April 2012 | year II
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Lâ€™Accademia del Fitness Wellness & Anti-aging Magazine
L’Accademia del Fitness in occasione del Cibus organizza il
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La dieta Oloproteica è una dieta anti-aging? – Giuseppe Castaldo La Cronormorfodieta - Massimo Spattini Combattere l’infiammazione: il ruolo degli integratori – Gianfranco Beltrami Integratori nutrigenomici per la salute della donna – Filippo Ongaro Break Genomica Funzionale: dalla valutazione predittiva della allenabilità e performance alla personalizzazione nutrigenomica – Francesco Marotta Sostanze nutrizionali e funzionali contenute negli integratori alimentari – Giovanni Scapagnini Ipossia, radicali liberi e antiossidanti. Dai nutraceutici convenzionali ai modulatori fisiologici Eugenio Luigi Iorio Break Sessualità, cibo e cervello – Leone Arsenio Cibo e longevità nella medicina cinese – Daniele Cozzini L’importanza del Ph – Giovanni Montagna Break Integrazione ortomolecolare dell’apparato osteoarticolare in relazione alla chirurgia robotica Mini-invasiva – Adolfo Panfili Integratori per la mente – Marco Tullio Cau Management dietoterapico integrato delle dislipidemie – Marcello Montomoli
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number 05/ 05 /2012 2012
Editorial ACCADEMIA DEL FITNESS Galleria Crocetta 10/A 43126 PARMA Tel. 0521.941319 Fax 0521.294971 firstname.lastname@example.org www.accademiadelfitness.com Editor in Chief: Massimo Spattini Editorial staff: Claudia Bonini Silvia Iorio Cristiana Pedrazzini Cinzia Ruggeri Scientific committee: Ph. Marianno Franzini Ph. Fulvio Marzatico Dr. Filippo Ongaro Ph. Adolfo Panfili Ph. Mario Passeri Writers: Claudia Bonini Gianfrancesco Emanuele Cormaci Daniele Cozzini Ciro di Cristino Alessandro Gelli Giampaolo Lavagetto Irina Letti Giovanni Montagna Giuseppe Notarnicola Cristiana Pedrazzini Massimo Spattini Photographers: Nicola De Luigi Publisher: Profitness S.a.s. Galleria Crocetta 10/A 43126 Parma Ph. +39 0521.941319 Printed and delivered by: Mattioli 1885 S.r.l. Str. della Lodesana, 649 sx Loc. Vaio 43036 Fidenza (PR) Ph. +39 0524.530383 www.mattioli1885.com
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER The word “crisis” in Chinese is represented by two ideograms meaning “danger and opportunity”. So, even at present in such a historical period full of risk, there are favourable moments for those who can sense and take the opportunity. The economic crisis, which is undermining the general social balance, is undoubtedly a moment of big destabilization, but it can also be seen as an important transformation full of great chances. Successful entrepreneurs must be able to see the weak points and turn them into strong ones, they must know how to get a clear idea of a situation and understand what they have to do when a change is taking place. Immobilism, which we had all been accustomed to, does not show us a predetermined way anymore. Individual initiative, the ability of reorganising ourselves without waiting for others to do something for us are essential qualities, together with the acquisition of higher and different knowledge and expertise so that we can stand out as professional figures, in order to make our job unique compared to other professionals in the same sector. “Knowledge is power”, said Francis Bacon, and more specifically, the power of offering something more, for which the client/patient is willing to chose just us among many others. Only knowledge leads to results, and the results obtained on a person lead to customer retention and are, at the same time, the best form of advertisement. What does this mean? It means we must be active, keep constantly up-to-date, acquire experience and qualifications which make us competi-
tively better. In other words, we must become prominent figures in our sector because professional competence always pays back. On this purpose I would like to inform you about the courses of Personal Trainer and Food Educator which will start on 28th April in Parma. Also, on 10th May – on the occasion of Cibus at Parma fair – the event Planet Nutrition will take place. Topics concerning “Nutrition and anti-ageing integration” will be discussed. Well-known speakers, lecturers of the Training Course “Wellness and life-styles” from the University 0Sapienza in Rome will present to the participants the most recent and innovative studies on anti-ageing methodologies. Finally, some gossip: some of you have perhaps followed the adventure of Max Bertolani - our athlete and teacher at the Accademia del Fitness – who took part in the TV programme L’Isola dei Famosi broadcast on RAI 2. In the months before his stay on the island, in order to react better to the state of almost abstinence from food which he would have to face on the island, Max followed the “Warrior diet”, which is based on just one meal a day in the evening. This allowed him to avoid the terrible hypoglycaemia often experienced by athletes when they are forced to skip a meal, being used to eating once every three hours. Max will probably attend the Convention on 10th May to tell us about his experience. He will not certainly miss the FULL-DRESS dinner on 10th May. We hope that Max won’t eat everything up! Massimo Spattini Accademia del Fitness President
Registration n. 12/2004 Court of Parma
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INDEX Editorial 3 di Massimo Spattini
di Massimo Spattini
VEGETARIAN DIET Why change our food habits 9 di Daniele Cozzini
Immune system and physical exercise
di Giovanni Montagna
Stress, Serotonin, wrong diet: “Carb-Craving” effect!
di Claudia Bonini
ANTI-AGEING AND PHYTO-EXTRACTS: More testosterone, more hair, less prostate problems
di Alessandro Gelli
MEDICAL SPA The new frontier of spa medicine
di Giampaolo Lavagetto
THE IMPORTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN SHOULDER INSTABILITY 28 di Cristiana Pedrazzini
body building for athletic training in fighting sports
di Giuseppe Notarnicola
Posture and work environment
di Ciro di Cristino
Oats Old forgotten allies
di Gianfrancesco Emanuele Cormaci
Properties and benefits of Mangosteen di Irina Letti 4
PROGRAMMA Presentazione del corso. Caratteristiche tecniche, etiche e professionali del PT. PT e psicologia: strutturazione del colloquio iniziale, la scheda di anamnesi e analisi del bisogno del cliente. Metodo di lavoro. Cenni di anatomia dell’apparato locomotore. Biomeccanica dei principali muscoli e loro funzione. Valutazione del livello di fitness. Cenni di anatomia e fisiologia del sistema cardiovascolare e respiratorio. Principi dell’allenamento cardiorespiratorio. Test cardiovascolari. Allenamenti cardiovascolari e a circuito per il dimagrimento. Utilizzo delle macchine cardiofitness nel dimagrimento e controllo della frequenza cardiaca. Costruzione dei protocolli di lavoro (allenamento continuativo, interval training, fartlek). Test di forza dinamica e resistenza dinamica. Principi dell’allenamento con i pesi. La preparazione atletica in palestra. Valutazione della composizione corporea: tecniche della plicometria, teoria ed esercitazioni pratiche. Tecniche speciali per l’ipertrofia muscolare (allenamento a ritmo esecutivo variabile, Fst-7, Heavy Duty, Zone Training, sistema Weider). Dimagrimento localizzato: spot reduction. Cronomorfoterapia. Allenamento al femminile (forza e ipertrofia, cellulite, osteoporosi, gravidanza). Basi di posturologia. Analisi posturale. Test di valutazione della mobilità articolare. Basi teoriche dello stretching e principali tecniche di allungamento muscolare. Tecniche di tonificazione e postura con riferimenti al Pilates: teoria e pratica. Tecniche base di rilassamento. Principi di alimentazione. Macro e micronutrienti. Metabolismo basale. Calcolo calorico. Strutturazione di un programma di consigli alimentari. Principi di integrazione alimentare per aumento della massa muscolare, dimagrimento, recupero e benessere. Esercizio aerobico ed integratori. Gli antiossidanti/antiradicali. Definizione del concetto di Marketing e sua applicazione al campo dei “servizi”. Counseling motivazionale: motivazione del cliente. Strumenti di PNL (programmazione neurolinguistica). I metaprogrammi. Esame teorico e pratico.
SEDE: PARMA DURATA: 6 giornate + esame finale DATE 2012: 14-15 aprile / 28-29 aprile / 12-13 maggio QUOTA: € 560,00 Il pagamento deve essere effettuato entro il 31-03-2012 L'importo può essere pagato, con una maggiorazione, in due rate : - 1a rata entro il 31-03-2012 : € 295,00 - 2a rata entro il 30-04-2012. : € 295,00 Alle quote va aggiunta la quota di affiliazione all’Accademia del Fitness di € 40,00
ACCADEMIA DEL FITNESS Galleria Crocetta 10/A - 43126 PARMA Tel. 0521.1682083 - 0521.941319 Fax +39 0521.294971 email@example.com
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reduction It was in 1997 when I wrote my first article on localized slimming entitled “Spot reduction”. The following year, with the creation of Google, if you typed on the search engine the words “Spot reduction” all you got were reviews and articles contradicting this possibility. The situation did not change until the year 2005, when I cre-
ated my own site containing many relating articles of mine and then, typing the key words “Spot reduction”, dozens of articles appeared all denying this possibility together with only mine in favour. The situation remained more or less unchanged until 2006, when a study published on the American Journal of Physiology
The COM diet (acronym for ChronOrMorphodiet) is an integrated approach which considers the Chronobiology of the Hormones and Morphology.
number 05 / 2012 underlined some interesting results which seem to suggest that localized slimming is actually possible although it is not clear to what extent. In a study carried out by the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), researchers had extension exercises performed by subjects for 30 minutes non-stop with a light weight applied to one leg only. They then measured the blood flow amount of the subjects’ subcutaneous fat in both their trained leg and the leg at rest, besides measuring the amount of lipolysis (fat release) of their subcutaneous tissue adipose cells. The researchers found that the trained leg presented a significant blood flow and lipolysis increase in the subcutaneous tissue cells compared with the leg at rest. During the exercises the fat cells around the trained muscular area released more fatty acids in the blood which means that a greater amount of lipolysis is stimulated at the expense of the target area to provide fats for energy. This study suggests that, when exercising a determined muscle group, the fats of the area which is being trained are preferably burned, above all if a high number of high-intensity repetitions are performed, with reduced pauses. After the publication of that study, the words “Spot reduction” count more results expressing a positive opinion. However, despite this, the majority of results is still negative. Another study is quoted by the detractors: 13 men performed a targeted training on their abdominal muscles for 27 days. They went from 140 repetitions in the first week to 336 repetitions at the end of the last week, for a total amount of 5000 repetitions of situps during the research. Then, a biopsy measured the dimensions of the abdominal adipose cells, of the subscapular region and of the gluteus. Result: fat had equally decreased in all the three regions. Yet we know, as it is universally acknowledged, that the last regions to lose weight are those areas where a person mainly tends to accumulate fat. In the majority of men, and in some women, the abdominal region is the most resistant, while the gluteus, the thighs and the hips represent the problem in the majority of women and in some men. Well, if we analyse the study from this point of view, the fact that the abdominal region experienced equal weight loss as the other regions is a success because in men the abdominal region presents subcutaneous fat which is more resistant to weight loss. In order to be able to draw a final conclusion, researchers should have used a control group with similar characteristics to the previous one, or they should have used the same group in a subsequent phase, only exposing it to a low-calorie diet with no training.
Well, I am convinced, and my thirty-years experience proves me right, that in this case the percentage of weight loss would have penalised the abdominal region, since it is the most resistant in the majority of men. This means that localised weight loss exists and, above all, it represents a great resource not to vain our efforts during a slimming diet. Yet, apart from scientific studies, evidence of localised weight loss are constantly before everybody’s eyes. Who does not know people who have tried to lose weight only by being on a diet? Women whose breast conspicuously diminished, whose waist slimmed, whose face became skinny but whose hips did not lose weight? Or the equivalent in a man who, on a diet, loses muscle mass and fat in the limbs, but his “love handles” (abdominal subcutaneous fat) remain almost unchanged. Localised weight loss is possible, not easy! Obviously, the process is easier if it is part of a global strategy based on a diet aiming at general customised weight loss (COMdiet or Chronormorphodiet). The COM diet (acronym for ChronOrMorphodiet) is an integrated approach considering Chronobiology of the Hormones and Morphology. We are not all alike and, even back to 400 A.C., Hippocrates observed that finding the right nutrition and type of physical exercise was the right way to achieve health. He also noticed that some morphologies, that is, some forms of the body, were connected to specific character expressions. All this, now we know it, is linked to genetics and epigenetics (that is, the influence of the external environment). Some individuals accumulate fat above all in the upper part of the body and in the abdomen (apple conformation), others in the lower part of the body (pear conformation), others homogeneously in the upper and in the lower part (pepper conformation). The COM diet considers one’s morphology, which corresponds to specific hormone prevalence, whose influence on fat distribution can be controlled and modified, partly, by both a qualitative and chronological choice of food, favouring, as a consequence, localised weight loss. Dr. Ph. Massimo Spattini Specialist in Sports Medicine Specialist in Food Science Board Certificate in Anti-Aging & Regenerative Medicine (ABAARM-USA)
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It is real … now we know it! I grandi del body building l’hanno sempre saputo : Arnold Schwarzenegger lo afferma nella sua enciclopedia del body building. Massimo Spattini lo sostiene da 20 anni. Chi lo nega si avvale di studi obsoleti e probabilmente non si è mai allenato. Ma ora lo sappiamo:
SPOT REDUCTION … it works!
La Spot Reduction o "dimagrimento localizzato" è un argomento controverso, ma recenti acquisizioni scientifiche ne hanno dimostrato l'esistenza. Nel seminario verranno analizzate le basi fisiologiche, i metodi di misurazione, le tecniche di allenamento, gli approcci dietologici, gli integratori, in riferimento ai vari biotipi costituzionali morfologici (ginoide, misto, androide) secondo i concetti della Dieta COM (CronOrMorfodieta) e della DADAM (Dieta e Allenamento Differenziati per Aree Muscolari) per ottenere un dimagrimento localizzato anche nelle zone più resistenti. QUOTA : € 120,00 (comprensiva della quota associativa)
ACCADEMIA DEL FITNESS
Galleria Crocetta 10/A - 43126 PARMA Tel. +39 0521.941319 Fax +39 0521.294971 firstname.lastname@example.org
number 05 / 2012
Why change our food habits In the last few decades increasing attention has been drawn on the role of nutrition in human health. According to the results of some epidemiologic studies, food derived from animals is at the basis of a wide range of the so-called wellness diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, some types of cancer, etc. Other reasons can be bioaccumulation of toxic and polluting substances present in the environment in the animals at the top of the food chain, the presence of antibiotics in animal products and of anabolic steroids in feed. Many diets are based on the exclusion of the use of animal products: - ovo-lacto-vegetarianism, which totally excludes meat and fish: it is the classical, universally known vegetarian diet - ovo-vegetarianism, which excludes all the products of animal derivation except for eggs - lacto-vegetarianism, which excludes all the products of animal derivation except for milk and dairy products - vegan diet, which excludes the consumption of every food of animal derivation - raw-food diet, only composed of vegetables which have not undergone thermal processing. The advantage of vegetable proteins compared with animal proteins comes from the fact that they do not contain “waste” (it is the case of wholemeal rice) or they contain little amounts of it, known as purines. Purines come, during protein digestion, from the diastatic fis-
sion of the cellular nucleus, which gives some “purine bases” from which a range of toxic waste such as uric acid, xanthine, guanine and adenine derives. Uric acid is a trihydroxypurine and it is the final product of the excretion of amino acids and of the purine catabolism in man and in primates. Amphibians and fish decompose the uric acid into urea, allantoic and glycoxilic acid to facilitate its elimination. Xanthynes are dihydroxypurines and when they are trimethylated they produce a kind of purine which is structurally similar to the molecule of caffeine which can be found in animal products, and which has an excitant action on the nervous system of the heart and the brain. As a result, this causes a higher effort of the heart with premature wear and an increase in cardiovascular risks. Guanine and adenine are amino purines which do not have the drawback of xanthyne derivates. They can be found in animal products and above all in leguminous plants which do not contain purines such as caffeine and, as a consequence, they do not have an excitant effect. Purines in food (mg/100 g) Meat extract Sweetbread Beef Trout Sole
3068 1055 155 147 136
L’Accademia del Fitness Chicken Tea Cocoa Coffee Chocolate Lentils Haricot beans Wheat bread Carrots Wholemeal rice
Actually, putrescine is synthesised by live and healthy cells, due to ornithine decarboxylase. The family of compounds characterised by a nauseating smell includes methanethiol and butyric acid.
76 2800 2200 1160 620 142 45 37 5 0
The amount of uric acid excreted in an adult is of about 0.6 g every 24 hours. This acid comes from the purines brought by food and by the renovation of nucleotides and nucleic acids. Our body can eliminate a certain amount of purines and uric acid every day. Excessive consumption of products of animal origin causes quick saturation of the capacity of elimination and a consequent accumulation of waste with possible tissue intoxication.
It is interesting to consider the “energetic-spiritual” evaluation Oriental medicines give on the effect of excessive use of some products: Meat encourages an aggressive behaviour and it pushes the consumer to a very rigid attitude, for which other points of view are non easily accepted. In ancient times warriors used to consume meat and blood before battles. Likewise, eggs cause a rigid and firm attitude and a violent and impulsive behaviour. Dairy products cause a decrease in intellectual capacities due to their action on the brain and they give a sort of character weakness but without aggressiveness. It is the image of the herd.
From a “physiological” point of view meat causes: - Changes of the blood ph with higher tendency to acidity. - Higher possibility of constipation due to lack of fibres. - Increase of putrefactive phenomena in the intestine with liberation of toxic substances. Cadaverine, a foul-smelling compound, is the product of protein degradation. In particular, it is the product of the decarboxylation of the amino acid lysine. It develops in putrefactive phenomena of animal tissues, together with putrescine and other polyamines. Cadaverine has some toxicity, it is very similar to putrescine from which it differs for the alkyl chain formed by five CH2 instead of four. However, cadaverine cannot only be found in bodies in putrefaction, since a little quantity is also present in living beings. It is partly responsible for the particular smell of urine and sperm. Putrescine is a chemicalorganic compound which is generated by putrefactive meat, and it is responsible for its typical fetid smell. It is directly linked to cadaverine. Both are caused by the breaking of amino acids in bodies, a common process also in live beings and obvious in dead bodies.
The “spiritual” aspect: Meat makes the people fanatic and leads them to revolutions and religious wars. Eggs stop spiritual evolution. Dairy products lead to dogmatism and blind acceptance. It is, however, important to highlight the importance of a “balanced” nutrition also in a vegetarian scope. We often see that lacto-vegetarian people replace meat proteins with an unreasonable quantity of milk and cheese, as well as of food yeasts contained in food. (The common powder yeast actually contains 50/60% of proteins, 35/50% of glucides, 2/5% of lipids and 8/10% of cinders. It is rich in vitamin B and does not contain vitamin B12. The nutritional value of the proteins contained in yeast is limited by the deficit of methionine, an essential AA). According to oriental medicine, the inner part reflects on the external part of the body, so a healthy body and mind will be reflected by a “healthy” aspect of the body, smooth and elastic skin. There will be fewer wrinkles (which indicate suffering of the organ to which they are somatotopically linked) or they will tend to disappear, and less acidity in the tissue will correspond to higher tissue elasticity, a reduction in the production of toxic catabolites is reflected in fewer cutaneous “spots”. The psycho-physical health of a body is shown in
In oriental medicine the inner self is
mirrored in the external body, so a healthy
body and mind are mirrored in a
number 05 / 2012
L’Accademia del Fitness the “brightness” of the face. (Just think of the “brightness” of a person in love, or of the face of a pregnant woman). Here are some interesting data. In the USA 157 million tons of cereal are used to produce 28 million tons of meat. In order to produce just 1 kg of meat 2000/3000 litres of water are necessary. In order to produce 1 kg of cereal 100 litres of water are sufficient. In order to obtain 250 g of animal proteins it is necessary to “burn” 1400 g of vegetable proteins. On average 7/16 kg of cereal are necessary to obtain 1 kg of beef. For chicken meat and pork 4 kg of vegetables are consumed. Cattle themselves produce over 15% of the global emissions of methane, while for pigs the percentage is even higher. In order to obtain 1 kg of meat 193 g of oil are necessary (as for everything connected with modern breeding). In order to obtain 1 kg of flour 22 g of oil are necessary (flour needs to be ground). On 1 hectare of land it is possible to cultivate per year - 1.000 kg of cherries - 2.000 kg of green beans - 4.000 kg of apples - 6.000 kg of carrots - 8.000 kg of potatoes
- 10.000 kg of tomatoes - 12.000 kg of celery We often wonder if a vegetarian diet can be sufficient and complete, and by now both scientific studies and practical evidence confirm that many certainties need revising. In the field of body building a star like Jim Morris (Mr America!) demonstrated that even in this discipline a vegetarian can achieve great results. Following a vegetarian diet means causing lower impact on the resources of our planet, which – as everybody knows – are not unlimited. It means lower energy consumption, lower consumption of water, pesticides, pollutants, drugs. It means a decrease in the need for land and, as a consequence, a decrease in deforestation. If our internal environment is in balance with the external one, an increase in the health of our planet will correspond to an increase in the health of our body. Ph. Daniele Cozzini Graduated in Medicine and Surgery, Degree in Sports Medicine, Graduated at Chinese Medicine School, Health and Society Study Group
number 05 / 2012
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Immune system and
Many studies have demonstrated that different aspects of the immune function are depressed for some time after intense and prolonged physical exercise. This generates a sort of “open window” (which may last from 3 to 72 hours – open window theory) where the protection against viruses and bacteria is reduced, so the risk of developing an infection increases. Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the athletes involved in marathons and/or ultra marathons have an increased risk of infections in the upper respiratory tract (URTI) and a study which involved top sailors has recently proved that infective episodes were preceded by a drop in the levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA). The incidence of infection was inversely correlated to the salivary IgA also in two studies which involved swimmers and American football players from American colleges. These and other studies show that in athletes who undergo high physical workloads, the incidence of diseases, in particular of URTI, can be higher due to an alteration in the immune function.
Other factors, such as psychological stress, lack of sleep and inappropriate nutrition may depress immunity and lead to an increased risk of infection (Picture 1). Increased exposure to pathogens Pulmonary ventilation, skin abrasion, constant trips abroad Increased susceptibility to infections
Psichological stress, physiological stress, environmental stress, poor diet, lack of sleep
But what happens in the immune system during intense physical exercise?? The function of T cells is reduced, there is a reduction of the IgA, the activity of neutrophils is suppressed, the NK cells increase. The number and functional capacities of the leucocytes in circulation can be reduced by repeated sessions of prolonged and
number 05 / 2012 intense physical exercise. This is probably due to: - an increase in the levels of stress hormones during the exercise - fewer mature leucocytes in circulation from the bone marrow - downfall in the blood concentration of glutamine Moreover, while training there is an increase in the production of reactive species of oxygen and some functions of the immune cells may be compromised by an excess of free radicals. Many pathogens of the upper respiratory tract fly and are affected by fluxes of air. The mechanisms of defence are represented by mechanical barriers and by ciliary action in the respiratory tracts. During physical exercise, the athletes go from nasal respiration to mouth respiration and this may increase the deposit of harmful particles in the lower respiratory tract. This also causes an increase in cold and the drying of respiratory mucous membranes which slows down the ciliary movement and increases the mucus viscosity. An increase in intestinal permeability may also cause a higher access of bacterial endotoxins from the intestine to the circulation, in particular during prolonged physical exercise in a warm environment. All these factors may cause a further increase in the risk of infections in athletes. I am making references to athletes because according to the “J-loop Theory” created by one of the most active scholars in the field of the immune system and physical exercise (Doctor Nieman), those who practise “fitness” activities or light physical activities have a lower risk than those who practise intense and prolonged physical activities.
Nutrition has a fundamental role in keeping a proper immune state. Deficiency in vitamins, minerals (for example iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, selenium, copper and vitamins A, C, E, B6, B12 and folic acid), calories and macronutrients can jeopardize the health of the athlete. Inadequate protein intake can make the individual more susceptible of infections, playing a negative role on the system of T cells, with consequent higher incidence of opportunistic infections. Even if it is not likely for athletes to reach a state of extreme malnutrition unless in case of an extremely restrictive diet or unless they suffer from eating disorders, in some situations it is possible to see a decrease in the immune response, even in presence of little protein deficiency. In a study carried out on judoists who underwent a loss of 3 kg in 4 weeks due to a diet, protein deficiency and intense sessions of physical exercise, significant drops in the functionality of the immune system have been pointed out. Therefore, it is important to say that athletes who undergo a loss of weight can be more incline to infections, so they can be monitored and get advice on how to deal with it more accurately.
Nutrition has a
fundamental role in keeping an
state. Deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, calories and
jeopardise the athlete’s health.
FPicture 2: J-loop Theory Number of unidentified episodes of diseases of the upper respiratory tract (U-URI) and infections of the upper respiratory tract (URTI) in a 5-month period of surveillance. N, number of subjects in every available cohort during the period of surveillance.
What can nutrition/supplementation do to support an athlete’s immune system? Unfortunately many food integrators on the market claim they can increase immunity but they are often tested on animals, through laboratory tests, on children, on old or clinical patients in severe catabolic condition. Yet, they lack clear research on the effectiveness in preventing the depression of the immune system induced by physical exercise. Supplementation with carbohydrates: perhaps the remedy with the highest evidence. Several control studies with placebo in runners and cyclists have demonstrated that the consumption of carbohydrates (usually taken as a drink) during prolonged physical exercise is effective to mitigate negative alterations in some aspects of the immune function. However, there is not strong evidence on the reduced incidence of URTO after competitions. Once established the existing link between stress hormones and immune responses to an intense and prolonged physical activity, the consumption of carbohydrates – compared to a placebo – should keep the concentrations of glucose unchanged, regulate the increase in stress hormones and, therefore, moderate immune changes.
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A series of studies dating back to the half of the 1990s demonstrated that the consumption of carbohydrates through a drink (sport drink) during prolonged exercise (about one litre/hour of a drink with a 6% carbohydrate content) mitigates the increase of neutrophils and the number of monocytes in blood, stress hormones and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-10 e IL-1, but it has little effect on the decrease in the production of salivary IgA and of the T cells on the function of the natural killer cells. So, the consumption of carbohydrates during hard physical activity has proved to be an effective yet partial countermeasure to immune dysfunction, with favourable effects on the variations of stress hormones and inflammation, but not on the decrease of innate or adaptive immunity. The most surprising results come from studies on the integration of carbohydrates (Nieman, 1998). Past studies stated that the reduction in the concentration of glucose in blood was connected to the Hypothalamusâ€“Hypophysis-Adrenal activation, to the increase in the release of the adrenocorticotropic hormone and of cortisol, to the increase of the growth hormone in plasma, to the decrease in insulin and to the effects deriving from the levels of adrenalin in blood. This hypothesis was initially tested on a group of 30 marathon runners (Nehlsen-Cannarella, et al., 1997; Nieman et al., 1997a). A study based on a blind experiment with a placebo was carried out to discover the effects of the consumption of liquids containing carbohydrates on the immune response to 2.5 hours running. Also a following study with 10 triathletes analysed the consumption of carbohydrates for its effect on the immune re-
sponse to 2.5 hours of running and cycling (Nieman et al., 1998a, 1998c). In the four sessions, the subjects were running on treadmills or were riding their bicycle on rollers for 2.5 hours ~75% VO2 max. In both studies, the consumption of drinks composed of carbohydrates before, during (about 1 litre/hour) and after the 2.5 hours of exercise was associated to a marked increase of glucose in blood, a slight increase in the level of cortisol and of the growth hormone in plasma, less perturbation in the amount of the immune cells in plasma, a decrease in phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes and of the oxidative activity and a decrease in the proand anti-inflammatory response of cytokines. Above all, the hormonal and immune responses to the consumption of carbohydrates compared to the placebo imply a decrease in physiological stress. Some immune variables were slightly changed by the consumption of carbohydrates (for example the functions of granulocytes and monocytes), while others were strongly influenced (the concentration of cytokines in plasma and the number of blood cells). Moreover, other recent studies (2008) have assessed the type of carbohydrate to consume before a competition/training to mitigate stress response. Studies point out that the consumption of low-glycaemic carbohydrates before training can influence the immune-endocrine response, mitigating the production of cortisol and enhancing recovery through the decrease in the values of IL-6. It is interesting to think that even the consumption of mere drinks (even without carbohydrates) during physical exercise can control the levels of stress preventing from dehydration (which is associated to an increase in the hormone in response to stress) and support the immune system. This happens because a good flux of saliva is kept during exercise. Saliva contains several proteins with antimicrobial properties among which IgA, lysozyme and Îą-amylase. The secretion of saliva usually drops during physical exercise, but a regular intake of liquids during physical activity can prevent it. Dr. Giovanni Montagna M. 3939967076 / email@example.com
number 05 / 2012
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Stress, Serotonin, wrong diet:
“Carb-Craving” effect! We have woken up several times in the middle of the night, we get up even more tired, we go to work to find that our boss has covered our desk with a pile of files to work on, we have problems to solve and, the last straw, our training session at the gym has been cancelled… just a horrible day! How can we face it? We start “rewarding” ourselves with some sweets and there we go, the “Carb-Craving” effect begins!
Carb-Craving, or craving for carbohydrates, can be described as irresistible hunger, the craving and desire to have more and more food rich in simple carbohydrates (sugar), above all snacks, sweets or junk food. Since carbohydrates help us lighten temporarily our emotions (our sadness or anger), we “seek refuge” in this kind of food to face our problems. But what does this lead to? Have you ever noticed that the more carbohydrates you eat,
number 05 / 2012
ANTROPOMETRIA: misurazioni- plicometria ed impedenziometria BIOCHIMICA ED ENDOCRINOLOGIA DELL’ALIMENTAZIONE ALIMENTAZIONE NELL’ATTIVITA’ FISICA LE DIETE DEL FITNESS: Zona - Gruppi sanguigni - Metabolica - Mediterranea - Cronormorfodieta - Warrior Diet - Dieta Ph INTEGRAZIONE ALIMENTARE NELL’ATTIVITA’ FISICA NUTRIZIONE ED INTEGRAZIONE ANTI-AGING PROGRAMMAZIONE NEUROLINGUISTICA: l’aspetto motivazionale
SEDE: PARMA DATE 2012: 14 aprile - 10 maggio - 26 maggio 23 giugno - 8 settembre - 22 settembre
QUOTA: € 500,00
(comprensiva della quota associativa) Il pagamento deve essere effettuato entro il 31-03-2012 L'importo può essere pagato, con una maggiorazione, in due rate : - 1a rata entro il 31-03-2012 : € 270,00 - 2a rata entro il 31-05-2012 : € 270,00
Il corso di Educatore Alimentare serve a dare una credibilità ed una competenza maggiore all’operatore di fitness che si trova a relazionare nell’ambito del suo lavoro con persone che cercano di migliorare il loro stato fisico come estetica, benessere, salute, tramite un percorso che prevede un adeguamento dello stile di vita. Se la pratica dell’esercizio fisico corretta è fondamentale in questo percorso altrettanto lo è un corretto approccio alimentare. Questo traguardo è raggiungibile tramite un’adeguata educazione alimentare che può essere impostata appunto da una figura come l’“Educatore Alimentare”. L’educatore alimentare non deve essere confuso con il “dietista” o il medico specialista in Scienza dell’Alimentazione, il primo preposto alla costruzione di una dieta calcolata e impostata per specifici obiettivi, il secondo unica autorità preposta a prescrivere diete finalizzate alla cura di patologie. Il compito dell’Educatore Alimentare sarà appunto quello di insegnare a scegliere i cibi più indicati nelle corrette proporzioni e modalità di assunzione senza impostare diete specifiche con grammature e percentuali.
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L’Accademia del Fitness the more the desire to have them grows? And why does it apply above all to sweets? “Carb-Craving” is connected to the relation between carbohydrates, insulin and appetite. It is well known that consuming carbohydrates determines an increase in the insulin levels and, as a consequence, a reduction in the levels of sugar circulating in the blood. This causes craving for further food, for some people in particular carbohydrates, often in the form of sugar. Food rich in sugars, refined starches and ready-made food generate a similar addiction to the one caused by drugs. They proportionally produce a high level of sugar in the blood and make the insulin levels increase, which leads to craving for even more. Moreover, they even produce higher levels of chemical brain serotonin. As a consequence, in sensitive people – above all in those with low levels of serotonin – a huge meal of carbohydrates is equivalent to a dose of serotonin. Also the excessive reduction of carbohydrates in a low-calorie diet lowers glycaemia and stimulates hunger. This may be helpful to explain the need of food rich in carbohydrates, which provide immediate energy. Some people eat when they are nervous and stressed, but stress has a bad influence on the efforts we make in losing weight. A state of stress does not only increase the need for carbohydrates, but it also causes an increase in the levels of cortisol which stimulates insulin, and insulin leads to a decrease of sugars in blood (in extreme cases and in predisposed individuals it may lead to a state of depression) and to the accumulation of fats. That is … a vicious, self-nourishing circle!! Then, which strategies can we adopt to face “Carb-Craving”? I have heard people’s advice on eating “just a piece” of something sweet, just to reward oneself and get rid of the crave. Yet, I believe it is not the most suitable piece of advice. As pointed out by a study carried out by the American Heart Association, in people sensitive to sugar a piece of chocolate biscuit has the same effect that a sip of alcohol has on an alcoholic!!! It is better to turn to other methods… Here follow useful pieces of advice to control “Carb-Craving”: First of all, do not follow highly low-calorie diets and diets which lack carbohydrates or have a small amount of them. Choose balanced diets including all the necessary macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates) both for your main meals and for snacks. For example, instead of just having a big apple, have half of it or a smaller one and combine it with two teaspoons of peanut butter. Avoid skipping meals. On the contrary, include snacks, too, even if you do not feel hungry, trying not to leave a distance of over 4-5 hours between meals. In this way it will be possible to avoid a decrease in the levels of sugar in the blood.
Try to control yourselves when you feel the sensation of hunger, try not to eat the first thing that comes to your hands. Just wait some minutes and do not have snacks or chocolates or ready made food or food rich in sauces. It is instead excellent to consume carbohydrates with a lowglycaemic index, choosing wholemeal carbohydrates, which are rich in fibres and help feeling a sense of satiety, thus reducing hunger. Also, increase the amount of legumes, fruit and vegetables (raw and cooked in alternation) trying to choose them according to the season if possible. Increase protein consumption. For example, include white meat of chicken, turkey or rabbit, or red meat which is low in cholesterol such as horse meat or buffalo, consume cheese and low-fat dairy products, eggs and above all a lot of fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod are great), excellent source of the so-called Omega-3“good fats”. Other useful help to reduce appetite and carbohydrate craving, as well as to detoxify your body, comes from drops of chicory tincture. In order to reduce the levels of stress and tension try valerian and passionflower infusions. Finally, use integrators such as melatonin, glutamine, chromium picolinate (particularly useful to stabilise the levels of sugar and reduce the sensation of hunger), amino acids and Omega-3. I would not forget a further element which in my opinion should be part of our daily life: physical activity! Practising sports regularly helps us increase the sensation of well-being and, being happier, we will not turn to other “compensations”. It helps us keep our bone and muscle structure healthy and control our weight. Finally, it is a way to meet new people and make friends. In other words… it is our potion against ageing!!
The intake of
carbohydrates determines an increase in insulin levels and,
as a consequence, a
reduction in the levels of sugar circulating in the blood.
This causes a desire for more food.
Dr. Claudia Bonini Dietician
number 05 / 2012
L’Accademia del Fitness
ANTI-AGEING AND PHYTO-EXTRACTS:
MORE TESTOSTERONE, MORE HAIR, LESS PROSTATE PROBLEMS Increasing TESTOSTERONE with natural remedies and protecting the prostate at the same time, reducing hair loss Men today react with extreme difficulty and emotional unease to some physiological events which take place in their life. Such events – which are believed to be almost inevitable and are faced with resignation – include a drop in performances due to the decrease in the levels of TESTOSTERONE, an increase in the volume of the prostate followed by irritating symptomatology, and the onset of baldness. These three events, which many men consider traumatic, are linked to sufficiently known hormonal mechanisms closely connected by a relation of cause-effect. Much still has to be explained by science, yet it is by now a fact that the main stages of the production (in excess and defect) of androgenic hormones in man are involved in the manifestation of the above mentioned problems. Around the age of 40-50, a physiological decrease in the production of TESTOSTERONE gradually develops. This is followed by a series of general disorders which jeopardise one’s global psycho-physical efficiency. A reduction in the muscle mass occurs, with frequent increase in the fat mass, while strength and stress resistance in training decrease. Moreover, a drop in libido and in perfor-
mance efficiency may occur in every sphere of life and grit and determination decrease, too. All of this happens because men around the age of 40-50 lack an adequate level of androgenic hormones, whose lack also favours the onset of a state of depression. Also individuals around the age of thirty may experience a drop in TESTOSTERONE followed by its subsequent problems. Yet, such problems differ from the ones experienced by men over 40-50, and can include chronic stress at work, stress caused by difficulty in preparing for university exams, affective and emotional stress etc. Such decrease in the levels of TESTOSTERONE around the age of thirty is biologically different from the one of men of 40-50 years of age since it is provoked by external factors (environment, work, study, etc…) and internal factors (emotions, character, etc…) which can be fixed. Therefore, they do not invalidate correct resumption in the production of TESTOSTERONE on part of the gonads, so that the performance deficit can be more easily restored. Unfortunately, after the age of forty the drop in TESTOSTERONE is inevitable, as is the subsequent psycho-physical decay that follows.
The decrease in the optimum levels of
testosterone does not
only influence one’s body but also one’s temper, and it is easy to react
alternating pessimistic thoughts tending to
depression and neurotic attitudes.
The decrease in the optimum levels of TESTOSTERONE compared to, say, the ones of a 25-year-old man in perfect shape, does not only influence the body (as it is already well-known) but also the temperament. This implies a chain reaction: the more tired one feels, the easier it is to react alternating pessimist thoughts tending to depression and a neurotic attitude. Recent studies have shown that even mnemonic and cognitive abilities decline with the reduction in the levels of TESTOSTERONE. So, they too may take advantage of the restoration of its optimum levels. The reason why the reduction in TESTOSTERONE takes place physiologically around the age of forty is still not totally clear, yet it has been proved that it happens in all men, sooner or later, and the decline in the levels of TESTOSTERONE is inevitable without intervention from outside.
L’Accademia del Fitness
TESTOSTERONE, responsible of the above mentioned functions in men, is an androgenic hormone produced at testicular level for 90-95% and at adrenal level for the remaining percentage. TESTOSTERONE itself mainly has anabolic effects, with stimulation of protein synthesis since it increases the activity of many enzymes involved in protein metabolism. It also favours the transport of amino acids through the cellular membranes. Other effects of TESTOSTERONE include the stimulation of the synthesis of erythropoietin (necessary for the production of red blood cells) and effects on behaviour (it favours self-confidence, grit, determination). TESTOSTERONE only performs its functions in its free form, that is, when it is not linked to the proteins responsible for its transport in blood and in the tissues. These proteins are SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin), albumin and transcortin. The last two have medium-low affinity binding for TESTOSTERONE, so its transport mainly depends on the SHBG. From the age of 45 onwards the activity and synthesis of SHBG increase by even 40%, with subsequent decrease in the free amount of TESTOSTERONE, which is the biologically active one. The circulating TESTOSTERONE is almost entirely turned into DHT (Di-Hydro-TESTOSTERONE) at the level of the androgenicdependant tissues by the 5-alpha-reductase enzyme which can be found in the prostate, in the seminal vesicles, in the kidney, in sebaceous glands, in the cutis, in the brain and in other tissues. In adults the DHT is necessary for the androgenic effects at cutaneous levels (maintenance of the secondary sexual traits such as the distribution of hairs, the colouring of the cutis in the penis and scrotum) and on the secondary sexual organs such as the prostate and the seminal vesicles, by increasing – acting on the first one – the seminal liquid and its content in fructose, citrate and acid phosphatase. For its normal trophism, the prostate needs constant DHT input. As one gets older, due to factors which are not clear up to now, the prostate increases its volume but reduces its total amount of DHT, as well as its secretory capacity. The decrease in DHT is physiologically counterbalanced by an increase in metabo-
lism of androgens towards the DHT (the activity of the 5-alphareductase increases three times as much) and by an increase in the binding sites for DHT in the prostate. So, as age increases, the gland becomes more receptive to DHT and this explains why, once it exists, prostate hypertrophy resists in presence of normal or low levels of TESTOSTERONE. Moreover, DHT is also responsible for an effect which men do not really appreciate: hair loss. It gradually turns the hair into vellus hair (thin down), with hair reduction in the top and temporal region (androgenetic alopecia), through the action of DHT on the androgenic-dependant areas of the pilumsebaceous unit. A very little part of circulating TESTOSTERONE (0.3%) is turned into estradiol by the aromatase enzyme placed in the adipose tissue, in the liver, in muscles, etc… This may lead, in case of overweight and obesity (due to an increase in aromatase), to the conversion of a higher amount of circulating TESTOSTERONE into estradiol, with subsequent and further reduction of the biologically active levels of TESTOSTERONE and further drop in libido and in performances in general. What has been presented is fundamental to understand that the choice of substances able to increase the levels of TESTOSTERONE in a natural way must be cautious, since an increase in such hormone may worsen the problems of prostate and hair. Hence, the need to associate to food integrators - able to physiologically increase the levels of TESTOSTERONE substances able to face the effects of DHT, which favours the formation of prostate hypertrophy and hair loss. In this way, the nutrients in use will work in synergy, allowing the maximum benefit on muscle anabolism, libido and general performances. This will protect and slow down prostate and scalp disorders. Many substances offered by nature, if used properly, carry out the above mentioned functions. This will be dealt with in the next issue. Dr. Alessandro Gelli o.m. European Health Manager Forum
number 05 / 2012
L’Accademia del Fitness
The new frontier of spa medicine “Wellness” tourism comes from the fusion between traditional spa and traditional tourism. It is based on a relaxing stay in a natural resort where it is possible to find that quality of life which has disappeared due to the deterioration of urban areas. On a purely individual scale, the need for wellness influences an individual’s behaviour and the concept of prevention has widened to all the segments of the population, covering all ages and incomes. Over one billion people in the world’s population are reaching an age when health and well-being become relevant aspects. These people are not willing to grow old and ill and are ready to invest in a new frontier of medicine. This new kind of demand is at the basis of the phenomenon of wellness tourism, meant as tourism aiming at “feeling well”. It involves the human being under the profile of physical and psychic balance. This is the reason why in the last few years the expense of “consumers” and the amount of free time devoted to wellness have increased. There are many places for wellness and prevention: they give the possibility to have a complete check-up, beauty and antiageing treatments. In particular, treatments vary from medicine to sports, from food, rheumatic, psychic, psychological and aesthetic disorders to management stress, diagnostics, various therapies, etc. Every individual is observed not only organically but also psychologically, with the combination of holistic treatments. An interesting study was carried out by Olivier Dubois - psychiatrist at a spa in Saujon -, on 318 patients followed by about a hundred doctors, and it pointed out important therapeutic aspects of spa waters. The study assessed two groups. Group 1: patients who underwent spa treatments – massages, hot baths, water spurts. Group 2: patients with medical treatment based on Deroxat. After eight weeks of treatment the study found out that the decrease in anxiety symptoms, such as sleep disorders, was much higher in the group who had followed the spa treatments. This has proved once again the awareness that spa water pro-
vokes a positive psychological stimulation on the body. Studies have demonstrated that the action of water on the skin stimulates the cells which act on the suprarenal gland, the one which intervenes on stress. Moreover, there is also a positive action on the body production of endogenous opioids, molecules which allow to decrease pain. The American Model: the Medical Spa According to the definition of the SPA International Association, a Medical Spa is an institution whose main aim is to provide complete medical assistance and wellness in an environment where spa services are combined with conventional and complementary therapies as well as treatments. A ‘Medical Spa’ is generally defined as a medical structure whose programme is carried out under the strict supervision of an authorised health professional figure. The majority of Medical Spas belong to one of these categories: beauty/cosmetic and prevention/wellness. In the medical spa which is oriented towards beauty/cosmetic, the main aim of medical procedures is to improve physical appearance by means of high-tech devices, drug prescription and, sometimes, surgery. In the medical spa which is oriented towards wellness, particular emphasis is on keeping healthy, enhancing wellness and physical appearance through the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Spas now combine skin standard treatments with medical procedures. The International Medical Spa Association aims at strictly controlling the industry in the USA in order to provide and keep the highest professional standards. There are currently over 6500 spas in the United States and their number has increased by over 300 per cent in the last three years. Stephen T. Sinatra, Graham Simpson and Jorge SuarezMenendez, authors of the best-selling SPA Medicine, say that spa medicine will radically change the way in which people think of spas. Instead of considering spas as an oasis for wellness unrelated to any normal procedure, the people will start
number 05 / 2012 thinking about them as a new way of living where nutrition, physical exercise, nutraceutics, cosmeceutics and other healthy procedures lead to a fundamental life-style in order to help the people prosper while they age. They believe this is really the twenty-first century medicine, and that medical spas are the perfect places where all the aspects of wellness medicine can be combined for the greatest advantage. • Stephen T. Sinatra is a cardiologist, a bioenergetic psychotherapist, a nutritionist and an anti-ageing expert. In Manchester, Connecticut, doctor Sinatra combines conventional medicine with nutritional and psychological therapies in order to help treat the heart. • Graham Simpson, one of the founding members of the Holistic American Medical Association (AHMA), is an authorised homeopath who has been working in the field of medicine for over 25 years. At present he is working in a private surgery at the Wellness Clinic in Nevada. • Jorge Suarez-Menendez is the head of plastic surgery in four of the most important hospitals in Miami, Florida. A leader innovator in cosmeceutics, he is the owner of the MeSua Dermocosmetici Spa in Miami, where his therapies include his anti-ageing method of skin products. The Italian experience: Spa & Medicine In Italy the healing properties of spring waters were already famous in ancient times. In ancient Rome spas were largely spread for therapeutic purposes and for psychophysical wellness. The Italian Spas are famous and appreciated all over the world, both for their charming natural landscape and for the clever combination with the typical food and wine tradition offered by spa tourism. The area around Parma has one of the highest concentrations of spas which are famous for their excellence. The latest spa opened in 2011 in S. Andrea Bagni offers an approach which also considers Anti-ageing and Regenerative medicine. Spa & Medicine combines the advantages of spa treatments and hydropinotherapy with the ones of preventive and regenerative medicine for a custom-made medical treatment aiming at general wellness and at precociously preventing the chronicdegenerative symptoms of ageing. Sant’Andrea Spa collects mineral waters in the same hydrothermal basin for hydropinotherapy, balneotherapy, inhalation. The basin is made of eight different waters in the natural state which are collected at a deep level, from live rock, and are taken to the spa through an underwater journey of almost one kilometre. They are medium mineral waters: bicarbonate-
alkaline, chlorinated-sodic waters, chalybeate-potassic waters, waters containing sodium chloride, bromide and iodide and sulphur calcium waters, sharing some biological-therapeutic actions while other actions are specific to each spring. Besides the millenary experience of the Acque delle Terme, today also the collaboration with the experts of Spa & Medicine can be used for preventive and regenerative medicine, metabolic and nutritional medicine, medicine and aesthetic surgery, wellness medicine and psychophysiology. Moreover, Spa & Medicine can also count on the collaboration with the adjacent innovative Laboratory for Analyses. Aiming at providing custom-made treatments as well as an organised and relaxing environment, the spa has been redesigned for a limited and comfortable stay. Constant attention towards new aspects in the field of functional and preventive medicine is fundamental and is carried out through the ongoing training of the staff, thanks to the collaboration with the greatest experts in the sector. The programme is developed in the following phases: Fact-Finding Phase In an in-depth analysis with the patient, the doctor plans the kind of procedure suitable for the patient. This is followed by fact-finding inquiries: case history of pathologies, motor and psychological medical history. Diagnostics (or first examination): All the medical evaluations are made, and the results of the inquiries are evaluated, too. The metabolic, functional, psychological tests are carried out and the necessary exams are prescribed. In-depth Phase A) Specialists’ counselling; B) Instrumental exams. Therapeutic Phase (or Reporting): Once all the data have been elaborated, the patient is given a portfolio containing all the indications on a correct life-style, the Anti-ageing programme, the medical and aesthetic surgery operations necessary, and personalised therapies are prescribed so as to achieve the best indices of individual wellness. Check-up Phase Check-up on the treatments can be assessed through check-up examinations on the benefit of the treatment with reference to the main parameters. Dr. Giampaolo Lavagetto Specialised in Internal Medicine Associated partner of the Italian Federation of Sports Doctors Head of Spa & Medicine Style Life
L’Accademia del Fitness
THE IMPORTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN SHOULDER INSTABILITY The shoulder is an articulation whose function depends on a complex kinetic chain made of other articulations which must be coordinated by a neuro-muscular system intact in all its parts. It is therefore easy to understand that the dysfunction of a “proximal (or distal) rim” in the shoulder may negatively affect its activity with clinical manifestation (shoulder pain and articular limitation) and anatomic-pathological manifestation (sub-achromial bursitis, lesion to the rotator cuff, labrum disconnection, suffering, etc). The shoulder is the most movable articulation in the human body. At the same time, it is also the most unstable articulation and because of its instability, the shoulder has static and dynamic components aiming at stabilizing it more: Static components: • LABRUM • CAPSULE • LIGAMENTS (S.G.H.L – M.G.O.L – I.G.H.L) Dynamic components : • MUSCLES: • ROTATOR CUFF: supraspinatus, subspinatus, small round, subscapularis, BLC tendon;
• SCAPULAR: trapezius, rhomboid, scapula elevator, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, subclavian. The glenohumeral joint has acquired, in evolution, a highest mobility compared to any other anatomical district thanks to the presence of specific structural characteristics of the tissues. In normal cases, this particular capacity in articulating so freely in space is followed by stability. Stability is the expression of a delicate anatomical-functional balance between static and dynamic stabilisers. It is therefore possible to define scapulohumeral instability as the clinical condition in which excessive translation of the humeral head on the glenoid compromises the articular function. The shoulder can be prone to considerable levels of tension, depending on specific activities and on playing sports. The probability of developing instability is directly linked to the level of risk of the activity and inversely correlated to the quality of static stabilisers and to the power and condition of dynamic stabilisers. In time many criteria have been defined for the classification of the conditions of instability. The most widely used comes from the evaluation of pathogenetic mechanisms of instability associated to anatomical-pathological and clinical picture. It distin-
L’Accademia del Fitness guishes the following groups according to the acronyms: TUBS (Traumatic Unilateral Bankart Surgery): The traumatic dislocation may determine a bone lesion both at the level of the humeral head and at the glenoid labrum, as well as involving the glenohumeral capsule-ligamentous complex; AMBRI (Atraumatic Multidirectional Bilateral Rehabilitation Inferior-capsular-shift): characterised by atraumatic, multidirectional, often bilateral instability. Clinical signs of general capsule-ligamentous laxity are present (elbow hyperextension, thumb-forearm sign). AIOS (Acquired Instability Overstressed Surgery): repeated microtraumatisms. In this group the main anatomical damage is located above the level of the glenoid equator with involvement of the anterior and posterior superior glenoid labrum (SLAP), at the level of the posterosuperior glenoid labrum, at intracapsular level with pathological elongation of the capsule, at the level of the superior and medium glenohumeral ligament with widening of the rotator interval and finally at the level of the cuff tendons on the articular side (posterosuperior impingement). Rehabilitation plays a fundamental role both because the reuse of the upper limb needs free painless articulation, and because the most frequent complication which follows dislocation is the permanence of instability which will sooner or later lead to recurrence. The most important factor responsible for the success or failure of a shoulder rehabilitation protocol is the definition of a correct diagnosis. Mobility, stability and power are the three components of the shoulder function which may be compromised by acute or chronic lesion. The three of them can be treated effectively through rehabilitation always aiming at – apart from the pathology – functional recovery, that is, the recovery of articular width and of biomechanical balance of the pectoral girdle, often limited by pain. Articular recovery must come before any active work. The rehabilitator’s task is to customise the programme so as to reach the delicate balance allowing the highest articular mobility and at the same time the highest possible stability. Muscle reinforcement starts according to the diagnosis and treatment. The reinforcement of the shoulder muscles can be achieved through different exercises. First, exercises in a closed kinetic chain, which has the following advantages: • Agonist antagonist co-contraction; • Shoulder stabilization function; • Limitation of the shear stress acting on the articulation. It aims at generating resistance thanks to the movement of the shoulder and the scapula. Another fundamental condition is also the precocious rein-
forcement of the scapular stabilisers in the rehabilitation programme (exercises in a closed kinetic chain first, then in an open kinetic chain). Recovery can be made easier through the use of neuromuscolar proprioceptive facilitation techniques (PNF). As recovery and mobility improvement occur, the exercises in a closed kinetic chain can be replaced by exercises in an open kinetic chain, which lead to an increase in the shear stress acting on the shoulder. The most functional exercises in open kinetic chain are plyometric exercises, characterised by a cycle of muscle stretching and shrinking, components of all the athletic activities. First, the muscle is stretched eccentrically and then it is slowly loaded. The high level of stress exerted on the tissues by these exercises requires them to be integrated in the rehabilitation programme only when recovery is complete and the whole movement has been restored. Plyometric exercises are used to recover muscle strength and power. The use of water is fundamental. Inside water movements are easier. The resistance offered by this natural element is gradual, not traumatic, distributed on all the surface undergoing movement, proportional to the propulsion, then also proportional to the specific capacities of every individual. Therefore, movement in water is less painful and, as a consequence, more indicated for patients who have undergone shoulder surgery or who suffer because of this articulation. Hydro-kinesis-therapy is a means which allows an easier recovery of active movements, stimulating initial recovery of the muscular tone and the articular range within times which are generally not the same out of water. One further goal of rehabilitation is that while the shoulder reeducation is performed, the rest of the muscular-skeletal apparatus is not neglected. The programme of global conditioning - which must be performed together with the shoulder rehabilitation - includes the reactivation of the kinetic chain and the recovery of the sensorimotor system (proprioceptive): The aim is to re-stimulate muscle and articular receptors in order to activate the respective levels of SNC (through which articular stability is controlled). For complete recovery, the majority of the protocols requires the patient to perform some of the exercises at home. For this reason the patient’s self-motivation is very important so that he/she performs the given exercises regularly. It also allows an increase in the intensity of the rehabilitating exercises at home and gives a sense of responsibility towards recovery.
The shoulder can
undergo considerable levels of tension,
depending on the specific activities and on the
involvement in sports.
Dr. Cristiana Pedrazzini Degree in Physical Education
L’Accademia del Fitness
for athletic training in fighting sports The creation of a suitable training programme for every single athlete before taking part in a competition plays a fundamental role. It consists in the specific training of all the physical abilities and skills involved in competitive sports. An athletic training programme is conventionally divided into three parts: 1.The overall physical training: resistance and fatigue training 2. Stretching: flexibility training 3. Power training: strength, hypertrophy and speed training All the physical preparation elements of the training programme must be adequately amalgamated taking into consideration both the intrinsic needs of the sports involved and the athlete’s morphological features (even if practising the same sport, a wrestler might be lacking in flexibility while another one might be deficient in strength). I would like to take into exam in this article the preparation of an athlete practising combat sports, concentrating on bodybuilding considered as an activity which can strengthen an athlete’s structural integrity and, consequently, can be useful in a personalized athletic training programme. The athlete is submitted to a careful personal check-up and a work protocol aimed at increasing his joint mobility and muscular flexibility is created together with a general physical preparation programme (GENERAL PHYSICAL PREPARATION) which includes variable volume and intensity exercises aimed at improving : • Aerobic Capacity • Aerobic Power • Anaerobic Capacity • Anaerobic Power • Body Composition • General Strength • Endurance strenght The aim is to give the athlete a broad and solid General Fitness base and also to progressively accustom his muscles and tendons to the gradually more intense efforts he will make in the different phases of his athletic training. All this comes together with a typical power training based on fundamental exercises such as squats, chins, deadlifts and upward distensions which all aim at increasing the nervous system’s capacity to recruit a higher number of motor units. Many old trainers believe that the use of heavy weights leads
number 05 / 2012
Lâ€™Accademia del Fitness
A session for strength must be short, it must be focused on quality rather than quantity. A fighter does not have the time (or the to an excessive muscle volume increase at the expense of the execution speed. This is simply a myth. Although excessive maximal strength increase might lead to some drawbacks, this specific strength quality is very important (if trained in moderation). When heavy weights are lifted (maximal strength training) a high number of motor units are activated and fast twitch fibres are recruited. This is why training for maximal strength is considered the most effective and the best method in order to develop both intramuscular and intermuscular coordination. This quality of strength must never be avoided, but simply it must not be misused. Besides, Body Building provides a means of improvement for the fighting athlete. As the word itself suggests, Body Building means building up oneâ€™s body and consequently, by means of a carefully planned programme, it helps build up oneâ€™s muscles and this will allow the athlete to increase his structural integrity and to improve his resistance in the physical collisions with opponents. Advanced hypertrophy techniques, among which EDT TRAINING, HST TRAINING and HEAVY DUTY, are of fundamental importance. At the end of the hypertrophy phase, it is advisable to make the athlete very efficient and this is possible through a power phase in which the athlete learns to move the weights and
energy) for a marathoner session.
himself explosively, increasing the intra and inter muscular coordination of all his body areas. For this kind of training, movements such as turn and tear exercises and a whole series of activities called Olympic
lifts are advisable. There must be a short strength session based on quality rather than on quantity. A fighter does not have the time (or the energy) for a marathon session. Besides, while training qualities such as maximal strength or explosive force, he must never reach exhaustion. An athlete who reaches exhaustion in every session will never recover sufficiently. Body building training for fighting athletes must always be carefully planned and carried out under the supervision of an expert trainer because many end up being obsessed by the performance to be achieved in the weight room. Instead of working out to improve themselves as fighters, some concentrate their attention on lifting weights. You never learn to fight in weight rooms and the competition judges will never give you a higher score simply because you do an impressive work at the bench. What really matters is that training should contribute to improve athletic ability. Giuseppe Notarnicola Fitness Consultant, Personal Trainer, Nutrition Educator
number 05 / 2012
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L’Accademia del Fitness
Posture and work environment Legislative Decree 9th April 2008 N. 81 “Implementation of Article 1 of Law 3rd August 2007 N. 123”, regarding the safeguard of health and safety in working places. The legislative decree 626/94 introduces significant news in the Italian legislation as for the safeguard of the people’s health at work. This is going to change deeply the framework of prevention and safety in the work environment. The decree lays down measures for the safeguard of health and safety of people at work in all the sectors, private or public. As for Italy, in 2001 for the first time, a 7.9% decrease in deadly accidents was recorded. Also, as the president of INAIL Gianni Billia points out, “besides the cost of human suffering, we must also consider an expense
of 55 thousand billion Euros a year on part of the Country”. There are many things to do. Yet, in order to prevent accidents at work, it is fundamental – and this is what makes the Legislative Decree N. 81/08 so new – to start a constant action of information and training for workers. The decree often mentions the need and obligation of information, which is implemented through a series of actions of constant training. The concept of prevention becomes a central point in the decree, which forces employers to detect, evaluate, reduce and control the risk factors for the health of workers. As for spine health, the decree identifies the activity at the visual display unit and manual transport of loads as particularly dangerous jobs for spinal integrity. Some disorders of body tissues such as muscles, tendons and
number 05 / 2012 nerves in the hands and arms – tendinitis, tenosynovitis and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, also known as RSI (Repetitive Strain Injuries) or CTD (Cumulative Trauma Disorders) – particularly afflict people such as packers, assembly line operators, musicians, tennis players etc… who always strain the same muscles for long periods of time. Today, as the use of computers for work, education, communication and play has become more and more widespread, these disorders – together with ophthalmological ones and to pain in the neck, shoulders and spine – are spreading quickly also among computer users. The main risk factors are due to: • lack of knowledge and of application of ergonomic principles; • lack of information and awareness of dangers; • wrong choice or bad arrangement of the equipment; • wrong posture or posture kept too long when sitting; • quick and repetitive movements of the arms and fingers for prolonged periods at work; • lack of breaks at work. • Briefly, in order to prevent Physical Disorders for Computer Users: • learn to identify the causes contributing to Physical Disorders for Computer Users; • choose ergonomic equipment and be very careful when regulating them; • relax muscle tensions with frequent micro-breaks and physical exercises; • often change position when sitting, often stand up and vary the kind of activity. Which are the most frequent Physical Disorders for Computer Users? The most widespread Physical Disorders for Computer Users are not the muscle-skeletal ones. According to the NIOSH (National institute for safety and health at work), the main cause of high levels of exhaustion, mistakes at work and absence from work are due to: • ophthalmological disorders; • disorders to hands, arms and wrists; • disorders to neck and shoulders; • backache; • psycho-physical stress. Instead, physical disorders caused by manual transport of loads include: operations of transport or propping of a load by one or more workers, including the actions of lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving a load, even more in case of torsion. Due to their characteristics or as a consequence to unfavourable ergonomic conditions, they lead among other things to risks of back-lumbar lesions: lesions to the osteo-myotendinous structures at back-lumbar level.
Heading III: Protection of workers from risks of exposure to vibrations. Table 1 – Examples of sources of risk of exposition to vibration for the whole body Type of machine
Bus and coaches
Transport – Tourism
Trains and trams
Construction – Stone – Shipbuilding industry
Boats and ships
Fishing – Transport – Military
Lorries and articulated lorries
Transport – Post – Construction – Stone
Construction – Stone – Shipbuilding industry
Earth moving equipment
Construction – Forestry
Agricultural and forest machinery (tractors, threshing machines, grape-gathering machines, etc.)
Agriculture – Forestry
Police forces – Post
Distribution – Post – Trade
Engineering – Stone – Wood – Distribution
War vehicles (tanks, armoured cars, etc.)
Fifth wheel coupling tractor
Railway and sea transport
Art. 199: Field of application: the present heading prescribes the measures for the safeguard of the health and safety of workers who are exposed or may be exposed to risks caused by mechanical vibrations. Art. 200: Definitions: the present heading defines vibrations as follows: a) vibrations transmitted to the hand-arm system: mechanical vibrations which, if transmitted to the hand-arm system in man, lead to a risk for the workers’ health and safety, in particular as for vascular, osteoarticular, neurological or muscle disorders are concerned; b) vibrations transmitted all over the body: mechanical vibrations which, if transmitted all over the body, lead to a risk for the workers’ health and safety, in particular backache and rachis traumas. Art. 201: limit values of exposition and values of action. Art. 202: Risk evaluation: 1. as provided for by Article 181, the employer evaluates and, when necessary, measures the levels of mechanical vibrations to which the workers are exposed; 2. the level of exposition to mechanical vibrations can be estimated through the observation of the specific working conditions. Reference to suitable information on the probable entity of the vibrations for equipment or types of equipment in specific conditions of use can be found in the ISPESL data base. BACKHACHE Backache is defined as follows: “painful acute episode in the lumbar region, lasting at least one day, which may cause absence from work and difficulty in daily activities, preceded and followed by an asymptomatic period of at least one month”. Loin pain and sciatica is defined as the pain irradiated to the lower limb across the sensory course of the sciatic nerve (part of L4, L5 and S1); loin cruralgy affects the higher roots, more often L2 - L4 and pain is irradiated from the fore or anteromedial thigh to the knee. Pain in the limb can be present even in absence of loin pain. If the symptoms last for over three months, it can be defined as chronic loin sciatica. It is recurrent when the acute episodes occur again after a period of wellness.
L’Accademia del Fitness Rachis pathologies Both backache, loin sciatica and loin cruralgy are the most frequent symptomatologies which induce the worker to see a general practitioner for therapy and abstention from work, and a specialist on working fitness. In the industrialised countries muscle-skeletal pathologies of the spine represent the most important causes of inability and absence from work due to illness. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ranks these pathologies at the second place in the list of the ten most relevant health problems at work, and a 70% prevalence of backache in the lifespan of the general population is reported. From what has been said it is possible to analyse the situation and understand the needs in order to apply the necessary interventions to prevent, even before treating, possible pathologies, so that they are not prejudicial to the enjoyment of wellness and good life. Given my competence, I will deal with the topic from a physical-motor point of view.
from PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL EVALUATION By means of: • Recording anthropometric data; • Postural control; • Functional tests: Strength, Resistance, Articular Mobility, Balance STRENGTH In general, by strength we mean the ability of the muscles to develop tensions in order to win or oppose external resistance. The intensity of such tensions and, therefore, the level of strength depend on two factors: 1) the diameter of the transversal section of the muscle (the total amount of the muscle fibres which form it); 2) the frequency of impulses which are transmitted to the muscles by motor neurons. Yet, it is first of all necessary to be able to apply them. Therefore, the technique of lifting small loads must be taught right from a young age, in order to make the move automatic (for example bend the knees without bending the bust) so that at a proper age loads can be heavier and strength has been enhanced. There is no age limit to learn the technique. What must be adapted is the load.
In treating the most
widespread pathologies of the modern world a
therapeutic instrument with insignificant cost is neglected: physical exercise.
NEEDS In the treatment of the most widespread pathologies in the modern world: diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, damage to the myotendinous and nervous-vascular structures, osteoporosis… a therapeutic instrument with little cost is often ignored: PHYSICAL EXERCISE - PHYSICAL EXERCISE AS THERAPY - TO KEEP HEALTHY - AND PROMOTE WELLNESS Haeckel’s law of recapitulation says that the body, during its development, traces a synthesis of its evolutionary history, but this may cause changes. CHANGES Metabolic changes caused by prolonged sedentariness can be explained by the so-called “hypokinetic syndrome” which provokes: • inadequate peripheral circulation; • reduced pulmonary volumes; • changes in the lipidic metabolism; • increase in the fat mass; • insulin-resistance; • muscle-skeletal degenerations GOAL Physical exercise must be customised, programmed and aimed at keeping or improving good health WELLNESS In order to do so, it is important to start
RESISTANCE It is the capacity of an organ, or of the whole body, to sustain a specific effort for a long time. Obviously, the period of time during which the effort can be sustained is inversely proportional to the intensity of the effort. Generally, there is a distinction between: a) general resistance; b) specific resistance. ARTICULAR MOBILITY Also called articularity, articulability, flexibility, extensibility, etc. It is the capacity which allows to make wide movements at the highest physiological range of the articulations. In order to train it or in case of excess in tone or muscle retraction it is possible to use: STRETCHING: • Analytical: static or dynamic; • PNF or CRAC (myotensive advanced techniques);
L’INVECCHIAMENTO NON PUO’ ESSERE BLOCCATO, MA SI PUO’ FARE MOLTO PER RALLENTARLO! Il test CELLULAR AGING FACTORS (C.A.F.) di NatrixLab nasce con l’obiettivo di rispondere ad alcune preoccupazioni sentite dalla popolazione riguardo all’aspettativa di invecchiare al meglio e rimanere più giovani, più belli e più sani più a lungo. Il C.A.F. è un test innovativo, il più completo e unico nella categoria dei profili AntiAging, poiché riunisce in un'unica analisi la valutazione dei principali processi che portano all’invecchiamento: l’ossidazione, l’infiammazione, la glicazione e la metilazione. Questo test può essere utilizzato come valutazione complessiva dello stato di benessere dell’individuo: l’alterazione di un parametro può rappresentare un importante fattore di rischio di invecchiamento cutaneo e tissutale. Ma quali sono le condizioni da modificare nello stile di vita per prevenire questo temuto invecchiamento precoce? Il sovrappeso e l’obesità, per tutte le complicazioni che ne derivano; lo stress psico-fisico, una vita sregolata, frenetica oppure troppo sedentaria e non da ultimo, un eccessivo consumo di alcol, droghe e fumo. Anche i fattori ambientali esterni sono purtroppo protagonisti dell’invecchiamento, non dimentichiamo lo smog e i raggi UV. Quindi attenzione, da questa descrizione si evince che siamo tutti a rischio invecchiamento precoce! Oggi lo specialista può disporre di uno strumento di facile comprensione, affidabile e certificato, comodamente nel suo studio. E’ sufficiente un rapido prelievo di sangue capillare da polpastrello per eseguire l’analisi C.A.F. e ricevere un referto di facile interpretazione. Grazie a questo importante passo avanti nella biologia dell’invecchiamento, lo specialista sarà in grado di personalizzare al massimo l’alimentazione, i trattamenti e l’attività fisica del paziente, a seconda delle necessità e dei bisogni individuali.
Altri test diagnostici effettuati da NatrixLab FOOD INTOLERANCE TEST (F.I.T.): analisi quantitativa delle intolleranze alimentari in E.L.I.S.A. ANTIAGING PROFILE (A.A.P.): valutazione dello stress ossidativo: marker di ossidazione LIPIDOMIC PROFILE (L.P.): profilo lipidomico e di membrana eritrocitaria ZONA TEST (AA/EPA): rapporto acido arachidonico/acido eicosapentaenoico, indicazione dell’equilibrio tra acidi grassi Omega 6 e Omega 3 CARDIO WELLNESS TEST (C.W.T.): valutazione del rischio di incorrere in patologie cardiovascolari. PER ULTERIORI INFORMAZIONI:
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number 05 / 2012 • “Mézières” global decompensation. While practising it Respiration is fundamental. The AIM will be: Tension recovery. BALANCE – “eutonia” Eutonia is the search for Balance of people in their totality, starting from posture, tone, the realization of one’s body. Through exercises which stimulate deeper and deeper awareness of the body in situations of passivity as well as movement one can experiment the feeling of living inside the body, with the body, through the body all the somatic, affective, mental, relational experiences that belong to us and are part of the deepest aspect of our life. This aims at achieving body harmony and nimbleness so as to favour balanced tonicity in all of us in constant adaptation to the present situation or action, leading us towards the awakening of a more and more refined sensitivity in listening to our sensations, and towards a wider and more careful perceptive willingness, with no models, respecting everybody’s time and methods.
I have already exposed all this work before in the previous issues on Postural Education. CONCLUSIONS Studies and experiments have demonstrated that no prevention is possible if it is not carried out when we are able to modify the structure and engine of our body and its automatisms. Having demonstrated that our posture, the way we move and win resistance are partly hereditary and partly acquired, we can then says that it is possible to react to stressful agents and not passively let them drive us. This is possible as long as we want it! We must be willing to follow the right indications to acquire the famous “right lifestyle”. Not all the changes connected to the work environment and the ageing process are inevitable, but the right lifestyle is the real instrument which allows us to keep fit for a longer time, living a better and happier life. Prof. Ciro di Cristino Trainer and Physical-Athletic Instructor
Lâ€™Accademia del Fitness
old forgotten allies Avena sativa is the name for the common oats which have been replaced by the predominant key role of wheat in our diet. Yet, we must not forget that in ancient times oats were common in cookery and in the past they were also appreciated by doctors for their restorative, anti-anaemic, tonic properties in convalescence. While in the past it was not possible to explain the properties of this cereal, biochemistry gives us some reasons easily and thoroughly: First of all, oats are rich in mineral salts, both macroelements and oligoelements. Oats, in fact, stand out for their content of: - calcium, fundamental for muscle, heart and nervous excitability; - silicon as organic silicate, constituent recognised by connective tissues such as cartilage, tendons, subcutis and myelin of the nervous system; - magnesium and potassium, two moderators of nervous excitability, as well as cofactors of lots of enzymes of intermediary metabolism, above all glucides; - manganese, cofactor of arginase, an enzyme which allows the hepatic elimination of nitrogenous waste such as urea nitrogen, and of superoxide dismutase II of the mitochondria or SOD2, an enzyme which removes free radicals from the mitochondria, thus preventing from the damage of forced ageing; - zinc, necessary for the metabolic actions of insulin, is a powerful regulator of immune defence, of the gonads and the prostate gland. It favours proper absorption of the vitamins of the B group and it is an indirect anti oxidant. It must be emphasized that the anti-anaemic action of oats depends on their content in manganese and zinc and not on iron, of which oats are relatively poor. These two metals are indeed additional regulators to iron for cellular regeneration in the bone marrow. Oats are rich of a phospholipid known as lecithin (phosphatidylcoline), which is a good regulator of the distribution of fats between blood circulation and liver. It is also a constituent of pulmonary surfactant, a liquid which allows the flowing of pleurae on the lungs and respiratory compliance. Lecithin is also a
normal constituent of cellular membranes but it is particularly represented at the level of myelin in the nervous system. Oats have good amounts of vitamin A and E, too, so they protect cerebral structures from oxidative stress, and they contain a good quantity of vitamins of the B group (especially B1, B2 and B6). Yet, the specific actions of oats on the cerebral system do not end here. Oats have organic compounds of the family of triterpenes, substances with a similar structure to steroids called avenacosides and avenestergenines. These have been considered responsible for tonic activities at the level of the hypothalamus and hypophysis (feedback regulation) and for indirect regulation on the thyroid and adrenal glands. Therefore, it is easy to understand the adaptogenic properties to stress which the consumption of oats may involve. Finally, oats also have a fair amount of anti oxidants which are by now known by their universal term of polyphenols. The most represented of them are isovitexin, ramnovitexin and glucose-apigenin. Two of these can also be found in passionflower and hawthorn, two plants which are known by herbalists for their sedative properties on the nervous and cardio-circulatory system. This is why herbalists advise the consumption of oats for people suffering from anxiety and insomnia caused by chronic stress. Their action may be enhanced by two alkaloids which can be found in small quantity in this cereal: gramine and avenalumin. They control the catabolism of cerebral biogenous amines (noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin) through an influence on the catabolising enzymes known as monoamine-oxidase (MAO). As a consequence, they may influence oneâ€™s mood (dopamine), cerebral reactivity (noradrenaline), food consumption and the sleep-wake rhythm (serotonin). Is this enough to say that man does not live by bread alone?
It has always been appreciated for its restorative, anti-
anaemic and invigorating properties.
Dr. Gianfrancesco Emanuele Cormaci Ward doctor Geriatric Institute Villa Carpaneda di Rodigo (Mantua)
>>> Sessualità, Explora
cibo e cervello Nel corso del processo evolutivo l’alimentazione ha certamente condizionato lo sviluppo del corpo umano ed in particolare del cervello, che a sua volta ha progressivamente modificato il comportamento alimentare, determinando una serrata concatenazione di rapporti causaeffetto che insieme hanno influenzato il comportamento sessuale e altri funzioni fondamentali come il sonno.
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Lâ€™Accademia del Fitness
Properties and benefits of
According to a research of 30 years ago, over 70% of the worldâ€™s population then had never gone further than fifty kilometres from their birthplace. A very short distance that we can easily cover today in less than an hour. After all the changes and the technological innovations which have taken place in the field of transport in the last decades, nobody knows how low the percentage of the people living all their lives in the limited space of their own village or environment, without ever wondering what lies beyond the mountains or stretch of sea surrounding their island, has dropped. What is certain is that getting around on business or, better still, on holiday in the richest countries of the western world has become a common habit of people belonging to all social classes and ages. Travelling, exploring foreign countries and cultures is part of our view of life which leads an increasing number of people to leave behind, even if for only a few days, our traditions and habits, in particular our alimentary habits, and to try new dishes and tastes which have nothing to do with our daily routine. As far as this goes, it is possible to distinguish at least three kinds of travellers: those who refuse any new food experience and who keep looking for spaghetti, wherever they are in the world (and who are unfailingly disappointed), those who timidly make the effort of trying new dishes, but who are fundamentally reluctant, and finally the enthusiasts, that is, the ones who, once at home, will go on talking of the local food of the places they have visited in terms of an extraordinary experience and will become customary clients, if there happen to be any, of the ethnic restaurants of their own towns. This article is mainly addressed to this last group, as it deals with an exotic fruit, Mangosteen, whose rich anti-oxidant properties have been demonstrated by a scientific research and are confirmed by the traditional, even medical, use made by many Asian populations. They were not certainly aware of the well known ability of the human body to produce endogenous anti-oxidants such
as the Q-10 Coenzyme or lypoic acid or of the existence of exogenous anti-oxidants such as Vit. C and E, Procyanidins, Polyphenols or Catechins, Polysaccharids, which being very important for our health, must necessarily be taken with our diets. For centuries, however, Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) has been considered by them as a fruit which responds to the physiological needs of those individuals particularly exposed to hard working conditions and diseases and which, as we well know, are linked to the above mentioned oxidative strains which characterise the daily life of modern societies. Recent studies have shown that Mangosteenâ€™s powerful anti-oxidant (and also anti-inflammatory) properties are due to its composition. Compounds belonging mainly to the Xanthone family, but also Catechins, Polyphenols, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorous, Iron, Vitamin B1, B2, B6 and C, have been identified and isolated particularly in the pericarp. In order to understand more clearly the properties of Mangosteen it is necessary to make a preliminary analysis of the nature of its Xanthones which are in the first instance comparable to the family of Polyphenols deriving from Benzo-Y- pyrone. This has a great number of pharmacological properties: the anti-.oxidant and the anti-.inflammatory ones are surely the most interesting. Xanthones so far seem to be the anti-oxidants with the highest ORAC score (ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity). The juice of the whole fruit and its relative dried extract (Garcinia Mangostana) have an ORAC activity of 24,000 points, significantly higher than recognized anti-oxidants such as Pomegranate (944 points), Spinach (360), Vitamin E (700), Noni (1506). Perhaps the populations still living in Asian regions and country-sides are very little interested in knowing that epidemiological data and in vitro studies indicate that foods containing phyto-complexes with significant anti-oxidant activities have a high protective effect against the risk factors of the most widespread heart diseases. They simply eat this fruit because it is part of their tradition and
Since ancient times Mangosteen was
considered as a fruit
which answered to the physiological needs
of people who were
particularly exposed to fatigue and diseases.
number 05 / 2012 because they simply know that it is good for their health. They surely are not aware that in a study carried out in vivo the dried extract of the Mangosteen’s pericarp appeared to have good anti-inflammatory properties. For them it is a common practice to give the pulp of this fruit to eat to anybody who needs energy or is ill or recovering or simply to anyone wishing to remain fit and youthful. We might say it is a matter of points of view: on the one hand a culture of prevention founded on tradition and experience, on the other a therapeutic approach needing certainties and scientific confirmation. While waiting for confirmation from studies which are being carried out in the many fields - from arteriosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes prevention to the reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides values, to the deceleration of neurodegenerative pathologies - we must be satisfied to know that mangosteen is traditionally used against diarrhoea and gastro-oesophageal reflux because it reduces the production of gastric acids besides being used against eczema and other dermatitis. Therefore, if even the most sceptical and least curious of you should find yourselves travelling in the East do not for once abstain from trying this white fruit with its solid and acidulous pulp to avail yourselves of its many advantages. Info: WP Group s.r.l. - Ph. +39 0686295985 - fax: +39 0682580399 www.worldpharma.it - www.happydiet.com
Corso di formazione in Anti-aging
L’ Accademia del Fitness, in convenzione con l’Università Sapienza di Roma Facoltà di Farmacia e Medicina - organizza il Corso in Anti-aging
“BENESSERE E STILI DI VITA”
Direttore : Prof. Francesco Tomei Responsabile parte pratica: Prof. Massimo Spattini presso: Accademia del Fitness (Parma) Prof. Adolfo Panfili presso Area Sporting Club (Roma)
Lâ€™Accademia del Fitness
number 05 / 2012
Published on May 17, 2012