a bond of affection between partners, thus diverging enormously from million of animal species which populate the world. Basically, there has been a shift from the instant mating of the chimpanzee to the sexuality and eroticism of man, in the same way as there has been a change from raw food to cooked food and gastronomy. One distinctiveness of human behaviour is that sex is something private: man is the only mammal who withdraws for coupling. A strong and stable relationship (family) has been favoured by the need for prolonged parental care towards

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the children, and it has been cemented by sexual pleasure and mutual assistance, thus representing an important factor for health, wellness and the pursuit of happiness. Food has certainly influenced the development of the human body, in particular of the brain, which has in turn influenced dietary habits. In turn, they have influenced sexual behaviour and other fundamental functions such as sleep. The control of appetite is a complex function. A fundamental function in it is played by pleasure, which uses the same brain circuits as sexual pleasure, drugs and artistic emotions. Hunger, appetite and satiety intervene to regulate the beginning, the end and the volume of


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OBESITY WEEK Per informazioni e iscrizioni: www.obesityweek.info

V Settimana per la prevenzione dell'obesità e per un corretto stile di vita. Parma, 2-14 Ottobre 2012

PRESIDENTE Leone Arsenio SEGRETARIO Federico Cioni SEGRETERIA SCIENTIFICA SSD Malattie del Ricambio e Diabetologia

Az. Ospedaliera Universitaria di Parma, in collaborazione con Azienda Sanitaria Locale di Parma COLLABORAZIONE ORGANIZZATIVA E GESTIONE EDITORIALE Mattioli 1885 srl Strada della Lodesana 649/sx, 43036 Fidenza (PR) Tel 0524530383 – Fax 052482537

In collaborazione con Fondazione

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L’Accademia del Fitness meals. Appetite expresses the desire to eat, satiety is a sensation of repletion, until an unpleasant feeling appears. Basically, the spur to introduce food must be related to a necessary biological component (need of energetic and plastic nutrients) and a non-essential psychological component, typical of man and of the animals living with man. Our past still influences our preferences because men easily develop preferences for flavours associated with highly energetic food (hyperlipidic), while low-energy food are discarded since eating them used to bring fewer benefits to our ancestors. To mortify taste choosing flavourless food does not certainly help losing weight in case of overweight, while a tasty and pleasant bite, if chewed for a long time, provides a pleasant feeling with an effect of repletion. Energy supplies and, therefore, body weight, are regulated in physiological conditions by very complex mechanisms which connect food intake with nutritional requirements, sleep and sex with no need of conscious human care. The mechanism of appetite reduction is less efficient in case of overweight people, thus easily leading to obesity. All the senses are involved in the act of eating, starting from smell, taste, touch, hearing, thermoreceptors and even pain receptors, as in the case of hot pepper (trigeminus). Genes are relevant as to how we favour some food (Tornwall O et al. Genetic contribution to sour taste preference. Appetite 2012 Jan 4), even if environmental factors, especially in the first months of life, play an impórtant role in orienting the taste of babies. From the age of sixth months onwards, the body gets used to salty taste, which turns into the tendency to add salt to food. (Stein LJ et al. The development of salty taste acceptance is related to dietary experience in human infants: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan; 95(1):123-9). The faulty functioning of a protein, acting as a sensor to monitor fats taken with food may be one of the causes of obesity and hepatic pathologies (Ichimura A. et al Dysfunction of lipid sensor GPR120 leads to obesity in both mouse and human Nature 2012). Many studies have demonstrated a correlation between food abundance and ageing, and even an increase in maximum life duration, at least in mice, due to dietary restrictions. When food is abundant, the activity of a gene, TOR, codifying for a homonym protein, increases with the rise of insulin synthesis, mitochondrial anabolism and increase of the synthesis of proteins and fats. On the contrary, in conditions of lack, the reduction of TOR activity leads to a decrease in cellular growth and proliferation as well as to an increase of autophagy with degradation of the damaged cellular compónents and with higher cellular maintenance. As a result, ageing slows down and tissues remain healthy longer (D. Stipp, A new way to longevity. Le Scienze March 2012, pp. 41-47). The endocrine cells of the digestive tract can “feel” the properties of food which goes through the intestinal lumen, thus releasing pep-

tides called incretins with satiating or at least regulating functions (Hammed S et al. Gut hormones and appetite control. Oral Dis 2009, 15(1), 18-26). Obesity is considered the main health problem in industrialised countries. According to an analysis on adults living in 199 countries and 9.1 million participants, between 1980 and 2008 the BMI world average has increased by 0.4 kg/m2 per decade in men and by 0.5 kg/m2 per decade in women. On the whole, it is estimated that in 2008 all over the world there were 1.46 billion adults whose BMI was =/>25 kg/m2, with 205 million obese men and 297 million obese women (Finucane MM, et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. The Lancet. 2011; Feb 12;377(9765):557-567). The data, recently presented in Florida, have confirmed that in people whose BMI is higher than 35 and who have multiple risk factors, the average expense to control these factors has been of 3,600 dollars, against 2,700 dollars for patients whose BMI were between 30 and 35, 2,000 dollars for BMI between 30 and 27 and “only” 1,700 dollars for BMI between 27 and 25(Obesity 2011; October 1-5; Orlando FL. Abstract 830-P). Another fundamental difference of man is his ability to be surprised, to be amazed and, as Aristotle would say, to reflect and try and find out the meaning of things. Wisdom only belongs to man: he thinks of everything and is aware of the problem of time. He generates history, that is, the more or less arbitrary collection of a certain number of events. Only man understands the need to go from arbitrariness to the ethics of freedom and responsibility, and he is aware of death. Man buries his departed with care and thinks about what will come next. The myth of Icarus is a good expression of man’s attitude: to fly higher towards infinity indicates the human instinct to go beyond the restricted boundaries of reality in order to achieve a great act, yet sometimes self-important since he goes beyond human potential and is therefore punished by death. The concept of good and beautiful is universal for all the members of the human species and it seems it could be a sort of law, like the law of gravity. Empathy, the ability to understand and share emotions, demonstrates that man acts as a social individual and his behaviour is deeply influenced by the environment.

The control of appetite is a complex function. A fundamental role in it is played by pleasure, which uses the same brain circuits as sexual pleasure and artistic emotions.

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Leone Arsenio Degree in Medicine and Surgery Specialised in Endocrinology and metabolic diseases, in Internal Medicine, Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry. Professor at the Schools of Specialization of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology and metabolic diseases at the University of Parma.


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the formula for a long life DIETETICS ACCORDING TO TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

BALANCE - ENERGY - HEALTH Chinese dietetics does not mean having to follow a Chinese dietetic lifestyle, but simply to treasure the intuitions and rules of their medicine in order to rationalize and give harmony to our traditional food habits. Through the simple combination of different foods it is possible to give a contribution in the treatment of many pathologies and, above all, to put into practice preventive medicine in order to remain healthy as long as possible and to avoid diseases. According to the principles of Chinese medicine, in order to act on one’s aesthetic aspect it is necessary first of all to act upon and change the Shen (mental energy). The body itself becomes a mirror and a reflection of nature, the outside is considered the expression of the internal shen: the inside expresses itself on one’s face and body. In order to understand the bases of Traditional Chinese Medicine (CTM) it is necessary to introduce the concept of ENERGY. The universe is composed of energy and we are an element of this cosmos, our body is a reflection of the universe and our body reflects its rhythm and rules. Chinese dietetics studies the subtle impalpable energy coming from food. ENERGY spreads in a spiral movement (a picture of the galaxy), the Earth is influenced in particular by the Sun which produces a spiral force called Yang energy

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moving in an anticlockwise centripetal direction and in its turn it produces a movement of the earth which gives origin to an energy which is equal and opposite in direction moving in a clockwise centrifugal way called Yin energy. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yin is a force which expresses contraction, concentration, “matter” and can be identified with cold, darkness, a passive force and with what we substantially call “the lack of energy”. Yang is a force which expresses expansion, dilatation, “energy” and is therefore identifiable with heat, light, an active force and with what we call, in the energy alteration of one of its excesses, “energy full”. Yin represents the female, passive, receptive, internal, cold, obscure aspect of everything or every phenomenon; yang is its male, positive, creative, external, warm and luminous aspect. The two poles do not correspond to material entities and cannot exist or act separately, they complete and transform each other in a continuous dynamic process. Practically the two antithetical energies which permeate our world and which give origin to life are formed: hot/cold, night / day, positive/negative, acid/basic, immaterial/material. All living beings (animals, plants and human beings) are influenced by these energies, with at times a greater predominance of one or the other. The shape of food recalls the energies

According to the principles of Chinese medicine, in order to act on one’s aesthetic aspect it is necessary first of all to act upon and change the Shen (mental energy).


number 06 / 2012 of Yin and Yang and this also determines their contents. Energy is invisible, but the effects of its power can be perceived: colour, smell and taste come from the food’s energy which is passed on to us when we eat it. According to CTM, the dietetic therapy lies in the readjustment of disorders of the chaotic flux of Energy (QI) and of the blood (XUE), causing diseases and precocious ageing. “The Way produces One, One produces Two, Two produces Three and Three produces Ten Thousand Beings” (Huangdi Neijing)

For instance, in some of us there is a predominance of energy pushing us downwards, while in some others the energy leading us upwards prevails: if we eat foods with different energetic trends, they will give our body a different “lead”. We can imagine this energy positioned on scales while placing the different foods in relation to the predominance of one energy or the other on the bars.

The foods placed in the middle will obviously provoke less disturbance than the foods placed at the ends. Sea sal Fish

Grain

Cuscus

Flakes

Corn

Polenta

Edible roots

Legumes

Tofu

Fruit and seeds

Leafy vegetables

Nuts and seeds

Liquids Fruit

YANG

YIN

Meat

Chicken Eggs

YANG

Fresh Milk cheese Seasoned Butter cheese

Sweets Yoghurt

Sugary drinks

YIN

Sea salt Natural soy Garlic Fruit juices sauce Miso Ginger Vinegar cider or rice

YANG

YIN

The necessary weather conditions for fruit or vegetables to grow are fundamental. So, there will be foods produced in winter and others in summer. This might sound simplistic but to eat summer foods in winter will provoke a turbulence of energy in the body which can cause diseases. There are also seasonal illnesses which are caused by weather changes. Tao (the philosophical basis) is focused on nature: the more we are in balance, the better our condition of wellness will be. As for nutrition, every food has its own characteristics. Basil, for example, is very good: it helps energy circulation and tonifies it, but if those who eat it (the people) have too much energy then it is not suitable, since it is useful in case of slight deficit or energy stasis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine every movement (the totality of the organs and their energetic functions) corresponds to a specific flavour. In case of Spleen deficit the symptoms are post-prandial swelling and soft faeces. In this case it is important to consume food with a slightly sweet taste, which tones up the Spleen. In case of asthenia, frequent micturition, difficulty in concentration due to Kidney deficit, it is advised to eat slightly salty food or food coming from the sea. Healthy people can eat everything, but in order to keep so they should consume food in a balanced way. Kidneys highly tone up the energy of the Kidney and tend to increase artery pressure. By associating to kidneys celery ribs, which have the opposite effect (they tend to lower pressure), the result is a balanced meal as far as energy is concerned. This characteristic can be found in the majority of food and traditional dishes in every country, yet it is not present in ‘novelle cuisine’, which is focused on aesthetic balance only. According to Chinese medicine, people must achieve inner wellness in order to reflect a better outward appearance. Women are particularly sensitive and they often suffer from little and frequent energy stasis which, unless quickly solved, may turn into Fire. In turn, Fire dries Organic Liquids by turning them into Phlegm (Tan), which then leads to the formation of cysts, fibroma, dermatological problems (acne, lipoma, wrinkles, etc.), precocious white hair or hair loss, wrinkles. It has been said many times that the universe is composed of energy and we are an element of this cosmos. Our body is the reflection of the universe and we have a reflection of its rhythms and rules in our body. The universe is also made of 5 fundamental elements (also called movements, in order to point out its dynamic nature): wood, fire, earth, metal, water. Wood, associated to the colour green, symbolises vegetation growing from the soil and which awakens in spring. Fire includes every thing that burns and goes up: it is associated to red and summer. With its mobility, brightness and heat it expresses the yang "par excellence". The earth is the central

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L’Accademia del Fitness element: it also occupies the centre of the four cardinal points and corresponds to the shift from the summer to winter. Metal, rigid and non-deformable, represents hardness and fixing, but also autumn. Water, which goes down, is stagnant, filters everywhere, is attracted towards the bottom and darkness, is the highest expression of the yin. Its colour is black and all the dark colours, while its season is winter. In order to understand the importance of the energy in food it is necessary to understand the two concepts of NATURE and FLAVOUR. “Nature” is the capacity to produce or disperse heat. We have cold food, fresh food, neutral, warm, hot food. This nature can be partially modified by preparation and cooking. Baking

Stew and food cooked with cheese, butter and ragout

Pressure cooking

Sautéd or Quick boiling browned food in boiling oil Frying in a lot of Steam Raw food oil or fat cooking

Slow boiling

Long-cooked soups

YANG

YIN

is why each food performs an action on a specific part of the body. The seek for immortality was basically research for balance with the universe and as a way to keep a state of good health. The right dose of “locoregional” nutritional substances in their season allows harmonious becoming of the Being as well as preventing cellular ageing and the deposit of tissue toxins. A “BALANCED” intake of nutrients allows our body to keep the efficiency of organic metabolism at its best, without overloading organs and systems. SUM SIMIAO says that “Only the experts in dietetics can be considered insuperable and excellent doctors.” “Those who wait to treat a disease until it has arisen, those who wait to deal with disorder until it has settled are like those who wait until they are thirsty before digging a well and like those who wait until the battle to forge their weapons. Isn’t it too late?” (Huangdi Neijing)

“Flavours” are ACID, linked to the LIVER, SOUR linked to the HEART, SWEET linked to the SPLEEN, SPICY linked to the KIDNEY, SALTY linked to the LUNG. Each flavour in moderate quantity tones up its corresponding organ, while excess is toxic. This

Ph. Daniele Cozzini Graduated in Medicine and Surgery, Degree in Sports Medicine, Graduated at Chinese Medicine School, Health and Society Study Group

Corso di formazione in Anti-aging

L’ Accademia del Fitness, in convenzione con l’Università Sapienza di Roma Facoltà di Farmacia e Medicina - organizza il Corso in Anti-aging

“BENESSERE E STILI DI VITA”

Direttore : Prof. Francesco Tomei Responsabile parte pratica: Prof. Massimo Spattini presso: Accademia del Fitness (Parma) Prof. Adolfo Panfili presso Area Sporting Club (Roma)

Si ringrazia:

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number 06 / 2012

torna in forma

con il metodo su misura per te

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L’Accademia del Fitness

Is the HoloproteinÂŽ diet anti-ageing? The relationship between protein VLC (very low caloric) diets and ageing is controversial since there is a wide variety of protein diets which might have different effects on ageing. It has been demonstrated that obesity, in particular of the visceral type, represents a factor which favours ageing. The excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue, particularly in the abdomen, is in fact associated with insulin resistance, hypertension, inflammation, dyslipidemia, hormonal imbalance and alterations of some factors involved in the development of diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and some of the most common forms of cancer. The adipose tissue is not actually an inert energy deposit, but a very active endocrine organ which can produce important molecules called adipokines which regulate our metabolism, endocrine and immune systems, cellular proliferation and probably also the physiopathology of ageing. Many studies have clearly demonstrated that calorie reduction can prevent and/or delay the appearance of chronic diseases

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associated with ageing. The reduction of basal metabolism, systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, together with the improvement of insulin-resistance and other modifications of the neuroendocrine and catecholaminergic systems are only some of the biological mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects that a limitation of calories has on primary and secondary ageing. However, high protein VLC diets might have negative effects on ageing when the following elements are not taken into consideration: diet duration, animal protein excess, protein quality, quantity and quality of the possible presence of lipids and carbohydrates, hyperuricaemia, metabolic acidosis, osteoporosis, intestinal flora alteration with dysbiosis, constipation, lipophilic metabolites which are often toxic in free circulation from the adipose tissue (anaesthetics, drugs, hormones etc), free radicals, inflammatory quinine production. The Holoprotein diet has been elaborated taking into consideration all the above mentioned elements. A protocol, characterized by the quality and completeness of nutraceutics employed in the diet therapy, has consequently been formulated with the aim of achieving effective weight loss and clinical safety, avoiding the typical side effects of many other types of high protein diets. The Holoprotein diet has been inspired by the studies of G.L.Blackburn (Harvard University) who elaborated in 1973 the PSMF (Protein Sparing Modified Fast) determining the protein need of the body during abstinence from food. He demonstrated that a reduction of calories, with the almost absence of carbohydrates, could neutralize the anabolic effect of insulin on the metabolism of fats: with the reduction of insulinemy the lipogenetic and antilipolytic effects of such hormone are eliminated or reduced. This gave rise to a protein fast characterized by nitrogen balance and lack of hunger thanks to the state of ketosis which accompanies it. With the almost total elimination of glucides which is present only in small amounts in the allowed vegetables such as spinach, cucumbers, French beans, aubergines, salad, broccoli, courgettes, a rapid insulin decrease is obtained: this prevents the fats from being stored and produces their catabolism by means of lipolysis. The hydrolysis of triglycerides contained in adipocytes transforms them into glycerol which in turn contrib-


number 06 / 2012

utes to the improvement of neoglucogenesis, and into free acid fats which favour the production of ketone bodies and therefore ketosis. The Holoprotein Diet has been elaborated taking the following elements into account: protein and amino acid amounts which make the achievement of positive nitrogen balance possible, protein quality which can protect the lean mass and stimulate GH endogen production, very limited duration (21 days), the interpretation of this weight loss method as a means of educating the patient to a food education programme with the integration of various nutraceuticals to implement the protocol’s efficacy and safety. It was of particular interest to discover that the loss of fat mainly concerned the adipose areas of localized fat. The term localized fat is intended as the increase of fat in areas of the body, either male or female, which are sensible to the antilipolytic activity of various hormones. Active enzymatic systems of fat formation (liposynthesis) and dissolution (lipolysis) exist. In the areas of localized fat, insulin and sex hormones act on these enzymatic systems activating liposynthesis while inhibiting lipolysis. The treatment of localized fat consequently requires special intervention because a traditional diet treatment would mobilize fat from the normal metabolism districts, leaving the localized fat almost untouched. In 1997, Loftus and Lane showed how, at the genetic level, insulin and estrogens act at C/EBP and PPAR gamma levels, activating transcriptase by adipogenesis, and

how GH acts phosphorylating PPAR and inhibiting adipogenesis. A diet which can reduce the circulating insulin rates and which can increase the GH blood rates could be consequently used in the dieting treatment of localized fat. The holoprotein diet is of this kind and has the aim not only to make the patients lose weight and to improve their metabolic syndromes, but also to reshape the patients’ silhouette. The intake of bloodproteins, in particular of amino acids such as arginine, ornithine, citrulline and taurine, and also vitamin B 6 and zinc induce the maximum GH secretion. Moreover, it is very important to accompany the holoprotein diet with specific mineral supplements, oligoelements, vitamins, phytotherapeutic drainers, remineralizers, eurhythmic and metabolism stimulators, alkaline substances, antioxidants, omega 3, prebiotic activity fibres and hepatoprotective substances. The condition of the patient is also fundamental and all the counter-indications of this type of diet therapy must be taken into consideration. High protein content diets must follow, in our opinion, a precise protocol in order to obtain anti-ageing effects. Without a quality protocol such diet types can determine side effects of various kinds and stimulate an overall and skin ageing.

The Holoprotein diet has been inspired by the studies of G.L.Blackburn who elaborated in 1973 the PSMF determining the protein need of the body during abstinence from food.

Giuseppe Castaldo UO Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition AORN Moscati AV

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L’Accademia del Fitness

NUTRITION AND ANTI-AGEING INTEGRATION:

The importance of PH

In the last few years the pH diet has become popular again as a panacea for all the diseases of the human kind. The authors of the many publications draw attention to the modulation of blood pH, obtained through a healthy or unhealthy diet, in order to prevent chronic-degenerative diseases and possibly to treat the patients already suffering from them. In this short article we will see how a change in the blood pH may really influence some aspects of our health. It is clear, however, that very often related scientific studies deal with pathological situations which are far different from the slight pH change a healthy person may experience in their everyday life. However, it is important to bear in mind

that we cannot consider a single aspect of some food or diet (in this case the pH change) but a whole series of factors among which the input of anti-oxidants, essential fatty acids, the balance between macronutrients, the influence on hormonal secretion, etc. which make a diet appropriate or counter-productive for one’s health. First of all, what is pH? This acronym indicates the degree of acidity of a solution, or better, the level of activity of hydrogen ions dissolved in it. The letter “H” stands for Hydrogen, while “p” indicates the potential. Pure water at 25°C is neutral and its pH is around 7. The solutions with a lower index are considered acid while those with a higher index are basic or alkaline.

The pH of modern man is more acid than in the past, due to a series of factors among which first of all the changes in dietary habits and life style.

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L’Accademia del Fitness Human beings suffer from acidosis when the haematic pH is component is prevalent, while those with negative PRAL are lower than 7.35 and suffer from alkalosis when it is higher than alkalinizing. 7.45. Many studies have pointed out the correlations between acidIn healthy individuals, haematic pH is around 7.4 and is there- basic balance of food and the potential negative effects on fore by nature slightly alkaline. health. It is interesting to point out that, even if it is alkaline, the pH FOOD ITEM PRAL value of modern man is more acid than in the past, due to a series of Cheeses (more than 15g protein/100g serving) 23.6 factors among which first of all the changes in dietary habits Meat and Meat Products 9.5 and life style. Cheeses (less than 15g protein/100g serving) 8 Fish 7.9 Why is it important to control the Acid-Base balance? Flour 7 How often have you heard or read that a lack of or insufficient Noodles, spaghetti 6.7 neutralization (alkalinisation) cause an accumulation of acid Bread 3.5 scoriae leading to tissue acidosis? Milk and other non-cheese dairy products 1 This state of acidosis is associated to many disorders of Fats and Ols 0 the body: Vegetables (not including asparagus and spinach) -2.8 • Gastro-enteric apparatus: pyrosis, acidity, dyspepsia, Fruits and juices (not including dried fruits) -3.1 post-prandial sleepiness. Potatoes -4 • Cutis: seborrhoea, eczema, mycosis. * PRAL values provides in mEq per 100g edible portion • Nervous system: palpitations, anxiety, headache. • Osteo-articular apparatus: muscular-skeletal pain, osWhere does the problem start from? teoporosis • Endocrine system: thyroid dysfunctions, alteration in glycide tolerance, menstrual irregularities Up to more severe consequences such as cancer, Alzheimer’s, rheumatoid arthritis etc. Western diet Diseases, Ageing, Low The most frequent sentence on the cause of Acute or latent (refined, rich in salt, low in quality of life (tiredness, metabolic acidosis metabolic acidosis is the following: in the abnutrients, etc.) nervousness, acidity, etc.) sence of evident pathology (renal, respiratory, etc.) the most frequent cause of acidosis is represented by one’s diet, in particular by a hyperproteic diet. Medical Hypotheses 73 (2009) 347–356 When we eat, the food – after being metabolised – releases The scientific studies do not say that only proteins are acids or bicarbonates (Basic) in the circulatory system (Frassetto et al., 1998) and this tends to influence (even if only slightly) the the cause of acidity. Foods with acidifying action, in fact, are the most consumed blood pH. The intake of salt (NaCl), excessive in modern diets, further in(meat, bread, pasta, etc.) creases the load of acid (Frassetto et al., 1998) apart from the alkalinity of meals (direct effect on the kidneys) (Am J Physiol ACIDIFYING FOOD ALKALIFYING FOOD Renal Physiol 2007. 293, F521–F525). Meat Vegetables Studies have found out that the typical western diet has a net Cereal Fruit acid load of + 50 meq/day (Lemann, 1999; Am J Clin Nutr 76, Legumes Yoghurt 1308–1316. 2002). This may lead in the long period to a lowFish and Seafood Ricotta cheese grade metabolic acidosis, which may worsen with age also due Milk and cheese to the decline of renal functionality (Frassetto, Morris, and SeSweets bastian, 1996). Coffee We have said that the typical western diet has a net acid load of + 50 meq/day (Lemann, 1999; Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1308–1316. In order to understand which food really alkalify or acidify the 2002). Scientific studies have found out, instead, that the diet body, it is necessary to introduce the concept of potential renal which existed before agriculture (that is, the diet of hunters and gatherers) seems to have been characterised by basic load (Am acid load (PRAL). The PRAL of food, according to the most commonly used for- J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1308–16; J Nephrol 2006;19 (suppl 9):S33– mula, is calculated on its content in proteins, phosphorus, po- 40), therefore they were basically better for our body. tassium, magnesium and calcium, considering the capacity of Yet, is this true for everybody? Evaluating a study on the net endogenous acid production intestinal absorption of the single microelements. The food with positive PRAL are the ones in which the acidifyer (NEAP) of the diet on 229 societies of hunters and gatherers, it

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L’Accademia del Fitness emerged that 40-60% has a high NEAP (high production of endogenous acid) (Estimation of the diet-dependent net acid load in 229 worldwide historically studied hunter-gatherer societies; Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:406–12). Therefore, it seems that our body has the capacity to adapt to the various environmental situations and in a specific context. Think of the Eskimos who, in some periods of the year, follow a purely protein and fat diet without suffering from the degenerative diseases of the modern age, nor from osteoporosis. There may also be racial differences in the way food is metabolised into acid or basic. For example, coloured women are less prone to the formation of calculi and their bone mass is greater than white women. The Nurses’ Health Study (J Am Soc Nephrol 18: 654–659, 2007) evaluated the volume and urinary excretion of calcium, citrate, oxalate, uric acid, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulphate and creatinine in 24 hours, of 146 coloured women compared to 330 white women (post-menopausal and not prone

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to renal calculi). The values were adjusted by age, body mass index, diet. Coloured women eliminated 65 mg less urinary calcium (P < 0.001), 4 mg more oxalate (P < 0.001),9 mEq less potassium (P < 0.001), 11 mg less magnesium (P 0.003), 120 mg less phosphate (P < 0.001), and 3 mml less sulphate (P < 0.001) a day compared to white women. The urinary pH of coloured women was 0.11 units higher (P 0.03) and the daily volume was 0.24 Lt less (P 0.001). The conclusion was that coloured women eliminate less calcium in urine and their pH is higher (less acid). In the next issue we will evaluate the influences of the pH at the metabolic level. Dr. Giovanni Montagna Nutritionist, Bio Age Advisor M. 3939967076 / giannidiet@tiscali.it


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N. 06 - july 2012